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Sample records for humped zebu cattle

  1. Postpartum ovarian activity in South Asian zebu cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brar, P S; Nanda, A S

    2008-07-01

    Timely onset of postpartum ovarian activity is vital for optimal reproductive performance of dairy cows. Much depends upon genetic constitution of an animal although several factors interplay to govern the onset of postpartum ovarian activity. South Asian zebu cattle have much longer service period when compared with other exotic or crossbred cattle reared in the same Asian environment, which suggests differences in their genetic makeup. However, the cows with same genetic configuration expressed better reproductive potential when reared under different environment, such as in Brazil and Mexico, which suggests the role of extrinsic factors such as management, nutrition, environment and disease conditions. Better management of animals (provision of proper shade, water and housing, efficient oestrous detection and timely insemination), good quality nutrition supplemented with appropriate minerals and vitamins, prevention of diseases (vaccination, deworming, suitable therapeutic interventions) and application of biotechnology have helped in improving postpartum ovarian activity and, therefore, reproductive performance of zebu cattle in Asia. No comprehensive study appears to have been carried out on the various aspects of reproduction in zebu cattle reared under South Asian socio-agro-climatic conditions. This paper is a modest effort to collect what ever information available and to critically review the postpartum ovarian activity in zebu cattle with special reference to the effect of the various managemental practices and pharmacological interventions.

  2. Zebu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burgy, Laurent; Réveillère, Laurent; Lawall, Julia

    2011-01-01

    is a critical component of a network application since it represents the interface between the application and the outside world. It must thus satisfy two constraints: It must be efficient to be able to treat a large number of messages and it must be robust to face various attacks targeting the application......A network application communicates with other applications according to a set of rules known as a protocol. This communication is managed by the part of the application known as the protocol-handling layer, which enables the manipulation of protocol messages. The protocol-handling layer...... the protocol-handling layer of network applications that use textual HTTP-like application protocols. The Zebu syntax is very close to that of ABNF, facilitating the adoption of Zebu by domain experts. By annotating the original ABNF specification of a protocol, the Zebu user can dedicate the protocol...

  3. Exigências nutricionais de zebuínos: minerais Nutritional requirements of zebu cattle: minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Veiga Rodrigues Paulino

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de determinar as exigências dos macroelementos minerais (Ca, P, Mg, K e Na de zebuínos, foi conduzido um experimento no Departamento de Zootecnia da Universidade Federal de Viçosa, utilizando-se 16 novilhos castrados, com peso vivo médio inicial de 270 kg, mantidos em confinamento. Quatro animais foram abatidos, após o período de adaptação, para servirem como referência, e os doze restantes foram distribuídos em três tratamentos com diferentes níveis de concentrado nas dietas (5, 35 e 65%, na base da matéria seca (MS total, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. As dietas foram formuladas de forma a serem isoprotéicas. O volumoso foi constituído de pré-secado de capim-braquiária (Brachiaria brizantha e de capim-tifton 85 (Cynodon sp.. Os conteúdos de macroelementos minerais retidos no corpo foram estimados por meio de equações de regressão do logaritmo do conteúdo corporal dos macroelementos minerais, em função do logaritmo do peso de corpo vazio (PCVZ. As exigências líquidas dos macroelementos minerais, para ganho de 1 kg de PCVZ, foram obtidas utilizando-se a equação Y' = b.10ª. Xb-1, sendo a e b o intercepto e o coeficiente de regressão, respectivamente, das equações de predição dos conteúdos corporais de cada macroelemento mineral considerado. Verificou-se diminuição nas concentrações de todos os macroelementos minerais estudados, no corpo vazio e no ganho de corpo vazio, com a elevação do peso vivo. As relações obtidas para g Ca/100g de proteína retida e g P/100 g de proteína retida foram, respectivamente, 10,92 e 5,26.With the objective to determine the macrominerals (Ca, P, Mg, Na, K requirements of zebu cattle, a trial involving sixteen zebu steers with initial live weight of 270 kg was conducted. Four steers were slaughtered after the adaptation period of the trial, performing the reference group, and the remaining were uniformly allotted to a

  4. Revisiting AFLP fingerprinting for an unbiased assessment of genetic structure and differentiation of taurine and zebu cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsunomiya, Yuri Tani; Bomba, Lorenzo; Lucente, Giordana; Colli, Licia; Negrini, Riccardo; Lenstra, Johannes Arjen; Erhardt, Georg; Garcia, José Fernando; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo

    2014-04-17

    Descendants from the extinct aurochs (Bos primigenius), taurine (Bos taurus) and zebu cattle (Bos indicus) were domesticated 10,000 years ago in Southwestern and Southern Asia, respectively, and colonized the world undergoing complex events of admixture and selection. Molecular data, in particular genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers, can complement historic and archaeological records to elucidate these past events. However, SNP ascertainment in cattle has been optimized for taurine breeds, imposing limitations to the study of diversity in zebu cattle. As amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers are discovered and genotyped as the samples are assayed, this type of marker is free of ascertainment bias. In order to obtain unbiased assessments of genetic differentiation and structure in taurine and zebu cattle, we analyzed a dataset of 135 AFLP markers in 1,593 samples from 13 zebu and 58 taurine breeds, representing nine continental areas. We found a geographical pattern of expected heterozygosity in European taurine breeds decreasing with the distance from the domestication centre, arguing against a large-scale introgression from European or African aurochs. Zebu cattle were found to be at least as diverse as taurine cattle. Western African zebu cattle were found to have diverged more from Indian zebu than South American zebu. Model-based clustering and ancestry informative markers analyses suggested that this is due to taurine introgression. Although a large part of South American zebu cattle also descend from taurine cows, we did not detect significant levels of taurine ancestry in these breeds, probably because of systematic backcrossing with zebu bulls. Furthermore, limited zebu introgression was found in Podolian taurine breeds in Italy. The assessment of cattle diversity reported here contributes an unbiased global view to genetic differentiation and structure of taurine and zebu cattle populations, which is essential for an

  5. Exigências nutricionais de zebuínos: energia Nutritional requirements of zebu cattle: energy

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    Pedro Veiga Rodrigues Paulino

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de determinar as exigências de energia e as eficiências de utilização da energia metabolizável para ganho de peso e mantença de zebuínos, foi desenvolvido um experimento envolvendo 19 novilhos anelorados, com peso vivo médio inicial de 270 kg. Quatro animais foram abatidos ao início do experimento, para servirem de referência para estudos posteriores, três foram alimentados ao nível de mantença e os 12 restantes foram alocados em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com três tratamentos: 5, 35 e 65% de concentrado na base da matéria seca total. O volumoso foi constituído de pré-secado de capim-braquiária (Brachiaria brizantha e de capim-tifton 85 (Cynodon sp.. As dietas foram isonitrogenadas e os animais foram alimentados ad libitum. A exigência líquida de energia para mantença (ELm foi estimada como o anti-log do intercepto da equação obtida pela regressão linear entre o logaritmo da produção de calor (PC e o consumo de energia metabolizável (CEM, bem como pelo coeficiente "a" da equação de regressão exponencial entre a PC e o CEM dos animais do tratamento com 35% de concentrado e os do grupo mantença. As quantidades de energia e gordura no ganho elevaram-se com o aumento do peso vivo (PV dos animais. O teste de identidade dos modelos de regressão demonstrou não haver diferenças entre os tratamentos. O requisito energético diário para mantença foi de 68,60 kcal/PV0,75. A k m estimada foi de 0,66 e as k g calculadas foram de 0,26; 0,41 e 0,46, respectivamente, para concentrações de EM de 2,31; 2,47 e 2,62 Mcal/kg de MS, correspondentes aos teores de 5, 35 e 65% de concentrado na dieta. Os requisitos diários de EM e NDT para mantença de um animal de 400 kg de PV foram de 9,30 Mcal e 2,57 kg, respectivamente.A trial involving nineteen zebu steers with initial live weight of 270 kg were conducted with the objective of determining their energy requirements and the efficiency of utilization of

  6. Breed and heterosis effects of American Zebu cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, D E

    1980-06-01

    The Brahman (American Zebu) has been evaluated in numerous crossbreeding studies throughout the Southern United States. Brahman females producing straightbred calves have usually been found to have a lower calving percentage, calf survival rate and weaning rate than other contemporary straightbreds, although they have been reported to be superior or competitive in some studies. Birth weights of Brahman calves have been larger than those of Angus, smaller than Charolais and comparable to those of Herefords. Brahman steers generally have had lower postweaning daily gains, lower carcass grades, less backfat and higher Warner-Bratzler shear values than other contemporary straightbreds. Heterosis estimates for reproduction have been small and variable in producing F1 calves, but larger and positive for reproductive traits of F1 cows. Birth and weaning weight heterosis estimates averaged 3.3 and 21.7 kg for F1 calves and 1.9 and 31.1 kg for calves of F1 cows. Small and variable heterosis estimates have been found for all carcass traits.

  7. Economics of finishing Tanzania Shorthorn Zebu cattle in feedlot and optimum finishing period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asimwe, L.; Kimambo, A E; Laswai, G. H.

    2016-01-01

    Economic potential of finishing Tanzania Shorthorn Zebu (TSZ) cattle in feedlot was analysed using data obtained from two feedlot experiments carried out at Kongwa ranch in Tanzania. The experiments were performed to evaluate the effects of feeding agro-processing by products and length of feedlot...... finishing for TSZ cattle. The biological data collected from the two experiments were used as basis for deriving the economic scenarios. The range of days steers were kept in feedlot was set at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 days. The dietary metabolisable energy intake (MEI) levels used in the study were 55 MJ...... in feedlot. Non-feed costs per kg extra meat were higher for short stays (4,500 TSh.) than long stays (2,630 TSh.) If meat prices were independent on finishing period length, high MEI was profitable with increment of (81%) profit per kg extra meat for an increase from 50 to 75 days in feedlot. Assuming a 10...

  8. Incidence of gross reproductive abnormalities in small east African zebu cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assey, R J; Kessy, B M; Matovelo, J A; Minga, U

    1998-12-01

    Reproductive organs from mature Small East African zebu (SEAZ) heifers and cows slaughtered at the Morogoro abattoir were collected twice a month and evaluated over a period of 12 months. Out of the 402 animals from which reproductive organs were taken, 54% were pregnant, 24% were actively cycling and 22% were non-cycling. Various gross abnormalities were observed in the reproductive organs of about 16% of the cattle, and the major reproductive abnormality in both total and the non-cycling animals was various degrees of fibrous adhesion between the ovary and the infundibulum and mesosalpinx. It is concluded that, contrary to common belief, a majority of the female SEAZ cattle that are slaughtered are fertile.

  9. Economics of finishing Tanzania Shorthorn Zebu cattle in feedlot and optimum finishing period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asimwe, L.; Kimambo, A E; Laswai, G. H.

    2016-01-01

    Economic potential of finishing Tanzania Shorthorn Zebu (TSZ) cattle in feedlot was analysed using data obtained from two feedlot experiments carried out at Kongwa ranch in Tanzania. The experiments were performed to evaluate the effects of feeding agro-processing by products and length of feedlot...... finishing for TSZ cattle. The biological data collected from the two experiments were used as basis for deriving the economic scenarios. The range of days steers were kept in feedlot was set at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 days. The dietary metabolisable energy intake (MEI) levels used in the study were 55 MJ...... in feedlot. Non-feed costs per kg extra meat were higher for short stays (4,500 TSh.) than long stays (2,630 TSh.) If meat prices were independent on finishing period length, high MEI was profitable with increment of (81%) profit per kg extra meat for an increase from 50 to 75 days in feedlot. Assuming a 10...

  10. Revisiting AFLP fingerprinting for an unbiased assessment of genetic structure and differentiation of taurine and zebu cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Utsunomiya, Yuri T.; Bomba, Lorenzo; Lucente, Giordana; Colli, Licia; Negrini, Riccardo; Lenstra, Johannes A.; Erhardt, Georg; Garcia, José F.; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Moazami-Goudarzi, K.; Williams, J.; Wiener, P.; Olsaker, I.; Kantanen, J.; Dunner, S.; Cañón, J.; Rodellar, C.; Martín-Burriel, I.; Valentini, A.; Zanotti, M.; Holm, L. E.; Eythorsdottir, E.; Mommens, G.; Polygen, Van Haeringen; Nijman, I. J.; Dolf, G.; Bradley, D. G.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Descendants from the extinct aurochs (Bos primigenius), taurine (Bos taurus) and zebu cattle (Bos indicus) were domesticated 10,000 years ago in Southwestern and Southern Asia, respectively, and colonized the world undergoing complex events of admixture and selection. Molecular data, in

  11. Chemical classification of cattle. 2. Phylogenetic tree and specific status of the Zebu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manwell, C; Baker, C M

    1980-01-01

    Phylogenetic trees for the ten major breed groups of cattle were constructed by Farris's (1972) maximum parsimony method, or Fitch & Margoliash's (1967) method, which averages ou the deviation over the entire assemblage. Both techniques yield essentially identical trees. The phylogenetic tree for the ten major cattle breed groups can be superimposed on a map of Europe and western Asia, the root of the tree being close to the 'fertile crescent' in Asia Minor, believed to be a primary centre of bovine domestication. For some but not all protein variants there is a cline of gene frequencies as one proceeds from the British Isles and northwest Europe towards southeast Europe and Asia Minor, with the most extreme gene frequencies in the Zebu breeds of India. It is not clear to what extent the observed clines are primary or secondary, i.e., consequent to the initial migrations of cattle towards the end of the Pleistocene or consequent to the many migrations of man with his domesticated cattle. Such clines as exist are not in themselves sufficient to prove either selection versus genetic drift or to establish taxonomic ranking. Contrary to some suggestions in the literature, the biochemical evidence supports Linnaeus's original conclusions: Bos taurus and Bos indicus are distinct species.

  12. EVALUATION OF ZEBU NELLORE CATTLE BLOOD SAMPLES USING THE CELL-DYN 3500 HEMATOLOGY ANALYZER

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    Alexandre Secorun Borges

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Cell-dyn 3500 is a multiparameter flow cytometer, which may analyze samples from several species performing several simultaneous analyses. It is able to perform white blood cells, red blood cells and platelet counts, besides differential leukocyte counts, packed cell volume and hemoglobin determination. Cell-Dyn 3500 performs total leukocyte count both optically and by impedance. The equipment may choose one or other method, based on the reliability of the results. Erythrocyte and platelet counts are determined by impedance. Leukocyte differentiation is based on an optical principle, using separation in multiangular polarized light. The objective of this study was to compare the results of complete blood count of Zebu Nellore heifers from Celldyn 3500, with those obtained from a semi-automated cell counter (Celm CC 510 and the manual technique. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein in 5 mL EDTA vacuum tubes from 58 Nellore heifers, at 24 months of age. Samples were processed in parallel in the three different techniques. Results were analyzed using paired t test, Pearson’s correlation and the Bland-Altmann method. There was a strong correlation for all parameters analyzed by Cell-Dyn 3500, manual method and semiautomated cell counter, except for basophils and monocytes counts. These results confirm that this analyzer is reliable for blood samples analysis of zebu cattle.

  13. INTERVALO ENTRE PARTOS EM GADO AZEBUADO CALVING INTERVAL IN CROSSBRED ZEBU CATTLE

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    José Marcelino Sobrinho

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O trabalho apresenta o estudo de 296 dados de intervalos entre partos em gado azebuado do planalto central de Goiás, município de Anápolis. Observou-se que o intervalo médio entre partos foi de 17,37 +/- 0,24 meses.

    The work presents the study of 296 calving intervals data in crossbred zebu cattle of the Central Plateau in Anápolis, Goiás. It was observed that the average calving intervals were 17.37 +/- 0.24 months.

  14. Constraints to estimating the prevalence of trypanosome infections in East African zebu cattle

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    Cox Andrew P

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In East Africa, animal trypanosomiasis is caused by many tsetse transmitted protozoan parasites including Trypanosoma vivax, T. congolense and subspecies of T. brucei s.l. (T. b. brucei and zoonotic human infective T. b. rhodesiense that may co-circulate in domestic and wild animals. Accurate species-specific prevalence measurements of these parasites in animal populations are complicated by mixed infections of trypanosomes within individual hosts, low parasite densities and difficulties in conducting field studies. Many Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR based diagnostic tools are available to characterise and quantify infection in animals. These are important for assessing the contribution of infections in animal reservoirs and the risk posed to humans from zoonotic trypanosome species. New matrices for DNA capture have simplified large scale field PCR analyses but few studies have examined the impact of these techniques on prevalence estimations. Results The Whatman FTA matrix has been evaluated using a random sample of 35 village zebu cattle from a population naturally exposed to trypanosome infection. Using a generic trypanosome-specific PCR, prevalence was systematically evaluated. Multiple PCR samples taken from single FTA cards demonstrated that a single punch from an FTA card is not sufficient to confirm the infectivity status of an individual animal as parasite DNA is unevenly distributed across the card. At low parasite densities in the host, this stochastic sampling effect results in underestimation of prevalence based on single punch PCR testing. Repeated testing increased the estimated prevalence of all Trypanosoma spp. from 9.7% to 86%. Using repeat testing, a very high prevalence of pathogenic trypanosomes was detected in these local village cattle: T. brucei (34.3%, T. congolense (42.9% and T. vivax (22.9%. Conclusions These results show that, despite the convenience of Whatman FTA cards and specific PCR based

  15. Cellular thermotolerance is independent of HSF 1 expression in zebu and crossbred non-lactating cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Jaspreet Kaur; Arora, J. S.; Sunil Kumar, B. V.; Mukhopadhyay, C. S.; Kaur, Simarjeet; Kashyap, Neeraj

    2017-04-01

    Heat stress is an important domain of research in livestock due to its negative impact on production and disease resistance. The augmentation of stress in the body stimulates the antioxidative activity comprising various enzymes (viz., catalase, superoxide dismutase), metabolites (reduced glutathione, etc.), vitamins, minerals, etc. to combat the situation. The major key players involved in regulation of heat shock response in eukaryotes are the transcription factors, called as heat shock factors (HSF). They activate the heat shock protein (HSP) genes by binding to their promoters. Lymphocytes are considered to be the best model to evaluate the immunity in any living body as it contains plethora of white blood cells (WBCs).In this study, the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) obtained from non-lactating Sahiwal vis-à-vis crossbred (Holstein Friesian × Sahiwal) cattle with 75% or more exotic inheritance were subjected to heat shock at 39, 41, and 43 °C in three different incubators, in vitro. The cell count and viability test of pre and post heat stress of concerned PBMCs indicated that the crossbreeds are more prone to heat stress as compared to Sahiwal. The reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) expression data revealed an increment in HSF1 expression at 41 °C which subsequently declined (non-significantly) at 43 °C in both breeds post 1 h heat shock. However, the association between the HSF 1 expression and antioxidative activity through correlation analysis was found to be non-significant (P oxidative stress in vitro in zebu and crossbred cattle.

  16. Exigências nutricionais de zebuínos: proteína Nutritional requirements of Zebu cattle: protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Veiga Rodrigues Paulino

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de determinar as exigências protéicas de zebuínos, foi conduzido um experimento no Departamento de Zootecnia da Universidade Federal de Viçosa, utilizando-se 19 novilhos castrados, com peso vivo médio inicial de 270 kg, mantidos em confinamento. Quatro animais foram abatidos após o período de adaptação, compondo o grupo referência. Dos 15 animais restantes, três foram designados ao grupo mantença e os 12 demais distribuídos em três tratamentos com diferentes níveis de concentrado nas dietas (5, 35 e 65%, na base da matéria seca (MS total, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. As dietas foram formuladas de forma a serem isoprotéicas. O volumoso foi constituído de pré-secado de capim-braquiária (Brachiaria brizantha e de capim-tifton 85 (Cynodon sp.. O conteúdo de proteína retido no corpo foi estimado por meio de equação de regressão do logaritmo do conteúdo corporal de proteína, em função do logaritmo do peso de corpo vazio (PCVZ. Derivando-se a equação de predição do conteúdo corporal de proteína, foram obtidas as exigências líquidas de proteína para ganho de 1 kg de PCVZ. As exigências líquidas de proteína para ganho diminuíram com o aumento do peso vivo (PV dos animais. A exigência líquida de proteína encontrada para um animal com PV de 400 kg foi de 106,84 g/kg de ganho de peso de corpo vazio (GPCVZ, enquanto para um animal de 200 kg foi de 129,01 g por kg de GPCVZ. As exigências de proteína metabolizável para mantença (PMm e ganho de peso (PMg estimadas foram de 339,88 e 217,14 g/kg PV, respectivamente, para um bovino castrado de 400 kg de PV. Para esse mesmo tipo de animal, as exigências de proteína degradável e não-degradável no rúmen foram de, respectivamente, 830,86 e 4,46 g/dia, correspondendo à exigência de proteína bruta de 835,32 g/dia.A trial involving nineteen zebu steers with initial live weight of 270 kg was conducted with the

  17. Reactivity, performance, color and tenderness of meat from Zebu cattle finished in feedlot

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    Julimar do Sacramento Ribeiro

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to study the animal reactivity and correlate it with performance and meat quality of cattle finished in feedlots. A total of 20 animals of the Tabapuã breed and 20 animals of the Nellore breed were confined for 112 days: 28 days of adaptation and 84 days of data collection. Performance was determined by the average daily weight gain (ADG and average dry matter intake (DMI estimated through the use of indicators. On the 1st, 42nd and 84th days of the experiment, two methods were used to measure the animal reactivity: animal reactivity in mobile cage and visual reactivity during handling. The characteristics of meat quality were evaluated by the color, shear force and pH24 after slaughter (pH24. Through the study of correlation, the degree and direction of linear association on animal reactivity, performance and meat quality were established. Regression equations were generated for the parameters evaluated according to the values of animal reactivity. Correlations between mobile cage and visual reactivity were 0.77, 0.56 and 0.45 in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd evaluations, respectively. There was no correlation between animal reactivity and DMI. The correlations between ADG, pH24, and color with animal reactivity were -0.31, 0.40, 0.47 and -0.34, and -0.33 for mobile cage, 0.74, 0.71 and -0.51, for visual reactivity, respectively. The parameters of meat quality varied according to the reactivity. Undesirable values of pH24, animal reactivity and color were found when mobile cage reactivity was higher than 780, 590 and 540, respectively. In general, animals that show greater reactivity tend to have lower daily weight gain and lower meat quality. The reactivity can be used in animal breeding programs, in order to improve performance and meat quality of Zebu cattle finished in feedlot.

  18. Tick burden and prevalence of Theileria parva infection in Tarime zebu cattle in the lake zone of Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laisser, Emmanuel Levillal Katamboi; Kipanyula, Maulilio John; Msalya, George; Mdegela, Robinson Hammerthon; Karimuribo, Esron Daniel; Mwilawa, Anjello Joseph; Mwega, Elisa Daniel; Kusiluka, Lughano; Chenyambuga, Sebastian Wilson

    2014-12-01

    This study was carried out to assess the distribution, abundance of different tick genera and prevalence of Theileria parva infection in Tarime zebu cattle kept in selected wards of Serengeti and Tarime districts in Mara region. Adult ticks were identified and counted from half body parts of 360 animals which were extensively managed in communal land with natural pastures. Concurrently, blood samples were collected and thereafter DNA extracted and a nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) was done using primers specific for p104 gene to detect the presence of T. parva DNA. Ticks were identified into four groups: Amblyomma genus, Boophilus sub-genus of Rhipicephalus genus, other species of Rhipicephalus, and Hyalomma genus. Rhipicephalus genus accounted for 71.8 % of the total ticks, whereas Amblyomma, Boophilus sub-genus of Rhipicephalus genus and Hyalomma constituted 14.1, 14.0 and 0.1 %, respectively. There were more animals (p < 0.05) infested with ticks in Tarime district (96.1 %) than in Serengeti (61.7 %). The average counts of ticks were higher in adult animals (p < 0.05) than in young animals. The overall prevalence of T. parva was 27.7 % and was higher (p < 0.05) in Serengeti (38.3 %) than in Tarime district (16.7 %). However, all animals tested positive for T. parva did not show any clinical signs of East Coast fever (ECF), suggesting the existence of subclinical infection in Tarime zebu. These results suggest that Tarime cattle can tolerate ECF infection and are likely to serve as potential carriers of T. parva to other less-tolerant cattle breeds in mixed herds. Since Tarime cattle are preferred by most farmers with mixed herds, routine screening for T. parva is highly recommended to minimize introduction of infected cattle into an immunologically naive population.

  19. Variation at the Calpain 3 gene is associated with meat tenderness in zebu and composite breeds of cattle

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    Bunch Rowan J

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL affecting meat tenderness have been reported on Bovine chromosome 10. Here we examine variation at the Calpain 3 (CAPN3 gene in cattle, a gene located within the confidence interval of the QTL, and which is a positional candidate gene based on the biochemical activity of the protein. Results We identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP in the genomic sequence of the CAPN3 gene and tested three of these in a sample of 2189 cattle. Of the three SNP genotyped, the CAPN3:c.1538+225G>T had the largest significant additive effect, with an allele substitution effect in the Brahman of α = -0.144 kg, SE = 0.060, P = 0.016, and the polymorphism explained 1.7% of the residual phenotypic variance in that sample of the breed. Significant haplotype substitution effects were found for all three breeds, the Brahman, the Belmont Red, and the Santa Gertrudis. For the common haplotype, the haplotype substitution effect in the Brahman was α = 0.169 kg, SE = 0.056, P = 0.003. The effect of this gene was compared to Calpastatin in the same sample. The SNP show negligible frequencies in taurine breeds and low to moderate minor allele frequencies in zebu or composite animals. Conclusion These associations confirm the location of a QTL for meat tenderness in this region of bovine chromosome 10. SNP in or near this gene may be responsible for part of the overall difference between taurine and zebu breeds in meat tenderness, and the greater variability in meat tenderness found in zebu and composite breeds. The evidence provided so far suggests that none of these tested SNP are causative mutations.

  20. Studies on effects of lactose on experimental Trypanosoma vivax infection in Zebu cattle. 2. Packed cell volume

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    M.Y. Fatihu

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The ability of intravenously administered lactose in normal saline to prevent a decline in packed cell volume (PCV during experimental trypanosomosis was studied in Zebu cattle. During the lactose infusion period, the PCV was stable up to Day 5 post-infection (p.i. in a lactose-infused group, compared to that in an uninfused group in which the PCV dropped significantly (P < 0.05 as shown by the values of cumulative percentage change. Furthermore the mean rate of change in PCV was significantly (P < 0.05 higher in the uninfused group relative to the lactose-infused group during the same period. While the PCV fell markedly in the lactose-infused group a day after lactose infusion was stopped (Day 13 p.i., subsequent PCV values were significantly (P < 0.05 higher compared to those in the uninfused group, up to the end of experiment on Day 17 p.i. However the mean rates of change in PCV did not vary significantly (P > 0.05 between the groups during the period in which lactose infusion was stopped. The mean levels of parasitaemic waves and parasitaemia were higher, more prolonged and more frequent in the lactose-infused group. It was inferred that the lactose was able to prevent an early onset of anaemia in the Trypanosoma vivax-infected Zebu cattle.

  1. Expression of HSP70 genes in skin of zebu (Tharparkar) and crossbred (Karan Fries) cattle during different seasons under tropical climatic conditions.

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    Maibam, Uttarani; Hooda, O K; Sharma, P S; Mohanty, A K; Singh, S V; Upadhyay, R C

    2017-01-01

    Skin is most important environmental interface providing a protective envelope to animals. It's always under the influence of both internal and external stressors. Heat shock proteins (HSP) are highly conserved stress proteins which play crucial roles in environmental stress tolerance and thermal adaptation. Present study was planned to observe the relative mRNA expression of inducible (HSP70.1 and HSP70.2) and constitutive (HSP70.8) HSP in skin of zebu (Tharparkar) and crossbred (Karan Fries) cattle during different seasons. Skin biopsies were collected from rump region of each animal, aseptically during winter, spring and summer season. Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction was performed to examine the gene expression of constitutive (HSP70.8) and inducible (HSP70.1 and HSP70.2) HSP in skin of both the breeds during different seasons. Present study observed higher expression of both constitutive and inducible HSP genes in both the breeds during summer and winter than spring season, but magnitude of increase was higher during summer than winter. During summer season, expression pattern of HSPs in skin showed breed differences, where constitutive HSP expression was higher in Tharparkar than Karan Fries and that of inducible HSP was higher in Karan Fries than Tharparkar. Hence, present study suggested that HSP may be conveniently used as biomarkers for assessing protective response of skin against heat stress in zebu and crossbred cattle. Variation in expression between breeds is associated with their heat tolerance and thermal adaptability. In summary, skin of zebu cattle (Tharparkar) is more resistant to summer stress than crossbred (Karan Fries), providing greater protection against heat stress during summer season. Superior skin protective mechanism of zebu (Tharparkar) than crossbred (Karan-Fries) cattle against heat stress may contribute to superior adaptability of zebu cattle to tropical climatic conditions than crossbreed. Copyright © 2016

  2. Residual feed intake and its effect on carcass and meat characteristics of feedlot Zebu cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julimar do Sacramento Ribeiro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the residual feed intake (RFI and its relation with performance, carcass and meat characteristics of Zebu animals. A total of 40 Zebu steers with initial age of 18 months and initial live weight of 350 kg were confined in feedlot for 112 days. The average daily gain (ADG and dry matter intake (DMI were obtained every 14 days. Residual feed intake was determined by the difference between observed and predicted DMI, based on the metabolic weight and the ADG. Animals were classified into the RFI groups: high (>0.5 standard deviation of the mean - least efficient, medium (±0.5 standard deviation of the mean and low (<0.5 standard deviation of the mean - most efficient. Daily cost with feeding and per kilogram of weight gain was determined. Characteristics of carcass (weight, yield, subcutaneous fat meat (pH, shear force and color were assessed. Animals with low RFI presented lower DMI. The variation in DMI between the low and the high RFI groups promoted difference in the daily cost with feeding and per kilogram of weight gain, with animals of low RFI presenting costs 5 and 9% lower, respectively. Carcass and meat characteristics differed over the RFI groups. The knowledge of the RFI of the animals enables a more efficient system, with reduction in the costs with feeding, without promoting alterations on the performance and carcass characteristics of the meat from Zebu animals.

  3. Prevalence and genetic characterization of Anaplasma marginale in zebu cattle (Bos indicus) and their ticks (Amblyomma variegatum, Rhipicephalus microplus) from Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothmann, Daniela; Poppert, Sven; Rakotozandrindrainy, Raphael; Hogan, Benedikt; Mastropaolo, Mariano; Thiel, Claudia; Silaghi, Cornelia

    2016-10-01

    Tick-borne bovine anaplasmosis, caused by the obligate intracellular pathogen Anaplasma marginale (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae), is a major constraint to cattle production in tropical and subtropical regions. From Madagascar, clinical cases were published but data based on molecular methods regarding the prevalence and genetic diversity of this pathogen on the island are lacking. The aims of this study were to investigate (1) the prevalence of A. marginale in Malagasy zebu cattle (Bos indicus) and their ticks with a species-specific real-time PCR, (2) the genetic diversity of A. marginale based on tandem repeats and microsatellites of the msp1α gene, and (3) the phylogenetic relationship between A. marginale isolates from Madagascar and strains found worldwide. Two hundred fourteen blood samples and 1822 ticks from 214 zebu cattle were collected. Rhipicephalus (R) microplus (40.2%) and Amblyomma (A) variegatum (59.8%) were identified on the cattle. A. marginale DNA was found in 89.7% of the examined zebu cattle and in 62.3% of the examined ticks. The tandem repeat and microsatellite analyses of the mspa1 gene showed high genetic diversity among the isolates between and within the different regions and high infection potential. Eighteen of the 25 tandem repeats identified have not been described before. Phylogenetic analysis revealed clustering of A. marginale strains from Madagascar with South Africa, America and Israel. A common ancestor may originate from South Africa and may have evolved due to phylogeographic characteristics or by a history of cattle movement. Its high prevalence in cattle and ticks, together with a low number of clinical manifestations and a high genetic heterogeneity among the investigated strains, confirms endemic stability of A. marginale in cattle from Madagascar.

  4. Genomic divergence of zebu and taurine cattle identified through high-density SNP genotyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural selection has molded the evolution across all taxa. At an arguable date of around 330,000 years ago there were already at least two different types of cattle that became ancestors of nearly all modern cattle, the Bos primigenius taurus more adapted to temperate climates and the tropically ad...

  5. Amino acid profile of salivary proteins and plasmatic trace mineral response to dietary condensed tannins in free-ranging zebu cattle (Bos indicus) as a marker of habitat degradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yisehak, K.; Becker, A.; Rothman, J.M.; Dierenfeld, E.S.; Marescau, B.; Bosch, G.; Hendriks, W.H.; Janssens, G.P.J.

    2012-01-01

    In the southern hemisphere, foraging areas of cattle are affected by overgrazing and soil erosion resulting in decreased availability of grasses and increased amounts of browse plants high in condensed tannins (CT). This study aimed to identify biomarkers in free-ranging zebu cattle (Bos indicus) fo

  6. Control of the bush tick (Haemaphysalis longicornis) with Zebu x European cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicker, R W; Sutherst, R W

    1981-02-01

    Brahman x Hereford cattle carried only one-quarter as many engorging adult bush ticks (Haemaphysalis (Kaiseriana) longicornis) as Hereford. Simmental x Hereford or Friesian x Hereford cattle when grazed together on the north coast of New South Wales. Fourteen percent of a Brahman x Hereford herd carried half of the engorging ticks suggesting that infestation levels would be further reduced by culling procedures. The results indicate an additional advantage to those already established for Brahman x Hereford cattle on the north coast of New South Wales and have important implications for tick control.

  7. Technical note: Prediction of chemical rib section composition by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in Zebu beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prados, L F; Zanetti, D; Amaral, P M; Mariz, L D S; Sathler, D F T; Filho, S C Valadares; Silva, F F; Silva, B C; Pacheco, M C; Alhadas, H M; Chizzotti, M L

    2016-06-01

    It is expensive and laborious to evaluate carcass composition in beef cattle. The objective of this study was to evaluate a method to predict the 9th to 11th rib section (rib) composition through empirical equations using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry is a validated method used to describe tissue composition in humans and other animals, but few studies have evaluated this technique in beef cattle, and especially in the Zebu genotype. A total of 116 rib were used to evaluate published prediction equations for rib composition and to develop new regression models using a cross-validation procedure. For the proposed models, 93 ribs were randomly selected to calculate the new regression equations, and 23 different ribs were randomly selected to validate the regressions. The rib from left carcasses were taken from Nellore and Nellore × Angus bulls from 3 different studies and scanned using DXA equipment (GE Healthcare, Madison, WI) in the Health Division at Universidade Federal de Viçosa (Viçosa, Brazil). The outputs of the DXA report were DXA lean (g), DXA fat free mass (g), DXA fat mass (g), and DXA bone mineral content (BMC; g). After being scanned, the rib were dissected, ground, and chemically analyzed for total ether extract (EE), CP, water, and ash content. The predictions of rib fat and protein from previous published equations were different ( g) = 37.082 + 0.907× DXA lean ( = 0.95); fat free mass (g) = 103.224 + 0.869 × DXA fat free mass ( = 0.93); EE mass (g) = 122.404 + 1.119 × DXA fat mass ( = 0.86); and ash mass (g) = 18.722 + 1.016 × DXA BMC ( = 0.39). The equations were validated using Mayer's test, the concordance correlation coefficient, and the mean square error of prediction for decomposition. For both equations, Mayer's test indicated that if the intercept and the slope were equal to 0 and 1 ( > 0.05), respectively, then the equation correctly estimated the rib composition. Comparing observed and

  8. Nucleotide polymorphisms in the bovine lymphotoxin A gene and their distribution among Bos indicus zebu cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behl, Jyotsna Dhingra; Mishra, Priyanka; Verma, N K; Niranjan, S K; Dangi, P S; Sharma, Rekha; Behl, Rahul

    2016-03-15

    The present study was undertaken to characterize the genetic variation present in lymphoxin A gene (LTA gene) encoding for the lymphotoxin A protein also known as tumor necrosis factor beta, a cytokine produced by lymphocytes, known to be cytotoxic for a wide range of tumor cells both in vitro and in vivo, and, which is essential for normal immunological development; in 40 animals of 5 diverse Bos indicus Indian zebu cattle breeds. These breeds survive under the harsh and tough tropical climatic conditions of various parts of the Indian subcontinent. The LTA gene in the present study was observed to contain 33 SNPs and 3 small insertion/deletion polymorphisms. Four SNPs occurred in the coding regions of the gene viz. g.1327A>G and g.1400C>T in exon 2 and g.1840C>T and g.1942C>T in exon 3, of which the SNP g.1327A>G in exon 2 resulted in a non-synonymous amino acid change G38D. This amino acid change was however predicted not be affecting the protein function in any manner. The gene contained putative transcription factor binding sites for the c-Re1 and for Pax-4 transcription factors. A putative promoter region was also predicted on the reverse DNA strand from position 894 to 644. Several repeat elements and microsatellite repeats were detected to be occurring across the 3.2kb LTA gene sequence. The study showed the occurrence of 40 genotypes and 48 most probable haplotypes. The genotypes at the observed SNP positions in the LTA gene were in near Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. A negative Tajima's D value that was not significant statistically at P>0.10 indicated that the neutral mutation hypothesis could not be excluded. The genetic variations observed in the LTA gene in the present study have not been reported earlier and these could possibly be used as molecular markers for further studies involving association of the gene variability with disease resistance/tolerance traits.

  9. Signatures of selection for environmental adaptation and zebu × taurine hybrid fitness in East African shorthorn zebu

    Science.gov (United States)

    The East African Shorthorn Zebu (EASZ) cattle are ancient hybrid between Asian zebu × African taurine cattle preferred by local farmers due to their adaptability to the African environment. The genetic controls of these adaptabilities are not clearly understood yet. Here, we genotyped 92 EASZ sample...

  10. Growth performance and carcass characteristics of Tanzania Shorthorn Zebu cattle finished on molasses or maize grain with rice or maize by-products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asimwe, I.; Kimambo, A. E.; Laswai, G. H.

    2015-01-01

    Forty five steers (2.5–3.0 years of age and 200±5 (SEM) kg body weight) were allotted randomly into five diets to assess the effects of finishing Tanzania Shorthorn Zebu (TSZ) cattle in feedlot using diets based on either molasses or maize grain combined with maize or rice by-products. The diets...... were hay and concentrate mixtures of hominy feed with molasses (HFMO), rice polishing with molasses (RPMO), hominy feed with maize meal (HFMM), rice polishing with maize meal (RPMM) and a control of maize meal with molasses (MMMO). All concentrate mixtures contained cotton seed cake, mineral mixture......, salt and urea. Both hay and concentrate were fed ad libitum and with free access to drinking water for 90 days. Feed intake, body weights and carcass characteristics were recorded. The daily total dry matter intake (DMI, kg/day) was greater (P

  11. Meat yield and quality of Tanzania Shorthorn Zebu cattle finished on molasses/maize grain with agro-processing by-products in 90 days feedlot period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asimwe, L.; Kimambo, A E; Laswai, G;

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding molasses or maize grain with agro-processing by-products on yield and quality of meat from Tanzania shorthorn zebu (TSZ) cattle. Forty five steers aged 2.5 to 3.0 years with 200 +/- 5.4 kg body weight were allocated into five dietary......) and Warner Bratzler shear force (WBSF) values were determined on M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum aged for 3, 6, 9 and 12 days. Steers fed on HFMO diet had higher (P nutrient intake (86.39 MJ/d energy; 867 g/d CP), weight gain (919 g/d) and half carcass weight (75.8 kg) than those fed other diets...

  12. Detrimental effect of selection for milk yield on genetic tolerance to heat stress in purebred Zebu cattle: Genetic parameters and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, M L; Pereira, R J; Bignardi, A B; Filho, A E Vercesi; Menéndez-Buxadera, A; El Faro, L

    2015-12-01

    In an attempt to determine the possible detrimental effects of continuous selection for milk yield on the genetic tolerance of Zebu cattle to heat stress, genetic parameters and trends of the response to heat stress for 86,950 test-day (TD) milk yield records from 14,670 first lactations of purebred dairy Gir cows were estimated. A random regression model with regression on days in milk (DIM) and temperature-humidity index (THI) values was applied to the data. The most detrimental effect of THI on milk yield was observed in the stage of lactation with higher milk production, DIM 61 to 120 (-0.099kg/d per THI). Although modest variations were observed for the THI scale, a reduction in additive genetic variance as well as in permanent environmental and residual variance was observed with increasing THI values. The heritability estimates showed a slight increase with increasing THI values for any DIM. The correlations between additive genetic effects across the THI scale showed that, for most of the THI values, genotype by environment interactions due to heat stress were less important for the ranking of bulls. However, for extreme THI values, this type of genotype by environment interaction may lead to an important error in selection. As a result of the selection for milk yield practiced in the dairy Gir population for 3 decades, the genetic trend of cumulative milk yield was significantly positive for production in both high (51.81kg/yr) and low THI values (78.48kg/yr). However, the difference between the breeding values of animals at high and low THI may be considered alarming (355kg in 2011). The genetic trends observed for the regression coefficients related to general production level (intercept of the reaction norm) and specific ability to respond to heat stress (slope of the reaction norm) indicate that the dairy Gir population is heading toward a higher production level at the expense of lower tolerance to heat stress. These trends reflect the genetic

  13. Growth and carcass traits associated with GH1/Alu I and POU1F1/Hinf I gene polymorphisms in Zebu and crossbred beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério A. Curi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study were to estimate the allele and genotype frequencies of the GH1/Alu I and POU1F1/Hinf I polymorphisms in beef cattle belonging to different genetic groups and to determine the effects of these polymorphisms on growth and carcass traits in cattle submitted to feedlot management, an intensive production model. Genotyping was performed on 384 animals, including 79 Nellore, 30 Canchim (5/8 Charolais + 3/8 Zebu, 30 Simmental x Nellore crossbred and 245 Angus x Nellore crossbred cattle. Body weight, weight gain, dressing percentage, Longissimus dorsi area and backfat thickness were fitted using the General Linear Model (GLM procedure of the SAS program and the least square means of the genotypes were compared using the F test. The results showed significant associations between the LL genotype of the GH1/Alu I polymorphism and higher weight gain and body weight at slaughter (p < 0.05. The POU1F1/Hinf I polymorphism did not have any effect on the growth and carcass traits analyzed.

  14. Determination of Genetic Structure and Signatures of Selection in Three Strains of Tanzania Shorthorn Zebu, Boran and Friesian Cattle by Genome-Wide SNP Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msalya, George; Kim, Eui-Soo; Laisser, Emmanuel L. K.; Kipanyula, Maulilio J.; Karimuribo, Esron D.; Kusiluka, Lughano J. M.; Chenyambuga, Sebastian W.; Rothschild, Max F.

    2017-01-01

    Background More than 90 percent of cattle in Tanzania belong to the indigenous Tanzania Short Horn Zebu (TSZ) population which has been classified into 12 strains based on historical evidence, morphological characteristics, and geographic distribution. However, specific genetic information of each TSZ population has been lacking and has caused difficulties in designing programs such as selection, crossbreeding, breed improvement or conservation. This study was designed to evaluate the genetic structure, assess genetic relationships, and to identify signatures of selection among cattle of Tanzania with the main goal of understanding genetic relationship, variation and uniqueness among them. Methodology/Principal findings The Illumina Bos indicus SNP 80K BeadChip was used to genotype genome wide SNPs in 168 DNA samples obtained from three strains of TSZ cattle namely Maasai, Tarime and Sukuma as well as two comparative breeds; Boran and Friesian. Population structure and signatures of selection were examined using principal component analysis (PCA), admixture analysis, pairwise distances (FST), integrated haplotype score (iHS), identical by state (IBS) and runs of homozygosity (ROH). There was a low level of inbreeding (F~0.01) in the TSZ population compared to the Boran and Friesian breeds. The analyses of FST, IBS and admixture identified no considerable differentiation between TSZ trains. Importantly, common ancestry in Boran and TSZ were revealed based on admixture and IBD, implying gene flow between two populations. In addition, Friesian ancestry was found in Boran. A few common significant iHS were detected, which may reflect influence of recent selection in each breed or strain. Conclusions Population admixture and selection signatures could be applied to develop conservation plan of TSZ cattle as well as future breeding programs in East African cattle. PMID:28129396

  15. Fatores etários no leucograma de fêmeas zebuínas sadias da raça Nelore (Bos indicus Influence of age on the leukogram values for healthy Nelore (Zebu cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joselito Nunes Costa

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar-se a influência dos fatores etários sobre o leucograma de fêmeas zebuínas da raça Nelore, examinaram-se amostras de sangue de 158 animais, distribuídos por sete grupos etários ( até 3 meses; 3 a 6 meses; 6 a 12 meses; 12 a 24 meses; 24 a 48 meses; 48 a 72 meses e maior que 72 meses. Os resultados expressos em valores médios (± desvios padrões máximo (máx. e mínimo (mín. em milhares de células por mm³ para os diferentes componentes do leucograma foram os seguintes: leucócitos total máx. - 16992 ± 4104 ( 6 a 12 meses e min. -10353 ± 2397 (48 a 72 meses ; neutrófilos total máx. - 3931 ± 1578 (até 3 meses e min. - 2416 ± 1118 ( 6 a 12 meses ; eosinófilos máx. - 999 ± 499 (24 a 48 meses e min. - 265 ± 276 ( 3 a 6 meses ; basófilos máx. - 67 ± 88 (> 72 meses e min. - 39 ± 78 (6 a 12 meses; linfócitos típicos máx. - 12758 ± 3608 (6 a 12 meses e min. - 5906 ± 1883 (48 a 72 meses; linfócitos atípicos máx. - 1310 ± 603 (3 a 6 meses e min. - 760 ± 419 ( 48 a 72 meses ; linfócitos total máx. - 14079 ± 4027 (6 a 12 meses e min. - 6666 ± 2059 ( 48 a 72 meses ; monócitos máx. -27 ± 62 ( até 3 meses e min.- 0 ( 6 a 12 meses. A existência de diferenças (p > 0,05 entre grupos demonstrando diminuição dos neutrófilos e aumento dos linfócitos no primeiro ano de vida; a diminuição dos valores do total de leucócitos a partir de um ano de idade, como reflexo de comportamento similar dos números de linfócitos (típicos e atípicos e o aumento dos eosinófilos entre 24 e 48 meses de vida, caracterizaram a influência dos fatores etários sobre a variação dos valores dos componentes do leucograma de fêmeas zebuínas da raça Nelore criadas em São Paulo - Brasil.In order to evaluate the influence of the age on the white blood cell counts of Nelore (Zebu cattle, 158 blood samples from seven groups of different ages (group I-up to three months; group II-three to six months; group III-six to 12

  16. Microsatellite DNA typing for assessment of genetic variability in Tharparkar breed of Indian zebu (Bos indicus) cattle, a major breed of Rajasthan

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M. Sodhi; M. Mukesh; B. Prakash; S. P. S. Ahlawat; R. C. Sobti

    2006-12-01

    The present study estimates genetic variability with a set of 25 microsatellite markers in a random sample of 50 animals of Tharparkar breed of Indian zebu (Bos indicus) cattle. Tharparkar is a dual-purpose breed, valued for its milk as well as draught utility, and is adapted to the inhospitable Thar desert conditions of Rajasthan typified by summer temperature hovering above 50°C, sparse rainfall and vegetation, and scarcity of even drinking water. The observed number of alleles ranged from 4 (ETH3, ILSTS030, INRA5, INRA63 and MM8) to 11 (HEL9 and ILSTS034), with allelic diversity (average number of observed alleles per locus) of 6.20. Observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.25 (INRA63) to 0.77 (ETH10), and from 0.51 (HEL5 and HAUT27) to 0.88 (HEL9) respectively. Wide range of genetic variability supported the utility of these microsatellite loci in measurement of genetic diversity indices in other Indian cattle breeds too. Various average genetic variability measures, namely allele diversity (6.20), observed heterozygosity (0.57), expected heterozygosity (0.67) and mean polymorphism information content (0.60) values showed substantial within-breed genetic variability in this major breed of Rajasthan, despite accumulated inbreeding as reflected by high average inbreeding coefficient $(F_{\\text{IS}} = 0.39)$. The Tharparkar population has not experienced a bottleneck in the recent past.

  17. Meat yield and quality of Tanzania Shorthorn Zebu cattle finished on molasses/maize grain with agro-processing by-products in 90 days feedlot period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asimwe, L.; Kimambo, A E; Laswai, G

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding molasses or maize grain with agro-processing by-products on yield and quality of meat from Tanzania shorthorn zebu (TSZ) cattle. Forty five steers aged 2.5 to 3.0 years with 200 +/- 5.4 kg body weight were allocated into five dietary...... treatments namely hominy feed with molasses (HFMO), rice polishing with molasses (RPMO), hominy feed with maize meal (HFMM), rice polishing with maize meal (RPMM) and maize meal with molasses (MMMO). Ad libitum amount of each dietary treatment and hay were offered to nine steers for 90 days. Cooking loss (CL......) and Warner Bratzler shear force (WBSF) values were determined on M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum aged for 3, 6, 9 and 12 days. Steers fed on HFMO diet had higher (P nutrient intake (86.39 MJ/d energy; 867 g/d CP), weight gain (919 g/d) and half carcass weight (75.8 kg) than those fed other diets...

  18. Meat yield and quality of Tanzania Shorthorn Zebu cattle finished on molasses/maize grain with agro-processing by-products in 90 days feedlot period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asimwe, Lovince; Kimambo, Abiliza; Laswai, Germana

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding molasses or maize grain with agro-processing by-products on yield and quality of meat from Tanzania shorthorn zebu (TSZ) cattle. Forty five steers aged 2.5 to 3.0 years with 200 ± 5.4 kg body weight were allocated into five dietary...... treatments namely hominy feed with molasses (HFMO), rice polishing with molasses (RPMO), hominy feed with maize meal (HFMM), rice polishing with maize meal (RPMM) and maize meal with molasses (MMMO). Ad libitum amount of each dietary treatment and hay were offered to nine steers for 90 days. Cooking loss (CL......) and Warner Bratzler shear force (WBSF) values were determined on M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum aged for 3, 6, 9 and 12 days. Steers fed on HFMO diet had higher (P nutrient intake (86.39 MJ/d energy; 867 g/d CP), weight gain (919 g/d) and half carcass weight (75.8 kg) than those fed other diets...

  19. Using participatory epidemiology to investigate management options and relative importance of tick-borne diseases amongst transhumant zebu cattle in Karamoja Region, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byaruhanga, C; Oosthuizen, M C; Collins, N E; Knobel, D

    2015-12-01

    A participatory epidemiological (PE) study was conducted with livestock keepers in Moroto and Kotido districts, Karamoja Region, Uganda, between October and December 2013 to determine the management options and relative importance of tick-borne diseases (TBDs) amongst transhumant zebu cattle. Data collection involved 24 focus group discussions (each comprising 8-12 people) in 24 settlement areas (manyattas), key informant interviews (30), direct observation, a review of surveillance data, clinical examination, and laboratory confirmation of cases of TBDs. Methods used in group discussions included semi-structured interviews, simple ranking, pairwise ranking, matrix scoring, proportional piling and participatory mapping. The results of pairwise comparison showed the Ngakarimojong-named diseases, lokit (East Coast fever, ECF), lopid (anaplasmosis), loukoi (contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, CBPP), lokou (heartwater) and lokulam (babesiosis), were considered the most important cattle diseases in Moroto in that order, while ECF, anaplasmosis, trypanosomosis (ediit), CBPP and nonspecific diarrhoea (loleo) were most important in Kotido. Strong agreement between informant groups (Kendall's coefficient of concordance W=0.568 and 0.682; panimals that suffered from ECF, anaplasmosis, heartwater and babesiosis died, as the respective median scores for case fatality rates (CFR) were 89.5% (42, 100), 82.8% (63, 100), 66.7% (20, 100) and 85.7% (0, 100). In Kotido, diseases with high incidence scores were ECF (21% [6,32]), anaplasmosis (17% [10,33]) and trypanosomosis (8% [2,18]). The CFRs for ECF and anaplasmosis were 81.7% (44, 100) and 70.7% (48, 100), respectively. Matrix scoring revealed that disease indicators showed strong agreement (W=0.382-0.659, pimportant diseases in this pastoral region. Results from this study may assist in the design of feasible control strategies.

  20. Comparative biochemical changes in young Zebu cattle experimentally infected with Trypanosoma vivax from tsetse infested and non-tsetse infested areas of northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagnachew, Shimelis; Terefe, Getachew; Abebe, Getachew; Barry, Dave J; Goddeeris, Bruno M

    2014-10-15

    Trypanosomosis is a vector-borne protozoan disease of animals and humans in sub-Saharan Africa. In Ethiopia, particularly the northwest region is affected by both tsetse and non-tsetse transmitted trypanosomosis. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects and compare differences in virulence of Trypanosoma vivax infection between tsetse and non-tsetse infested areas of northwest Ethiopia on the basis of serum biochemical values in Zebu cattle. Eighteen cattles purchased from trypanosome free area and aged between 9 and 12 months were assigned into three groups of six animals (Group TT=infected with T. vivax from tsetse infested area, Group NT=infected with T. vivax from non-tsetse infested area and Group C=non-infected control). For each experimental animal 3 ml of blood from naturally infected cattle was inoculated intravenously at 10(6) trypanosomes/ml except the control. Blood sample was collected once a week for 8 consecutive weeks for analyzing serum biochemical values (glucose, total cholesterol, total protein, albumin, and enzymes including GOT, GPT and ALP) using a Humastar 80 clinical chemistry analyzer. Both T. vivax parasites caused an acute infection with parasites appearing in circulation on 6 and 12 days post-infection for NT and TT cattle, respectively. A significant reduction (P<0.001) in glucose levels was observed in infected groups compared with the control with mean values of 33.8 ± 3.6 mg/dl for TT, 34.3 ± 3.6 mg/dl for NT and 70.9 ± 3.0 mg/dl for control groups. A similar reduction was also seen in total cholesterol values (P=0.001) with 70.4 ± 10.6 mg/dl for TT and 78.0 ± 10.6 mg/dl for NT groups compared to 139.5 ± 8.7 mg/dl for the control group. No difference was observed for total serum protein between the three groups (P=0.260) whereas the mean albumin level was significantly (P<0.001) decreased (3.5 ± 0.1g/dl and 2.9 ± 0.1g/dl in TT and NT groups respectively) compared to that for control cattle (4.5 ± 0.1g

  1. Direct and maternal genetic effects on growth, reproduction, and ultrasound traits in zebu Brahman cattle in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, R A; Dassonneville, R; Bejarano, D; Jimenez, A; Even, G; Mészáros, G; Sölkner, J

    2016-07-01

    Covariance components and genetic parameters were estimated for birth weight (BiW); adjusted weights at 4, 7, 12, and 18 mo; and ADG between 0 and 4 mo, between 4 and 7 mo, between 7 and 12 mo, and between 12 and 18 mo. Additionally, reproductive traits, calving interval, and age at first calving were analyzed, together with traits measured by ultrasound: loin eye area, deep fat mean, back fat, and rump fat. Analyses were performed using an animal model, considering the fixed effects of the farm ( = 37), year and month of birth, sex, calving number (1 to 7), season (dry and rainy seasons), region (North Coast, Andean Region, and Oriental Savannas), and conception (natural mating or AI), whereas the age of the cows at calving was considered a polynomial covariate with linear and quadratic effects. Three different models were used to find the one with the best fit for each trait: a single-trait model with an additive direct genetic effect, a single-trait model with additive direct and maternal genetic effects, and finally, a multitrait model with an additive direct genetic effect. For the growth traits, the heritability was between 0.24 and 0.47, with the lowest value for weight at 7 mo and the greatest value for BiW, and the maternal heritability was found to be between 0.15 and 0.21 but did not decrease later on. The correlation between direct and maternal effects was high and negative (-0.59 to -0.76). With ultrasound traits, a model with only direct effects was used. The heritability was between 0.13 and 0.28 for back fat and loin eye area, respectively. The heritabilities for deep fat mean and rump fat were similar, being 0.19 and 0.21, respectively. The reproductive traits showed high residual variance. In particular, the heritability of calving interval was low (0.06). The results showed that the growth traits have an important genetic component, which is a favorable indicator for obtaining improvement progress in the zebu Brahman breed for beef production in

  2. Erythrocyte diameter of zebu Nelore cattle: influence of age factors, sex factors and Nelore breed lines Diâmetro eritrocitário de zebuínos da raça Nelore: influência de fatores etários, sexual e do tipo racial

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    Ivan Roque de Barros Filho

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The erythrocyte diameter of zebu Nelore cattle raised in the State of São Paulo were determined with aim of the analyzing the influence of age factors, sex factors and breed lines factors. In order to get up the subject, blood samples from 170 healthy animals free of blood parasites were collected and submitted to standard hematological techniques and mensuration of the erythrocyte diameter by blood smears glass with Rosenfeld color. To evaluate the influence of age, 140 Nelore Standard were divided into seven age groups, from birth to over 72 month, including 20 animals for each groups. The influence of sex factors, were evaluated using 80 adult animals: 40 male and 40 female. The influence of the breed lines factors, were evaluated using 60 zebus, 15 animals of different varieties or strain, the Nelore: Standard, Lemgruber, “Mocho” and Kuleia. The results demonstrated significant differences (p< 0,05 into the age group: the erythrocyte diameter increase, from the group of calves neonates up to three months (4,72 ± 0,29µm to the group formed by adult animal above of 72 months (5,45 ± 0,17µm. No had influence of the sex and breed lines factors in this study. The average standard values of the erythrocyte diameter of the Nelore cattle were 5,24 ± 0,62µm and the range from 3,5 to 7,5µm. The results demonstrated the influence of age on the erythrocyte diameter of zebu Nelore cattle.O diâmetro eritrocitário (DME de zebuínos da raça Nelore, criados no Estado de São Paulo, foi determinado avaliando-se a influência de fatores relacionados à idade, ao sexo e ao tipo racial. Foram colhidas amostras de sangue de 170 animais sadios, livre de hemoparasitas, realizando-se o eritrograma e os esfregaços corados com o corante Rosenfeld. A influência de fatores etários foi realizada utilizando-se 140 esfregaços de Nelore do tipo Padrão, distribuídos em sete grupos etários, compostos cada um deles por 20 animais, incluindo-se esfrega

  3. Assessment of adaptability of zebu cattle ( Bos indicus) breeds in two different climatic conditions: using cytogenetic techniques on genome integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Waiz, Syma Ashraf; Sridhar Goud, T.; Tonk, R. K.; Grewal, Anita; Singh, S. V.; Yadav, B. R.; Upadhyay, R. C.

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the genome integrity so as to assess the adaptability of three breeds of indigenous cattle reared under arid and semi-arid regions of Rajasthan (Bikaner) and Haryana (Karnal) India. The cattle were of homogenous group (same age and sex) of indigenous breeds viz. Sahiwal, Tharparkar and Kankrej. A total of 100 animals were selected for this study from both climatic conditions. The sister chromatid exchanges (SCE's), chromosomal gaps and chromatid breaks were observed in metaphase plates of chromosome preparations obtained from in vitro culture of peripheral blood lymphocytes. The mean number of breaks and gaps in Sahiwal and Tharparkar of semi-arid zone were 8.56 ± 3.16, 6.4 ± 3.39 and 8.72 ± 2.04, 3.52 ± 6.29, respectively. Similarly, the mean number of breaks and gaps in Tharparkar and Kankrej cattle of arid zone were 5.26 ± 1.76, 2.74 ± 1.76 and 5.24 ± 1.84, 2.5 ± 1.26, respectively. The frequency of SCEs in chromosomes was found significantly higher ( P 0.05) was observed in the same zone. The analysis of frequency of CAs and SCEs revealed significant effects of environmental conditions on the genome integrity of animals, thereby indicating an association with their adaptability.

  4. Utilização de método indireto para predição da composição química corporal de zebuínos Use of indirect method to predict chemical body composition in zebu cattle

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    André Mendes Jorge

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver equações de predição da composição química corporal de zebuínos, por intermédio da análise química de amostra de seção representativa da carcaça. Utilizaram-se sessenta e três animais não-castrados das raças Gir, Guzerá, Mocho de Tabapuã e Nelore. Os conteúdos corporais de proteína, gordura e macroelementos minerais (cálcio, fósforo, potássio, magnésio e sódio foram determinados analisando-se amostras de seção da carcaça incluindo a 9ª, 10ª e 11ª costelas (seção HH e dos demais tecidos corporais. Os teores de proteína, gordura, energia e macroelementos minerais da secção HH, com exceção para o magnésio, mostraram-se altamente correlacionados com a composição química corporal. As equações de predição baseadas na composição química da secção HH mostraram-se confiáveis para estudos comparativos da composição corporal de zebuínos.The objective of this study was to develop equations to predict chemical body composition from zebu cattle, based on chemical composition from carcass representative section. Sixty-three young bulls from Gyr, Guzera, Nellore and Mocho de Tabapuã breeds were used. Body content of protein, fat and minerals were determined on samples from the carcass section that included the 9th, 10th and 11th rib joint (HH joint, and from the remaining body tissues. Protein, fat, energy and ash contents from the HH joint, except for magnesium, were closely related to protein, fat, energy and ash contents in the body. Prediction equations based on chemical composition from HH joint showed to be reliable for comparative studies of body composition of zebu cattle.

  5. Preliminary efficacy investigations of oral fipronil against Anopheles arabiensis when administered to Zebu cattle (Bos indicus) under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poché, Richard M; Githaka, Naftaly; van Gool, Frans; Kading, Rebekah C; Hartman, Daniel; Polyakova, Larisa; Abworo, Edward Okoth; Nene, Vishvanath; Lozano-Fuentes, Saul

    2017-12-01

    Globally, malaria remains one of the most important vector-borne diseases despite the extensive use of vector control, including indoor residual spraying (IRS) and insecticide-treated nets (ITNs). These control methods target endophagic vectors, whereas some malaria vectors, such as Anopheles arabiensis, preferentially feed outdoors on cattle, making it a complicated vector to control using conventional strategies. Our study evaluated whether treating cattle with a capsule containing the active ingredient (AI) fipronil could reduce vector density and sporozoite rates, and alter blood feeding behavior, when applied in a small-scale field study. A pilot field study was carried out in the Samia District, Western Kenya, from May to July 2015. Four plots, each comprised of 50 huts used for sleeping, were randomly designated to serve as control or treatment. A week before cattle treatment, baseline mosquito collections were performed inside the houses using mechanical aspirators. Animals in the treatment (and buffer) were administered a single oral application of fipronil at ∼0.5mg/kg of body weight. Indoor mosquito collections were performed once a week for four weeks following treatment. Female mosquitoes were first identified morphologically to species complex, followed by PCR-based methods to obtain species identity, sporozoite presence, and the host source of the blood meal. All three species of anophelines found in the study area (An. gambiae s.s., An. arabiensis, An. funestus s.s.) were actively transmitting Plasmodium falciparum during the study period. The indoor resting density of An. arabiensis was significantly reduced in treatment plot one at three weeks post-treatment (T1) (efficacy=89%; T1 density=0.08, 95% credibility intervals [0.05, 0.10]; control plot density=0.78 [0.22, 0.29]) and at four weeks post-treatment (efficacy=64%; T1 density=0.16 [0.08, 0.14]; control plot density=0.48 [0.17, 0.22]). The reduction of An. arabiensis mosquitoes captured in

  6. Is the American Zebu really Bos indicus?

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    Meirelles Flávio V.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The American continent was colonized in the 16th century by Europeans who first introduced cattle of Bos taurus origin. Accounts register introduction of Bos indicus cattle into South America in the 19th and continuing through the 20th century, and most reported imports were males derived from the Indian subcontinent. In the present study we show, by using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA polymorphism, major participation of matrilineages of taurus origin in the American Zebu purebred origin, i.e., 79, 73 and 100% for the Nellore, Gyr and Brahman breeds, respectively. Moreover, we have created a restriction map identifying polymorphism among B. taurus and B. indicus mtDNA using three restriction enzymes. Results are discussed concerning American Zebu origins and potential use of this information for investigating the contribution of cytoplasmic genes in cattle production traits.

  7. Non-genetic Factors Affecting Gestation Lenght and Postpartum Intervals in Gudali Zebu Cattle of the Adamawa Highlands of Cameroon

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    Mbah, DA.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of non-genetic factors (sex of calf, calf birth weight, age of cow, season of calving affecting gestation length (GL and open days period (OP in the Ngaoundere Gudali cattle of the Adamawa (Cameroon was investigated. Mean GL was 293.4 ± 0.4 d. Sex of the calf significantly (P< 0.05 affected GL, with male calves being carried in utero approximately 3 days longer than the females (294.1 ± 1.2 vs 291.1 ± 1.2 d. Calf birth weight tended to increase as gestation lengthened. Parity and age of the cow had no significant (P> 0.05 effect on GL. The mean duration of the OP (from calving to conception was 267.7 ± 7.4 d. Approximately 23.2% of the cows conceived within 90 days of calving and a total of 55.6% had conceived by 360 days. The distribution of the OP was bimodal, and could have been influenced by seasonal availability of feed, or long (6 months mating season allowing cows to calve during the following mating season. Calving to conception interval was significantly (P< 0.001 affected by month of calving and parity. Sex of the calf did not affect significantly the duration of the postpartum period, although this period was 5 days longer following the birth of a male calf.

