WorldWideScience

Sample records for humphrey field analyser

  1. Visual field examination method using virtual reality glasses compared with the Humphrey perimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsapakis, Stylianos; Papaconstantinou, Dimitrios; Diagourtas, Andreas; Droutsas, Konstantinos; Andreanos, Konstantinos; Moschos, Marilita M; Brouzas, Dimitrios

    2017-01-01

    To present a visual field examination method using virtual reality glasses and evaluate the reliability of the method by comparing the results with those of the Humphrey perimeter. Virtual reality glasses, a smartphone with a 6 inch display, and software that implements a fast-threshold 3 dB step staircase algorithm for the central 24° of visual field (52 points) were used to test 20 eyes of 10 patients, who were tested in a random and consecutive order as they appeared in our glaucoma department. The results were compared with those obtained from the same patients using the Humphrey perimeter. High correlation coefficient (r=0.808, Pvirtual reality visual field test and the Humphrey perimeter visual field. Visual field examination results using virtual reality glasses have a high correlation with the Humphrey perimeter allowing the method to be suitable for probable clinical use.

  2. Comparison of the monocular Humphrey visual field and the binocular Humphrey esterman visual field test for driver licensing in glaucoma subjects in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayala Marcelo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to compare the monocular Humphrey Visual Field (HVF with the binocular Humphrey Esterman Visual Field (HEVF for determining whether subjects suffering from glaucoma fulfilled the new medical requirements for possession of a Swedish driver’s license. Methods HVF SITA Fast 24–2 full threshold (monocularly and HEVF (binocularly were performed consecutively on the same day on 40 subjects with glaucomatous damage of varying degrees in both eyes. Assessment of results was constituted as either “pass” or “fail”, according to the new medical requirements put into effect September 1, 2010 by the Swedish Transport Agency. Results Forty subjects were recruited and participated in the study. Sixteen subjects passed both tests, and sixteen subjects failed both tests. Eight subjects passed the HEFV but failed the HVF. There was a significant difference between HEVF and HVF (χ2, p = 0.004. There were no subjects who passed the HVF, but failed the HEVF. Conclusions The monocular visual field test (HVF gave more specific information about the location and depth of the defects, and therefore is the overwhelming method of choice for use in diagnostics. The binocular visual field test (HEVF seems not be as efficient as the HVF in finding visual field defects in glaucoma subjects, and is therefore doubtful in evaluating visual capabilities in traffic situations.

  3. Comparison of the monocular Humphrey Visual Field and the binocular Humphrey Esterman Visual Field test for driver licensing in glaucoma subjects in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Marcelo

    2012-08-02

    The purpose of this study was to compare the monocular Humphrey Visual Field (HVF) with the binocular Humphrey Esterman Visual Field (HEVF) for determining whether subjects suffering from glaucoma fulfilled the new medical requirements for possession of a Swedish driver's license. HVF SITA Fast 24-2 full threshold (monocularly) and HEVF (binocularly) were performed consecutively on the same day on 40 subjects with glaucomatous damage of varying degrees in both eyes. Assessment of results was constituted as either "pass" or "fail", according to the new medical requirements put into effect September 1, 2010 by the Swedish Transport Agency. Forty subjects were recruited and participated in the study. Sixteen subjects passed both tests, and sixteen subjects failed both tests. Eight subjects passed the HEFV but failed the HVF. There was a significant difference between HEVF and HVF (χ(2), p = 0.004). There were no subjects who passed the HVF, but failed the HEVF. The monocular visual field test (HVF) gave more specific information about the location and depth of the defects, and therefore is the overwhelming method of choice for use in diagnostics. The binocular visual field test (HEVF) seems not be as efficient as the HVF in finding visual field defects in glaucoma subjects, and is therefore doubtful in evaluating visual capabilities in traffic situations.

  4. Early clinical and subclinical visual evoked potential and Humphrey's visual field defects in cryptococcal meningitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Moodley

    Full Text Available Cryptococcal induced visual loss is a devastating complication in survivors of cryptococcal meningitis (CM. Early detection is paramount in prevention and treatment. Subclinical optic nerve dysfunction in CM has not hitherto been investigated by electrophysiological means. We undertook a prospective study on 90 HIV sero-positive patients with culture confirmed CM. Seventy-four patients underwent visual evoked potential (VEP testing and 47 patients underwent Humphrey's visual field (HVF testing. Decreased best corrected visual acuity (BCVA was detected in 46.5% of patients. VEP was abnormal in 51/74 (68.9% right eyes and 50/74 (67.6% left eyes. VEP P100 latency was the main abnormality with mean latency values of 118.9 (±16.5 ms and 119.8 (±15.7 ms for the right and left eyes respectively, mildly prolonged when compared to our laboratory references of 104 (±10 ms (p<0.001. Subclinical VEP abnormality was detected in 56.5% of normal eyes and constituted mostly latency abnormality. VEP amplitude was also significantly reduced in this cohort but minimally so in the visually unimpaired. HVF was abnormal in 36/47 (76.6% right eyes and 32/45 (71.1% left eyes. The predominant field defect was peripheral constriction with an enlarged blind spot suggesting the greater impact by raised intracranial pressure over that of optic neuritis. Whether this was due to papilloedema or a compartment syndrome is open to further investigation. Subclinical HVF abnormalities were minimal and therefore a poor screening test for early optic nerve dysfunction. However, early optic nerve dysfunction can be detected by testing of VEP P100 latency, which may precede the onset of visual loss in CM.

  5. Humphrey visual field and frequency doubling perimetry in the diagnosis of early glaucoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrasekhar G

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare Humphrey Visual Field Analyzer (HVF and Frequency Doubling Perimetry (FDP testing in the diagnosis of early glaucoma. Methods: We performed HVF (24-2 standard full threshold and FDP (N-30 evaluations in 34 consecutive patients with early primary glaucoma and 96 normal subjects. Early glaucoma was defined on the basis of disc changes of glaucoma; the mean deviation on white-on-white perimetry had to be no worse than 6 decibels. Glaucomatous optic neuropathy was defined as a combination of cup-disc asymmetry of more than 0.2, notching, excavation, thinning or pallor of superior or inferior neuroretinal rims, retinal nerve fibre layer defects of the wedge or diffuse type and neuroretinal rim haemorrhage. Both the glaucoma patients and normal subjects had vision better than 6/9 with correction. They had no media opacities other than early nuclear sclerosis and no fundus pathology. Further, normal subjects were free of systemic diseases known to affect the retina or optic nerve, The sensitivity and specificity of HVF and FDP were calculated. Results: There were 44 eligible eyes among the 34 subjects. The glaucomatous disc findings included notch (n=8, pallor (n=21, thinning (n=23 and haemorrhage (n=1 of the neuroretinal rim. The sensitivity and the specificity of the HVF were 52.3% and 57.3% respectively. The sensitivity and the specificity of FDP were 65.9% and 61.5% respectively. Conclusion: The difference between FDP and HVF in the diagnosis of early glaucoma is not marked.

  6. Association of pattern reversal VEP parameters with the mean defect of Humphrey visual field in patients of primary open angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Ruchi; Singh, Ramji; Singh, Smita; Bokariya, Pradeep

    2013-01-01

    Glaucoma is a chronic, progressive bilateral optic neuropathy which disturbs the structural or functional integrity of the optic nerve that causes characteristic atrophic changes in it, which leads to specific visual field defects over time with loss of visual function. Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is the most common form of glaucoma in India and is fast emerging as a major cause of bilateral blindness. This rural hospital based study was conducted to evaluate whether glaucomatous visual field defects particularly the mean defect of Humphrey visual field could be related to VEP parameters of patients having POAG. Visual field by Humphrey perimeter and simultaneous recordings of pattern reversal visual evoked potential (PRVEP) were assessed in 100 patients with POAG. There was a significant (P VEP changes observed by us in POAG patients were consistent with the progressing mean defect quantitatively. Therefore, it can be concluded that the VEP parameters can be useful quantitative indices in the evaluation of glaucomatous visual function damage.

  7. Correlation Between Humphrey Visual Field, Optical Coherence Tomography and Heidelberg Retina Tomograph Parameters in Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma, Normal-Tension Glaucoma and Ocular Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziya Ayhan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the correlation of Humphrey visual field (VF parameters (MD and PSD with Heidelberg Retina Tomograph (HRT 3 and Stratus optical coherence tomography (OCT parameters in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG, normal-tension glaucoma (NTG and ocular hypertension (OHT. Material and Method: Fifty-five eyes of 29 POAG patients, 32 eyes of 16 OHT patients and 26 eyes of 13 NTG patients were enrolled in the study prospectively. Humphrey visual field test as well as optic nerve head and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thickness analysis with HRT 3 and Stratus OCT were performed in all patients; the measurements were repeated every 6 months. Results: The mean age of the patients was 66.4±10.0 years and the mean follow-up time was 22±2.2 months. In POAG and NTG groups, MD and PSD correlated with all analyzed parameters in HRT, except for the height variation contour (HVC. In POAG group, MD and PSD values correlated with all analyzed parameters in OCT, except for the rim area (RA. In NTG group, correlation was found between MD values and all parameters in OCT. In NTG group, PSD correlated with all parameters in OCT, except for the RNFL thickness. In OHT group, no correlation was found between MD, PSD values and HRT parameters. In OHT group, only RA values in OCT correlated with MD and PSD. In all groups, there was no statistically significant difference between the first and last examinations for MD and PSD values and for the mean RNFL thickness measured with OCT and HRT. Discussion: In our study, it was found that in POAG and NTG patients, there was a general correlation of Humphrey VF parameters with HRT 3 and Stratus OCT parameters. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2011; 41: 143-50

  8. Comparison of visual field test results obtained through Humphrey matrix frequency doubling technology perimetry versus standard automated perimetry in healthy children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Kocabeyoglu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims : The aim of this study was to compare the visual field test results in healthy children obtained via the Humphrey matrix 24-2 threshold program and standard automated perimetry (SAP using the Swedish interactive threshold algorithm (SITA-Standard 24-2 test. Materials and Methods: This prospective study included 55 healthy children without ocular or systemic disorders who underwent both SAP and frequency doubling technology (FDT perimetry visual field testing. Visual field test reliability indices, test duration, global indices (mean deviation [MD], and pattern standard deviation [PSD] were compared between the 2 tests using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and paired t-test. The performance of the Humphrey field analyzer (HFA 24-2 SITA-standard and frequency-doubling technology Matrix 24-2 tests between genders were compared with Mann-Whitney U-test. Results: Fifty-five healthy children with a mean age of 12.2 ± 1.9 years (range from 8 years to 16 years were included in this prospective study. The test durations of SAP and FDT were similar (5.2 ± 0.5 and 5.1 ± 0.2 min, respectively, P = 0.651. MD and the PSD values obtained via FDT Matrix were significantly higher than those obtained via SAP (P < 0.001, and fixation losses and false negative errors were significantly less with SAP (P < 0.05. A weak positive correlation between the two tests in terms of MD (r = 0.352, P = 0.008 and PSD (r = 0.329, P = 0.014 was observed. Conclusion: Children were able to complete both the visual test algorithms successfully within 6 min. However, SAP testing appears to be associated with less depression of the visual field indices of healthy children. FDT Matrix and SAP should not be used interchangeably in the follow-up of children.

  9. A Comparative Evaluation of Humphrey Perimetry and the Multi-channel Pattern Visual Evoked Potentials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Caiping Hu; Lezheng Wu; De-Zheng Wu; Shixian Long

    2000-01-01

    Purposes: To compare the multi-channel pattern visual evoked potentials to Humphrey perimetry in the assessment of central visual function in primary open angle glaucoma.Methods: The multi-channel checkerboard reversal PVEPs waves to full-field and half-field stimulus of 25 normal persons and 74 patients with primary open angle glaucoma were recorded and analyzed, All patients were examined using Humphrey Field Analyzer. The area of visual field corresponding to the area of retina stimulated during multi-channel PVEPs testing were analysed, straight-line correlation and regression analyses of the various multi-channel PVEPs parameters and the total dB losses were performed.Results: The multi-channel PVEPs demonstrated a low detection rate compared with Humprey perimetry in the early glaucoma, absolute latency and field loss were correlated in the late stage of glaucoma, and absolute amplitude and field loss were not correlated.Conclusions: In relation to signalling “early” loss the multi-channel PVEPs was inferior to Humphrey perimetry, in late loss of primary open angle glaucoma, multi-channel PVEPs can provide a valuable, objective complement to Humphrey perimetry.

  10. [Data bank for analysis of the normal visual field using the 30/1 central program of the automated Humphrey perimeter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béchetoille, A; Dykman, P; Muratet, J Y

    1986-01-01

    Quantification is one of the most interesting improvements given by the automated perimetry. Such approach has, for instance, permitted the development by J. Flammer of quantification indices for JO program of Octopus. However, for working this concept needs quantitative data on normal visual field. Using an Humphrey automated perimeter and central threshold 30/1 program, we have gathered with the "quantification" program ley Thot Informatique, normal data on 178 visual field from 117 normal outpatients attending Ophthalmology Department of the Angers Hospital (58 females-59 males). Then, those data have been ranked by age, to obtain reference visual fields and corresponding standard-deviation fields. There is a decrease in visual sensitivity in the superior part of the 30 degrees field when compared to inferior. There is a decrease in visual sensitivity with ageing-about 1 dB by decade-more in the peripheral part of the 30 degrees field than in the central part. Standard deviation visual field is of considerable interest to valid pathologic visual field detects. There is an increase standard deviation for the peripheral part of the 30 degrees field. Finally, standard deviation is increased in elderly people as compared to younger.

  11. Comparison of Macular Integrity Assessment (MAIA ™, MP-3, and the Humphrey Field Analyzer in the Evaluation of the Relationship between the Structure and Function of the Macula.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyuki Hirooka

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to compare relationships between the macular visual field (VF mean sensitivity measured by MAIATM (Macular Integrity Assessment, MP-3, or Humphry field analyzer (HFA and the ganglion cell and inner plexiform layer (GCA thicknesses.This cross-sectional study examined 73 glaucoma patients and 19 normal subjects. All subjects underwent measurements for GCA thickness by Cirrus HD-OCT and static threshold perimetry using MAIATM, MP-3, or HFA. VF and OCT in the retinal view were used to examine both the global relationship between the VF sensitivity and GCA thickness, and the superior hemiretina and inferior hemiretina. The relationship between the GCA thickness and macular sensitivity was examined by Spearman correlation analysis.For each instrument, statistically significant macular VF sensitivity (dB and GCA thickness relationships were observed using the decibel scale (R = 0.547-0.687, all P < 0.001. The highest correlation for the global (R = 0.682 and the superior hemiretina (R = 0.594 GCA thickness-VF mean sensitivity was observed by the HFA. The highest correlation for the inferior hemiretina (R = 0.687 GCA thickness-VF mean sensitivity was observed by the MP-3. Among the three VF measurement instruments, however, no significant differences were found for the structure-function relationships.All three VF measurement instruments found similar structure-function relationships in the central VF.

  12. Visual discrimination training improves Humphrey perimetry in chronic cortically induced blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanaugh, Matthew R; Huxlin, Krystel R

    2017-05-09

    To assess if visual discrimination training improves performance on visual perimetry tests in chronic stroke patients with visual cortex involvement. 24-2 and 10-2 Humphrey visual fields were analyzed for 17 chronic cortically blind stroke patients prior to and following visual discrimination training, as well as in 5 untrained, cortically blind controls. Trained patients practiced direction discrimination, orientation discrimination, or both, at nonoverlapping, blind field locations. All pretraining and posttraining discrimination performance and Humphrey fields were collected with online eye tracking, ensuring gaze-contingent stimulus presentation. Trained patients recovered ∼108 degrees(2) of vision on average, while untrained patients spontaneously improved over an area of ∼16 degrees(2). Improvement was not affected by patient age, time since lesion, size of initial deficit, or training type, but was proportional to the amount of training performed. Untrained patients counterbalanced their improvements with worsening of sensitivity over ∼9 degrees(2) of their visual field. Worsening was minimal in trained patients. Finally, although discrimination performance improved at all trained locations, changes in Humphrey sensitivity occurred both within trained regions and beyond, extending over a larger area along the blind field border. In adults with chronic cortical visual impairment, the blind field border appears to have enhanced plastic potential, which can be recruited by gaze-controlled visual discrimination training to expand the visible field. Our findings underscore a critical need for future studies to measure the effects of vision restoration approaches on perimetry in larger cohorts of patients. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. on behalf of the American Academy of Neurology.

  13. Crimes of the Smart: A Reply to Humphreys and Larson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    1990-01-01

    It is asserted that the statistical arguments proposed by Humphreys are not supported by the formula he presents. The disagreement with Larson is with the contention that there exists one correct theoretical framework in which intelligence research should be posed. The respective viewpoints are seen as complementary, not competing. (SLD)

  14. Field analyses of tritium at environmental levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Cable, P.R.; Beals, D.M

    1999-02-11

    An automated, remote system to analyze tritium in aqueous solutions at environmental levels has been tested and has demonstrated laboratory quality tritium analysis capability in near real time. The field deployable tritium analysis system (FDTAS) consists of a novel multi-port autosampler, an on-line water purification system, and a prototype stop-flow liquid scintillation counter (LSC) which can be remotely controlled for unmanned operation. Backgrounds of {approx}1.5 counts/min in the tritium channel are routinely measured with a tritium detection efficiency of {approx}25% for the custom 11 ml cell. A detection limit of <0.3 pCi/ml has been achieved for 100-min counts using a 50 : 50 mixture of sample and cocktail. To assess the long-term performance characteristics of the FDTAS, a composite sampler was installed on the Savannah River, downstream of the Savannah River Site, and collected repetitive 12-hour composite samples over a 14 day period. The samples were analyzed using the FDTAS and in the laboratory using a standard bench-top LSC. The results of the tritium analyses by the FDTAS and by the laboratory LSC were consistent for comparable counting times at the typical river tritium background levels ({approx}1 pCi/ml)

  15. Visual field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perimetry; Tangent screen exam; Automated perimetry exam; Goldmann visual field exam; Humphrey visual field exam ... Confrontation visual field exam : This is a quick and basic check of the visual field. The health care provider ...

  16. 77 FR 43899 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Humphrey Evaluation Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-26

    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Humphrey Evaluation Survey ACTION: Notice of request for... accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. Title of Information Collection: Humphrey Evaluation...) approval for the information collection described below. The purpose of this notice is to allow 60 days...

  17. 77 FR 69539 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Humphrey Evaluation Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-19

    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Humphrey Evaluation Survey ACTION: Notice of request for public comment and submission to OMB of proposed collection of information. SUMMARY: The Department of... Information Collection: Humphrey Evaluation Survey. OMB Control Number: None. Type of Request: New...

  18. Le roman social dans l’œuvre d’Emyr Humphreys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie VANUXEEM

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Le romancier Emyr Humphreys écrivain gallois d’expression anglaise, est un Gallois qui écrit ses romans sur le pays de Galles en langue anglaise. Dans la littérature anglo-galloise, “Anglo-WeIsh writing” (Mathias, Anglo-Welsh Literature, 102-3, Emyr Humphreys est classé comme écrivain d’après guerre appartenant au “second movement” (98 ou au “second flowering” (Jones, Profiles, introduction, xxx. Cependant, il ne se considère pas comme un écrivain anglo-gallois dans le sens où il favorise ...

  19. Diagnostic ability of Humphrey perimetry, Octopus perimetry, and optical coherence tomography for glaucomatous optic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsalve, B; Ferreras, A; Calvo, P; Urcola, J A; Figus, M; Monsalve, J; Frezzotti, P

    2016-11-11

    PurposeTo evaluate and compare the diagnostic accuracy of the Humphrey Field Analyzer (HFA), Octopus perimetry, and Cirrus OCT for glaucomatous optic neuropathy.MethodsEighty-eight healthy individuals and 150 open-angle glaucoma patients were consecutive and prospectively selected. Eligibility criteria for the glaucoma group were intraocular pressure ≥21 mm Hg and glaucomatous optic nerve head morphology. All subjects underwent a reliable standard automated perimetry with the HFA and Octopus perimeter, and were imaged with the Cirrus OCT. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were plotted for the threshold values and main indices of the HFA and Octopus, the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thicknesses, and the optic nerve head parameters. Sensitivities at 85 and 95% fixed-specificities were also calculated. The best areas under the ROC curves (AUCs) were compared using the DeLong method.ResultsIn the glaucoma group, mean deviation (MD) was -5.42±4.6 dB for HFA and 3.90±3.6 dB for Octopus. The MD of the HFA (0.966; P<0.001), mean sensitivity of the Octopus (0.941; P<0.001), and average cup-to-disc (C/D) ratio measured by the Cirrus OCT (0.958; P<0.001) had the largest AUCs for each test studied. There were no significant differences among them. Sensitivities at 95% fixed-specificity were 82% for pattern standard deviation of the HFA, 81.3% for average C/D ratio of OCT, and 80% for the MD of the Octopus.ConclusionsHFA, Octopus, and Cirrus OCT demonstrated similar diagnostic accuracies for glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Visual field and OCT provide supplementary information and thus these tests are not interchangeable.Eye advance online publication, 11 November 2016; doi:10.1038/eye.2016.251.

  20. Humphrey Davy and the Safety Lamp: The Use of Metal Gauze as a Flame Barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Allan

    2015-01-01

    The "safety lamp" invented by Humphrey Davy in 1815 utilised the cooling effect of metal gauze to prevent the flame of a candle or oil lamp (essential for illumination in mines) from passing through such a screen. It is therefore rendered unable to ignite any potentially explosive mixture of air and methane in the atmosphere surrounding…

  1. 76 FR 5194 - Tennessee National Wildlife Refuge, Henry, Benton, Decatur, and Humphreys Counties, TN; Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Troy Littrell; telephone: 731/642- 2091; fax: 731/644-3351; e-mail: troy... (73 FR 17994). On December 28, 1945, President Harry S. Truman signed Executive Order No. 9670... Humphreys Counties, Tennessee. The refuge is comprised of three units: the Duck River Unit (26,738...

  2. Award for Distinguished Early Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest: Keith Humphreys

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Keith Humphreys, recipient of the Award for Distinguished Early Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest, is cited for creatively combining a scientist's commitment to rigor, a clinician's emphasis on high-quality mental health care, and a policy analyst's understanding of how to address and resolve social problems. His work as a…

  3. Mesons in strong magnetic fields: (I) General analyses

    CERN Document Server

    Hattori, Koichi; Su, Nan

    2015-01-01

    We study properties of neutral and charged mesons in strong magnetic fields |eB|>> Lambda_QCD^2 with Lambda_QCD being the QCD renormalization scale. Assuming long-range interactions, we examine magnetic-field dependences of various quantities such as the constituent quark mass, chiral condensate, meson spectra, and meson wavefunctions by analyzing the Schwinger-Dyson and Bethe-Salpeter equations. Based on the density of states obtained from these analyses, we extend the hadron resonance gas (HRG) model to investigate thermodynamics at large B. As B increases the meson energy behaves as a slowly growing function of the meson's transverse momenta, and thus a large number of meson states is accommodated in the low energy domain; the density of states at low temperature is proportional to B^2. This extended transverse phase space in the infrared regime significantly enhances the HRG pressure at finite temperature, so that the system reaches the percolation or chiral restoration regime at lower temperature compare...

  4. Scientific Production and Impact Analyses of Sociometry Field

    OpenAIRE

    Tunç, Metin

    2015-01-01

    Since the first presentation of sociometry by Jacob L. Moreno in 1932, there has been significant scientific production in the field. However scientific production consists of many different activities, the core consists of scientific publications. This study is evaluating scientific publications as the core performance indicator of sociometry field. The citations to these publications are also analyzed in the scope of impact generation. With combination of publications and citations, it anal...

  5. Stress Field Analyses of Functionally Gradient Ceramic Tool by FEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The cutting properties of the functionally gradient ceramic cutting tools relate closely to the gradient distribution. A cutting model of the functionally gradient ceramic tool is firstly designed in the present paper. The optimum of gradient distribution is obtained by way of the FEM analyses.

  6. Thermoluminescent analyses of mean photon energy of a field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalieri, T. A.; De Paiva, F.; Fonseca, G.; Dalledone S, P. de T.; Yoriyaz, H., E-mail: tassio.cavalieri@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares / CNEN, Av. Lineu Prestes 2242, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    Nowadays a common method of dosimetry is utilize the thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) of LiF, where for pure gamma field is typically used the LiF or CaF{sub 2} TLDs and for mixed neutron and gamma field dosimetry is used the pair TLD-600/TLD-700. The difference between these three LiF TLDs is the amount of isotope {sup 6}Li in their composition. The isotope {sup 6}Li has a great cross section for thermal neutrons, making the TLD-600 sensitive to thermal neutrons beyond the radiation gamma. Whereas the TLD-700 is considered sensitive only for radiation gamma. Some studies showed an energetic dependence of these TLDs for gammas rays. So the goal of this work was study these energetic dependence of TLDs from the angular coefficient of their response versus dose calibration curves when they were irradiated in four fields with photons of different energies: 43 keV, 662 keV, 1.2 MeV, 3 MeV. In order to create the calibration curves TLD, it was performed three irradiations with distinct exposure times for each photon energy. These studies showed a different angular coefficient to each curve; demonstrate the energetic dependence of these TLDs. By simulation with Monte Carlo based code, MCNP-5, it was observed the deposited photon dose due to different photons energies. From these simulations, it was also possible to observe a difference of dose deposition in TLDs when they were exposed to the same dose provided from different photons energies. These work showed the previously study of photon energetic dependence of LiF TLDs. (Author)

  7. Humphrey Ridley (1653-1708): 17th century evolution in neuroanatomy and selective cerebrovascular injections for cadaver dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Jai Deep; Sonig, Ashish; Chittiboina, Prashant; Khan, Imad Saeed; Wadhwa, Rishi; Nanda, Anil

    2012-08-01

    Humphrey Ridley, M.D. (1653-1708), is a relatively unknown historical figure, belonging to the postmedieval era of neuroanatomical discovery. He was born in the market town of Mansfield, 14 miles from the county of Nottinghamshire, England. After studying at Merton College, Oxford, he pursued medicine at Leiden University in the Netherlands. In 1688, he was incorporated as an M.D. at Cambridge. Ridley authored the first original treatise in English language on neuroanatomy, The Anatomy of the Brain Containing its Mechanisms and Physiology: Together with Some New Discoveries and Corrections of Ancient and Modern Authors upon that Subject. Ridley described the venous anatomy of the eponymous circular sinus in connection with the parasellar compartment. His methods were novel, unique, and effective. To appreciate the venous anatomy, he preferred to perform his anatomical dissections on recently executed criminals who had been hanged. These cadavers had considerable venous engorgement, which made the skull base venous anatomy clearer. To enhance the appearance of the cerebral vasculature further, he used tinged wax and quicksilver in the injections. He set up experimental models to answer questions definitively, in proving that the arachnoid mater is a separate meningeal layer. The first description of the subarachnoid cisterns, blood-brain barrier, and the fifth cranial nerve ganglion with its branches are also attributed to Ridley. This historical vignette revisits Ridley's life and academic work that influenced neuroscience and neurosurgical understanding in its infancy. It is unfortunate that most of his novel contributions have gone unnoticed and uncited. The authors hope that this article will inform the neurosurgical community of Ridley's contributions to the field of neurosurgery.

  8. Comparison between Humphrey Field Analyzer and Micro Perimeter 1 in normal and glaucoma subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineet Ratra

    2012-01-01

    Results: The mean light thresholds of 21 matching points in control group with MP1 and HFA were 14.97 ± 2.64 dB and 30.90 ± 2.08 dB, respectively. In subjects with glaucoma, the mean values were MP1: 11.73 ± 4.36 dB and HFA: 27.96 ± 5.41 dB. Mean difference of light thresholds among the two instruments was 15.86 ± 3.25 dB in normal subjects (P < 0.001 and 16.22 ± 2.77 dB in glaucoma subjects (P < 0.001. Pearson correlation analysis of the HFA and MP1 results for each test point location in both cases and control subjects showed significant positive correlation (controls, r = 0.439, P = 0.047; glaucoma subjects, r = 0.812, P < 0.001. There was no difference between nasal and temporal points but a slight vertical asymmetry was observed with MP1. Conclusion: There are significant and reproducible differences in the differential light threshold in MP1 and HFA in both normal and glaucoma subjects. We found a correction factor of 17.271 for comparison of MP1 with HFA. MP1 appeared to be more sensitive in predicting loss in glaucoma.

  9. Field and laboratory analyses of water from the Columbia aquifer in Eastern Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, L.J.

    1984-01-01

    Field and laboratory analyses of pH, alkalinity, and specific conductance from water samples collected from the Columbia aquifer on the Delmarva Peninsula in eastern Maryland were compared to determine if laboratory analyses could be used for making regional water-quality interpretations. Kruskal-Wallis tests of field and laboratory data indicate that the difference between field and laboratory values is usually not enough to affect the outcome of the statistical tests. Thus, laboratory measurements of these constituents may be adequate for making certain regional water-quality interpretations, although they may result in errors if used for geochemical interpretations.

  10. Learning effect of humphrey matrix frequency doubling technology perimetry in patients with ocular hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centofanti, Marco; Fogagnolo, Paolo; Oddone, Francesco; Orzalesi, Nicola; Vetrugno, Michele; Manni, Gianluca; Rossetti, Luca

    2008-09-01

    To evaluate the learning effect of Frequency Doubling Technology (FDT) perimetry using the Humphrey Matrix-FDT perimetry (Matrix) 24-2 full-threshold program on patients with ocular hypertension experienced with standard automated perimetry. Twenty-four patients with ocular hypertension underwent 5 full-threshold Matrix tests at intervals of 5+/-2 days. Learning effect was defined as an improvement at results for duration, perimetric indices, foveal sensitivity, Glaucoma Hemifield Test, and the number of points with a Plearning effect. Test-retest variability was also calculated for each repetition as the mean of the point-to-point interindividual standard deviations. A learning effect was demonstrated for mean defect (P=0.031, analysis of variance) and foveal sensitivity (P=0.009) and it only affected the first test for both parameters. All the other parameters did not show any significant learning effect. The effect was independent from eccentricity and quadrant or hemifield sensitivities. The results of this study demonstrate that the learning effect for Matrix-FDT is mild and it may affect only the first test. Caution is needed in the analysis of the first Matrix-FDT examination and retest may be advisable in the presence of low mean defect.

  11. Measurement of electromagnetic fields generated by air traffic control radar systems with spectrum analysers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barellini, A; Bogi, L; Licitra, G; Silvi, A M; Zari, A

    2009-12-01

    Air traffic control (ATC) primary radars are 'classical' radars that use echoes of radiofrequency (RF) pulses from aircraft to determine their position. High-power RF pulses radiated from radar antennas may produce high electromagnetic field levels in the surrounding area. Measurement of electromagnetic fields produced by RF-pulsed radar by means of a swept-tuned spectrum analyser are investigated here. Measurements have been carried out both in the laboratory and in situ on signals generated by an ATC primary radar.

  12. Dynamic Analyses of Isolated Structures under Bi-Directional Excitations of Near-Field Ground Motions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokhan Ozdemir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear response history analyses (NRHA of a 3-story isolated reinforced concrete (RC building are carried out under both uni- and bi-directional earthquake excitations of near-field records. NRHA are conducted for a wide range of yield strength (Q/W of lead rubber bearings (LRB, and isolation period (T. Selected near-field records are used to investigate both the contribution of orthogonal components on maximum isolator displacements and accuracy of equivalent lateral force (ELF procedure on estimation of maximum isolator displacements. Analyses results show that both the contribution of orthogonal components and accuracy of ELF procedure depend on the soil condition where isolation system is implemented.

  13. Quantification of rock heterogeneities by structural geological field studies combined with laboratory analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyer, Dorothea; Afsar, Filiz; Philipp, Sonja

    2013-04-01

    Heterogeneous rock properties in terms of layering and complex infrastructure of fault zones are typical in sedimentary successions. The knowledge of in-situ mechanical rock properties is crucial for a better understanding of processes such as fracturing and fluid transport in fractured reservoirs. To estimate in situ rock properties at different depths it is important to understand how rocks from outcrops differ from rocks at depth, for example due to alteration and removal of the overburden load. We aim at quantifying these properties by performing structural geological field studies in outcrop analogues combined with laboratory analyses of outcrop samples and drill-cores. The field studies focus on 1) fault zone infrastructure and 2) host rock fracture systems in two different study areas with different lithologies, the North German and the Bristol Channel Basin. We analyse quantitatively the dimension, geometry, persistence and connectivity of fracture systems. The field studies are complemented by systematic sampling to obtain the parameters Young's modulus, compressive and tensile strengths and elastic strain energy (also referred to as destruction work) from which we estimate rock and fracture toughnesses. The results show that in rocks with distinctive layering fractures are often restricted to individual layers, that is, stratabound. The probability of arrest seems to depend on the stiffness contrast between two single layers as well as on the thickness of the softer layer. The results also show that there are clear differences between fault zones in the different lithologies in terms of damage zone thicknesses and fracture system parameters. The results of laboratory analyses show that the mechanical properties vary considerably and for many samples there are clear directional differences. That is, samples taken perpendicular to layering commonly have higher stiffnesses and strengths than those taken parallel to layering. We combine the results of

  14. Analyses and application of the magnetic field at girth welds in pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xinjing; Chen, Shili; Guo, Shixu; Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Yu; Jin, Shijiu

    2013-11-01

    This paper proposes a novel method of utilizing weld identification to improve the positioning accuracy of an in-pipe detector in pipelines. The distributions of the magnetic field inside a single pipe are analysed using the equivalent magnetic charge method. Then the causes and characteristics of abnormal magnetic fields near the welds in the pipelines when pipes are welded together are discussed. A spherical carrier equipped with a magnetic sensor is designed and is used to measure the magnetic field inside an annular experimental pipeline when the carrier is pushed forward by the fluid in the pipeline and is rolling along the pipeline. Theory and experimental research show that there are very obvious abnormalities of the magnetic field at the girth welds in the pipelines. The abnormal magnetic field near the welds can be remarkably enhanced and accurately located using the signal enhancement method of continuous wavelet transformation and the peak detection method based on quadratic polynomial fitting respectively, thus enabling the identification and location of the welds. Different approaches are adopted to process magnetic field signals of different intensities in the pipelines in different directions. Finally, by considering construction information on the pipelines recorded previously, the positioning error is kept to less than 5 cm.

  15. Wavelet-based spatial comparison technique for analysing and evaluating two-dimensional geophysical model fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Saux Picart

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Complex numerical models of the Earth's environment, based around 3-D or 4-D time and space domains are routinely used for applications including climate predictions, weather forecasts, fishery management and environmental impact assessments. Quantitatively assessing the ability of these models to accurately reproduce geographical patterns at a range of spatial and temporal scales has always been a difficult problem to address. However, this is crucial if we are to rely on these models for decision making. Satellite data are potentially the only observational dataset able to cover the large spatial domains analysed by many types of geophysical models. Consequently optical wavelength satellite data is beginning to be used to evaluate model hindcast fields of terrestrial and marine environments. However, these satellite data invariably contain regions of occluded or missing data due to clouds, further complicating or impacting on any comparisons with the model. A methodology has recently been developed to evaluate precipitation forecasts using radar observations. It allows model skill to be evaluated at a range of spatial scales and rain intensities. Here we extend the original method to allow its generic application to a range of continuous and discontinuous geophysical data fields, and therefore allowing its use with optical satellite data. This is achieved through two major improvements to the original method: (i all thresholds are determined based on the statistical distribution of the input data, so no a priori knowledge about the model fields being analysed is required and (ii occluded data can be analysed without impacting on the metric results. The method can be used to assess a model's ability to simulate geographical patterns over a range of spatial scales. We illustrate how the method provides a compact and concise way of visualising the degree of agreement between spatial features in two datasets. The application of the new method, its

  16. Analysing radio-frequency coil arrays in high-field magnetic resonance imaging by the combined field integral equation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shumin; Duyn, Jeff H

    2006-06-21

    We present the combined field integral equation (CFIE) method for analysing radio-frequency coil arrays in high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Three-dimensional models of coils and the human body were used to take into account the electromagnetic coupling. In the method of moments formulation, we applied triangular patches and the Rao-Wilton-Glisson basis functions to model arbitrarily shaped geometries. We first examined a rectangular loop coil to verify the CFIE method and also demonstrate its efficiency and accuracy. We then studied several eight-channel receive-only head coil arrays for 7.0 T SENSE functional MRI. Numerical results show that the signal dropout and the average SNR are two major concerns in SENSE coil array design. A good design should be a balance of these two factors.

  17. A Parallel Multigrid Solver for High Frequency Electromagnetic Field Analyses with Small-scale PC Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yosui, Kuniaki; Iwashita, Takeshi; Mori, Michiya; Kobayashi, Eiichi

    Finite element analyses of electromagnetic field are commonly used for designing of various electronic devices. The scale of the analyses becomes larger and larger, therefore, a fast linear solver is needed to solve linear equations arising from the finite element method. Since a multigrid solver is the fastest linear solver for these problems, parallelization of a multigrid solver is a quite useful approach. From the viewpoint of industrial applications, an effective usage of a small-scale PC cluster is important due to initial cost for introducing parallel computers. In this paper, a distributed parallel multigrid solver for a small-scale PC cluster is developed. In high frequency electromagnetic field analyses, a special block Gauss-Seidel smoother is used for the multigrid solver instead of general smoothers such as Gauss-Seidel smoother or Jacobi smoother in order to improve a convergence rate. The block multicolor ordering technique is applied to parallelize the smoother. A numerical exsample shows that a 3.7-fold speed-up in computational time and a 3.0-fold increase in the scale of the analysis were attained when the number of CPU was increased from one to five.

  18. Analyses of Research Topics in the Field of Informetrics Based on the Method of Topic Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Chien Lin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we used the approach of topic modeling to uncover the possible structure of research topics in the field of Informetrics, to explore the distribution of the topics over years, and to compare the core journals. In order to infer the structure of the topics in the field, the data of the papers published in the Journal of Informetricsand Scientometrics during 2007 to 2013 are retrieved from the database of the Web of Science as input of the approach of topic modeling. The results of this study show that when the number of topics was set to 10, the topic model has the smallest perplexity. Although data scopes and analysis methodsare different to previous studies, the generating topics of this study are consistent with those results produced by analyses of experts. Empirical case studies and measurements of bibliometric indicators were concerned important in every year during the whole analytic period, and the field was increasing stability. Both the two core journals broadly paid more attention to all of the topics in the field of Informetrics. The Journal of Informetricsput particular emphasis on construction and applications ofbibliometric indicators and Scientometrics focused on the evaluation and the factors of productivity of countries, institutions, domains, and journals.

  19. An Image of Britain during the Second World War: The films of Humphrey Jennings (1939-1945 Une image de la Grande-Bretagne pendant la Seconde Guerre mondiale : les films de Humphrey Jennings (1939-1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Von Kassel

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Il s’agit de chercher à comprendre comment le style poétique a pu atteindre des sommets avec les films de Humphrey Jennings dans le documentaire anglais et comment ces films résultent d’un mélange entre deux traditions du cinéma britannique, traditions jusque-là opposées. A l’initiative d’Alberto Cavalcanti, en 1939, The First Days, coréalisé par Humphrey Jennings, Harry Watt et Pat Jackson, fut, au tout début la guerre, le premier film offrant une réflexion sur des réalités, lorsque l’on avait essayé de manipuler le public dans Le lion a des ailes, tourné la même année, mais aussi  le premier film anglais de propagande de la Seconde Guerre mondiale, dont Alexander Korda avait lancé et soutenu la réalisation. Quand, partant pour Ealing Studios, Cavalcanti quitte la direction de la GPO Film Unit, il est remplacé par Ian Dalrymple, le producteur du film Le lion a des ailes. C’est sous la direction de Dalrymple qu’au GPO, désormais appelé Crown Film Unit, un nouveau genre de film put émerger. Dans cet esprit démocratique, après The First Days, fut tourné en coréalisation London Can Take It (1940, par Humphrey Jennings et Harry Watt, le thème portant sur la façon dont les Londoniens supportaient les bombardements. Puis, Jennings a réalisé Heart of Britain, le thème portant, cette fois, sur la résistance de toute l’Angleterre. Words for Battle, qui suivit, était un film de propagande historique. Toutefois, c’est avec Listen to Britain, en 1942, que Jennings put vraiment toucher le public. La guerre n’était pas encore gagnée, mais la propagande dans le documentaire anglais était bien plus efficace que celle de l’ennemi, et parvenait, en même temps, à toucher toutes les couches de la population.

  20. Health-Economics Analyses Applied to ELF Electric and Magnetic Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, Shaiela; Swanson, John; Kheifets, Leeka

    2016-06-01

    Extremely low frequency electric and magnetic fields (ELF EMFs) are a common exposure for modern populations. The prevailing public-health protection paradigm is that quantitative exposure limits are based on the established acute effects, whereas the possible chronic effects are considered too uncertain for quantitative limits, but might justify precautionary measures. The choice of precautionary measures can be informed by a health-economics analysis (HEA). We consider four such analyses of precautionary measures that have been conducted at a national or state level in California, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and Israel. We describe the context of each analysis, examine how they deal with some of the more significant issues that arise, and present a comparison of the input parameters and assumptions used. The four HEAs are methodologically similar. The most significant qualitative choices that have to be made are what dose-response relationship to assume, what allowance if any to make for uncertainty, and, for a CBA only, what diseases to consider, and all four analyses made similar choices. These analyses suggest that, on the assumptions made, there are some low-cost measures, such as rephasing, that can be applied to transmission in some circumstances and that can be justifiable in cost-benefit terms, but that higher cost measures, such as undergrounding, become unjustifiable. Of the four HEAs, those in the United Kingdom and Israel were influential in determining the country's EMF policy. In California and Netherlands, the HEA may well have informed the debate, but the policy chosen did not stem directly from the HEA.

  1. Spatial and Alignment Analyses for a field of Small Volcanic Vents South of Pavonis Mons Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleacher, J. E.; Glaze, L. S.; Greeley, R.; Hauber, E.; Baloga, S. M.; Sakimoto, S. E. H.; Williams, D. A.; Glotch, T. D.

    2008-01-01

    The Tharsis province of Mars displays a variety of small volcanic vent (10s krn in diameter) morphologies. These features were identified in Mariner and Viking images [1-4], and Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data show them to be more abundant than originally observed [5,6]. Recent studies are classifying their diverse morphologies [7-9]. Building on this work, we are mapping the location of small volcanic vents (small-vents) in the Tharsis province using MOLA, Thermal Emission Imaging System, and High Resolution Stereo Camera data [10]. Here we report on a preliminary study of the spatial and alignment relationships between small-vents south of Pavonis Mons, as determined by nearest neighbor and two-point azimuth statistical analyses. Terrestrial monogenetic volcanic fields display four fundamental characteristics: 1) recurrence rates of eruptions,2 ) vent abundance, 3) vent distribution, and 4) tectonic relationships [11]. While understanding recurrence rates typically requires field measurements, insight into vent abundance, distribution, and tectonic relationships can be established by mapping of remotely sensed data, and subsequent application of spatial statistical studies [11,12], the goal of which is to link the distribution of vents to causal processes.

  2. Eclipse Timing Variation Analyses of Eccentric Binaries with Close Tertiaries in the Kepler field

    CERN Document Server

    Borkovits, Tamas; Hajdu, Tamas; Sztakovics, Janos

    2014-01-01

    We report eclipse timing variation analyses of 26 compact hierarchical triple stars comprised of an eccentric eclipsing ('inner') binary and a relatively close tertiary component found in the {\\em Kepler} field. We simultaneously fit the primary and secondary $O-C$ curves of each system for the light-travel time effect (LTTE), as well as dynamical perturbations caused by the tertiary on different timescales. For the first time, we include those contributions of three-body interactions which originate from the eccentric nature of the inner binary. These effects manifest themselves both on the period of the triple system, $P_2$, and on the longer "apse-node" timescale. We demonstrate that consideration of the dynamically forced rapid apsidal motion yields an efficient and independent tool for the determination of the binary orbit's eccentricity and orientation, as well as the 3D configuration of the triple. Modeling the forced apsidal motion also helps to resolve the degeneracy between the shapes of the LTTE an...

  3. Emergence, Evolution and Mind-body Problem (Special Column) Humphreys%突现与因果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张华夏; 王东; 张华夏

    2011-01-01

    the International Conference on the Cross-Cutting Issues and Fron- tier Issues of Contemporary Philosophy of Science and Philosophy of Mind: Emergence, Evolution and the Mind-body Problem" was held in Guangzhou with the joint sponsor of South China Normal University, Chinese Society for Dialectics of Nature, Department of Philosophy at Harvard University and Asia International Open University (Macau). At this Conference, the discussion between Professor Humphreys and Chinese scholars on the issue of context, level, emergence and causal relationship caught participants' great attention. This set of articles introduces their viewpoints and comments on each other. Professor Paul Humphreys and Professor Yan Ze-xian, Fan Dong-ping, Zhang Hua-xia all claimed that we should do research on causal relation from the perspective of Dynamics. Professor Humphreys argue that the contemporary division between physicalists, those who hold that all real properties, objects, and states are physical, and dualists, those who maintain that besides the reahn of the physical there is a separate domain of specifically mental properties, objects and states, is too crude, so the approaches to emergence which are based on supervenience relations are unhelpful and that a better approach is through using a kind of contextual emergence. Professor Fan and Yan believed that the key features and main forms of complex system can be generalized as downward restraint and selective cause, downward control and informational cause. Professor Zhang stated that, if we try to integrate two schools, namely the theory of condition-cause and effect-cause, and to connect the theory of INUS condition with the modern theory of the causal power and causal process, we can get the research frame to describe the downward causation of emergence, without violating the closure prineiple of causal power in generalized physi- cal world.%系统的突现性质是否具有下向因果性或下向因果力,是

  4. Detection of Visual Field Loss in Pituitary Disease: Peripheral Kinetic Versus Central Static.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Fiona J; Cheyne, Christopher P; García-Fiñana, Marta; Noonan, Carmel P; Howard, Claire; Smith, Jayne; Adeoye, Joanne

    2015-06-01

    Visual field assessment is an important clinical evaluation for eye disease and neurological injury. We evaluated Octopus semi-automated kinetic peripheral perimetry (SKP) and Humphrey static automated central perimetry for detection of neurological visual field loss in patients with pituitary disease. We carried out a prospective cross-sectional diagnostic accuracy study comparing Humphrey central 30-2 SITA threshold programme with a screening protocol for SKP on Octopus perimetry. Humphrey 24-2 data were extracted from 30-2 results. Results were independently graded for presence/absence of field defect plus severity of defect. Fifty patients (100 eyes) were recruited (25 males and 25 females), with mean age of 52.4 years (SD = 15.7). Order of perimeter assessment (Humphrey/Octopus first) and order of eye tested (right/left first) were randomised. The 30-2 programme detected visual field loss in 85%, the 24-2 programme in 80%, and the Octopus combined kinetic/static strategy in 100% of eyes. Peripheral visual field loss was missed by central threshold assessment. Qualitative comparison of type of visual field defect demonstrated a match between Humphrey and Octopus results in 58%, with a match for severity of defect in 50%. Tests duration was 9.34 minutes (SD = 2.02) for Humphrey 30-2 versus 10.79 minutes (SD = 4.06) for Octopus perimetry. Octopus semi-automated kinetic perimetry was found to be superior to central static testing for detection of pituitary disease-related visual field loss. Where reliant on Humphrey central static perimetry, the 30-2 programme is recommended over the 24-2 programme. Where kinetic perimetry is available, this is preferable to central static programmes for increased detection of peripheral visual field loss.

  5. Controls on Yardang Morphology: Insights from Field Measurements, Lidar Topographic Analyses, and Numerical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, J. D.; Kapp, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    Yardangs are streamlined bedforms sculpted by the wind and wind-blown sand. They can form as relatively resistant exposed rocks erode more slowly than surrounding exposed rocks, thus causing the more resistant rocks to stand higher in the landscape and deflect the wind and wind-blown sand into adjacent troughs in a positive feedback. How this feedback gives rise to streamlined forms that locally have a consistent size is not well understood theoretically. In this study we combine field measurements in the yardangs of Ocotillo Wells SVRA with analyses of airborne and terrestrial lidar datasets and numerical modeling to quantify and understand the controls on yardang morphology. The classic model for yardang morphology is that they evolve to an ideal 4:1 length-to-width aspect ratio that minimizes aerodynamic drag. We show using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling that this model is incorrect: the 4:1 aspect ratio is the value corresponding to minimum drag for free bodies, i.e. obstacles around which air flows on all sides. Yardangs, in contrast, are embedded in Earth's surface. For such rough streamlined half-bodies, the aspect ratio corresponding to minimum drag is larger than 20:1. As an alternative to the minimum-drag model, we propose that the aspect ratio of yardangs not significantly influenced by structural controls is controlled by the angle of dispersion of the aerodynamic jet created as deflected wind and wind-blown sand exits the troughs between incipient yardang noses. Aerodynamic jets have a universal dispersion angle of 11.8 degrees, thus predicting a yardang aspect ratio of ~5:1. We developed a landscape evolution model that combines the physics of boundary layer flow with aeolian saltation and bedrock erosion to form yardangs with a range of sizes and aspect ratios similar to those observed in nature. Yardangs with aspect ratios both larger and smaller than 5:1 occur in the model since the strike and dip of the resistant rock unit also exerts

  6. Intercomparison of fast response commercial gas analysers for nitrous oxide flux measurements under field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rannik, Ü.; Haapanala, S.; Shurpali, N. J.; Mammarella, I.; Lind, S.; Hyvönen, N.; Peltola, O.; Zahniser, M.; Martikainen, P. J.; Vesala, T.

    2015-01-01

    Four gas analysers capable of measuring nitrous oxide (N2O) concentration at a response time necessary for eddy covariance flux measurements were operated from spring until winter 2011 over a field cultivated with reed canary grass (RCG, Phalaris arundinacea, L.), a perennial bioenergy crop in eastern Finland. The instruments were TGA100A (Campbell Scientific Inc.), CW-TILDAS-CS (Aerodyne Research Inc.), N2O / CO-23d (Los Gatos Research Inc.) and QC-TILDAS-76-CS (Aerodyne Research Inc.). The period with high emissions, lasting for about 2 weeks after fertilization in late May, was characterized by an up to 2 orders of magnitude higher emission, whereas during the rest of the campaign the N2O fluxes were small, from 0.01 to 1 nmol m-2 s-1. Two instruments, CW-TILDAS-CS and N2O / CO-23d, determined the N2O exchange with minor systematic difference throughout the campaign, when operated simultaneously. TGA100A produced the cumulatively highest N2O estimates (with 29% higher values during the period when all instruments were operational). QC-TILDAS-76-CS obtained 36% lower fluxes than CW-TILDAS-CS during the first period, including the emission episode, whereas the correspondence with other instruments during the rest of the campaign was good. The reasons for systematic differences were not identified, suggesting further need for detailed evaluation of instrument performance under field conditions with emphasis on stability, calibration and any other factors that can systematically affect the accuracy of flux measurements. The instrument CW-TILDAS-CS was characterized by the lowest noise level (with a standard deviation of around 0.12 ppb at 10 Hz sampling rate) as compared to N2O / CO-23d and QC-TILDAS-76-CS (around 0.50 ppb) and TGA100A (around 2 ppb). We identified that for all instruments except CW-TILDAS-CS the random error due to instrumental noise was an important source of uncertainty at the 30 min averaging level and the total stochastic error was frequently

  7. TVA's 500-kV electric and magnetic fields: measurements and analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of the 500-kV electric and magnetic fields data project, performed by the Electrical Systems Group of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). The objectives of the project were to measure, record, and analyze electric and magnetic fields in the vicintiy of TVA's 500-kV transmission lines. Also the effects of transmission line fields on the growth and development of selected agricultural and forest plant species were to be investigated. This report contains only the categorization and the statistical analysis of the fields data.

  8. Challenges in analysing data from a field operational test of advanced driver assistance systems: the euroFOT experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benmimoun, A.; Benmimoun, M.; Regan, M.A.; Noort, M. van; Wilmink, I.R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the challenges in analysing the data from the large scale field operational test (FOT) to be conducted within the EC euroFOT project. The euroFOT project aims to investigate the impacts of advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) and to encourage their deployment. Started withi

  9. Scrape-off layer ion temperature measurements at the divertor target in MAST by retarding field energy analyser

    CERN Document Server

    Elmore, S; Kirk, A; Thornton, A J; Harrison, J R; Tamain, P; Kocan, M; Bradley, J W

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of the ion temperature (Ti) is of key importance for determining heat fluxes to the divertor and plasma facing components, however data regarding this is limited compared to electron temperature (Te) data. Ti measurements at the divertor target, between edge-localised modes (inter-ELM) H-mode, have been made using a novel retarding field energy analyser (RFEA).

  10. Establishment and analyses on the unified horizontal crustal velocity fields in the Chinese mainland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The related data of GPS networks in the Chinese mainland and its peripheral areas are collected from internet sites in the paper. And various data fusion methods are presented based on the collected GPS data. Thus the unified horizontal crustal velocity fields can be established in the Chinese mainland and its peripheral areas. The available data of 423 GPS sites are applied to the velocity fields and its area gets to 1.2′107 km2. By analyzing the velocity fields, the basic spatial distribution feature of the horizontal crustal motion in the Chinese mainland and its peripheral area can be obtained preliminarily. Meanwhile, the range of the velocity fields in the Chinese mainland affected by the collision force of India plate to Eurasia plate and the problem of principal direction of the force from India plate are discussed.

  11. Analyses of the temperature field of traveling-wave rotary ultrasonic motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaolong; Hu, Junhui; Zhao, Chunsheng

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, the transient and steady-state temperature field of a traveling-wave rotary ultrasonic motor is analyzed by the finite element method, based on a theoretical model of power loss of this motor in rated operation. Using this model, the temperature field of this motor is calculated and the effects of the heat conductivity of friction material, motor size, ambient temperature, and pressure on the temperature field are estimated. The calculated temperature distribution and transient temperature change agree with the experimental results. The variation of heat conductivity of the friction material has little effect on the minimum temperature in the motor but this variation seriously affects the maximum temperature in the motor when the heat conductivity of the friction material is lower than 0.5 W/(m°C). Two indices are defined to express the non-uniformity of temperature field and how quickly the temperature field reaches its steady state for traveling-wave ultrasonic motors of different sizes. It is found that traveling-wave ultrasonic motors with different sizes have different nonuniformity of temperature field and take different amounts of time to reach thermal steady state. The maximum temperature rise is lower when the ambient temperature is higher; the maximum temperature increases as the vacuum degree increases and it is not affected by the vacuum degree when the vacuum degree is too high (<10(-3) Pa).

  12. Rates of change of the earth's magnetic field measured by recent analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, C. G. A.; Huang, Qilin

    1990-01-01

    Typical rates of change of the earth's magnetic field are presented as a function of the earth's spherical harmonics. Harmonics up to the eight degree are analyzed. With the increase in the degree of the harmonics an increase in the relative rate of change can be observed. For higher degrees, the rate of change can be predicted. This enables a differentiation between harmonics originating in the core and harmonics caused by crustal magnetization. The westward drift of the magnetic field depends on the longitudinal gradient of the field. In order to determine the longitudinal motions, harmonics up to degree 20 can be utilized. The average rate of secular acceleration increases with the degree of harmonics from 0.001 deg/sq yr for a dipole term to an average of 0.05 deg/sq yr for degree eight harmonics.

  13. Theoretical analyses of cellular transmembrane voltage in suspensions induced by high-frequency fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yong; Wang, Changzhen; Peng, Ruiyun; Wang, Lifeng; Hu, Xiangjun

    2015-04-01

    A change of the transmembrane voltage is considered to cause biophysical and biochemical responses in cells. The present study focuses on the cellular transmembrane voltage (Δφ) induced by external fields. We detail analytical equations for the transmembrane voltage induced by external high-frequency (above the relaxation frequency of the cell membrane) fields on cells of a spherical shape in suspensions and layers. At direct current (DC) and low frequencies, the cell membrane was assumed to be non-conductive under physiologic conditions. However, with increasing frequency, the permittivity of the cytoplasm/extracellular medium and conductivity of the membrane must be accounted for. Our main work is to extend application of the analytical solution of Δφ to the high-frequency range. We first introduce the transmembrane voltage generated by DC and low-frequency exposures on a single cell. Then, we focus on cell suspensions exposed to high-frequency fields. Using the effective medium theory and the reasonable assumption, the approximate analytical solution of Δφ on cells in suspensions and layers can be derived. Phenomenological effective medium theory equations cannot be used to calculate the local electric field of cell suspensions, so we raised a possible solution based on the Bergman theory. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Examination of Hurricane Sandy's (2012 structure and intensity evolution from full-field and anomaly-field analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Hong Qian

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available An anomaly-based field analysis approach and a set of simple beta-advection models (BAMs have been used to examine the structure evolution and unusual left turn of Hurricane Sandy (2012 before it made the landfall and caused severe damage along the eastern US coast. Results show that the anomaly-based analysis approach can clearly reveal Sandy's structure evolution, including its interaction with other synoptic-scale systems as well as the intensification and extratropical transition (ET processes. During its lifetime, Sandy experienced two consecutive periods of intensification caused by the merging of anomalous vortices on 27 and 29 October. The unusual left turn and the ET process prior to the landfall are respectively influenced by an anomalous anticyclone to the northeast and an anomalous cold vortex at the 300–850 hPa layer to the northwest, which is confirmed by the experiments using the generalised BAM.

  15. TRMM Latent Heating Retrieval: Applications and Comparisons with Field Campaigns and Large-Scale Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo; Takayabu, Yukari N.; Lang, Steve; Shige, Shoichi; Olson, William S.; Hou, Arthur; Skofronick-Jackson, Gail; Jiang, Xining; Zhang, Chidong; Lau, William K.; Krishnamurti, T.; Waliser, D.; Grecu, M.; Ciesielski, Paul; Johnson, Richard; Houze, Robert A.; Kakar, R.; Nakamura, K.; Braun, S.; Hagos, Samson M.; Oki, R.; Bhardwaj, A.

    2016-05-05

    Yanai et al. (1973) utilized the meteorological data collected from a sounding network to present a pioneering work on thermodynamic budgets, which are referred to as the apparent heat source (Q1) and apparent moisture sink (Q2). Latent heating (LH) is one of the most dominant terms in Q1. Yanai’s paper motivated the development of satellite-based LH algorithms and provided a theoretical background for imposing large-scale advective forcing into cloud-resolving models (CRMs). These CRM-simulated LH and Q1 data have been used to generate the look-up tables in Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) LH algorithms. A set of algorithms developed for retrieving LH profiles from TRMM-based rainfall profiles are described and evaluated, including details concerning their intrinsic space-time resolutions. Included in the paper are results from a variety of validation analyses that define the uncertainty of the LH profile estimates. Also, examples of how TRMM-retrieved LH profiles have been used to understand the lifecycle of the MJO and improve the predictions of global weather and climate models as well as comparisons with large-scale analyses are provided. Areas for further improvement of the TRMM products are discussed.

  16. Risk analyses for disposing nonhazardous oil field wastes in salt caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Veil, J.; Caudle, D.

    1997-12-01

    Salt caverns have been used for several decades to store various hydrocarbon products. In the past few years, four facilities in the US have been permitted to dispose nonhazardous oil field wastes in salt caverns. Several other disposal caverns have been permitted in Canada and Europe. This report evaluates the possibility that adverse human health effects could result from exposure to contaminants released from the caverns in domal salt formations used for nonhazardous oil field waste disposal. The evaluation assumes normal operations but considers the possibility of leaks in cavern seals and cavern walls during the post-closure phase of operation. In this assessment, several steps were followed to identify possible human health risks. At the broadest level, these steps include identifying a reasonable set of contaminants of possible concern, identifying how humans could be exposed to these contaminants, assessing the toxicities of these contaminants, estimating their intakes, and characterizing their associated human health risks. The contaminants of concern for the assessment are benzene, cadmium, arsenic, and chromium. These were selected as being components of oil field waste and having a likelihood to remain in solution for a long enough time to reach a human receptor.

  17. Measurements and Slope Analyses of Quaternary Cinder Cones, Camargo Volcanic Field, Chihuahua, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, M. I.; Espejel-Garcia, V. V.

    2012-12-01

    The Camargo volcanic field (CVF) covers ~3000 km2 and is located in the southeast part of the state of Chihuahua, within the Basin and Range province. The CVF represents the largest mafic alkali volcanic field in northern Mexico. Over a 300 cinder cones have been recognized in the Camargo volcanic field. Volcanic activity ranges from 4.7 to 0.09 Ma revealed by 40Ar/39Ar dating methods. Previous studies say that there is a close relationship between the cinder cone slope angle, due to mechanical weathering, and age. This technique is considered a reliable age indicator, especially in arid climates, such as occur in the CVF. Data were acquired with digital topographic maps (DRG) and digital elevation models (DEM) overlapped in the Global Mapper software. For each cone, the average radius (r) was calculated from six measurements, the height (h) is the difference between peak elevation and the altitude of the contour used to close the radius, and the slope angle was calculated using the equation Θ = tan-1(h/r). The slope angles of 30 cinder cones were calculated showing angles ranging from 4 to 15 degrees. A diffusion model, displayed by an exponential relationship between slope angle and age, places the ages of these 30 cones from 215 to 82 ka, within the range marked by radiometric methods. Future work include the analysis of more cinder cones to cover the whole CVF, and contribute to the validation of this technique.

  18. Field intercomparison of four methane gas analysers suitable for eddy covariance flux measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Peltola

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Performances of four methane gas analyzers suitable for eddy covariance measurements are assessed. The assessment and comparison was performed by analyzing eddy covariance data obtained during summer 2010 (1 April to 26 October at a pristine fen, Siikaneva, Southern Finland. High methane fluxes with pronounced seasonality have been measured at this fen. The four participating methane gas analyzers are commercially available closed-path units TGA-100A (Campbell Scientific Inc., USA, RMT-200 (Los Gatos Research, USA, G1301-f (Picarro Inc., USA and an early prototype open-path unit Prototype-7700 (LI-COR Biosciences, USA.

    The RMT-200 functioned most reliably throughout the measurement campaign, during low and high flux periods. Methane fluxes from RMT-200 and G1301-f had the smallest random errors and the fluxes agree remarkably well throughout the measurement campaign. Cospectra and power spectra calculated from RMT-200 and G1301-f data agree well with corresponding temperature spectra during a high flux period. None of the gas analysers showed statistically significant diurnal variation for methane flux. Prototype-7700 functioned only for a short period of time, over one month, in the beginning of the measurement campaign during low flux period, and thus, its overall accuracy and long-term performance were not assessed. Prototype-7700 is a practical choice for measurement sites in remote locations due to its low power demand, however if only the performance in this intercomparison is considered, RMT-200 performed the best and is the recommended choice if a new fast response methane gas analyser is needed.

  19. Field intercomparison of four methane gas analysers suitable for eddy covariance flux measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltola, O.; Mammarella, I.; Haapanala, S.; Burba, G.; Vesala, T.

    2012-12-01

    Performances of four methane gas analyzers suitable for eddy covariance measurements are assessed. The assessment and comparison was performed by analyzing eddy covariance data obtained during summer 2010 (1 April to 26 October) at a pristine fen, Siikaneva, Southern Finland. High methane fluxes with pronounced seasonality have been measured at this fen. The four participating methane gas analyzers are commercially available closed-path units TGA-100A (Campbell Scientific Inc., USA), RMT-200 (Los Gatos Research, USA), G1301-f (Picarro Inc., USA) and an early prototype open-path unit Prototype-7700 (LI-COR Biosciences, USA). The RMT-200 functioned most reliably throughout the measurement campaign, during low and high flux periods. Methane fluxes from RMT-200 and G1301-f had the smallest random errors and the fluxes agree remarkably well throughout the measurement campaign. Cospectra and power spectra calculated from RMT-200 and G1301-f data agree well with corresponding temperature spectra during a high flux period. None of the gas analysers showed statistically significant diurnal variation for methane flux. Prototype-7700 functioned only for a short period of time, over one month, in the beginning of the measurement campaign during low flux period, and thus, its overall accuracy and long-term performance were not assessed. Prototype-7700 is a practical choice for measurement sites in remote locations due to its low power demand, however if only the performance in this intercomparison is considered, RMT-200 performed the best and is the recommended choice if a new fast response methane gas analyser is needed.

  20. A Multi-Scale Framework for Multi-Field Analyses of Smart Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-15

    the field variables. An iterative corrector scheme is then performed in order to satisfy both the micromechanical constraints and the nonlinear...of time a corrector scheme is added to minimize the residual. This study uses the Newton-Raphson iterative method as a corrector scheme. Once the...t − + +∆ +∆ +∆ ∂ = + ∂       R T T R T and go back to step 3.1) where ( ), , , , , , ,1 1 k n k n k n kres t t t t t t t t t t t t tn n n t

  1. Statistical Analyses of Second Indoor Bio-Release Field Evaluation Study at Idaho National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amidan, Brett G.; Pulsipher, Brent A.; Matzke, Brett D.

