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Sample records for humphead wrasse cheilinus

  1. Ciguatera caused by consumption of humphead wrasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Thomas Y K

    2013-12-15

    Humphead wrasse (Cheilinus undulatus) is an apex predator from coral reefs of the Indo-Pacific region. A food surveillance project using a validated mouse bioassay revealed the presence of ciguatoxins in significantly greater amounts in its flesh than in groupers and other coral reef fishes commonly available in Hong Kong wholesale market. Humphead wrasse has long been known to cause ciguatera, but there was a lack of clinical reports. A 45-year-old woman developed ciguatera after eating humphead wrasse. She required ICU care and infusions of intravenous fluids and dopamine for management of severe hypotension. All 5 published case series are also reviewed to characterise the types, severity and chronicity of ciguatera symptoms after its consumption. In addition to the gastrointestinal, neurological and other features that were typical of ciguatera, some subjects developed sinus bradycardia, hypotension, shock, neuropsychiatric features (e.g. mental exhaustion, depression, insomnia and memory loss), other central nervous system symptoms (e.g. coma, convulsions and ataxia) and myocardial ischaemia. Other subjects still experienced residual symptoms 6 months later; these were mainly neurological or neuropsychiatric complaints and skin pruritus. To prevent ciguatera, the public should avoid eating humphead wrasse and other large coral reef fishes. They should realise that consumption of the high-risk fish may result in more severe and chronic illness, including life-threatening complications and neuropsychiatric features.

  2. Seagrass beds and mangroves as potential nurseries for the threatened Indo-Pacific Humphead wrasse, Cheilinus undulatus and Caribbean Rainbow parrotfish, Scarus guacamaia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorenbosch, M.; Grol, M.G.G.; Nagelkerken, I.; Velde, G. van der

    2006-01-01

    The importance of seagrass beds and mangroves as a juvenile habitat as opposed to other shallow water habitat types is investigated using a single sampling method on four islands in the western Indian Ocean for Cheilinus undulatus, and on one island in the southern Caribbean Sea for Scarus guacamaia

  3. Seagrass beds and mangroves as potential nurseries for the threatened Indo-Pacific Humphead wrasse, Cheilinus undulatus and Caribbean Rainbow parrotfish, Scarus guacamaia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorenbosch, M.; Grol, M.G.G.; Nagelkerken, I.; Velde, G. van der

    2006-01-01

    The importance of seagrass beds and mangroves as a juvenile habitat as opposed to other shallow water habitat types is investigated using a single sampling method on four islands in the western Indian Ocean for Cheilinus undulatus, and on one island in the southern Caribbean Sea for Scarus

  4. MORPHOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT OF Napoleon WRASSE, Cheilinus undulatus LARVAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhon Harianto Hutapea

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available To improve the survival rate, napoleon wrasse larval rearing trial was conducted at Research Institute for Mariculture, Gondol-Bali in 2003. The trial aims at assessing initial feed for larvae, food habit, and morphological development from early larval stage to juvenile. The results showed that chicken egg yolk could be applied as initial feed and followed by rotifer, Artemia and mysid (Mesophodopsis sp.. Three swimming behavior of larvae were observed, drifting, free swimming and hiding on the substrate as larvae develop. Digestive system development, simple tube like, transition stage and coiled where digestive system could be distinguished between stomach, intestine and rectum.

  5. Umbrella species in marine systems: using the endangered humphead wrasse to conserve coral reefs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weng, Kevin C.; Pedersen, Martin Wæver; Del Raye, Gen A.

    2015-01-01

    Extinction risk is closely tied to body size, home range, and species distribution. Quantifying home range is critical for conservation, and can enable the use of concepts such as ‘umbrella species’, whose conservation protects other species due to shared habitat. To determine the value...... of the humphead wrasse as an umbrella species for coral reef conservation, we conducted a multi-year study of humphead wrasse home range at Palmyra Atoll, Central Tropical Pacific, tagging juvenile, female, and male individuals with acoustic transmitters. We quantified home range using 2 metrics, length and area.......4 to 14 km and changed with ontogeny. Females had larger home ranges than other reef fishes studied to date (n = 68), indicating value as an umbrella species for coral reefs. We compared the home range of the species to the size distribution of tropical marine protected areas (MPAs), and used a model...

  6. STATUS PEMANFAATAN IKAN NAPOLEON (Cheilinus undulatus Rüppel, 1835 DI SULAWESI SELATAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Oktaviani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sulawesi Selatan merupakan salah satu daerah pemasok ikan napoleon (Cheilinus undulates Rüppel, 1835; Labridae hidup bagi pasar nasional maupun internasional. Akan tetapi informasi mengenai status pemanfaatan ikan napoleon dengan segala implementasi peraturannya dalam skala lokal masih sedikit. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui status pemanfaatan ikan napoleon dengan pendekatan penilaian Non Detrimental Finding (NDF di Sulawesi Selatan. Penelitian didasarkan pada data dan informasi dari penampung serta instansi terkait sebagai bentuk pemanfaatan yang dihubungkan dengan keberlanjutan populasi spesies tersebut di alam. Metode yang digunakan berupa pengamatan langsung, wawancara, dan studi literatur yang berlokasi di Kabupaten Sinjai, Kabupaten Bone, dan Kota Makassar. Pengumpulan data dari wawancara dan pengamatan lapangan dilakukan pada Maret dan November 2014, sedangkan studi literatur dilakukan selama periode penelitian antara Januari – Desember 2014. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penilaian NDF terhadap status pemanfaatan ikan napoleon di Sulawesi Selatan mengindikasikan adanya gangguan terhadap populasi ikan tersebut di alam (nilai: 3,81 ≈ 4. Opsi pengelolaan yang dapat dilakukan adalah melakukan moratorium selama lima tahun yang disertai implementasi peraturan yang lebih ketat dan meningkatkan penyuluhan tentang dampak negatif penangkapan ikan dengan menggunakan racun dan bom.   South Sulawesi is one of the regional sources of humphead wrasse (Cheilinus undulates Rüppel, 1835; Labridae for national and international trades of life reef fishes. However, few information was available regarding the implementation of the rules for local utilization of humphead wrasse. The current study was conducted to fill a gap, especially in relation to the sustainability of the population and trade of the species. The research was aimed to identify the level of local utilization of humphead wrasse based on Non Detrimental Finding (NDF

  7. 78 FR 77089 - Pacific Island Fisheries; 2014 Annual Catch Limits and Accountability Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-20

    ... muricatum--bumphead 235 parrotfish. Cheilinus undulatus--Humphead 1,743 (Napoleon) wrasse. Carcharhinidae... Bolbometopon muricatum--bumphead * 797 parrotfish. Cheilinus undulatus--Humphead 1,960 (Napoleon) wrasse... parrotfish. Cheilinus undulatus--Humphead 2,009 (Napoleon) wrasse. Carcharhinidae--Reef Sharks............

  8. 78 FR 15885 - Western Pacific Fisheries; 2013 Annual Catch Limits and Accountability Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ... undulatus-- 1,743 lb (791 kg). Humphead (Napoleon) wrasse. Carcharhinidae--Reef 1,309 lb (594 kg). Sharks.... combined). Cheilinus undulatus-- 1,960 lb (889 kg). Humphead (Napoleon) wrasse. Carcharhinidae--Reef 6,942... parrotfish. combined). Cheilinus undulatus-- 2,009 lb (911 kg). Humphead (Napoleon) wrasse....

  9. 77 FR 66 - Western Pacific Fisheries; 2012 Annual Catch Limits and Accountability Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-03

    ...-- 1,743 lb (791 Humphead (Napoleon) kg). wrasse. Carcharhinidae--Reef 1,309 lb (594 Sharks. kg). All...--bumphead (CNMI and Guam parrotfish. combined). Cheilinus undulatus-- 1,960 lb (889 Humphead (Napoleon) kg... (911 Humphead (Napoleon) kg). wrasse. Carcharhinidae--Reef 5,600 lb (2,540 Sharks. kg). All...

  10. 77 FR 6019 - Western Pacific Fisheries; 2012 Annual Catch Limits and Accountability Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-07

    ... parrotfish. Cheilinus undulatus-- 1,743 lb (791 kg). Humphead (Napoleon) wrasse. Carcharhinidae--Reef 1,309... (Napoleon) wrasse. Carcharhinidae--Reef 6,942 lb (3,149 kg). Sharks. All Other CREMUS 83,214 lb (37,745 kg... kg). Humphead (Napoleon) wrasse. Carcharhinidae--Reef 5,600 lb (2,540 kg). Sharks. All Other CREMUS...

  11. KEPADATAN DAN STATUS PEMANFAATAN IKAN NAPOLEON (Cheilinus undulatus DI PERAIRAN SINJAI, SULAWESI SELATAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amran Ronny Syam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ikan napoleon (Cheilinus undulatus adalah jenis ikan karang yang bernilai jual sangat tinggi. Hal ini menyebabkan penangkapan jenis ikan karang yang semakin langka ini menjadi cukup intensif. Saat ini populasi ikan napoleon cenderung menurun dan akan semakin sedikit jika dilakukan penangkapan tanpa batas, meskipun jenis ikan ini telah dilindungi (Appendix II CITES dan KEPMEN No.37/KEPMEN-KP/2013. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan tujuan untuk menganalisis kepadatan populasi ikan napoleon dan status pemanfaatannya. Untuk menghitung kepadatan ikan digunakan metode sensus visual (UVC. Untuk mengetahui status pemanfaatan dilakukan sebaran frekuensi panjang ikan, yang dilanjutkan dengan penghitungan laju eksploitasi. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa kepadatan ikan napoleon di sekitar perairan Sinjai (Sulawesi Selatan adalah rendah (1,8 individu/ha. Dari penghitungan laju eksploitasi, diperoleh gambaran bahwa populasi ikan napoleon di perairan sekitar Sinjai - Sulawesi Selatan telah mengalami lebih tangkap. Dari hasil ini disarankan agar perdagangan ikan napoleon masih tetap diperbolehkan dengan syarat mengikuti ketentuan ukuran dan kuota ekspor. Estimasi kuota ekspor ikan napoleon harus berdasarkan data biologi dan dinamika populasi ikan tersebut agar reproduksi alamiah ikan napoleon dapat berlangsung seimbang dengan tingkat eksploitasinya. Napoleon wrasse (Cheilinus undulatus is a group of reef fish that is  high economic value. This led to the capture of reef fish species that is becoming increasingly scarce intensive enough. Currently napoleon fish populations tend to decline and will be less if the arrest was without limit, although this fish species has been protected (Appendix II of CITES and KEPMEN 37/KEPMEN-KP/2013. This study was conducted to analyze the population density of napoleon wrasse and utilization status. The density of fish used snorkeling visual census method (UVC. To find out the status of the utilization used the frequency

  12. 78 FR 13614 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Humphead Wrasse as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ..., diversity, current and historical range, habitat integrity or fragmentation), and the potential contribution... landings have been reported from some locations, such as Borneo and Malaysia, over relatively short time... the species' range, including CNMI, Philippines, Australia, Malaysia and Fiji, indicate widely shared...

  13. Cleaner wrasse influence habitat selection of young damselfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, D.; Cheney, K. L.; Werminghausen, J.; McClure, E. C.; Meekan, M. G.; McCormick, M. I.; Cribb, T. H.; Grutter, A. S.

    2016-06-01

    The presence of bluestreak cleaner wrasse, Labroides dimidiatus, on coral reefs increases total abundance and biodiversity of reef fishes. The mechanism(s) that cause such shifts in population structure are unclear, but it is possible that young fish preferentially settle into microhabitats where cleaner wrasse are present. As a first step to investigate this possibility, we conducted aquarium experiments to examine whether settlement-stage and young juveniles of ambon damselfish, Pomacentrus amboinensis, selected a microhabitat near a cleaner wrasse (adult or juvenile). Both settlement-stage (0 d post-settlement) and juvenile (~5 weeks post-settlement) fish spent a greater proportion of time in a microhabitat adjacent to L. dimidiatus than in one next to a control fish (a non-cleaner wrasse, Halichoeres melanurus) or one where no fish was present. This suggests that cleaner wrasse may serve as a positive cue during microhabitat selection. We also conducted focal observations of cleaner wrasse and counts of nearby damselfishes (1 m radius) to examine whether newly settled fish obtained direct benefits, in the form of cleaning services, from being near a cleaner wrasse. Although abundant, newly settled recruits (reinforces the potentially important role of mutualism during the processes of settlement and recruitment of young reef fishes.

  14. Molecular cloning and characterization of lymphocyte cell kinase from humphead snapper (Lutjanus sanguineus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y; Cai, J; Wang, B; Tang, J-F; Jian, J-C; Wu, Z-H; Gan, Z; Lu, Y-S

    2016-07-01

    Lymphocyte cell kinase (LCK) belongs to the Src family of tyrosine kinases, which involves in the proliferation control of lymphocytes. In this study, we cloned the LCK gene of humphead snapper (Lutjanus sanguineus) (designed as LsLCK). Sequence analysis showed that the full-length cDNA of LsLCK was 2279 bp, contained a 1506-bp open reading frame (ORF), encoding a polypeptide of 501 amino acids. The deduced amino acid possessed the typical structural features of known LCK proteins, including four Src homology (SH) domains arranged as the SH1 domain followed by a regulatory C-terminal tail (COOH-domain), SH2 and SH3 adapter domains and SH4 domain which required for membrane attachment and CD4/CD8 binding. Fluorescent quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that LsLCK transcripts were expressed mainly in thymus, spleen and head kidney in healthy fish. Moreover, the mRNA expressions in these tissues were significantly up-regulated after challenge with Vibrio harveyi. The results of immunohistochemistry showed that LsLCK protein localized distinctly in cytoplasm of cell in thymus, spleen and head kidney. Taken together, these findings indicated that LsLCK may play an important role in the immune response of humphead snapper against bacterial infection.

  15. Sexual development and reproductive demography of the green humphead parrotfish ( Bolbometopon muricatum) in the Solomon Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, R. J.; Adams, S.; Choat, J. H.

    2008-03-01

    An investigation of the reproductive biology of the green humphead parrotfish ( Bolbometopon muricatum) from three areas in the Western Province of the Solomon Islands revealed that B. muricatum exhibits several features that differ from the pattern of reproductive development observed in most parrotfishes. Unlike most parrotfishes, histological evidence suggests that the sexual pattern of B. muricatum is essentially gonochoristic with high incidences of anatomical but non-functional hermaphroditism. B. muricatum also differs from other parrotfishes in that all males pass through an immature female (or bisexual) phase as demonstrated by all adult testis retaining the ex-ovarian lumen and peripheral sperm sinuses in the gonad wall. However, a protogynous diandric reproductive strategy cannot be excluded given that sampling may have missed transitional individuals. Marked variation in the demography of male B. muricatum between the three locations examined is considered to reflect variation in historical fishing effort.

  16. Characterization and expression analysis of B Cell receptor accessory molecule CD79 gene in humphead snapper ( Lutjanus sanguineus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yucong; Yan, Xiuying; Cai, Shuanghu; Cai, Jia; Jian, Jichang; Lu, Yishan; Tang, Jufen; Wu, Zaohe

    2016-04-01

    CD79, a key component of the B cell antigen receptor complex, is composed of CD79α(Igα) and CD79β(Igβ) encoded by mb-1 and B29 respectively, and plays an important role in B cell signaling. In this study, we isolated and characterized mb-1 and B29 from humphead snapper ( Lutjanus sanguineus). Their tissue distribution and expression profiles after stimulations in vitro and in vivo were also investigated. The humphead snapper mb-1 and B29 contain open reading frames of 684 bp and 606 bp, encoding 227 amino acids and 201 amino acids, respectively. Both CD79α and CD79β possess signal peptide, extracellular Ig domain, transmembrane region and immunoreceptor tyrosine kinase activation motif (ITAM). Mb-1 is highly expressed in lymphoid organs (thymus, posterior kidney and spleen) and mucosal-associated lymphoid tissues (gill and intestine), while B29 is mainly detected in posterior kidney, spleen, gill and skin. Furthermore, transcription of mb-1 and B29 in head kidney leucocytes was up-regulated following lipopolysaccharide (LPS), pokeweed mitogen (PWM), and polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (PolyI:C) stimulation, respectively, and their expression level in anterior kidney and spleen was also increased after challenged with formalin-inactived Vibrio harveyi. These results indicated that humphead snapper CD79 molecule might play an important role in immune response to pathogen infection.

  17. A holistic approach to development of diets for Ballan wrasse (Labrus berggylta) – a new species in aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    Kristin Hamre; Andreas Nordgreen; Espen Grøtan; Olav Breck

    2013-01-01

    Wild wrasses are used for delousing of farmed salmon but increasing demands have prompted the salmon industry to develop cultures of Ballan wrasse. One of the bottlenecks has been nutrition and feed intake in the juvenile phase, while broodstock nutrition is considered critical for production of viable offspring. The present study was aimed at developing functioning ongrowing and broodstock diets for Ballan wrasse. In juveniles the best lengthwise growth was identified at 65% dietary protein,...

  18. Limited capacity for developmental thermal acclimation in three tropical wrasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motson, K.; Donelson, J. M.

    2017-06-01

    For effective conservation and management of marine systems, it is essential that we understand the biological impacts of and capacity for acclimation to increased ocean temperatures. This study investigated for the first time the effects of developing in projected warmer ocean conditions in the tropical wrasse species: Halichoeres melanurus, Halichoeres miniatus and Thalassoma amblycephalum. New recruits were reared for 11 weeks in control (29 °C) and +2 °C (31 °C) temperature treatments, consistent with predicted increases in sea surface temperature by 2100. A broad range of key attributes and performance parameters was tested, including aerobic metabolism, swimming ability, burst escape performance and physical condition. Response latency of burst performance was the only performance parameter in which evidence of beneficial thermal developmental acclimation was found, observed only in H. melanurus. Generally, development in the +2 °C treatment came at a significant cost to all species, resulting in reduced growth and physical condition, as well as metabolic and swimming performance relative to controls. Development in +2 °C conditions exacerbated the effects of warming on aerobic metabolism and swimming ability, compared to short-term warming effects. Burst escape performance parameters were only mildly affected by development at +2 °C, with non-locomotor performance (response latency) showing greater thermal sensitivity than locomotor performance parameters. These results indicate that the effects of future climate change on tropical wrasses would be underestimated with short-term testing. This study highlights the importance of holistic, longer-term developmental experimental approaches, with warming found to yield significant, species-specific responses in all parameters tested.

  19. Circadian rhythms of ocular melatonin in the wrasse Halichoeres tenuispinnis, a labrid teleost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iigo, Masayuki; Ikeda, Emi; Sato, Masaru; Kawasaki, Shigekatsu; Noguchi, Fumitaka; Nishi, Genjirou

    2006-01-01

    Using in vivo and in vitro methods we studied the regulation of ocular melatonin rhythms in the wrasse Halichoeres tenuispinnis, by either light or the circadian clock. Rhythmic changes in ocular melatonin levels under light-dark (LD) cycles were persistent under constant darkness (DD), and had a circadian periodicity of approximately 24h. However, ocular melatonin levels remained low under constant light conditions. When wrasse were exposed to a single 6-h light pulse at three different circadian phases under DD, phase-dependent phase shifts in the circadian rhythms of ocular melatonin were observed. When eyecups were prepared during mid-light periods or at the onset of darkness, and incubated in vitro in either light or dark periods, both time and light conditions affected melatonin release. These results indicate that the melatonin rhythms in the wrasse eye are driven by an ocular circadian clock that is entrained to LD cycles via local photoreceptors.

  20. Susceptibility of goldsinny wrasse, Ctenolabrus rupestris L. (Labridae), to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) genotype III: Experimental challenge and pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matejusova, I; Noguera, P A; Hall, M; McBeath, A J A; Urquhart, K; Simons, J; Fordyce, M J; Lester, K; Ho, Y-M; Murray, W; Bruno, D W

    2016-04-15

    Cleaner fish, such as wrasse, are being increasingly used to combat the sea lice infestation of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) in many European countries. To determine susceptibility of the goldsinny wrasse (Ctenolabrus rupestris L.) and pathogenesis of the viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) genotype III isolate 12-654, previously associated with VHSV infection in the Shetland Islands in 2012, fish were experimentally challenged by intraperitoneal injection (IP), bath immersion and cohabitation routes. Cumulative proportion of moribund wrasse reached 17% following the virus immersion challenge while by the IP-route moribunds exceeded 50% within 14days post-challenge. Typical signs of VHS as reported in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), were not observed in moribund goldsinny wrasse. The most pronounced histopathological changes, consistent regardless of the route of infection, were observed within the heart and included atrium myofibril degeneration, focal infiltration and multifocal necrosis, with prominent swelling of the endocardium and occasional detachment. Pathological changes in the atrium were associated with presence of the viral antigen as confirmed by a positive immunohistochemical staining. Virus clearance and heart tissue recovery were noted although further experiments are required to confirm these observations. The results of a cohabitation experiment confirmed that goldsinny wrasse shed viable virus and therefore represent a risk of virus transmission to other VHSV susceptible species. Similarities between the pathology in goldsinny wrasse induced through the controlled experimental challenges and that of wrasse spp. from an infection occurrence in Shetland are discussed.

  1. Equivalent cleaning in a juvenile facultative and obligate cleaning wrasse: an insight into the evolution of cleaning in labrids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grutter, Alexandra S.; Feeney, William E.

    2016-09-01

    Species that exhibit ontogenetic variation in interspecific cleaning behaviours may offer insights into how interspecific cooperation evolves. We investigated the foraging ecology of the yellowtail tubelip wrasse ( Diproctacanthus xanthurus), a facultative cleaner as a juvenile and corallivore as an adult, and compared its juvenile ecology with that of juvenile blue-streak cleaner wrasse ( Labroides dimidiatus), a closely related and sympatric obligate cleaner. While juveniles of the two species differed in the amount of time they inspected clients, the number of client individuals and species that were cleaned and the proportion that posed did not differ, nor did the number of ectoparasitic isopods in their guts. In contrast, adult yellowtail tubelip wrasse had fewer isopods and more coral mucus in their guts than juveniles. These data support a hypothesized series of events in which juvenile cleaning acts as an evolutionary precursor to obligate cleaning and suggest that the yellowtail tubelip wrasse may present an intermediate between corallivory and cleaning.

  2. Identification of seventeen microsatellite loci for conservation genetic studies of the endemic wrasse Coris bulbifrons

    KAUST Repository

    Van Der Meer, Martin H.

    2012-11-08

    Coral reefs around the world are in decline, in part due to various anthropogenic factors, including fishing pressure. Coris bulbifrons is a large wrasse endemic to only four oceanic locations off Australia\\'s east coast: Middleton Reef, Elizabeth Reef, Lord Howe Island and Norfolk Island. The species is listed as vulnerable by the IUCN due to the potential threat of overfishing. Although these remote locations, some within Marine protected Areas, experience limited fishing pressure, populations may quickly decline with minimal fishing effort as seen in the overfishing of other large wrasses. We developed primers for 17 microsatellite loci to examine gene flow, population genetic structure, and genetic diversity within and among these four locations. Observed heterozygosities ranged 0. 126-0. 752 in 37 individuals from Lord Howe Island indicating that these loci will be useful in C. bulbifrons population genetic studies. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  3. Molecular cloning and characterization of high mobility group box1 (Ls-HMGB1) from humphead snapper, Lutjanus sanguineus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jia; Xia, Hongli; Huang, Yucong; Lu, Yishan; Wu, Zaohe; Jian, Jichang

    2014-10-01

    High mobility group box1 (HMGB1) is a kind of chromatin-associated nonhistone protein important for nucleosome formation, transcriptional regulation and inflammation. However, the reports about HMGB1 of marine fish were still limited. Here, we cloned and characterized a HMGB1 gene from humphead snapper, Lutjanus sanguineus (Ls-HMGB1). The Ls-HMGB1 cDNA composed of 1199 bp with a 70 bp of 5'-UTR, 630 bp open reading frame (ORF) and 499 bp 3'-UTR, encoded a polypeptide of 210 amino acids (GenBank Accession No: KJ783442). Sequence alignment of Ls-HMGB1 showed the highest similarity of 91% with Sciaenops ocellatus HMGB1 protein. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis revealed that Ls-HMGB1 had relatively high expression level in skin, kidney and heart. After Vibrio harveyi and poly I:C stimulation, transcripts of Ls-HMGB1 were significantly increased and reached to peak at 18 h p.i. The L. sanguineus interleukin-6 (Ls-IL6) transcription in HK leukocytes was significantly induced by recombinant LsHMGB1 (rLsHMGB1). These results indicated that Ls-HMGB1 may play an important role in immune response of L. sanguineus during pathogen challenge.