  8. Studies on effects of lactose on experimental Trypanosoma vivax infection in Zebu cattle. 1. Plasma kinetics of intravenously administered lactose at onset of infection and pathology

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    M. Y. Fatihu

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Lactose in normal saline was administered intravenously to a group of Zebu cattle infected with Trypanosoma vivax to determine the bloodplasma kinetics at onset of an experimental infection and its ability to protect tissues against damage as part of preliminary studies to determine its suitability for use in the treatment of trypanosomosis. Significant (P <0.01 higher lactose concentrations were observed in the T. vivax-intecled bulls at 30 min and 1h (P< 0.05 post-infectio (p.i. and by 4 h p.i. the plasma lactose remained above the level prior to infusion, after which it fell slightly below the preinfusion level in the uninfected group. Calculated pharmacokinetic parameters revealed delayed excretion of lactose in the T. vivax-intected group soon after infection. The total body clearance (C/B was significantly (P < 0.05 reduced. The biological half-life (t1/2, elimination rate constant (kel and apparent volume of distribution (Vd were relatively decreased (P > 0.05 as a result of the T. vivax infection. Retention of lactose in the plasma was attributed to decreased plasma clearance l.t is suggested that the presence of trypanosomes in circulation rather than organic lesions could have been responsible for the delay observed in the excretion of lactose.At 12 weeks p.i., when the experiment was terminated, the group infected and given lactose infusion (despiteh igherp arasitaemia had no gross or histopathological lesions in the brain, spleen, lymphnodes, heart, kidneys, liver and testes. However, the group infected but not infused with lactose were emaciated, had pale mucosae, watery blood, general muscular atrophy, serous atrophy of coronary fat and other adiposet issue, hepatomegalys, plenomegalys, wollen and oedematous lymph nodes, all of which are suggestive of trypanosomosis. Histopathological lesions included arrowing of Bowman's space and hypercellularity of glomerular tufts in the kidneys with the mean glomerula truft nucleairn dices

  9. Chemical classification of cattle. 1. Breed groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, C M; Manwell, C

    1980-01-01

    From approximately 1000 papers with data on protein polymorphism in some 216 breeds of cattle, 10 polymorphic proteins were compared in means and variances of gene frequencies (arcsin p 1/2) for ten well-recognized breed groups for 196 of the breeds. The polymorphic proteins were alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin, caseins (alpha s1, beta and chi), serum albumin, transferrin, haemoglobin, amylase I and carbonic anhydrase II. The breed groups were North European, Pied Lowland, European Red brachyceros, Channel Island brachyceros, Upland brachyceros, primigenius-brachyceros mixed, primigenius, Indian Zebu, African Humped (with Zebu admixture), and African Humped (Sanga). The coherence within groups and the differences between groups are often impressive. Only carbonic anhydrase II fails to differentiate at least some of the major breed groups. In some cases paradoxical distributions of rare genetic variants can be explained by a more detailed inspection of breed history. The chemical data support the morphological and geographical divisions of cattle into major breed groups. There are three distinct but related brachyceros groups; for some polymorphisms the two Channel Island breeds, the Jersey and the Guernsey, are quite divergent. Although some authorities have considered the Pied Lowland as primigenius, it is a very distinct breed group.

  10. Composição lipídica de carne bovina de grupos genéticos taurinos e zebuínos terminados em confinamento Lipid composition of meat from zebu and taurine cattle finished in confinement

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    Lizandra Vercezi Rossato

    2009-09-01

    Bos indicus (24.77%. For monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA, Bos taurus had higher levels of C14:1 cis9, C16:1 cis9, C18:1 cis9, ΣMUFA but lower levels of C:18:1 trans. For polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, Bos taurus presented higher percentages of C18:3 n-3, C20:4 n-6 and C22:5 n-3. The C18:2 n-6, CLA, C20:5 n-3, C22:6 n-3, ΣPUFA and Σn-6 FA were similar between the groups. The ratio n-6/n-3 was lower in Bos taurus (4.63 than in Bos indicus (5.70. In general, there was a genetic influences in the cholesterol and fatty acids of cattle profile, and this effect was more pronounced for saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids.

  11. Genetic Polymorphism of the Exon 2 of MHC-DQB Gene in Yunnan Humped Cattle%云南高峰牛MHC-DQB基因外显子2遗传多态性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    禹文海; 鲁绍雄; 和占龙; 刘红文; 陆润峰; 金建斌

    2011-01-01

    本研究采用PCR直接测序和PCR-RFLP法研究了云南高峰牛MHC-DQB基因外显子2(DQB.2)的遗传多态性,并利用DNAMAN软件分析了云南高峰牛与部分物种DQB.2相应核苷酸序列的同源性.结果发现,共检测到了17个等位基因,其中HaeⅢ酶切位点存在10种基因型,由A、B、C、D和E5个复等位基因控制;RsaⅠ酶切位点存在22种基因型,由A、B、C、D、E、F、G、H、I、J和K共11个复等位基因控制;Taq Ⅰ酶切位点只出现了1种基因型.分析发现,云南高峰牛DQB.2基因的12、25、63、96、106、126、152、156、165、204位的碱基表现出了多态性.所分析的物种该基因片段大小相同均为270 bp,云南高峰牛第224位碱基缺失及236位碱基插入现象.云南高峰牛与人、猪、马、绵羊、黄牛×瘤牛的核苷酸序列的同源性分别为81.4%、83.3%、78.1%、87.7%、86.6%.经x2检验结果表明,HaeⅢ和Taq Ⅰ酶切位点处于Hardy-Weinberg平衡状态(P>0.05),而RsaⅠ酶切位点则未达到Hardy-Weinberg平衡状态(P<0.05).%In this paper, the genetic polymorphism of the exon 2 of MHC-DQB gene was investigated by directly sequencing and PCR-RFLP in Yunnan humped cattle. Homology of the nucleotide acid sequences was analysis by DNAMAN software. The results showed that 17 alleles were found in this experiment, 10 kinds of genotypes and 5 (At B, C. D. E) alleles were found with enzyme Hae Ⅲ;22 kinds of genotypes and 11 (A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K) alleles were found with enzyme Rsa I;ionly one kind of genotype were found with enzyme Taq I . Polymorphic sites were detected at base position 12, 25, 63, 96, 106, 126, 152, 156, 165 and 204. The results showed that there were same lengths (270 bp) of gene fragment in various species, but there was a nucleotide missing at position 224 and a nucleotide insertion at position 236 in Yunnan humped cattle. The homology between Yunnan humped cattle and human, swine, horse, sheep, Yellow

  12. População protozoários ciliados e degradabilidade ruminal em búfalos e bovinos zebuínos sob dieta à base de cana-de-açúcar Rumen ciliate protozoa and degradability in buffalo and zebu cattle fed a sugar cane based diet

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    Raul Franzolin

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Três búfalos e três bovinos zebuínos adultos com cânulas ruminais foram alimentados à vontade com dieta de cana-de-açúcar fresca e picada, suplementada com 3 kg de concentrado/animal, durante 13 semanas. Após duas semanas de adaptação, amostras do conteúdo ruminal foram coletadas semanalmente, em dois tempos de amostragem: antes da alimentação e 40 minutos após para determinação da concentração e composição da fauna ruminal. Na quinta semana do experimento, os conteúdos ruminais foram misturados e reinoculados entre animais de mesma espécie e, na última semana, estimadas as degradabilidades in situ da MS, PB e FDN da cana-de-açúcar e MS e PB do concentrado. A concentração média de protozoários foi maior em bovinos, de 4,85 x 10(5/mL, que em búfalos, de 3,82 x 10(5/mL. As composições genéricas para Entodinium e subfamília Diplodiniinae foram 79,2 e 6,2% em bovinos e 32,0 e 54,9% em búfalos, respectivamente. Não houve interação significativa entre espécies animais e tempo de amostragem. Houve aumento da concentração média dos holotricos após 40 minutos da alimentação. As degradabilidades efetivas dos nutrientes estudados foram semelhantes entre as duas espécies animais, observando-se diferenças na cinética da degradação. Concluiu-se que os búfalos apresentaram menor concentração de ciliados no rúmen, maior composição de Diplodiniinae e menor de Entodinium que os bovinos; os holotricos exibiram capacidade de migração e seqüestro no rúmen em ambas as espécies; e as diferenças na fauna ruminal não influenciaram a degradabilidade efetiva dos nutrientes da cana-de-açúcar e do concentrado.Three rumen cannulated buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis and three zebu cattle (Bos indicus were fed chopped sugar cane ad libitum and 3 kg of concentrate/animal/day during 13 weeks. After two weeks of adaptation, samples of rumen contents were weekly collected at two times: just before feeding and 40 minutes

  13. Consumption Habits and Humps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Holger; Munk, Claus; Seifried, Frank Thomas

    We show that the optimal consumption of an individual over the life cycle can have the hump shape (inverted U-shape) observed empirically if the preferences of the individual exhibit internal habit formation. In the absence of habit formation, an impatient individual would prefer a decreasing...... consumption path over life. However, because of habit formation, a high initial consumption would lead to high required consumption in the future. To cover the future required consumption, wealth is set aside, but the necessary amount decreases with age which allows consumption to increase in the early part...... of life. At some age, the impatience outweighs the habit concerns so that consumption starts to decrease. We derive the optimal consumption strategy in closed form, deduce sufficient conditions for the presence of a consumption hump, and characterize the age at which the hump occurs. Numerical examples...

  14. Consumption Habits and Humps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Holger; Munk, Claus; Seifried, Frank Thomas

    2017-01-01

    We show that the optimal consumption of an individual over the life cycle can have the hump shape (inverted U-shape) observed empirically if the preferences of the individual exhibit internal habit formation. In the absence of habit formation, an impatient individual would prefer a decreasing...... consumption path over life. However, because of habit formation, a high initial consumption would lead to high required consumption in the future. To cover the future required consumption, wealth is set aside, but the necessary amount decreases with age which allows consumption to increase in the early part...... of life. At some age, the impatience outweighs the habit concerns so that consumption starts to decrease. We derive the optimal consumption strategy in closed form, deduce sufficient conditions for the presence of a consumption hump, and characterize the age at which the hump occurs. Numerical examples...

  15. ÉPOCAS DE FECUNDAÇÃO E NASCIMENTOS DE GADO AZEBUADO EM CONDIÇÕES DE CRIAÇÃO A CAMPO NO PLANALTO DE GOIÁS TIMES OF FECUNDATION AND BIRTHS OF THE CROSSBRED ZEBU CATTLE IN FIELD CREATION CONDITIONS IN THE REGION OF GOIÂNIA, GOIÁS STATE

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    Francisco Eduardo Galvão

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O trabalho apresenta o estudo de 505 dados de épocas de partos em gado azebuado da região do planalto de Goiás, município de Anápolis. Observou-se que o pico das parições ocorreu no mês de agosto, em conseqüência, naturalmente, da maior fertilização no mês de novembro.

    The work presents the study of 505 calving data for crossbred zebu cattle of the Central Plateau. It was observed that calving peak occurred in August as a natural consequence of better fertility in November.

  16. Jejunal hemorrhage syndrome in a Zebu cow in Brazil

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    Prhiscylla Sadanã Pires

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium perfringens type A has been incriminated as the etiologic agent in jejunal hemorrhage syndrome (JHS, which is a disease that affects dairy cattle. Although this microorganism is considered an important enteropathogen the pathogenesis of JHS is still not clear, and there have been no reports of its occurrence in Brazil so far. The aim of this study was to describe the occurrence of JHS by infection with a C. perfringens type A strain carrying the beta-2 toxin gene in a zebu cow in Brazil, for the first time.

  17. Study on the Interspecies Crossbreeding Between Mithun (Bos frontalis) and Zebu (Bos indicus) Cattle%大额牛(Bos frontalis)与瘤牛(Bos indicus)的种间杂交研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    和占星; 涂先云; 袁希平; 黄必志; 张继才; 亐开兴; 金显栋; 王喆; 王安奎; 黄梅芬; 赵刚; 杨国荣

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The potential of interspecies crossbreeding utilization and its foreground between Mithun (Bos frontalis) and Zebu (Bos indicus) cattle were studied. [Method] Firstly, after treated by CUE-MATE? (progesterone-releasing intravaginal device) and PG for synchronization estrous, Brahman cows were inseminated artificially with Mithun's frozen semen. And gestation length and calving time of cows and calf sex ratio were investigated. Besides, the body weight of Mithun and Brahman crossbreed at birth, 6 months, 12 months and 18 months of age were measured and karyotype and reproductive performance of hybrids F) (MithunxBrahman) and so on were analyzed and investigated. [Result] The rates of synchronization estrous, pregnancy and calving of Brahman cow were 83.87%, 60.56% and 45.07%, respectively. The average gestation length was (290.83±5.26) d (n=24). The percentage of female calf in crossbred F1 (Mithun×Brahman) was 71.88%, higher than those of Mithun and Brahman (P0.05), 13.12% (P0.05) of Brahman. The chromosome numbers of Mithun, Brahman and their crossbred F1 (Mithun×Brahman) were 2n=58,2n=60 and 2n=59, respectively. The average age and body weight of crossbred F1 (MithunxBrahman) at first pregnancy and their primiparous age were (16.00±2.83) months, (342.50±30.41) kg and (26.00±2.83) months, respectively, which gave one calf per year. The semen collection of 5 crossbred F1 (Mithun×Brahman) at 15-24 months of age was failed by electro-ejaculation treatment. [Conclusion]Interspecies crossbreeding of Mithun×Zebu performed better in rapid growth, wide adaptation and significant heterosis. And the crossbred female F1 was of better reproductive capacity, precocity and high reproductive efficiency. However, the fertility of male crossbred F1 will remain to be studied in future.%[目的]探讨大额牛(Bos frontalis)与瘤牛(Bos indicus)杂交利用潜能及杂交育种前景.[方法]选用婆罗门( Brahman)母牛,以CUE-MATETM(孕酮阴道栓)+ PG(氯

  18. GENETIC VARIABILITY OF THE ZEBU CATTLE BREED (Bos indicus IN THE DEPARTAMENT OF HUILA, COLOMBIA USING MICROSATELLITE MOLECULAR MARKERS Variabilidad genética de Zebú (Bos indicus en el departamento del Huila, Colombia, usando marcadores moleculares por microsatélites

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    CARLOS HERNÁNDEZ ESCOBAR

    Full Text Available The polymorphism of 11 microsatellites from zebu cattle (Bos indicus was studied using a commercial multiplex system to estimate genetic variability. Allele frequencies polymorphism information content and heterozygosis were calculated. Allele frequencies revealed that in the analyzed sample the markers were not equally polymorphic. The average allele was 14.2 with the highest values for the TGLA122 microsatellites. The mean heterozygocity was 0.7056 and the polymorphism information content was 0.668. This multiplex analysis could be used for pedigree information and for adequate genetic improvements in breeding programs and paternity test.Para estimar la variabilidad genética, el polimosfismo de 11 microsatélites de vacunos zebú (Bos indicus fue estudiado mediante el sistema comercial multiplex system. Se calcularon frecuencias alélicas, contenido de información polimórfica y heterocigosis. Las frecuencias alélicas de la muestra analizada revelan que los marcadores no fueron equitativamente polimórficos. El alelo promedio fue 14,2 con el mayor valor para los microsatélites TGLA122. El promedio de heterocigosidad fue 0,7056 y el contenido de información polimórfica de 0,668. Este tipo de análisis puede ser usado para información de pedigrí y mejoramiento genético en programas de cría y pruebas de paternidad.

  19. NATOMICAL ASPECTS OF THE PLACENTA FROM ZEBU CATTLE RAISED IN THE ORIENTAL AMAZONIAN, BRAZIL ASPECTOS ANATÓMICOS DE LA PLACENTA DE ZEBUÍNOS CREADO EN EL AMAZÔNIA DEL ESTE ASPECTOS ANATÔMICOS DA PLACENTA DE ZEBUÍNOS CRIADOS NA AMAZÔNIA ORIENTAL, BRASIL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Vasconcelos Cavalcante

    2009-04-01

    morphological characteristics from zebuine cattle from Oriental Amazonian region are similar to those found in zebu from other places with different climate and environment, so the placenta does not seem to be influenced by the ambient.

    KEY WORDS: Placentome, umbilical cord, uterus, Zebu cow.

    Los bóvidos de los zebuínas de las razas son mayoría del brasilen@o de los ganados debido a su rusticidade, alto funcionamiento reproductivo, gran adaptabilidad al clima tropical, resistencia y dirección fácil. El conocimiento perfecto del ciclo reproductivo estos animales pasa obligatorio para la evaluación anatómica de las agencias de la reproducción, en varones, y las hembras, de modo que los problemas observados de tal manera del punto de vista económico, como reproductiva, puedan adecuadamente estar, tratadas y diagnosised. Así, el trabajo tiene como objetivo para analizar las características anatómicas macrocospic de la placenta de los bóvidos, Indicus del tauro de Bos creado en la región del este de Amazônia que lleva con una perfil de éstos para las multitudes regionales guardadas en Amazonian las condiciones ambiente y climáticas. Los úteros de Gravídicos en diversos períodos del entrenamiento de la gestación (los 4 8 meses de vacas habían sido cebú recogido. Cada parte fue lavada en agua actual y el ligamento intercornual fue dividido, rompiéndose encima de los cornos uterinos.  Una sección dorsal a través del cérvix fue convertida fullfilled hasta el cuerpo del útero. Así, las membranas de los fetais habían sido exhibidas y habían sido perforateed quitando los líquidos y los fetais del embrión. La pieza fue invertida para la realización de la colección de referir datos a las características morfológicas. En el 10% seguido fueron fijados en la solución del formol, para el dissecação posterior. Para la

  20. Economic assessment of the performance of trypanotolerant cattle breeds in a pastoral production system in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.W. Maichomo

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Cattle are the major source of food security and income for pastoral farmers in sub-Saharan Africa. However, infectious and parasitic diseases remain a major constraint to improved cattle productivity in the region. The use of animal health economics to support decision-making on cost-effective disease control options is increasingly becoming important in the developing world. Trypano-tolerant indigenous Orma / zebu cattle in a trypanosomosis-endemic area of Kenya were evaluated for economic performance using gross-margin analysis and partial-farm budgeting. Orma / zebu and Sahiwal / zebu cross-bred cattle were exposed to similar husbandry practices and monitored for growth rate, incidence of common infections (trypanosomosis, anaplasmosis, babesiosis, East Coast Fever and helminthosis and the cost of treatment assessed. Interview questionnaires were also used to assess the preference rating of the 2 breeds. Results indicated that incidence of infection was trypanosomosis 3 %, anaplasmosis 58 %, babesiosis 11 %, East Coast Fever 22 % and helminthosis 28 %, with no significant difference between breeds. The Orma / zebu and Sahiwal / zebu breeds had comparable economic benefits, hence a pastoralist in Magadi division is likely to get similar returns from both breeds. This study therefore recommends adoption of not only the Sahiwal / zebu but also the Orma / zebu breed for cattle improvement in trypanosomosis endemic areas and conservation of indigenous genetic resources.

  1. On the origin of Indonesian cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusdiantoro Mohamad

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Two bovine species contribute to the Indonesian livestock, zebu (Bos indicus and banteng (Bos javanicus, respectively. Although male hybrid offspring of these species is not fertile, Indonesian cattle breeds are supposed to be of mixed species origin. However, this has not been documented and is so far only supported by preliminary molecular analysis. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Analysis of mitochondrial, Y-chromosomal and microsatellite DNA showed a banteng introgression of 10-16% in Indonesian zebu breeds. East-Javanese Madura and Galekan cattle have higher levels of autosomal banteng introgression (20-30% and combine a zebu paternal lineage with a predominant (Madura or even complete (Galekan maternal banteng origin. Two Madura bulls carried taurine Y-chromosomal haplotypes, presumably of French Limousin origin. In contrast, we did not find evidence for zebu introgression in five populations of the Bali cattle, a domestic form of the banteng. CONCLUSIONS: Because of their unique species composition Indonesian cattle represent a valuable genetic resource, which potentially may also be exploited in other tropical regions.

  2. Effectiveness of Motorcycle speed controlled by speed hump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pornsiri Urapa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Speed humps are one of the traffic calming measures widely accepted to control vehicle speed in the local road. Humps standards from the western countries are designed mainly for the passenger car. This study, therefore, aims to reveal the effectiveness of speed hump to control the motorcycle speed. This study observes the free-flow speed of the riders at the total of 20 speed bumps and humps. They are 0.3-14.8 meter in width and 5-18 centimeter in height. The results reveal that the 85th percentile speeds reduce 15-65 percent when crossing the speed bumps and speed humps. Besides, this study develops the speed model to predict the motorcycle mean speed and 85th percentile speed. It is found that speed humps follow the ITE standard can control motorcycle crossing speeds to be 25-30 Kph which are suitable to travel on the local road.

  3. Reversible algorithm of simulating multivariate densities with multi_hump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    To simulate a multivariate density with multi_hump, Markov chainMonte Carlo method encounters the obstacle of escaping from one hump to another, since it usually takes extraordinately long time and then becomes practically impossible to perform. To overcome these difficulties, a reversible scheme to generate a Markov chain, in terms of which the simulated density may be successful in rather general cases of practically avoiding being trapped in local humps, was suggested.

  4. Double humps and radiation effects of SOI NMOSFET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui Jiangwei; Yu Xuefeng; Ren Diyuan; He Chengfa; Gao Bo; Li Ming; Lu Jian

    2011-01-01

    Radiation experiments have been carried out with a SOI NMOSFET. The behavior of double humps was studied under irradiation. The characterization of the hump was demonstrated. The results have shown that the shape of the hump changed along with the total dose and the reason for this was analyzed. In addition, the coupling effect of the back-gate transistor was more important for the main transistor than the parasitic transistor.

  5. Double humps and radiation effects of SOI NMOSFET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui Jiangwei; Yu Xuefeng; Ren Diyuan; He Chengfa; Gao Bo; Li Ming; Lu Jian, E-mail: cuijiangwei@sina.cn [Xinjiang Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011 (China)

    2011-06-15

    Radiation experiments have been carried out with a SOI NMOSFET. The behavior of double humps was studied under irradiation. The characterization of the hump was demonstrated. The results have shown that the shape of the hump changed along with the total dose and the reason for this was analyzed. In addition, the coupling effect of the back-gate transistor was more important for the main transistor than the parasitic transistor. (semiconductor devices)

  6. Dorsal hump morphology in pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susuki, Kenta; Ichimura, Masaki; Koshino, Yosuke; Kaeriyama, Masahide; Takagi, Yasuaki; Adachi, Shinji; Kudo, Hideaki

    2014-05-01

    Mature male Pacific salmon (Genus Oncorhynchus) develop a dorsal hump, as a secondary male sexual characteristic, during the spawning period. Previous gross anatomical studies have indicated that the dorsal humps of salmon are mainly composed of cartilaginous tissue (Davidson [1935] J Morphol 57:169-183.) However, the histological and biochemical characteristics of such humps are poorly understood. In this study, the detailed microstructures and components of the dorsal humps of pink salmon were analyzed using histochemical techniques and electrophoresis. In mature males, free interneural spines and neural spines were located in a line near to the median septum of the dorsal hump. No cartilaginous tissue was detected within the dorsal hump. Fibrous and mucous connective tissues were mainly found in three regions of the dorsal hump: i) the median septum, ii) the distal region, and iii) the crescent-shaped region. Both the median septum and distal region consisted of connective tissue with a high water content, which contained elastic fibers and hyaluronic acid. It was also demonstrated that the lipid content of the dorsal hump connective tissue was markedly decreased in the mature males compared with the immature and maturing males. Although, the crescent-shaped region of the hump consisted of connective tissue, it did not contain elastic fibers, hyaluronic acid, or lipids. In an ultrastructural examination, it was found that all of the connective tissues in the dorsal hump were composed of collagen fibers. Gel electrophoresis of collagen extracts from these tissues found that the collagen in the dorsal hump is composed of Type I collagen, as is the case in salmon skin. These results indicate that in male pink salmon the dorsal hump is formed as a result of an increase in the amount of connective tissue, rather than cartilage, and the growth of free interneural spines and neural spines.

  7. How the Camel Got His Hump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史习冬; Rudyard; Kipling

    2000-01-01

    Now this is the next tale,and it tellshow the Camel got his big hump~1.In the beginning of years,when theworld was so new and all,and the Animalswere just beginning to work for Man,therewas a Camel,and he lived in the middle of aHowling Desert because he did not want towork;and besides,he was a Howler himself.So he ate sticks and thorns~2 and tamarisks~3and milkweed and prickles~4,~*most scruciating idle~5;and when anybody spoke to

  8. Testicular Histomorphometric Evaluation of Zebu Bull Breeds

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    Paulo Antônio Terrabuio Andreussi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the quantitative histology and testicular biometrics in zebu bulls of different breeds. Testicular fragments of Nelore (n=10, Polled Nelore (n=6, Gir (n=5, Guzerat (n=5 and Tabapuã bulls (n=5 were used. The fragments were perfusion-fixed in Karnovsky solution, embedded in glycol methacrylate and stained with toluidine blue-1% sodium borate. The Nelore animals had a higher tubular volumetric proportion (85.2% and greater height of the seminiferous epithelium (73.2 µm than the Gir, Guzerat and Tabapuã breeds. The Nelore animals also had a higher volumetric proportion of Leydig cells (5.2% than the Guzerat and Tabapuã breeds. There was no significant difference for any of these parameters between the Nelore and Polled Nelore breeds. The gonadosomatic index, seminiferous tubule diameter, cross-sectional area of the seminiferous tubule and tubule length (total length and length per gram of testicular parenchyma did not vary among the breeds studied. The morphometric parameters evaluated suggested that the genetic selection applied to the Nelore and Polled Nelore breeds improved the efficiency of spermatogenesis in these breeders.

  9. Macro mineral requirements by grazing zebu bovines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Henrique Bevitori Kling de Moraes

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine requirements of calcium (Ca, phosphorus (P, magnesium (Mg, potassium (K and sodium (Na for grazing zebu bovines. The experiment area was composed of Brachiaria decumbens paddocks. Twenty-seven non-castrated animals, with initial live weight of 311.0 kg and at an average age of 14 months were used. Three animals were slaughtered, after adaptation period, so they were used as control for estimates of empty body weight and initial body composition of animals in the experiment. Out of the 24 remaining animals, four were sent to the maintenance group with restrict grazing time to limit energy intake close to the maintenance level. The other 20 animals were distributed in four treatments: mineral mixture, self-control intake and three-times-a-week-offer frequency (offered on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays and daily. Concentrations of all studied macro elements in empty body and empty body gain decreased as live weight increased. The ratios obtained for g Ca/100 g of retained protein and g P/100 g of retained protein were 9.18 and 4.72, respectively. Total dietary requirement of calcium was lower than the one recommended by NRC (2000, but P requirement was very close to that.

  10. DATA OF A HUMP YARDS AND FACTORS AFFECTING ON THEM

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    V. V. Zhuravel

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A kind of regression equations, which adequately describe the correlation between the error of braking of cuts, the slope of hump-yard tracks and the indices of hump yard work taking into account the influence of parameters of wagon stream processed, is determined.

  11. Geographical assessment of body measurements and qualitative traits in West African cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traoré, Amadou; Koudandé, Delphin Oloronto; Fernández, Iván; Soudré, Albert; Granda, Víctor; Álvarez, Isabel; Diarra, Siaka; Diarra, Fousseyni; Kaboré, Adama; Sanou, Moumouni; Tamboura, Hamidou Hamadou; Goyache, Félix

    2015-12-01

    A total of 1015 adult cows belonging to nine West African cattle breeds were assessed for 16 body measurements and 18 qualitative traits to ascertain the existence of geographical patterns of variation. Sampling was carried out in 29 different provinces of Mali, Burkina Faso and Benin. For body measurements, taurine breeds took lower average values than the zebu breeds. Sanga cattle took intermediate values. Qualitative traits did not allow to differentiate among cattle groups (taurine, zebu or sanga) or breeds. Principal component analysis identified two factors explaining 56.4 and 9.2 % of the variance for body measurements, respectively. Two correspondence analysis dimensions computed on qualitative traits explained a small proportion of the variability (20.8 and 13.5 %, respectively). Contour plots were constructed using the eigenvalues computed for each individual and either factor or dimension identified; confidence regions calculated confirmed that body measurements clearly differentiated zebu and taurine cattle breeds while qualitative traits did not. Factor 1 was projected on a geographical map, using provinces as nodes, to assess breed-free variation for body measurements. A pattern of continuous variation from the Sahel area southwards was identified. Probably, breeding decisions promoting the crosses between zebu-like and taurine cattle are underlying this geographical pattern of variation. The implementation of selection strategies aiming at the increase of the productivity of native West African taurine cattle breeds while avoiding looses in trypanotolerant ability would be highly advisable.

  12. Radioactive fuel cask railcar humping study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, L.T. (comp.)

    1978-01-01

    The response of two radioactive shipping casks due to railroad humping shocks was calculated using a spring-mass model. The two railcars for these casks had different coupling mechanisms and different tiedown arrangements. Humping tests had been performed on one of the railcars (ATMX-600) and the resulting shock spectra was used to adjust the spring-mass model to get matching results. One car (designed for cask shipment) was equipped with Freightmaster E-15 end of car coupler and had about /sup 1///sub 8/ in. free travel of the cask skid relative to the car. The other car (ATMX-600), equipped with Miner RF-333 draft gear, was designed for nuclear weapon shipment and adapted to nuclear waste shipment by fastening the casks to the floor. Both car frames were built by the same manufacturer and are very similar. The response of the casks was put in shock spectra format and a parametric study was performed with various cask weights. Additional studies were done on the effects of fastening the loose cask, and using the Freightmaster end of car coupler on the ATMX car. Half-sine response spectra were overlaid to include the natural frequency of the cask tiedown. The resulting shock amplitude was plotted against the cask weight for each car. The results show a constant acceleration level for all the weights on the car with hydraulic end-of-car coupler which results from constant force at that impact velocity. The cask acceleration can be reduced by fastening it to the car, rather than allowing it to move freely through some small space. This study also shows that the cask response can be optimized on railcars without hydraulic draft gear by adjusting the tiedown stiffness to keep the tiedown frequency different than car frequencies.

  13. Trough and hump phenomenon in a kind of random system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Xiaopeng [Institute of Electrorheological Technology 141, Department of Applied Physics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, 710072 Xi' an (China)]. E-mail: xpzhao@nwpu.edu.cn; Huang Ming [Institute of Electrorheological Technology 141, Department of Applied Physics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, 710072 Xi' an (China); Tang Hong [Institute of Electrorheological Technology 141, Department of Applied Physics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, 710072 Xi' an (China); Yin Jianbo [Institute of Electrorheological Technology 141, Department of Applied Physics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, 710072 Xi' an (China); Guo Huilin [Institute of Electrorheological Technology 141, Department of Applied Physics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, 710072 Xi' an (China); Luo Chunrong [Institute of Electrorheological Technology 141, Department of Applied Physics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, 710072 Xi' an (China)

    2005-05-16

    A kind of random system applied simultaneously by the polarizing electric field and microwave field was investigated. The trough and hump phenomenon occurs simultaneously in the transmission spectra at frequency range of 8-12 GHz while microwave scanning the samples. The solid/fluid complex fluid samples are composed of BaTiO{sub 3}/silicon oil and microcapsule composite particle/silicon oil. It is seen that the troughs and humps are very similar with photonic band gaps and left-handed metamaterial transmission peaks, which respectively appear in the photonic crystal and left-handed metamaterial. Moreover, the high of troughs and humps also exhibit adjustable characteristics with respect to the external electric field. We think that the trough and hump phenomenon in random system may be originated from the interactions between local oscillation of systems and microwaves field.

  14. FACTORS AFFECTING HEAT TOLERANCE IN CROSSBRED CATTLE IN CENTRAL BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepta Margaret McManus

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the adaptation traits in common crosses of crossbred dairy cattle in central Brazil. Twenty animals of each of three genetic groups were used: zebu (Bos indicus, Simmental x Zebu (SZ and Holstein x Zebu (HZ. The test measured variations in rectal temperature (RT, respiration rate (RR and heart rate (HR of animals in the shade and after exposure to the sun, as well as mean daily milk production throughout the lactation period. The procedure was repeated three times. There were significant interactions between test group and genetic group for the traits investigated and the correlations among traits were low. The RR of the crossbred groups may be controlling body temperature in such a way as not to cause an increase in RT. Milk production influenced RR in crossbred cows exposed to the sun, confirming their poorer adaptation in comparison with zebu cows. We observed that the adaptation can be measured in terms of production within the same genetic group. In conclusion, the crosses with European breeds produced more milk than zebu, although they were influenced by heat/solar radiation.

  15. A Matheuristic Approach to Integrate Humping and Pullout Sequencing Operations at Railroad Hump Yards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Jørgen Thorlund; Lusby, Richard Martin

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a novel matheuristic for solving the hump yard block-to-track assignment problem. This is an important problem arising in the railway freight industry and involves scheduling the transitions of a set of rail cars from a set of inbound trains to a set of outbound trains over...... a certain planning horizon. It was also the topic of the 2014 challenge organized by the Railway Applications Section of the Institute for Operations Research and the Management Sciences for which the proposed matheuristic was awarded first prize. Our approach decomposes the problem into three highly...... dependent subproblems. Optimization-based strategies are adopted for two of these, while the third is solved using a greedy heuristic. We demonstrate the efficiency of the complete framework on the official datasets, where solutions within 4–14% of a known lower bound (to a relaxed problem) are found. We...

  16. Effect of welding current and speed on occurrence of humping bead in high-speed GMAW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Ji; Wu Chuansong

    2009-01-01

    The developed mathematical model of humping formation mechanism in high-speed gas metal arc welding (GMAW) is used to analyze the effects of welding current and welding speed on the occurrence of humping bead. It considers both the momentum and heat content of backward flowing molten jet inside weld pool. Three-dimensional geometry of weld pool, the spacing between two adjacent humps and hump height along humping weld bead are calculated under different levels of welding current and welding speed. It shows that wire feeding rate, power intensity and the moment of backward flowing molten jet are the major factors on humping bead formation.

  17. Efficiency of low versus high airline pressure in stunning cattle with a pneumatically powered penetrating captive bolt gun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Steffan Edward Octávio; Gregory, Neville George; Dalla Costa, Filipe Antonio; Gibson, Troy John; Paranhos da Costa, Mateus José Rodrigues

    2017-08-01

    The efficiency of stunning cattle was assessed in 443 animals (304 pure Zebu and 139 crossbred cattle), being mainly mature bulls and cows. Cattle were stunned using a Jarvis pneumatically powered penetrating captive bolt gun operating with low (160-175psi, N=82) and high (190psi, N=363) airline pressure, which was within the manufactures specifications. Signs of brain function and the position of the shots on the heads were recorded after stunning. Velocity of the captive bolt and its physical parameters were calculated. Cattle shot with low pressures showed more rhythmic respiration (27 vs. 8%, Pairline pressures (15.3 vs. 3.1%). Bolt velocity and its physical parameters were significantly (PAirline pressures below 190psi are inappropriate when shooting adult Zebu beef cattle with pneumatically powered penetrating captive bolt guns. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. VARIACIONES EN EL PESO Y LA CONDICIÓN CORPORAL POSTPARTO Y SU RELACIÓN CON ALGUNOS PARÁMETROS DE EFICIENCIA REPRODUCTIVA EN VACAS CEBÚ VARIATION IN POSPARTUM WEIGHT AND BODY CONDITION AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH SOME REPRODUCTIVE EFFICIENCY PARAMETERS IN ZEBU CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Andrés Mejía Osorio

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación se realizó en una zona de vida de bh-T a una altura promedio de 82 msnm con temperatura de 28ºC. Se emplearon 40 vacas Cebú multíparas, en pastoreo, a las cuales se les monitorearon las variaciones de peso y de condición corporal 15 días antes del parto, al momento del parto y a partir de este cada 15 días hasta los 135 días postparto. Se recolectaron muestras sanguíneas a 25 de estas vacas para determinar la presencia de cuerpos cetónicos y realizar la dosificación de AGNE en suero. El número de parto, el peso y la condición corporal preparto y al momento del parto presentaron efecto significativo sobre el peso hasta los 120 días postparto y sobre la condición corporal hasta los 135 días postparto, cuando fueron analizados como valor absoluto (r² desde 0,32 hasta 0,95; P The present study was conducted in the bh-T life zone at an elevation of 82 masl and a mean temperature of 28°C. Forty multiparous Zebu cows in pasture were monitored for weight and body condition changes fifteen days before calving, at calving and every fifteen days for 135 days after calving. Blood samples of 25 of these cows were taken to determine the presence of ketonic bodies and conduct NEFA dosages in serum. Calving order, weight and body condition both prepartum and at calving had significant effects on weight up to 120 days postpartum and on body condition up to 135 days postpartum, when analyzed as absolute values (r² from 0,32 to 0,95; P < 0,003 and r² from 0,35 to 0,62; P < 0,001, respectively. When the same variables were analyzed as percentages of the prepartum value, calving order significantly affected weight between 15 and 60 days pospartum (r² from 0,15 to 0,21; P < 0,05. Ketone bodies were not detected via the semi-quantitative test proposed. A positive correlation was documented between weight values and body condition (r from 0,45 to 0,82; P < 0,003 and negative correlations were documented between NEFA and

  19. Squamous metaplasia of the rete ovarii in a Zebu cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Renato

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stratified keratinizing squamous epithelium in the ovary has been associated with the diagnosis of ovarian teratoma in cows. Recently, the diagnosis of “epidermoid cyst” has been proposed. A case of squamous metaplasia of the rete ovarii in a Zebu cow is described in this report. Case presentation A crossbreed Zebu cow had both ovaries enlarged with multiple cysts. Most cysts were lined by well differentiated keratinizing stratified squamous epithelium and filled with keratinized lamellar material. Some cysts were lined by an epithelial layer that ranged from single cuboidal, double cuboidal epithelium, stratified non keratinized epithelium, and areas of keratinizing stratified squamous epithelium. Single or double layered cuboidal epithelia of the cysts expressed low molecular weight cytokeratin 7, whose expression was absent in the keratinizing stratified squamous epithelia of same cysts. Conversely, high molecular weight cytokeratins 1, 5, 10, and 14 were strongly expressed by the keratinizing stratified epithelium. Conclusion Squamous metaplasia of the rete ovarii was diagnosed. Squamous metaplasia of the rete ovarii, may account for some of the previously described squamous lesions in the ovary, which may have been misinterpreted as teratoma or epidermoid cysts.

  20. Survey of Minerai Status of Cattle in the Adamaoua Region of Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Njwe, RM.

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Serum and liver samples were collected from Zebu Gudali and Zebu Banyo cattle freshly slaughtered in abattoirs at eight different locations in each of the five administrative divisions of the Adamaoua region of Cameroon during the wet season (September to October, 1983 and the dry season (February to March, 1984. Liver samples were analysed for iron, copper and manganese while serum samples were analysed for calcium, magnesium and copper. Most of the animals were adequate in calcium, magnesium, iron and manganese. Copper was deficient in liver and sera of most of the animals. There is a need to intensif/research on the mineral status of cattle in the Adamaoua region of Cameroon. Copper sulphate is recommended in sait licks for cattle in this region.

  1. Modeling the Compton Hump Reverberation Observed in Active Galactic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoormann, Janie; Beheshtipour, Banafsheh; Krawczynski, Henric

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, observations of the Iron K alpha reverberation in supermassive black holes have provided a new way to probe the inner accretion flow. Furthermore, a time lag between the direct coronal emission and the reprocessed emission forming the Compton Hump in AGN has been observed. In order to model this Compton Hump reverberation we performed general relativistic ray tracing studies of the accretion disk surrounding supermassive black holes, taking into account both the radial and angular dependence of the ionization parameter. We are able to model emission not only from a lamp-post corona but also implementing 3D corona geometries. Using these results we are able to model the observed data to gain additional insight into the geometry of the corona and the structure of the inner accretion disk.

  2. Distance between speed humps and pedestrian crossings: does it matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Charlotta; Rosander, Peter; Leden, Lars

    2011-09-01

    Speed humps are a common physical measure installed at pedestrian crossings to reduce vehicle speeds therefore improve the safety and mobility of pedestrians at the crossing. The aim of this study was to determine whether variations in distance between speed humps and pedestrian crossings contribute differently to the safety and mobility of pedestrians and cyclists, especially children and the elderly, and if so, how. Three sites in Sweden were studied, where vehicle speed measurements and video filming at the site resulted in manually coded, road user behaviour of 1972 pedestrians and cyclists. Road user behaviour at three test sites and two comparison sites equipped with speed cushion at distances of about 5m and 10 m from the pedestrian crossing, i.e. about one or two car lengths, were studied. As vehicle speeds were somewhat lower at the pedestrian crossing when the distance between the speed cushion to the pedestrian crossing was greater, and there were positive aspects regarding the mobility of the pedestrians and cyclists, a greater distance of about 10 m or two car lengths between the hump and the pedestrian crossing is suggested. The present study only covers speed cushions, but the same distance is also regarded as important when installing other types of physical measures to reduce vehicle speed.

  3. Genetic Footprints of Iberian Cattle in America 500 Years after the Arrival of Columbus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Amparo M.; Gama, Luis T.; Cañón, Javier; Ginja, Catarina; Delgado, Juan V.; Dunner, Susana; Landi, Vincenzo; Martín-Burriel, Inmaculada; Penedo, M. Cecilia T.; Rodellar, Clementina; Vega-Pla, Jose Luis; Acosta, Atzel; Álvarez, Luz A.; Camacho, Esperanza; Cortés, Oscar; Marques, Jose R.; Martínez, Roberto; Martínez, Ruben D.; Melucci, Lilia; Martínez-Velázquez, Guillermo; Muñoz, Jaime E.; Postiglioni, Alicia; Quiroz, Jorge; Sponenberg, Philip; Uffo, Odalys; Villalobos, Axel; Zambrano, Delsito; Zaragoza, Pilar

    2012-01-01

    Background American Creole cattle presumably descend from animals imported from the Iberian Peninsula during the period of colonization and settlement, through different migration routes, and may have also suffered the influence of cattle directly imported from Africa. The introduction of European cattle, which began in the 18th century, and later of Zebu from India, has threatened the survival of Creole populations, some of which have nearly disappeared or were admixed with exotic breeds. Assessment of the genetic status of Creole cattle is essential for the establishment of conservation programs of these historical resources. Methodology/Principal Findings We sampled 27 Creole populations, 39 Iberian, 9 European and 6 Zebu breeds. We used microsatellite markers to assess the origins of Creole cattle, and to investigate the influence of different breeds on their genetic make-up. The major ancestral contributions are from breeds of southern Spain and Portugal, in agreement with the historical ports of departure of ships sailing towards the Western Hemisphere. This Iberian contribution to Creoles may also include some African influence, given the influential role that African cattle have had in the development of Iberian breeds, but the possibility of a direct influence on Creoles of African cattle imported to America can not be discarded. In addition to the Iberian influence, the admixture with other European breeds was minor. The Creoles from tropical areas, especially those from the Caribbean, show clear signs of admixture with Zebu. Conclusions/Significance Nearly five centuries since cattle were first brought to the Americas, Creoles still show a strong and predominant signature of their Iberian ancestors. Creole breeds differ widely from each other, both in genetic structure and influences from other breeds. Efforts are needed to avoid their extinction or further genetic erosion, which would compromise centuries of selective adaptation to a wide range of

  4. Genetic footprints of Iberian cattle in America 500 years after the arrival of Columbus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amparo M Martínez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: American Creole cattle presumably descend from animals imported from the Iberian Peninsula during the period of colonization and settlement, through different migration routes, and may have also suffered the influence of cattle directly imported from Africa. The introduction of European cattle, which began in the 18th century, and later of Zebu from India, has threatened the survival of Creole populations, some of which have nearly disappeared or were admixed with exotic breeds. Assessment of the genetic status of Creole cattle is essential for the establishment of conservation programs of these historical resources. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We sampled 27 Creole populations, 39 Iberian, 9 European and 6 Zebu breeds. We used microsatellite markers to assess the origins of Creole cattle, and to investigate the influence of different breeds on their genetic make-up. The major ancestral contributions are from breeds of southern Spain and Portugal, in agreement with the historical ports of departure of ships sailing towards the Western Hemisphere. This Iberian contribution to Creoles may also include some African influence, given the influential role that African cattle have had in the development of Iberian breeds, but the possibility of a direct influence on Creoles of African cattle imported to America can not be discarded. In addition to the Iberian influence, the admixture with other European breeds was minor. The Creoles from tropical areas, especially those from the Caribbean, show clear signs of admixture with Zebu. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Nearly five centuries since cattle were first brought to the Americas, Creoles still show a strong and predominant signature of their Iberian ancestors. Creole breeds differ widely from each other, both in genetic structure and influences from other breeds. Efforts are needed to avoid their extinction or further genetic erosion, which would compromise centuries of selective adaptation

  5. Improving the uniformity of RF-plasma density by a humped variable-gap spiral antenna

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Xu; Li Lin-Sen; Liu Feng; Zhou Qian-Hong; Liang Rong-Qing

    2008-01-01

    This paper develops a humped spiral antenna of top inductively coupled plasma with variable gap.Comparing with planar spiral antennas,it investigates the performance of humped spiral antennae in the calculated electromagnetic configurations and experimental results.It finds that the humped antenna has the improved uniformity of plasma density in the radial direction and the decreased electron temperature in the top inductively coupled plasma.By experimental and theoretical analyses,the plasma performance in the case of humped antennae is considered to be the combined results of the uniform electromagnetic configurations and the depressed capacitively coupling effect.

  6. Analysis of genetic diversity and population structure in Argentine and Bolivian Creole cattle using five loci related to milk production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lirón J.P.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Data from five protein-coding loci related to dairy production were used to study the genetic diversity and population structure of Argentine and Bolivian Creole cattle breeds. Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples of six Creole cattle breeds: Argentine (n = 230, Patagonian (n = 25; "Saavedreño" (n = 140, "Chaqueño Boliviano" (n = 30, "Yacumeño" (n = 27, and "Chusco" (n = 11. kappa-casein, beta-lactoglobulin, growth hormone and prolactin were measured by PCR-RFLP, while alphaS1-casein was typed by PCR-ASO. The results are discussed, focusing on: historical origin, recent differentiation and selection events, Zebu gene introgression, and population structure. This work shows that: (i For the studied genes, the observed gene frequency profiles of Argentine and Bolivian Creole cattle breeds were close to the data reported for Iberian breeds and for other South-American Creole cattle breeds which are historically related; (ii although Zebu gene introgression has been reported at the studied loci, these breeds seem to be far from the Zebu gene frequency profiles; and (iii the Argentine and Bolivian Creole cattle showed significant levels of subdivision, but each population has maintained its degree of genetic variability.

  7. Investigation of X- and Y-specific single nucleotide polymorphisms in taurine (Bos taurus) and indicine (Bos indicus) cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderung, C; Hellborg, L; Seddon, J; Hanotte, O; Götherström, A

    2007-12-01

    Initially, domesticated African cattle were of taurine type. Today, we find both African Bos taurus and Bos indicus cattle, as well as their crossbreeds, on the continent of Africa and they all share the same set of African taurine mitochondrial DNA haplogroups. In this study, we report genetic variation as substitutions and insertions/deletions (indels) on both the X and Y chromosomes, and use the variation to assess hybridization between taurine and indicine cattle. Six African cattle breeds (four Sanga breeds, including Raya Azebu, Danakil, Caprivi, Nguni; and two Zebu breeds, including Kilimanjaro Zebu and South Kavirondo Zebu) were screened for six new X-chromosomal markers, specifically three single nucleotide polymorphisms and three indels in the DDX3X (previously DBX) and ZFX genes, and five previously identified Y-chromosomal markers in the DDX3Y (previously DBY) and ZFY genes. In total, 90 (57 bulls and 33 cows) samples from the African breeds were analysed. We identify five diagnostic haplotypes of indicine and taurine origins on both the X and Y chromosomes. For each breed, the level of indicine introgression varies; in addition to pure taurine, indicine and hybrid X-chromosome individuals, recombinant X-chromosome variants were also detected. These markers are useful molecular tools for assessing the level of indicine admixture in African cattle breeds.

  8. Hampton's hump in a patient with endocarditis and septic emboli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Mark; Goldstein, Scott

    2016-05-01

    We discuss a case of a 20-year-old woman presenting with chest pain found to have a Hampton's hump on chest x-ray and corresponding wedge infarct on computed tomographic scan. Contrary to our suspicion that this febrile and tachycardic patient had a pulmonary embolism, she was later determined to have a septic embolus secondary to endocarditis. We highlight the difficulties in diagnosing certain cases of endocarditis in the emergency department, as well as the difficulties in distinguishing septic emboli from pulmonary emboli,especially with plain radiographs.

  9. Genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships in local cattle breeds of Senegal based on autosomal microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndèye Penda Ndiaye

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In Senegal, uncontrolled cross-breeding of cattle breeds and changes in production systems are assumed to lead to an increase of gene flow between populations. This might constitute a relevant threat to livestock improvement. Therewith, this study was carried out to assess the current genetic diversity and the phylogenetic relationships of the four native Senegalese cattle breeds (Gobra zebu, Maure zebu, Djakoré, and N’Dama. Methods: Genomic DNA was isolated from blood samples of 120 unrelated animals collected from three agro-ecological areas of Senegal according to their phenotypic traits. Genotyping was done using 11 specific highly polymorphic microsatellite makers recommended by Food and Agriculture Organization. The basic measures of genetic variation and phylogenetic trees were computed using bioinformatics’ software. Results: A total of 115 alleles were identified with a number of alleles (Na at one locus ranging from 6 to 16. All loci were polymorphic with a mean polymorphic information content of 0.76. The mean allelic richness (Rs lay within the narrow range of 5.14 in N’Dama taurine to 6.10 in Gobra zebu. While, the expected heterozygosity (HE per breed was high in general with an overall mean of 0.76±0.04. Generally, the heterozygote deficiency (FIS of 0.073±0.026 was relatively due to inbreeding among these cattle breeds or the occurrence of population substructure. The high values of allelic and gene diversity showed that Senegalese native cattle breeds represented an important reservoir of genetic variation. The genetic distances and clustering trees concluded that the N’Dama cattle were most distinct among the investigated cattle populations. So, the principal component analyses showed qualitatively that there was an intensive genetic admixture between the Gobra zebu and Maure zebu breeds. Conclusions: The broad genetic diversity in Senegalese cattle breeds will allow for greater opportunities for improvement of

  10. A DES Procedure Applied to a Wall-Mounted Hump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoslav Bozinoski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a detached-eddy simulation (DES for the flow over a wall-mounted hump. The Reynolds number based on the hump chord is Rec=9.36×105 with an in-let Mach number of 0.1. Solutions of the three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS procedure are obtained using the Wilcox k−ω equations. The DES results are obtained using the model presented by Bush and Mani and are compared with RANS solutions and experimental data from NASA's 2004 Computational Fluid Dynamics Validation on Synthetic Jets and Turbulent Separation Control Workshop. The DES procedure exhibited a three-dimensional flow structure in the wake, with a 13.65% shorter mean separation region compared to RANS and a mean reattachment length that is in good agreement with experimental measurements. DES predictions of the pressure coefficient in the separation region also exhibit good agreement with experiment and are more accurate than RANS predictions.

  11. Seroprevalences of vector-transmitted infections of small-holder dairy cattle in coastal Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloo, S H; Thorpe, W; Kioo, G; Ngumi, P; Rowlands, G J; Perry, B D

    2001-11-02

    A cross-sectional study was carried out from July to September 1989 in Kaloleni Division, Coast Province, Kenya to estimate the prevalence of vector-transmitted diseases in small-holder dairy cattle and to identify the risk factors associated with different management systems. One hundred and thirty of the 157 herds with dairy cattle in Kaloleni Division were surveyed. These were from three agro-ecological zones (coconut-cassava, cashew nut-cassava and livestock-millet), comprised two management systems (stall-feeding and herded grazing) and were herds with either dairy cattle only or with Zebu and dairy cattle. A formal questionnaire sought answers to questions on cattle health and management practices. A total of 734 dairy and 205 Zebu cattle in 78 dairy and 52 mixed (dairy and Zebu) herds were sampled and screened for haemoparasites (Trypanosoma, Anaplasma, Babesia, and Theileria infections). Sera were tested for antibodies to Theileria parva, using the schizonts-antigen indirect fluorescent-antibody (IFA) test and to antibodies for Babesia bigemina and antigens to Anaplasma marginale by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Packed-cell volume (PCV) also was measured. Tick-control measures were practised by all except three of the farmers. Despite this, overall seroprevalence to T. parva was >70%--suggesting either that control practices were not strictly implemented or they were ineffective. The seroprevalence of T. parva in adult cattle kept in stall-feeding systems in the coconut-cassava zone was significantly lower (57+/-8% (S.E.)) than in herded-grazing systems (79+/-3%) and there was no association between antibody prevalence and age of cattle in this zone. Antibody prevalences in cattle in the cashew nut-cassava and the drier livestock-millet zone increased with age. Cattle in herded-grazing systems had an overall lower seroprevalence of T. parva infection in the livestock-millet zone (45+/-6%) than in the other two zones. Analysis was confined to

  12. Multi-hump solutions with small oscillations at infinity for stationary Swift-Hohenberg equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shengfu; Sun, Shu-Ming

    2017-02-01

    The paper considers the stationary Swift-Hohenberg equation cw-(∂x2+k02)2w-w3=0, where c  >  0 is a constant, k02=\\sqrt{c}-μ , and μ >0 is a small parameter. In this case, the linear operator has a pair of real eigenvalues and a pair of purely imaginary eigenvalues. It can be proved that the equation has homoclinic (or single hump) solutions approaching to periodic solutions as |x|\\to +∞ (called single-hump generalized homoclinic solutions). This paper provides the first rigorous proof of existence of homoclinic solutions with two humps which tend to periodic solutions at infinity (or two-hump generalized homoclinic solutions) by pasting two appropriate single-hump generalized homoclinic solutions together. The dynamical system approach is used to reformulate the problem into a classical dynamical system problem and then the solution is decomposed into a decaying part and an oscillatory part at positive infinity. By adjusting some free constants and modifying the single-hump generalized homoclinic solution near negative infinity, it is shown that the solution is reversible with respect to a point near negative infinity. Therefore, the translational invariant and reversibility properties of the system yield a two-hump generalized homoclinic solution. The method may be applied to prove the existence of 2 k -hump solutions for any positive integer k.

  13. Study of effect of a smooth hump on hypersonic boundary layer instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Donghun; Park, Seung O.

    2016-12-01

    Effect of a two-dimensional smooth hump on linear instability of hypersonic boundary layer is studied by using parabolized stability equations. Linear evolution of mode S over a hump is analyzed for Mach 4.5 and 5.92 flat plate and Mach 7.1 sharp cone boundary layers. Mean flow for stability analysis is obtained by solving the parabolized Navier-Stokes equations. Hump with height smaller than local boundary layer thickness is considered. The case of flat plate and sharp cone without the hump are also studied to provide comparable data. For flat plate boundary layers, destabilization and stabilization effect is confirmed for hump located at upstream and downstream of synchronization point, respectively. Results of parametric studies to examine the effect of hump height, location, etc., are also given. For sharp cone boundary layer, stabilization influence of hump is also identified for a specific range of frequency. Stabilization influence of hump on convective instability of mode S is found to be a possible cause of previous experimental observations of delaying transition in hypersonic boundary layers.

  14. Invited review: Are adaptations present to support dairy cattle productivity in warm climates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, A

    2011-05-01

    Environmental heat stress, present during warm seasons and warm episodes, severely impairs dairy cattle performance, particularly in warmer climates. It is widely viewed that warm climate breeds (Zebu and Sanga cattle) are adapted to the climate in which they evolved. Such adaptations might be exploited for increasing cattle productivity in warm climates and decrease the effect of warm periods in cooler climates. The literature was reviewed for presence of such adaptations. Evidence is clear for resistance to ticks and tick-transmitted diseases in Zebu and Sanga breeds as well as for a possible development of resistance to ticks in additional breeds. Development of resistance to ticks demands time; hence, it needs to be balanced with potential use of insecticides or vaccination. The presumption of higher sweating rates in Zebu-derived breeds, based upon morphological differences in sweat glands between breeds, has not been substantiated. Relatively few studies have examined hair coat characteristics and their responses to seasonal heat, particularly in temperate climate breeds. Recently, a gene for slick hair coat has been observed that improved heat tolerance when introduced into temperate climate breeds. No solid evidence exists that hair coat in these lines is lighter than in well-fed warm climate-adapted Holsteins. Warm climate breeds and their F1 crosses share as dominant characteristics lower maintenance requirements and milk yields, and limited response to improved feeding and management. These characteristics are not adaptations to a feed-limited environment but are constitutive and useful in serving survival when feed is scarce and seasonal and high temperatures prevail. The negative relationship between milk yield and fertility present in temperate climates breeds also prevails in Zebu cattle. Fertility impairment by warm conditions might be counteracted in advanced farming systems by extra corporeal early embryo culture. In general, adaptations found in

  15. Characterization of mannanase-producing bacteria from sago hump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Wahyuni

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Sago is a hardwood that can be used as source of fiber hemicellulose mannan. The abundance of mannanase waste is potential for the production of functional foods such as Manno oligosaccharides. Sago hump which is sago processing waste is very potential for growth of microorganisms because it contains lignin, cellulose, starch, minerals and vitamins that can be used as sources of carbon and energy for the growth. In this study, BLS.11-01 and BLS.11-02 isolates have been isolated and characterized from waste of sago hump. Locust bean gum was used as  substrate for measuring the activity of mannanase. Both isolates had optimum temperatures at 70°C and 60°C while they remain stable at temperature range of 30°C - 90°C. Mannanase from BLS.11-01 and BLS.11-02 had optimum pH at 6 and 7, respectively, and were also stable in wide pH range of 2-8. Co2+ was a mannanase activator for both isolates. Cu2+, Zn2+, Ni2+, Ca2+ and Fe2+ were  mannanase inhibitors for two isolates. Tween 20 (0.5% and 1.0% and NaCl (0.5% and 1.0% were chemical reagents that could enhance the activity of BLS.11-01 and BLS.11-02 mannanase isolates.  While tween 80 (0.5% and 1.0%, urea (0.5% and 1.0% and SDS (0.5% and 1.0% were chemical reagents that were not effective for both isolates mannanase activity

  16. Morphological and genetic evidence for early Holocene cattle management in northeastern China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Hucai; Paijmans, Johanna L A; Chang, Fengqin

    2013-01-01

    The domestication of cattle is generally accepted to have taken place in two independent centres: around 10,500 years ago in the Near East, giving rise to modern taurine cattle, and two millennia later in southern Asia, giving rise to zebu cattle. Here we provide firmly dated morphological...... and genetic evidence for early Holocene management of taurine cattle in northeastern China. We describe conjoining mandibles from this region that show evidence of oral stereotypy, dated to the early Holocene by two independent (14)C dates. Using Illumina high-throughput sequencing coupled with DNA...... hybridization capture, we characterize 15,406 bp of the mitogenome with on average 16.7-fold coverage. Phylogenetic analyses reveal a hitherto unknown mitochondrial haplogroup that falls outside the known taurine diversity. Our data suggest that the first attempts to manage cattle in northern China predate...

  17. Trypanosomosis: Potential driver of selection in African cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamarija eSmetko

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosomosis is a serious cause of reduction in productivity of cattle in tsetse-fly infested areas. Baoule and other local Taurine cattle breeds in Burkina Faso are trypanotolerant. Zebuine cattle, which are also kept there are susceptible to trypanosomosis but bigger in body size. Farmers have continuously been intercrossing Baoule and Zebu animals to increase production and disease tolerance. The aim of this study was to compare levels of zebuine and taurine admixture in genomic regions potentially involved in trypanotolerance with background admixture of composites to identify differences in allelic frequencies of tolerant and non tolerant animals. The study was conducted on 214 animals (90 Baoule, 90 Zebu and 34 composites, genotyped with 25 microsatellites across the genome and with 155 SNPs in 23 candidate regions. Degrees of admixture of composites were analyzed for microsatellite and SNP data separately. Average Baoule admixture based on microsatellites across the genomes of the Baoule-Zebu composites was 0.31, which was smaller than the average Baoule admixture in the trypanosomosis candidate regions of 0.37 (P=0.15. Fixation index FST measured in the overall genome based on microsatellites or with SNPs from candidate regions indicates strong differentiation between breeds. Nine out of 23 regions had FST ≥ 0.20 calculated from haplotypes or individual SNPs. The levels of admixture were significantly different from background admixture, as revealed by microsatellite data, for six out of the nine regions. Five out of the six regions showed an excess of Baoule ancestry. Information about best levels of breed composition would be useful for future breeding activities, aiming at trypanotolerant animals with higher productive capacity.

  18. Influence of backward flowing molten jet on humping bead formation during high-speed GMA welding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ji; WU Chuansong

    2009-01-01

    Considering the inflttence of backward flowing molten jet observed by experiments, a new pool surface deformation formula and droplets heat content model are used to investigate the humping formation mechanism during high-speed gas metal arc (GMA) welding. Three-dimensional geometry of the humping bead is numerically simulated only if some extra force and heat acted at the rear part of weld pool are taken into account in the model. It has proved that both the momentum and heat content of backward flowing molten jet must be appropriately treated to quantitatively analyze the physical mechanism of the humping phenomenon.

  19. Hump-nosed viper bite: an important but under-recognized cause of systemic envenoming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivanthan, Mitrakrishnan Chrishan; Yudhishdran, Jevon; Navinan, Rayno; Rajapakse, Senaka

    2014-01-01

    Hump-nosed viper bites are common in the Indian subcontinent. In the past, hump-nosed vipers (Hypnale species) were considered moderately venomous snakes whose bites result mainly in local envenoming. However, a variety of severe local effects, hemostatic dysfunction, microangiopathic hemolysis, kidney injury and death have been reported following envenoming by Hypnale species. We systematically reviewed the medical literature on the epidemiology, toxin profile, diagnosis, and clinical, laboratory and postmortem features of hump-nosed viper envenoming, and highlight the need for development of an effective antivenom.

  20. On the Hump-Shaped Output Effect of Monetary Policy in an Open Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Pierdzioch, Christian; Yener, Serkan

    2004-01-01

    Results of empirical research have revealed a characteristic hump-shaped effect of monetary policy shocks on output: the effect builds to a peak after several months and then gradually dies out. We analyze, in the context of a "new open economy macroeconomics" model, factors that imply a hump- shaped effect of a monetary policy shock on output. We find that a hump- shaped effect of output is likely to result if the model features a "catching up with the Joneses" effect, pricing-to-market beha...

  1. On the Hump-Shaped Output Effect of Monetary Policy in an Open Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Pierdzioch, Christian; Yener, Serkan

    2004-01-01

    Results of empirical research have revealed a characteristic hump-shaped effect of monetary policy shocks on output: the effect builds to a peak after several months and then gradually dies out. We analyze, in the context of a "new open economy macroeconomics" model, factors that imply a hump- shaped effect of a monetary policy shock on output. We find that a hump- shaped effect of output is likely to result if the model features a "catching up with the Joneses" effect, pricing-to-market beha...

  2. Design and implementation of speed humps: supplement to national guidelines for traffic calming

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Emslie, I

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available This report presents guidelines to assist local authorities and traffic engineers with a uniform approach to the implementation of speed humps. It is recommended that these guidelines be read in conjunction with The National Guidelines for Traffic...

  3. A duplex kidney with dromedary hump showing altered hilar anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tallapaneni S

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive knowledge of the wide range of variations of renal vasculature and renal pelvis is mandatory to the anatomists for a better understanding of the embryology. It remains as the key issue in determining the technical feasibility of various endourologic procedures and innumerable intervention techniques besides kidney retrievals for transplantation. In the present case the duplex kidney showed lobulations on the anterior surface just adjacent to the hilar region. The midlateral portion of the convex lateral border of the kidney showed a small focal bulge –dromedary hump. At the hilum reversed anterio-posterior disposition of renal vasculature with anteriorly placed renal artery which bifurcated into two upper and lower anterior segmental branches. The renal vein formed by large tributaries arising from the hilum running towards the inferior vena cava. The renal pelvis was most posteriorly placed which showed a double pelvis. The upper pelvis was seen arising behind the renal vein and the lower pelvis arising inferomedial to the lower anterior segmental artery.Both the pelvises were seen uniting medial to the lower part of hilum and continued as a single ureter which opened into the bladder. The thorough knowledge of these anatomical variations is necessary to avoid iatrogenic injuries and enable the surgeon and radiologists approach unusual situations with confidence rather than surprise.

  4. Tip Graft and Columellar Strut Using Dorsal Osseocartilaginous Hump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Bakhshaee

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although, different grafts are used for nasal tipplasty in cases with under projected or ill defined tip, the selectionof a graft material, which provides sufficient amount oftissue with least donor site morbidity and low recipient sitecomplication is challenging. The objectives of the presentstudy were to examine the usefulness of cartilaginous dorsumas a proper material for tip graft, and to introduce the cartilaginousdorsum as an acceptable material for columellar strut.Methods: Fifty six (18 males and 38 females patients wereoperated for augmentation tip plasty and hump reduction from2004 to 2008. The tailored cartilaginous or ostecartilaginousdorsum was used as a tip graft or columellar strut in 35 and 21cases, respectively. The cartilaginous framework was exposedusing open or close rhinoplasty approach in 41 and 15 cases,respectively. The patients were followed for 12- 36 months.Cosmetic outcomes and patients' satisfaction were obtainedusing qualitative measures.Results: The percentage of patients with very improved, improved,unchanged or unacceptable aesthetic outcome were39.29%, 50%, 3.57% and 7.14%, respectively. Moreover, thepercentages of very satisfied, satisfied, indifferent and unsatisfiedpatients were 66%, 18%, 9%, and 7%, respectively.Conclusion: The procedure provides a well-defined nasal tipwith no evidence of bifidity, angularity, or cartilage graft visibilityand displacement. The use of dorsal osteocartilaginousgraft offers outstanding advantages including ease of harvest,mould, fix, and low resorption.

  5. indigenous cattle breeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the mitochondrial DNA cleavage patterns of the Brahman (zebu) and the Jersey ... that bottlenecks have played in the evolution of the species. ..... Length mutations in human mitochondrial DNA: direct sequencing of enzymatically amplified.