    2009-12-17

    In September 2008 a large-scale testing operation (referred to as the INL-2 test) was performed within a two-story building (PBF-632) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The report “Operational Observations on the INL-2 Experiment” defines the seven objectives for this test and discusses the results and conclusions. This is further discussed in the introduction of this report. The INL-2 test consisted of five tests (events) in which a floor (level) of the building was contaminated with the harmless biological warfare agent simulant Bg and samples were taken in most, if not all, of the rooms on the contaminated floor. After the sampling, the building was decontaminated, and the next test performed. Judgmental samples and probabilistic samples were determined and taken during each test. Vacuum, wipe, and swab samples were taken within each room. The purpose of this report is to study an additional four topics that were not within the scope of the original report. These topics are: 1) assess the quantitative assumptions about the data being normally or log-normally distributed; 2) evaluate differences and quantify the sample to sample variability within a room and across the rooms; 3) perform geostatistical types of analyses to study spatial correlations; and 4) quantify the differences observed between surface types and sampling methods for each scenario and study the consistency across the scenarios. The following four paragraphs summarize the results of each of the four additional analyses. All samples after decontamination came back negative. Because of this, it was not appropriate to determine if these clearance samples were normally distributed. As Table 1 shows, the characterization data consists of values between and inclusive of 0 and 100 CFU/cm2 (100 was the value assigned when the number is too numerous to count). The 100 values are generally much bigger than the rest of the data, causing the data to be right skewed. There are also a significant

  2. An evaluation of fresh gas flow rates for spontaneously breathing cats and small dogs on the Humphrey ADE semi-closed breathing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Elizabeth; Ticehurst, Kim E; Zaki, Sanaa

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the fresh gas flow (FGF) rate requirements for the Humphrey ADE semi-closed breathing system in the Mapleson A mode; to determine the FGF at which rebreathing occurs, and compare the efficiency of this system to the Bain (Mapleson D) system in spontaneously breathing cats and small dogs. Prospective clinical study. Twenty-five healthy (ASA score I or II) client-owned cats and dogs (mean ± SD age 4.7 ± 5.0 years, and body weight 5.64 ± 3.26 kg) undergoing elective surgery or minor procedures. Anaesthesia was maintained with isoflurane delivered via the Humphrey ADE system in the A mode using an oxygen FGF of 100 mL kg(-1) minute(-1). The FGF was then reduced incrementally by 5-10 mL kg(-1) minute(-1) at approximately five-minute intervals, until rebreathing (inspired CO(2) >5 mmHg (0.7 kPa)) was observed, after which flow rates were increased. In six animals, once the minimum FGF at which rebreathing occurred was found, the breathing system was changed to the Bain, and the effects of this FGF delivery examined, before FGF was increased. Rebreathing did not occur at the FGF recommended by the manufacturer for the ADE. The mean ± SD FGF that resulted in rebreathing was 60 ± 20 mL kg(-1) minute(-1). The mean minimum FGF at which rebreathing did not occur with the ADE was 87 ± 39 mL kg(-1) minute(-1). This FGF resulted in significant rebreathing (inspired CO(2) 8.8 ± 2.6 mmHg (1.2 ± 0.3 kPa)) on the Bain system. The FGF rates recommended for the Humphrey ADE are adequate to prevent rebreathing in spontaneously breathing cats and dogs cats and small dogs. © 2014 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.

  3. Aesthetic appreciation: event-related field and time-frequency analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munar, Enric; Nadal, Marcos; Castellanos, Nazareth P.; Flexas, Albert; Maestú, Fernando; Mirasso, Claudio; Cela-Conde, Camilo J.

    2012-01-01

    Improvements in neuroimaging methods have afforded significant advances in our knowledge of the cognitive and neural foundations of aesthetic appreciation. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to register brain activity while participants decided about the beauty of visual stimuli. The data were analyzed with event-related field (ERF) and Time-Frequency (TF) procedures. ERFs revealed no significant differences between brain activity related with stimuli rated as “beautiful” and “not beautiful.” TF analysis showed clear differences between both conditions 400 ms after stimulus onset. Oscillatory power was greater for stimuli rated as “beautiful” than those regarded as “not beautiful” in the four frequency bands (theta, alpha, beta, and gamma). These results are interpreted in the frame of synchronization studies. PMID:22287948

  4. Determination of Watershed Infiltration and Erosion Parameters from Field Rainfall Simulation Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark E. Grismer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Realistic modeling of infiltration, runoff and erosion processes from watersheds requires estimation of the effective hydraulic conductivity (Km of the hillslope soils and how it varies with soil tilth, depth and cover conditions. Field rainfall simulation (RS plot studies provide an opportunity to assess the surface soil hydraulic and erodibility conditions, but a standardized interpretation and comparison of results of this kind from a wide variety of test conditions has been difficult. Here, we develop solutions to the combined set of time-to-ponding/runoff and Green– Ampt infiltration equations to determine Km values from RS test plot results and compare them to the simpler calculation of steady rain minus runoff rates. Relating soil detachment rates to stream power, we also examine the determination of “erodibility” as the ratio thereof. Using data from over 400 RS plot studies across the Lake Tahoe Basin area that employ a wide range of rain rates across a range of soil slopes and conditions, we find that the Km values can be determined from the combined infiltration equation for ~80% of the plot data and that the laminar flow form of stream power best described a constant “erodibility” across a range of volcanic skirun soil conditions. Moreover, definition of stream power based on laminar flows obviates the need for assumption of an arbitrary Mannings “n” value and the restriction to mild slopes (<10%. The infiltration equation based Km values, though more variable, were on average equivalent to that determined from the simpler calculation of steady rain minus steady runoff rates from the RS plots. However, these Km values were much smaller than those determined from other field test methods. Finally, we compare RS plot results from use of different rainfall simulators in the basin and demonstrate that despite the varying configurations and rain intensities, similar erodibilities were determined across a range of

  5. BASEMAP, HUMPHREYS COUNTY, MS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — FEMA Framework Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme,...

  6. Analysing afterglows using integral field spectroscopy: GRB 060605, the first practical example

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrero, Patrizia; Kann, David Alexander; Savaglio, Sandra; Palazzi, Eliana; Maiorano, Elisabetta; Böhm, Petra; Schulze, Steve; Grupe, Dirk; Oates, Samantha R; Sánchez, Sebastián F; Amati, Lorenzo; Greiner, Jochen; Hjorth, Jens; Malesani, Daniele; Barthelmy, Scott D; Gorosabel, Javier; Masetti, Nicola; Roth, Martin M

    2008-01-01

    GRB 060605 was a long and relatively faint gamma-ray burst detected by \\emph{Swift}/BAT with a duration of about 20 sec. Its afterglow could be observed with \\emph{Swift}/XRT for nearly 1 day while \\emph{Swift}/UVOT could detect the afterglow during the first 6 hours after the event. Here, we report on integral field spectroscopy of its afterglow performed with PMAS/PPak mounted at the Calar Alto 3.5 m telescope. In addition, we report on a detailed analysis of XRT and UVOT data and on the results of deep late-time VLT observations, which reveal the GRB host galaxy. We find that the burst occured at a redshift of $z$=3.773, possibly associated with a faint, $R_C=26.4 \\pm 0.3$ host. Based on the optical and X-ray data we deduce information on the SED of the afterglow, the position of the cooling frequency in the SED, the nature of the circumburst environment, its collimation factor, and its energetics. We find that the GRB fireball was expanding into a constant-density medium and that the explosion was collima...

  7. Analyses of Field Test Data at the Atucha-1 Spent Fuel Pools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sitaraman, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-01-13

    A field test was conducted at the Atucha-1 spent nuclear fuel pools to validate a software package for gross defect detection that is used in conjunction with the inspection tool, Spent Fuel Neutron Counter (SFNC). A set of measurements was taken with the SFNC and the software predictions were compared with these data and analyzed. The data spanned a wide range of cooling times and a set of burnup levels leading to count rates from the several hundreds to around twenty per second. The current calibration in the software using linear fitting required the use of multiple calibration factors to cover the entire range of count rates recorded. The solution to this was to use power regression data fitting to normalize the predicted response and derive one calibration factor that can be applied to the entire set of data. The resulting comparisons between the predicted and measured responses were generally good and provided a quantitative method of detecting missing fuel in virtually all situations. Since the current version of the software uses the linear calibration method, it would need to be updated with the new power regression method to make it more user-friendly for real time verification and fieldable for the range of responses that will be encountered.

  8. Geologic Field Notes, Geochemical Analyses, and Field Photographs of Outcrops and Rock Samples from the Big Delta B-1 Quadrangle, East-Central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Warren C.; O'Neill, J. Michael

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Alaska Department of Natural Resources Division of Mining, Land, and Water, has released a geologic map of the Big Delta B-1 quadrangle of east-central Alaska (Day and others, 2007). This companion report presents the major element oxide and trace element geochemical analyses, including those for gold, silver, and base metals, for representative rock units and for grab samples from quartz veins and mineralized zones within the quadrangle. Also included are field station locations, field notes, structural data, and field photographs based primarily on observations by W.C. Day with additions by J.M. O'Neill and B.M. Gamble, all of the U.S. Geological Survey. The data are provided in both Microsoft Excel spread sheet format and as a Microsoft Access database.

  9. Field measurements and analyses of environmental vibrations induced by high-speed Maglev.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guo-Qiang; Wang, Zhi-Lu; Chen, Suwen; Xu, You-Lin

    2016-10-15

    Maglev, offers competitive journey-times compared to the railway and subway systems in markets for which distance between the stations is 100-1600km owing to its high acceleration and speed; however, such systems may have excessive vibration. Field measurements of Maglev train-induced vibrations were therefore performed on the world's first commercial Maglev line in Shanghai, China. Seven test sections along the line were selected according to the operating conditions, covering speeds from 150 to 430km/h. Acceleration responses of bridge pier and nearby ground were measured in three directions and analyzed in both the time and frequency domain. The effects of Maglev train speed on vibrations of the bridge pier and ground were studied in terms of their peak accelerations. Attenuation of ground vibration was investigated up to 30m from the track centerline. Effects of guideway configuration were also analyzed based on the measurements through two different test sections with same train speed of 300km/h. The results showed that peak accelerations exhibited a strong correlation with both train speed and distance off the track. Guideway configuration had a significant effect on transverse vibration, but a weak impact on vertical and longitudinal vibrations of both bridge pier and ground. Statistics indicated that, contrary to the commonly accepted theory and experience, vertical vibration is not always dominant: transverse and longitudinal vibrations should also be considered, particularly near turns in the track. Moreover, measurements of ground vibration induced by traditional high-speed railway train were carried out with the same testing devices in Bengbu in the Anhui Province. Results showed that the Maglev train generates significantly different vibration signatures as compared to the traditional high-speed train. The results obtained from this paper can provide good insights on the impact of Maglev system on the urban environment and the quality of human life

  10. Impacts of the 2011 East Japan tsunami in the Papua region, Indonesia: field observation data and numerical analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diposaptono, Subandono; Muhari, Abdul; Imamura, Fumihiko; Koshimura, Shunichi; Yanagisawa, Hideaki

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents post-tsunami survey results describing the impacts of the 2011 East Japan tsunami in Yos Sudarso Bay, Papua, Indonesia. Although the far-field tsunami had a height of 0.8 m measured at a tide gauge inside the small U-shaped bay, it severely damaged four villages scattered along the bay. Detailed numerical analysis was carried out to explain the damages. We used a well-verified source model in the near- and far-field cases to model the propagation of the tsunami southward in the Pacific until reaching Papua Island, Indonesia. The numerical analyses demonstrate two causes of damage in the bay: the maximum tsunami velocity (3.5 m s-1) floated the houses in the villages of Tobati and Enggros and caused them to collapse, and water trapped by the hook-shaped peninsula amplified the tsunami height at the Holtekamp and Hanurata.

  11. Analysing one isolated single walled carbon nanotube in the near-field domain with selective nanovolume Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalay, Han; Lefrant, Serge

    2004-09-01

    In this paper, we describe a new method to the selective nanovolume analysing of one isolated single walled carbon nanotube (SWNT). This concept is based on actually available imaging micro-spectrometry systems for working in near-field domain combined with a stigmatic solid immersion lens. This combination of different analytical methods, and modified and configured equipment entitles us to expand the functionality toward a three-dimensional (3D) nanovolume Raman mapping and photoluminescence intensity with a possible discrimination in polarization, as well as photoluminescence decaytime constant mapping with their unique combination. Subsequently, selective spectra can be acquired from the same location on the samples. By spectrally selecting a SWNT, we registered the spatial distribution of the emitted photons in x, y, z vectors to determine the position of a SWNT in the near-field domain. For the SWNTs that are localized with an accuracy better than 18 nm in the x, y and unity throughput. This near-field capability is applied to resolve local variations unambiguously in the Raman spectrum along one single SWNT. Finally, in this paper, we report what we believe to be the first evidence of Raman mapping and 3D real optical imaging of carbon nanotubes with near-field resolution.

  12. Dynamic regulation of GDP binding to G proteins revealed by magnetic field-dependent NMR relaxation analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyama, Yuki; Kano, Hanaho; Mase, Yoko; Yokogawa, Mariko; Osawa, Masanori; Shimada, Ichio

    2017-02-22

    Heterotrimeric guanine-nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) serve as molecular switches in signalling pathways, by coupling the activation of cell surface receptors to intracellular responses. Mutations in the G protein α-subunit (Gα) that accelerate guanosine diphosphate (GDP) dissociation cause hyperactivation of the downstream effector proteins, leading to oncogenesis. However, the structural mechanism of the accelerated GDP dissociation has remained unclear. Here, we use magnetic field-dependent nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation analyses to investigate the structural and dynamic properties of GDP bound Gα on a microsecond timescale. We show that Gα rapidly exchanges between a ground-state conformation, which tightly binds to GDP and an excited conformation with reduced GDP affinity. The oncogenic D150N mutation accelerates GDP dissociation by shifting the equilibrium towards the excited conformation.

  13. Dynamic regulation of GDP binding to G proteins revealed by magnetic field-dependent NMR relaxation analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyama, Yuki; Kano, Hanaho; Mase, Yoko; Yokogawa, Mariko; Osawa, Masanori; Shimada, Ichio

    2017-01-01

    Heterotrimeric guanine-nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) serve as molecular switches in signalling pathways, by coupling the activation of cell surface receptors to intracellular responses. Mutations in the G protein α-subunit (Gα) that accelerate guanosine diphosphate (GDP) dissociation cause hyperactivation of the downstream effector proteins, leading to oncogenesis. However, the structural mechanism of the accelerated GDP dissociation has remained unclear. Here, we use magnetic field-dependent nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation analyses to investigate the structural and dynamic properties of GDP bound Gα on a microsecond timescale. We show that Gα rapidly exchanges between a ground-state conformation, which tightly binds to GDP and an excited conformation with reduced GDP affinity. The oncogenic D150N mutation accelerates GDP dissociation by shifting the equilibrium towards the excited conformation. PMID:28223697

  14. Identifying Active Faults in Northeast North America Using Hypocenters and Multiscale Edge Wavelet Analyses of Potential Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, K.; Horowitz, F.; Ebinger, C. J.; Navarrete, L. C.; Diaz-Etchevehere, D.

    2015-12-01

    Multiscale edge Poisson wavelet analyses of potential field data ("worms") have a physical interpretation as the locations of lateral boundaries in a source distribution that exactly generates the observed field. The worm technique is therefore well-suited to analyses of crustal-scale stuctures that could be reactivated by tectonic stress or by fluid injection processes, providing new tools to analyze existing continental-scale data sets. Northeastern North America (US, Canada) hosts potentially damaging intraplate earthquakes, yet many of the Proterozoic structures are covered by thick sedimentary sequences or dense vegetation, and crustal structure is relatively poorly known.For the purpose of extending basement structure beneath the Appalachian basin and establishing a consistent regional basis for comparison, we use worms to identify steeply dipping structures in compiled gravity and magnetic anomaly data sets. We compare results to intraplate earthquake locations to assess seismic hazards. Clearly, not all locations of lateral boundaries are faults, and we do not expect all faults to have shown activity in the ~50 years of seismic records available. However, proximity statistics between hypocenters and worms are of interest since they assist in the identification and location of a subset of potentially active faults. We compare structures of lateral mass-density or magnetization contrast with locations of earthquake hypocenters cataloged from the ISC, the NEIC, and the ANF from the EarthScope Transportable Array. We develop a GIS based method for calculating hypocenter/worm proximity, and we will show statistics and maps from this method for the region at the meeting.

  15. Dynamic optical interferometry applied to analyse out of plane displacement fields for crack propagation in brittle materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedan, S.; Pop, O.; Valle, V.; Cottron, M.

    2006-08-01

    We propose in this paper, to analyse, the evolution of out-of-plane displacement fields for a crack propagation in brittle materials. As the crack propagation is a complex process that involves the deformation mechanisms, the out-of-plane displacement measurement gives pertinent information about the 3D effects. For investigation, we use the interferometric method. The optical device includes a laser source, a Michelson interferometer and an ultra high-speed CCD camera. To take into account the crack velocity, we dispose of a maximum frame rate of 1Mfps. The experimental tests have been carried out for a SEN (Single Edge Notch) specimen of PMMA material. The crack propagation is initiated by adding a dynamic energy given by the impact of a cutter on the initial crack. The obtained interferograms are analysed with a new phase extraction method entitled MPC [6]. This analysis, which has been developed specially for dynamic studies, gives the out-of-plane displacement with an accuracy of about 10 nm.

  16. Combining Geoelectrical Measurements and CO2 Analyses to Monitor the Enhanced Bioremediation of Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soils: A Field Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Noel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifers can be successfully remediated through enhanced biodegradation. However, in situ monitoring of the treatment by piezometers is expensive and invasive and might be insufficient as the information provided is restricted to vertical profiles at discrete locations. An alternative method was tested in order to improve the robustness of the monitoring. Geophysical methods, electrical resistivity (ER and induced polarization (IP, were combined with gas analyses, CO2 concentration, and its carbon isotopic ratio, to develop a less invasive methodology for monitoring enhanced biodegradation of hydrocarbons. The field implementation of this monitoring methodology, which lasted from February 2014 until June 2015, was carried out at a BTEX-polluted site under aerobic biotreatment. Geophysical monitoring shows a more conductive and chargeable area which corresponds to the contaminated zone. In this area, high CO2 emissions have been measured with an isotopic signature demonstrating that the main source of CO2 on this site is the biodegradation of hydrocarbon fuels. Besides, the evolution of geochemical and geophysical data over a year seems to show the seasonal variation of bacterial activity. Combining geophysics with gas analyses is thus promising to provide a new methodology for in situ monitoring.

  17. Stratigraphy, palaeoenvironments and palaeoecology of the Loch Humphrey Burn lagerstätte and other Mississippian palaeobotanical localities of the Kilpatrick Hills, southwest Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard M. Bateman

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. The largely Mississippian strata of the Kilpatrick Hills, located at the western end of the Scottish Midland Valley, enclose several macrofossil floras that together contain ca 21 organ-species of permineralised plants and ca 44 organ-species of compressed plants, here estimated to represent 25 whole-plant species (Glenarbuck = nine, Loch Humphrey Burn Lower = 11, Upper = seven. The most significant locality is the internationally important volcanigenic sequence that is reputedly intercalated within the Clyde Plateau Lava Formation at Loch Humphrey Burn, where ca 30 m of reworked tuffs and other clastic sediments enclose one of the world’s most important terrestrial lagerstätten of this period. We here explore the palaeoecology and palaeoenvironments of the locality, and elucidate its controversial age. Methods. Repeated re-excavation of key exposures allowed recognition of five main depositional units, differing in thickness from 4 m to 12 m. It also permitted detailed sampling for plant macrofossils and microfossils throughout the succession. Several approaches are integrated to re-assess the taphonomy and preservation of these exceptional plant fossils. Key Results. The deposits are rich in taxonomically diverse miospores and in toto contain at least six well-developed compression floras, together with two beds yielding nodules that enclose well-researched anatomically preserved plants permineralised in calcite. Bulk geochemistry shows that the upper nodules formed by migration of Ca with subordinate Mn and Na. Some phylogenetically important plant fossils recovered in the early 20th century have been traced to their source horizons. Trends in relative proportions of macrofossil and microfossil taxa through the sequence are only moderately congruent, perhaps reflecting the likelihood that microfossils sample the regional rather than the local flora. Conclusions. The Loch Humphrey Burn sequence encompasses a wide range

  18. Analyses of patterns-of-failure and prognostic factors according to radiation fields in early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krebs, Lorraine; Guillerm, Sophie; Menard, Jean; Hennequin, Christophe; Quero, Laurent [Saint Louis Hospital, Radiation Oncology Department, Paris (France); Amorin, Sandy; Brice, Pauline [Saint Louis Hospital, AP-HP, Hematooncology Department, Paris (France)

    2017-02-15

    Doses and volumes of radiation therapy (RT) for early stages of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) have been reduced over the last 30 years. Combined modality therapy (CMT) is currently the standard treatment for most patients with early-stage HL. The aim of this study was to analyze the site of relapse after RT according to the extent of radiation fields. Between 1987 and 2011, 427 patients were treated at our institution with RT ± chemotherapy for stage-I/II HL. Among these, 65 patients who experienced a relapse were retrospectively analyzed. Most patients had nodular sclerosis histology (86 %) and stage-II disease (75.9 %). Bulky disease was present in 21 % and 56 % of patients belonged to the unfavorable risk group according to European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC)/The Lymphoma Study Association (LYSA) definitions. CMT was delivered to 91 % of patients. All patients received RT with doses ranging from 20 to 45 Gy (mean = 34 ± 5.3 Gy). The involved-field RT technique was used in 59 % of patients. The mean time between diagnosis and relapse was 4.2 years (range 0.3-24.5). Out-of-field relapses were suffered by 53 % of patients. Relapses occurred more frequently at out-of-field sites in patients with a favorable disease status, whereas in-field relapses were associated with bulky mediastinal disease. Relapses occurred later for favorable compared with the unfavorable risk group (3.5 vs. 2.9 years, p = 0.5). From multivariate analyses, neither RT dose nor RT field size were predictive for an in-field relapse (p = 0.25 and p = 0.8, respectively), only bulky disease was predictive (p = 0.018). In patients with bulky disease, RT dose and RT field size were not predictive for an in-field relapse. In this subgroup of patients, chemotherapy should be intensified. We confirmed the bad prognosis of early relapses. (orig.) [German] Waehrend der letzten 30 Jahre wurden die Strahlentherapie-(RT-)Dosis und die RT-Volumina fuer die Behandlung der Fruehstadien

  19. Medieval land use management and geochemistry - spatial analyses on scales from households properties to whole fields systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horák, Jan; Janovský, Martin; Klír, Tomáš; Šmejda, Ladislav; Legut-Pintal, Maria

    2017-04-01

    We present the final or preliminary results of our researches of five villages: Spindelbach (Ore Mountains, North-Western Bohemia), Hol (near Prague, Central Bohemia), Lovětín and Regenholz (near Třešť, Czech-Moravian Upland) and Goschwitz (near Wroclaw, Poland). Our research is methodically based on broad spatial sampling of soil samples and mapping of basic soil conditions. We use XRF spectrometry as a main tool for multi-elemental analyses and as a tool for first step screening of large areas. The crucial factor of our methods is also a design of sampling based on a respect to historical land and land use features like parts of village field system or possesions of the households. Also macroscopic visual method of getting data and knowledge of the site is crucial. It was revealed that generally used and acknowledged human indicator - Phosphorus - can be present at only very low levels of concentration, or undetectable, even in the nearness of households. The natural conditions cannot be the causing factor at all cases. This situation is caused also by last human activity intensity and by its spatial manifestation. In such cases, multi-elemental analysis is very useful. Zinc is usually correlated with Phosphorus, which is also connected to Lead. The past human activity indicators are spatially usually connected to modern pollution indicators. These two inputs can be sometimes distinguished by statistical analyses and by spatial visualisation of data. Working with just concentrations can be misleading. Past land use management and its strategies were important for spatial distribution of soil geochemical indicators. Therefore, we can use them not only as quantifiers of human impact on nature, but we can also detect different management or knowledge and experience. As it was revealed e. g. by analyses of households` possessions differences. For example, generally presumed decreasing gradient of management intensity (e.g. manuring) along the distance from

  20. Systematic meta-analyses and field synopsis of genetic and epigenetic studies in paediatric inflammatory bowel disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue; Song, Peige; Timofeeva, Maria; Meng, Xiangrui; Rudan, Igor; Little, Julian; Satsangi, Jack; Campbell, Harry; Theodoratou, Evropi

    2016-01-01

    We provide a comprehensive field synopsis of genetic and epigenetic associations for paediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). A systematic review was performed and included 84 genetic association studies reporting data for 183 polymorphisms in 71 genes. Meta-analyses were conducted for 20 SNPs in 10 genes of paediatric Crohn’s disease (CD) and for 8 SNPs in 5 genes of paediatric ulcerative colitis (UC). Five epigenetic studies were also included, but formal meta-analysis was not possible. Venice criteria and Bayesian false discovery probability test were applied to assess the credibility of associations. Nine SNPs in 4 genes were considered to have highly credible associations with paediatric CD, of which four variants (rs2066847, rs12521868, rs26313667, rs1800629) were not previously identified in paediatric GWAS. Differential DNA methylation in NOD2 and TNF-α, dysregulated expression in let-7 and miR-124 were associated with paediatric IBD, but not as yet replicated. Highly credible SNPs associated with paediatric IBD have also been implicated in adult IBD, with similar magnitudes of associations. Early onset and distinct phenotypic features of paediatric IBD might be due to distinct epigenetic changes, but these findings need to be replicated. Further progress identifying genetic and epigenetic susceptibility of paediatric IBD will require international collaboration, population diversity and harmonization of protocols. PMID:27670835

  1. The integrated analyses of digital field mapping techniques and traditional field methods: implications from the Burdur-Fethiye Shear Zone, SW Turkey as a case-study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elitez, İrem; Yaltırak, Cenk; Zabcı, Cengiz; Şahin, Murat

    2015-04-01

    The precise geological mapping is one of the most important issues in geological studies. Documenting the spatial distribution of geological bodies and their contacts play a crucial role on interpreting the tectonic evolution of any region. Although the traditional field techniques are still accepted to be the most fundamental tools in construction of geological maps, we suggest that the integration of digital technologies to the classical methods significantly increases the resolution and the quality of such products. We simply follow the following steps in integration of the digital data with the traditional field observations. First, we create the digital elevation model (DEM) of the region of interest by interpolating the digital contours of 1:25000 scale topographic maps to 10 m of ground pixel resolution. The non-commercial Google Earth satellite imagery and geological maps of previous studies are draped over the interpolated DEMs in the second stage. The integration of all spatial data is done by using the market leading GIS software, ESRI ArcGIS. We make the preliminary interpretation of major structures as tectonic lineaments and stratigraphic contacts. These preliminary maps are controlled and precisely coordinated during the field studies by using mobile tablets and/or phablets with GPS receivers. The same devices are also used in measuring and recording the geologic structures of the study region. Finally, all digitally collected measurements and observations are added to the GIS database and we finalise our geological map with all available information. We applied this integrated method to map the Burdur-Fethiye Shear Zone (BFSZ) in the southwest Turkey. The BFSZ is an active sinistral 60-to-90 km-wide shear zone, which prolongs about 300 km-long between Suhut-Cay in the northeast and Köyceğiz Lake-Kalkan in the southwest on land. The numerous studies suggest contradictory models not only about the evolution but also about the fault geometry of this

  2. Analyses of crystal field and exchange interaction of Dy3Ga5O12 under extreme conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Wei; Qi Xin; Yue Yuan

    2011-01-01

    This paper theoretically investigates the effects of crystal field and exchange interaction field on magnetic properties in dysprosium gallium garnet under extreme conditions (low temperatures and high magnetic fields) based on quantum theory. Here, five sets of crystal field parameters are discussed and compared. It demonstrates that, only considering the crystal field effect, the experiments can not be successfully explained. Thus, referring to the molecular field theory,an effective exchange field associated with the Dy-Dy exchange interaction is further taken into account. Under special consideration of crystal field and the exchange interaction field, it obtains an excellent agreement between the theoretical results and experiments, and further confirms that the exchange interaction field between rare-earth ions has great importance to magnetic properties in paramagnetic rare-earth gallium garnets.

  3. Assessment of willow (Salix sp.) as a woody heavy metal accumulator: field survey and in vivo X-ray analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Emiko; Hokura, Akiko; Nakai, Izumi; Terada, Yasuko; Baba, Kei'ichi; Yazaki, Kazufumi; Shiono, Masamichi; Mizuno, Naoharu; Mizuno, Takafumi

    2011-12-01

    Trees that accumulate metals are important plants for restoring contaminated soil because of their high biomass. In our previous study, we discovered that Salix miyabeana has the capability to take up high levels of Cd, and identified the several accumulation sites of the endogenous metals in the leaf parts of plants. To analyze the detailed localization of Cd in apoplastic and symplastic compartments in S. miyabeana, synchrotron radiation-based micro X-ray fluorescence (SR-μ-XRF) analysis and micro X-ray absorption near edge structure (μ-XANES) measurements were performed on beam line 37XU of the SPring-8 (Hyogo, Japan). The two-dimensional metal distribution of segments of young stems was obtained by μ-XRF with approximately 2 μm(2) X-ray beams and showed the predominant localization of Cd in the apoplastic region. μ-XANES analyses suggest that the apoplastic detoxification of Cd in willow depends on Cd-oxygen, but not on Cd-sulfur, interaction. S. miyabeana growing near an old mining site in Japan was then examined to evaluate the metal accumulating ability of this plant in the field. The metal concentration in the leaves of the plants was compared to that in the soil and enrichment factors (EFs) were calculated for Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb. Results showed efficient removal of Cd and Zn from the contaminated sites by the willow plants. In order to discuss the combined and long-term effect of multiple heavy metals on S. miyabeana grown in soil, variable-pressure scanning electron microscopy fitted with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (VPSEM-EDX) and SR-μ-XRF was used to characterize the serration of leaves. The combination of 2D elemental images revealed metal accumulation in the tip cells in serrations without any exudation of heavy metals from the hydathodes.

  4. Experimental and theoretical analyses of penetration processes of externally applied rotating helical magnetic perturbation fields in TEXTOR and HYBTOK-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, Y [Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, EURATOM Association, D-52425 (Germany); Bock, M F M de [FOM Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, EURATOM Association, Postbus 1207, NL-3430 BE Nieuwegein, The (Netherlands); Finken, K H [Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, EURATOM Association, D-52425 (Germany); Jakubowski, M [Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, EURATOM Association, D-52425 (Germany); Jaspers, R [FOM Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, EURATOM Association, Postbus 1207, NL-3430 BE Nieuwegein, The (Netherlands); Koslowski, H R [Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, EURATOM Association, D-52425 (Germany); Kraemer-Flecken, A [Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, EURATOM Association, D-52425 (Germany); Lehnen, M [Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, EURATOM Association, D-52425 (Germany); Liang, Y [Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, EURATOM Association, D-52425 (Germany); Loewenbrueck, K [Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, EURATOM Association, D-52425 (Germany); Matsunaga, G [Fusion Research and Development Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 311-0193 (Japan); Reiser, D [Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, EURATOM Association, D-52425 (Germany); Samm, U [Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, EURATOM Association, D-52425 (Germany); Sewell, G [Mathematics Department Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas (United States); Takamura, S [Department of Energy Engineering and Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, 464-8603 Nagoya (Japan); Unterberg, B; Wolf, R C; Zimmermann, O [Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, EURATOM Association, D-52425 (Germany)

    2007-05-15

    Penetration processes of rotating helical magnetic perturbation field into tokamak plasmas have been investigated by the dynamic ergodic divertor (DED) in TEXTOR. Experimental observations of the field penetration and field amplification are performed and the data are interpreted by theoretical analyses based on a linearized two-fluid plasma model. It is observed that the growth of the forced magnetic reconnection by the rotating DED-field is accompanied by a change in the plasma fluid rotation. The theoretical model is also applied to the DED experiment in the small tokamak device HYBTOK-II. It is confirmed that the theoretical analyses can explain the observed radial profiles of the DED-field in the plasma by inserting small magnetic pick-up coils in HYBTOK-II.

  5. Comparison of event-based analysis of glaucoma progression assessed subjectively on visual fields and retinal nerve fibre layer attenuation measured by optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Sushmita; Mulkutkar, Samyak; Pandav, Surinder Singh; Verma, Neelam; Gupta, Amod

    2015-02-01

    The purpose is to study the ability of an event-based analysis of retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) attenuation measured by Stratus(®) optical coherence tomography (OCT) and to detect progression across the spectrum of glaucoma. Adult glaucoma suspects, ocular hypertensives and glaucoma patients who had undergone baseline RNFL thickness measurement on Stratus OCT and reliable automated visual field examination by Humphrey's visual field analyser prior to March 2007 and had 5-year follow-up data were recruited. Progression on OCT was defined by two criteria: decrease in average RNFL thickness from baseline by at least 10 and 20 µ. Visual field progression was defined by the modified Hodapp-Parrish-Anderson criteria. Absolute and percentage change in RNFL thickness from baseline was compared in progressors and non-progressors on visual fields. Concordance between structural and functional progression was analysed. 318 eyes of 162 patients were analysed. 35 eyes (11 %) progressed by visual fields, 8 (2.5 %) progressed using the 20 µ loss criterion, while 30 eyes (9.4 %) progressed using the 10 µ loss criterion. In glaucoma suspects, mean absolute RNFL attenuation was 8.6 µ (12.1 % of baseline) in those who progressed to glaucoma by visual fields. OCT was more useful to detect progression in early glaucoma, but performed poorly in advanced glaucoma. The 10 µ criterion appears to be closer to visual field progression. However, the ability to detect progression varies considerably between functional and structural tools depending upon the severity of the disease.

  6. Multifocal objective perimetry in the detection of glaucomatous field loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Ivan; Graham, Stuart L; Klistorner, Alexander I

    2002-01-01

    To test the ability of a new type of multifocal objective perimetry to identify glaucomatous visual field defects. A multichannel visual evoked potential was recorded using the ObjectiVision Accumap perimeter. One hundred patients (age, 62.2 +/- 9.8 years, mean MD -6.5 +/- 4.17 dB) with open-angle glaucoma and confirmed glaucomatous visual field defects were tested and compared with the normal database of 100 normal subjects (age, 58.9 +/- 10.7 years). Both eyes were tested, but for determining sensitivity the eye with the lesser field defect was chosen if both qualified. The amplitude and intereye asymmetry coefficient for each zone of the field were calculated. A mean amplitude and multifocal objective perimetry severity index was calculated for each subject. In 95 of 100 (95%) patients with glaucoma Humphrey field defects were correlated with visual evoked potential amplitude reductions identifying a cluster of three or more abnormal zones. In two of five remaining patients with glaucoma the defect was detected on the intereye asymmetry analysis. Topographic location was well correlated with Humphrey fields. Mean amplitude was significantly reduced in 86 of the glaucoma cases (86%). The glaucoma severity index was abnormal in 93 glaucoma cases and showed a correlation with Humphrey MD (r = 0.67 right eyes, 0.69 left eyes). In 37 glaucoma cases with no scotoma by definition in the fellow eye, 22 (59.4%) had an abnormal multifocal objective perimetry, whereas only eight had some other aspect of their Humphrey visual field flagged as abnormal. Multifocal objective perimetry can assess the visual field and identify glaucomatous visual field defects. It may have the potential for identifying defects earlier than conventional perimetry.

  7. Visual acuity and pattern of visual field loss at presentation in pituitary adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogra, Siddharth; Nichols, Andrew D; Stylli, Stanley; Kaye, Andrew H; Savino, Peter J; Danesh-Meyer, Helen V

    2014-05-01

    Our purpose was to analyse the demographics, prevalence and pattern of visual field defects in patients with pituitary adenoma. We prospectively recruited 103 consecutive patients (206 eyes) presenting to a neurosurgical unit with pituitary adenoma. Ophthalmological examination and standard automated perimetry (Humphrey, 24-2 threshold) was performed. Severity of visual field defects was also assessed. The mean population age was 53.9 years (standard deviation=15). Visual loss was the most common reason for presentation (39%) followed by endocrine abnormality (21%) and headache (15%). Patients with endocrine abnormality on presentation were 10.9 years younger than those presenting with visual loss (p=0.001). Bitemporal defects were the most prevalent pattern (n=22, 41%) followed by homonymous defects (n=7, 13%). Of the patients with visual field loss, 33% had unilateral visual field defects. The mean visual acuity in those with bitemporal defects was 6/7.5 with half of these patients having 6/6 vision in both eyes. In conclusion, the majority of patients with pituitary adenoma have visual acuity better than 6/7.5 despite having visual field defects. While a bitemporal pattern of visual field loss is the most common, a significant proportion of patients had unilateral and altitudinal defects. Assessment of the visual field is essential to rule out chiasmal compression.

  8. Risk Factors for Visual Field Progression in the Groningen Longitudinal Glaucoma Study : A Comparison of Different Statistical Approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselink, Christiaan; Marcus, Michael W.; Jansonius, Nomdo M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To identify risk factors for visual field progression in glaucoma and to compare different statistical approaches with this risk factor analysis. Patients and Methods: We included 221 eyes of 221 patients. Progression was analyzed using Nonparametric Progression Analysis applied to Humphrey

  9. Risk Factors for Visual Field Progression in the Groningen Longitudinal Glaucoma Study : A Comparison of Different Statistical Approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselink, Christiaan; Marcus, Michael W.; Jansonius, Nomdo M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To identify risk factors for visual field progression in glaucoma and to compare different statistical approaches with this risk factor analysis. Patients and Methods: We included 221 eyes of 221 patients. Progression was analyzed using Nonparametric Progression Analysis applied to Humphrey

  10. Blowers: Analysis of characteristic fields of swirl-controlled radial blowers; Ventilatoren: Analyse von Kennfeldern drallgesteuerter Radialventilatoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grundmann, R. [I.F.I. Inst. fuer Industrieaerodynamik GmbH, Inst. der Fachhochschule, Aachen (Germany); Bommes, L. [VBI, Korschenbroich (Germany)

    2004-08-01

    Until now, the characteristic fields for different guide blade angles had to be defined experimentally. Characteristic data are derived which enable calculation of the influence of the swirl control unit on the blower characteristic field. (orig.) [German] Das Kennfeld fuer verschiedene Leitschaufelwinkel musste bisher experimentell bestimmt werden. Aus derartig gewonnenen Kennfeldern werden Kenngroessen abgeleitet, die eine rechnerische Abschaetzung des Drallreglereinflusses auf das Ventilatorkennfeld ermoeglichen. (orig.)

  11. Stochastic analyses of field-scale pesticide leaching risk as influenced by spatial variability in physical and biochemical parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loll, Per; Moldrup, Per

    2000-04-01

    Field-scale pesticide leaching risk assessments were performed by incorporating a numerical, one-dimensional, water and pesticide transport and fate model into the two-step stochastic modeling approach by Loll and Moldrup [1998]. The numerical model included first-order pesticide degradation, linear equilibrium adsorption, and plant uptake of water and pesticide. Simazine was used as a model pesticide, and leaching risk was expressed as the cumulative mass fraction of applied pesticide leached below 100 cm after 1 year. Spatial variability in soil physical and biochemical data, as well as measured meteorological data from an average and a relatively wet year, was considered for two Danish field sites: (1) a coarse sandy soil, with relatively small variability in hydraulic properties, and (2) a sandy loam, with large variability in hydraulic properties. The two-step stochastic modeling approach was used to investigate the relative impact of spatial variability in saturated hydraulic conductivity Ks, soil-water retention through the Campbell [974] soil-water retention parameter b, and pesticide sorption through the organic carbon content (OC). For the coarse sandy soil, field-scale spatial variability in OC was the single most important parameter influencing leaching risk, whereas for the sandy loam, Ks was found more important than OC. The relative impact of field-scale spatial variability in these parameters was found independent of the meteorological conditions, whereas the absolute level of leaching risk was highly dependent on the meteorological conditions. Assuming a linear dependency between pesticide half-life and OC, a unified approach to modeling simultaneous field-scale variability in biodegradation and adsorption was proposed. Leaching risk assessments based on this approach showed that the parts of the field with both low biological activity and low adsorption capacity contributed with a dramatic increase in leaching risk, and suggested that field

  12. Field analyses of (238)U and (226)Ra in two uranium mill tailings piles from Niger using portable HPGe detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Déjeant, Adrien; Bourva, Ludovic; Sia, Radia; Galoisy, Laurence; Calas, Georges; Phrommavanh, Vannapha; Descostes, Michael

    2014-11-01

    The radioactivities of (238)U and (226)Ra in mill tailings from the U mines of COMINAK and SOMAÏR in Niger were measured and quantified using a portable High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector. The (238)U and (226)Ra activities were measured under field conditions on drilling cores with 600s measurements and without any sample preparation. Field results were compared with those obtained by Inductive Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and emanometry techniques. This comparison indicates that gamma-ray absorption by such geological samples does not cause significant deviations. This work shows the feasibility of using portable HPGe detector in the field as a preliminary method to observe variations of radionuclides concentration with the aim of identifying samples of interest. The HPGe is particularly useful for samples with strong secular disequilibrium such as mill tailings.

  13. Asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation as a new approach to analyse iron-(hydr)oxide nanoparticles in soil extracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regelink, I.C.; Weng, L.P.; Koopmans, G.F.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.

    2013-01-01

    Iron-(hydr)oxide nanoparticles are important for the sequestration of organic carbon because of their small size and consequently large specific surface area. Therefore, there is an increasing interest in analytical techniques such as asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) that allow for a d

  14. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses of novel totivirus-like double-stranded RNAs from field-collected powdery mildew fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Hideki; Hisano, Sakae; Chiba, Sotaro; Maruyama, Kazuyuki; Andika, Ida Bagus; Toyoda, Kazuhiro; Fujimori, Fumihiro; Suzuki, Nobuhiro

    2016-02-02

    The identification of mycoviruses contributes greatly to understanding of the diversity and evolutionary aspects of viruses. Powdery mildew fungi are important and widely studied obligate phytopathogenic agents, but there has been no report on mycoviruses infecting these fungi. In this study, we used a deep sequencing approach to analyze the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) segments isolated from field-collected samples of powdery mildew fungus-infected red clover plants in Japan. Database searches identified the presence of at least ten totivirus (genus Totivirus)-like sequences, termed red clover powdery mildew-associated totiviruses (RPaTVs). The majority of these sequences shared moderate amino acid sequence identity with each other (powdery mildew fungus populations infecting red clover plants in the field.

  15. Methodological developments in the field of structural integrity analyses of large scale reactor pressure vessels in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Fekete

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Buildings, structures and systems of large scale and high value (e.g. conventional and nuclear power plants, etc. are designed for a certain, limited service lifetime. If the standards and guidelines of the time are taken into account during the design process, the resulting structures will operate safely in most cases. However, in the course of technical history there were examples of unusual, catastrophic failures of structures, even resulting in human casualties. Although the concept of Structural Integrity first appeared in industrial applications only two-three decades ago, its pertinence has been growing higher ever since. Four nuclear power generation units have been constructed in Hungary, more than 30 years ago. In every unit, VVER-440 V213 type light-water cooled, light-water moderated, pressurized water reactors are in operation. Since the mid-1980s, Pressurized Thermal Shock (PTS analyses of Reactor Pressure Vessels (RPV have been conducted in Hungary, where the concept of structural integrity was the basis of research and development. In the first part of the paper, a short historic overview is given, where the origins of the Structural Integrity concept are presented, and the beginnings of Structural Integrity in Hungary are summarized. In the second part, a new conceptual model of Structural Integrity is introduced. In the third part, a brief description of the VVER-440 V213 type RPV and its surrounding primary system is presented. In the fourth part, a conceptual model developed for PTS Structural Integrity Analyses is explained.

  16. Analyses of the global geopotential models and different sources of gravity field elements used to reductions of geodetic observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszak, Tomasz; Jackiewicz, Małgorzata; Margański, Stanisław

    2013-04-01

    For reductions of geodetic observations onto geoid and ellipsoid (eg. astronomical coordinates, deflections of the vertical, astronomical azimuth and linear measurements) it is necessary a knowledge of the gravity field parameters. Also, in the leveling network it is necessary to collect such information to calculate the normal (or orthometric) correction. The poster provides an assessment of the available gravity data sources for use in the reduction of mentioned observations. As a such source it is understood of direct measurements, the interpolated anomalies of the existing gravity data sets and a calculateion them based on geopotential models. The study included field data, data from the Polish National Geological Institute including anomalies used for interpolation, and data from the model Earth Gravitational Model 2008 (EGM2008) in full form and truncated to 360 degree and order. In the case of the normal corrections mentioned sources also are analyzed in comparison with the values measured Faye's anomalies on selected benchmarks of leveling lines in various Polish regions. The paper shows the requirements of precision to be met by gravimetric data to provide by the required technical instructions. It was found that for 90% of the Polish it is possible to dispense with the measured data to the data generated from the geopotential model while maintaining the sufficient accuracy. For mountain areas, however, it is necessary to use the natural elements of the gravity field determined only by direct measurements.

  17. Understanding field variation, quantum chemical modeling and molecular orbital analyses of trans-3-(trans-4-imidazolyl) acrylic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayathri, R.; Arivazhagan, M.

    2017-02-01

    In this work, a joint experimental (FTIR and FT-Raman) and theoretical (DFT and ab-initio) study on the structure and the vibrations of Trans-3-(trans-4-imidazolyl) acrylic acid (TTIAA) are compared and analyzed. The assignment of each normal mode has been made using the observed and calculated frequencies. The optimized geometries, harmonic vibrational wavenumbers and intensities of vibrational bands of trans-3-(trans-4-imidazolyl) acrylic acid (TTIAA) have been carried out using the HF/B3LYP method using the standard 6311++G(d,p) basis set calculations in this investigation. The result describes the variation in electrostatic and transport properties for zero and various external applied field. The variation in MPA charges are small due to the application of EFs: however, in most cases it is found to be systematic and almost uniform. When the field increases from 0.00 to 0.02 VÅ-1, the hybridization of molecular levels broadens the DOS and decreases the HLG from 3.6609 to 1.2325 eV; the decrease of band gap at the high field indicates that this molecule exhibit considerable electrical conductivity. Fukui indices to determine the local reactive site for the molecular systems during electrophilic, nucleophilic, radical and dual descriptor attacks. The results clearly show the superiority of MPA scheme. This study may be useful to design new molecules with more electrical conductivity.

  18. El profesor george h. humphreys

    OpenAIRE

    Luque, Manuel José

    2012-01-01

    Apoyada en bases biológicas sólidas, sostenida por una técnica segura en sí misma, enriquecida con el aporte de conocimientos que la respaldan y la complementan, más que una ciencia, y más que un arte, la cirugía es un placer.Y es un goce espiritual magnìfico por el tamaño y la nobleza de su finalidad, el objetivo mismo de sus actividades y su altura moral. Por el duelo que se entabla con la muerte, cara a cara, y en fin, por la sagrada satisfacción de vencer la enfermedad con el poder de un ...

  19. Pipe3D, a pipeline to analyse integral field spectroscopy data: II. Analysis sequence and CALIFA dataproducts

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez, S F; Sánchez-Blázquez, P; García-Benito, R; Ibarra-Mede, H J; González, J J; Rosales-Ortega, F F; Sánchez-Menguiano, L; Ascasibar, Y; Bitsakis, T; Law, D; Cano-Díaz, M; López-Cobá, C; Marino, R A; de Paz, A Gil; López-Sánchez, A R; Barrera-Ballesteros, J; Galbany, L; Mast, D; Abril-Melgarejo, V; Roman-Lopes, A

    2016-01-01

    We present Pipe3D, an analysis pipeline based on the FIT3D fitting tool, devel- oped to explore the properties of the stellar populations and ionized gas of Integral Field Spectroscopy data. Pipe3D was created to provide with coherent, simple to distribute, and comparable dataproducts, independently of the origin of the data, focused on the data of the most recent IFU surveys (e.g., CALIFA, MaNGA, and SAMI), and the last generation IFS instruments (e.g., MUSE). Along this article we describe the different steps involved in the analysis of the data, illustrating them by showing the dataproducts derived for NGC 2916, observed by CALIFA and P-MaNGA. As a practical use of the pipeline we present the complete set of dataproducts derived for the 200 datacubes that comprises the V500 setup of the CALIFA Data Release 2 (DR2), making them freely available through the network (ftp://ftp.caha.es/CALIFA/dataproducts/DR2/Pipe3D). Finally, we explore the hypothesis that the properties of the stellar populations and ionized...

  20. Analyses of Short Channel Effects of Single-Gate and Double-Gate Graphene Nanoribbon Field Effect Transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojjatollah Sarvari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Short channel effects of single-gate and double-gate graphene nanoribbon field effect transistors (GNRFETs are studied based on the atomistic pz orbital model for the Hamiltonian of graphene nanoribbon using the nonequilibrium Green’s function formalism. A tight-binding Hamiltonian with an atomistic pz orbital basis set is used to describe the atomistic details in the channel of the GNRFETs. We have investigated the vital short channel effect parameters such as Ion and Ioff, the threshold voltage, the subthreshold swing, and the drain induced barrier lowering versus the channel length and oxide thickness of the GNRFETs in detail. The gate capacitance and the transconductance of both devices are also computed in order to calculate the intrinsic cut-off frequency and switching delay of GNRFETs. Furthermore, the effects of doping of the channel on the threshold voltage and the frequency response of the double-gate GNRFET are discussed. We have shown that the single-gate GNRFET suffers more from short channel effects if compared with those of the double-gate structure; however, both devices have nearly the same cut-off frequency in the range of terahertz. This work provides a collection of data comparing different features of short channel effects of the single gate with those of the double gate GNRFETs. The results give a very good insight into the devices and are very useful for their digital applications.

  1. SLOPE FAILURE MECHANISMS IN COHESIVE SOILS: INSIGHTS FROM THEORETICAL AND NUMERICAL ANALYSES OF FIELD AND LABORATORY-TRIGGERED EVENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malet, J.; Spickermann, A.; van Asch, T.

    2009-12-01

    A landslide can show a variety of failure modes which depends on the given conditions of the slope such as geometry, material characteristics and presence of discontinuities. Besides the gravity as main loading factor, it is assumed that slope failures are often caused by hydrological processes. The identification and modelling of failure modes and triggering mechanisms are essential requirements in landslide forecasting and in the design of reliable early warning systems. This work is an attempt to get a better understanding of the mode of failure and possible failure mechanisms taking place in cohesive slopes. Theoretical analysis has been carried out on the basis of (1) field observations of two failure events of the clay-rich Super-Sauze mudslide (Southeast France) and (2) small-scale landslides triggered in a flume using clay from Zoelen (Netherlands) and reworked black marls from Super-Sauze. To investigate the failure behaviour numerically a simple analytical model, named 2LM (Landslide Liquefaction Model) (van Asch et al. 2006; van Asch & Malet, in press) is used. The model assumes that liquefaction is related to previous development of slip surfaces, i.e. deformation of the landslide body (sliding blocks, slumps) during motion leading to the generation of excess pore water pressure and thus to fluidization. The model is based on the theory of limiting equilibrium dividing the area above an estimated slip surface into slices of constant width. Immediately after failure, the difference in movement for each slice is calculated assuming a viscous shear band and using the Coulomb-viscous model. The differential movements conduct to differential strains which are transferred to excess pore water pressures. The potential fluidization is then evaluated for each slice in relation to the displacements. Results from an application of this model on the two slump-type failures that occurred in the Super-Sauze mudslide are presented. Then the model is applied to the

  2. Molecular- and cultivation-based analyses of microbial communities in oil field water and in microcosms amended with nitrate to control H{sub 2}S production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumaraswamy, Raji; Ebert, Sara; Fedorak, Phillip M.; Foght, Julia M. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Biological Sciences; Gray, Murray R. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Chemical and Materials Engineering

    2011-03-15

    Nitrate injection into oil fields is an alternative to biocide addition for controlling sulfide production ('souring') caused by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). This study examined the suitability of several cultivation-dependent and cultivation-independent methods to assess potential microbial activities (sulfidogenesis and nitrate reduction) and the impact of nitrate amendment on oil field microbiota. Microcosms containing produced waters from two Western Canadian oil fields exhibited sulfidogenesis that was inhibited by nitrate amendment. Most probable number (MPN) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses of uncultivated produced waters showed low cell numbers ({<=}10{sup 3} MPN/ml) dominated by SRB (>95% relative abundance). MPN analysis also detected nitrate-reducing sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (NRSOB) and heterotrophic nitrate-reducing bacteria (HNRB) at numbers too low to be detected by FISH or denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). In microcosms containing produced water fortified with sulfate, near-stoichiometric concentrations of sulfide were produced. FISH analyses of the microcosms after 55 days of incubation revealed that Gammaproteobacteria increased from undetectable levels to 5-20% abundance, resulting in a decreased proportion of Deltaproteobacteria (50-60% abundance). DGGE analysis confirmed the presence of Delta- and Gammaproteobacteria and also detected Bacteroidetes. When sulfate-fortified produced waters were amended with nitrate, sulfidogenesis was inhibited and Deltaproteobacteria decreased to levels undetectable by FISH, with a concomitant increase in Gammaproteobacteria from below detection to 50-60% abundance. DGGE analysis of these microcosms yielded sequences of Gamma- and Epsilonproteobacteria related to presumptive HNRB and NRSOB (Halomonas, Marinobacterium, Marinobacter, Pseudomonas and Arcobacter), thus supporting chemical data indicating that nitrate-reducing bacteria out-compete SRB when nitrate is

  3. Spatial and Alignment Analyses for a Field of Small Volcanic Vents South of Pavonis Mons and Implications for the Tharsis Province, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleacher, Jacob E.; Glaze, Lori S.; Greeley, Ronald; Hauber, Ernst; Baloga, Stephen; Sakimoto, Susan E. H.; Williams, David A.; Glotch, Timothy D.

    2009-01-01

    A field of small volcanic vents south of Pavonis Mons was mapped with each vent assigned a two-dimensional data point. Nearest neighbor and two-point azimuth analyses were applied to the resulting location data. Nearest neighbor results show that vents within this field are spatially random in a Poisson sense, suggesting that the vents formed independently of each other without sharing a centralized magma source at shallow depth. Two-point azimuth results show that the vents display north-trending alignment relationships between one another. This trend corresponds to the trends of faults and fractures of the Noachian-aged Claritas Fossae, which might extend into our study area buried beneath more recently emplaced lava flows. However, individual elongate vent summit structures do not consistently display the same trend. The development of the volcanic field appears to display tectonic control from buried Noachian-aged structural patterns on small, ascending magma bodies while the surface orientations of the linear vents might reflect different, younger tectonic patterns. These results suggest a complex interaction between magma ascension through the crust, and multiple, older, buried Tharsis-related tectonic structures.

  4. Influences of Biodynamic and Conventional Farming Systems on Quality of Potato (Solanum Tuberosum L. Crops: Results from Multivariate Analyses of Two Long-Term Field Trials in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Kjellenberg

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to present results from two long term field experiments comparing potato samples from conventional farming systems with samples from biodynamic farming systems. The principal component analyses (PCA, consistently exhibited differences between potato samples from the two farming systems. According to the PCA, potato samples treated with inorganic fertilizers exhibited a variation positively related to amounts of crude protein, yield, cooking or tissue discoloration and extract decomposition. Potato samples treated according to biodynamic principles, with composted cow manure, were more positively related to traits such as Quality- and EAA-indices, dry matter content, taste quality, relative proportion of pure protein and biocrystallization value. Distinctions between years, crop rotation and cultivars used were sometimes more significant than differences between manuring systems. Grown after barley the potato crop exhibited better quality traits compared to when grown after ley in both the conventional and the biodynamic farming system.

  5. Should processed or raw image data be used in mammographic image quality analyses? A comparative study of three full-field digital mammography systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Mark; Badr, Ishmail; Royle, Gary

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare a number of measured image quality parameters using processed and unprocessed or raw images in two full-field direct digital units and one computed radiography mammography system. This study shows that the difference between raw and processed image data is system specific. The results have shown that there are no significant differences between raw and processed data in the mean threshold contrast values using the contrast-detail mammography phantom in all the systems investigated; however, these results cannot be generalised to all available systems. Notable differences were noted in contrast-to-noise ratios and in other tests including: response function, modulation transfer function , noise equivalent quanta, normalised noise power spectra and detective quantum efficiency as specified in IEC 62220-1-2. Consequently, the authors strongly recommend the use of raw data for all image quality analyses in digital mammography.

  6. Geologic field notes and geochemical analyses of outcrop and drill core from Mesoproterozoic rocks and iron-oxide deposits and prospects of southeast Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Warren C.; Granitto, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources/Missouri Geological Survey, undertook a study from 1988 to 1994 on the iron-oxide deposits and their host Mesoproterozoic igneous rocks in southeastern Missouri. The project resulted in an improvement of our understanding of the geologic setting, mode of formation, and the composition of many of the known deposits and prospects and the associated rocks of the St. Francois terrane in Missouri. The goal for this earlier work was to allow the comparison of Missouri iron-oxide deposits in context with other iron oxide-copper ± uranium (IOCG) types of mineral deposits observed globally. The raw geochemical analyses were released originally through the USGS National Geochemical Database (NGDB, http://mrdata.usgs.gov). The data presented herein offers all of the field notes, locations, rock descriptions, and geochemical analyses in a coherent package to facilitate new research efforts in IOCG deposit types. The data are provided in both Microsoft Excel (Version Office 2010) spreadsheet format (*.xlsx) and MS-DOS text formats (*.txt) for ease of use by numerous computer programs.

  7. Influence of the combined effect of magnetic field and rotation on the onset of a non-Newtonian viscoelastic nanofluid layer: Linear and nonlinear analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, Meenakshi; Rana, Puneet; Srivastava, Sangeet

    2016-12-01

    In the present paper, we present both linear and nonlinear analyses to investigate thermal instability on a rotating non-Newtonian viscoelastic nanofluid layer under the influence of a magnetic field. In the linear stability analysis, the stationary and oscillatory modes of convection are obtained for various controlling parameters using the normal mode technique. Both Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are calculated after employing the minimal truncated Fourier series to steady and unsteady state. The main findings conclude that rotation and strain retardation parameter increase the value of the critical Rayleigh number in the neutral stability curve which delays the onset of convection in the nanofluid layer while the stress relaxation parameter enhances the convection. The magnetic field stabilizes the system for low values of the Taylor number (rotation) but an inverse trend is observed for high Taylor number. Both Nusselt and Sherwood numbers initially oscillate with time until the steady state prevails and they decrease with both Chandrasekhar and Taylor numbers. The magnitude of the streamlines and the contours of both isotherms and iso-nanohalines concentrate near the boundaries for large values of Ra, indicating an increase in convection.

  8. Comparison of macronutrient contents in human milk measured using mid-infrared human milk analyser in a field study vs. chemical reference methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mei; Yang, Zhenyu; Ren, Yiping; Duan, Yifan; Gao, Huiyu; Liu, Biao; Ye, Wenhui; Wang, Jie; Yin, Shian

    2017-01-01

    Macronutrient contents in human milk are the common basis for estimating these nutrient requirements for both infants and lactating women. A mid-infrared human milk analyser (HMA, Miris, Sweden) was recently developed for determining macronutrient levels. The purpose of the study is to compare the accuracy and precision of HMA method with fresh milk samples in the field studies with chemical methods with frozen samples in the lab. Full breast milk was collected using electric pumps and fresh milk was analyzed in the field studies using HMA. All human milk samples were thawed and analyzed with chemical reference methods in the lab. The protein, fat and total solid levels were significantly correlated between the two methods and the correlation coefficient was 0.88, 0.93 and 0.78, respectively (p  protein content was significantly lower and the mean fat level was significantly greater when measured using HMA method (1.0 g 100 mL(-1) vs 1.2 g 100 mL(-1) and 3. 7 g 100 mL(-1) vs 3.2 g 100 mL(-1) , respectively, p  protein and fat. There was no significant correlation for lactose between the two methods (p  >  0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in the mean total solid concentration (12.2 g 100 mL(-1) vs 12.3 g 100 mL(-1) , p  >  0.05). Overall, HMA might be used to analyze macronutrients in fresh human milk with acceptable accuracy and precision after recalibrating fat and protein levels of field samples.

  9. Semivolatile organic (GC-MS) and inorganic analyses of groundwater samples during the hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation (HPO) field test in Visalia, CA, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiarappa, M; Knauss, K G; Kumamoto, G; Leif, R N; Newmark, R L

    1998-02-05

    Hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation (HPO) is a novel, in situ, thermal-remediation technology that uses hot, oxygenated groundwater to completely oxidize a wide range of organic pollutants. A field demonstration of HPO was performed during the summer of 1997 at the Southern California Edison Pole Yard in Visalia, California, a site contaminated with creosote. The goal of the field experiment was to confirm the success of HPO under field remediation conditions. The groundwater was heated by steam injections, and oxygen was added by co-injection of compressed air. The progress of the HPO remediation process was evaluated by monitoring groundwater from multiple wells for dissolved oxygen, dissolved inorganic carbon, and dissolved organic contaminant levels. Analyses of groundwater chemistry allowed us to measure the concentrations of creosote components and to identify oxygenated intermediates produced by the HPO treatment. Dissolved organic carbon levels increased in response to steam injections because of the enhanced dissolution and mobilization of the creosote into the heated groundwater. Elevated concentrations of phenols and benzoic acid were measured in wells affected by the steam injections. Concentrations of other oxygenated compounds (i.e., fluorenone, anthrone, and 9,10-anthracenedione) increased in response to the steam injections. The production of these partially oxidized compounds is consistent with the aqueous-phase HPO reactions of creosote. Additional changes in the groundwater in response to steam injection were also consistent with the groundwater HPO chemistry. A drop in dissolved oxygen was observed in the aquifer targeted for the steam injections, and isotope shifts in the dissolved inorganic pool reflected the input of oxidized carbon derived from the creosote carbon.

  10. 29 November 2013 - U. Humphrey Orjiako Nigerian Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Permanent Mission to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva signing the Guest Book with Head of International Relations R. Voss, visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 2 and the ALICE cavern with ALICE Collaboration Deputy Spokesperson Y. Schutz.

    CERN Document Server

    Noemi Caraban

    2013-01-01

    29 November 2013 - U. Humphrey Orjiako Nigerian Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Permanent Mission to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva signing the Guest Book with Head of International Relations R. Voss, visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 2 and the ALICE cavern with ALICE Collaboration Deputy Spokesperson Y. Schutz.

  11. Kvalitative analyser ..

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boolsen, Merete Watt

    bogen forklarer de fundamentale trin i forskningsprocessen og applikerer dem på udvalgte kvalitative analyser: indholdsanalyse, Grounded Theory, argumentationsanalyse og diskursanalyse......bogen forklarer de fundamentale trin i forskningsprocessen og applikerer dem på udvalgte kvalitative analyser: indholdsanalyse, Grounded Theory, argumentationsanalyse og diskursanalyse...

  12. Compromises in the visual field with the M43 aviation mask.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingert, T A; McAlister, W H; Bachman, W G

    1994-02-01

    This study evaluated peripheral vision through the M43 protective mask currently worn by aviators in the AH-64 Apache helicopter. A Humphrey Visual Field Analyzer was used to measure the sensitivity of a subject's visual field with and without the mask. The results were analyzed using Dicon's Fieldview software. The monocular visual field was reduced for each eye when wearing the mask, especially superiorly and nasally. The overall size of the visual field was not reduced when both eyes were open; however, the quality of the visual field was reduced. The area of binocular vision (central binocular vision fusion field subserving stereopsis) was restricted to the central 30 degrees.

  13. Correlation between optic nerve head structural parameters and glaucomatous visual field indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizumoto, Kyoichi; Gosho, Masahiko; Zako, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    We examined associations between optic nerve head structural parameters and glaucomatous visual field indices. The study population included patients with glaucomatous optic neuropathy who were evaluated at Aichi Medical University, Nagakute, Aichi, Japan, from October 2010 to January 2011. A total of 57 eyes from 33 patients were assessed. We measured visual field using a Humphrey field analyzer, peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFL-T), and Bruch's membrane opening-minimum rim width (BMO-MRW) using spectral domain optical coherence tomography, and rim area with referring three-dimensional photography. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients were calculated between the threshold of visual sensitivity or total deviation of visual field and the following five optic nerve head structural parameters: RNFL-T length, BMO-MRW length, rim area, and calculated RNFL-T and BMO-MRW volumes (each length multiplied by rim area). The Akaike information criterion was calculated to determine which structural parameter was the best predictor of each visual field index. Threshold of visual sensitivity had correlation coefficients of 0.23 with global sector of RNFL-T, 0.32 with BMO-MRW, 0.14 with rim area, 0.21 with RNFL-T volume, and 0.26 with BMO-MRW volume. The correlation coefficients for each parameter with total deviation of visual field were 0.22, 0.33, 0.28, 0.36, and 0.37, respectively. The Akaike information criterion of BMO-MRW showed the smallest values in analyses of both threshold of visual sensitivity and total deviation. The present results show that RNFL-T volume and BMO-MRW volume were more strongly correlated with total deviation than BMO-MRW, but BMO-MRW appeared to be the best predictor of the two glaucomatous visual field indices.