  4. Identification and characterization of tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR)-associated factor 3 from humphead snapper, Lutjanus sanguineus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jia; Xia, Hongli; Huang, Yucong; Tang, Jufen; Jian, Jichang; Wu, Zaohe; Lu, Yishan

    2015-10-01

    Tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR)-associated factor 3(TRAF3) is a key regulator in TNFR and Toll-like receptor (TLRs)/RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) signal pathway. Here, a TRAF3 gene (Ls-TRAF3, GenBank Accession No: KJ789921) is cloned from humphead snapper (Lutjanus sanguineus). The Ls-TRAF3 cDNA contains an open reading frame of 1788 bp, which encodes a polypeptide of 595 amino acids. The deduced amino acid of Ls-TRAF3 possesses a RING finger, two TRAF-type zinc fingers, a coiled-coil and a MATH domain. Ls-TRAF3 protein shares high identities with other known TRAF3 proteins. In healthy fish, Ls-TRAF3 transcripts were broadly expressed in all examined tissues with highest expression levels in spleen, liver and head kidney. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis revealed that Ls-TRAF3 could be induced by bacteria or viral PAMP poly I:C stimulation in vivo. Here, we also showed Ls-TRAF3 that, positively regulated IRF3 and Mx upon poly I:C stimuli, whereas prevented production of proinflammatory cytokine IL-6 after LPS injection. Moreover, over-expression of wide type (WT) Ls-TRAF3 and truncated forms, including ΔZinc finger 1, ΔZinc finger 2 and Δcoiled-coil suppressed NF-κB activity significantly, whereas the inhibitory effect of NF-κB was partially impaired when the RING finger or MATH domain deletion, suggesting the latter was more important for downstream signal transduction. Taken together, these results implicated that Ls-TRAF3 might play regulatory roles in immune response to pathogen invasion.

  5. Patterns of Coral-Reef Finfish Species Disappearances Inferred from Fishers' Knowledge in Global Epicentre of Marine Shorefish Diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita N Lavides

    Full Text Available In the Philippines, very high fishing pressure coincides with the globally greatest number of shorefish species, yet no long-term fisheries data are available to explore species-level changes that may have occurred widely in the most species rich and vulnerable marine ecosystem, namely coral reefs. Through 2655 face-to-face interviews conducted between August 2012 and July 2014, we used fishers' recall of past catch rates of reef-associated finfish to infer species disappearances from catches in five marine key biodiversity areas (Lanuza Bay, Danajon Bank, Verde Island Passage, Polillo Islands and Honda Bay. We modeled temporal trends in perceived catch per unit effort (CPUE based on fishers' reports of typical good days' catches using Generalized Linear Mixed Modelling. Fifty-nine different finfish disappeared from catches between the 1950s and 2014; 42 fish were identified to species level, two to genus, seven to family and eight to local name only. Five species occurring at all sites with the greatest number of fishers reporting zero catches were the green bumphead parrotfish (Bolbometopon muricatum, humphead wrasse (Cheilinus undulatus, African pompano (Alectis ciliaris, giant grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus and mangrove red snapper (Lutjanus argentimaculatus. Between the 1950s and 2014, the mean perceived CPUE of bumphead parrotfish declined by 88%, that of humphead wrasse by 82%, African pompano by 66%, giant grouper by 74% and mangrove red snapper by 64%. These declines were mainly associated with excess and uncontrolled fishing, fish life-history traits like maximum body size and socio-economic factors like access to market infrastructure and services, and overpopulation. The fishers' knowledge is indicative of extirpations where evidence for these losses was otherwise lacking. Our models provide information as basis for area-based conservation and regional resource management particularly for the more vulnerable, once common, large

  6. Reputation management promotes strategic adjustment of service quality in cleaner wrasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binning, Sandra A; Rey, Olivia; Wismer, Sharon; Triki, Zegni; Glauser, Gaétan; Soares, Marta C; Bshary, Redouan

    2017-08-21

    Adjusting one's behaviour in response to eavesdropping bystanders is considered a sophisticated social strategy, yet the underlying mechanisms are not well studied. Cleaner wrasse, Labroides dimidiatus, cooperate by eating ectoparasites off "client" fishes, or cheat (i.e. bite) and eat client mucus. Image scoring by bystander clients generally causes cleaners from socially-complex (i.e. high cleaner and client abundance; high client species richness) habitats to increase levels of cooperation. However, some individuals may periodically provide tactile stimulation to small resident clients, which attract bystanders close that are bitten, a form of tactical deception. Cortisol injection can reproduce this pattern. Here, we tested whether cleaners from socially-complex versus simple habitats respond differently to cortisol injections in terms of their cleaning interactions with clients. We found that only cleaners from the socially-complex habitat respond to cortisol injection with strategies functioning as tactical deception: i.e. increased tactile stimulation to small clients and increased cheating of large clients relative to small ones. At the socially-simple site, where reputation management is less important, cortisol-treated fish increased their overall levels of cheating, especially of small clients. Thus, strategic adjustments to cooperative behaviour and tactical deception are likely context-dependent, forming part of general reputation management abilities in cleaner wrasse.

  7. Cortisol mediates cleaner wrasse switch from cooperation to cheating and tactical deception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Marta C; Cardoso, Sónia C; Grutter, Alexandra S; Oliveira, Rui F; Bshary, Redouan

    2014-07-01

    Recent empirical research, mostly done on humans, recognizes that individuals' physiological state affects levels of cooperation. An individual's internal state may affect the payoffs of behavioural alternatives, which in turn could influence the decision to either cooperate or to defect. However, little is known about the physiology underlying condition dependent cooperation. Here, we demonstrate that shifts in cortisol levels affect levels of cooperation in wild cleaner wrasse Labroides dimidiatus. These cleaners cooperate by removing ectoparasites from visiting 'client' reef fishes but prefer to eat client mucus, which constitutes cheating. We exogenously administrated one of three different compounds to adults, that is, (a) cortisol, (b) glucocorticoid receptor antagonist mifepristone RU486 or (c) sham (saline), and observed their cleaning behaviour during the following 45min. The effects of cortisol match an earlier observational study that first described the existence of "cheating" cleaners: such cleaners provide small clients with more tactile stimulation with their pectoral and pelvic fins, a behaviour that attracts larger clients that are then bitten to obtain mucus. Blocking glucocorticoid receptors led to more tactile stimulation to large clients. As energy demands and associated cortisol concentration level shifts affect cleaner wrasse behavioural patterns, cortisol potentially offers a general mechanism for condition dependent cooperation in vertebrates.

  8. A holistic approach to development of diets for Ballan wrasse (Labrus berggylta – a new species in aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Hamre

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Wild wrasses are used for delousing of farmed salmon but increasing demands have prompted the salmon industry to develop cultures of Ballan wrasse. One of the bottlenecks has been nutrition and feed intake in the juvenile phase, while broodstock nutrition is considered critical for production of viable offspring. The present study was aimed at developing functioning ongrowing and broodstock diets for Ballan wrasse. In juveniles the best lengthwise growth was identified at 65% dietary protein, 12% lipid and 16% carbohydrate. To investigate if the requirements for the other nutrients were covered by the diets developed for the species, the nutrient composition in juveniles (whole body and broodstock (female gonad were analyzed and compared to the composition in wild fish. We found that the levels of the lipid soluble Vitamins A, K and D were lower in cultured than in wild fish, however, the requirements for these nutrients in Ballan wrasse are not known. Other candidate nutrients for more in-depth investigation are the bone minerals, zinc, taurine and fatty acids.

  9. Relative Brain and Brain Part Sizes Provide Only Limited Evidence that Machiavellian Behaviour in Cleaner Wrasse Is Cognitively Demanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chojnacka, Dominika; Isler, Karin; Barski, Jaroslaw Jerzy; Bshary, Redouan

    2015-01-01

    It is currently widely accepted that the complexity of a species' social life is a major determinant of its brain complexity, as predicted by the social brain hypothesis. However, it remains a challenge to explain what social complexity exactly is and what the best corresponding measures of brain anatomy are. Absolute and relative size of the brain and of the neocortex have often been used as a proxy to predict cognitive performance. Here, we apply the logic of the social brain hypothesis to marine cleaning mutualism involving the genus Labroides. These wrasses remove ectoparasites from 'client' reef fish. Conflict occurs as wrasse prefer client mucus over ectoparasites, where mucus feeding constitutes cheating. As a result of this conflict, cleaner wrasse show remarkable Machiavellian-like behaviour. Using own data as well as available data from the literature, we investigated whether the general brain anatomy of Labroides provides any indication that their Machiavellian behaviour is associated with a more complex brain. Neither data set provided evidence for an increased encephalisation index compared to other wrasse species. Published data on relative sizes of brain parts in 25 species of the order Perciformes suggests that only the diencephalon is relatively enlarged in Labroides dimidiatus. This part contains various nuclei of the social decision making network. In conclusion, gross brain anatomy yields little evidence for the hypothesis that strategic behaviour in cleaning selects for larger brains, while future research should focus on more detailed aspects like the sizes of specific nuclei as well as their cryoarchitectonic structure and connectivity.

  10. The effect of different live feeds and water qualities on growth, survival, ossification and skeletal anomalies of ballan wrasse (Labrus bergylta) larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Høyland, Oda Skognes

    2015-01-01

    Salmon lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) infections is one of the major problems in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) aquaculture. This has led to an increasing interest in the cultivation of ballan wrasse (Labrus bergylta), for cleaner fish purposes. The bottleneck in ballan wrasse production is the live feed period, where the main challenges include survival, growth and skeletal anomalies, factors known to be influenced by both dietary and environmental conditions. The dietary requirements for bal...

  11. Feeding ecology of the white sea bream, Diplodus sargus cadenati (Perciformes: Sparidae) and the ballan wrasse, Labrus bergylta (Perciformes: Labridae), from Faial Island – Azores

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Copyright © 2005 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved To make a first approach in the assessment of the sea urchin predators in the Azores, the diet of white seabream (Diplodus sargus) and ballan wrasse (Labrus bergylta), were studied by the analyses of their stomach contents. The white seabream is a diurnal omnivore, feeding on algae, sea-urchins, worms, gastropods and amphipods, while ballan wrasse fed mainly on echinoderms (sea-urchins), gastropods and decapods. Both species tended...

  12. On the absence of genetic differentiation between morphotypes of the ballan wrasse Labrus bergylta (Labridae)

    KAUST Repository

    Almada, F.

    2016-03-26

    The ballan wrasse, Labrus bergylta (Labridae), is a protogynous hermaphrodite fish common in the north-eastern Atlantic from Norway to Morocco. It is a commercially important resource for local fisheries and is currently being used as cleaner fish to control sea lice in salmon farms in northern Europe. Two distinct colour patterns have been recently reported in the literature: plain and spotted. These individuals follow strikingly different life history strategies raising the question of whether they represent one or two independent taxonomic units. Analyses of mitochondrial (18S, COI and control region) and nuclear (S7) markers revealed no genetic differences between these morphotypes. Alternative explanations for the origin and persistence of distinct morphotypes are discussed. © 2016, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  13. The glassy sweepers' way: seeking a versatile wrasse to be cleaned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Sazima

    Full Text Available Diurnal reef fishes compose the bulk of clients that seek cleaner fishes' services, but some nocturnal species that shelter at daytime also seek the cleaners. While doing so the nocturnal clients must leave their hiding places and thus they get exposed to potential diurnal predators. We report here on the cleaning interactions between a daytime cleaner wrasse (Thalassoma noronhanum and a night time active client (Pempheris schomburgki that usually remains sheltered at daytime. We recorded P. schomburgki leaving their shelter at daytime and heading towards T. noronhanum, whenever the cleaner swam by the shelter. Since T. noronhanum is able to tend temporary cleaning station near the safety of the shelters of its clients, P. schomburgki lessens a possible risk of predation by seeking this versatile cleaner.

  14. Variation in the Mating Systems of Wrasses (Labridae at a Spawning Aggregation Site on Guam, Mariana Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry J. Donaldson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The wrasses (family Labridae exhibit a diverse number of mating strategies and behaviors. This diversity is expressed not only interspecifically but also intraspecifically. At Guam, Mariana Islands, over twenty species of wrasses spawn on a small, shallow coral reef known as Finger Reef that projects outward from the main reef into Apra Harbor. Preliminary observations indicated that the mating system utilized by some wrasses varied within species. To examine why this occurs, I utilized direct visual observations supplemented by underwater video and photography. I recorded the identity of the species courting, the number of individuals participating, the distribution of male mating territories, courtship and spawning behaviors, and courtship success. Field work utilized snorkeling for several hours a day variously within the lunar month during 2013-2015. I found that courtship and spawning occurs either in temporary resident spawning aggregations or within a protogynous haremic mating system. Within spawning aggregations, mating systems include a lek-like system with paired spawning, and group or promiscuous spawning. Haremic species followed the traditional single male-multiple female model. Both group-spawning and haremic species, however, also spawned in simple male-female pairs. Sneaking or streaking behavior during pelagic spawning events were observed in all mating systems. The results of these observations found that lek-like behavior and group spawning were dependent upon higher densities of males and females at the site. At lower densities, however, some species reverted to simple paired spawning while others used a haremic system rather than a lek-like system. This suggests that some species of wrasses practice a mixed strategy that is dependent upon fish density during the courtship period.

  15. Fluid dynamics of flapping aquatic flight in the bird wrasse: three-dimensional unsteady computations with fin deformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamurti, Ravi; Sandberg, William C; Löhner, Rainald; Walker, Jeffrey A; Westneat, Mark W

    2002-10-01

    Many fishes that swim with the paired pectoral fins use fin-stroke parameters that produce thrust force from lift in a mechanism of underwater flight. These locomotor mechanisms are of interest to behavioral biologists, biomechanics researchers and engineers. In the present study, we performed the first three-dimensional unsteady computations of fish swimming with oscillating and deforming fins. The objective of these computations was to investigate the fluid dynamics of force production associated with the flapping aquatic flight of the bird wrasse Gomphosus varius. For this computational work, we used the geometry of the wrasse and its pectoral fin, and previously measured fin kinematics, as the starting points for computational investigation of three-dimensional (3-D) unsteady fluid dynamics. We performed a 3-D steady computation and a complete set of 3-D quasisteady computations for a range of pectoral fin positions and surface velocities. An unstructured, grid-based, unsteady Navier-Stokes solver with automatic adaptive remeshing was then used to compute the unsteady flow about the wrasse through several complete cycles of pectoral fin oscillation. The shape deformation of the pectoral fin throughout the oscillation was taken from the experimental kinematics. The pressure distribution on the body of the bird wrasse and its pectoral fins was computed and integrated to give body and fin forces which were decomposed into lift and thrust. The velocity field variation on the surface of the wrasse body, on the pectoral fins and in the near-wake was computed throughout the swimming cycle. We compared our computational results for the steady, quasi-steady and unsteady cases with the experimental data on axial and vertical acceleration obtained from the pectoral fin kinematics experiments. These comparisons show that steady state computations are incapable of describing the fluid dynamics of flapping fins. Quasi-steady state computations, with correct incorporation of

  16. Cortisol administration induces sex change from ovary to testis in the protogynous Wrasse, Halichoeres trimaculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozu, Ryo; Nakamura, Masaru

    2015-01-01

    Steroid hormones have been shown to play important roles in triggering sex change. However, the upstream mechanism that regulates the secretion of sex steroid hormones controlling sex change is not yet known. Cortisol, the primary glucocorticoid in teleost fish, is known to exhibit anti-stress action and is involved in many physiological functions, including regulation of steroidogenesis. Therefore, cortisol could be one of the candidate factors involved in the onset of sex change. In this study, we investigated the role of cortisol in sex change in the three-spot wrasse, Halichoeres trimaculatus, by prolonged administration of cortisol. Our results showed that gonads of all individuals treated with cortisol (1,000 µg/g diet) for 6 weeks contained spermatogenic germ cells. One of them exhibited matured testes with an ovarian cavity, indicating sex change. Additionally, the plasma estradiol-17β level in the cortisol treatment group was significantly lower than in the control group suggesting that cortisol plays a direct and/or indirect role in the regulation of estrogen production. These data imply that cortisol might be involved in the regulation of steroidogenesis by causing a decrease in the estrogen level, leading to the onset of sex change.

  17. Energy allocation and reproductive investment in a temperate protogynous hermaphrodite, the ballan wrasse Labrus bergylta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas-Ríos, David; Alonso-Fernández, Alexandre; Domínguez-Petit, Rosario; Saborido-Rey, Fran

    2014-02-01

    Energy allocation is an important component of life-history variation since it determines the tradeoff between growth and reproduction. In this study we investigated the state-dependent and sex-specific energy allocation pattern and the reproductive investment of a protogynous hermaphrodite fish with parental care. Individuals of Labrus bergylta, a temperate wrasse displaying two main different colour patterns (plain and spotted), were obtained from the fish markets in NW Spain between 2009 and 2012. Total energy of the gonad, liver, mesenteric fat and muscle (obtained by calorimetric analysis) and gut weight (as a proxy of feeding intensity) were modelled in relation to the reproductive phase of the individuals. A decrease in the energy stored as mesenteric fat from prespawning to spawning paralleled the increase in the gonad total energy in the same period. The predicted reduction in stored total energy over the reproductive cycle was higher than the energy required to develop the ovaries for the full range of female sizes analysed, suggesting a capital breeding strategy. Males stored less energy over a season and invested fewer resources in gamete production than females. Reproductive investment (both fecundity and energy required to produce the gonads) was higher in plain than in spotted females, which is in agreement with the different growth patterns described for the species.

  18. Male cleaner wrasses adjust punishment of female partners according to the stakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raihani, Nichola J; Pinto, Ana I; Grutter, Alexandra S; Wismer, Sharon; Bshary, Redouan

    2012-01-22

    Punishment is an important deterrent against cheating in cooperative interactions. In humans, the severity of cheating affects the strength of punishment which, in turn, affects the punished individual's future behaviour. Here, we show such flexible adjustments for the first time in a non-human species, the cleaner wrasse (Labroides dimidiatus), where males are known to punish female partners. We exposed pairs of cleaners to a model client offering two types of food, preferred 'prawn' items and less-preferred 'flake' items. Analogous to interactions with real clients, eating a preferred prawn item ('cheating') led to model client removal. We varied the extent to which female cheating caused pay-off reduction to the male and measured the corresponding severity of male punishment. Males punished females more severely when females cheated during interactions with high value, rather than low value, model clients; and when females were similar in size to the male. This pattern may arise because, in this protogynous hermaphrodite, cheating by similar-sized females may reduce size differences to the extent that females change sex and become reproductive competitors. In response to more severe punishment from males, females behaved more cooperatively. Our results show that punishment can be adjusted to circumstances and that such subtleties can have an important bearing on the outcome of cooperative interactions.

  19. Sperm competition shapes gene expression and sequence evolution in the ocellated wrasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Rebecca; Wright, Alison E; Marsh-Rollo, Susan E; Nugent, Bridget M; Alonzo, Suzanne H; Mank, Judith E

    2017-01-01

    Gene expression differences between males and females often underlie sexually dimorphic phenotypes, and the expression levels of genes that are differentially expressed between the sexes are thought to respond to sexual selection. Most studies on the transcriptomic response to sexual selection treat sexual selection as a single force, but postmating sexual selection in particular is expected to specifically target gonadal tissue. The three male morphs of the ocellated wrasse (Symphodus ocellatus) make it possible to test the role of postmating sexual selection in shaping the gonadal transcriptome. Nesting males hold territories and have the highest reproductive success, yet we detected feminization of their gonadal gene expression compared to satellite males. Satellite males are less brightly coloured and experience more intense sperm competition than nesting males. In line with postmating sexual selection affecting gonadal gene expression, we detected a more masculinized expression profile in satellites. Sneakers are the lowest quality males and showed both de-masculinization and de-feminization of gene expression. We also detected higher rates of gene sequence evolution of male-biased genes compared to unbiased genes, which could at least in part be explained by positive selection. Together, these results reveal the potential for postmating sexual selection to drive higher rates of gene sequence evolution and shape the gonadal transcriptome profile.

  20. 红笛鲷(Lutjanus sanguineus)C型凝集素基因的克隆与组织表达分析%Cloning and Tissue Expression Analysis of C-type Lectin Gene from Humphead Snapper(Lutjanus sanguineus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡佳; 张雪利; 吴灶和; 简纪常; 鲁义善; 冯东岳; 焦茂兴

    2015-01-01

    根据已知的海水鱼类C型凝集素基因的核苷酸保守区序列设计一对简并引物,先后通过RT-PCR和RACE PCR法从红笛鲷脾脏中首次克隆获得红笛鲷C型凝集素(CTL)基因的cDNA全长(登录号:AGT37609).该序列长828 bp,开放阅读框663 bp,编码220个氨基酸.氨基酸序列分析显示,红笛鲷CTL基因氨基酸序列与其他物种CTL的相似性在30%-68%之间.系统进化分析表明,红笛鲷C型凝集素与鳉鱼、条石鲷、斜带石斑鱼 CTL蛋白亲缘关系最近,聚成一支.通过荧光定量PCR分析红笛鲷基因的组织差异表达,红笛鲷CTL基因在肝、脾以及皮肤中表达水平较高,其次是头肾、肾、胃、肠及肌肉,在心脏与脑中表达量较低.%According to conservative region of known C-type lectin(CTL)gene, a pair of degenerate primers were designed, and full length cDNA sequence of C-type lectin gene was amplified by RT-PCR and RACE PCR from spleen of humphead snapper,Lutjanus sanguineus (GenBank accession number: AGT37609)for the first time. The total cDNA sequence of the gene was 828 bp, consisting of a 663 bp open reading frame(ORF)and encoding 220 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of humphead snapper CTL shared 30%-68% identities with other species CTLs. Phylogenetic analysis showed that humphead snapper CTL was clustered closely with mummichog, rock bream, and orange-spotted grouper CTL. Moreover, the mRNA expression levels in different tissues were analyzed by real time quantitative PCR. The result showed that humphead snapper CTL gene expressed in all tested tissues with highest level in liver, spleen and skin, moderate level in head kidney, kidney, stomach, intestine and muscle, and lowest level in heart and brain.

  1. Do Not Stop: The Importance of Seamless Monitoring and Enforcement in an Indonesian Marine Protected Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Mangubhai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The harvesting of groupers (Serranidae in Indonesia for the live reef food fish trade (LRFFT has been ongoing since the late 1980s. Eight sites in Komodo National Park that included two fish spawning aggregation (FSA sites were monitored for groupers and humphead wrasse, Cheilinus undulatus, from 1998 to 2003 and from 2005 to 2008 to examine temporal changes in abundance and assess the effectiveness of conservation and management efforts. Monitoring identified FSA sites for squaretail coralgrouper, Plectropomus areolatus, and brown-marbled grouper, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus. Both species formed aggregations before and during full moon from September to December, prior to lapses in monitoring (2003–2005 and in enforcement (2004-2005. Following these lapses, data reveal substantial declines in P. areolatus abundance and the apparent extirpation of one aggregation at one site. Other non-aggregating species targeted by the LRFFT showed similar declines at three of eight monitored sites. This paper highlights the impact of FSA fishing and the need for a seamless monitoring and enforcement protocol in areas where aggregation fishing pressure is high. Within Komodo National Park, local fishers, particularly those operating on behalf of the LRFFT, pose a serious threat to population persistence of species targeted by this trade.