  6. An attempt to correlate cattle breed origins and diseases associated with or transmitted by the tick Amblyomma variegatum in the French West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillard, J C; Kemp, S J; Naves, M; Palin, C; Demangel, C; Accipe, A; Maillard, N; Bensaid, A

    1993-01-01

    By using biological data and historical research, we have tried to explain the difference between resistance and susceptibility to the diseases transmitted (cowdriosis) or associated (dermatophilosis) with the tick Amblyomma variegatum, in two cattle breeds of the French West Indies: the Creole crossbred cattle of Guadeloupe and the Brahman zebu cattle of Martinique. Have been studied the polymorphisms of 5 independent genetic systems (erythrocytic haemoglobin, serum albumin and transferrin, the class I region of the BoLA complex and the gamma S crystallin gene) in different breeds comprising Bos taurus cattle of Europe and Africa, Bos indicus of West and East Africa, as well as the Brahman of Martinique and the Creole crossbred of Guadeloupe. By comparing the different allele frequencies of these 5 non related polymorphic loci and by using the two different mathematical matrices of NEI and of CAVALLI-SFORZA, have been established the genetic distances between these breeds. It appears clearly that the Creole cattle of Guadeloupe are in an intermediate position between the Bos taurus N'Dama breed of West Africa and two Bos indicus zebu breeds, namely the West African Sudan zebu and the Brahman. Thanks to studies of different archieves in the Caribbean and in Europe, historical evidence have been accumulated on the geographical origins and on the chronology of the establishment of Creole and Brahman cattle in the French West Indies. The high resistance of the Creole cattle of Guadeloupe to diseases associated with or transmitted by the "Senegalese" tick Amblyomma variegatum seems to be due to the inheritance of a pool of genes from West African cattle and more particularly from the N'Dama breed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Histogenesis of rumen in one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Salimi Naghani* and L. Akradi1

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to follow several sequence histological changes that occur during the histogenesis of the rumen in one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius. Histogenesis study was carried out on 66 fetuses of camel from 50th day of gestation until birth (390 days, according to the most relevant histo-differentiation characteristics of the rumen in fetuses, these were divided into four groups: group I (5-24 cm crown-rump length (C-RL; 50-140 days; group II (24-30 cm C-RL; 140-160 days; group III (30-60 cm C-RL; 160-250 days; group IV (60-108 cm C-RL; 250-390 days. At 50 days, the rumen consisted of four layers: the epithelial layer, propria-submucosa, tunica muscularis and serosa. The epithelium glandular region was pseudostratified and in non-glandular region was stratified. The muscularis mucosa was observed incompletely from 140 days between lamina propria and submucosa in glandular region of the rumen to the birth day. The primary lymphatic nodules appeared in lamina propria of glandular region of the rumen at 160 days of gestation. The epithelium of the glandular region in rumen was formed by a simple columnar layer at 250 days. In all groups, the tunica muscularis layer of rumen was increased with ruminal development, gradually. The non-glandular region of rumen was formed by a stratified epithelium and number of these cells increased with ruminal development. The lymphatic nodules and muscularis mucosa in non-glandular region did not observe in all groups. The study observations revealed that non-glandular region of the rumen in the fetuses of camel are less precocious than the rumen of the domestic ruminants.

  8. Evaluation of Genetic Diversity, Population Structure, and Relationship Between Legendary Vechur Cattle and Crossbred Cattle of Kerala State, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhika, G; Aravindakshan, T V; Jinty, S; Ramya, K

    2017-03-30

    The legendary Vechur cattle of Kerala, described as a very short breed, and the crossbred (CB) Sunandini cattle population exhibited great phenotypic variation; hence, the present study attempted to analyze the genetic diversity existing between them. A set of 14 polymorphic microsatellites were chosen from FAO-ISAG panel and amplified from genomic DNA isolated from blood samples of 30 Vechur and 64 unrelated crossbred cattle, using fluorescent labeled primers. Both populations revealed high genetic diversity as evidenced from high observed number of alleles, Polymorphic Information Content and expected heterozygosity. Observed heterozygosity was lesser (0.699) than expected (0.752) in Vechur population which was further supported by positive FIS value of 0.1149, indicating slight level of inbreeding in Vechur population. Overall, FST value was 0.065, which means genetic differentiation between crossbred and Vechur population was 6.5%, indicating that the crossbred cattle must have differentiated into a definite population that is different from the indigenous Vechur cows. Structure analysis indicated that the two populations showed distinct differences, with two underlying clusters. The present study supports the separation between Taurine and Zebu cattle and throws light onto the genetic diversity and relationship between native Vechur and crossbred cattle populations in Kerala state.

  9. Clinical and histopathological study of the phototoxic dermatitis in Zebu calves in grazing of Brachiaria decumbens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Cardona-Álvarez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The objective was to study the clinical and histopathological aspects of Phototoxic Dermatitis Secondary (PDS, secondary to ingestion of Brachiaria decumbens in Zebu calves (Bos indicus department of Cordoba, Colombia. Materials and methods. Twelve calves Zebu, male, 12 to 18 months, PDS diagnosed with clinical, histopathologically studied and laboratory exams. Results.Clinically, signs of photophobia, dehydration, progressive emaciation, icteric mucous membranes and skin lesions as res-breaking with leathery skin appearance, skin peeling and scabbing over large areas were evident. The lesions were located bilaterally in different areas of the skin in ears, perineal region, epigastric and costal. Serological tests gave the high catalytic activity of the liver enzymes AST and GGT indicating liver injury consistent with cholestasis. Histopathologically was observed in hematoxylin eosin, chronic necrotic dermatitis, in trichrome Gomori poor dermal proliferation disorganized fibroblasts, low presence of diffuse connective tissue and collagen fibers disorganized and picrosirius red / polarization areas reddish birefringence was observed was observed and greenyellow, indicating moderate presence of mature collagen type I (bright red in polarization and Type III (bright yellowish-green polarization. Conclusions. The definitive diagnosis of the disease was based on clinical features, laboratory findings and histopathological findings, being conclusive as diagnostic methods of the PDS. In the literature there are no reports of studies PDS in Zebu calves department of Córdoba and Colombia.

  10. GROSS AND MICRO - ANATOMICAL OBSERVATIONS ON Fulani Zebu PLACENTOME AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH SOME FOETAL PARAMETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okafor C Lilian

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the gross and micro -anatomy of the placentome of Fulani zebu (Bosindicus and its relationship with some foetal parameters over the gestation period. Eighteen pregnant uteri of the Fulani zebu cow were collected from slaughtered pregnant cows. The foetal age was estimated using Richardson’s formula. Other foetal param eters such as the foetal sex, location in the uteri, foetal weight, placentome weight, total number of placentomes and placentome size were taken. The Placentome counts showed a great deal of variability from 51 to 128. The distribution of pregnancies was (66.6% in the right horn and 33.3% in the left horn. Regression analysis was used to establish the relationship between the estimated age and other foetal parameters. The regression analysis yielded a statistically significant relationship (r 2 = 0.4549; p0.01 with the number of placentome. In conclusion, this study has shown that the Fulani zebu placenta is synepitheliochorial with convex Placentomes. The placentome size increases with gestation age in response to greater nutrient/metabolic requirement of the foetus, as the pregnancy progresses

  11. Allelic Diversity of Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II DRB Gene in Indian Cattle and Buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachinandan De

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to study the diversity of MHC-DRB3 alleles in Indian cattle and buffalo breeds. Previously reported BoLA-DRB exon 2 alleles of Indian Zebu cattle, Bos taurus cattle, buffalo, sheep, and goats were analyzed for the identities and divergence among various allele sequences. Comparison of predicted amino acid residues of DRB3 exon 2 alleles with similar alleles from other ruminants revealed considerable congruence in amino acid substitution pattern. These alleles showed a high degree of nucleotide and amino acid polymorphism at positions forming peptide-binding regions. A higher rate of nonsynonymous substitution was detected at the peptide-binding regions, indicating that BoLA-DRB3 allelic sequence evolution was driven by positive selection.

  12. Protocolos de superovulação em zebuínos com doses convencionais ou split

    OpenAIRE

    Tirapelli, Ana Carolina Nascimento

    2013-01-01

    Este experimento teve como objetivo avaliar e comparar resultados de superovulação de fêmeas zebuínas, utilizando um produto a base de FSH/LH num protocolo convencional e com número menor de aplicações e similar dosagem (dose split). Foram realizadas 32 superovulações em 16 fêmeas zebuínas, com idade variando de 17 a 42 meses, com escore de condição corporal 2,5 a 4 (escala de 1-5), arranjadas num delineamento experimental tipo cross-over. Isto é, todas as fêmeas foram superovuladas duas veze...

  13. Consumption and Wage Humps in a Life-cycle Model with Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Holger; Munk, Claus; Seifried, Frank Thomas

    The observed hump-shaped life-cycle pattern in individuals' consumption cannot be explained by the classical consumption-savings model. We explicitly solve a model with utility of both consumption and leisure and with educational decisions affecting future wages. We show optimal consumption is hu...

  14. Comparison of SNP variation and distribution in indigenous ethiopian and korean cattle (hanwoo) populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edea, Zewdu; Dadi, Hailu; Kim, Sang Wook; Dessie, Tadelle; Kim, Kwan-Suk

    2012-09-01

    Although a large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been identified from the bovine genome-sequencing project, few of these have been validated at large in Bos indicus breeds. We have genotyped 192 animals, representing 5 cattle populations of Ethiopia, with the Illumina Bovine 8K SNP BeadChip. These include 1 Sanga (Danakil), 3 zebu (Borana, Arsi and Ambo), and 1 zebu × Sanga intermediate (Horro) breeds. The Hanwoo (Bos taurus) was included for comparison purposes. Analysis of 7,045 SNP markers revealed that the mean minor allele frequency (MAF) was 0.23, 0.22, 0.21, 0.21, 0.23, and 0.29 for Ambo, Arsi, Borana, Danakil, Horro, and Hanwoo, respectively. Significant differences of MAF were observed between the indigenous Ethiopian cattle populations and Hanwoo breed (p < 0.001). Across the Ethiopian cattle populations, a common variant MAF (≥0.10 and ≤0.5) accounted for an overall estimated 73.79% of the 7,045 SNPs. The Hanwoo displayed a higher proportion of common variant SNPs (90%). Investigation within Ethiopian cattle populations showed that on average, 16.64% of the markers were monomorphic, but in the Hanwoo breed, only 6% of the markers were monomorphic. Across the sampled Ethiopian cattle populations, the mean observed and expected heterozygosities were 0.314 and 0.313, respectively. The level of SNP variation identified in this particular study highlights that these markers can be potentially used for genetic studies in African cattle breeds.

  15. Entropy production analysis for hump characteristics of a pump turbine model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Deyou; Gong, Ruzhi; Wang, Hongjie; Xiang, Gaoming; Wei, Xianzhu; Qin, Daqing

    2016-07-01

    The hump characteristic is one of the main problems for the stable operation of pump turbines in pump mode. However, traditional methods cannot reflect directly the energy dissipation in the hump region. In this paper, 3D simulations are carried out using the SST k- ω turbulence model in pump mode under different guide vane openings. The numerical results agree with the experimental data. The entropy production theory is introduced to determine the flow losses in the whole passage, based on the numerical simulation. The variation of entropy production under different guide vane openings is presented. The results show that entropy production appears to be a wave, with peaks under different guide vane openings, which correspond to wave troughs in the external characteristic curves. Entropy production mainly happens in the runner, guide vanes and stay vanes for a pump turbine in pump mode. Finally, entropy production rate distribution in the runner, guide vanes and stay vanes is analyzed for four points under the 18 mm guide vane opening in the hump region. The analysis indicates that the losses of the runner and guide vanes lead to hump characteristics. In addition, the losses mainly occur in the runner inlet near the band and on the suction surface of the blades. In the guide vanes and stay vanes, the losses come from pressure surface of the guide vanes and the wake effects of the vanes. A new insight-entropy production analysis is carried out in this paper in order to find the causes of hump characteristics in a pump turbine, and it could provide some basic theoretical guidance for the loss analysis of hydraulic machinery.

  16. Orujo de citrus como suplemento invernal de vaquillas cruza cebú en Argentina (Orujo of citrus as winter supplement of heifers crosses zebu in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coppo J.A.;

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available El orujo de citrus es un suplemento energético con escaso contenido de proteínas. Por esta razón se recomienda añadirle nitrógeno cuando se destina a la alimentación de bovinos en crecimiento. Dada la existencia de reportes aseverando que el ganado cebú efectuaría un mejor aprovechamiento de los nutrientes, el objetivo de este estudio fue indagar los efectos de dicho residuo de la industria cítrica, sin adición nitrogenada, sobre el estado clínico, peso y parámetros hematológicos y bioquímicos indicadores del estado nutricional y de reacciones indeseables, sobre ganado cruza cebú en crecimiento. Quince vaquillas (200-250 kg de peso operaron como controles sobre pastura natural (C y otras 15 fueron suplementadas (S con orujo fresco de citrus (6-7 kg/animal/día durante 3 meses (invierno. Ambos lotes fueron controlados a los 0, 30, 60 y 90 días, bajo un diseño de medidas repetidas. Los datos finales indicaron que en S ocurrieron aumentos significativos (p < 0,05 de hematocrito, eritrocitos, hemoglobina, calcio, hierro, colesterol total, triglicéridos, proteínas totales, albúminas, globulinas y urea, aunque también se registraron disminuciones significativas de glucosa, fósforo inorgánico, cobre y potasio. Ningún animal registró signos de enfermedad. Los pesos finales fueron 232,8 ± 25,3 kg en C (ganancia de 57 g/animal/día y 234,1 ± 25,9 kg en S (60 g/animal/día, diferencias que estadísticamente no fueron significativas. Pese a no producir efectos secundarios y a mejorar los niveles hemáticos de algunos indicadores nutricionales, el orujo de citrus sin complemento nitrogenado, fue ineficaz para incrementar significativamente el peso de los animales en crecimiento durante el déficit invernal de pasturas. Summary.- Citrus pulp is an energy supplement with scarce protein content. For this reason it is recommended the nitrogen addition when it is employed as food on growing cattle. Due to reports which affirm that Zebu

  17. Energy sources in low intake supplements on the productive and reproductive performance of Zebu cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Marcondes de Godoy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the productive and reproductive performance of primiparous zebu cows supplemented on Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu with supplements of low intake composed of different energy sources in the postpartum period. Sixty cow-calf pairs were divided into three treatments, a standard mineral salt supplement, a supplement based on ground corn and another containing protected fat, under the same conditions of pasture. The cows had an average initial age of 36 months and 295.9 ± 20 kg of initial body weight. The evaluation period lasted from November 2006 to May 2007, the 24 days after delivery until weaning of calves to 192 days of age. Cows fed the supplement based on ground corn (351 g day-1 and protected fat (357 g day-1 showed a similar increase in body weight, which was higher in relation cows fed with the mineral mixture (179 g day-1. Mineral mixture supplementation resulted in body condition score loss of cows between 80 and 136 days after calving. Cows fed energy supplements of low consumption produced more milk, weaned heavier calves and showed higher pregnancy rate than those fed only with the mineral mixture. The use of 3% calcium salts of fatty acids in energy supplements of low consumption did not alter the productive and reproductive performance of primiparous Zebu cows.

  18. Effects of body conformation and udder morphology on milk yield of zebu cows in North region of Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kilekoung Jean-Pierre Mingoas

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the effect of udder morphological characteristics on milk yield in zebu cows of Cameroon. Materials and Methods: The diameter and height of the udder, length and diameter of the teat, and the milk yield were measured in 29 Djafun (Red Mbororo and 19 Aku (White Fulani cows in Lougguere zootechnical station in the North region of Cameroon. Results: Overall, strong positive correlation (rp=0.60 between the diameter (240.21±28.58 mm and height (131.12±23.64 mm of udders (p<0.001 and between length (39.51±6.44 mm and diameter (19.85±3.08 mm of teats (rp=0.78 were found in the zebu cows. Udder morphologic characteristics varied significantly (p<0.005 according to breed, lactation stage and parity, and height at whiters. There was significant (p<0.001 correlations between udder diameter (rp=0.541 and height (rp=0.549 with milk yield. Conclusion: This study ascertained udder morphological characteristics values in local zebu cows, and showed that udder size is strong and positively correlated to milk yield. The findings are useful in genetic improvement programs of zebu cows.

  19. Estádios de desenvolvimento embrionário de vacas zebuínas superovuladas Superovulated zebu cows embryonic developmental stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.F. Fonseca

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi relatar o estádio de desenvolvimento de embriões coletados a partir de processos superovulatórios em zebuínos. Foram utilizadas 26 vacas, 16 da raça Nelore Padrão, três da Nelore Mocho, quatro da Gir, duas da Brahman e uma da raça Guzerá. Para o processo de superovulação utilizaram-se 350 UI de FSH em oito doses decrescentes a cada 12 horas, a partir do 10ºdia do ciclo estral (estro = dia 0. Ao sétimo dia após o estro os embriões foram coletados pelo método não cirúrgico e avaliados ao microscópio estereoscópio quanto à qualidade e estádio de desenvolvimento embrionário. Foram coletados 135 embriões viáveis, sendo 68,2% (92/135 Nelore Padrão, 12,6% (17/135 Nelore Mocho, 11,1% (15/135 Gir, 5,2% (7/135 Brahman e 3,0% (4/135 Guzerá. Os embriões foram classificados segundo a qualidade em grau I, 51,1% (69/135, grau II, 43,7% (59/135, grau III, 4,4% (6/135, e grau IV, 0,7% (1/135, e segundo o estádio de desenvolvimento em mórula, 3,7% (5/135, blastocisto inicial, 16,3% (22/135, blastocisto, 37,0% (50/135, blastocisto expandido, 42,2% (57/135, e blastocisto eclodido, 0,7% (1/135. Observou-se predominância de estádios embrionários avançados (blastocisto, blastocisto expandido e blastocisto eclodido que representaram 80% do total de embriões.This study was carried out with the objective of reporting the developing stages of embryos collected from superovulated zebu cows. Twenty-six zebu cows of Nelore (16, Polled Nelore (3, Gir (4, Brahman (2 and Guzerá (1 breeds were superovulated with 350IU of FSH, divided into eight decreasing doses administered each 12 hours, starting on day 10 of the estrous cycle (estrous = day 0. Seven-day embryos were collected non-surgically and evaluated at microscopy to determine the grade and stage of development. A total of 135 viable embryos were collected, being 68.2% (92/135 Nelore, 12.6% (17/135 Pooled Nelore, 11.1% (15/135 Gir, 5.2% (7/135 Brahman and 3

  20. Kappa-casein gene study in Iranian Sistani cattle breed (Bos indicus) using PCR-RFLP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohallah, Alinaghizadeh; Mohammadreza, Mohammad Abadi; Shahin, Moradnasab Badrabadi

    2007-12-01

    In cattle, caseins are subdivided into four main groups: alphaS1-, alphaaS2-, beta- and kappa-caseins. kappa-caseins (CSN2) considerably differ from other caseins in structure and other properties. Testing the A and B alleles is of practical importance, because the milk of cows that carry the B allele of CSN3 has a better thermal resistance and shorter coagulation time, better curdles and contains micelles of different sizes. Iranian Sistani cattle (Bos indicus) are a heavy built breed and used as dual-purpose cattle breed in Eastern Iran. This breed is a genetic resource that shows special features of adaptation to rustic environments. One of the most distinctive features of Sistani cattle is its great capability to resist diseases which makes it a potential reservoir of germplasm useful for future crosses. Our main goal was to study DNA-polymorphism of the CSN3 gene in the Iranian Sistani native cattle (Bos indicus) and analyze the information value of CSN3 gene polymorphism as a genetic marker. We genotyped and analyzed 65 animals of this breed using PCR-RFLP. The frequencies of A and B alleles were 0.6385 and 0.3615 and those of AA, AB and BB genotypes were 0.4000, 0.4769 and 0.1231, respectively. In the Sistani Zebu breed, frequency of B allele is higher than other Zebu breeds, indicating that intensive selection for dairy production have been done and indirectly influenced CSN3 allele frequencies.

  1. Fine-mapping the POLL locus in Brahman cattle yields the diagnostic marker CSAFG29.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariasegaram, Maxy; Harrison, Blair E; Bolton, Jennifer A; Tier, Bruce; Henshall, John M; Barendse, William; Prayaga, Kishore C

    2012-12-01

    The POLL locus has been mapped to the centromeric region of bovine chromosome 1 (BTA1) in both taurine breeds and taurine-indicine crosses in an interval of approximately 1 Mb. It has not yet been mapped in pure-bred zebu cattle. Despite several efforts, neither causative mutations in candidate genes nor a singular diagnostic DNA marker has been identified. In this study, we genotyped a total of 68 Brahman cattle and 20 Hereford cattle informative for the POLL locus for 33 DNA microsatellites, 16 of which we identified de novo from the bovine genome sequence, mapping the POLL locus to the region of the genes IFNAR2 and SYNJ1. The 303-bp allele of the new microsatellite, CSAFG29, showed strong association with the POLL allele. We then genotyped 855 Brahman cattle for CSAFG29 and confirmed the association between the 303-bp allele and POLL. To determine whether the same association was found in taurine breeds, we genotyped 334 animals of the Angus, Hereford and Limousin breeds and 376 animals of the Brangus, Droughtmaster and Santa Gertrudis composite taurine-zebu breeds. The association between the 303-bp allele and POLL was confirmed in these breeds; however, an additional allele (305 bp) was also associated but not fully predictive of POLL. Across the data, CSAFG29 was in sufficient linkage disequilibrium to the POLL allele in Australian Brahman cattle that it could potentially be used as a diagnostic marker in that breed, but this may not be the case in other breeds. Further, we provide confirmatory evidence that the scur phenotype generally occurs in animals that are heterozygous for the POLL allele. © 2012 Commonwealth of Australia, Animal Genetics © 2012 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  2. On some single-hump solutions of the short-pulse equation and their periodic generalizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Y.; Williams, F.; Whitaker, N. [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003-4515 (United States); Kevrekidis, P.G., E-mail: kevrekid@gmail.co [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003-4515 (United States); Saxena, A. [Center for Nonlinear Studies and Theoretical Division, MS B262, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Frantzeskakis, D.J. [Department of Physics, University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, Zografos, Athens 15784 (Greece)

    2010-06-28

    In the present work, we consider both localized (e.g. peakon and breather) and extended waveforms (peakon-lattice and breather-lattice, as well as some periodic ones) that arise in the context of the short-pulse equation, as emanating from their sine-Gordon equation analogs. Through direct numerical simulations, we find that the most robust solution is the breather, although some of the single-hump variants of the periodic solutions may be preserved upon the time dynamics as well. Multi-peakon, as well as multi-breather and multi-hump profiles more generally are found to be subject to symmetry-breaking instabilities and are, thus, less robust.

  3. Nasal bone grafts from the removed hump used as overlay grafts to camouflage concave lateral crura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubilay, Utku; Erdogdu, Suleyman; Sezen, Ozan Seymen

    2014-01-01

    Alar cartilage consists of a medial crus, middle crus and lateral crus. The lateral crus is an important aesthetic and functional structure of the nose. A 32-year-old male patient with concave lateral crura was operated by the authors. An open rhinoplasty with a dorsal approach to the septum is preferred. The nasal bones harvested from the hump, which is an autogenous graft trimmed and sutured on both concave lateral crura as an overlay camouflage grafts. Satisfactory result was achieved.

  4. Double-hump resonance structure of the cross sections for electron impact ionization of Ar5+

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Configuration-average distorted-wave calculations are carried out for electron-impact ionization of Ar5+. Both direct ionization and the indirect excitation autoionization processes are included in our calculations. Our theoretical values are in quite reasonable agreement with the experimental data. The indirect processes contribute up to 50% to the total ionization cross sections. The possible origin of double-hump resonance structure of the cross sections is demonstrated and the contributions of metastable states are also taken into account.

  5. Double-Humped Transverse Density Profile in Two-Dimensional Chute Flow with Rough Sidewalls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Guo-Qi; ZHANG Xun-Sheng; BAO De-Song; TANG Xiao-Wei

    2006-01-01

    @@ We study a two-dimensional granular rapid flow with rough sidewalls stuck with the same size discs by molecular dynamics simulation. A transient state of the double-humped density profile in the flowing process has been found, which appears and moves as travelling wave and is the same as the phenomena in the recent experiments [Acta Phys. Sin. 53 (2004) 3389 (in Chinese)].

  6. Production of a double-humped ion velocity distribution function in a single-ended Q-machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S.A.; Jensen, Vagn Orla; Michelsen, Poul

    1970-01-01

    An experimental method of producing a double-humped velocity distribution function for the ions in a Q-machine is described. The method is based on charge exchange processes between neutral ceasium and the ions in a ceasium plasma.......An experimental method of producing a double-humped velocity distribution function for the ions in a Q-machine is described. The method is based on charge exchange processes between neutral ceasium and the ions in a ceasium plasma....

  7. Hump nosed viper bite inSri Lanka-descriptive observational study of 1543 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wijewantha HS; Sellahewa KH

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To identify the clinical manifestations of hump nosed viper envenomation and to recognize the available treatment methods to prevent complications.Methods: Descriptive observational study involving a series of1 543 patients admitted with hump nosed viper bite to 5 major hospitals in Sri Lanka was conducted. Data collection was done consecutively during February1990 and February2008. ExceptHypnale, identification of the biting snake was made by the corresponding author after visual examination of the dead or live snakes, which were brought to hospital.Results: Sixty seven(4.34%) patients developed systemic effects and two (0.1%) patients died due to effects of envenomation or complications of treatment. Systemic effects varied from coagulopathy, nephropathy to some neurological manifestations. Fifty nine (3.8%) patients had only coagulopathy and they received either, intravenous isotonic saline to ensure adequate urine out put i.e.0.5 mL/kg /hour or15 mL/kg of fresh frozen plasma(FFP). None of the patients that had coagulopathy developed renal failure. Contamination of the sample by mildly venomous species ofHypnale may have contributed to the low incidence of systemic complications.Conclusions: It is likely that early hydration with normal saline orFFP can prevent acute renal failure. FFP showed a tendency for early correction of coagulopathy. Role of FFP in hump nosed viper envenomation is worth studying in randomized double blind controlled clinical trials.

  8. Sub-harmonic broadband humps and tip noise in low-speed ring fans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Stéphane; Sanjose, Marlène

    2016-01-01

    A joint experimental and numerical study has been achieved on a low-speed axial ring fan in clean inflow. Experimental evidence shows large periodic broadband humps at lower frequencies than the blade passing frequencies and harmonics even at design conditions. These sub-harmonic humps are also found to be sensitive to the fan process and consequently to its tip geometry. Softer fans yield more intense humps more shifted to lower frequencies with respect to the fan harmonics. Unsteady turbulent flow simulations of this ring fan mounted on a test plenum have been achieved by four different methods that have been validated by comparing with overall performances and detailed hot-wire velocity measurements in the wake. Noise predictions are either obtained directly or are obtained through Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings' analogy, and compared with narrowband and third-octave power spectra. All unsteady simulations correctly capture the low flow rates, the coherent vortex dynamics in the tip clearance and consequently the noise radiation dominated by the tip noise in the low- to mid-frequency range. Yet, only the scale-adaptive simulation and the lattice Boltzmann method simulations which can describe most of the turbulent structures accurately provide the proper spectral shape and levels, and consequently the overall sound power level.

  9. Clinical and pathological presentation of squamous metaplasia of the rete ovarii in a Zebu cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Á.M. Borges

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Squamous metaplasia of rete ovarii is characterized by replacement of the normal cuboidal epithelium of rete ovarii by a keratinized stratified scamous epithelium, leading to accumulation of keratinized material within the tubules and cystic dilatation of rete ovarii. The present study decribes a case of scamous metaplasia of rete ovarii in a 10 year old Zebu cow, including clinical, surgical, ultrasonographic, histopathological and hormonal findings. At first ultrasound examination the cow had lightly asymmetric ovaries with follicles presenting echogenicity similar to luteinized follicular cysts. After transvaginal follicular aspiration creamy yellowish sanguineous-purulent content was recovered. After unilateral ovariectomy the ovary was sectioned and brownish viscous material drained from cystic cavity. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosid of squamous metaplasia of the rete ovarii. Progesterone concentrations assessed by chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay within different time periods after ovariectomy showed that pathology did not compromise normal luteal ovarian activity in a contralateral reminiscent ovary.

  10. High overlap of CNVs and selection signatures revealed by varLD analyses of taurine and zebu cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selection Signatures (SS) assessed through analysis of genomic data are being widely studied to discover population specific regions selected via artificial or natural selection. Different methodologies have been proposed for these analyses, each having specific limitations as to the age of the sele...

  11. COMPLEX SIMULATION MODEL OF TRAIN BREAKING-UP PROCESS AT THE HUMPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. B. Demchenko

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. One of the priorities of station sorting complex functioning improvement is the breaking-up process energy consumptions reduction, namely: fuel consumption for train pushing and electric energy consumption for cut braking. In this regard, an effective solution of the problem of energy consumption reduction at breaking-up subsystem requires a comprehensive handling of train pushing and cut rolling down processes. At the same time, the analysis showed that the current task of pushing process improvement and cut rolling down effectiveness increase are solved separately. To solve this problem it is necessary to develop the complex simulation model of train breaking up process at humps. Methodology. Pushing process simulation was done based on adapted under the shunting conditions traction calculations. In addition, the features of shunting locomotives work at the humps were taken into account. In order to realize the current pushing mode the special algorithm of hump locomotive controlling, which along with the safety shunting operation requirements takes into account behavioral factors associated with engineer control actions was applied. This algorithm provides train smooth acceleration and further movement with speed, which is close to the set speed. Hump locomotive fuel consumptions were determined based on the amount of mechanical work performed by locomotive traction. Findings. The simulation model of train pushing process was developed and combined with existing cut rolling down model. Cut initial velocity is determined during simulation process. The obtained initial velocity is used for further cut rolling process modeling. In addition, the modeling resulted in sufficiently accurate determination of the fuel rates consumed for train breaking-up. Originality. The simulation model of train breaking-up process at the humps, which in contrast to the existing models allows reproducing complexly all the elements of this process in detail

  12. Genome-wide association study for birth, weaning and yearling weight in Colombian Brahman cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Rodrigo; Bejarano, Diego; Gómez, Yolanda; Dasoneville, Romain; Jiménez, Ariel; Even, Gael; Sölkner, Johann; Mészáros, Gabor

    2017-01-01

    Genotypic and phenotypic data of 1,562 animals were analyzed to find genomic regions that potentially influence the birth weight (BW), weaning weight at seven months of age (WW) and yearling weight (YW) of Colombian Brahman cattle, with genotyping conducted using Illumina Bead chip array with 74,669 SNPs. A Single Step Genomic BLUP (ssGBLP), approach was used to estimate the proportion of variance explained by each marker. Multiple regions scattered across the genome were found to influence weights at different ages, also dependent on the trait component (direct or maternal). The most interesting regions were connected to previously identified QTLs and genes, such as ADAMTSL3, CAPN2, CAPN2, FABP6, ZEB2 influencing growth and weight traits. The identified regions will contribute to the development and refinement of genomic selection programs for Zebu Brahman cattle in Colombia.

  13. NÍVEIS SÉRICOS DE PBI EM BOVINOS MESTIÇOS HOLANDÊS-ZEBU DO ESTADO DE GOIÁS PBI SERUM LEVELS IN CROSSBRED HOLSTEIN-ZEBU BOVINES IN THE GOIÁS STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzete Silveira Fichtner

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Foram analisados 71 hemossoros de bovinos mestiços holandês-zebu, procedentes de cinco municípios da micro-região Mato-Grosso de Goiás. Os autores observaram que os valores obtidos para o gado mestiço holandês-zebu não diferem dos parâmetros fisiológicos estabelecidos pelos investigadores consultados, que trabalharam com gado de origem européia. As diferenças ocorridas poderão ser atribuídas a condições diversas, como por exemplo, as em que se desenvolveram o presente trabalho. Concluímos que, nas condições em que se realizou o presente trabalho, com animais em regime de campo, o gado mestiço holandês-zebu apresenta a importante característica de não aumentar a atividade de sua tireóide, em comparação com o gado de origem européia, apesar de habitar uma região onde as necessidades de dissipação do calor e de circulação sangüínea são mais intensas.

    It was analyzed 71 blood serum of crossbreed zebu from 5 counties of e specific region in the State of Goiás, Brazil. PBI serum levels were (in mg/100 ml of serum: calves 3.6 +/- 0.88; bullock 3.4 +/- 1.04 and cows 3.3 +/- 1.35.

  14. Use of Bayesian Inference to Correlate In Vitro Embryo Production and In Vivo Fertility in Zebu Bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus José Sudano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to test in vitro embryo production (IVP as a tool to estimate fertility performance in zebu bulls using Bayesian inference statistics. Oocytes were matured and fertilized in vitro using sperm cells from three different Zebu bulls (V, T, and G. The three bulls presented similar results with regard to pronuclear formation and blastocyst formation rates. However, the cleavage rates were different between bulls. The estimated conception rates based on combined data of cleavage and blastocyst formation were very similar to the true conception rates observed for the same bulls after a fixed-time artificial insemination program. Moreover, even when we used cleavage rate data only or blastocyst formation data only, the estimated conception rates were still close to the true conception rates. We conclude that Bayesian inference is an effective statistical procedure to estimate in vivo bull fertility using data from IVP.

  15. Detection of bovine leukocyte antigen DRB3 alleles as candidate markers for clinical mastitis resistance in Holstein x Zebu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duangjinda, M; Buayai, D; Pattarajinda, V; Phasuk, Y; Katawatin, S; Vongpralub, T; Chaiyotvittayakul, A

    2009-02-01

    Bovine leukocyte antigen DRB3 alleles from Holstein x Zebu crossbred dairy cows (n = 409) were analyzed using the PCR-RFLP technique. Exon II of DRB3 was amplified using locus-specific primers (HLO30/HLO32), followed by digestion with 3 restriction enzymes (RsaI, BstyI, and HaeIII). Forty alleles were found with frequency ranging from 0.005 to 0.139. The most frequently detected alleles of Holstein x Zebu were DRB3*16, *51, *23, *11, *8, and *1, accounting for 61.12% of the alleles in the population. Detection of candidate alleles for clinical mastitis occurrence was performed by logistic regression. It was found that percentage of Holstein fraction in crossbred cows had a nonsignificant effect (P > 0.05). However, parity had a significant effect on mastitis occurrence. In addition, DRB3*1 and *52 were the most associated with the occurrence of clinical mastitis, whereas *15, *51, and *22 were associated with resistance in crossbred populations. This is the first report of association of DRB3*15 and *51 with mastitis resistance. The association was validated by examining the candidate alleles in another commercial population. Highly susceptible (n = 43) and resistant (n = 42) groups of Holstein x Zebu cows were investigated. The result confirmed that DRB3*1 and *52 could be considered as susceptibility alleles, whereas *15, *51, and *22 could be considered as resistant alleles in Holstein x Zebu raised under tropical conditions. In addition, allele effects on 305-d milk production were estimated by BLUP. It was shown that most alleles associated with high clinical mastitis occurrence were related to increased milk yield. This study revealed that allele DRB3*10 had the greatest effect on increasing milk yield with moderate resistance to clinical mastitis, which could be used as a potential marker for selection in dairy genetic evaluation.

  16. Wall-Resolved Large-Eddy Simulation of Flow Separation Over NASA Wall-Mounted Hump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzun, Ali; Malik, Mujeeb R.

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports the findings from a study that applies wall-resolved large-eddy simulation to investigate flow separation over the NASA wall-mounted hump geometry. Despite its conceptually simple flow configuration, this benchmark problem has proven to be a challenging test case for various turbulence simulation methods that have attempted to predict flow separation arising from the adverse pressure gradient on the aft region of the hump. The momentum-thickness Reynolds number of the incoming boundary layer has a value that is near the upper limit achieved by recent direct numerical simulation and large-eddy simulation of incompressible turbulent boundary layers. The high Reynolds number of the problem necessitates a significant number of grid points for wall-resolved calculations. The present simulations show a significant improvement in the separation-bubble length prediction compared to Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes calculations. The current simulations also provide good overall prediction of the skin-friction distribution, including the relaminarization observed over the front portion of the hump due to the strong favorable pressure gradient. We discuss a number of problems that were encountered during the course of this work and present possible solutions. A systematic study regarding the effect of domain span, subgrid-scale model, tunnel back pressure, upstream boundary layer conditions and grid refinement is performed. The predicted separation-bubble length is found to be sensitive to the span of the domain. Despite the large number of grid points used in the simulations, some differences between the predictions and experimental observations still exist (particularly for Reynolds stresses) in the case of the wide-span simulation, suggesting that additional grid resolution may be required.

  17. Design and implementation of an early warning system in vehicle for road speed control hump based on DSP and CCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuyi; Zhu, Pingyu; He, Yanfang; Wang, Le

    2011-12-01

    Road speed control humps have the effect of strengthening transportation safety by preventing traffic accidents. However, vehicles will produce strong mechanical vibrations when crossing speed control humps at high speed. These vibrations affect the passenger's comfort and cause machine parts damage. Early warning systems in vehicles for road speed control humps were designed based on DSP and CCD sensors. The system uses a CCD camera to take the picture of the road speed control humps. The image information is processed and recognised by DSP. Then the related voice and image information is given quickly and accurately after the system processes. This information will remind the driver to prepare for slowing down in good time, it makes them safe and comfortable to pass over the road speed control hump.TMS320DM642DSP early warning system in vehicles was illustrated from three aspects of the image collection module, the image discernment module and the early warning export module. TMS320C6x soft develop flow was introduced in this paper. The system has strong practicality, rapid response and well directed-viewing.

  18. Exploring the source of the mid-level hump for intensity discrimination in quiet and the effects of noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roverud, Elin; Strickland, Elizabeth A

    2015-03-01

    Intensity discrimination Weber fractions (WFs) measured for short, high-frequency tones in quiet are larger at mid levels than at lower or higher levels. The source of this "mid-level hump" is a matter of debate. One theory is that the mid-level hump reflects basilar-membrane compression, and that WFs decrease at higher levels due to spread-of-excitation cues. To test this theory, Experiment 1 measured the mid-level hump and growth-of-masking functions to estimate the basilar membrane input/output (I/O) function in the same listeners. Results showed the initial rise in WFs could be accounted for by the change in I/O function slope, but there was additional unexplained variability in WFs. Previously, Plack [(1998). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 103(5), 2530-2538] showed that long-duration notched noise (NN) presented with the tone reduced the mid-level hump even with a temporal gap in the NN. Plack concluded the results were consistent with central profile analysis. However, simultaneous, forward, and backward NN were not examined separately, which may independently test peripheral and central mechanisms of the NN. Experiment 2 measured WFs at the mid-level hump in the presence of NN and narrowband noise of different durations and temporal positions relative to the tone. Results varied across subjects, but were consistent with more peripheral mechanisms.

  19. A Matheuristic Approach for Solving the Railroad Hump Yard Block-to-Track Assignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Jørgen Thorlund; Lusby, Richard Martin

    This paper presents a novel matheuristic for solving the Hump Yard Block-to-Track Assignment Problem. This is an important problem rising in the railway freight industry and involves scheduling the transitions of a set of rail cars from a set of inbound trains to a set of outbound trains over...... a certain planning horizon. It was also the topic of the 2014 challenge organised by the Railway Applications Section of the Institute for Operations Research and the Management Sciences for which the proposed matheuristic was awarded first prize. Our approach decomposes the problem into three highly...

  20. Concentração sérica de testosterona em touros Zebu

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    Santos Marcelo Diniz

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste estudo foram avaliar o efeito de dois níveis de concentrado e lipídeo nas dietas sobre as concentrações séricas de testosterona de touros zebu, bem como o comportamento cíclico diurno-noturno do referido hormônio. Dezesseis touros zebu foram distribuídos em quatro tratamentos, durante 90 dias de período experimental: T1 (alto concentrado e alto lipídeo, T2 (alto concentrado e baixo lipídeo, T3 (baixo concentrado e alto lipídeo e T4 (baixo concentrado e baixo lipídeo. As dietas foram formuladas para serem isoprotéicas e a relação volumoso:concentrado foi de 45:55% (T1 e T2 e 80:20% (T3 e T4. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas de 15 em 15 dias, a intervalos fixos de quatro horas, durante 24 horas, para dosagem sérica de testosterona. O consumo de matéria seca, extrato etéreo e proteína bruta foi maior para animais alimentados com dietas contendo alto nível de concentrado e menor para os animais que receberam dietas com baixo nível de concentrado. Observou-se maior consumo de fibra em detergente neutro e extrato etéreo pelos animais que receberam dietas com baixo nível de concentrado e alto nível de lipídeo, respectivamente. A concentração sérica de testosterona não foi influenciada pelos diferentes níveis de concentrado e lipídeos das dietas, tendo variado de 0,1 a 9,0 ng/mL, com média de 1,24 ng/mL. Houve diferença da concentração sérica de testosterona dos animais em relação aos horários de coleta observados. Os horários de coleta de 16h30 e 00h30h apresentaram maior concentração de testosterona, em relação às 4h30 e 12h30, e não diferiram dos demais horários de coleta, porém não se caracterizaram como picos.

  1. Morphological dimorphism in the Y chromosome of "pé-duro" cattle in the Brazilian State of Piauí

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    Carmen M.C. Britto

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available "Pé-duro" (hard foot is a rare breed of beef cattle of European (Bos taurus taurus origin, originated in northern and northeastern Brazil. Y chromosome morphology, outer genital elements and other phenotypic characteristics were examined in 75 "pé-duro" bulls from the Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (Embrapa herd in the Brazilian State of Piauí. The purpose was to investigate possible racial contamination with Zebu animals (Bos taurus indicus in a cattle that has been considered closest to its European origin (B. t. taurus. The presence of both submetacentric and acrocentric Y chromosomes, typical of B. t. taurus and B. t. indicus, respectively, and the larger preputial sheath in bulls with an acrocentric Y chromosome indicated racial contamination of the "pé-duro" herd with Zebu cattle. Phenotypic parameters involving horn, dewlap, ear, chamfer, and coat color characteristics, indicative of apparent racial contamination, were not associated with acrocentric Y chromosome.Um plantel de touros "pé-duro", consistindo de 75 animais do núcleo da Embrapa envolvido com a preservação desse gado no Estado do Piauí, foi examinado quanto à morfologia do seu cromossomo Y, bem como em relação a elementos da genitália externa e outras características fenotípicas dos machos. O objetivo era investigar a contaminação racial por animais zebuínos (Bos taurus indicus num gado bovino que tem sido considerado mais próximo de sua origem européia (Bos taurus taurus. Tanto a forma submetacêntrica quanto a forma acrocêntrica do cromossomo Y, típicas das sub-espécies B. t. taurus e B. t. indicus, respectivamente, bem como maior bainha prepucial nos espécimes portadores do cromossomo Y acrocêntrico, indicativa de contaminação racial por gado zebuíno, foram detectadas no rebanho "pé-duro" mantido no núcleo da Embrapa. Outras características fenotípicas analisadas que podem informar sobre a contaminação racial aparente n

  2. Conservation of indigenous cattle genetic resources in Southern Africa’s smallholder areas: turning threats into opportunities — A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyamushamba, G. B.; Mapiye, C.; Tada, O.; Halimani, T. E.; Muchenje, V.

    2017-01-01

    The current review focuses on characterization and conservation efforts vital for the development of breeding programmes for indigenous beef cattle genetic resources in Southern Africa. Indigenous African cattle breeds were identified and characterized using information from refereed journals, conference papers and research reports. Results of this current review reviewed that smallholder beef cattle production in Southern Africa is extensive and dominated by indigenous beef cattle strains adaptable to the local environment. The breeds include Nguni, Mashona, Tuli, Malawi Zebu, Bovino de Tete, Angoni, Landim, Barotse, Twsana and Ankole. These breeds have important functions ranging from provision of food and income to socio-economic, cultural and ecological roles. They also have adaptive traits ranging from drought tolerant, resistance to ticks and tick borne diseases, heat tolerance and resistance to trypanosomosis. Stakeholders in the conservation of beef cattle were also identified and they included farmers, national government, research institutes and universities as well as breeding companies and societies in Southern Africa. Research efforts made to evaluate threats and opportunities of indigenous beef cattle production systems, assess the contribution of indigenous cattle to household food security and income, genetically and phenotypically characterize and conserve indigenous breeds, and develop breeding programs for smallholder beef production are highlighted. Although smallholder beef cattle production in the smallholder farming systems contributes substantially to household food security and income, their productivity is hindered by several constraints that include high prevalence of diseases and parasites, limited feed availability and poor marketing. The majority of the African cattle populations remain largely uncharacterized although most of the indigenous cattle breeds have been identified. PMID:27004814

  3. Conservation of indigenous cattle genetic resources in Southern Africa's smallholder areas: turning threats into opportunities - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyamushamba, G B; Mapiye, C; Tada, O; Halimani, T E; Muchenje, V

    2017-05-01

    The current review focuses on characterization and conservation efforts vital for the development of breeding programmes for indigenous beef cattle genetic resources in Southern Africa. Indigenous African cattle breeds were identified and characterized using information from refereed journals, conference papers and research reports. Results of this current review reviewed that smallholder beef cattle production in Southern Africa is extensive and dominated by indigenous beef cattle strains adaptable to the local environment. The breeds include Nguni, Mashona, Tuli, Malawi Zebu, Bovino de Tete, Angoni, Landim, Barotse, Twsana and Ankole. These breeds have important functions ranging from provision of food and income to socio-economic, cultural and ecological roles. They also have adaptive traits ranging from drought tolerant, resistance to ticks and tick borne diseases, heat tolerance and resistance to trypanosomosis. Stakeholders in the conservation of beef cattle were also identified and they included farmers, national government, research institutes and universities as well as breeding companies and societies in Southern Africa. Research efforts made to evaluate threats and opportunities of indigenous beef cattle production systems, assess the contribution of indigenous cattle to household food security and income, genetically and phenotypically characterize and conserve indigenous breeds, and develop breeding programs for smallholder beef production are highlighted. Although smallholder beef cattle production in the smallholder farming systems contributes substantially to household food security and income, their productivity is hindered by several constraints that include high prevalence of diseases and parasites, limited feed availability and poor marketing. The majority of the African cattle populations remain largely uncharacterized although most of the indigenous cattle breeds have been identified.

  4. Effect of droplet heat content distribution on humping formation in high speed GMAW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji CHEN; Chuansong WU

    2011-01-01

    The momentum of strong backward flowing melt jet and the thermal action from transferred droplets are two dominating factors affecting the formation of humping bead in high speed gas metal arc welding (GMAW).Appropriate describing the influence of the distribution mode of droplet heat content in the weld pool is essential to understand the physical mechanism of humping bead formation.Based on the experimental results,four kinds of droplet heat content distribution modes are proposed and employed to calculate the transient evolution of the temperature field and weld pool during high speed GMAW process.Through making comparison of predicted and measured weld bead dimensions,a suitable and adaptive distribution mode of droplet heat content is found,i.e.,droplet heat content is distributed in bottom layer of gouging region at the front of weld pool,and is averagely distributed in the whole layer at the rear of weld pool.The proposed mode is also validated by experimental observation of the weld pool images and measured by geometric dimensions of the weld bead.

  5. Biometric and Ultrasonographic Evaluation of the Testis of One-humped Camel (Camelus dromedarius

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    Riaz Hussain Pasha, Anas Sarwar Qureshi*, Laeeq Akbar Lodhi1 and Huma Jamil1

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Twenty four adult clinically healthy one-humped male camels (Camelus dromedarius were examined three times (beginning, mid and end in each season (winter, spring, summer and autumn for establishing the normal ultrasonic appearance and seasonal changes in the testicular parenchyma in the natural ecology of Punjab, Pakistan. The testes of each camel were scanned by using a B-mode real time ultrasound scanner fitted with a 7.5-MHz linear-array transducer. Scrotal biometry was done with the measuring tape during all the seasons of year. The tunics of the testes appeared as hyperechoic lines surrounding the homogenous, moderately echogenic parenchyma of the testis. The mediastinum testis was visualized as hyperechoic central line and a spot, in longitudinal and transverse sections, respectively. During winter season, the parenchyma was hyperechoic and mediastinum testis was seen as thin hyperechoic line. In spring, the echogenicity of parenchyma was moderate and mediastinum appeared relatively thick central hyperechoic line. In summer and autumn, less echoic parenchyma and thick band of mediastinum was recorded. Biometric studies showed significantly (P<0.01 higher scrotal length and width of the testis during winter and spring season as compared to summer and autumn. Present study revealed that the ultrasonic structure of camel testis resembles other mammals and season has an apparent effect on the testicular size and echogenicity of the testicular parenchyma in the one-humped camel.

  6. Molecular detection of Trypanosoma from one-humped camels slaughtered in Najafabad slaughterhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Mehrabiyan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available   Introduction: Trypanosomes infect a variety of animals and cause fever, weakness, and lethargy, which lead to weight loss and anemia. In livestock the disease is fatal unless treated and causes serious economic losses. Present study was conducted to detection of Trypanosoma from one-humped camels slaughtered in Najafabad slaughterhouse .   Materials and methods: 278 blood samples were taken at three different time periods from one-humped camels slaughtered in Najafabad slaughterhouse and were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR to detection of Trypanosoma .   Results: The overall infection rate of Trypanosoma was 1.07%. Positive samples (3.8% only found in spring and summer, and no positive sample was found in fall and winter .   Discussion and conclusion : Fortunately, this may suggest that the prevalence of Trypanosoma is very low in the region. It is suggested to prevent the disease by preventing livestock suspected of carrying the disease from entering the country. If it is not possible to test imported healthy livestock by molecular assays, it is recommended that simple and rapid tests such as agglutination tests that do not need an expert be assessed .

  7. Origin and distribution of the suprascapularis nerve in zebu-crossed bovine fetuses

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    Lázaro Antônio dos Santos

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This study, performed through means of dissection process, looked at the origin and distribution of the suprascapular nerve in 30 zebu-crossed bovines fetuses. The pieces were fixed in aqueous 10% formaldehyde by different points of subcutaneous, intravenous, intramuscular or intracavitary injections, and soon afterwards it was made the immersion in containers with the same solution The suprascapularis nerve showed symmetry in relation to their origin in 30 animals (100% and it originated in 56 antimeres (93.34% of C6 and C7 (47.67% to right and 47.67% to left in four antimeres (6.66% of C6, C7 and C8 (3.33% to right and 3.33% to left and gave branches to the supraspinatus muscle and infraspinatus in 100% of the cases . There was no significant difference between the frequency of the muscular branches assigned by that nerve to the right and left sides and also in relation to the sex of fetuses in this investigation.

  8. Evaluation of cis and trans fatty acid profiles in a Camel\\\\\\'s hump and meat consumed in Birjand and Nehbandan cities

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    Seyyed Javad Hosseini-Vashan

    2013-08-01

    Conclusion: Although there is no difference in the total amount of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids derived from the camel meat or hump in the two areas, the amount was less in the hump of the camel and also lower in Birjand. Therefore, it is probable that the camel's products in Birjand have a better quality regarding the incidence of atherosclerosis.

  9. Comportamento sexual de touros Zebuínos e Angus em central de coleta e processamento de sêmen Sexual behavior of Zebu and Angus bulls at an artificial insemination center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Sartori Rocha Bascuñan

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O comportamento sexual foi avaliado em 88 touros das raças Angus, Gir, Guzerá e Nelore, com 5 anos de idade, em média, peso médio de 906 kg e circunferência escrotal média de 41 cm, submetidos ao manejo reprodutivo em central de coleta e processamento de sêmen. Os touros da raça Angus apresentaram menor tempo de reação se comparados aos das raças zebuínas. O tipo de estímulo manequim em movimento influenciou positivamente o tempo de reação em todas as raças estudadas. Touros mais velhos tiveram maior tempo de reação em comparação aos mais jovens. A ordem do salto no dia não influenciou o tempo de reação dos touros. Todos os eventos comportamentais dos touros Angus ocorreram próximo ao serviço completo em vagina artificial. Os eventos comportamentais cheirar e lamber genitália, golpear o manequim com a cabeça ou o chifre, gotejamento de líquido seminal, ereção e protusão de pênis e monta abortada foram realizados em maior freqüência pelos touros zebuínos que pelos Angus. Na espécie indiana, os padrões comportamentais contração prepucial e monta abortada foram mais realizados pelos touros Nelore que pelos Guzerá. O evento serviço completo sem arranque final, no entanto, foi mais observado nos Nelore e nos Guzerá que nos touros Gir.This study aimed to evaluate the sexual behavior of 88 bulls of the Angus and Zebu (Gyr, Guzerat and Nellore breeds managed for collection and processing of semen at an artificial insemination center. On average, bulls were at 5 years of age, 906 kg of live weight and 41 cm for scrotal circumference. Reaction time in all breeds was positively influenced by the "moving" stimuli teaser. Reaction time in Angus bulls was smaller than in bulls of the zebu breeds and longer in older than in younger bulls. The daily mount order did not influence the reaction time. All sexual behavior traits in the Angus bulls were close to complete mount with artificial vagina. The behavior for

  10. A Meta-Assembly of Selection Signatures in Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randhawa, Imtiaz A. S.; Khatkar, Mehar S.; Thomson, Peter C.; Raadsma, Herman W.

    2016-01-01

    Since domestication, significant genetic improvement has been achieved for many traits of commercial importance in cattle, including adaptation, appearance and production. In response to such intense selection pressures, the bovine genome has undergone changes at the underlying regions of functional genetic variants, which are termed “selection signatures”. This article reviews 64 recent (2009–2015) investigations testing genomic diversity for departure from neutrality in worldwide cattle populations. In particular, we constructed a meta-assembly of 16,158 selection signatures for individual breeds and their archetype groups (European, African, Zebu and composite) from 56 genome-wide scans representing 70,743 animals of 90 pure and crossbred cattle breeds. Meta-selection-scores (MSS) were computed by combining published results at every given locus, within a sliding window span. MSS were adjusted for common samples across studies and were weighted for significance thresholds across and within studies. Published selection signatures show extensive coverage across the bovine genome, however, the meta-assembly provides a consensus profile of 263 genomic regions of which 141 were unique (113 were breed-specific) and 122 were shared across cattle archetypes. The most prominent peaks of MSS represent regions under selection across multiple populations and harboured genes of known major effects (coat color, polledness and muscle hypertrophy) and genes known to influence polygenic traits (stature, adaptation, feed efficiency, immunity, behaviour, reproduction, beef and dairy production). As the first meta-assembly of selection signatures, it offers novel insights about the hotspots of selective sweeps in the bovine genome, and this method could equally be applied to other species. PMID:27045296

  11. A Meta-Assembly of Selection Signatures in Cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imtiaz A S Randhawa

    Full Text Available Since domestication, significant genetic improvement has been achieved for many traits of commercial importance in cattle, including adaptation, appearance and production. In response to such intense selection pressures, the bovine genome has undergone changes at the underlying regions of functional genetic variants, which are termed "selection signatures". This article reviews 64 recent (2009-2015 investigations testing genomic diversity for departure from neutrality in worldwide cattle populations. In particular, we constructed a meta-assembly of 16,158 selection signatures for individual breeds and their archetype groups (European, African, Zebu and composite from 56 genome-wide scans representing 70,743 animals of 90 pure and crossbred cattle breeds. Meta-selection-scores (MSS were computed by combining published results at every given locus, within a sliding window span. MSS were adjusted for common samples across studies and were weighted for significance thresholds across and within studies. Published selection signatures show extensive coverage across the bovine genome, however, the meta-assembly provides a consensus profile of 263 genomic regions of which 141 were unique (113 were breed-specific and 122 were shared across cattle archetypes. The most prominent peaks of MSS represent regions under selection across multiple populations and harboured genes of known major effects (coat color, polledness and muscle hypertrophy and genes known to influence polygenic traits (stature, adaptation, feed efficiency, immunity, behaviour, reproduction, beef and dairy production. As the first meta-assembly of selection signatures, it offers novel insights about the hotspots of selective sweeps in the bovine genome, and this method could equally be applied to other species.

  12. A field vaccine trial in Tanzania demonstrates partial protection against malignant catarrhal fever in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankester, F; Russell, G C; Lugelo, A; Ndabigaye, A; Mnyambwa, N; Keyyu, J; Kazwala, R; Grant, D; Percival, A; Deane, D; Haig, D M; Cleaveland, S

    2016-02-01

    Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a fatal lymphoproliferative disease of cattle that, in East Africa, results from transmission of the causative virus, alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1), from wildebeest. A vaccine field trial involving an attenuated AlHV-1 virus vaccine was performed over two wildebeest calving seasons on the Simanjiro Plain of northern Tanzania. Each of the two phases of the field trial consisted of groups of 50 vaccinated and unvaccinated cattle, which were subsequently exposed to AlHV-1 challenge by herding toward wildebeest. Vaccination resulted in the induction of virus-specific and virus-neutralizing antibodies. Some cattle in the unvaccinated groups also developed virus-specific antibody responses but only after the start of the challenge phase of the trial. PCR of DNA from blood samples detected AlHV-1 infection in both groups of cattle but the frequency of infection was significantly lower in the vaccinated groups. Some infected animals showed clinical signs suggestive of MCF but few animals went on to develop fatal MCF, with similar numbers in vaccinated and unvaccinated groups. This study demonstrated a baseline level of MCF-seropositivity among cattle in northern Tanzania of 1% and showed that AlHV-1 virus-neutralizing antibodies could be induced in Tanzanian zebu shorthorn cross cattle by our attenuated vaccine, a correlate of protection in previous experimental trials. The vaccine reduced infection rates by 56% in cattle exposed to wildebeest but protection from fatal MCF could not be determined due to the low number of fatal cases.

  13. Exploring the source of the mid-level hump for intensity discrimination in quiet and the effects of noisea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roverud, Elin; Strickland, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Intensity discrimination Weber fractions (WFs) measured for short, high-frequency tones in quiet are larger at mid levels than at lower or higher levels. The source of this “mid-level hump” is a matter of debate. One theory is that the mid-level hump reflects basilar-membrane compression, and that WFs decrease at higher levels due to spread-of-excitation cues. To test this theory, Experiment 1 measured the mid-level hump and growth-of-masking functions to estimate the basilar membrane input/output (I/O) function in the same listeners. Results showed the initial rise in WFs could be accounted for by the change in I/O function slope, but there was additional unexplained variability in WFs. Previously, Plack [(1998). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 103(5), 2530–2538] showed that long-duration notched noise (NN) presented with the tone reduced the mid-level hump even with a temporal gap in the NN. Plack concluded the results were consistent with central profile analysis. However, simultaneous, forward, and backward NN were not examined separately, which may independently test peripheral and central mechanisms of the NN. Experiment 2 measured WFs at the mid-level hump in the presence of NN and narrowband noise of different durations and temporal positions relative to the tone. Results varied across subjects, but were consistent with more peripheral mechanisms. PMID:25786945

  14. The effects of ipsilateral, contralateral, and bilateral broadband noise on the mid-level hump in intensity discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roverud, Elin; Strickland, Elizabeth A

    2015-11-01

    Previous psychoacoustical and physiological studies indicate that the medial olivocochlear reflex (MOCR), a bilateral, sound-evoked reflex, may lead to improved sound intensity discrimination in background noise. The MOCR can decrease the range of basilar-membrane compression and can counteract effects of neural adaptation from background noise. However, the contribution of these processes to intensity discrimination is not well understood. This study examined the effect of ipsilateral, contralateral, and bilateral noise on the "mid-level hump." The mid-level hump refers to intensity discrimination Weber fractions (WFs) measured for short-duration, high-frequency tones which are poorer at mid levels than at lower or higher levels. The mid-level hump WFs may reflect a limitation due to basilar-membrane compression, and thus may be decreased by the MOCR. The noise was either short (50 ms) or long (150 ms), with the long noise intended to elicit the sluggish MOCR. For a tone in quiet, mid-level hump WFs improved with ipsilateral noise for most listeners, but not with contralateral noise. For a tone in ipsilateral noise, WFs improved with contralateral noise for most listeners, but only when both noises were long. These results are consistent with MOCR-induced WF improvements, possibly via decreases in effects of compression and neural adaptation.

  15. Some preliminary observations on the susceptibility and resistance of different cattle breeds to Theileria parva infection

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    S.G. Ndungu

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Theileria parva-naïve Friesian (Bos taurus, Boran (Bos indicus and Maasai Zebu steers (B. indicus were infected with a T. parva sporozoite stabilate dose which had previously been shown to induce an estimated 50 % mortality rate in Boran cattle. All the cattle developed patent infections with no significant differences in the length of the prepatent period to development of macroschizonts (P > 0.05 between the three groups. Clinical theileriosis occurred in all eight the Friesians (100 %, five out of nine Borans (55.6 % and two out of five Zebus (40 %. Three of the Friesians (37.5 %, and two of the Borans (22.2 % died of theileriosis. The different cattle types were equally susceptible to the infective dose used as indicated by the length of the prepatent periods, but there was a marked difference in their development of clinical theileriosis. The gradation in resistance to disease confirms the findings of earlier less critical studies and identifies these cattle breeds as suitable for investigations into the mechanisms of resistance to theileriosis.

  16. Evaluation of the iPhone with an acrylic sleeve versus the Scoliometer for rib hump measurement in scoliosis

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    Izatt Maree T

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vertebral rotation found in structural scoliosis contributes to trunkal asymmetry which is commonly measured with a simple Scoliometer device on a patient's thorax in the forward flexed position. The new generation of mobile 'smartphones' have an integrated accelerometer, making accurate angle measurement possible, which provides a potentially useful clinical tool for assessing rib hump deformity. This study aimed to compare rib hump angle measurements performed using a Smartphone and traditional Scoliometer on a set of plaster torsos representing the range of torsional deformities seen in clinical practice. Methods Nine observers measured the rib hump found on eight plaster torsos moulded from scoliosis patients with both a Scoliometer and an Apple iPhone on separate occasions. Each observer repeated the measurements at least a week after the original measurements, and were blinded to previous results. Intra-observer reliability and inter-observer reliability were analysed using the method of Bland and Altman and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. The Intra-Class Correlation Coefficients (ICC were calculated for repeated measurements of each of the eight plaster torso moulds by the nine observers. Results Mean absolute difference between pairs of iPhone/Scoliometer measurements was 2.1 degrees, with a small (1 degrees bias toward higher rib hump angles with the iPhone. 95% confidence intervals for intra-observer variability were +/- 1.8 degrees (Scoliometer and +/- 3.2 degrees (iPhone. 95% confidence intervals for inter-observer variability were +/- 4.9 degrees (iPhone and +/- 3.8 degrees (Scoliometer. The measurement errors and confidence intervals found were similar to or better than the range of previously published thoracic rib hump measurement studies. Conclusions The iPhone is a clinically equivalent rib hump measurement tool to the Scoliometer in spinal deformity patients. The novel use of plaster torsos as rib

  17. Agonist-induced hump current production in heterologously-expressed human α4β2-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang LIE; Ke-wei YU; Yong-chang CHANG; Ronald J LUKAS; Jie WU

    2008-01-01

    Aim:To characterize the functional and pharmacological features of agonist-induced hump currents in human α4β2-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR).Methods:Whole-cell and outside-out patch recordings were performed using human α4β2-nAChR heterologously expressed in stably-transfected,native nAChR-null subclonal human epithelial 1 (SH-EP1) cells.RT-PCR was used to test the mRNA expression of transfected nAChR.Homology modeling and ace-tylcholine (Ach) docking were applied to show the possible Ach-binding site in the channel pore.Results:The rapid exposure of 10 mmol/L Ach induced an inward current with a decline from peak to steady-state.However,after the re-moval of Ach,an additional inward current,called "hump" current,reoccurred.The ability of agonists to produce these hump currents cannot be easily explained based on drug size,charge,acute potency,or actions as full or partial agonists.Hump currents were associated with a rebound increase in whole-cell conductance,and they had voltage dependence-like peak currents induced by agonist action.Hump currents blocked by the α4β2-nAChR antagonist dihydro-β-erythroidine were reduced when α4β2-nAChR were desensitized,and were more pronounced in the absence of external Ca2+.Outside-out single-channel recordings demon-strated that compared to 1 μmol/L nicotine,100 μmol/L nicotine reduced channel current amplitude,shortened the channel mean open time,and prolonged the channel mean closed time,supporting an agonist-induced open-channel block before hump current production.A docking model also simulated the agonist-binding site in the channel pore.Conclusion:These results support the hypoth-esis that hump currents reflect a rapid release of agonists from the α4β2-nAChR channel pore and a rapid recovery from desensitized α4β2-nAChR.

  18. Reproduction in the one humped camel (Camelus dromedarius in semi arid Nigeria

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    M.A. Umaru

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This review examines the one humped camel (Camelus dromedarius a considerable number of the dromedary about 50,000 is found in the semi-arid part of Northern Nigeria. Apart from the wide use of the camel as a draught animal the camel now serve as a source of milk, meat and hide in this region, these notes examines the anatomical basis of reproduction, pregnancy, and its diagnosis, fertility, and the application of modern  techniques in camel reproduction. Different techniques and equipments are now being employed for explicit study of the reproductive processes in the camel. Transrectal ultrasaonographic scanning machine is now being used to study ovulation pattern and timing, video endoscopic hysteroscopy is another technique employed to study various aspects of the camel conceptus. Techniques like oestrous synchronization, super ovulation, semen collection artificial insemination, embryo recovery and transfer are all used in the study of camel.

  19. Application of Sweeping Jet Actuators on the NASA Hump Model and Comparison with CFDVAL2004 Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koklu, Mehti

    2017-01-01

    Flow separation control over a wall-mounted hump model was studied experimentally to assess the performance of sweeping jet actuators. Results were compared to that of the 2004 CFD validation experiment (CFDVAL2004), which examined flow separation control with steady suction and unsteady zero-net-mass-flow actuators. Comparisons were carried out at low and high amplitude excitations. In addition to the active flow control methods, a passive flow control method (i.e., vortex generator) was used to complement the dataset. Steady/unsteady surface pressure measurements and surface oilflow visualization were used in the performance assessment of the actuators. The results indicated that the sweeping jet actuators are more effective than the steady suction and unsteady zero-net-mass-flow actuators. For the same momentum coefficient, the sweeping jet actuators produced more flow acceleration upstream of separation, more pressure recovery downstream, and consistently a smaller separation bubble.

  20. Wet-Induced Fabrication of Heterogeneous Hump-on-String Fibers

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    Cheng Song

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Inspired by the high adhesiveness of the electrospun fiber, we propose a method to fabricate multi-scale heterogeneous hump-on-string fiber via the adsorption of nanoparticles, the NPCTi which is the hydrolysate of titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4 and the nanoparticles containing Al (NPCAl which is produced by the hydrolysis of Trimethylaluminium (TMA, Al(CH33. The water collection efficiency of the fibers can be easily controlled via changing not only the size of the beads but also the ratio of the Ti and Al. In addition, we introduce a computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulation to show the pressure distribution of on the surface of the fibers, which gives another explanation regarding the high water collection efficiency.