  14. Crystal analyser-based X-ray phase contrast imaging in the dark field: implementation and evaluation using excised tissue specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, Masami [RIST, Tokyo University of Science, Noda, Chiba (Japan); Sunaguchi, Naoki [Gunma University, Graduate School of Engineering, Kiryu, Gunma (Japan); Wu, Yanlin [The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Department of Materials Structure Science, School of High Energy Accelerator Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Do, Synho; Sung, Yongjin; Gupta, Rajiv [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Louissaint, Abner [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Pathology, Boston, MA (United States); Yuasa, Tetsuya [Yamagata University, Faculty of Engineering, Yonezawa, Yamagata (Japan); Ichihara, Shu [Nagoya Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan)

    2014-02-15

    We demonstrate the soft tissue discrimination capability of X-ray dark-field imaging (XDFI) using a variety of human tissue specimens. The experimental setup for XDFI comprises an X-ray source, an asymmetrically cut Bragg-type monochromator-collimator (MC), a Laue-case angle analyser (LAA) and a CCD camera. The specimen is placed between the MC and the LAA. For the light source, we used the beamline BL14C on a 2.5-GeV storage ring in the KEK Photon Factory, Tsukuba, Japan. In the eye specimen, phase contrast images from XDFI were able to discriminate soft-tissue structures, such as the iris, separated by aqueous humour on both sides, which have nearly equal absorption. Superiority of XDFI in imaging soft tissue was further demonstrated with a diseased iliac artery containing atherosclerotic plaque and breast samples with benign and malignant tumours. XDFI on breast tumours discriminated between the normal and diseased terminal duct lobular unit and between invasive and in-situ cancer. X-ray phase, as detected by XDFI, has superior contrast over absorption for soft tissue processes such as atherosclerotic plaque and breast cancer. (orig.)

  15. 2-dimensional mapping of ICRF-induced scrape-off layer modifications with a retarding field analyser on ASDEX-Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colas, L.; Bobkov, V.; Carralero, D.; Kočan, M.; Müller, H. W.; Manz, P.; Kubič, M.; Gunn, J. P.; Herrmann, A.; Rohde, V.; ASDEX-Upgrade Team

    2014-02-01

    Using a reciprocating Retarding Field Analyser (RFA), Scrape-Off Layer (SOL) modifications were investigated on ASDEX-Upgrade during heating with waves in the Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies (ICRF), suspected for enhanced impurity production in this all-metal machine. Two quantities involved in the sputtering were measured: the current Islit on a saturated slit plate, proportional to the parallel ion flux and the mean parallel energy t of collected ions, averaged over many RF cycles. Combining multiple RFA reciprocations over a scan of q95 provided 2D poloidal/radial resolution. In the outer SOL a localized RF-perturbed zone was evidenced on the RFA side magnetically connected to an active ICRF antenna. A flat 2D Islit pattern surrounded by steep gradients was observed, correlatively with t exceeding 150eV. The centre of the zone is connected radially slightly behind the leading edge of antenna side limiters, with a radial extension up to ±2cm. The zone is broadest and t is largest near the bottom of the active antenna. This is interpreted as a zone of local plasma biasing via sheath rectification, creating density convection around it. The Islit pattern is qualitatively consistent with simple considerations about E×B particle convection.

  16. Magnetohydrodynamics of atmospheric transients. IV - Nonplane two-dimensional analyses of energy conversion and magnetic field evolution. [during corona following solar flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S. T.; Nakagawa, Y.; Han, S. M.; Dryer, M.

    1982-01-01

    The evolution of the magnetic field and the manner of conversion of thermal energy into different forms in the corona following a solar flare are investigated by means of a nonplane magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) analysis. All three components of magnetic field and velocity are treated in a physically self-consistent manner, with all physical variables as functions of time (t) and two spatial coordinates (r, theta). The difference arising from the initial magnetic field, either twisted (force-free) or non-twisted (potential), is demonstrated. Consideration is given to two initial field topologies (open vs. closed). The results demonstrate that the conversion of magnetic energy is faster for the case of the initially twisted (force-free) field than for the initially untwisted (potential) field. In addition, the twisted field is found to produce a complex structure of the density enhancements.

  17. Photopsia and a temporal visual field defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsiglia, Marcela; Odel, Jeffery G; Rudich, Danielle S; Tsang, Stephen H; Plant, Gordon T

    2016-01-01

    A 30-year-old woman presented with intermittent photopsia, a temporal visual field defect below the horizontal in her left eye, and flu-like symptoms. Slit-lamp and fundus examinations were unremarkable. Humphrey 30-2 threshold perimetry and 120-point screening visual field demonstrated blind spot enlargement of the left eye and a normal field in the right eye. Fundus autofluorescence, optical coherence tomography of the macula, full-field electroretinogram, electrooculogram, and multifocal electroretinogram were normal. Swept-source optical coherence tomography scan of the left optic nerve showed an intact outer retina, a remarkably thinned nerve fiber layer nasally, and peripapillary vitreous traction. Goldmann kinetic perimetry revealed a sector-shaped dense defect breaking out from the blind spot to the temporal periphery just below the horizontal in the left eye. The patient had nasal hypoplasia of the optic nerve and peripapillary vitreous traction.

  18. Experimental and numerical analyses of high voltage 4H-SiC junction barrier Schottky rectifiers with linearly graded field limiting ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiang-Dong; Deng, Xiao-Chuan; Wang, Yong-Wei; Wang, Yong; Wen, Yi; Zhang, Bo

    2014-05-01

    This paper describes the successful fabrication of 4H-SiC junction barrier Schottky (JBS) rectifiers with a linearly graded field limiting ring (LG-FLR). Linearly variable ring spacings for the FLR termination are applied to improve the blocking voltage by reducing the peak surface electric field at the edge termination region, which acts like a variable lateral doping profile resulting in a gradual field distribution. The experimental results demonstrate a breakdown voltage of 5 kV at the reverse leakage current density of 2 mA/cm2 (about 80% of the theoretical value). Detailed numerical simulations show that the proposed termination structure provides a uniform electric field profile compared to the conventional FLR termination, which is responsible for 45% improvement in the reverse blocking voltage despite a 3.7% longer total termination length.

  19. Evaluating the performance of commonly used gas analysers for methane eddy covariance flux measurements: the InGOS inter-comparison field experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peltola, O.; Hensen, A.; Helfter, C.; Belelli Marchesini, L.; Bosveld, F. C.; Van Den Bulk, W. C. M.; Elbers, J. A.; Haapanala, S.; Holst, J.; Laurila, T.; Lindroth, A.; Nemitz, E.; Röckmann, T.; Vermeulen, A. T.; Mammarella, I.

    2014-01-01

    The performance of eight fast-response methane (CH4) gas analysers suitable for eddy covariance flux measurements were tested at a grassland site near the Cabauw tall tower (Netherlands) during June 2012. The instruments were positioned close to each other in order to minimize the effect of varying

  20. Evaluating the performance of commonly used gas analysers for methane eddy covariance flux measurements : the InGOS inter-comparison field experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peltola, O.; Hensen, A.; Helfter, C.; Belelli Marchesini, L.; Bosveld, F. C.; Van Den Bulk, W. C M; Elbers, J. A.; Haapanala, S.; Holst, J.; Laurila, T.; Lindroth, A.; Nemitz, E.; Röckmann, T.; Vermeulen, A. T.; Mammarella, I.

    2014-01-01

    The performance of eight fast-response methane (CH4) gas analysers suitable for eddy covariance flux measurements were tested at a grassland site near the Cabauw tall tower (Netherlands) during June 2012. The instruments were positioned close to each other in order to minimise the effect of varying

  1. Evaluating the performance of commonly used gas analysers for methane eddy covariance flux measurements: the InGOS inter-comparison field experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peltola, O.; Hensen, A.; Helfter, C.; Belelli Marchesini, L.; Bosveld, F.C.; Bulk, van de W.C.M.; Elbers, J.A.; Haapanala, S.; Holst, J.; Laurila, T.; Lindroth, A.; Nemitz, E.; Röckmann, T.; Vermeulen, A.T.; Mammarella, I.

    2014-01-01

    The performance of eight fast-response methane (CH4) gas analysers suitable for eddy covariance flux measurements were tested at a grassland site near the Cabauw tall tower (Netherlands) during June 2012. The instruments were positioned close to each other in order to minimise the effect of varying

  2. Evaluating the performance of commonly used gas analysers for methane eddy covariance flux measurements: the InGOS inter-comparison field experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peltola, O.; Hensen, A.; Helfter, C.; Belelli Marchesini, L.; Bosveld, F.C.; Bulk, van de W.C.M.; Elbers, J.A.; Haapanala, S.; Holst, J.; Laurila, T.; Lindroth, A.; Nemitz, E.; Röckmann, T.; Vermeulen, A.T.; Mammarella, I.

    2014-01-01

    The performance of eight fast-response methane (CH4) gas analysers suitable for eddy covariance flux measurements were tested at a grassland site near the Cabauw tall tower (Netherlands) during June 2012. The instruments were positioned close to each other in order to minimise the effect of varying

  3. Evaluating the performance of commonly used gas analysers for methane eddy covariance flux measurements : the InGOS inter-comparison field experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peltola, O.; Hensen, A.; Helfter, C.; Belelli Marchesini, L.; Bosveld, F. C.; Van Den Bulk, W. C M; Elbers, J. A.; Haapanala, S.; Holst, J.; Laurila, T.; Lindroth, A.; Nemitz, E.; Röckmann, T.; Vermeulen, A. T.; Mammarella, I.

    2014-01-01

    The performance of eight fast-response methane (CH4) gas analysers suitable for eddy covariance flux measurements were tested at a grassland site near the Cabauw tall tower (Netherlands) during June 2012. The instruments were positioned close to each other in order to minimise the effect of varying

  4. Evaluating the performance of commonly used gas analysers for methane eddy covariance flux measurements: the InGOS inter-comparison field experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peltola, O.; Hensen, A.; Helfter, C.; Belelli Marchesini, L.; Bosveld, F. C.; Van Den Bulk, W. C. M.; Elbers, J. A.; Haapanala, S.; Holst, J.; Laurila, T.; Lindroth, A.; Nemitz, E.; Röckmann, T.; Vermeulen, A. T.; Mammarella, I.

    2014-01-01

    The performance of eight fast-response methane (CH4) gas analysers suitable for eddy covariance flux measurements were tested at a grassland site near the Cabauw tall tower (Netherlands) during June 2012. The instruments were positioned close to each other in order to minimize the effect of varying

  5. 40Ar/39Ar dating, geochemistry, and isotopic analyses of the quaternary Chichinautzin volcanic field, south of Mexico City: implications for timing, eruption rate, and distribution of volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce, J. L.; Layer, P. W.; Lassiter, J. C.; Benowitz, J. A.; Macías, J. L.; Ramírez-Espinosa, J.

    2013-12-01

    Monogenetic structures located at the southern and western ends of the Chichinautzin volcanic field (Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, Central Mexico) yield 40Ar/39Ar ages ranging from 1.2 Ma in the western portion of the field to 1.0-0.09 Ma in the southern portion, all of which are older than the volcanic field. These new ages indicate: (1) an eruption rate of 0.47 km3/kyr, which is much lower than the 11.7 km3/kyr previously estimated; (2) that the Chichinautzin magmatism coexisted with the Zempoala (0.7 Ma) and La Corona (1.0 Ma) polygenetic volcanoes on the southern edge of Las Cruces Volcanic Range (Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt); and confirm (3) that the drainage system between the Mexico and Cuernavaca basins was closed during early Pleistocene forming the Texcoco Lake. Whole-rock chemistry and Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopic data indicate heterogeneous magmatism throughout the history of Chichinautzin activity that likely reflects variable degrees of slab and sediment contributions to the mantle wedge, fractional crystallization, and crustal assimilation. Even with the revised duration of volcanism within the Chichinautzin Volcanic Field, its eruption rate is higher than most other volcanic fields of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt and is comparable only to the Tacámbaro-Puruaran area in the Michoacán-Guanajuato Volcanic Field to the west. These variations in eruption rates among different volcanic fields may reflect a combination of variable subduction rates of the Rivera and Cocos plates along the Middle America Trench, as well as different distances from the trench, variations in the depth with respect to the subducted slab, or the upper plate characteristics.

  6. Evaluating the performance of commonly used gas analysers for methane eddy covariance flux measurements: the InGOS inter-comparison field experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Peltola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of eight fast-response methane (CH4 gas analysers suitable for eddy covariance flux measurements were tested at a grassland site near the Cabauw tall tower (Netherlands during June 2012. The instruments were positioned close to each other in order to minimize the effect of varying turbulent conditions. The moderate CH4 fluxes observed at the location, of the order of 25 nmol m−2 s−1, provided a suitable signal for testing the instruments' performance. Generally, all analysers tested were able to quantify the concentration fluctuations at the frequency range relevant for turbulent exchange and were able to deliver high-quality data. The tested cavity ring-down spectrometer (CRDS instruments from Picarro, models G2311-f and G1301-f, were superior to other CH4 analysers with respect to instrumental noise. As an open-path instrument susceptible to the effects of rain, the LI-COR LI-7700 achieved lower data coverage and also required larger density corrections; however, the system is especially useful for remote sites that are restricted in power availability. In this study the open-path LI-7700 results were compromised due to a data acquisition problem in our data-logging setup. Some of the older closed-path analysers tested do not measure H2O vapour concentrations alongside CH4 (i.e. FMA1 and DLT-100 by Los Gatos Research and this complicates data processing since the required corrections for dilution and spectroscopic interactions have to be based on external information. To overcome this issue, we used H2O mole fractions measured by other gas analysers, adjusted them with different methods and then applied them to correct the CH4 fluxes. Following this procedure we estimated a bias on the order of 0.1 g (CH4 m−2 (8% of the measured mean flux in the processed and corrected CH4 fluxes on a monthly scale due to missing H2O concentration measurements. Finally, cumulative CH4 fluxes over 14 days from three closed-path gas

  7. Evaluating the performance of commonly used gas analysers for methane eddy covariance flux measurements: the InGOS inter-comparison field experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltola, O.; Hensen, A.; Helfter, C.; Belelli Marchesini, L.; Bosveld, F. C.; van den Bulk, W. C. M.; Elbers, J. A.; Haapanala, S.; Holst, J.; Laurila, T.; Lindroth, A.; Nemitz, E.; Röckmann, T.; Vermeulen, A. T.; Mammarella, I.

    2014-06-01

    The performance of eight fast-response methane (CH4) gas analysers suitable for eddy covariance flux measurements were tested at a grassland site near the Cabauw tall tower (Netherlands) during June 2012. The instruments were positioned close to each other in order to minimise the effect of varying turbulent conditions. The moderate CH4 fluxes observed at the location, of the order of 25 nmol m-2 s-1, provided a suitable signal for testing the instruments' performance. Generally, all analysers tested were able to quantify the concentration fluctuations at the frequency range relevant for turbulent exchange and were able to deliver high-quality data. The tested cavity ringdown spectrometer (CRDS) instruments from Picarro, models G2311-f and G1301-f, were superior to other CH4 analysers with respect to instrumental noise. As an open-path instrument susceptible to the effects of rain, the LI-COR LI-7700 achieved lower data coverage and also required larger density corrections; however, the system is especially useful for remote sites that are restricted in power availability. In this study the open-path LI-7700 results were compromised due to a data acquisition problem in our data-logging setup. Some of the older closed-path analysers tested do not measure H2O concentrations alongside CH4 (i.e. FMA1 and DLT-100 by Los Gatos Research) and this complicates data processing since the required corrections for dilution and spectroscopic interactions have to be based on external information. To overcome this issue, we used H2O mole fractions measured by other gas analysers, adjusted them with different methods and then applied them to correct the CH4 fluxes. Following this procedure we estimated a bias of the order of 0.1 g (CH4) m-2 (8% of the measured mean flux) in the processed and corrected CH4 fluxes on a monthly scale due to missing H2O concentration measurements. Finally, cumulative CH4 fluxes over 14 days from three closed-path gas analysers, G2311-f (Picarro Inc

  8. Nonuniform transformation field analysis of multiphase elasto viscoplastic materials: application to MOX fuels; Analyse par champs de transformation de materiaux elastoviscoplastiques multiphases: application aux combustibles MOX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roussette, S

    2005-05-15

    The description of the overall behavior of nonlinear materials with nonlinear dissipative phases requires an infinity of internal variables. An approximate model involving only a finite number of internal variables, Nonuniform Transformation Field Analysis, is obtained by considering a decomposition of these variables on a finite set of nonuniform transformation fields, called plastic modes. The method is initially developed for incompressible elasto viscoplastic materials. Karhunen-Loeve expansion is proposed to optimize the plastic modes. Then the method is extended to porous elasto viscoplastic materials. Finally the transformation field analysis, developed by Dvorak, is applied to nuclear fuels MOX. This method enables to make sensitivity studies to determine the role of some microstructural parameters on the fuel behaviour. Moreover the adequacy of the nonuniform method for fuels MOX is shown, the final objective being to be able to apply the model to the MOX in 3D. (author)

  9. [The most cited themes in the research in the field of Mental Health: analyses of six international nursing and medical journals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunico, Laura; Fredo, Susanna; Bernini, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    The review aimed to identify and analyse the future development on the topic by analysing the main themes discussed in number of scientific journal focused on Mental Health both by nurses and physicians.. 4 international journals focused on Mental health and psychiatry International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, American Journal of Psychiatry, Australian and New Zeland Journal of Psychiatry as well as two journal focused generically on health, Journal of Advanced Nursing and Lancet were scrutinized. We have analysed the papers of 2012-2015 for the specialised journals and last and first 6 months of 2012 and 2013 and 2014-2015 for the generic. Editorials, comments and contributions regarding theoretical models were exluded. From the analysis we identified 9 themes and for each theme the pertinent category. For the diagnostic grouping we used the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision. A trend in research about mood disorders, schizophrenia and addictions and comorbidity emerged according to the 2099 abstracts analysed. Within medical research antidepressants were the most studied psychotropic medication and cognitive behaviour therapy was the most studied psychotherapy. Within nursing research: the nurse-patient relationship, adherence and monitoring of pharmacological therapy, the treatment planning and the working environment, the nursing training and its efficacy. The clinical research trials were twice as frequent in the medical versus nursing research where qualitative research prevails. The research challenge will be to find a new paradigm fit for the future psychiatry having at its disposition the patient's genoma, and needing to routinely use biomarkers for a personalised therapy. A further challenge might be the promotion of interprofessional research between doctors and nurses and the acquisition of new competences of health professionals needed to tackle the

  10. State Guidelines for Mental Retardation and Intellectual Disabilities: A Re-visitation of Previous Analyses in Light of Changes in the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polloway, Edward A.; Patton, James R.; Smith, J. David; Lubin, Jacqueline; Antoine, Karian

    2009-01-01

    In 2002, the American Association on Mental Retardation (AAMR) (Luckasson et al., 2002) revised their manual on mental retardation. It also extended the changes that had been made in the previous (1992) manual to further promote an alternative approach to definition and classification in the field. The study reported here sought to determine the…

  11. Reprint of "Sequence and phylogenetic analyses of novel totivirus-like double-stranded RNAs from field-collected powdery mildew fungi".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Hideki; Hisano, Sakae; Chiba, Sotaro; Maruyama, Kazuyuki; Andika, Ida Bagus; Toyoda, Kazuhiro; Fujimori, Fumihiro; Suzuki, Nobuhiro

    2016-07-02

    The identification of mycoviruses contributes greatly to understanding of the diversity and evolutionary aspects of viruses. Powdery mildew fungi are important and widely studied obligate phytopathogenic agents, but there has been no report on mycoviruses infecting these fungi. In this study, we used a deep sequencing approach to analyze the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) segments isolated from field-collected samples of powdery mildew fungus-infected red clover plants in Japan. Database searches identified the presence of at least ten totivirus (genus Totivirus)-like sequences, termed red clover powdery mildew-associated totiviruses (RPaTVs). The majority of these sequences shared moderate amino acid sequence identity with each other (powdery mildew fungus populations infecting red clover plants in the field.

  12. An object-oriented designed finite-difference time-domain simulator for electromagnetic analysis and design in MRI--applications to high field analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Q; Liu, F; Xia, L; Crozier, S

    2005-02-01

    This paper presents a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulator for electromagnetic analysis and design applications in MRI. It is intended to be a complete FDTD model of an MRI system including all RF and low-frequency field generating units and electrical models of the patient. The program has been constructed in an object-oriented framework. The design procedure is detailed and the numerical solver has been verified against analytical solutions for simple cases and also applied to various field calculation problems. In particular, the simulator is demonstrated for inverse RF coil design, optimized source profile generation, and parallel imaging in high-frequency situations. The examples show new developments enabled by the simulator and demonstrate that the proposed FDTD framework can be used to analyze large-scale computational electromagnetic problems in modern MRI engineering.

  13. MRI-derived measurements of human subcortical, ventricular and intracranial brain volumes: Reliability effects of scan sessions, acquisition sequences, data analyses, scanner upgrade, scanner vendors and field strengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovicich, Jorge; Czanner, Silvester; Han, Xiao; Salat, David; van der Kouwe, Andre; Quinn, Brian; Pacheco, Jenni; Albert, Marilyn; Killiany, Ronald; Blacker, Deborah; Maguire, Paul; Rosas, Diana; Makris, Nikos; Gollub, Randy; Dale, Anders; Dickerson, Bradford C; Fischl, Bruce

    2009-05-15

    Automated MRI-derived measurements of in-vivo human brain volumes provide novel insights into normal and abnormal neuroanatomy, but little is known about measurement reliability. Here we assess the impact of image acquisition variables (scan session, MRI sequence, scanner upgrade, vendor and field strengths), FreeSurfer segmentation pre-processing variables (image averaging, B1 field inhomogeneity correction) and segmentation analysis variables (probabilistic atlas) on resultant image segmentation volumes from older (n=15, mean age 69.5) and younger (both n=5, mean ages 34 and 36.5) healthy subjects. The variability between hippocampal, thalamic, caudate, putamen, lateral ventricular and total intracranial volume measures across sessions on the same scanner on different days is less than 4.3% for the older group and less than 2.3% for the younger group. Within-scanner measurements are remarkably reliable across scan sessions, being minimally affected by averaging of multiple acquisitions, B1 correction, acquisition sequence (MPRAGE vs. multi-echo-FLASH), major scanner upgrades (Sonata-Avanto, Trio-TrioTIM), and segmentation atlas (MPRAGE or multi-echo-FLASH). Volume measurements across platforms (Siemens Sonata vs. GE Signa) and field strengths (1.5 T vs. 3 T) result in a volume difference bias but with a comparable variance as that measured within-scanner, implying that multi-site studies may not necessarily require a much larger sample to detect a specific effect. These results suggest that volumes derived from automated segmentation of T1-weighted structural images are reliable measures within the same scanner platform, even after upgrades; however, combining data across platform and across field-strength introduces a bias that should be considered in the design of multi-site studies, such as clinical drug trials. The results derived from the young groups (scanner upgrade effects and B1 inhomogeneity correction effects) should be considered as preliminary and in

  14. Analysis of the impact of the demand response RESIDENS field test on the customer load behaviour; Analyse des Einflusses vom Demand Response RESIDENS-Feldversuch auf das Kundenlastverhalten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnoldt, A.; Warweg, O.; Frenzel, S.; Bretschneider, P. [Fraunhofer IOSB, Ilmenau (Germany). Answendungszentrum Systemtechnik; Werner, M.

    2012-07-01

    The project RESIDENS investigates interactions between the technical electrical grid system and the private end customers through demand response, based on interdisciplinary methodology. December 2010 started the field test investigating the customer behavior on time varying tariffs. Significant load displacements between the trail group and the reference group or the standard load profile of the BDEW (former VDEW) can be detected within the preliminary investigations as well as the latest ones. (orig.)

  15. Succession of methanogenic archaea in rice straw incorporated into a Japanese rice field: estimation by PCR-DGGE and sequence analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsuo Sugano

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The succession and phylogenetic profiles of methanogenic archaeal communities associated with rice straw decomposition in rice-field soil were studied by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE analysis followed by 16S rDNA sequencing. Nylon bags containing either leaf sheaths or blades were buried in the plowed layer of a Japanese rice field under drained conditions during the off-crop season and under flooded conditions after transplanting. In addition, rice straw samples that had been buried in the rice field under drained conditions during the off-crop season were temporarily removed during spring plowing and then re-buried in the same rice field under flooded conditions at transplanting. Populations of methanogenic archaea were examined by amplification of the 16S rRNA genes in the DNA extracted from the rice straw samples. No PCR product was produced for samples of leaf sheath or blade prior to burial or after burial under drained conditions, indicating that the methanogen population was very small during decomposition of rice straw under oxic conditions. Many common bands were observed in rice straw samples of leaf sheath and blade during decomposition of rice straw under flooded conditions. Cluster analysis based on DGGE patterns divided methanogenic archaeal communities into two groups before and after the mid-season drainage. Sequence analysis of DGGE bands that were commonly present were closely related to Methanomicrobiales and Rice cluster I. Methanomicrobiales, Rice cluster I and Methanosarcinales were major members before the mid-season drainage, whereas the DGGE bands that characterized methanogenic archaeal communities after the mid-season drainage were closely related to Methanomicrobiales. These results indicate that mid-season drainage affected the methanogenic archaeal communities irrespective of their location on rice straw (sheath and blade and the previous history of decomposition

  16. Analyses of Acceptability Judgments Made Toward the Use of Nanocarrier-Based Targeted Drug Delivery: Interviews with Researchers and Research Trainees in the Field of New Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenel, Vanessa; Boissy, Patrick; Cloarec, Jean-Pierre; Patenaude, Johane

    The assessment of nanotechnology applications such as nanocarrier-based targeted drug delivery (TDD) has historically been based mostly on toxicological and safety aspects. The use of nanocarriers for TDD, a leading-edge nanomedical application, has received little study from the angle of experts' perceptions and acceptability, which may be reflected in how TDD applications are developed. In recent years, numerous authors have maintained that TDD assessment should also take into account impacts on ethical, environmental, economic, legal, and social (E(3)LS) issues in order to lead to socially responsible innovation. Semi-structured interviews (n = 22) were conducted with French and Canadian researchers and research trainees with diverse disciplinary backgrounds and involved in research related to emerging technologies. The interviews focussed on scenarios presenting two types of TDD nanocarriers (carbon, synthetic DNA) in two contexts of use (lung cancer, seasonal flu). Content and inductive analyses of interviews showed how facets of perceived impacts such as health, environment, social cohabitation, economy, life and death, representations of the human being and nature, and technoscience were weighed in acceptability judgments. The analyses also revealed that contextual factors related to device (nature of the treatment), to use (gravity of the disease), and to user (culture) influenced the weighting assigned to perceived impacts and thus contributed to variability in interviewees' judgments of acceptability. Giving consideration to researchers' perspective could accompany first steps of implementation and development of nanomedicine by producing a first, but wide, picture of the acceptability of nanocarrier-based TDD.

  17. The use of geotechenology in analyse of desertification risk in petroliferous field Canto do Amaro, Municipality of Mossoró - RN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Reinaldo Petta

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The work was carried out in the Petroliferous Field Canto do Amaro, Municipality of Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte. Orbital products, topographical and thematic maps and reference data had been used. The objective was to study the production of the space in the limits of the field. The methodology was based on the digital processing of images SPOT, using the SPRING v.4.2 and mapped the soil use, the vegetation classes and the land degradation levels and, on the field works, when photographic registers and georeferencing with GPS of the visited points, and of the exploration oil structures had been made and carried out the study of the vulnerabilities, that showed a state of extreme poverty of the local population, and the precariousness of the petroliferous infrastructure. The analysis of all the studied elements allowed defining three levels of land degradation: moderate, serious and very serious. Although to be an area of agricultural use, with predominance of the extensive cattle razing, the main degrading agent of lands has been the petroliferous exploration. As example, it did not have recovery the areas of ground withdrawal for construction of the support structures of the exploration of the oil and today these areas represent an advanced stage of the desertification, characterizing it as an essentially social process.

  18. Project 'WINDBANK mittleres Aaretal' - Analysis, Diagnosis and Forecast of Wind Fields around the Nuclear Power Plant Goesgen; Projekt 'WINDBANK mittleres Aaretal' - Analyse, Diagnose und Prognose der Windverhaeltnisse um das Kernkraftwerk Goesgen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graber, W.K.; Tinguely, M

    2002-07-01

    An emergency decision support system for accidental releases of radioactivity into the atmosphere providing regional wind field information is presented. This system is based on intensive meteorological field campaigns each lasting 3-4 months in the regions around the Swiss nuclear power plants. The wind data from temporary and permanent stations are analysed to evaluate the typical wind field patterns occurring in these regions. A cluster analysis for these data-sets lead to 12 different wind field classes with a high separation quality. In the present report, it is demonstrated that an on-line acquisition of meteorological data from existing permanent stations is enough to diagnose the recent wind field class in a region with a radius of 25 km around the nuclear power station of Goesgen with a probability of 95% to hit the correct class. Furthermore, a method is presented to use a high resolution weather prediction model to forecast the future wind field classes. An average probability of 76% to hit the correct class for a forecast time of 24 hours is evaluated. Finally, a method for parameterization of turbulence providing input for dispersion models from standard meteorological online data is presented. (author)

  19. Gene network and familial analyses uncover a gene network involving Tbx5/Osr1/Pcsk6 interaction in the second heart field for atrial septation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ke K; Xiang, Menglan; Zhou, Lun; Liu, Jielin; Curry, Nathan; Heine Suñer, Damian; Garcia-Pavia, Pablo; Zhang, Xiaohua; Wang, Qin; Xie, Linglin

    2016-03-15

    Atrial septal defects (ASDs) are a common human congenital heart disease (CHD) that can be induced by genetic abnormalities. Our previous studies have demonstrated a genetic interaction between Tbx5 and Osr1 in the second heart field (SHF) for atrial septation. We hypothesized that Osr1 and Tbx5 share a common signaling networking and downstream targets for atrial septation. To identify this molecular networks, we acquired the RNA-Seq transcriptome data from the posterior SHF of wild-type, Tbx5(+/) (-), Osr1(+/-), Osr1(-/-) and Tbx5(+/-)/Osr1(+/-) mutant embryos. Gene set analysis was used to identify the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways that were affected by the doses of Tbx5 and Osr1. A gene network module involving Tbx5 and Osr1 was identified using a non-parametric distance metric, distance correlation. A subset of 10 core genes and gene-gene interactions in the network module were validated by gene expression alterations in posterior second heart field (pSHF) of Tbx5 and Osr1 transgenic mouse embryos, a time-course gene expression change during P19CL6 cell differentiation. Pcsk6 was one of the network module genes that were linked to Tbx5. We validated the direct regulation of Tbx5 on Pcsk6 using immunohistochemical staining of pSHF, ChIP-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and luciferase reporter assay. Importantly, we identified Pcsk6 as a novel gene associated with ASD via a human genotyping study of an ASD family. In summary, our study implicated a gene network involving Tbx5, Osr1 and Pcsk6 interaction in SHF for atrial septation, providing a molecular framework for understanding the role of Tbx5 in CHD ontogeny.

  20. Production data from five major geothermal fields in Nevada analysed using a physiostatistical algorithm developed for oil and gas: temperature decline forecasts and type curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzma, H. A.; Golubkova, A.; Eklund, C.

    2015-12-01

    Nevada has the second largest output of geothermal energy in the United States (after California) with 14 major power plants producing over 425 megawatts of electricity meeting 7% of the state's total energy needs. A number of wells, particularly older ones, have shown significant temperature and pressure declines over their lifetimes, adversely affecting economic returns. Production declines are almost universal in the oil and gas (O&G) industry. BetaZi (BZ) is a proprietary algorithm which uses a physiostatistical model to forecast production from the past history of O&G wells and to generate "type curves" which are used to estimate the production of undrilled wells. Although BZ was designed and calibrated for O&G, it is a general purpose diffusion equation solver, capable of modeling complex fluid dynamics in multi-phase systems. In this pilot study, it is applied directly to the temperature data from five Nevada geothermal fields. With the data appropriately normalized, BZ is shown to accurately predict temperature declines. The figure shows several examples of BZ forecasts using historic data from Steamboat Hills field near Reno. BZ forecasts were made using temperature on a normalized scale (blue) with two years of data held out for blind testing (yellow). The forecast is returned in terms of percentiles of probability (red) with the median forecast marked (solid green). Actual production is expected to fall within the majority of the red bounds 80% of the time. Blind tests such as these are used to verify that the probabilistic forecast can be trusted. BZ is also used to compute and accurate type temperature profile for wells that have yet to be drilled. These forecasts can be combined with estimated costs to evaluate the economics and risks of a project or potential capital investment. It is remarkable that an algorithm developed for oil and gas can accurately predict temperature in geothermal wells without significant recasting.

  1. Investigating the usefulness of a cluster-based trend analysis to detect visual field progression in patients with open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Shuichiro; Murata, Hiroshi; Fujino, Yuri; Matsuura, Masato; Miki, Atsuya; Tanito, Masaki; Mizoue, Shiro; Mori, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Katsuyoshi; Yamashita, Takehiro; Kashiwagi, Kenji; Hirasawa, Kazunori; Shoji, Nobuyuki; Asaoka, Ryo

    2017-04-27

    To investigate the usefulness of the Octopus (Haag-Streit) EyeSuite's cluster trend analysis in glaucoma. Ten visual fields (VFs) with the Humphrey Field Analyzer (Carl Zeiss Meditec), spanning 7.7 years on average were obtained from 728 eyes of 475 primary open angle glaucoma patients. Mean total deviation (mTD) trend analysis and EyeSuite's cluster trend analysis were performed on various series of VFs (from 1st to 10th: VF1-10 to 6th to 10th: VF6-10). The results of the cluster-based trend analysis, based on different lengths of VF series, were compared against mTD trend analysis. Cluster-based trend analysis and mTD trend analysis results were significantly associated in all clusters and with all lengths of VF series. Between 21.2% and 45.9% (depending on VF series length and location) of clusters were deemed to progress when the mTD trend analysis suggested no progression. On the other hand, 4.8% of eyes were observed to progress using the mTD trend analysis when cluster trend analysis suggested no progression in any two (or more) clusters. Whole field trend analysis can miss local VF progression. Cluster trend analysis appears as robust as mTD trend analysis and useful to assess both sectorial and whole field progression. Cluster-based trend analyses, in particular the definition of two or more progressing cluster, may help clinicians to detect glaucomatous progression in a timelier manner than using a whole field trend analysis, without significantly compromising specificity. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Tests of heat techniques in households. Analysis of the results of the field tests; Praktijkprestaties van warmtetechnieken bij huishoudens. Analyse resultaten veldtesten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Jong, A.; Friedel, P.; Overman, P. [Energy Matters, Driebergen (Netherlands)

    2012-11-15

    The development within conventional techniques and new techniques for the recovery and generation of heat in the house construction industry led to a need for knowledge of efficiencies of those techniques in practice. Therefore a project has been set up to gain insight into the efficiencies. In the field tests, five heat techniques are investigated: high-efficiency boilers, solar water heaters, balanced ventilation systems with heat recovery (also called heat recovery systems) and heat pump water heaters [Dutch] De ontwikkeling binnen conventionele technieken en nieuwe technieken voor de terugwinning en opwekking van warmte in de woningbouw leidden ertoe dat er bij verschillende partijen in de keten een kennisbehoefte is ontstaan naar de rendementen van deze technieken in de praktijk. Daartoe heeft AgentschapNL een project opgezet om meer inzicht te verkrijgen in deze rendementen. In de veldtesten worden vijf warmtechnieken bekeken: HR-ketels, HRe-ketels, zonneboilers, gebalanceerde ventilatiesystemen met warmteterugwinning (verder WTW-systemen genoemd) en warmtepompboilers. Deze worden op minutenbasis bemeten.

  3. Analysing limits for human exposure to electromagnetic fields in accordance with ITU- k.52 standard for frequencies between 10 khz and 3 GHz in urban areas of Bucaramanga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José de Jesús Rugeles Uribe

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an overview of the results obtained from testing the limits of human exposure to 10KHz to 3GHZ frequencies in the city of Bucaramanga (Colombia, taking into account decree 195-2005 approved by the Colombian Ministry of Communications, based on International Telecommunication Union (ITU recommendation K.52. Measuring levels of exposure to electromagnetic radiation at three chosen locations in the city considered to be sensitive did not reveal that exposure limits were being exceeded. Mobile phone, modulated amplitude emission, frequency modulation and television bands installed at the sites several years ago were also measured. Levels ob-tained from electric field strength exceeded 100 dBuV / m in all cases, maximum value being 139 dBuV / m. Levels were well below exposure limits established by the K-52 rule. The highest levels for the general public’s exposure were 1.74964% in the AM band and 0.006408% for the cellular band between 869 and 894 MHz. This article also contains a description of the modules, exposure limits, acquisition and geo-positioning using the EspecVIEW tool designed for performing several types of measurements by Ministry officials and used in this study.

  4. BASEMAP, HUMPHREYS COUNTY AND INCORPOATED AREAS, TENNESSEE

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — FEMA Framework Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme,...

  5. X-Ray Spectral Analyses of AGNs from the 7Ms Chandra Deep Field-South Survey: The Distribution, Variability, and Evolutions of AGN Obscuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Teng; Tozzi, Paolo; Wang, Jun-Xian; Brandt, William N.; Vignali, Cristian; Xue, Yongquan; Schneider, Donald P.; Comastri, Andrea; Yang, Guang; Bauer, Franz E.; Paolillo, Maurizio; Luo, Bin; Gilli, Roberto; Wang, Q. Daniel; Giavalisco, Mauro; Ji, Zhiyuan; Alexander, David M.; Mainieri, Vincenzo; Shemmer, Ohad; Koekemoer, Anton; Risaliti, Guido

    2017-09-01

    We present a detailed spectral analysis of the brightest active galactic nuclei (AGNs) identified in the 7Ms Chandra Deep Field-South (CDF-S) survey over a time span of 16 years. Using a model of an intrinsically absorbed power-law plus reflection, with possible soft excess and narrow Fe Kα line, we perform a systematic X-ray spectral analysis, both on the total 7Ms exposure and in four different periods with lengths of 2–21 months. With this approach, we not only present the power-law slopes, column densities {N}{{H}}, observed fluxes, and absorption-corrected 2–10 keV luminosities L X for our sample of AGNs, but also identify significant spectral variabilities among them on timescales of years. We find that the {N}{{H}} variabilities can be ascribed to two different types of mechanisms, either flux-driven or flux-independent. We also find that the correlation between the narrow Fe line EW and {N}{{H}} can be well explained by the continuum suppression with increasing {N}{{H}}. Accounting for the sample incompleteness and bias, we measure the intrinsic distribution of {N}{{H}} for the CDF-S AGN population and present reselected subsamples that are complete with respect to {N}{{H}}. The {N}{{H}}-complete subsamples enable us to decouple the dependences of {N}{{H}} on L X and on redshift. Combining our data with those from C-COSMOS, we confirm the anticorrelation between the average {N}{{H}} and L X of AGN, and find a significant increase of the AGN-obscured fraction with redshift at any luminosity. The obscured fraction can be described as {f}{obscured}≈ 0.42 {(1+z)}0.60.

  6. Bridging health technology assessment (HTA with multicriteria decision analyses (MCDA: field testing of the EVIDEM framework for coverage decisions by a public payer in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Michèle

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consistent healthcare decisionmaking requires systematic consideration of decision criteria and evidence available to inform them. This can be tackled by combining multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA and Health Technology Assessment (HTA. The objective of this study was to field-test a decision support framework (EVIDEM, explore its utility to a drug advisory committee and test its reliability over time. Methods Tramadol for chronic non-cancer pain was selected by the health plan as a case study relevant to their context. Based on extensive literature review, a by-criterion HTA report was developed to provide synthesized evidence for each criterion of the framework (14 criteria for the MCDA Core Model and 6 qualitative criteria for the Contextual Tool. During workshop sessions, committee members tested the framework in three steps by assigning: 1 weights to each criterion of the MCDA Core Model representing individual perspective; 2 scores for tramadol for each criterion of the MCDA Core Model using synthesized data; and 3 qualitative impacts of criteria of the Contextual Tool on the appraisal. Utility and reliability of the approach were explored through discussion, survey and test-retest. Agreement between test and retest data was analyzed by calculating intra-rater correlation coefficients (ICCs for weights, scores and MCDA value estimates. Results The framework was found useful by the drug advisory committee in supporting systematic consideration of a broad range of criteria to promote a consistent approach to appraising healthcare interventions. Directly integrated in the framework as a "by-criterion" HTA report, synthesized evidence for each criterion facilitated its consideration, although this was sometimes limited by lack of relevant data. Test-retest analysis showed fair to good consistency of weights, scores and MCDA value estimates at the individual level (ICC ranging from 0.676 to 0.698, thus lending some

  7. Biogenic carbon flows through the planktonic food web of the Amundsen Gulf (Arctic Ocean): A synthesis of field measurements and inverse modeling analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest, Alexandre; Tremblay, Jean-Éric; Gratton, Yves; Martin, Johannie; Gagnon, Jonathan; Darnis, Gérald; Sampei, Makoto; Fortier, Louis; Ardyna, Mathieu; Gosselin, Michel; Hattori, Hiroshi; Nguyen, Dan; Maranger, Roxane; Vaqué, Dolors; Marrasé, Cèlia; Pedrós-Alió, Carlos; Sallon, Amélie; Michel, Christine; Kellogg, Colleen; Deming, Jody; Shadwick, Elizabeth; Thomas, Helmuth; Link, Heike; Archambault, Philippe; Piepenburg, Dieter

    2011-12-01

    Major pathways of biogenic carbon (C) flow are resolved for the planktonic food web of the flaw lead polynya system of the Amundsen Gulf (southeast Beaufort Sea, Arctic Ocean) in spring-summer 2008. This period was relevant to study the effect of climate change on Arctic marine ecosystems as it was characterized by unusually low ice cover and warm sea surface temperature. Our synthesis relied on a mass balance estimate of gross primary production (GPP) of 52.5 ± 12.5 g C m -2 calculated using the drawdown of nitrate and dissolved inorganic C, and a seasonal f-ratio of 0.64. Based on chlorophyll a biomass, we estimated that GPP was dominated by phytoplankton (93.6%) over ice algae (6.4%) and by large cells (>5 μm, 67.6%) over small cells (production, zooplankton biomass and respiration, herbivory, bacterivory, vertical particle fluxes, pools of particulate and dissolved organic carbon (POC, DOC), net community production (NCP), as well as selected variables from the literature were used to evaluate the fate of size-fractionated GPP in the ecosystem. The structure and functioning of the planktonic food web was elucidated through inverse analysis using the mean GPP and the 95% confidence limits of every other field measurement as lower and upper constraints. The model computed a net primary production of 49.2 g C m -2, which was directly channeled toward dominant calanoid copepods (i.e. Calanus hyperboreus 20%, Calanus glacialis 10%, and Metridia longa 10%), other mesozooplankton (12%), microzooplankton (14%), detrital POC (18%), and DOC (16%). Bacteria required 29.9 g C m -2, a demand met entirely by the DOC derived from local biological activities. The ultimate C outflow comprised respiration fluxes (82% of the initial GPP), a small sedimentation (3%), and a modest residual C flow (15%) resulting from NCP, dilution and accumulation. The sinking C flux at the model limit depth (395 m) supplied 60% of the estimated benthic C demand (2.8 g C m -2), suggesting that

  8. AMS analyses at ANSTO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawson, E.M. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia). Physics Division

    1998-03-01

    The major use of ANTARES is Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) with {sup 14}C being the most commonly analysed radioisotope - presently about 35 % of the available beam time on ANTARES is used for {sup 14}C measurements. The accelerator measurements are supported by, and dependent on, a strong sample preparation section. The ANTARES AMS facility supports a wide range of investigations into fields such as global climate change, ice cores, oceanography, dendrochronology, anthropology, and classical and Australian archaeology. Described here are some examples of the ways in which AMS has been applied to support research into the archaeology, prehistory and culture of this continent`s indigenous Aboriginal peoples. (author)

  9. A Problematic Family Reunion of a Chinese-American in China: Issues of Face Abstract: As one of the heated topics in the intercultural communication studies, face issues have aroused world-wide attention in the academic field. This paper analyses thr...%ract: As one of the heated topics in the intercultural communication studies, face issues have aroused world-wide attention in the academic field. This paper analyses three critical incidents based on two face theories proposed by Brown and Levinson ...

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹凤琴

    2012-01-01

    As one of the heated topics in the intercultural communication studies, face issues have aroused world-wide attention in the academic field. This paper analyses three critical incidents based on two face theories proposed by Brown and Levinson (1987) and Ting-Toomey and Kurogi(1998) respectively. Lastly, by focusing on the relationship between the rapport-threatening behavior and the face, this paper intends to cultivate our awareness of face and highlight the harmonious interpersonal relationship between different cultures.

  10. Far-Field Acoustic Power Level and Performance Analyses of F31/A31 Open Rotor Model at Simulated Scaled Takeoff, Nominal Takeoff, and Approach Conditions: Technical Report I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sree, Dave

    2015-01-01

    Far-field acoustic power level and performance analyses of open rotor model F31/A31 have been performed to determine its noise characteristics at simulated scaled takeoff, nominal takeoff, and approach flight conditions. The nonproprietary parts of the data obtained from experiments in 9- by 15-Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel (9?15 LSWT) tests were provided by NASA Glenn Research Center to perform the analyses. The tone and broadband noise components have been separated from raw test data by using a new data analysis tool. Results in terms of sound pressure levels, acoustic power levels, and their variations with rotor speed, angle of attack, thrust, and input shaft power have been presented and discussed. The effect of an upstream pylon on the noise levels of the model has been addressed. Empirical equations relating model's acoustic power level, thrust, and input shaft power have been developed. The far-field acoustic efficiency of the model is also determined for various simulated flight conditions. It is intended that the results presented in this work will serve as a database for comparison and improvement of other open rotor blade designs and also for validating open rotor noise prediction codes.

  11. Reporting and Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses in Nursing Field in China%国内护理领域系统评价/Meta分析的方法学与报告质量评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳英辉; 马恩婷; 花巍; 窦昊颖

    2012-01-01

    目的 评价国内护理领域系统评价/Meta分析方法学和报告质量,以期规范研究过程和报告方法.方法 计算机检索CNKI,查找涉及护理领域的所有系统评价/Meta分析文献,检索时限从建库至2011年12月.由2位评价者独立筛查文献,并采用AMSTAR和PRISMA评价量表对纳入文献的方法学与报告质量进行评价并交叉核对,如遇分歧讨论解决.结果 共纳入63篇文献,其中系统评价21篇,Meta分析42篇,分别发表在《护理研究》、《中华护理杂志》、《中国循证医学杂志》等13种期刊上.纳入文献中方法学质量存在的主要问题有:文献检索不够全面、对异质性产生的原因未进行综合分析和处理、未重视发表偏倚的识别.报告质量存在的主要问题表现在检索策略的报告不规范、纳入研究质量和偏倚风险报道不全面和研究结果表述不全(部分缺乏森林图、综合结果的估计值和可信区间、异质性检验结果).结论 目前国内护理领域系统评价/Meta分析的方法学质量及报告质量还存在不同程度的问题,尚需进一步提高方法学水平和规范报告质量.%Objective To evaluate reporting and methodological quality of systematic reviews or meta-analyses in nursing field in China. Methods CNKI database was searched for systematic reviews or meta-analyses in nursing field from the establishment date to December 2011. Two reviewers independently identified the literature according to inclusion and exclusion criteria, and then extracted the data using Excel software. The PRISMA and AMSTAR checklists were used to assess reporting characteristics and methodological quality, respectively. Results A total of 63 systematic reviews or meta-analyses involving 21 systematic reviews and 42 meta-analyses were identified. These articles were published on 13 journals such as The Chinese Nursing Research, the Chinese Journal of Nursing, and the Chinese Journal of Evidence

  12. Particle size analyses of porous silica and hybrid silica chromatographic support particles. Comparison of flow/hyperlayer field-flow fractionation with scanning electron microscopy, electrical sensing zone, and static light scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuehong

    2008-05-16

    Porous silica and hybrid silica chromatographic support particles having particle diameters ranging approximately from 1 microm to 15 microm have been characterized by flow/hyperlayer field-flow fractionation (FFF). The particle size accuracy has been improved significantly in this work by a second-order polynomial calibration. Very good agreement between the FFF data and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) results has been achieved. The effects of particle porosity, pore sizes, and particle sizes on the particle size accuracy in electrical sensing zone (ESZ) analyses have been discussed. It has been demonstrated by computer simulation and experimental measurements that false peaks can be generated in certain particle size regions when the static light scattering (SLS) technique is applied to tightly distributed spherical chromatographic support particles.

  13. Biogeochemical typing of paddy field by a data-driven approach revealing sub-systems within a complex environment--a pipeline to filtrate, organize and frame massive dataset from multi-omics analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo M O Ogawa

    Full Text Available We propose the technique of biogeochemical typing (BGC typing as a novel methodology to set forth the sub-systems of organismal communities associated to the correlated chemical profiles working within a larger complex environment. Given the intricate characteristic of both organismal and chemical consortia inherent to the nature, many environmental studies employ the holistic approach of multi-omics analyses undermining as much information as possible. Due to the massive amount of data produced applying multi-omics analyses, the results are hard to visualize and to process. The BGC typing analysis is a pipeline built using integrative statistical analysis that can treat such huge datasets filtering, organizing and framing the information based on the strength of the various mutual trends of the organismal and chemical fluctuations occurring simultaneously in the environment. To test our technique of BGC typing, we choose a rich environment abounding in chemical nutrients and organismal diversity: the surficial freshwater from Japanese paddy fields and surrounding waters. To identify the community consortia profile we employed metagenomics as high throughput sequencing (HTS for the fragments amplified from Archaea rRNA, universal 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA; to assess the elemental content we employed ionomics by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES; and for the organic chemical profile, metabolomics employing both Fourier transformed infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR all these analyses comprised our multi-omics dataset. The similar trends between the community consortia against the chemical profiles were connected through correlation. The result was then filtered, organized and framed according to correlation strengths and peculiarities. The output gave us four BGC types displaying uniqueness in community and chemical distribution, diversity and richness. We conclude therefore that

  14. Analyses of Temperature Field and Deflection of Steam Turbine IP Inlet Flow Guide%汽轮机中压进汽导流环温度场及变形分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王林

    2014-01-01

    IP inlet flow guide is one of the key components in steam turbine,analyses of temperature field and deflection are important when flow guide of steam turbine is designed.Aim at a 600MW sub-critical steam turbine flow guide,a finite element model is developed,methods for calculating the heat transfer coefficients of flow guide surfaces different regions are described,the finite element thermal and structural analyses are performed on the flow guide.Detailed temperature and deflection distributions are determined during the steady operating conditions.The results show that radial temperature gradient is principal,radial deflection of flow guide foot is 1.611 3mm,radial deflection of flow guide with seal is 2.063 6 mm.The used analytic methods can be applied for temperature field and deflection analyses of sub-critical,supercritical and ultra-supercritical steam turbine flow guide,a basis for the bolting analysis and the cooling structural design of steam turbine flow guide is provided.%中压进汽导流环是汽轮机中的关键部件,在设计过程中必须分析其温度场及变形。针对某亚临界600MW汽轮机导流环,建立了有限元模型,介绍了导流环表面不同区域的传热系数计算方法,用有限元法分析了导流环的温度场和变形,得出了在稳态运行工况的详细温度和变形分布。结果表明,导流环温度梯度以径向为主,导流环的最下部径向变形为1.6113mm,导流环安装汽封处径向变形为2.0636mm。所采用的分析方法可以用于分析亚临界、超临界和超超临界汽轮机导流环的温度场和变形,为导流环螺栓分析和冷却结构设计打下基础。

  15. [Relationship between visual field index and visual field morphological stages of glaucoma and their diagnostic value].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, X R; Qin, J Y; Ren, Z Q

    2017-02-11

    Objective: To investigate the rationality of visual field morphological stages of glaucoma, its relationship with visual field index and their diagnostic value. Methods: Retrospective series case study. Two hundred and seventy-four glaucoma patients and 100 normal control received visual field examination by Humphrey perimeter using standard automatic perimetry (SAP) program from March 2014 to September 2014. Glaucoma patients were graded into four stages according to characteristic morphological damage of visual field, distribution of mean defect (MD) and visual field index (VFI) of each stage were plotted and receiver operation characteristic curve (ROC) was used to explore its correlation with MD and VFI. The diagnostic value of MD and VFI was also compared. For the comparison of general data of subjects, categorical variables were compared using χ(2) test, numerical variables were compared using F test. MD and VFI were compared using ANOVA among stages according to visual field, followed by multiple comparisons using LSD method. The correlation between MD and VFI and different stages according to visual field defined their diagnostic value, and compared using area under the curve (AUC) of ROC. Results: No characteristic visual field damage was found in normal control group, and MD and VFI was (-0.06±1.24) dB and (99.15±0.76)%, respectively. Glaucomatous visual field damage was graded into early, medium, late and end stage according to morphological characteristic. MD for each stage were (-2.83±2.00) dB, (-9.70±3.68) dB, (-18.46±2.90) dB, and (-27.96±2.76) dB, respectively. VFI for each stage were (93.84±3.61)%, (75.16±10.85)%, (49.36±11.26)% and (17.65±10.59)%, respectively. MD and VFI of each stage of glaucomatous group and normal control group were all significantly different (F=1 165.53 and PAUC(MD) (Pvisual field damage to be graded into early, medium, late and end stage using Humphrey perimeter. Distribution of MD and VFI for each stage was

  16. Low-cost, smartphone based frequency doubling technology visual field testing using virtual reality (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alawa, Karam A.; Sayed, Mohamed; Arboleda, Alejandro; Durkee, Heather A.; Aguilar, Mariela C.; Lee, Richard K.

    2017-02-01

    Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Due to its wide prevalence, effective screening tools are necessary. The purpose of this project is to design and evaluate a system that enables portable, cost effective, smartphone based visual field screening based on frequency doubling technology. The system is comprised of an Android smartphone to display frequency doubling stimuli and handle processing, a Bluetooth remote for user input, and a virtual reality headset to simulate the exam. The LG Nexus 5 smartphone and BoboVR Z3 virtual reality headset were used for their screen size and lens configuration, respectively. The system is capable of running the C-20, N-30, 24-2, and 30-2 testing patterns. Unlike the existing system, the smartphone FDT tests both eyes concurrently by showing the same background to both eyes but only displaying the stimulus to one eye at a time. Both the Humphrey Zeiss FDT and the smartphone FDT were tested on five subjects without a history of ocular disease with the C-20 testing pattern. The smartphone FDT successfully produced frequency doubling stimuli at the correct spatial and temporal frequency. Subjects could not tell which eye was being tested. All five subjects preferred the smartphone FDT to the Humphrey Zeiss FDT due to comfort and ease of use. The smartphone FDT is a low-cost, portable visual field screening device that can be used as a screening tool for glaucoma.

  17. The Nullness Analyser of julia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoto, Fausto

    This experimental paper describes the implementation and evaluation of a static nullness analyser for single-threaded Java and Java bytecode programs, built inside the julia tool. Nullness analysis determines, at compile-time, those program points where the null value might be dereferenced, leading to a run-time exception. In order to improve the quality of software, it is important to prove that such situation does not occur. Our analyser is based on a denotational abstract interpretation of Java bytecode through Boolean logical formulas, strengthened with a set of denotational and constraint-based supporting analyses for locally non-null fields and full arrays and collections. The complete integration of all such analyses results in a correct system of very high precision whose time of analysis remains in the order of minutes, as we show with some examples of analysis of large software.

  18. Perimetria computadorizada e manual em pacientes com defeitos perimétricos temporais avançados causados por tumores supra-selares Computerized and manual perimetry in patientes with severe temporal visual field defects due to supraselar tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Pereira

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar, ao perímetro de Goldmann, um grupo de pacientes com hemianopsia completa ao perímetro Humphrey (24-2 full threshold test, e verificar em quantos casos a perimetria computadorizada deixou de identificar a presença de campo visual periférico residual. MÉTODOS: Dezenove pacientes com defeitos campimétricos por compressão quiasmática foram estudados prospectivamente por meio das perimetrias manual e computadorizada. Vinte e cinco olhos com hemianopsia temporal completa pelo programa 24-2 do Humphrey Field Analyzer foram selecionados e estudados pela perimetria manual de Goldmann para avaliar a presença de campo visual periférico residual. De acordo com os resultados ao perímetro de Goldmann, os olhos foram divididos em 2 grupos: grupo 1, os portadores de hemianopsia temporal completa ao Goldmann e grupo 2, os portadores de campo visual temporal periférico residual. Foi calculada a média do "mean deviation" fornecido pelo aparelho nos dois grupos e o resultado foi comparado pelo teste t de Student. RESULTADOS: A perimetria computadorizada deixou de identificar a presença de campo visual periférico residual em 17 dos 25 olhos (68%. Os valores médios do "mean deviation" no grupo 1 e grupo 2 foram respectivamente -15,43 e -15,93. O estudo estatístico não mostrou diferença significativa entre os dois valores. CONCLUSÕES: A perimetria computadorizada Humphrey com o programa 24-2 threshold test deixa de identificar remanescentes temporais de campo visual em grande porcentagem de pacientes com compressão quiasmática grave. A análise do "mean deviation" fornecido pelo aparelho não permite identificar estes casos. Pacientes estudados ao perímetro automático e apresentando hemianopsia temporal completa, devem complementar sua avaliação perimétrica com a pesquisa por áreas remanescentes no campo visual temporal.PURPOSE: To study, on Goldmann perimetry, a group of patients with complete temporal hemianopia on

  19. 大连地下石油储备库洞室群围岩稳定性及渗流场分析%ANALYSES OF SURROUNDING ROCK STABILITY OF CAVERN GROUP AND SEEPAGE FIELD AT DALIAN UNDERGROUND OIL STORAGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于崇; 李海波; 周庆生

    2012-01-01

    为分析水封式大连地下石油储备库洞室群围岩稳定性及渗流场特征,首先基于现场地应力实测结果的回归分析,利用Fish语言编写函数,反演初始地应力场.其次,采用三维离散元程序3DEC生成三维节理网络模型,反演库区初始渗流场的各向异性特征.最后,利用应力与渗流耦合模块实施开挖仿真计算,获取围岩应力场、位移场变化特征.考虑平行、垂直层理面不同材料特性,基于带有抗拉的Mohr-Coulomb强度储备型点安全系数,定量评价洞室群的稳定性.借鉴国外水封效果评价标准,分别从地下水位线和垂直水力坡降2个方面,分析渗流场变化特征.研究表明:在洞室周边平行层理面点安全系数为1.02~1.25,垂直层理面点安全系数为1.95~2.00.在补水隧道及注水孔组成的人工水幕系统作用下,建设期内地下水位下降3~5 m,地下水位距洞室顶55 m.开挖洞室附近平均垂直水力坡降大于1.0,满足设计规范及密封性要求.%Aiming at analyses of surrounding rock stability of cavern group and seepage field characteristics at Dalian water-tight underground oil storage, firstly, based on regression analysis of in-situ stress testing data, initial in-situ stress field inversion is conducted with functions defined with program language Fish. Secondly, after three-dimensional random joint networks with different sizes are generated with 3DEC. a new method of calculating the anisotropy permeability is proposed. Finally, stress field and displacement field of surrounding rocks are gained using coupled fluid and mechanical excavation calculations. Based on point safety factor, whose criterion is the Mohr-Coulomb one with the tensile strength, cavern group stability is quantitatively evaluated considering parallel and vertical bedding planes owing to different materials characteristics. Referring to ideas from abroad, seepage field is analyzed by groundwater table and vertical

  20. Lymphocyte subset analyses in blood, spleen and lymph nodes of female Sprague-Dawley rats after short or prolonged exposure to a 50 Hz 100-microT magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thun-Battersby, S; Westermann, J; Löscher, W

    1999-10-01

    Based primarily on the results of in vitro studies, it has been suggested that power-line (50 or 60 Hz) magnetic fields (MFs) may reduce immune function, which could lower resistance to infection or cancer. This study was conducted to evaluate the influence of acute and chronic in vivo exposure to a linearly polarized 50 Hz MF on immune function in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Groups of rats were exposed continuously to the MF at a flux density of 100 microT for periods of 3 days, 14 days or 13 weeks. For each exposure period, one control group of rats was sham-exposed together with each MF-exposed group. Experimental end points included analyses of T-lymphocyte subsets as well as other immune cells involved in cell-mediated immune responses, i.e. natural killer (NK) cells, B lymphocytes, macrophages, and granulocytes in blood, spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes. In addition, immunohistochemical methods were used to detect proliferating and apoptotic cells in the various compartments of spleen tissue. The results obtained failed to demonstrate a significant effect of short or prolonged MF exposure on different types of leukocytes, including lymphocyte subsets. Furthermore, the experiments on the in vivo proliferation activity of lymphocytes and the extent of apoptosis in spleen samples did not indicate a difference between the MF-exposed and sham-exposed groups, indicating that MF exposure does not affect the mechanisms involved in the control of lymphocyte homeostasis. The lack of MF effects in the immune tests used in the present in vivo study makes it highly unlikely that MF exposure induces immunotoxicity, at least under the experimental conditions used. However, the data do not exclude the possibility that functional alterations in T-cell responses to mitogens and in NK cell activity as recently described for MF-exposed rodents may be one mechanism involved in the carcinogenic effects of MF exposure observed in some models of co-carcinogenesis.

  1. Sproglig Metode og Analyse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    le Fevre Jakobsen, Bjarne

    Publikationen indeholder øvematerialer, tekster, powerpointpræsentationer og handouts til undervisningsfaget Sproglig Metode og Analyse på BA og tilvalg i Dansk/Nordisk 2010-2011......Publikationen indeholder øvematerialer, tekster, powerpointpræsentationer og handouts til undervisningsfaget Sproglig Metode og Analyse på BA og tilvalg i Dansk/Nordisk 2010-2011...

  2. Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields, leukemia and brain cancer: update of two meta-analysis; Exposition professionnelle aux champs electromagnetiques, leucemie et cancer du cerveau: mise a jour de deux meta-analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2008-11-15

    This new meta-analysis found a slight increase in the risk of brain cancer and of leukemia in populations occupationally exposed to electromagnetic fields. it does not, however, support the hypothesis that electromagnetic fields have an effect on these cancers. (author)

  3. Prevention of visual field defects after macular hole surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cullinane, A B

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND\\/AIM: The pathogenesis of visual field loss associated with macular hole surgery is uncertain but a number of explanations have been proposed, the most convincing of which is the effect of peeling of the posterior hyaloid, causing either direct damage to the nerve fibre layer or to its blood supply at the optic nerve head. The purpose of this preliminary prospective study was to determine the incidence of visual field defects following macular hole surgery in cases in which peeling of the posterior hyaloid was confined only to the area of the macula. METHODS: 102 consecutive eyes that had macular hole surgery had preoperative and postoperative visual field examination using a Humphrey\\'s perimeter. A comparison was made between two groups: I, those treated with vitrectomy with complete posterior cortical vitreous peeling; and II, those treated with a vitrectomy with peeling of the posterior hyaloid in the area of the macula but without attempting a complete posterior vitreous detachment. Specifically, no attempt was made to separate the posterior hyaloid from the optic nerve head. Eyes with stage II or III macular holes were operated. Autologous platelet concentrate and non-expansile gas tamponade was used. Patients were postured prone for 1 week. RESULTS: In group I, 22% of patients were found to have visual field defects. In group II, it was possible to separate the posterior hyaloid from the macula without stripping it from the optic nerve head and in these eyes no pattern of postoperative visual field loss emerged. There were no significant vision threatening complications in this group. The difference in the incidence of visual field loss between group I and group II was significant (p=0.02). The anatomical and visual success rates were comparable between both groups. CONCLUSION: The results from this preliminary study suggest that the complication of visual field loss after macular surgery may be reduced if peeling of the posterior hyaloid is

  4. Laser Beam Focus Analyser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Carøe; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    2007-01-01

    The quantitative and qualitative description of laser beam characteristics is important for process implementation and optimisation. In particular, a need for quantitative characterisation of beam diameter was identified when using fibre lasers for micro manufacturing. Here the beam diameter limits...... the obtainable features in direct laser machining as well as heat affected zones in welding processes. This paper describes the development of a measuring unit capable of analysing beam shape and diameter of lasers to be used in manufacturing processes. The analyser is based on the principle of a rotating...... mechanical wire being swept through the laser beam at varying Z-heights. The reflected signal is analysed and the resulting beam profile determined. The development comprised the design of a flexible fixture capable of providing both rotation and Z-axis movement, control software including data capture...