  2. Towards an ecosystem approach to small island fisheries: A preliminary study of a balanced fishery in Kotania Bay (Seram Island, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.G. Hutubessy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries (EAF is a holistic one as EAF considers all species as important elements within the eco-system. An EAF requires that community and ecosystem structure should be maintained by harvesting fish communities in proportion to their natural productivity, thereby sustaining the balance of species and sizes in a community. This article draws from research on the reef fish community and catch in Kotania Bay on Seram Island in Maluku, Indonesia, an area of approximately 6000 ha. Based on the trophic guild (ie the aggregation of species utilizing similar food resources on the reef, the biomass of predator fish currently being captured now represents 40.4% of the total catch biomass. Members of the grouper family, the humphead wrasse (Cheilinus undulatus and trevally (Caranx melampygus in particular, have become targeted for sale in fish markets. If these predators are selectively targeted and exploited, the overall reef fishery and the human populations that depend on it may become imperilled, given these species’ significant roles in controlling those lower in the food chain. This study thereby emphasizes the need for balanced fisheries informed by the EAF model in small island fisheries management in order to sustain food security in such regions.

  3. The glassy sweepers' way: seeking a versatile wrasse to be cleaned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Sazima

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Diurnal reef fishes compose the bulk of clients that seek cleaner fishes' services, but some nocturnal species that shelter at daytime also seek the cleaners. While doing so the nocturnal clients must leave their hiding places and thus they get exposed to potential diurnal predators. We report here on the cleaning interactions between a daytime cleaner wrasse (Thalassoma noronhanum and a night time active client (Pempheris schomburgki that usually remains sheltered at daytime. We recorded P. schomburgki leaving their shelter at daytime and heading towards T. noronhanum, whenever the cleaner swam by the shelter. Since T. noronhanum is able to tend temporary cleaning station near the safety of the shelters of its clients, P. schomburgki lessens a possible risk of predation by seeking this versatile cleaner.Peixes recifais diurnos compõem a maioria dos clientes nas estações de peixes limpadores. Entretanto, algumas espécies com hábitos noturnos também procuram os peixes limpadores, ficando expostas a potenciais predadores diurnos quando precisam deixar seus abrigos. Registramos aqui as interações de limpeza entre um labrídeo diurno (Thalassoma noronhanum e um cliente com hábitos noturnos (Pempheris schomburgki, que permanece abrigado durante o dia. Esta espécie de cliente deixa seu abrigo durante o dia e nada em direção a T. noronhanum quando este limpador desloca-se próximo aos esconderijos. Uma vez que T. noronhanum é capaz de manter estações de limpeza temporárias, próximas aos abrigos dos clientes, P. schomburgki diminui uma possível exposição aos predadores quando procura esta espécie versátil de limpador.

  4. Sex biased fishing mortality and movement patterns of the dimorphic corkwing wrasse (Symphodus melops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Aleksander Tallaksen Halvorsen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that harvesting wild population may exert direct selection on growth rate independently of size, as fast growth and correlated behaviour traits may increase the probability of being captured in fisheries. Harvesting on species with sexual dimorphism in growth can therefore be selective against the faster growing sex. This hypothesis was tested in a commercial fishery of a species with males growing faster than females, the corkwing wrasse (Symphodus melops. We conducted a mark recapture experiment during the spawning period and throughout the commercial fishing season to study mortality and fine scaled movement patterns in Austevoll, Western Norway. In total, 1368 individuals were marked with passive integrated transponder tags in a protected and heavily fished area in close proximity. 293 fish were recorded captured in the commercial fishery, and fate (retained/discarded and capture coordinates registered by onboard scientific personnel. Together with an additional 795 recaptures registered in scientific sampling, we used this dataset to estimate sex specific natural and fishing mortality and movement. We found that fishing affected nesting males more than females and female mimicking males combined; direct observed commercial capture of tagged fish was 42 % and 31 % of the respective sex classes. Both capture probability in the fishery and growth rates decreased significantly with body size for both sexes. Survival was also influenced by discard of smaller fish and selection on body size was significantly disruptive in nesting males and negatively linear in females. Our results align with expectations from the growth rate selection hypothesis and demonstrate size independent sexual differences in harvest selection in a wild population

  5. 78 FR 6798 - Western Pacific Fisheries; 2013 Annual Catch Limits and Accountability Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    .... Cheilinus 1,743 lb (791 kg). undulatus--Humphe ad (Napoleon) wrasse. Carcharhinidae--Re 1,309 lb (594 kg... (Napoleon) wrasse. Carcharhinidae--Re 6,942 lb (3,149 ef Sharks. kg). ] All Other CREMUS 83,214 lb (37,745... kg). undulatus--Humphe ad (Napoleon) wrasse. Carcharhinidae--Re 5,600 lb (2,540 ef Sharks. kg)....

  6. Expression and localization of forkhead transcriptional factor 2 (Foxl2 in the gonads of protogynous wrasse, Halichoeres trimaculatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobayashi Yasuhisa

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Three-spot wrasse, Halichoeres trimaculatus, is a marine protogynous hermaphrodite fish. Individuals mature either as initial phase (IP males or females. Appropriate social cues induce the sex change from IP female to terminal phase (TP male. However, the molecular mechanisms behind such a sex change remain largely unknown. Recently, the forkhead transcription factor 2 (Foxl2 was identified as an essential regulator of vertebrate ovarian development/function/phenotype. Inspired by this information, we characterized the expression patterns of Foxl2 in the protogynous wrasse assuming Foxl2 as the female-specific marker in this species. Methods First, we clonedFoxl2 cDNA from ovary by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR followed by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE. Next, we analysed expression pattern of Foxl2 messenger RNA (mRNA and protein in gonads of different sexual phases by real time quantitative PCR assay and flour fluorescence immunohistochemical method, respectively. Additionally, we studied the changes in Foxl2 expression pattern during aromatase inhibitor (AI-induced sex change. Results The amino acid sequence (306 AA of wrasse Foxl2, especially the forkhead domain, shows high identity with that of other reported teleost Foxl2s. Quite unexpectedly, no sexual dimorphism was observable between the testes and ovary in the expression pattern of Foxl2. In female phase fish, signals for Foxl2 protein were detectable in the granulosa cells, but not the theca cells. Transcript levels of Foxl2 in the testes of IP and TP males were identical to that in the ovaries of females and, further, Foxl2 protein was found to be localized in the interstitial cells including tubules and Leydig cells. Treatment with AI induced sex change in male gonads and an up-regulation was seen in the expression of Foxl2 in these gonads. Conclusions Unlike in other vertebrates, including teleosts, Foxl2 may have a different

  7. Is the ballan wrasse (Labrus bergylta) two species? Genetic analysis reveals within-species divergence associated with plain and spotted morphotype frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintela, María; Danielsen, Elin Annie; Lopez, Lua; Barreiro, Rodolfo; Svåsand, Terje; Knutsen, Halvor; Skiftesvik, Anne Berit; Glover, Kevin A

    2016-03-01

    The ballan wrasse (Labrus bergylta) is a marine fish belonging to the family Labridae characterized by 2 main morphotypes that occur in sympatry: spotty and plain. Previous studies have revealed differences in their life-history traits, such as growth and maturation; however, the genetic relationship between forms is presently unknown. Using 20 recently developed microsatellite markers, we conducted a genetic analysis of 41 and 48 spotty and plain ballan wrasse collected in Galicia (northwest Spain). The 2 morphotypes displayed highly significant genetic differences to each other (FST = 0.018, P morphotypes was significantly different (χ(2) = 9.46, P = 0.002). It is concluded that there is significant genetic heterogeneity within this species, which appears to be highly associated with the spotty and plain forms, but not completely explained by them. Given the previously demonstrated biological differences between morphotypes, and the present genetic analyses, we speculate about the convenience of a taxonomic re-evaluation of this species.

  8. A first record of the Lined Wrasse Anampses lineatus Randall, 1972 (Perciformes: Labridae in the Gulf of Mannar, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Prakash

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Lined wrasse Anampses lineatus Randall was recorded off the coast of Tuticorin (Gulf of Mannar, Tamil Nadu, India for the first time. It is easily distinguished by the presence of pale longitudinal lines on the body following scale rows. Broad pale white and black color patch at the base of caudal fin is distinct. Morphological description of A. lineatus is provided based on the present material along with detailed distribution records; habitat and closely related species were also discussed.

  9. Evidence of uptake, biotransformation and DNA binding of polyaromatic hydrocarbons in Atlantic cod and corkwing wrasse caught in the vicinity of an aluminium works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aas, E; Beyer, J; Jonsson, G; Reichert, W L; Andersen, O K

    2001-09-01

    Feral Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and corkwing wrasse (Symphodus melops) were investigated for polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in the Karmsund strait, western Norway. This strait is highly contaminated with PAHs, and a main source is the chronic release of gas-scrubbing effluents from a local aluminium works. In both species, the level of biliary PAH metabolites and hepatic DNA adducts were higher in fish collected near the aluminium works. Interestingly, a significantly higher level of both biliary PAH metabolites and hepatic DNA adducts was found in corkwing wrasse as compared to cod, indicating a higher potential for genotoxic effects in this species. Hepatic cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) in cod estimated by ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase and an immunoassay technique (ELISA), seemed to be weakly induced at the contaminated sites. At the most contaminated site, skin ulcers and fin erosion were detected in about 70 and 45% of the cods, respectively. The data demonstrated that both cod and corkwing wrasse may be suitable target species for PAH pollution monitoring.

  10. Does the risk of sperm competition help explain cooperation between reproductive competitors? A study in the ocellated wrasse (Symphodus ocellatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiver, Kelly A; Alonzo, Suzanne H

    2013-03-01

    Although cooperating individuals may gain benefits, they risk being cheated by their allies. Therefore, to understand the persistence of cooperation by mutual benefits, it is important to document both the potential benefits of cooperation and the risks of cheating. We experimentally examined evidence of cooperation in the ocellated wrasse (Symphodus ocellatus), a fish species with males that exercise three reproductive strategies: satellite and sneaker males attempt to parasitically spawn in the nests of nesting males. Nesting males have been hypothesized to tolerate satellites as a result of satellite aid in defense against sneaker males and help in courting females. Here, we provide evidence that cooperation between reproductive competitors may arise in response to sperm competition from other males. After we experimentally removed satellites, nesting males had more sneakers at their nest and experienced a higher rate of sneaking when they spawned (increased sperm competition risk). When we experimentally distracted nesting males to prevent their acting aggressively toward satellites, satellites spawned with females and ate eggs in the nest. Our results suggest that nesting males and satellites gain fitness benefits of reduced direct reproductive and sperm competition through cooperation. However, nesting males risk losing paternity, while satellites experience increased aggression and must invest in aggression themselves (i.e., they act aggressively toward sneakers).

  11. 红笛鲷 M APKK5 基因的克隆及生物信息学分析%Cloning and Bioinformatics Analysis of MAPKK5 Gene in Humphead Snapper Lut j anus sanguineus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡佳; 黄郁葱; 吴灶和; 鲁义善; 简纪常; 冯东岳; 焦茂兴

    2015-01-01

    利用本实验室构建红笛鲷头肾cDNA文库中的 MAPKK5基因 EST 序列 ,通过 RACE PCR技术克隆红笛鲷MAPKK5基因cDNA全长(Ls-MAPKK5 ,登录号为KM657202).序列分析结果显示 ,Ls-MAPKK5 cDNA全长2632 bp ,其中开放阅读框1317 bp ,可编码438个氨基酸 ,预测其编码蛋白的分子量为49 .29 ku ,理论等电点为6 .12.SignalP 4 .0 、TMHMM Server 2 .0和SoftBerry-Psite预测结果显示 ,Ls-MAPKK5没有信号肽和跨膜结构 ,含有22个磷酸化位点.氨基酸序列分析显示Ls-MAPKK5具有保守的PB1与S_TKc结构域.利用MEGA5 .0软件 ,根据邻位相连法构建MAPKK5系统进化树 ,结果显示Ls-MAPKK5与雀鲷、吉富罗非鱼该蛋白有较近的亲缘关系.%In present study ,MAPKK5 (Ls-MAPKK5 ,GenBank accession number KM657202) was cloned in humphead snapper (Lutjanus sanguineus) using RACE method based on the corresponding EST ,which was obtained from cDNA library constructed using head kidney of humphead snapper in our laboratory . The full-length cDNA of Ls-MAPKK5 was 2632 bp containing an open reading frame of 1317 bp encoding 438 amino acids with an estimated molecular weight of 49 .29 ku and a theoretical pI of 6 .12 . The prognosis by SignalP 4 .0 ,TMHMM Server 2 .0 and SoftBerry-Psite revealed that the deduced amino acid of Ls-MAPKK5 did not contain a signal peptide or a transmembranous region ,but had 22 phosphorylation sites .Amino acid alignment showed that Ls-MAPKK5 possessed a PB1 and S_TKc domain .Phylogenetic tree by NJ method using MEGA5 .0 indicated that Ls-MAPKK5 protein clustered closely with Stegastes partitus and Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus MAPKK5 protein .

  12. Legal size limit implies strong fisheries selection on sexually selected traits in a temperate wrasse providing male-only parental care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Aleksander Tallaksen Halvorsen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Corkwing wrasse (Symphodus melops is a temperate wrasse displaying both sex and male dimorphism and is targeted in a size selective commercial fishery which has increased dramatically since 2008. Wrasses are supplied alive to salmon farms as cleaner fish to combat infestations of Salmon lice. In previous studies, growth and maturation has been found to differ among male morphs and sexes and these groups might therefore be targeted unevenly by the size selective fishery. In the present study, we address this by comparing size regulations and fishing practice with data on sex specific growth and maturation from Western and Southern Norway, two regions varying in density and life histories. Two years of field data on density and length measures was used together with a subsample of otoliths to determine sex specific growth patterns. In the region with high density, nesting males were found to grow faster and mature later than sneaker males and females. Here, most nesting males will reach the minimum size as juveniles, one and two years before females and sneakers respectively. In contrast, sexual dimorphism was much less pronounced in the low density region, and relaxed male-male competition over nesting sites seems a likely explanation for this pattern. Intensive harvesting with selective removal of the larger nesting males could potentially lead to short term effect such as sperm limitation and reduced offspring survival and thus affect the productivity of juveniles. In addition, the current fishing regime may select for reduced growth rates and earlier maturation and oppose sexual selection.

  13. Genetic diversity and divergence of Cheilinus undulatus of different geographic populations revealed by ND1 gene analyses%基于mtDNA ND1基因序列研究不同地理群体波纹唇鱼的遗传多样性和遗传分化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡静; 侯新远; 尹绍武; 祝斐; 贾一何; 胡亚丽

    2014-01-01

    以海南陵水、马来西亚、西沙、南沙4个海域共101尾波纹唇鱼(Cheilinus undulatus)作为研究对象,利用线粒体DNA ND1基因序列对波纹唇鱼进行了遗传多样性分析。通过PCR扩增、克隆与序列测定技术,获得ND1基因序列长度为975 bp,其多态性遗传参数统计显示,101个个体存在13个变异位点,14个单倍型,总群体单倍型多样性(Hd)为0.292,平均核苷酸差异数(K)为0.335,核苷酸多样性指数(Pi)为0.00035,表现出遗传多样性处于较低水平。Tajima's D中性检验结果为-1.76809(P=0.031)表明波纹唇鱼在历史上经历过近期群体扩张或瓶颈效应。分子方差分析(AMOVA)表明遗传变异来自群体内。该结果可为今后波纹唇鱼的种质资源保护工作提供必要的科学依据。%In this study, the genetic diversity and divergence of Cheilinus undulatus were studied based on the analysis of mtDNA ND1 gene sequence from 101 individuals of four geographical populations including those from Lingshui (n=31), Malaysia (n=20), Xisha (n=14), and Nansha (n=36). By the PCR and cloning techniques, we got 975 bp sequences of the ND1 gene. Thirteen variable sites and fourteen haplotypes were obtained in this study. The whole haplotype diversity (Hd) of all individuals was 0.292, and the average nucleotide differences (K) and nucleotide diversities (Pi) were 0.335 and 0.000 35, respectively. The results demonstrated that the genetic diversity was low. The data of Tajimas'D test (-1.768 09, P=0.031) suggested that Cheilinus undulatus underwent through recent group expansion or bottleneck effect. The AMOVA analysis showed that a large proportion of variation was contributed within the population of Cheilinus undulatus. These results might be very useful for the protective measures for this species.

  14. Orexin-A Rescues Chronic Copper-Dependent Behavioral and HSP90 Transcriptional Alterations in the Ornate Wrasse Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zizza, Merylin; Canonaco, Marcello; Facciolo, Rosa Maria

    2017-05-01

    Recently, orexin (ORX)ergic system has gained great attention for its major neuroregulatory role on fish motor, circadian, feeding activities and above all during water toxic conditions. Fish are particularly sensitive to acute sublethal copper (Cu) concentrations while little is known about neurobehavioral data after chronic Cu exposure. For this work, the marine teleost ornate wrasse (Thalassoma pavo) was monitored for 21 days during exposure to a relatively low CuCl2 concentration (0.25 mg/l). In particular, at 1 day fish displayed moderate reductions (-32%) of feeding behaviors versus controls that decreased up to -94% at 21 days. Swimming activities were also moderately (-44%) reduced at 1 day, which diminished even further (~ -75%) from 7 to 21 days. The lethargic attitudes seemed to be frequently interrupted by aquatic surface respiration and abnormal motor behaviors such as rapid and abrupt changes of direction. Contextually, an upregulatory trend of HSP90 mRNAs occurred especially in the lateral part of the dorsal telencephalon (Dl; +72%), medial preglomerular nucleus (NPGm; +87%), and torus longitudinalis (TLo; +108%). Moreover, some of these nuclei displayed extensive argyrophilic signals that are typical of notable neurodegenerative events. Interestingly, a single intraperitoneal administration of ORX-A (10 ng/g of body weight) at 21 days attenuated not only some behavioral impairments but also HSP90 mRNA levels and neurodegenerative events. Behavioral indications of the present results tend to underlie the valuable role of HSP90 transcript together with the ORXergic system as probable rescuing factors operating in marine fish during persistent adverse environmental states with eventual bearings on human health issues.

  15. The variation analysis of mtDNA D-loop sequence of Cheilinus undulatus%波纹唇鱼mtDNA D-loop序列变异分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡静; 齐兴柱; 尹绍武; 骆剑; 朱晓平; 祝斐; 胡亚丽

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to study the variations in the mtDNA D-loop sequences of Cheilinus undulatus populations. Twenty-five individuals of C. undulatus were collected from the offshore area of Hainan province. One thousand and four hundreds bp nucleotide sequences of mtDNA D-loop region were obtained using PCR and clon- ing techniques. 66 variation sites including 0 deletion, 4 inserts, 59 transition sites, 2 transversion sites and l tran- sition- transversion sites were observed using ClustalX and MEGA5.0 softwares. The pairwise genetic distances of these 25 individuals were calculated using the MEGA5.0 software and based on that, the NJ phylogenetic trees was contracted for these fish populations. Analysis of this fish populations using the DNASP software showed that they had a polymorphic sites (S) of 62, a nucleotide diversity (Pi) of 0.00606 and an average number of nucleotide dif- ferences (K) of 6.907, respectively. Overall, there were no significant variations between mtDNA D-loops of C. undulatus populations.%为研究波纹唇鱼(Cheilinusundulatus)线粒体D—loop序列遗传多样性,作者采用聚合酶链式反应和克隆技术对海波纹唇鱼群体(n=25)的mtDNA D-loop序列进行克隆和测序,获得长度大约为1400bp的产物。用ClustalX软件进行排序比较,将结果导入MEGA5.0,结果显示出在这25尾个体中,共检测出66个变异位点,包括0个碱基缺失,4个碱基插入,59转换位点,2颠换位点及1个转换和颠换同时存在的位点。并用MEGA5.0软件构建该群25尾个体的NJ和UPGMA系统树。由DNASP软件计算出该波纹唇鱼群体的多态位点数(印为62,核苷酸多样性(只)为0.00606,平均核苷酸差异数为6.907。结果表明波纹唇鱼群体的mtDNA—loop基因个体差异程度不明显。

  16. 波纹唇鱼血细胞显微结构和血液生化指标%Microstructure of Peripheral Blood Cell and Serum Biochemical Indices of Cheilinus undulatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖光勇; 区又君; 李加儿

    2011-01-01

    以Wright's和Giemsa双重染色法对波纹唇鱼(Cheilinus undulatus)外周血细胞的形态进行显微观察研究并计数,同时测定各类血细胞的大小及血液的生化指标.血涂片观察发现:波纹唇鱼的外周血细胞可区分出红细胞、嗜中性粒细胞、单核细胞、淋巴细胞、血栓细胞等五种血细胞,未观察到嗜碱性粒细胞、嗜酸性粒细胞.在外周血液中还观察到核影、正在分裂的红细胞、幼稚红细胞和降解的红细胞.各类血细胞胞体由大到小的次序依次为单核细胞、嗜中性粒细胞、红细胞、大淋巴细胞、血栓细胞、小淋巴细胞.血浆中红细胞为(3.15±0.79)×1012/L,白细胞为(1.42±0.71)×1010/L,红细胞数远远多于白细胞.血液生化指标与其他鱼类相比有一定差异,表明鱼类血液的生化成分因种和生活环境而异.%The microscopic observation and count are conducted for the peripheral blood cells of C. Undula-tus by means of the Wright's and Giemsa double dye method. The serum biochemical indices of C. Undula-tus , the sizes of the various blood cells are determined. From the stained smears, five blood cell types I. E. Erythrocyte, neutrophil, monocyte, lymphocyte and thrombocyte are detected. Neither eosinophilic granu-locyten nor basophilic granulocyte is found but, some nuclear shadow of erythrocytes, immature erythro-cytes, direct dividing or dissolving erythrocytes. Among these cells, the sizes are put into an order from large to small as follows monocyte, neutrophil, erythrocyte, large lymphocyte, thrombocyte and small lymphlcyte. The erythrocyte and leucocyte concentrations in the blood are (3. 15 ±0. 79) × 1012/L and (1. 42 + 0. 71) × 1010/L respectively. The number of erythrocyte is much more than the leucocyte in the blood. The serum biochemical indices are different from other fish species. Therefore it is indicated that the serum biochemical indices for various fishes depend upon their species and

  17. Climate Change and Genetic Structure of Leading Edge and Rear End Populations in a Northwards Shifting Marine Fish Species, the Corkwing Wrasse (Symphodus melops.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halvor Knutsen

    Full Text Available One mechanism by which marine organisms may respond to climate shifts is range shifts. The corkwing wrasse (Symphodus melops is a temperate fish species, inhabiting the coasts of Europe, that show strong indications of current as well as historical (ice-age range shifts towards the north. Nine neutral microsatellite DNA markers were screened to study genetic signatures and spatial population structure over the entire geographic and thermal gradient of the species from Portugal to Norway. A major genetic break (F ST  = 0.159 average among pairs was identified between Scandinavian and more southern populations, with a marked reduction (30% or more in levels of genetic variability in Scandinavia. The break is probably related to bottleneck(s associated with post-glacial colonization of the Scandinavian coasts, and indicates a lack of present gene flow across the North Sea. The lack of gene flow can most likely be attributed to the species' need for rocky substrate for nesting and a relatively short pelagic larval phase, limiting dispersal by ocean currents. These findings demonstrate that long-distance dispersal may be severely limited in the corkwing wrasse, and that successful range-shifts following present climate change may be problematic for this and other species with limited dispersal abilities, even in the seemingly continuous marine environment.