  1. Transient distal renal tubular acidosis following hump nosed viper bite: Two cases from Sri Lanka

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    Ranga M Weerakkody

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hump-nosed viper (Hypnale hypnale; HNV is one of the six major snake species in Sri Lanka that cause envenomation. Nephrotoxicity, coagulopathy, and neurotoxicity are wellrecognized features of its envenomation. Type 4 renal tubular acidosis (RTA4 has only once been described previously in this condition, and we report two further cases. Two patients aged 53 and 51 presented following HNV bites with acute kidney injury and microangiopathic hemolytic anemia. Both underwent multiple cycles of hemodialysis until the polyuric phase was reached. Despite polyuria, both patients developed resistant hyperkalemia that needed further hemodialysis. The urinary pH, arterial pH, delta ratio, and transtubular potassium gradient confirmed RTA4. HNV venom has been shown to damage the proximal convoluted tubules in animal studies, but not the distal convoluted tubule, and hence the mechanism of our observation in these two patients is unclear. Unexplained hyperkalemia in recovery phase of HNV bite should raise suspicions of RTA4.

  2. Is there any support for the humped-back model in some steppe and semi steppe regions of Iran?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashouri, Parvaneh; Jalili, Adel; Danehkar, Afshin; Chahouki, Mohammad Ali Zare; Hamzeh'ee, Behnam

    2016-05-01

    One of the famous theories in ecology is the humped-back model (HBM) which explains that habitats with intermediate productivity and disturbance support the most species. Most studies on HBM patterns have been conducted for herbaceous species. Knowledge about this theory in arid and semi-arid communities is still weak, especially with severe environments and disturbances containing woody plants. In this study, an analysis is presented on species richness-productivity relationship along a gradient of disturbance and stress in some steppe and semi steppe rangelands in Iran. A nonlinear curve-fitting approach was used that fitted a three-parameter Gaussian curve between species richness and productivity across 180 plots (1 m2). Mitchell-Olds and Shaw 's test (MOS) was used to assess the significance of the humped-back curve. Data were collected from six rangelands, including all life forms of species (grasses, forbs and small shrubs) with litter. Fitted Gaussian curve showed a positive trend between productivity and species richness across a decreasing gradient of disturbance in which species richness was increased. Maximum values for species richness correspond to values of plant productivity in undisturbed sites with a moderate stress. The MOS test showed a significant positive trend in the curve which means that the observed shape in the species richness-productivity relationship covers the mechanisms located in low to medium productivity in the left-hand side of the humped-back model. In other words, this research did not detect a full unimodal curve. This is because of less productivity in the arid and semi-arid ecosystems with abiotic stress. However, there was a partial support for the humped-back model in this study. Hence, more studies to test the existence of a humped-back model in such areas, would be required to reveal all aspects of this relationship.

  3. NÚMERO DE PLAQUETAS EM BOVINOS MESTIÇOS HOLANDÊS – ZEBU DO ESTADO DE GOIÁS NUMBER OF PLAQUETS IN CROSSBRED HOLSTEIN-ZEBU BOVINES IN THE GOIÁS STATE

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    Paulo Roberto Figueiredo da Silva

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Foram analisadas 71 amostras de sangue de bovinos mestiços holandês-zebu, procedentes de cinco municípios da região Mato-Grosso de Goiás, sendo 25 provenientes de bezerros lactantes, 19 de novilhos e 29 de vacas lactentes. Os autores observaram um aumento no número de plaquetas / mm³ de sangue à medida que aumenta a idade dos animais, o que não foi observado pelos autores consultados.

    Blood samples of crossbreed zebu from five counties of a specific region in the state of Goiás were analyzed. In every county three farms were taken at random, being each category of animals taken in proportion to the total number of the farm. Blood was collected following the technique described by JANNINI & JANNINI FILHO (1975, and the thrombocytes counting done by Fonio's method described by FERREIRA NETO et alii (1977. The authors observed an increase in the thrombocyte number per cubic millimeter of blood with the increase in the animals age, not observed by the authors consulted.

  4. Evolution studies from embryo transfer and in vitro fertilization in Nelore cattle at Brazil

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    Renato Travassos Beltrame

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Data from Brazilian Association of Zebu Breeders were used to show the evolution of conventional embryo transfer (ET and in vitro fertilization techniques between 1997 and 2007 for the Nelore cattle in Brazil. Data from 109.775 conventional embryo transfer and 73.121 ovum pickup (OPU were used. The embryo transfer supremacy was observed until 2004 when a considerable increase of OPU number over ET occurred. More ET and OPU were carried out in Southeast and Mid-West than in others Brazilian regions. The average number of viable embryo along the analysis period is close to that reported by literature (between 5 and 7 embryos per flushing or OPU session.

  5. Tracing cattle breeds with principal components analysis ancestry informative SNPs.

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    Jamey Lewis

    Full Text Available The recent release of the Bovine HapMap dataset represents the most detailed survey of bovine genetic diversity to date, providing an important resource for the design and development of livestock production. We studied this dataset, comprising more than 30,000 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs for 19 breeds (13 taurine, three zebu, and three hybrid breeds, seeking to identify small panels of genetic markers that can be used to trace the breed of unknown cattle samples. Taking advantage of the power of Principal Components Analysis and algorithms that we have recently described for the selection of Ancestry Informative Markers from genomewide datasets, we present a decision-tree which can be used to accurately infer the origin of individual cattle. In doing so, we present a thorough examination of population genetic structure in modern bovine breeds. Performing extensive cross-validation experiments, we demonstrate that 250-500 carefully selected SNPs suffice in order to achieve close to 100% prediction accuracy of individual ancestry, when this particular set of 19 breeds is considered. Our methods, coupled with the dense genotypic data that is becoming increasingly available, have the potential to become a valuable tool and have considerable impact in worldwide livestock production. They can be used to inform the design of studies of the genetic basis of economically important traits in cattle, as well as breeding programs and efforts to conserve biodiversity. Furthermore, the SNPs that we have identified can provide a reliable solution for the traceability of breed-specific branded products.

  6. Genetic relationships among five zebu breeds naturalized in America accessed with molecular markers

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    Axel Villalobos-Cortés

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the within-breed genetic diversity and determine the genetic relationships among the most important zebu populations introduced in the American continent from Asia. Gyr (GYR, Red Sindhi (SIN, Nellore (NEL, Guzerat (GUZ and the synthetic Brahman (BRH breeds have been established especially in American tropical regions. Estimates of genetic structure and diversity were carried out within and among the five populations studied. The results of withinbreed genetic diversity showed medium to high medium values of diversity in all genetic parameters [observed heterozygosity (Ho=0.622±0.022; expected heterozygosity (He=0.662±0.023; number of alleles (Na=5.71±1.63; and allelic richness (Ar=4.097±0.958]. The lowest value of Ho was observed in NEL (0.569±0.019 and the highest in BRH (0.688±0.015. Lowest value of He was also observed in NEL (0.612±0.024 and the highest in BRH (0.700±0.020. Gyr, GUZ and NEL showed high estimations of inbreeding, 9.98, 7.92 and 6.83% respectively. Values of Na varied between 4.93±1.52 in GUZ and 7.04±1.99 in BRH and the Ar values ranged between 3.687±0.895 in NEL and 4.42±1.91 in SIN. On the other hand, although phenotypically, the five breeds are clearly distinguishable, the genetic analysis of structure and kinship demonstrates a total independence among GYR, GUZ and NEL, while BRH and Red Sindhi show a closed relationship. These facts support that GYR, GUZ and NEL have had a diverse origin but also different models of introgression in America. Brahman and SIN could be explained by the intervention of the Sindhi ancestors in the formation of the American synthetic Brahma.

  7. Multidimensionally constrained relativistic mean-field study of triple-humped barriers in actinides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jie; Lu, Bing-Nan; Vretenar, Dario; Zhao, En-Guang; Zhou, Shan-Gui

    2015-01-01

    Background: Potential energy surfaces (PES's) of actinide nuclei are characterized by a two-humped barrier structure. At large deformations beyond the second barrier, the occurrence of a third barrier was predicted by macroscopic-microscopic model calculations in the 1970s, but contradictory results were later reported by a number of studies that used different methods. Purpose: Triple-humped barriers in actinide nuclei are investigated in the framework of covariant density functional theory (CDFT). Methods: Calculations are performed using the multidimensionally constrained relativistic mean field (MDC-RMF) model, with the nonlinear point-coupling functional PC-PK1 and the density-dependent meson exchange functional DD-ME2 in the particle-hole channel. Pairing correlations are treated in the BCS approximation with a separable pairing force of finite range. Results: Two-dimensional PES's of 226,228,230,232Th and 232,235,236,238U are mapped and the third minima on these surfaces are located. Then one-dimensional potential energy curves along the fission path are analyzed in detail and the energies of the second barrier, the third minimum, and the third barrier are determined. The functional DD-ME2 predicts the occurrence of a third barrier in all Th nuclei and 238U . The third minima in 230 ,232Th are very shallow, whereas those in 226 ,228Th and 238U are quite prominent. With the functional PC-PK1 a third barrier is found only in 226 ,228 ,230Th . Single-nucleon levels around the Fermi surface are analyzed in 226Th, and it is found that the formation of the third minimum is mainly due to the Z =90 proton energy gap at β20≈1.5 and β30≈0.7 . Conclusions: The possible occurrence of a third barrier on the PES's of actinide nuclei depends on the effective interaction used in multidimensional CDFT calculations. More pronounced minima are predicted by the DD-ME2 functional, as compared to the functional PC-PK1. The depth of the third well in Th isotopes decreases

  8. Study on the introgression of beef breeds in Canchim cattle using single nucleotide polymorphism markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzanskas, Marcos Eli; Ventura, Ricardo Vieira; Seleguim Chud, Tatiane Cristina; Bernardes, Priscila Arrigucci; Santos, Daniel Jordan de Abreu; Regitano, Luciana Correia de Almeida; de Alencar, Maurício Mello; Mudadu, Maurício de Alvarenga; Zanella, Ricardo; da Silva, Marcos Vinícius Gualberto Barbosa; Li, Changxi; Schenkel, Flavio Schramm; Munari, Danísio Prado

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of introgression of breeds in the Canchim (CA: 62.5% Charolais—37.5% Zebu) and MA genetic group (MA: 65.6% Charolais—34.4% Zebu) cattle using genomic information on Charolais (CH), Nelore (NE), and Indubrasil (IB) breeds. The number of animals used was 395 (CA and MA), 763 (NE), 338 (CH), and 37 (IB). The Bovine50SNP BeadChip from Illumina panel was used to estimate the levels of introgression of breeds considering the Maximum likelihood, Bayesian, and Single Regression method. After genotype quality control, 32,308 SNPs were considered in the analysis. Furthermore, three thresholds to prune out SNPs in linkage disequilibrium higher than 0.10, 0.05, and 0.01 were considered, resulting in 15,286, 7,652, and 1,582 SNPs, respectively. For k = 2, the proportion of taurine and indicine varied from the expected proportion based on pedigree for all methods studied. For k = 3, the Regression method was able to differentiate the animals in three main clusters assigned to each purebred breed, showing more reasonable according to its biological viewpoint. Analyzing the data considering k = 2 seems to be more appropriate for Canchim-MA animals due to its biological interpretation. The usage of 32,308 SNPs in the analyses resulted in similar findings between the estimated and expected breed proportions. Using the Regression approach, a contribution of Indubrasil was observed in Canchim-MA when k = 3 was considered. Genetic parameter estimation could account for this breed composition information as a source of variation in order to improve the accuracy of genetic models. Our findings may help assemble appropriate reference populations for genomic prediction for Canchim-MA in order to improve prediction accuracy. Using the information on the level of introgression in each individual could also be useful in breeding or crossing design to improve individual heterosis in crossbred cattle. PMID:28182737

  9. Perfil de ácidos graxos da carne de novilhos europeus e zebuínos alimentados com milheto

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    Rodrigo Medeiros da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o perfil de ácidos graxos da carne de novilhos mestiços alimentados, em confinamento, com dietas contendo níveis crescentes de grão de milheto moído em substituição ao grão de milho moído. Foram utilizados 24 tourinhos mestiços europeus e 24 mestiços zebuínos, abatidos aos 24 meses de idade, após 96 dias de confinamento. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com os tratamentos em arranjo fatorial 4x2 (quatro dietas com 0, 33, 66 e 100% de milheto no concetrado e dois grupos genéticos com seis repetições. O aumento dos níveis de grão de milheto na dieta elevou linearmente a participação dos ácidos graxos, araquídico (C20:0, heneicosanoico (C21:0, α-linolênico (C18:3 n-3 e dihomo-γ-linolênico (C20:3 n-6. Tourinhos europeus apresentaram carne com menor teor dos ácidos graxos, mirístico (C14:0, heneicosanoico (C21:0 e γ-linolênico (C18:3 n-6 do que tourinhos zebuínos. A concentração total de ácidos graxos saturados (45,2%, monoinsaturados (41,2% e poli-insaturados (8,7%, e a relação monoinsaturados/saturados (1,09 e poli-insaturados/saturados (0,18 não foi alterada pelos grupos genéticos e pelas dietas. O aumento da percentagem de grão de milheto na dieta de tourinhos europeus ou zebuínos melhora a relação entre os ácidos graxos ω-6/ω-3.

  10. Herdabilidades de parâmetros de curvas de crescimento não-lineares em zebuínos, no estado de Pernambuco Heritabilities of nonlinear growth curve parameters in zebu breeds, in Pernambuco State, Northeastern Brazil

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    Kleber Régis Santoro

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se estimar parâmetros genéticos e fenotípicos de curvas de crescimento de modelos não-lineares. Foram analisados dados de pesagem constantes no banco de dados de Controle de Desenvolvimento Ponderal da Associação Brasileira de Criadores de Zebu (ABCZ, referentes a 24.028 animais Zebu, nascidos entre 1960 e 2000, das raças Guzerá, Nelore e Nelore Mocho. As pesagens ocorreram ao nascimento e em intervalos de 90 dias até dois anos de idade. Os seguintes modelos não-lineares foram utilizados na análise dos dados de peso-idade: Brody, Gompertz, Logístico, von Bertalanffy e Richards. Os efeitos fixos estudados no modelo misto foram sexo, rebanho, ano e mês de nascimento e regime de criação. As herdabilidades para os parâmetros foram de baixa a alta magnitude, em geral, para todos os modelos. As correlações genéticas entre peso assintótico e taxa de maturidade e entre peso assintótico e velocidade de crescimento foram negativas, enquanto aquelas entre taxa de maturidade e velocidade de crescimento foram positivas. As correlações fenotípicas foram negativas entre peso assintótico e taxa de crescimento e entre peso assintótico e velocidade de crescimento e positivas entre taxa e velocidade de crescimento. Encontrou-se variabilidade possível de ser explorada em um programa de melhoramento genético, especialmente para a raça Nelore, que apresentou amostra de dados e resultados mais consistentes.Weight records of 24.028 zebu animals from Guzerá, Nelore, and Polled Nelore breeds available from Brazilian Association of Zebu Breeders (ABCZ database were used to estimate heritabilities of growth curve parameters. Non-linear Brody, Gompertz, Logistic, Mitscherlich, von Bertalanffy, Richards, and Double Logistic models including sex, farm, year of birth, month of birth, raising system, and interaction sex*raising system as fixed effects and sire and dam, as random effects were adjusted using weight-age records of animals

  11. Spatially Distributed Forcing for Boundary Layer Separation Control on a Wall Mounted Hump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgmann, David; Little, Jesse; Woszidlo, Rene

    2016-11-01

    Numerous successful efforts on controlling flow separation have been demonstrated using spatially distributed actuators. These include both steady and unsteady forcing from discrete locations in the vicinity of separation. Despite this, there are many open questions on the actual flow control mechanism. A canonical hump model is used to investigate these physics in a subsonic wind tunnel. Reynolds number independence is achieved above 0.72 ×106 and testing is performed up to 2.2 ×106. The efficacy of discrete steady jets is studied as a function of spacing, momentum coefficient, velocity ratio and mass flux. Highly-resolved surface pressure data for the controlled flow are compared to an inviscid solution establishing a figure of merit. Results indicate the inviscid limit is reached for a momentum coefficient of 1% with actuator spacing of 0.5% span. A comparison of steady discrete jets with sweeping jets actuators of equivalent cross-sectional area is undertaken. Surface flow visualization and PIV are employed to extract detailed information on the baseline and controlled flow field. This importance of establishing critical baseline features is also discussed with respect to establishing proper boundary conditions for accompanying numerical simulations. Supported by The Boeing Company.

  12. One-Humped Camel (Camelus dromedarius Infestation withLinguatula serrata in Tabriz, Iran

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    HR Haddadzadeh

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available "n "nBackground: Linguatula serrata is one of well known members of Pentastomida which infects both human and animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of L. serrata in mesenteric lymph nodes, livers and lungs of camels slaughtered in Tabriz area, Iran. "n "nMethods: Mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs, livers and lungs of 140 one-humped camels slaughtered in Tabriz, north-west of Iran were investigated for nymphs of L. serrata from July 2007 to June 2008. The organs were examined macroscopically and then a tissue digestion method was also done for investigation of liver and lung of the camels that had infected MLN. The liver and lung samples were mostly taken from condemned and rejected part of organs. "n "nResults: The infection rate of L. serrata nymphs in MLNs, livers and lungs was 13.5%, 1.4% and 1.4% respectively. The number of isolated nymph in infected lymph nodes varied from 2 to 18 with a mean of 4.78. Only one nymph was isolated from each infected livers and lungs. The infection rate increased with age (p<0.05. No significant difference in different sex groups and seasons was observed (p>0.05. "n "nConclusion: Considering this fact that consumption of undercooked camel liver was not common in the studied area, the zoonotic importance of this infection should be concluded.

  13. PROBABILISTIC APPROACH FOR THE DETERMINATION OF CUTS PERMISSIBLE BRAKING MODES ON THE GRAVITY HUMPS

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    Volodymyr BOBROVSKYI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the research results of cuts braking modes on the gravity humps. The objective of this paper is developing the methods for assessment of braking modes of cuts under conditions of fuzziness of their rolling properties, as well as selecting the permissible starting speed range of cuts from retardant positions. As a criterion for assessing the modes of target control of cut rolling speed, it was proposed to use an average gap size on a classification track at the established norms of probable exceeding of permissible speed of cars collision and their stop in retarders. As a criterion for evaluating the modes of interval control of cuts rolling speed, using the risk of their non-separation on the switches was proposed. Using the simulation modeling and mathematical statistics, the configuration of the range of permissible speed of cuts coming out from retardant positions has been set. The conducted researches allow simplifying the choice of cut braking modes in systems of automatic control of cut rolling speed.

  14. Simulation of a hump structure in the optical scattering rate within a generalized Allen formalism and its application to copper oxide systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jungseek

    2013-07-24

    We propose a possible way to simulate a hump structure in the optical scattering rate. The optical scattering rate of correlated charge carriers can be defined within an extended Drude model formalism. When some electron- and hole-doped copper oxide systems are in spin density or charge density wave phases they show hump structures in their optical scattering rates. The hump structures have not yet been simulated or clearly understood. We are able to simulate the hump structure by using a peak followed by a dip feature in the normalized density of states within a generalized Allen formalism. We observe that reversing the order of the dip and peak gives completely different features in the optical scattering rate; a peak-dip (dip-peak) results in a hump (a valley) in the scattering rate. We also obtain the real parts of the optical conductivity and reflectance spectra from the simulated optical scattering rate and compare them with published experimental spectra. From these comparisons we conclude that the peak-dip order can give the hump structure that is observed experimentally in copper oxide systems. Finally we fit two published optical spectra with our new model and discuss our results and the possible origin of the dip or peak features in the normalized density of states.

  15. Principal component analysis of biometric traits to reveal body confirmation in local hill cattle of Himalayan state of Himachal Pradesh, India

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    Deepak Verma

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In the present study, biometric traits (body length [BL], heart girth [HG], paunch girth (PG, forelimb length (FLL, hind limb length (HLL, face length, forehead width, forehead length, height at hump, hump length (HL, hook to hook distance, pin to pin distance, tail length (TL, TL up to switch, horn length, horn circumference, and ear length were studied in 218 adult hill cattle of Himachal Pradesh for phenotypic characterization. Materials and Methods: Morphological and biometrical observations were recorded on 218 hill cattle randomly selected from different districts within the breeding tract. Multivariate statistics and principal component analysis are used to account for the maximum portion of variation present in the original set of variables with a minimum number of composite variables through Statistical software, SAS 9.2. Result: Five components were extracted which accounted for 65.9% of variance. The first component explained general body confirmation and explained 34.7% variation. It was represented by significant loading for BL, HG, PG, FLL, and HLL. Communality estimate ranged from 0.41 (HL to 0.88 (TL. Second, third, fourth, and fifth component had a high loading for tail characteristics, horn characteristics, facial biometrics, and rear body, respectively. Conclusion: The result of component analysis of biometric traits suggested that indigenous hill cattle of Himachal Pradesh are small and compact size cattle with a medium hump, horizontally placed short ears, and a long tail. The study also revealed that factors extracted from the present investigation could be used in breeding programs with sufficient reduction in the number of biometric traits to be recorded to explain the body confirmation.

  16. Renitelo cattle dermatophilosis and PCR-RFLP analysis of MHC gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razafindraibe, Hanta; Raliniaina, Modestine; Maillard, Jean-Charles; Rakotondravao

    2006-10-01

    Renitelo breed is a cattle breed created at Kianjasoa station (Madagascar) by a triple crossing Malagasy Zebu x Limousine x Afrikander. This breed besides many valuable advantages, such as rapid growth and drought power, presents a huge disadvantage which is sensitivity to skin disease, dermatophilosis, previously known as streptotrichosis. This disease caused by Dermatophilus congolensis is one of the major threats for the population of Renitelo cattle. An allele of MHC gene has been shown to be dramatically associated to hypersensitivity to the disease in other cattle breed. To bring further information to tick borne disease clinical survey, mainly dermatophilosis, we wanted to verify if such allele could be found in this breed. Renitelo cattle included in this study were chosen for the presence of dermatophilosis lesions in more or less severe form (N = 17). These animals were blood sampled and a genetic analysis on the MHC gene BoLA-DRB3 was performed, by PCR amplification using BOD 31 & BOD 32 primers. Amplified products were analyzed by RFLP using enzymes. Restriction band profiles were characterized according to previously defined patterns. Three cows out of the 17 cattle analyzed for MHC gene presented the hypersensitive allele FDA. Two out of the three hypersensitive cows were pure breed while one was half breed. All the cows presented dermatophilosis lesions at least during rainy season but one of them particularly suffered from severe lesions covering all its body and died of the illness. This study shows that hypersensitivity allele found in other bovine breeds can be found in Renitelo breed. This result seemed to suggest that this characterization could be utilized in breeding program for this breed.

  17. Prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in Ethiopian slaughter cattle based on post-mortem examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demelash, B; Inangolet, F; Oloya, J; Asseged, B; Badaso, M; Yilkal, A; Skjerve, E

    2009-06-01

    A study aimed at describing the magnitude and distribution of gross lesions compatible with bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in Ethiiopian slaughter cattle in five abattoirs (four municipal and one export) located in various cattle husbandry systems in Ethiopia was carried out from July 2006 to January 2007 using detailed meat inspection procedure. Five representative abattoirs (four municipal and one export) located in distinct livestock management systems were selected. A total of 3322 cattle; 2876 (86.6%) male, 446 (13.4%) female; 3094 (93.1%) indigenous zebu, 140 (4.2%) crossbred and 88 (2.7%) pure exotic cattle were included in the study. A nine-year meat inspection record was also analyzed to elucidate the trend of BTB in the local cattle population.Of the carcasses inspected, 337 (10.2%, 95%CI= [9.2-11.2]) had lesions suggestive of tuberculosis, 69 (20.5%) generalized and 268 (79.5%) localized.TB prevalence showed a marked variation between categories of age, breed, class of animals, abattoir, geographic origin and husbandry system. It was higher in old and young animals than middle age group; in exotic than local breed; in calves than other classes of animals. The highest and lowest prevalence of TB was recorded in Adama (24.7%, 95%CI= [21.1-28.7]) and Yabello abattoirs (4.2%, 95%CI= [2.6-6.6]), respectively. Cattle whose origin was from Addis Ababa and its surrounding areas had higher prevalence of TB infection (23.9%, 95%CI= [17.6-31.5]).Cattle maintained in dairy farms had high degree of exposure (23.9%, 95%CI= [16.7-32.9]) to the infection than those maintained in other types of management system. Analysis of meat inspection records also revealed an increasing incidence of TB over the years. Our study demonstrated a high prevalence of tuberculosis in Ethiopian slaughter cattle and this could infer to similar scenario in a reference cattle population in the country. In view of Ethiopia's increasing involvement in livestock export trade, the reported high

  18. Production indices for dual purpose cattle in central Brazil

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    Concepta McManus

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of crossbreeding low genetic potential cows of Bos indicus origin characterized by Gyr crossed with Holstein-Friesian and Simmental bulls to produce animals in a low input dual purpose system. The farm is situated near Brasilia, in the savannah region of Brazil. The climate of the region is classified as Aw by Köppen. Data was available on 1580 calvings and completed lactations of cows with three genetic types: Gyr, Holstein-Friesian × Gyr and Simmental × Gyr. The bulls ran with the cows all year round and the diet comprised of pasture (mainly Brachiaria and Andropogon during the summer (rainy season and milled sugar cane with added urea during the winter (dry season. A mineral salt mixture was available ad libitum. Data was analysed using Statistical Analysis System. The results show that, under low input management conditions, the crossbred cows produce approximately twice the volume of milk per lactation, calve at a younger age and have a shorter open period, but there are no significant differences between crosses for growth rates of the calves or body condition of the cows. In this system, crossbred cows had production higher indices than zebu cattle. The best indices were found for cows calving in the rainy season (September to December and thinner cows (with body condition 3-5 on a scale of 9.

  19. The One-humped Camel in the Canary Islands: History and Present Status

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    Wilson, RT.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius L. is not indigenous to the Canary Islands but based on historical references was introduced at the very beginning of the fifteenth century. The camel thrived in the subtropical dry environment. A long period of isolation from other animals of the same species meant that the animals were virtually disease free. This made the Islands an ideal base for exporting camels to new areas such that camels from the Canaries went to Peru in the sixteenth century, to Brazil in the eighteenth century, Venezuela and Bolivia in the early part of the nineteenth century and Australia in 1840. Camels went to several Caribbean islands in the middle of the nineteenth century. More recently (late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries some animals were exported from the islands to mainland Europe, notably France, Spain and the Netherlands, and to South America. Camels have been used in military operations, as transport and draught animals in support of agriculture and have found a role in the tourist industry. In early 2013 there were some 1,300 camels distributed over four of the larger islands of the archipelago in herds varying in size from a single animal to herds of as many as 150 head: a large group of about 400 heads kept in a Safari Park on the island of Fuerteventura is considered as the national conservation herd. The "Canary" camel has recently been shown to be genetically distinct from most other populations and it has been proposed that it should be designated as a distinct breed.

  20. A biometric study of the digestive tract of one-humped camel (camelus dromedarius fetuses

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    A. Bello

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A Biometrical study was conducted on the digestive tract of 35 foetuses of the one-humped camel collected from the Sokoto metropolitan abattoir, over a period of five months at different gestational ages. The approximate age of the foetuses was estimated from the crown vertebral rump length (CVRL and samples were categorised into first, second and third trimester. The mean body weight of the foetus at first, second third trimester ranged from 1.40 ± 0.06 kg, 6.10 ± 0.05 kg and 17.87 ± 0.6 kg respectively. The mean weights of the entire digestive system at first, second and third trimester were 0.80 ± 0.07 kg, 2.13 ± 0.04 kg and 4.86 ± 0.08 kg respectively. The mean weights of the digestive tract at first, second and third trimester were 0.53 ± 0.07 kg, 1.03 ± 0.05 and 2.43 ± 0.07 kg respectively. The small intestine at first trimester were found not to have any clear demarcation to show duodenum, jejunum and ileum; the entire small intestine was found to be 76.00 ± 3.00 cm at first trimester and showed clear demarcation at second and third trimesters.. The mean volumes of the entire stomach (rumen, reticular and abomasum ranged from 136.67 ± 8.30 cm3 at first trimester to 353.33 ± 6.50 cm3 at third trimester. It was observed that there was increase in body weight, organ weight and individual segment of the digestive tract of the fetuses with advancement in gestation period. A geometrical increase in length and diameter of the various segments of the digestive tract showed a significant difference (P≤ 0.05 with advancement in gestational period.

  1. Dental fluorosis in cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narozny, J.

    1965-01-01

    Dental fluorosis in cattle was used as an indicator of toxic effects produced by fluorine emissions from an aluminium factory. Data are presented on the effects of a ten-year exposure to fluorides on cattle teeth. Emissions from the factory were observed in two directions from the factory, and extended as far as 16 km from the source.

  2. 光纤激光焊接工艺参量对底部驼峰的影响%Effect of fiber laser welding parameters on root humps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周聪; 夏海龙; 陈根余; 李时春; 黎长邹

    2015-01-01

    In order to study influence of welding parameters on root humps in high power fiber laser welding , effect of laser power, welding speed, defocus, flow rate of bottom shielding gas and welding position on root humps was studied based on a single variable method .The results show that , with the increase of laser power , root humps tend to increase at first and then decrease .When welding speed increases , root hump height increases at first and then decreases , root hump spacing decreases significantly.When defocus is near 0mm, root hump tendency is obvious .Under the appropriate flow rate of bottom shielding gas, root hump tendency is reduced .The optimal rate is 15L/min.When welding orientation is 60°, root hump tendency decreases to a certain extent .The results show that reasonable welding parameters can eliminate root hump efficiently .%为了研究高功率光纤激光焊接工艺参量对底部驼峰倾向的影响,采用单一变量方法研究了激光功率、焊接速度、离焦量、下表面保护气体流量及焊接方位的变化对底部驼峰的影响。结果表明,随激光功率的增加,底部驼峰倾向先加大后减小;焊接速率提高时,底部驼峰高度先增加后减小,驼峰间距明显减小;离焦量在0 mm附近时,底部驼峰倾向较大;适当的下表面保护气体流量有助于减小底部驼峰倾向,最佳流量为15L/min;焊接方位为60°时,一定程度上可减小底部驼峰倾向。优化后的工艺参量合理,可有效地消除底部驼峰。

  3. Research on Influence of Wind Resistance on Cars Humping%车辆溜放运动中风阻力影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁昆

    2012-01-01

    The movement equation of cars humping is the theoretical base of modelling of hump automation. For a long time, uniform variable motion has been turned to in engineering application, which obviously is not accurate. Starting from research on the influence of wind resistances on cars humping, the quadratic equation of nonuniform variable motion between the wind resistance and rolling speed was established. The equation of nonuniform variable motion of cars humping was set up by mathematical derivation , which revealed the moving law of cars humping more accurately. The mathematical model has been successfully applied in control of car rolling speeds of the automatic hump yard system. Reference can also be provided for modelling in the fields of improvement of hump design methods , accurate measurement of cars humping resistances and cars humping emulation.%车辆溜放运动方程是驼峰自动化建模的基础理论,长期以来工程应用中一直按匀变速运动简化处理,不够精确.本文从研究车辆溜放风阻力着手,建立风阻力与溜放速度间的二次方程,通过数学推导获得溜放车辆的非匀变速运动方程,较匀变速运动方程能够更加精确地反映驼峰车辆溜放的运动规律.该方程已作为数学模型成功应用于驼峰自动化系统车辆溜放速度的精确控制与分析,收效甚好.该方程可供驼峰设计方法改进、车辆溜放阻力精确测量和驼峰溜放仿真时借鉴.

  4. Power efficiency of the active boundary layer control around the hump by a slotted synthetic jet generator

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    Pick Petr

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present contribution summarizes the power efficiency of the active flow control of the boundary layer of air around a hump. The synthetic jet generator with a rectangular output part, i.e. a slot, is actuated using a modulated signal. The actuation of the synthetic jet is carried out by modulating the input voltage of acoustic transducers of the generator. This causes the decrease of the loss coefficient and the change of the mixing size area (e.g. wake. A comparison of three types of modulating signals and their influence on the loss coefficient is performed. The main advantages of modulated signal are then described.

  5. Self-assembled formation and transformation of In/CdZnTe(110) nano-rings into camel-humps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen-Taguri, G. [School of Mechanical Engineering and Materials and Nanotechnologies Program, Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Ruzin, A. [School of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Goldfarb, I. [School of Mechanical Engineering and Materials and Nanotechnologies Program, Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Research Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel)

    2012-05-21

    We used in situ scanning tunneling microscopy to monitor in real time the formation of nano-rings at the molecular beam epitaxially grown In/CdZnTe(110) surface, and Auger electron spectroscopy to explore the corresponding compositional changes. In-diffusion of In and segregation of Cd to the surface in course of annealing lead to a formation of elliptically distorted nano-rings, elongated along the fast [110] diffusion direction. Exacerbated diffusion anisotropy in the liquid state, at temperatures above the melting point of In, further distorts the nano-rings into a camel-hump shape.

  6. Identification of polymorphism in the SCL24A5 gene of cattle

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    Paola Crepaldi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The SLC24A5 (Solute Carrier family 24, member 5 gene is implicated in skin pigmentation in zebrafish and humans as it regulates the morphogenesis of melanosomes, specialized lysosomes involved in melanin deposit. In humans, the ancestral allele predominates in African and East Asian populations, while the allelic variant is nearly fixed in European populations and correlates with lighter pigmentation. Considering the role of melanin in the protecting of DNA from ultraviolet radiation, the lack of information in cattle and the importance of polymorphisms associated with pigmentation phenotypes, we investigated the SLC24A5 gene in cattle with light and dark skin pigmentation. To identify SNPs (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in this gene and their association to dark skin pigmentation in cattle, each of the nine SLC24A5 exons, three introns (1, 3 and 8 and a portion of intron 5, were sequenced in a set of sixteen animals belonging to four Italian cattle breeds, two African zebu breeds and two African sanga breeds. The region spanning exons 3 and 4 was sequenced in fifteen animals belonging to seven additional breeds. A total of sixteen SNPs were identified: eleven positioned in introns (six in intron 1, one in intron 5 and four in intron 8 and five in exons (one in exon 1, two in exon 6 and two in exon 7. Three SNPs (located in exons 1, 6 and 7 were non synonymous, determining Pro19Leu, Ala238Val, and Met341Ile amino acid changes, respectively. All the SNPs identified were polymorphic between Bos taurus, Bos indicus and Sanga, while none of them resulted associated with the studied phenotype and discriminated the three breeds (Chianina, Mucubal and Goudali characterized by dark pigmented skin from the others.

  7. Correlation between acid, TBA, peroxide and iodine values, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities of chicken, cattle and camel meat during refrigerated storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Gheisari

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was correlation determination between fat putrefaction indices and antioxidative enzymes in chicken, cattle and camel meat during refrigerated storage. Longissimus dorsi muscle of three Iranian dromedary one humped camel and three Holstein cattle and breast muscle of three broiler breeder chicken were obtained from the carcasses 3 days postmortem. The samples were ground and stored at 4 °C for 0, 2, or 4 days. Peroxide, TBA, acid and iodine values, catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px activities of the muscles were performed in each storage time. Catalase and GSH-Px activities were much higher in camel than in chicken and cattle and higher in cattle than in chicken. TBA value was lower in chicken than in camel. Camel had higher acid value than cattle. Chicken showed the highest and camel had the lowest iodine values. Catalase and GSH-Px activities and iodine values were quite stable during refrigerated storage. Acid values increased significantly over storage days in cattle. During the 4-day storage period, TBA and peroxide values increased. GSH-Px activity showed negative correlation with acid and TBA values in chicken and cattle. Acid value (for chicken and cattle and peroxide value (for 3 animal species showed positive correlation with TBA content. Iodine value had positive correlation with catalase activity in cattle and negative correlation with peroxide and TBA values in camel. In conclusion, our results indicate that peroxide and TBA values can be used as lipid quality indices in chicken, cattle and camel meat during 4 day storage in refrigerator. [Vet. World 2011; 4(4.000: 153-157

  8. Painful rib hump: a new clinical sign for detecting intraspinal rib displacement in scoliosis due to neurofibromatosis

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    Katsalouli Marina

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spinal cord compression and associate neurological impairment is rare in patients with scoliosis and neurofibromatosis. Common reasons are vertebral subluxation, dislocation, angulation and tumorous lesions around the spinal canal. Only twelve cases of intraspinal rib dislocation have been reported in the literature. The aim of this report is to present a case of rib penetration through neural foramen at the apex of a scoliotic curve in neurofibromatosis and to introduce a new clinical sign for its detection. Methods A 13-year-old girl was evaluated for progressive left thoracic kyphoscoliotic curve due to a type I neurofibromatosis. Clinical examination revealed multiple large thoracic and abdominal "cafe-au-lait" spots, neurological impairment of the lower limbs and the presence of a thoracic gibbous that was painful to pressure at the level of the left eighth rib (Painful Rib Hump. CT-scan showed detachment and translocation of the cephalic end of the left eighth rib into the adjacent enlarged neural foramen. The M.R.I. examination of the spine showed neither cord abnormality nor neurogenic tumor. Results The patient underwent resection of the intraspinal mobile eighth rib head and posterior spinal instrumentation and was neurologically fully recovered six months postoperatively. Conclusion Spine surgeons should be aware of intraspinal rib displacement in scoliotic curves in neurofibromatosis. Painful rib hump is a valuable diagnostic tool for this rare clinical entity.

  9. Hormonal protocols for in vitro production of Zebu and taurine embryos

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    Carlos Antônio de Carvalho Fernandes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of hormonal synchronization protocols, associated or not with follicular development stimulation, on the recovery of oocytes and on in vitro production of Bos indicus and B. taurus embryos, in different seasons. Ultrasound-guided follicular aspirations (n=237 were performed without pre-treatment (G1, control group and after follicular wave synchronization (G2, or after follicular wave synchronization and follicle growth induction (G3. Bos indicus produced more oocytes and embryos than B. taurus (18.7±0.9 vs. 11.9±0.6 oocytes and 4.8±0.3 vs. 2.1±0.2 embryos. On average, oocyte and embryo yields were higher in G3 than in G2, and both were greater than in G1, which lead to a higher conversion of oocytes to embryos in these treatments. The hot or the cold season did not affect the B. indicus outcomes, whereas, in B. taurus, both oocyte recovery and embryo production were higher in the cold season. Follicular wave synchronization improves ovum pick-up and in vitro production of embryos in both cattle subspecies evaluated.

  10. Development of Buffalo Hump in the course of antiretroviral therapy including raltegravir and unboosted atazanavir: a case report and review of the literature

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    Mastroianni Claudio M

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The availability of raltegravir plus atazanavir provides an alternative antiretroviral strategy that may be equally efficacious and less toxic than those currently recommended in HIV treatment guidelines. In fact, this new combination antiretroviral therapy attracts the attention of the scientific community because both drugs have a good safety profile coupled with potent antiviral activity, and their combined use would avert nucleoside- and ritonavir-related toxicities. Case presentation We describe the case of a 47-year-old, Caucasian woman treated for HIV-1 infection who developed Buffalo Hump during antiretroviral therapy, including raltegravir and unboosted atazanavir. Clinical evaluation and an ultrasonography scan of the cervical region showed a new progressive increase of lipohypertrophy and the results of DEXA confirmed these data. In our patient the worsening of the Buffalo Hump cannot be attributed to hypercortisolism; insulin-resistance, diabetes, dyslipidemia, hyperlactatemia and metabolic syndrome were not present. Moreover, she was not in therapy with antiretroviral drugs that are described as the cause of Buffalo Hump; on the other hand she developed this side effect three months after the switch of the antiretroviral therapy to raltegravir plus unboosted atazanavir. Conclusion Current data indicate that the etiology of HIV-associated Buffalo Hump remains elusive but is likely multifactorial; a possible contributing cause, but not the main cause, could be exposure to antiretroviral drugs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on development of Buffalo Hump in the course of antiretroviral therapy, including the use of these drugs. On the basis of our data we can formulate the hypothesis of a pharmacological pathogenesis that underlies the development of this case of Buffalo Hump in the absence of other risk factors.

  11. Body weight and carcass dressing as affected by sex class, breed type, muscle thickness, age and provenance of Venezuelan cattle

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    Nelson Huerta-Leidnez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Two data sets of 439 fed males (bulls and steers (MALES and 155 fed cattle (bulls, steers and heifers (MIXED chosen by their good finish and cutting-out potential were used to study variation in body weight (BW, carcass weight (CW and carcass dressing (DRESSING according to muscle thickness score (MUSCLING, breed-type, region of provenance (PROVENANCE, sex class, and age by dentition. Correlations between the dependent variables and carcass conformation were analyzed. In MALES, MUSCLING and PROVENANCE affected DRESSING (P<0.05, 1.4% in favor of cattle with thicker MUSCLING, and 1.6% in favor of cattle originated from the Andean region versus their Mid-Western region counterparts. Sex class (in MIXED, and PROVENANCE (in MALES, affected both BW and CW (P<0.01. In MIXED, an age exceeding 36 months, raised the CW (P<0.05. In MALES, MUSCLING was associated (P<0.01 with carcass conformation (r=0.53 and DRESSING (r=0.18. In MIXED, sex class  breed-type interaction tended to affect DRESSING (P=0.055 with the Zebu type surpassing the Dairy type in DRESSING (64% vs. 54%, respectively while bulls and steers performed different in DRESSING, depending on breed-type (P<0.06.

  12. Seroprevalence and risk factors for brucellosis in cattle in selected districts of Jimma zone, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirar, Bashahun Gebremichael; Nasinyama, George William; Gelalcha, Benti Deresa

    2015-12-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out in Jimma town and Chora Botor district of Jimma zone from February 2014 to May 2014 to determine seroprevalence and risk factors of brucellosis in cattle. A total of 348 blood samples (174 each from zebu and crossbreed) were collected. The sera were separated and screened by Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT), and positive sera were retested by complement fixation test (CFT) for confirmation. The overall seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis was 1.4 and 0.3 % as tested by RBPT and CFT, respectively. The seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis in indigenous and crossbreed cattle was 1.1 and 0.6 % and 1.7 and 0 % using RBPT and CFT, respectively. Retained fetal membrane was the only risk factor found to be significantly associated with seropositivity of brucellosis in this study (p = 0.019). The overall seroprevalence of brucellosis was very low. However, due to the zoonotic and economic importance of the disease, prevention and control measures are required to stop further spread of the disease. To effectively implement this, the One Health (OH) is the most constructive approach we recommend.

  13. Epistasis between calpain 1 and its inhibitor calpastatin within breeds of cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barendse, W; Harrison, B E; Hawken, R J; Ferguson, D M; Thompson, J M; Thomas, M B; Bunch, R J

    2007-08-01

    The calpain gene family and its inhibitors have diverse effects, many related to protein turnover, which appear to affect a range of phenotypes such as diabetes, exercise-induced muscle injury, and pathological events associated with degenerative neural diseases in humans, fertility, longevity, and postmortem effects on meat tenderness in livestock species. The calpains are inhibited by calpastatin, which binds directly to calpain. Here we report the direct measurement of epistatic interactions of causative mutations for quantitative trait loci (QTL) at calpain 1 (CAPN1), located on chromosome 29, with causative mutations for QTL variation at calpastatin (CAST), located on chromosome 7, in cattle. First we identified potential causative mutations at CAST and then genotyped these along with putative causative mutations at CAPN1 in >1500 cattle of seven breeds. The maximum allele substitution effect on the phenotype of the CAPN1:c.947G>C single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was 0.14 sigma(p) (P = 0.0003) and of the CAST:c.155C>T SNP was also 0.14 sigma(p) (P = 0.0011) when measured across breeds. We found significant epistasis between SNPs at CAPN1 and CAST in both taurine and zebu derived breeds. There were more additive x dominance components of epistasis than additive x additive and dominance x dominance components combined. A minority of breed comparisons did not show epistasis, suggesting that genetic variation at other genes may influence the degree of epistasis found in this system.

  14. Desempenho produtivo de vacas 5/8 Holando/Zebu alimentadas com diferentes cultivares de palma forrageira (Opuntia e Nopalea

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    Santos Djalma Cordeiro dos

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudado o efeito de diferentes cultivares de palma forrageira sobre o desempenho produtivo de vacas mestiças holando/zebu. O delineamento experimental foi de ensaios alternativos, obedecendo a distribuição de quadrado latino, contendo três quadrados, com três períodos de 28 dias cada. Os tratamentos foram constituídos pelas cultivares de palma forrageira redonda, gigante e miúda. De modo geral, foram observadas pequenas variações na composição química dos cultivares de palma. Não foi observada diferença significativa quanto ao consumo de palma in natura, consumo de restolho de milho e consumo de matéria seca, entre os animais alimentados com as diferentes cultivares de palma, sendo de 54,21; 7,91; e 9,04 kg/dia, respectivamente. Também não foi observada diferença para as variáveis leite produzido, leite a 4% de gordura e relação de consumo de matéria seca para leite produzido. Os dados sugerem que vacas leiteiras mestiças podem ser alimentadas com diferentes cultivares de palma forrageira, sem comprometimento do desempenho produtivo das mesmas.

  15. Suplementação com cromo e desempenho reprodutivo de vacas zebu primíparas mantidas a pasto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aragón V.E.F.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizadas 126 vacas zebu primíparas, mantidas a pasto durante a estação de monta, divididas em dois grupos, suplementado (72 animais e controle (54 animais, com o objetivo de estudar a influência da suplementação com cromo (Cr sobre algumas características reprodutivas. Utilizou-se como fonte de cromo a levedura Sacharomices cerevisae adicionada à mistura mineral (0,017% Cr. Não houve diferença significativa nos pesos das crias ao nascer e ao final do experimento. O peso final das vacas foi maior no grupo suplementado (428,5kg vs. 380,5kg. A porcentagem de animais em estro foi maior no grupo suplementado (98,6% vs. 88,7% e a porcentagem total de prenhez apresentou apenas tendência em ser maior no grupo suplementado (87,5% vs. 75,47%. O intervalo parto-primeiro cio foi menor nos animais que receberam Cr (120,5 dias vs. 142,8 dias. O número de doses de sêmen por vaca inseminada (1,57 e por vaca gestante (1,85 no grupo controle foi semelhante ao de vacas inseminadas (1,69 e gestantes (1,90 no grupo suplementado.

  16. Spatial distribution of Brucella antibodies with reference to indigenous cattle populations among contrasting agro-ecological zones of Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabi, Fredrick; Muwanika, Vincent; Masembe, Charles

    2015-09-01

    Indigenous cattle populations exhibit various degrees of agro-ecological fitness and provide desirable opportunities for investments to improve sustainable production for better rural small-scale farmers' incomes globally. However, they could be a source of infection to their attendants and other susceptible livestock if their brucellosis status remains unknown. This study investigated the spatial distribution of Brucella antibodies among indigenous cattle populations in Uganda. Sera from a total of 925 indigenous cattle (410 Ankole Bos taurus indicus, 50 Nganda and 465 East African Shorthorn Zebu (EASZ) - B. indicus) obtained randomly from 209 herds spread throughout Uganda were sequentially analysed for Brucella antibodies using the indirect (I) and competitive (C) enzyme linked Immuno-sorbent assays (ELISA). Recent incidences of abortion within the previous 12 months and routine hygienic practices during parturition were explored for public health risks. Brucella antibodies occurred in approximately 8.64% (80/925) and 28.70% (95% CI: 22.52, 34.89) of the sampled individual cattle and herds, respectively. Findings have shown that Ankole and EASZ cattle had similar seroprevalences. Indigenous cattle from the different study agro-ecological zones (AEZs) exhibited varying seroprevalences ranging from approximately 1.78% (95% CI: 0, 5.29) to 19.67% (95% CI: 8.99, 30.35) in the Lake Victoria Crescent (LVC) and North Eastern Drylands (NED) respectively. Significantly higher odds for Brucella antibodies occurred in the NED (OR: 3.40, 95% CI: 1.34, 8.57, p=0.01) inhabited by EASZ cattle compared to the KP (reference category) AEZ. Recent incidences of abortions within the previous 12 months were significantly (p<0.001) associated with seropositive herds. These findings add critical evidence to existing information on the widespread occurrence of brucellosis among indigenous cattle populations in Uganda and could guide allocation of meagre resources for awareness creation

  17. Interrupción temporal del amamantamiento (ITA vacas cebú y su efecto en la función ovárica (Temporary suckling interruption (TSI in zebu cows and effect in the ovary function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giraldo Echeverri, Carlos Andrés

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available En Colombia, el ganado Cebú presenta un extenso período desde el parto hasta la concepción que dificulta la meta productiva de tener un ternero por vaca anualmente. El retorno a la actividad ovárica posparto, está determinada por la recuperación del eje hipotálamo–hipófisis–ovario y mediada por tres factores principalmente: (a nutrición, por la liberación de leptina desde los adipocitos, (b amamantamiento, por la liberación de prolactina y (c el vínculo vaca-ternero, por los sentidos de la visión y el olfato. Además, luego de la recuperación ovárica posparto y ovulación, se presenta baja fertilidad asociada con la presentación de CL de corta duración y baja producción de progesterona. La inducción del estro con progestágenos ha generado CL de duración normal, en respuesta al destete o a la inyección de gonadotropinas. Veinticuatro vacas Cebú posparto, con buena condición corporal, se separaron en dos grupos luego de la observación ecográfica de un folículo dominante. A un grupo se le aplicó un tratamiento con progestágenos (GI y al otro no (GNI, a ambos se les practicó ITA por 72 horas. El 66.6% del GI y el 50% del GNI presentaron estro luego de ITA, con una tasa de crecimiento y diámetro folicular máximo similar (alrededor de 1.5 mm/día y 16 mm. En el GI se presentaron 4 CL de corta duración y en el GNI 2, sin embargo GI presentó una mejor tasa de preñez. El tratamiento con ITA únicamente o en combinación con progestágenos, puede inducir estro, ovulación y CL de buena calidad, en vacas Cebú posparto, siendo una herramienta práctica para disminuir el intervalo entre partos. In Colombia, the Zebu cattle is characterized by extensive periods from delivery to conception that makes difficult the productive goal of a calf per year. The return to the ovarian activity postpartum, is determined by the recovery of the half-full axis hipotalamic-hipofisis-ovary and mainly by three factors: (a nutrition, by

  18. Concentrações de imunoglobulinas G em colostro de vacas mestiças holandês-zebu Colostral immunoglobulin G concentrations in crossbred holstein-zebu dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Martins Soares Filho

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Oitenta e oito vacas leiteiras mestiças holandês-zebu (HZ foram distribuídas de acordo com a percentagem de grau de sangue holandês em quatro grupos: Grupo 1 = animais com menos de 70% de grau de sangue holandês (19 vacas; Grupo 2 = animais com 75% de grau de sangue holandês, que equivale a ¾ HZ (46 vacas; Grupo 3 = mestiços entre 80 e 90% de grau de sangue holandês, que corresponderam a 13/16 HZ e 7/8 HZ (11 vacas; Grupo 4 = vacas com mais de 90% de grau de sangue holandês (12 vacas. Após o parto, amostras de colostro da primeira ordenha foram colhidas e, posteriormente, submetidas à imunodifusão radial simples para determinações dos níveis de imunoglobulinas G (IgG. Os resultados obtidos permitiram concluir que as concentrações de IgG não são influenciadas pelos graus de sangue estudados e seus valores médios (145,94mg/m são muito superiores aos relatados para animais de raças taurinas puras. Por esse motivo, não se justifica o emprego de métodos artificiais de fornecimento do colostro em se tratando de mestiços HZ. Ademais, o nível elevado de IgG observado no colostro sugere que a adoção da prática da mamada natural assistida seja adequada para assegurar que, na maioria das vezes, os neonatos não venham a apresentar falhas de transferência de imunidade passiva.Eighty-eight healthy crossbred holstein-zebu (HZ dairy cows were distributed in four groups as follow: Group 1 = less than 70% HZ (19 cows; Group 2 = 75% HZ animals, corresponding to ¾ HZ (46 cows; Group 3 = crossbred animals between 80 to 90% HZ, corresponding to 13/16 HZ and 7/8 HZ (11 cows; Group 4 = cows more than 90% HZ (12 animals. After birth, colostrum samples were obtained from each cow and than were analyzed for immunoglobulin G (IgG concentration by single radial immunodifusion assay. IgG colostral concentrations were not influenced by group of crossbred HZ and its mean concentration (145.97mg/m were higher than that related for purebreds Bos

  19. Indução do estro no pós-parto em vacas primíparas Holandês-Zebu Induction of estrus in the postpartum of Holstein-Zebu heifers through norgestomet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R.M. Ruas

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito do peso corporal no início do tratamento com progestágeno sobre as características reprodutivas de vacas mestiças Holandês-Zebu no pós-parto. Foram utilizadas 64 vacas, divididas em quatro grupos: GI - vacas com peso corporal entre 390-458kg e submetidas a tratamento hormonal com norgestomet, GII - vacas com peso corporal entre 464-562kg e submetidas a tratamento hormonal com norgestomet, GIII - vacas com peso corporal entre 374-451kg (controle e GIV - vacas com peso corporal entre 452-545kg (controle. Os animais do grupo II manifestaram o primeiro estro no pós-parto mais cedo que os demais (64,4 dias - GII vs. 109,4-GI; 143,2-GIII e 105,1-GIV dias, e apresentaram menor período de serviço (94,6 dias vs. 125,5; 160,9 e 131,0 dias, na mesma ordem de citação anterior. Quanto às taxas de manifestação de estro e de gestação final, não se verificaram diferenças (P>0,05 entre os tratamentos. Os animais do GII apresentaram o menor período de serviço e os do GIII, o maior (94,6 vs. 160,9. Não houve influência do tratamento hormonal nem do peso corporal sobre a produção de leite e duração da lactação. O uso do implante de progestágeno nos animais que apresentaram maiores peso e condição corporal no início do tratamento respondeu por menor intervalo entre o parto e o primeiro estro. O uso do progestágeno em animais mais leves esteve associado ao retorno mais rápido à atividade ovariana cíclica no pós-parto.The experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of two ranges of body weight and norgestomet treatment on the reproductive parameters of postpartum crossbred Holstein-zebu cows. Sixty four primiparous cows were randomly allocated to four treatments 40 days after calving: group I - cows with body weight ranging from 390 to 458kg and norgestomet treated; group II - cows with body weight ranging from 464 to 562kg and norgestomet treated; group III - cows with body weight ranging from 390 to 458

  20. Comportamento de vacas mestiças holandês x zebu, em pastagem de Brachiaria decumbens em sistema silvipastoril Behavior of holstein x zebu crossbreed cows grazing Brachiaria decumbens in a silvipastoral system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Mara Soares Paes Leme

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o comportamento de vacas mestiças Holandês-Zebu, em sistema silvipastoril, avaliando-se o percentual do tempo em que os animais se mantiveram em pé, comendo, ruminando ou em ócio, no verão e no inverno e o tempo em que as vacas se mantiveram ao sol e à sombra e, neste caso, sob qual espécie arbórea. Foram coletados os dados de 32 vacas, em doze dias, seis no inverno e seis no verão, em medidas tomadas a cada 10 minutos, 12 horas por dia (das 6 às 18 h. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e para comparação múltipla entre médias foi usado o teste t de Student, ao nível de 5% de probabilidade. Verificou-se que, no inverno, os animais preferiram ficar mais ao sol do que à sombra. Já no verão, houve preferência em manterem-se em ambientes sombreados, especialmente sob sombras de espécies arbóreas com copas globosas e densas. Na posição deitada, no inverno, os animais preferiram ficar ao sol e no verão a preferência foi pela sombra. Conclui-se que a procura dos animais por ambientes sombreados, durante o verão, mostra a necessidade da provisão de sombra, para que os mesmos possam viver em ambiente que ofereça conforto térmico.The behavior of Holtein x Zebu crossbreed cows was studied in silvipastoral system, taking in account the time spent by the cows in the stand up position, eating, ruminating or in inactivity, during the summer and winter times. Measures of the time spent by the cows at sunshine and under the shadow was also taken. Data from 32 cows, were collected every ten minutes, 12 hours a day (from 6 A.M. to 6 P.M., in twelve days, six during the winter and six during the summer times. The data were analyzed through variance system and to multiple comparison among average it was used the t test of student, at the level of 5% of probability. During the winter, cows spent more time at sunshine than in summer time while in the summer the cows remained more time in the shadow mainly under

  1. Effects of defect creation on bidirectional behavior with hump characteristics of InGaZnO TFTs under bias and thermal stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Hwarim; Song, Hyunsoo; Jeong, Jaewook; Hong, Yewon; Hong, Yongtaek

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the hump characteristics of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide thin-film transistors. The device showed a field effect mobility of 24.3 cm2 V-1 s-1, a threshold voltage (Vth) of 4.8 V, and a subthreshold swing of 120 mV/dec. Under positive gate bias stress, Vth showed bidirectional shift with a hump. Vth was positively and negatively shifted in the above-threshold and subthreshold regions, respectively. At high temperatures, Vth was more positively shifted without bidirectional shift. Under simultaneous drain bias stress (VDS,stress), the hump was maintained. However, the bidirectional shift was not observed with an increasing VDS,stress. The hump and positive shift are related to the defect creation of the shallow donor-like and deep-level acceptor-like states, respectively. We performed a two-dimensional device simulation to further investigate this phenomenon. By varying the peak values of the Gaussian shallow donor-like and deep acceptor-like states, we qualitatively confirmed the relationship between the two states and transfer curve changes.

  2. Effect of wall cooling on the stability of compressible subsonic flows over smooth humps and backward-facing steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Maaitah, Ayman A.; Nayfeh, Ali H.; Ragab, Saad A.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of wall cooling on the two-dimensional linear stability of subsonic flows over two-dimensional surface imperfections is investigated. Results are presented for flows over smooth humps and backward-facing steps with Mach numbers up to 0.8. The results show that, whereas cooling decreases the viscous instability, it increases the shear-layer instability and hence it increases the growth rates in the separation region. The coexistence of more than one instability mechanism makes a certain degree of wall cooling most effective. For the Mach numbers 0.5 and 0.8, the optimum wall temperatures are about 80 pct and 60 pct of the adiabatic wall temperature, respectively. Increasing the Mach number decreases the effectiveness of cooling slightly and reduces the optimum wall temperature.

  3. Relation between the "Double-Hump" Behavior in the Radio Band and the Broad-Line Luminosity for Blazars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao-Hua Xie; Hong Dai; Jian-Ming Hao; Lei-Ming Du; Xiong Zhang

    2007-01-01

    The physics behind the spectral energy distribution (SED) of blazars remains open.We assembled 36 blazars to tackle the factors that control their SED. Now, many blazar spectra have the "double hump" feature in the radio and far-IR frequencies. For these a parameter,△, is created to characterize the behavior of the SED. We found a significant correlation between the broad-line luminosity (LBLR) and △. Because LBLR is an indicator of the accreting power of the source in blazars, we derived a linear correlation,△∝ (M)1/3. 18, which suggests that the SED of blazars may depend on the accretion rate, like that of BL Lac objects. We also found a significant correlation between (m) and△ for a sample of 11 blazars (out of one of 36)with available black hole masses. This implies the Eddington accretion ratio may influence the shape of the SED of blazars.

  4. Origins and genetic diversity of New World Creole cattle: inferences from mitochondrial and Y chromosome polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginja, C; Penedo, M C T; Melucci, L; Quiroz, J; Martínez López, O R; Revidatti, M A; Martínez-Martínez, A; Delgado, J V; Gama, L T

    2010-04-01

    The ancestry of New World cattle was investigated through the analysis of mitochondrial and Y chromosome variation in Creoles from Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, Paraguay and the United States of America. Breeds that influenced the Creoles, such as Iberian native, British and Zebu, were also studied. Creoles showed high mtDNA diversity (H = 0.984 +/- 0.003) with a total of 78 haplotypes, and the European T3 matriline was the most common (72.1%). The African T1a haplogroup was detected (14.6%), as well as the ancestral African-derived AA matriline (11.9%), which was absent in the Iberian breeds. Genetic proximity among Creoles, Iberian and Atlantic Islands breeds was inferred through their sharing of mtDNA haplotypes. Y-haplotype diversity in Creoles was high (H = 0.779 +/- 0.019), with several Y1, Y2 and Y3 haplotypes represented. Iberian patrilines in Creoles were more difficult to infer and were reflected by the presence of H3Y1 and H6Y2. Y-haplotypes confirmed crossbreeding with British cattle, mainly of Hereford with Pampa Chaqueño and Texas Longhorn. Male-mediated Bos indicus introgression into Creoles was found in all populations, except Argentino1 (herd book registered) and Pampa Chaqueño. The detection of the distinct H22Y3 patriline with the INRA189-90 allele in Caracú suggests introduction of bulls directly from West Africa. Further studies of Spanish and African breeds are necessary to elucidate the origins of Creole cattle, and determine the exact source of their African lineages.

  5. Genomic dairy cattle breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Thomas; Sandøe, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the potential consequences of modern dairy cattle breeding for the welfare of dairy cows. The paper focuses on so-called genomic selection, which deploys thousands of genetic markers to estimate breeding values. The discussion should help to structure...... the thoughts of breeders and other stakeholders on how to best make use of genomic breeding in the future. Intensive breeding has played a major role in securing dramatic increases in milk yield since the Second World War. Until recently, the main focus in dairy cattle breeding was on production traits......, unfavourable genetic trends for metabolic, reproductive, claw and leg diseases indicate that these attempts have been insufficient. Today, novel genome-wide sequencing techniques are revolutionising dairy cattle breeding; these enable genetic changes to occur at least twice as rapidly as previously. While...

  6. Genomic dairy cattle breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Thomas; Sandøe, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the potential consequences of modern dairy cattle breeding for the welfare of dairy cows. The paper focuses on so-called genomic selection, which deploys thousands of genetic markers to estimate breeding values. The discussion should help to structure...... the thoughts of breeders and other stakeholders on how to best make use of genomic breeding in the future. Intensive breeding has played a major role in securing dramatic increases in milk yield since the Second World War. Until recently, the main focus in dairy cattle breeding was on production traits......, unfavourable genetic trends for metabolic, reproductive, claw and leg diseases indicate that these attempts have been insufficient. Today, novel genome-wide sequencing techniques are revolutionising dairy cattle breeding; these enable genetic changes to occur at least twice as rapidly as previously. While...

  7. Cattle as urban planner

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Hong Kong has a wide variety of habitats which contribute to the diversity of local fauna especially birds and insects. However, wild mammals are declining rapidly because of the degradation or loss of habitats caused by urbanization. For hundreds of years, bovid such as cattle and water buffalo have been an enduring presence amongst the diverse landscape of Hong Kong. Prior to the 1970’s, cattle were important to Hong Kong’s agricultural industry as a valuable labor for farming. Large popula...

  8. Association of BoLA-DRB3 alleles with tick-borne disease tolerance in dairy cattle in a tropical environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duangjinda, M; Jindatajak, Y; Tipvong, W; Sriwarothai, J; Pattarajinda, V; Katawatin, S; Boonkum, W

    2013-09-23

    Tick-borne disease is one of the most harmful tropical diseases in dairy production. Selection of dairy cows for tolerance to tick-borne disease is a challenging concept for dairy breeders in the tropics. The objectives of this study were (1) to detect specific tick-borne pathogen in cattle of different genetics and (2) to examine the polymorphisms of DRB3.2 alleles in Thai dairy cattle and find the allelic association with tick-borne disease tolerance. Specific primers to Anaplasma marginale (AM), Babesia bigemina (BG) and Babesia bovis (BB) were used to detect the infections by PCR. The results showed that the high proportion of infections were found in Bos indicus (Sahiwal, n=95) and crossbred Holstein × Zebu (75:25 Holstein:Zebu, n=101), compared to high Holstein fraction crossbreed (≥ 87.5% Holstein, n=187). The proportion of triple infections was also highly found in high Holstein fractions crossbreed. This study confirmed that Zebuine (Bos indicus) had a higher degree of tolerance, even when infected by tick-borne pathogens, compared to high Holstein fraction crossbred. The associated alleles of DRB3.2 for tick-borne pathogen infection tolerance were found: DRB3*14 and *41 were found to be tolerant to A. marginale; *14 to B. bovis; and *10 and *51 to B. bigemina. These tolerance alleles could be used as potential markers for selection in dairy genetic evaluation. The associated alleles for susceptibility were also found: *2 was found to be susceptible to A. marginale; *3 and *16 to B. bovis; and *20 to B. bigemina. These susceptibility alleles could be used as markers for culling, and selection favoring susceptibility alleles should be considered to maintain heterozygote advantage and pathogen-specific memories in the herd.