  5. Lack of Congruence between Analyses and Conclusions Limits Usefulness of Study of Socio-cultural Influences on Student Choice of LIS Field in Greece. A Review of: Moniarou-Papaconstantinou, V., Tsatsaroni, A., Katsis, A., & Koulaidis, V. (2010. LIS as a field of study: Socio-cultural influences on students’ decision making. Aslib Proceedings: New Information Perspectives, 62(3, 321-344.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana K. Wakimoto

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective — To determine how social and cultural factors influence students’ decision to study library and information science (LIS as undergraduates.Design — Semi-structured interviews and quantitative analysis of questionnaire data.Setting — Three schools in Greece with LIS programs at the undergraduate level.Subjects — One hundred eighty-seven first-year students enrolled in Greece’s LIS schools’ undergraduate programs in the autumn semester of the 2005-2006 academic year.Methods — The authors piloted the questionnaire with 52 students at the LIS school in Athens and had three faculty members review the questionnaire. After modification, the two-part questionnaire was administered during the first week of classes to all first-year undergraduate students enrolled in Greece’s three LIS schools. The first section of the questionnaire collected data on student gender, age, area of residence, school from which they graduated, and parental occupation and level of education. The second part of the questionnaire covered students’ reasons for choosing LIS as a field of study, the degree to which students agreed with dominant public views (i.e., stereotypes of librarianship, and practical issues that influenced students’ decision-making processes. The authors conducted two rounds of semi-structured interviews with students from the same 2005-2006 cohort. They interviewed 41 self-selected students and then interviewed a purposive sample of 15 students from the same cohort in the fifth semester of the students’ studies.Main Results — The questionnaire was completed by 187 LIS students, with 177 responses considered relevant and used in the analyses. Demographic information showed that 78% of the respondents were female, 85.8% were from urban areas, and 98.9% graduated from public schools. The authors constructed two indices to assist with further analyses: the Educational Career Index, which quantified students’ educational

  6. Meta-analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, M.A.; Luyten, J.W.; Scheerens, J.; Sleegers, P.J.C.; Scheerens, J.

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter results of a research synthesis and quantitative meta-analyses of three facets of time effects in education are presented, namely time at school during regular lesson hours, homework, and extended learning time. The number of studies for these three facets of time that could be used

  7. Contesting Citizenship: Comparative Analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte; Squires, Judith

    2007-01-01

    . Comparative citizenship analyses need to be considered in relation to multipleinequalities and their intersections and to multiple governance and trans-national organisinf. This, in turn, suggests that comparative citizenship analysis needs to consider new spaces in which struggles for equal citizenship occur...

  8. Wavelet Analyses and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordeianu, Cristian C.; Landau, Rubin H.; Paez, Manuel J.

    2009-01-01

    It is shown how a modern extension of Fourier analysis known as wavelet analysis is applied to signals containing multiscale information. First, a continuous wavelet transform is used to analyse the spectrum of a nonstationary signal (one whose form changes in time). The spectral analysis of such a signal gives the strength of the signal in each…

  9. Report sensory analyses veal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldman, M.; Schelvis-Smit, A.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    On behalf of a client of Animal Sciences Group, different varieties of veal were analyzed by both instrumental and sensory analyses. The sensory evaluation was performed with a sensory analytical panel in the period of 13th of May and 31st of May, 2005. The three varieties of veal were: young bull,

  10. Analyses on the Emergies of Multiple Compound Cropping Systems from Double-Cropping Paddy Fields in Jiangxi Province%江西省双季稻田多作复合种植系统的能值分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙卫民; 黄国勤; 程建峰; 刘彬彬

    2014-01-01

    multiple cropping systems in Yujiang country of Jiangxi province were analyzed comprehensively with the theories and methods of emery analyses on the basis of data from field location experiments and related statistic yearbooks. [Result] The results showed that the energies of crops economic yields in winter multiple cropping were 217.57×106-229.7×106 kJ·hm-2 and higher than 213.5×106 kJ·hm-2 in winter fallow (T1);and energies of crops economic yields in the T4, T6 and T7 were significantly higher than those in the other treatments, the increasing percent of energy in T6 was 8.5% and the highest. Energy increasing percent of T6 was the highest in 2008-2010, which indicated that T6 had a better superiority and stability. Photosynthetic productivities (11.99-14.03 g·m-2·d-1) and solar energy utilization efficiencies (1.46%-1.70%) in winter multiple cropping were markedly significantly higher than those (10.55 g·m-2·d-1 and 1.28%, respectively) in T1, the average increasing ranges were 14.4%-34.8% with the highest increasing percent (34.8%) of T3, and the changes of photosynthetic productivities and solar energy utilization efficiencies were exactly alike. Energies of crops economic yields in winter multiple cropping rotations were 220.9×106-229.7×106 kJ·hm-2 and higher than 217.5×106 kJ·hm-2 in winter multiple continuous cropping (T2), and the increasing percent of energy in T6 was 6.1% and was the highest, but no significant difference was found among all treatments. Winter multiple cropping rotations reduced crop photosynthetic productivity to a certain extent, photosynthetic productivities (11.99-13.10 g·m-2·d-1) in winter multiple crop rotations were lower than 13.67 g·m-2·d-1 in T2 except the higher in T3, the average decreasing ranges were 4.2%-12.4% with the highest reduction of T4. The solar energy utilization efficiencies in T3 (1.70%) and T6 (1.67%) were significantly higher than those in the other treatments (1.46%-1.58%) which decreased with the

  11. Possible future HERA analyses

    CERN Document Server

    Geiser, Achim

    2015-01-01

    A variety of possible future analyses of HERA data in the context of the HERA data preservation programme is collected, motivated, and commented. The focus is placed on possible future analyses of the existing $ep$ collider data and their physics scope. Comparisons to the original scope of the HERA programme are made, and cross references to topics also covered by other participants of the workshop are given. This includes topics on QCD, proton structure, diffraction, jets, hadronic final states, heavy flavours, electroweak physics, and the application of related theory and phenomenology topics like NNLO QCD calculations, low-x related models, nonperturbative QCD aspects, and electroweak radiative corrections. Synergies with other collider programmes are also addressed. In summary, the range of physics topics which can still be uniquely covered using the existing data is very broad and of considerable physics interest, often matching the interest of results from colliders currently in operation. Due to well-e...

  12. Analysing Access Control Specifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Probst, Christian W.; Hansen, René Rydhof

    2009-01-01

    . Recent events have revealed intimate knowledge of surveillance and control systems on the side of the attacker, making it often impossible to deduce the identity of an inside attacker from logged data. In this work we present an approach that analyses the access control configuration to identify the set......When prosecuting crimes, the main question to answer is often who had a motive and the possibility to commit the crime. When investigating cyber crimes, the question of possibility is often hard to answer, as in a networked system almost any location can be accessed from almost anywhere. The most...... of credentials needed to reach a certain location in a system. This knowledge allows to identify a set of (inside) actors who have the possibility to commit an insider attack at that location. This has immediate applications in analysing log files, but also nontechnical applications such as identifying possible...

  13. Biomass feedstock analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilen, C.; Moilanen, A.; Kurkela, E. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1996-12-31

    The overall objectives of the project `Feasibility of electricity production from biomass by pressurized gasification systems` within the EC Research Programme JOULE II were to evaluate the potential of advanced power production systems based on biomass gasification and to study the technical and economic feasibility of these new processes with different type of biomass feed stocks. This report was prepared as part of this R and D project. The objectives of this task were to perform fuel analyses of potential woody and herbaceous biomasses with specific regard to the gasification properties of the selected feed stocks. The analyses of 15 Scandinavian and European biomass feed stock included density, proximate and ultimate analyses, trace compounds, ash composition and fusion behaviour in oxidizing and reducing atmospheres. The wood-derived fuels, such as whole-tree chips, forest residues, bark and to some extent willow, can be expected to have good gasification properties. Difficulties caused by ash fusion and sintering in straw combustion and gasification are generally known. The ash and alkali metal contents of the European biomasses harvested in Italy resembled those of the Nordic straws, and it is expected that they behave to a great extent as straw in gasification. Any direct relation between the ash fusion behavior (determined according to the standard method) and, for instance, the alkali metal content was not found in the laboratory determinations. A more profound characterisation of the fuels would require gasification experiments in a thermobalance and a PDU (Process development Unit) rig. (orig.) (10 refs.)

  14. Possible future HERA analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiser, Achim

    2015-12-15

    A variety of possible future analyses of HERA data in the context of the HERA data preservation programme is collected, motivated, and commented. The focus is placed on possible future analyses of the existing ep collider data and their physics scope. Comparisons to the original scope of the HERA pro- gramme are made, and cross references to topics also covered by other participants of the workshop are given. This includes topics on QCD, proton structure, diffraction, jets, hadronic final states, heavy flavours, electroweak physics, and the application of related theory and phenomenology topics like NNLO QCD calculations, low-x related models, nonperturbative QCD aspects, and electroweak radiative corrections. Synergies with other collider programmes are also addressed. In summary, the range of physics topics which can still be uniquely covered using the existing data is very broad and of considerable physics interest, often matching the interest of results from colliders currently in operation. Due to well-established data and MC sets, calibrations, and analysis procedures the manpower and expertise needed for a particular analysis is often very much smaller than that needed for an ongoing experiment. Since centrally funded manpower to carry out such analyses is not available any longer, this contribution not only targets experienced self-funded experimentalists, but also theorists and master-level students who might wish to carry out such an analysis.

  15. Mathematical and numerical analysis of the resistive magnetohydrodynamics system with self-generated magnetic field terms; Analyse mathematique et numerique du systeme de la magnetohydrodynamique resistive avec termes de champ magnetique auto-genere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, Marc

    2011-10-14

    This work is devoted to the construction of numerical methods that allow the accurate simulation of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosion processes by taking self-generated magnetic field terms into account. In the sequel, we first derive a two-temperature resistive magnetohydrodynamics model and describe the considered closure relations. The resulting system of equations is then split in several subsystems according to the nature of the underlying mathematical operator. Adequate numerical methods are then proposed for each of these subsystems. Particular attention is paid to the development of finite volume schemes for the hyperbolic operator which actually is the hydrodynamics or ideal magnetohydrodynamics system depending on whether magnetic fields are considered or not. More precisely, a new class of high-order accurate dimensionally split schemes for structured meshes is proposed using the Lagrange re-map formalism. One of these schemes' most innovative features is that they have been designed in order to take advantage of modern massively parallel computer architectures. This property can for example be illustrated by the dimensionally split approach or the use of artificial viscosity techniques and is practically highlighted by sequential performance and parallel efficiency figures. Hyperbolic schemes are then combined with finite volume methods for dealing with the thermal and resistive conduction operators and taking magnetic field generation into account. In order to study the characteristics and effects of self-generated magnetic field terms, simulation results are finally proposed with the complete two-temperature resistive magnetohydrodynamics model on a test problem that represents the state of an ICF capsule at the beginning of the deceleration phase. (author)

  16. PITUITARY ADENOMA- VISUAL FIELDS, RETINAL NERVE FIBRE LAYER AND GANGLION CELL-INNER PLEXIFORM LAYER THICKNESS ANALYSIS- A CORRELATIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Shetty

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Pituitary adenoma is a benign and most common tumour of the pituitary gland. It is also the most common parachiasmal tumour and accounts for approximately 10-15% of primary intracranial neoplasms. It has an annual incidence rate of 0.8–8 per 1,00,000 population. Pituitary adenomas are classified as functional and non-functional based on their hormonal activity. Functional adenomas are usually detected earlier due to clinical manifestations produced by excess of hormones. The aim of the study is to analyse visual acuity, visual fields, RNFL thickness and GCIPL thickness on optical coherence tomography (OCT and to find a correlation between these parameters and tumour volume in patients diagnosed with pituitary adenoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS 48 patients diagnosed with pituitary adenoma confirmed by MRI scan underwent complete ophthalmic evaluation (visual acuity, slit-lamp examination, fundus evaluation, perimetry using 30-2 SITA FAST strategy, (Humphrey Field Analyzer; Carl-Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA, and OCT of disc (for retinal nerve fibre layer- RNFL thickness and macula (for ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GCIPL thickness using Cirrus HD-OCT (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA at Bangalore West Lions Super Speciality Eye Hospital, between June 2014 to June 2016. Various parameters like Mean Deviation (MD, Pattern Standard Deviation (PSD and RNFL and GCIPL thickness on OCT were analysed and correlated with each other. RESULTS Mean tumour volume in patients was 12.26 ± 15.8 cm3 . Most of the patients had visual acuity 6/18 or better. Bitemporal hemianopia was seen in only 5 (12.2% patients. Superotemporal quadrantanopia, arcuate defects, tubular fields and homonymous hemianopia were the other field defects seen. Total and pattern deviation plot of visual fields correlated well with tumour volume and visual acuity. On visual field analysis, the MD (-8.18 ± 8.65 dB was depressed compared to the control group (-2.0 ± 1.8 dB, and

  17. Use of EBSD data in mesoscale numerical analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, R; Wiland, H

    2000-03-30

    EBSD and FEM studies will provide impetus for further development of microstructure models and theories of microstructure evolution. Early studies connecting EBSD data to detailed finite element models used manual measurements to define initial orientations for the simulations. In one study, manual measurements of the deformed structure were also obtained for comparison with the model predictions. More recent work has taken advantage of automated data collection on deformed specimens as a means of collecting detailed and spatially correlated data for FEM model validation. Although it will not be discussed here, EBSD data can also be incorporated in FEM analyses in a less direct manner that is suitable for simulations where the element size is much larger than the grain size. The purpose of such models is to account for the effects of evolving material anisotropy in macro-scale simulations. In these analyses, a polycrystal plasticity model (e.g., a Taylor model or a self-consistent model), or a yield surface constructed from a polycrystal plasticity model, is used to determine the constitutive response of each element. The initial orientations used in the polycrystal plasticity model can be obtained from EBSD analyses or by fitting distributions of discrete orientations to x-ray data. The use of EBSD data is advantageous in that it is easier to account for spatial gradients of orientation distribution within a part. Another area in which EBSD data is having a great impact is on recrystallization modeling. EBSD techniques can be used to collect data for quantitative microstructural analysis (Humphreys, 1998). This data can be used to infer growth kinetics of specific orientations, and this information can be synthesized into more accurate grain growth or recrystallization models (Vogel et al., 1996). A second role which EBSD techniques may play in recrystallization modeling is in determining initial structures for the models. A realistic starting structure is vital for

  18. Geological and production analyses focused on exploration of the eastern part of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, BC; Analisis geologico-productivo enfocado a la exploracion de la parte oriental del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar Dumas, Alvaro [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Residencia General de Cerro Prieto, B.C (Mexico)]. E-mail: alvaro.aguilar@cfe.gob.mx

    2008-01-15

    The eastern part of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field (CGCP), known as Poligono Nuevo Leon, is an area with proven geothermal resources, as confirmed by seven directional wells located toward the east and by vertical well M-200 located inside the polygon. Well M-200 was drilled in 1984 and has produced about 4 million tons of steam to date. It is integrated into the CP-2 sector, producing 68 t/h of steam. Presently the eastern part of CGCP, representing 25% of the total field area, is producing over half of the steam for the entire field. In the last few years, the steam has come only after increasing the number of production wells located in the eastern zone of CGCP (Rodriguez, 2006), where pressure, enthalpy and temperature conditions are better than in other parts of the field. However in the long term it will be necessary to incorporate Poligono Nuevo Leon into the productive area to expand the productive life of CGCP. This paper includes a geological analysis, plus models for steam production, temperature and enthalpy for Poligono Nuevo Leon. [Spanish] La parte oriental del Campo Geotermico de Cerro Prieto (CGCP), conocida como Poligono Nuevo Leon, representa una area potencial con recursos geotermicos comprobados, lo que demuestran siete pozos direccionales que se han perforado hacia el este, asi como el pozo vertical M-200, localizado dentro del poligono. El pozo M-200 se perforo en 1984 y ha producido a la fecha alrededor de 4 millones de toneladas de vapor, estando integrado al sector CP-2 una produccion de 68 t/h de vapor. Actualmente la parte oriental del CGCP, que representa el 25% del area total del campo, produce mas de la mitad del total de vapor del campo. El suministro de vapor en los ultimos anos se ha logrado cubrir aumentando el numero de pozos en operacion localizados en la zona oriente del CGCP (Rodriguez, 2006), ya que es aqui donde hay condiciones de presion, entalpia y temperatura del yacimiento que son mejores que en otras areas del campo

  19. Visual field changes as an early indicator of glioblastoma multiforme progression: two cases of functional vision changes before MRI detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie K

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Kate Xie,1,* Catherine Y Liu,1,* Anton N Hasso,2 Robert Wade Crow1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Gavin Herbert Eye Institute, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA, USA, 2Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California Irvine Medical Center, Orange, CA, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Glioblastoma multiforme is an aggressive tumor associated with a high rate of recurrence even after maximal therapy. In a disease with poor prognosis and rapid deterioration, early detection of tumor progression is necessary to make timely treatment decisions or to initiate end of life care. We identify two cases where Humphrey visual field testing predated magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography findings of tumor progression by months in glioblastoma multiforme. New or worsening visual field defects may indicate signs of tumor progression in glioblastoma multiforme and should prompt further investigation. Keywords: glioblastoma multiforme, optic pathway, visual field defects

  20. Analyse de "La banlieue"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly Morais

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available 1. Préambule - Conditions de réalisation de la présente analyse Un groupe d'étudiants de master 1 de FLE de l'université Paris 3 (donc des étudiants en didactique des langues se destinant à l'enseignement du FLE a observé le produit au cours d'un module sur les TIC (Technologies de l'Information et de la Communication et la didactique des langues. Une discussion s'est ensuite engagée sur le forum d'une plate-forme de formation à distance à partir de quelques questions posées par l'enseigna...

  1. EEG analyses with SOBI.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glickman, Matthew R.; Tang, Akaysha (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-02-01

    The motivating vision behind Sandia's MENTOR/PAL LDRD project has been that of systems which use real-time psychophysiological data to support and enhance human performance, both individually and of groups. Relevant and significant psychophysiological data being a necessary prerequisite to such systems, this LDRD has focused on identifying and refining such signals. The project has focused in particular on EEG (electroencephalogram) data as a promising candidate signal because it (potentially) provides a broad window on brain activity with relatively low cost and logistical constraints. We report here on two analyses performed on EEG data collected in this project using the SOBI (Second Order Blind Identification) algorithm to identify two independent sources of brain activity: one in the frontal lobe and one in the occipital. The first study looks at directional influences between the two components, while the second study looks at inferring gender based upon the frontal component.

  2. Network class superposition analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl A B Pearson

    Full Text Available Networks are often used to understand a whole system by modeling the interactions among its pieces. Examples include biomolecules in a cell interacting to provide some primary function, or species in an environment forming a stable community. However, these interactions are often unknown; instead, the pieces' dynamic states are known, and network structure must be inferred. Because observed function may be explained by many different networks (e.g., ≈ 10(30 for the yeast cell cycle process, considering dynamics beyond this primary function means picking a single network or suitable sample: measuring over all networks exhibiting the primary function is computationally infeasible. We circumvent that obstacle by calculating the network class ensemble. We represent the ensemble by a stochastic matrix T, which is a transition-by-transition superposition of the system dynamics for each member of the class. We present concrete results for T derived from boolean time series dynamics on networks obeying the Strong Inhibition rule, by applying T to several traditional questions about network dynamics. We show that the distribution of the number of point attractors can be accurately estimated with T. We show how to generate Derrida plots based on T. We show that T-based Shannon entropy outperforms other methods at selecting experiments to further narrow the network structure. We also outline an experimental test of predictions based on T. We motivate all of these results in terms of a popular molecular biology boolean network model for the yeast cell cycle, but the methods and analyses we introduce are general. We conclude with open questions for T, for example, application to other models, computational considerations when scaling up to larger systems, and other potential analyses.

  3. 螺旋槽管内流动换热场协同分析%Field synergy analyses on inner flow and heat transfer characteristics of spirally corrugated tubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐玉峰; 田茂诚; 冷学礼

    2011-01-01

    A numerical study combined with the field synergy principle was performed to investigate the flow and heat transfer of fully developed turbulent flow in a spirally corrugated tube. Air was selected as the working fluid and constant temperature was applied to the tube wall. Sixteen different structural parameters consisting of four different corrugation pitches and depths were considered. The effects of helical corrugation and changes of corrugation pitch and depth on field synergy performance and heat transfer enhancement of the enhanced tube were discussed. It indicates that the field synergy principle is efficient in explaining the effect of structural parameter changes on the heat transfer performance of spirally corrugated tubes and also is a guide to structural optimization of enhanced heat transfer elements. By contrast, the Nusselt number acquired from the numerical calculation is in relatively good agreement with the results of experimental correlation.%运用数值模拟结合场协同原理,对螺旋槽管内充分发展湍流的流动和换热进行了分析.模拟以空气为工质,管壁温度恒定,分别选取了4种不同的螺纹节距和螺纹高度组成的16组结构参数.讨论了螺纹凸起,以及螺纹节距、螺纹高度变化对螺旋槽管场协同性能和强化传热能力的影响.结果表明:利用场协同原理,可以解释结构参数的变化对螺旋槽管传热效果的影响,并能够对强化传热元件的结构优化提供指导.通过对比,模拟所得Nu数与实验所得Nu关联公式的计算结果基本一致.

  4. A fast draw. Analysis of a level playing field for a high-speed line and low cost carriers; Snel naar gelijk spel. Aanzet tot analyse van een gelijk speelveld voor hoge snelheidslijn en low cost carriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Essen, H.P.; Warringa, G.E.A.; Boon, B.H.

    2004-11-01

    For several lines in Europe Low Cost Carriers (LCCs) are considered as competitive means of transportation for high-speed lines (HSL in Dutch). A desk study has been carried out to gain insight in marginal external costs and levies of LCCs and HSLs in the Netherlands. The results can contribute to the discussion on a level playing field in this sector. Also an overview is given of other costs and levies. [Dutch] Low Cost Carriers (LCC's) worden op verschillende trajecten in Europa nogal eens beschouwd als concurrenten van de hoge snelheidslijnen (HSL). Om inzicht te verkrijgen in de externe kosten van LCC's en HSL en daarmee een bijdrage te leveren aan de discussie over een gelijk speelveld ('level playing field') heeft CE in opdracht van het Ministerie van Verkeer en Waterstaat DG Luchtvaart een deskstudie uitgevoerd naar de marginale externe kosten en heffingen van LCC's en HSL in Nederland. Daarnaast is een globale inventarisatie gemaakt van de overige kosten en heffingen. Tegenover de meeste externe kostenposten staat geen noemenswaardige heffing om de kosten te internaliseren,met als enige uitzondering geluidsoverlast door het vliegtuig. Dit betekent dat in het algemeen er te weinig rekening wordt gehouden met de externe effecten die zowel de HSL als het vliegtuig veroorzaken. Deze studie vormt een eerste aanzet tot een antwoord op de vraag naar een gelijk speelveld en rechtvaardigt geen definitief oordeel. Voor een eerlijke vergelijking tussen HSL en LCC dienen naast de externe kosten, in het bijzonder de kosten, afschrijvingen en overdrachten van bestaande luchtvaart- en HSL-infrastructuur en verschillende vormen van directe en indirecte overheidssteun nader te worden onderzocht.

  5. Website-analyse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlacius, Lisbeth

    2009-01-01

    planlægning af de funktionelle og indholdsmæssige aspekter ved websites. Der findes en stor mængde teori- og metodebøger, som har specialiseret sig i de tekniske problemstillinger i forbindelse med interaktion og navigation, samt det sproglige indhold på websites. Den danske HCI (Human Computer Interaction...... hyperfunktionelle websites. Det primære ærinde for HCI-eksperterne er at udarbejde websites, som er brugervenlige. Ifølge deres direktiver skal websites være opbygget med hurtige og effektive navigations- og interaktionsstrukturer, hvor brugeren kan få sine informationer ubesværet af lange downloadingshastigheder...... eller blindgyder, når han/hun besøger sitet. Studier i design og analyse af de visuelle og æstetiske aspekter i planlægning og brug af websites har imidlertid kun i et begrænset omfang været under reflektorisk behandling. Det er baggrunden for dette kapitel, som indleder med en gennemgang af æstetikkens...

  6. Background and analysis of R and D needs in the field of nuclear toxicology; Contexte et analyse des besoins en R et D dans le domaine de la toxicologie nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quemeneur, E. [CEA Marcoule, Dir. des Sciences du Vivant, 30 (France); Menager, M.Th. [CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, Dir. des Sciences du Vivant, 92 (France); Forestier, C. [CEA Cadarache, Dir. des Sciences du Vivant, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Ansoborlo, E. [CEA Marcoule, Dir. de l' Energie Nucleaire, 30 (France)

    2008-07-01

    The CEA has confirmed his interest in late 2007 for a continuation of the coordinated effort of research in Nuclear Toxicology. Our working group aimed at developing proposals to organize internal priorities in the CEA, as well as supporting a dynamic and open ambition in terms of partnership. This document provides the main elements of the analysis of the context and needs, a strategic proposal and the arrangements planed for the next five years. The proposed programme covers the field of cellular and molecular toxicology applied to the human biology and the environment. Seeking to achieve the right balance between academic and applied research, it addresses some fundamental issues, in large part identified in previous phases (speciation of mobile forms, transport in the biosphere, biochemical targets, and mechanisms of action at different levels of living organisms) and will aim at assessing the potential of novel bio-processes for the intervention in accidental situation. Basically multi-disciplinary, this programme will require to re-launch, and amplify, the coordinated efforts of skills from different poles of the CEA for which internal resources could cover part of the priority needs. However, it seems clear that the establishment of strong relationships with academic partners and industry is required to achieve the expectations raised by the multiple thematic scopes. In the current context of toxicology in France, we chose to approach the field on the basis of a road-map rather than as a unique project. This modular approach seems to be the appropriate way to take into account the concerns of various stakeholders in this vast programme as well as the necessary reflection on the commitment of resources. Our analysis of the competitive environment of work and available forces led to concentrate our efforts on a few chemical elements or radionuclides of specific interest in the nuclear field (tritium, cobalt, iodine, cesium, uranium and plutonium) and to focus

  7. AC loss analyses of a thin superconducting tube in an alternating magnetic field%交变磁场下超导薄圆筒的交流损耗研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    皮伟; 王银顺; 左晶

    2011-01-01

    Numerical simulations on the AC loss characteristics in a thin superconducting tube were presented in this paper. Geometry of the superconductor was modeled as a tube with negligible thickness, and assumed to carry a transport current and simultaneously exposed to AC external magnetic field, which had same phase with the AC transport current. Based on Bean critical model, AC loss was obtained by means of numerical method. The results were in good agreement with experiments. This numerical simulation method was only suitable for a thin HTS tube, which was perhaps applicable in a thin tube configuration consisted of coated superconductors.%通过数值模拟方法研究了超导薄圆筒在交变磁场下的交流损耗特性.这种超导体的几何模型为一个通有与外加磁场同相位的交流电且厚度可忽略的圆筒.基于Bean临界态模型,通过数值方法得到了交流损耗Q,与实验结果符合得很好.此值模拟方法仅适用于超导薄圆筒,对涂层超导体具有一定的应用价值.

  8. Interpreting discordant indirect and multiple treatment comparison meta-analyses: an evaluation of direct acting antivirals for chronic hepatitis C infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Druyts E

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Eric Druyts,1 Kristian Thorlund,2,3 Samantha Humphreys,4 Michaela Lion,4 Curtis L Cooper,5 Edward J Mills1,31Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; 2Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; 3Stanford Prevention Research Centre, Department of Medicine, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, USA; 4Merck Sharp and Dohme Ltd, UK; 5Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, The Ottawa Hospital, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, CanadaAbstract: Indirect treatment comparison (ITC and multiple treatment comparison (MTC meta-analyses are increasingly being used to estimate the comparative effectiveness of interventions when head-to-head data do not exist. ITC meta-analyses can be conducted using simple methodology to compare two interventions. MTC meta-analyses can be conducted using more complex methodology, often employing Bayesian approaches, to compare multiple interventions. As the number of ITC and MTC meta-analyses increase, it is common to find multiple analyses evaluating the same interventions in similar therapeutic areas. Depending on the choice of the methodological approach, the conclusions about relative treatment efficacy may differ. Such situations create uncertainty for decision makers. An illustration of this is provided by four ITC and MTC meta-analyses assessing the efficacy of boceprevir and telaprevir for chronic hepatitis C virus infection. This paper examines why these evaluations provide discordant results by examining specific methodological issues that can strengthen or weaken inferences.Keywords: indirect treatment comparison, multiple treatment comparison, meta-analysis, hepatitis C virus

  9. Micromechanical Analyses of Sturzstroms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imre, Bernd; Laue, Jan; Springman, Sarah M.

    2010-05-01

    have been made observable and reproducible within a physical and a distinct element numerical modelling environment (DEM). As link between field evidence gained from the deposits of natural sturzstroms, the physical model within the ETH Geotechnical Drum Centrifuge (Springman et al., 2001) and the numerical model PFC-3D (Cundall and Strack, 1979; Itasca, 2005), serves a deterministic fractal analytical comminution model (Sammis et al., 1987; Steacy and Sammis, 1991). This approach allowed studying the effects of dynamic fragmentation within sturzstroms at true (macro) scale within the distinct element model, by allowing for a micro-mechanical, distinct particle based, and cyclic description of fragmentation at the same time, without losing significant computational efficiency. Theses experiments indicate rock mass and boundary conditions, which allow an alternating fragmenting and dilating dispersive regime to evolve and to be sustained long enough to replicate the spreading and run out of sturzstroms. The fragmenting spreading model supported here is able to explain the run out of a dry granular flow, beyond the travel distance predicted by a Coulomb frictional sliding model, without resorting to explanations by mechanics that can only be valid for certain, specific of the boundary conditions. The implications derived suggest that a sturzstrom, because of its strong relation to internal fractal fragmentation and other inertial effects, constitutes a landslide category of its own. Its mechanics differ significantly from all other gravity driven mass flows. This proposition does not exclude the possible appearance of frictionites, Toma hills or suspension flows etc., but it considers them as secondary features. The application of a fractal comminution model to describe natural and experimental sturzstrom deposits turned out to be a useful tool for sturzstrom research. Implemented within the DEM, it allows simulating the key features of sturzstrom successfully and

  10. Fully Coupled FE Analyses of Buried Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James T. Baylot

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Current procedures for determining the response of buried structures to the effects of the detonation of buried high explosives recommend decoupling the free-field stress analysis from the structure response analysis. A fully coupled (explosive–soil structure finite element analysis procedure was developed so that the accuracies of current decoupling procedures could be evaluated. Comparisons of the results of analyses performed using this procedure with scale-model experiments indicate that this finite element procedure can be used to effectively evaluate the accuracies of the methods currently being used to decouple the free-field stress analysis from the structure response analysis.

  11. Analyses of cavitation instabilities in ductile metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo

    2007-01-01

    , and also tests for a thin ductile metal layer bonding two ceramic blocks have indicated rapid void growth. Analyses for these material configurations are discussed here. When the void radius is very small, a nonlocal plasticity model is needed to account for observed size-effects, and recent analyses...... analyzed for a material containing a periodic distribution of spherical voids with two different void sizes, where the stress fields around larger voids may accelerate the growth of smaller voids. Another approach has been an analysis of a unit cell model in which a central cavity is discretely represented......, while the surrounding voids are represented by a porous ductile material model in terms of a field quantity that specifies the variation of the void volume fraction in the surrounding metal....

  12. Ocular hypotensive effect, preservation of visual fields, and safety of adding dorzolamide to prostaglandin therapy for twelve months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Inoue

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Kenji Inoue1,3, Mieko Masumoto1,3, Masato Wakakura1, Goji Tomita2, On behalf of the Ochanomizu Ophthalmology Study Group31Inouye Eye Hospital, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Toho University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 3Ochanomizu Ophthalmology, Tokyo, JapanPurpose: To prospectively evaluate the safety, hypotensive effect, and preservation of visual fields of dorzolamide when added to latanoprost.Subjects and methods: This study included 46 patients (46 eyes with primary open-angle glaucoma who had been treated with latanoprost. Dorzolamide (1% was added to latanoprost, and the intraocular pressure (IOP was monitored before and after 3, 6, and 12 months. The mean deviation shown by Humphrey perimetry was compared before and after twelve months of treatment. Adverse reactions were monitored over the 12-month study period.Results: The mean baseline IOP was 17.2 ± 3.0 mmHg while those after 3, 6 and 12 months of treatment were 14.9 ± 3.0 mmHg, 14.5 ± 3.2 mmHg, and 14.6 ± 2.6 mmHg respectively (P < 0.0001, 1-ß(power = 0.9999571. The absolute reduction of IOP and the percent reduction were similar after 3, 6, and 12 months of treatment. The mean deviation on Humphrey perimetry was similar before and after twelve months of treatment. Three patients discontinued dorzolamide therapy due to elevation of IOP and one patient discontinued it because of adverse reactions.Conclusion: Dorzolamide is safe and effective when used for twelve months as add-on therapy to latanoprost for open-angle glaucoma.Keywords: dorzolamide, primary open-angle glaucoma, latanoprost 

  13. Dialogue, Field, and Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple, Michael W.

    2017-01-01

    "The Journal of Educational Administration and History" has played an important role as a site for analyses that seek to expand both the academic and the ethical/political concerns of the field. A key word here is field. What counts as the field? What are its boundaries? Who is inside and who is outside? How has that changed over time?…

  14. The retest distribution of the visual field summary index mean deviation is close to normal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Andrew J; Cheng, Allan C Y; Lau, Samantha; Le-Pham, Anne; Liu, Victor; Rahman, Farahnaz

    2016-09-01

    When modelling optimum strategies for how best to determine visual field progression in glaucoma, it is commonly assumed that the summary index mean deviation (MD) is normally distributed on repeated testing. Here we tested whether this assumption is correct. We obtained 42 reliable 24-2 Humphrey Field Analyzer SITA standard visual fields from one eye of each of five healthy young observers, with the first two fields excluded from analysis. Previous work has shown that although MD variability is higher in glaucoma, the shape of the MD distribution is similar to that found in normal visual fields. A Shapiro-Wilks test determined any deviation from normality. Kurtosis values for the distributions were also calculated. Data from each observer passed the Shapiro-Wilks normality test. Bootstrapped 95% confidence intervals for kurtosis encompassed the value for a normal distribution in four of five observers. When examined with quantile-quantile plots, distributions were close to normal and showed no consistent deviations across observers. The retest distribution of MD is not significantly different from normal in healthy observers, and so is likely also normally distributed - or nearly so - in those with glaucoma. Our results increase our confidence in the results of influential modelling studies where a normal distribution for MD was assumed. © 2016 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2016 The College of Optometrists.

  15. Multiple Imputation for Network Analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krause, Robert; Huisman, Mark; Steglich, Christian; Snijders, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Missing data on network ties is a fundamental problem for network analyses. The biases induced by missing edge data, even when missing completely at random (MCAR), are widely acknowledged and problematic for network analyses (Kossinets, 2006; Huisman & Steglich, 2008; Huisman, 2009). Although model-

  16. The evidence base to select a method for assessing glaucomatous visual field progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernest, Paul J G; Schouten, Jan S A G; Beckers, Henny J M; Hendrikse, Fred; Prins, Martin H; Webers, Carroll A B

    2012-03-01

    A large number of methods have been developed for assessing glaucomatous visual field progression, but their properties have not yet been systematically evaluated. In this systematic literature review, we summarize the evidence base for selecting a method by providing answers to ten relevant questions on the variety, validity and reproducibility of methods. In total, we found 301 different methods in 412 articles. The majority of studies (54%) used the Humphrey Field Analyzer. No data have been published about the reproducibility of methods. Although there is no gold standard to assess glaucomatous visual field progression, we found evidence on validity for 48 different methods. Some methods were less capable of distinguishing between progressive and nonprogressive patients. Choosing among twelve methods is supported by some evidence of their validity. These methods still differ in sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of test results within studies comparing several methods. In conclusion, the current evidence base is not perfect. A selection should be made from a limited number of methods, according to the clinical purpose of progression assessment. Methods that quantify the rate of visual field progression seem to be the most appropriate for guiding subsequent medical actions in individual patients. Future studies should investigate whether using one method to monitor patients is superior to another method in preventing loss of quality of life.

  17. Bioinformatics tools for analysing viral genomic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, R J; Gu, Q; Hughes, J; Maabar, M; Modha, S; Vattipally, S B; Wilkie, G S; Davison, A J

    2016-04-01

    The field of viral genomics and bioinformatics is experiencing a strong resurgence due to high-throughput sequencing (HTS) technology, which enables the rapid and cost-effective sequencing and subsequent assembly of large numbers of viral genomes. In addition, the unprecedented power of HTS technologies has enabled the analysis of intra-host viral diversity and quasispecies dynamics in relation to important biological questions on viral transmission, vaccine resistance and host jumping. HTS also enables the rapid identification of both known and potentially new viruses from field and clinical samples, thus adding new tools to the fields of viral discovery and metagenomics. Bioinformatics has been central to the rise of HTS applications because new algorithms and software tools are continually needed to process and analyse the large, complex datasets generated in this rapidly evolving area. In this paper, the authors give a brief overview of the main bioinformatics tools available for viral genomic research, with a particular emphasis on HTS technologies and their main applications. They summarise the major steps in various HTS analyses, starting with quality control of raw reads and encompassing activities ranging from consensus and de novo genome assembly to variant calling and metagenomics, as well as RNA sequencing.

  18. Olfactometric analyses or odors measurement by sensorial analyses; Analyses olfactometriques ou mesure des odeurs par analyse sensorielle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gouronnec, A.M. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), 92 - Clamart (France)

    2004-06-15

    The olfactometric analyses presented here are applied to industrial odors being able to generate harmful effects for people. The aim of the olfactometric analyses is to quantify odors, to qualify them or to join a pleasant or an unpleasant character to them (hedonism notion). The aim of this work is at first to present the different measurements carried out, the different measurement methods used and the current applications for each of the methods. (O.M.)

  19. First international intercomparison of image analysers

    CERN Document Server

    Pálfalvi, J; Eoerdoegh, I

    1999-01-01

    Image analyser systems used for evaluating solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) were compared in order to establish minimum hardware and software requirements and methodology necessary in different fields of radiation dosimetry. For the purpose, CR-39 detectors (TASL, Bristol, U.K.) were irradiated with different (n,alpha) and (n,p) converters in a reference Pu-Be neutron field, in an underground laboratory with high radon concentration and by different alpha sources at the Atomic Energy Research Institute (AERI) in Budapest, Hungary. 6 sets of etched and pre-evaluated detectors and the 7th one without etching were distributed among the 14 laboratories from 11 countries. The participants measured the different track parameters and statistically evaluated the results, to determine the performance of their system. The statistical analysis of results showed high deviations from the mean values in many cases. As the conclusion of the intercomparison recommendations were given to fulfill those requirements ...

  20. How fields vary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Monika

    2017-04-06

    Field theorists have long insisted that research needs to pay attention to the particular properties of each field studied. But while much field-theoretical research is comparative, either explicitly or implicitly, scholars have only begun to develop the language for describing the dimensions along which fields can be similar to and different from each other. In this context, this paper articulates an agenda for the analysis of variable properties of fields. It discusses variation in the degree but also in the kind of field autonomy. It discusses different dimensions of variation in field structure: fields can be more or less contested, and more or less hierarchical. The structure of symbolic oppositions in a field may take different forms. Lastly, it analyses the dimensions of variation highlighted by research on fields on the sub- and transnational scale. Post-national analysis allows us to ask how fields relate to fields of the same kind on different scales, and how fields relate to fields on the same scale in other national contexts. It allows us to ask about the role resources from other scales play in structuring symbolic oppositions within fields. A more fine-tuned vocabulary for field variation can help us better describe particular fields and it is a precondition for generating hypotheses about the conditions under which we can expect to observe fields with specified characteristics. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  1. Analysing harmonic motions with an iPhone’s magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Ahmet; Kağan Temiz, Burak

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we propose an experiment for analysing harmonic motion using an iPhone’s (or iPad’s) magnetometer. This experiment consists of the detection of magnetic field variations obtained from an iPhone’s magnetometer sensor. A graph of harmonic motion is directly displayed on the iPhone’s screen using the Sensor Kinetics application. Data from this application was analysed with Eureqa software to establish the equation of the harmonic motion. Analyses show that the use of an iPhone’s magnetometer to analyse harmonic motion is a practical and effective method for small oscillations and frequencies less than 15-20 Hz.

  2. 原发性闭角型青光眼视野损害的特点%Charactistics of visual field defects in primary angle-closure glaucoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩芳; 袁援生

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine the difference of visual field defects between acute angle-closure glaucoma (AACG) and chronic angle-closure glaucoma (CACG) and to analyze the difference in the changes of visual field between primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) and primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). Methods This retrospective case series study consisted of 53 patients with CACG,42 with AACG, and 42 with POAG. Visual field tests were examined using the 30-2 threshold program of the Humphrey Visual Field Analyzer. All cases with eligible visual fields were scored from 1 to 11 with the modified criterion used by Advanced Glaneoma Intervention Study (AGIS seures, mild groups: 1-5 and moderate groups: 6-11). An upper hemifields, lower hemifields, nasal area and overall field, mean defect (MD) and pattern standard deviation (PSD) were calculated and compared among the three glaucoma groups. The differenee in central 10°(12 points) of visual field damage, the nasal area, and the most defect quadrant of static visual field in each groups were evaluated. All analyses were performed with SAS 9.1 software. The factor analysis was used to analyze significant differences in mean defect (MD), pattern standard deviation (PSD), VF scores of nasal area and overal field among the three glaucoma groups. Analysis of variance were assessed differences between VF scores of the superior hemifield and the inferior hemifield. The differences in central 10° of visual field damage,the nasal area and the most defect quadrant of static visual field in each groups were examined using a chi-square test. P<0.05 were considered to be statistically significant. Results (1) VF scores with inferior hemifieid in POAG were lower than in CACG (t=4.24, P=0.0000) and in AACC(t=3.28, P=0.0013); There were no significant differences of VF seores between the superior hemifieid and the inferior hemifield in CACG (t=1.35, P=0.1808) and AACG (t=0.55, P=0.5824). There was found a significant differences of VF scores

  3. Quantification of visual field loss in age-related macular degeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer H Acton

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An evaluation of standard automated perimetry (SAP and short wavelength automated perimetry (SWAP for the central 10-2 visual field test procedure in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD is presented in order to determine methods of quantifying the central sensitivity loss in patients at various stages of AMD. METHODS: 10-2 SAP and SWAP Humphrey visual fields and stereoscopic fundus photographs were collected in 27 eyes of 27 patients with AMD and 22 eyes of 22 normal subjects. RESULTS: Mean Deviation and Pattern Standard Deviation (PSD varied significantly with stage of disease in SAP (both p<0.001 and SWAP (both p<0.001, but post hoc analysis revealed overlap of functional values among stages. In SWAP, indices of focal loss were more sensitive to detecting differences in AMD from normal. SWAP defects were greater in depth and area than those in SAP. Central sensitivity (within 1° changed by -3.9 and -4.9 dB per stage in SAP and SWAP, respectively. Based on defect maps, an AMD Severity Index was derived. CONCLUSIONS: Global indices of focal loss were more sensitive to detecting early stage AMD from normal. The SWAP sensitivity decline with advancing stage of AMD was greater than in SAP. A new AMD Severity Index quantifies visual field defects on a continuous scale. Although not all patients are suitable for SWAP examinations, it is of value as a tool in research studies of visual loss in AMD.

  4. Testing of Visual Field with Virtual Reality Goggles in Manual and Visual Grasp Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Wroblewski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Automated perimetry is used for the assessment of visual function in a variety of ophthalmic and neurologic diseases. We report development and clinical testing of a compact, head-mounted, and eye-tracking perimeter (VirtualEye that provides a more comfortable test environment than the standard instrumentation. VirtualEye performs the equivalent of a full threshold 24-2 visual field in two modes: (1 manual, with patient response registered with a mouse click, and (2 visual grasp, where the eye tracker senses change in gaze direction as evidence of target acquisition. 59 patients successfully completed the test in manual mode and 40 in visual grasp mode, with 59 undergoing the standard Humphrey field analyzer (HFA testing. Large visual field defects were reliably detected by VirtualEye. Point-by-point comparison between the results obtained with the different modalities indicates: (1 minimal systematic differences between measurements taken in visual grasp and manual modes, (2 the average standard deviation of the difference distributions of about 5 dB, and (3 a systematic shift (of 4–6 dB to lower sensitivities for VirtualEye device, observed mostly in high dB range. The usability survey suggested patients’ acceptance of the head-mounted device. The study appears to validate the concepts of a head-mounted perimeter and the visual grasp mode.

  5. Testing of visual field with virtual reality goggles in manual and visual grasp modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wroblewski, Dariusz; Francis, Brian A; Sadun, Alfredo; Vakili, Ghazal; Chopra, Vikas

    2014-01-01

    Automated perimetry is used for the assessment of visual function in a variety of ophthalmic and neurologic diseases. We report development and clinical testing of a compact, head-mounted, and eye-tracking perimeter (VirtualEye) that provides a more comfortable test environment than the standard instrumentation. VirtualEye performs the equivalent of a full threshold 24-2 visual field in two modes: (1) manual, with patient response registered with a mouse click, and (2) visual grasp, where the eye tracker senses change in gaze direction as evidence of target acquisition. 59 patients successfully completed the test in manual mode and 40 in visual grasp mode, with 59 undergoing the standard Humphrey field analyzer (HFA) testing. Large visual field defects were reliably detected by VirtualEye. Point-by-point comparison between the results obtained with the different modalities indicates: (1) minimal systematic differences between measurements taken in visual grasp and manual modes, (2) the average standard deviation of the difference distributions of about 5 dB, and (3) a systematic shift (of 4-6 dB) to lower sensitivities for VirtualEye device, observed mostly in high dB range. The usability survey suggested patients' acceptance of the head-mounted device. The study appears to validate the concepts of a head-mounted perimeter and the visual grasp mode.

  6. Localising rectus muscle insertions using high frequency wide-field ultrasound biomicroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Hayat Ahmad; Smith, David R; Kraft, Stephen P

    2012-05-01

    The ultrasound biomicroscope (UBM) can accurately locate an extraocular muscle (EOM) insertion. The authors compared the accuracy of the Sonomed UBM (SUBM), a new 'wide-field ultrasound biomicroscope', with the older model Humphrey UBM (HUBM) in localising EOM insertions and compared their ranges of detection of muscle insertions. Prospective, double-masked, observational study of 27 patients undergoing primary (n=40 muscles) or repeat (n=10 muscles) horizontal or vertical rectus muscle surgery. EOM insertional distances were measured with SUBM, and then intraoperatively with callipers. A Bland-Altman analysis and intraclass correlation coefficient were used to compare the SUBM and surgical data. For all muscles, the differences between SUBM and surgery measurements were less than 1.0 mm. The mean of the SUBM insertion distances was 6.67 mm (SD 1.65 mm) versus 6.7 mm (SD 1.6 mm) at surgery. The intraclass correlation coefficient showed 'excellent' correlation between the two sets of data and was higher than that reported with HUBM. The image quality with the SUBM was superior to the HUBM, and its range of field was much larger (14×18 mm vs 5×6 mm). The SUBM with its smaller, more manoeuvrable probe handpiece and a wider scanning field was more accurate in detecting muscle insertions compared with HUBM.

  7. Multifocal topographic visual evoked potential: improving objective detection of local visual field defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klistorner, A I; Graham, S L; Grigg, J R; Billson, F A

    1998-05-01

    To investigate the relationships between the pattern stimulation of different parts of the visual field (up to 25 degrees of eccentricity), the electrode position, and the cortical response to improve objective detection of local visual field defects. The human visual evoked potential (VEP) was assessed using multifocal pseudorandomly alternated pattern stimuli that were cortically scaled in size. Monopolar and bipolar electrode positions were used. The visual field was investigated up to 26 degrees of eccentricity. Twelve normal subjects and seven subjects with visual field defects of different nature were studied. Although the monopolar response is heavily biased toward the lower hemifield, bipolar leads overlying the active occipital cortex (straddling the inion) demonstrate good signals from all areas of the visual field tested. The amplitude is almost equal for the averaged upper and lower hemifields, but the polarity is opposite, causing partial cancellation of the full-field VEP. The degree of cancellation depends mainly on latency differences between the vertical hemifields. The bipolar VEP corresponded well with Humphrey visual field defects, and it showed a loss of signal in the scotoma area. The multifocal VEP demonstrates good correspondence with the topography of the visual field. Recording with occipital bipolar electrode placement is superior to standard monopolar recording. To avoid a full-field cancellation effect, a separate evaluation of upper and lower hemifields should be used for the best assessment of retinocortical pathways. This technique represents a significant step toward the possible application of the multifocal VEP to objective detection of local defects in the visual field.

  8. Mitogenomic analyses from ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paijmans, Johanna L.A.; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Hofreiter, Michael

    2013-01-01

    . To date, at least 124 partially or fully assembled mitogenomes from more than 20 species have been obtained, and, given the rapid progress in sequencing technology, this number is likely to dramatically increase in the future. The increased information content offered by analysing full mitogenomes has...... (mitogenomes). Such studies were initially limited to analyses of extant organisms, but developments in both DNA sequencing technologies and general methodological aspects related to working with degraded DNA have resulted in complete mitogenomes becoming increasingly popular for ancient DNA studies as well...... analyses (whether using modern or ancient DNA) were largely restricted to the analysis of short fragments of the mitochondrial genome. However, due to many technological advances during the past decade, a growing number of studies have explored the power of complete mitochondrial genome sequences...

  9. Descriptive Analyses of Mechanical Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Mogens Myrup; Hansen, Claus Thorp

    2003-01-01

    Forord Produktanalyse og teknologianalyse kan gennmføres med et bredt socio-teknisk sigte med henblik på at forstå kulturelle, sociologiske, designmæssige, forretningsmæssige og mange andre forhold. Et delområde heri er systemisk analyse og beskrivelse af produkter og systemer. Nærværende kompend...

  10. Evaluation "Risk analyses of agroparks"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ge, L.

    2011-01-01

    Dit TransForum project richt zich op analyse van de onzekerheden en mogelijkheden van agroparken. Dit heeft geleid tot een risicomodel dat de kwalitatieve en/of kwantitatieve onzekerheden van een agropark project in kaart brengt. Daarmee kunnen maatregelen en managementstrategiën worden geïdentifice

  11. ANALYSING SPACE: ADAPTING AND EXTENDING MULTIMODAL SEMIOTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise J. Ravelli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the field of multimodal discourse analysis, one of the most exciting sites of application is that of 3D space: examining aspects of built environment for its meaningmaking potential. For the built environment – homes, offices, public buildings, parks, etc. – does indeed make meaning. These are spaces which speak – often their meanings are so familiar, we no longer hear what they say; sometimes, new and unusual sites draw attention to their meanings, and they are hotly contested. This chapter will suggest ways of analyzing 3D texts, based on the framework of Kress and van Leeuwen (2006. This framework, developed primarily for the analysis of 2D images, has been successfully extended to a range of other multimodal texts. Extension to the built environment includes Pang (2004, O’Toole (1994, Ravelli (2006, Safeyton (2004, Stenglin (2004 and White (1994, whose studies will inform the analyses presented here. This article will identify some of the key theoretical principles which underline this approach, including the notions of text, context and metafunction, and will describe some of the main areas of analysis for 3D texts. Also, ways of bringing the analyses together will be considered. The analyses will be demonstrated in relation to the Scientia building at the University of New South Wales, Australia.

  12. Analyses of species composition and diversity of weed seed bank of main crop fields in Jiangsu Province and its correlation with environmental factors%江苏省主要农田杂草种子库物种组成和多样性及其与环境因子的相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章超斌; 马波; 强胜

    2012-01-01

    , accounts for 22. 6% and 20. 8% of total number of weed species, respectively. The dominant species in weed seed bank in different sites of upland field changes greatly but that of paddy field is relatively stable, while difference of dominant species frequency between upland and paddy fields is greater. There are 19 weeds in upland field with frequency higher than 0. 30, while 20 weeds in paddy field with frequency higher than 0. 50. And there are 11 and 9 weeds respectively in upland and paddy fields with average important value higher than 0.03 , important value of these weeds with high frequency is also high. Seed density of weed seed bank in upland and paddy fields is 21 015 and 37 847 m~2, respectively, with an average density of 31 008 m"2. Weed seed density in three soil layers in upland field has no significant difference, but that in upper and middle soil layers in paddy field is significantly higher than that in lower layer. Summer and autumn weeds are main types in upland field, while paddy and summer weeds are main types in paddy field. According to morphological type, the species number and density of weed from high to low in order is broadleaf grasses, grasses, sedges, and their species number and density in paddy field are higher than those in upland field. Compared with upland field, species richness (S), Shannon-Wiener index (//') and Simpson index ( D) of weed seed bank in paddy field are higher, while Pielou index ( E) is lower. And with increasing of soil depth, S, H' and D of weed seed bank in upland field decrease gradually but E increases, but change trend of species diversity indexes of different soil layers in paddy field are not obvious. Negative correlation between the first axis of species and waterlogging days is the highest (R = -0. 814 3) , and negative correlations between the second axis of species and annual precipitation, longitude are also higher. The results of correlation and CCA analyses all indicate that waterlogging days is the most

  13. Strong Field, Noncommutative QED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Ilderton

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available We review the effects of strong background fields in noncommutative QED. Beginning with the noncommutative Maxwell and Dirac equations, we describe how combined noncommutative and strong field effects modify the propagation of fermions and photons. We extend these studies beyond the case of constant backgrounds by giving a new and revealing interpretation of the photon dispersion relation. Considering scattering in background fields, we then show that the noncommutative photon is primarily responsible for generating deviations from strong field QED results. Finally, we propose a new method for constructing gauge invariant variables in noncommutative QED, and use it to analyse the physics of our null background fields.

  14. Multivariate Evolutionary Analyses in Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Fraix-Burnet, Didier

    2011-01-01

    The large amount of data on galaxies, up to higher and higher redshifts, asks for sophisticated statistical approaches to build adequate classifications. Multivariate cluster analyses, that compare objects for their global similarities, are still confidential in astrophysics, probably because their results are somewhat difficult to interpret. We believe that the missing key is the unavoidable characteristics in our Universe: evolution. Our approach, known as Astrocladistics, is based on the evolutionary nature of both galaxies and their properties. It gathers objects according to their "histories" and establishes an evolutionary scenario among groups of objects. In this presentation, I show two recent results on globular clusters and earlytype galaxies to illustrate how the evolutionary concepts of Astrocladistics can also be useful for multivariate analyses such as K-means Cluster Analysis.

  15. Workload analyse of assembling process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghenghea, L. D.

    2015-11-01

    The workload is the most important indicator for managers responsible of industrial technological processes no matter if these are automated, mechanized or simply manual in each case, machines or workers will be in the focus of workload measurements. The paper deals with workload analyses made to a most part manual assembling technology for roller bearings assembling process, executed in a big company, with integrated bearings manufacturing processes. In this analyses the delay sample technique have been used to identify and divide all bearing assemblers activities, to get information about time parts from 480 minutes day work time that workers allow to each activity. The developed study shows some ways to increase the process productivity without supplementary investments and also indicated the process automation could be the solution to gain maximum productivity.

  16. Analysing ESP Texts, but How?

    OpenAIRE

    Borza Natalia

    2015-01-01

    English as a second language (ESL) teachers instructing general English and English for specific purposes (ESP) in bilingual secondary schools face various challenges when it comes to choosing the main linguistic foci of language preparatory courses enabling non-native students to study academic subjects in English. ESL teachers intending to analyse English language subject textbooks written for secondary school students with the aim of gaining information about what bilingual secondary schoo...

  17. An extensible analysable system model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Probst, Christian W.; Hansen, Rene Rydhof

    2008-01-01

    , this does not hold for real physical systems. Approaches such as threat modelling try to target the formalisation of the real-world domain, but still are far from the rigid techniques available in security research. Many currently available approaches to assurance of critical infrastructure security...... allows for easy development of analyses for the abstracted systems. We briefly present one application of our approach, namely the analysis of systems for potential insider threats....

  18. DebriSat Laboratory Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-05

    Semiquantitative elemental composition. – Elemental mapping and line scans. • Fourier Transform Infrared ( FTIR ) spectroscopy – Identification of chemical...Transform Infrared ( FTIR ) spectroscopy – Nicolet 6700 spectrometer. – Harrick Scientific “praying mantis” diffuse reflectance accessory. • Qualitative...VIS-NIR Spectroscopy Dianna Alaan © The Aerospace Corporation 2015 DebriSat Laboratory Analyses 5 January, 2015 Paul M. Adams1, Zachary Lingley2

  19. Mitogenomic analyses of eutherian relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnason, U; Janke, A

    2002-01-01

    Reasonably correct phylogenies are fundamental to the testing of evolutionary hypotheses. Here, we present phylogenetic findings based on analyses of 67 complete mammalian mitochondrial (mt) genomes. The analyses, irrespective of whether they were performed at the amino acid (aa) level or on nucleotides (nt) of first and second codon positions, placed Erinaceomorpha (hedgehogs and their kin) as the sister group of remaining eutherians. Thus, the analyses separated Erinaceomorpha from other traditional lipotyphlans (e.g., tenrecs, moles, and shrews), making traditional Lipotyphla polyphyletic. Both the aa and nt data sets identified the two order-rich eutherian clades, the Cetferungulata (comprising Pholidota, Carnivora, Perissodactyla, Artiodactyla, and Cetacea) and the African clade (Tenrecomorpha, Macroscelidea, Tubulidentata, Hyracoidea, Proboscidea, and Sirenia). The study corroborated recent findings that have identified a sister-group relationship between Anthropoidea and Dermoptera (flying lemurs), thereby making our own order, Primates, a paraphyletic assembly. Molecular estimates using paleontologically well-established calibration points, placed the origin of most eutherian orders in Cretaceous times, 70-100 million years before present (MYBP). The same estimates place all primate divergences much earlier than traditionally believed. For example, the divergence between Homo and Pan is estimated to have taken place approximately 10 MYBP, a dating consistent with recent findings in primate paleontology.

  20. O PHTHALMIC MANIFESTATIONS AND VISUAL FIELD CHANGES WITH SELLAR AND SUPRASELLAR TUMOURS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind L.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate ocular manifestations and visual field changes in patients with Sellar and Suprasellar Tumours. METHODS: Fifty patients with Sellar and Suprasellar tumours underwent a complete ophthalmic assessment and visual field analysis using the Humphrey Field Analyzer 30 - 2 program. Visual acuity, duration of symptoms, optic nerve head changes, pattern of visual field defects was noted. RESULTS: 50 patients including 15 male and 35 female subjects with mean age of 35.1±9.9 years and CT/MRI proven Suprasellar tumours 70% pituitary adenoma and 30% craniopharyngiomas were included. 70% cases presented with headache 80% with diminution of vision only 10% with hypothyroidism 50% with abnormal pupillary reaction including RAPD and anisocoria. Mean visual acuity at presentation was 0.46 log MAR . Of 100 eyes, 45 patients (90% had visual field defects including temporal defects in 35 patients (70%, non - specific defects in 4 patients (20% and 1patient (10% without any defect. Optic nerve head changes note d and 5 patients (25% presented with partial optic atrophy and 10 presented with established papilloedema. Visual field outcomes are correlated with duration of symptoms, optic nerve head changes at presentation and CT/ MRI findings. CONCLUSION: Visual fi eld defects were present in two thirds of patients at presentation. An overall deterioration in vision and visual fields was noted before surgical resection. A correlation was found between the duration of symptoms, MRI/ CT scan reports and visual field, s ignifying the importance in early diagnosis of neurological lesions on the basis of ophthalmic examination .

  1. Relationship between consecutive deterioration of mean deviation value and progression of visual field defect in open-angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naito T

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tomoko Naito,1 Keiji Yoshikawa,2 Shiro Mizoue,3 Mami Nanno,4 Tairo Kimura,5 Hirotaka Suzumura,6 Ryuji Takeda,7 Fumio Shiraga1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Okayama, 2Yoshikawa Eye Clinic, Tokyo, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Ehime, 4Kagurazaka Minamino Eye Clinic, 5Ueno Eye Clinic, 6Suzumura Eye Clinic, Tokyo, 7Department of Agriculture, Kinki University, Nara, Japan Purpose: To analyze the relationship between consecutive deterioration of mean deviation (MD value and glaucomatous visual field (VF progression in open-angle glaucoma (OAG, including primary OAG and normal tension glaucoma.Patients and methods: The subjects of the study were patients undergoing treatment for OAG who had performed VF tests at least 10 times with a Humphrey field analyzer (SITA standard, C30-2 program. The VF progression was defined by a significantly negative MD slope (MD slope worsening at the final VF test during the follow-up period. The relationship between the MD slope worsening and the consecutive deterioration of MD value were retrospectively analyzed.Results: A total of 165 eyes of 165 patients were included in the analysis. Significant progression of VF defects was observed in 72 eyes of 72 patients (43.6%, while no significant progression was evident in 93 eyes of 93 patients (56.4%. There was significant relationship between the frequency of consecutive deterioration of MD value and MD slope worsening (P<0.0001, Cochran–Armitage trend test. A significant association was observed for MD slope worsening in the eyes with three (odds ratio: 2.1, P=0.0224 and four (odds ratio: 3.6, P=0.0008 consecutive deterioration of MD value in multiple logistic regression analysis, but no significant association in the eyes with two consecutive deterioration (odds ratio: 1.1, P=0.8282. The eyes with VF progression had significantly lower intraocular pressure reduction rate (P<0

  2. Analyses of a Virtual World

    CERN Document Server

    Holovatch, Yurij; Szell, Michael; Thurner, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    We present an overview of a series of results obtained from the analysis of human behavior in a virtual environment. We focus on the massive multiplayer online game (MMOG) Pardus which has a worldwide participant base of more than 400,000 registered players. We provide evidence for striking statistical similarities between social structures and human-action dynamics in the real and virtual worlds. In this sense MMOGs provide an extraordinary way for accurate and falsifiable studies of social phenomena. We further discuss possibilities to apply methods and concepts developed in the course of these studies to analyse oral and written narratives.

  3. [Laboratory analyses in sports medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clénin, German E; Cordes, Mareike

    2015-05-01

    Laboratory analyses in sports medicine are relevant for three reasons: 1. In actively exercising individuals laboratory analysis are one of the central elements in the diagnosis of diseases and overreaching. 2. Regularly done laboratory analysis in competitive athletes with high load of training and competition may help to detect certain deficiencies early on. 3. Physical activity in general and competitive exercise training specifically do change certain routine laboratory parameters significantly although not reflecting pathological changes. These so-called preanalytic variations should be taken into consideration while interpreting laboratory data in medical emergency and routine diagnostics. This article intends to help the physician to interprete laboratory data of actively exercising sportsmen.

  4. THOR Turbulence Electron Analyser: TEA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazakerley, Andrew; Moore, Tom; Owen, Chris; Pollock, Craig; Wicks, Rob; Samara, Marilia; Rae, Jonny; Hancock, Barry; Kataria, Dhiren; Rust, Duncan

    2016-04-01

    Turbulence Heating ObserveR (THOR) is the first mission ever flown in space dedicated to plasma turbulence. The Turbulence Electron Analyser (TEA) will measure the plasma electron populations in the mission's Regions of Interest. It will collect a 3D electron velocity distribution with cadences as short as 5 ms. The instrument will be capable of measuring energies up to 30 keV. TEA consists of multiple electrostatic analyser heads arranged so as to measure electrons arriving from look directions covering the full sky, i.e. 4 pi solid angle. The baseline concept is similar to the successful FPI-DES instrument currently operating on the MMS mission. TEA is intended to have a similar angular resolution, but a larger geometric factor. In comparison to earlier missions, TEA improves on the measurement cadence. For example, MMS FPI-DES routinely operates at 30 ms cadence. The objective of measuring distributions at rates as fast as 5 ms is driven by the mission's scientific requirements to resolve electron gyroscale size structures, where plasma heating and fluctuation dissipation is predicted to occur. TEA will therefore be capable of making measurements of the evolution of distribution functions across thin (a few km) current sheets travelling past the spacecraft at up to 600 km/s, of the Power Spectral Density of fluctuations of electron moments and of distributions fast enough to match frequencies with waves expected to be dissipating turbulence (e.g. with 100 Hz whistler waves).

  5. Severe accident recriticality analyses (SARA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frid, W.; Højerup, C.F.; Lindholm, I.