  18. Climate Change and Genetic Structure of Leading Edge and Rear End Populations in a Northwards Shifting Marine Fish Species, the Corkwing Wrasse (Symphodus melops).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutsen, Halvor; Jorde, Per Erik; Gonzalez, Enrique Blanco; Robalo, Joana; Albretsen, Jon; Almada, Vitor

    2013-01-01

    One mechanism by which marine organisms may respond to climate shifts is range shifts. The corkwing wrasse (Symphodus melops) is a temperate fish species, inhabiting the coasts of Europe, that show strong indications of current as well as historical (ice-age) range shifts towards the north. Nine neutral microsatellite DNA markers were screened to study genetic signatures and spatial population structure over the entire geographic and thermal gradient of the species from Portugal to Norway. A major genetic break (F ST  = 0.159 average among pairs) was identified between Scandinavian and more southern populations, with a marked reduction (30% or more) in levels of genetic variability in Scandinavia. The break is probably related to bottleneck(s) associated with post-glacial colonization of the Scandinavian coasts, and indicates a lack of present gene flow across the North Sea. The lack of gene flow can most likely be attributed to the species' need for rocky substrate for nesting and a relatively short pelagic larval phase, limiting dispersal by ocean currents. These findings demonstrate that long-distance dispersal may be severely limited in the corkwing wrasse, and that successful range-shifts following present climate change may be problematic for this and other species with limited dispersal abilities, even in the seemingly continuous marine environment.

  19. Climate Change and Genetic Structure of Leading Edge and Rear End Populations in a Northwards Shifting Marine Fish Species, the Corkwing Wrasse (Symphodus melops)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutsen, Halvor; Jorde, Per Erik; Gonzalez, Enrique Blanco; Robalo, Joana; Albretsen, Jon; Almada, Vitor

    2013-01-01

    One mechanism by which marine organisms may respond to climate shifts is range shifts. The corkwing wrasse (Symphodus melops) is a temperate fish species, inhabiting the coasts of Europe, that show strong indications of current as well as historical (ice-age) range shifts towards the north. Nine neutral microsatellite DNA markers were screened to study genetic signatures and spatial population structure over the entire geographic and thermal gradient of the species from Portugal to Norway. A major genetic break (FST  = 0.159 average among pairs) was identified between Scandinavian and more southern populations, with a marked reduction (30% or more) in levels of genetic variability in Scandinavia. The break is probably related to bottleneck(s) associated with post-glacial colonization of the Scandinavian coasts, and indicates a lack of present gene flow across the North Sea. The lack of gene flow can most likely be attributed to the species’ need for rocky substrate for nesting and a relatively short pelagic larval phase, limiting dispersal by ocean currents. These findings demonstrate that long-distance dispersal may be severely limited in the corkwing wrasse, and that successful range-shifts following present climate change may be problematic for this and other species with limited dispersal abilities, even in the seemingly continuous marine environment. PMID:23840721

  20. Depth refuge and the impacts of SCUBA spearfishing on coral reef fishes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J Lindfield

    Full Text Available In recent decades, spearfishing with SCUBA has emerged as an efficient method for targeting reef fish in deeper waters. However, deeper waters are increasingly recognised as a potential source of refuge that may help sustain fishery resources. We used a combination of historical catch data over a 20-year time period and fishery-independent surveys to investigate the effects of SCUBA spearfishing on coral reef fish populations in the southern Mariana Islands. Two jurisdictions were studied; Guam, where SCUBA spearfishing is practiced, and the nearby Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI, where SCUBA spearfishing has been banned since 2003. Fishery-independent data were collected using baited remote underwater stereo-video systems (stereo-BRUVs stratified by depth, marine protected area status and jurisdiction. Herbivores (primary consumers dominated spearfishing catches, with parrotfish (scarines and surgeonfish/unicornfish (acanthurids the main groups harvested. However, the large, endangered humphead wrasse (Cheilinus undulatus was the main species by weight landed by SCUBA spearfishers. SCUBA spearfishing was associated with declining size of scarines over time and catches shifting from a dominance of large parrotfishes to a mixed assemblage with increasing proportions of acanthurids. Comparisons between Guam and the nearby CNMI revealed differences in the assemblage of fished species and also greater size of scarines and acanthurids in deep water where SCUBA fishing is banned. These results suggest that SCUBA spearfishing impacts reef fish populations and that the restriction of this fishing method will ensure refuge for fish populations in deeper waters. We recommend a ban on SCUBA spearfishing to preserve or aid the recovery of large, functionally important coral reef species and to improve the sustainability of coral reef fisheries.

  1. Full-length cDNA Cloning and Tissue Expression Analysis of IRAK-4 Gene from Humphead Snapper (Lutjanus sanguineus)%红笛鲷IRAK-4基因cDNA全长的克隆及组织表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄郁葱; 鲁义善; 简纪常; 吴灶和

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 (IRAK-4) is a key molecular which participates in the innate immune and adaptive immune processes. In this paper, full length cDNA sequence of IRAK-4 gene was amplified by RT-PCR and RACE PCR from head kidney of humphead snapper, Lutjanus sanguineus (GenBank accession number:KF279357). The total cDNA sequence of humphead snapper IRAK-4 was 2 015 bp, including 3' UTR of 421 bp,5' UTR of 205 bp,an open reading frame (ORF) of 1 389 bp encoding 462 amino acids with Molecule Mass of 52.0 ku and pI of 5.19. The deduced amino acid sequence of humphead snapper IRAK-4 shared 54.2%-85.7% identities with other species IRAK-4. Phylogenetic analysis showed that humphead snapper was clustered closely with orange-spotted grouper. In addition, the mRNA expression levels in different tissues were analyzed by real time quantitative PCR. The result showed that humphead snapper IRAK-4 expressed in all examined tissues with highest levels in skin, liver and stomach, moderate levels in thymus, gill, heart, intestine, muscle and spleen, and lowest levels in head kidney, kidney and brain.%白细胞介素-1受体相关激酶4( interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 4,IRAK-4)是一种参与机体先天性免疫和适应性免疫反应过程中的关键分子。采用RT-PCR和cDNA末端快速扩增(RACE-PCR)的方法从红笛鲷(Lutjanus sanguineus)头肾中克隆 IRAK-4基因的 cDNA 全序列(登录号:KF279357)。该序列全长2015 bp,包含5′非编码区(5′UTR)205 bp,3′非编码区(3′UTR)421 bp,开放阅读框(ORF)1389 bp,编码462个氨基酸。根据推导的氨基酸序列预测其蛋白分子质量为52.0 ku,理论等电点为5.19。氨基酸序列比对结果显示,红笛鲷IRKA-4基因氨基酸序列与其他物种的同源性为54.2%~85.7%。系统进化分析结果显示,红笛鲷与斜带石斑鱼(Epinephelus coioides)聚为一支,两者有较近的亲

  2. Allometric growth and development of organs in ballan wrasse (Labrus bergylta Ascanius, 1767 larvae in relation to different live prey diets and growth rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maren Ranheim Gagnat

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Small fish larvae grow allometrically, but little is known about how this growth pattern may be affected by different growth rates and early diet quality. The present study investigates how different growth rates, caused by start-feeding with copepods or rotifers the first 30 days post-hatch (dph, affect allometric growth and development of nine major organs in ballan wrasse (Labrus bergylta larvae up to experimental end at 60 dph. Feeding with cultivated copepod nauplii led to both increased larval somatic growth and faster development and growth of organ systems than feeding with rotifers. Of the organs studied, the digestive and respiratory organs increased the most in size between 4 and 8 dph, having a daily specific growth rate (SGR between 30 and 40% in larvae fed copepods compared with 20% or less for rotifer-fed larvae. Muscle growth was prioritised from flexion stage and onwards, with a daily SGR close to 30% between 21 and 33 dph regardless of treatment. All larvae demonstrated a positive linear correlation between larval standard length (SL and increase in total tissue volume, and no difference in allometric growth pattern was found between the larval treatments. A change from positive allometric to isometric growth was observed at a SL close to 6.0 mm, a sign associated with the start of metamorphosis. This was also where the larvae reached postflexion stage, and was accompanied by a change in growth pattern for most of the major organ systems. The first sign of a developing hepatopancreas was, however, first observed in the largest larva (17.4 mm SL, 55 dph, indicating that the metamorphosis in ballan wrasse is a gradual process lasting from 6.0 to at least 15-17 mm SL.

  3. Allometric growth and development of organs in ballan wrasse (Labrus bergylta Ascanius, 1767) larvae in relation to different live prey diets and growth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnat, Maren Ranheim; Wold, Per-Arvid; Bardal, Tora; Øie, Gunvor; Kjørsvik, Elin

    2016-09-15

    Small fish larvae grow allometrically, but little is known about how this growth pattern may be affected by different growth rates and early diet quality. The present study investigates how different growth rates, caused by start-feeding with copepods or rotifers the first 30 days post-hatch (dph), affect allometric growth and development of nine major organs in ballan wrasse (Labrus bergylta) larvae up to experimental end at 60 dph. Feeding with cultivated copepod nauplii led to both increased larval somatic growth and faster development and growth of organ systems than feeding with rotifers. Of the organs studied, the digestive and respiratory organs increased the most in size between 4 and 8 dph, having a daily specific growth rate (SGR) between 30 and 40% in larvae fed copepods compared with 20% or less for rotifer-fed larvae. Muscle growth was prioritised from flexion stage and onwards, with a daily SGR close to 30% between 21 and 33 dph regardless of treatment. All larvae demonstrated a positive linear correlation between larval standard length (SL) and increase in total tissue volume, and no difference in allometric growth pattern was found between the larval treatments. A change from positive allometric to isometric growth was observed at a SL close to 6.0 mm, a sign associated with the start of metamorphosis. This was also where the larvae reached postflexion stage, and was accompanied by a change in growth pattern for most of the major organ systems. The first sign of a developing hepatopancreas was, however, first observed in the largest larva (17.4 mm SL, 55 dph), indicating that the metamorphosis in ballan wrasse is a gradual process lasting from 6.0 to at least 15-17 mm SL.

  4. Phylogeography of Indo-Pacific reef fishes: sister wrassesCoris gaimardandC. cuvieriin the Red Sea, Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean

    KAUST Repository

    Ahti, Pauliina A.

    2016-02-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to resolve the evolutionary history, biogeographical barriers and population histories for sister species of wrasses, the African Coris (Coris cuvieri) in the Indian Ocean and Red Sea, and the Yellowtail Coris (Coris gaimard) in the Pacific Ocean. Glacial sea level fluctuations during the Pleistocene have shaped the evolutionary trajectories of Indo-Pacific marine fauna, primarily by creating barriers between the Red Sea, Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean. Here, we evaluate the influence of these episodic glacial barriers on sister species C. cuvieri and C. gaimard. Location: Red Sea, Indian Ocean, Pacific Ocean. Methods: Sequences from mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase c subunit I (COI), and nuclear introns gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and ribosomal S7 protein were analysed in 426 individuals from across the range of both species. Median-joining networks, analysis of molecular variance and Bayesian estimates of the time since most recent common ancestor were used to resolve recent population history and connectivity. Results: Cytochrome oxidase c subunit I haplotypes showed a divergence of 0.97% between species, and nuclear alleles were shared between species. No population structure was detected between the Indian Ocean and Red Sea. The strongest signal of population structure was in C. gaimard between the Hawaiian biogeographical province and other Pacific locations (COI ϕ(symbol)ST = 0.040-0.173, P < 0.006; S7 ϕ(symbol)ST = 0.046, P < 0.001; GnRH ϕ(symbol)ST = 0.022, P < 0.005). Time to most recent common ancestor is c. 2.12 Ma for C. cuvieri and 1.76 Ma for C. gaimard. Main conclusions: We demonstrate an Indian-Pacific divergence of c. 2 Myr and high contemporary gene flow between the Red Sea and Indian Ocean, mediated in part by the long pelagic larval stage. The discovery of hybrids at Christmas Island indicates that Indian and Pacific lineages have come into secondary contact after allopatric isolation. Subspecies

  5. Can grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus) succeed on a "complex" foraging task failed by nonhuman primates (Pan troglodytes, Pongo abelii, Sapajus apella) but solved by wrasse fish (Labroides dimidiatus)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepperberg, Irene M; Hartsfield, Leigh Ann

    2014-08-01

    Linking specific cognitive abilities of nonhuman species on a laboratory task to their evolutionary history-ecological niche can be a fruitful exercise in comparative psychology. Crucial issues, however, are the choice of task, the specific conditions of the task, and possibly the subjects' understanding or interpretation of the task. Salwiczek et al. (2012) compared cleaner wrasse fish (Labroides dimidaitus) to several nonhuman primate species (capuchins, Sapajus paella; chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes; orangutans, Pongo abelii) on a task purportedly related to the ecological demands of the fish, but not necessarily of the nonhuman primates; fish succeeded whereas almost all of the nonhuman primates that were tested failed. We replicated the two-choice paradigm of the task with three Grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus), whose ecology, evolutionary history, and cortical capacity are arguably more like those of nonhuman primates than fish. Greys succeeded at levels more like fish than all the nonhuman primates, suggesting possible alternative explanations for their success. Fish and nonhuman primate subjects also experienced a reversal of the initial conditions to test for generalization: Greys were similarly tested; they performed more like fish and capuchins (who now succeeded) than the apes (who continued to fail).

  6. 红笛鲷头肾消减cDNA文库的构建与分析%Construction and analysis of subtractive cDNA library of head kidney in humphead snapper,Lutjanus sanguineus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新中; 吴灶和; 简纪常; 鲁义善

    2011-01-01

    应用抑制性消减杂交技术(SSH)构建红笛鲷(Lutjanus sanguineus)头肾消减cDNA文库,筛选红笛鲷免疫相关基因的EST.以哈氏弧菌(Vibrio harveyi)灭活疫苗体内诱导红笛鲷为实验组,以注射无菌生理盐水的红笛鲷为驱动组,通过SSH技术构建红笛鲷头肾消减.DNA文库.利用PCR技术和斑点杂交对文库进行筛选,从2 424个含插人片段的阳性克隆中筛选了680个克隆在上海生工进行了序列测定.使用BLASTx和BLASTn工具对获得的ESTs与GenBank数据库进行同源性比较并根据相似性序列的名称通过GO法对ESTs进行注释.结果获得了30个与红笛鲷免免疫防御相关基因的EST,如组织相容性抗原复合物基因(MHC I和MHCII),免疫球蛋白基因(IgH和IgL)、热休克蛋白基因(HSP10,HSP70和HSP90)等.本研究构建了哈氏弧菌灭活疫苗免疫后与正常组织差异表达的消减cDNA文库,并获得一批与红笛鲷免疫防御相关的ESTs,旨在为探讨红笛鲷分子免疫防御机制、筛选参与免疫防御调控相关的功能基因,揭示红笛鲷免疫抗病机制、提高机体抗病力、实现遗传改良奠定基础.%A subtracted cDNA library of humphead snapper (Lutjanus sanguineus) was constructed by suppression subtractive hybridization technology (SSH) to screen immune-related EST. The cDNA library has been constructed by the mRNA of the test group and driven by SSH. Differential ESTs from the subtracted cDNA library have been identified by both PCR technology and dot blot hybridization. Six hundred and eighty positive clones were sequenced by Sangon Biological Engineering Technology & Services Co., Ltd. The homology of the sequences was analyzed by BLASTx tool and BLASTn tool in GenBank database. Functional distribution was performed based on the features of ESTs by gene ontology annotation (GO) and 30 immune-related ESTs of L. sanguineus, such as major histocompatibility complex gene (MHC Ⅰ and MHC Ⅱ ), immunoglobulin gene

  7. 红笛鲷主要组织相容性复合物Ⅰα抗原基因的克隆与表达分析%Cloning and expression analysis of histocompatibility complex Ⅰ α antigen (MHC I α)from humphead snapper Lutjanus sanguineus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新中; 鲁义善; 吴灶和; 简纪常

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, full-length cDNA sequences of histocompatibility complex Ⅰ a antigen (MHC Ⅰ α was cloned by rapid amplification of cDNA ends technique(RACE)from humphead snapper( Lutjanus sanguineus). Full-length cDNA sequence of MHC Ⅰ α is 1 369 bp, encoding 354 amino acids. BLAST analysis revealed that the amino acids sequence of MHC Ⅰ a shared high identity (84% ) with other MHC I . Phylogenetic tree was constructed by the Neighbor-Joining method, and the results suggested that MHC I a of humphead snapper shared the closest genetic relationship with the MHC Ⅰ of Epinephelus coioides. The results of fluorescent real-time quantitative RT-PCR showed that the expression of MHC Ⅰ a mRNA could be detected in head kidney, and the maximum expression appeared in 6 - 15 h post infection. MHC I a was subcloned into pET32a( + )to construct expression plasmids pET32-MHC Ⅰ α. SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis indicated that the recombinant proteins were successfully expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 ( DE3). Then the recombinant proteins were purified and the antiserum was obtained by immunizing rabbits with the purified recombinant proteins emulsified with adjuvant. ELISA analysis showed that the titer of the antiserum prepared in this study was 1:40 000. The results of the Western blot revealed that specific antigen-antibody reaction occurred between the antiserum and the recombinant proteins.%为研究红笛鲷免疫防御相关基因的作用机理和调控机制,实验应用cDNA末端快速扩增技术(rapid amplification of cDNA ends,RACE)成功克隆了红笛鲷组织相容性复合物Ⅰ α(MHC Ⅰ α)抗原基因的全长cDNA序列,MHC Ⅰα的全长序列为1 369 bp,编码354个氨基酸残基.BLAST分析显示,红笛鲷MHC Ⅰ α与其他已知物种MHC Ⅰ α基因的最高同源性为84%.构建的系统进化树显示,红笛鲷MHC Ⅰα与石斑鱼等MHC Ⅰ α亲缘关系较近.Real-time PCR分析表明,MHC Ⅰ α在头肾中的最大

  8. Demographic Variation between Colour Patterns in a Temperate Protogynous Hermaphrodite, the Ballan Wrasse Labrus bergylta

    KAUST Repository

    Villegas-Ríos, David

    2013-08-23

    Fish populations are often treated as homogeneous units in typical fishery management, thereby tacitly ignoring potential intraspecific variation which can lead to imprecise management rules. However, intraspecific variation in life-history traits is widespread and related to a variety of factors. We investigated the comparative age-based demography of the two main colour patterns of Labrus bergylta (plain and spotted, which coexist in sympatry), a commercially valuable resource in the NE Atlantic. Individuals were aged based on otolith readings after validating the annual periodicity of annuli deposition. The relationships between the otolith weight and fish age and between otolith length and fish length were strong but differed between colour patterns. The fit of the growth models to the age and length data resulted in divergent growth curves between colour morphotypes and between sexes. Males and spotted individuals attained larger mean asymptotic sizes (Linf) than females and plain individuals, respectively, but converged to them more slowly (smaller k). Estimates of mortality based on catch curves from two independent datasets provided a global total mortality (Z) of 0.35 yr-1, although Z was larger in plain and female individuals. Overall, the results of this research have direct implications for management of L. bergylta and, as a precautionary measure, we recommend considering both colour patterns as two different management units. 2013 Villegas-Ros et al.

  9. Emergence and epidemiology of ciguatera in the coastal cities of southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Thomas Y K

    2015-03-02

    In the present review of 23 published case studies, the main objective is to report the emergence and epidemiology of ciguatera in the coastal cities of southern China. There was a sudden surge in ciguatera outbreaks in 2004. Ciguatera mostly occurred in the Guangdong Province. In Shenzhen, the incidence of ciguatera in 2004 was estimated to be over 7.5 per million people. In Foshan and Zhongshan, three large outbreaks each affecting over 100-200 subjects (caused by tiger grouper served at banquets) accounted for the much higher incidence of ciguatera in 2004 (>48.7 and >129.9 per million people). Humphead wrasse and areolated coral grouper were the other important ciguatoxic fish. In some subjects, risk factors for increased likelihood of (severe) ciguatera were present, namely concomitant alcohol consumption and ingestion of large reef fishes and CTX-rich fish parts. To prevent large outbreaks and severe illness, large apex predators from coral reefs should never be served at banquets and the public should realize the increased risk of severe symptoms due to ingestion of CTX-rich fish parts with alcohol. The systematic collection of accurate details, implementation of risk assessment process and continuing education for the public on prevention are of obvious importance.

  10. Emergence and Epidemiology of Ciguatera in the Coastal Cities of Southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Y. K. Chan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present review of 23 published case studies, the main objective is to report the emergence and epidemiology of ciguatera in the coastal cities of southern China. There was a sudden surge in ciguatera outbreaks in 2004. Ciguatera mostly occurred in the Guangdong Province. In Shenzhen, the incidence of ciguatera in 2004 was estimated to be over 7.5 per million people. In Foshan and Zhongshan, three large outbreaks each affecting over 100–200 subjects (caused by tiger grouper served at banquets accounted for the much higher incidence of ciguatera in 2004 (>48.7 and >129.9 per million people. Humphead wrasse and areolated coral grouper were the other important ciguatoxic fish. In some subjects, risk factors for increased likelihood of (severe ciguatera were present, namely concomitant alcohol consumption and ingestion of large reef fishes and CTX-rich fish parts. To prevent large outbreaks and severe illness, large apex predators from coral reefs should never be served at banquets and the public should realize the increased risk of severe symptoms due to ingestion of CTX-rich fish parts with alcohol. The systematic collection of accurate details, implementation of risk assessment process and continuing education for the public on prevention are of obvious importance.