  9. A comparison of phenotypic traits related to trypanotolerance in five west african cattle breeds highlights the value of shorthorn taurine breeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Berthier

    Full Text Available Animal African Trypanosomosis particularly affects cattle and dramatically impairs livestock development in sub-Saharan Africa. African Zebu (AFZ or European taurine breeds usually die of the disease in the absence of treatment, whereas West African taurine breeds (AFT, considered trypanotolerant, are able to control the pathogenic effects of trypanosomosis. Up to now, only one AFT breed, the longhorn N'Dama (NDA, has been largely studied and is considered as the reference trypanotolerant breed. Shorthorn taurine trypanotolerance has never been properly assessed and compared to NDA and AFZ breeds.This study compared the trypanotolerant/susceptible phenotype of five West African local breeds that differ in their demographic history. Thirty-six individuals belonging to the longhorn taurine NDA breed, two shorthorn taurine Lagune (LAG and Baoulé (BAO breeds, the Zebu Fulani (ZFU and the Borgou (BOR, an admixed breed between AFT and AFZ, were infected by Trypanosoma congolense IL1180. All the cattle were genetically characterized using dense SNP markers, and parameters linked to parasitaemia, anaemia and leukocytes were analysed using synthetic variables and mixed models. We showed that LAG, followed by NDA and BAO, displayed the best control of anaemia. ZFU showed the greatest anaemia and the BOR breed had an intermediate value, as expected from its admixed origin. Large differences in leukocyte counts were also observed, with higher leukocytosis for AFT. Nevertheless, no differences in parasitaemia were found, except a tendency to take longer to display detectable parasites in ZFU.We demonstrated that LAG and BAO are as trypanotolerant as NDA. This study highlights the value of shorthorn taurine breeds, which display strong local adaptation to trypanosomosis. Thanks to further analyses based on comparisons of the genome or transcriptome of the breeds, these results open up the way for better knowledge of host-pathogen interactions and

  10. Selection for breed-specific growth hormone and IGF-I alleles in a synthetic beef cattle cross, Canchim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.C.A. Regitano

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was developed to evaluate selection effects on gene frequencies in a synthetic beef cattle cross (5/8 Charolais, 3/8 Zebu named Canchim. A sample of 154 Canchim animals, representing three generation classes, was analyzed for seven molecular markers. Thirty-six Charolais cattle were also studied for comparison. A highly significant variation (P Este estudo foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar as freqüências gênicas em diferentes gerações de bovinos da raça sintética Canchim (5/8 Charolês, 3/8 Zebu. Uma amostra de 154 animais, representando três classes de gerações de um rebanho das raça Canchim, foi analisada para sete marcadores moleculares. Uma amostra da raça Charolesa (N = 36 foi incluída nas análises para permitir comparações. Observou-se um aumento linear, altamente significativo (P < 0,01, na freqüência do alelo que codifica o aminoácido valina na posição 127 do hormônio de crescimento, ao longo das gerações de Canchim. Este alelo foi observado na amostra da raça Charolesa e não é encontrado em raças zebuínas nacionais. Quatro alelos foram observados para o microssatélite localizado na região 5' não transcrita do gene do fator de crescimento semelhante à insulina do tipo I (IGF-I, com tamanhos variando de 231 a 225 pb. A freqüência do alelo de 225 pb apresentou um aumento significativo (P < 0,05 não linear ao longo das gerações. Este alelo não foi observado na raça Charolesa e é predominante nas raças zebuínas. Para o microssatélite CSFM50, seis alelos foram observados na raça Canchim, tendo sido verificada uma redução linear (P < 0,05 na freqüência do alelo de 168 bp. A hipótese de acasalamento preferencial com relação ao polimorfismo do hormônio de crescimento foi reforçada pelos resultados da análise de estatística F de Wright. O valor estimado de FIS para este loco foi 0,59 (P < 0,01. O aumento simultâneo de um alelo do hormônio de crescimento caracter

  11. The effect of supplementing leaves of four tannin-rich plant species with polyethylene glycol on digestibility and zootechnical performance of zebu bulls (Bos indicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yisehak, K; De Boever, J L; Janssens, G P J

    2014-06-01

    The effect of supplementing leaves of four tannin-rich plant species with polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG) on nutrient intake and digestibility as well as on weight gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and N retention of zebu bulls (Bos indicus) was studied. Leaves of Albizia gummifera, Grewia ferruginea, Prunus africana and Syzygium guineense, containing, respectively, 85, 55, 76 and 172 g condensed tannins (CT) per kg dry matter (DM), were combined with natural pasture hay in a ratio of 40:60 on DM basis. The four diets were fed both without and with addition of PEG, at a dose of 40 g per kg DM, to eight zebu bulls during trials of 25 days in an 8 × 8 randomized crossover design. Supplementation with PEG increased nutrient intake, digestibility, FCR, N retention and average daily gain (p < 0.01). A diet × PEG interaction was observed for nutrient intake as well as for crude protein, neutral detergent fibre and acid detergent fibre digestibility (p < 0.05), but the effect size of PEG addition could not be attributed to the CT content as such, and also digestibility without PEG was not related to CT content of the diets. The reason why the efficacy of PEG addition did not relate to the CT content pointed the need to evaluate other factors that can help to predict the efficacy of PEG, for example, tannin type or interaction with other nutrients.

  12. Atividade Ovariana em Fêmeas Bovinas da Raça Holandesa e Mestiças Holandês x Zebu, Durante Dois Ciclos Estrais Normais Consecutivos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alves Nadja Gomes

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizadas 25 fêmeas, distribuídas de acordo com o grau de sangue Holandês x Zebu nos grupos: I = 1/2 Holandês x Zebu; II = 3/4 Holandês x Zebu; III= 15/16 Holandês x Zebu; IV= Holandês--PB¾PC; e V= 7/8 Holandês x Zebu. Após o segundo estro natural pós-parto, esses animais foram monitorados por exames ultra-sonográficos diários por dois ciclos estrais consecutivos, para verificar a atividade ovariana quanto à dinâmica folicular e à atividade do corpo lúteo. O período interovulatório médio foi de 22,08±2,46 dias, sendo de 21,76±3,33 e 21,94±2,90 dias no primeiro e no segundo ciclo estral, respectivamente, não havendo diferença entre os grupos estudados. Observou-se o crescimento de uma (6%, duas (78% e três (16% ondas foliculares durante o ciclo estral, com a predominância de duas ondas foliculares. O período interovulatório dos ciclos com três ondas mostrou-se mais longo (25,33±4,37 dias, em comparação com uma (16,0±3,6 dias e duas (21,83±1,77 dias ondas foliculares. A duração das ondas foliculares para ciclos estrais com três ondas de crescimento folicular foi de 11,0±3,69; 7,17±1,60; e 8,5±1,52 dias na 1ª, 2ª e 3ª ondas, respectivamente, e de 11,15±1,65 e 12,07±2,32 dias nos ciclos estrais com duas ondas foliculares. Os dias de maior concentração plasmática de progesterona no 1º e 2º ciclos estrais foram, respectivamente, de 13,6±3,0 (7,29±4,3 ng/mL e 11,8±3,4 (5,6±2,0 ng/mL dias, não se mostrando diferentes entre os grupamentos genéticos e ciclos estrais estudados. Pelas análises dos dados, pode-se concluir que os diferentes grupamentos genéticos apresentaram o mesmo comportamento na dinâmica folicular e que as concentrações de progesterona, embora diferentes em números absolutos entre os grupamentos, mostraram-se indicativas de atividade luteal normal.

  13. An abattoir survey of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia lesions in slaughtered cattle in selected districts in Northern Tanzania

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emmanuel; Swai; Isidory; Mwezimpya; Edward; Ulicky; Adam; Mbise; Winford; Moshy

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To establish and estimate incidence of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia(CBPP),using abattoir survey as a diagnostic tool in slaughtered cattle in Northern Tanzania.Methods:A total of 4460 cattle were slaughtered in five abattoirs in 3 northern zone regions(Arusha,Kilimanjaro and Tanga)during the period of January to May 2004.They were examined ante-mortem for‘pneumonia signs’,and‘characteristic contagious bovine pleuropneumonia(CBPP)lung lesions’.Results:Forty-one(0.91%)of the slaughtered cattle,the majority of which were Tanzania short horn zebu,had gross lung lesions suggestive of CBPP.The prevalence of lesions was significantly(P<0.05)higher in Karatu abattoir compared to others.No animal was detected to have lesion in Bomang’ombe abattoir.The most observed pneumonic signs included labored breathing(90%),dry cough(57%)and mucopurulent nasal discharge(47%).The gross characteristic CBPP pathological lesion,frequently encountered was left lung lesion(47%),pinkish lung(71%)and pleural adhesion(98%).Epidemiological reports show that the CBPP reported outbreaks increased from 19 in 2002,65 in 2003 and 18 in 2004(January-March).The corresponding number of reported deaths increased from 137 in 2002,269 in 2003 and 77 in 2004(January-March).Conclusions:It’s concluded from this study that CBPP is a problem in spite of the extensive awareness and vaccination campaigns.Nevertheless,a continued surveillance programme including routine checks of all cattle carcasses at the abattoir and subsequent epidemiological investigation of suspected cases are recommended.

  14. An abattoir survey of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia lesions in slaughtered cattle in selected districts in Northern Tanzania

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emmanuel Swai; Isidory Mwezimpya; Edward Ulicky; Adam Mbise; Winford Moshy

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To establish and estimate incidence of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP), using abattoir survey as a diagnostic tool in slaughtered cattle in Northern Tanzania. Methods:A total of 4 460 cattle were slaughtered in five abattoirs in 3 northern zone regions (Arusha, Kilimanjaro and Tanga) during the period of January to May 2004. They were examined ante-mortem for ‘pneumonia signs’, and ‘characteristic contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) lung lesions’. Results: Forty-one (0.91%) of the slaughtered cattle, the majority of which were Tanzania short horn zebu, had gross lung lesions suggestive of CBPP. The prevalence of lesions was significantly (P<0.05) higher in Karatu abattoir compared to others. No animal was detected to have lesion in Bomang’ ombe abattoir. The most observed pneumonic signs included labored breathing (90%), dry cough (57%) and mucopurulent nasal discharge (47%). The gross characteristic CBPP pathological lesion, frequently encountered was left lung lesion (47%), pinkish lung (71%) and pleural adhesion (98%). Epidemiological reports show that the CBPP reported outbreaks increased from 19 in 2002, 65 in 2003 and 18 in 2004 (January-March). The corresponding number of reported deaths increased from 137 in 2002, 269 in 2003 and 77 in 2004 (January-March). Conclusions: It’s concluded from this study that CBPP is a problem in spite of the extensive awareness and vaccination campaigns. Nevertheless, a continued surveillance programme including routine checks of all cattle carcasses at the abattoir and subsequent epidemiological investigation of suspected cases are recommended.

  15. A survey of zoonotic diseases in trade cattle slaughtered at Tanga city abattoir:a cause of public health concern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Swai ES; Schoonman L

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the prevalence of hydatidosis, cysticercosis, tuberculosis, leptospirosis, brucellosis and toxoplasmosis in slaughtered bovine stock (aged ≥3 years) at Tanga city abattoir, Tanzania. Methods: Prevalence estimation of the five zoonotic diseases was undertaken through an active abattoir and sero-survey was carried out in Tanga city, during the period of January 2002 and March 2004. Serum samples collected from a sub-sample (n=51) of the slaughter stock were serologically screened for antibodies against brucellosis, leptospirosis and toxoplasmosis using Rose Bengal plate test, microscopic agglutination test (for 5 serovars of Leptospira interrogans) and Eiken latex agglutination test, respectively. The same animals were tested for tuberculosis using the single intradermal tuberculin test. Results: Post mortem examination of 12 444 slaughter cattle (10 790 short horn zebu and 1 654 graded) over a period of twenty two months, showed a prevalence of 1.56% (194) for hydatidosis, 1.49% (185) for cysticercosis and 0.32% (40) for tuberculosis. In all three zoonoses, a statistically significant difference in infection rates was noted between the short horn zebu and graded breeds (P<0.05). The overall seroprevalences of animals with brucellosis, toxoplasmosis and leptospirosis antibodies were found to be 12%, 12% and 51%, respectively. The most common leptospiral antibodies detected were those against antigens of serovars Leptospirahardjo (29%), Leptospira tarassovi (18%), Leptospira bataviae (4%) and Leptospira pomona (0%). With regard to tuberculosis, 10% (n=5) of the animals tested were classified as non-specific reactors or inconclusive. Conclusions: The study findings suggest that brucellosis, toxoplasmosis and leptospirosis are prevalent in Tanga and provide definitive evidence of slaughtered stock exposure to these zoonotic agents with concurrent public health consequences.

  16. Comparative expression profile of NOD1/2 and certain acute inflammatory cytokines in thermal-stressed cell culture model of native and crossbred cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanuprakash, V.; Singh, Umesh; Sengar, Gyanendra Singh; Raja, T. V.; Sajjanar, Basavraj; Alex, Rani; Kumar, Sushil; Alyethodi, R. R.; Kumar, Ashish; Sharma, Ankur; Kumar, Suresh; Bhusan, Bharat; Deb, Rajib

    2017-05-01

    Thermotolerance depends mainly on the health and immune status of the animals. The variation in the immune status of the animals may alter the level of tolerance of animals exposed to heat or cold stress. The present study was conducted to investigate the expression profile of two important nucleotide binding and oligomerization domain receptors (NLRs) (NOD1 and NOD2) and their central signalling molecule RIP2 gene during in vitro thermal-stressed bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of native (Sahiwal) and crossbred (Sahiwal X HF) cattle. We also examined the differential expression profile of certain acute inflammatory cytokines in in vitro thermal-stressed PBMC culture among native and its crossbred counterparts. Results revealed that the expression profile of NOD1/2 positively correlates with the thermal stress, signalling molecule and cytokines. Present findings also highlighted that the expression patterns during thermal stress were comparatively superior among indigenous compared to crossbred cattle which may add references regarding the better immune adaptability of Zebu cattle.

  17. Comparative expression profile of NOD1/2 and certain acute inflammatory cytokines in thermal-stressed cell culture model of native and crossbred cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanuprakash, V.; Singh, Umesh; Sengar, Gyanendra Singh; Raja, T. V.; Sajjanar, Basavraj; Alex, Rani; Kumar, Sushil; Alyethodi, R. R.; Kumar, Ashish; Sharma, Ankur; Kumar, Suresh; Bhusan, Bharat; Deb, Rajib

    2016-11-01

    Thermotolerance depends mainly on the health and immune status of the animals. The variation in the immune status of the animals may alter the level of tolerance of animals exposed to heat or cold stress. The present study was conducted to investigate the expression profile of two important nucleotide binding and oligomerization domain receptors (NLRs) (NOD1 and NOD2) and their central signalling molecule RIP2 gene during in vitro thermal-stressed bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of native (Sahiwal) and crossbred (Sahiwal X HF) cattle. We also examined the differential expression profile of certain acute inflammatory cytokines in in vitro thermal-stressed PBMC culture among native and its crossbred counterparts. Results revealed that the expression profile of NOD1/2 positively correlates with the thermal stress, signalling molecule and cytokines. Present findings also highlighted that the expression patterns during thermal stress were comparatively superior among indigenous compared to crossbred cattle which may add references regarding the better immune adaptability of Zebu cattle.

  18. In vivo comparison of susceptibility between Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle types to Theileria parva infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.G. Ndungu

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine whether Bos taurus cattle differ form Bos indicus in their susceptibility to infection with the Muguga stabilate of Theileria parva and in their resistance to the resultant disease. Ten Friesians (B. taurus, ten improved Borans (B. indicus, ten unimproved Borans (B. indicus and ten Zebus (B. indicus born to dams from an East Coast fever (ECF endemic area were inoculated with an infective dose50 dilution of T. parva Muguga stabilate 147. All the animals except one Friesian and one Zebu developed schizont parasitosis. All the improved Borans, nine of the Friesians, eight of the unimproved Borans and six of the Zebus developed a febrile response. Four of the improved Borans, four of the Friesians and three of the unimproved Borans died of theileriosis. No significant difference (P > 0.05 in the prepatent period occurred between the groups, but the Zebus had a significantly shorter duration of schizont parasitosis (P > 0.05 and took a significantly shorter time to recover (P > 0.05 than the other three groups. There was no significant difference in the two parameters between the other three groups. The study showed that three B. indicus breds and a B. taurus breed are equally susceptible to T. parva infection. However, Zebus born to dams from an ECF endemic area showed a better ability to control the course of disease than cattle from ECF free areas.

  19. Dip-Hump Temperature Dependence of Specific Heat and Effects of Pairing Fluctuations in the Weak-Coupling Side of a P-Wave Interacting Fermi Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inotani, Daisuke; van Wyk, Pieter; Ohashi, Yoji

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the specific heat CV at constant volume in the normal state of a p-wave interacting Fermi gas. Including p-wave pairing fluctuations within the strong-coupling theory developed by Nozières and Schmitt-Rink, we show that, in the weak-coupling side, CV exhibits a dip-hump behavior as a function of the temperature. While the dip is associated with the pseudogap phenomenon near Tc, the hump structure is found to come from the suppression of Fermi quasiparticle scattering into a p-wave molecular state in the Fermi degenerate regime. Since the latter phenomenon does not occur in the ordinary s-wave interacting Fermi gas, it may be viewed as a characteristic phenomenon associated with a p-wave pairing interaction.

  20. Auditory intensity discrimination as a function of level-rove and tone duration in normal-hearing and impaired subjects: the "mid-level hump" revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pienkowski, Martin; Hagerman, Bjorn

    2009-07-01

    The just-noticeable difference (DeltaI) in the intensity (I) of sound is typically reported to be a constant or a slightly decreasing ratio of the baseline intensity (known as Weber's law, and the "near-miss to Weber's law", respectively). However, in the relatively few studies on the intensity discrimination of very brief sounds, DeltaI/I is usually found to be non-monotonic, with poorest discrimination in the middle of the auditory dynamic range. Here, it is demonstrated that this "severe departure from Weber's law" or "mid-level hump" is not merely a phenomenon of short-duration sounds. In normal-hearing subjects (n=8), the near-miss to Weber's law that is observed with the discrimination of 300 ms-long, 4 kHz tones, gives way to a significant mid-level hump if tone intensities are not fixed over a great many trials (as is standard practice) but are instead randomly roved, trial-to-trial, over a wide intensity range. This was not the case in subjects with mild to moderate hearing impairment (n=4). Furthermore, in the discrimination of widely-roved, 4 ms-long, 4 kHz tone bursts, the performance of normal-hearing subjects did not significantly worsen at mid-levels compared to the unroved condition, unlike what was found with the 300 ms-long tones. It is suggested that mid-level humps could simply be the product of the well-known mid-level compressive nonlinearity in cochlear mechanics. We further suggest that the hump is eliminated, and the near-miss to Weber's law is produced, by a more central mechanism such as the recently reported "adaptation to sound-level statistics", which is bypassed during wide-range roving and possibly when sound durations are brief.

  1. Association of the bovine major histocompatibility complex (BoLA BoLA-DRB3 gene with fat and protein production and somatic cell score in Brazilian Gyr dairy cattle (Bos indicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Souza do Nascimento

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the bovine major histocompatibility complex (BoLA locus on animal health may be due to a direct action of its alleles on immune functions, whereas its indirect effect on production traits might be explained by the better general health conditions of more productive animals. In the present study, the BoLA-DRB3 gene was investigated in 1058 cows belonging to seven Brazilian Gyr Dairy herds (Bos indicus, Zebu cattle. A total of 37 alleles were identified, 15 of them described for the first time in a Zebu breed. A highly significant association (p < 0.02 was observed between allele *54 and a decrease (-26.1 kg in milk protein yield and there was a significant association (p < 0.05 between this allele and lower (-26.07 kg milk fat yield. There was also a significant association (p < 0.05 between allele *6 and decreased (-12.47 kg milk protein and allele *7 and increased (12.72 kg milk protein. There were also indications of association (p < 0.10 between somatic cell score (SCS and alleles *3 (SCS increased by 0.54 units and *31 (SCS increased by 0.46 units. The highly significant association of allele *54 with lower protein yield suggests the possible use of this allele in marker-assisted selection programs.

  2. On the nature of the in-ecliptic interplanetary magnetic field's two-humped distribution at 1AU

    CERN Document Server

    Khabarova, Olga

    2011-01-01

    According to classical models of the solar wind and the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) expansion, distributions in the ecliptic plane of both the IMF at 1 AU and the radial magnetic field on the Sun are expected to be identical . We found that photospheric (as well as the solar wind source surface) magnetic field distribution is purely Gaussian, but the distribution of the in-ecliptic and radial IMF at the Earth orbit demonstrates two-humped shape. It was previously supposed that interplanetary sector structure is responsible for the latter phenomenon. Our results indicate that picture of the IMF expansion into space is more complicated than usually considered. The heliospheric current sheet and sector structure are not the only source of the effect. IMF histograms were analysed on the basis of data from different spacecraft obtained at the distances from 0.29 AU to 4 AU from the Sun. The shape of the radial IMF component distribution strongly depends on a heliocentric distance and a heliolatitude. We su...

  3. iPTF13ehe in the context of Quark-Novae in massive binaries: double-humped, hydrogen-poor, superluminous Supernovae as standard candles

    CERN Document Server

    Ouyed, Rachid; Koning, Nico

    2015-01-01

    A Quark-Nova (QN; the explosive transition of a Neutron star to a Quark star) occurring in the second common envelope (CE) phase of a massive binary, as described in Ouyed et al. (2015a&b), gives excellent fits to super-luminous, hydrogen-poor, Supernovae (SLSNe) with double-humped light curves including DES13S2cmm, SN 2006oz and LSQ14bdq (see {\\it http://www.quarknova.ca/LCGallery.html}). In our model, the hydrogen envelope of the less massive companion is ejected during the first CE phase while the QN explosion occurs deep inside the He-rich second CE phase after it has expanded to its equilibrium configuration at ~1200Rsun; this yields the first hump in our model. The subsequent merging of the quark star with the CO core leads to black hole formation and accretion explaining the second long-lasting hump in our model, while the collision of the QN-ejected He-rich CE with the H-rich (i.e. first) CE accounts for late emission. Here we show that our model provides an excellent fit to the recently discovere...

  4. Charge density waves as the origin of dip-hump structures in the differential tunneling conductance of cuprates: The case of d-wave superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabovich, Alexander M., E-mail: gabovich@iop.kiev.ua; Voitenko, Alexander I., E-mail: voitenko@iop.kiev.ua

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • d-Wave superconductivity and charge-density waves compete for the Fermi surface. • Charge-density waves induce pseudogaps and peak-dip-hump structures in cuprates. • Tunnel spectra are non-symmetric due to the dielectric order-parameter phase fixation. • Scatter of the dielectric order parameter smears the tunnel spectra peculiarities. - Abstract: Quasiparticle differential current–voltage characteristics (CVCs) G(V) of non-symmetric tunnel junctions between d-wave superconductors with charge-density waves (CDWs) and normal metals were calculated. The dependences G(V) were shown to have a V-like form at small voltages V and low temperatures, and to be asymmetric at larger V owing to the presence of CDW peak in either of the V-branches. The spatial scatter of the dielectric (CDW) order parameter smears the CDW peak into a hump and induces a peak-dip-hump structure (PDHS) typical of CVCs observed for such junctions. At temperatures larger than the superconducting critical one, the PDHS evolves into a pseudogap depression. The results agree well with the scanning tunneling microscopy data for Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+δ} and YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7−δ}. The results differ substantially from those obtained earlier for CDW s-wave superconductors.

  5. Vitamin C nutrition in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, T

    2012-05-01

    Domestic animals, including ruminants, can synthesize vitamin C (VC) in their liver; as such, the dietary requirement for VC has not been confirmed in these animals. The adequacy of VC has been evaluated by quantifying VC levels in plasma, but the reported values in bovine plasma have been widely variable. Plasma VC concentration is decreased by heat stress, hepatic lesions, fattening, and infectious diseases such as mastitis in cattle. Therefore, VC supplementation is potentially beneficial for cattle with low plasma VC concentration. This review discusses the methods for determination of plasma VC concentration in cattle, VC nutrition, and the efficacy of VC supplementation in calves, dairy cattle, and beef cattle. Additionally I propose a reference range for plasma VC concentration in Japanese Black cattle.

  6. Modelagem de efeitos genéticos e ambientais que influenciam o peso à desmama de bezerros mestiços Charolês-Zebu Modeling of genetic and environmental effects affecting the weaning weight of Charolais-Zebu crossbred calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Luiz Buranelo Toral

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar alternativas para modelagem de efeitos genéticos e ambientais que influenciam o peso à desmama de bezerros mestiços Charolês-Zebu. Foram utilizados os dados de peso à desmama de 56.965 bezerros, com percentuais de alelos de origem da raça Charolesa variando entre 23% e 66%. Os modelos considerados diferiram quanto à inclusão de efeitos genéticos aditivos e não-aditivos médios, individuais e maternos, bem como quanto à maneira de modelar estes efeitos (regressão múltipla ou variável classificatória. Também foi avaliada a inclusão da interação entre o grupo genético do bezerro e seu grupo de contemporâneos, como um efeito aleatório não correlacionado. De acordo com os critérios de ajuste utilizados, a interação entre o grupo genético e o grupo de contemporâneos representa parte significativa da variação observada para o peso à desmama de bezerros Charolês-Zebu e os efeitos dos percentuais de alelos de origem da raça Charolesa e de heterozigoses, individuais e maternos, podem ser modelados por meio da utilização de regressão múltipla.This study was carried out to evaluate some alternatives for modeling of genetic and environmental effects influencing the weaning weight of Charolais-Zebu crossbred calves. The weaning weight data of 56,965 calves with alleles' percentage from the Charolais breed varying from 23% to 66% were used. The models under comparison differed for the inclusion of the individual and maternal additive and non-additive genetic effects, as well as the way to model those effects (multiple regression or discrete variable. The inclusion of the interaction between the calf genetic group and its contemporary group was also evaluated as a random uncorrelated effect. The adjustment criteria pointed out the interaction between the calf genetic group and its contemporary group to represent a significant part of the variation observed for the weaning

  7. Citrus pulp for cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthington, John D; Kunkle, William E; Martin, Amy M

    2002-07-01

    Citrus pulp is classified as an energy concentrate by-product feed. Citrus by-products fed to beef cattle include citrus molasses, citrus meal, wet citrus pulp, dried citrus pulp, and pelleted citrus pulp; however, in current production systems, pulp (wet, dry, and pelleted) is the only by-product commonly used. Citrus pulp production in the United States is limited to specific subtropical regions, of which south central Florida remains the largest with additional production in California and Texas.

  8. Association of GH and IGF-1 polymorphisms with growth traits in a synthetic beef cattle breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Pozzi Pereira

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The Canchim beef cattle (5/8 Charolais + 3/8 Zebu has been selected for meat production in Brazil since late 1950. In the present work the effects of growth hormone (GH and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 polymorphisms were investigated in 688 animals born between 1998 and 2000. These animals belonged to two genetic groups, i.e., traditional and new lineages. Genotype effects on expected breeding values for birth weight (BW, weaning weight (WW and yearling weight (YW were investigated by the least square method. Significant effects were found for GH genotype on YW (p < 0.05, with positive effects associated with the LV (leucine/valine genotype. For IGF-1 genotypes, significant effects were found on BW (p < 0.01 and YW (p < 0.01. Average substitution effects for IGF-1 alleles estimated by regression analysis suggested a positive effect of the IGF-1 225 bp allele on BW and of the 229 bp allele on YW.

  9. Epidemiology of infectious keratoconjunctivitis in cattle in south-east Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takele, G; Zerihun, A

    2000-04-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of infectious keratoconjunctivitis on cross-breed dairy farms and to evaluate factors that influence its distribution. A total of 11 dairy farms and one cattle cross-breeding farm in different parts of Arsi region, south-east Ethiopia were clinically and bacteriologically investigated from February 1989 to December 1990. Out of 5221 local zebu and cross-breed dairy animals, 110 were found to have different degrees of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis. Of these, 94 (85.5%) were unilateral and 16 (14.5%) were bilateral. The prevalence of the disease was significantly (P 0.750). Moraxella bovis was isolated from 88 (80%) of the 110 bacteriologically positive cases. Of these isolates, 61 (69%) were haemolytic and 27 (31%) were non-haemolytic strains. Infection with M. bovis was unilateral. Concurrent infections with M. bovis included Actinomyces pyogenes 23 (21%), Staphylococcus aureus 17 (15%), Pasteurella haemolytica nine (8%), Escherichia coli eight (7%) and Proteus spp. four (3.6%).

  10. Feedlot Processing and Arrival Cattle Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noffsinger, Tom; Lukasiewicz, Kip; Hyder, LeeAnn

    2015-11-01

    Acclimating newly arrived cattle in a feedlot setting can increase cattle confidence, reduce stress, improve immune function, and increase cattle well-being. Understanding cattle instincts and using low-stress handling techniques teaches cattle to trust their caregivers and work efficiently for them throughout the feeding period. These techniques should be applied with newly arrived cattle when they are unloaded, moved from the holding pen to the home pen, and handled inside the home pen. Low-stress handling during processing and a sound processing protocol based on cattle history and proper risk assessment can improve cattle health from the start of the feeding period.

  11. Effects of cattle grazing on small mammal communities in the Hulunber meadow steppe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Chan; Shuai, Ling-Ying; Xin, Xiao-Ping; Liu, Zhi-Tao; Song, Yan-Ling; Zeng, Zhi-Gao

    2016-01-01

    Small mammals play important roles in many ecosystems, and understanding their response to disturbances such as cattle grazing is fundamental for developing sustainable land use strategies. However, how small mammals respond to cattle grazing remains controversial. A potential cause is that most of previous studies adopt rather simple experimental designs based solely on the presence/absence of grazing, and are thus unable to detect any complex relationships between diversity and grazing intensity. In this study, we conducted manipulated experiments in the Hulunber meadow steppe to survey small mammal community structures under four levels of grazing intensities. We found dramatic changes in species composition in native small mammal communities when grazing intensity reached intermediate levels (0.46 animal unit/ha). As grazing intensity increased, Spermophilus dauricus gradually became the single dominant species. Species richness and diversity of small mammals in ungrazed and lightly grazed (0.23 animal unit/ha) area were much higher than in intermediately and heavily grazed area. We did not detect a humped relationship between small mammal diversity and disturbance levels predicted by the intermediate disturbance hypothesis (IDH). Our study highlighted the necessity of conducting manipulated experiments under multiple grazing intensities.

  12. Evidence of positive selection towards Zebuine haplotypes in the BoLA region of Brangus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goszczynski, D E; Corbi-Botto, C M; Durand, H M; Rogberg-Muñoz, A; Munilla, S; Peral-Garcia, P; Cantet, R J C; Giovambattista, G

    2017-07-14

    The Brangus breed was developed to combine the superior characteristics of both of its founder breeds, Angus and Brahman. It combines the high adaptability to tropical and subtropical environments, disease resistance, and overall hardiness of Zebu cattle with the reproductive potential and carcass quality of Angus. It is known that the major histocompatibility complex (MHC, also known as bovine leucocyte antigen: BoLA), located on chromosome 23, encodes several genes involved in the adaptive immune response and may be responsible for adaptation to harsh environments. The objective of this work was to evaluate whether the local breed ancestry percentages in the BoLA locus of a Brangus population diverged from the estimated genome-wide proportions and to identify signatures of positive selection in this genomic region. For this, 167 animals (100 Brangus, 45 Angus and 22 Brahman) were genotyped using a high-density single nucleotide polymorphism array. The local ancestry analysis showed that more than half of the haplotypes (55.0%) shared a Brahman origin. This value was significantly different from the global genome-wide proportion estimated by cluster analysis (34.7% Brahman), and the proportion expected by pedigree (37.5% Brahman). The analysis of selection signatures by genetic differentiation (F st ) and extended haplotype homozygosity-based methods (iHS and Rsb) revealed 10 and seven candidate regions, respectively. The analysis of the genes located within these candidate regions showed mainly genes involved in immune response-related pathway, while other genes and pathways were also observed (cell surface signalling pathways, membrane proteins and ion-binding proteins). Our results suggest that the BoLA region of Brangus cattle may have been enriched with Brahman haplotypes as a consequence of selection processes to promote adaptation to subtropical environments.

  13. Genome-wide association for growth traits in Canchim beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzanskas, Marcos E; Grossi, Daniela A; Ventura, Ricardo V; Schenkel, Flávio S; Sargolzaei, Mehdi; Meirelles, Sarah L C; Mokry, Fabiana B; Higa, Roberto H; Mudadu, Maurício A; da Silva, Marcos V G Barbosa; Niciura, Simone C M; Torres, Roberto A A; Alencar, Maurício M; Regitano, Luciana C A; Munari, Danísio P

    2014-01-01

    Studies are being conducted on the applicability of genomic data to improve the accuracy of the selection process in livestock, and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) provide valuable information to enhance the understanding on the genetics of complex traits. The aim of this study was to identify genomic regions and genes that play roles in birth weight (BW), weaning weight adjusted for 210 days of age (WW), and long-yearling weight adjusted for 420 days of age (LYW) in Canchim cattle. GWAS were performed by means of the Generalized Quasi-Likelihood Score (GQLS) method using genotypes from the BovineHD BeadChip and estimated breeding values for BW, WW, and LYW. Data consisted of 285 animals from the Canchim breed and 114 from the MA genetic group (derived from crossings between Charolais sires and ½ Canchim + ½ Zebu dams). After applying a false discovery rate correction at a 10% significance level, a total of 4, 12, and 10 SNPs were significantly associated with BW, WW, and LYW, respectively. These SNPs were surveyed to their corresponding genes or to surrounding genes within a distance of 250 kb. The genes DPP6 (dipeptidyl-peptidase 6) and CLEC3B (C-type lectin domain family 3 member B) were highlighted, considering its functions on the development of the brain and skeletal system, respectively. The GQLS method identified regions on chromosome associated with birth weight, weaning weight, and long-yearling weight in Canchim and MA animals. New candidate regions for body weight traits were detected and some of them have interesting biological functions, of which most have not been previously reported. The observation of QTL reports for body weight traits, covering areas surrounding the genes (SNPs) herein identified provides more evidence for these associations. Future studies targeting these areas could provide further knowledge to uncover the genetic architecture underlying growth traits in Canchim cattle.

  14. Skin to cervical epidural space distances as read from magnetic resonance imaging films: consideration of the "hump pad.".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrete, J A; Mushin, A U; Zapata, J C; Ghaly, R

    1998-06-01

    To measure the distances from the skin to the epidural space (DSES) of the lower cervical and upper thoracic intervertebral spaces. Retrospective review of films of the cervical spine as obtained by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Health care facility that provides diagnosis and treatment of patients with chronic pain. MRI sagittal films of 100 patients, who had diagnostic studies for chronic headaches and cervicobrachial radiculopathy, were reviewed. Measurements were made of DSES, the dural sac, and the spinal cord by centimeter ruler. Estimates were also made of the width of the epidural space by measuring the distance from the ligamentum flavum to the dural sac. The longest DSES were noted at C6-7 and C7-T1 levels, with a mean of 5.7 cm, but they decreased to a mean of 5.4 cm at the T1-2, and to 4. 7 cm at the T2-3 intervertebral spaces. One of the major factors in this variability was the presence of an accumulation of fatty tissue along the lower cervical and upper thoracic area, which the authors named the "hump pad." This accumulation appears to be thicker in obese patients, with a slight correlation coefficient with the patient's weight. The distances from ligamentum flavum to dural sac, representing the depth of the epidural space, averaged 0.3 cm, 0.4 cm, 0.5 cm, and 0.4 cm, respectively. In the cervical spine, DSES varies from space to space. In obese individuals, the fat pad may increase DSES at the lower cervical intervertebral spaces. The longest mean distances from the ligamentum flavum to the dural sac and to the spinal cord were found at the T1-2 and T2-3 levels, precisely where DSES is shorter. All things being equal, the upper thoracic intervertebral spaces appeared to provide a greater margin of safety for insertion of epidural catheters to treat cervicobrachial radiculopathies.

  15. Comparative in-vivo toxicity of venoms from South Asian hump-nosed pit vipers (Viperidae: Crotalinae: Hypnale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Anjana

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Envenoming by south Asian hump-nosed pit vipers (Genus: Hypnale is a significant health issue in Sri Lanka and in peninsular India. Bites by these snakes frequently lead to local envenoming, coagulopathy and acute renal failure even resulting in death. Recently the genus was revised and the existence of three species viz H. hypnale, H. nepa and H. zara were recognized. There is, however, a paucity of information on the toxicity of the venoms of these species. Hence, we compared the toxic effects of the three Hypnale venoms using BALB/c mice. Findings Intraperitoneal median lethal doses (LD50 for H. hypnale, H. zara and H. nepa venoms were 1.6, 6.0 and 9.5 μg protein/g respectively. Minimum haemorrhagic doses for venoms of H. hypnale, H. zara and H. nepa were 3.4, 11.0 and 16.6 μg protein/mouse respectively. The minimum necrotic doses for the same venoms were 15.0, 55.1 and 68.2 μg protein/mouse respectively. Severe congestion and petecheal haemorrhages were observed in lungs, kidneys, liver and the alimentary tract. Histopathogical examination of kidneys revealed proximal tubular cell injury and acute tubular necrosis with intact basement membrane indicating possible direct nephrotoxicity. Hypnale venoms caused pulmonary oedema, hepatocellular degeneration and necrosis, focal neuronal degeneration in brain and extramedullary haemopoiesis in spleen. H. hypnale venom caused all above histopathological alterations at lower doses compared to the other two. Conclusion Hypnale venoms cause similar pathological changes with marked differences in the severity of the toxic effects in vivo. Therefore, differences in the severity of the clinical manifestations could possibly be seen among bite victims of the three Hypnale species.

  16. Pain evaluation in dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gleerup, Karina Charlotte Bech; Andersen, Pia Haubro; Munksgaard, Lene

    2015-01-01

    Pain compromises the welfare of animals. A prerequisite for being able to alleviate pain is that we are able to recognize it. Potential behavioural signs of pain were investigated for dairy cattle with the aim of constructing a pain scale for use under production conditions. Forty-three cows were...... for the assessment of pain in dairy cattle under production conditions....

  17. Nonrespiratory diseases of stocker cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Step, Douglas L; Smith, Robert A

    2006-07-01

    Bovine respiratory disease is the most common health issue affecting stocker cattle. There are several nonrespiratory diseases that affect stockers. The more common diseases include rumen tympany, infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis, coccidiosis, photosensitization, and foot rot. Accurate diagnosis, early treatment, and incorporating appropriate preventive measures can assist cattle production.

  18. Effectiveness of a community-based strategic anthelmintic treatment programme in the control of gastrointestinal nematodes and Fasciola gigantica in cattle in Kilolo district, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keyyu, J.D.; Kassuku, A.A.; Kyvsgaard, Niels Christian

    2009-01-01

    ) from 10 farms in the village were selected and ear tagged for monthly sampling and weghing. A strategic CBWC programme was instituted whereby all animals in the village (tagged and non-tagged) were treated with albendazole 10% drench at 10 mg/kg four times a year e.g. middle of the rainy season...... (Ilula-Masukanzi) and a village without CBWC (Kilolo-Luganga) were randomly selected in Kilolo district, Iringa region of Tanzania. Animals in both villages were under the traditional management system and used the village communal grazing area. At the village with CBWC, 60 zebu cattle (6-18 months old...... CBWC were allowed to continue with their normal management practices including anthelmintic treatments. Faecal and blood samples from tagged animals and pasture samples from communal grazing areas were collected on monthly basis for 13 months. Results showed that strategic CBWC programme was highly...

  19. Production objectives and breeding goals of Sahiwal cattle keepers in Kenya and implications for a breeding programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilatsia, Evans D; Roessler, Regina; Kahi, Alexander K; Piepho, Hans-Peter; Zárate, Valle

    2012-03-01

    The Sahiwal breed has been used for upgrading the East African Zebu (EAZ) for improved milk production and growth performance in the southern rangelands of Kenya. Main users of this breed are Maasai pastoralists. Until now, there has been no deliberate effort to understand why these pastoralists specifically prefer to keep Sahiwal genetic resources as well as which traits are considered important by them and what is the underlying reason for this. However, this information is regarded vital for further development of the breed. A survey was conducted between May and October 2009 among Maasai pastoralists in Kajiado and Narok counties in the Southern part of Kenya, and private ranches and government farms to identify production objectives and breeding goals of Sahiwal cattle producers. Sahiwal genetic resources were mainly kept for domestic milk production and for revenue generation through milk sales and live animals. To a limited extent, they were kept for breeding and also for multiple objectives that included insurance against risks and social functions. Production aims were influenced to varying extents by various household and farmer characteristics. Sahiwal cattle and their crosses were generally perceived to be better with respect to productive traits and fertility traits when compared to the EAZ. However, the EAZ was rated higher with respect to adaptation traits. The breeding objective traits of primary importance were high milk yield and big body size, good reproductive efficiency and relatively good adaptation to local production conditions. Performance and functional traits are important breeding goals that play a major role in fulfilling the multiple production objectives. This forms the basis for the optimisation of a breeding programme for sustainable utilisation to meet the needs of Sahiwal cattle producers.

  20. Placentation in cloned cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miglino, M A; Pereira, F T V; Visintin, J A

    2007-01-01

    To elucidate the morphological differences between placentas from normal and cloned cattle pregnancies reaching term, the umbilical cord, placentomes and interplacentomal region of the fetal membranes were examined macroscopically as well as by light and scanning electron microscopy. In pregnancies...... than one primary villus, as opposed to a single villus in non-cloned placentae. Scanning electron microscopy of blood vessel casts revealed that there was also more than one stem artery per villous tree and that the ramification of the vessels failed to form dense complexes of capillary loops...

  1. k-Casein, b-lactoglobulin and growth hormone allele frequencies and genetic distances in Nelore, Gyr, Guzerá, Caracu, Charolais, Canchim and Santa Gertrudis cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Augusta Kemenes

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The genotypes for k-casein (k-CN, b-lactoglobulin (b-LG and growth hormone (GH were determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and restriction enzyme digestion in seven breeds of cattle (Nelore, Gyr, Guzerá, Caracu, Charolais, Canchim and Santa Gertrudis. k-Casein had two alleles with the A allele occurring at a higher frequency in Bos indicus breeds (0.93, 0.92 and 0.91% for Gyr, Guzerá and Nelore, respectively. The b-lactoglobulin locus had two alleles in all of the breeds. European breeds had a higher frequency of the b-LG A allele than Zebu breeds. The GH locus had two alleles (L and V in Bos taurus and was monomorphic (L allele only in all of the Bos indicus breeds evaluated. The highest frequency for the V allele was observed in Charolais cattle. The markers used revealed a considerable similarity among breeds, with two main groups being discernible. One group consisted of Zebu and Santa Gertrudis breeds and the other consisted of European and Canchim breeds.Os genótipos de k-caseína (k-CN, b-lactoglobulina (b-LG e hormônio de crescimento foram determinados por reação em cadeia de polimerase (PCR e digestão com enzima de restrição em sete raças de bovinos (Nelore, Gir, Guzerá, Caracu, Charolesa, Canchim and Santa Gertrudis. A k-caseína apresentou dois alelos e as freqüências mais elevadas para o alelo A foram observadas em Bos indicus (0,93, 0,92 e 0,91% para as raças Gir, Guzerá e Nelore, respectivamente. A b-lactoglobulina apresentou dois alelos em todas as raças estudadas, sendo a freqüência do alelo A mais elevada nas raças européias. O loco de hormônio de crescimento apresentou dois alelos em Bos taurus e foi monomórfico (alelo L em todas as raças zebuínas. A maior freqüência para o alelo V foi observado na raça Charolesa. Os marcadores investigados revelaram alta similaridade entre as raças, com a formação de dois grupos principais: um composto de raças zebuínas e a raça Santa Gertrudis e outro

  2. Engineering disease resistant cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, David M; Kerr, David E; Wall, Robert J

    2005-10-01

    Mastitis is a disease of the mammary gland caused by pathogens that find their way into the lumen of the gland through the teat canal. Mammary gland infections cost the US dairy industry approximately $2 billion dollars annually and have a similar impact in Europe. In the absence of effective treatments or breeding strategies to enhance mastitis resistance, we have created transgenic dairy cows that express lysostaphin in their mammary epithelium and secrete the antimicrobial peptide into milk. Staphylococcus aureus, a major mastitis pathogen, is exquisitely sensitive to lysostaphin. The transgenic cattle resist S. aureus mammary gland challenges, and their milk kills the bacteria, in a dose dependent manner. This first step in protecting cattle against mastitis will be followed by introduction of other genes to deal with potential resistance issues and other mastitis causing organisms. Care will be taken to avoid altering milk's nutritional and manufacturing properties. Multi-cistronic constructs may be required to achieve our goals as will other strategies possibly involving RNAi and gene targeting technology. This work demonstrates the possibility of using transgenic technology to address disease problems in agriculturally important species.

  3. Iron K and Compton hump reverberation in SWIFT J2127.4+5654 and NGC 1365 revealed by NuSTAR and XMM-Newton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, E.; Zoghbi, A.; Marinucci, A.; Walton, D. J.; Fabian, A. C.; Risaliti, G.; Boggs, S. E.; Christensen, F. E.; Fuerst, F.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Matt, G.; Parker, M. L.; Reynolds, C. S.; Stern, D.; Zhang, W. W.

    2015-01-01

    In the past five years, a flurry of X-ray reverberation lag measurements of accreting supermassive black holes have been made using the XMM-Newton telescope in the 0.3-10 keV energy range. In this work, we use the NuSTAR (Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array) telescope to extend the lag analysis up to higher energies for two Seyfert galaxies, SWIFT J2127.4+5654 and NGC 1365. X-ray reverberation lags are due to the light travel time delays between the direct continuum emission and the reprocessed emission from the inner radii of an ionized accretion disc. XMM-Newton has been particularly adept at measuring the lag associated with the broad Fe K emission line, where the gravitationally redshifted wing of the line is observed to respond before the line centroid at 6.4 keV, produced at larger radii. Now, we use NuSTAR to probe the lag at higher energies, where the spectrum shows clear evidence for Compton reflection, known as the Compton `hump'. The XMM-Newton data show Fe K lags in both SWIFT J2127.4+5654 and NGC 1365. The NuSTAR data provide independent confirmation of these Fe K lags, and also show evidence for the corresponding Compton hump lags, especially in SWIFT J2127.4+5654. These broad-band lag measurements confirm that the Compton hump and Fe K lag are produced at small radii. At low frequencies in NGC 1365, where the spectrum shows evidence for eclipsing clouds in the line of sight, we find a clear negative (not positive) lag from 2 to 10 keV, which can be understood as the decrease in column density from a neutral eclipsing cloud moving out of our line of sight during the observation.

  4. Rabies Outbreaks and Vaccination in Domestic Camels and Cattle in Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ye; Zhang, He-Ping; Zhang, Shou-Feng; Wang, Jin-Xiang; Zhou, Hai-Ning; Zhang, Fei; Wang, Yu-Mei; Ma, Long; Li, Nan; Hu, Rong-Liang

    2016-09-01

    In contrast to many countries where rabies has been well controlled in humans and livestock, even in wildlife, rabies is still endemic in almost regions of China. In Northwest China, rabies transmitted by stray dogs and wild foxes has caused heavy economic losses to local herdsmen, as well as causing numbers of human cases. In this study, as part of an investigation of ways to prevent rabies epidemics in livestock, we report an analysis of domestic cattle and camel rabies cases in Ningxia Hui (NHAR) and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (IMAR) and the immune efficacy of canine inactivated rabies vaccines in these animals. We found that rabies viruses from these animals are closely related to dog-hosted China I and fox-associated China III lineages, respectively, indicating that the infections originated from two different sources (dogs and wild foxes). As well as the previously reported Arctic and Arctic-related China IV lineage in IMAR, at least three separate phylogenetic groups of rabies virus consistently exist and spread throughout Northwest China. Since there is no licensed oral vaccine for wild foxes and no inactivated vaccine for large livestock, local canine inactivated vaccine products were used for emergency immunization of beef and milk cattle and bactrian (two-humped) camels in local farms. Compared with a single injection with one (low-efficacy) or three doses (high-cost), a single injection of a double dose of canine vaccine provided low-price and convenience for local veterinarians while inducing levels of virus neutralizing antibodies indicative of protection against rabies for at least 1 year in the cattle and camels. However, licensed vaccines for wildlife and large domestic animals are still needed in China.

  5. Host resistance in cattle to infestation with the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jonsson, N. N; Piper, E. K; Constantinoiu, C. C

    2014-01-01

    .... The variation in resistance to tick infestation is most marked between B os taurus and B os indicus cattle, taurine cattle given the same exposure carrying between five and 10 times as many ticks as indicine cattle...

  6. The Compton hump and variable blue wing in the extreme low-flux NuSTAR observations of 1H0707-495

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kara, E.; Fabian, A. C.; Lohfink, A. M.;

    2015-01-01

    of a deep 250-ks NuSTAR (Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array) observation of 1H0707-495, which includes the first sensitive observations above 10 keV. Even though the NuSTAR observations caught the source in an extreme low-flux state, the Compton hump is still significantly detected. NuSTAR, with its high...... is that the drop in flux is the blue wing of the relativistically broadened iron K alpha emission line. When the flux is low, the coronal source height is low, thus enhancing the most gravitationally redshifted emission....

  7. Phenotypic characteristics and trypanosome prevalence of Mursi cattle breed in the Bodi and Mursi districts of South Omo Zone, southwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terefe, Endashaw; Haile, Aynalem; Mulatu, Wudyalew; Dessie, Tadelle; Mwai, Okeyo

    2015-03-01

    The study was conducted to characterize the morphological features of Mursi cattle breed and to identify the species of trypanosome infecting the cattle and its prevalence in these traditionally managed cattle in the Bodi and Mursi pastoral communities. Cattle body description and measurements were made on 201 matured animals. Blood samples were collected from 409 animals into heparin-treated capillary tubes and were centrifuged to 12,000 rpm for 5 min to identify trypanosome species from the wet smeared buffy coat and to estimate the degree of anemia (PCV). Tsetse flies were collected using phenol-treated biconical trap and the caught flies identified to species level. The breed possesses variable coat color pattern, coat color type, and have small to medium hump size on the thoracic vertebrae. Body measurement of Mursi cattle in the two locations did not show significant differences except chest girth, rump width, and horn length. Trypanosome prevalence in the Mursi cattle breed was 6.1%. The highest trypanosome infection was caused by Trypanosoma congolense (56%) followed by Trypanosoma vivax (40%) and Trypanosoma brucei (4%). Trypanosome prevalence significantly varies between dry (2.0%) and late rainy (10.1%) seasons (P < 0.001) and between lean (11.9%) and medium (2.4%) body condition score (P < 0.01). The PCV value was 22.1 ± 0.5%, which is significantly varied with season (P < 0.01) and parasitism (P < 0.001). Parasitaemic cattle show the lowest PCV value (20.4 ± 1%) than aparasitaemic (23.7 ± 0.3%) cattle and cattle with lean BCS showed the lowest (P < 0.0001) PCV value (20.4 ± 0.6%). Tsetse fly species identified in the study area were Glossina pallidipes, Glossina morsitans submorsitans, and Glossina fuscipes. The number of flies captured in late rainy season was higher than in dry season (P < 0.01). Despite the existence of trypanosome and high tsetse fly infestation in the areas, large proportion of the Mursi

  8. Exigências de proteína de bovinos anelorados em pastejo Protein requirements of grazing Zebu steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Henrique Bevitori Kling de Moraes

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se determinar as exigências proteicas de bovinos anelorados sob pastejo em cinco piquetes de Brachiaria decumbens. Utilizaram-se 27 animais não-castrados, com peso corporal (PC médio inicial de 311,0 kg e idade média de 14 meses. Três animais foram abatidos após o período de adaptação para servirem como referência para as estimativas do peso de corpo vazio (PCVZ e da composição corporal iniciais dos animais mantidos no experimento. Dos 24 animais restantes, quatro foram designados ao grupo mantença, que teve tempo de pastejo restrito. Os 20 demais foram distribuídos em quatro tratamentos: mistura mineral, autocontrole e duas frequências de alimentação: três vezes/semana (às segunda, quartas e sextas-feiras ou diariamente. As exigências líquidas de proteína para ganho diminuíram com o aumento do peso vivo (PV dos animais. A exigência líquida de proteína encontrada para um animal com peso corporal de 250 kg foi de 153,71 g/kg GPCVZ, enquanto para um animal de 400 kg foi de 141,86 g/kg GPCVZ. A seguinte equação foi obtida para estimativa da proteína retida em relação ao ganho de peso vivo em jejum (GPVJ e da energia retida (ER: PR (g/dia = -34,6109 + 257,956*GPVJ – 17,01*ER. As exigências de proteína metabolizável estimadas para mantença e ganho de peso foram de 357,77 e 288,33 g/kg PC, respectivamente, para um bovino não-castrado de 400 kg de PC sob pastejo. Animais que consomem suplementos proteicos apresentam maiores exigências de proteína degradável no rúmen (PDR em comparação a animais sem suplementação, em virtude do maior consumo de nutrientes digestíveis totais. Para um animal de 400 kg de PV sob suplementação, as exigências de proteína degradável no rúmen e proteína não-degradável no rúmen são de 764,22 e 73,89, respectivamente, que correspondem à exigência de proteína bruta de 838,10 g/dia.The objective of this study was to determine the protein requirements of Zebu

  9. Water intoxication in adult cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Naoya; Ofuji, Sosuke; Abe, Sakae; Tanaka, Ai; Uematsu, Masami; Ogata, Yoshimi

    2016-05-01

    Water intoxication is a common disorder in calves and is usually characterized by transient hemoglobinuria. In contrast, the condition is very rare in adult cattle, with few reports on naturally occurring cases. In the present report, four female Japanese Black cattle, aged 16-25 months, showed neurological signs when they drank water following a water outage. Hemoglobinuria was not grossly observed, while severe hyponatremia was revealed by laboratory tests. Autopsy indicated cerebral edema with accumulation of serous fluid in expanded Virchow-Robin spaces. These results indicate the possibility of water intoxication associated with cerebral edema due to severe dilutional hyponatremia in adult cattle.

  10. A complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the wild two-humped camel (Camelus bactrianus ferus: an evolutionary history of camelidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng He

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The family Camelidae that evolved in North America during the Eocene survived with two distinct tribes, Camelini and Lamini. To investigate the evolutionary relationship between them and to further understand the evolutionary history of this family, we determined the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the wild two-humped camel (Camelus bactrianus ferus, the only wild survivor of the Old World camel. Results The mitochondrial genome sequence (16,680 bp from C. bactrianus ferus contains 13 protein-coding, two rRNA, and 22 tRNA genes as well as a typical control region; this basic structure is shared by all metazoan mitochondrial genomes. Its protein-coding region exhibits codon usage common to all mammals and possesses the three cryptic stop codons shared by all vertebrates. C. bactrianus ferus together with the rest of mammalian species do not share a triplet nucleotide insertion (GCC that encodes a proline residue found only in the nd1 gene of the New World camelid Lama pacos. This lineage-specific insertion in the L. pacos mtDNA occurred after the split between the Old and New World camelids suggests that it may have functional implication since a proline insertion in a protein backbone usually alters protein conformation significantly, and nd1 gene has not been seen as polymorphic as the rest of ND family genes among camelids. Our phylogenetic study based on complete mitochondrial genomes excluding the control region suggested that the divergence of the two tribes may occur in the early Miocene; it is much earlier than what was deduced from the fossil record (11 million years. An evolutionary history reconstructed for the family Camelidae based on cytb sequences suggested that the split of bactrian camel and dromedary may have occurred in North America before the tribe Camelini migrated from North America to Asia. Conclusion Molecular clock analysis of complete mitochondrial genomes from C. bactrianus ferus and L

  11. Differences in Beef Quality between Angus (Bos taurus taurus) and Nellore (Bos taurus indicus) Cattle through a Proteomic and Phosphoproteomic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Rafael Torres de Souza; Chizzotti, Mario Luiz; Vital, Camilo Elber; Baracat-Pereira, Maria Cristina; Barros, Edvaldo; Busato, Karina Costa; Gomes, Rafael Aparecido; Ladeira, Márcio Machado; Martins, Taiane da Silva

    2017-01-01

    Proteins are the major constituents of muscle and are key molecules regulating the metabolic changes during conversion of muscle to meat. Brazil is one of the largest exporters of beef and most Brazilian cattle are composed by zebu (Nellore) genotype. Bos indicus beef is generally leaner and tougher than Bos taurus such as Angus. The aim of this study was to compare the muscle proteomic and phosphoproteomic profile of Angus and Nellore. Seven animals of each breed previously subjected the same growth management were confined for 84 days. Proteins were extracted from Longissimus lumborum samples collected immediately after slaughter and separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis. Pro-Q Diamond stain was used in phosphoproteomics. Proteins identification was performed using matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Tropomyosin alpha-1 chain, troponin-T, myosin light chain-1 fragment, cytoplasmic malate dehydrogenase, alpha-enolase and 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein were more abundant in Nellore, while myosin light chain 3, prohibitin, mitochondrial stress-70 protein and heat shock 70 kDa protein 6 were more abundant in Angus (Pbeef quality between Angus and Nellore. Furthermore, prohibitin appears to be a potential biomarker of intramuscular fat in cattle. Additionally, differences in phosphorylation of myofilaments and glycolytic enzymes could be involved with differences in muscle contraction force, susceptibility to calpain, apoptosis and postmortem glycolysis, which might also be related to differences in beef quality among Angus and Nellore.

  12. INCIDENCE OF Boophilus microplus AND BLOOD PARAMETERS IN CROSSBRED STEERS FED OF SUNFLOWER INCIDÊNCIA DE Boophilus microplus E AVALIAÇÃO DOS PARÂMETROS SANGÜÍNEOS EM BOVINOS MESTIÇOS (HOLANDÊS x ZEBU ALIMENTADOS COM GIRASSOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Luíz S. Rezende

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This experiment aimed to evaluate the efficacy of sunflower meal and sunflower seeds to control Boophilus microplus in naturally infested steers. The experiment was developed in the Dairy Cattle Facilities of the Veterinary College - UFG. Two herds of steers (Holstein x zebu were allotted in a randomized block design in 2x10 factorial arrangement with six repetitions on Brachiaria decumbens pastures. After 14 days, weekly for two months, B. microplus females > 4 mm were counted, blood samples were collected and the animals were weighed. The B. microplus engorged females were collected to evaluate reproductive parameters. Blood samples were processed to determine: hematocrit, total protein, fibrinogen and leukocytes. The results had been submitted to the analysis of variance and the averages compared for the Scott-Knott test (5%. Tick counts, index (%, larval eclosion, hematocrit, total protein, fibrinogen and leukocytes were similar between treatments. The results do not corroborate the empirical reports concerning the effectiveness of the sunflower to control B. microplus in crossbred steers. KEY-WORDS: Blood values, oily seeds, parasites, tick count. Objetivou-se avaliar a ação do farelo ou das sementes de girassol no controle de Boophilus microplus em novilhos mestiços (holandês x zebu infestados naturalmente. O experimento foi desenvolvido no Setor de Bovinocultura do Departamento de Produção Animal da Escola de Veterinária (EV da UFG. Foram utilizados dois lotes de animais, distribuídos inteiramente ao acaso num fatorial 2 x 10 com seis repetições, em piquetes de Brachiaria decumbens, onde foram suplementados. Após quatorze dias de experimento e a cada sete dias, durante dois meses, num curral de manejo, efetuaram-se a contagem das fêmeas de B. microplus > 4 mm, as coletas de sangue e as pesagens dos bovinos. Colheram-se fêmeas ingurgitadas de B. microplus para avaliação de parâmetros reprodutivos. Amostras de sangue

  13. Eficiências Reprodutiva e Produtiva em Vacas das Raças Gir, Holandês e Cruzadas Holandês x Zebu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guimarães José Domingos

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar a eficiência reprodutiva e sua relação com características produtivas e composição genética de um rebanho, criado em condições de clima tropical, foram utilizadas 113 vacas, distribuídas em sete grupamentos genéticos, como se segue: 1/2, 3/4, 7/8, 9/16 e 15/16 Holandês x Zebu, Holandês--PB¾PC e Gir. As varáveis estudadas foram: idade ao parto, estação de parição, intervalo do parto ao primeiro serviço, intervalo do primeiro serviço ao serviço fértil, número de serviços, período de serviço, intervalo de partos e eficiência reprodutiva. Com relação a características produtivas, avaliou-se o período de lactação e produção de leite por ordem de lactação e grupamentos genéticos do rebanho. Foi utilizado o programa estatístico SAEG, realizando-se as análises de regressões múltiplas, de variância e de comparação de médias pelo teste de Tukey a 5% de probabilidade de erro. A eficiência reprodutiva foi influenciada por idade ao parto, período de lactação, intervalo de partos e composição genética das vacas, porém não o foi pela produção de leite e estação do ano. Os índices produtivos não foram influenciados pela estação de parição, mas sim pela composição genética dos animais. Neste estudo, os índices reprodutivos mostraram-se satisfatórios, os animais zebuínos apresentaram os menores índices produtivos e os taurinos, a menor eficiência reprodutiva, provavelmente pela maior sensibilidade às condições de manejo.

  14. Frequency of species of the Genus Eimeria in naturally infected cattle in Southern Bahia, Northeast Brazil Frequência de espécies do gênero Eimeria em bovinos naturalmente infectados no Sudeste da Bahia, Nordeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valter dos Anjos Almeida

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the presence of species of the genus Eimeria species in naturally infected bovines in Southern Bahia, Northeast Brazil. The study population comprised 117 Zebu crossbred cattle that belonged to 10 dairy herds with extensive or semi-extensive production systems. The modified Gordon and Whitlock technique was used to determine positive samples and number of oocysts per gram of feces. Statistical analyses were performed using the chi-square test with Yates correction and a 95% confidence interval. Thirty-nine cattle (33.33% were positive, and ten different species were identified in infected animals: E. bovis (24.79%; E. canadensis (8.55%; E. zuernii (6.83%; E. ellipsoidalis (5.99%; E. cylindrica (3.42%; E. auburnensis (3.42%; E. brasiliensis (2.56%; E. bukidnonensis (1.71%; E. alabamensis (0.85%, and E. subspherica (0.85%. Higher parasitism was observed in animals up to one year of age (p = 0.005, but no animal presented clinical signs of the disease. As the presence of clinical eimeriosis was not evidenced and all animals were Zebu crossbred cattle from extensive or semi-extensive production systems, further studies should be conducted to investigate the effects of these factors on disease development.O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a presença de espécies do gênero Eimeria em bovinos naturalmente infectados, na região Sudeste da Bahia, Nordeste do Brasil. A população do estudo incluiu 117 bovinos mestiços de raças Zebuínas que pertenciam a 10 fazendas leiteiras com sistemas de produção extensivo ou semiextensivo. A técnica de Gordon e Whitlock modificada foi utilizada para determinar as amostras positivas e o número de oocistos por grama de fezes. A análise estatística foi realizada utilizando o teste do qui-quadrado com correção de Yates e intervalo de confiança de 95%. Trinta e nove animais (33,33% foram positivos, e dez diferentes espécies foram identificadas nos animais

  15. Heat shock and structural proteins associated with meat tenderness in Nellore beef cattle, a Bos indicus breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Minos Esperândio; Gasparin, Gustavo; Poleti, Mirele Daiana; Rosa, Alessandra Fernandes; Balieiro, Júlio Cesar Carvalho; Labate, Carlos Alberto; Nassu, Renata Tieko; Tullio, Rymer Ramiz; Regitano, Luciana Correia de Almeida; Mourão, Gerson Barreto; Coutinho, Luiz Lehmann

    2014-03-01

    Nellore beef cattle, a Bos indicus (Zebu) breed, is well adapted to tropical conditions and has allowed Brazil to become one of the largest producers of red meat. Nevertheless, B. indicus breeds are reported to have less tender meat than Bos taurus. This study was designed to identify genes associated with meat tenderness and thus provides important information for breeding programs. A group of 138 animals was evaluated for longissimus thoracis muscle shear force (SF). Animals with the highest and lowest SF values (six animals each) were then selected for protein abundance studies. Samples were subjected to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) followed by peptide sequencing through mass spectrometry (MS) to identify differentially expressed proteins associated with SF values. Seventeen differentially expressed spots were observed (p<0.05) between the two groups. The 13 proteins identified included structural proteins (alpha actin-1, MLC1, MLC3, MLC2F and tropomyosin), related to cell organization (HSPB1 and HSP70), metabolism (beta-LG, ACBD6 and Complex III subunit I) and some uncharacterized proteins. Results confirm the existence of differentially expressed proteins associated with SF, which can lead to a better understanding of mechanisms involved in meat tenderness. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Bruises in beef cattle at slaughter in Mexico: implications on quality, safety and shelf life of the meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Monterrosa, Rosy G; Reséndiz-Cruz, Verónica; Rayas-Amor, Armando A; López, Marcos; la Lama, Genaro C Miranda-de

    2017-01-01

    In emergent economies and developing countries of Africa, Asia and Latin America, the major cause for carcass rejection from the international market is bruising; nevertheless, many of these carcases are destined to local markets and meat processing industries for human consumption. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the effect of bruised meat on pH, microbiologic count and biogenic amine (BA) profiles along 21 days of ageing (sampling 1st, 7th, 14th and 21st day) with two packaging method (plastic bag vs vacuum) at 4 °C. A total of 50 bruised carcasses were sampled from 1000 young bulls (Brown Swiss X Zebu) of 18-24 months old and an average live weight of 450 ± 66 kg. The results showed significant differences between packaging systems and bruised vs non-bruised meat. The bruised meat caused higher biogenic amine concentrations than did non-bruised meat. We conclude that bruised meat favoured increments of biogenic amine concentrations, even more than did non-bruised meat. The plastic bag + vacuum system limited the increments of BA concentration during storage time therefore it improved shelf life of meat. These results emphasized the importance of implementing best management practices during pre-slaughter operations of cattle in order to reduce a possible risk factor for bruised meat.

  17. Avaliação da qualidade do colostro e transferência de imunidade passiva em animais mestiços Holandês Zebu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.F. Silper

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a qualidade do colostro de vacas mestiças Holandês Zebu e a transferência de imunidade a seus bezerros. Efeitos de ordem de parto, sexo do bezerro, estação do ano e grupo genético foram estudados em vacas distribuídas em quatro grupos genéticos. Amostras de sangue dos bezerros foram coletadas aos três dias de vida. Foi avaliada a concentração de proteína total no soro (PT por refratometria e espectrofotometria. As amostras de colostro apresentaram alta qualidade, com concentração média de Ig de 78,5mg/mL. Houve adequada transferência de imunidade passiva, com 88,3% dos bezerros com PT acima de 5,5g/dL. Não houve efeito de ordem de parto, sexo do bezerro, estação do ano e grupo genético da vaca na qualidade do colostro e na PT (P>0,05. Vacas F1 produziram, em média, colostro de alta qualidade e houve sucesso na transferência de imunidade passiva.