    2001-01-01

    three computer codes and to further develop and adapt them for the task. The codes were SIMULATE-3K, APROS and RECRIT. Recriticality analyses were carried out for a number of selected reflooding transients for the Oskarshamn 3 plant in Sweden with SIMULATE-3K and for the Olkiluoto I plant in Finland...... with all three codes. The core initial and boundary conditions prior to recriticality have been studied with the severe accident codes SCDAP/RELAP5, MELCOR and MAAP4. The results of the analyses show that all three codes predict recriticality-both super-prompt power bursts and quasi steady-state power...... generation-for the range of parameters studied, i.e. with core uncovering and heat-up to maximum core temperatures of approximately 1800 K, and water flow rates of 45-2000 kg s(-1) injected into the downcomer. Since recriticality takes place in a small fraction of the core, the power densities are high...

  6. QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF ETHICS ANALYSES FOR HEALTH TECHNOLOGY ASSSESSMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Anna Mae; Bond, Kenneth; Gutiérrez-Ibarluzea, Iñaki; Hofmann, Björn; Sandman, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Although consideration of ethical issues is recognized as a crucial part of health technology assessment, ethics analysis for HTA is generally perceived as methodologically underdeveloped in comparison to other HTA domains. The aim of our study is (i) to verify existing tools for quality assessment of ethics analyses for HTA, (ii) to consider some arguments for and against the need for quality assessment tools for ethics analyses for HTA, and (iii) to propose a preliminary set of criteria that could be used for assessing the quality of ethics analyses for HTA. We systematically reviewed the literature, reviewed HTA organizations' Web sites, and solicited views from thirty-two experts in the field of ethics for HTA. The database and HTA agency Web site searches yielded 420 references (413 from databases, seven from HTA Web sites). No formal instruments for assessing the quality of ethics analyses for HTA purposes were identified. Thirty-two experts in the field of ethics for HTA from ten countries, who were brought together at two workshops held in Edmonton (Canada) and Cologne (Germany) confirmed the findings from the literature. Generating a quality assessment tool for ethics analyses in HTA would confer considerable benefits, including methodological alignment with other areas of HTA, increase in transparency and transferability of ethics analyses, and provision of common language between the various participants in the HTA process. We propose key characteristics of quality assessment tools for this purpose, which can be applied to ethics analyses for HTA purposes.

  7. Fractal and multifractal analyses of bipartite networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin-Long; Wang, Jian; Yu, Zu-Guo; Xie, Xian-Hua

    2017-03-31

    Bipartite networks have attracted considerable interest in various fields. Fractality and multifractality of unipartite (classical) networks have been studied in recent years, but there is no work to study these properties of bipartite networks. In this paper, we try to unfold the self-similarity structure of bipartite networks by performing the fractal and multifractal analyses for a variety of real-world bipartite network data sets and models. First, we find the fractality in some bipartite networks, including the CiteULike, Netflix, MovieLens (ml-20m), Delicious data sets and (u, v)-flower model. Meanwhile, we observe the shifted power-law or exponential behavior in other several networks. We then focus on the multifractal properties of bipartite networks. Our results indicate that the multifractality exists in those bipartite networks possessing fractality. To capture the inherent attribute of bipartite network with two types different nodes, we give the different weights for the nodes of different classes, and show the existence of multifractality in these node-weighted bipartite networks. In addition, for the data sets with ratings, we modify the two existing algorithms for fractal and multifractal analyses of edge-weighted unipartite networks to study the self-similarity of the corresponding edge-weighted bipartite networks. The results show that our modified algorithms are feasible and can effectively uncover the self-similarity structure of these edge-weighted bipartite networks and their corresponding node-weighted versions.

  8. Fractal and multifractal analyses of bipartite networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin-Long; Wang, Jian; Yu, Zu-Guo; Xie, Xian-Hua

    2017-01-01

    Bipartite networks have attracted considerable interest in various fields. Fractality and multifractality of unipartite (classical) networks have been studied in recent years, but there is no work to study these properties of bipartite networks. In this paper, we try to unfold the self-similarity structure of bipartite networks by performing the fractal and multifractal analyses for a variety of real-world bipartite network data sets and models. First, we find the fractality in some bipartite networks, including the CiteULike, Netflix, MovieLens (ml-20m), Delicious data sets and (u, v)-flower model. Meanwhile, we observe the shifted power-law or exponential behavior in other several networks. We then focus on the multifractal properties of bipartite networks. Our results indicate that the multifractality exists in those bipartite networks possessing fractality. To capture the inherent attribute of bipartite network with two types different nodes, we give the different weights for the nodes of different classes, and show the existence of multifractality in these node-weighted bipartite networks. In addition, for the data sets with ratings, we modify the two existing algorithms for fractal and multifractal analyses of edge-weighted unipartite networks to study the self-similarity of the corresponding edge-weighted bipartite networks. The results show that our modified algorithms are feasible and can effectively uncover the self-similarity structure of these edge-weighted bipartite networks and their corresponding node-weighted versions. PMID:28361962

  9. Fractal and multifractal analyses of bipartite networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin-Long; Wang, Jian; Yu, Zu-Guo; Xie, Xian-Hua

    2017-03-01

    Bipartite networks have attracted considerable interest in various fields. Fractality and multifractality of unipartite (classical) networks have been studied in recent years, but there is no work to study these properties of bipartite networks. In this paper, we try to unfold the self-similarity structure of bipartite networks by performing the fractal and multifractal analyses for a variety of real-world bipartite network data sets and models. First, we find the fractality in some bipartite networks, including the CiteULike, Netflix, MovieLens (ml-20m), Delicious data sets and (u, v)-flower model. Meanwhile, we observe the shifted power-law or exponential behavior in other several networks. We then focus on the multifractal properties of bipartite networks. Our results indicate that the multifractality exists in those bipartite networks possessing fractality. To capture the inherent attribute of bipartite network with two types different nodes, we give the different weights for the nodes of different classes, and show the existence of multifractality in these node-weighted bipartite networks. In addition, for the data sets with ratings, we modify the two existing algorithms for fractal and multifractal analyses of edge-weighted unipartite networks to study the self-similarity of the corresponding edge-weighted bipartite networks. The results show that our modified algorithms are feasible and can effectively uncover the self-similarity structure of these edge-weighted bipartite networks and their corresponding node-weighted versions.

  10. Perturbation analyses of intermolecular interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Yohei M.; Kobayashi, Tetsuya J.; Ueda, Hiroki R.

    2011-08-01

    Conformational fluctuations of a protein molecule are important to its function, and it is known that environmental molecules, such as water molecules, ions, and ligand molecules, significantly affect the function by changing the conformational fluctuations. However, it is difficult to systematically understand the role of environmental molecules because intermolecular interactions related to the conformational fluctuations are complicated. To identify important intermolecular interactions with regard to the conformational fluctuations, we develop herein (i) distance-independent and (ii) distance-dependent perturbation analyses of the intermolecular interactions. We show that these perturbation analyses can be realized by performing (i) a principal component analysis using conditional expectations of truncated and shifted intermolecular potential energy terms and (ii) a functional principal component analysis using products of intermolecular forces and conditional cumulative densities. We refer to these analyses as intermolecular perturbation analysis (IPA) and distance-dependent intermolecular perturbation analysis (DIPA), respectively. For comparison of the IPA and the DIPA, we apply them to the alanine dipeptide isomerization in explicit water. Although the first IPA principal components discriminate two states (the α state and PPII (polyproline II) + β states) for larger cutoff length, the separation between the PPII state and the β state is unclear in the second IPA principal components. On the other hand, in the large cutoff value, DIPA eigenvalues converge faster than that for IPA and the top two DIPA principal components clearly identify the three states. By using the DIPA biplot, the contributions of the dipeptide-water interactions to each state are analyzed systematically. Since the DIPA improves the state identification and the convergence rate with retaining distance information, we conclude that the DIPA is a more practical method compared with the

  11. Analysing ESP Texts, but How?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borza Natalia

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available English as a second language (ESL teachers instructing general English and English for specific purposes (ESP in bilingual secondary schools face various challenges when it comes to choosing the main linguistic foci of language preparatory courses enabling non-native students to study academic subjects in English. ESL teachers intending to analyse English language subject textbooks written for secondary school students with the aim of gaining information about what bilingual secondary school students need to know in terms of language to process academic textbooks cannot avoiding deal with a dilemma. It needs to be decided which way it is most appropriate to analyse the texts in question. Handbooks of English applied linguistics are not immensely helpful with regard to this problem as they tend not to give recommendation as to which major text analytical approaches are advisable to follow in a pre-college setting. The present theoretical research aims to address this lacuna. Respectively, the purpose of this pedagogically motivated theoretical paper is to investigate two major approaches of ESP text analysis, the register and the genre analysis, in order to find the more suitable one for exploring the language use of secondary school subject texts from the point of view of an English as a second language teacher. Comparing and contrasting the merits and limitations of the two contrastive approaches allows for a better understanding of the nature of the two different perspectives of text analysis. The study examines the goals, the scope of analysis, and the achievements of the register perspective and those of the genre approach alike. The paper also investigates and reviews in detail the starkly different methods of ESP text analysis applied by the two perspectives. Discovering text analysis from a theoretical and methodological angle supports a practical aspect of English teaching, namely making an informed choice when setting out to analyse

  12. Proteins analysed as virtual knots

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, Keith; Dennis, Mark R

    2016-01-01

    Long, flexible physical filaments are naturally tangled and knotted, from macroscopic string down to long-chain molecules. The existence of knotting in a filament naturally affects its configuration and properties, and may be very stable or disappear rapidly under manipulation and interaction. Knotting has been previously identified in protein backbone chains, for which these mechanical constraints are of fundamental importance to their molecular functionality, despite their being open curves in which the knots are not mathematically well defined; knotting can only be identified by closing the termini of the chain somehow. We introduce a new method for resolving knotting in open curves using virtual knots, a wider class of topological objects that do not require a classical closure and so naturally capture the topological ambiguity inherent in open curves. We describe the results of analysing proteins in the Protein Data Bank by this new scheme, recovering and extending previous knotting results, and identify...

  13. Retorisk analyse af historiske tekster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Christian Erik J

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, rhetoric and the rhetorical tradition has attracted increasing interest from historians, such as, e.g., Quentin Skinner. The paper aims to explain and illustrate what may be understood by a rhetorical analysis (or “rhetorical criticism”) of historical documents, i.e., how those...... scholars who identify themselves as rhetoricians tend to define and conduct such an analysis. It is argued that while rhetoricians would sympathize with Skinner’s adoption of speech act theory in his reading of historical documents, they would generally extend their rhetorical readings of such documents...... to many more features than just the key concepts invoked in them. The paper discusses examples of rhetorical analyses done by prominent contemporary rhetoricians, including Edwin Black, Kenneth Burke, Maurice Charland, and Michael Leff. It relates its view of rhetorical documents to trends in current...

  14. HGCal Simulation Analyses for CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Bruno, Sarah Marie

    2015-01-01

    This summer, I approached the topic of fast-timing detection of photons from Higgs decays via simulation analyses, working under the supervision of Dr. Adolf Bornheim of the California Institute of Technology. My specific project focused on simulating the high granularity calorimeter for the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment. CMS detects particles using calorimeters. The Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECal) is arranged cylindrically to form a barrel section and two “endcaps.” Previously, both the barrel and endcap have employed lead tungstate crystal detectors, known as the “shashlik” design. The crystal detectors, however, rapidly degrade from exposure to radiation. This effect is most pronounced in the endcaps. To avoid the high expense of frequently replacing degraded detectors, it was recently decided to eliminate the endcap crystals in favor of an arrangement of silicon detectors known as the “High Granularity Calorimeter” (HGCal), while leaving the barrel detector technology unchanged. T...

  15. Analysing Protocol Stacks for Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Han; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2011-01-01

    We show an approach, CaPiTo, to model service-oriented applications using process algebras such that, on the one hand, we can achieve a certain level of abstraction without being overwhelmed by the underlying implementation details and, on the other hand, we respect the concrete industrial...... standards used for implementing the service-oriented applications. By doing so, we will be able to not only reason about applications at different levels of abstractions, but also to build a bridge between the views of researchers on formal methods and developers in industry. We apply our approach...... to the financial case study taken from Chapter 0-3. Finally, we develop a static analysis to analyse the security properties as they emerge at the level of concrete industrial protocols....

  16. Hydrogen Analyses in the EPR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worapittayaporn, S.; Eyink, J.; Movahed, M. [AREVA NP GmbH, P.O. Box 3220, D-91050 Erlangen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    In severe accidents with core melting large amounts of hydrogen may be released into the containment. The EPR provides a combustible gas control system to prevent hydrogen combustion modes with the potential to challenge the containment integrity due to excessive pressure and temperature loads. This paper outlines the approach for the verification of the effectiveness and efficiency of this system. Specifically, the justification is a multi-step approach. It involves the deployment of integral codes, lumped parameter containment codes and CFD codes and the use of the sigma criterion, which provides the link to the broad experimental data base for flame acceleration (FA) and deflagration to detonation transition (DDT). The procedure is illustrated with an example. The performed analyses show that hydrogen combustion at any time does not lead to pressure or temperature loads that threaten the containment integrity of the EPR. (authors)

  17. Analysing performance through value creation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian TRIFAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper draws a parallel between measuring financial performance in 2 variants: the first one using data offered by accounting, which lays emphasis on maximizing profit, and the second one which aims to create value. The traditional approach to performance is based on some indicators from accounting data: ROI, ROE, EPS. The traditional management, based on analysing the data from accounting, has shown its limits, and a new approach is needed, based on creating value. The evaluation of value based performance tries to avoid the errors due to accounting data, by using other specific indicators: EVA, MVA, TSR, CVA. The main objective is shifted from maximizing the income to maximizing the value created for shareholders. The theoretical part is accompanied by a practical analysis regarding the creation of value and an analysis of the main indicators which evaluate this concept.

  18. Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analyses Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, J.C.; Ramsdell, J.V. Jr.

    1993-04-01

    Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project staff are developing mathematical models to be used to estimate the radiation dose that individuals may have received as a result of emissions since 1944 from the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. An uncertainty and sensitivity analyses plan is essential to understand and interpret the predictions from these mathematical models. This is especially true in the case of the HEDR models where the values of many parameters are unknown. This plan gives a thorough documentation of the uncertainty and hierarchical sensitivity analysis methods recommended for use on all HEDR mathematical models. The documentation includes both technical definitions and examples. In addition, an extensive demonstration of the uncertainty and sensitivity analysis process is provided using actual results from the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Integrated Codes (HEDRIC). This demonstration shows how the approaches used in the recommended plan can be adapted for all dose predictions in the HEDR Project.

  19. Analysing the Wrongness of Killing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an in-depth analysis of the wrongness of killing by comparing different versions of three influential views: the traditional view that killing is always wrong; the liberal view that killing is wrong if and only if the victim does not want to be killed; and Don Marquis‟ future...... of value account of the wrongness of killing. In particular, I illustrate the advantages that a basic version of the liberal view and a basic version of the future of value account have over competing alternatives. Still, ultimately none of the views analysed here are satisfactory; but the different...... reasons why those competing views fail provide important insights into the ethics of killing....

  20. Arteriovenous Passage Times and Visual Field Progression in Normal Tension Glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Charlotte Koch

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Fluorescein angiographic studies revealed prolonged arteriovenous passage (AVP times and increased fluorescein filling defects in normal tension glaucoma (NTG compared to healthy controls. The purpose of this study was to correlate baseline AVP and fluorescein filling defects with visual field progression in patients with NTG. Patients and Methods. Patients with a follow-up period of at least 3 years and at least 4 visual field examinations were included in this retrospective study. Fluorescein angiography was performed at baseline using a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO, Rodenstock Instr.; fluorescein filling defects and AVP were measured by digital image analysis and dye dilution curves (25 Hz. Visual field progression was evaluated using regression analysis of the MD (Humphrey-Zeiss, SITA-24-2, MD progression per year (dB/year. 72 patients with NTG were included, 44 patients in study 1 (fluorescein filling defects and 28 patients in study 2 (AVP. Results. In study 1 (mean follow-up years, visual field tests, MD progression per year ( dB/year was significantly correlated to the age (, but not to fluorescein filling defects, IOP, or MD at baseline. In study 2 (mean follow-up years, visual field tests, MD progression per year ( dB/year was significantly correlated to AVP (, but not to age, IOP, or MD at baseline. Conclusion. Longer AVP times at baseline are correlated to visual field progression in NTG. Impaired retinal blood flow seems to be an important factor for glaucoma progression.

  1. Analysing Harmonic Motions with an iPhone's Magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Ahmet; Temiz, Burak Kagan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an experiment for analysing harmonic motion using an iPhone's (or iPad's) magnetometer. This experiment consists of the detection of magnetic field variations obtained from an iPhone's magnetometer sensor. A graph of harmonic motion is directly displayed on the iPhone's screen using the "Sensor Kinetics"…

  2. Proteins analysed as virtual knots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Keith; Taylor, Alexander J.; Dennis, Mark R.

    2017-02-01

    Long, flexible physical filaments are naturally tangled and knotted, from macroscopic string down to long-chain molecules. The existence of knotting in a filament naturally affects its configuration and properties, and may be very stable or disappear rapidly under manipulation and interaction. Knotting has been previously identified in protein backbone chains, for which these mechanical constraints are of fundamental importance to their molecular functionality, despite their being open curves in which the knots are not mathematically well defined; knotting can only be identified by closing the termini of the chain somehow. We introduce a new method for resolving knotting in open curves using virtual knots, which are a wider class of topological objects that do not require a classical closure and so naturally capture the topological ambiguity inherent in open curves. We describe the results of analysing proteins in the Protein Data Bank by this new scheme, recovering and extending previous knotting results, and identifying topological interest in some new cases. The statistics of virtual knots in protein chains are compared with those of open random walks and Hamiltonian subchains on cubic lattices, identifying a regime of open curves in which the virtual knotting description is likely to be important.

  3. Proteins analysed as virtual knots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Keith; Taylor, Alexander J.; Dennis, Mark R.

    2017-01-01

    Long, flexible physical filaments are naturally tangled and knotted, from macroscopic string down to long-chain molecules. The existence of knotting in a filament naturally affects its configuration and properties, and may be very stable or disappear rapidly under manipulation and interaction. Knotting has been previously identified in protein backbone chains, for which these mechanical constraints are of fundamental importance to their molecular functionality, despite their being open curves in which the knots are not mathematically well defined; knotting can only be identified by closing the termini of the chain somehow. We introduce a new method for resolving knotting in open curves using virtual knots, which are a wider class of topological objects that do not require a classical closure and so naturally capture the topological ambiguity inherent in open curves. We describe the results of analysing proteins in the Protein Data Bank by this new scheme, recovering and extending previous knotting results, and identifying topological interest in some new cases. The statistics of virtual knots in protein chains are compared with those of open random walks and Hamiltonian subchains on cubic lattices, identifying a regime of open curves in which the virtual knotting description is likely to be important. PMID:28205562

  4. Severe Accident Recriticality Analyses (SARA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frid, W. [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden); Hoejerup, F. [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark); Lindholm, I.; Miettinen, J.; Puska, E.K. [VTT Energy, Helsinki (Finland); Nilsson, Lars [Studsvik Eco and Safety AB, Nykoeping (Sweden); Sjoevall, H. [Teoliisuuden Voima Oy (Finland)

    1999-11-01

    Recriticality in a BWR has been studied for a total loss of electric power accident scenario. In a BWR, the B{sub 4}C control rods would melt and relocate from the core before the fuel during core uncovery and heat-up. If electric power returns during this time-window unborated water from ECCS systems will start to reflood the partly control rod free core. Recriticality might take place for which the only mitigating mechanisms are the Doppler effect and void formation. In order to assess the impact of recriticality on reactor safety, including accident management measures, the following issues have been investigated in the SARA project: 1. the energy deposition in the fuel during super-prompt power burst, 2. the quasi steady-state reactor power following the initial power burst and 3. containment response to elevated quasi steady-state reactor power. The approach was to use three computer codes and to further develop and adapt them for the task. The codes were SIMULATE-3K, APROS and RECRIT. Recriticality analyses were carried out for a number of selected reflooding transients for the Oskarshamn 3 plant in Sweden with SIMULATE-3K and for the Olkiluoto 1 plant in Finland with all three codes. The core state initial and boundary conditions prior to recriticality have been studied with the severe accident codes SCDAP/RELAP5, MELCOR and MAAP4. The results of the analyses show that all three codes predict recriticality - both superprompt power bursts and quasi steady-state power generation - for the studied range of parameters, i. e. with core uncovery and heat-up to maximum core temperatures around 1800 K and water flow rates of 45 kg/s to 2000 kg/s injected into the downcomer. Since the recriticality takes place in a small fraction of the core the power densities are high which results in large energy deposition in the fuel during power burst in some accident scenarios. The highest value, 418 cal/g, was obtained with SIMULATE-3K for an Oskarshamn 3 case with reflooding

  5. ITER Safety Analyses with ISAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulden, W.; Nisan, S.; Porfiri, M.-T.; Toumi, I.; de Gramont, T. Boubée

    1997-06-01

    Detailed analyses of accident sequences for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), from an initiating event to the environmental release of activity, have involved in the past the use of different types of computer codes in a sequential manner. Since these codes were developed at different time scales in different countries, there is no common computing structure to enable automatic data transfer from one code to the other, and no possibility exists to model or to quantify the effect of coupled physical phenomena. To solve this problem, the Integrated Safety Analysis System of codes (ISAS) is being developed, which allows users to integrate existing computer codes in a coherent manner. This approach is based on the utilization of a command language (GIBIANE) acting as a “glue” to integrate the various codes as modules of a common environment. The present version of ISAS allows comprehensive (coupled) calculations of a chain of codes such as ATHENA (thermal-hydraulic analysis of transients and accidents), INTRA (analysis of in-vessel chemical reactions, pressure built-up, and distribution of reaction products inside the vacuum vessel and adjacent rooms), and NAUA (transport of radiological species within buildings and to the environment). In the near future, the integration of S AFALY (simultaneous analysis of plasma dynamics and thermal behavior of in-vessel components) is also foreseen. The paper briefly describes the essential features of ISAS development and the associated software architecture. It gives first results of a typical ITER accident sequence, a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) in the divertor cooling loop inside the vacuum vessel, amply demonstrating ISAS capabilities.

  6. Topological Analyses of Symmetric Eruptive Prominences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panasenco, O.; Martin, S. F.

    Erupting prominences (filaments) that we have analyzed from Hα Doppler data at Helio Research and from SOHO/EIT 304 Å, show strong coherency between their chirality, the direction of the vertical and lateral motions of the top of the prominences, and the directions of twisting of their legs. These coherent properties in erupting prominences occur in two patterns of opposite helicity; they constitute a form of dynamic chirality called the ``roll effect." Viewed from the positive network side as they erupt, many symmetrically-erupting dextral prominences develop rolling motion toward the observer along with right-hand helicity in the left leg and left-hand helicity in the right leg. Many symmetricaly-erupting sinistral prominences, also viewed from the positive network field side, have the opposite pattern: rolling motion at the top away from the observer, left-hand helical twist in the left leg, and right-hand twist in the right leg. We have analysed the motions seen in the famous movie of the ``Grand Daddy" erupting prominence and found that it has all the motions that define the roll effect. From our analyses of this and other symmetric erupting prominences, we show that the roll effect is an alternative to the popular hypothetical configuration of an eruptive prominence as a twisted flux rope or flux tube. Instead we find that a simple flat ribbon can be bent such that it reproduces nearly all of the observed forms. The flat ribbon is the most logical beginning topology because observed prominence spines already have this topology prior to eruption and an initial long magnetic ribbon with parallel, non-twisted threads, as a basic form, can be bent into many more and different geometrical forms than a flux rope.

  7. Evaluation des contraintes en place à partir d'essais de leak-off. Analyse bibliographique et application à des cas concrets Evaluation of in-Situ Stresses Based on Leak-Off Tests Data. Bibliographic Analysis and Application to Field Examples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarda J. P.

    2006-11-01

    during drilling and/or completion operations. It consists in increasing the fluid pressure in the well in front of a rock formation up to a limit corresponding to the initiation of a rupture in this rock. The main purpose is to estimate the maximum admissible mud pressure during drilling. However through theoretical analyses laboratory experiments and field work, ways have beeen proposed to extract from the leak-off tests performed in vertical wells the values of the horizontal principal stresses. If fluid injection is carried on up to propagation of a fracture in the rock, the operation is then called micro fracturing . Usually a leak-off test or a micro fracturing operation are performed under a low and constantfluid injection rate. The corresponding pressure increase is first linear, then non-linear above a pressure p index (nl. It reaches a maximum p index (b (break-down pressure and then a lower and quasi constant level p index (e (extension pressure, i. e. pressure needed to extend the fracture. If fluid injection is stopped and if the fluid mobility is low enough, the pressure lowers to p index f, the closure pressure. The problem is to derive relations between these characteristic pressures and in-situ stresses. For fractures of limited extent this problem can be limited to two-dimensional analyses. Most analyses are based on linear fracture mechanics : the elastic parameters and the critical stress intensity factors of the rock are considered as constants. The minimum principal stress is taken horizontal and consequently the mode I fracture is vertical. A basic parameter is the ratio of the fracture radius to the well radius (alpha / a. Explicit solutions are available for very short fractures (alpha/a = 1 + epsilon and for largefractures (alpha / a > 5. Recent work suggests that the pressure corresponding to a very short fracture, or initiation pressure, coincide with the pressure p index (nl. Given the maximum horizontal stress sigma index h and the minimum

  8. Pawnee Nation Energy Option Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matlock, M.; Kersey, K.; Riding In, C.

    2009-07-21

    Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma Energy Option Analyses In 2003, the Pawnee Nation leadership identified the need for the tribe to comprehensively address its energy issues. During a strategic energy planning workshop a general framework was laid out and the Pawnee Nation Energy Task Force was created to work toward further development of the tribe’s energy vision. The overarching goals of the “first steps” project were to identify the most appropriate focus for its strategic energy initiatives going forward, and to provide information necessary to take the next steps in pursuit of the “best fit” energy options. Description of Activities Performed The research team reviewed existing data pertaining to the availability of biomass (focusing on woody biomass, agricultural biomass/bio-energy crops, and methane capture), solar, wind and hydropower resources on the Pawnee-owned lands. Using these data, combined with assumptions about costs and revenue streams, the research team performed preliminary feasibility assessments for each resource category. The research team also reviewed available funding resources and made recommendations to Pawnee Nation highlighting those resources with the greatest potential for financially-viable development, both in the near-term and over a longer time horizon. Findings and Recommendations Due to a lack of financial incentives for renewable energy, particularly at the state level, combined mediocre renewable energy resources, renewable energy development opportunities are limited for Pawnee Nation. However, near-term potential exists for development of solar hot water at the gym, and an exterior wood-fired boiler system at the tribe’s main administrative building. Pawnee Nation should also explore options for developing LFGTE resources in collaboration with the City of Pawnee. Significant potential may also exist for development of bio-energy resources within the next decade. Pawnee Nation representatives should closely monitor

  9. Comparison between visual field defect in pigmentary glaucoma and primary open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilforushan, Naveed; Yadgari, Maryam; Jazayeri, Anisalsadat

    2016-10-01

    To compare visual field defect patterns between pigmentary glaucoma and primary open-angle glaucoma. Retrospective, comparative study. Patients with diagnosis of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and pigmentary glaucoma (PG) in mild to moderate stages were enrolled in this study. Each of the 52 point locations in total and pattern deviation plot (excluding 2 points adjacent to blind spot) of 24-2 Humphrey visual field as well as six predetermined sectors were compared using SPSS software version 20. Comparisons between 2 groups were performed with the Student t test for continuous variables and the Chi-square test for categorical variables. Thirty-eight eyes of 24 patients with a mean age of 66.26 ± 11 years (range 48-81 years) in the POAG group and 36 eyes of 22 patients with a mean age of 50.52 ± 11 years (range 36-69 years) in the PG group were studied. (P = 0.00). More deviation was detected in points 1, 3, 4, and 32 in total deviation (P = 0.03, P = 0.015, P = 0.018, P = 0.023) and in points 3, 4, and 32 in pattern deviation (P = 0.015, P = 0.049, P = 0.030) in the POAG group, which are the temporal parts of the field. It seems that the temporal area of the visual field in primary open-angle glaucoma is more susceptible to damage in comparison with pigmentary glaucoma.

  10. Iterative categorization (IC): a systematic technique for analysing qualitative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, Joanne

    2016-06-01

    The processes of analysing qualitative data, particularly the stage between coding and publication, are often vague and/or poorly explained within addiction science and research more broadly. A simple but rigorous and transparent technique for analysing qualitative textual data, developed within the field of addiction, is described. The technique, iterative categorization (IC), is suitable for use with inductive and deductive codes and can support a range of common analytical approaches, e.g. thematic analysis, Framework, constant comparison, analytical induction, content analysis, conversational analysis, discourse analysis, interpretative phenomenological analysis and narrative analysis. Once the data have been coded, the only software required is a standard word processing package. Worked examples are provided.

  11. Techniques for Analysing Problems in Engineering Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Uffe

    1998-01-01

    Description of how CPM network can be used for analysing complex problems in engineering projects.......Description of how CPM network can be used for analysing complex problems in engineering projects....

  12. Techniques for Analysing Problems in Engineering Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Uffe

    1998-01-01

    Description of how CPM network can be used for analysing complex problems in engineering projects.......Description of how CPM network can be used for analysing complex problems in engineering projects....

  13. 10 CFR 61.13 - Technical analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Technical analyses. 61.13 Section 61.13 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Licenses § 61.13 Technical analyses. The specific technical information must also include the following analyses...

  14. Automatic incrementalization of Prolog based static analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichberg, Michael; Kahl, Matthias; Saha, Diptikalyan;

    2007-01-01

    Modem development environments integrate various static analyses into the build process. Analyses that analyze the whole project whenever the project changes are impractical in this context. We present an approach to automatic incrementalization of analyses that are specified as tabled logic prog...

  15. Guide to Coupled Electrostatic-Structural Analyses with Arpeggio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, Vicki L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Engineering Sciences Center. Computational Solid Mechanics and Structural Dynamics Dept.

    2006-09-01

    Many applications in micromechanical systems (MEMS) involve electrostatically actuated parts. Arpeggio is a code for facilitating loose coupling between computational mechanics modules in a parallel computing environment. This document describes how to use Arpeggio for coupled elecromechanical analyses using examples commonly encountered in MEMS applications, namely the response of structures to loads imposed by electrostatic fields. For this type of analysis, Arpeggio is used to couple Adagio, a three dimensional finite element code for nonlinear, quasi static or implicit dynamic analysis of three-dimensional structures, with BEM, a boundary integral method code for the analysis of electrostatic fields. This guide describes the methodology used for the loose coupling and the commands the user needs in an input file to perform such an analysis. All commands related to coupled analyses are described and examples are provided.

  16. Guide to Coupled Electrostatic-Structural Analyses with Arpeggio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, Vicki L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Engineering Sciences Center. Computational Solid Mechanics and Structural Dynamics Dept.

    2006-09-01

    Many applications in micromechanical systems (MEMS) involve electrostatically actuated parts. Arpeggio is a code for facilitating loose coupling between computational mechanics modules in a parallel computing environment. This document describes how to use Arpeggio for coupled elecromechanical analyses using examples commonly encountered in MEMS applications, namely the response of structures to loads imposed by electrostatic fields. For this type of analysis, Arpeggio is used to couple Adagio, a three dimensional finite element code for nonlinear, quasi static or implicit dynamic analysis of three-dimensional structures, with BEM, a boundary integral method code for the analysis of electrostatic fields. This guide describes the methodology used for the loose coupling and the commands the user needs in an input file to perform such an analysis. All commands related to coupled analyses are described and examples are provided.

  17. Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry: The Transformation of Modern Environmental Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Lim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Unknown compounds in environmental samples are difficult to identify using standard mass spectrometric methods. Fourier transform mass spectrometry (FTMS has revolutionized how environmental analyses are performed. With its unsurpassed mass accuracy, high resolution and sensitivity, researchers now have a tool for difficult and complex environmental analyses. Two features of FTMS are responsible for changing the face of how complex analyses are accomplished. First is the ability to quickly and with high mass accuracy determine the presence of unknown chemical residues in samples. For years, the field has been limited by mass spectrometric methods that were based on knowing what compounds of interest were. Secondly, by utilizing the high resolution capabilities coupled with the low detection limits of FTMS, analysts also could dilute the sample sufficiently to minimize the ionization changes from varied matrices.

  18. Laser fields and proxy fields

    CERN Document Server

    Reiss, H R

    2016-01-01

    The convention in Atomic, Molecular, and Optical (AMO) physics of employing the dipole approximation to describe laser-induced processes replaces the four source-free Maxwell equations governing laser fields with a single Maxwell equation for a "proxy" field that requires a virtual source current for its existence. There is no possible gauge equivalence between these fields. The proxy field is serviceable for some purposes, but its applicability is limited, and the qualitative models it evokes can be inappropriate or erroneous. One example is the "above-threshold ionization" (ATI) phenomenon; surprising for proxy fields, but natural and predicted for laser fields. A serious problem occurs as the field frequency declines; the proxy field approaches a constant electric field, in contrast to laser fields that propagate with the velocity of light for all frequencies, with increasing importance of the magnetic component. An often-overlooked constraint is that numerical solution of the Schr\\"odinger equation is exa...

  19. Estimating the Rate of Progressive Visual Field Damage in Those with Open-Angle Glaucoma, from Cross-Sectional Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broman, Aimee Teo; Quigley, Harry A.; West, Sheila K.; Katz, Joanne; Munoz, Beatriz; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Tielsch, James M.; Friedman, David S.; Crowston, Jonathan; Taylor, Hugh R.; Varma, Rohit; Leske, M. Cristina; Bengtsson, Boel; Heijl, Anders; He, Mingguang; Foster, Paul J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the rate of visual field progression in open-angle glaucoma (OAG) subjects, by using data from population-based cross-sectional studies. Methods Subjects with OAG were identified in nine surveys of randomly sampled populations using standard criteria for glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Subjects were of European, African, Chinese, and Hispanic ethnicity. The measure of OAG damage was the mean deviation (MD) of an automated visual field test (Humphrey Field Analyzer; Carl Zeiss Meditec, Inc., Dublin, CA). The rate of progression was the mean of all subjects’ damage in the worse eye divided by an average time since onset. Time since onset was estimated from age-specific prevalence rates. Results A total of 1066 subjects with OAG contributed visual field data. The mean worsening in decibels per year was: European-derived, −1.12; Hispanic, −1.26; African-derived, −1.33; and Chinese −1.56 (difference among ethnicities, P = 0.16). The mean duration of disease was lowest among Chinese persons at 10.5 years (95% CI: 8.8–12.6) and was highest in African-derived subjects at 15.4 years (95% CI: 14.6–15.9). The progression rate was not consistently related to age or gender. By combining disease duration and progression rate, the model predicted that 15% or fewer of the worse eyes would reach the end of the field damage scale in the patient’s lifetime. Conclusions The estimates of typical worsening per year in the worse eye among subjects with OAG suggested slightly more rapid progression than in some clinic-based studies. The rate did not differ significantly by ethnicity or gender, but was worse in those with known, treated OAG and in pseudophakic subjects. PMID:18172076

  20. 7 CFR 94.102 - Analyses available.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... analyses for total ash, fat by acid hydrolysis, moisture, salt, protein, beta-carotene, catalase... monocytogenes, proteolytic count, psychrotrophic bacteria, Salmonella, Staphylococcus, thermoduric bacteria,...

  1. [Anne Arold. Kontrastive Analyse...] / Paul Alvre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alvre, Paul, 1921-2008

    2001-01-01

    Arvustus: Arold, Anne. Kontrastive analyse der Wortbildungsmuster im Deutschen und im Estnischen (am Beispiel der Aussehensadjektive). Tartu, 2000. (Dissertationes philologiae germanicae Universitatis Tartuensis)

  2. Novel Algorithms for Astronomical Plate Analyses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rene Hudec; Lukas Hudec

    2011-03-01

    Powerful computers and dedicated software allow effective data mining and scientific analyses in astronomical plate archives. We give and discuss examples of newly developed algorithms for astronomical plate analyses, e.g., searches for optical transients, as well as for major spectral and brightness changes.

  3. Moving Crystal Slow-Neutron Wavelength Analyser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buras, B.; Kjems, Jørgen

    1973-01-01

    Experimental proof that a moving single crystal can serve as a slow-neutron wavelength analyser of special features is presented. When the crystal moves with a velocity h/(2 md) (h-Planck constant, m-neutron mass, d-interplanar spacing) perpendicular to the diffracting plane and the analysed...

  4. Moving Crystal Slow-Neutron Wavelength Analyser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buras, B.; Kjems, Jørgen

    1973-01-01

    Experimental proof that a moving single crystal can serve as a slow-neutron wavelength analyser of special features is presented. When the crystal moves with a velocity h/(2 md) (h-Planck constant, m-neutron mass, d-interplanar spacing) perpendicular to the diffracting plane and the analysed...

  5. Diversity of primary care systems analysed.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kringos, D.; Boerma, W.; Bourgueil, Y.; Cartier, T.; Dedeu, T.; Hasvold, T.; Hutchinson, A.; Lember, M.; Oleszczyk, M.; Pavlick, D.R.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter analyses differences between countries and explains why countries differ regarding the structure and process of primary care. The components of primary care strength that are used in the analyses are health policy-making, workforce development and in the care process itself (see Fig.

  6. New insights into measurement variability in glaucomatous visual fields from computer modelling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A Russell

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To develop a model to simulate visual fields (VFs in glaucoma patients, and to characterize variability of the Mean Deviation (MD VF summary measurement using real VFs and simulations. METHODS: Pointwise VF variability was previously approximated using longitudinal VF data (24-2 SITA Standard, Humphrey Field Analyzer from 2,736 patients; these data were used to build a non-parametric model to simulate VFs. One million VF simulations were generated from 1,000 VFs (1,000 simulations per 'ground-truth' VF, and the variability of simulated MDs was characterized as a function of ground-truth MD and Pattern Standard Deviation (PSD. RESULTS: The median (interquartile range, IQR patient age and MD was 66 (56 to 75 years and -3.5 (-8.3 to -1.1 decibels, respectively. The inferred variability as a function of ground-truth MD and PSD indicated that variability, on average, increased rapidly as glaucoma worsened. However, the pattern of VF damage significantly affects the level of MD variability, with more than three-fold differences between patients with approximately the same levels of MD but different patterns of loss. CONCLUSIONS: A novel approach for simulating VFs is introduced. A better understanding of VF variability will help clinicians to differentiate real VF progression from measurement variability. This study highlights that, overall, MD variability increases as the level of damage increases, but variability is highly dependent on the pattern of VF damage. Future research, using VF simulations, could be employed to provide benchmarks for measuring the performance of VF progression detection algorithms and developing new strategies for measuring VF progression.

  7. Visual Field Testing with Head-Mounted Perimeter ‘imo’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Chota; Yamao, Sayaka; Nomoto, Hiroki; Takada, Sonoko; Okuyama, Sachiko; Kimura, Shinji; Yamanaka, Kenzo; Aihara, Makoto; Shimomura, Yoshikazu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We developed a new portable head-mounted perimeter, “imo”, which performs visual field (VF) testing under flexible conditions without a dark room. Besides the monocular eye test, imo can present a test target randomly to either eye without occlusion (a binocular random single eye test). The performance of imo was evaluated. Methods Using full HD transmissive LCD and high intensity LED backlights, imo can display a test target under the same test conditions as the Humphrey Field Analyzer (HFA). The monocular and binocular random single eye tests by imo and the HFA test were performed on 40 eyes of 20 subjects with glaucoma. VF sensitivity results by the monocular and binocular random single eye tests were compared, and these test results were further compared to those by the HFA. The subjects were asked whether they noticed which eye was being tested during the test. Results The mean sensitivity (MS) obtained with the HFA highly correlated with the MS by the imo monocular test (R: r = 0.96, L: r = 0.94, P < 0.001) and the binocular random single eye test (R: r = 0.97, L: r = 0.98, P < 0.001). The MS values by the monocular and binocular random single eye tests also highly correlated (R: r = 0.96, L: r = 0.95, P < 0.001). No subject could detect which eye was being tested during the examination. Conclusions The perimeter imo can obtain VF sensitivity highly compatible to that by the standard automated perimeter. The binocular random single eye test provides a non-occlusion test condition without the examinee being aware of the tested eye. PMID:27564382

  8. The Effect of Attentional Cueing and Spatial Uncertainty in Visual Field Testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Phu

    Full Text Available To determine the effect of reducing spatial uncertainty by attentional cueing on contrast sensitivity at a range of spatial locations and with different stimulus sizes.Six observers underwent perimetric testing with the Humphrey Visual Field Analyzer (HFA full threshold paradigm, and the output thresholds were compared to conditions where stimulus location was verbally cued to the observer. We varied the number of points cued, the eccentric and spatial location, and stimulus size (Goldmann size I, III and V. Subsequently, four observers underwent laboratory-based psychophysical testing on a custom computer program using Method of Constant Stimuli to determine the frequency-of-seeing (FOS curves with similar variables.We found that attentional cueing increased contrast sensitivity when measured using the HFA. We report a difference of approximately 2 dB with size I at peripheral and mid-peripheral testing locations. For size III, cueing had a greater effect for points presented in the periphery than in the mid-periphery. There was an exponential decay of the effect of cueing with increasing number of elements cued. Cueing a size V stimulus led to no change. FOS curves generated from laboratory-based psychophysical testing confirmed an increase in contrast detection sensitivity under the same conditions. We found that the FOS curve steepened when spatial uncertainty was reduced.We show that attentional cueing increases contrast sensitivity when using a size I or size III test stimulus on the HFA when up to 8 points are cued but not when a size V stimulus is cued. We show that this cueing also alters the slope of the FOS curve. This suggests that at least 8 points should be used to minimise potential attentional factors that may affect measurement of contrast sensitivity in the visual field.

  9. Visual field characteristics in neuromyelitis optica in absence of and after one episode of optic neuritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merle H

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Harold Merle,1 Stéphane Olindo,2 Séverine Jeannin,2 Rabih Hage,1 Angélique Donnio,1 Raymond Richer,1 Philippe Cabre2 1Service d'Ophtalmologie, 2Service de Neurologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Fort de France, Fort-de-France, Martinique, France Purpose: Optic neuritis (ON observed during neuromyelitis optica (NMO is in most cases very severe and with poor prognosis. This study's objective was to analyze visual field (VF abnormalities observed in the absence of ON and post-ON episode. Methods: Twenty-seven cases of both NMO and multiple sclerosis (MS were selected. Thorough ophthalmologic exam was performed at least 6 months post-ON attack. The VF was collected using the Humphrey 750 perimeter. We used the central threshold tests 24-2 with FASTPAC strategy. The abnormalities were categorized based on the Optic Neuritis Treatment Trial classification. Results: After one ON, 40% of the NMO group's eyes showed total VF loss (P = 0.01, 21% showed abnormalities of neurologic aspect, and 27% showed fascicular abnormalities of which 12% were altitudinal. Given the total VF loss, the positive predictive value in favor of an NMO was 92.8% and the negative predictive value was 47.3%. Conclusion: Alterations of the VF during the NMO differ from those observed in the course of the MS. One ON, blinding from the first attack, must call to mind an NMO. The altitudinal deficits point to a vascular mechanism. Keywords: optic neuritis, visual field, neuromyelitis optica, multiple sclerosis

  10. Angular analyses in relativistic quantum mechanics; Analyses angulaires en mecanique quantique relativiste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moussa, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 91 - Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-06-01

    This work describes the angular analysis of reactions between particles with spin in a fully relativistic fashion. One particle states are introduced, following Wigner's method, as representations of the inhomogeneous Lorentz group. In order to perform the angular analyses, the reduction of the product of two representations of the inhomogeneous Lorentz group is studied. Clebsch-Gordan coefficients are computed for the following couplings: l-s coupling, helicity coupling, multipolar coupling, and symmetric coupling for more than two particles. Massless and massive particles are handled simultaneously. On the way we construct spinorial amplitudes and free fields; we recall how to establish convergence theorems for angular expansions from analyticity hypothesis. Finally we substitute these hypotheses to the idea of 'potential radius', which gives at low energy the usual 'centrifugal barrier' factors. The presence of such factors had never been deduced from hypotheses compatible with relativistic invariance. (author) [French] On decrit un formalisme permettant de tenir compte de l'invariance relativiste, dans l'analyse angulaire des amplitudes de reaction entre particules de spin quelconque. Suivant Wigner, les etats a une particule sont introduits a l'aide des representations du groupe de Lorentz inhomogene. Pour effectuer les analyses angulaires, on etudie la reduction du produit de deux representations du groupe de Lorentz inhomogene. Les coefficients de Clebsch-Gordan correspondants sont calcules dans les couplages suivants: couplage l-s couplage d'helicite, couplage multipolaire, couplage symetrique pour plus de deux particules. Les particules de masse nulle et de masse non nulle sont traitees simultanement. Au passage, on introduit les amplitudes spinorielles et on construit les champs libres, on rappelle comment des hypotheses d'analyticite permettent d'etablir des theoremes de convergence pour les

  11. How Can Meta-Analyses Guide Practice? A Review of the Learning Disability Research Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therrien, William J.; Zaman, Maliha; Banda, Devender R.

    2011-01-01

    Meta-analysis is considered an acceptable method to evaluate research studies for evidence-based practices. The purpose of this review is to examine the applicability of using meta-analyses in the learning disability field to guide classroom practice. The authors evaluated 15 learning disability meta-analyses in three domains: large-scale…

  12. Magnetic Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils

    2015-01-01

    of the fluid flow at the top of the core. However, what is measured at or near the surface of the Earth is the superposition of the core field and fields caused by magnetized rocks in the Earth’s crust, by electric currents flowing in the ionosphere, magnetosphere, and oceans, and by currents induced......he Earth has a large and complicated magnetic field, the major part of which is produced by a self-sustaining dynamo operating in the fluid outer core. Magnetic field observations provide one of the few tools for remote sensing the Earth’s deep interior, especially regarding the dynamics...... in the Earth by time-varying external fields. These sources have their specific characteristics in terms of spatial and temporal variations, and their proper separation, based on magnetic measurements, is a major challenge. Such a separation is a prerequisite for remote sensing by means of magnetic field...

  13. Cost-Benefit Analyses of Transportation Investments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næss, Petter

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the practice of cost-benefit analyses of transportation infrastructure investment projects from the meta-theoretical perspective of critical realism. Such analyses are based on a number of untenable ontological assumptions about social value, human nature and the natural......-to-pay investigations. Accepting the ontological and epistemological assumptions of cost-benefit analysis involves an implicit acceptance of the ethical and political values favoured by these assumptions. Cost-benefit analyses of transportation investment projects tend to neglect long-term environmental consequences...

  14. Level II Ergonomic Analyses, Dover AFB, DE

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-02-01

    IERA-RS-BR-TR-1999-0002 UNITED STATES AIR FORCE IERA Level II Ergonomie Analyses, Dover AFB, DE Andrew Marcotte Marilyn Joyce The Joyce...Project (070401881, Washington, DC 20503. 1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 2. REPORT DATE 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Level II Ergonomie Analyses, Dover...1.0 INTRODUCTION 1-1 1.1 Purpose Of The Level II Ergonomie Analyses : 1-1 1.2 Approach 1-1 1.2.1 Initial Shop Selection and Administration of the

  15. Analysis of MR image quality of echo planar diffusion -weighted imaging. Investigations at 1.5 Tesla with higher gradient field strength; Analyse der Bildqualitaet einer diffusionsgewichteten (EPI DWI) Sequenz. Untersuchungen an einem 1,5 T MRT mit hoeherer Gradientenfeldstaerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorenbeck, U. [Universitaetsklinik Bonn (Germany). Radiologische Klinik, FE Neuroradiologie; Universitaetsklinikum Regensburg (Germany). Inst. fuer diagnostische Radiologie; Zorger, N.; Feuerbach, S. [Universitaetsklinikum Regensburg (Germany). Inst. fuer diagnostische Radiologie

    2006-07-01

    Purpose: Single - shot echo planar Diffusion - weighted - Imaging (EPI DWI) requires extended gradient facilities with strong, fast switching gradients. Up to now the image quality of EPI DWI is enormously influenced by some kinds of artifacts. Therefore we evaluated the image quality of EPI DWI in demonstrating anatomical structures using a 1.5 T MR scanner with a higher gradient field strength of 40 mt/m, a risetime of 200 {mu}s and a slewrate of 200T/m/s. Materials and methods: Using an evaluation scale with four categories two independent readers evaluated 12 different infra - and supratentorial anatomic regions of the brain in 50 DWI images and compared them with the corresponding T2 turbospin echo image. Results: No region was judged to be undistinguishable. On axial DWI images the assessment of the brain stem was poor. In the level of the putamen and thalamus the image quality of DWI was judged to be from adequate to excellent. The central sulcus and the boundary of the white and grey matter was assessed to be adequately visible. The interobserver variability showed a good agreement between the two readers. Conclusion: The image quality of EPI DWI improves from a higher gradient field strength. The shortening rise time of 200 {mu}s and the slewrate of 200T/m/s will lead to a faster gradient switching. Single shot EPI DWI is less influenced by image artefacts and the presentation of different anatomical structures profits when a MR scanner with higher gradient field strength is used. (orig.)

  16. The role of hemifield sector analysis in multifocal visual evoked potential objective perimetry in the early detection of glaucomatous visual field defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousa MF

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad F Mousa,1 Robert P Cubbidge,2 Fatima Al-Mansouri,1 Abdulbari Bener3,41Department of Ophthalmology, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar; 2School of Life and Health Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, UK; 3Department of Medical Statistics and Epidemiology, Hamad Medical Corporation, Department of Public Health, Weill Cornell Medical College, Doha, Qatar; 4Department Evidence for Population Health Unit, School of Epidemiology and Health Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, UKObjective: The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a new analysis method of mfVEP objective perimetry in the early detection of glaucomatous visual field defects compared to the gold standard technique.Methods and patients: Three groups were tested in this study; normal controls (38 eyes, glaucoma patients (36 eyes, and glaucoma suspect patients (38 eyes. All subjects underwent two standard 24-2 visual field tests: one with the Humphrey Field Analyzer and a single mfVEP test in one session. Analysis of the mfVEP results was carried out using the new analysis ­protocol: the hemifield sector analysis protocol.Results: Analysis of the mfVEP showed that the signal to noise ratio (SNR difference between superior and inferior hemifields was statistically significant between the three groups (analysis of variance, P < 0.001 with a 95% confidence interval, 2.82, 2.89 for normal group; 2.25, 2.29 for glaucoma suspect group; 1.67, 1.73 for glaucoma group. The difference between superior and inferior hemifield sectors and hemi-rings was statistically significant in 11/11 pair of sectors and hemi-rings in the glaucoma patients group (t-test P < 0.001, statistically significant in 5/11 pairs of sectors and hemi-rings in the glaucoma suspect group (t-test P < 0.01, and only 1/11 pair was statistically significant (t-test P < 0.9. The sensitivity and specificity of the hemifield sector analysis protocol in detecting glaucoma was 97% and 86

  17. Field Trip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Bill

    1993-01-01

    Reports the results of a field trip to measure the intensity of electromagnetic fields generated by electronic devices in the home, in cars, at work, outside, and in places people visit during the day. Found that a person gets more intense exposure while working at a computer than by living next to an electrical substation. (MDH)

  18. Comparison with Russian analyses of meteor impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canavan, G.H.

    1997-06-01

    The inversion model for meteor impacts is used to discuss Russian analyses and compare principal results. For common input parameters, the models produce consistent estimates of impactor parameters. Directions for future research are discussed and prioritized.

  19. Analyse of Maintenance Cost in ST

    CERN Document Server

    Jenssen, B W

    2001-01-01

    An analyse has been carried out in ST concerning the total costs for the division. Even though the target was the maintenance costs in ST, the global budget over has been analysed. This has been done since there is close relation between investments & consolidation and the required level for maintenance. The purpose of the analyse was to focus on maintenance cost in ST as a ratio of total maintenance costs over the replacement value of the equipment, and to make some comparisons with other industries and laboratories. Families of equipment have been defined and their corresponding ratios calculated. This first approach gives us some "quantitative" measurements. This analyse should be combined with performance indicators (more "qualitative" measurements) that are telling us how well we are performing. This will help us in defending our budget, make better priorities, and we will satisfy the requirements from our external auditors.

  20. Understanding Human Error Based on Automated Analyses

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is a report on a continuing study of automated analyses of experiential textual reports to gain insight into the causal factors of human errors in aviation...

  1. Multivariate differential analyses of adolescents' experiences of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and second order factor analyses, correlations, multiple regression, MANOVA, ... This does not mean that the high levels of violence, crime and abuse that are aggravated by socio economic factors such as poverty, unemployment, corruption, ...

  2. Anthocyanin analyses of Vaccinium fruit dietary supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccinium fruit ingredients within dietary supplements were identified by comparisons with anthocyanin analyses of known Vaccinium profiles (demonstration of anthocyanin fingerprinting). Available Vaccinium supplements were purchased and analyzed; their anthocyanin profiles (based on HPLC separation...

  3. Selfdecomposable Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole E.; Sauri, Orimar; Szozda, Benedykt

    for selfdecomposability analogous to the classical one. Next, we give necessary and sufficient conditions (in terms of the kernel functions) for a Volterra field driven by a Lévy basis to be selfdecomposable. In this context we also study the so-called Urbanik classes of random fields. We follow this with the study......In the present paper we study selfdecomposability of random fields, as defined directly rather than in terms of finite-dimensional distributions. The main tools in our analysis are the master Lévy measure and the associated Lévy-Itô representation. We give the dilation criterion...... of existence and selfdecomposability of integrated Volterra fields. Finally, we introduce infinitely divisible field-valued Lévy processes, give the Lévy-Itô representation associated with them and study stochastic integration with respect to such processes. We provide examples in the form of Lévy...

  4. Selfdecomposable Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole E.; Sauri, Orimar; Szozda, Benedykt

    for selfdecomposability analogous to the classical one. Next, we give necessary and sufficient conditions (in terms of the kernel functions) for a Volterra field driven by a L\\'evy basis to be selfdecomposable. In this context we also study the so-called Urbanik classes of random fields. We follow this with the study......In the present paper we study selfdecomposability of random fields, as defined directly rather than in terms of finite-dimensional distributions. The main tools in our analysis are the master L\\'evy measure and the associated L\\'evy-It\\^o representation. We give the dilation criterion...... of existence and selfdecomposability of integrated Volterra fields. Finally, we introduce infinitely divisible field-valued L\\'evy processes, give the L\\'evy-It\\^o representation associated with them and study stochastic integration with respect to such processes. We provide examples in the form of L...

  5. Trapped in Another Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barinaga, Ester

    -opted by the field of City Management into addressing a social problem for which it did not have the resources nor the knowledge and which was beyond its original mission. Taking FiC’s efforts as the starting point, the essay paper the potential risky life of social initiativesexpanding to different cities. It uses...... Bourdieu’s notion of ‘field’ to analyse the varied stakes and differing logics of the actors involved in Seved’s conflict. Mission-drift will thus be considered as theresult of the co-optation of the non-profit organisation by the field of city management, a field whose actors’ stakes differ from those...

  6. En kritisk analyse af Leviathan & Samfundspagten

    OpenAIRE

    Bjelobrk, Aleksandar

    2006-01-01

    I denne rapport undersøges de politiske filosoffer Thomas Hobbes’ (1588-1679) og Jean-Jacques Rousseaus (1712-1778) udgaver af kontraktteorien. Med udgangspunkt i Leviathan del 1, Of Man og del 2, Of Common-Wealth af Thomas Hobbes (Hobbes 1991, oprindelig udgivet 1651) og Samfundspagten af Jean-Jacques Rousseau (Rousseau 1987, oprindelig udgivet 1762) klarlægges inkonsisten i deres teorier gennem to separate analyser. Med udgangspunkt i den fundne inkonsistens foretages en komparativ analyse,...

  7. Thermal Analyse sof Cross-Linked Polyethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Polansky

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarizes results obtained during the structural analyses measurements (Differential Scanning Calorimetry DSC, Thermogravimetry TG, Thermomechanical analysis TMA and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy FT-IR. The samples of cross-linked polyethylene cable insulation were tested via these analyses. The DSC and TG were carried out using simultaneous thermal analyzer TA Instruments SDT Q600 with connection of Fourier transform infrared spectrometer Nicolet 380. Thermomechanical analysis was carried out by TMA Q400EM TA Instruments apparatus.

  8. Iterative categorization (IC): a systematic technique for analysing qualitative data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The processes of analysing qualitative data, particularly the stage between coding and publication, are often vague and/or poorly explained within addiction science and research more broadly. A simple but rigorous and transparent technique for analysing qualitative textual data, developed within the field of addiction, is described. The technique, iterative categorization (IC), is suitable for use with inductive and deductive codes and can support a range of common analytical approaches, e.g. thematic analysis, Framework, constant comparison, analytical induction, content analysis, conversational analysis, discourse analysis, interpretative phenomenological analysis and narrative analysis. Once the data have been coded, the only software required is a standard word processing package. Worked examples are provided. PMID:26806155

  9. ZIRCON TYPOLOGICAL ANALYSES OF THE MAJOR DESERTS/SAND FIELDS IN NORTHERN CHINA AND ITS IMPLICATION FOR IDENTIFYING SEDIMENT SOURCE%中国北方沙漠/沙地锆石形态特征及其对物源的指示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瀚之; 鹿化煜; 弋双文; 徐志伟; 周亚利; 谭红兵

    2013-01-01

    单颗粒锆石的形态、颜色等特征记录了其母岩结晶过程的温度、压力、结晶介质的化学性质等信息,鉴定不同沙漠/沙地碎屑锆石的晶体形态特征可以指示沉积物的原岩类型,进而可以帮助追溯物源.本文分析了中国北方塔克拉玛干沙漠、巴丹吉林沙漠、腾格里沙漠、毛乌素沙地、浑善达克沙地、科尔沁沙地等6个沙漠/沙地36个地表样品的碎屑锆石形态特征.结果显示,同一沙漠/沙地样品锆石形态特征较为一致,而不同沙漠/沙地样品锆石形态有差异.塔克拉玛干沙漠锆石多为无色或淡紫色,包裹体较少,锆石颗粒锥面较发育,短柱状锆石含量较多,指示该沙漠物质主要来自其北缘天山山脉早中生代碱性花岗岩.巴丹吉林沙漠和腾格里沙漠锆石形态特征较类似,相比较而言巴丹吉林沙漠锆石多为淡粉色,形态上锥面较发育,较少见到包裹体;而腾格里沙漠锆石颗粒细长柱较多和含包裹体颗粒较多,这两个沙漠物质可能来自其南部中央造山带的变质岩和其北缘中亚造山带早中生代碱性花岗岩.毛乌素沙地多为深色、锥面发育和短柱状颗粒锆石较常见,含包裹体颗粒较多,该沙地物质主要来自其西北孔兹岩带以及北部阴山山脉碱性花岗岩.浑善达克沙地锆石形态似毛乌素沙地,指示其物源与毛乌素沙地类似.科尔沁沙地锆石磨蚀严重,扁柱状锆石颗粒较常见,指示该沙地物质大部分来自其南缘燕山山脉的显生宙浅海沉积岩.本研究表明碎屑锆石形态特征可以指示沙漠或沙地沉积物的源区.%Deserts, sand fields, and Gobi deserts in Northern China are proposed as one of the most persistent sources of world wide wind-blown mineral dust, and also source of the aolian deposit in Chinese Loess Plateau.However, specific pathways and detailed area of dust have not been established yet.This paper contributes to this

  10. Field arithmetic

    CERN Document Server

    Fried, Michael D

    2006-01-01

    Field Arithmetic explores Diophantine fields through their absolute Galois groups. This largely self-contained treatment starts with techniques from algebraic geometry, number theory, and profinite groups. Graduate students can effectively learn generalizations of finite field ideas. We use Haar measure on the absolute Galois group to replace counting arguments. New Chebotarev density variants interpret diophantine properties. Here we have the only complete treatment of Galois stratifications, used by Denef and Loeser, et al, to study Chow motives of Diophantine statements.Progress from the fi

  11. From polycrystal to multi-crystal: ''numerical meso-scope'' development for a local analysis in the elasto-viscoplastic field; Du polycristal au multicristal: elaboration d'un mesoscope numerique pour une analyse locale en elastoviscoplasticite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heraud, St

    2000-07-01

    The knowledge of the local mechanical fields over several adjacent grains is needed for a better understanding of damage initiation and intergranular. failure in metallic polycrystals. This thesis aimed at the derivation of such fields through a 'numerical meso-scope': this simulation tool relies on the finite element analysis of a multi-crystalline pattern embedded in a large matrix whose mechanical behaviour is derived experimentally from classical tests performed on the studied metal. First, we derived macroscopic elastic-viscoplastic constitutive equations from tensile and creep tests on a AIS1316 stainless steel and we inferred from them the general form of similar, but crystallographic equations to be used for the single crystals; the corresponding parameters were determined by fitting the computed overall response of an aggregate made of 1000 grains with the macroscopic experimental one. We then investigated a creep-damaged area of the same steel and we simulated the same grain ensemble in the 'numerical meso-scope' so as to compare the computed normal stress on all grain boundaries with the observed de-bonded boundaries: this showed the most damaged boundaries to sustain the largest normal stress. Another application was concerned with the understanding of the origin of intergranular damage of aged AIS321 stainless steel. A similar approach was adopted with help of the meso-scope: it showed that observations could not be explained by a sole intragranular hardening as it is currently proposed in the literature. Thus the pertinence of the 'numerical meso-scope' concept can now be demonstrated, which opens on a number of new interesting perspectives. (author)

  12. Runtime and Pressurization Analyses of Propellant Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Robert E.; Ryan, Harry M.; Ahuja, Vineet; Hosangadi, Ashvin; Lee, Chung P.

    2007-01-01

    Multi-element unstructured CFD has been utilized at NASA SSC to carry out analyses of propellant tank systems in different modes of operation. The three regimes of interest at SSC include (a) tank chill down (b) tank pressurization and (c) runtime propellant draw-down and purge. While tank chill down is an important event that is best addressed with long time-scale heat transfer calculations, CFD can play a critical role in the tank pressurization and runtime modes of operation. In these situations, problems with contamination of the propellant by inclusion of the pressurant gas from the ullage causes a deterioration of the quality of the propellant delivered to the test article. CFD can be used to help quantify the mixing and propellant degradation. During tank pressurization under some circumstances, rapid mixing of relatively warm pressurant gas with cryogenic propellant can lead to rapid densification of the gas and loss of pressure in the tank. This phenomenon can cause serious problems during testing because of the resulting decrease in propellant flow rate. With proper physical models implemented, CFD can model the coupling between the propellant and pressurant including heat transfer and phase change effects and accurately capture the complex physics in the evolving flowfields. This holds the promise of allowing the specification of operational conditions and procedures that could minimize the undesirable mixing and heat transfer inherent in propellant tank operation. It should be noted that traditional CFD modeling is inadequate for such simulations because the fluids in the tank are in a range of different sub-critical and supercritical states and elaborate phase change and mixing rules have to be developed to accurately model the interaction between the ullage gas and the propellant. We show a typical run-time simulation of a spherical propellant tank, containing RP-1 in this case, being pressurized with room-temperature nitrogen at 540 R. Nitrogen

  13. Field Notes

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — This is a mobile application for capturing images , data, and geolocation for USAID projects in the field. The data is then stored on a server in AllNet. The...

  14. Field Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorm Hansen, Louise Lyngfeldt

    2012-01-01

    This field report expresses perfectly the kind of confusion almost all of us experience when entering the field. How do we know whether what we’re doing is “right” or not? What in particular should we record when we don’t have time to write down everything among all the myriad impressions thrusti...... as remind experienced fieldworkers of what they’ve been through. I’m sure it will also provide food for thought and the occasional chuckle!...

  15. Meta-Analyses of Human Cell-Based Cardiac Regeneration Therapies: Controversies in Meta-Analyses Results on Cardiac Cell-Based Regenerative Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyöngyösi, Mariann; Wojakowski, Wojciech; Navarese, Eliano P; Moye, Lemuel À

    2016-04-15

    In contrast to multiple publication-based meta-analyses involving clinical cardiac regeneration therapy in patients with recent myocardial infarction, a recently published meta-analysis based on individual patient data reported no effect of cell therapy on left ventricular function or clinical outcome. A comprehensive review of the data collection, statistics, and the overall principles of meta-analyses provides further clarification and explanation for this controversy. The advantages and pitfalls of different types of meta-analyses are reviewed here. Each meta-analysis approach has a place when pivotal clinical trials are lacking and sheds light on the magnitude of the treatment in a complex healthcare field.