  11. STATUS POPULASI IKAN NAPOLEON DI WILAYAH TAMAN NASIONAL BUNAKEN DAN KABUPATEN KARAS FAK-FAK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isa Nagib Edrus

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ikan napoleon di perairan Bunaken pada Oktober 2012 dan Kabupaten Karas pada Nopember 2010 bertujuan untuk mengetahui status populasi ikan tersebut di bawah usaha perlindungan otoritas Taman Nasional Bunaken dan pasca penutupan penangkapannya di Karas.  Metode Underwater Visual Census digunakan untuk mendapatkan data jumlah individu dan ukuran tubuh ikan napoleon.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa rata-rata kepadatan ikan napoleon dari luas wilayah sensus 19,26 hektar di Bunaken adalah 1,71 individu per hektar dan dari luas sensus 44,61 hektar di perairan Karas adalah 1,41 individu per hektar. Distribusi panjang frekuensi populasi ikan ini di kedua wilayah tersebut menunjukkan adanya dua kelompok umur, dimana interval ukuran panjang adalah antara 15 cm sampai 100 cm.  Perkembangan populasi ikan tersebut di Bunaken selama 7 tahun menunjukkan peningkatan sebesar 427,5%, sedang di Karas selama kurun waktu 5 tahun sebesar 298%. Namun pertumbuhan populasi sebesar ini ternyata belum masuk pada kategori status kelimpahan yang membaik. Jadi perlindungan ikan ini disarankan untuk lebih diperketat dengan cara melakukan moratorium.   Study on humphead wrasse fish in Bunaken and Karas district waters recpectively in October 2012 and November 2010 were aimed to determine population status of the fish under protecting regulations of the Bunaken National Park Authority and fishing closed session in Karas.  A method used to get population sizes and body sizes was the Napoleon Underwater Visual Census. The results showed that an average of fish density was 1,71 individual/ha of 19.26 ha in area census at Bunaken and it was 1,41 individual/ha of 44.61ha in area census of Karas waters. Distribution frequencies of the fish population were under two cohorts  with body size interval ranged from 15cm to 100 cm. Population trend during seven  years in Bunaken have increased in 427.5 % and those during five years in Karas have increase in 298

  12. Spatial refugia mediate juvenile coral survival during coral-predator interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Clare; Doropoulos, Christopher

    2017-03-01

    Coral recruitment and juvenile growth are essential processes for coral population maintenance and recovery. A growing body of research has evaluated the influence of reef microstructure on coral settlement and post-settlement survival, showing that physical refugia enhance recruitment. These studies have evaluated coral recruit morality from competition with macroalgae and indirect predation by grazing organisms, but the impact of direct predation by corallivorous piscine species on juvenile corals and how this interacts with reef microstructure is relatively unknown. This study examined whether refugia provided by micro-crevices enhance juvenile coral survival from corallivory. Juvenile corals from two different functional groups, the slow-growing massive Porites lobata and fast-growing branching Pocillopora damicornis, with average nubbin sizes of 1.4 cm × 0.3 cm and 0.5 cm × 1.0 cm (diameter × height), respectively, were attached to experimental tiles using small (1.44 cm3) and large (8.0 cm3) crevice sizes and were monitored for 29 d on a forereef in Palau. Full crevices (four sided) enhanced coral survival compared to exposed microhabitats in both coral taxa, but crevice size did not alter survival rates. Corallivores targeted recruits within crevices regardless of crevice size; dominant predators included small triggerfish (Balistidae), butterflyfish ( Chaetodon), and wrasse ( Cheilinus). Overall, Pocillopora suffered much higher rates of mortality than Porites. All Pocillopora were consumed by day 8 of the experiment, but mortality was significantly delayed in full crevices compared to exposed and partial crevice (three sided) microhabitats. In contrast, Por. lobata located in all microhabitats survived the entire experiment up to 29 d, with high survival in full (>90%) and partial crevices (70%), but only 28% survival in exposed microhabitats. These findings show the importance of crevices as spatial refugia from predators for juvenile corals and

  13. Coexistence of low coral cover and high fish biomass at Farquhar Atoll, Seychelles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan M Friedlander

    Full Text Available We report a reef ecosystem where corals may have lost their role as major reef engineering species but fish biomass and assemblage structure is comparable to unfished reefs elsewhere around the world. This scenario is based on an extensive assessment of the coral reefs of Farquhar Atoll, the most southern of the Seychelles Islands. Coral cover and overall benthic community condition at Farquhar was poor, likely due to a combination of limited habitat, localized upwelling, past coral bleaching, and cyclones. Farquhar Atoll harbors a relatively intact reef fish assemblage with very large biomass (3.2 t ha(-1 reflecting natural ecological processes that are not influenced by fishing or other local anthropogenic factors. The most striking feature of the reef fish assemblage is the dominance by large groupers, snappers, and jacks with large (>1 m potato cod (Epinephelus tukula and marbled grouper (E. polyphekadion, commonly observed at many locations. Napoleon wrasse (Cheilinus undulatus and bumphead parrotfish (Bolbometopon muricatum are listed as endangered and vulnerable, respectively, but were frequently encountered at Farquhar. The high abundance and large sizes of parrotfishes at Farquhar also appears to regulate macroalgal abundance and enhance the dominance of crustose corallines, which are a necessary condition for maintenance of healthy reef communities. Overall fish biomass and biomass of large predators at Farquhar are substantially higher than other areas within the Seychelles, and are some of the highest recorded in the Indian Ocean. Remote islands like Farquhar Atoll with low human populations and limited fishing pressure offer ideal opportunities for understanding whether reefs can be resilient from global threats if local threats are minimized.

  14. Commercial coral-reef fisheries across Micronesia: A need for improving management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houk, P.; Rhodes, K.; Cuetos-Bueno, J.; Lindfield, S.; Fread, V.; McIlwain, J. L.

    2012-03-01

    A dearth of scientific data surrounding Micronesia's coral-reef fisheries has limited their formal assessment and continues to hinder local and regional management efforts. We approach this problem by comparing catch-based datasets from market landings across Micronesia to evaluate fishery status in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), Guam, Yap, and Pohnpei. Initial examinations found that calm weather and low lunar illumination predicted between 6% (Yap) and 30% (CNMI) of the variances in daily commercial landings. Both environmentally driven catch success and daily catch variability increased in accordance with reef-fish demand indices. Subsequent insight from species composition and size-at-capture data supported these findings, highlighting reduced trophic levels and capture sizes where higher human-population-per-reef-area existed. Among the 12-15 target species and/or species complexes that accounted for 70% of the harvest biomass, capture sizes were consistently smallest for CNMI and Guam, often below the reported mean reproductive sizes. Comparatively, Pohnpei has the greatest potential for reef fisheries, with a large reef area (303 km2) and a moderate human population (34,000 people). However, the estimated harvest volume of 476 mt year-1 was 8-9 times higher than other jurisdictions. Even on Yap where the reef-fish demand index was lowest (67.7 people km-2 reef habitat), many target fish were harvested below their mean reproductive sizes, including the iconic green bumphead parrotfish and humphead wrasse, as well as several other herbivores. We discuss our results with respect to the contemporary doctrine surrounding size-spectra, catch composition, and catch frequencies that afford insight into fishery pressure and status. We posit that regional catch-based policies (initially) instituted at the market level, combined with area and gear-based restrictions, represent plausible vectors for improving Micronesian fisheries.

  15. Age, growth and utility of otolith morphometrics as a predictor of age in the wrasse Coris julis (Labridae from the eastern Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frane Škeljo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Age and growth of Coris julis were determined by examining sagittal otoliths belonging to fish sampled between November 2008 and October 2009 in the eastern Adriatic Sea (north-central Mediterranean Sea. A total of 1102 specimens (528 males, 487 females and 87 individuals of indeterminate sex, ranging from 48 to 222 mm total length were analysed. Ninety-two per cent of the otoliths were readable and 68% of the specimens had two readings in agreement. Counting of daily rings revealed that the second opaque ring represents the first annulus (315.1±27.8 daily rings. The maximum observed age was 7 years for males and 5 years for females, with males dominating in higher age classes ( > 3 years and females in age classes 1+ and 2+. Growth was described by the von Bertalanffy growth curves and significant differences were found between males (L∞=29.10 cm, k=0.12 and t0=–1.48 and females (L∞=21.27 cm, k=0.21 and t0=–1.08. Otolith mass, length, width and thickness were determined for the otoliths belonging to 465 fish and the utility of these morphometrics as a predictor of age was evaluated. The most precise age estimations were obtained from the otolith length data, followed by the otolith mass.

  16. Use of agent-based modelling to predict benefits of cleaner fish in controlling sea lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, infestations on farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groner, M L; Cox, R; Gettinby, G; Revie, C W

    2013-03-01

    Sea lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, are ectoparasites of farmed and wild salmonids. Infestations can result in significant morbidity and mortality of hosts in addition to being costly to control. Integrated pest management programmes have been developed to manage infestations, and in some salmon farming areas, these programmes include the use of wrasse. Wrasse prey upon the parasitic life stages of L. salmonis and can be stocked on farms at varying densities. Despite considerable variation in the usage of wrasse, there are few quantitative estimates of how well they can control sea lice and how best to optimize their use. To explore at what densities wrasse should be stocked in order to meet specific control targets, we built an individual-based model that simulates sea lice infestation patterns on a representative salmonid host. Sea lice can be controlled through the use of chemical treatments as well as by wrasse predators. We found that the wrasse can effectively control sea lice, and the densities of wrasse needed for effective control depend upon the source of the infestation and the targeted level of control. Effective usage of wrasse can result in decreased use of chemical treatments and improved control of sea lice.

  17. Juvenile Thalassoma amblycephalum Bleeker (Labridae, Teleostei) dwelling among the tentacles of sea anemones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvedlund, Michael; Iwao, Kenji; Brolund, Thea Marie

    2006-01-01

    each) of the juvenile wrasse Thalassoma amblycephalum dwelling among the tentacles of the two sea anemones Entacmaea quadricolor (clonal type), and Heteractis magnifica at a coral reef in southern Japan during 16 months in daylight hours. There are only two past records of this facultative association......, one from east Africa and one from Indonesia. The wrasse remained close to and was occasionally in physical contact with the host when foraging amongst the tentacles. When frightened, they took shelter among corals, away from the host anemone. The wrasse co-existed with the anemonefishes Amphiprion...

  18. Juvenile Thalassoma amblycephalum Bleeker (Labridae, Teleostei) dwelling among the tentacles of sea anemones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvedlund, Michael; Iwao, Kenji; Brolund, Thea Marie

    2006-01-01

    each) of the juvenile wrasse Thalassoma amblycephalum dwelling among the tentacles of the two sea anemones Entacmaea quadricolor (clonal type), and Heteractis magnifica at a coral reef in southern Japan during 16 months in daylight hours. There are only two past records of this facultative association......, one from east Africa and one from Indonesia. The wrasse remained close to and was occasionally in physical contact with the host when foraging amongst the tentacles. When frightened, they took shelter among corals, away from the host anemone. The wrasse co-existed with the anemonefishes Amphiprion...

  19. ENERGETIC EXTREMES IN A HOSTILE HABITAT: FISH LOCOMOTION ON WAVE-SWEPT CORAL REEFS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, John Fleng

    2010-01-01

    Fulton, C.J., Johansen, J. L. and Steffensen, J.F. Abstract: Shallow wave-swept habitats are a major challenge for fish locomotion, where crashing waves produce water flows equivalent to cyclone-force winds. Here we document the exceptional locomotor energetics of Bluelined wrasse (Stethojulis...

  20. Invasive lionfish preying on critically endangered reef fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Luiz A.; Rocha, Claudia R.; Baldwin, Carole C.; Weigt, Lee A.; McField, Melanie

    2015-09-01

    Caribbean coral reef ecosystems are at the forefront of a global decline and are now facing a new threat: elimination of vulnerable species by the invasive lionfish ( Pterois spp.). In addition to being threatened by habitat destruction and pollution, the critically endangered social wrasse ( Halichoeres socialis), endemic to Belize's inner barrier reef, has a combination of biological traits (small size, schooling, and hovering behavior) that makes it a target for the invasive lionfish. Based on stomach content analyses, this small fish comprises almost half of the lionfish diet at the inner barrier reef in Belize. The combination of lionfish predation, limited range, and ongoing habitat destruction makes the social wrasse the most threatened coral reef fish in the world. Other species with small range and similar traits occur elsewhere in the Caribbean and face similar risks.

  1. Do cleaning organisms reduce the stress response of client reef fish?

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira Tânia SF; Oliveira Rui F; Bshary Redouan; Canário Adelino VM

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Marine cleaning interactions in which cleaner fish or shrimps remove parasites from visiting 'client' reef fish are a textbook example of mutualism. However, there is yet no conclusive evidence that cleaning organisms significantly improve the health of their clients. We tested the stress response of wild caught individuals of two client species, Chromis dimidiata and Pseudanthias squamipinnis, that had either access to a cleaner wrasse Labroides dimidiatus, or to cleaner ...

  2. Genetic ontogeny of pancreatic enzymes in Labrus bergylta larvae and the effect of feed type on enzyme activity and gene regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Truls Wergeland

    2012-01-01

    In the later years increased interest in the use of Labrus bergylta (ballan wrasse) as a cleaner fish on Salmo salar (Atlantic salmon) has caused the emergence of commercial farming of L. bergylta. In order to cultivate such a species, knowledge about its digestive physiology and its nutritional requirements is important, especially in larvae. It has therefore been suggested that a thorough investigation of digestive enzymes related to the pancreas in larvae could be valuable. There were t...

  3. Seasonal and geographical differences in cleaner fish activity in the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zander, Dieter C.; Sötje, Ilka

    2002-02-01

    Investigations into symbioses may be important in order to analyse the grade of stability in ecosystems. Host-cleaner relationships were investigated in two localities of the Mediterranean Sea: Giglio (Tuscany, Italy) and Banyuls-sur-Mer (France). The cleaner wrasse, Symphodus melanocercus, was the main cleaner. Supplementary cleaners, such as the young of several wrasses, Symphodus mediterraneus, Symphodus ocellatus, Symphodus tinca, Coris julis and Ctenolabrus rupestris, are able to help out in times when there is a shortage of cleaners. Differences between the localities were obvious by a greater fish (host) density in Banyuls, which is probably due to eutrophication and might improve and increase cleaner activities. Regarding two seasons, spring and late summer, the fishes presented a lower degree of activity in Giglio, but a higher one in Banyuls - in late summer compared with spring. The main hosts were Chromis chromis, Symphodus tinca and Coris julis; additionally Diplodus sargus in Banyuls and Apogon imberbis in Giglio. Chromis chromis may be a key host species because of its distribution in large groups in the whole Mediterranean; Coris julis is of similar abundance. Symphodus melanocercus additionally came into contact with Symphodus tinca in order to partake of the food of the peacock wrasse. During cleaning activities, Diplodus sargus and other sparids present hesitant behaviour, where the cleaner probably picks more than parasites (skin, scales?) from the body surface. Apogon imberbis (which prefers dark habitats such as caves) totally rejects the main cleaner but was cleaned exclusively by Coris julis which, unlike Symphodus melanocercus, is regularly present near cave entrances. The investigations may present models of the evolutionary processes on specialised partnerships in ecosystems.

  4. Characterizing the fishing strategies and the temporal dynamics of the small-scale fleet operating in the Cíes Islands (NW Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Ouréns

    2014-06-01

    In total 33 fishing strategies operating in Cíes Islands were described, being the most used ones: pots targeting common octopus and velvet crab; gillnet targeting hake and pouting; trammel net targeting either European spider crab or Ballan wrasse; clam rakes; and manual harvesting for goose-barnacles and razor shells. The main season in which each fishing strategy was used changed according to the fishing policy (e.g. closed seasons for target species or fishing gears, the fish prices, and the temporal variation in the abundance of target species.

  5. Temporal comparison and predictors of fish species abundance and richness on undisturbed coral reef patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Elena L E S; Roche, Dominique G; Binning, Sandra A; Wismer, Sharon; Bshary, Redouan

    2015-01-01

    Large disturbances can cause rapid degradation of coral reef communities, but what baseline changes in species assemblages occur on undisturbed reefs through time? We surveyed live coral cover, reef fish abundance and fish species richness in 1997 and again in 2007 on 47 fringing patch reefs of varying size and depth at Mersa Bareika, Ras Mohammed National Park, Egypt. No major human or natural disturbance event occurred between these two survey periods in this remote protected area. In the absence of large disturbances, we found that live coral cover, reef fish abundance and fish species richness did not differ in 1997 compared to 2007. Fish abundance and species richness on patches was largely related to the presence of shelters (caves and/or holes), live coral cover and patch size (volume). The presence of the ectoparasite-eating cleaner wrasse, Labroides dimidiatus, was also positively related to fish species richness. Our results underscore the importance of physical reef characteristics, such as patch size and shelter availability, in addition to biotic characteristics, such as live coral cover and cleaner wrasse abundance, in supporting reef fish species richness and abundance through time in a relatively undisturbed and understudied region.

  6. Temporal comparison and predictors of fish species abundance and richness on undisturbed coral reef patches

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    Elena L.E.S. Wagner

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Large disturbances can cause rapid degradation of coral reef communities, but what baseline changes in species assemblages occur on undisturbed reefs through time? We surveyed live coral cover, reef fish abundance and fish species richness in 1997 and again in 2007 on 47 fringing patch reefs of varying size and depth at Mersa Bareika, Ras Mohammed National Park, Egypt. No major human or natural disturbance event occurred between these two survey periods in this remote protected area. In the absence of large disturbances, we found that live coral cover, reef fish abundance and fish species richness did not differ in 1997 compared to 2007. Fish abundance and species richness on patches was largely related to the presence of shelters (caves and/or holes, live coral cover and patch size (volume. The presence of the ectoparasite-eating cleaner wrasse, Labroides dimidiatus, was also positively related to fish species richness. Our results underscore the importance of physical reef characteristics, such as patch size and shelter availability, in addition to biotic characteristics, such as live coral cover and cleaner wrasse abundance, in supporting reef fish species richness and abundance through time in a relatively undisturbed and understudied region.

  7. Reef Fish Community Biomass and Trophic Structure Changes across Shallow to Upper-Mesophotic Reefs in the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef, Caribbean.

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    Dominic A Andradi-Brown

    Full Text Available Mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs; reefs 30-150m depth are of increased research interest because of their potential role as depth refuges from many shallow reef threats. Yet few studies have identified patterns in fish species composition and trophic group structure between MCEs and their shallow counterparts. Here we explore reef fish species and biomass distributions across shallow to upper-MCE Caribbean reef gradients (5-40m around Utila, Honduras, using a diver-operated stereo-video system. Broadly, we found reef fish species richness, abundance and biomass declining with depth. At the trophic group level we identified declines in herbivores (both total and relative community biomass with depth, mostly driven by declines in parrotfish (Scaridae. Piscivores increased as a proportion of the community with increased depth while, in contrast to previous studies, we found no change in relative planktivorous reef fish biomass across the depth gradient. In addition, we also found evidence of ontogenetic migrations in the blue tang (Acanthurus coeruleus, striped parrotfish (Scarus iserti, blue chromis (Chromis cyanea, creole wrasse (Clepticus parrae, bluehead wrasse (Thalassoma bifasciatum and yellowtail snapper (Ocyurus chrysurus, with a higher proportion of larger individuals at mesophotic and near-mesophotic depths than on shallow reefs. Our results highlight the importance of using biomass measures when considering fish community changes across depth gradients, with biomass generating different results to simple abundance counts.

  8. Phylogeography of Labrus bergylta (Pisces: Labridae in the north-eastern Atlantic

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    Frederico Almada

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The ballan wrasse, Labrus bergylta (Labridae, is a protogynous hermaphrodite fish common in the north-eastern Atlantic from Norway to Morocco. It is a commercially important resource for local fisheries and is currently being used as cleaner fish to control sea lice in salmon farms in northern Europe. We analysed the phylogeographic patterns of this species using mitochondrial (control region and nuclear (I intron of the S7 gene markers in populations throughout its distributional range. The results revealed a marked genetic structure of L. bergylta along the sampled area, with a major separation found between the Archipelago of the Azores and all remaining locations and also a clear separation between the north-eastern Atlantic and Scandinavian locations. Similarly to other temperate species the genetic diversity decreased from north-eastern Atlantic to Scandinavian populations. Haplotype networks confirm the distinctiveness of the population from the Azores and show that Scandinavian populations also present some distinct haplotypes. The phylogeographic pattern and diversity indices found for the ballan wrasse are discussed and compared with others found for different labrid species. The recognition of different populations of L. bergylta may be an in important result for fisheries management and also for future regulation of capture and translocation of specimens to be used as cleaners in aquaculture facilities.

  9. Cholinergic and adrenergic influence on the teleost heart in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, M; Ehrenström, F; Nilsson, S

    1987-01-01

    The tonical cholinergic and adrenergic influence on the heart rate was investigated in vivo in seven species of marine teleosts (pollack, Pollachius pollachius; cuckoo wrasse, Labrus mixtus; ballan wrasse, Labrus berggylta; five-bearded rockling, Ciliata mustela; tadpole fish, Raniceps raninus; eel-pout, Zoarces viviparus and short-spined sea scorpion, Myoxocephalus scor pius) during rest and, in two of the species (P. pollachius and L. mixtus), also during moderate swimming exercise in a Blazka-type swim tunnel. Ventral aortic blood pressure and heart rate were recorded via a catheter implanted in an afferent branchial artery, and the influence of the cholinergic and adrenergic tonus on the heart rate was assessed by injection of atropine and sotalol respectively. During rest the adrenergic tonus was higher than the cholinergic tonus in all species except L. berggylta, where the reverse was true. In P. pollachius and L. mixtus, exercise appeared to produce a lowering of the cholinergic tonus on the heart and, possibly, a slight increase of the adrenergic tonus. The nature of the adrenergic tonus (humoral or neural) is not clear, but the low plasma concentrations of catecholamines both during rest and exercise could be interpreted in favour of a mainly neural adrenergic tonus on the teleost heart. These experiments are compatible with the view that both a cholinergic inhibitory tonus and an adrenergic excitatory tonus are general features in the control of the teleost heart in vivo, both at rest and during moderate swimming exercise.

  10. Ocean acidification affects fish spawning but not paternity at CO2 seeps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milazzo, Marco; Cattano, Carlo; Alonzo, Suzanne H; Foggo, Andrew; Gristina, Michele; Rodolfo-Metalpa, Riccardo; Sinopoli, Mauro; Spatafora, Davide; Stiver, Kelly A; Hall-Spencer, Jason M

    2016-07-27

    Fish exhibit impaired sensory function and altered behaviour at levels of ocean acidification expected to occur owing to anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions during this century. We provide the first evidence of the effects of ocean acidification on reproductive behaviour of fish in the wild. Satellite and sneaker male ocellated wrasse (Symphodus ocellatus) compete to fertilize eggs guarded by dominant nesting males. Key mating behaviours such as dominant male courtship and nest defence did not differ between sites with ambient versus elevated CO2 concentrations. Dominant males did, however, experience significantly lower rates of pair spawning at elevated CO2 levels. Despite the higher risk of sperm competition found at elevated CO2, we also found a trend of lower satellite and sneaker male paternity at elevated CO2 Given the importance of fish for food security and ecosystem stability, this study highlights the need for targeted research into the effects of rising CO2 levels on patterns of reproduction in wild fish.

  11. Henneguya tunisiensis n. sp. (Myxosporea: Bivalvulida), a new gill parasite of Symphodus tinca (L.) (Teleostei: Labridae) off Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahri, Sihem; Marton, Szilvia; Marques, Adam; Eszterbauer, Edit

    2010-06-01

    Henneguya tunisiensis n. sp., a new myxosporean, is described from the gill-arches of the East Atlantic peacock wrasse Symphodus tinca (L.) collected from off the Kerkennah Islands, Tunisia. It is characterised by the presence of elongate white plasmodia of 1-1.5 x 1.5-2 mm in size. The mature spores are rounded in frontal view and have two identical polar capsules and two caudal appendages which taper considerably at the end. Both light and electron microscopical data show that this species differs in several morphological features from all previously described Henneguya spp. A molecular analysis, based on 18S rDNA sequence data, indicates that H. tunisiensis n. sp. is readily distinguishable from other myxozoan DNA sequences in GenBank. Phylogenetically, the new species is placed in the marine Henneguya clade, which is a sister group of marine Myxobolus spp. from perciform fishes in Tunisian waters.

  12. Comparative phylogeography of Atlantic reef fishes indicates both origin and accumulation of diversity in the Caribbean

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    Robertson D Ross

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two processes may contribute to the formation of global centers of biodiversity: elevated local speciation rates (the center of origin hypothesis, and greater accumulation of species formed elsewhere (the center of accumulation hypothesis. The relative importance of these processes has long intrigued marine biogeographers but rarely has been tested. Results To examine how origin and accumulation affected the Greater Caribbean center of diversity, we conducted a range-wide survey of mtDNA cytochrome b in the widespread Atlantic reef damselfish Chromis multilineata (N = 183 that included 10 locations in all four tropical Atlantic biogeographic provinces: the Greater Caribbean, Brazil, the mid-Atlantic ridge, and the tropical eastern Atlantic. We analyzed this data and re-evaluated published genetic data from other reef fish taxa (wrasses and parrotfishes to resolve the origin and dispersal of mtDNA lineages. Parsimony networks, mismatch distributions and phylogenetic analyses identify the Caribbean population of C. multilineata as the oldest, consistent with the center of origin model for the circum-Atlantic radiation of this species. However, some Caribbean haplotypes in this species were derived from Brazilian lineages, indicating that mtDNA diversity has not only originated but also accumulated in the Greater Caribbean. Data from the wrasses and parrotfishes indicate an origin in the Greater Caribbean in one case, Caribbean origin plus accumulation in another, and accumulation in the remaining two. Conclusion Our analyses indicate that the Greater Caribbean marine biodiversity hotspot did not arise through the action of a single mode of evolutionary change. Reef fish distributions at the boundaries between Caribbean and Brazilian provinces (the SE Caribbean and NE Brazil, respectively indicate that the microevolutionary patterns we detected in C. multilineata and other reef fishes translate into macroevolutionary processes

  13. Predator diversity and density affect levels of predation upon strongly interactive species in temperate rocky reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidetti, Paolo

    2007-12-01

    Indirect effects of predators in the classic trophic cascade theory involve the effects of basal species (e.g. primary producers) mediated by predation upon strongly interactive consumers (e.g. grazers). The diversity and density of predators, and the way in which they interact, determine whether and how the effects of different predators on prey combine. Intraguild predation, for instance, was observed to dampen the effects of predators on prey in many ecosystems. In marine systems, species at high trophic levels are particularly susceptible to extinction (at least functionally). The loss of such species, which is mainly attributed to human activities (mostly fishing), is presently decreasing the diversity of marine predators in many areas of the world. Experimental studies that manipulate predator diversity and investigate the effects of this on strongly interactive consumers (i.e. those potentially capable of causing community-wide effects) in marine systems are scant, especially in the rocky sublittoral. I established an experiment that utilised cage enclosures to test whether the diversity and density of fish predators (two sea breams and two wrasses) would affect predation upon juvenile and adult sea urchins, the most important grazers in Mediterranean sublittoral rocky reefs. Changes in species identity (with sea breams producing major effects) and density of predators affected predation upon sea urchins more than changes in species richness per se. Predation upon adult sea urchins decreased in the presence of multiple predators, probably due to interference competition between sea breams and wrasses. This study suggests that factors that influence both fish predator diversity and density in Mediterranean rocky reefs (e.g. fishing and climate change) may have the potential to affect the predators' ability to control sea urchin population density, with possible repercussions for the whole benthic community structure.