  18. The cattle crush strategy: trading opportunities for cattle producers The cattle crush strategy: trading opportunities for cattle producers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Acevedo Vélez

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This research shows that it is possible for U.S. cattle feeders to obtain additional profits if a consistent technical strategy for trading is applied to the cattle crush spread. However, when trading costs are introduced, the likelihood of obtaining profit from trading the crush reduces considerably. It also shows that the level of gains from the cattle crush is related to the month the cattle are marketed. When the crush is used as a hedging strategy it decreases the profit from the feeding operation and reduces the volatility of those returns, helping producers to transfer part of the price risk associated with their production. To provide evidence of these findings, this study utilizes daily prices for 1995 to 2006 of the futures contracts of corn, feeder and live cattle to construct the daily cattle crush spread for two different combinations of futures contracts traded in the Chicago Board of Trade and Chicago Mercantile Exchange. These contract combinations suppose that cattle are fed in feedlots for 170 days before being marketed in April and in October. Two different scenarios are also evaluated using the cattle crush spread: one in which the crush is employed as a pre-placement hedging tool and another in which the crush is used as a post-placement hedging method.En este estudio se muestra que es posible para un productor de ganado de carne en EE.UU obtener utilidades adicionales cuando estrategias de operación en el mercado financiero de futuros de Chicago son utilizadas (i.e. la estrategia “cattle crush”. No obstante, los costos de transacción presentes reduce la probabilidad de obtener utilidades mediante la estrategia de análisis técnico. También se muestra que el nivel de ganancia derivado del uso del “cattle crush” está relacionado con el ciclo ganadero en el cual se realice la operación. Cuando el “cattle crush” se utiliza como alternativa para cubrir riesgo, se reduce considerablemente la volatilidad de los

  19. Evaluation of TFAM and FABP4 gene polymorphisms in three lines of Nellore cattle selected for growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, D R; Souza, F R P; Mercadante, M E Z; Fonseca, L F S; Tonhati, H; Cyrillo, J N S G; Bonilha, S F M; Albuquerque, L G

    2010-10-19

    We analyzed the polymorphisms TFAM HaeIII, TFAM MboI and FABP4 MspA1I in three Nellore lines selected for growth in order to evaluate how selection affects the frequencies of these polymorphisms and evaluate their association with growth and carcass traits in Zebu cattle. Birth, weaning and yearling weights, rump height, longissimus muscle area, backfat thickness, and rump fat thickness were analyzed. The sample was constituted of animals from two lines selected for yearling weight (NeS and NeT), and a control line (NeC), established in 1980, at the São Paulo Instituto de Zootecnia. Two hundred and seventy-two heifers were genotyped for TFAM gene SNPs, and 325 heifers were genotyped for the FABP4 SNP. High frequencies were observed for the alleles A (TFAM HaeIII), C (TFAM MboI) and C (FABP4 MspA1I). Significant differences in allele frequencies between NeS and NeT were observed for the TFAM HaeIII, and between the line NeT and lines NeC and NeS for the FABP4 MspA1I SNP. Five haplotypes were observed for the two polymorphisms in the TFAM gene, haplotype AACC being the most frequent. None of the markers separately or according to haplotype was significantly associated with the growth and carcass traits. The low frequencies of alleles that are associated with high marbling scores and thick subcutaneous fat in taurine breeds might explain the low means for these traits in Nellore cattle.

  20. 7 CFR 1260.118 - Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cattle. 1260.118 Section 1260.118 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.118 Cattle. Cattle means live domesticated bovine animals...

  1. Parasite co-infections and their impact on survival of indigenous cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel M Thumbi

    Full Text Available In natural populations, individuals may be infected with multiple distinct pathogens at a time. These pathogens may act independently or interact with each other and the host through various mechanisms, with resultant varying outcomes on host health and survival. To study effects of pathogens and their interactions on host survival, we followed 548 zebu cattle during their first year of life, determining their infection and clinical status every 5 weeks. Using a combination of clinical signs observed before death, laboratory diagnostic test results, gross-lesions on post-mortem examination, histo-pathology results and survival analysis statistical techniques, cause-specific aetiology for each death case were determined, and effect of co-infections in observed mortality patterns. East Coast fever (ECF caused by protozoan parasite Theileria parva and haemonchosis were the most important diseases associated with calf mortality, together accounting for over half (52% of all deaths due to infectious diseases. Co-infection with Trypanosoma species increased the hazard for ECF death by 6 times (1.4-25; 95% CI. In addition, the hazard for ECF death was increased in the presence of Strongyle eggs, and this was burden dependent. An increase by 1000 Strongyle eggs per gram of faeces count was associated with a 1.5 times (1.4-1.6; 95% CI increase in the hazard for ECF mortality. Deaths due to haemonchosis were burden dependent, with a 70% increase in hazard for death for every increase in strongyle eggs per gram count of 1000. These findings have important implications for disease control strategies, suggesting a need to consider co-infections in epidemiological studies as opposed to single-pathogen focus, and benefits of an integrated approach to helminths and East Coast fever disease control.

  2. Reconstruction and Implementation of 3D Virtual Road Speed Control Humps for Vehicle%车辆三维虚拟道路减速带重构与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋荣超; 陈焕明; 刘大维; 王松

    2012-01-01

    为实现三维虚拟道路减速带与三维随机路面的同构,对道路减速带断面轮廓和路面不平度模拟方法进行研究.基于三角网格法的基本理论,利用Delaunay算法规则重构 了3种道路减速带,并采用谐波叠加法建立了三维随机路面数学模型.在三维路面的基础上,确定了道路减速带的安装位置.根据减速带的宽度,将三维随机路面中相应的路面节点和单元数据去除,并把减速带的节点和单元数据添加到相应的位置,实现了三维虚拟道路减速带与随机路面的同构.该结果为采用相关应用软件研究车辆-道路减速带耦合作用提供了参考依据.%In order to implement the isomorphism of 3D virtual road speed control hump and 3D random road surface, the cross-section profile of road speed control hump and the simulation method of road roughness were researched and analyzed. Three types of speed control humps were reconstructed using Delaunay based on the basic theory of triangular mesh method. Simultaneously, a mathematical model of 3D random road surface was established based on the basic principles of harmonic superposition. On the basis of 3D road surface, the installation site of road speed control hump was determined. According to the width of speed control hump, the nodes and elements were removed from the appropriate location and the speed control hump's nodes and elements were added to the appropriate location. Then the isomorphism of 3D virtual road speed control hump and 3D random road surface was implemented. This study provided a reference for the research of vehicle-road coupling effect using relevant application software.

  3. Observations of MCG-5-23-16 with Suzaku, XMM-Newton and NuSTAR: Disk Tomography and Compton Hump Reverberation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoghbi, A.; Cackett, E. M.; Reynolds, C.; Kara, E.; Harrison, F. A.; Fabian, A. C.; Lohfink, A.; Matt, G.; Stern, D.; Zhang, W. W.

    2014-01-01

    MCG-5-23-16 is one of the first active galactic nuclei (AGNs) where relativistic reverberation in the iron K line originating in the vicinity of the supermassive black hole was found, based on a short XMM-Newton observation. In this work, we present the results from long X-ray observations using Suzaku, XMM-Newton, and NuSTAR designed to map the emission region using X-ray reverberation. A relativistic iron line is detected in the lag spectra on three different timescales, allowing the emission from different regions around the black hole to be separated. Using NuSTAR coverage of energies above 10 keV reveals a lag between these energies and the primary continuum, which is detected for the first time in an AGN. This lag is a result of the Compton reflection hump responding to changes in the primary source in a manner similar to the response of the relativistic iron K line.

  4. Perceptions and problems of disease in the one-humped camel in southern Africa in the late 19th and early 20th centuries : historical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.T. Wilson

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius was first introduced to German South West Africa (Namibia for military purposes in 1889. Introductions to the Cape of Good Hope (South Africa in 1897 and Rhodesia (Zimbabwe in 1903 were initially with a view to replacing oxen that died of rinderpest. Disease risks attendant on these introductions were recognised and to some extent guarded against. There were, however, relatively few problems. One camel was diagnosed as having foot-and-mouth disease. Mange in camels from India caused some concern as did trypanosomosis from Sudan. Trypanosomosis was introduced into both the Cape of Good Hope and Transvaal. Antibodies to some common livestock disease were found in later years.

  5. Power Configuration for Hump Switch Machine Locking Valve%驼峰ZK4转辙机锁闭阀电源设置

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    银雪华

    2012-01-01

    在旧驼峰站场上安装新型ZK4转辙机,要增设一组直流24V电源供锁闭阀使用,根据站场特点,采用了分散供电方式,既能保证道岔的正常运用,又大大地节约了成本。%When installing a new ZK4 switch machine at an old hump yard,a group of 24V DC power supply locking valve was added.According to the features of the yard,separate power supply mode was adopted to ensure the normal operation of the turnout,greatly saving the cost.

  6. Discussion on Hump Rolling Vehicle Speed Control Problem%关于驼峰溜放车辆调整问题的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何宁; 李兴汉

    2011-01-01

    我国铁路驼峰编组场对溜放车辆的调速制式,从采用铁鞋、手闸和减速器等点式调速,到减速顶连续式调速,随着调速设备和技术的不断创新,使我国驼峰编组站的能力和效率显著提高,驼峰调车作业的安全情况大为改观,为编组站的现代化发挥了重要作用。通过对溜放车辆调速问题的分析,看到某些调速设备和调速制式的一些不足,通过不断地改进和创新,为适应新形势下铁路实现高速和重载做好准备。%China's railway hump of marshalling yard control the rolling speed of vehicles, from the iron shoes, hand brake and skate and so on point type speed control, to continuous type speed control such as retarders, with incessant technology innovation of speed control, the capacity and efficiency of our hump marshalling yard have significantly improved and the security situation greatly improved, for realize modernization of marshalling yard play an important role. Through analysis the rolling speed problem of vehicles, we also know some equipments and systems of the speed control existed insufficiency, so we must continuous improvement and innovation, to adapt the new situation and make greater contribution for high-speed and heavy haul rail.

  7. Descrição de duas novas técnicas cirúrgicas para o tratamento de prolapso vaginal em vacas zebuínas: vaginectomia parcial e vaginopexia dorsal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Abdo de Andrade Hellú

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Com o aumento da casuística e o insucesso da aplicação das técnicas convencionais de Caslick, Bühner ou Flessa, na redução do prolapso vaginal não associado à gestação em vacas zebuínas, caracterizada pela elevação significativa da recorrência da afecção, este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar duas novas técnicas cirúrgicas na correção do prolapso vaginal, denominadas de vaginectomia parcial e vaginopexia dorsal em vacas. O estudo foi conduzido a campo, por um período de quatro anos, utilizando-se 812 vacas zebuínas (Nelore, Gir e Brahman, em idade reprodutiva, alojadas em diversas propriedades. O diagnóstico foi realizado através de anamnese e avaliação dos sinais clínicos e, de acordo com o estágio do prolapso vaginal, foi definida a técnica cirúrgica a ser executada, após procedimentos anestésicos. Os resultados pós-cirúrgicos das duas técnicas indicaram alta porcentagem de recuperação (93,4% para vaginectomia parcial e 96,14% para vaginopexia dorsal, baixo índice de recidivas (6,3% e 3,7%, respectivamente e baixa mortalidade (entre 0,2% e 0,3%. Desse modo, os resultados demonstram que as duas técnicas propostas podem ser indicadas para a redução e solução definitiva de prolapso vaginal em vacas zebuínas

  8. Characterization of Genetic Variation in Icelandic Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lars-Erik; Das, Ashutosh; Momeni, Jamal

    Identification of genetic variation in cattle breeds using next-generation sequencing technology has focused on the modern production cattle breeds. We focused on one of the oldest indigenous breeds, the Icelandic cattle breed. Sequencing of two individuals enabled identification of more than 8...... million SNPs and more than one million short indels. Annotation of the genetic variants identified a substantial number of functional SNPs and variants. The number of genetic variants identified in the Icelandic cattle breed is on the same level as previously seen in other studies on Holstein cattle...

  9. The Research on Hump Phenomenon after Improving Electrical Safe Operating Area of SOI-LDMOS%SOI-LDMOS器件改善电安全工作区后驼峰现象的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍昌隆; 刘斯扬; 钱钦松; 孙伟锋

    2012-01-01

    研究了高压SOI-LDMOS器件在引入P-sink结构改善电安全工作区(E-SOA)后Ⅰ-Ⅴ特性曲线呈现的驼峰现象(hump).首先将驼峰现象出现后器件的源端总电流分成电子电流与空穴电流单独分析,确定高栅压下电子电流阶梯上升是驼峰现象产生的表面原因,进而通过仿真分析出Kirk效应导致的空穴电流在表面漂移区中电导调制是驼峰现象产生的根本原因.最后,根据对驼峰现象的分析,设计出新器件结构成功消除了驼峰现象,为今后不同类型LDMOS器件改善Ⅰ-Ⅴ曲线驼峰现象提供了理论指导.%The hump phenomenon of I-V characteristic after introducing P-sink structure to improve electrical safe operating area (E-SOA) on the high voltage SOI-LDMOS has been investigated in this paper. Firstly, the electron current and hole current are extracted and analyzed from total current at source side separately to make sure that the electron current step increase is the appearance reason for hump phenomenon, and then hole conductivity modulation in surface N-drift region induced by Kirk effect at drain side is confirmed as the deep reason. Moreover, according to the analysis in this paper, a new SOI-LDMOS structure has been designed to eliminating hump phenomenon, which gives the theoretic instructions for eliminating hump phenomenon of high voltage LDMOS more accurately.

  10. Inferences of body energy reserves on conception rate of suckled Zebu beef cows subjected to timed artificial insemination followed by natural mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, H; Ferreira, R M; Torres-Júnior, J R S; Demétrio, C G B; Sá Filho, M F; Gimenes, L U; Penteado, L; D'Occhio, M J; Baruselli, P S

    2014-09-01

    The influence of body condition score (BCS), rump fat thickness (RFAT), and live weight (LW), and the changes in these parameters during the interval from 165 of prepartum (i.e., 125 days of prior gestation) to 112 postpartum on first service conception and pregnancy rates were investigated in suckled Zebu (Bos indicus) beef cows (n = 266) subjected to timed artificial insemination (TAI) followed by natural mating. The aforementioned parameters were recorded at 165 ± 14 days (mean ± standard error) prepartum (concurrent with the weaning of previous calf), at parturition, and at 42 ± 7 days (at the onset of the synchronization of ovulation protocol), 82 ± 7 days (30 days after TAI), and 112 ± 7 days (60 days after TAI) postpartum. At the start of the breeding season (BS), cows were subjected to a synchronization of ovulation program for TAI. Bulls were placed with cows 10 days after TAI and remained until the end of the study (112 days postpartum). Cows with the highest BCS at parturition had an increased probability of first service conception rate at 60 days after TAI (P = 0.02) and a reduced probability of occurrence of pregnancy loss (P = 0.05). Also, cows had a greater likelihood of conceiving postpartum if they had greater RFAT and BCS at 165 ± 14 days prepartum (P = 0.01 and P = 0.03, respectively) and at parturition (P = 0.0007 and P = 0.003, respectively). Cows that had an increase in RFAT and BCS during the dry period (i.e., interval from weaning of the previous calf to parturition) also had a greater likelihood of conceiving (P = 0.03 and P = 0.06, respectively) during the BS. Among the different time points, RFAT and BCS at parturition had the largest impact on risk of conception during the BS. The LW was a poor predictor of conception during the BS (P = 0.11-0.68) except for LW at 165 ± 14 days prepartum (P = 0.01). Collectively, the findings indicated that the likelihood of conception during the BS

  11. The modern feedlot for finishing cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, John J; Archibeque, Shawn L; Feuz, Dillon M

    2014-02-01

    The modern beef feedlot has evolved into a complex system that is very dependent upon technology. Modern feedlots are organized into departments, often including the office, cattle, yard, feed milling, and feed departments, that allow for improvements in production efficiency through the specialization of management and labor. Regardless of size, feedlots must succeed at the following tasks: cattle procurement, cattle receiving, cattle processing, daily cattle observations, health treatments, cattle marketing, feed procurement, feed commodity receiving, feed commodity storage, diet formulation, diet delivery, bunk management, and environmental management. Apart from cattle ownership, feedlots create most of their gross income from feed sales, yardage, inventory gain on flaked grain, and combinations of these sources. The future of the industry is filled with economic and political challenges, including high grain prices owing to competition from the ethanol industry, environmental regulations, excess feedlot capacity, and a diminishing labor pool owing to declining rural populations.

  12. Subclinical endometritis in Zebu x Friesian crossbred dairy cows: its risk factors, association with subclinical mastitis and effect on reproductive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacha, Belachew; Regassa, Fekadu Gudeta

    2010-03-01

    A study was carried out on 59 clinically healthy Zebu x Friesian crossbred cows to determine the prevalence of subclinical endometritis, associated factors and its effect on the reproductive performance. Subclinical endometritis was diagnosed by endometrial cytology using uterine lavege technique and subclinical mastitis using CMT. The clinical, management and reproductive data were obtained from a weekly follow up visit of each cow for a period of 6 months after calving. The prevalence of subclinical endometritis, with > or =5% neutrophil count, was 47.5% and 30.5% at week 4 and 8, significantly decreasing (P = 0.002) as postpartum period advanced. Body condition score at week 4 postpartum (OR = 4.5, P = 0.017) and regular cow exercise (OR = 4.8, P = 0.026) were the significant risk factors while post-calving hygiene (P = 0.06) was poorly associated. Subclinical endometritis was also directly associated with subclinical mastitis at both week 4 (OR = 4.5, P = 0.012) and 8 (OR = 3.6, P = 0.031) postpartum. The risk of first service pregnancy (OR = 5.1, P = 0.004) was higher in cows negative for subclinical endometritis at week 8 postpartum and the proportion of cows that required more than 3 services was higher in cows with uterine inflammation. Also the proportion of cows diagnosed pregnant within 180 DIM was higher in cows with normal uterus at both week 4 (OR = 10.3, P = 0.001) and week 8(OR = 21.8, P = 0.001). These results indicated that subclinical endometritis was directly associated with poor body condition and subclinical mastitis and that it had negative effect on reproductive traits of dairy cows. This association may also reflect the possibility of translocation of bacteria/bacterial products from the uterus to the udder or vic-versa or else the presence of common cause for both endometritis and mastitis.

  13. Physical composition of carcass, commercial cuts and meat characteristics of crossbred Holstein-Zebu young bulls fed crude glycerin levels in the diets

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    Ana Clara Bohnen de Barros

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of carcass and meat characteristics of Holstein-Zebu crossbred young bulls finished in feedlot with crude glycerin levels (0, 60, 120, and 240 g kg-1 dry matter in replace of ground pearl millet grain and babassu mesocarp bran mixture-based diets. Twenty four bulls 30-month-old and initial average body weight of 390 ± 31.5 kg were used. The animals were distributed in a completely randomized design with four treatments and six replicates. The absolute weight (kg of commercial cuts did not fit any of the tested regression models. However, the weight of the short ribs and the pistol cut were higher for animals fed with crude glycerin in relation to those fed without inclusion of this food in the diet. The proportion of the commercial cuts, however, was not changed. The increase of the crude glycerin levels linearly increased the proportion of carcass fat and reduced the muscle proportion, without changing the proportion of bone and the edible portion of the carcasses. The ratio muscle/fat reduced linearly with the advance of crude glycerin level of diets. The color of the meat, evaluated subjectively, increased linearly with the advance of crude glycerin levels of the diets, from dark red to slightly dark red. The texture, marbling, shear force, thawing loss and cooking loss were not changed by dietary levels of crude glycerin. The inclusion of up to 240 g kg-1 of crude glycerin in the diets increases the proportion of fat without changing the marketable portion of carcasses. The benefits to the meat quality refer to the improvement of color, without changing the other characteristics of economic interest.

  14. A study on reproductive performance and related factors of zebu cows in pastoral herds in a semi-arid area of Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanuya, N L; Matiko, M K; Kessy, B M; Mgongo, F O; Ropstad, E; Reksen, O

    2006-06-01

    A prospective longitudinal study was carried out from September 2001 to June 2004 in three adjacent villages in a semi-arid area of Tanzania. The objectives of this study were to measure the intervals between calving and either resumption of cyclical activity or confirmation of pregnancy, to estimate calving intervals, and to investigate the effect of factors assumed to be related to postpartum reproductive performance. A total of 275 lactation periods from 177 Tanzanian Shorthorn Zebu cows managed in a traditional pastoral system in 46 households were initially included. Animals were initially screened for brucelosis and thereafter examined by palpation per rectum at 2-week intervals. Body condition score (scale 1 to 5) was assessed and girth measurement (cm) taken. Occurrence of other reproductive events such as calving, abortion, death of calf, culling and reason for culling were recorded. In a subset of 98 lactation periods from 91 cows milk samples for progesterone (P4) determination were collected twice per week from day 7 after calving to the time of confirmed pregnancy or until milk production ceased before pregnancy. The data were analysed both univariately and in multivariable Cox proportional hazard (frailty) models. The mean (+/-S.E.M.) calving interval was 500+/-13.6 days. Positive reactors in the brucellosis test were 15.6% of the tested animals. Milk P4 analysis showed the rate of abortion/late embryo loss to be 14.3%. Calf mortality rates varied between 14.6 and 17.4%. A positive relationship was found between the outcome variables likelihood of cyclical activity and likelihood of pregnancy in the Cox model, and the explanatory variables: parity and body condition score (BCS) at calving. A negative relationship was found between the outcome variables, and the explanatory variables: maximum BCS loss and calf survival/mortality. Calving in the rainy season was associated with an increased likelihood of pregnancy.

  15. Efeito do nível de fibra e da fonte de proteína sobre o desempenho ponderal de novilhas mestiças Holandês-Zebu Effect of fiber level and protein source on live weight gain of crossbred Holstein-Zebu heifers

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    A.C. Queiroz

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado para avaliar a influência do nível de fibra, da fonte de proteína e do horário de fornecimento da ração sobre o desempenho ponderal de novilhas mestiças Holandês × Zebu. As dietas com baixa ou alta fibra, à base de cana-de-açúcar mais silagem de capim-elefante como volumoso, continham 38,7 ou 57,2% de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, respectivamente. As fontes de proteína foram o farelo de soja com alta (65,0% ou farinha de sangue mais farelo de glúten de milho com baixa (32,2% degradação ruminal. Dezesseis novilhas mestiças, com idade média de 14 meses e 220kgPV, foram distribuídas em um delineamento experimental inteiramente ao acaso em esquema fatorial 2×2×2 (nível de fibra, fonte de proteína, horário de fornecimento, com duas repetições. O ganho de peso diário (GPD, o consumo de matéria seca (MS, de proteína bruta (PB e de nutrientes digestíveis totais (NDT foram maiores para os animais que consumiram dietas com baixo teor de fibra, expresso em kg/dia, %PV e g/kg0,75. O consumo de FDN foi maior para as dietas com alto conteúdo de fibra (kg/dia, %PV e g/kg0,75. As fontes de proteína e o horário de fornecimento da ração não influenciaram o GPD e o consumo de MS, PB e NDT das novilhas. Dietas com baixa fibra resultaram em maior consumo de MS, PB e NDT, os quais permitiram maiores ganhos de peso.The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of fiber levels, protein sources and feeding time on live weight gain of crossbred Holstein-Zebu heifers. The diets based on sugar-cane and elephant grass silage were formulated for low (38.7% and high (57.2% neutral detergent fiber (NDF. The protein sources were soybean meal for high (65% and blood meal plus corn gluten meal for low (32.2% ruminal degradation. Sixteen crossbred Holstein-Zebu heifers averaging 14 months of age and 220kg of LW were allotted to a completely randomized experimental design in a 2x2x2 factorial

  16. Heat Stress in Feedlot Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine if supplementing the diet of near-finished beef cattle with a yeast product would mitigate the negative impact of a controlled HS on the physiological and endocrine responses. Crossbred beef heifers (n=111; BW=281.07 kg) were divided into 2 pens in a comm...

  17. Beef Cattle: Selection and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    Designed for secondary vocational agriculture students, this text provides an overview of selecting and evaluating beef cattle in Future Farmers of America livestock judging events. The first of four major sections addresses topics such as the ideal beef animal, selecting steers, selecting breeding animals, studying the animal systematically, and…

  18. Beef Cattle: Selection and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    Designed for secondary vocational agriculture students, this text provides an overview of selecting and evaluating beef cattle in Future Farmers of America livestock judging events. The first of four major sections addresses topics such as the ideal beef animal, selecting steers, selecting breeding animals, studying the animal systematically, and…

  19. Tuberculosis-resistant transgenic cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberculosis is a devastating disease that affects humans and many animal species. In humans, tuberculosis (TB) is mainly caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, while most cases in cattle are caused by Mycobacterium bovis. However, Mb can also cause, albeit rarely, human TB. In this issue, Wu et al. ...

  20. Modeling the effect of the age of dam at calving on the weaning weight of Charolais-Zebu crossbred calves Modelagem do efeito da idade da vaca ao parto sobre o peso à desmama de bezerros mestiços Charolês-Zebu

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    Fábio Luiz Buranelo Toral

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate alternatives for modeling the age of dam at calving (AOD effect on the weaning weight of Charolais-Zebu crossbred calves. Data from 56,965 calves were analyzed, using statistical models considering the fixed effects of the contemporary groups, sire and dam genetic groups, and AOD. The AOD effect was fitted to models using annual age classes, and ordinary quadratic to quintic-ordered polynomials (OP or segmented polynomials (SP with two, three, four, six and twelve evenly spaced intervals. In the case of segmented polynomials, general linear and quadratic effects and only one quadratic additional term from each knot were considered. The AOD effects were nested within sex of calf in all cases. According to the fitting criteria, the F-test for the reduction of residual sum of squares, coefficient of determination, residual sum of squares and mean of squared residuals, the three interval segmented polynomial (two knots fitted to the data as well as the more complex polynomials.Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar alternativas para a modelagem do efeito da idade da vaca ao parto sobre o peso à desmama de bezerros mestiços Charolês-Zebu. Os dados de 56.965 bezerros foram analisados por meio de modelos estatísticos, considerando os efeitos fixos de grupo de contemporâneos, grupos genéticos do touro e da vaca e da idade da vaca ao parto. O efeito da idade da vaca ao parto foi modelado utilizando-se classes anuais de idade, polinômios ordinários (PO de ordem quadrática até quíntica, ou polinômios segmentados com 2, 3, 4, 6 ou 12 intervalos do mesmo tamanho. No caso dos polinômios segmentados, consideraram-se os efeitos linear e quadrático gerais e apenas o quadrático a partir de cada nó. Os efeitos da idade da vaca ao parto foram considerados aninhados em sexo do bezerro em todos os casos. De acordo com os critérios de ajuste utilizados, ou seja, o teste F para diferenças de

  1. Efeito do acipin sobre a degradabilidade e taxa de passagem de silagens de capim-elefante e de milho, em bovinos Holandês × Zebu Effect of acipin on the degradability and rate of passage of elephant-grass and corn silages in Holstein × Zebu cattle

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    L.T. Henriques

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da inclusão de acipin nas silagens de capim-elefante e de milho sobre a taxa de passagem das fases sólida e líquida da digesta ruminal e sobre a degradabilidade da matéria seca (MS, proteína bruta (PB e fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, em quatro bovinos. Os animais, com média de peso de 550kg, foram confinados em baias individuais por 90 dias. O experimento foi conduzido em quatro períodos experimentais, seguindo um esquema de parcelas subdivididas, tendo nas parcelas um esquema fatorial 2×2 (duas silagens combinadas com ausência e presença de acipin e nas subparcelas o tempo de coleta de líquido ruminal, em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso com quatro repetições. A degradabilidade efetiva da MS, da PB e da FDN da silagem de capim-elefante sem adição de acipin foi menor do que a das silagens de capim-elefante com acipin, de milho sem acipin e de milho com acipin; estas foram semelhantes entre si. A taxa de passagem de sólidos ruminais foi maior nos animais que consumiram silagem de milho. A taxa de passagem de líquidos foi maior nos animais que consumiram silagem de capim-elefante. A inclusão de acipin melhorou a degradabilidade da MS, da PB e da FDN da silagem de capim-elefante.The effects of adding acipin to elephantgrass and corn silages on the passage rates of the solid and liquid phases of the ruminal digesta, and on degradabilities of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP and neutral detergent fiber (NDF were evaluated. The animals with average live weight of 550kg, were kept in individual stalls for 90 days. The experiment was carried out in four experimental periods, according to a split plot arrangement, with 2×2 (two silages combined with absence or presence of acipin factorial treatment combination in the plot and the time of collection of ruminal liquid in the split plot, in a completely randomized design with four replicates. The degradabilities of DM, CP and NDF in the elephantgrass silage without acipin was lower as compared to elephantgrass silage with acipin and to corn silage with or without acipin, that were similar. The passage rates of the ruminal solids were higher in animals fed on corn silage, and the ruminal liquid passage rates were higher in animals fed on elephantgrass silage. The addition of acipin improved the degradability of DM, CP and NDF of elephantgrass silage.

  2. Composição corporal de bovinos de quatro raças zebuínas, abatidos em diferentes estádios de maturidade Body composition of four zebu breed beef cattle slaughtered at different stages of maturity

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    André Mendes Jorge

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar a composição química corporal de 63 animais não-castrados das raças Gir, Guzerá, Mocho de Tabapuã e Nelore, em confinamento, com pesos vivos médios iniciais de 376,4; 357,6, 362,0; e 368,6 kg, respectivamente. Em cada raça, os animais foram divididos em cinco categorias: abate inicial, alimentação ad libitum com ração contendo 50% de concentrado até atingirem pesos individuais de abate de 405, 450 e 500 kg, respectivamente, e, finalmente, categoria alimentação restrita recebendo a mesma ração, suprindo níveis de proteína e energia 15% acima da mantença. Não houve diferenças entre as raças quanto aos conteúdos corporais de proteína, gordura, energia e macroelementos minerais (Ca, P, Mg, K e Na. Os animais abatidos com pesos mais elevados apresentam menores porcentagens de proteína e macroelementos minerais (Ca, P, Mg, K e Na no corpo, ocorrendo o inverso para a gordura corporal.This work was conducted to evaluate the chemical body composition of sixty three young bulls, from the Gyr, Guzera, Mocho Tabapuã, Nellore breeds, in feedlot, averaging, respectively, 376.4, 357.6, 362.0, and 368.6 kg of initial live weight. The animals from each breed were divided into five categories: initial slaughter, full fed diet containing 50% concentrate until the individual slaughter weights of 405, 450 and 500 kg, respectively, and finally the category restricted feeding fed the same diet supplying levels of protein and energy 15% above maintenance. There were no differences among breed regarding to body content of protein, fat, energy and macrominerals (Ca, P, Mg, K and Na. The animals slaughtered at higher weights showed lower percentage of body protein and macrominerals (Ca, P, Mg, K and Na, and occurring the inverse to the body fat.

  3. Physical composition, primary cuts and meat cuts of carcasses from Zebu and Bos taurus X Bos indicus crossbred cattle Composição física, cortes primários e cortes cárneos da carcaça de bovinos Zebu e de mestiços Bos taurus X Bos indicus

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    Daniel Perotto

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Data on hot carcass weight, hot carcass yield, hindquarter weights and physical components, forequarter and spare ribs, and the weights of the main commercial cuts from the hindquarters of twenty young intact bulls were assessed. The animals, belonging to four genetic groups (Nellore, ½ Guzerath + ½ Nellore (½ G + ½ N, ½ Red Angus + ½ Nellore (½ R + ½ N and ½ Marchigiana + ½ Nellore (½ M + ½ N, were raised on pastures, finished in dry lot and slaughtered at live weights ranging from 445 to 517 kg, and at ages ranging from 679 to 863 days. During the dry lot period, which lasted 114 days, animals were fed sorghum silage offered ad libitum, and a concentrate (13.5 MJ of ME, 18% CP in the DM at 1% live weight per day. Genetic group influenced hot carcass weight, forequarter weight, meat weight in the spare ribs, as well as meat and bone weights in the forequarter. Animals in the ½ M + ½ N group were superior both to those in the Nellore and in the ½ G + ½ N groups for hot carcass weight, forequarter weight and meat weight in the spare ribs. The ½ M + ½ N group also differed from the ½ R + ½ N and from the ½ G + ½ N groups in terms of forequarter weight and meat weight in the forequarter, respectively. Conversely, forequarter bone weight of ½ M + ½ N animals was higher than in animals from the Nellore and the ½ R + ½ N groups, respectively. There was no effect of genetic group on hindquarter cuts, except for higher shank and knuckle weights in the ½ M + ½ N group compared to the ½ G + ½ N and Nellore groups, respectively.Foram avaliados o peso e o rendimento de carcaça quente, os pesos dos cortes primários, os pesos dos componentes físicos dos cortes primários e os pesos dos principais cortes comerciais do traseiro especial de 20 bovinos machos não-castrados dos grupos genéticos Nelore, ½ Guzerá + ½ Nelore (½ G + ½ N, ½ Red Angus + ½ Nelore (½ R + ½ N e ½ Marchigiana + ½ Nelore (½ M + ½ N terminados em confinamento. O experimento durou em média 114 dias, período no qual os animais foram alimentados com silagem de sorgo à vontade e concentrado composto de 73,5% de grão de milho, 25% de caroço de algodão e 1,5% de ureia, perfazendo 13,5 MJ de EM e 18% de PB por kg de MS, fornecido à base de 1% do peso vivo do animal por dia. O grupo genético influenciou os pesos de carcaça quente, do dianteiro, da carne do costilhar e os pesos da carne e dos ossos do dianteiro. Animais do grupo ½ M + ½ N superaram os Nelore e os ½ G + ½ N em peso de carcaça quente e em peso do corte dianteiro e da porção de carne do costilhar. O grupo ½ M + ½ N distinguiu-se também do ½ R + ½ N quanto ao peso de dianteiro e do ½ G + ½ N quanto ao peso da carne do dianteiro. Por outro lado, a quantidade de ossos do dianteiro dos animais ½ M + ½ N foi superior à dos animais dos grupos Nelore e ½ R + ½ N. Não houve efeito de grupo genético sobre os cortes resultantes do desdobramento do traseiro especial, exceto pelo fato de os animais ½ M + ½ N apresentarem maior peso de músculo em comparação aos ½ G + ½ N e maior peso de patinho em comparação aos Nelore.

  4. Selenium in Cattle: A Review

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    Youcef Mehdi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This review article examines the role of selenium (Se and the effects of Se supplementation especially in the bovine species. Selenium is an important trace element in cattle. Some of its roles include the participation in the antioxidant defense the cattle farms. The nutritional requirements of Se in cattle are estimated at 100 μg/kg DM (dry matter for beef cattle and at 300 μg/kg DM for dairy cows. The rations high in fermentable carbohydrates, nitrates, sulfates, calcium or hydrogen cyanide negatively influence the organism’s use of the selenium contained in the diet. The Se supplementation may reduce the incidence of metritis and ovarian cysts during the postpartum period. The increase in fertility when adding Se is attributed to the reduction of the embryonic death during the first month of gestation. A use of organic Se in feed would provide a better transfer of Se in calves relative to mineral Se supplementation. The addition of Se yeasts in the foodstuffs of cows significantly increases the Se content and the percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA in milk compared to the addition of sodium selenite. The enzyme 5-iodothyronine deiodinase is a seleno-dependent selenoprotein. It is one of the last proteins to be affected in the event of Se deficiency. This delay in response could explain the fact that several studies did not show the effect of Se supplementation on growth and weight gain of calves. Enrichment of Se in the diet did not significantly affect the slaughter weight and carcass yield of bulls. The impact and results of Se supplementation in cattle depend on physiological stage, Se status of animals, type and content of Se and types of Se administration. Further studies in Se supplementation should investigate the speciation of Se in food and yeasts, as well as understanding their metabolism and absorption. This constitute a path to exploit in order to explain certain different effects of Se.

  5. Carbon Footprint of Beef Cattle

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    Jim Dyer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The carbon footprint of beef cattle is presented for Canada, The United States, The European Union, Australia and Brazil. The values ranged between 8 and 22 kg CO2e per kg of live weight (LW depending on the type of farming system, the location, the year, the type of management practices, the allocation, as well as the boundaries of the study. Substantial reductions have been observed for most of these countries in the last thirty years. For instance, in Canada the mean carbon footprint of beef cattle at the exit gate of the farm decreased from 18.2 kg CO2e per kg LW in 1981 to 9.5 kg CO2e per kg LW in 2006 mainly because of improved genetics, better diets, and more sustainable land management practices. Cattle production results in products other than meat, such as hides, offal and products for rendering plants; hence the environmental burden must be distributed between these useful products. In order to do this, the cattle carbon footprint needs to be reported in kg of CO2e per kg of product. For example, in Canada in 2006, on a mass basis, the carbon footprint of cattle by-products at the exit gate of the slaughterhouse was 12.9 kg CO2e per kg of product. Based on an economic allocation, the carbon footprints of meat (primal cuts, hide, offal and fat, bones and other products for rendering were 19.6, 12.3, 7 and 2 kg CO2e per kg of product, respectively.

  6. Modeling the effect of age at calving × breed group of dam's interaction on weaning weight of Charolais-Zebu crossbred calves Modelagem da interação idade ao parto × composição genética da vaca e seus efeitos sobre o peso à desmama de bezerros mestiços Charolês-Zebu

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    Fábio Luiz Buranelo Toral

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate alternatives for modeling the interaction between age of dam at calving (AOD and the dam genetic group (DGG on the weaning weight (W225 of Charolais-Zebu (Ch-Z crossbred calves. Data from 56,965 crossbred calves were analyzed by the least square method. Regression coefficients for age of dam at calving were estimated nested into each class of the dam genetic group (CLA model; for age of dam at calving × dam Charolais percentage (age of dam at calving × FCh and age of dam at calving × dam heterozygosity (age of dam at calving × FH (FChFH model; for age of dam at calving × dam Charolais percentage (FCh model; for age of dam at calving × FH (FH model; or only for age of dam at calving (NINT model. Segmented polynomials were used to model the general shape of the age of dam at calving effect and its interaction with dam genetic group. The knots were at 6.33 and 10.66 years of age of dam at calving and general linear and quadratic coefficient regression and specific quadratic coefficient regression after each knot were fitted. The regression coefficients were estimated nested within sex of the calf in all situations. According to the F test for sum of squared residuals differences, the inclusion of the age of dam at calving × FH interaction did not improve the fit of the model and the CLA model provided the best fit. However, the estimates of the age of dam at calving and dam genetic group interaction from the CLA model for dam genetic group × sex of the calf classes with few records were not appropriate, but the estimates of the age of dam at calving and dam genetic group interaction from the FCh model for those classes were appropriate. The differences were small in the estimates of the age of dam of calving and dam genetic group interaction from the CLA or FCh models for dam genetic group × sex of the calf classes with many records.Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar

  7. Predição do consumo de pasto de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum, Schumack por vacas mestiças Holandês x Zebu em lactação Prediction of the voluntary intake of elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum, Schumack grazing by Holstein x Zebu lactating dairy cows

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    Fernando César Ferraz Lopes

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram desenvolvidas equações de predição de consumo de pasto de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum, Schumack por vacas mestiças Holandês x Zebu em lactação, utilizando-se procedimentos de stepwise em regressões múltiplas, aplicados a um banco de dados de experimentos conduzidos ao longo de três anos na Embrapa Gado de Leite (Coronel Pacheco, MG. As variáveis independentes disponíveis foram relacionadas a características inerentes às vacas (dias em lactação; teores de proteína, gordura e extrato seco total e produções destes componentes no leite; produção de leite in natura ou corrigida para 4% de gordura; ordem de lactação; peso vivo atual; peso vivo ao parto e grau de sangue Holandês x Zebu; ao manejo (dias de pastejo; disponibilidade de forragem e período de descanso da pastagem; ao ambiente (estação do ano e precipitação pluviométrica e à alimentação (digestibilidade in vitro e parâmetros da composição química do pasto de capim-elefante e da cana-de-açúcar - Saccharum officinarum (L. corrigida com 1% de uréia; consumos de suplemento volumoso (cana corrigida com uréia e concentrado; concentrações fecais de proteína bruta e de fibras em detergente neutro e ácido. Efeitos linear e quadrático e transformações logarítmicas foram adicionalmente incluídos no banco de dados. Foram obtidas equações de predição de consumo de pasto de capim-elefante (expresso em kg/vaca/dia ou % do peso vivo com coeficientes de determinação de 65,2 a 67,0%. As principais variáveis independentes incluídas nas equações foram o consumo do suplemento volumoso usado na estação seca do ano (cana corrigida com uréia; a digestibilidade in vitro do pasto de capim-elefante; a precipitação pluviométrica; a produção de leite corrigida para 4% de gordura; o peso vivo atual ou, em alternativa a este, o valor da pesagem realizada após o parto da vaca; além do consumo de suplemento concentrado, que evidenciou um

  8. Diet and fertility in cattle

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    Petrujkić Tihomir

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The diet of high-yield dairy cows process a very complex and acute problem. Much new knowledge in the area of production and preparation of feedstuffs, diet technology, and the interactions that occur between the components of the nutritive feed ration are required in order to resolve this problem. It is necessary constantly to coordinate feed norms with genetic potential which is ever changing and advanced. The observed problems must be resolved using multidisciplinary methods so that a diet can yield good health, and that health contribute to better reproduction and possibilities for more successful breeding and improved performance in cattle farming. In certain countries, thanks to their geographic position and climatic conditions which allow rainfall throughout the year, a natural green diet can be applied, which provides large numbers of green mass components, and with additives which can be supplemented relatively easily. This type of diet is not possible in our farms. It is very important to know which feedstuff components are laking for certain categories of cattle. The used ration must be constant and administered to animals of certain age or production characteristics in order to improve production results at cattle farms. A great problem occurs when diet is reduced due to dried grass and the resulting stress in animals. A 50% diet reduction in young cattle often results in the occurrence of respiratory diseases. Following 10-14 days of treatment, the disease disappears in young animals, but the energy deficit leads to the weakening (depression of the immune system. Even a so-called high-energy diet often causes respiratory diseases. A diet deficient in proteins also affects cows after lactation, as opposed to a normative diet, and a reduced protein diet disturbs the microbial activity in the rumen and the synthesis of compounds which are important for both the cow and the calf, making room for the incidence of metabolic diseases, most

  9. Chromosome analysis of arsenic affected cattle

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    S. Shekhar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to study the chromosome analysis of arsenic affected cattle. Materials and Methods: 27 female cattle (21 arsenic affected and 6 normal were selected for cytogenetical study. The blood samples were collected, incubated, and cultured using appropriate media and specific methods. The samples were analyzed for chromosome number and morphology, relative length of the chromosome, arm ratio, and centromere index of X chromosome and chromosomal abnormalities in arsenic affected cattle to that of normal ones. Results: The diploid number of metaphase chromosomes in arsenic affected cattle as well as in normal cattle were all 2n=60, 58 being autosomes and 2 being sex chromosomes. From the centromeric position, karyotyping studies revealed that all the 29 pair of autosomes was found to be acrocentric or telocentric, and the sex chromosomes (XX were submetacentric in both normal and arsenic affected cattle. The relative length of all the autosome pairs and sex chrosomosome pair was found to be higher in normal than that of arsenic affected cattle. The mean arm ratio of X-chromosome was higher in normal than that of arsenic affected cattle, but it is reverse in case of centromere index value of X-chromosome. There was no significant difference of arm ratio and centromere index of X-chromosomes between arsenic affected and normal cattle. No chromosomal abnormalities were found in arsenic affected cattle. Conclusion: The chromosome analysis of arsenic affected cattle in West Bengal reported for the first time in this present study which may serve as a guideline for future studies in other species. These reference values will also help in comparison of cytological studies of arsenic affected cattle to that of various toxicants.

  10. Chromosome fragility in Freemartin cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Barbieri

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to verify chromosome fragility in freemartin cattle using chromosome aberration (CA and sister chromatid exchange (SCE tests. A total of eighteen co-twins were investigated. Fourteen animals were identified as cytogenetically chimeric (2n=60, XX/XY while 4 were classified as normal. Freemartin cattle showed a higher percentage of aneuploid cells (18.64% and highly significant statistical differences (P < 0.001 in mean values of gaps (4.53 ± 2.05, chromatid breaks (0.26 ± 0.51, and significant statistical differences (P < 0.005 in mean values of chromosome breaks (0.12 ± 0.43 when compared to 10 control animals from single births (aneuploid cells, 11.20%; gaps, 2.01 ± 1.42; chromatid breaks, 0.05 ± 0.22; chromosome breaks, 0.02 ± 0.14.

  11. Vitamin C Nutrition in Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Matsui, T.

    2012-01-01

    Domestic animals, including ruminants, can synthesize vitamin C (VC) in their liver; as such, the dietary requirement for VC has not been confirmed in these animals. The adequacy of VC has been evaluated by quantifying VC levels in plasma, but the reported values in bovine plasma have been widely variable. Plasma VC concentration is decreased by heat stress, hepatic lesions, fattening, and infectious diseases such as mastitis in cattle. Therefore, VC supplementation is potentially beneficial ...

  12. Características biométricas testiculares para avaliação de touros zebuínos da raça Nelore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unanian Maria Marina

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO - O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar as características de volume e forma testicular em zebuínos jovens da raça Nelore para caracterizar a sua importância na avaliação e seleção de reprodutores. Foram examinados a circunferência escrotal (CE, o comprimento (COMP, a largura (LARG e o volume testicular (VOL em 442 machos aos 12 e 18 meses de idade, divididos em dois grupos contemporâneos (G1 e G2, em função da data do nascimento. O VOL foi calculado pela fórmula: VOL = 2[(r² x pi x h] em que r = LARG/2, h = COMP, e pi = 3,14. Os valores médios de CE, COMP, LARG e VOL, aos 12 meses de idade, foram 184,89±15,79 mm, 65,96±6,48 mm, 32,58±4,63 mm e 113,80±42,03 cm³, e aos 18 meses, 236,81±mm, 79,31±11,16 mm, 42,92±5,83 mm e 239,26±90,56 cm³, respectivamente. Os parâmetros, aos 12 e 18 meses de idade, variaram em função dos grupos contemporâneos, sendo altamente correlacionados. A forma dos testículos foi avaliada pela razão LARG/COMP, resultando em cinco formas: longa (razão 0,875. Em 87% dos animais, os testículos apresentaram forma longa e, em 74%, houve mudança da forma testicular com a idade. Os parâmetros estudados variaram em função da forma testicular, e o crescimento dos testículos ocorreu em largura. Os resultados sugerem que, ao selecionar reprodutores, principalmente jovens, deve-se considerar o volume testicular, além de possíveis mudanças da forma testicular.

  13. Comparison of protein and energy supplementation to mineral supplementation on feeding behavior of grazing cattle during the rainy to the dry season transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Rita Kelly Couto; de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto; Silva, Robério Rodrigues; Dias, Daniel Lucas Santos; Mendes, Fabrício Bacelar Lima; Lins, Túlio Otávio Jardim D'Almeida; Filho, George Abreu; de Souza, Sinvaldo Oliveira; Barroso, Daniele Soares; de Almeida Rufino, Luana Marta; Tosto, Manuela Silva Libânio

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of protein-energy or mineral supplementation on the ingestive behavior of dairy steers on pasture in the post-weaning phase during the rainy to dry season transition. Twenty-two ½ Holstein-Zebu dairy steers with an average initial body weight of 234 ± 16 kg were distributed into a completely randomized design into two groups: protein-energy supplementation and mineral supplementation offered ad libitum. The steers receiving protein-energy supplementation showed higher (P energy supplementation had longer period in grazing and spent on average more time per period eating at the trough (P  0.05). The supply of protein-energy supplement does not change the feeding behavior, except for an increase in the time spent feeding at the trough. The intake of protein-energy supplement improved the of DM and NDF feed efficiencies in grazing cattle during the rainy to the dry season transition.

  14. Effect of the g.98535683A>G SNP in the CAST gene on meat traits of Nellore beef cattle (Bos indicus) and their crosses with Bos taurus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enriquez-Valencia, Cruz Elena; Pereira, Guilherme Luis; Malheiros, Jessica Moraes; de Vasconcelos Silva, Josineudson Augusto I I; Albuquerque, Lúcia Galvão; de Oliveira, Henrique Nunes; Chardulo, Luis Artur Loyola; Curi, Rogério Abdallah

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate allele frequencies of the g.98535683A>G:BTAU7 SNP in the CAST gene in different genetic groups of beef cattle produced in Brazil (Nellore and their crosses with Bos taurus), and to evaluate associations between this polymorphism and meat traits. Five hundred animals from six different genetic groups were genotyped and phenotyped for shear force (SF), myofibrillar fragmentation index (MFI), rib eye area, backfat thickness, and total lipids. Alleles A and G of the SNP were detected in all genetic groups and the frequency of A was higher than G. Significant association (P<0.05) was observed between the polymorphism and meat tenderness (SF and MFI), in which genotype AA exhibited the best values. These results demonstrate for the first time the occurrence of the studied SNP in a Zebu breed and its potential application to the genetic improvement of meat tenderness in the Nellore breed (Bos indicus) and its crosses with Bos taurus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Compton hump and variable blue wing in the extreme low-flux NuSTAR observations of 1H0707-495

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, E.; Fabian, A. C.; Lohfink, A. M.; Parker, M. L.; Walton, D. J.; Boggs, S. E.; Christensen, F. E.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Matt, G.; Reynolds, C. S.; Stern, D.; Zhang, W. W.

    2015-05-01

    The narrow-line Seyfert I galaxy, 1H0707-495, has been well observed in the 0.3-10 keV band, revealing a dramatic drop in flux in the iron Kα band, a strong soft excess, and short time-scale reverberation lags associated with these spectral features. In this paper, we present the first results of a deep 250-ks NuSTAR (Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array) observation of 1H0707-495, which includes the first sensitive observations above 10 keV. Even though the NuSTAR observations caught the source in an extreme low-flux state, the Compton hump is still significantly detected. NuSTAR, with its high effective area above 7 keV, clearly detects the drop in flux in the iron Kα band, and by comparing these observations with archival XMM-Newton observations, we find that the energy of this drop increases with increasing flux. We discuss possible explanations for this, the most likely of which is that the drop in flux is the blue wing of the relativistically broadened iron Kα emission line. When the flux is low, the coronal source height is low, thus enhancing the most gravitationally redshifted emission.

  16. Iron K and Compton hump reverberation in SWIFT J2127.4+5654 and NGC 1365 revealed by NuSTAR and XMM-Newton

    CERN Document Server

    Kara, E; Marinucci, A; Walton, D J; Fabian, A C; Risaliti, G; Boggs, S E; Christensen, F E; Fuerst, F; Hailey, C J; Harrison, F A; Matt, G; Parker, M L; Reynolds, C S; Stern, D; Zhang, W W

    2014-01-01

    In the past five years, a flurry of X-ray reverberation lag measurements of accreting supermassive black holes have been made using the XMM-Newton telescope in the 0.3-10 keV energy range. In this work, we use the NuSTAR telescope to extend the lag analysis up to higher energies for two Seyfert galaxies, SWIFT J2127.4+5654 and NGC 1365. X-ray reverberation lags are due to the light travel time delays between the direct continuum emission and the reprocessed emission from the inner radii of an ionised accretion disc. XMM-Newton has been particularly adept at measuring the lag associated with the broad Fe K emission line, where the gravitationally redshifted wing of the line is observed to respond before the line centroid at 6.4 keV, produced at larger radii. Now we use NuSTAR to probe the lag at higher energies, where the spectrum shows clear evidence for Compton reflection, known as the Compton 'hump'. The XMM-Newton data show Fe K lags in both SWIFT J2127.4+5654 and NGC 1365. The NuSTAR data provide independ...

  17. Nutrient requirements of energy and protein for Holstein × Zebu bulls finished in feedlot Requerimentos nutricionais de energia e proteína em bovinos

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    Polyana Pizzi Rotta

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate the nutritional requirements of energy and protein in crossbred (Holstein × Zebu bulls. An experiment of comparative slaughter was conducted with 44 (24 months old crossbred bulls of 338 ± 39 kg. Bulls were randomly separated as follows: four bulls to the control group, four bulls to the maintenance level group and 36 bulls were fed ad libitum. Corn silage (CS and sugar cane in natura (SC at 60 or 40% of dry matter (DM of total diets were utilized in the diets. The bulls of the last group were randomly assigned to one of six different diets: 1 60CS:40C(84 days; 2 60CS:40C (42 days and 40CS:60C (42 days; 3 40CS:60C (84 days; 4 60SC:40C (84 days; 5 60SC:40C (42 days, and 40SC:60C (42 days, and 6 40SC:60C (84 days. At the end of the experiment, bulls were slaughtered at Universidade Federal de Viçosa for estimation of the empty body weight. One sample located between the 9th and the 11th ribs of each bull was taken and completely dissected for estimation of the empty body composition using equations developed by BR-CORTE 2010. The data were analyzed as nonlinear models built by means of command NLIN of SAS (version 9.2, adjusted by the method of Gauss-Newton. For all the tests, 0.05 was utilized as critical level for probability of type I error. The net (NEm and metabolizable (MEm energy requirements for maintenance were 78.7 and 114.2 kcal/EBW0.75/day, respectively. The equations obtained for NEg and NPg were: Neg (Mcal/day = 0.0493 × EBW0.75 × EBWG1.0013 and NPg (g/day = 279.19 × EBWG – 22.8691 × RE, respectively. The model obtained for the percentage of retained energy as protein (%REp was %REp = 1.7202 × (RE/EBWG-1.351. Objetivou-se com este estudo estimar as exigências nutricionais de energia e proteína em bovinos cruzados (Holandês × Zebu. Um experimento de abate comparativo foi conduzido com 44 (24 meses bovinos cruzados pesando 338± 39 kg. Os bovinos foram aleatoriamente separados

  18. Avaliação de esquemas de seleção alternativos para bovinos Zebus de dupla aptidão Evaluation of alternative breeding programs for dual purpose Zebu cattle

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    Raimundo Nonato Braga Lôbo

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Utilizando-se simulação determinística, foram avaliados seis esquemas de melhoramento, com diferentes grupos de informações: (1 somente características de crescimento, (2 somente características leiteiras, (3 características de crescimento e reprodutivas, (4 características leiteiras e reprodutivas, (5 características de crescimento e leiteiras e (6 características de crescimento, leiteiras e reprodutivas. Avaliaram-se também a resposta à variação no uso de touros provados por meio do teste de progênie, a resposta sem a realização do teste de progênie no estrato de vacas de corte da população e a resposta à variação no valor econômico do peso ao abate. Em todos os esquemas avaliados, foram verificados altos ganhos genéticos e lucros decorrentes do programa. Os esquemas que consideraram as características leiteiras foram mais eficientes pela seleção para maior produção de leite e menor peso de vaca adulta. As características de fertilidade foram mais importantes para os esquemas de corte. A resposta econômica à seleção foi maior com o aumento no uso de touros provados, embora não proporcionalmente. A contribuição das características de corte para o lucro genético somente superou a das leiteiras quando o valor econômico do peso ao abate superou em 14 vezes o da produção de leite. Foi demonstrado não haver necessidade da realização do teste de progênie com as vacas de corte para o sistema de dupla aptidão estudado.A deterministic simulation was used to compare six breeding schemes based on different levels of performance recording: (1 only body weights, (2 only dairy traits, (3 body weights and reproductive traits, (4 dairy and reproductive traits, (5 body weights and dairy traits and (6 body weights, reproductive and dairy traits. Other factors were also studied, as the level of usage of proven sires, variations in the economic value of slaughter weight and eliminating progeny testing in the beef herd tier of the population. Genetic gains and returns were high in all schemes. Dairy schemes were superior, mainly due to responses in lowering mature cow weight and increasing milk yield. Reproductive traits were more important in the beef schemes. Returns increased with higher usage of proven sires, although not proportionally. The contribution of beef traits to genetic profit was higher than that of dairy traits only when the economic value of slaughter weight exceeded 14 times the economic value of milk yield. The exclusion of progeny testing in the beef cows tier had little effect on the genetic or economic results.

  19. Differences in Beef Quality between Angus (Bos taurus taurus) and Nellore (Bos taurus indicus) Cattle through a Proteomic and Phosphoproteomic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizzotti, Mario Luiz; Vital, Camilo Elber; Baracat-Pereira, Maria Cristina; Barros, Edvaldo; Busato, Karina Costa; Gomes, Rafael Aparecido; Ladeira, Márcio Machado; Martins, Taiane da Silva

    2017-01-01

    Proteins are the major constituents of muscle and are key molecules regulating the metabolic changes during conversion of muscle to meat. Brazil is one of the largest exporters of beef and most Brazilian cattle are composed by zebu (Nellore) genotype. Bos indicus beef is generally leaner and tougher than Bos taurus such as Angus. The aim of this study was to compare the muscle proteomic and phosphoproteomic profile of Angus and Nellore. Seven animals of each breed previously subjected the same growth management were confined for 84 days. Proteins were extracted from Longissimus lumborum samples collected immediately after slaughter and separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis. Pro-Q Diamond stain was used in phosphoproteomics. Proteins identification was performed using matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Tropomyosin alpha-1 chain, troponin-T, myosin light chain-1 fragment, cytoplasmic malate dehydrogenase, alpha-enolase and 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein were more abundant in Nellore, while myosin light chain 3, prohibitin, mitochondrial stress-70 protein and heat shock 70 kDa protein 6 were more abundant in Angus (P<0.05). Nellore had higher phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain-2, alpha actin-1, triosephosphate isomerase and 14-3-3 protein epsilon. However, Angus had greater phosphorylation of phosphoglucomutase-1 and troponin-T (P<0.05). Therefore, proteins involved in contraction and muscle organization, myofilaments expressed in fast or slow-twitch fibers and heat shock proteins localized in mitochondria or sarcoplasmic reticulum and involved in cell flux of calcium and apoptosis might be associated with differences in beef quality between Angus and Nellore. Furthermore, prohibitin appears to be a potential biomarker of intramuscular fat in cattle. Additionally, differences in phosphorylation of myofilaments and glycolytic enzymes could be involved with differences in muscle contraction force

  20. RUMINAL CONDITION BETWEEN MADURA CATTLE AND ONGOLE CROSSBRED CATTLE RAISED UNDER INTENSIVE FEEDING

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    M. Umar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Each four young bulls of Madura cattle and Ongole Crossbred (OC cattle were used to study the efficiency of ruminal fermentation by comparing the proportion of Volatile Fatty Acid (VFA of these two breeds which were raised under intensive feeding. All the cattle were in about 1.5 years-old with an average body weight of 147.75 ± 14.57 kg and 167 ± 22.57 kg, for Madura and OC cattle, respectively. They were fed Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum hay, and concentrate feeding consists of pollard, soybean meal and rice bran for 10 weeks. Parameters measured were concentration of VFA at 0, 3 and 6 h post-feeding and pH. The concentration of VFA in both Madura and OC cattle was peaked at 3 h post-feeding, being 136.1 mmol and 158.9 mmol, respectively, and then were decreased at 6 h post-feeding at a level of 58.1 and 98.2 mmol, respectively. The proportion of acetic acid in Madura and OC cattle were 53.33% and 52.0% of total VFA, respectively, while the proportion of propionic acid and butyric acid were 28.80% and 17.87% for Madura cattle, and 30.71% and 17.28% for OC cattle, respectively. In addition, the Acetic/Propionic ratios were 1.85 and 1.69 for Madura and OC cattle, respectively. Rumen pH conditions of both cattle breeds tended to be basic, i.e. Madura cattle was ranged at 8.0-8.4, while the PO cattle was ranged at 7.6-8.4. In conclusion, both cattle breeds (Madura and OC cattle have a similar efficiency to utilize the feeds in the rumen.

  1. RUMINAL CONDITION BETWEEN MADURA CATTLE AND ONGOLE CROSSBRED CATTLE RAISED UNDER INTENSIVE FEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Umar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Each four young bulls of Madura cattle and Ongole Crossbred (OC cattle were used to study theefficiency of ruminal fermentation by comparing the proportion of Volatile Fatty Acid (VFA of thesetwo breeds which were raised under intensive feeding. All the cattle were in about 1.5 years-old with anaverage body weight of 147.75 ± 14.57 kg and 167 ± 22.57 kg, for Madura and OC cattle, respectively.They were fed Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum hay, and concentrate feeding consists of pollard,soybean meal and rice bran for 10 weeks. Parameters measured were concentration of VFA at 0, 3 and 6h post-feeding and pH. The concentration of VFA in both Madura and OC cattle was peaked at 3 h postfeeding,being 136.1 mmol and 158.9 mmol, respectively, and then were decreased at 6 h post-feeding ata level of 58.1 and 98.2 mmol, respectively. The proportion of acetic acid in Madura and OC cattle were53.33% and 52.0% of total VFA, respectively, while the proportion of propionic acid and butyric acidwere 28.80% and 17.87% for Madura cattle, and 30.71% and 17.28% for OC cattle, respectively. Inaddition, the Acetic/Propionic ratios were 1.85 and 1.69 for Madura and OC cattle, respectively. RumenpH conditions of both cattle breeds tended to be basic, i.e. Madura cattle was ranged at 8.0-8.4, while thePO cattle was ranged at 7.6-8.4. In conclusion, both cattle breeds (Madura and OC cattle have a similarefficiency to utilize the feeds in the rumen.

  2. People on the Farm: Raising Beef Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Robert L.

    This booklet provides information on raising beef cattle through profiles of two families, the Ritschards of Colorado and the Schuttes of Missouri. Through descriptions of daily life for these families, the booklet discusses the way of life on modern beef cattle farms and the problems and decisions faced by farmers. The booklet explains how…

  3. Magnesium Oxide Induced Metabolic Alkalosis in Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Ogilvie, T H; Butler, D G; Gartley, C J; Dohoo, I. R.

    1983-01-01

    A study was designed to compare the metabolic alkalosis produced in cattle from the use of an antacid (magnesium oxide) and a saline cathartic (magnesium sulphate). Six, mature, normal cattle were treated orally with a magnesium oxide (MgO) product and one week later given a comparable cathartic dose of magnesium sulphate (MgSO4).

  4. Enhancement of Cellulose Degradation by Cattle Saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Yasutaka; Kikuchi, Yukiko; Kimura, Yoshihiro; Yoshimoto, Ryo; Takahashi, Masatoshi; Aburai, Kenichi; Kanai, Yoshihiro; Ruike, Tatsushi; Iwabata, Kazuki; Sugawara, Fumio; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko; Sakaguchi, Kengo

    2015-01-01

    Saccharification of cellulose is a promising technique for producing alternative source of energy. However, the efficiency of conversion of cellulose into soluble sugar using any currently available methodology is too low for industrial application. Many additives, such as surfactants, have been shown to enhance the efficiency of cellulose-to-sugar conversion. In this study, we have examined first whether cattle saliva, as an additive, would enhance the cellulase-catalyzed hydrolysis of cellulose, and subsequently elucidated the mechanism by which cattle saliva enhanced this conversion. Although cattle saliva, by itself, did not degrade cellulose, it enhanced the cellulase-catalyzed degradation of cellulose. Thus, the amount of reducing sugar produced increased approximately 2.9-fold by the addition of cattle saliva. We also found that non-enzymatic proteins, which were present in cattle saliva, were responsible for causing the enhancement effect. Third, the mechanism of cattle saliva mediated enhancement of cellulase activity was probably similar to that of the canonical surfactants. Cattle saliva is available in large amounts easily and cheaply, and it can be used without further purification. Thus, cattle saliva could be a promising additive for efficient saccharification of cellulose on an industrial scale.