  16. Impact of ontology evolution on functional analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groß, Anika; Hartung, Michael; Prüfer, Kay; Kelso, Janet; Rahm, Erhard

    2012-10-15

    Ontologies are used in the annotation and analysis of biological data. As knowledge accumulates, ontologies and annotation undergo constant modifications to reflect this new knowledge. These modifications may influence the results of statistical applications such as functional enrichment analyses that describe experimental data in terms of ontological groupings. Here, we investigate to what degree modifications of the Gene Ontology (GO) impact these statistical analyses for both experimental and simulated data. The analysis is based on new measures for the stability of result sets and considers different ontology and annotation changes. Our results show that past changes in the GO are non-uniformly distributed over different branches of the ontology. Considering the semantic relatedness of significant categories in analysis results allows a more realistic stability assessment for functional enrichment studies. We observe that the results of term-enrichment analyses tend to be surprisingly stable despite changes in ontology and annotation.

  17. Random error in cardiovascular meta-analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albalawi, Zaina; McAlister, Finlay A; Thorlund, Kristian;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cochrane reviews are viewed as the gold standard in meta-analyses given their efforts to identify and limit systematic error which could cause spurious conclusions. The potential for random error to cause spurious conclusions in meta-analyses is less well appreciated. METHODS: We...... examined all reviews approved and published by the Cochrane Heart Group in the 2012 Cochrane Library that included at least one meta-analysis with 5 or more randomized trials. We used trial sequential analysis to classify statistically significant meta-analyses as true positives if their pooled sample size...... but infrequently recognized, even among methodologically robust reviews published by the Cochrane Heart Group. Meta-analysts and readers should incorporate trial sequential analysis when interpreting results....

  18. Inactivation effect of pulsed electric field on Lactobacillu plantarum in apple juice and comparative analyses of three models%高压脉冲电场对植物乳杆菌的杀菌效果及三种模型的比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟葵; 吴继红; 廖小军; 胡小松

    2006-01-01

    研究了高压脉冲电场(pulsed electric field,PEF)对接种于苹果汁中植物乳杆菌(Lactobacillu plantarum)的杀菌效果并应用三种模型进行了分析.结果表明,随电场强度和脉冲时间增加,PEF对植物乳杆菌的杀灭效果增强,34 kV/cm、1050μs时植物乳杆菌最大降低了4.135个数量级.Hülsheger模型、weibull模型和Log-Logistic模型均能很好地拟合PEF处理植物乳杆菌的失活曲线,五个模型评价参数,精确因子(Af),偏差因子(Bf),根平方和(SS),根平方方差(RMSE)和决定系数(R2)分析表明三个模型中,Log-Logistic模型最好地拟合了PEF处理下植物乳杆菌失活动力学变化.

  19. Detection of metal defects on gas distribution pipeline by remote field eddy current (RFEC) using finite-element analysis; Analyse par la methode des elements finis de la detection des defauts metalliques d'un gazoduc en utilisant les courants de Foucault en champ lointain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, J.H. [R and D Center, Seoul City Gas Co., Ltd. (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Y.S. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejun (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    It is necessary to find out whether there are metal defects on underground gas distribution pipelines without excavation in order to establish safety strategies for replacement or maintenance. The metal defects are classified into general corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, lamination, pits, and metal loss, which cause leak or partial damages to a gas pipeline. Therefore, it is required to develop an effective method in the form of an in-line inspection concept that could be implemented internally into a gas pipeline. In this study, theoretical formulations of the magnetic vector potential and magnetic flux density including axial and radial wave numbers based on Maxwell equations are presented analytically to find out the changes of amplitude and phase in the magnetic flux density and the consequent induced voltage which can be a criterion in the remote field eddy current principle for detecting the metal defects in gas pipelines. Three-dimensional finite-element analysis is also presented to analyze the physical phenomenon in metal defects according to each defect size, excitation frequency and moving velocity, which can overcome inaccuracy of the two-dimensional approach, using axisymmetry condition, and simulate local pit conditions occurred severely in real gas pipelines; otherwise only metal loss such as whole circumferential decrease in wall thickness can be modeled. Some experimental works are performed to validate the analytical and finite elemental results regarding the magnetic flux density and induced voltage in the detector. (author)

  20. Eksakte metodar for analyse av tovegstabellar

    OpenAIRE

    Aaberge, Rolf

    1980-01-01

    Dei fleste matematisk-statistiske metodane som er utvikla til analyse av tabellar, byggjer på føresetnader om at talet på observasjonar i tabellcellene er "stort. Haldorsen (1977a) og (1977b) omtalar metodar som kviler på dette kravet. I denne rapporten skal vi presentere eksakte metodar for analyse av to-vegstabel lar, dvs. metodar som er gyldige sjølv om vi har småe observasjonstal i tabellcellene. I mange undersøkingar vil observasjonane ofte gi uttrykk for kva slags ...

  1. A theoretical framework for analysing preschool teaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaiklin, Seth

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces a theoretical framework for analysing preschool teaching as a historically-grounded societal practice. The aim is to present a unified framework that can be used to analyse and compare both historical and contemporary examples of preschool teaching practice within and across...... national traditions. The framework has two main components, an analysis of preschool teaching as a practice, formed in relation to societal needs, and an analysis of the categorical relations which necessarily must be addressed in preschool teaching activity. The framework is introduced and illustrated...

  2. The application analyses for primary spectrum pyrometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU; TaiRan

    2007-01-01

    In the applications of primary spectrum pyrometry, based on the dynamic range and the minimum sensibility of the sensor, the application issues, such as the measurement range and the measurement partition, were investigated through theoretical analyses. For a developed primary spectrum pyrometer, the theoretical predictions of measurement range and the distributions of measurement partition were presented through numerical simulations. And the measurement experiments of high-temperature blackbody and standard temperature lamp were processed to further verify the above theoretical analyses and numerical results. Therefore the research in the paper provides the helpful supports for the applications of primary spectrum pyrometer and other radiation pyrometers.……

  3. Identifying, analysing and solving problems in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt-Taylor, Jaqui

    When a problem is identified in practice, it is important to clarify exactly what it is and establish the cause before seeking a solution. This solution-seeking process should include input from those directly involved in the problematic situation, to enable individuals to contribute their perspective, appreciate why any change in practice is necessary and what will be achieved by the change. This article describes some approaches to identifying and analysing problems in practice so that effective solutions can be devised. It includes a case study and examples of how the Five Whys analysis, fishbone diagram, problem tree analysis, and Seven-S Model can be used to analyse a problem.

  4. Analyses of hydraulic performance of velocity caps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Damgaard; Degn Eskesen, Mark Chr.; Buhrkall, Jeppe

    2014-01-01

    The hydraulic performance of a velocity cap has been investigated. Velocity caps are often used in connection with offshore intakes. CFD (computational fluid dynamics) examined the flow through the cap openings and further down into the intake pipes. This was combined with dimension analyses...... in order to analyse the effect of different layouts on the flow characteristics. In particular, flow configurations going all the way through the structure were revealed. A couple of suggestions to minimize the risk for flow through have been tested....

  5. A systematic review evaluating the methodological aspects of meta-analyses of genetic association studies in cancer research

    OpenAIRE

    Boccia, Stefania; De Feo, Emma; Gallì, Paola; Gianfagna, Francesco; Amore, Rosarita; Ricciardi, Gualtiero

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Meta-analyses and Individual Patient Data (IPD) meta-analyses of genetic association studies are a powerful tool to summarize the scientific evidences, however their application present considerable potential and several pitfalls. We reviewed systematically all published meta-analyses and IPD meta-analyses of genetic association studies in the field of cancer research, searching for relevant studies on the Medline, Embase, and HuGE Reviews Archive databases until January 2...

  6. Correlation Between Quadrant Specific Automatic Visual Field Defect and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness as Measured by Scanning Laser Polarimetry in Patients With Primary Open Angle Glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yo-Chen Chang

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to correlate quadrant specific Humphrey visual field mean deviation (MD with retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thickness as measured by scanning laser polarimetry (GDx, and to determine whether there is a difference in the correlation with visual field defect between the Asian normative database provided by GDx (GDx database and our native normative database (KMU database. In an age-matched study, a control group of 240 normal eyes underwent GDx. Another 60 eyes with visual field defect due to primary angle glaucoma underwent autoperimetry and GDx examination. First, we compared four GDx measurements between the control and study groups. Next, we divided the visual field into four quadrants (superior, inferior, temporal, nasal and calculated the MD of each quadrant. We correlated the MD of superior, inferior and overall visual field with RNFL thickness judged by two databases (the GDx Asian internal normative database and the database from our control group. GDx detected abnormal RNFL thickness significantly more accurately when using the KMU database (p = 0.0473 for superior quadrant; p = 0.0074 for inferior quadrant; p = 0.0011 for average thickness than when using the GDx database. There was no significant difference in the specificity between these two databases. The normal ranges in the GDx internal normative database for Asians are too wide. By using our own GDx normative database, the correlations with MD of autoperimetry were significantly improved. We suggest that every laboratory and clinic establish its own normative database of GDx in Asia.

  7. Uncertainty quantification approaches for advanced reactor analyses.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briggs, L. L.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2009-03-24

    The original approach to nuclear reactor design or safety analyses was to make very conservative modeling assumptions so as to ensure meeting the required safety margins. Traditional regulation, as established by the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission required conservatisms which have subsequently been shown to be excessive. The commission has therefore moved away from excessively conservative evaluations and has determined best-estimate calculations to be an acceptable alternative to conservative models, provided the best-estimate results are accompanied by an uncertainty evaluation which can demonstrate that, when a set of analysis cases which statistically account for uncertainties of all types are generated, there is a 95% probability that at least 95% of the cases meet the safety margins. To date, nearly all published work addressing uncertainty evaluations of nuclear power plant calculations has focused on light water reactors and on large-break loss-of-coolant accident (LBLOCA) analyses. However, there is nothing in the uncertainty evaluation methodologies that is limited to a specific type of reactor or to specific types of plant scenarios. These same methodologies can be equally well applied to analyses for high-temperature gas-cooled reactors and to liquid metal reactors, and they can be applied to steady-state calculations, operational transients, or severe accident scenarios. This report reviews and compares both statistical and deterministic uncertainty evaluation approaches. Recommendations are given for selection of an uncertainty methodology and for considerations to be factored into the process of evaluating uncertainties for advanced reactor best-estimate analyses.

  8. Integrated genomic analyses of ovarian carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bell, D.; Berchuck, A.; Birrer, M.; Chien, J.; Dao, F.; Dhir, R.; DiSaia, P.; Gabra, H.; Glenn, P.; Godwin, A. K.; Gross, J.; Hartmann, L.; Huang, M.; Huntsman, D. G.; Iacocca, M.; Imielinski, M.; Kalloger, S.; Karlan, B. Y.; Levine, D. A.; Mills, G. B.; Morrison, C.; Mutch, D.; Olvera, N.; Orsulic, S.; Park, K.; Petrelli, N.; Rabeno, B.; Rader, J. S.; Sikic, B. I.; Smith-McCune, K.; Sood, A. K.; Bowtell, D.; Penny, R.; Testa, J. R.; Chang, K.; Dinh, H. H.; Drummond, J. A.; Fowler, G.; Gunaratne, P.; Hawes, A. C.; Kovar, C. L.; Lewis, L. R.; Morgan, M. B.; Newsham, I. F.; Santibanez, J.; Reid, J. G.; Trevino, L. R.; Wu, Y. -Q.; Wang, M.; Muzny, D. M.; Wheeler, D. A.; Gibbs, R. A.; Getz, G.; Lawrence, M. S.; Cibulskis, K.; Sivachenko, A. Y.; Sougnez, C.; Voet, D.; Wilkinson, J.; Bloom, T.; Ardlie, K.; Fennell, T.; Baldwin, J.; Gabriel, S.; Lander, E. S.; Ding, L.; Fulton, R. S.; Koboldt, D. C.; McLellan, M. D.; Wylie, T.; Walker, J.; O'Laughlin, M.; Dooling, D. J.; Fulton, L.; Abbott, R.; Dees, N. D.; Zhang, Q.; Kandoth, C.; Wendl, M.; Schierding, W.; Shen, D.; Harris, C. C.; Schmidt, H.; Kalicki, J.; Delehaunty, K. D.; Fronick, C. C.; Demeter, R.; Cook, L.; Wallis, J. W.; Lin, L.; Magrini, V. J.; Hodges, J. S.; Eldred, J. M.; Smith, S. M.; Pohl, C. S.; Vandin, F.; Raphael, B. J.; Weinstock, G. M.; Mardis, R.; Wilson, R. K.; Meyerson, M.; Winckler, W.; Getz, G.; Verhaak, R. G. W.; Carter, S. L.; Mermel, C. H.; Saksena, G.; Nguyen, H.; Onofrio, R. C.; Lawrence, M. S.; Hubbard, D.; Gupta, S.; Crenshaw, A.; Ramos, A. H.; Ardlie, K.; Chin, L.; Protopopov, A.; Zhang, Juinhua; Kim, T. M.; Perna, I.; Xiao, Y.; Zhang, H.; Ren, G.; Sathiamoorthy, N.; Park, R. W.; Lee, E.; Park, P. J.; Kucherlapati, R.; Absher, D. M.; Waite, L.; Sherlock, G.; Brooks, J. D.; Li, J. Z.; Xu, J.; Myers, R. M.; Laird, P. W.; Cope, L.; Herman, J. G.; Shen, H.; Weisenberger, D. J.; Noushmehr, H.; Pan, F.; Triche, T.; Berman, B. P.; Van den Berg, D. J.; Buckley, J.; Baylin, S. B.; Spellman, P. T.; Purdom, E.; Neuvial, P.; Bengtsson, H.; Jakkula, L. R.; Durinck, S.; Han, J.; Dorton, S.; Marr, H.; Choi, Y. G.; Wang, V.; Wang, N. J.; Ngai, J.; Conboy, J. G.; Parvin, B.; Feiler, H. S.; Speed, T. P.; Gray, J. W.; Levine, D. A.; Socci, N. D.; Liang, Y.; Taylor, B. S.; Schultz, N.; Borsu, L.; Lash, A. E.; Brennan, C.; Viale, A.; Sander, C.; Ladanyi, M.; Hoadley, K. A.; Meng, S.; Du, Y.; Shi, Y.; Li, L.; Turman, Y. J.; Zang, D.; Helms, E. B.; Balu, S.; Zhou, X.; Wu, J.; Topal, M. D.; Hayes, D. N.; Perou, C. M.; Getz, G.; Voet, D.; Saksena, G.; Zhang, Junihua; Zhang, H.; Wu, C. J.; Shukla, S.; Cibulskis, K.; Lawrence, M. S.; Sivachenko, A.; Jing, R.; Park, R. W.; Liu, Y.; Park, P. J.; Noble, M.; Chin, L.; Carter, H.; Kim, D.; Karchin, R.; Spellman, P. T.; Purdom, E.; Neuvial, P.; Bengtsson, H.; Durinck, S.; Han, J.; Korkola, J. E.; Heiser, L. M.; Cho, R. J.; Hu, Z.; Parvin, B.; Speed, T. P.; Gray, J. W.; Schultz, N.; Cerami, E.; Taylor, B. S.; Olshen, A.; Reva, B.; Antipin, Y.; Shen, R.; Mankoo, P.; Sheridan, R.; Ciriello, G.; Chang, W. K.; Bernanke, J. A.; Borsu, L.; Levine, D. A.; Ladanyi, M.; Sander, C.; Haussler, D.; Benz, C. C.; Stuart, J. M.; Benz, S. C.; Sanborn, J. Z.; Vaske, C. J.; Zhu, J.; Szeto, C.; Scott, G. K.; Yau, C.; Hoadley, K. A.; Du, Y.; Balu, S.; Hayes, D. N.; Perou, C. M.; Wilkerson, M. D.; Zhang, N.; Akbani, R.; Baggerly, K. A.; Yung, W. K.; Mills, G. B.; Weinstein, J. N.; Penny, R.; Shelton, T.; Grimm, D.; Hatfield, M.; Morris, S.; Yena, P.; Rhodes, P.; Sherman, M.; Paulauskis, J.; Millis, S.; Kahn, A.; Greene, J. M.; Sfeir, R.; Jensen, M. A.; Chen, J.; Whitmore, J.; Alonso, S.; Jordan, J.; Chu, A.; Zhang, Jinghui; Barker, A.; Compton, C.; Eley, G.; Ferguson, M.; Fielding, P.; Gerhard, D. S.; Myles, R.; Schaefer, C.; Shaw, K. R. Mills; Vaught, J.; Vockley, J. B.; Good, P. J.; Guyer, M. S.; Ozenberger, B.; Peterson, J.; Thomson, E.; Cramer, D.W.

    2011-01-01

    A catalogue of molecular aberrations that cause ovarian cancer is critical for developing and deploying therapies that will improve patients' lives. The Cancer Genome Atlas project has analysed messenger RNA expression, microRNA expression, promoter methylation and DNA copy number in 489 high-grade

  9. Challenges and Opportunities in Analysing Students Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Anaya, Paloma; Justi, Rosária; Díaz de Bustamante, Joaquín

    2017-01-01

    Modelling-based teaching activities have been designed and analysed from distinct theoretical perspectives. In this paper, we use one of them--the model of modelling diagram (MMD)--as an analytical tool in a regular classroom context. This paper examines the challenges that arise when the MMD is used as an analytical tool to characterise the…

  10. Chemical analyses, antibacterial activity and genetic diversity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-06-25

    Jun 25, 2014 ... Key words: Citrus, genetic diversity, ISSR markers, chemical analyses, antibacterial. ... ment of DNA based marker systems has advanced our ... Total acidity of the juices was determined by titration method as ... Greek compressed C. sinensis. 37 163 ..... flavonoids have a large spectrum of biological activity.

  11. Written Case Analyses and Critical Reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Helen L.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    The study investigated the use of case-based pedagogy to develop critical reflection in prospective teachers. Analysis of students written analyses of dilemma-based cases found patterns showing evidence of students open-mindedness, sense of professional responsibility, and wholeheartedness in approach to teaching. (DB)

  12. Comparison of veterinary import risk analyses studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos-de Jong, de C.J.; Conraths, F.J.; Adkin, A.; Jones, E.M.; Hallgren, G.S.; Paisley, L.G.

    2011-01-01

    Twenty-two veterinary import risk analyses (IRAs) were audited: a) for inclusion of the main elements of risk analysis; b) between different types of IRAs; c) between reviewers' scores. No significant differences were detected between different types of IRAs, although quantitative IRAs and IRAs publ

  13. Hybrid Logical Analyses of the Ambient Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolander, Thomas; Hansen, Rene Rydhof

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, hybrid logic is used to formulate three control flow analyses for Mobile Ambients, a process calculus designed for modelling mobility. We show that hybrid logic is very well-suited to express the semantic structure of the ambient calculus and how features of hybrid logic can...

  14. Cosmetology: Task Analyses. Competency-Based Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrico County Public Schools, Glen Allen, VA. Virginia Vocational Curriculum Center.

    These task analyses are designed to be used in combination with the "Trade and Industrial Education Service Area Resource" in order to implement competency-based education in the cosmetology program in Virginia. The task analysis document contains the task inventory, suggested task sequence lists, and content outlines for the secondary…

  15. Meta-analyses on viral hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, Lise L; Gluud, Christian

    2009-01-01

    This article summarizes the meta-analyses of interventions for viral hepatitis A, B, and C. Some of the interventions assessed are described in small trials with unclear bias control. Other interventions are supported by large, high-quality trials. Although attempts have been made to adjust...

  16. Control of optics in random access analysers

    OpenAIRE

    Truchaud, A.

    1988-01-01

    The technology behind random access analysers involves flexible optical systems which can measure absorbances for one reaction at different scheduled times, and for several reactions performed simultaneously at different wavelengths. Optics control involves light sources (continuous and flash mode), indexing of monochromatic filters, injection-moulded plastic cuvettes, optical fibres, and polychromatic analysis.

  17. The Economic Cost of Homosexuality: Multilevel Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumle, Amanda K.; Poston, Dudley, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    This article builds on earlier studies that have examined "the economic cost of homosexuality," by using data from the 2000 U.S. Census and by employing multilevel analyses. Our findings indicate that partnered gay men experience a 12.5 percent earnings penalty compared to married heterosexual men, and a statistically insignificant earnings…

  18. What's missing from avian global diversification analyses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Sushma

    2014-08-01

    The accumulation of vast numbers of molecular phylogenetic studies has contributed to huge knowledge gains in the evolutionary history of birds. This permits subsequent analyses of avian diversity, such as how and why diversification varies across the globe and among taxonomic groups. However, available genetic data for these meta-analyses are unevenly distributed across different geographic regions and taxonomic groups. To comprehend the impact of this variation on the interpretation of global diversity patterns, I examined the availability of genetic data for possible biases in geographic and taxonomic sampling of birds. I identified three main disparities of sampling that are geographically associated with latitude (temperate, tropical), hemispheres (East, West), and range size. Tropical regions, which host the vast majority of species, are substantially less studied. Moreover, Eastern regions, such as the Old World Tropics and Australasia, stand out as being disproportionately undersampled, with up to half of communities not being represented in recent studies. In terms of taxonomic discrepancies, a majority of genetically undersampled clades are exclusively found in tropical regions. My analysis identifies several disparities in the key regions of interest of global diversity analyses. Differential sampling can have considerable impacts on these global comparisons and call into question recent interpretations of latitudinal or hemispheric differences of diversification rates. Moreover, this review pinpoints understudied regions whose biota are in critical need of modern systematic analyses.

  19. Antigen/Antibody Analyses in Leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    antibodies in human sera with antigens of protozoan parasites . It was found that enzyme substrate reactions had distinct advantages over typical...autoradiographic procedures. Analyses of various sera identified a number of antigens of protozoan parasites which may be useful in discriminating infections

  20. Microstructure Analyses of NA-Nanodiamond Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Microscopy Results and Discussion 1 Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) Analysis 5 Objective 5 Experimental Procedure 5 Discussion of Results 5...420 electron microscope at 120 KV voltage was used for TEM analyses. Transmission Electronic Microscopy Results and Discussion An electron ...SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPE (SEM) ANALYSIS Objective Examine the morphology and elemental chemistry of detonated nanodiamonds (DND

  1. En kvantitativ metode til analyse af radio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Lejre

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available I den danske såvel som den internationale radiolitteratur er bud på metoder til analyse af radiomediet sparsomme. Det skyldes formentlig, at radiomediet er svært at analysere, fordi det er et medie, der ikke er visualiseret i form af billeder eller understøttet af printet tekst. Denne artikel har til formål at beskrive en ny kvantitativ metode til analyse af radio, der tager særligt hensyn til radiomediets modalitet – lyd struktureret som et lineært forløb i tid. Metoden understøtter dermed både radiomediet som et medie i tid og som et blindt medie. Metoden er udviklet i forbindelse med en komparativ analyse af kulturprogrammer på P1 og Radio24syv lavet for Danmarks Radio. Artiklen peger på, at metoden er velegnet til analyse af ikke kun radio, men også andre medieplatforme samt forskellige journalistiske stofområder.

  2. Chemical Analyses of Silicon Aerogel Samples

    CERN Document Server

    van der Werf, I; De Leo, R; Marrone, S

    2008-01-01

    After five years of operating, two Aerogel counters: A1 and A2, taking data in Hall A at Jefferson Lab, suffered a loss of performance. In this note possible causes of degradation have been studied. In particular, various chemical and physical analyses have been carried out on several Aerogel tiles and on adhesive tape in order to reveal the presence of contaminants.

  3. Metodekombination med kritisk analyse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilfeldt, Annette

    2007-01-01

    "Metodekombination med kritisk teoretisk analyse" fremlægger en kombinationsmetode, der bygges op om en problemstilling med et normativt grundlag for studiet af køn og arbejdsliv. Med fokus på rationalitet og humaniseringsbarrierer i arbejdslivet lægges der med inspiration fra Marie Jahoda op til...

  4. Chemical Analyses of Silicon Aerogel Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van der Werf, I.; Palmisano, F.; De Leo, Raffaele; Marrone, Stefano

    2008-04-01

    After five years of operating, two Aerogel counters: A1 and A2, taking data in Hall A at Jefferson Lab, suffered a loss of performance. In this note possible causes of degradation have been studied. In particular, various chemical and physical analyses have been carried out on several Aerogel tiles and on adhesive tape in order to reveal the presence of contaminants.

  5. Field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Roman, Steven

    2006-01-01

    Intended for graduate courses or for independent study, this book presents the basic theory of fields. The first part begins with a discussion of polynomials over a ring, the division algorithm, irreducibility, field extensions, and embeddings. The second part is devoted to Galois theory. The third part of the book treats the theory of binomials. The book concludes with a chapter on families of binomials - the Kummer theory. This new edition has been completely rewritten in order to improve the pedagogy and to make the text more accessible to graduate students.  The exercises have also been im

  6. Topological fields

    CERN Document Server

    Warner, S

    1989-01-01

    Aimed at those acquainted with basic point-set topology and algebra, this text goes up to the frontiers of current research in topological fields (more precisely, topological rings that algebraically are fields).The reader is given enough background to tackle the current literature without undue additional preparation. Many results not in the text (and many illustrations by example of theorems in the text) are included among the exercises. Sufficient hints for the solution of the exercises are offered so that solving them does not become a major research effort for the reader. A comprehensive bibliography completes the volume.

  7. Unified field theories

    CERN Document Server

    Vizgin, Vladimir P

    2011-01-01

    Despite the rapidly expanding ambit of physical research and the continual appearance of new branches of physics, the main thrust in its development has been the attempt at a theoretical synthesis of the entire body of physical knowledge. Vladimir Vizgin's work presents perhaps the first systematic historico-scientific study of the formation and development of the unified field theories in the general context of 20th century physics. Concentrating on the first three decades of the century and drawing extensively on Russian sources, the author analyses the first successes, failures and paths of

  8. 157例乳腺浸润性导管癌全数字化X线征象分析%The analyses of X-ray signs of 157 cases of breast infiltrating ductal carcinoma with full-field digital mammography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玉兰; 董江宁; 王婷婷; 吴瑶媛

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze the signs of full-field digital mammography ( FFDM) in breast infiltrating ductal carcinoma ( IDC) and to raise the diagnostic accuracy .Methods For 157 cases with surgically and pathologically proved breast infiltrating ductal carcinoma, IDC signs of full-field digital mammography were analyzed retrospectively .Craniocandal (CC) view and medio-lateral oblique (MLO) view were conducted for each patient .Besides, tangential view, exaggerated craniocaudal view , cleavage view, 90°lateral view or spot compression view were examined if necessary .5 cases were facilitated with breast MRI .Results 157 cases of direct signs of IDC included mass with dandruff , amorphous, or vermicular microcalcification in 90 cases (57%), mass only in 44 cases (28%), architecture distortion or focal asymmetric density in 18 cases (11%), 4 cases with microcalcifi-cation, microcalcification only in 5 cases (3%).154 cases of IDC with indirect signs (154/157, 98%) inclued blood circulation increased (52/157), enlargement of the catheter (45/157), areola and skin thickening (41/157), nipple retraction (39/157), breast or axillary lymph nodes enlargement (70/157).Conclusion Lobulated and/or burr shape breast mass, dandruff form, a-morphous, vermicular and branch microcalcification are the main signs of IDC .For untypical X-ray signs of IDC, careful observa-tion of indirect signs in professional workstation is needed to integrate analysis , IDC preoperative diagnostic accuracy can be effec-tively improved .%目的:探讨乳腺浸润性导管癌( IDC)全数字化X线征象,提高诊断准确率。方法收集术前行数字化乳腺X线摄影检查且术后经病理证实为乳腺浸润性导管癌患者157例,回顾性分析IDC全数字化X线表现特征。每位患者摄取乳腺头尾位和内外侧斜位(CC位和MLO位),部分加拍切线位、扩大头尾位、乳沟位、90°侧位及点片压迫位。5例加做乳腺MRI。结果157例IDC的直接征

  9. The Theory of Conceptual Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergnaud, Gerard

    2009-01-01

    The theory of conceptual fields is a developmental theory. It has two aims: (1) to describe and analyse the progressive complexity, on a long- and medium-term basis, of the mathematical competences that students develop inside and outside school, and (2) to establish better connections between the operational form of knowledge, which consists in…

  10. The dances of Doris Humphrey: creating a contemporary perspective through interpretation

    OpenAIRE

    Main, Lesley

    2005-01-01

    The focus of this article is on interpretive strategies developed to enable modern dance production to move beyond existing practices in dance reconstruction. The article takes up and rearticulates, for a different audience/ readership, some of the enquiries established in the restaging for Arke Dance Theatre: in further pursuing those enquiries and resulting observations discursively, however, and in its ability to set to one side some of the necessary compromises imposed on an ongoing resea...

  11. 75 FR 32201 - Tennessee National Wildlife Refuge, Henry, Benton, Decatur, and Humphreys Counties, TN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-07

    ... new impoundments, and increasing water supply (i.e., pumps, wells, and structures) for migratory birds... increasing water supply (i.e., pumps, wells, and structures) for migratory birds. While doing this, we would... Canada goose, as well as to provide opportunities for fishing. We would continue to offer opportunities...

  12. The Watts New? Collection: Columns by the SEI’s Watts Humphrey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    products. However, as Deming, Juran , and many others have pointed out, this is not because of any inherent problem with engineering methods but rather with...Use a Personal Process 9 Get and Use Historical Data 9 Acknowledgements 10 2 Your Date or Mine? 11 Getting Into Trouble 11 Pressure 11 The...54 The Commitment System 54 Acknowledgements 55 A Note to My Readers 55 References 55 10 Moving the Goal Posts 57 Brownian Motion 57 When the

  13. MEDUSA (Martian Environmental DUst Systematic Analyser)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, R.; Colangeli, L.; della Corte, V.; Esposito, F.; Ferrini, G.; Mazzotta Epifani, E.; Palomba, E.; Palumbo, P.; Panizza, A.; Rotundi, A.

    2003-04-01

    Aerosol dust suspended in the atmosphere thermally influences the behaviour of the lower atmosphere by absorbing solar radiation and by increasing the thermal inertia. Main dust parameters influencing the atmosphere heating are size distribution, albedo, single scattering phase function, imaginary part of the index of refraction. Moreover, atmospheric dust seems to have had long term effects on the surface geology, too. In fact, in the present environment of Mars, the most active surface modifying agent is the wind. Vast dune fields, various albedo patterns that change with time, wind eroded hills and drifts of fine grained material observed at the Viking landing sites are all attributed to aeolian processes. Large parts of the cratered uplands and smooth terrain in both polar regions are believed to be composed of deposits of windblown particles. These deposits may be important reservoirs for volatiles and may influence climate changes via variation of regional albedo. It is clear that the knowledge of the atmospheric dust properties and the mechanisms of dust settling and raising into the atmosphere are important to understand the climate and the surface evolution on Mars. Dust deposition also may be a key process in the volatile cycle on the planet. In situ results obtained so far do not give exhaustive information on dust physical properties and concentration near the surface. On the other hand H_2O is important as indicator of global climate changes on long time-scales and has fundamental links to life forms origin. Furthermore, the past volcanism on Mars, associated with a "wetter" environment, most probably caused in the past hydro-thermal activities that would be particularly suited for the existence of the most primitive organisms. Most of our understanding of the water vapour circulation derives from orbiter-based observations by the Mars Atmospheric Water Detection experiment, onboard the Viking Orbiters and from the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES

  14. Field errors in hybrid insertion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlueter, R.D. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    Hybrid magnet theory as applied to the error analyses used in the design of Advanced Light Source (ALS) insertion devices is reviewed. Sources of field errors in hybrid insertion devices are discussed.

  15. Direct amino acid analyses of mozzarella cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskins, M N

    1985-12-01

    The amino acid content of mozzarella (low moisture, part skim milk) and asadero cheeses was determined by the column chromatographic method. Data from the direct analyses of the mozzarella cheeses were compared with the calculated amino acid composition reported in tables in Agriculture Handbook No. 8-1. Phenylalanine and tyrosine contents were found to be higher in the direct analyses than in the calculated data in Handbook No. 8-1 (1.390 gm and 1.127 gm for phenylalanine, and 1.493 gm and 1.249 gm for tyrosine per 100 gm edible portion, respectively). That is of particular concern in the dietary management of phenylketonuria, in which accuracy in computing levels of phenylalanine and tyrosine is essential.

  16. DCH analyses using the CONTAIN code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sung Wan; Kim, Hee Dong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-08-01

    This report describes CONTAIN analyses performed during participation in the project of `DCH issue resolution for ice condenser plants` which is sponsored by NRC at SNL. Even though the calculations were performed for the Ice Condenser plant, CONTAIN code has been used for analyses of many phenomena in the PWR containment and the DCH module can be commonly applied to any plant types. The present ice condenser issue resolution effort intended to provide guidance as to what might be needed to resolve DCH for ice condenser plants. It includes both a screening analysis and a scoping study if the screening analysis cannot provide an complete resolution. The followings are the results concerning DCH loads in descending order. 1. Availability of ignition sources prior to vessel breach 2. availability and effectiveness of ice in the ice condenser 3. Loads modeling uncertainties related to co-ejected RPV water 4. Other loads modeling uncertainties 10 tabs., 3 figs., 14 refs. (Author).

  17. Pratique de l'analyse fonctionelle

    CERN Document Server

    Tassinari, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Mettre au point un produit ou un service qui soit parfaitement adapté aux besoins et aux exigences du client est indispensable pour l'entreprise. Pour ne rien laisser au hasard, il s'agit de suivre une méthodologie rigoureuse : celle de l'analyse fonctionnelle. Cet ouvrage définit précisément cette méthode ainsi que ses champs d'application. Il décrit les méthodes les plus performantes en termes de conception de produit et de recherche de qualité et introduit la notion d'analyse fonctionnelle interne. Un ouvrage clé pour optimiser les processus de conception de produit dans son entreprise. -- Idées clés, par Business Digest

  18. Reliability of chemical analyses of water samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beardon, R.

    1989-11-01

    Ground-water quality investigations require reliable chemical analyses of water samples. Unfortunately, laboratory analytical results are often unreliable. The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project`s solution to this problem was to establish a two phase quality assurance program for the analysis of water samples. In the first phase, eight laboratories analyzed three solutions of known composition. The analytical accuracy of each laboratory was ranked and three laboratories were awarded contracts. The second phase consists of on-going monitoring of the reliability of the selected laboratories. The following conclusions are based on two years experience with the UMTRA Project`s Quality Assurance Program. The reliability of laboratory analyses should not be taken for granted. Analytical reliability may be independent of the prices charged by laboratories. Quality assurance programs benefit both the customer and the laboratory.

  19. Reliability of chemical analyses of water samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beardon, R.

    1989-11-01

    Ground-water quality investigations require reliable chemical analyses of water samples. Unfortunately, laboratory analytical results are often unreliable. The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project`s solution to this problem was to establish a two phase quality assurance program for the analysis of water samples. In the first phase, eight laboratories analyzed three solutions of known composition. The analytical accuracy of each laboratory was ranked and three laboratories were awarded contracts. The second phase consists of on-going monitoring of the reliability of the selected laboratories. The following conclusions are based on two years experience with the UMTRA Project`s Quality Assurance Program. The reliability of laboratory analyses should not be taken for granted. Analytical reliability may be independent of the prices charged by laboratories. Quality assurance programs benefit both the customer and the laboratory.

  20. Introduction à l'analyse fonctionnelle

    CERN Document Server

    Reischer, Corina; Hengartner, Walter

    1981-01-01

    Fruit de la collaboration des professeur Walter Hengarther de l'Université Laval, Marcel Lambert et Corina Reischer de l'Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières, Introduction à l'analyse fonctionnelle se distingue tant par l'étendue de son contenu que par l'accessibilité de sa présentation. Sans céder quoi que ce soit sur la rigueur, il est parfaitement adapté à un premier cours d'analyse fonctionnelle. Tout en étant d'abord destiné aux étudiants en mathématiques, il pourra certes être utile aux étudiants de second cycle en sciences et en génie.

  1. En Billig GPS Data Analyse Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove; Christiansen, Nick; Larsen, Niels T.

    2011-01-01

    Denne artikel præsenterer en komplet software platform til analyse af GPS data. Platformen er bygget udelukkende vha. open-source komponenter. De enkelte komponenter i platformen beskrives i detaljer. Fordele og ulemper ved at bruge open-source diskuteres herunder hvilke IT politiske tiltage, der...... organisationer med et digitalt vejkort og GPS data begynde at lave trafikanalyser på disse data. Det er et krav, at der er passende IT kompetencer tilstede i organisationen....

  2. En Billig GPS Data Analyse Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove; Christiansen, Nick; Larsen, Niels T.;

    2011-01-01

    Denne artikel præsenterer en komplet software platform til analyse af GPS data. Platformen er bygget udelukkende vha. open-source komponenter. De enkelte komponenter i platformen beskrives i detaljer. Fordele og ulemper ved at bruge open-source diskuteres herunder hvilke IT politiske tiltage, der...... organisationer med et digitalt vejkort og GPS data begynde at lave trafikanalyser på disse data. Det er et krav, at der er passende IT kompetencer tilstede i organisationen....

  3. Center for Naval Analyses Annual Report 1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    recipients, alike, was due mainly to temporary rather than permanent layoffs ; they were unemployed for about the same length of time, and their post- layoff ...equal to 70 percent of average weekly wages for 52 weeks in the two years following layoff ) apparently encouraged workers to remain unemployed longer...Institute for Defense Analyses. William A. Nierenberg, Director of the Scripps Institution of Oceanog- raphy. Member, NASA Advisory Council. Member

  4. MSL SAM-like Analyses of Hawaiian Altered Basaltic Materials: Implications for Analyses by the Mars Science Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdam, A.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Young, K. E.; Bleacher, J. E.; Knudson, C. A.; Rogers, D.; Glotch, T. D.; Sutter, B.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Navarro-Gonzalez, R.; Downs, R. T.

    2015-12-01

    Samples of basaltic materials were collected during several traverses of the Kau Desert on the leeward side of the Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, conducted by the Remote, In Situ, and Synchrotron Studies for Science and Exploration (RIS4E) team, a node of the Solar System Exploration and Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI) program. Some of these samples had been exposed to circumneutral to slightly acidic alteration conditions from exposure to fog/rain, and acidic fog/rain, while others had been exposed to more acidic conditions due to proximity to fumaroles. The samples consisted of basalts with coatings, sands and soils, and ash, and were collected using organically clean protocols to enable investigation of organic chemistry and organic-mineral associations, in addition to mineralogy. The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover has analyzed basaltic materials inferred to have been altered under conditions ranging from circumneutral to acidic, but several aspects of the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite results are still being investigated and analyses of relevant terrestrial analogs can play an important role in interpretation of the data. For example, all materials analyzed to date have a significant amorphous component. Comparisons of the mineralogy obtained with the MSL CheMin instrument and volatiles evolved during SAM analyses indicate that, by mass balance, some portion of the volatiles, such as SO2 and H2O, are likely associated with this component. Many of the RIS4E samples also have a significant amorphous component, and field x-ray diffraction (XRD) and x-ray fluorescence (XRF) data indicate differences in the chemistry of this material in samples exposed to different alteration conditions. Preliminary SAM-like analyses indicate that the amorphous materials in some of these samples evolve volatiles such as H2O and SO2 during heating. Here we will discuss these results, and others, obtained through SAM-like analyses of selected samples.

  5. Field Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Bottura, L

    2004-01-01

    The measurement of the magnetic field is often the final verification of the complex design and fabrication process of a magnetic system. In several cases, when seeking high accuracy, the measurement technique and its realization can result in a considerable effort. This note describes most used measurement techniques, such as nuclear magnetic resonance, fluxmeters and Hall generators, and their typical range of application. In addition some of less commonly used techniques, such as magneto-optical, SQUIDs, or particle beams methods, are listed.

  6. Urban Fields in the making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovgesen, Henrik Harder; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick

    A recent study of transportation and urban structure in a larger Danish city concludes that the location vis-à-vis attractions far beyond the city borders, has a detectable bearing on the inhabitants transport patterns inside the city. This indicates a high degree of functional integration between...... cities and accentuates the concept of the ?urban field? suggested by John Friedmann (1978). The concept of ?urban field? suggest that mobility has been democratizised and increased to a level where several cities can be part of the same functionally integrated urban field. As a consequence...... the significance of the single urban centre and the city as an entity will change markedly. This paper aims to analyse the development towards urban travel- and commuter fields in Denmark. The question asked is to what degree urban fields are emerging? ? And what is the speed of this development....

  7. Product personality: from analysing to applying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pourtalebi Hendehkhaleh, S.; Pouralvar, K.

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays products are expected to undertake their functions properly and the competition for satisfying consumer is in the field of product attachments and emotional characteristics. Products have a symbolic meaning in addition to their utilitarian benefits. This symbolic meaning that refers to phys

  8. Statistical analyses in disease surveillance systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lescano, Andres G; Larasati, Ria Purwita; Sedyaningsih, Endang R; Bounlu, Khanthong; Araujo-Castillo, Roger V; Munayco-Escate, Cesar V; Soto, Giselle; Mundaca, C Cecilia; Blazes, David L

    2008-11-14

    The performance of disease surveillance systems is evaluated and monitored using a diverse set of statistical analyses throughout each stage of surveillance implementation. An overview of their main elements is presented, with a specific emphasis on syndromic surveillance directed to outbreak detection in resource-limited settings. Statistical analyses are proposed for three implementation stages: planning, early implementation, and consolidation. Data sources and collection procedures are described for each analysis.During the planning and pilot stages, we propose to estimate the average data collection, data entry and data distribution time. This information can be collected by surveillance systems themselves or through specially designed surveys. During the initial implementation stage, epidemiologists should study the completeness and timeliness of the reporting, and describe thoroughly the population surveyed and the epidemiology of the health events recorded. Additional data collection processes or external data streams are often necessary to assess reporting completeness and other indicators. Once data collection processes are operating in a timely and stable manner, analyses of surveillance data should expand to establish baseline rates and detect aberrations. External investigations can be used to evaluate whether abnormally increased case frequency corresponds to a true outbreak, and thereby establish the sensitivity and specificity of aberration detection algorithms.Statistical methods for disease surveillance have focused mainly on the performance of outbreak detection algorithms without sufficient attention to the data quality and representativeness, two factors that are especially important in developing countries. It is important to assess data quality at each state of implementation using a diverse mix of data sources and analytical methods. Careful, close monitoring of selected indicators is needed to evaluate whether systems are reaching their

  9. Stable isotopic analyses in paleoclimatic reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wigand, P.E. [Univ. and Community College System of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Most traditional paleoclimatic proxy data have inherent time lags between climatic input and system response that constrain their use in accurate reconstruction of paleoclimate chronology, scaling of its variability, and the elucidation of the processes that determine its impact on the biotic and abiotic environment. With the exception of dendroclimatology, and studies of short-lived organisms and pollen recovered from annually varved lacustrine sediments, significant periods of time ranging from years, to centuries, to millennia may intervene between climate change and its first manifestation in paleoclimatic proxy data records. Reconstruction of past climate through changes in plant community composition derived from pollen sequences and plant remains from ancient woodrat middens, wet environments and dry caves all suffer from these lags. However, stable isotopic analyses can provide more immediate indication of biotic response to climate change. Evidence of past physiological response of organisms to changes in effective precipitation as climate varies can be provided by analyses of the stable isotopic content of plant macrofossils from various contexts. These analyses consider variation in the stable isotopic (hydrogen, oxygen and carbon) content of plant tissues as it reflects (1) past global or local temperature through changes in meteoric (rainfall) water chemistry in the case of the first two isotopes, and (2) plant stress through changes in plant respiration/transpiration processes under differing water availability, and varying atmospheric CO, composition (which itself may actually be a net result of biotic response to climate change). Studies currently being conducted in the Intermountain West indicate both long- and short-term responses that when calibrated with modem analogue studies have the potential of revealing not only the timing of climate events, but their direction, magnitude and rapidity.

  10. Environmental monitoring final report: groundwater chemical analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-02-01

    This report presents the results of analyses of groundwater qualtiy at the SRC-I Demonstration Plant site in Newman, Kentucky. Samples were obtained from a network of 23 groundwater observation wells installed during previous studies. The groundwater was well within US EPA Interim Primary Drinking Water Standards for trace metals, radioactivity, and pesticides, but exceeded the standard for coliform bacteria. Several US EPA Secondary Drinking Water Standards were exceeded, namely, manganese, color, iron, and total dissolved solids. Based on the results, Dames and Moore recommend that all wells should be sterilized and those wells built in 1980 should be redeveloped. 1 figure, 6 tables.

  11. Introduction: Analysing Emotion and Theorising Affect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peta Tait

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This discussion introduces ideas of emotion and affect for a volume of articles demonstrating the scope of approaches used in their study within the humanities and creative arts. The volume offers multiple perspectives on emotion and affect within 20th-century and 21st-century texts, arts and organisations and their histories. The discussion explains how emotion encompasses the emotions, emotional feeling, sensation and mood and how these can be analysed particularly in relation to literature, art and performance. It briefly summarises concepts of affect theory within recent approaches before introducing the articles.

  12. Analyses of containment structures with corrosion damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherry, J.L.

    1996-12-31

    Corrosion damage to a nuclear power plant containment structure can degrade the pressure capacity of the vessel. For the low-carbon, low- strength steels used in containments, the effect of corrosion on material properties is discussed. Strain-to-failure tests, in uniaxial tension, have been performed on corroded material samples. Results were used to select strain-based failure criteria for corroded steel. Using the ABAQUS finite element analysis code, the capacity of a typical PWR Ice Condenser containment with corrosion damage has been studied. Multiple analyses were performed with the locations of the corrosion the containment, and the amount of corrosion varied in each analysis.

  13. Visuelle Analyse von Eye-Tracking-Daten

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Eye-Tracking ist eine der am häufigsten eingesetzten Techniken zur Analyse der Mensch-Computer-Interaktion sowie zur Untersuchung der Perzeption. Die erfassten Eye-Tracking-Daten werden meist mit Heat-Maps oder Scan-Paths analysiert, um die Usability der getesteten Anwendung zu ermitteln oder auf höhere kognitive Prozesse zu schließen. Das Ziel dieser Diplomarbeit ist die Entwicklung neuer Visualisierungstechniken für Eye-Tracking-Daten beziehungsweise die Entwicklung eines Studienkonzepts...

  14. Visuelle Analyse von Eye-Tracking-Daten

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xuemei

    2011-01-01

    Eye-Tracking ist eine der am häufigsten eingesetzten Techniken zur Analyse der Mensch-Computer-Interaktion sowie zur Untersuchung der Perzeption. Die erfassten Eye-Tracking-Daten werden meist mit Heat-Maps oder Scan-Paths analysiert, um die Usability der getesteten Anwendung zu ermitteln oder auf höhere kognitive Prozesse zu schließen. Das Ziel dieser Diplomarbeit ist die Entwicklung neuer Visualisierungstechniken für Eye-Tracking-Daten beziehungsweise die Entwicklung eines Studienkonzepts...

  15. Practitioners' Tools in Analysing Financial Markets Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Nicolau

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In a chaotic and confusing place as world of investing is, the practitioners, who operate onmarkets every day, have continuously searched to forecast properly the market movements. Moreminded to financial speculations, practitioners analyse financial markets looking for potentialweaknesses of the Efficient Market Hypothesis, and most of the times their methods are criticized byacademics. This article intends to present the traditional tools used by traders and brokers in analysingfinancial markets, emphasizing on critical opinions and scientific works published on this argumentby now.

  16. MILROY, Lesley. Observing and Analysing Natural Language: A Critical Account of Sociolinguistic Method. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1987. 230pp. MILROY, Lesley. Observing and Analysing Natural Language: A Critical Account of Sociolinguistic Method. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1987. 230pp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iria Werlang Garcia

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Lesley Milroy's Observing and Analysing Natural Language is a recent addition to an ever growing number of publications in the field of Sociolinguistics. It carries the weight of one of the experienced authors in the current days in the specified field and should offer basic information to both newcomers and established investigators in natural language. Lesley Milroy's Observing and Analysing Natural Language is a recent addition to an ever growing number of publications in the field of Sociolinguistics. It carries the weight of one of the experienced authors in the current days in the specified field and should offer basic information to both newcomers and established investigators in natural language.

  17. Damping Analyses of Structural Vibrations and Shunted Piezoelectric Transducers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber Mohammadi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric transducers in conjunction with appropriate electric networks can be used as a mechanical energy dissipation device. Alternatively, undesired mechanical energy of a structure could be converted into electrical energy that can be dissipated through a shunt network in the form of Joule heating. This paper presents an experimental method to calculate damping energy in mechanical systems. However, the mathematical description of damping mechanism is much more complicated, and any process responsible for the occurrence of damping is very intricate. Structural and piezoelectric damping are calculated and analysed in the case of pulse switching or SSDI semiactive vibration control technique. This technique which was developed in the field of piezoelectric damping consists in triggering the inverting switch on each extremum of the piezoelectric voltage which induces an increase of the electromechanical energy conversion.

  18. Quantitative analyses of relationships between ecotoxicological effects and combined pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Qixing; CHENG Yun; ZHANG Qianru; LIANG Jidong

    2004-01-01

    The responses of wheat Triticum aestivum,rice Oryza sativa,earthworms Eisenia foetida,and prawns Penaeus japonicus to combined acetochlor-Cu,Cd-Zn were studied in hydroponic and soil-culturing systems using the methods of ecotoxicology.In particular,systematically quantitative analyses were documented by field experiments.Results showed that ecotoxicological effects under the combined pollution were not only related to chemical properties of pollutants but also dependent on the concentration level of pollutants,in particular on the combination of concentrations of pollutants in ecosystems.Additionally,species of organisms,especially the type of ecosystem,determined the influences.To some extent,biological tissue targets attacked by pollutants were an important factor.

  19. A turbulent jet in crossflow analysed with proper orthogonal decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Knud Erik; Pedersen, Jakob Martin; Özcan, Oktay

    2007-01-01

    Detailed instantaneous velocity fields of a jet in crossflow have been measured with stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (PIV). The jet originated from a fully developed turbulent pipe flow and entered a crossflow with a turbulent boundary layer. The Reynolds number based on crossflow velocity...... and pipe diameter was 2400 and the jet to crossflow velocity ratios were R = 3.3 and R = 1.3. The experimental data have been analysed by proper orthogonal decomposition (POD). For R = 3.3, the results in several different planes indicate that the wake vortices are the dominant dynamic flow structures...... and that they interact strongly with the jet core. The analysis identifies jet shear-layer vortices and finds that these vortical structures are more local and thus less dominant. For R = 1.3, on the other hand, jet shear-layer vortices are the most dominant, while the wake vortices are much less important. For both...

  20. Crystallo-chemical analyses of calcium phosphates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakae, Toshiro; Hayakawa, Tohru; Maruyama, Fumiaki; Nemoto, Kimiya; Kozawa, Yukishige [Nihon Univ., Matsudo, Chiba (Japan). School of Dentistry

    1997-12-01

    Several analytical techniques, methodology and their practical data processing were briefly described to investigate the crystallographic properties of calcium phosphates which are encountered in the field of dental sciences. The applied analytical techniques were X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XFS), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The used materials were tetracalcium phosphate, hydroxyapatite, fluorapatite, {alpha}-tricalcium phosphate, {beta}-tricalcium phosphate, octacalcium phosphate, monetite, brushite and monocalcium phosphate monohydrate. (author)

  1. Sensitivity in risk analyses with uncertain numbers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tucker, W. Troy; Ferson, Scott

    2006-06-01

    Sensitivity analysis is a study of how changes in the inputs to a model influence the results of the model. Many techniques have recently been proposed for use when the model is probabilistic. This report considers the related problem of sensitivity analysis when the model includes uncertain numbers that can involve both aleatory and epistemic uncertainty and the method of calculation is Dempster-Shafer evidence theory or probability bounds analysis. Some traditional methods for sensitivity analysis generalize directly for use with uncertain numbers, but, in some respects, sensitivity analysis for these analyses differs from traditional deterministic or probabilistic sensitivity analyses. A case study of a dike reliability assessment illustrates several methods of sensitivity analysis, including traditional probabilistic assessment, local derivatives, and a ''pinching'' strategy that hypothetically reduces the epistemic uncertainty or aleatory uncertainty, or both, in an input variable to estimate the reduction of uncertainty in the outputs. The prospects for applying the methods to black box models are also considered.

  2. Hitchhikers’ guide to analysing bird ringing data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harnos Andrea

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bird ringing datasets constitute possibly the largest source of temporal and spatial information on vertebrate taxa available on the globe. Initially, the method was invented to understand avian migration patterns. However, data deriving from bird ringing has been used in an array of other disciplines including population monitoring, changes in demography, conservation management and to study the effects of climate change to name a few. Despite the widespread usage and importance, there are no guidelines available specifically describing the practice of data management, preparation and analyses of ringing datasets. Here, we present the first of a series of comprehensive tutorials that may help fill this gap. We describe in detail and through a real-life example the intricacies of data cleaning and how to create a data table ready for analyses from raw ringing data in the R software environment. Moreover, we created and present here the R package; ringR, designed to carry out various specific tasks and plots related to bird ringing data. Most methods described here can also be applied to a wide range of capture-recapture type data based on individual marking, regardless to taxa or research question.

  3. NEXT Ion Thruster Performance Dispersion Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulas, George C.; Patterson, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    The NEXT ion thruster is a low specific mass, high performance thruster with a nominal throttling range of 0.5 to 7 kW. Numerous engineering model and one prototype model thrusters have been manufactured and tested. Of significant importance to propulsion system performance is thruster-to-thruster performance dispersions. This type of information can provide a bandwidth of expected performance variations both on a thruster and a component level. Knowledge of these dispersions can be used to more conservatively predict thruster service life capability and thruster performance for mission planning, facilitate future thruster performance comparisons, and verify power processor capabilities are compatible with the thruster design. This study compiles the test results of five engineering model thrusters and one flight-like thruster to determine unit-to-unit dispersions in thruster performance. Component level performance dispersion analyses will include discharge chamber voltages, currents, and losses; accelerator currents, electron backstreaming limits, and perveance limits; and neutralizer keeper and coupling voltages and the spot-to-plume mode transition flow rates. Thruster level performance dispersion analyses will include thrust efficiency.

  4. ANALYSES ON SYSTEMATIC CONFRONTATION OF FIGHTER AIRCRAFT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuaiJinpeng; WuZhe; HuangJun

    2002-01-01

    Analyses of the systematic confrontation between two military forcfes are the highest hierarchy on opera-tional effectiveness study of weapon systema.The physi-cal model for tactical many-on-many engagements of an aerial warfare with heterogeneous figher aircraft is estab-lished.On the basis of Lanchester multivariate equations of square law,a mathematical model corresponding to the established physical model is given.A superiorityh parame-ter is then derived directly from the mathematical model.With view to the high -tech condition of modern war-fare,the concept of superiority parameter which more well and truly reflects the essential of an air-to-air en-gagement is further formulated.The attrition coeffi-cients,which are key to the differential equations,are de-termined by using tactics of random target assignment and air-to-air capability index of the fighter aircraft.Hereby,taking the mathematical model and superiority parameter as cores,calculations amd analyses of complicate systemic problems such as evaluation of battle superiority,prog-mostication of combat process and optimization of colloca-tions have been accomplished.Results indicate that a clas-sical combat theory with its certain recent development has received newer applications in the military operation research for complicated confrontation analysis issues.

  5. Transportation systems analyses: Volume 1: Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-01

    The principal objective of this study is to accomplish a systems engineering assessment of the nation's space transportation infrastructure. This analysis addresses the necessary elements to perform man delivery and return, cargo transfer, cargo delivery, payload servicing, and the exploration of the Moon and Mars. Specific elements analyzed, but not limited to, include the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI), the National Launch System (NLS), the current expendable launch vehicle (ELV) fleet, ground facilities, the Space Station Freedom (SSF), and other civil, military and commercial payloads. The performance of this study entails maintaining a broad perspective on the large number of transportation elements that could potentially comprise the U.S. space infrastructure over the next several decades. To perform this systems evaluation, top-level trade studies are conducted to enhance our understanding of the relationships between elements of the infrastructure. This broad 'infrastructure-level perspective' permits the identification of preferred infrastructures. Sensitivity analyses are performed to assure the credibility and usefulness of study results. This executive summary of the transportation systems analyses (TSM) semi-annual report addresses the SSF logistics resupply. Our analysis parallels the ongoing NASA SSF redesign effort. Therefore, there could be no SSF design to drive our logistics analysis. Consequently, the analysis attempted to bound the reasonable SSF design possibilities (and the subsequent transportation implications). No other strategy really exists until after a final decision is rendered on the SSF configuration.

  6. Autisme et douleur – analyse bibliographique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Amandine; Rattaz, Cécile; Pry, René; Baghdadli, Amaria

    2010-01-01

    La présente analyse bibliographique a pour objectif de réaliser un bilan des travaux publiés dans le champ de la douleur et de l’autisme. L’article aborde, dans un premier temps, les études publiées concernant les modes d’expression de la douleur observés dans cette population. Différentes hypothèses permettant d’expliquer les particularités expressives des personnes avec autisme sont ensuite passées en revue : excès d’endorphines, particularités dans le traitement sensoriel, déficit sociocommunicatif. Cette analyse bibliographique aborde, pour terminer, la question de l’évaluation et de la prise en compte de la douleur chez les personnes avec autisme. Les auteurs concluent à l’absence d’homogénéité des résultats des études publiées et au besoin de poursuivre les recherches afin de parvenir à des données consensuelles sur un domaine d’étude encore peu exploité au plan scientifique. Sur un plan clinique, l’approfondissement des connaissances dans ce domaine devrait permettre de mettre au point des outils d’évaluation de la douleur et d’ainsi en assurer une meilleure prise en charge au quotidien. PMID:20808970

  7. Analyses of containment structures with corrosion damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherry, J.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Corrosion damage that has been found in a number of nuclear power plant containment structures can degrade the pressure capacity of the vessel. This has prompted concerns regarding the capacity of corroded containments to withstand accident loadings. To address these concerns, finite element analyses have been performed for a typical PWR Ice Condenser containment structure. Using ABAQUS, the pressure capacity was calculated for a typical vessel with no corrosion damage. Multiple analyses were then performed with the location of the corrosion and the amount of corrosion varied in each analysis. Using a strain-based failure criterion, a {open_quotes}lower bound{close_quotes}, {open_quotes}best estimate{close_quotes}, and {open_quotes}upper bound{close_quotes} failure level was predicted for each case. These limits were established by: determining the amount of variability that exists in material properties of typical containments, estimating the amount of uncertainty associated with the level of modeling detail and modeling assumptions, and estimating the effect of corrosion on the material properties.

  8. Waste Stream Analyses for Nuclear Fuel Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. R. Soelberg

    2010-08-01

    A high-level study was performed in Fiscal Year 2009 for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) to provide information for a range of nuclear fuel cycle options (Wigeland 2009). At that time, some fuel cycle options could not be adequately evaluated since they were not well defined and lacked sufficient information. As a result, five families of these fuel cycle options are being studied during Fiscal Year 2010 by the Systems Analysis Campaign for the DOE NE Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program. The quality and completeness of data available to date for the fuel cycle options is insufficient to perform quantitative radioactive waste analyses using recommended metrics. This study has been limited thus far to qualitative analyses of waste streams from the candidate fuel cycle options, because quantitative data for wastes from the front end, fuel fabrication, reactor core structure, and used fuel for these options is generally not yet available.

  9. CHEMICAL ANALYSES OF SODIUM SYSTEMS FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenhalgh, W. O.; Yunker, W. H.; Scott, F. A.

    1970-06-01

    BNWL-1407 summarizes information gained from the Chemical Analyses of Sodium Systems Program pursued by Battelle- Northwest over the period from July 1967 through June 1969. Tasks included feasibility studies for performing coulometric titration and polarographic determinations of oxygen in sodium, and the development of new separation techniques for sodium impurities and their subsequent analyses. The program was terminated ahead of schedule so firm conclusions were not obtained in all areas of the work. At least 40 coulometric titrations were carried out and special test cells were developed for coulometric application. Data indicated that polarographic measurements are theoretically feasible, but practical application of the method was not verified. An emission spectrographic procedure for trace metal impurities was developed and published. Trace metal analysis by a neutron activation technique was shown to be feasible; key to the success of the activation technique was the application of a new ion exchange resin which provided a sodium separation factor of 10{sup 11}. Preliminary studies on direct scavenging of trace metals produced no conclusive results.

  10. Les conditions de l’analyse qualitative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Paillé

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Les méthodes d’analyse des données qualitatives et le monde informatique étaient faits pour se rencontrer. Et en effet, la question est d’actualité et les outils informatiques nombreux et avancés. Ce phénomène ne saurait s’estomper, d’autant moins que l’analyse des données secondaires connaît en même temps des développements importants. Mais l’attrait pour les logiciels d’analyse peut devenir tel qu’on ne verrait plus trop à quel titre et pour quelles raisons on pourrait s’en passer. L’article tente de cerner une vision et une pratique de l’analyse qualitative qui, dans son essence, ne se prête pas à l’utilisation d’outils informatiques spécialisés. Il situe sa réflexion dans le cadre de la méthodologie qualitative (démarche qualitative, recherche qualitative, analyse qualitative, plus particulièrement au niveau de l’enquête qualitative de terrain.The conditions of qualitative analysisThe methods for analyzing qualitative data and the computer world were meant to meet. And, by that, the question is valid and computer tools numerous and advanced. This phenomenon will not slowdown, especially not since secondary data analysis experiences significant developments. But the attraction for analysis software could develop so that we would not see too much why and for what type of reasons we could part from them. This article attempts to define a vision and a practice of qualitative analysis that, in essence, does not use specialized computer tools. It situates its reflection within qualitative methodology (qualitative approaches, qualitative research, qualitative analysis and moreover in the level of qualitative fieldwork investigation.Las condiciones del análisis cualitativo. Reflexiones sobre la utilización de programas informáticosLos métodos de análisis de los datos cualitativos y el mundo de la informática han nacido para entenderse mutualmente. En efecto, la cuestión es actual y los

  11. Using Ontologies in Cybersecurity Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiberiu Marian GEORGESCU

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an exploratory research which aims to improve the cybersecurity field by means of semantic web technologies. The authors present a framework which uses Semantic Web technologies to automatically extract and analyse text in natural language available online. The system provides results that are further analysed by cybersecurity experts to detect black hat hackers’ activities. The authors examine several characteristics of how hacking communities communicate and collaborate online and how much information can be obtained by analysing different types of internet text communication channels. Having online sources as input data, the model proposed extracts and analyses natural language that relates with cybersecurity field, with the aid of ontologies. The main objective is to generate information about possible black hat hacking actions, which later can be analysed punctually by experts. This paper describes the data flow of the framework and it proposes technological solutions so that the model can be applied. In their future work, the authors plan to implement the framework described as a system software application.

  12. On the accuracy of population analyses based on fitted densities().

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Lande, Aurélien; Clavaguéra, Carine; Köster, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Population analyses are part of the theoretical chemist's toolbox. They provide means to extract information about the repartition of the electronic density among molecules or solids. The values of atomic multipoles in a molecule can shed light on its electrostatic properties and may help to predict how different molecules could interact or to rationalize chemical reactivity for instance. Not being physical observables to which a quantum mechanical operator can be associated, atomic charges and higher order atomic multipoles cannot be defined unambiguously in a molecule, and therefore, several population schemes (PS) have been devised in the last decades. In the context of density functional theory (DFT), PS based on the electron density seem to be best grounded. In particular, some groups have proposed various iterative schemes the outcomes of which are very encouraging. Modern implementations of DFT that are for example based on density fitting techniques permit the investigation of molecular systems comprising of hundreds of atoms. However, population analyses following iterative schemes may become very CPU time consuming for such large systems. In this article, we investigate if the computationally less expensive analyses of the variationally fitted electronic densities can be safely carried out instead of the Kohn-Sham density. It is shown that as long as flexible auxiliary function sets including f and g functions are used, the multipoles extracted from the fitted densities are extremely close to those obtained from the KS density. We further assess if the multipoles obtained through the Hirshfeld's approach, in its standard or iterative form, can be a useful approach to calculate interaction energies in non-covalent complexes. Relative energies computed with the AMOEBA polarizable forced field combined to iterative Hirshfeld multipoles are encouraging.