  14. The importance of the marine ornamental reef fish trade in the wider Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckner, A W

    2005-05-01

    The marine ornamental fish trade began in the 1930s in Sri Lanka, spread to Hawaii and the Philippines in the 1950s, and expanded to a multi-million dollar industry in the 1970s with fisheries established throughout the tropical Pacific, Indian and Atlantic Oceans. Currently, 45 countries supply global markets an estimated 14-30 million fish annually, with an import value of US$28-44 million. The largest suppliers are Indonesia and the Philippines, followed by Brazil, Maldives, Vietnam, Sri Lanka and Hawaii. In the tropical Western Atlantic, 16 countries have export fisheries, including the U.S. (Florida and Puerto Rico). The U.S. is the world's largest buyer, followed by the European Union and Japan. The global trade consists of over 1400 species of reef fishes, of which only about 25 are captive bred on a commercial scale. Damselfish, anemonefish, and angelfish constitute over 50% of the global volume; butterflyfish, wrasses, blennies, gobies, triggerfish, filcfish, hawkfishes, groupers and basselets account for 31% of the trade, and the remaining 16% is represented by 33 families. The most important fishes from the Caribbean are angelfish (six species), seahorses (two species), royal gramma, jawfish, queen triggerfish, redlip blenny, puddingwife, bluehead wrasse, and blue chromis. The Caribbean currently supplies a small percentage of the global trade in marine ornamental species, but ornamental fisheries in this region represent important emerging industries. It is critical that effective ornamental fishery management plans and regulations are developed and enforced, and fishery-dependent and fishery-independent data are collected and utilized in decision making processes to ensure sustainable ornamental fisheries throughout the region.

  15. Eastern Caribbean Circulation and Island Mass Effect on St. Croix, US Virgin Islands: A Mechanism for Relatively Consistent Recruitment Patterns.

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    Laurent Marcel Chérubin

    Full Text Available The northeastern Caribbean Sea is under the seasonal influence of the Trade Winds but also of the Orinoco/Amazon freshwater plume. The latter is responsible for intensification of the Caribbean Current in general and of its eddy activity in the northern part of the Caribbean Sea. More importantly, we show in this study that the front of the freshwater plume drives a northward flow that impinges directly on the island of St. Croix in the United States Virgin Islands. The angle of incidence of the incoming flow controls the nature of the wake on both sides and ends of the island, which changes from cyclonic to anticylonic wake flow, with either attached or shed eddies. Using an off-line bio-physical model, we simulated the dispersal and recruitment of an abundant Caribbean coral reef fish, the bluehead wrasse (Thalassoma bifasciatum in the context of the wake flow variability around St. Croix. Our results revealed the role played by the consistent seasonal forcing of the wake flow on the recruitment patterns around the island at the interannual scale. The interannual variability of the timing of arrival and northward penetration of the plume instead controls the nature of the wake, hence the regional spatial recruitment patterns.

  16. Differing mechanisms underlie sexual size-dimorphism in two populations of a sex-changing fish.

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    Mark I McCormick

    Full Text Available Variability in the density of groups within a patchy environment lead to differences in interaction rates, growth dynamics and social organization. In protogynous hermaphrodites there are hypothesised trade-offs among sex-specific growth, reproductive output and mortality. When differences in density lead to changes to social organization the link between growth and the timing of sex-change is predicted to change. The present study explores this prediction by comparing the social organisation and sex-specific growth of two populations of a protogynous tropical wrasse, Halichoeres miniatus, which differ in density. At a low density population a strict harem structure was found, where males maintained a tight monopoly of access and spawning rights to females. In contrast, at a high density population a loosely organised system prevailed, where females could move throughout multiple male territories. Otolith microstructure revealed the species to be annual and deposit an otolith check associated with sex-change. Growth trajectories suggested that individuals that later became males in both populations underwent a growth acceleration at sex-change. Moreover, in the high density population, individuals that later became males were those individuals that had the largest otolith size at hatching and consistently deposited larger increments throughout early larval, juvenile and female life. This study demonstrates that previous growth history and growth rate changes associated with sex change can be responsible for the sexual dimorphism typically found in sex-changing species, and that the relative importance of these may be socially constrained.

  17. Co-located 18S/5S rDNA arrays: an ancient and unusual chromosomal trait in Julidini species (Labridae, Perciformes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Karlla Danielle Jorge; Cioffi, Marcelo de Bello; Bertollo, Luiz Antonio Carlos; Soares, Rodrigo Xavier; de Souza, Allyson Santos; da Costa, Gideão Wagner Werneck Felix; Molina, Wagner Franco

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Wrasses (Labridae) are extremely diversified marine fishes, whose species exhibit complex interactions with the reef environment. They are widely distributed in the Indian, Pacific and Atlantic oceans. Their species have displayed a number of karyotypic divergent processes, including chromosomal regions with complex structural organization. Current cytogenetic information for this family is phylogenetically and geographically limited and mainly based on conventional cytogenetic techniques. Here, the distribution patterns of heterochromatin, GC-specific chromosome regions and Ag-NORs, and the organization of 18S and 5S rDNA sites of the Atlantic species Thalassoma noronhanum (Boulenger, 1890), Halichoeres poeyi (Steindachner, 1867), Halichoeres radiatus (Linnaeus, 1758), Halichoeres brasiliensis (Bloch, 1791) and Halichoeres penrosei Starks, 1913, belonging to the tribe Julidini were analyzed. All the species exhibited 2n=48 chromosomes with variation in the number of chromosome arms among genera. Thalassoma noronhanum has 2m+46a, while species of the genus Halichoeres Rüppell, 1835 share karyotypes with 48 acrocentric chromosomes. The Halichoeres species exhibit differences in the heterochromatin distribution patterns and in the number and distribution of 18S and 5S rDNA sites. The occurrence of 18S/5S rDNA syntenic arrangements in all the species indicates a functionally stable and adaptive genomic organization. The phylogenetic sharing of this rDNA organization highlights a marked and unusual chromosomal singularity inside the family Labridae. PMID:28123678

  18. Global ecological success of Thalassoma fishes in extreme coral reef habitats

    KAUST Repository

    Fulton, Christopher J.

    2016-12-20

    Phenotypic adaptations can allow organisms to relax abiotic selection and facilitate their ecological success in challenging habitats, yet we have relatively little data for the prevalence of this phenomenon at macroecological scales. Using data on the relative abundance of coral reef wrasses and parrotfishes (f. Labridae) spread across three ocean basins and the Red Sea, we reveal the consistent global dominance of extreme wave-swept habitats by fishes in the genus Thalassoma, with abundances up to 15 times higher than any other labrid. A key locomotor modification-a winged pectoral fin that facilitates efficient underwater flight in high-flow environments-is likely to have underpinned this global success, as numerical dominance by Thalassoma was contingent upon the presence of high-intensity wave energy. The ecological success of the most abundant species also varied with species richness and the presence of congeneric competitors. While several fish taxa have independently evolved winged pectoral fins, Thalassoma appears to have combined efficient high-speed swimming (to relax abiotic selection) with trophic versatility (to maximize exploitation of rich resources) to exploit and dominate extreme coral reef habitats around the world.

  19. Salmon lice – impact on wild salmonids and salmon aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrissen, O; Jones, S; Asche, F; Guttormsen, A; Skilbrei, O T; Nilsen, F; Horsberg, T E; Jackson, D

    2013-01-01

    Salmon lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, are naturally occurring parasites of salmon in sea water. Intensive salmon farming provides better conditions for parasite growth and transmission compared with natural conditions, creating problems for both the salmon farming industry and, under certain conditions, wild salmonids. Salmon lice originating from farms negatively impact wild stocks of salmonids, although the extent of the impact is a matter of debate. Estimates from Ireland and Norway indicate an odds ratio of 1.1:1-1.2:1 for sea lice treated Atlantic salmon smolt to survive sea migration compared to untreated smolts. This is considered to have a moderate population regulatory effect. The development of resistance against drugs most commonly used to treat salmon lice is a serious concern for both wild and farmed fish. Several large initiatives have been taken to encourage the development of new strategies, such as vaccines and novel drugs, for the treatment or removal of salmon lice from farmed fish. The newly sequenced salmon louse genome will be an important tool in this work. The use of cleaner fish has emerged as a robust method for controlling salmon lice, and aquaculture production of wrasse is important towards this aim. Salmon lice have large economic consequences for the salmon industry, both as direct costs for the prevention and treatment, but also indirectly through negative public opinion. PMID:23311858

  20. Population genomics of an endemic Mediterranean fish: differentiation by fine scale dispersal and adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreras, Carlos; Ordóñez, Víctor; Zane, Lorenzo; Kruschel, Claudia; Nasto, Ina; Macpherson, Enrique; Pascual, Marta

    2017-01-01

    The assessment of the genetic structuring of biodiversity is crucial for management and conservation. For species with large effective population sizes a low number of markers may fail to identify population structure. A solution of this shortcoming can be high-throughput sequencing that allows genotyping thousands of markers on a genome-wide approach while facilitating the detection of genetic structuring shaped by selection. We used Genotyping-by-Sequencing (GBS) on 176 individuals of the endemic East Atlantic peacock wrasse (Symphodus tinca), from 6 locations in the Adriatic and Ionian seas. We obtained a total of 4,155 polymorphic SNPs and we observed two strong barriers to gene flow. The first one differentiated Tremiti Islands, in the northwest, from all the other locations while the second one separated east and south-west localities. Outlier SNPs potentially under positive selection and neutral SNPs both showed similar patterns of structuring, although finer scale differentiation was unveiled with outlier loci. Our results reflect the complexity of population genetic structure and demonstrate that both habitat fragmentation and positive selection are on play. This complexity should be considered in biodiversity assessments of different taxa, including non-model yet ecologically relevant organisms. PMID:28262802

  1. Population assessment of Acropora palmata (Scleractinia: Acroporidae: relationship between habitat and reef associated species

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    K. Martínez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Three decades ago, Acropora palmata was one of the main reef-building coral species throughout the Caribbean, forming an essential component of the structural complexity of shallow coral reef habitats. These colonies still provide microhabitats for settlement, food and shelter to many vertebrates and invertebrates. The recent decline of A. palmata has been followed by a significant loss in spatial heterogeneity and possibly in species diversity. Studies addressing whether dead and living stands of Acropora hold different fish and benthic assemblages are scarce. The status of Acropora colonies and their associated species were assessed in October 2012, at two reef zones of Cayo Sombrero, Venezuela. Visual censuses of fish abundance and the number of macrofaunal individuals were recorded for both live and dead zones. Living Acropora colonies had the lowest abundance (˂31%. In both zoned the fish community was dominated by damselfishes (˂53% and wrasses (˂36%, the benthic macrofauna by peracarid crustaceans (˂40% and polychaetes (˂38%. Fish and benthic communities were not correlated with the condition (live or dead of the Acropora habitats; possibly branching structures provide the necessary shelter and protection no matter if they are dead or alive. More replication is necessary to test this unexpected result.

  2. Stable isotopes as tracers of residency for fish on inshore coral reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jean P.; Pitt, Kylie A.; Fry, Brian; Connolly, Rod M.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the migratory movements of fish between habitats is an important priority for fisheries management. Carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) stable isotopes were used to evaluate the degree of movement and residency for five fish species collected from coral reefs in Queensland, Australia. Isotope values of fish were measured and compared between slow-turnover muscle tissue and fast-turnover liver tissue, with isotopic agreement between liver and muscle generally indicating resident animals, and relatively low C isotope values in muscle indicating migrants. Three fish species, rabbitfish (Siganus fuscescens), painted sweetlips (Diagramma labiosum) and Guenther's wrasse (Pseudolabrus guentheri) showed relatively consistent carbon isotope values between muscle and liver tissue as expected for resident populations. One quarter of bream (Acanthopagrus australis) individuals showed much lower δ13C values in muscle than liver. These low values diverged from the -10 to -15‰ values of residents and were more similar to the -20‰ values of fish collected from coastal riverine habitats, the presumed migration source. Moses perch (Lutjanus russelli) also showed substantial differences between muscle and liver C isotopes for about a quarter of individuals, but the overall higher C values of these individuals indicated they may have switched diets within island habitats rather than migrating. Our results were consistent with previous studies of fish residency and indicate that measuring stable isotopes in multiple tissues provides a useful methodology for characterizing fish residency in inshore areas.

  3. Top predators negate the effect of mesopredators on prey physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Maria M; Killen, Shaun S; Nadler, Lauren E; White, James R; McCormick, Mark I

    2016-07-01

    Predation theory and empirical evidence suggest that top predators benefit the survival of resource prey through the suppression of mesopredators. However, whether such behavioural suppression can also affect the physiology of resource prey has yet to be examined. Using a three-tier reef fish food web and intermittent-flow respirometry, our study examined changes in the metabolic rate of resource prey exposed to combinations of mesopredator and top predator cues. Under experimental conditions, the mesopredator (dottyback, Pseudochromis fuscus) continuously foraged and attacked resource prey (juveniles of the damselfish Pomacentrus amboinensis) triggering an increase in prey O2 uptake by 38 ± 12·9% (mean ± SE). The visual stimulus of a top predator (coral trout, Plectropomus leopardus) restricted the foraging activity of the mesopredator, indirectly allowing resource prey to minimize stress and maintain routine O2 uptake. Although not as strong as the effect of the top predator, the sight of a large non-predator species (thicklip wrasse, Hemigymnus melapterus) also reduced the impact of the mesopredator on prey metabolic rate. We conclude that lower trophic-level species can benefit physiologically from the presence of top predators through the behavioural suppression that top predators impose on mesopredators. By minimizing the energy spent on mesopredator avoidance and the associated stress response to mesopredator attacks, prey may be able to invest more energy in foraging and growth, highlighting the importance of the indirect, non-consumptive effects of top predators in marine food webs.

  4. Predator biomass, prey density, and species composition effects on group size in recruit coral reef fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMartini, Edward E.; Anderson, Todd W.; Friedlander, Alan M.; Beets, James P.

    2011-01-01

    Group incidence and size are described for recruit parrotfishes, wrasses, and damselfishes on Hawaiian reefs over 3 years (2006–2008) at sites spanning the archipelago (20–28°N, 155–177°W). Coral-poor and coral-rich areas were surveyed at sites with both low (Hawaii Island) and high (Midway Atoll) predator densities, facilitating examination of relations among predator and recruit densities, habitat, and group metrics. Predator and recruit densities varied spatially and temporally, with a sixfold range in total recruit densities among years. Group (≥2 recruits) metrics varied with time and tracked predator and recruit densities and the proportion of schooling species. Groups often included heterospecifics whose proportion increased with group size. A non-saturating relationship between group size and recruit density suggests that the anti-predator benefits of aggregation exceeded competitive costs. Grouping behavior may have overarching importance for recruit survival—even at high recruit densities—and merits further study on Hawaiian reefs and elsewhere.

  5. Defining critical habitats of threatened and endemic reef fishes with a multivariate approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Steven W; Clarke, K Robert; Rushworth, Kelvin; Dalton, Steven J

    2014-12-01

    Understanding critical habitats of threatened and endemic animals is essential for mitigating extinction risks, developing recovery plans, and siting reserves, but assessment methods are generally lacking. We evaluated critical habitats of 8 threatened or endemic fish species on coral and rocky reefs of subtropical eastern Australia, by measuring physical and substratum-type variables of habitats at fish sightings. We used nonmetric and metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS, mMDS), Analysis of similarities (ANOSIM), similarity percentages analysis (SIMPER), permutational analysis of multivariate dispersions (PERMDISP), and other multivariate tools to distinguish critical habitats. Niche breadth was widest for 2 endemic wrasses, and reef inclination was important for several species, often found in relatively deep microhabitats. Critical habitats of mainland reef species included small caves or habitat-forming hosts such as gorgonian corals and black coral trees. Hard corals appeared important for reef fishes at Lord Howe Island, and red algae for mainland reef fishes. A wide range of habitat variables are required to assess critical habitats owing to varied affinities of species to different habitat features. We advocate assessments of critical habitats matched to the spatial scale used by the animals and a combination of multivariate methods. Our multivariate approach furnishes a general template for assessing the critical habitats of species, understanding how these vary among species, and determining differences in the degree of habitat specificity. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  6. Effect of seasonal variation in seawater dissolved mercury concentrations on mercury accumulation in the muscle of red sea bream (Pagrus major) held in Minamata Bay, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyama, Akito; Yokoyama, Saichiro; Kindaichi, Michiaki; Sonoda, Ikuko; Koyama, Jiro

    2013-09-01

    Japanese stingfish (Sebastiscus marmoratus) and Bambooleaf wrasse (Pseudolabrus japonicas) are monitored annually for mercury pollution in Minamata Bay, Japan. The average total mercury concentration in the muscle of these two species in Minamata Bay was 0.36 mg kg(-1) wet weight and 0.20 kg(-1) wet weigh, respectively, between 2008 and 2010. This is higher than levels elsewhere in Japan (0.125 mg kg(-1) wet weight and 0.038 mg kg(-1) wet weight, respectively). The FDA (2001) and EPA (2004) suggested that a proportion of mercury accumulated in fish is derived from seawater. We reared young red sea bream (Pagrus major) over a 2-year period in Minamata Bay and Nagashima (control) to evaluate the uptake of mercury from seawater and dietary sources. Fish were fed a synthesized diet that did not contain mercury. There was no difference in mercury accumulation in the muscle of red sea bream between Minamata Bay and Nagashima. Thus, our results suggest that the majority of mercury accumulated in fish muscle is not from seawater.

  7. Pigeon's (Columba livia) paradoxical preference for the suboptimal alternative in a complex foraging task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zentall, Thomas R; Case, Jacob P; Luong, Jasmine

    2016-05-01

    Recent research has examined a task in which choice of 1 alternative A provides reinforcement and in addition, allows access to alternative B that also provides reinforcement. However, although initial choice of B also provides reinforcement, it does not also allow access to A. Thus, optimal performance would be to always choose A. Curiously, Salwiczek et al. (2012) reported that adult wrasse (cleaner) fish mastered this task within 50 trials, whereas monkeys and apes had great difficulty with it. The authors attributed the species differences to ecological differences in the species foraging experiences. However, Pepperberg and Hartsfield (2014) found that parrots too learned this task. In Experiment 1, using the manual presentation of stimuli, we found that pigeons actually showed a reliable preference for B, the suboptimal alternative. In Experiment 2, we replicated the suboptimal preference using an automated version of the task. We hypothesized that the pigeons may have been basing their preference on the frequency of reinforcement associated with each alternative (initially, all trials ended with choice of B, whereas only half of the trials involved choice of A). In Experiment 3, we tested the hypothesis that the pigeons' preference was influenced by the frequency of reinforcements associated with A and B. Thus, when the pigeon chose A, we replaced B with C, so reinforcement occurred to B only when they chose it first. With this procedure we found that B was no longer preferred over A. Thus, the data supported our hypothesis. (PsycINFO Database Record

  8. Genetic ontogeny of pancreatic enzymes in Labrus bergylta larvae and the effect of feed type on enzyme activities and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Truls Wergeland; Folkvord, Arild; Grøtan, Espen; Sæle, Øystein

    2013-03-01

    A newly cultivated wrasse species, Labrus bergylta, have shown great potential for use in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) farms in the battle against sea lice (Lepeoptheirus salmonis) infections. Hatchery reared L. bergylta were studied from 2 to 55 DPH to examine the molecular basis of digestive ontogeny related to the pancreas. An isolated feeding trial was performed on 27-34 DPH larvae to compare the effect of diet on enzyme activity and the possible exogenous contribution by live feed. The following genes coding for key pancreatic enzymes were analyzed by qPCR: trypsin, Cyp7 A1, BAL, sPLA(2) 1B, amylase and pancreatic chitinase. Enzyme activity was measured on trypsin, neutral lipase, sPLA(2), amylase and chitinase in fed and unfed larvae. We did not observe any effects of the formulated diet v.s. rotifers on enzyme activities of neutral lipase, chitinase and sPLA(2). However, a probable feed-dependency was observed at a transcriptional level, where rotifers seem to stimulate upregulation. The regulation of BAL was the only exception, where an upregulation was observed after weaning both in the ontogeny series and the experimental part. Our data on pancreatic chitinase and amylase mRNA levels suggest the importance of carbohydrates in the diet of early larval and juvenile L. bergylta.

  9. The role of peripheral endemism in species diversification: evidence from the coral reef fish genus Anampses (Family: Labridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Jennifer R; Read, Charmaine I; van Herwerden, Lynne; Bellwood, David R

    2012-02-01

    We examined how peripherally isolated endemic species may have contributed to the biodiversity of the Indo-Australian Archipelago biodiversity hotspot by reconstructing the evolutionary history of the wrasse genus Anampses. We identified three alternate models of diversification: the vicariance-based 'successive division' model, and the dispersal-based 'successive colonisation' and 'peripheral budding' models. The genus was well suited for this study given its relatively high proportion (42%) of endemic species, its reasonably low diversity (12 species), which permitted complete taxon sampling, and its widespread tropical Indo-Pacific distribution. Monophyly of the genus was strongly supported by three phylogenetic analyses: maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference based on mitochondrial CO1 and 12S rRNA and nuclear S7 sequences. Estimates of species divergence times from fossil-calibrated Bayesian inference suggest that Anampses arose in the mid-Eocene and subsequently diversified throughout the Miocene. Evolutionary relationships within the genus, combined with limited spatial and temporal concordance among endemics, offer support for all three alternate models of diversification. Our findings emphasise the importance of peripherally isolated locations in creating and maintaining endemic species and their contribution to the biodiversity of the Indo-Australian Archipelago. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Energetic extremes in aquatic locomotion by coral reef fishes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Fulton

    Full Text Available Underwater locomotion is challenging due to the high friction and resistance imposed on a body moving through water and energy lost in the wake during undulatory propulsion. While aquatic organisms have evolved streamlined shapes to overcome such resistance, underwater locomotion has long been considered a costly exercise. Recent evidence for a range of swimming vertebrates, however, has suggested that flapping paired appendages around a rigid body may be an extremely efficient means of aquatic locomotion. Using intermittent flow-through respirometry, we found exceptional energetic performance in the Bluelined wrasse Stethojulis bandanensis, which maintains tuna-like optimum cruising speeds (up to 1 metre s(-1 while using 40% less energy than expected for their body size. Displaying an exceptional aerobic scope (22-fold above resting, streamlined rigid-body posture, and wing-like fins that generate lift-based thrust, S. bandanensis literally flies underwater to efficiently maintain high optimum swimming speeds. Extreme energetic performance may be key to the colonization of highly variable environments, such as the wave-swept habitats where S. bandanensis and other wing-finned species tend to occur. Challenging preconceived notions of how best to power aquatic locomotion, biomimicry of such lift-based fin movements could yield dramatic reductions in the power needed to propel underwater vehicles at high speed.