  5. Desempenho ponderal de novilhas mestiças Holandês × Zebu submetidas a duas estratégias de suplementação mineral Ponderal performance of crossbred Holstein × Zebu heifers submitted to two mineral supplementations strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Nogueira Domingues

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o desempenho ponderal de novilhas em regime de pastejo rotacionado consumindo dois tipos de suplemento mineral. Utilizaram-se 25 novilhas Holandês × Zebu, 9 como animais reguladores e 16 como animais-prova, divididas em quatro tratamentos: capim-mombaça e sal seletivo (MSS; capim-mombaça e sal comercial (MSC; capim-elefante e sal seletivo (ESS; e capim-elefante e sal comercial (ESC. O ganho médio diário (GMD foi calculado pesando-se os animais-prova a cada 28 dias após jejum alimentar de 16 horas. Foram avaliados os consumos de matéria seca de lâmina foliar verde (CMSLFV e a digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca de lâmina foliar verde (DMSLFV utilizando-se óxido crômico como marcador externo e fibra em detergente neutro indigerível como marcador interno. Foram mensurados os consumos dos suplementos minerais e avaliados os teores de matéria seca, proteína bruta, fibra em detergente neutro e de Ca, P, K, Mg, Na, Cu, Zn, Fe e Mn somente em amostras de lâmina foliar. O delineamento estatístico utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 2 × 2 (gramínea e mistura mineral. Cada tratamento foi composto por quatro animais, de modo que cada animal constituiu uma unidade experimental. Apenas os minerais Cu, Na e Zn foram encontrados em quantidades insuficientes nas forrageiras. Os CMSLFV não foram influenciados por nenhuma das variáveis estudadas nem por suas interações. Houve interação sal mineral × gramínea para a DMSLFV. O GMD foi influenciado apenas pelas gramíneas; o desempenho dos animais que consumiram o capim-elefante foi superior. A composição nutricional do capim-elefante foi ligeiramente superior à do capim-mombaça, o que provavelmente proporcionou melhor desempenho aos animais deste tratamento.The ponderal performance of heifers under rotational grazing fed two types mineral supplement was evaluated. A total of 25 heifers Holstein × Zebu, including nine regulator animals and 16

  6. Produção de leite de vacas mestiças Holandês ´ Zebu em pastagem de capim-elefante, com e sem suplementação de concentrado durante a época das chuvas Milk yield of crossbred Holstein ´ Zebu cows supplemented or not with concentrate during the rainy season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Deresz

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do experimento foi estudar o efeito da suplementação da pastagem de capim-elefante com concentrado na época das chuvas e início da seca, entre dezembro e junho, sobre a produção e composição do leite e ganho de peso de vacas mestiças Holandês ´ Zebu. Os tratamentos foram pastagem de capim-elefante sem concentrado (SC e com 2,0kg de concentrado/vaca/dia (CC. A área experimental de pastagem foi dividida em 44 piquetes de 606m² cada um, 22 por tratamento, com duas repetições de área. Foram usadas 12 vacas, sendo seis por tratamento. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso. A pastagem foi manejada em pastejo rotativo com três dias de ocupação por piquete e 30 dias de descanso. A taxa de lotação foi de 4,5 vacas/ha. A pastagem foi adubada com 200kg/ha/ano de N e de K2O. As produções médias de leite corrigido para 4% de gordura foram de 11,6± 0,3 e 12,5± 0,3kg/vaca/dia e o ganho médio diário por vaca de 211 e 244g, para os tratamentos SC e CC, respectivamente. Houve diferença (PThis work aimed to study the effect of concentrate supplementation of elephantgrass pasture during the rainy season and at the beginning of the dry season, on milk yield, milk composition and weight gain of crossbred Holstein ´ Zebu cows. The treatments were: elephantgrass pasture with no concentrate supplementation (NC and with 2kg concentrate supplementation cow/day (WC. The experimental area was divided in 44 paddocks with 606m² each, corresponding to 22 paddocks per replication and six cows per treatment. The cows were alloted to the treatments according to a completely randomized block design. The pasture was managed in a rotational system with 30 days resting period and three days grazing per paddock. The stocking rate was 4.5 cows/ha. The pasture was fertilized with 200kg/ha/yr of N and K2O. The average fat corrected (4% milk yield was 11.6± 0.3 and 12.5± 0.3kg/cow/day and the average daily weight gain during the

  7. Influência de estratégias de manejo em pastagem de capim-elefante na produção de leite de vacas Holandês x Zebu Effect of different strategies of management of elephantgrass pasture on milk yield of crossbred Holstein x Zebu cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Deresz

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes estratégias de manejo em pastagem de capim-elefante sobre a produção de leite. Utilizaram-se 24 vacas Holandês x Zebu, distribuídas em quatro tratamentos, cada um com seis animais, como se segue: pastejo rotativo com descanso de 30 dias, adubação mensal e resíduo pós-pastejo de 90-100cm (30AM; pastejo rotativo com descanso de 30 dias, adubação bimensal e resíduo pós-pastejo de 90-100cm (30AB; pastejo rotativo com descanso de 45 dias e resíduo de 90-100cm (45MA e pastejo rotativo com descanso de 45 dias e resíduo de 40-50cm (45MB. O período de ocupação dos piquetes foi de três dias. A área foi dividida em 108 piquetes, sendo 64 de 417m² cada um para os tratamentos 45MA e 45MB (16 piquetes/repetição de área e 44 piquetes de 606m² cada um para os tratamentos 30AM e 30 AB (11 piquetes/repetição de área. A taxa de lotação foi de 4,5 vacas/ha. A pastagem foi adubada com 200kg de N e de K2O por ha/ano. Aplicaram-se também 40kg de P2O5 e 1.000kg de calcário dolomítico por ha/ano. A produção média de leite corrigido para 4% de gordura foi de 10,3; 10,5; 9,3; e 9,2kg/vaca/dia para os tratamentos 30AM, 30AB, 45MA e 45MB, respectivamente. Houve diferença (PThe objective of this trial was to study the effect of different strategies of grazing management on milk production of cows on elephantgrass pastures. The treatments were: 30 days of grazing interval (GI and fertilized monthly (30MF; 30 days GI and fertilized every two months (30BM; 45 days GI and a stubble height of 90-100cm (45HS; 45 days GI and a stubble height of 40-50cm (45LS. In treatments 30MF and 30BM the stubble height was 90-100cm. Each paddock was grazed for three days. Twenty four Holstein × Zebu cows were allocated to treatments (six/treatment. The area was divided into 108 paddocks, 64 of 417m² each for the two 45 days GI treatments (16 paddocks/area replication. Others 44 paddocks of 606m

  8. Cloning cattle: the methods in the madness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oback, Björn; Wells, David N

    2007-01-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is much more widely and efficiently practiced in cattle than in any other species, making this arguably the most important mammal cloned to date. While the initial objective behind cattle cloning was commercially driven--in particular to multiply genetically superior animals with desired phenotypic traits and to produce genetically modified animals-researchers have now started to use bovine SCNT as a tool to address diverse questions in developmental and cell biology. In this paper, we review current cattle cloning methodologies and their potential technical or biological pitfalls at any step of the procedure. In doing so, we focus on one methodological parameter, namely donor cell selection. We emphasize the impact of epigenetic and genetic differences between embryonic, germ, and somatic donor cell types on cloning efficiency. Lastly, we discuss adult phenotypes and fitness of cloned cattle and their offspring and illustrate some of the more imminent commercial cattle cloning applications.

  9. Imunoidentification of Albumin and Osteopontin in Seminal Plasma of Taurine and Zebuine Bulls/ Imunoidentificação de Albumina e Osteopontina no Plasma Seminal de Reprodutores Taurinos e Zebuínos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Costa Mattos

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Two dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was performed in seminal plasma of seven Bos taurus taurus and seven Bos taurus indicus bulls with high semen freezability, from an artificialinsemination center. In a 8% polyacrylamide gels, three bands of 195, 66 and 55 kDa, present in 100% of the samples in both sub-species, were analyzed by their optical densities. In Bos taurus samples, the opticals densities of 55 kDa band, imunoidentified as osteopontin were superior (pAs proteínas do plasma seminal de 14 reprodutores (7 Bos taurus taurus e 7 Bos taurus indicus, foram analisadas por eletroforese bidimensional, em géis de poliacrilamida a 8%, corados por Comassie Blue. Três bandas protéicas, presentes em 100% das amostras de plasma seminal, foram quantificadas de acordo com a densidade óptica exibida: 195 kDa, pI 6,5-7,5 ; 66 kDa, pI 5,4 e 55 kDa, pI 4,5. As amostras de plasma seminal provenientes de taurinos apresentaram densidades ópticas significativamente superiores (p < 0,05 às dos zebuínos na banda de 55 kDa, que foi imunoidentificada como osteopontina. As demais proteínas analisadas não apresentaram variações significativas entre as subespécies. A banda protéica de 66 kDa, foi imunoidentificada como albumina. Nas amostras provenientes de taurinos, as densidades ópticas das três bandas protéicas quantificadas não evidenciaram variação significativa entre os reprodutores. Entretanto, nos zebuínos, as densidades ópticas da albumina apresentaram diferenças significativas entre os touros (p < 0,05.

  10. Comportamiento lechero de genotipos Holstein x Cebú en silvopastoreo Dairy performance of Holstein x Zebu genotypes under silvopastoral system conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar el potencial bioproductivo y económico de rebaños de diferentes genotipos raciales de doble propósito (Holstein x Cebú en asociaciones de leguminosas arbóreas con gramíneas, se seleccionaron tres unidades lecheras con 80 vacas cada una, formadas por los genotipos Mambí (¾ H x ¼ C, Siboney (5/8 H x 3/8 C y F1 (½H x ½ C, respectivamente. Se determinó la disponibilidad de materia seca de los pastos y el consumo de alimentos complementarios, así como los indicadores productivos del rebaño y los ingresos económicos. No se encontraron marcadas diferencias entre los rebaños en cuanto a la disponibilidad de MS y el aporte del pasto a la dieta. Se obtuvieron valores de producción de leche entera de 7,2; 6,8 y 6,7 y corregida de 9,1; 9,3 y 9,8 kg/vaca/día para los raciales Mambí, Siboney y F1, respectivamente. Los precios de venta de la leche fueron superiores a los 90 centavos en los tres rebaños, con utilidades mayores a los 10 000 pesos. Se concluye que no hubo diferencias apreciables, en términos de producción de leche, entre los genotipos; las diferencias económicas a favor del genotipo F1 están dadas por su rusticidad y adaptación al medio ambiente de pastoreo. Por otra parte, se demostró la sostenibilidad productiva de la tecnología del silvopastoreo racional durante 10 años de explotación.With the objective of evaluating the bioproductive and economic potential of herds from different double purpose racial genotypes (Holstein x Zebu in associations of legume trees with grasses, three dairy units were selected with 80 cows each, including the genotypes Mambí (3/4 H x ¼ Z, Siboney (5/8 H x 3/8 Z and F1 (1/2 H x ½ Z, respectively. Dry matter availability of the pastures and intake of complementary feedstuffs were determined, as well as the productive indicators of the herds and the incomes. No remarkable differences were found among herds regarding DM availability and contribution of pasture

  11. Global comparative analysis of ESTs from the southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Minghua; Guerrero, Felix D; Pertea, Geo; Nene, Vishvanath M

    2007-01-01

    The southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, is an economically important parasite of cattle and can transmit several pathogenic microorganisms to its cattle host during the feeding process...

  12. 木瓜蛋白酶对骆驼肉嫩化效果的研究%Effects of Papain on Tenderness of Two-Humped Camel Meat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马欣欣; 双全; 李秀丽; 乌尼孟和; 陈泽明

    2012-01-01

    通过试验研究木瓜蛋白酶处理对骆驼肉嫩度及感官品质的影响。对木瓜蛋白酶用量、处理温度、处理时间进行试验,并且通过L9(33)正交试验,筛选出木瓜蛋白酶嫩化骆驼肉的最佳条件。结果表明:木瓜蛋白酶对骆驼肉的失水率、持水力及嫩度均有显著影响,且对骆驼肉感官品质没有影响。木瓜蛋白酶嫩化骆驼肉的最佳条件:酶用量为0.02%、处理温度4℃、恒温放置时间60min。因素的显著性次序为:木瓜蛋白酶用量〉处理温度〉处理时间。%The influences of papain solution on the tenderness of two-humped camel meat and its sensory qualities were determined in this study. With papain dosage, treatment temperature and time were variables, L9(33) orthogonal experiment was used to sift the optimal conditions of the tenderization. The results showed that papain could significantly affect water loss rate, water holding capacity and the tenderness of the camel meat, without the change of sensory qualities. The optimum conditions are papain dosage 0.02%, temperatuxe 4 ℃, treatment time 60 min. The sequence of the significance of these factors is as follows: papain dosage〉treatment temperature〉treatment time.

  13. COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION OF SOLAR ASSISTED GROUND SOURCE HEAT HUMP%太阳能+地源热泵联合循环项目综合评标

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙洲阳; 陈武

    2013-01-01

    Selection of heating-ventilation-air conditioning (HVAC) cooling and heating source is a multiattribute problem,involving lots of unmeasurable factors.The fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method transfers qualitative indexes into quantitative indexes utilizing fuzzy membership,and solves the problem very well.Evaluation cases include:(1) solar assisted ground source heat hump central air-conditioning; (2) lithium bromide direct-fired absorption chiller; (3) chiller and fuel boiler; (4) chiller and gas boiler; (5) chiller and electrical boiler.The evaluate results show that the case (1) is the best.%提出一种基于模糊数学的综合评价方法——模糊综合评价法.该方法利用模糊隶属度理论把定性指标合理定量化,把定性评价转化为定量评价.评估方案包括:①太阳能+地源热泵联合循环;②溴化锂吸收式直燃机组;③冷水机组+燃油热水锅炉;④冷水机组+燃气热水锅炉;⑤冷水机组+电锅炉.事实证明,利用模糊综合评价方法得出的最终结果与实际评标结果吻合较好,具有良好的实用价值.

  14. ANP and BNP responses to dehydration in the one-humped camel and effects of blocking the renin-angiotensin system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adem, Abdu; Al Haj, Mahmoud; Benedict, Sheela; Yasin, Javed; Nagelkerke, Nicolas; Nyberg, Fred; Yandle, Tim G; Frampton, Chris M; Lewis, Lynley K; Nicholls, M Gary; Kazzam, Elsadig

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate and compare the responses of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) in the circulation of hydrated, dehydrated, and dehydrated losartan - treated camels; and to document the cardiac storage form of B-type natriuretic peptide in the camel heart. Eighteen male camels were used in the study: control or hydrated camels (n = 6), dehydrated camels (n = 6) and dehydrated losartan-treated camels (n = 6) which were dehydrated and received the angiotensin II (Ang II) AT-1 receptor blocker, losartan, at a dose of 5 mg/kg body weight intravenously for 20 days. Control animals were supplied with feed and water ad-libitum while both dehydrated and dehydrated-losartan treated groups were supplied with feed ad-libitum but no water for 20 days. Compared with time-matched controls, dehydrated camels exhibited a significant decrease in plasma levels of both ANP and BNP. Losartan-treated camels also exhibited a significant decline in ANP and BNP levels across 20 days of dehydration but the changes were not different from those seen with dehydration alone. Size exclusion high performance liquid chromatography of extracts of camel heart indicated that proB-type natriuretic peptide is the storage form of the peptide. We conclude first, that dehydration in the camel induces vigorous decrements in circulating levels of ANP and BNP; second, blockade of the renin-angiotensin system has little or no modulatory effect on the ANP and BNP responses to dehydration; third, proB-type natriuretic peptide is the storage form of this hormone in the heart of the one-humped camel.

  15. ANP and BNP responses to dehydration in the one-humped camel and effects of blocking the renin-angiotensin system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdu Adem

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to investigate and compare the responses of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP in the circulation of hydrated, dehydrated, and dehydrated losartan - treated camels; and to document the cardiac storage form of B-type natriuretic peptide in the camel heart. Eighteen male camels were used in the study: control or hydrated camels (n = 6, dehydrated camels (n = 6 and dehydrated losartan-treated camels (n = 6 which were dehydrated and received the angiotensin II (Ang II AT-1 receptor blocker, losartan, at a dose of 5 mg/kg body weight intravenously for 20 days. Control animals were supplied with feed and water ad-libitum while both dehydrated and dehydrated-losartan treated groups were supplied with feed ad-libitum but no water for 20 days. Compared with time-matched controls, dehydrated camels exhibited a significant decrease in plasma levels of both ANP and BNP. Losartan-treated camels also exhibited a significant decline in ANP and BNP levels across 20 days of dehydration but the changes were not different from those seen with dehydration alone. Size exclusion high performance liquid chromatography of extracts of camel heart indicated that proB-type natriuretic peptide is the storage form of the peptide. We conclude first, that dehydration in the camel induces vigorous decrements in circulating levels of ANP and BNP; second, blockade of the renin-angiotensin system has little or no modulatory effect on the ANP and BNP responses to dehydration; third, proB-type natriuretic peptide is the storage form of this hormone in the heart of the one-humped camel.

  16. Growing hairs in shorn cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília José Veríssimo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The shearing operation can provide double benefits to the cattle: they can become more heat tolerant and the tick infestation decreases. The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus causes great losses to dairy cattle, especially to the Holstein cattle because they are very susceptible to this tick. Its control is becoming each day more difficult, owing to the increasing resistance to acaricides they are acquiring. The objective of this work was to study the growing of haircoat following shearing. We made our experiment with 17 animals, 7 females and 10 males. They were shaved on the anterior third (head, neck, dewlap, scapula and arm of one side, at random. The work was performed in two steps: they were shorn for the first time on August 2nd 2012, with a size 10 blade in a clipper Oster model GoldenA5, which left the fur coat 2 mm long. Then we evaluated the hair length growing by collecting fortnightly three sample of hairs in the middle of the scapula, with  electric pliers, modified for this purpose, in both sides of the animals, sheared and non-sheared, until 30 days after this shearing. The three hair samples were put inside a little plastic bag per animal. Meanwhile, as we thought that the animals shearing had to be done closer to the skin, we decided to shear them again (in the same side shorn before, on October 2nd 2012. We changed our procedure using the same machine, but now with a blade size 30, which left the fur coat 1mm thick. After that, we collected again, fortnightly, samples of hairs on both sides during 2 months. The 10 longest hairs in the plastig bag were measured using a graph paper and the average per animal was calculated in each data and blade. A random design was applied for statistical analysis, the hair length of both sides, sheared and non sheared were compared by a two related samples tests – Wilcoxon, in a non parametric test, using the SPSSP 12.0 program, in each data within each blade. Using blade size

  17. Evaluation of turnip forage residue extracted from biodiesel production as supplement for grazing beef cattle Avaliação do resíduo de nabo forrageiro extraído da produção de biodiesel como suplemento para bovinos de corte em pastagens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Vera Martins Franco

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were performed to evaluate the use of the turnip forage residue extracted from biodiesel production as alternative protein source for grazing zebu cattle. At the first experiment, the performance of Nellore zebu cattle was evaluated on grazing grass. Twenty four animals were distributed in three treatments and allocated on six paddocks, with four animals each and two repetitions. Treatments consisted of supplements with two levels of turnip forage residue (7.5 and 15.0% dry matter and without turnip forage (control. Pasture availability and quality were also evaluated. At the second trial, degradability of the residue turnip forage was measured in six rumen fistulated zebu cattle fed basal diet composed by grass coast-cross hay and concentrate (35% CP with 15% of turnip forage. No difference was observed among the treatments for the animal performance, but the steers fed 7.5% of turnip forage residue showed the highest daily gain weight (0.575 kg DGW. The turnip forage residue showed high and fast ruminal effective degradability of the dry matter (83.8%, crude protein (88.9% and neutral detergent fiber (52.1%. In conclusion, the turnip forage residue can be used as protein source in supplement diet for cattle, shifting the conventional protein sources up to 15% in supplement with 35% of total crude protein.Dois experimentos foram realizados visando avaliar o uso do resíduo de nabo forrageiro extraído da produção de biodiesel como fonte de proteína alternativa de suplementos para bovinos de corte em pastejo de gramíneas. No primeiro experimento, avaliou-se o desempenho de bovinos Nelore a pasto (ganho diário de peso, utilizando-se 24 animais, distribuídos em três tratamentos em seis piquetes com quatro animais cada e duas repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram de suplementos com dois níveis do resíduo de nabo forrageiro (7,5 e 15,0% na matéria seca e sem nabo forrageiro (testemunha. A disponibilidade e qualidade da

  18. Genome engineering in cattle: recent technological advancements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongde

    2015-02-01

    Great strides in technological advancements have been made in the past decade in cattle genome engineering. First, the success of cloning cattle by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) or chromatin transfer (CT) is a significant advancement that has made obsolete the need for using embryonic stem (ES) cells to conduct cell-mediated genome engineering, whereby site-specific genetic modifications can be conducted in bovine somatic cells via DNA homologous recombination (HR) and whereby genetically engineered cattle can subsequently be produced by animal cloning from the genetically modified cells. With this approach, a chosen bovine genomic locus can be precisely modified in somatic cells, such as to knock out (KO) or knock in (KI) a gene via HR, a gene-targeting strategy that had almost exclusively been used in mouse ES cells. Furthermore, by the creative application of embryonic cloning to rejuvenate somatic cells, cattle genome can be sequentially modified in the same line of somatic cells and complex genetic modifications have been achieved in cattle. Very recently, the development of designer nucleases-such as zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) and transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALENs), and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9)-has enabled highly efficient and more facile genome engineering in cattle. Most notably, by employing such designer nucleases, genomes can be engineered at single-nucleotide precision; this process is now often referred to as genome or gene editing. The above achievements are a drastic departure from the traditional methods of creating genetically modified cattle, where foreign DNAs are randomly integrated into the animal genome, most often along with the integrations of bacterial or viral DNAs. Here, I review the most recent technological developments in cattle genome engineering by highlighting some of the major achievements in creating genetically engineered

  19. Mycotoxins in pathophysiology of cattle diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mašić Zoran

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Depending on the age and production category, cattle show different sensitivity towards certain mycotoxins. Microflora of the rumen degrades to a different degree and inactivates mycotoxins. In the work are presented the most important mycotoxicoses of cattle caused by fungal metabolites from the genera Fusarium, Aspergillus and Penicillium. Poisoning of cattle in our area is most often caused by Zearalenone, Dioxinivalenol, T-2 toxin, Ochratoxin A and Aflatoxin, but in the work are also presented Fumonisin B1 and B2. The work also describes preventive possibilities and protection of animal health from the effects of mycotoxins.

  20. Resynchronization with unknown pregnancy status using progestin-based timed artificial insemination protocol in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá Filho, M F; Marques, M O; Girotto, R; Santos, F A; Sala, R V; Barbuio, J P; Baruselli, P S

    2014-01-15

    Two experiments were designed to evaluate the use of resynchronization (RESYNCH) protocols using a progestin-based timed artificial insemination (TAI) protocol in beef cattle. In experiment 1, 475 cyclic Nelore heifers were resynchronized 22 days after the first TAI using two different inducers of new follicular wave emergence (estradiol benzoate [EB; n = 241] or GnRH [n = 234]) with the insertion of a norgestomet ear implant. At ear implant removal (7 days later), a pregnancy test was performed, and nonpregnant heifers received a dose of prostaglandin plus 0.5 mg of estradiol cypionate, with a timed insemination 48 hours later. The pregnancy rate after the first TAI was similar (P = 0.97) between treatments (EB [41.9%] vs. GnRH [41.5%]). However, EB-treated heifers (49.3%) had a greater (P = 0.04) pregnancy per AI (P/AI) after the resynchronization than the GnRH-treated heifers (37.2%). In experiment 2, the pregnancy loss in 664 zebu females (344 nonlactating cows and 320 cyclic heifers) between 30 and 60 days after resynchronization was evaluated. Females were randomly assigned to one of two groups (RESYNCH 22 days after the first TAI [n = 317] or submitted only to natural mating [NM; n = 347]). Females from the NM group were maintained with bulls from 15 to 30 days after the first TAI. The RESYNC-treated females were resynchronized 22 days after the first TAI using 1 mg of EB on the first day of the resynchronization, similar to experiment 1. No difference was found in P/AI (NM [57.1%] vs. RESYNC [61.5%]; P = 0.32) or pregnancy loss (NM [2.0%] vs. RESYNC [4.1%]; P = 0.21) after the first TAI. Moreover, the overall P/AI after the RESYNCH protocol was 47.5%. Thus, the administration of 1 mg of EB on day 22 after the first TAI, when the pregnancy status was undetermined, promotes a higher P/AI in the resynchronized TAI than the use of GnRH. Also, the administration of 1 mg of EB 22 days after the TAI did not affect the preestablished pregnancy.

  1. Effects of Supplements with Different Protein Contents on Nutritional Performance of Grazing Cattle During the Rainy Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiras, J F; Detmann, E; Franco, M O; Batista, E D; Reis, W L S; Paulino, M F; Valadares Filho, S C

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplements with different crude protein (CP) contents on grazing cattle intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation pattern, and nitrogen (N) metabolism characteristics during the rainy season. Five ruminal and abomasal cannulated Holstein×Zebu steers (296 kg body weight, BW) were used in a 5×5 Latin square design. The animals grazed five signal grass paddocks (0.34 ha). The five treatments evaluated were: Control (no supplement) and 1.0 g of supplement/kg BW with 0, 330, 660, and 1,000 g of CP/kg as-fed. The supplement was composed of starch, soybean meal, urea, and ammonium sulphate. There was a positive linear effect (p≤0.033) of the CP content in the supplements on the organic matter (OM), CP, and digested OM intakes. The provision of supplements did not increase (p≥0.158), on average, total and ruminal digestibilities of OM and CP. However, the increase in CP content in the supplements caused a positive linear effect (p≤0.018) on ruminal digestibilities of OM and CP. Additionally, a quadratic effect of the CP contents of the supplements were observed (p = 0.041) for the ruminal digestibility of neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein, with the highest estimate obtained with the CP content of 670 g/kg. The supply of supplements increased (psupplements. The apparent N balance and relative N balance (g/g N intake) were not, on average, changed (p≥0.164) by the supplements supply. However, both showed a tendency of a linear increase (p≤0.099) with increasing supplement CP content. The supplements increased (p = 0.007) microbial N production in the rumen, which also changed linearly and positively (p = 0.016) with increasing supplement CP content. In conclusion, protein supplementation in grazing cattle during the rainy season, while stimulating voluntary forage intake, results in higher efficiency of N utilization when compared to energy supplementation. This is a possible

  2. Genetic correlation estimates between beef fatty acid profile with meat and carcass traits in Nellore cattle finished in feedlot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitosa, Fabieli Loise Braga; Olivieri, Bianca Ferreira; Aboujaoude, Carolyn; Pereira, Angélica Simone Cravo; de Lemos, Marcos Vinicius Antunes; Chiaia, Hermenegildo Lucas Justino; Berton, Mariana Piatto; Peripolli, Elisa; Ferrinho, Adrielle Matias; Mueller, Lenise Freitas; Mazalli, Mônica Roberta; de Albuquerque, Lucia Galvão; de Oliveira, Henrique Nunes; Tonhati, Humberto; Espigolan, Rafael; Tonussi, Rafael Lara; de Oliveira Silva, Rafael Medeiros; Gordo, Daniel Gustavo Mansan; Magalhães, Ana Fabrícia Braga; Aguilar, Ignacio; Baldi, Fernando

    2017-02-01

    .90 and -0.67, respectively. The selection to improve meat tenderness in Nellore cattle should not change the fatty acid composition in beef, so it is possible to improve this attribute without affecting the nutritional beef quality in zebu breeds. However, selection for increased deposition of subcutaneous fat thickness and especially the percentage of intramuscular fat should lead to changes in the fat composition, highlighting a genetic antagonism between meat nutritional value and acceptability by the consumer.

  3. On the History of Cattle Genetic Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleen Felius

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cattle are our most important livestock species because of their production and role in human culture. Many breeds that differ in appearance, performance and environmental adaptation are kept on all inhabited continents, but the historic origin of the diverse phenotypes is not always clear. We give an account of the history of cattle by integrating archaeological record and pictorial or written sources, scarce until 300 years ago, with the recent contributions of DNA analysis. We describe the domestication of their wild ancestor, migrations to eventually all inhabited continents, the developments during prehistory, the antiquity and the Middle Ages, the relatively recent breed formation, the industrial cattle husbandry in the Old and New World and the current efforts to preserve the cattle genetic resources. Surveying the available information, we propose three main and overlapping phases during the development of the present genetic diversity: (i domestication and subsequent wild introgression; (ii natural adaptation to a diverse agricultural habitat; and (iii breed development.

  4. TABLE PREVALENCE OF GIT NEMATODES IN CATTLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    The highest rate of mixed infection occurred in adult cattle with Haemonchus contortus and ... cause anaemia in kids (Ameen et al., 2006) ... Materials and methods .... Pathology and Diagnosis of Internal ... goats and horses, ninth edition.

  5. International genomic evaluation methods for dairy cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background Genomic evaluations are rapidly replacing traditional evaluation systems used for dairy cattle selection. Economies of scale in genomics promote cooperation across country borders. Genomic information can be transferred across countries using simple conversion equations, by modifying mult...

  6. Models of bovine babesiosis including juvenile cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad-Roy, C M; Shuai, Zhisheng; van den Driessche, P

    2015-03-01

    Bovine Babesiosis in cattle is caused by the transmission of protozoa of Babesia spp. by ticks as vectors. Juvenile cattle (Babesiosis, rarely show symptoms, and acquire immunity upon recovery. Susceptibility to the disease varies between breeds of cattle. Models of the dynamics of Bovine Babesiosis transmitted by the cattle tick that include these factors are formulated as systems of ordinary differential equations. Basic reproduction numbers are calculated, and it is proved that if these numbers are below the threshold value of one, then Bovine Babesiosis dies out. However, above the threshold number of one, the disease may approach an endemic state. In this case, control measures are suggested by determining target reproduction numbers. The percentage of a particular population (for example, the adult bovine population) needed to be controlled to eradicate the disease is evaluated numerically using Columbia data from the literature.

  7. Thermal balance of Nellore cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo Costa, Cíntia Carol; Maia, Alex Sandro Campos; Nascimento, Sheila Tavares; Nascimento, Carolina Cardoso Nagib; Neto, Marcos Chiquitelli; de França Carvalho Fonsêca, Vinícius

    2017-04-01

    This work aimed at characterizing the thermal balance of Nellore cattle from the system of indirect calorimetry using a facial mask. The study was conducted at the Animal Biometeorology Laboratory of the São Paulo State University, Jaboticabal, Brazil. Five male Nellore weighing 750 ± 62 kg, at similar ages and body conditions were distributed in four 5 × 5 Latin squares (5 days of records and five schedules) during 20 days. Physiological and environmental measurements were obtained from the indirect calorimetry system using a facial mask. Respiratory parameters, hair coat, skin, and rectal temperature were continuously recorded. From this, metabolic heat production, sensible and latent ways of heat transfer were calculated. Metabolic heat production had an average value of 146.7 ± 0.49 W m-2 and did not change (P > 0.05) over the range of air temperature (24 to 35 °C). Sensible heat flow reached 60.08 ± 0.81 W m-2 when air temperature ranged from 24 to 25 °C, being negligible in conditions of temperature above 33 °C. Most of the heat produced by metabolism was dissipated by cutaneous evaporation when air temperature was greater than 30 °C. Respiratory parameters like respiratory rate and ventilation remained stable (P > 0.05) in the range of temperature studied. Under shade conditions and air temperature range from 24 to 35 °C, metabolic heat production, respiratory rate, and ventilation of mature Nellore cattle remain stable, which is indicative of low energetic cost to the thermoregulation.

  8. Assessment of redox markers in cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, Nathaniel Caleb

    2007-01-01

    Metabolic redox status may have important implications to cattle health and production. Antioxidants and biomarkers of oxidative stress were evaluated in cattle under three phases of management. Each phase stood alone as a treatment model, and managerial aspects during the phase were evaluated as potential moderators of redox balance. Yearling heifers were used to assess the impact of fescue toxicosis and heat stress on selected markers in study 1. Intravaginal temperatures, ADG, serum prolac...

  9. Environmental Awareness on Beef Cattle Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah M Bamualim

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The acceleration program to meet beef self sufficient in 2010 is expected to increase animal protein consumption of Indonesian people in order to be equal with other countries as well as to improve the livestock farmer’s income. The main objective of the program is to increase cattle population. Since the availability of forage and grassland is limited, beef cattle development is driven to the crop and plantation integration approach by using their by-product as cattle feed. Crop and plantation by-products, generally are considered to be fiber source with high lignocellulose’s and low nutritive value. Feeding high fiber would increase methane gas production, and faeces and grass cultivation also contributed on greenhouse emission. Methane is one of the main greenhouse gases contributed by agriculture sector; increasing beef cattle population using high fiber feed is predicted to increase methane production. Good management is expected to improve productivity and to reduce methane production on livestock. Some efforts could be done such as good feeding management and nutrition manipulation, environment friendly cattle waste management, improving management on roughage cultivation, and improving management on cattle production.

  10. Optic pathway degeneration in Japanese black cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Shiori; Funato, Shingo; Horiuchi, Noriyuki; Matsumoto, Kotaro; Inokuma, Hisashi; Furuoka, Hidefumi; Kobayashi, Yoshiyasu

    2015-02-01

    Degeneration of the optic pathway has been reported in various animal species including cattle. We experienced a case of bilateral optic tract degeneration characterized by severe gliosis in a Japanese black cattle without any obvious visual defects. To evaluate the significance, pathological nature and pathogenesis of the lesions, we examined the optic pathway in 60 cattle (41 Japanese black, 13 Holstein and 6 crossbreed) with or without ocular abnormalities. None of these animals had optic canal stenosis. Degenerative changes with severe gliosis in the optic pathway, which includes the optic nerve, optic chiasm and optic tract, were only observed in 8 Japanese black cattle with or without ocular abnormalities. Furthermore, strong immunoreactivity of glial fibrillary acidic protein was observed in the retinal stratum opticum and ganglion cell layer in all 5 cattle in which the optic pathway lesions could be examined. As etiological research, we also examined whether the concentrations of vitamin A and vitamin B12 or bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection was associated with optic pathway degeneration. However, our results suggested that the observed optic pathway degeneration was probably not caused by these factors. These facts indicate the presence of optic pathway degeneration characterized by severe gliosis that has never been reported in cattle without bilateral compressive lesions in the optic pathway or bilateral severe retinal atrophy.

  11. Morphological characterization ofMadura Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Setiadi

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Morphological characterization of Madura cattle in Madura islands was done as an input for "action plans" of national animals genetic resources management according to the global system ofFAO. Assessments were done in Sumenep District and Pamekasan District, East Java. According to the body measurements, Madura cattle can be classified as a small to medium type with withers height of about 120 cm. Because of potential productivity in the limitation of environmental resources, Madura cattle can be classified as a "superior" cattle . Body measurements of Madura cattle in the present study were relatively the same with those of 50 years ago, indicating that there is no breeding improvement activities except natural selection . The variability of body measurements is relatively narrow . Improving productivity by outbreeding is needed . To conserve the unique germ plasm of the Indonesian genotype, such as Madura cattle and a possibility to improve their productivity by a complete prevention of cross breeding in the Madura islands needs further evaluation .

  12. Investigating Outbreaks of Disease or Impaired Productivity in Feedlot Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David R

    2015-11-01

    Most cattle move through cattle feeding and finishing systems without health problems or impairment of productivity, but some cattle do become ill or unproductive. When cattle get sick, understanding what has gone wrong and how to remedy the situation is important. An orderly, systematic approach to investigating disease outbreaks is more likely to lead to a solution. The solution may come from identifying and modifying human decisions or behaviors that may be far removed in time or place from the immediate problem. Veterinarians can help cattle feeders recognize and correct the system dynamics factors affecting cattle health and performance.

  13. Design and Formative Evaluation of an Information Kiosk on Cattle Health for Landless Cattle Owners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramkumar, S.; Garforth, C.; Rao, S. V. N.; Heffernan, C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes and analyses the experience of designing, installing and evaluating a farmer-usable touch screen information kiosk on cattle health in a veterinary institution in Pondicherry. The contents of the kiosk were prepared based on identified demands for information on cattle health, arrived at through various stakeholders meetings.…

  14. Composição corporal e exigências de macroelementos minerais (Ca, P, Mg, Na e K de bovinos não-castrados de quatro raças Zebuínas Body composition and macrominerals (Ca, P, Mg, Na and K requirements of bulls, from four Zebu breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Fonseca Paulino

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A composição corporal e as exigências de macroelementos minerais (Ca, P, Mg, Na e K para ganho de peso de bovinos de quatro raças zebuínas (Gir, Guzerá, Mocho-Tabapuã e Nelore foram estimadas com 63 animais não-castrados, com idade média de 24 meses e 366 kg de PVinicial. Dezesseis animais das raças Gir, Guzerá e Mocho-Tabapuã e 15 da raça Nelore foram usados. Quinze animais, quatro das raças Gir, Guzerá e Mocho-Tabapuã e três da Nelore, foram abatidos ao início do estudo e os demais, distribuídos em três grupos, com três animais de cada raça e alimentados individualmente, ad libitum, com ração contendo 50% de concentrado na matéria seca, até atingirem peso de abate de 405, 450 e 500 kg, respectivamente. Equações de regressão do logaritmo do conteúdo corporal de macroelementos minerais, em função do logaritmo do corpo vazio (PCV, foram ajustadas para estimar os composição corporal dos constituintes para qualquer PCV, dentro do intervalo incluído na pesquisa (250 a 450kg. Pela derivação destas equações, a composição do ganho de PCV foi obtida. Animais das quatro raças não diferiram quanto à composição corporal de macroelementos minerais e às exigências líquidas para ganho de peso. Houve decréscimo na concentração dos cinco macroelementos no PCV e no peso ganho, com a elevação do PCV. As exigências líquidas estimadas para ganho de PCV, para os cinco macrominerais, foram inferiores aos valores fixos sugeridos pelo ARC (1980. Os requerimentos líquidos estimados de Ca e P para ganho de peso de um bovino não-castrado de 400 kg PV foram 16 e 24% inferiores, respectivamente, aos propostos pelo AFRC (1991.The body composition and macrominerals requirements for weight gain of four Zebu breeds (Gyr, Guzera, Mocho-Tabapuã and Nellore were estimated using 63 bulls averaging 24 months of age and 366 kg initial LW. Sixteen animals from Gir, Guzera e Mocho-Tabapuã breeds and 15 from Nellore breed

  15. Zinc deficiency (hypozincemia in local Iraqi cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal M. Alsaad,

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Clinical, hematological, pathological and some biochemical parameters have been studied in local cattle and calves affected naturally with hypozincemia in Mosul, Iraq. The study was conducted on 78 local Iraqi cattle and calves, among these animals, 30 calves were less than six months of age and 38 animals were more than three years old. Ten clinical healthy cattle of different ages were used as control. Affected cattle showed signs of alopecia in different body regions (73.6%, abnormal skin (rough, thickened, wrinkled, cracked and with dandruff (73.6%, paleness of mucous membranes (47.3%, intermittent diarrhoea (39.4%, decreased milk production (31.5% and loss of appetite (26.3%, whereas affected calves showed alopecia in various body regions (90%, abnormal skin (83.3%, decreased growth rate (53.3%, swelling of joints and stiff gait (43.3% and pica (36.6%. No significant difference has been detected in body temperature, whereas respiratory and heart rates were significantly increased in affected animals in comparison with control. Statistical analysis showed significant decrease in the total erythrocytes (TRBCs, hemoglobin (HB and packed cell volume (PCV in diseased cattle and calves and macrocytic normochromic type of anemia was found. The results also indicated significant decrease in lymphocytes and platelets counts, however significant increase was encountered in platelets volume, platelets distribution width, prothrombine time and activated partial thromboplastine time in diseased animals. The biochemical results revealed significant decrease in serum zinc and fibrinogen and haptoglobin level was higher in diseased cattle and calves. Microscopic lesions of the skin of zinc deficient cattle and calves were in the form of epidermal hyperplasia, parakeratosis, hyperkeratosis, acanthosis and the formation of thickened adherent scale.

  16. EVALUATION OF VERMICOMPOSTED CATTLE MANURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenko Lončarić

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Vermicompost (lumbripost, biohumus is organic fertilizer or potting medium produced by microbial decomposition of cattle manure using Californian earthworm (Eisenia foetida. Analysing physical, chemical and biological properties confirmed that the vermicompost was stable with significant level of plant nutrients and the concentration of analysed heavy metals below threshold values. The results of vermicompost analyses were 17.85% ash, neutral pH reaction, EC 1.07 dS m-1, 24.6% total C, 2.32% total N and C:N ratio 10.6 indicating vermicompost maturity. Analyses showed significant concentrations (in g kg-1 of total P (11.25, K (6.13, Ca (10 and Mg (8.55 and microelements (in mg kg-1 Fe (9464, Mn (354, Zn (272 and Cu (46. Also, the total concentration of Zn, Cu, Pb (16 mg kg-1 and Cr (42 mg kg-1 was below permitted threshold values indicating that the use of vermicompost as fertilizer or as potting medium would be unrestricted. Biological tests show that (i the vermicompost was stable because measured respiration rate was 1.2 mg CO2-C g-1 compost-C day-1, and (ii the vermicompost did not show any phytotoxic effects because the 14-day growth of lettuce in containers resulted in higher aboveground fresh matter production using vermicompost as a potting medium compared with commercial medium, although the differences were not.

  17. Postpartum uterine health in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, I M; Dobson, H

    2004-07-01

    Uterine health is often compromised in cattle because postpartum contamination of the uterine lumen by bacteria is ubiquitous, and pathogenic bacteria frequently persist causing clinical disease. The subfertility associated with uterine infection involves perturbation of the hypothalamus, pituitary and ovary, in addition to the direct effects on the uterus, and appears to persist even after clinical resolution of the disease. Absorption of bacterial components from the uterus can prevent the follicular phase LH surge and ovulation. In addition, the first postpartum dominant follicle has a slower growth rate and secretes less estradiol at the end of the growth phase. There are also localised ovarian effects of high uterine bacterial growth density, because fewer first dominant follicles are selected in the ovary ipsilateral than contralateral to the previously gravid uterine horn. Thus, it is important to diagnose and treat uterine disease promptly and effectively. Examination of the contents of the vagina for the presence of pus is the most useful method for diagnosis of endometritis. The character and odor of the vaginal mucus can be scored and this endometritis score is correlated with the growth density of pathogenic bacteria in the uterus, and is prognostic for the likely success of treatment. The challenge for the future is to design prevention and control programs to reduce the incidence of disease, and understand how the immune and endocrine systems are integrated.

  18. Pain evaluation in dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gleerup, Karina Charlotte Bech; Andersen, Pia Haubro; Munksgaard, Lene;

    2015-01-01

    .003) in the ClinPain group but not after placebo treatment (p = 0.06); the pain score did not differ significantly before compared to after treatment with analgesic or placebo for the non-pain group (p = 0.2; p = 0.1). A second study was conducted to further validate the Cow Pain Scale. Cows from two herds were......Pain compromises the welfare of animals. A prerequisite for being able to alleviate pain is that we are able to recognize it. Potential behavioural signs of pain were investigated for dairy cattle with the aim of constructing a pain scale for use under production conditions. Forty-three cows were...... selected and fifteen different behaviours were scored, subsequently a clinical examination was performed to allocate the cows to a pain and non-pain group. The animals were then treated with an analgesic or a placebo and after a resting period the cows were re-scored by two observers blinded...

  19. Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podkówka Zbigniew

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cattle produce greenhouse gases (GHG which lead to changes in the chemical composition of the atmosphere. These gases which cause greenhouse effect include: methane (CH4, nitrous oxide (N2O, nitrogen oxides (NOx, sulphur dioxide (SO2, ammonia (NH3, dust particles and non-methane volatile organic compounds, commonly described as other than methane hydrocarbons. Fermentation processes taking place in the digestive tract produce ‘digestive gases’, distinguished from gases which are emitted during the decomposition of manure. Among these digestive gases methane and non-methane volatile organic compounds are of particular relevance importance. The amount of gases produced by cows can be reduced by choosing to rear animals with an improved genetically based performance. A dairy cow with higher production efficiency, producing milk with higher protein content and at the same time reduced fat content emits less GHG into the environment. Increasing the ratio of feed mixtures in a feed ration also reduces GHG emissions, especially of methane. By selection of dairy cows with higher production efficiency and appropriate nutrition, the farm's expected milk production target can be achieved while at the same time, the size of the herd is reduced, leading to a reduction of GHG emissions.

  20. Therapeutic management of botulism in dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Jegaveera Pandian

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To report the successful recovery of few dairy cattle from botulism in response to a modified therapeutic strategy. Materials and Methods: Seventy four naturally-occurring clinical cases of bovine botulism encountered during the period of 2012-2014 which were confirmed by mouse lethality test became material for this study. Affected animals were made into three groups based on the treatment modifications made during the course of study. Results and Discussion: With the modified therapeutic regimen, 17 animals recovered after 7-10 days of treatment. Clinical recovery took 2-30 days. Animals which were not given intravenous fluid and calcium recovered uneventfully. Cattle which were already treated with intravenous fluids, calcium borogluconate, and antibiotics did not recover. They were either died or slaughtered for salvage. Conclusion: In cattle with botulism, administration of Vitamin AD3E and activated charcoal aid the clinical recovery. Besides, strictly avoiding anti-clostridial antibiotics, fluid therapy, and calcium therapy may facilitate the clinical recovery. Upon fluid administration, the pulmonary congestion existed in the ailing cattle might have worsened the anoxia. Administration of antibiotics like penicillin, aminoglycosides, and tetracyclines further worsen the neuronal paralysis by increasing the availability of botulinum neurotoxin. Cattle in early botulism have fair chances of recovery with the modified therapy.

  1. Molecular cloning and phylogenetic analysis of integrins alpha v beta 1 and alpha v beta 6 of one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Junzheng; Larska, Magdalena Larska; Chang, Huiyun

    2010-01-01

    integrin cDNAs encoding alpha v beta 1 and alpha v beta 6 and compare them to those of other species, especially to Bactrian camels. The complete coding sequences for the dromedary camel alpha v,beta 1 and beta 6 subunits were found to be 3147, 2397, and 2364 nucleotides in length, encoding 1048, 798......, and 787 amino acids, respectively. The dromedary camel integrin alpha v, beta 1, and beta 6 subunit shares common structural and functional elements with their counterparts from the other species. Phylogenetic trees showed that the dromedary camel alpha v, beta 1, and beta 6 were clustered...... into the Artiodactyla group, together with those of Bactrian camel, pig, sheep, and cattle that are susceptible to FMDV infection. Compared with the Bactrian camel integrins, 4, 10, and 8 amino acid changes were found in the dromedary camel alpha v, beta 1, and beta 6 subunits, respectively. This study...

  2. Identification of different Bartonella species in the cattle tail louse (Haematopinus quadripertusus) and in cattle blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Cohen, Liron; Morick, Danny; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y; Harrus, Shimon; Gottlieb, Yuval

    2014-09-01

    Bartonella spp. are worldwide-distributed facultative intracellular bacteria that exhibit an immense genomic diversity across mammal and arthropod hosts. The occurrence of cattle-associated Bartonella species was investigated in the cattle tail louse Haematopinus quadripertusus and in dairy cattle blood from Israel. Lice were collected from cattle from two dairy farms during summer 2011, and both lice and cow blood samples were collected from additional seven farms during the successive winter. The lice were identified morphologically and molecularly using 18S rRNA sequencing. Thereafter, they were screened for Bartonella DNA by conventional and real-time PCR assays using four partial genetic loci (gltA, rpoB, ssrA, and internal transcribed spacer [ITS]). A potentially novel Bartonella variant, closely related to other ruminant bartonellae, was identified in 11 of 13 louse pools collected in summer. In the cattle blood, the prevalence of Bartonella infection was 38%, identified as B. bovis and B. henselae (24 and 12%, respectively). A third genotype, closely related to Bartonella melophagi and Bartonella chomelii (based on the ssrA gene) and to B. bovis (based on the ITS sequence) was identified in a single cow. The relatively high prevalence of these Bartonella species in cattle and the occurrence of phylogenetically diverse Bartonella variants in both cattle and their lice suggest the potential role of this animal system in the generation of Bartonella species diversity.

  3. Ammonia emissions from cattle urine and dung excreted on pasture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laubach, J; Taghizadeh-Toosi, Arezoo; Gibbs, S J;

    2013-01-01

    Twelve cattle were kept for three days in a circular area of 16 m radius on short pasture and fed with freshly-cut pasture. Ammonia (NH3) emissions from the urine and dung excreted by the cattle were measured with a micrometeorological mass-balance method, during the cattle presence and for 10 su...

  4. Risk factors associated with anthrax in cattle on smallholdings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biswas, P. K.; Islam, Md Zohorul; Shil, S. K.

    2012-01-01

    Unprecedented high rates of anthrax outbreaks have been observed recently in cattle and humans in Bangladesh, with 607 human cases in 2010. By enrolling 15 case and 15 control cattle smallholdings in the spatial zone in July-September 2010, we conducted a case-control study, data of which were...... independent risk factors for anthrax in cattle....

  5. 9 CFR 78.7 - Brucellosis reactor cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor cattle. 78.7... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.7 Brucellosis reactor cattle....

  6. 9 CFR 93.418 - Cattle from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cattle from Canada. 93.418 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.418 Cattle from Canada. (a) Health certificates. Cattle intended for importation from Canada must be accompanied by a certificate issued in...

  7. Relação entre variáveis na regulação do consumo de vacas Holandês × Zebu em lactação sob pastejo em capim-elefante Relationship between variables concerning elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum. dry matter intake by grazing Holstein × Zebu lactating cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.C.F. Lopes

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available A análise fatorial de componentes principais (CP foi usada no exame do relacionamento entre variáveis de um banco de dados da Embrapa Gado de Leite. As variáveis disponíveis foram relacionadas às vacas (dias em lactação, teores lácteos de gordura e extrato seco total, produção de leite, ordem de lactação, peso vivo e grau de sangue, ao manejo (dia de pastejo, disponibilidade e períodos de descanso da pastagem, ao ambiente (estação do ano, precipitação pluviométrica e ao alimento (consumo de nutrientes do concentrado e da cana × uréia, consumo de MS de pastagem de capim-elefante, composição química e digestibilidade in vitro da pastagem e concentração fecal de PB, FDN e FDA. O primeiro CP (33,7% da inércia dos dados representou o uso da suplementação volumosa (cana × uréia da pastagem em resposta à redução sazonal da disponibilidade e do consumo de capim-elefante. O segundo CP (15,3% da inércia foi relacionado ao consumo de nutrientes do concentrado. O terceiro CP (8,5% da inércia representou efeitos do manejo sobre a composição química da pastagem. A interpretação gráfica dos resultados favoreceu a percepção mais dinâmica da intensidade da associação e do antagonismo entre as variáveis contextualizadas no estudo.The principal component (PC analysis was used to study the relationship between variables in a database of trials carried out at Embrapa Gado de Leite. The variables studied were concerning animal factors (days in milk, fat and total solid contents in milk, live weigh, Holstein × Zebu gene fraction, milk yield and parity, management factors (occupation day of paddock, pasture allowance, resting periods, environmental factors (season of the year, rainfall and feed factors (DM, CP, NDF, ADF and digestible DM intake of concentrate and of sugarcane plus urea, DM intake of elephantgrass pasture, DM, CP, NDF, ADF contents and in vitro digestibility of elephantgrass, and fecal CP, NDF and ADF

  8. Níveis de bagaço de cana e uréia como substituto ao farelo de soja em dietas para bovinos leiteiros em crescimento Sugar cane bagasse and urea as replacement of soybean meal in the growing dairy cattle diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Brandão Torres

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar diferentes níveis de bagaço e uréia como substituto ao farelo de soja em dietas para bovinos leiteiros em crescimento, dois experimentos foram realizados. No primeiro, 20 bezerros mestiços Holandês x Zebu foram distribuídos em quatro tratamentos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Os animais receberam dietas à base de palma forrageira e bagaço de cana em níveis de 5,5; 14,4; 24,4 e 34% da matéria seca total. O ganho de peso diminuiu, enquanto a conversão alimentar, e os consumos de FDN e FDA aumentaram linearmente com a inclusão de bagaço. O consumo máximo de MS foi estimado em 2,73% do peso vivo com 30% de bagaço de cana. No segundo experimento foi avaliada a substituição do farelo de soja (FS por uréia mais milho moído (UM, em dietas à base de palma forrageira, sobre o desempenho de novilhas mestiças Holandês x Zebu. Vinte animais foram alimentados de acordo com os níveis de substituição do FS por UM (0, 20, 40 e 60% distribuídos em blocos ao acaso. Não houve efeito da substituição parcial do farelo de soja por milho e uréia sobre o desempenho de novilhas mestiças.In order to evaluate different levels of sugar cane bagasse and urea as replacement of soybean meal in growing dairy cattle diets, two trials were conducted. In the first, twenty crossbreed bull calves (Holstein x Zebu were allotted in a completely randomized design with four treatments. The animals were fed forage cactus based diets, containing levels of 5.5, 14.4, 24.4 and 34% of sugar cane bagasse on the dry matter basis. The liveweight gain decreased while the feed: gain ratio, FDN and FDA intakes increased linearly in function of the increased level of sugar cane bagasse. The maximum daily dry matter intake of 2.73% of LW was estimated with 30% of sugar cane bagasse in the diet. In the second, was evaluated the partial replacement of soybean meal (SM by urea plus corn cracked (UC in forage cactus based diets on the

  9. Cestrum parqui (green cestrum) poisoning in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, M W; Kelly, W R

    1984-09-01

    Naturally occurring cases of poisoning of cattle by Cestrum parqui were characterised by ataxia, depression, recumbency, convulsions and death. Three cattle were dosed experimentally by intrarumenal administration of fresh plant material. One calf died 48 h after receiving 30 g (wet weight) of plant/kg bodyweight. Doses of 11 and 17 g/kg caused only mild intoxication, with dullness and anorexia lasting 2 days. In natural and experimental cases the main lesion was hepatic periacinar necrosis. Elevated levels of plasma aspartate transaminase and prolonged prothrombin times were demonstrated in experimental cases. Haemorrhage beneath the serosa and into the intestinal lumen occurred in field cases, but not in the experimental. It is concluded that C. parqui poisoning in cattle is a primary hepatotoxicity.

  10. Acute cattle intoxication from Nerium oleander pods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Blanco, B; Fontenele-Neto, J D; Silva, D M; Reis, P F C C; Nóbrega, J E

    2006-01-01

    Seven outbreaks of acute intoxication from oleander (Nerium oleander) in cattle were reported in Northeast of Brazil. A total of 92 cattle were poisoned by oleander in 7 different herds; 57 animals died (67% of affected cattle). All cases reported here occurred during dry season. Two of the outbreaks resulted from offering oleander triturated and mixed with fodder. In the other cases, accidental ingestion of residual parts of oleander derived from pruning or cutting plants on grazing land were responsible. Clinical signs were diverse; the most common were locomotion disturbances, diarrhoea, depression and sudden death. Postmortem findings varied from no significant lesions to widespread haemorrhage. The presence of oleander leaves in the rumen was noted in all cases. The lack of information about the toxicity of oleanders was the main cause for the accident, which prompt us to stimulate wide divulgation of the common toxic plants.

  11. Selection criteria in organic cattle breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Mila

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The central issue in process of organizing organic cattle breeding is the knowledge about specificities of this kind of production, good knowledge of breed characteristics (body composition, immune tolerance, expressed predisposition towards some diseases, production properties. Research centres, in collaboration with producers, have defined the essential features on which the selection programmes in organic cattle breeding are based on. Of the greatest importance for veterinary service is the fact that selection programmes in organic cattle breeding are in the first place based on giving priority to healthy animals, with strong immune system, good reproductive characteristics, which can be in production system for a long period. Additional important selective criteria is specific body resistance and adaptability of autochtonous breeds to environmental conditions. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TP 31085

  12. The Agersoe cattle: the last remnants of the Danish island cattle (Bos taurus)?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Withen, K B; Brüniche-Olsen, A; Pedersen, B.V.

    2011-01-01

    A phenotypically interesting strain of cattle existed on the small island of Agersoe, on the west coast of Zealand, Denmark, in the beginning of the last decade. The cattle share a great resemblance to the extinct Danish breed, the Island cattle. The objective of this study was to genetically...

  13. Neuropathology of organophosphate poisoning in dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulvian Sani

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate pathological changes in brain tissues of Frisien Holstein dairy cattle affected by organophosphate (OP. The study was directed to anticipate spongiform encephalopathy. Samples consisted of animal feeds, sera and brain tissues were collected from Lembang, West Java. Animal feeds (fodders and commercial feed were collected directly from the dairy farms around Lembang. Sera (31 samples were from dairy cattle owned by the local farmers and brain tissues were from the local animal slaughter house. Pesticide residues were analysed following a standard procedure using gas chromatography (GC. There was an interaction between pesticide residues in animal feeds, residue level of pesticides in sera and brain tissues to cause encephalopathy in dairy cattle. Pesticide contamination in animal feeds was regarded as the source of encephalopathy in dairy cattle. The total average of OP residues (16.8 ppb were lower than organochlorines/OC (18.7 ppb in fodder, showing that pesticides were originated from the contaminated soils. On the other hand, the total average of OP residues in commercial feeds (12.0 ppb, sera (85.6 ppb and brain tissues (22.7 ppb were higher than OC (1.8; 16.7; and 5.1 ppb. The OP appears more frequently used for dairy farm activity as insecticides. Histopathological examination for brain tissues of dairy cattle showed that most cattle were diagnosed as encephalopathy with microscopic changes of vacuolation, neuronal necrosis, chromatolysis of neurons and nucleolysis of neurons. The encephalopathy was confirmed in rats intoxicated with chlorpyrifos methyl as severe brain damage with spongiform-like lesions.

  14. PRODUCTIVITY OF NORTH KORDOFAN CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. BUSHARA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study focused on the sedentary cattle husbandry production system in North Kordofan (western Sudan. Seven farms (designated as A, B, C, D, E, F, and G around El-Obeid city were randomly selected. Recently calved cows in each farm were closely monitored through a period of 365 days. The recently calved cows were monitored for post-partum ovarian activity using milk progesterone radioimmunoassay. Days to conception were taken as non-return to oestrus. The results revealed that there was a wide variation in both days to first ovulation and days to conception. The majority of cows showed delayed post-partum activity and days to conception with longest days to resumption of ovarian activity showed by farm G (167.00±59.68days and lowest days in farm C (61.78±14.99 days. The interval to conception was longest in farm B (226.06±52.63 days and lowest in farm C (102.67±48.93 days. Cows in all farms showed gradual increase in BW from calving up to 90 days. BCS was found to decrease from calving to 60 days. Dry season showed an adverse effect on fertility compared with the rainy season. Wet season showed significant negative correlation with BWT at calving, milk yield at 30, 60 and 90 days with days to ovulation. It could be concluded that, poor reproductive performance in cows kept under extensive traditional system was due to poor management practices, which ignored high-energy supplementation during late pregnancy and early lactation, especially during the dry season when rangeland pastures deteriorate drastically. Suckling further exacerbated the effect of poor nutrition resulting in extended post-partum anoestrus and low conception rates. Controlled mating and suckling together with good feeding strategies may greatly enhance reproductive performance of cows kept under extensive systems of management.

  15. Tritrichomonas foetus Prevention and Control in Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondrak, Jeff D

    2016-07-01

    Bovine trichomoniasis has been recognized as a pathogen of the bovine reproductive tract for nearly 100 years. Although characteristics of the causative organism, Tritrichomonas foetus lend to control and there are examples of disease eradication, cattle producers are still faced with this disease. This article highlights the clinical presentation, magnitude of effect, risk factors, epidemiology, and sample collection and suggests applications in developing herd-level control measures for beef cattle producers including testing strategies for control, testing strategies for surveillance, strategies to eliminate trichomoniasis from infected herds, and strategies for prevention in uninfected herds.

  16. Assessment of single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes residing on chromosomes 14 and 29 for association with carcass composition traits in Bos indicus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, E; White, S N; Riley, D G; Smith, T P L; Brenneman, R A; Olson, T A; Johnson, D D; Coleman, S W; Bennett, G L; Chase, C C

    2005-01-01

    Objective of this study was to assess the association of SNP in the diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1), thyroglobulin (TG), and micromolar calcium-activated neutral protease (CAPN1) genes with carcass composition and meat quality traits in Bos indicus cattle. A population of Brahman calves (n = 479) was developed in central Florida from 1996 to 2000. Traits analyzed were ADG, hip height, slaughter weight, fat thickness, HCW, marbling score, LM area, estimated KPH fat, yield grade, retail yield, sensory panel tenderness score, carcass hump height, and cooked meat tenderness measured as Warner-Bratzler shear force at 7, 14, and 21 d postmortem. Single nucleotide polymorphisms previously reported in the TG and DGAT1 genes were used as markers on chromosome 14. Two previously reported and two new SNP in the CAPN1 gene were used as markers on chromosome 29. One SNP in CAPN1 was uninformative, and another one was associated with tenderness score (P Brahman population than in reported allele frequencies in Bos taurus populations. The results suggest that the use of molecular marker information developed in Bos taurus populations to Bos indicus populations may require development of appropriate additional markers.

  17. The Genetic Diversity and Phylogenetic Status of Luxi Cattle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Yong-jiang; CHANG Hong; YANG Zhang-ping; XU Ming; ZHANG Liu; CHANG Guo-bin; SONG Wei-tao; WANG Dong-lei

    2006-01-01

    A total of 87 individuals of Luxi cattle from Juanchen and Liangshan counties, Shangdong Province, China, were sampled by simple random sampling in typical colony. Twenty-one blood proteins and enzymes loci were detected by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and starch gel electrophoresis (SGE). In the meantime, the data of 7 loci of 13 cattle populations in China and other countries were collected and phylogeny relationships were studied. The results indicated that 9 out of 21 loci showed polymorphism (42.86%); the level of genetic variation in Luxi cattle population was relatively high, the mean heterozygosity was 0.1416. The Luxi cattle have a close phylogenetic relationship with the cattle populations of east and south of Asia, and this further confirmed the fact that Luxi cattle were the cross-breed between the Bos taurus and Bos indicus in China, but it is impossible that yellow cattle contained the blood of of Bali.

  18. Rooms for genetic improvement in Indonesian Bali cattle population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widyas, N.; Nugroho, T.; Prastowo, S.

    2017-04-01

    Bali cattle is a species of Bos javanicus d’Alton, a local cattle in Indonesia. They are loaded with potential as meat producer and well adapted to tropical climate and limited feed resources. Studies have been made to characterize the species. This paper presents a rough estimate of the opportunity to improve the Bali cattle population genetically. Our aim is to endorse that the Bali cattle could be both superior and efficient as tropical meat producer cattle. Results shows that Bali cattle population size is decreasing for the last years with a possibility to be accompanied by genetic quality decline. However, there is hope in improving Bali cattle genetically by a proper breeding strategy. This could also be an answer to the challenge of climate change which leads to global warming; where species adaptable to such environment is more beneficial in the future.

  19. Targeting cattle-borne zoonoses and cattle pathogens using a novel trypanosomatid-based delivery system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Adam Mott

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosomatid parasites are notorious for the human diseases they cause throughout Africa and South America. However, non-pathogenic trypanosomatids are also found worldwide, infecting a wide range of hosts. One example is Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum theileri, a ubiquitous protozoan commensal of bovids, which is distributed globally. Exploiting knowledge of pathogenic trypanosomatids, we have developed Trypanosoma theileri as a novel vehicle to deliver vaccine antigens and other proteins to cattle. Conditions for the growth and transfection of T. theileri have been optimised and expressed heterologous proteins targeted for secretion or specific localisation at the cell interior or surface using trafficking signals from Trypanosoma brucei. In cattle, the engineered vehicle could establish in the context of a pre-existing natural T. theileri population, was maintained long-term and generated specific immune responses to an expressed Babesia antigen at protective levels. Building on several decades of basic research into trypanosomatid pathogens, Trypanosoma theileri offers significant potential to target multiple infections, including major cattle-borne zoonoses such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Brucella abortus and Mycobacterium spp. It also has the potential to deliver therapeutics to cattle, including the lytic factor that protects humans from cattle trypanosomiasis. This could alleviate poverty by protecting indigenous African cattle from African trypanosomiasis.

  20. Badgers prefer cattle pasture but avoid cattle: implications for bovine tuberculosis control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodroffe, Rosie; Donnelly, Christl A; Ham, Cally; Jackson, Seth Y B; Moyes, Kelly; Chapman, Kayna; Stratton, Naomi G; Cartwright, Samantha J

    2016-10-01

    Effective management of infectious disease relies upon understanding mechanisms of pathogen transmission. In particular, while models of disease dynamics usually assume transmission through direct contact, transmission through environmental contamination can cause different dynamics. We used Global Positioning System (GPS) collars and proximity-sensing contact-collars to explore opportunities for transmission of Mycobacterium bovis [causal agent of bovine tuberculosis] between cattle and badgers (Meles meles). Cattle pasture was badgers' most preferred habitat. Nevertheless, although collared cattle spent 2914 collar-nights in the home ranges of contact-collared badgers, and 5380 collar-nights in the home ranges of GPS-collared badgers, we detected no direct contacts between the two species. Simultaneous GPS-tracking revealed that badgers preferred land > 50 m from cattle. Very infrequent direct contact indicates that badger-to-cattle and cattle-to-badger M. bovis transmission may typically occur through contamination of the two species' shared environment. This information should help to inform tuberculosis control by guiding both modelling and farm management.

  1. Cattle breeding goals and production circumstances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, A.F.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis gives the results of a study on the relationship between cattle breeding goals and production circumstances. The relationship between breeding goals and production circumstances mostly arises from the influences of production circumstances on the economic values of genetic

  2. Breeding for longevity in Italian Chianina cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forabosco, F.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to evaluate genetic aspects of longevity (LPL) in the Chianina beef cattle population in order to define how to include this trait in selection criteria. The Chianina breed has been raised for over twenty-two centuries inItaly

  3. On the history of cattle genetic resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felius, Marleen; Beerling, Marie Louise; Buchanan, David S.; Theunissen, Bert; Koolmees, Peter A.; Lenstra, Johannes A.

    2014-01-01

    Cattle are our most important livestock species because of their production and role in human culture. Many breeds that differ in appearance, performance and environmental adaptation are kept on all inhabited continents, but the historic origin of the diverse phenotypes is not always clear. We give

  4. Histopathological effects of boldenone in cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, M.J.; Biolatti, B.

    2004-01-01

    Histopathology of male cattle previously found positive for béta-boldenone in urine in the Netherlands and in Italy was studied. The animals were derived from practice and several weeks had passed after the finding of béta-boldenone before the animals were examined. The animals consisted of 34 male

  5. Predicting forage intake by grazing beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voluntary intake by cattle is controlled by a complex mix of physical and physiological factors that interact with a variety of environmental, geo-spatial, and experiential influences external to the animal. These factors are intensified in grazing ruminants, where selective grazing and variability...

  6. Reactive N emissions from beef cattle feedlots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Large amounts of nitrogen (N) are fed to meet the nutritional needs of beef cattle in feedlots. However, only from 10 to 15% of fed N is retained in animals. Most N is excreted. Chemical and biological processes transform manure N into ammonia, nitrous oxide and nitrate. These reactive forms of ...

  7. Mastitis associated transcriptomic disruptions in cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastitis is ranked as the top disease for dairy cattle based on traditional cost analysis. Greater than 100 organisms from a broad phylogenetic spectrum are able to cause bovine mastitis. Transcriptomic characterization facilitates our understanding of host-pathogen relations and provides mechanisti...

  8. Condensed tannins act against cattle nematodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novobilský, Adam; Mueller-Harvey, Irene; Thamsborg, Stig Milan

    2011-01-01

    The use of natural plant anthelmintics was suggested as a possible alternative control of gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) in ruminants. Direct anthelmintic effects of tannin-containing plants have already been shown in sheep and goat GIN. These anthelmintic properties are mainly associated with ...... extracts. Our results, therefore, indicated that tannin-containing plants could act against cattle nematodes....

  9. Cattle breeding goals and production circumstances.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, A.F.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis gives the results of a study on the relationship between cattle breeding goals and production circumstances. The relationship between breeding goals and production circumstances mostly arises from the influences of production circumstances on the economic values of geneticim

  10. 9 CFR 91.5 - Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... surveillance system at slaughter plants: Canada and Mexico. (b) Brucellosis. All cattle over 6 months of age shall be negative to a test for brucellosis conducted as prescribed in “Standard Agglutination Test Procedures for the Diagnosis of Brucellosis” 2 or “Supplemental Test Procedures for the Diagnosis...

  11. Vaccination of cattle animals against tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine TB (bTB), mainly caused by Mycobacterium bovis, is a significant economic burden to the agricultural industries worldwide. It has been estimated that 50 million cattle are infected with M. bovis worldwide resulting in around US $3 billion losses annually and this is despite attempts to contro...