  13. Meta-Analyses of Biosolids Effect in Dryland Wheat Agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarick, Kenneth; Ippolito, James; McDaniel, Jacob

    2017-03-01

    Land application to cropping systems is USEPA's preferred method of recycling biosolids. Determination of biosolids effect size through meta-analyses from two decades of field-location research at three sites should answer the question: Does 20 yr of biosolids application affect dryland wheat ( L.) grain production, grain nutrient concentrations, and soil elemental extractability compared with equivalent rates of commercial N fertilizer? At two sites, biennial biosolids application rates to a wheat-fallow (WF) rotation were up to 11.2 dry Mg ha and up to 112 kg commercial N fertilizer ha, whereas rates at the third location varied to match soil-test information. Crop rotations included WF and wheat-corn ( L.)-fallow. We completed meta-analyses of biosolids effects compared with N fertilizer on wheat yield, grain protein, grain total, and soil ammonium bicarbonate-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (ABDTPA)-extractable P, Zn, Cu, Fe, and Ni concentrations at the aforementioned sites from 1993 through 2013. Results showed that biosolids produced greater grain P and Zn at one site. Biosolids rates at two sites resulted in greater grain Zn and ABDTPA P, Zn, Cu, and Fe. Meta-analyses tests for heterogeneity indicated that the variance for all sites and rates could be explained as consistent across treatments, whereas the test for the 20 yr showed that heterogeneity was large and other factors affected the variance (e.g., climatic variability between years). Meta-analysis showed the practical effect of biosolids over a 20-yr study and demonstrated that the primary biosolids effect was an improvement in Zn availability to wheat. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  14. Sensitivity of surface meteorological analyses to observation networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyndall, Daniel Paul

    A computationally efficient variational analysis system for two-dimensional meteorological fields is developed and described. This analysis approach is most efficient when the number of analysis grid points is much larger than the number of available observations, such as for large domain mesoscale analyses. The analysis system is developed using MATLAB software and can take advantage of multiple processors or processor cores. A version of the analysis system has been exported as a platform independent application (i.e., can be run on Windows, Linux, or Macintosh OS X desktop computers without a MATLAB license) with input/output operations handled by commonly available internet software combined with data archives at the University of Utah. The impact of observation networks on the meteorological analyses is assessed by utilizing a percentile ranking of individual observation sensitivity and impact, which is computed by using the adjoint of the variational surface assimilation system. This methodology is demonstrated using a case study of the analysis from 1400 UTC 27 October 2010 over the entire contiguous United States domain. The sensitivity of this approach to the dependence of the background error covariance on observation density is examined. Observation sensitivity and impact provide insight on the influence of observations from heterogeneous observing networks as well as serve as objective metrics for quality control procedures that may help to identify stations with significant siting, reporting, or representativeness issues.

  15. Spectral analysis by correlation; Analyse spectrale par correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fauque, J.M.; Berthier, D.; Max, J.; Bonnet, G. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    The spectral density of a signal, which represents its power distribution along the frequency axis, is a function which is of great importance, finding many uses in all fields concerned with the processing of the signal (process identification, vibrational analysis, etc...). Amongst all the possible methods for calculating this function, the correlation method (correlation function calculation + Fourier transformation) is the most promising, mainly because of its simplicity and of the results it yields. The study carried out here will lead to the construction of an apparatus which, coupled with a correlator, will constitute a set of equipment for spectral analysis in real time covering the frequency range 0 to 5 MHz. (author) [French] La densite spectrale d'un signal qui represente la repartition de sa puissance sur l'axe des frequences est une fonction de premiere importance, constamment utilisee dans tout ce qui touche le traitement du signal (identification de processus, analyse de vibrations, etc...). Parmi toutes les methodes possibles de calcul de cette fonction, la methode par correlation (calcul de la fonction de correlation + transformation de Fourier) est tres seduisante par sa simplicite et ses performances. L'etude qui est faite ici va deboucher sur la realisation d'un appareil qui, couple a un correlateur, constituera un ensemble d'analyse spectrale en temps reel couvrant la gamme de frequence 0 a 5 MHz. (auteur)

  16. The Increasing Importance of Gene-Based Analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth T Cirulli

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, genome and exome sequencing studies have implicated a plethora of new disease genes with rare causal variants. Here, I review 150 exome sequencing studies that claim to have discovered that a disease can be caused by different rare variants in the same gene, and I determine whether their methods followed the current best-practice guidelines in the interpretation of their data. Specifically, I assess whether studies appropriately assess controls for rare variants throughout the entire gene or implicated region as opposed to only investigating the specific rare variants identified in the cases, and I assess whether studies present sufficient co-segregation data for statistically significant linkage. I find that the proportion of studies performing gene-based analyses has increased with time, but that even in 2015 fewer than 40% of the reviewed studies used this method, and only 10% presented statistically significant co-segregation data. Furthermore, I find that the genes reported in these papers are explaining a decreasing proportion of cases as the field moves past most of the low-hanging fruit, with 50% of the genes from studies in 2014 and 2015 having variants in fewer than 5% of cases. As more studies focus on genes explaining relatively few cases, the importance of performing appropriate gene-based analyses is increasing. It is becoming increasingly important for journal editors and reviewers to require stringent gene-based evidence to avoid an avalanche of misleading disease gene discovery papers.

  17. [Central visual fields in pure alexia "without hemianopsia"--visual dysfunction in the right hemifield, and alexia for "kana" words in the left].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, S; Uchiyama, C

    1991-10-01

    Following a left occipito-temporal subcortical hematoma, a 57-year-old, right-handed man developed pure alexia that was more prominent in kana words, especially in kana nonwords, than in kanji letters. Although a kinetic perimetry with a Goldmann perimeter showed his visual fields to be full, a static perimetry with a Humphrey visual field analyzer disclosed decreased visual sensitivity in the right visual field in its central 30 degrees. In addition, a tachnistoscopic examination with Landolt rings revealed his visual acuity (the ability of two points discrimination) to have decreased in the right half of his central visual filed in its 3 degrees. In the right central vision, he was unable to recognize the letters, pictures or colors presented by the tachistoscope. Concerning the reading, the more letters in kana words or the higher the number of strokes in kanji letters, the more difficulty he experienced in orally reading both kana and kanji. On the contrary, in the left central vision, kanji reading was not so affected by an increased number of strokes as the kana-word reading which became difficult when the number of the letters increased. CT scan showed subcortical hematoma in the left occipitotemporal region. Magnetic resonance imaging 3 months after onset revealed a localized injury in the region between the left postero-inferior temporal lobe and the infero-lateral occipital lobe, including the fusiform gyrus. None of the splenium, the lingual gyrus or the optic area were affected. The spared structures also included the angular gyrus, the Wernicke area and their subcortical white matter.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Fractal Analyses of Steady Infiltration and Terrain on an Undulating Agricultural Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fractal scaling behaviors have been observed in systems where interacting factors cause nested spatial structures. Surface water infiltration affects spatial patterns of soil water, nutrients, and plant development and crop yield. Here, we explored simple fractal scaling of quasi-steady infiltrati...

  19. TRMM Latent Heating Retrieval and Comparisons with Field Campaigns and Large-Scale Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo; Takayabu, Yukuri; Lang, S.; Shige, S.; Olson, W.; Hou, A.; Jiang, X.; Zhang, C.; Lau, W.; Krishnamurti, T.; Waliser, D.; Grecu, M.; Ciesielski, P. E.; Johnson, R. H.; Houze, R.; Kakar, R.; Nakamura, K.; Braun, S.; Hagos, S.; Oki, R.; Bhardwaj, A.

    2012-01-01

    Rainfall production is a fundamental process within the Earth's hydrological cycle because it represents both a principal forcing term in surface water budgets, and its energetics corollary, latent heating (LH), is one of the principal sources of atmospheric diabatic heating. Latent heat release itself is a consequence of phase changes between the vapor, liquid, and frozen states of water. The vertical distribution of LH has a strong influence on the atmosphere, controlling large-scale tropical circulations, exciting and modulating tropical waves, maintaining the intensities of tropical cyclones, and even providing the energetics of midlatitude cyclones and other mobile midlatitude weather systems. Moreover, the processes associated with LH result in significant non-linear changes in atmospheric radiation through the creation, dissipation and modulation of clouds and precipitation. Yanai et al. (1973) utilized the meteorological data collected from a sounding network to present a pioneering work on thermodynamic budgets, which are referred to as the apparent heat source (Q1) and apparent moisture sink (Q2). Yanai's paper motivated the development of satellite-based LH algorithms and provided a theoretical background for imposing large-scale advective forcing into cloud-resolving models (CRMs). These CRM-simulated LH and Q1 data have been used to generate the look-up tables used in LH algorithms. This paper examines the retrieval, validation, and application of LH estimates based on rain rate quantities acquired from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite (TRMM). TRMM was launched in November 1997 as a joint enterprise between the American and Japanese space agencies -- with overriding goals of providing accurate four-dimensional estimates of rainfall and LH over the global Tropics and subtropics equatorward of 35o. Other literature has acknowledged the achievement of the first goal of obtaining an accurate rainfall climatology. This paper describes the second major goal of obtaining credible LH estimates as well as their applications within TRMM's zone of coverage, the standard TRMM LH products, and areas for further improvement.

  20. Wave-current interactions in deep water conditions: field measurements and analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rougier, Gilles; Rey, Vincent; Molcard, Anne

    2015-04-01

    The study of wave - current interaction has drawn interest in oceanography, ocean engineering, maritime navigation and for tides or waves power device design. In the context of the hydrodynamics study along the French Mediterranean coast, a current profiler was deployed near Toulon at the south of the "Port Cros" island. This coastal zone is characterized by a steep slope, the water depth varying from tens meters to several thousand meters over few kilometers from the coast. An ambient current, the "Northern Current", coming from the Ligurian sea (area of Genoa, Italy) and following the coast up to Toulon, is present all over the year. Its mean surface velocity is of about 0.30 m/s, its flow rate of about 1.5 Sv. The region is exposed to two dominating winds: the Mistral, coming from North-West, and Eastern winds. Both generate swell and/or wind waves in either following or opposing current conditions with respect to the Northern Current. A current profiler equipped with a wave tracking system (ACPD workhorse from RDI) was deployed from July to October 2014 in deep water conditions (depth of about 500m). The mooring system allowed the ADCP to measure the current profile from the sea surface down to 25m depth, which corresponds more or less to the depth of influence of waves of periods up to 10s. The collected data include energetic wave conditions in either following or opposing current conditions. The current intensity and its vertical profiles have shown a significant temporal variability according to the meteorological conditions. Effects of the wave conditions on the current properties are discussed. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This work was supported by the program BOMBYX and the ANR grant No ANR-13-ASTR-0007.

  1. Analysing an academic field through the lenses of Internet Science : Digital Humanities as a Virtual Community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akdag Salah, A.; Scharnhorst, Andrea; Wyatt, S.; Tiropanis, Thanassis; Vakali, Athena; Sartori, Laura; Burnap, Pete

    2015-01-01

    Digital Humanities (DH) has been depicted as an innovative engine for humanities, as a challenge for Data Science, and as an area where libraries, archives and providers of e-research infrastructures join forces with research pioneers. However DH is defined, one thing is cer- tain: DH is a new commu

  2. Geostatistical methods applied to field model residuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maule, Fox; Mosegaard, K.; Olsen, Nils

    consists of measurement errors and unmodelled signal), and is typically assumed to be uncorrelated and Gaussian distributed. We have applied geostatistical methods to analyse the residuals of the Oersted(09d/04) field model [http://www.dsri.dk/Oersted/Field_models/IGRF_2005_candidates/], which is based...

  3. Pathway analyses implicate glial cells in schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laramie E Duncan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The quest to understand the neurobiology of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder is ongoing with multiple lines of evidence indicating abnormalities of glia, mitochondria, and glutamate in both disorders. Despite high heritability estimates of 81% for schizophrenia and 75% for bipolar disorder, compelling links between findings from neurobiological studies, and findings from large-scale genetic analyses, are only beginning to emerge. METHOD: Ten publically available gene sets (pathways related to glia, mitochondria, and glutamate were tested for association to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder using MAGENTA as the primary analysis method. To determine the robustness of associations, secondary analyses were performed with: ALIGATOR, INRICH, and Set Screen. Data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC were used for all analyses. There were 1,068,286 SNP-level p-values for schizophrenia (9,394 cases/12,462 controls, and 2,088,878 SNP-level p-values for bipolar disorder (7,481 cases/9,250 controls. RESULTS: The Glia-Oligodendrocyte pathway was associated with schizophrenia, after correction for multiple tests, according to primary analysis (MAGENTA p = 0.0005, 75% requirement for individual gene significance and also achieved nominal levels of significance with INRICH (p = 0.0057 and ALIGATOR (p = 0.022. For bipolar disorder, Set Screen yielded nominally and method-wide significant associations to all three glial pathways, with strongest association to the Glia-Astrocyte pathway (p = 0.002. CONCLUSIONS: Consistent with findings of white matter abnormalities in schizophrenia by other methods of study, the Glia-Oligodendrocyte pathway was associated with schizophrenia in our genomic study. These findings suggest that the abnormalities of myelination observed in schizophrenia are at least in part due to inherited factors, contrasted with the alternative of purely environmental causes (e.g. medication effects or

  4. Genetic analyses of a seasonal interval timer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendergast, Brian J; Renstrom, Randall A; Nelson, Randy J

    2004-08-01

    Seasonal clocks (e.g., circannual clocks, seasonal interval timers) permit anticipation of regularly occurring environmental events by timing the onset of seasonal transitions in reproduction, metabolism, and behavior. Implicit in the concept that seasonal clocks reflect adaptations to the local environment is the unexamined assumption that heritable genetic variance exists in the critical features of such clocks, namely, their temporal properties. These experiments quantified the intraspecific variance in, and heritability of, the photorefractoriness interval timer in Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus), a seasonal clock that provides temporal information to mechanisms that regulate seasonal transitions in body weight. Twenty-seven families consisting of 54 parents and 109 offspring were raised in a long-day photoperiod and transferred as adults to an inhibitory photoperiod (continuous darkness; DD). Weekly body weight measurements permitted specification of the interval of responsiveness to DD, a reflection of the duration of the interval timer, in each individual. Body weights of males and females decreased after exposure to DD, but 3 to 5 months later, somatic recrudescence occurred, indicative of photorefractoriness to DD. The interval timer was approximately 5 weeks longer and twice as variable in females relative to males. Analyses of variance of full siblings revealed an overall intraclass correlation of 0.71 +/- 0.04 (0.51 +/- 0.10 for male offspring and 0.80 +/- 0.06 for female offspring), suggesting a significant family resemblance in the duration of interval timers. Parent-offspring regression analyses yielded an overall heritability estimate of 0.61 +/- 0.2; h(2) estimates from parent-offspring regression analyses were significant for female offspring (0.91 +/- 0.4) but not for male offspring (0.35 +/- 0.2), indicating strong additive genetic components for this trait, primarily in females. In nature, individual differences, both within and between

  5. Feasibility Analyses of Integrated Broiler Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Komalasari

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The major obstacles in the development of broiler raising is the expensive price of feed and the fluctuative price of DOCs. The cheap price of imported leg quarters reduces the competitiveness of the local broilers. Therefore, an effort to increase production efficiency is needed through integration between broiler raising and corn farmers and feed producers (integrated farming. The purpose of this study is to analyze the feasibility of integrating broiler raising with corn cultivation and feed production. Besides that, a simulation was conducted to analyze the effects of DOC price changes, broiler price and production capacity. The analyses showed that integrated farming and a mere combination between broiler raising and feed factory of a 10,000 bird capacity is not financially feasible. Increasing the production to 25,000 broiler chickens will make the integrated farming financially feasible. Unintegrated broiler raising is relatively sensitive to broiler price decreases and DOC price increases compared to integrated farming.

  6. Cointegration Approach to Analysing Inflation in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Malešević-Perović

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse the determinants of inflation in Croatia in the period 1994:6-2006:6. We use a cointegration approach and find that increases in wages positively influence inflation in the long-run. Furthermore, in the period from June 1994 onward, the depreciation of the currency also contributed to inflation. Money does not explain Croatian inflation. This irrelevance of the money supply is consistent with its endogeneity to exchange rate targeting, whereby the money supply is determined by developments in the foreign exchange market. The value of inflation in the previous period is also found to be significant, thus indicating some inflation inertia.

  7. Analysing transfer phenomena in osmotic evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy Forero Longas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Osmotic evaporation is a modification of traditional processes using membranes; by means of a vapour pressure differential, produced by a highly concentrated extraction solution, water is transferred through a hydrophobic membrane as vapour. This technique has many advantages over traditional processes, allowing work at atmospheric pressure and low temperatures, this being ideal for heatsensitive products. This paper presents and synthetically analyses the phenomena of heat and mass transfer which occurs in the process and describes the models used for estimating the parameters of interest, such as flow, temperature, heat transfer rate and the relationships that exist amongst them when hollow fibre modules are used, providing a quick reference tool and specific information about this process.

  8. Modelling and Analysing Socio-Technical Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslanyan, Zaruhi; Ivanova, Marieta Georgieva; Nielson, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    with social engineering. Due to this combination of attack steps on technical and social levels, risk assessment in socio-technical systems is complex. Therefore, established risk assessment methods often abstract away the internal structure of an organisation and ignore human factors when modelling...... and assessing attacks. In our work we model all relevant levels of socio-technical systems, and propose evaluation techniques for analysing the security properties of the model. Our approach simplifies the identification of possible attacks and provides qualified assessment and ranking of attacks based...... on the expected impact. We demonstrate our approach on a home-payment system. The system is specifically designed to help elderly or disabled people, who may have difficulties leaving their home, to pay for some services, e.g., care-taking or rent. The payment is performed using the remote control of a television...

  9. Digital analyses of cartometric Fruska Gora guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Dragica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern geo morphological topography research have been using quantity statistic and cartographic methods for topographic relief features, mutual relief features, mutual connection analyses on the grounds of good quality numeric parameters etc. Topographic features are important for topographic activities are important for important natural activities. Important morphological characteristics are precisely at the angle of topography, hypsometry, and topography exposition and so on. Small yet unknown relief slants can deeply affect land configuration, hypsometry, topographic exposition etc. Expositions modify the light and heat of interconnected phenomena: soil and air temperature, soil disintegration, the length of vegetation period, the complexity of photosynthesis, the fruitfulness of agricultural crops, the height of snow limit etc. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176008 i br. III44006

  10. Conceptualizing analyses of ecological momentary assessment data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffman, Saul

    2014-05-01

    Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) methods, which involve collection of real-time data in subjects' real-world environments, are particularly well suited to studying tobacco use. Analyzing EMA datasets can be challenging, as the datasets include a large and varied number of observations per subject and are relatively unstructured. This paper suggests that time is typically a key organizing principle in EMA data and that conceptualizing the data as a timeline of events, behaviors, and experiences can help define analytic approaches. EMA datasets lend themselves to answering a diverse array of research questions, and the research question must drive how data are arranged for analysis, and the kinds of statistical models that are applied. This is illustrated this with brief examples of diverse analyses applied to answer different questions from an EMA study of tobacco use and relapse.

  11. Analysing Medieval Urban Space; a methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlous L. Craane MA

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This article has been written in reaction to recent developments in medieval history and archaeology, to study not only the buildings in a town but also the spaces that hold them together. It discusses a more objective and interdisciplinary approach for analysing urban morphology and use of space. It proposes a 'new' methodology by combining town plan analysis and space syntax. This methodology was trialled on the city of Utrecht in the Netherlands. By comparing the results of this 'new' methodology with the results of previous, more conventional, research, this article shows that space syntax can be applied successfully to medieval urban contexts. It does this by demonstrating a strong correlation between medieval economic spaces and the most integrated spaces, just as is found in the study of modern urban environments. It thus provides a strong basis for the use of this technique in future research of medieval urban environments.

  12. Lagune de Salses - Leucate. I - Analyse bibliographique.

    OpenAIRE

    Ladagnous, Helene; Le Bec, Claude

    1997-01-01

    La mise en place récente de procédures visant à améliorer la qualité des eaux de la lagune de Salses-Leucate (Schéma d'Aménagement et de Gestion de l'Eau, contrat d'étang) nous a amenés à réaliser une synthèse des connaissances disponibles sur ce secteur, phase nécessaire et préalable à toute concertation. Il ressort de cette analyse bibliographique que bon nombre des études réalisées sont aujourd'hui obsolètes dans une perspective de gestion intégrée du site. Les connaissances hydrogéologiqu...

  13. Spatial Analyses of Harappan Urban Settlements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirofumi Teramura

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The Harappan Civilization occupies a unique place among the early civilizations of the world with its well planned urban settlements, advanced handicraft and technology, religious and trade activities. Using a Geographical Information Systems (GIS, this study presents spatial analyses that locate urban settlements on a digital elevation model (DEM according to the three phases of early, mature and late. Understanding the relationship between the spatial distribution of Harappan sites and the change in some factors, such as topographic features, river passages or sea level changes, will lead to an understanding of the dynamism of this civilization. It will also afford a glimpse of the factors behind the formation, development, and decline of the Harappan Civilization.

  14. ANALYSE OF PULSE WAVE PROPAGATION IN ARTERIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Yi-shan; JIA Xiao-bo; CUI Chang-kui; XIAO Xiao-chun

    2006-01-01

    Based upon the blood vessel of being regarded as the elasticity tube, and that the tissue restricts the blood vessel wall, the rule of pulse wave propagation in blood vessel was studied. The viscosity of blood, the elastic modulus of blood vessel, the radius of tube that influenced the pulse wave propagation were analyzed. Comparing the result that considered the viscosity of blood with another result that did not consider the viscosity of blood, we finally discover that the viscosity of blood that influences the pulse wave propagation can not be neglected; and with the accretion of the elastic modulus the speed of propagation augments and the press value of blood stream heightens; when diameter of blood vessel reduces, the press of blood stream also heightens and the speed of pulse wave also augments. These results will contribute to making use of the information of pulse wave to analyse and auxiliarily diagnose some causes of human disease.

  15. Analysing Terrorism from a Systems Thinking Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Schoenenberger

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Given the complexity of terrorism, solutions based on single factors are destined to fail. Systems thinking offers various tools for helping researchers and policy makers comprehend terrorism in its entirety. We have developed a semi-quantitative systems thinking approach for characterising relationships between variables critical to terrorism and their impact on the system as a whole. For a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying terrorism, we present a 16-variable model characterising the critical components of terrorism and perform a series of highly focused analyses. We show how to determine which variables are best suited for government intervention, describing in detail their effects on the key variable—the political influence of a terrorist network. We also offer insights into how to elicit variables that destabilise and ultimately break down these networks. Because we clarify our novel approach with fictional data, the primary importance of this paper lies in the new framework for reasoning that it provides.

  16. Genetic Analyses of Meiotic Recombination in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Meiosis is essential for sexual reproduction and recombination is a critical step required for normal meiosis. Understanding the underlying molecular mechanisms that regulate recombination ie important for medical, agricultural and ecological reasons. Readily available molecular and cytological tools make Arabidopsis an excellent system to study meiosis. Here we review recent developments in molecular genetic analyses on meiotic recombination. These Include studies on plant homologs of yeast and animal genes, as well as novel genes that were first identified in plants. The characterizations of these genes have demonstrated essential functions from the initiation of recombination by double-strand breaks to repair of such breaks, from the formation of double-Holliday junctions to possible resolution of these junctions, both of which are critical for crossover formation. The recent advances have ushered a new era in plant meiosis, in which the combination of genetics, genomics, and molecular cytology can uncover important gene functions.

  17. Externalizing Behaviour for Analysing System Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivanova, Marieta Georgieva; Probst, Christian W.; Hansen, René Rydhof

    2013-01-01

    attackers. Therefore, many attacks are considerably easier to be performed for insiders than for outsiders. However, current models do not support explicit specification of different behaviours. Instead, behaviour is deeply embedded in the analyses supported by the models, meaning that it is a complex......, if not impossible task to change behaviours. Especially when considering social engineering or the human factor in general, the ability to use different kinds of behaviours is essential. In this work we present an approach to make the behaviour a separate component in system models, and explore how to integrate......System models have recently been introduced to model organisations and evaluate their vulnerability to threats and especially insider threats. Especially for the latter these models are very suitable, since insiders can be assumed to have more knowledge about the attacked organisation than outside...

  18. Autisme et Douleur – Analyse Bibliographique

    OpenAIRE

    Amandine Dubois; Cécile Rattaz; René Pry; Amaria Baghdadli

    2010-01-01

    La présente analyse bibliographique a pour objectif de réaliser un bilan des travaux publiés dans le champ de la douleur et de l’autisme. L’article aborde, dans un premier temps, les études publiées concernant les modes d’expression de la douleur observés dans cette population. Différentes hypothèses permettant d’expliquer les particularités expressives des personnes avec autisme sont ensuite passées en revue : excès d’endorphines, particularités dans le traitement sensoriel, déficit sociocom...

  19. Accurate renormalization group analyses in neutrino sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haba, Naoyuki [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Shimane University, Matsue 690-8504 (Japan); Kaneta, Kunio [Kavli IPMU (WPI), The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8568 (Japan); Takahashi, Ryo [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Shimane University, Matsue 690-8504 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Yuya [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan)

    2014-08-15

    We investigate accurate renormalization group analyses in neutrino sector between ν-oscillation and seesaw energy scales. We consider decoupling effects of top quark and Higgs boson on the renormalization group equations of light neutrino mass matrix. Since the decoupling effects are given in the standard model scale and independent of high energy physics, our method can basically apply to any models beyond the standard model. We find that the decoupling effects of Higgs boson are negligible, while those of top quark are not. Particularly, the decoupling effects of top quark affect neutrino mass eigenvalues, which are important for analyzing predictions such as mass squared differences and neutrinoless double beta decay in an underlying theory existing at high energy scale.

  20. Risques naturels en montagne et analyse spatiale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick Manche

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Le concept de risque repose sur deux notions :l'aléa, qui représente le phénomène physique par son amplitude et sa période retour ;la vulnérabilité, qui représente l'ensemble des biens et des personnes pouvant être touchés par un phénomène naturel.Le risque se définit alors comme le croisement de ces deux notions. Cette vision théorique permet de modéliser indépendamment les aléas et la vulnérabilité.Ce travail s'intéresse essentiellement à la prise en compte de la vulnérabilité dans la gestion des risques naturels. Son évaluation passe obligatoirement par une certaine analyse spatiale qui prend en compte l'occupation humaine et différentes échelles de l'utilisation de l'espace. Mais l'évaluation spatiale, que ce soit des biens et des personnes, ou des effets indirects se heurte à de nombreux problèmes. Il faut estimer l'importance de l'occupation de l'espace. Par ailleurs, le traitement des données implique des changements constants d'échelle pour passer des éléments ponctuels aux surfaces, ce que les systèmes d'information géographique ne gèrent pas parfaitement. La gestion des risques entraîne de fortes contraintes d'urbanisme, la prise en compte de la vulnérabilité permet de mieux comprendre et gérer les contraintes spatiales qu'impliquent les risques naturels. aléa, analyse spatiale, risques naturels, S.I.G., vulnérabilité

  1. GPU based framework for geospatial analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosmin Sandric, Ionut; Ionita, Cristian; Dardala, Marian; Furtuna, Titus

    2017-04-01

    Parallel processing on multiple CPU cores is already used at large scale in geocomputing, but parallel processing on graphics cards is just at the beginning. Being able to use an simple laptop with a dedicated graphics card for advanced and very fast geocomputation is an advantage that each scientist wants to have. The necessity to have high speed computation in geosciences has increased in the last 10 years, mostly due to the increase in the available datasets. These datasets are becoming more and more detailed and hence they require more space to store and more time to process. Distributed computation on multicore CPU's and GPU's plays an important role by processing one by one small parts from these big datasets. These way of computations allows to speed up the process, because instead of using just one process for each dataset, the user can use all the cores from a CPU or up to hundreds of cores from GPU The framework provide to the end user a standalone tools for morphometry analyses at multiscale level. An important part of the framework is dedicated to uncertainty propagation in geospatial analyses. The uncertainty may come from the data collection or may be induced by the model or may have an infinite sources. These uncertainties plays important roles when a spatial delineation of the phenomena is modelled. Uncertainty propagation is implemented inside the GPU framework using Monte Carlo simulations. The GPU framework with the standalone tools proved to be a reliable tool for modelling complex natural phenomena The framework is based on NVidia Cuda technology and is written in C++ programming language. The code source will be available on github at https://github.com/sandricionut/GeoRsGPU Acknowledgement: GPU framework for geospatial analysis, Young Researchers Grant (ICUB-University of Bucharest) 2016, director Ionut Sandric

  2. Task Analyses of Three Selected Weapons Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-10-01

    using weapons is a joint function of the specific weapon system, the goals (missions) of the system, and the environment in which it is used. The first...Identification of fire mission profiles which state general job functions for each type of typical mission. Documentary sources such as Field Manuals...nd Arin,,, Ui, Guni i A,!i" tant uuPnrr No. I Can; n , r Grup - ( nile. .rs and Prir Diff,-ront S, tm: -inch L,,t.’r _, Fort Hood l::t Cavall, I

  3. Trends Analyses for Several Factors Affected by Tropical Cyclones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. T. Islam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study presents an analytical investigation for the trends of several factors such as number of death of peoples, damages of wealth, flood surge heights, wind speed and radius of the severe storm due to tropical cyclones in Bangladesh. Approach: The study is performed by conducting the field visits to cyclone site, collected data and information on damages and deaths of peoples during field visits, necessary data related to tropical cyclones obtained from available publications and news-study. The data since the period of the independence of Bangladesh (nearly 40 years are analyzed. Results: The analyses showed that the 17 major cyclones have been occurred since 1970. Among these 17 major cyclones, the 5 cyclones were tragically severe that killed over 400 thousand peoples. It is observed that the coast of the Bay of Bengal is particularly vulnerable to tropical cyclones. It is revealed that Bangladesh is more vulnerable to devastating cyclones in the recent years because the frequency of the severe cyclones has increased remarkably. Conclusion/Recommendation: The return period of the major cyclones was decreased drastically in recent years and the country, especially, the Bengal Bay is predominantly helpless during the cyclone seasons.

  4. Cultural Fields, Communication and Ethnicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tufte, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    This article is a cultural analysis conducted in a neighbourhood of Copenhagen, Indre Nørrebro, where approximately 20 percent of the population is of other than Danish ethnic origin. It sheds light on the structural characteristics of two strategic sites, or cultural fields, within which everyday...... life and identity formation of ethnic minorities take place. We deliberately explore how ethnicity works or does not work as a marker in the configuration of the two chosen cultural fields: public libraries and ethnic media. We analyse the role of these two cultural fields in the social formation...... of Indre Nørrebro as a neighbourhood and in the local citizens' process of producing locality and a sense of belonging. How are these cultural fields structurally configured and organized, and what role do they historically and contemporarily have in the neighbourhood? The implicit assumption is that both...

  5. [Electromagnetic field intolerance: a nonexistent disease?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safářová, Sárka

    2014-01-01

    Idiopathic Environmental Intolerance Attributed to Electromagnetic Fields is a relatively new phenomenon, which is not fully understood. Extensive research has been carried out to exclude or confirm out that symptoms reported by sufferers are caused by electromagnetic field. This article describes outcomes of recent experiments and meta-analyses. The article may answer to the question if electromagnetic field does really cause reported symptoms, furthermore, it provides hypothetical explanation of this phenomenon.

  6. Sintering of Ceramic Materials Under Electric Field

    OpenAIRE

    Naik , Kiran Suresh

    2014-01-01

    The remarkable discovery of flash sintering came across during the early work of Cologna et al. and emerged as an attractive technique in the field of ceramic processing. In this technique the applied electric field initiates the “flash” event, while the densification is controlled by the current density set. Sintering occurs in less than 5 s at a threshold temperature for a given applied field. The objective of this thesis is to analyse the phenomena of flash sintering with different cer...

  7. MANIFESTATION OF FAULT ZONES IN GEOPHYSICAL FIELDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Spivak

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Geophysical fields influenced by tectonics faults were observed, and instrumental observation results are analysed in the article. It is shown that fault zones are characterized by geophysical fields that are more variable than those in midmost segments of crustal blocks, more intense responses to weak external impacts such as lunar and solar tides and atmospheric pressure variations, and intensive relaxation. Transformation of energy between geophysical fields varying in origin takes place mainly in the fault zones.

  8. Towards interoperable and reproducible QSAR analyses: Exchange of datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spjuth Ola

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background QSAR is a widely used method to relate chemical structures to responses or properties based on experimental observations. Much effort has been made to evaluate and validate the statistical modeling in QSAR, but these analyses treat the dataset as fixed. An overlooked but highly important issue is the validation of the setup of the dataset, which comprises addition of chemical structures as well as selection of descriptors and software implementations prior to calculations. This process is hampered by the lack of standards and exchange formats in the field, making it virtually impossible to reproduce and validate analyses and drastically constrain collaborations and re-use of data. Results We present a step towards standardizing QSAR analyses by defining interoperable and reproducible QSAR datasets, consisting of an open XML format (QSAR-ML which builds on an open and extensible descriptor ontology. The ontology provides an extensible way of uniquely defining descriptors for use in QSAR experiments, and the exchange format supports multiple versioned implementations of these descriptors. Hence, a dataset described by QSAR-ML makes its setup completely reproducible. We also provide a reference implementation as a set of plugins for Bioclipse which simplifies setup of QSAR datasets, and allows for exporting in QSAR-ML as well as old-fashioned CSV formats. The implementation facilitates addition of new descriptor implementations from locally installed software and remote Web services; the latter is demonstrated with REST and XMPP Web services. Conclusions Standardized QSAR datasets open up new ways to store, query, and exchange data for subsequent analyses. QSAR-ML supports completely reproducible creation of datasets, solving the problems of defining which software components were used and their versions, and the descriptor ontology eliminates confusions regarding descriptors by defining them crisply. This makes is easy to join

  9. The ASSET intercomparison of stratosphere and lower mesosphere humidity analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. E. Thornton

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results from the first detailed intercomparison of stratosphere-lower mesosphere water vapour analyses; it builds on earlier results from the EU funded framework V "Assimilation of ENVISAT Data" (ASSET project. Stratospheric water vapour plays an important role in many key atmospheric processes and therefore an improved understanding of its daily variability is desirable. With the availability of high resolution, good quality Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS water vapour profiles, the ability of four different atmospheric models to assimilate these data is tested. MIPAS data have been assimilated over September 2003 into the models of the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF, the Belgian Institute for Space and Aeronomy (BIRA-IASB, the French Service d'Aéronomie (SA-IPSL and the UK Met Office. The resultant middle atmosphere humidity analyses are compared against independent satellite data from the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE, the Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement (POAM III and the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE II. The MIPAS water vapour profiles are generally well assimilated in the ECMWF, BIRA-IASB and SA systems, producing stratosphere-mesosphere water vapour fields where the main features compare favourably with the independent observations. However, the models are less capable of assimilating the MIPAS data where water vapour values are locally extreme or in regions of strong humidity gradients, such as the southern hemisphere lower stratosphere polar vortex. Differences in the analyses can be attributed to the choice of humidity control variable, how the background error covariance matrix is generated, the model resolution and its complexity, the degree of quality control of the observations and the use of observations near the model boundaries. Due to the poor performance of the Met Office analyses the results are not included in

  10. Analysing Theoretical Frameworks of Moral Education through Lakatos's Philosophy of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hyemin

    2014-01-01

    The structure of studies of moral education is basically interdisciplinary; it includes moral philosophy, psychology, and educational research. This article systematically analyses the structure of studies of moral educational from the vantage points of philosophy of science. Among the various theoretical frameworks in the field of philosophy of…

  11. NASA Cold Land Processes Experiment (CLPX 2002/03): Atmospheric analyses datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glen E. Liston; Daniel L. Birkenheuer; Christopher A. Hiemstra; Donald W. Cline; Kelly Elder

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the Local Analysis and Prediction System (LAPS) and the 20-km horizontal grid version of the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC20) atmospheric analyses datasets, which are available as part of the Cold Land Processes Field Experiment (CLPX) data archive. The LAPS dataset contains spatially and temporally continuous atmospheric and surface variables over...

  12. Analysing Theoretical Frameworks of Moral Education through Lakatos's Philosophy of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hyemin

    2014-01-01

    The structure of studies of moral education is basically interdisciplinary; it includes moral philosophy, psychology, and educational research. This article systematically analyses the structure of studies of moral educational from the vantage points of philosophy of science. Among the various theoretical frameworks in the field of philosophy of…

  13. Microbial field pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E.; Chisholm, J.L.

    1992-03-01

    The objective of this project is to perform a microbial enhanced oil recovery field pilot in the Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit (SEVVSU) in Payne County, Oklahoma. Indigenous, anaerobic, nitrate reducing bacteria will be stimulated to selectively plug flow paths which have been referentially swept by a prior waterflood. This will force future flood water to invade bypassed regions of the reservoir and increase sweep efficiency. This report covers progress made during the second year, January 1, 1990 to December 31, 1990, of the Microbial Field Pilot Study project. Information on reservoir ecology, surface facilities design, operation of the unit, core experiments, modeling of microbial processes, and reservoir characterization and simulation are presented in the report. To better understand the ecology of the target reservoir, additional analyses of the fluids which support bacteriological growth and the microbiology of the reservoir were performed. The results of the produced and injected water analysis show increasing sulfide concentrations with respect to time. In March of 1990 Mesa Limited Partnership sold their interest in the SEVVSU to Sullivan and Company. In April, Sullivan and Company assumed operation of the field. The facilities for the field operation of the pilot were refined and implementation was begun. Core flood experiments conducted during the last year were used to help define possible mechanisms involved in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The experiments were performed at SEVVSU temperature using fluids and inoculum from the unit. The model described in last year's report was further validated using results from a core flood experiment. The model was able to simulate the results of one of the core flood experiments with good quality.

  14. Microbial Field Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E.; Chisholm, J.L.

    1990-11-01

    This report covers progress made during the first year of the Microbial Field Pilot Study project. Information on reservoir ecology and characterization, facility and treatment design, core experiments, bacterial mobility, and mathematical modeling are addressed. To facilitate an understanding of the ecology of the target reservoir analyses of the fluids which support bacteriological growth and the microbiology of the reservoir were performed. A preliminary design of facilities for the operation of the field pilot test was prepared. In addition, procedures for facilities installation and for injection treatments are described. The Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit (SEVVSU), the site of the proposed field pilot study, is described physically, historically, and geologically. The fields current status is presented and the ongoing reservoir simulation is discussed. Core flood experiments conducted during the last year were used to help define possible mechanisms involved in microbial enhanced oil recovery. Two possible mechanisms, relative permeability effects and changes in the capillary number, are discussed and related to four Berea core experiments' results. The experiments were conducted at reservoir temperature using SEVVSU oil, brine, and bacteria. The movement and activity of bacteria in porous media were investigated by monitoring the growth of bacteria in sandpack cores under no flow conditions. The rate of bacteria advancement through the cores was determined. A mathematical model of the MEOR process has been developed. The model is a three phase, seven species, one dimensional model. Finite difference methods are used for solution. Advection terms in balance equations are represented with a third- order upwind differencing scheme to reduce numerical dispersion and oscillations. The model is applied to a batch fermentation example. 52 refs., 26 figs., 21 tabs.

  15. Microbial field pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E.; Chisholm, J.L.

    1992-03-01

    The objective of this project is to perform a microbial enhanced oil recovery field pilot in the Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit (SEVVSU) in Payne County, Oklahoma. Indigenous, anaerobic, nitrate reducing bacteria will be stimulated to selectively plug flow paths which have been referentially swept by a prior waterflood. This will force future flood water to invade bypassed regions of the reservoir and increase sweep efficiency. This report covers progress made during the second year, January 1, 1990 to December 31, 1990, of the Microbial Field Pilot Study project. Information on reservoir ecology, surface facilities design, operation of the unit, core experiments, modeling of microbial processes, and reservoir characterization and simulation are presented in the report. To better understand the ecology of the target reservoir, additional analyses of the fluids which support bacteriological growth and the microbiology of the reservoir were performed. The results of the produced and injected water analysis show increasing sulfide concentrations with respect to time. In March of 1990 Mesa Limited Partnership sold their interest in the SEVVSU to Sullivan and Company. In April, Sullivan and Company assumed operation of the field. The facilities for the field operation of the pilot were refined and implementation was begun. Core flood experiments conducted during the last year were used to help define possible mechanisms involved in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The experiments were performed at SEVVSU temperature using fluids and inoculum from the unit. The model described in last year`s report was further validated using results from a core flood experiment. The model was able to simulate the results of one of the core flood experiments with good quality.

  16. Lipschitz classes on local fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-yi SU; Guo-xiang CHEN

    2007-01-01

    The Lipschitz class Lipα on a local field K is defined in this note, and the equivalent relationship between the Lipschitz class Lipα and the Holder type space Cα (K) is proved. Then, those important characteristics on the Euclidean space Rn and the local field K are compared, so that one may interpret the essential differences between the analyses on Rn and K. Finally, the Cantor type fractal function (V)(x) is showed in the Lipschitz class Lip (m, K), m < ln2/ln3.

  17. Lipschitz classes on local fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Lipschitz class Lipαon a local field K is defined in this note,and the equivalent relationship between the Lipschitz class Lipαand the Holder type space C~α(K)is proved.Then,those important characteristics on the Euclidean space R~n and the local field K are compared,so that one may interpret the essential differences between the analyses on R~n and K.Finally,the Cantor type fractal functionθ(x)is showed in the Lipschitz class Lip(m,K),m<(ln 2/ln 3).

  18. Bioinformatics analyses for signal transduction networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Research in signaling networks contributes to a deeper understanding of organism living activities. With the development of experimental methods in the signal transduction field, more and more mechanisms of signaling pathways have been discovered. This paper introduces such popular bioin-formatics analysis methods for signaling networks as the common mechanism of signaling pathways and database resource on the Internet, summerizes the methods of analyzing the structural properties of networks, including structural Motif finding and automated pathways generation, and discusses the modeling and simulation of signaling networks in detail, as well as the research situation and tendency in this area. Now the investigation of signal transduction is developing from small-scale experiments to large-scale network analysis, and dynamic simulation of networks is closer to the real system. With the investigation going deeper than ever, the bioinformatics analysis of signal transduction would have immense space for development and application.

  19. Molecular evolutionary analyses of insect societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischman, Brielle J; Woodard, S Hollis; Robinson, Gene E

    2011-06-28

    The social insects live in extraordinarily complex and cohesive societies, where many individuals sacrifice their personal reproduction to become helpers in the colony. Identifying adaptive molecular changes involved in eusocial evolution in insects is important for understanding the mechanisms underlying transitions from solitary to social living, as well as the maintenance and elaboration of social life. Here, we review recent advances made in this area of research in several insect groups: the ants, bees, wasps, and termites. Drawing from whole-genome comparisons, candidate gene approaches, and a genome-scale comparative analysis of protein-coding sequence, we highlight novel insights gained for five major biological processes: chemical signaling, brain development and function, immunity, reproduction, and metabolism and nutrition. Lastly, we make comparisons across these diverse approaches and social insect lineages and discuss potential common themes of eusocial evolution, as well as challenges and prospects for future research in the field.

  20. Optimization of Eosine Analyses in Water Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kola, Liljana

    2010-01-01

    The fluorescence ability of Eosine enables its using as artificial tracer in the water system studies. The fluorescence intensity of fluorescent dyes in water samples depends on their physical and chemical properties, such as pH, temperature, presence of oxidants, etc. This paper presents the experience of the Center of Applied Nuclear Physics, Tirana, in this field. The problem is dealt with in relation to applying Eosine to trace and determine water movements within the karstic system and underground waters. We have used for this study the standard solutions of Eosine. The method we have elaborated to this purpose made it possible to optimize procedures we use to analyze samples for the presence of Eosine and measure its content, even in trace levels, by the means of a Perkin Elmer LS 55 Luminescence Spectrometer.

  1. WIND SPEED AND ENERGY POTENTIAL ANALYSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. TOKGÖZLÜ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a case study on application of wavelet techniques to analyze wind speed and energy (renewable and environmental friendly energy. Solar and wind are main sources of energy that allows farmers to have the potential for transferring kinetic energy captured by the wind mill for pumping water, drying crops, heating systems of green houses, rural electrification's or cooking. Larger wind turbines (over 1 MW can pump enough water for small-scale irrigation. This study tried to initiate data gathering process for wavelet analyses, different scale effects and their role on wind speed and direction variations. The wind data gathering system is mounted at latitudes: 37° 50" N; longitude 30° 33" E and height: 1200 m above mean sea level at a hill near Süleyman Demirel University campus. 10 minutes average values of two levels wind speed and direction (10m and 30m above ground level have been recorded by a data logger between July 2001 and February 2002. Wind speed values changed between the range of 0 m/s and 54 m/s. Annual mean speed value is 4.5 m/s at 10 m ground level. Prevalent wind

  2. Fast and accurate methods for phylogenomic analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warnow Tandy

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Species phylogenies are not estimated directly, but rather through phylogenetic analyses of different gene datasets. However, true gene trees can differ from the true species tree (and hence from one another due to biological processes such as horizontal gene transfer, incomplete lineage sorting, and gene duplication and loss, so that no single gene tree is a reliable estimate of the species tree. Several methods have been developed to estimate species trees from estimated gene trees, differing according to the specific algorithmic technique used and the biological model used to explain differences between species and gene trees. Relatively little is known about the relative performance of these methods. Results We report on a study evaluating several different methods for estimating species trees from sequence datasets, simulating sequence evolution under a complex model including indels (insertions and deletions, substitutions, and incomplete lineage sorting. The most important finding of our study is that some fast and simple methods are nearly as accurate as the most accurate methods, which employ sophisticated statistical methods and are computationally quite intensive. We also observe that methods that explicitly consider errors in the estimated gene trees produce more accurate trees than methods that assume the estimated gene trees are correct. Conclusions Our study shows that highly accurate estimations of species trees are achievable, even when gene trees differ from each other and from the species tree, and that these estimations can be obtained using fairly simple and computationally tractable methods.

  3. Network-Based and Binless Frequency Analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sybil Derrible

    Full Text Available We introduce and develop a new network-based and binless methodology to perform frequency analyses and produce histograms. In contrast with traditional frequency analysis techniques that use fixed intervals to bin values, we place a range ±ζ around each individual value in a data set and count the number of values within that range, which allows us to compare every single value of a data set with one another. In essence, the methodology is identical to the construction of a network, where two values are connected if they lie within a given a range (±ζ. The value with the highest degree (i.e., most connections is therefore assimilated to the mode of the distribution. To select an optimal range, we look at the stability of the proportion of nodes in the largest cluster. The methodology is validated by sampling 12 typical distributions, and it is applied to a number of real-world data sets with both spatial and temporal components. The methodology can be applied to any data set and provides a robust means to uncover meaningful patterns and trends. A free python script and a tutorial are also made available to facilitate the application of the method.

  4. Evaluation of the Olympus AU-510 analyser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farré, C; Velasco, J; Ramón, F

    1991-01-01

    The selective multitest Olympus AU-510 analyser was evaluated according to the recommendations of the Comision de Instrumentacion de la Sociedad Española de Quimica Clinica and the European Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. The evaluation was carried out in two stages: an examination of the analytical units and then an evaluation in routine work conditions. The operational characteristics of the system were also studied.THE FIRST STAGE INCLUDED A PHOTOMETRIC STUDY: dependent on the absorbance, the inaccuracy varies between +0.5% to -0.6% at 405 nm and from -5.6% to 10.6% at 340 nm; the imprecision ranges between -0.22% and 0.56% at 405 nm and between 0.09% and 2.74% at 340 nm. Linearity was acceptable, apart from a very low absorbance for NADH at 340 nm; and the imprecision of the serum sample pipetter was satisfactory.TWELVE SERUM ANALYTES WERE STUDIED UNDER ROUTINE CONDITIONS: glucose, urea urate, cholesterol, triglycerides, total bilirubin, creatinine, phosphate, iron, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyl transferase.The within-run imprecision (CV%) ranged from 0.67% for phosphate to 2.89% for iron and the between-run imprecision from 0.97% for total bilirubin to 7.06% for iron. There was no carryover in a study of the serum sample pipetter. Carry-over studies with the reagent and sample pipetters shows some cross contamination in the iron assay.

  5. Trend Analyses of Nitrate in Danish Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, B.; Thorling, L.; Dalgaard, T.; Erlandsen, M.

    2012-04-01

    This presentation assesses the long-term development in the oxic groundwater nitrate concentration and nitrogen (N) loss due to intensive farming in Denmark. Firstly, up to 20-year time-series from the national groundwater monitoring network enable a statistically systematic analysis of distribution, trends and trend reversals in the groundwater nitrate concentration. Secondly, knowledge about the N surplus in Danish agriculture since 1950 is used as an indicator of the potential loss of N. Thirdly, groundwater recharge CFC (Chlorofluorocarbon) age determination allows linking of the first two dataset. The development in the nitrate concentration of oxic groundwater clearly mirrors the development in the national agricultural N surplus, and a corresponding trend reversal is found in groundwater. Regulation and technical improvements in the intensive farming in Denmark have succeeded in decreasing the N surplus by 40% since the mid 1980s while at the same time maintaining crop yields and increasing the animal production of especially pigs. Trend analyses prove that the youngest (0-15 years old) oxic groundwater shows more pronounced significant downward nitrate trends (44%) than the oldest (25-50 years old) oxic groundwater (9%). This amounts to clear evidence of the effect of reduced nitrate leaching on groundwater nitrate concentrations in Denmark. Are the Danish groundwater monitoring strategy obtimal for detection of nitrate trends? Will the nitrate concentrations in Danish groundwater continue to decrease or are the Danish nitrate concentration levels now appropriate according to the Water Framework Directive?

  6. Consumption patterns and perception analyses of hangwa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwock, Chang Geun; Lee, Min A; Park, So Hyun

    2012-03-01

    Hangwa is a traditional food, corresponding to the current consumption trend, in need of marketing strategies to extend its consumption. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze consumers' consumption patterns and perception of Hangwa to increase consumption in the market. A questionnaire was sent to 250 consumers by e-mail from Oct 8∼23, 2009 and the data from 231 persons were analyzed in this study. Statistical, descriptive, paired samples t-test, and importance-performance analyses were conducted using SPSS WIN 17.0. According to the results, Hangwa was purchased mainly 'for present' (39.8%) and the main reasons for buying it were 'traditional image' (33.3%) and 'taste' (22.5%). When importance and performance of attributes considered in purchasing Hangwa were evaluated, performance was assessed to be lower than importance for all attributes. The attributes in the first quadrant with a high importance and a high performance were 'a sanitary process', 'a rigorous quality mark' and 'taste', which were related with quality of the products. In addition, those with a high importance but a low performance were 'popularization through advertisement', 'promotion through mass media', 'conversion of thought on traditional foods', 'a reasonable price' and 'a wide range of price'. In conclusion, Hangwa manufacturers need to diversify products and extend the expiration date based on technologies to promote its consumption. In terms of price, Hangwa should become more available by lowering the price barrier for consumers who are sensitive to price.

  7. Comparative analyses of bidirectional promoters in vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor James

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Orthologous genes with deep phylogenetic histories are likely to retain similar regulatory features. In this report we utilize orthology assignments for pairs of genes co-regulated by bidirectional promoters to map the ancestral history of the promoter regions. Results Our mapping of bidirectional promoters from humans to fish shows that many such promoters emerged after the divergence of chickens and fish. Furthermore, annotations of promoters in deep phylogenies enable detection of missing data or assembly problems present in higher vertebrates. The functional importance of bidirectional promoters is indicated by selective pressure to maintain the arrangement of genes regulated by the promoter over long evolutionary time spans. Characteristics unique to bidirectional promoters are further elucidated using a technique for unsupervised classification, known as ESPERR. Conclusion Results of these analyses will aid in our understanding of the evolution of bidirectional promoters, including whether the regulation of two genes evolved as a consequence of their proximity or if function dictated their co-regulation.

  8. Kinematic gait analyses in healthy Golden Retrievers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela C.A. Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Kinematic analysis relates to the relative movement between rigid bodies and finds application in gait analysis and other body movements, interpretation of their data when there is change, determines the choice of treatment to be instituted. The objective of this study was to standardize the march of Dog Golden Retriever Healthy to assist in the diagnosis and treatment of musculoskeletal disorders. We used a kinematic analysis system to analyse the gait of seven dogs Golden Retriever, female, aged between 2 and 4 years, weighing 21.5 to 28 kg, clinically normal. Flexion and extension were described for shoulder, elbow, carpal, hip, femorotibialis and tarsal joints. The gait was characterized lateral and had accepted hypothesis of normality for all variables, except for the stance of hip and elbow, considering a confidence level of 95%, significance level α = 0.05. Variations have been attributed to displacement of the stripes during movement and the duplicated number of reviews. The kinematic analysis proved to be a consistent method of evaluation of the movement during canine gait and the data can be used in the diagnosis and evaluation of canine gait in comparison to other studies and treatment of dogs with musculoskeletal disorders.

  9. A new modular chemiluminescence immunoassay analyser evaluated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ognibene, A; Drake, C J; Jeng, K Y; Pascucci, T E; Hsu, S; Luceri, F; Messeri, G

    2000-03-01

    Thyrotropin (TSH), free thyroxine (fT4) and testosterone assays have been used as a probe to evaluate the performances of a new modular chemiluminescence (CL) immunoassay analyser, the Abbott Architect 2000. The evaluation was run in parallel on other systems that use CL as the detection reaction: DPC Immulite, Chiron Diagnostics ACS-180 and ACS Centaur (TSH functional sensitivity only). TSH functional sensitivity was 0.0012, 0.009, 0.033 and 0.039 mU/I for the Architect, Immulite, ACS Centaur and ACS-180, respectively. Testosterone functional sensitivity was 0.38, 3.7 and 2.0 nmol/l for Architect, Immulite and ACS-180, respectively. Good correlation was obtained between the ACS-180 and Architect for all assays. The Immulite correlation did not agree well with the Architect or ACS-180 for fT4 and testosterone but was in good agreement for TSH. Regarding fT4 and testosterone, equilibrium dialysis and isotopic dilution gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry (GC-MS) respectively were used as reference methods. For both within- and between-run precision, the Architect showed the best reproducibility for all three analytes (CV < 6%).

  10. Statistical analyses of a screen cylinder wake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Azmi, Azlin; Zhou, Tongming; Zhou, Yu; Cheng, Liang

    2017-02-01

    The evolution of a screen cylinder wake was studied by analysing its statistical properties over a streamwise range of x/d={10-60}. The screen cylinder was made of a stainless steel screen mesh of 67% porosity. The experiments were conducted in a wind tunnel at a Reynolds number of 7000 using an X-probe. The results were compared with those obtained in the wake generated by a solid cylinder. It was observed that the evolution of the statistics in the wake of the screen cylinder was different from that of a solid cylinder, reflecting the differences in the formation of the organized large-scale vortices in both wakes. The streamwise evolution of the Reynolds stresses, energy spectra and cross-correlation coefficients indicated that there exists a critical location that differentiates the screen cylinder wake into two regions over the measured streamwise range. The formation of the fully formed large-scale vortices was delayed until this critical location. Comparison with existing results for screen strips showed that although the near-wake characteristics and the vortex formation mechanism were similar between the two wake generators, variation in the Strouhal frequencies was observed and the self-preservation states were non-universal, reconfirming the dependence of a wake on its initial condition.

  11. ANALYSES AND INFLUENCES OF GLAZED BUILDING ENVELOPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Jordan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of an analytical study of the functioning of glazing at two different yet interacting levels: at the level of the building as a whole, and at that of glazing as a building element. At the building level, analyses were performed on a sample of high-rise business buildings in Slovenia, where the glazing"s share of the building envelope was calculated, and estimates of the proportion of shade provided by external blinds were made. It is shown that, especially in the case of modern buildings with large proportions of glazing and buildings with no shading devices, careful glazing design is needed, together with a sound knowledge of energy performance. In the second part of the article, the energy balance values relating to selected types of glazing are presented, including solar control glazing. The paper demonstrates the need for a holistic energy approach to glazing problems, as well as how different types of glazing can be methodically compared, thus improving the design of sustainability-orientated buildings.

  12. Genomic analyses of the CAM plant pineapple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jisen; Liu, Juan; Ming, Ray

    2014-07-01

    The innovation of crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) photosynthesis in arid and/or low CO2 conditions is a remarkable case of adaptation in flowering plants. As the most important crop that utilizes CAM photosynthesis, the genetic and genomic resources of pineapple have been developed over many years. Genetic diversity studies using various types of DNA markers led to the reclassification of the two genera Ananas and Pseudananas and nine species into one genus Ananas and two species, A. comosus and A. macrodontes with five botanical varieties in A. comosus. Five genetic maps have been constructed using F1 or F2 populations, and high-density genetic maps generated by genotype sequencing are essential resources for sequencing and assembling the pineapple genome and for marker-assisted selection. There are abundant expression sequence tag resources but limited genomic sequences in pineapple. Genes involved in the CAM pathway has been analysed in several CAM plants but only a few of them are from pineapple. A reference genome of pineapple is being generated and will accelerate genetic and genomic research in this major CAM crop. This reference genome of pineapple provides the foundation for studying the origin and regulatory mechanism of CAM photosynthesis, and the opportunity to evaluate the classification of Ananas species and botanical cultivars.

  13. Abundance analyses of cool extreme helium stars

    CERN Document Server

    Pandey, G; Lambert, D L; Jeffery, C S; Asplund, M; Pandey, Gajendra; Lambert, David L.; Asplund, Martin

    2001-01-01

    Extreme helium stars (EHe) with effective temperatures from 8000K to 13000K are among the coolest EHe stars and overlap the hotter R CrB stars in effective temperature. The cool EHes may represent an evolutionary link between the hot EHes and the R CrBs. Abundance analyses of four cool EHes are presented. To test for an evolutionary connection, the chemical compositions of cool EHes are compared with those of hot EHes and R CrBs. Relative to Fe, the N abundance of these stars is intermediate between those of hot EHes and R CrBs. For the R CrBs, the metallicity M derived from the mean of Si and S appears to be more consistent with the kinematics than that derived from Fe. When metallicity M derived from Si and S replaces Fe, the observed N abundances of EHes and R CrBs fall at or below the upper limit corresponding to thorough conversion of initial C and O to N. There is an apparent difference between the composition of R CrBs and EHes; the former having systematically higher [N/M] ratios. The material present...

  14. Social Media Analyses for Social Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Michael F; Pasek, Josh; Guggenheim, Lauren; Lampe, Cliff; Conrad, Frederick G

    2016-01-01

    Demonstrations that analyses of social media content can align with measurement from sample surveys have raised the question of whether survey research can be supplemented or even replaced with less costly and burdensome data mining of already-existing or "found" social media content. But just how trustworthy such measurement can be-say, to replace official statistics-is unknown. Survey researchers and data scientists approach key questions from starting assumptions and analytic traditions that differ on, for example, the need for representative samples drawn from frames that fully cover the population. New conversations between these scholarly communities are needed to understand the potential points of alignment and non-alignment. Across these approaches, there are major differences in (a) how participants (survey respondents and social media posters) understand the activity they are engaged in; (b) the nature of the data produced by survey responses and social media posts, and the inferences that are legitimate given the data; and (c) practical and ethical considerations surrounding the use of the data. Estimates are likely to align to differing degrees depending on the research topic and the populations under consideration, the particular features of the surveys and social media sites involved, and the analytic techniques for extracting opinions and experiences from social media. Traditional population coverage may not be required for social media content to effectively predict social phenomena to the extent that social media content distills or summarizes broader conversations that are also measured by surveys.

  15. Reliability Analyses of Groundwater Pollutant Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimakis, Panagiotis

    1997-12-31

    This thesis develops a probabilistic finite element model for the analysis of groundwater pollution problems. Two computer codes were developed, (1) one using finite element technique to solve the two-dimensional steady state equations of groundwater flow and pollution transport, and (2) a first order reliability method code that can do a probabilistic analysis of any given analytical or numerical equation. The two codes were connected into one model, PAGAP (Probability Analysis of Groundwater And Pollution). PAGAP can be used to obtain (1) the probability that the concentration at a given point at a given time will exceed a specified value, (2) the probability that the maximum concentration at a given point will exceed a specified value and (3) the probability that the residence time at a given point will exceed a specified period. PAGAP could be used as a tool for assessment purposes and risk analyses, for instance the assessment of the efficiency of a proposed remediation technique or to study the effects of parameter distribution for a given problem (sensitivity study). The model has been applied to study the greatest self sustained, precipitation controlled aquifer in North Europe, which underlies Oslo`s new major airport. 92 refs., 187 figs., 26 tabs.

  16. Reproducibility of neuroimaging analyses across operating systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatard, Tristan; Lewis, Lindsay B; Ferreira da Silva, Rafael; Adalat, Reza; Beck, Natacha; Lepage, Claude; Rioux, Pierre; Rousseau, Marc-Etienne; Sherif, Tarek; Deelman, Ewa; Khalili-Mahani, Najmeh; Evans, Alan C

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimaging pipelines are known to generate different results depending on the computing platform where they are compiled and executed. We quantify these differences for brain tissue classification, fMRI analysis, and cortical thickness (CT) extraction, using three of the main neuroimaging packages (FSL, Freesurfer and CIVET) and different versions of GNU/Linux. We also identify some causes of these differences using library and system call interception. We find that these packages use mathematical functions based on single-precision floating-point arithmetic whose implementations in operating systems continue to evolve. While these differences have little or no impact on simple analysis pipelines such as brain extraction and cortical tissue classification, their accumulation creates important differences in longer pipelines such as subcortical tissue classification, fMRI analysis, and cortical thickness extraction. With FSL, most Dice coefficients between subcortical classifications obtained on different operating systems remain above 0.9, but values as low as 0.59 are observed. Independent component analyses (ICA) of fMRI data differ between operating systems in one third of the tested subjects, due to differences in motion correction. With Freesurfer and CIVET, in some brain regions we find an effect of build or operating system on cortical thickness. A first step to correct these reproducibility issues would be to use more precise representations of floating-point numbers in the critical sections of the pipelines. The numerical stability of pipelines should also be reviewed.

  17. Global Geopotential Energy & Stress Field

    OpenAIRE

    Schiffer, Christian; Nielsen, S.B.

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge about the Earth's stress field and its sources can provide better understanding and interpretation of geodynamic and tectonic processes and regimes in the Earth's lithosphere. Stresses can be measured with different in-situ techniques and analysed by the study of focal mechanisms and stress induced geological structures. Quantifying single stress sources however remains a difficult and not uncommonly vague procedure. Modelling stress contributions can provide principle insight into ...

  18. Non-independence and sensitivity analyses in ecological and evolutionary meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Daniel W A; Lagisz, Malgorzata; O'dea, Rose E; Nakagawa, Shinichi

    2017-01-30

    Meta-analysis is an important tool for synthesizing research on a variety of topics in ecology and evolution, including molecular ecology, but can be susceptible to non-independence. Non-independence can affect two major interrelated components of a meta-analysis: 1) the calculation of effect size statistics and 2) the estimation of overall meta-analytic estimates and their uncertainty. While some solutions to non-independence exist at the statistical analysis stages, there is little advice on what to do when complex analyses are not possible, or when studies with non-independent experimental designs exist in the data. Here we argue that exploring the effects of procedural decisions in a meta-analysis (e.g., inclusion of different quality data, choice of effect size) and statistical assumptions (e.g., assuming no phylogenetic covariance) using sensitivity analyses are extremely important in assessing the impact of non-independence. Sensitivity analyses can provide greater confidence in results and highlight important limitations of empirical work (e.g., impact of study design on overall effects). Despite their importance, sensitivity analyses are seldom applied to problems of non-independence. To encourage better practice for dealing with non-independence in meta-analytic studies, we present accessible examples demonstrating the impact that ignoring non-independence can have on meta-analytic estimates. We also provide pragmatic solutions for dealing with non-independent study designs, and for analyzing dependent effect sizes. Additionally, we offer reporting guidelines that will facilitate disclosure of the sources of non-independence in meta-analyses, leading to greater transparency and more robust conclusions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Analyse textuelle des discours: Niveaux ou plans d´analyse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Michel Adam

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available L’article porte sur la théorie de l´Analyse Textuelle des Discours, à partir d´une reprisede la traduction brésilienne de La linguistique textuelle: introduction à l’analyse textuelle desdiscours (Cortez, 2008. L’ATD est pensée en fonction de trois observations préliminaires: lalinguistique textuelle est une des disciplines de l’analyse de discours, le texte est l’objet d’analysede l’ATD, et, dès qu’il y a texte, c’est-à-dire reconnaissance du fait qu’une suite d’énoncésforme un tout de communication, il y a effet de généricité, c’est-à-dire inscription de cette suited’énoncés dans une classe de discours. Le modèle théorique de l’ATD est éclairé par une reprisede son schéma 4, où sont représentés huit niveaux d’analyse. L´ATD est abordée sous l’angled’une double exigence – des raisons théoriques et des raisons méthodologiques et didactiquesqui conduisent à ces niveaux – et sont détaillées et illustrées les cinq plans ou niveaux d’analysetextuelle. Pour finir, des parties de l’oeuvre sont reprises et élargies, avec d’autres analyses où denouveaux aspcts théoriques sont détaillés.