  11. Energetic Extremes in Aquatic Locomotion by Coral Reef Fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Christopher J.; Johansen, Jacob L.; Steffensen, John F.

    2013-01-01

    Underwater locomotion is challenging due to the high friction and resistance imposed on a body moving through water and energy lost in the wake during undulatory propulsion. While aquatic organisms have evolved streamlined shapes to overcome such resistance, underwater locomotion has long been considered a costly exercise. Recent evidence for a range of swimming vertebrates, however, has suggested that flapping paired appendages around a rigid body may be an extremely efficient means of aquatic locomotion. Using intermittent flow-through respirometry, we found exceptional energetic performance in the Bluelined wrasse Stethojulis bandanensis, which maintains tuna-like optimum cruising speeds (up to 1 metre s−1) while using 40% less energy than expected for their body size. Displaying an exceptional aerobic scope (22-fold above resting), streamlined rigid-body posture, and wing-like fins that generate lift-based thrust, S. bandanensis literally flies underwater to efficiently maintain high optimum swimming speeds. Extreme energetic performance may be key to the colonization of highly variable environments, such as the wave-swept habitats where S. bandanensis and other wing-finned species tend to occur. Challenging preconceived notions of how best to power aquatic locomotion, biomimicry of such lift-based fin movements could yield dramatic reductions in the power needed to propel underwater vehicles at high speed. PMID:23326566

  12. Potential of Pigeon Creek, San Salvador, Bahamas, as Nursery Habitat for Juvenile Reef Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conboy, Ian Christopher

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This project assessed the significance of Pigeon Creek, San Salvador, Bahamas as a nursery habitat for coral reef fishes. Pigeon Creek’s perimeter is lined with mangrove and limestone bedrock. The bottom is sand or seagrass and ranges in depth from exposed at low tide to a 3-m deep, tide-scoured channel. In June 2006 and January 2007, fish were counted and their maturity was recorded while sampling 112 of 309 possible 50-m transects along the perimeter of the Pigeon Creek. Excluding silversides (Atherinidae, 52% of fish counted, six families each comprised >1% of the total abundance (Scaridae/parrotfishes, 35.3%; Lutjanidae/snappers, 23.9%; Haemulidae/grunts, 21.0%; Gerreidae/mojarras, 8.5%; Pomacentridae/damselfishes, 6.1%; Labridae/wrasses, 2.4%. There were few differences in effort-adjusted counts among habitats (mangrove, bedrock, mixed, sections (north, middle, southwest and seasons (summer 2006 and winter 2007. Red Mangrove (Rhizophora mangle, covering 68% of the perimeter was where 62% of the fish were counted. Snappers, grunts and parrotfishes are important food fishes and significant families in terms of reef ecology around San Salvador. Mangrove was the most important habitat for snappers and grunts; bedrock was most important for parrotfishes. The southwest section was important for snappers, grunts and parrotfishes, the north section for grunts and parrotfishes, and the middle section for snappers. Among the non-silverside fish counted, 91.2% were juveniles. These results suggest that Pigeon Creek is an important nursery for the coral reefs surrounding San Salvador and should be protected from potential disturbances.

  13. Long-term effects of the cleaner fish Labroides dimidiatus on coral reef fish communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A Waldie

    Full Text Available Cleaning behaviour is deemed a mutualism, however the benefit of cleaning interactions to client individuals is unknown. Furthermore, mechanisms that may shift fish community structure in the presence of cleaning organisms are unclear. Here we show that on patch reefs (61-285 m² which had all cleaner wrasse Labroides dimidiatus (Labridae experimentally removed (1-5 adults reef⁻¹ and which were then maintained cleaner-fish free over 8.5 years, individuals of two site-attached (resident client damselfishes (Pomacentridae were smaller compared to those on control reefs. Furthermore, resident fishes were 37% less abundant and 23% less species rich per reef, compared to control reefs. Such changes in site-attached fish may reflect lower fish growth rates and/or survivorship. Additionally, juveniles of visitors (fish likely to move between reefs were 65% less abundant on removal reefs suggesting cleaners may also affect recruitment. This may, in part, explain the 23% lower abundance and 33% lower species richness of visitor fishes, and 66% lower abundance of visitor herbivores (Acanthuridae on removal reefs that we also observed. This is the first study to demonstrate a benefit of cleaning behaviour to client individuals, in the form of increased size, and to elucidate potential mechanisms leading to community-wide effects on the fish population. Many of the fish groups affected may also indirectly affect other reef organisms, thus further impacting the reef community. The large-scale effect of the presence of the relatively small and uncommon fish, Labroides dimidiadus, on other fishes is unparalleled on coral reefs.

  14. Sexual phenotype differences in zic2 mRNA abundance in the preoptic area of a protogynous teleost, Thalassoma bifasciatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaffrey, Katherine; Hawkins, Mary Beth; Godwin, John

    2011-01-01

    The highly conserved members of the zic family of zinc-finger transcription factors are primarily known for their roles in embryonic signaling pathways and regulation of cellular proliferation and differentiation. This study describes sexual phenotype differences in abundances of zic2 mRNA in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus, a region strongly implicated in sexual behavior and function, in an adult teleost, Thalassoma bifasciatum. The bluehead wrasse (Thalassoma bifasciatum) is a valuable model for studying neuroendocrine processes because it displays two discrete male phenotypes, initial phase (IP) males and territorial, terminal phase (TP) males, and undergoes socially-controlled protogynous sex change. Previously generated microarray-based comparisons suggested that zic2 was upregulated in the brains of terminal phase males relative to initial phase males. To further explore this difference, we cloned a 727 bp sequence for neural zic2 from field-collected animals. Riboprobe-based in situ hybridization was employed to localize zic2 signal in adult bluehead brains and assess the relative abundance of brain zic2 mRNA across sexual phenotypes. We found zic2 mRNA expression was extremely abundant in the granular cells of the cerebellum and widespread in other brain regions including in the thalamus, hypothalamus, habenula, torus semicircularis, torus longitudinalis, medial longitudinal fascicle and telencephalic areas. Quantitative autoradiography and phosphorimaging showed zic2 mRNA hybridization signal in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus was significantly higher in terminal phase males relative to both initial phase males and females, and silver grain analysis confirmed this relationship between phenotypes. No significant difference in abundance was found in zic2 signal across phenotypes in the habenula, a brain region not implicated in the control of sexual behavior, or cerebellum.

  15. ORX neuroreceptor system and HSP90 are linked to recovery strategies against copper toxicity in Thalassoma pavo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zizza, Merylin; Canonaco, Marcello; Facciolo, Rosa Maria

    2014-01-01

    Fish are particularly sensitive to copper (Cu) because although it is an essential metal, it becomes dangerous for aquatic ecosystems, thus accounting for physiological alterations. In this study, we investigated Cu effects on neurobehavioral activities of Thalassoma pavo and, above all, its recovery strategies by evaluating behavioral disturbances, neurodegeneration, and expression of heat shock protein (HSP)90 and orexin receptor (ORXR). Ornate wrasses exposed to nominal sublethal higher (1.07 mg/l) and lower (0.25 mg/l) concentrations of CuCl₂·H₂O mostly reduced swimming and feeding activities along with inducing abnormal behaviors in a dose-dependent manner. Concomitantly, ORXR transcripts were mostly upregulated in the diffuse nucleus of the inferior lobe (NDLI, + 142%) and the corpus of the cerebellum (CCe, + 243%), whereas HSP90 was downregulated only in lateral part of the dorsal telencephalon (Dl, -35%), the nucleus glomerulosus (NG; -40%), and the optic tectum (OT; -33%). Interestingly, when fish were transferred to Cu-free water, some behaviors were promptly rescued, especially in fish previously exposed to the lower Cu concentration. This rescuing tendency was confirmed by evident reductions of argyrophilic signals in Dl (-67%), NG (-31%), and OT (-42%) of fish exposed to 0.25 mg/l Cu. Moreover, transcriptional events of both ORXR and HSP90 were further upregulated in order to orchestrate a reactivation of behavioral and neuronal functions. Overall, this study highlights, for the first time, new neuronal strategies against environmental adverse conditions involving both ORXergic system and HSP90 as key elements that may assure, at least in part, protection and recovery processes against toxic agents.

  16. Oceanic sharks clean at coastal seamount.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon P Oliver

    Full Text Available Interactions between pelagic thresher sharks (Alopias pelagicus and cleaner wrasse were investigated at a seamount in the Philippines. Cleaning associations between sharks and teleosts are poorly understood, but the observable interactions seen at this site may explain why these mainly oceanic sharks regularly venture into shallow coastal waters where they are vulnerable to disturbance from human activity. From 1,230 hours of observations recorded by remote video camera between July 2005 and December 2009, 97 cleaner-thresher shark events were analyzed, 19 of which were interrupted. Observations of pelagic thresher sharks interacting with cleaners at the seamount were recorded at all times of day but their frequency declined gradually from morning until evening. Cleaners showed preferences for foraging on specific areas of a thresher shark's body. For all events combined, cleaners were observed to conduct 2,757 inspections, of which 33.9% took place on the shark's pelvis, 23.3% on the pectoral fins, 22.3% on the caudal fin, 8.6% on the body, 8.3% on the head, 2.1% on the dorsal fin, and 1.5% on the gills respectively. Cleaners did not preferentially inspect thresher sharks by time of day or by shark sex, but there was a direct correlation between the amount of time a thresher shark spent at a cleaning station and the number of inspections it received. Thresher shark clients modified their behavior by "circular-stance-swimming," presumably to facilitate cleaner inspections. The cleaner-thresher shark association reflected some of the known behavioral trends in the cleaner-reef teleost system since cleaners appeared to forage selectively on shark clients. Evidence is mounting that in addition to acting as social refuges and foraging grounds for large visiting marine predators, seamounts may also support pelagic ecology by functioning as cleaning stations for oceanic sharks and rays.

  17. Mobile demersal megafauna at common offshore wind turbine foundations in the German Bight (North Sea) two years after deployment - increased production rate of Cancer pagurus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krone, R; Dederer, G; Kanstinger, P; Krämer, P; Schneider, C; Schmalenbach, I

    2017-02-01

    Within the next decades the construction of thousands of different types of large wind turbine foundations in the North Sea will substantially increase the amount of habitat available to reef fauna. To gain first insights which effect these substantial changes in habitat structure and diversity might have on faunal stocks settling on hard substrata, we compared the mobile demersal megafauna associated with the common types of wind turbine foundations ('jacket', 'tripod' and 'monopile with scour protections of natural rock') in the southern German Bight, North Sea. Monopiles with scour protection were mostly colonized by typical reef fauna. They were inhabited by an average of about 5000 edible crabs Cancer pagurus (per foundation), which is more than twice as much as found at the foundation types without scour protection. Strong evidence was found that all three foundation types not only function as aggregation sites, but also as nursery grounds for C. pagurus. Assuming equal shares of the three foundation types in future wind farms, we project that about 27% of the local stock of C. pagurus might be produced on site. When, for example, comparing the existing fauna at 1000 ship wrecks and on the autochthonous soft substrate with those which probably will establish at the foundations of 5000 hypothetically realized wind turbines, it becomes clear that the German Bight in the future will provide new artificial reef habitats for another 320% crabs (C. pagurus) and 50% wrasse (Ctenolabrus rupestris) representing substrata-limited mobile demersal hard bottom species. Further research is urgently required in order to evaluate this overspill as it would be an important ecological effect of the recent offshore wind power development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Sexual phenotype differences in zic2 mRNA abundance in the preoptic area of a protogynous teleost, Thalassoma bifasciatum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine McCaffrey

    Full Text Available The highly conserved members of the zic family of zinc-finger transcription factors are primarily known for their roles in embryonic signaling pathways and regulation of cellular proliferation and differentiation. This study describes sexual phenotype differences in abundances of zic2 mRNA in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus, a region strongly implicated in sexual behavior and function, in an adult teleost, Thalassoma bifasciatum. The bluehead wrasse (Thalassoma bifasciatum is a valuable model for studying neuroendocrine processes because it displays two discrete male phenotypes, initial phase (IP males and territorial, terminal phase (TP males, and undergoes socially-controlled protogynous sex change. Previously generated microarray-based comparisons suggested that zic2 was upregulated in the brains of terminal phase males relative to initial phase males. To further explore this difference, we cloned a 727 bp sequence for neural zic2 from field-collected animals. Riboprobe-based in situ hybridization was employed to localize zic2 signal in adult bluehead brains and assess the relative abundance of brain zic2 mRNA across sexual phenotypes. We found zic2 mRNA expression was extremely abundant in the granular cells of the cerebellum and widespread in other brain regions including in the thalamus, hypothalamus, habenula, torus semicircularis, torus longitudinalis, medial longitudinal fascicle and telencephalic areas. Quantitative autoradiography and phosphorimaging showed zic2 mRNA hybridization signal in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus was significantly higher in terminal phase males relative to both initial phase males and females, and silver grain analysis confirmed this relationship between phenotypes. No significant difference in abundance was found in zic2 signal across phenotypes in the habenula, a brain region not implicated in the control of sexual behavior, or cerebellum.

  19. Oceanic sharks clean at coastal seamount.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Simon P; Hussey, Nigel E; Turner, John R; Beckett, Alison J

    2011-03-14

    Interactions between pelagic thresher sharks (Alopias pelagicus) and cleaner wrasse were investigated at a seamount in the Philippines. Cleaning associations between sharks and teleosts are poorly understood, but the observable interactions seen at this site may explain why these mainly oceanic sharks regularly venture into shallow coastal waters where they are vulnerable to disturbance from human activity. From 1,230 hours of observations recorded by remote video camera between July 2005 and December 2009, 97 cleaner-thresher shark events were analyzed, 19 of which were interrupted. Observations of pelagic thresher sharks interacting with cleaners at the seamount were recorded at all times of day but their frequency declined gradually from morning until evening. Cleaners showed preferences for foraging on specific areas of a thresher shark's body. For all events combined, cleaners were observed to conduct 2,757 inspections, of which 33.9% took place on the shark's pelvis, 23.3% on the pectoral fins, 22.3% on the caudal fin, 8.6% on the body, 8.3% on the head, 2.1% on the dorsal fin, and 1.5% on the gills respectively. Cleaners did not preferentially inspect thresher sharks by time of day or by shark sex, but there was a direct correlation between the amount of time a thresher shark spent at a cleaning station and the number of inspections it received. Thresher shark clients modified their behavior by "circular-stance-swimming," presumably to facilitate cleaner inspections. The cleaner-thresher shark association reflected some of the known behavioral trends in the cleaner-reef teleost system since cleaners appeared to forage selectively on shark clients. Evidence is mounting that in addition to acting as social refuges and foraging grounds for large visiting marine predators, seamounts may also support pelagic ecology by functioning as cleaning stations for oceanic sharks and rays.

  20. Molecular identification of an androgen receptor and its changes in mRNA levels during 17α-methyltestosterone-induced sex reversal in the orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yu; Liu, Xiaochun; Zhang, Haifa; Zhang, Yong; Lu, Danqi; Lin, Haoran

    2012-09-01

    Androgens play a crucial role in sex differentiation, sexual maturation, and spermatogenesis in vertebrates. The action of androgens is mediated via androgen receptors (ARs). The present study reports the cloning of the cDNA sequence of the ar in the orange-spotted grouper, with high expression in testis and relatively low in subdivision of brain areas. The cDNA sequence of ar was 2358 bp, encoding a protein of 759 amino acids (aa). Phylogenetic analysis showed that the ar cDNA sequence was closely related to that of threespot wrasse (Halichoeres trimaculatus) and medaka (Oryzias latipes) arβ. As deduced from the phylogenetic tree and the high amino acid identity with the ARβ subtype of other teleosts, grouper ar seems to be more closely related to the beta than the alpha subtype cloned to date. In the first week after 17α-methyltestosterone (MT) implantation, the transcript levels of ar in the hypothalamus declined significantly, and consistently stayed at low level expression to the second week, but increased back to the control levels in the third and fourth week. In the gonad, the mRNA expression of ar was not changed in the first week compared with the control, but increased significantly in the second week, consistently reached the highest level in the third week, dropped slightly but still higher than that of the control in the fourth week. The expression pattern of ar in hypothalamus and gonad during MT-induced sex reversal suggests the involvement of ar in regulating this process in the orange-spotted grouper. The present study provides the data of the changes in the mRNA levels of ar during MT-induced sex reversal in detail to help understand the complicated signals under sex reversal.

  1. Levels and distribution of organophosphorus flame retardants and plasticizers in fishes from Manila Bay, the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Joon-Woo [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, 2-5 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Senior Research Fellow Center, Ehime University, 2-5 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Isobe, Tomohiko, E-mail: t.isobe@agr.ehime-u.ac.jp [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, 2-5 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Senior Research Fellow Center, Ehime University, 2-5 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Chang, Kwang-Hyeon [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Seochen-dong 1, Giheung-gu, Yongin-Si, Gyeonggi-Do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Amano, Atsuko [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba 305-8567 (Japan); Maneja, Rommel H.; Zamora, Peter B.; Siringan, Fernando P. [Marine Science Institute, University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City 1101 (Philippines); Tanabe, Shinsuke [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, 2-5 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)

    2011-12-15

    Organophosphorus compounds (OPCs) and stable isotope ratios ({delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 15}N) were determined in 58 fishes belonging to 20 species collected from Manila Bay, the Philippines. OPCs were detected in most of the samples and found up to {mu}g/g lw (lipid weight) level, suggesting their ubiquitous presence in the coastal marine environment of the Philippines. Higher levels (>1000 ng/g lw) of total OPCs were determined in yellowstriped goatfish, silver sillago, tripletail wrasse and bumpnose trevally indicates either their active uptake from ambient water or lower metabolic capacity of these species. Levels of triphenyl phosphate (TPhP) in demersal species showed a positive correlation with {delta}{sup 15}N, indicating that TPhP was adsorbed onto the particle, settled down to the bottom sediment and accumulated through the benthic food web rather than the pelagic. Estimated dietary intake of OPCs in Manila Bay fishes were four to five orders of magnitude lower than the proposed reference dose (RfD). - Highlights: > Organophosphorus compounds (OPCs) were determined in fish from Manila Bay. > OPCs were detected up to {mu}g/g lw, suggesting ubiquitous environmental contamination. > Among the 9 targeted OPCs, TEHP and TEP were found as the predominant compounds. > Estimated dietary intake through fish consumption was 4-5 orders of magnitude lower than RfD. > This is the first report on OPCs pollution in marine environment of Southeast Asia. - Occurrence and bioaccumulation of organophosphorus compounds (OPCs) were determined in fishes from Manila Bay.

  2. Changes in fish communities on a small spatial scale, an effect of increased habitat complexity by an offshore wind farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hal, R; Griffioen, A B; van Keeken, O A

    2017-05-01

    The number of offshore wind farms (OWF) is increasing to meet the demands for renewable energy. The piles and hard substrate surrounding these piles creates new habitat for species with preference to hard substrates. We studied the impact of this hard substrate on the fish community in a Dutch OWF in the sandy southern North Sea, which had been in operation for five years. Multi-mesh gillnets were placed near the OWF structures on the hard substrate protection revetments and on the sandy bottom in the middle of the farm. The catches indicated attraction of cod, pouting, bullrout and edible and velvet crab, while attraction to the sandy habitat was shown for flatfish and whiting. Further, two species previously not caught in this area, goldsinny wrasse and grey trigger fish, were caught on the hard substrate. In addition a Dual-Frequency Identification Sonar (DIDSON) was used to record transects through the farm to observe individual fish in the water column throughout the farm and very near the OWF structures. High abundances of fish near the structure were observed during some days, while during other days equal distribution of fish in the area was observed. The area around the structures is thus only used temporarily for shelter or feeding. The DIDSON also allowed looking at the aggregation level of the fish. Seasonally the aggregation level differed most likely due to different species occurring in the area. In April, most fish were aggregated in schools, while in summer most observations were individual fish or loose aggregations. The wind farm structures had limited effect on the aggregation level compared to season or weather conditions.

  3. Population connectivity and the effectiveness of marine protected areas to protect vulnerable, exploited and endemic coral reef fishes at an endemic hotspot

    KAUST Repository

    Van Der Meer, Martin H.

    2014-12-23

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) aim to mitigate anthropogenic impacts by conserving biodiversity and preventing overfishing. The effectiveness of MPAs depends on population connectivity patterns between protected and non-protected areas. Remote islands are endemism hotspots for coral reef fishes and provide rare examples of coral reefs with limited fishing pressure. This study explored population genetic connectivity across a network of protected and non-protected areas for the endemic wrasse, Coris bulbifrons, which is listed as “vulnerable” by the IUCN due to its small, decreasing geographic range and declining abundance. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and microsatellite DNA (msatDNA) markers were used to estimate historic and contemporary gene flow to determine the level of population self-replenishment and to measure genetic and genotypic diversity among all four locations in the species range (south-west Pacific Ocean)—Middleton Reef (MR), Elizabeth Reef (ER), Lord Howe Island (LHI) and Norfolk Island (NI). MPAs exist at MR and LHI and are limited or non-existent at ER and NI, respectively. There was no obvious differentiation in mtDNA among locations, however, msatDNA revealed differentiation between the most peripheral (NI) and all remaining locations (MR, ER and LHI). Despite high mtDNA connectivity (M = 259–1,144), msatDNA connectivity was limited (M = 3–9) with high self-replenishment (68–93 %) at all locations. NI is the least connected and heavily reliant on self-replenishment, and the absence of MPAs at NI needs to be rectified to ensure the persistence of endemic species at this location. Other endemic fishes exhibit similar patterns of high self-replenishment across the four locations, indicating that a single spatial management approach consisting of a MPA network protecting part of each location could provide reasonable protection for these species. Thus, the existing network of MPAs at this endemic hotspot appears adequate at some locations

  4. Population connectivity and the effectiveness of marine protected areas to protect vulnerable, exploited and endemic coral reef fishes at an endemic hotspot

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, M. H.; Berumen, M. L.; Hobbs, J.-P. A.; van Herwerden, L.

    2015-06-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) aim to mitigate anthropogenic impacts by conserving biodiversity and preventing overfishing. The effectiveness of MPAs depends on population connectivity patterns between protected and non-protected areas. Remote islands are endemism hotspots for coral reef fishes and provide rare examples of coral reefs with limited fishing pressure. This study explored population genetic connectivity across a network of protected and non-protected areas for the endemic wrasse, Coris bulbifrons, which is listed as "vulnerable" by the IUCN due to its small, decreasing geographic range and declining abundance. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and microsatellite DNA (msatDNA) markers were used to estimate historic and contemporary gene flow to determine the level of population self-replenishment and to measure genetic and genotypic diversity among all four locations in the species range (south-west Pacific Ocean)—Middleton Reef (MR), Elizabeth Reef (ER), Lord Howe Island (LHI) and Norfolk Island (NI). MPAs exist at MR and LHI and are limited or non-existent at ER and NI, respectively. There was no obvious differentiation in mtDNA among locations, however, msatDNA revealed differentiation between the most peripheral (NI) and all remaining locations (MR, ER and LHI). Despite high mtDNA connectivity ( M = 259-1,144), msatDNA connectivity was limited ( M = 3-9) with high self-replenishment (68-93 %) at all locations. NI is the least connected and heavily reliant on self-replenishment, and the absence of MPAs at NI needs to be rectified to ensure the persistence of endemic species at this location. Other endemic fishes exhibit similar patterns of high self-replenishment across the four locations, indicating that a single spatial management approach consisting of a MPA network protecting part of each location could provide reasonable protection for these species. Thus, the existing network of MPAs at this endemic hotspot appears adequate at some locations, but not

  5. Valuing multiple eelgrass ecosystem services in Sweden: fish production and uptake of carbon and nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Glenn Cole

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Valuing nature’s benefits in monetary terms is necessary for policy-makers facing trade-offs in how to spend limited financial resources on environmental protection. We provide information to assess trade-offs associated with the management of seagrass beds, which provide a number of ecosystem services, but are presently impacted by many stressors. We develop an interdisciplinary framework for valuing multiple ecosystem services and apply it to the case of eelgrass (Zostera marina, a dominant seagrass species in the northern hemisphere. We identify and quantify links between three eelgrass functions (habitat for fish, carbon and nitrogen uptake and economic goods in Sweden, quantify these using ecological endpoints, estimate the marginal average value of the impact of losing one hectare of eelgrass along the Swedish northwest coast on welfare in monetary terms, and aggregate these values while considering double-counting. Over a 20 to 50 year period we find that compared to unvegetated habitats, a hectare of eelgrass, including the organic material accumulated in the sediment, produces an additional 626 kg cod fishes and 7,535 wrasse individuals and sequesters 98.6 ton carbon and 466 kg nitrogen. We value the flow of future benefits associated with commercial fishing, avoided climate change damages, and reduced eutrophication at 170,000 SEK in 2014 (20,700 US$ or 11,000 SEK (1,300 US$ annualized at 4%. Fish production, which is the most commonly valued ecosystem service in the seagrass literature, only represented 25% of the total value whereas a conservative estimate of nitrogen regulation constituted 46%, suggesting that most seagrass beds are undervalued. Comparing these values with historic losses of eelgrass we show that the Swedish northwest coast has suffered a substantial reduction in fish production and mineral regulation. Future work should improve the understanding of the geographic scale of eelgrass functions, how local variables

  6. Prevalence and proposal for cost-effective management of the ciguatera risk in the Noumea fish market, New Caledonia (South Pacific).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clua, Eric; Brena, Pierpaolo F; Lecasble, Côme; Ghnassia, Reine; Chauvet, Claude

    2011-11-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is a common intoxication associated with the consumption of reef fish, which constitutes a critical issue for public health in many countries. The complexity of its epidemiology is responsible for the poor management of the risk in tropical fish markets. We used the example of the Noumea fish market in New Caledonia to develop a cost-effective methodology of assessing the CFP risk. We first used published reports and the knowledge of local experts to define a list of potentially poisonous local species, ranked by their ciguatoxic potential. Based on two 1-month surveys in the market, conducted in winters 2008 and 2009, we then calculated the consolidated ratio of biomass of potentially poisonous species vs. total biomass of fish sold on the market. The prevalence of high CFP-risk species in the market was 16.1% and 18.9% in 2008 and 2009, respectively. The most common high CFP risk species were groupers (serranids), king mackerels (scombrids), snappers (lutjanids), barracudas (sphyaraenids), emperors (lethrinids) and wrasses (labrids). The size (age) of the fish also plays a critical role in the potential ciguatoxic risk. According to proposals of average size thresholds provided by experts for high-risk species, we were also able to assess the additional risk induced by the sale of some large fish on the market. The data collected both from experts and from the market allowed us to develop a cost-effective proposal for improving the management of the CFP risk in this market. However, the successful implementation of any regulation aiming to ban some specific species and sizes from the market, with an acceptable economical impact, will require the improvement of the expertise in fish identification by public health officers and, ideally, the commitment of retailers.

  7. Neuroendocrine profiles associated with discrete behavioural variation in Symphodus ocellatus, a species with male alternative reproductive tactics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, B M; Stiver, K A; Alonzo, S H; Hofmann, H A

    2016-10-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying phenotypic plasticity are not well understood. Identifying mechanisms underlying alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs) in species for which the behavioural and fitness consequences of this variation are well characterized provides an opportunity to integrate evolutionary and mechanistic understanding of the maintenance of variation within populations. In the ocellated wrasse Symphodus ocellatus, the behavioural phenotypes of three distinct male morphs (sneakers, satellites and nesting males), which arise from a single genome, have been thoroughly characterized. To determine the neuroendocrine and genomic mechanisms associated with discrete phenotypic variation and ARTs in S. ocellatus in their natural environment, we constructed a whole-brain de novo transcriptome and compared global patterns of gene expression between sexes and male morphs. Next, we quantified circulating cortisol and 11-ketotestosterone (11-kt), mediators of male reproductive behaviours, as well as stress and gonadal steroid hormone receptor expression in the preoptic area, ventral subpallial division of the telencephalon and dorsolateral telencephalon, critical brain regions for social and reproductive behaviours. We found higher levels of 11-kt in nesting males and higher levels of cortisol in sneaker males relative to other male morphs and females. We also identified distinct patterns of brain region-specific hormone receptor expression between males such that most hormone receptors are more highly expressed in satellites and nesting males relative to sneakers and females. Our results establish the neuroendocrine and molecular mechanisms that underlie ARTs in the wild and provide a foundation for experimentally testing hypotheses about the relationship between neuromolecular processes and reproductive success.

  8. Arginine Vasotocin Regulation of Interspecific Cooperative Behaviour in a Cleaner Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Marta C.; Bshary, Redouan; Mendonça, Rute; Grutter, Alexandra S.; Oliveira, Rui F.

    2012-01-01

    In an interspecific cooperative context, individuals must be prepared to tolerate close interactive proximity to other species but also need to be able to respond to relevant social stimuli in the most appropriate manner. The neuropeptides vasopressin and oxytocin and their non-mammalian homologues have been implicated in the evolution of sociality and in the regulation of social behaviour across vertebrates. However, little is known about the underlying physiological mechanisms of interspecific cooperative interactions. In interspecific cleaning mutualisms, interactions functionally resemble most intraspecific social interactions. Here we provide the first empirical evidence that arginine vasotocin (AVT), a non-mammalian homologue of arginine vasopressin (AVP), plays a critical role as moderator of interspecific behaviour in the best studied and ubiquitous marine cleaning mutualism involving the Indo-Pacific bluestreak cleaner wrasse Labroides dimidiatus. Exogenous administration of AVT caused a substantial decrease of most interspecific cleaning activities, without similarly affecting the expression of conspecific directed behaviour, which suggests a differential effect of AVT on cleaning behaviour and not a general effect on social behaviour. Furthermore, the AVP-V1a receptor antagonist (manning compound) induced a higher likelihood for cleaners to engage in cleaning interactions and also to increase their levels of dishonesty towards clients. The present findings extend the knowledge of neuropeptide effects on social interactions beyond the study of their influence on conspecific social behaviour. Our evidence demonstrates that AVT pathways might play a pivotal role in the regulation of interspecific cooperative behaviour and conspecific social behaviour among stabilized pairs of cleaner fish. Moreover, our results suggest that the role of AVT as a neurochemical regulator of social behaviour may have been co-opted in the evolution of cooperative behaviour in an

  9. Marine and inland fishes of St. Croix, U. S. Virgin Islands: an annotated checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Vaniz, William F.; Jelks, Howard L.

    2014-01-01

    An historical account is given for the ichthyological research at St. Croix, U. S. Virgin Islands, followed by an annotated list of 544 species of mostly marine shore fishes known or reported from the island to depths of 200 m. Color photographs are included for 103 of these species. Collections made at Buck Island Reef National Monument with the ichthyocide rotenone in 2001 and 2005 increased the known ichthyofauna by about 80 species. The rational for inclusion of each species in the checklist is given, with remarks for those species for which additional documentation or voucher specimens are needed. Reports of species known or presumed to have been based on misidentifications are discussed. Of the total marine fish fauna of the island, 404 species (75%) are restricted to the western Atlantic Ocean, (223 of these species are essentially Caribbean endemics that do not occur south of the Amazon River outflow), and no St. Croix endemic species are known. An additional 17 species (3.2%) also occur at mid-Atlantic islands, 57 species (10.6 %) are limited to both sides of the Atlantic Ocean, and 40 species (7.4%) have circumtropical distributions. The four most species-rich families are the Gobiidae (47 species), Serranidae (groupers and sea basses, 41), Labridae (wrasses and parrotfishes, 31), and Labrisomidae (scaly blennies, 27). Literature reports of Mosquitofish, Gambusia sp., from St. Croix apparently were based on misidentifications of a different introduced poeciliid genus. Four species of the amphidromus goby genus Sicydium occur in St. Croix inland waters, together with three established introduced species (one cichlid and two poeciliids). Also included are one catfish (Ictaluridae) and three sunfishes (Centrarchidae) known only from ponds. The Lionfish, Pterois volitans, the only introduced marine species, was first reported from St. Croix in 2008 and is now common despite control efforts.

  10. Indicadores morfométricos em cabeças de espécies brasileiras de Chrysoperla (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae Morphometric studies of the head of Brazilian species of Chrysoperla (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio de Freitas

    2009-12-01

    . externa and C. genanigra, however, it is totally broken in C. raimundoi. The measures that contributed most to differentiation are related to the size of the head and especially the length of wrasse on the edge of the head, until the level of the eyes and antenna.

  11. Higher Abundance Of Marine Predators And Changes In Fishers’ Behavior Following Spatial Protection Within The World’s Biggest Shark Fishery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Flora Jaiteh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fisheries are complex social-ecological systems, where managers struggle to balance the socio-economic interests of fishing communities with the biology and ecology of fisheries species. Spatial closures are a popular measure to address conservation and fisheries management goals, including the protection of shark populations. However, very little research has been published on the effectiveness of shark-specific closures to protect sharks, or their impacts on fisher behavior. Situated within the global center of tropical marine biodiversity, Indonesia’s shark fishery contributes more to the international shark fin trade than any other nation. Here we evaluate the effect of shark-specific closures on sharks and other species of interest, as well as shark fishers’ responses to losing access to their former fishing grounds. We assessed shark diversity and abundance in an open access zone (OAZ and two No-Take Zones (NTZs of a Marine Protected Area within the recently established shark sanctuary in Raja Ampat, Indonesia, where sharks have high monetary value as a tourism attraction. Shark abundance was significantly higher in the privately managed NTZs than in the OAZ. Across all management zones, neither zone size, depth nor reef complexity explained variations in shark abundance, suggesting that governance is the main driver of successful shark conservation areas. These trends were also reflected in species targeted by small-scale reef fisheries, including snappers, emperor, groupers, tunas, mackerels, and large-bodied wrasse and parrotfish. Interviews with shark fishers who lost access to their primary fishing grounds when the shark sanctuary was established showed that while most fishers (88% knew that sharks were protected in Raja Ampat, many were unsure about the purpose of the sanctuary. Few fishers felt that the agencies implementing fishing bans understood their livelihood needs. We found that shark fishers adapted to the loss of former

  12. Phylogenetic perspectives on the evolution of functional hermaphroditism in teleost fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erisman, Brad E; Petersen, Christopher W; Hastings, Philip A; Warner, Robert R

    2013-10-01

    Hermaphroditism is taxonomically widespread among teleost fishes and takes on many forms including simultaneous, protogynous, and protandrous hermaphroditism, bidirectional sex change, and androdioecy. The proximate mechanisms that influence the timing, incidence, and forms of hermaphroditism in fishes are supported by numerous theoretical and empirical studies on their mating systems and sexual patterns, but few have examined aspects of sex-allocation theory or the evolution of hermaphroditism for this group within a strict phylogenetic context. Fortunately, species-level phylogenetic reconstructions of the evolutionary history of many lineages of fishes have emerged, providing opportunities for understanding fine-scale evolutionary pathways and transformations of sex allocation. Examinations of several families of fishes with adequate data on phylogeny, patterns of sex allocation, mating systems, and with some form of hermaphroditism reveal that the evolution and expression of protogyny and other forms of sex allocation show little evidence of phylogenetic inertia within specific lineages but rather are associated with particular mating systems in accordance with prevalent theories about sex allocation. Transformations from protogyny to gonochorism in groupers (Epinephelidae), seabasses (Serranidae), and wrasses and parrotfishes (Labridae) are associated with equivalent transformations in the structure of mating groups from spawning of pairs to group spawning and related increases in sperm competition. Similarly, patterns of protandry, androdioecy, simultaneous hermaphroditism, and bidirectional sex change in other lineages (Aulopiformes, Gobiidae, and Pomacentridae) match well with particular mating systems in accordance with sex-allocation theory. Unlike other animals and plants, we did not find evidence that transitions between hermaphroditism and gonochorism required functional intermediates. Two instances in which our general conclusions might not hold

  13. Marine Protected Area monitoring in the nearshore waters of Grenada, Eastern Caribbean: benthic cover and fish populations

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    Robert Anderson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Grenada is highly dependent on coral reefs as a source of food and to support tourism. Local and global environmental stressors threaten these reefs. Legislation was created for this MPA in 2001, permanent mooring buoys were deployed in 2009 and enforcement of fishing restrictions began in 2010. Initiatives to address point and nonpoint source pollution from the land have recently begun, aimed at reducing stress on reef area. This study documents benthic cover and fish populations associated with reefs in a Marine Protected Area (MPA along Grenada’s southwest coast from 2008 through 2012. Both Point Line Intercept and Photo Quadrat methods were used to assess benthic cover along permanent 30m transects (8 in and 12 outside the area annually. Fish and Diadema antillarum urchin relative abundance were determined based on 2m wide belt surveys along the same transects. The predominant substrate cover was algae, ranging from 41% in 2009 to 74.2% in 2011. A general trend of increasing algal cover was noted. Combined annual survey results prior (2008-2010 and after controls were implemented (2011-2012 showed a significant increase in algal cover. The predominant algal form was macroalgae comprising 65.4% - 90.8% of total algae. Live hard coral percent cover ranged from 8.7% to 21.1%. Little annual variation was observed in percent live coral cover. Branching corals (34.1% - 52.3% of total living hard coral were the most common. Of the 19 living hard coral species identified, Porites porites (21%-23% and Porites astreoides (20% dominated percentage composition. Madracis mirabilis contributed 21% of total live hard coral outside the MPA but only 8.7% in the MPA. Of the 63 species of fish identified in the study areas Chromis spp. (71.5% - 46% was the dominant group. Wrasse had a significant increase from 6.9% in 2008 to 21.5% in 2010 inside the MPA with a similar increase peaking in 2011 outside the MPA. There was a noticeable (though not statistically

  14. The lagoon at Caroline/Millennium atoll, Republic of Kiribati: natural history of a nearly pristine ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie L Barott

    Full Text Available A series of surveys were carried out to characterize the physical and biological parameters of the Millennium Atoll lagoon during a research expedition in April of 2009. Millennium is a remote coral atoll in the Central Pacific belonging to the Republic of Kiribati, and a member of the Southern Line Islands chain. The atoll is among the few remaining coral reef ecosystems that are relatively pristine. The lagoon is highly enclosed, and was characterized by reticulate patch and line reefs throughout the center of the lagoon as well as perimeter reefs around the rim of the atoll. The depth reached a maximum of 33.3 m in the central region of the lagoon, and averaged between 8.8 and 13.7 m in most of the pools. The deepest areas were found to harbor large platforms of Favia matthaii, which presumably provided a base upon which the dominant corals (Acropora spp. grew to form the reticulate reef structure. The benthic algal communities consisted mainly of crustose coralline algae (CCA, microfilamentous turf algae and isolated patches of Halimeda spp. and Caulerpa spp. Fish species richness in the lagoon was half of that observed on the adjacent fore reef. The lagoon is likely an important nursery habitat for a number of important fisheries species including the blacktip reef shark and Napoleon wrasse, which are heavily exploited elsewhere around the world but were common in the lagoon at Millennium. The lagoon also supports an abundance of giant clams (Tridacna maxima. Millennium lagoon provides an excellent reference of a relatively undisturbed coral atoll. As with most coral reefs around the world, the lagoon communities of Millennium may be threatened by climate change and associated warming, acidification and sea level rise, as well as sporadic local resource exploitation which is difficult to monitor and enforce because of the atoll's remote location. While the remote nature of Millennium has allowed it to remain one of the few nearly pristine

  15. The Lagoon at Caroline/Millennium Atoll, Republic of Kiribati: Natural History of a Nearly Pristine Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barott, Katie L.; Caselle, Jennifer E.; Dinsdale, Elizabeth A.; Friedlander, Alan M.; Maragos, James E.; Obura, David; Rohwer, Forest L.; Sandin, Stuart A.; Smith, Jennifer E.; Zgliczynski, Brian

    2010-01-01

    A series of surveys were carried out to characterize the physical and biological parameters of the Millennium Atoll lagoon during a research expedition in April of 2009. Millennium is a remote coral atoll in the Central Pacific belonging to the Republic of Kiribati, and a member of the Southern Line Islands chain. The atoll is among the few remaining coral reef ecosystems that are relatively pristine. The lagoon is highly enclosed, and was characterized by reticulate patch and line reefs throughout the center of the lagoon as well as perimeter reefs around the rim of the atoll. The depth reached a maximum of 33.3 m in the central region of the lagoon, and averaged between 8.8 and 13.7 m in most of the pools. The deepest areas were found to harbor large platforms of Favia matthaii, which presumably provided a base upon which the dominant corals (Acropora spp.) grew to form the reticulate reef structure. The benthic algal communities consisted mainly of crustose coralline algae (CCA), microfilamentous turf algae and isolated patches of Halimeda spp. and Caulerpa spp. Fish species richness in the lagoon was half of that observed on the adjacent fore reef. The lagoon is likely an important nursery habitat for a number of important fisheries species including the blacktip reef shark and Napoleon wrasse, which are heavily exploited elsewhere around the world but were common in the lagoon at Millennium. The lagoon also supports an abundance of giant clams (Tridacna maxima). Millennium lagoon provides an excellent reference of a relatively undisturbed coral atoll. As with most coral reefs around the world, the lagoon communities of Millennium may be threatened by climate change and associated warming, acidification and sea level rise, as well as sporadic local resource exploitation which is difficult to monitor and enforce because of the atoll's remote location. While the remote nature of Millennium has allowed it to remain one of the few nearly pristine coral reef

  16. Comparative phylogeography of the western Indian Ocean reef fauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsa, Philippe; Durand, Jean-Dominique; Chen, Wei-Jen; Hubert, Nicolas; Muths, Delphine; Mou-Tham, Gérard; Kulbicki, Michel

    2016-04-01

    Assessing patterns of connectivity at the community and population levels is relevant to marine resource management and conservation. The present study reviews this issue with a focus on the western Indian Ocean (WIO) biogeographic province. This part of the Indian Ocean holds more species than expected from current models of global reef fish species richness. In this study, checklists of reef fish species were examined to determine levels of endemism in each of 10 biogeographic provinces of the Indian Ocean. Results showed that the number of endemic species was higher in the WIO than in any other region of the Indian Ocean. Endemic species from the WIO on the average had a larger body size than elsewhere in the tropical Indian Ocean. This suggests an effect of peripheral speciation, as previously documented in the Hawaiian reef fish fauna, relative to other sites in the tropical western Pacific. To explore evolutionary dynamics of species across biogeographic provinces and infer mechanisms of speciation, we present and compare the results of phylogeographic surveys based on compilations of published and unpublished mitochondrial DNA sequences for 19 Indo-Pacific reef-associated fishes (rainbow grouper Cephalopholis argus, scrawled butterflyfish Chaetodon meyeri, bluespot mullet Crenimugil sp. A, humbug damselfish Dascyllus abudafur/Dascyllus aruanus, areolate grouper Epinephelus areolatus, blacktip grouper Epinephelus fasciatus, honeycomb grouper Epinephelus merra, bluespotted cornetfish Fistularia commersonii, cleaner wrasse Labroides sp. 1, longface emperor Lethrinus sp. A, bluestripe snapper Lutjanus kasmira, unicornfishes Naso brevirosris, Naso unicornis and Naso vlamingii, blue-spotted maskray Neotrygon kuhlii, largescale mullet Planiliza macrolepis, common parrotfish Scarus psicattus, crescent grunter Terapon jarbua, whitetip reef shark Triaenodon obesus) and three coastal Indo-West Pacific invertebrates (blue seastar Linckia laevigata, spiny lobster

  17. The lagoon at Caroline/Millennium atoll, Republic of Kiribati: natural history of a nearly pristine ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barott, Katie L; Caselle, Jennifer E; Dinsdale, Elizabeth A; Friedlander, Alan M; Maragos, James E; Obura, David; Rohwer, Forest L; Sandin, Stuart A; Smith, Jennifer E; Zgliczynski, Brian

    2010-06-03

    A series of surveys were carried out to characterize the physical and biological parameters of the Millennium Atoll lagoon during a research expedition in April of 2009. Millennium is a remote coral atoll in the Central Pacific belonging to the Republic of Kiribati, and a member of the Southern Line Islands chain. The atoll is among the few remaining coral reef ecosystems that are relatively pristine. The lagoon is highly enclosed, and was characterized by reticulate patch and line reefs throughout the center of the lagoon as well as perimeter reefs around the rim of the atoll. The depth reached a maximum of 33.3 m in the central region of the lagoon, and averaged between 8.8 and 13.7 m in most of the pools. The deepest areas were found to harbor large platforms of Favia matthaii, which presumably provided a base upon which the dominant corals (Acropora spp.) grew to form the reticulate reef structure. The benthic algal communities consisted mainly of crustose coralline algae (CCA), microfilamentous turf algae and isolated patches of Halimeda spp. and Caulerpa spp. Fish species richness in the lagoon was half of that observed on the adjacent fore reef. The lagoon is likely an important nursery habitat for a number of important fisheries species including the blacktip reef shark and Napoleon wrasse, which are heavily exploited elsewhere around the world but were common in the lagoon at Millennium. The lagoon also supports an abundance of giant clams (Tridacna maxima). Millennium lagoon provides an excellent reference of a relatively undisturbed coral atoll. As with most coral reefs around the world, the lagoon communities of Millennium may be threatened by climate change and associated warming, acidification and sea level rise, as well as sporadic local resource exploitation which is difficult to monitor and enforce because of the atoll's remote location. While the remote nature of Millennium has allowed it to remain one of the few nearly pristine coral reef

  18. Recent growth trends and challenges in the Norwegian aquaculture industry Tendencias recientes de crecimiento y desafíos de la industria acuícola en Noruega

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asbjørn Bergheim

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 20 years, the Norwegian production of salmon and rainbow trout has increased by about 10% per year and will exceed 1 million MT in 2010. All on-growing after stocking in sea takes place in open cages in the fjords and along the coast, and the average cage volume has increased by about 300 times since the 1980's. Out of a total number of 4,000 cages more than 1,200 cages hold 20,000-60,000 m³. In 2005, the term 'maximum allowable biomass (MAB' was introduced and limits the highest annual production to 65 tons per 1,000 m³ licensed volume. Generally, the increasing volume and deeper cages have made the control of the fish stock more challenging. Sea lice attacks, especially in South Norway, have represented a major problem over the last three years. Reduced growth, increased mortality and lice treatment leads to significant losses and extra costs for the industry. Some recent reports indicate that increased use of wrasses in the cages improved the situation in the summer 2010 compared to the previous year. Extensive vaccinating and strict regulations regarding handling, etc. usually result in effective protection against diseases, but still there may occur regional outbreaks of serious diseases, such as pancreas disease (PD and infectious salmon anaemia (ISA. Attacks of sea lice and escape of salmon and trout from fish farms are considered to be among the main reasons for the strongly reduced wild stocks of sea trout and a reduced return of salmon spawners in the fjords and along the coast of southwest Norway.Durante los últimos 20 anos, la producción de salmón y trucha arcoiris en Noruega se ha incrementado en un 10% al ano y sobrepasará 1 millón de toneladas para el 2010. Todo el proceso de "engorda" ocurre en balsas-jaulas emplazadas en los fiordos y zonas costeras. El volumen promedio de una balsa-jaula se ha incrementado en un 300% desde sus inicios en 1980. En un universo de 4,000 balsas-jaulas se tiene que más de 1