  20. Fracturing and brittleness index analyses of shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhoorn, Auke; Primarini, Mutia; Houben, Maartje

    2016-04-01

    The formation of a fracture network in rocks has a crucial control on the flow behaviour of fluids. In addition, an existing network of fractures , influences the propagation of new fractures during e.g. hydraulic fracturing or during a seismic event. Understanding of the type and characteristics of the fracture network that will be formed during e.g. hydraulic fracturing is thus crucial to better predict the outcome of a hydraulic fracturing job. For this, knowledge of the rock properties is crucial. The brittleness index is often used as a rock property that can be used to predict the fracturing behaviour of a rock for e.g. hydraulic fracturing of shales. Various terminologies of the brittleness index (BI1, BI2 and BI3) exist based on mineralogy, elastic constants and stress-strain behaviour (Jin et al., 2014, Jarvie et al., 2007 and Holt et al., 2011). A maximum brittleness index of 1 predicts very good and efficient fracturing behaviour while a minimum brittleness index of 0 predicts a much more ductile shale behaviour. Here, we have performed systematic petrophysical, acoustic and geomechanical analyses on a set of shale samples from Whitby (UK) and we have determined the three different brittleness indices on each sample by performing all the analyses on each of the samples. We show that each of the three brittleness indices are very different for the same sample and as such it can be concluded that the brittleness index is not a good predictor of the fracturing behaviour of shales. The brittleness index based on the acoustic data (BI1) all lie around values of 0.5, while the brittleness index based on the stress strain data (BI2) give an average brittleness index around 0.75, whereas the mineralogy brittleness index (BI3) predict values below 0.2. This shows that by using different estimates of the brittleness index different decisions can be made for hydraulic fracturing. If we would rely on the mineralogy (BI3), the Whitby mudstone is not a suitable

  1. Summary of the analyses for recovery factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Mahendra K.

    2017-07-17

    IntroductionIn order to determine the hydrocarbon potential of oil reservoirs within the U.S. sedimentary basins for which the carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) process has been considered suitable, the CO2 Prophet model was chosen by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to be the primary source for estimating recovery-factor values for individual reservoirs. The choice was made because of the model’s reliability and the ease with which it can be used to assess a large number of reservoirs. The other two approaches—the empirical decline curve analysis (DCA) method and a review of published literature on CO2-EOR projects—were deployed to verify the results of the CO2 Prophet model. This chapter discusses the results from CO2 Prophet (chapter B, by Emil D. Attanasi, this report) and compares them with results from decline curve analysis (chapter C, by Hossein Jahediesfanjani) and those reported in the literature for selected reservoirs with adequate data for analyses (chapter D, by Ricardo A. Olea).To estimate the technically recoverable hydrocarbon potential for oil reservoirs where CO2-EOR has been applied, two of the three approaches—CO2 Prophet modeling and DCA—do not include analysis of economic factors, while the third approach—review of published literature—implicitly includes economics. For selected reservoirs, DCA has provided estimates of the technically recoverable hydrocarbon volumes, which, in combination with calculated amounts of original oil in place (OOIP), helped establish incremental CO2-EOR recovery factors for individual reservoirs.The review of published technical papers and reports has provided substantial information on recovery factors for 70 CO2-EOR projects that are either commercially profitable or classified as pilot tests. When comparing the results, it is important to bear in mind the differences and limitations of these three approaches.

  2. Pipeline for macro- and microarray analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Vicentini

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The pipeline for macro- and microarray analyses (PMmA is a set of scripts with a web interface developed to analyze DNA array data generated by array image quantification software. PMmA is designed for use with single- or double-color array data and to work as a pipeline in five classes (data format, normalization, data analysis, clustering, and array maps. It can also be used as a plugin in the BioArray Software Environment, an open-source database for array analysis, or used in a local version of the web service. All scripts in PMmA were developed in the PERL programming language and statistical analysis functions were implemented in the R statistical language. Consequently, our package is a platform-independent software. Our algorithms can correctly select almost 90% of the differentially expressed genes, showing a superior performance compared to other methods of analysis. The pipeline software has been applied to 1536 expressed sequence tags macroarray public data of sugarcane exposed to cold for 3 to 48 h. PMmA identified thirty cold-responsive genes previously unidentified in this public dataset. Fourteen genes were up-regulated, two had a variable expression and the other fourteen were down-regulated in the treatments. These new findings certainly were a consequence of using a superior statistical analysis approach, since the original study did not take into account the dependence of data variability on the average signal intensity of each gene. The web interface, supplementary information, and the package source code are available, free, to non-commercial users at http://ipe.cbmeg.unicamp.br/pub/PMmA.

  3. Computational Analyses of Pressurization in Cryogenic Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Vineet; Hosangadi, Ashvin; Lee, Chun P.; Field, Robert E.; Ryan, Harry

    2010-01-01

    A comprehensive numerical framework utilizing multi-element unstructured CFD and rigorous real fluid property routines has been developed to carry out analyses of propellant tank and delivery systems at NASA SSC. Traditionally CFD modeling of pressurization and mixing in cryogenic tanks has been difficult primarily because the fluids in the tank co-exist in different sub-critical and supercritical states with largely varying properties that have to be accurately accounted for in order to predict the correct mixing and phase change between the ullage and the propellant. For example, during tank pressurization under some circumstances, rapid mixing of relatively warm pressurant gas with cryogenic propellant can lead to rapid densification of the gas and loss of pressure in the tank. This phenomenon can cause serious problems during testing because of the resulting decrease in propellant flow rate. With proper physical models implemented, CFD can model the coupling between the propellant and pressurant including heat transfer and phase change effects and accurately capture the complex physics in the evolving flowfields. This holds the promise of allowing the specification of operational conditions and procedures that could minimize the undesirable mixing and heat transfer inherent in propellant tank operation. In our modeling framework, we incorporated two different approaches to real fluids modeling: (a) the first approach is based on the HBMS model developed by Hirschfelder, Beuler, McGee and Sutton and (b) the second approach is based on a cubic equation of state developed by Soave, Redlich and Kwong (SRK). Both approaches cover fluid properties and property variation spanning sub-critical gas and liquid states as well as the supercritical states. Both models were rigorously tested and properties for common fluids such as oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen etc were compared against NIST data in both the sub-critical as well as supercritical regimes.

  4. Analysing policy transfer: perspectives for operational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissell, K; Lee, K; Freeman, R

    2011-09-01

    Policy transfer occurs regularly. In essence, a strategy developed elsewhere is taken up and applied in another policy context. Yet what precisely is policy transfer and, more importantly, under what conditions does it occur? This paper describes policy transfer and addresses three main questions, exploring what perspectives of policy transfer might contribute to operational research (OR) efforts. First, what facilitates the transfer of OR results into policy and practice? Second, what facilitates effective lesson-drawing about OR results and processes between and within countries? And third, what would increase the amount of OR being carried out by low- and middle-income countries and used to inform policy and practice at local and global levels? Mexico's adoption and adaptation of the DOTS strategy is used here as an example of policy transfer. Policy transfer is relevant to all countries, levels and arenas of people, institutions and organisations involved in health. With a more systematic analysis of learning and policy processes, OR policy and practice outcomes could be improved at all levels, from local to global. Policy transfer offers theory and concepts for analysing OR from a new perspective. The present paper proposes a model of the policy transfer process for qualitative research use. Comprehensive policy transfer research, given its length, complexity and need for qualitative researchers, should not be envisaged for all OR projects. All OR projects could, however, incorporate some concepts and practical tools inspired from this model. This should help to plan, evaluate and improve OR processes and the resulting changes in policy and practice.

  5. Long-term occupational exposure to organic solvents affects color vision, contrast sensitivity and visual fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Leiros Costa

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the visual outcome of chronic occupational exposure to a mixture of organic solvents by measuring color discrimination, achromatic contrast sensitivity and visual fields in a group of gas station workers. We tested 25 workers (20 males and 25 controls with no history of chronic exposure to solvents (10 males. All participants had normal ophthalmologic exams. Subjects had worked in gas stations on an average of 9.6 ± 6.2 years. Color vision was evaluated with the Lanthony D15d and Cambridge Colour Test (CCT. Visual field assessment consisted of white-on-white 24-2 automatic perimetry (Humphrey II-750i. Contrast sensitivity was measured for sinusoidal gratings of 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 cycles per degree (cpd. Results from both groups were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. The number of errors in the D15d was higher for workers relative to controls (p<0.01. Their CCT color discrimination thresholds were elevated compared to the control group along the protan, deutan and tritan confusion axes (p<0.01, and their ellipse area and ellipticity were higher (p<0.01. Genetic analysis of subjects with very elevated color discrimination thresholds excluded congenital causes for the visual losses. Automated perimetry thresholds showed elevation in the 9°, 15° and 21° of eccentricity (p<0.01 and in MD and PSD indexes (p<0.01. Contrast sensitivity losses were found for all spatial frequencies measured (p<0.01 except for 0.5 cpd. Significant correlation was found between previous working years and deutan axis thresholds (rho = 0.59; p<0.05, indexes of the Lanthony D15d (rho=0.52; p<0.05, perimetry results in the fovea (rho= -0.51; p<0.05 and at 3, 9 and 15 degrees of eccentricity (rho= -0.46; p<0.05. Extensive and diffuse visual changes were found, suggesting that specific occupational limits should be created.

  6. Analysing biomass torrefaction supply chain costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svanberg, Martin; Olofsson, Ingemar; Flodén, Jonas; Nordin, Anders

    2013-08-01

    The objective of the present work was to develop a techno-economic system model to evaluate how logistics and production parameters affect the torrefaction supply chain costs under Swedish conditions. The model consists of four sub-models: (1) supply system, (2) a complete energy and mass balance of drying, torrefaction and densification, (3) investment and operating costs of a green field, stand-alone torrefaction pellet plant, and (4) distribution system to the gate of an end user. The results show that the torrefaction supply chain reaps significant economies of scale up to a plant size of about 150-200 kiloton dry substance per year (ktonDS/year), for which the total supply chain costs accounts to 31.8 euro per megawatt hour based on lower heating value (€/MWhLHV). Important parameters affecting total cost are amount of available biomass, biomass premium, logistics equipment, biomass moisture content, drying technology, torrefaction mass yield and torrefaction plant capital expenditures (CAPEX).

  7. Analysing lawyers’ attitude towards knowledge sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wole M. Olatokun

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The study examined and identified the factors that affect lawyers’ attitudes to knowledge sharing, and their knowledge sharing behaviour. Specifically, it investigated the relationship between the salient beliefs affecting the knowledge sharing attitude of lawyers’, and applied a modified version of the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA in the knowledge sharing context, to predict how these factors affect their knowledge sharing behaviour.Method: A field survey of 273 lawyers was carried out, using questionnaire for data collection. Collected data on all variables were structured into grouped frequency distributions. Principal Component Factor Analysis was applied to reduce the constructs and Simple Regression was applied to test the hypotheses. These were tested at 0.05% level of significance.Results: Results showed that expected associations and contributions were the major determinants of lawyers’ attitudes towards knowledge sharing. Expected reward was not significantly related to lawyers’ attitudes towards knowledge sharing. A positive attitude towards knowledge sharing was found to lead to a positive intention to share knowledge, although a positive intention to share knowledge did not significantly predict a positive knowledge sharing behaviour. The level of Information Technology (IT usage was also found to significantly affect the knowledge sharing behaviour of lawyers’.Conclusion: It was recommended that law firms in the study area should deploy more IT infrastructure and services that encourage effective knowledge sharing amongst lawyers. 

  8. Kuosheng Mark III containment analyses using GOTHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Ansheng, E-mail: samuellin1999@iner.gov.tw; Chen, Yen-Shu; Yuann, Yng-Ruey

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • The Kuosheng Mark III containment model is established using GOTHIC. • Containment pressure and temperature responses due to LOCA are presented. • The calculated results are all below the design values and compared with the FSAR results. • The calculated results can be served as an analysis reference for an SPU project in the future. -- Abstract: Kuosheng nuclear power plant in Taiwan is a twin-unit BWR/6 plant, and both units utilize the Mark III containment. Currently, the plant is performing a stretch power uprate (SPU) project to increase the core thermal power to 103.7% OLTP (original licensed thermal power). However, the containment response in the Kuosheng Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) was completed more than twenty-five years ago. The purpose of this study is to establish a Kuosheng Mark III containment model using the containment program GOTHIC. The containment pressure and temperature responses under the design-basis accidents, which are the main steam line break (MSLB) and the recirculation line break (RCLB) accidents, are investigated. Short-term and long-term analyses are presented in this study. The short-term analysis is to calculate the drywell peak pressure and temperature which happen in the early stage of the LOCAs. The long-term analysis is to calculate the peak pressure and temperature of the reactor building space. In the short-term analysis, the calculated peak drywell to wetwell differential pressure is 140.6 kPa for the MSLB, which is below than the design value of 189.6 kPa. The calculated peak drywell temperature is 158 °C, which is still below the design value of 165.6 °C. In addition, in the long-term analysis, the calculated peak containment pressure is 47 kPa G, which is below the design value of 103.4 kPa G. The calculated peak values of containment temperatures are 74.7 °C, which is lower than the design value of 93.3 °C. Therefore, the Kuosheng Mark III containment can maintain the integrity after

  9. Genome-Facilitated Analyses of Geomicrobial Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth H. Nealson

    2012-05-02

    that makes up chitin, virtually all of the strains were in fact capable. This led to the discovery of a great many new genes involved with chitin and NAG metabolism (7). In a similar vein, a detailed study of the sugar utilization pathway revealed a major new insight into the regulation of sugar metabolism in this genus (19). Systems Biology and Comparative Genomics of the shewanellae: Several publications were put together describing the use of comparative genomics for analyses of the group Shewanella, and these were a logical culmination of our genomic-driven research (10,15,18). Eight graduate students received their Ph.D. degrees doing part of the work described here, and four postdoctoral fellows were supported. In addition, approximately 20 undergraduates took part in projects during the grant period.

  10. Metatranscriptomic analyses of honey bee colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozkar, Cansu Ö; Kence, Meral; Kence, Aykut; Huang, Qiang; Evans, Jay D

    2015-01-01

    Honey bees face numerous biotic threats from viruses to bacteria, fungi, protists, and mites. Here we describe a thorough analysis of microbes harbored by worker honey bees collected from field colonies in geographically distinct regions of Turkey. Turkey is one of the World's most important centers of apiculture, harboring five subspecies of Apis mellifera L., approximately 20% of the honey bee subspecies in the world. We use deep ILLUMINA-based RNA sequencing to capture RNA species for the honey bee and a sampling of all non-endogenous species carried by bees. After trimming and mapping these reads to the honey bee genome, approximately 10% of the sequences (9-10 million reads per library) remained. These were then mapped to a curated set of public sequences containing ca. Sixty megabase-pairs of sequence representing known microbial species associated with honey bees. Levels of key honey bee pathogens were confirmed using quantitative PCR screens. We contrast microbial matches across different sites in Turkey, showing new country recordings of Lake Sinai virus, two Spiroplasma bacterium species, symbionts Candidatus Schmidhempelia bombi, Frischella perrara, Snodgrassella alvi, Gilliamella apicola, Lactobacillus spp.), neogregarines, and a trypanosome species. By using metagenomic analysis, this study also reveals deep molecular evidence for the presence of bacterial pathogens (Melissococcus plutonius, Paenibacillus larvae), Varroa destructor-1 virus, Sacbrood virus, and fungi. Despite this effort we did not detect KBV, SBPV, Tobacco ringspot virus, VdMLV (Varroa Macula like virus), Acarapis spp., Tropilaeleps spp. and Apocephalus (phorid fly). We discuss possible impacts of management practices and honey bee subspecies on microbial retinues. The described workflow and curated microbial database will be generally useful for microbial surveys of healthy and declining honey bees.

  11. Analysing language classrooms through classroom interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müge Gündüz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This research study focuses on teacher-student and student-student interaction, which are considered very important aspects of classroom life. There has been a growth of interest in the analysis of teacher language and interaction in language classrooms and many (e.g. Ellis, 1994; Tsui, 2001 believe that classroom interaction is one of the major variables affecting SLA in formal settings. This study aims to give some insight into classroom interaction and how this interaction shapes L2 learning and teaching in Turkey and England. Systematic classroom observation along with the field notes taken to record observations is the main research method in this study used to describe and examine interaction patterns and to measure learner production in secondary classes in Turkey and England. The participants are foreign language teachers and non-native speaking students. Over a month, more than 50 lessons were observed in the secondary schools in both Turkey and England at two levels (13-14 and 14-15 year age group. In Turkey, English classes were observed whereas in England, the observation was conducted in German and French classes. English is taught as a foreign language in Turkey; German and French are also taught as a foreign language in England. The findings of this research study are expected to provide a better understanding of instructional practices and procedures in L2 classrooms. The results of this research study, however, should be seen as suggestive rather than conclusive since they are derived from a relatively small sample.

  12. Metatranscriptomic analyses of honey bee colonies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cansu Ozge Tozkar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Honey bees face numerous biotic threats from viruses to bacteria, fungi, protists, and mites. Here we describe a thorough analysis of microbes harbored by worker honey bees collected from field colonies in geographically distinct regions of Turkey. Turkey is one of the World’s most important centers of apiculture, harboring 5 subspecies of Apis mellifera L., approximately 20% of the honey bee subspecies in the world. We use deep ILLUMINA-based RNA sequencing to capture RNA species for the honey bee and a sampling of all non-endogenous species carried by bees. After trimming and mapping these reads to the honey bee genome, approximately 10% of the sequences (9-10 million reads per library remained. These were then mapped to a curated set of public sequences containing ca. 60 megabase-pairs of sequence representing known microbial species associated with honey bees. Levels of key honey bee pathogens were confirmed using quantitative PCR screens. We contrast microbial matches across different sites in Turkey, showing new country recordings of Lake Sinai virus, two Spiroplasma bacterium species, symbionts Candidatus Schmidhempelia bombi, Frischella perrara, Snodgrassella alvi, Gilliamella apicola, Lactobacillus spp., neogregarines, and a trypanosome species. By using metagenomic analysis, this study also reveals deep molecular evidence for the presence of bacterial pathogens (Melissococcus plutonius, Paenibacillus larvae, Varroa destructor-1 virus, Sacbrood virus, Apis filamentous virus and fungi. Despite this effort we did not detect KBV, SBPV, Tobacco ringspot virus, VdMLV (Varroa Macula like virus, Acarapis spp., Tropilaeleps spp. and Apocephalus (phorid fly. We discuss possible impacts of management practices and honey bee subspecies on microbial retinues. The described workflow and curated microbial database will be generally useful for microbial surveys of healthy and declining honey bees.

  13. First Super-Earth Atmosphere Analysed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    The atmosphere around a super-Earth exoplanet has been analysed for the first time by an international team of astronomers using ESO's Very Large Telescope. The planet, which is known as GJ 1214b, was studied as it passed in front of its parent star and some of the starlight passed through the planet's atmosphere. We now know that the atmosphere is either mostly water in the form of steam or is dominated by thick clouds or hazes. The results will appear in the 2 December 2010 issue of the journal Nature. The planet GJ 1214b was confirmed in 2009 using the HARPS instrument on ESO's 3.6-metre telescope in Chile (eso0950) [1]. Initial findings suggested that this planet had an atmosphere, which has now been confirmed and studied in detail by an international team of astronomers, led by Jacob Bean (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics), using the FORS instrument on ESO's Very Large Telescope. "This is the first super-Earth to have its atmosphere analysed. We've reached a real milestone on the road toward characterising these worlds," said Bean. GJ 1214b has a radius of about 2.6 times that of the Earth and is about 6.5 times as massive, putting it squarely into the class of exoplanets known as super-Earths. Its host star lies about 40 light-years from Earth in the constellation of Ophiuchus (the Serpent Bearer). It is a faint star [2], but it is also small, which means that the size of the planet is large compared to the stellar disc, making it relatively easy to study [3]. The planet travels across the disc of its parent star once every 38 hours as it orbits at a distance of only two million kilometres: about seventy times closer than the Earth orbits the Sun. To study the atmosphere, the team observed the light coming from the star as the planet passed in front of it [4]. During these transits, some of the starlight passes through the planet's atmosphere and, depending on the chemical composition and weather on the planet, specific wavelengths of light are

  14. Analyse énonciative du point du vue, narration et analyse de discours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Rabatel

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cet article montre que l’analyse énonciative du point de vue (PDV, en rupture avec la typologie des focalisations de Genette, peut renouveler partiellement la narratologie, à la condition de substituter à l’approche immanentiste du récit une analyse interactionnelle de la narration. L’article présente d’abord l’approche énonciative du PDV, en appui des théories de Ducrot, et, sur cette base, propose diverses modalités de PDV (représenté, raconté, asserté qui donnent corps au point de vue des personnages ou du narrateur en modifiant sensiblement les analyses de Genette. Dans une deuxième partie, l’article envisage le rôle des PDV dans la narration, notamment dans la réévaluation des dimensions cognitive et pragmatique de la mimésis, puis dans les mécanismes inférentiels-interprétatifs, proches du système de sympathie de Jouve, enfin, dans la revalorisation du rôle du narrateur •puisque ce dernier se construit dans le même temps qu’il construit ses personnages.

  15. Sensitivity Analyses for Robust Causal Inference from Mendelian Randomization Analyses with Multiple Genetic Variants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Jack; Fall, Tove; Ingelsson, Erik; Thompson, Simon G.

    2017-01-01

    Mendelian randomization investigations are becoming more powerful and simpler to perform, due to the increasing size and coverage of genome-wide association studies and the increasing availability of summarized data on genetic associations with risk factors and disease outcomes. However, when using multiple genetic variants from different gene regions in a Mendelian randomization analysis, it is highly implausible that all the genetic variants satisfy the instrumental variable assumptions. This means that a simple instrumental variable analysis alone should not be relied on to give a causal conclusion. In this article, we discuss a range of sensitivity analyses that will either support or question the validity of causal inference from a Mendelian randomization analysis with multiple genetic variants. We focus on sensitivity analyses of greatest practical relevance for ensuring robust causal inferences, and those that can be undertaken using summarized data. Aside from cases in which the justification of the instrumental variable assumptions is supported by strong biological understanding, a Mendelian randomization analysis in which no assessment of the robustness of the findings to violations of the instrumental variable assumptions has been made should be viewed as speculative and incomplete. In particular, Mendelian randomization investigations with large numbers of genetic variants without such sensitivity analyses should be treated with skepticism. PMID:27749700

  16. Beyond Field Education: Leadership of Field Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertheimer, Mindy R.; Sodhi, Mimi

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a conceptual model of the field director's role outside of field education, specifically in the following 3 areas of leadership: (1) curricular, (2) programmatic, and (3) institutional. A survey was conducted to explore the field director's input targeted in these areas beyond prescribed field education tasks. The…

  17. FY01 Supplemental Science and Performance Analyses, Volume 1: Scientific Bases and Analyses, Rev 00

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Dobson

    2001-06-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is considering the possible recommendation of a site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for development as a geologic repository for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel. To facilitate public review and comment, in May 2001 the DOE released the Yucca Mountain Science and Engineering Report (S&ER) (DOE 2001 [DIRS 153849]), which presents technical information supporting the consideration of the possible site recommendation. The report summarizes the results of more than 20 years of scientific and engineering studies. A decision to recommend the site has not been made: the DOE has provided the S&ER and its supporting documents as an aid to the public in formulating comments on the possible recommendation. When the S&ER (DOE 2001 [DIRS 153849]) was released, the DOE acknowledged that technical and scientific analyses of the site were ongoing. Therefore, the DOE noted in the Federal Register Notice accompanying the report (66 FR 23 013 [DIRS 155009], p. 2) that additional technical information would be released before the dates, locations, and times for public hearings on the possible recommendation were announced. This information includes: (1) the results of additional technical studies of a potential repository at Yucca Mountain, contained in this FY01 Supplemental Science and Performance Analyses: Vol. 1, Scientific Bases and Analyses; and FY01 Supplemental Science and Performance Analyses: Vol. 2, Performance Analyses (McNeish 2001 [DIRS 155023]) (collectively referred to as the SSPA) and (2) a preliminary evaluation of the Yucca Mountain site's preclosure and postclosure performance against the DOE's proposed site suitability guidelines (10 CFR Part 963 [64 FR 67054] [DIRS 124754]). By making the large amount of information developed on Yucca Mountain available in stages, the DOE intends to provide the public and interested parties with time to review the available materials and to formulate and

  18. Manifestations of Magnetic Field Inhomogeneities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lawrence Rudnick

    2011-12-01

    Both observations and simulations reveal large inhomogeneities in magnetic field distributions in diffuse plasmas. Incorporating these inhomogeneities into various calculations can significantly change the inferred physical conditions. In extragalactic sources, e.g., these can compromise analyses of spectral ageing, which I will illustrate with some current work on cluster relics. I also briefly re-examine the old issue of how inhomogeneous fields affect particle lifetimes; perhaps not surprisingly, the next generation of radio telescopes are unlikely to find many sources that can extend their lifetimes from putting relativistic electrons into a low-field ‘freezer’. Finally, I preview some new EVLA results on the complex relic in Abell 2256, with implications for the interspersing of its relativistic and thermal plasmas.

  19. Integrated multifunctional microfluidics for automated proteome analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osiri, John K; Shadpour, Hamed; Witek, Małgorzata A; Soper, Steven A

    2011-01-01

    Proteomics is a challenging field for realizing totally integrated microfluidic systems for complete proteome processing due to several considerations, including the sheer number of different protein types that exist within most proteomes, the large dynamic range associated with these various protein types, and the diverse chemical nature of the proteins comprising a typical proteome. For example, the human proteome is estimated to have >10(6) different components with a dynamic range of >10(10). The typical processing pipeline for proteomics involves the following steps: (1) selection and/or extraction of the particular proteins to be analyzed; (2) multidimensional separation; (3) proteolytic digestion of the protein sample; and (4) mass spectral identification of either intact proteins (top-down proteomics) or peptide fragments generated from proteolytic digestions (bottom-up proteomics). Although a number of intriguing microfluidic devices have been designed, fabricated and evaluated for carrying out the individual processing steps listed above, work toward building fully integrated microfluidic systems for protein analysis has yet to be realized. In this chapter, information will be provided on the nature of proteomic analysis in terms of the challenges associated with the sample type and the microfluidic devices that have been tested to carry out individual processing steps. These include devices such as those for multidimensional electrophoretic separations, solid-phase enzymatic digestions, and solid-phase extractions, all of which have used microfluidics as the functional platform for their implementation. This will be followed by an in-depth review of microfluidic systems, which are defined as units possessing two or more devices assembled into autonomous systems for proteome processing. In addition, information will be provided on the challenges involved in integrating processing steps into a functional system and the approaches adopted for device

  20. Magnetic fields of HgMn stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubrig, S.; González, J. F.; Ilyin, I.

    2012-01-01

    Context. The frequent presence of weak magnetic fields on the surface of spotted late-B stars with HgMn peculiarity in binary systems has been controversial during the two last decades. Recent studies of magnetic fields in these stars using the least-squares deconvolution (LSD) technique have...... failed to detect magnetic fields, indicating an upper limit on the longitudinal field between 8 and 15G. In these LSD studies, assumptions were made that all spectral lines are identical in shape and can be described by a scaled mean profile. Aims. We re-analyse the available spectropolarimetric material...

  1. Noncommutative Field Theory on Homogeneous Gravitational Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Halliday, S; Halliday, Sam; Szabo, Richard J.

    2006-01-01

    We describe an algebraic approach to the time-dependent noncommutative geometry of a six-dimensional Cahen-Wallach pp-wave string background supported by a constant Neveu-Schwarz flux, and develop a general formalism to construct and analyse quantum field theories defined thereon. Various star-products are derived in closed explicit form and the Hopf algebra of twisted isometries of the plane wave is constructed. Scalar field theories are defined using explicit forms of derivative operators, traces and noncommutative frame fields for the geometry, and various physical features are described. Noncommutative worldvolume field theories of D-branes in the pp-wave background are also constructed.

  2. Foundational Performance Analyses of Pressure Gain Combustion Thermodynamic Benefits for Gas Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxson, Daniel E.; Kaemming, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    A methodology is described whereby the work extracted by a turbine exposed to the fundamentally nonuniform flowfield from a representative pressure gain combustor (PGC) may be assessed. The method uses an idealized constant volume cycle, often referred to as an Atkinson or Humphrey cycle, to model the PGC. Output from this model is used as input to a scalable turbine efficiency function (i.e., a map), which in turn allows for the calculation of useful work throughout the cycle. Integration over the entire cycle yields mass-averaged work extraction. The unsteady turbine work extraction is compared to steady work extraction calculations based on various averaging techniques for characterizing the combustor exit pressure and temperature. It is found that averages associated with momentum flux (as opposed to entropy or kinetic energy) provide the best match. This result suggests that momentum-based averaging is the most appropriate figure-of-merit to use as a PGC performance metric. Using the mass-averaged work extraction methodology, it is also found that the design turbine pressure ratio for maximum work extraction is significantly higher than that for a turbine fed by a constant pressure combustor with similar inlet conditions and equivalence ratio. Limited results are presented whereby the constant volume cycle is replaced by output from a detonation-based PGC simulation. The results in terms of averaging techniques and design pressure ratio are similar.

  3. Experimental Investigation of Integrated Optical Intensive Impulse Electric Field Sensors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Bao; CHEN Fu-Shen

    2009-01-01

    We design and fabricate an integrated optical electric field sensor with segmented electrode for intensive im-pulse electric field measurement. The integrated optical sensor is based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with segmented electrodes. The output/input character of the sensing system is analysed and measured. The max-imal detectable electric field range (-75 kV/m to 245 kV/m) is obtained by analysing the results. As a result, the integrated optics electric field sensing system is suitable for transient intensive electric field measurement investigation.

  4. Magnetic analyses of powders from exhausted cabin air filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Aldo; Sagnotti, Leonardo

    2013-04-01

    The automotive cabin air filter is a pleated-paper filter placed in the outside-air intake for the car's passenger compartment. Dirty and saturated cabin air filters significantly reduce the airflow from the outside and introduce particulate matter (PM) and allergens (for example, pollen) into the cabin air stream. Magnetic measurements and analyses have been carried out on powders extracted from exhausted cabin air filters to characterize their magnetic properties and to compare them to those already reported for powders collected from disk brakes, gasoline exhaust pipes and Quercus ilex leaves. This study is also aimed at the identification and quantification of the contribution of the ultrafine fraction, superparamagnetic (SP) at room temperature, to the overall magnetic properties of these powders. This contribution was estimated by interpreting and comparing data from FORCs, isothermal remanent magnetization vs time decay curves, frequency and field dependence of the magnetic susceptibility and out-of-phase susceptibility. The magnetic properties and the distribution of the SP particles are generally homogenous and independent of the brand of the car, of the model of the filter and of its level of usage. The relatively high concentration of magnetic PM trapped in these filters poses relevant questions about the air quality inside a car.

  5. WEBnm@: a web application for normal mode analyses of proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuter Nathalie

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Normal mode analysis (NMA has become the method of choice to investigate the slowest motions in macromolecular systems. NMA is especially useful for large biomolecular assemblies, such as transmembrane channels or virus capsids. NMA relies on the hypothesis that the vibrational normal modes having the lowest frequencies (also named soft modes describe the largest movements in a protein and are the ones that are functionally relevant. Results We developed a web-based server to perform normal modes calculations and different types of analyses. Starting from a structure file provided by the user in the PDB format, the server calculates the normal modes and subsequently offers the user a series of automated calculations; normalized squared atomic displacements, vector field representation and animation of the first six vibrational modes. Each analysis is performed independently from the others and results can be visualized using only a web browser. No additional plug-in or software is required. For users who would like to analyze the results with their favorite software, raw results can also be downloaded. The application is available on http://www.bioinfo.no/tools/normalmodes. We present here the underlying theory, the application architecture and an illustration of its features using a large transmembrane protein as an example. Conclusion We built an efficient and modular web application for normal mode analysis of proteins. Non specialists can easily and rapidly evaluate the degree of flexibility of multi-domain protein assemblies and characterize the large amplitude movements of their domains.

  6. Building integrated business environments: analysing open-source ESB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Carreras, M. A.; García Jimenez, F. J.; Gómez Skarmeta, A. F.

    2015-05-01

    Integration and interoperability are two concepts that have gained significant prominence in the business field, providing tools which enable enterprise application integration (EAI). In this sense, enterprise service bus (ESB) has played a crucial role as the underpinning technology for creating integrated environments in which companies may connect all their legacy-applications. However, the potential of these technologies remains unknown and some important features are not used to develop suitable business environments. The aim of this paper is to describe and detail the elements for building the next generation of integrated business environments (IBE) and to analyse the features of ESBs as the core of this infrastructure. For this purpose, we evaluate how well-known open-source ESB products fulfil these needs. Moreover, we introduce a scenario in which the collaborative system 'Alfresco' is integrated in the business infrastructure. Finally, we provide a comparison of the different open-source ESBs available for IBE requirements. According to this study, Fuse ESB provides the best results, considering features such as support for a wide variety of standards and specifications, documentation and implementation, security, advanced business trends, ease of integration and performance.

  7. Stress and vibraton analyses of anisotropic shells of revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Ahmed K.; Peters, Jeanne M.

    1988-01-01

    An efficient computational strategy is presented for reducing the cost of the stress and free vibration analyses of laminated anisotropic shells of revolution. The analytical formulation is based on a form of the Sanders-Budiansky shell theory including the effects of both the transverse shear deformation and the laminated anisotropic material response. The fundamental unknowns consist of the eight strain components, the eight stress resultants and the five generalized displacements of the shell. Each of the shell variables is expressed in terms of trigonometric functions (Fourier series) in the circumferential co-ordinate, and a three-field mixed finite element model is used for the discretization in the meridional direction. The shell response associated with a range of Fourier harmonics is approximated by a linear combination of a few global approximation vectors, which are generated at a particular value of the Fourier harmonic, within that range. The full equations of the finite element model are solved for only a single Fourier harmonic, and the response corresponding to the other Fourier harmonics is generated using a reduced system of equations with considerably fewer degrees of freedom.

  8. L'analyse qualitative comme approche multiple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Cipriani

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available L’exemple de l’enquête historique, visant à identifier les caractéristiques de la naissance et du développement d’une science et des lectures qu’elle donne des événements sociaux, est des plus originaux. Toute méthodologie historique non seulement débouche sur une pure et simple masse d’épisodes et d’événements, mais est également une narration et une élaboration critique de ces mêmes faits. Michael Postan écrit à juste titre que la complexité des données historiques est cependant de telle nature, et les différences et les similitudes tellement difficiles à cerner, que les efforts des historiens et des sociologues pour construire des comparaisons explicites se sont soldées, pour la plupart, par des tentatives grossières et naïves. La leçon des Annales a contribué en effet à construire l’idée d’une histoire qui puisse lire et expliquer ce qui est uniforme et ce qui est singulier. Rien de plus naturel que la réunion d’« êtres psychiques », à l’instar de l’assemblage des cellules en un organisme, en un « être psychique » nouveau et différent. Un tournant s’impose donc vers une expérimentation empirique plus ample et plus correcte, afin de disposer des instruments adéquats, capables de garantir à la méthodologie micro, qualitative et biographique, une fiabilité suffisante.Historical approach offers a relevant contribution in order to find the features of birth and development of a science which analyses social events. Historical methodology produces not only a lot of data but also a narrative, and an interpretation of facts. According to Michael Postan, history and sociology have made many efforts to compare data that are complex but similar and different at the same time. And the results seem to be naïf. Thanks to Les Annales suggestion it is possible to read and to explain what is uniform and what is singular. To put together “psychical beings”, like organic cells, in a new

  9. Non-destructive infrared analyses: a method for provenance analyses of sandstones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowitz, Jörg; Ehling, Angela

    2008-12-01

    Infrared spectroscopy (IR spectroscopy) is commonly applied in the laboratory for mineral analyses in addition to XRD. Because such technical efforts are time and cost consuming, we present an infrared-based mobile method for non-destructive mineral and provenance analyses of sandstones. IR spectroscopy is based on activating chemical bonds. By irradiating a mineral mixture, special bonds are activated to vibrate depending on the bond energy (resonance vibration). Accordingly, the energy of the IR spectrum will be reduced thereby generating an absorption spectrum. The positions of the absorption maxima within the spectral region indicate the type of the bonds and in many cases identify minerals containing these bonds. The non-destructive reflection spectroscopy operates in the near infrared region (NIR) and can detect all common clay minerals as well as sulfates, hydroxides and carbonates. The spectra produced have been interpreted by computer using digital mineral libraries that have been especially collected for sandstones. The comparison of all results with XRD, RFA and interpretations of thin sections demonstrates impressively the accuracy and reliability of this method. Not only are different minerals detectable, but also differently ordered kaolinites and varieties of illites can be identified by the shape and size of the absorption bands. Especially clay minerals and their varieties in combination with their relative contents form the characteristic spectra of sandstones. Other components such as limonite, hematite and amorphous silica also influence the spectra. Sandstones, similar in colour and texture, often can be identified by their characteristic reflectance spectra. Reference libraries with more than 60 spectra of important German sandstones have been created to enable entirely computerized interpretations and identifications of these dimension stones. The analysis of infrared spectroscopy results is demonstrated with examples of different sandstones

  10. Statistical power analyses using G*Power 3.1: tests for correlation and regression analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faul, Franz; Erdfelder, Edgar; Buchner, Axel; Lang, Albert-Georg

    2009-11-01

    G*Power is a free power analysis program for a variety of statistical tests. We present extensions and improvements of the version introduced by Faul, Erdfelder, Lang, and Buchner (2007) in the domain of correlation and regression analyses. In the new version, we have added procedures to analyze the power of tests based on (1) single-sample tetrachoric correlations, (2) comparisons of dependent correlations, (3) bivariate linear regression, (4) multiple linear regression based on the random predictor model, (5) logistic regression, and (6) Poisson regression. We describe these new features and provide a brief introduction to their scope and handling.

  11. Integrating and scheduling an open set of static analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichberg, Michael; Mezini, Mira; Kloppenburg, Sven

    2006-01-01

    to keep the set of analyses open. We propose an approach to integrating and scheduling an open set of static analyses which decouples the individual analyses and coordinates the analysis executions such that the overall time and space consumption is minimized. The approach has been implemented...... for the Eclipse IDE and has been used to integrate a wide range of analyses such as finding bug patterns, detecting violations of design guidelines, or type system extensions for Java....

  12. An analysis of the flow field in the region of the ASRM field joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, Richard A.; Whitesides, Harold R.

    1992-07-01

    The flow field in the region of a solid rocket motor field joint is very important since fluid dynamic and mechanical propellant stresses can couple to cause a motor failure at a joint. Presented here is an examination of the flow field in the region of the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) field joints. The analyses were performed as a first step in assessing the design of the ASRM forward and aft field joints in order to assure the proper operation of the motor prior to further development of test firing. The analyses presented here were performed by employing a two-dimensional axisymmetric assumption. Fluent/BFC, a three dimensional full Navier-Stokes flow field code, was used to make the numerical calculations. This code utilizes a staggered grid formulation along with the SIMPLER numerical algorithm. Wall functions are used to determine the character of the laminar sublayer, and a standard kappa-epsilon turbulence model is used to close the fluid dynamic equations. The analyses performed to this date verify that the ASRM field joint design operates properly. The fluid dynamic stresses at the field joints are small due to the inherent design of the field joints. A problem observed in some other solid rocket motors is that large fluid dynamic stresses are generated at the motor joint on the downstream propellant grain due to forward facing step geometries. The design of the ASRM field joints are such that this is not a problem as shown by the analyses. Also, the analyses of the inhibitor stub left protruding into the port flow from normal propellant burn back show that more information is necessary to complete these analyses. These analyses were performed as parametric analyses in relation to the height of the inhibitor stub left protruding into the motor port. A better estimate of the amount of the inhibitor stub remaining at later burn times must be determined since the height which the inhibitor stub protrudes into the port flow drastically affects the fluid

  13. Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (IWTU) Input Coal Analyses and Off-Gass Filter (OGF) Content Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, Carol M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Missimer, David M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Guenther, Chris P. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Shekhawat, Dushyant [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); VanEssendelft, Dirk T. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Means, Nicholas C. [AECOM Technology Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-04-23

    in process piping and materials, in excessive off-gas absorbent loading, and in undesired process emissions. The ash content of the coal is important as the ash adds to the DMR and other vessel products which affect the final waste product mass and composition. The amount and composition of the ash also affects the reaction kinetics. Thus ash content and composition contributes to the mass balance. In addition, sodium, potassium, calcium, sulfur, and maybe silica and alumina in the ash may contribute to wall-scale formation. Sodium, potassium, and alumina in the ash will be overwhelmed by the sodium, potassium, and alumina from the feed but the impact from the other ash components needs to be quantified. A maximum coal particle size is specified so the feed system does not plug and a minimum particle size is specified to prevent excess elutriation from the DMR to the Process Gas Filter (PGF). A vendor specification was used to procure the calcined coal for IWTU processing. While the vendor supplied a composite analysis for the 22 tons of coal (Appendix A), this study compares independent analyses of the coal performed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). Three supersacks a were sampled at three different heights within the sack in order to determine within bag variability and between bag variability of the coal. These analyses were also compared to the vendor’s composite analyses and to the coal specification. These analyses were also compared to historic data on Bestac coal analyses that had been performed at Hazen Research Inc. (HRI) between 2004-2011.

  14. Analysing regenerative potential in zebrafish models of congenital muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, A J; Currie, P D

    2014-11-01

    The congenital muscular dystrophies (CMDs) are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of muscle disorders. Clinically hypotonia is present from birth, with progressive muscle weakness and wasting through development. For the most part, CMDs can mechanistically be attributed to failure of basement membrane protein laminin-α2 sufficiently binding with correctly glycosylated α-dystroglycan. The majority of CMDs therefore arise as the result of either a deficiency of laminin-α2 (MDC1A) or hypoglycosylation of α-dystroglycan (dystroglycanopathy). Here we consider whether by filling a regenerative medicine niche, the zebrafish model can address the present challenge of delivering novel therapeutic solutions for CMD. In the first instance the readiness and appropriateness of the zebrafish as a model organism for pioneering regenerative medicine therapies in CMD is analysed, in particular for MDC1A and the dystroglycanopathies. Despite the recent rapid progress made in gene editing technology, these approaches have yet to yield any novel zebrafish models of CMD. Currently the most genetically relevant zebrafish models to the field of CMD, have all been created by N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis. Once genetically relevant models have been established the zebrafish has several important facets for investigating the mechanistic cause of CMD, including rapid ex vivo development, optical transparency up to the larval stages of development and relative ease in creating transgenic reporter lines. Together, these tools are well suited for use in live-imaging studies such as in vivo modelling of muscle fibre detachment. Secondly, the zebrafish's contribution to progress in effective treatment of CMD was analysed. Two approaches were identified in which zebrafish could potentially contribute to effective therapies. The first hinges on the augmentation of functional redundancy within the system, such as upregulating alternative laminin chains in the candyfloss

  15. COCAP - A compact carbon dioxide analyser for airborne platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Martin; Lavrič, Jošt V.; Jeschag, Wieland; Bryzgalov, Maksym; Hök, Bertil; Heimann, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Airborne platforms are a valuable tool for atmospheric trace gas measurements due to their capability of movement in three dimensions, covering spatial scales from metres to thousands of kilometres. Although crewed research aircraft are flexible in payload and range, their use is limited by high initial and operating costs. Small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) have the potential for substantial cost reduction, but require lightweight, miniaturized and energy-efficient scientific equipment. We are developing a COmpact Carbon dioxide analyser for Airborne Platforms (COCAP). It contains a non-dispersive infrared CO2sensor with a nominal full scale of 3000 μmol/mol. Sampled air is dried with magnesium perchlorate before it enters the sensor. This enables measurement of the dry air mole fraction of CO2, as recommended by the World Meteorological Organization. During post-processing, the CO2 measurement is corrected for temperature and pressure variations in the gas line. Allan variance analysis shows that we achieve a precision of better than 0.4 μmol/mol for 10 s averaging time. We plan to monitor the analyser's stability during flight by measuring reference air from a miniature gas tank in regular intervals. Besides CO2, COCAP measures relative humidity, temperature and pressure of ambient air. An on-board GPS receiver delivers accurate timestamps and allows georeferencing. Data is both stored on a microSD card and simultaneously transferred over a wireless serial interface to a ground station for real-time review. The target weight for COCAP is less than 1 kg. We deploy COCAP on a commercially available fixed-wing UAV (Bormatec Explorer) with a wingspan of 2.2 metres. The UAV has high payload capacity (2.5 kg) as well as sufficient space in the fuselage (80x80x600 mm3). It is built from a shock-resistant foam material, which allows quick repair of minor damages in the field. In case of severe damage spare parts are readily available. Calculations suggest that the

  16. Analyses of Technology for Solid State Coherent Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin

    1997-01-01

    Over past few years, considerable advances have been made in the areas of the diode-pumped, eye-safe, solid state lasers and room temperature, wide bandwidth, semiconductor detectors operating in the near-infrared region. These advances have created new possibilities for the development of reliable and compact coherent lidar systems for a wide range of applications. This research effort is aimed at further developing solid state coherent lidar technology for remote sensing of atmospheric processes such as wind, turbulence and aerosol concentration. The work performed by the UAH personnel under this Delivery Order concentrated on design and analyses of laboratory experiments and measurements, and development of advanced lidar optical subsystems in support of solid state laser radar remote sensing systems which are to be designed, deployed, and used to measure atmospheric processes and constituents. Under this delivery order, a lidar breadboard system was designed and analyzed by considering the major aircraft and space operational requirements. The lidar optical system was analyzed in detail using SYNOPSIS and Code V optical design packages. The lidar optical system include a wedge scanner and the compact telescope designed by the UAH personnel. The other major optical components included in the design and analyses were: polarizing beam splitter, routing mirrors, wave plates, signal beam derotator, and lag angle compensator. This lidar system is to be used for demonstrating all the critical technologies for the development of a reliable and low-cost space-based instrument capable of measuring global wind fields. A number of laboratory experiments and measurements were performed at the NASA/MSFC Detector Characterization Facility, previously developed by the UAH personnel. These laboratory measurements include the characterization of a 2-micron InGaAs detectors suitable for use in coherent lidars and characterization of Holographic Optical Element Scanners. UAH

  17. Polarizable vacuum analysis of electromagnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Ye, Xing-Hao

    2009-01-01

    By examining the electric displacement in a dielectric medium and in a vacuum, the polarization property of quantum vacuum is discussed. Both the electric and magnetic fields are analysed in the framework of polarizable vacuum. It is found that the energy and force generated by the electric and magnetic fields can then be understood in a natural way. As an application, the electromagnetic wave is also investigated, which reaches a polarizable vacuum interpretation of the energy and spin of a photon.

  18. A Jacobian elliptic single-field inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Villanueva, J R

    2015-01-01

    In the scenario of single-field inflation, this field is done in terms of Jacobian elliptic functions. This approach provides, when constrained to particular cases, analytic solutions already known in the past, generalizing them to a bigger family of analytical solutions. The emergent cosmology is analysed using the Hamilton-Jacobi approach and then, the main results are contrasted with the recent measurements obtained from the Planck 2015 data.

  19. Graphic design as urban design: towards a theory for analysing graphic objects in urban environments.

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    This thesis presents a model for analysing the graphic object as urban object, by considering atypical fields of discourse that contribute to the formation of the object domain. The question: what is graphic design as urban design? directs the research through an epistemological design study comprising: an interrogation of graphic design studio practice and the articulation of graphic design research questions; a review and subsequent development of research strategy, design and method toward...

  20. Micromechanical Failure Analyses for Finite Element Polymer Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CHAMBERS,ROBERT S.; REEDY JR.,EARL DAVID; LO,CHI S.; ADOLF,DOUGLAS B.; GUESS,TOMMY R.

    2000-11-01

    Polymer stresses around sharp corners and in constrained geometries of encapsulated components can generate cracks leading to system failures. Often, analysts use maximum stresses as a qualitative indicator for evaluating the strength of encapsulated component designs. Although this approach has been useful for making relative comparisons screening prospective design changes, it has not been tied quantitatively to failure. Accurate failure models are needed for analyses to predict whether encapsulated components meet life cycle requirements. With Sandia's recently developed nonlinear viscoelastic polymer models, it has been possible to examine more accurately the local stress-strain distributions in zones of likely failure initiation looking for physically based failure mechanisms and continuum metrics that correlate with the cohesive failure event. This study has identified significant differences between rubbery and glassy failure mechanisms that suggest reasonable alternatives for cohesive failure criteria and metrics. Rubbery failure seems best characterized by the mechanisms of finite extensibility and appears to correlate with maximum strain predictions. Glassy failure, however, seems driven by cavitation and correlates with the maximum hydrostatic tension. Using these metrics, two three-point bending geometries were tested and analyzed under variable loading rates, different temperatures and comparable mesh resolution (i.e., accuracy) to make quantitative failure predictions. The resulting predictions and observations agreed well suggesting the need for additional research. In a separate, additional study, the asymptotically singular stress state found at the tip of a rigid, square inclusion embedded within a thin, linear elastic disk was determined for uniform cooling. The singular stress field is characterized by a single stress intensity factor K{sub a} and the applicable K{sub a} calibration relationship has been determined for both fully bonded and

  1. Spatial Ensemble Postprocessing of Precipitation Forecasts Using High Resolution Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Moritz N.; Schicker, Irene; Kann, Alexander; Wang, Yong

    2017-04-01

    Ensemble prediction systems are designed to account for errors or uncertainties in the initial and boundary conditions, imperfect parameterizations, etc. However, due to sampling errors and underestimation of the model errors, these ensemble forecasts tend to be underdispersive, and to lack both reliability and sharpness. To overcome such limitations, statistical postprocessing methods are commonly applied to these forecasts. In this study, a full-distributional spatial post-processing method is applied to short-range precipitation forecasts over Austria using Standardized Anomaly Model Output Statistics (SAMOS). Following Stauffer et al. (2016), observation and forecast fields are transformed into standardized anomalies by subtracting a site-specific climatological mean and dividing by the climatological standard deviation. Due to the need of fitting only a single regression model for the whole domain, the SAMOS framework provides a computationally inexpensive method to create operationally calibrated probabilistic forecasts for any arbitrary location or for all grid points in the domain simultaneously. Taking advantage of the INCA system (Integrated Nowcasting through Comprehensive Analysis), high resolution analyses are used for the computation of the observed climatology and for model training. The INCA system operationally combines station measurements and remote sensing data into real-time objective analysis fields at 1 km-horizontal resolution and 1 h-temporal resolution. The precipitation forecast used in this study is obtained from a limited area model ensemble prediction system also operated by ZAMG. The so called ALADIN-LAEF provides, by applying a multi-physics approach, a 17-member forecast at a horizontal resolution of 10.9 km and a temporal resolution of 1 hour. The performed SAMOS approach statistically combines the in-house developed high resolution analysis and ensemble prediction system. The station-based validation of 6 hour precipitation sums

  2. Middle atmosphere water vapour and dynamical features in aircraft measurements and ECMWF analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Feist

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF provides global analyses of atmospheric humidity from the ground to the lower mesosphere. Unlike in the troposphere, in the stratosphere no humidity observations are assimilated. Humidity analyses here are essentially the results of a free-running model constrained by the ECMWF's analysed wind fields. So far only the broad-scale features of the resulting stratospheric water vapour distribution have been validated. This study provides the first in-depth comparison of stratospheric humidity from ECMWF with observations from an airborne microwave radiometer that has measured the distribution of stratospheric water vapour over an altitude range of roughly 15–60 km on several flight campaigns since 1998. The aircraft measurements provide a horizontal resolution that cannot be achieved by current satellite instruments. This study examines dynamical features in the moisture fields such as filamentation and the vortex edge, finding that features in the ERA-40 humidity analyses often do correspond to real atmospheric events that are seen in the aircraft measurements. However, the comparisons also show that in general the ECMWF model produces an unrealistically moist mesosphere. As a result it cannot replicate the descent of relatively dry mesospheric air into the polar vortex in winter and spring.

  3. Population-based analyses of Giardia duodenalis is consistent with the clonal assemblage structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takumi Katsuhisa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Giardia duodenalis is a common protozoan parasite of humans and animals. Genetic characterization of single loci indicates the existence of eight groups called assemblages, which differ in their host distribution. Molecular analyses challenged the idea that G. duodenalis is a strictly clonal diplomonad by providing evidence of recombination within and between assemblages. Particularly, inter-assemblage recombination events would complicate the interpretation of multi-locus genotyping data from field isolates: where is a host infected with multiple Giardia genotypes or with a single, recombined Giardia genotype. Methods Population genetic analyses on the single and multiple-locus level on an extensive dataset of G. duodenalis isolates from humans and animals were performed. Results Our analyses indicate that recombination between isolates from different assemblages are apparently very rare or absent in the natural population of Giardia duodenalis. At the multi-locus level, our statistical analyses are more congruent with clonal reproduction and can equally well be explained with the presence of multiple G. duodenalis genotypes within one field isolate. Conclusions We conclude that recombination between G. duodenalis assemblages is either very rare or absent. Recombination between genotypes from the same assemblage and genetic exchange between the nuclei of a single cyst needs further investigation.

  4. Middle atmosphere water vapour and dynamical features in aircraft measurements and ECMWF analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Feist

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF provides global analyses of atmospheric humidity from the ground to the lower mesosphere. Unlike in the troposphere, in the stratopshere no humidity observations are assimilated. Humidity analyses here are essentially the results of a free-running model constrained by the ECMWF's well-analysed wind fields. So far only the broad-scale features of the resulting stratospheric water vapour distribution have been validated. This study provides the first in-depth comparison of stratospheric humidity from ECMWF with observations from an airborne microwave radiometer that has measured the distribution of stratospheric water vapour over an altitude range of roughly 15–60 km on several flight campaigns since 1998. The aircraft measurements provide a horizontal resolution that cannot be achieved by current satellite instruments. This study examines dynamical features in the moisture fields such as filamentation and the vortex edge, finding that features in the ERA-40 humidity analyses often do correspond to real atmospheric events that are seen in the aircraft measurements. However, the comparisons also show that in general the ECMWF model produces an unrealistically moist mesosphere. As a result it cannot replicate the descent of relatively dry mesospheric air into the polar vortex in winter and spring.

  5. Chemical analyses in the World Coal Quality Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewalt, Susan J.; Belkin, Harvey E.; SanFilipo, John R.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Palmer, Curtis A.; Warwick, Peter D.; Karlsen, Alexander W.; Finkelman, Robert B.; Park, Andy J.

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of the World Coal Quality Inventory (WoCQI) was to collect and analyze a global set of samples of mined coal during a time period from about 1995 to 2006 (Finkelman and Lovern, 2001). Coal samples were collected by foreign collaborators and submitted to country specialists in the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Energy Program. However, samples from certain countries, such as Afghanistan, India, and Kyrgyzstan, were collected collaboratively in the field with USGS personnel. Samples were subsequently analyzed at two laboratories: the USGS Inorganic Geochemistry Laboratory located in Denver, CO and a commercial laboratory (Geochemical Testing, Inc.) located in Somerset, PA. Thus the dataset, which is in Excel (2003) format and includes 1,580 samples from 57 countries, does not have the inter-laboratory variability that is present in many compilations. Major-, minor-, and trace-element analyses from the USGS laboratory, calculated to a consistent analytical basis (dry, whole-coal) and presented with available sample identification information, are sorted alphabetically by country name. About 70 percent of the samples also have data from the commercial laboratory, which are presented on an as-received analytical basis. The USGS initiated a laboratory review of quality assurance in 2008, covering quality control and methodology used in inorganic chemical analyses of coal, coal power plant ash, water, and sediment samples. This quality control review found that data generated by the USGS Inorganic Geochemistry Laboratory from 1996 through 2006 were characterized by quality practices that did not meet USGS requirements commonly in use at the time. The most serious shortcomings were (1) the adjustment of raw sample data to standards when the instrument values for those standards exceeded acceptable limits or (2) the insufficient use of multiple standards to provide adequate quality assurance. In general, adjustment of raw data to account for instrument

  6. Optical characterization of OLED emitter properties by radiation pattern analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flaemmich, Michael

    2011-09-08

    Researches in both, academia and industry are investigating optical loss channels in OLED layered systems by means of optical simulation tools in order to derive promising concepts for a further enhancement of the overall device performance. Besides other factors, the prospects of success of such optimization strategies rely severely on the credibility of the optical input data. The present thesis provides a guideline to measure the active optical properties of OLED emitter materials in situ by radiation pattern analyses. Reliable and widely applicable methods are introduced to determine the internal electroluminescence spectrum, the profile of the emission zone, the dipole emitter orientation, and the internal luminescence quantum efficiency of emissive materials from the optical far field emission of OLEDs in electrical operation. The proposed characterization procedures are applied to sets of OLEDs containing both, fluorescent polymeric materials as well as phosphorescent small-molecular emitters, respectively. On the one hand, quite expected results are obtained. On the other hand, several novel and truly surprising results are found. Most importantly, this thesis contains the first report of a non-isotropic, mainly parallel emitter orientation in a phosphorescent small-molecular guest-host system (Ir(MDQ)2(acac) in a-NPD). Due to the latter result, emitter orientation based optimization of phosphorescent OLEDs seems to be within reach. Since parallel dipoles emit preferably into air, the utilization of smart emissive materials with advantageous molecular orientation is capable to boost the efficiency of phosphorescent OLEDs by 50%. Materials design, the influence of the matrix material and the substrate, as well as film deposition conditions are just a few parameters that need to be studied further in order to exploit the huge potential of the dipole emitter orientation in phosphorescent OLEDs.

  7. A cost-effective fulfilment of Denmark's reduction commitments. Documentation of projection and analyses of the energy sector; En omkostningseffektiv opfyldelse af Danmarks reduktionsforpligtelse - dokumentation af fremskrivning og analyser pae energiomraedet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-02-01

    This documentation report describes the projections and analyses that formed the basis of an interdepartmental report 'En omkostningseffektiv klimastrategi' prepared by the Danish Ministry of Finance, the Danish Ministry of the Environment, the Danish Ministry of Economics and Business Affairs and the Danish Ministry of Taxation. The report contains: Projections of fuel prices, emissions and estimations of additional environmental impacts; Documentation for projections of future greenhouse gas emissions in the energy field; Documentation of the analyses of undertakings in the energy field. (ba)

  8. Multivector field formulation of Hamiltonian field theories: equations and symmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Echeverria-Enriquez, A.; Munoz-Lecanda, M.C.; Roman-Roy, N. [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada y Telematica, Edificio C-3, Campus Norte UPC, Barcelona (Spain)

    1999-12-03

    We state the intrinsic form of the Hamiltonian equations of first-order classical field theories in three equivalent geometrical ways: using multivector fields, jet fields and connections. Thus, these equations are given in a form similar to that in which the Hamiltonian equations of mechanics are usually given. Then, using multivector fields, we study several aspects of these equations, such as the existence and non-uniqueness of solutions, and the integrability problem. In particular, these problems are analysed for the case of Hamiltonian systems defined in a submanifold of the multimomentum bundle. Furthermore, the existence of first integrals of these Hamiltonian equations is considered, and the relation between Cartan-Noether symmetries and general symmetries of the system is discussed. Noether's theorem is also stated in this context, both the 'classical' version and its generalization to include higher-order Cartan-Noether symmetries. Finally, the equivalence between the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalisms is also discussed. (author)

  9. Collective Experimentation: Lessons from the Field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Misiko, M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to document smallholder experiences during a participatory experimental initiative and draw useful lessons for field practitioners. The main methods used to collect data were participant observation, in-depth interviews among 40 farmers, and analyses of notes taken durin

  10. Highly educated but in the wrong field?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimer, David; Steinmetz, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    and non-linear decomposition analyses generally confirm our expectation that the field of study explains a sizable portion of the gender gap in unemployment and low-status jobs in both countries. However, the level of tertiary degree earned explains only part of the female disadvantage behind holding...

  11. Carbon Nanotube Field Emitters

    OpenAIRE

    Zhbanov, Alexander; Pogorelov, Evgeny; Chang, Yia-Chung

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter we theoretically investigate the field emission from carbon nanotube field emitters in diode configuration between a flat anode and cathode. Exact analytical formulas of the electrical field, field enhancement factor, ponderomotive force, and field emission current are found. Applied voltage, height of the needle, radius of curvature on its top, and the work function are the parameters at our disposal. The field enhancement factor, total force and emission current, as well as ...

  12. Quantum Electrodynamics in a Uniform Magnetic Field

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, J

    2005-01-01

    A systematic formalism for quantum electrodynamics in a classical uniform magnetic field is discussed. The first order radiative correction to the ground state energy of an electron is calculated. This then leads to the anomalous magnetic moment of an electron without divergent integrals. Thorough analyses of this problem are given for the weak magnetic field limit. A new expression for the radiative correction to the ground state energy is obtained. This contains only one integral with an additional summation with respect to each Landau level. The importance of this formalism is also addressed in order to deal with quantum electrodynamics in an intense external field.

  13. Stability of a NDIR analyser for CO2 at atmospheric concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sega, Michela; Amico Di Meane, Elena; Plassa, Margherita

    2002-09-01

    Carbon dioxide monitoring is significant in the environmental field since this gas plays an important role in the greenhouse effect. In order to determine CO2 concentration and to develop simulation models, it is necessary to carry out measurements which are accurate and comparable in time and space, i.e. SI-traceable. Non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) analysers are employed for CO2 measurements, as they are precise and stable. In order to achieve traceability, such instruments have to be characterized and calibrated. At the Istituto di Metrologia "G. Colonnetti"--CNR, a procedure for calibrating NDIR analysers for CO2 at atmospheric level was developed, which enables to calculate a correction for the analyser output. In addition, a complete uncertainty analysis was carried out and a correct traceability chain was established. The goal of the present work is the study of the stability of a NDIR analyser by repeating calibrations during three years and comparing the correction curves obtained to identify a proper re-calibration interval for such analysers. The investigated instrument has good repeatability and reproducibility, hence satisfactory stability during time, as shown by the short-term and long-term compatibility of calibration curves.

  14. Magnetic Field Calculator

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Magnetic Field Calculator will calculate the total magnetic field, including components (declination, inclination, horizontal intensity, northerly intensity,...

  15. SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS FOR SALTSTONE DISPOSAL UNIT COLUMN DEGRADATION ANALYSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, G.

    2014-10-28

    PORFLOW related analyses supporting a Sensitivity Analysis for Saltstone Disposal Unit (SDU) column degradation were performed. Previous analyses, Flach and Taylor 2014, used a model in which the SDU columns degraded in a piecewise manner from the top and bottom simultaneously. The current analyses employs a model in which all pieces of the column degrade at the same time. Information was extracted from the analyses which may be useful in determining the distribution of Tc-99 in the various SDUs throughout time and in determining flow balances for the SDUs.

  16. Kink manifolds in (1+1)-dimensional scalar field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso Izquierdo, A.; Gonzalez Leon, M.A. [Departamento de Estadistica y Matematica Aplicadas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Salamanca, Salamanca (Spain); Mateos Guilarte, J. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Salamanca, Salamanca (Spain)

    1998-01-09

    The general structure of kink manifolds in (1+1)-dimensional complex scalar field theory is described by analysing three special models. New solitary waves are reported. Kink energy sum rules arise between different types of solitary waves. (author)

  17. Presidential Rhetoric: Definition of a Field of Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windt, Theodore Otto, Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Surveys literature published since 1960, dividing it into four categories of critical analyses. Evaluates current knowledge of presidential rhetoric and suggests directions for future research in this field of study. (PD)

  18. Parametric excitation of electromagnetic fields by two pump waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodin, G.; Lundberg, J.; Stenflo, L. (Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Plasma Physics)

    1991-01-01

    A collisionless plasma in the presence of two monochromatic electric fields is considered. By means of a kinetic analysis, a dispersion relation that governs the excitation of transverse electromagnetic fluctuations is derived and analysed. (orig.).

  19. Field redefinition invariance in quantum field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Apfeldorf, K M; Apfeldorf, Karyn M; Ordonez, Carlos

    1994-01-01

    We investigate the consequences of field redefinition invariance in quantum field theory by carefully performing nonlinear transformations in the path integral. We first present a ``paradox'' whereby a 1+1 freemassless scalar theory on a Minkowskian cylinder is reduced to an effectively quantum mechanical theory. We perform field redefinitions both before and after reduction to suggest that one should not ignore operator ordering issues in quantum field theory. We next employ a discretized version of the path integral for a free massless scalar quantum field in d dimensions to show that beyond the usual jacobian term, an infinite series of divergent ``extra'' terms arises in the action whenever a nonlinear field redefinition is made. The explicit forms for the first couple of these terms are derived. We evaluate Feynman diagrams to illustrate the importance of retaining the extra terms, and conjecture that these extra terms are the exact counterterms necessary to render physical quantities invariant under fie...

  20. Magnetic field decay in normal radio pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Igoshev, A P

    2015-01-01

    We analyse the origin of the magnetic field decay in normal radio pulsars found by us in a recent study. This decay has a typical time scale $\\sim 4 \\times 10^5$~yrs, and operates in the range $\\sim 10^5$~--~few$\\times 10^5$~yrs. We demonstrate that this field evolution may be either due to the Ohmic decay related to the scattering from phonons, or due to the Hall cascade which reaches the Hall attractor. According to our analysis the first possibility seems to be more reliable. So, we attribute the discovered field decay mainly to the Ohmic decay on phonons which is saturated at the age few$\\times 10^5$~yrs, when a NS cools down to the critical temperature below which the phonon scattering does not contribute much to the resistivity of the crust. Some role of the Hall effect and attractor is not excluded, and will be analysed in our further studies.