  12. Linear Classification of Dairy Cattle. Slide Script.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipiorski, James; Spike, Peter

    This slide script, part of a series of slide scripts designed for use in vocational agriculture classes, deals with principles of the linear classification of dairy cattle. Included in the guide are narrations for use with 63 slides, which illustrate the following areas that are considered in the linear classification system: stature, strength,…

  13. Criollo cattle: Heritage genetics for arid landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirty cows and three bulls from the Chinipas region in the state of Chihuahua, Mexico, were introduced onto the US Department of Agriculture – Agricultural Research Service’s Jornada Experimental Range (JER) in 2005. Since then behavioral research has revealed these cattle, most accurately referre...

  14. Enhance beef cattle improvement by embryo biotechnologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, B; Zan, L

    2012-10-01

    Embryo biotechnology has become one of the prominent high businesses worldwide. This technology has evolved through three major changes, that is, traditional embryo transfer (in vivo embryo production by donor superovulation), in vitro embryo production by ovum pick up with in vitro fertilization and notably current cloning technique by somatic cell nuclear transfer and transgenic animal production. Embryo biotechnology has widely been used in dairy and beef cattle industry and commercial bovine embryo transfer has become a large international business. Currently, many developed biotechnologies during the period from early oocyte stage to pre-implantation embryos can be used to create new animal breeds and accelerate genetic progression. Based on recent advances in embryo biotechnologies and authors current studies, this review will focus on a description of the application of this technology to beef cattle improvement and discuss how to use this technology to accelerate beef cattle breeding and production. The main topics of this presentation include the following: (i) how to increase calf production numbers from gametes including sperm and oocyte; (ii) multiple ovulation and embryo transfer breeding schemes; (iii) in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasm sperm injection in bovine; (iv) pronuclear development and transgenic animals; (v) sex selection from sperm and embryos; (vi) cloning and androgenesis; (vii) blastocyst development and embryonic stem cells; (viii) preservation of beef cattle genetic resources; and (ix) conclusions. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Epigenetics and environmental impacts in cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter reviews the major advances in the field of epigenetics as well as the environmental impacts of cattle. Many findings from our own research endeavors related to the topic of this chapter are also introduced. The phenotypic characterization of an animal can be changed through epigenetic ...

  16. Arrested larval development in cattle nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, J; Duncan, M

    1987-06-01

    Most economically important cattle nematodes are able to arrest their larval development within the host - entering a period of dormancy or hypobiosis. Arrested larvae have a low death rate, and large numbers can accumulate in infected cattle during the grazing season. Because of this, outbreaks of disease caused by such nematodes can occur at times when recent infection with the parasites could not have occurred, for example during winter in temperature northern climates when cattle are normally housed. The capacity to arrest is a heritable trait. It is seen as an adaptation by the parasite to avoid further development to its free-living stages during times when the climate is unsuitable for free-living survival. But levels of arrestment can vary markedly in different regions, in different cattle, and under different management regimes. Climatic factors, previous conditioning, host immune status, and farm management all seem to affect arrestment levels. In this article, James Armour and Mary Duncan review the biological basis of the phenomenon, and discuss the apparently conflicting views on how it is controlled.

  17. Are methane production and cattle performance related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methane is a product of fermentation of feed in ruminant animals. Approximately 2 -12% of the gross energy consumed by cattle is released through enteric methane production. There are three primary components that contribute to the enteric methane footprint of an animal. Those components are dry ...

  18. Breeding for trypanotolerance in African cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waaij, van der E.H.

    2001-01-01

    Trypanosomosis, or sleeping sickness, is one of the most important livestock diseases in Africa. Some West African cattle breeds show a degree of resistance to a trypanosome infection: they are trypanotolerant. At the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) in Nairobi, Kenya, an F2 experim

  19. the Kuri cattle of Lake Chad Basin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1997-06-18

    Jun 18, 1997 ... A close look at a rare African breed —— the Kuri cattle of Lake Chad ..... tropical around the Lake and semi-arid and tropical away ... milked once daily in the dry season (December—May) and ...... Forest (Nigeria), 11, 19.

  20. Decision making on helminths in cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charlier, Johannes; Waele, De Valérie; Ducheyne, Els; Voort, van der Mariska; Vande Velde, Fiona; Claerebout, Edwin

    2016-01-01

    Helminth infections of cattle affect productivity in all classes of stock, and are amongst the most important production-limiting diseases of grazing ruminants. Over the last decade, there has been a shift in focus in the diagnosis of these infections from merely detecting presence/absence of inf

  1. 9 CFR 73.8 - Cattle infected or exposed during transit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cattle infected or exposed during... SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.8 Cattle infected or exposed during transit. (a) Healthy cattle from unquarantined State exposed en route. Should healthy cattle in transit from a State not quarantined by the...

  2. Significance of Neospora caninum in cattle farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Tamara

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Neospora caninum is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite which primarily causes diseases in dogs and cattle all over the world. It was first described in Norway in the mid-eighties in dogs, after which, until the present time, clinical neosporosis was proven in sheep, goats, deer, rhinoceroses, horses, and experimental rodents. Antibodies against N. caninum have been found also in the serum of water buffalo, red and gray foxes, coyotes, camels, and felines. Due to the similarity of this Coccidia with Toxoplasma gondi, the neosporosis was for a series of years incorrectly diagnozed as toxoplasmosis. Domestic canines, dogs, are the only real host for N. caninum. Its life cycle covers three stages of development: tachyzoites, tissue cysts and oocysts. Carnivores are infected by ingesting parts of infected tissue which contain tissue cysts with bradyzoites. The dominant pathway of transmission of this cause in cattle is transplacentary infection, but cattle can also be infected by ingestion of feed or water contaminated by sporulated oo-cysts of N. caninum. Bitches can be subclinical carriers of the parasite, when they pass on the cause transplacentarily, which results in more than one litter being born with the infection. Neosporosis today appears as the main cause of abortions and neonatal deaths in dairy cows and fattening cattle in almost all parts of the world, but with the highest incidence in the United States (US, New Zealand, The Netherlands, and Germany. The treatment of this disease has not been fully determined, but medicines used for the treatment of toxoplasmosis have yielded certain good results. There is no verified vaccine that would prevent undesired abortions in cattle. .

  3. Organophosphate poisoning in Ongole cattle in Sukamandi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulvian Sani

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available An integrated farming system between rice and beef cattle was initiated in 2000 in Sukamandi, West Java. However, since 2002 some cattle were suffering from neurological and ophthamological signs, and some of them were found dead after consuming rice straws. Field studies showed that 6 out of 12 cattle were suffered from eye disorders such as blindness, corneal opacity and sereous lacrimation. Two of 6 cattle were severely affected. But, neurological signs were not found during field observation. Pesticide analysis in rice straws shows that both groups of pesticide, organochlorines (OP and organophosphates (OP were detected. Residues of OC were higher than OP as shown as 14.41 vs 2.84 ppm (before processing for OC and 1.80 vs 0.0003 ppm (processed for OP consisting aldrin, lindane, dieldrin, endosulfan and chlorpyrifos methyl. There was only OC detected in sera consisting lindane (0.6–37.6 ppb; heptachlor (0.03–4.4 ppb; and aldrin (0.8–20.4 ppb with an average total of 21,4 ppb. The neurological and ophthalmological signs were suspected to be due to organophosphates (OPs contaminated-rice straws and any other factors such as insufficient vitamin A, magnesium and calcium. Feed replacement with fresh grasses for two cattle reduced corneal changes. Similar symptoms were also reproduced in Wistar rats dosed intraperitoneally with chlorpyriphos methyl. Clinical signs included incoordination, cachexia, eye disorder and corneal opacity. Necropsy showed hepatic injury (hepatic necrosis, mottling of hepatic surface and pale; pale kidneys; swollen of spleen and hyperaemic brain. Microscopic changes were found in brain, liver and eyes. Hepatic changes included haemorrhages, centrolobular hepatic necrosis and focal coagulative necrosis. Brains were showing focal necrosis, haemorrhages, vacuolisation, neuronal necrosis, chromatolysis and nucleolysis. Eyes appeared to have necrosis of tunica muscularis, haemorrhages and eosinophilic infiltration. The

  4. Genetic analysis of growth traits in Polled Nellore cattle raised on pasture in tropical region using Bayesian approaches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Brito Lopes

    Full Text Available Components of (covariance and genetic parameters were estimated for adjusted weights at ages 120 (W120, 240 (W240, 365 (W365 and 450 (W450 days of Polled Nellore cattle raised on pasture and born between 1987 and 2010. Analyses were performed using an animal model, considering fixed effects: herd-year-season of birth and calf sex as contemporary groups and the age of cow as a covariate. Gibbs Samplers were used to estimate (covariance components, genetic parameters and additive genetic effects, which accounted for great proportion of total variation in these traits. High direct heritability estimates for the growth traits were revealed and presented mean 0.43, 0.61, 0.72 and 0.67 for W120, W240, W365 and W450, respectively. Maternal heritabilities were 0.07 and 0.08 for W120 and W240, respectively. Direct additive genetic correlations between the weight at 120, 240, 365 and 450 days old were strong and positive. These estimates ranged from 0.68 to 0.98. Direct-maternal genetic correlations were negative for W120 and W240. The estimates ranged from -0.31 to -0.54. Estimates of maternal heritability ranged from 0.056 to 0.092 for W120 and from 0.064 to 0.096 for W240. This study showed that genetic progress is possible for the growth traits we studied, which is a novel and favorable indicator for an upcoming and promising Polled Zebu breed in Tropical regions. Maternal effects influenced the performance of weight at 120 and 240 days old. These effects should be taken into account in genetic analyses of growth traits by fitting them as a genetic or a permanent environmental effect, or even both. In general, due to a medium-high estimate of environmental (covariance components, management and feeding conditions for Polled Nellore raised at pasture in tropical regions of Brazil needs improvement and growth performance can be enhanced.

  5. Intake, digestibility, and rumen and metabolic characteristics of cattle fed low-quality tropical forage and supplemented with nitrogen and different levels of starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia de Oliveira Franco

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective Effects of nitrogen supplementation associated with different levels of starch on voluntary intake, digestibility, and rumen and metabolic characteristics of cattle fed low-quality tropical forage (Brachiaria decumbens hay, 7.4% crude protein, CP were evaluated using ruminal and abomasal cannulated steers. Methods Five European×Zebu young bulls (186 kg body weight, BW were distributed according to a 5×5 Latin square. The following treatments were evaluated: control, supplementation with 300 g CP/d (0:1, supplementation with 300 g starch/d and 300 g CP/d (1:1, supplementation with 600 g starch/d and 300 g CP/d (2:1, and supplementation with 900 g starch/d and 300 g CP/d (3:1. A mixture of nitrogenous compounds provided 1/3 from true protein (casein and 2/3 from non-protein nitrogen (mixture of urea and ammonium sulphate, 9:1 was used as the nitrogen supplement. In order to supply energy a unique source of corn starch was used. Results Supplements increased (p0.05 forage intake. There was a cubic effect (p0.05 neutral detergent fibre corrected for ash and protein (NDFap digestibility. There was a positive linear effect (p0.05 by the amount of supplemental starch. Ruminal ammonia nitrogen concentrations were higher (p<0.05 in supplemented animals, however, a negative linear effect (p<0.05 of amount of starch was observed. Supplements increased (p<0.05 the nitrogen balance (NB and efficiency of nitrogen utilization. These effects were attributed to increased body anabolism, supported by higher (p<0.05 serum concentration of insulin-like growth factor 1. Increasing the amount of starch tended (p<0.06 to linearly increase the NB. In spite of this, there was a highest NB value for the 2:1 starch:CP ratio amongst the treatments with supplementation. Conclusion Nitrogen supplementation in cattle fed low-quality tropical forage increases nitrogen retention in the animal’s body. An additional supply of starch increases nitrogen retention by

  6. Potential emigration of Siberian cattle germplasm on Chirikof Island, Alaska

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M. D. MACNEIL; L. J. ALEXANDER; J. KANTANEN; I. A. AMMOSOV; Z. I. IVANOVA; R. G. POPOV; M. OZEROV; A. MILLBROOKE; M. A. CRONIN

    2017-03-01

    Feral cattle residing in Chirikof Island, Alaska, are relatively distinct from breeds used in commercial production in North America. However, preliminary evidence suggested that they exhibit substantial genetic relationship with cattle fromYakutian region of Siberia. Thus, our objective was to further elucidate quantify the origins, admixture and divergence of the Chirikof Island cattle relative to cattle from Siberia and USA. Subject animals were genotyped at 15 microsatellite loci.Compared with Turano–Mongolian and North American cattle, Chirikof Island cattle had similar variation, with slightly less observed heterozygosity, fewer alleles per locus and a positive fixation index. Analysis of the genetic distances revealed two primary clusters; one that contained the North American breeds and the Kazakh White head, and a second that contained the Yakutian and Kalmyk breeds, and the Chirikof population. Thus, it is suggested that Chirikof Island cattle may be a composite of British breeds emanating from North America and Turano–Mongolian cattle. A potential founder effect, consistent withhistorical records of the Russian–American period, may contribute to the adaptation of the Chirikof Island cattle to their harsh high-latitude environment. Further study of adaptive mechanisms manifest by these cattle is warranted.

  7. Consumo e digestibilidade aparente total dos nutrientes e ganho de peso de bovinos de corte alimentados com silagem de Brachiaria brizantha e concentrado em diferentes proporções Intake and apparent digestibility of the nutrients and weight gain of beef cattle fed diets with different proportions of Brachiaria brizantha silage and concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Ceolin da Silva

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o consumo e as digestibilidades aparentes totais dos nutrientes e o ganho de peso de bovinos de corte recebendo dietas contendo concentrado e silagem de Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu nas seguintes proporções: 20:80, 35:65, 50:50 e 65:35, com base na matéria seca. Foram utilizados vinte e quatro animais castrados Holandês x Zebu, com peso vivo inicial médio de 364 kg, distribuídos em um delineamento em blocos casualizados. Por ocasião da ensilagem, procedeu-se o tratamento do capim com o inoculante enzimo-bacteriano Nutroeste 50 t. Para o cálculo da matéria seca fecal, utilizou-se a fibra em detergente ácido indigestível (FDAI como indicador. Os animais foram alojados em baias individuais e alimentados ad libitum. O ensaio teve duração de 84 dias, divididos em três períodos de 28 dias após 15 dias de adaptação. Os consumos médios de matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, proteína bruta (PB, extrato etéreo (EE e carboidratos totais (CHO e as digestibilidades aparentes totais de MS, MO, CHO e carboidratos não-fibrosos (CNF elevaram linearmente com o aumento dos níveis de concentrado nas dietas. Comportamento semelhante foi observado para o ganho de peso médio diário, estimando-se incrementos de 0,0184 kg/unidade de concentrado adicionado. Contudo, as digestibilidades aparentes de PB, EE e fibra em detergente neutro (FDN não foram influenciadas pelas dietas, registrando-se, respectivamente, valores médios de 77, 88 e 60%. Silagem de Brachiaria brizantha não-emurchecida, constituindo 50% da dieta de bovinos H x Z, promoveu ganhos de peso em torno de 1,0 kg/dia.Intake and total apparent digestibilities of the nutrients and average daily gains (ADG by beef cattle fed diets based on concentrate and Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu silage in the following proportions: 20:80, 35:65, 50:50 and 65:35, in dry matter basis were evaluated. Twenty-four crossbred (Holstein x Zebu steers, with initial live weight of

  8. Beef cattle welfare evaluation during the dry season in the northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cattle welfare index was estimated through 14 visual indicators in the cow-calf ... water availability; water distribution; water distance; water appearance; heat ... cold protection through management; cattle docility and cattle body condition.

  9. Mycobacteria in Terrestrial Small Mammals on Cattle Farms in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durnez, Lies; Katakweba, Abdul; Sadiki, Harrison

    2011-01-01

    The control of bovine tuberculosis and atypical mycobacterioses in cattle in developing countries is important but difficult because of the existence of wildlife reservoirs. In cattle farms in Tanzania, mycobacteria were detected in 7.3% of 645 small mammals and in cow's milk. The cattle farms were...... and PCR in the small mammals were atypical mycobacteria. Analysis of the presence of mycobacteria in relation to the reactor status of the cattle farms does not exclude transmission between small mammals and cattle but indicates that transmission to cattle from another source of infection is more likely....... However, because of the high prevalence of mycobacteria in some small mammal species, these infected animals can pose a risk to humans, especially in areas with a high HIV-prevalence as is the case in Tanzania....

  10. Analysis of a multi patch dynamical model about cattle brucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Zhang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The dissemination of cattle brucellosis in Zhejiang province of China can be attributed to the transport of cattle between cities within the province. In this paper,an n-patch dynamical model is proposed to study the effect of cattle dispersal on brucellosis spread. Theoretically,we analyze the dynamical behavior of the muti-patch model. For the 2-patch submodel,sensitivity analyses of the basic reproduction number R0 and the number of the infectious cattle in term of model parameters are carried out. By numerical analysis,it is obtained that the dispersal of susceptible cattle between patches and the centralization of infected cattle to the large scale patch can alleviate the epidemic and are in favor of the control of disease in the whole region.

  11. Feedlot cattle with calm temperaments have higher average daily gains than cattle with excitable temperaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voisinet, B D; Grandin, T; Tatum, J D; O'Connor, S F; Struthers, J J

    1997-04-01

    This study was conducted to assess the effect of temperament on the average daily gains of feedlot cattle. Cattle (292 steers and 144 heifers) were transported to Colorado feedlot facilities. Breeds studied included Braford (n = 177), Simmental x Red Angus (n = 92), Red Brangus (n = 70), Simbrah (n = 65), Angus (n = 18), and Tarentaise x Angus (n = 14). Cattle were temperament rated on a numerical scale (chute score) during routine weighing and processing. Data were separated into two groups based on breed, Brahman cross (> or = 25% Brahman) and nonBrahman breeding. Animals that had Brahman breeding had a higher mean temperament rating (3.45 +/- .09) or were more excitable than animals that had no Brahman influence (1.80 +/- .10); (P < .001). These data also show that heifers have a higher mean temperament rating than steers (P < .05). Temperament scores evaluated for each breed group also showed that increased temperament score resulted in decreased average daily gains (P < .05). These data show that cattle that were quieter and calmer during handling had greater average daily gains than cattle that became agitated during routine handling.

  12. Estimativa de níveis críticos superiores do índice de temperatura e umidade para vacas leiteiras ¹/2, ³/4 e 7/8 Holandês-Zebu em lactação Estimation of upper critical levels of the temperature-humidity index for ½, 3/4 e 7/8 lactating Holstein-Zebu dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcílio de Azevedo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A temperatura retal (TR, freqüência respiratória (FR e temperatura da superfície corporal (TS foram avaliadas em vacas ½, ¾ e 7/8 Holandês-Zebu (HZ durante dois verões e dois invernos nos períodos da manhã e da tarde no Município de Coronel Pacheco - MG, Brasil. O objetivo nesta pesquisa foi estimar níveis críticos superiores do índice de temperatura e umidade (ITU para os grupos genéticos pesquisados. As medidas para análise de correlação e de regressão múltipla entre as variáveis foram obtidas de um grupo de 15 vacas em lactação por estação estudada, sendo cinco de cada um dos grupos genéticos ½, ¾ e 7/8HZ. Os resultados obtidos na análise de correlação evidenciaram que a freqüência respiratória (FR é um indicador de estresse térmico melhor que a temperatura retal (TR. Com base na TR, foram estimados valores críticos superiores de ITU iguais a 80, 77 e 75 para os grupos genéticos ½, ¾ e 7/8HZ, respectivamente. Considerando-se a FR, os valores críticos superiores de ITU estimados para os referidos grupos genéticos foram 79, 77 e 76, respectivamente. Com base na TS, estimou-se valor crítico superior de ITU igual a 79 para os três grupos genéticos estudados. Vacas do grupo genético ½HZ demonstraram maior tolerância ao calor que as 7/8HZ, enquanto as ¾HZ se situaram em posição intermediária.The objective of this trial was to estimate the upper critical levels of the temperature-humidity index (TUI measuring morning and afternoon rectal temperature (RT, respiratory rate (RF, and hair coat surface temperature (ST of ½, ¾ and 7/8Holstein-Zebu (HZ dairy cows during two consecutive years (two summers and two winters in Coronel Pacheco, MG, Brazil. Correlation and multiple analysis were determined using data obtained from 15 dairy crossbreed cows/season; five from each genetic group (GG. Results showed that RF was more reliable than RT as an indicator of heat stress based on both correlation and

  13. Seroepidemiology of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis infection in unvaccinated cattle

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study aimed to investigate the seroepidemiology of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) infection in the non-vaccinated cattle population in northern part of Tamil Nadu, India. Materials and Methods: A total of 255 sera samples were collected from cattle having the history of respiratory and reproductive disorder from cattle of different age, breeds, and sex. All the sera samples were subjected to indirect ELISA for the diagnosis of IBR antibodies. Results: Results reveale...

  14. Occurrence of haemoparasites in cattle in Monduli district, northern Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Isihaka J. Haji; Imna Malele; Boniface Namangala

    2014-01-01

    Haemoparasite infections are among the most economically important cattle diseases in sub-Saharan Africa. The present study investigated the occurrence of haemoparasites in 295 indigenous cattle from five villages (Mswakini, Lake Manyara, Naitolia, Makuyuni and Nanja) of the Monduli district, a wildlife-domestic animal-human interface area in northern Tanzania. The data showed that the overall occurrence of haemoparasites in the sampled cattle was 12.5% (95% CI: 8.7% – 16.3%), involving singl...

  15. A DECISION SUPPORT AID FOR BEEF CATTLE INVESTMENT USING EXPERT SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence L. Falconer; Long, Charles R.; McGrann, James M.

    1996-01-01

    The beef cattle investment decision provides an excellent opportunity to increase the economic efficiency of beef cattle production. The investment questions that face beef cattle producers are of interest to beef cattle producers, educators, and financial institutions involved in lending to beef cattle producing firms. This study develops a decision support aid utilizing expert system technology to assist beef cattle producers in making well-founded investment decisions with respect to the f...

  16. Vampire bat-transmitted rabies in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano-Sota, C

    1988-01-01

    A short history of bovine paralytic rabies in the Americas is given. Based on information from the Animal Health Yearbook--a cooperative publication of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the World Health Organization (WHO), and the International Office of Epizootics (OIE)--a comparison is made of the epidemiology of the disease in 1968, 1978, and 1985. An important reduction in the number of cases of rabies was observed in some countries (Bolivia, Brazil, Guatemala, Mexico, Nicaragua, and Panama), mainly as a result of the use of effective vaccines that are now available and of the application of new technology to reduce the vampire bat population, the vector of the disease in cattle. The trials performed in Argentina and Mexico in the 1960s and 1970s provide enough evidence that many vaccines will protect cattle against bovine paralytic rabies. Results of these trials are presented.

  17. Manufacturing Of Novelty Leather From Cattle Stomach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umme Habiba Bodrun Naher

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of turning cattle stomach into novelty leather and then leather product which would add value to end of cattle. Four pieces of green buffalo stomachs were taken through soaking liming deliming pickling tanning neutralization retanning dyeing and fat liquoring operation. Then mechanical operations like drying and staking operations were also done. Some physical tensile strength stitch tear strength and colour rub fastness and chemical chromic oxide content fat content and pH tests were accomplished .The results of physical tests were poor compared to the grain leather as the composition of raw outer coverings of animals and their stomachs are different. The stomach leathers could be used for making coin purse key case bracelet wrist watch belt ear-ring necklace hair band iPod case etc. as novelty leather product item.

  18. Clinical studies on mercury poisoning in cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonoda, M.; Nakamura, R.; Too, K.; Matsuhashi, A.; Ishimoto, H.; Sasaki, R.; Ishida, K.; Takahashi, M.

    1956-01-01

    A sporadic outbreak of an unknown disease occurred among dairy cattle, from early February to late May 1955, in Japan. The characteristic symptoms of this disease were dyspnea and depilation; out of 29 cases, 8 died while 2 were slaughtered. Clinical studies have disclosed that the symptoms were similar to those found in cases of mercury poisoning as described by others. So the animals' feed was suspected of being the cause of the sickness. It was confirmed that the incident was due to poisoning resulting from ingestion of linseed meal treated with a mercurial fungicide. From the results of the testing anamnesis, it was found that 171 cattle were fed with the meal and 29 cases were affected. In veiw of the wide use of mercurial preparations for treating seed grains against fungi infection, a further experimental study was made on the effects of the feed and fungicide upon calves.

  19. Applications of sexed semen in cattle production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenboken, W D

    1999-12-01

    Sexed semen will contribute to increased profitability of dairy and beef cattle production in a variety of ways. It could be used to produce offspring of the desired sex from a particular mating to take advantage of differences in value of males and females for specific marketing purposes. Commercial dairy farmers, those who produce and market milk, could use sexed semen to produce replacement daughters from genetically superior cows and beef crossbred sons from the remainder of their cow population. To increase the rate of response to selection, seedstock dairy cattle breeders could produce bulls for progeny testing from a smaller number of elite dams by using sexed semen to ensure that all of them produced a son. Using sexed semen could then reduce the cost of progeny testing those bulls, because fewer matings would be necessary to produce any required number of daughters. Commercial beef cattle farmers, producing animals for eventual slaughter, could use sexed semen to capitalize on the higher value of male than female offspring for meat production. They could also use sexed semen to produce specialized, genetically superior replacement heifers from as small a proportion of the herd as possible. This would allow the remainder of the herd to produce male calves from bulls or breeds with superior genetic merit for growth, feed conversion efficiency, and carcass merit. Single-sex, bred-heifer systems, in which each female is sold for slaughter soon after weaning her replacement daughter, would be possible with the use of X-chromosome-sorted semen. Use of sexed semen would make terminal crossbreeding systems more efficient and sustainable in beef cattle. Fewer females would be required to produce specialized maternal crossbred daughters, and more could be devoted to producing highly efficient, terminal crossbred sons.

  20. Beef cattle growing and backgrounding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peel, Derrell S

    2003-07-01

    The stocker industry is one of many diverse production and marketing activities that make up the United States beef industry. The stocker industry is probably the least understood industry sector and yet it plays a vital role in helping the industry exploit its competitive advantage of using forage resources and providing an economical means of adjusting the timing and volume of cattle and meat in a complex market environment.

  1. A simple solution to Archimedes' cattle problem

    OpenAIRE

    Nygrén, A. (Antti)

    2001-01-01

    Abstract A simple solution to the classical Archimedes' cattle problem is given. Unlike the previous ones, this is mainly based on elementary mathematics which, at least in principle, would have been available to the mathematicians of the classical era. The solution applies linear transformation and infinite descent in solving quadratic Diophantine equations in a manner which does not explicitly take advantage of continued fractions. The idea is to create a sequence of tran...

  2. Investigation of haemoglobin polymorphism in Ogaden cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjoy Kumar Pal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: The Ogaden cattle is one among the tropical cattle breeds (Bos indicus widely distributed in eastern and south eastern part of Ethiopia. The breed has been evolved in arid and semi arid agro-ecological setup, but later on distributed and adapted to the wide agro-ecological zones. Because of its multi-purpose role, the Ogaden cattle have been used for milk, beef, and income generation. Information on the inherent genetic diversity is important in the design of breeding improvement programmes, making rational decisions on sustainable utilization and conservation of Animal Genetic Resources. Limited information is available about genetic variation of Ogaden breed at molecular level. The present investigation was aimed to study the biochemical polymorphism at the Hemoglobin (Hb locus. Materials and Methods: Blood samples collected from 105 Ogaden cattle maintained at Haramaya beef farm by jugular vein puncture were subjected to agarose gel electrophoresis [pH range 8.4-8.5] to study the polymorphic activities of haemoglobin. Results: Three types of phenotypes were detected i.e. a slow moving (AA band, fast moving (BB band and a combination of slow + fast moving bands (AB. The frequency of the fast moving band was less [13 (12.3%] than the slow moving band [57 (54.2%]. Both slow & fast moving phenotype was observed in 35 (33.3% animals. The gene frequency of HBA allele was 0.709 and that of HBB allele 0.291. Conclusion: The distribution of phenotypes was in agreement with codominant single gene inheritance. The Chi-square (χ2 test revealed that the population is under Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.

  3. Integrated Bali Cattle Development Model Under Oil Palm Plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasali Hakim Matondang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bali cattle have several advantages such as high fertility and carcass percentage, easy adaptation to the new environment as well. Bali cattle productivity has not been optimal yet. This is due to one of the limitation of feed resources, decreasing of grazing and agricultural land. The aim of this paper is to describe Bali cattle development integrated with oil palm plantations, which is expected to improve productivity and increase Bali cattle population. This integration model is carried out by raising Bali cattle under oil palm plantation through nucleus estate scheme model or individual farmers estates business. Some of Bali cattle raising systems have been applied in the integration of palm plantation-Bali cattle. One of the intensive systems can increase daily weight gain of 0.8 kg/head, calfcrop of 35% per year and has the potency for industrial development of feed and organic fertilizer. In the semi-intensive system, it can improve the production of oil palm fruit bunches (PFB more than 10%, increase harvested-crop area to 15 ha/farmer and reduce the amount of inorganic fertilizer. The extensive system can produce calfcrop ³70%, improve ³30% of PFB, increase business scale ³13 cows/farmer and reduce weeding costs ³16%. Integrated Bali cattle development may provide positive added value for both, palm oil business and cattle business.

  4. Dental pathology in conventionally fed and pasture managed dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadden, A N; Poulsen, K P; Vanegas, J; Mecham, J; Bildfell, R; Stieger-Vanegas, S M

    2016-01-02

    Healthy teeth are important in the first stages of digestion for dairy cattle, yet little is known about bovine dental disease. This study aimed to investigate dental pathology of dairy cattle in two parts. First dairy cattle cadaver heads (n=11) were examined at the time of culling. Second, the authors performed oral exams in cattle fed a total mixed ration (TMR) (n=200) and pasture-based (n=71) grazing cattle. Cadaver heads were imaged using radiography and computed tomography before gross dissection to study dental anatomy and pathology. The most prevalent dental abnormalities were excessive transverse ridging of the occlusal surface, the presence of diastemas and third molar dental overgrowths (M3DO) in cadaver heads. Average thickness of subocclusal dentine ranged from 3.5 mm to 5.8 mm in cheek teeth but was >10 mm in maxillary teeth with M3DO. Radiographic findings were compared with oral examinations in live cattle. Prevalence of M3DO upon oral examination was 19 per cent and 28 per cent in herds of cattle fed a TMR diet and 0 per cent in a herd of grazing cattle. Dental abnormalities are prevalent in dairy cattle but due to thin subocclusal dentine in the cheek teeth, established equine dental treatment methodology is not appropriate for bovine cheek teeth with the exception of those that have developed M3DO.

  5. Utility and fertility of herd of milked cattle

    OpenAIRE

    NEJDLOVÁ, Emilie

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to analyze milk yield and fertility in dairy cattle herds ? combined (Czech Pied cattle) and dojného utility type (Holstein cattle ) in the same breeding system. Further culling was evaluated, the cost of feeding a day and milk production. Observations were carried out in the company Podhoran Černíkov, as in the time sequence of zootechnical 2 years (1st 10th 2009 - 30 9th 2011). By tracking a total of 310 cows of which 47 cows of Czech Pied cattle C1 (C 100 %), bre...

  6. Dynamics of Cattle Production in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Concepta; Barcellos, Júlio Otávio Jardim; Formenton, Bruna Krummenauer; Hermuche, Potira Meirelles; Carvalho, Osmar Abílio de; Guimarães, RenatoFontes; Gianezini, Miguelangelo; Dias, Eduardo Antunes; Lampert, Vinícius do Nascimento; Zago, Daniele; Neto, José Braccini

    2016-01-01

    Movement of livestock production within a country or region has implications for genetics, adaptation, well-being, nutrition, and production logistics, particularly in continental-sized countries, such as Brazil. Cattle production in Brazil from 1977 to 2011 was spatialized, and the annual midpoint of production was calculated. Changes in the relative production and acceleration of production were calculated and spatialized using ARCGIS®. Cluster and canonical discriminant analyses were performed to further highlight differences between regions in terms of cattle production. The mean production point has moved from the Center of Minas Gerais State (in the southeast region) to the North of Goiás State (in the Midwest region). This reflects changes in environmental factors, such as pasture type, temperature and humidity. Acceleration in production in the northern region of Brazil has remained strong over the years. More recently, "traditional" cattle-rearing regions, such as the south and southeast, showed a reduction in growth rates as well as a reduction in herd size or internal migration over the period studied. These maps showed that this movement tends to be gradual, with few regions showing high acceleration or deceleration rates.

  7. REPRODUCTIVE TRAITS SELECTION IN NELORE BEEF CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heverton Luis Moreira

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Genetic breeding programs of beef cattle in Brazil are including new features, mainly related to reproductive efficiency.Thus, it is necessary to study the effectiveness of selection and quantify genetic gain for these traits in herds. This study estimated genetic and phenotypic parameters and genetic trends for reproductive traits used in breeding programs for Nelore beef cattle. The traits studied were the scrotal circumference (SC at 365 and 450 days of age (SC365 and SC450, age at first calving (AFC and gestation length, as a cow trait (GLcow and a calf trait (GLcalf. The (covariance components were obtained with the Restricted Maximum Likelihood Methodology in a single and double-trait analysis of the animal model. For scrotal circumference (SC365 and SC450, positive and favorable genetic gains were observed. For AFC, GLcow and GLcalf, the trends were favorable for selection, but without significant genetic gain. Selection for large SC may reduce AFC and improve female reproductive efficiency. The selection for reproductive traits (SC365, SC450, AFC and GL may improve reproductive and productive efficiency of Nelore cattle, if used as a selection criterion.

  8. Organic additives in concentrate supplementation of beef cattle grazing Aditivos orgânicos no suplemento concentrado de bovinos de corte mantidos em pastagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Vera Martins Franco

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Organic additives have relevant potential for substitution of antibiotic or ionophorus used in supplements of beef cattle on grazing to increase the heard efficiency and also to avoid sanitary and environmental problems. Thirty zebu cattle of Nellore breed with average initial body weight of 228 +/- kg and approximately 12 months of age were designed in a total random experiment, remaining groups of five animals in six areas of 1.0 ha each of Brachiaria brizantha grass to evaluate the performance in grazing beef cattle with the use of organic additives in the protein-energy supplementation. The treatments were three types of supplements (600 g/animal/d: SC = Control supplement, comprehending a commercial supplement, Premiphos Campo Extra; AGE = SC added an organic mix of commercial essential fatty acids, the Fator Premium and AGEF = AGE supplement added with phosphatidylcholine. The experiment was conducted during the rainy season in 87 d with 28 d earlier as adjustment period. There was no significant difference in average weight gain among the animals supplemented with AGE (826.4 g /d and AGEF (863.2 g /d, but they had superior performance (P<0.05 those animals receiving SC (731,0 g /d. The use of organic additive AGE and the same associated with phosphatidylcholine increased the average daily weight gain of 13 and 18%, respectively, in cattle on Brachiaria brizantha grass pasture with protein-energy supplementation during the rainy season period, indicating improvement in the animal performance in these conditions.Aditivos orgânicos apresentam relevante potencial para a substituição de antibióticos ou ionóforos usados em suplementos de bovinos de corte criados em pastagens, visando aumentar a eficiência do rebanho e, também, evitar problemas sanitários e ambientais. Trinta bovinos da raça Nelore com peso vivo inicial médio de 228 kg (228,6 +/- 9,7 e aproximadamente 12 meses de idade foram distribuídos em experimento inteiramente

  9. INTAKE, DIGESTIBILITY AND PERFORMANCE OF BEEF CATTLE RECEIVING DIETS CONTAINING UREA IN DIFFERENT PROPORTIONS CONSUMO E DIGESTIBILIDADE DOS NUTRIENTES E DESEMPENHO DE BOVINOS DE CORTE RECEBENDO DIETAS COM DIFERENTES NÍVEIS DE URÉIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião de Campos Valadares Filho

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Intake, apparent digestibility of nutrients, daily gain, feed conversion and the carcass yield in beef cattle receiving diets containing 0; 0.5; 1.0 e 1.5% of urea in total dry matter were evaluated. Twenty four crossed steers Holstein x Zebu (HxZ, castrated, with initial mean body weight of 290 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design. Sorghum silage was used as roughage adopting relation roughage:concentrate of 70:30 in dry matter basis. In order to determine the fecal excretion, indigestible acid detergent fiber was used as a marker. Intake and digestibility of nutrients were not influenced (P>0.05 by the proportions of urea in the diets. For intake and apparent digestibility of dry matter, mean values of 8.42 kg/day or 2.33% of BW and 64.52% were registered, respectively. Mean daily gain (1.05kg, feed conversion (8.07 and carcass yield (48.72% were not influenced (P>0.05 by the proportions of urea in the diets. Levels of 1.5% of urea in dry matter of total diet can be used in the preparation of diets for finishing beef cattle (HxZ, without compromising intake and digestibility of nutrients and the animal performance as well.

    KEY WORDS: Carcass yield, feed conversion, feedlot, sorghum silage.

    Avaliaram-se o consumo e a digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes, o ganho de peso, a conversão alimentar e o rendimento de carcaça em bovinos de corte recebendo dietas contendo 0%; 0,5%; 1,0% e 1,5% de uréia na matéria seca total. Foram utilizados 24 animais mestiços Holandês x Zebu (HxZ, castrados, com peso vivo inicial médio de 290 kg, distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Utilizou-se a silagem de sorgo como volumoso numa relação volumoso:concentrado de 70:30, com base na matéria seca. Para determinação da excreção fecal, utilizou-se a fibra em detergente ácido indigestível como indicador. O consumo e a

  10. Interactions between Temperament, Stress, and Immune Function in Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. C. Burdick

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The detrimental effects caused by stressors encountered by animals during routine handling can pose economic problems for the livestock industry due to increased costs ultimately borne by the producer and the consumer. Stress adversely affects key physiological processes of the reproductive and immune systems. In recent years stress responsiveness has been associated with cattle behavior, specifically temperament. Cattle with more excitable temperaments, as measured by chute score, pen score, and exit velocity (flight speed, exhibit greater basal concentrations of glucocorticoids and catecholamines. Similar to stressed cattle, more temperamental cattle (i.e., cattle exhibiting greater exit velocity or pen and chute scores have poorer growth performance, carcass characteristics, and immune responses. Thus, understanding the interrelationship of stress and temperament can help in the development of selection and management practices that reduce the negative influence of temperament on growth and productivity of cattle. This paper discusses the relationship between stress and temperament and the developing evidence of an effect of temperament on immune function of cattle that have been handled or restrained. Specifically, the paper discusses different methodologies used to measure temperament, including chute score, pen score, and exit velocity, and discusses the reaction of cattle to different stressors including handling and restraint.

  11. A live vaccine against Neospora caninum abortions in cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    N. caninum has emerged as a major cause of abortion in dairy and beef cattle and it is estimated to be responsible for losses in excess of a billion dollars annually, in cattle industries worldwide. Yet, after more than 25 years of research on this parasite, the control options for this disease appe...

  12. Epidemiology of Cryptosporidium infection in cattle in China: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong Chao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present review discusses the findings of cryptosporidiosis research conducted in cattle in China and highlights the currently available information on Cryptosporidium epidemiology, genetic diversity, and distribution in China, which is critical to understanding the economic and public health importance of cryptosporidiosis transmission in cattle. To date, 10 Cryptosporidium species have been detected in cattle in China, with an overall infection rate of 11.9%. The highest rate of infection (19.5% was observed in preweaned calves, followed by that in juveniles (10.69%, postweaned juveniles (9.0%, and adult cattle (4.94%. The dominant species were C. parvum in preweaned calves and C. andersoni in postweaned, juvenile, and adult cattle. Zoonotic Cryptosporidium species (C. parvum and C. hominis were found in cattle, indicating the possibility of transmission between humans and cattle. Different cattle breeds had significant differences in the prevalence rate and species of Cryptosporidium. This review demonstrates an age-associated, breed-associated, and geographic-related occurrence of Cryptosporidium and provides references for further understanding of the epidemiological characteristics, and for preventing and controlling the disease.

  13. Streptococcus agalactiae Serotype IV in Humans and Cattle, Northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyhs, Ulrike; Kulkas, Laura; Katholm, Jorgen;

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is an emerging pathogen of nonpregnant human adults worldwide and a reemerging pathogen of dairy cattle in parts of Europe. To learn more about interspecies transmission of this bacterium, we compared contemporaneously collected isolates from humans and cattle in Finland...

  14. Phenotypic characteristics of local cattle in Madura Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maylinda, Sucik; Nugroho, H.; Busono, W.

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the research is to (1) analyze phenotypic variance both qualitative and quantitative characters in Madura cattle, (2) to analyze the relationship between that characters and body weight. Cattle studied were located in Waru and Pademawu subdistrict, Pamekasan district, Indonesia. The sampling technique was accidental sampling. Subject animals were 8-20 month-old cows, grouped into 2 age groups of 1 years old. Both qualitative and quantitative phenotypic characteristics were recorded. Qualitative characteristics were the color of the body, white color in bottom and leg, black color at the back, and the presence of horns. Quantitative characteristics were the head index, body weight, chest girth (CG), body height (BH), body length (BL), and body condition score (BCS). Data were analyzed with correlation and regression analyses. Results showed that qualitative characteristics of the Madura local cattle were all those of the reference Madura cattle standard, such as the white color of leg and bottom, with small head indexes. We found that (1) most of Madura Local cattle had the standard Madura cattle characteristics in both sexes, and (2) the best cattle, in terms of body weight, can be selected based on chest girth rather than other measurements, which is advantageous because measuring the chest circumference is quicker and easier than directly measuring cattle weight in rural villages.

  15. Epidemiology of Cryptosporidium infection in cattle in China: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chao; Cao, Xue-Feng; Deng, Lei; Li, Wei; Huang, Xiang-Ming; Lan, Jing-Chao; Xiao, Qi-Cheng; Zhong, Zhi-Jun; Feng, Fan; Zhang, Yue; Wang, Wen-Bo; Guo, Ping; Wu, Kong-Ju; Peng, Guang-Neng

    2017-01-01

    The present review discusses the findings of cryptosporidiosis research conducted in cattle in China and highlights the currently available information on Cryptosporidium epidemiology, genetic diversity, and distribution in China, which is critical to understanding the economic and public health importance of cryptosporidiosis transmission in cattle. To date, 10 Cryptosporidium species have been detected in cattle in China, with an overall infection rate of 11.9%. The highest rate of infection (19.5%) was observed in preweaned calves, followed by that in juveniles (10.69%), postweaned juveniles (9.0%), and adult cattle (4.94%). The dominant species were C. parvum in preweaned calves and C. andersoni in postweaned, juvenile, and adult cattle. Zoonotic Cryptosporidium species (C. parvum and C. hominis) were found in cattle, indicating the possibility of transmission between humans and cattle. Different cattle breeds had significant differences in the prevalence rate and species of Cryptosporidium. This review demonstrates an age-associated, breed-associated, and geographic-related occurrence of Cryptosporidium and provides references for further understanding of the epidemiological characteristics, and for preventing and controlling the disease. PMID:28098070

  16. Denitrification in nitric-acid-treated cattle slurry during storage.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oenema, O.; Velthof, G.L.

    1993-01-01

    Lowering the pH of cattle slurry with HNO3 was used to reduce NH3 volatilization during storage and after application. Incubation studies were carried out to examine possible NO3 losses and N2O emission from HNO3 treated slurry during storage. Batches of cattle slurry were treated with various

  17. 9 CFR 78.8 - Brucellosis exposed cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed cattle. 78.8... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.8 Brucellosis exposed...

  18. Field study on nematode resistance in Nelore-breed cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bricarello, P A; Zaros, L G; Coutinho, L L; Rocha, R A; Kooyman, F N J; De Vries, E; Gonçalves, J R S; Lima, L G; Pires, A V; Amarante, A F T

    2007-01-01

    The present study evaluated Nelore cattle with different degrees of resistance to natural infections by gastrointestinal nematodes. One hundred weaned male cattle, 11-12 months of age, were kept on the same pasture and evaluated from October 2003 to February 2004. Faecal and blood samples were colle

  19. Development of breeding objectives for beef cattle breeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mnr J F Kluyts

    The purpose of this article is to review the development of breeding objectives in beef cattle ... selection criteria, and estimation of phenotypic and genetic parameters. ... Unfortunately, the evolution from a performance .... The beef cattle industry has a history of chasing and promoting maximum values (e.g. maximum weight).

  20. Environmental sensitivity in dairy cattle with focus on fertility traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ismael, Ahmed; Løvendahl, Peter; Strandberg, Erling

    2012-01-01

    Dairy cattle differ in production, fertility, health, and other important traits in the different environment as both the phenopypic and genetic level (Winding et la., 2005 and Calus et al., 2005). Fertility of Nordic dairy cattle breeds (Holstein, Red, Jersey) is a complex trait and the heritabi...

  1. On the Breeds of Cattle - Historic and Current Classifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felius, Marleen; Koolmees, Peter A; Theunissen, Bert

    2011-01-01

    Classification of cattle breeds contributes to our understanding of the history of cattle and is essential for an effective conservation of genetic diversity. Here we review the various classifications over the last two centuries and compare the most recent classifications with genetic data...

  2. Spatiotemporal cattle data - a plea for protocol standardization

    Science.gov (United States)

    It was not until the end of the 1990’s that animal born satellite receiver’s catapulted range cattle ecology into the 21st century world of microchip technology with all of its opportunities and challenges. With the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) insight into how cattle use a landscape i...

  3. evaluation of cattle rearer's knowledge, attitude and practices about ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    the effect of Tsetse fly to their cattle. ... cattle and the use of pour- on in the control of tsetse fly in the districts should bee raised among ... livestock in many parts of the tropics and subtropics. ... In man, the African human trypanosomosis or.

  4. Controle ultra-sonográfico de gestações, de mortalidades embrionárias e fetais e do sexo de fetos bovinos zebuínos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breno José Pelozo de Barros

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avaliou a eficácia do ultra-som no diagnóstico precoce de prenhez e nas avaliações das mortalidades embrionárias e fetais e dos sexos de fetos em dois grupos de vacas zebuínas. Os animais que não retornaram ao estro aos 21 dias da Inseminação Artificial (G1 ou aos 14 dias da Transferência de Embriões (G2B foram examinados aos 25 dias de gestação para o diagnóstico precoce de prenhez, aos 45 dias para avaliação das perdas embrionárias entre 26 e 45 dias e aos 60 dias para avaliações das perdas fetais entre 45 e 60 dias e dos sexos de fetos. O Grupo G2A foi examinado por palpação retal aos 45 dias para diagnóstico de prenhez e aos 60 dias para avaliações das perdas fetais e dos sexos de fetos. As taxas de prenhez foram, respectivamente, 94,6%, 88,1% e 83,4% aos 25, 45 e 60 dias de gestação. As taxas de perdas embrionárias e fetais e de abortos foram, respectivamente, 4,6%, 4,7% e 1,2%. As taxas de acertos do diagnóstico precoce de gestação e dos sexos de fetos foram 88,5% e 90,7%, respectivamente. A ultra-sonografia mostrou-se eficaz no diagnóstico precoce de prenhez aos 25 dias, nas avaliações das perdas embrionárias aos 45 dias e fetais aos 60 dias e no diagnóstico do sexo de fetos a partir dos 60 dias de gestação. Os exames ultra-sonográficos não causaram perdas gestacionais nos animais Bos indicus ou Bos indicus X Bos taurus.

  5. Airborne microbial flora in a cattle feedlot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, S C; Morrow-Tesch, J; Straus, D C; Cooley, J D; Wong, W C; Mitlöhner, F M; McGlone, J J

    2002-07-01

    A total of 1,408 cattle held in eight commercial feedlot pens were used to examine the quantity and diversity of microorganisms in cattle feedlot air. The effect of two feeding patterns on the generation of airborne dust and the total numbers of microorganisms was also examined (four feedlot pens/treatment). Microbial samples were collected, and dust particles that were 2.5 microm or less in diameter were measured with a Dustrak monitor during the evening dust peak for 4 days at sites both upwind and downwind of the feedlot pens. An Andersen biological cascade sampler was employed with different medium and incubation combinations for the capture and identification of bacteria and fungi. The results showed that when bacteria were considered, only nonpathogenic gram-positive organisms were recovered. However, gram-negative bacteria may have been present in a viable but nonculturable state. Fungi were recovered in smaller numbers than bacteria, and none of the fungi were pathogenic. The Dustrak results showed that one feeding pattern resulted in cattle behavior that generated levels of downwind dust lower (P = 0.04) than the levels generated by the behavior resulting from the other feeding pattern. However, the Andersen sampler results showed that there were no differences between feeding patterns with regard to the total number or diversity of microorganisms. The disparity may have been due to the different operating principles of the two systems. The overall numbers of microorganisms recovered were lower than those reported in studies of intensively housed farm animals in which similar recovery techniques were used.

  6. Milestones in beef cattle genetic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, B L; Garrick, D J; Benyshek, L L

    2009-04-01

    National beef cattle genetic evaluation programs have evolved in the United States over the last 35 yr to create important tools that are part of sustainable breeding programs. The history of national beef cattle genetic evaluation programs has lessons to offer the next generation of researchers as new approaches in molecular genetics and decision support are developed. Through a series of complex and intricate pressures from technology and organizational challenges, national cattle evaluation programs continue to grow in importance and impact. Development of enabling technologies and the interface of the disciplines of computer science, numerical methods, statistics, and quantitative genetics have created an example of how academics, government, and industry can work together to create more effective solutions to technical problems. The advent of mixed model procedures was complemented by a series of breakthrough discoveries that made what was previously considered intractable a reality. The creation of modern genetic evaluation procedures has followed a path characterized by a steady and constant approach to identification and solution for each technical problem encountered. At its core, the driving force for the evolution has been the need to constantly improve the accuracy of the predictions of genetic merit for breeding stock, especially young animals. Sensible approaches, such as the principle of economically relevant traits, were developed that created the rules to be followed as the programs grew. However, the current systems are far from complete or perfect. Modern genetic evaluation programs have a long way to go, and a great deal of improvement in the accuracy of prediction is still possible. But the greatest challenge remains: the need to understand that genetic predictions are only parameters for decision support procedures and not an end in themselves.

  7. Acute fasciolosis in cattle in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Lourdes Adrien

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the epidemiological and pathological aspects of an outbreak of acute fasciolosis in cattle in southern Brazil. Fifteen out of 70 three-year-old pregnant cows lost weight in the 30-40 days prior to calving. Clinical signs included diarrhea, weakness, mild anemia and jaundice. Dark yellow fluid in the abdominal cavity was observed at necropsy. Fibrin and clotted blood were adhered to the pericardium and lung, primarily in the diaphragmatic lobes. The liver was enlarged, and the capsular surface was irregular with clear areas and petechiae. At the cut surface, the liver was irregular, firm and edematous, and several hemorrhagic channels could be observed. Areas of fibrosis through the parenchyma and whitish thrombi occluding the great vessels were also observed. The livers of 10 cows that not died were condemned at slaughter for lesions of fasciolosis similar to those observed at necropsy. Microscopically, the liver showed areas of coagulation necrosis, extensive hemorrhages in the streaks or foci and disruption of the parenchyma with neutrophil and eosinophil infiltration. Fibrosis and bile duct proliferation were also observed. Immature Fasciola hepatica flukes were observed in the parenchyma surrounded by degenerated hepatocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, and hemorrhages. The outbreak occurred on a farm located in an area endemic for fasciolosis, although the acute form of the disease is not common in cattle in this region. It is likely that the cows were infected by F. hepatica metacercariae released in the late fall or early spring in the rice stubble where the herd was grazing prior to calving. Although mortality due to fasciolosis in cattle is infrequent, outbreaks can occur and treatments that are effective in both the immature and adult forms of the parasite should be administered to prevent economic losses.

  8. Evaluation of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for detection of cattle in the Cattle Fever Tick Permanent Quarantine Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    An unmanned aerial vehicle was used to capture videos of cattle in pastures to determine the efficiency of this technology for use by Mounted Inspectors in the Permanent Quarantine zone (PQZ) of the Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program in south Texas along the U.S.-Mexico Border. These videos were ...

  9. Embryonic stem cells in pig and cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maddox-Hyttel, Poul; Wolf, Xenia Asbæk; Rasmussen, Mikkel Aabech

    2007-01-01

    transmission in chimaeras has never been obtained. Due to this incomplete characterization of the cell lines, the expression embryonic stem (ES)-like cells is presently used in pig and cattle. The ICM or epiblast can be isolated from the blastocyst by whole blastocyst culture, mechanical isolation...... will be available over the coming years. However, in order to reach this goal further systematic research is needed. Such cell lines hold promises for developing adequate models for human ES cell therapy and they may open for new avenues for the production of genetically modified animals as the ES cells ahve...

  10. Fluorosis of cattle in the Wroclaw province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohosiewicz, M.; Jopek, Z.

    1975-01-01

    Fluorosis of cattle and sheep was diagnosed in the neighborhood of glassworks and a superphosphate mill. In cows there was a brown color and loss of the enamel on incisive teeth, uneven detrition of molar teeth, osseous lesions in teeth and limb bones, and in some animals also swelling and painfulness of limb joints, hobble and cachexia. In sheep the lesions were observed in teeth only. Exacerbation of the lesions in the animals coming from the neighborhood of the glass works was greater than in those coming from the neighborhood of the superphosphate mill. There was found no relation between exacerbation of the lesions in teeth and bones.

  11. Cholistan and Cholistani Breed of Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Farooq, H. A. Samad*, F. Sher1, M. Asim1 and M. Arif Khan2

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cholistan, once a green and prosperous land with the source of water being the ancient Hakra River, was also the cradle of great Hakra Valley Civilization. It is sprawled at an area of 26,000 Km2, located between the latitudes 27º42´and 29º45´North and longitudes 69º52´and 75º24´East. The bioclimatic system of Cholistan falls under the category of “tropical desert” with very scanty rainfall. Geomorphologically, the soils of Cholistan are a complex blend of river alluvium and Aeolin sands. Based on topography, type of soil and vegetation, this desert is divided into two geomorphic regions: the Lesser Cholistan (the Northern 7,770 Km² region and the Greater Cholistan (the Southern 18,130 Km² region. The primary source of water is rainfall which is utilized through natural depressions or man-made ponds called “Tobas” and “Dahars.” The secondary source is underground water which is brackish and salty and not fit for human/animal consumption. Two livestock production systems prevail under pastoralism in Cholistan viz. transhumanie and nomadic. Despite an uncertain, unpredictable rainfall, low humidity and extremes in temperatures, Cholistan has long been famous for raising different breeds of livestock, contributing a significant share to national milk, meat and wool output. The total livestock population estimated during 2006 was 12,09528, out of which 47% were cattle. Cholistani cattle are considered to be ancestor of the Sahiwal and are a thermo-tolerant, tick-resistant breed. Preliminary data on some productive and reproductive traits of Cholistani cows maintained at Govt. Livestock Station, Jugait Peer, Bahawalpur during the period 2005 to 2009 revealed the avergae values for the productive traits i.e. lactation length, lactation yield, dry period, service period and fat percentage in milk as 165 days, 1235 liters, 155 days, 121 days and 4.8%, respectively. Similarly, the average values for reproductive traits i.e. age at

  12. 内蒙古双峰驼乳及乳制品中乳杆菌的分离及其%STUDIES ON BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF LACTOBACILLUS FROM TOW-HUMPED CAMEL MILK AND ITS MILK PRODUCTS IN INNER MONGOLIAR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟和毕力格; 敖墩格日勒; 李少英; 王锂韫; 乌尼

    2001-01-01

    16 strains of lactobacillus were isolated from 11 samples oftow-humped camel milk and its milk products.Their biological properties were studied.According to the morphological character,physiological and biochemical reaction,they respectively belonged to 3 genus 6 species:5 strains of Lactobacillus casei subsp.casei,4 strains of Lactobacillus plantarum and strain of Lactobacillus delbruekii subsp.lactis. Most of strains belong to homofermentation.But AZ41-1 and AZ44-1 strains belong to heterofermentation Lactobacillus.Most strains had weak acid-producing abilities to solidify milk.%本实验主要对11份双峰骆驼乳样品进行了乳酸杆菌的分离和生物学特性的研究。将分离到的16株革兰氏阳性、过氧化氢酶试验阴性杆菌,分别鉴定为Lactobacilluscasei subsp. casei(5株)、Lactobacillus plantarum(4株)和Lactobacillus delbruekii subsp.lactis等同型发酵乳杆菌和2株异型发酵乳杆菌(AZ41-1和AZ44-1)。多数菌株为15℃生长良好,以中温性菌株占优势。脱脂乳中产酸量较低。

  13. 9 CFR 78.3 - Handling in transit of cattle and bison moved interstate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handling in transit of cattle and... PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS General Provisions § 78.3 Handling in transit of cattle and bison moved interstate. Cattle and bison moving interstate, except cattle and bison moved directly to a recognized...

  14. 9 CFR 73.5 - Interstate shipment of undiseased cattle from quarantined area; when permitted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... cattle from quarantined area; when permitted. 73.5 Section 73.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.5 Interstate shipment of undiseased cattle from quarantined area; when permitted. Cattle of any herd in any quarantined area, which herd is...

  15. 9 CFR 78.9 - Cattle from herds not known to be affected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cattle from herds not known to be... BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.9 Cattle from herds not known to be affected. Male cattle which are not test eligible and are from herds not known to...

  16. Peste des petits ruminants infection among cattle and wildlife in northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lembo, Tiziana; Oura, Christopher; Parida, Satya; Hoare, Richard; Frost, Lorraine; Fyumagwa, Robert; Kivaria, Fredrick; Chubwa, Chobi; Kock, Richard; Cleaveland, Sarah; Batten, Carrie

    2013-12-01

    We investigated peste des petits ruminants (PPR) infection in cattle and wildlife in northern Tanzania. No wildlife from protected ecosystems were seropositive. However, cattle from villages where an outbreak had occurred among small ruminants showed high PPR seropositivity, indicating that spillover infection affects cattle. Thus, cattle could be of value for PPR serosurveillance.

  17. Peste des Petits Ruminants Infection among Cattle and Wildlife in Northern Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lembo, Tiziana; Oura, Christopher; Parida, Satya; Hoare, Richard; Frost, Lorraine; Fyumagwa, Robert; Kivaria, Fredrick; Chubwa, Chobi; Kock, Richard; Batten, Carrie

    2013-01-01

    We investigated peste des petits ruminants (PPR) infection in cattle and wildlife in northern Tanzania. No wildlife from protected ecosystems were seropositive. However, cattle from villages where an outbreak had occurred among small ruminants showed high PPR seropositivity, indicating that spillover infection affects cattle. Thus, cattle could be of value for PPR serosurveillance. PMID:24274684

  18. Seneciosis in cattle associated with photosensitization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula R. Giaretta

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Senecio spp. poisoning is the main cause of cattle mortality in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul. This paper reports an outbreak of seneciosis in cattle with high prevalence of photosensitization, where 83 out of 162 cows (51.3% presented this clinical sign. The outbreak occurred in September 2013, affecting adult cows that were held in a 205 hectare-pasture from April to October 2013 with abundant Senecio brasiliensis infestation. Main clinical signs were weight loss, excessive lacrimation or mucopurulent ocular discharge, nasal serous discharge, ventral diphteric glossitis, crusts in the nose, teats, dorsum of ears, and vulva. Liver biopsy was performed in all the cows under risk; the histopathological findings in the liver biopsies consisted of fibrosis, megalocytosis, and biliary ductal proliferation and were present in 73.4% of the biopsied animals. Six cows had increased serum activity of gamma glutamyl transferase. Three affected cows were necropsied. The main necropsy findings were a hard liver, distended gall bladder, edema of the mesentery and abomasum. Liver histological changes in the necropsied cows were similar to those of the biopsied livers. Spongiosis was detected in the brain of necropsied cows and is characteristic of hepatic encephalopathy.

  19. Epidural analgesia in cattle, buffalo, and camels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhair Bani Ismail

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Epidural analgesia is commonly used in large animals. It is an easy, cheap, and effective technique used to prevent or control pain during surgeries involving the tail, anus, vulva, perineum, caudal udder, scrotum, and upper hind limbs. The objectives of this article were to comprehensively review and summarize all scientific data available in the literature on new techniques and drugs or drug combinations used for epidural anesthesia in cattle, camel, and buffalo. Only articles published between 2006 and 2016 were included in the review. The most common sites for epidural administration in cattle, camels, and buffalos were the sacrococcygeal intervertebral space (S5-Co1 and first intercoccygeal intervertebral space (Co1-Co2. The most frequently used drugs and dosages were lidocaine (0.22-0.5 mg/kg, bupivacaine (0.125 mg/kg, ropivacaine (0.11 mg/kg, xylazine (0.05 mg/kg, medetomidine (15 μg/kg, romifidine (30-50 μg/kg, ketamine (0.3-2.5 mg/kg, tramadol (1 mg/kg, and neostigmine (10 μg/kg, and the clinical applications, clinical effects, recommendations, and side effects were discussed.

  20. Epidural analgesia in cattle, buffalo, and camels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Zuhair Bani

    2016-12-01

    Epidural analgesia is commonly used in large animals. It is an easy, cheap, and effective technique used to prevent or control pain during surgeries involving the tail, anus, vulva, perineum, caudal udder, scrotum, and upper hind limbs. The objectives of this article were to comprehensively review and summarize all scientific data available in the literature on new techniques and drugs or drug combinations used for epidural anesthesia in cattle, camel, and buffalo. Only articles published between 2006 and 2016 were included in the review. The most common sites for epidural administration in cattle, camels, and buffalos were the sacrococcygeal intervertebral space (S5-Co1) and first intercoccygeal intervertebral space (Co1-Co2). The most frequently used drugs and dosages were lidocaine (0.22-0.5 mg/kg), bupivacaine (0.125 mg/kg), ropivacaine (0.11 mg/kg), xylazine (0.05 mg/kg), medetomidine (15 µg/kg), romifidine (30-50 µg/kg), ketamine (0.3-2.5 mg/kg), tramadol (1 mg/kg), and neostigmine (10 µg/kg), and the clinical applications, clinical effects, recommendations, and side effects were discussed.

  1. Ameloblastic fibromas and related tumors in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, D G

    1996-03-01

    This article concerns rare odontogenic tumors that occur predominantly in the mandibular incisor region of young cattle and which have often in the past been referred to as ameloblastomas, or as the outdated synonym, adamantinoma. Twenty-two examples from the literature and two new ones were studied. Six consisted of epithelial islands which resembled those of ameloblastoma but which were located within a cellular fibrous connective tissue that was the second component of the tumor; these mixed odontogenic tumors therefore represented ameloblastic fibromas, not ameloblastomas. Eight consisted of a combination of ameloblastic fibroma and odontoma and therefore were ameloblastic fibro-odontomas, and one was apparently malignant (ameloblastic fibro-odontosarcoma). Excluding this last lesion, these tumors should respond well to enucleation, like their human counterparts but, to confirm this hypothesis, the margins of future examples should be carefully examined to determine that they are well-demarcated, not invasive. The microscopic features of the remaining 9 tumours could not be evaluated adequately, while another 17 tumors in cattle and water buffalo reported briefly could not be studied to any extent because of insufficient information.

  2. Epidural analgesia in cattle, buffalo, and camels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Zuhair Bani

    2016-01-01

    Epidural analgesia is commonly used in large animals. It is an easy, cheap, and effective technique used to prevent or control pain during surgeries involving the tail, anus, vulva, perineum, caudal udder, scrotum, and upper hind limbs. The objectives of this article were to comprehensively review and summarize all scientific data available in the literature on new techniques and drugs or drug combinations used for epidural anesthesia in cattle, camel, and buffalo. Only articles published between 2006 and 2016 were included in the review. The most common sites for epidural administration in cattle, camels, and buffalos were the sacrococcygeal intervertebral space (S5-Co1) and first intercoccygeal intervertebral space (Co1-Co2). The most frequently used drugs and dosages were lidocaine (0.22-0.5 mg/kg), bupivacaine (0.125 mg/kg), ropivacaine (0.11 mg/kg), xylazine (0.05 mg/kg), medetomidine (15 µg/kg), romifidine (30-50 µg/kg), ketamine (0.3-2.5 mg/kg), tramadol (1 mg/kg), and neostigmine (10 µg/kg), and the clinical applications, clinical effects, recommendations, and side effects were discussed. PMID:28096620

  3. Residual feed intake in beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J P.F. Arthur

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Providing feed is a major input cost in beef production, hence improvements in the efficiency of feed utilisation will reduce the cost of production. Residual feed intake (RFI is a measure of feed efficiency, and is defined as the difference between an animal's actual feed intake and its expected feed intake based on its size and growth. It is independent of the level of production, and the lower the value the more efficient the animal is. This paper examines the current state of knowledge on RFI. Available information indicates that postweaning RFI is moderately heritable, and that selection for low RFI will result in progeny that consume less feed for the same level of production as progeny of high RFI cattle. Under ad libitum feeding, RFI is phenotypically independent of growth traits. There is a weak genetic relationship between RFI and fatness but additional studies are needed to assess the magnitude of this relationship in different breeds, sexes, ages and feeding regimes. Residual feed intake is believed to represent inherent variation in basic metabolic processes which determine efficiency. Economic analyses of genetic improvement schemes that incorporate testing of individuals for RFI have yielded substantial economic benefits over and above existing schemes that do not include RFI testing. Selection for low RFI has an additional benefit of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by cattle.

  4. A questionnaire-based survey on the uptake and use of cattle vaccines in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Cresswell, E.; Brennan, Marnie L; Barkema, H. W.; Wapenaar, Wendela

    2014-01-01

    Background: Vaccination is a widely used strategy for disease control in cattle in the UK and abroad. However, there has been limited research describing the uptake and use of cattle vaccines on UK farms. Aim: To describe the current uptake and usage of cattle vaccines in the UK. Design: A questionnaire, available in paper and online format, was distributed to cattle farmers by convenience sampling. Participants: All UK cattle farmers were eligible to participate in the study. Res...

  5. Anaplasma marginale and A. phagocytophilum in cattle in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M'ghirbi, Youmna; Bèji, Marwa; Oporto, Beatriz; Khrouf, Fatma; Hurtado, Ana; Bouattour, Ali

    2016-10-20

    Tick-borne diseases caused by Anaplasma species put serious constraints on the health and production of domestic cattle in tropical and sub-tropical regions. After recovering from a primary infection, cattle typically become persistent carriers of pathogens and play a critical role in the epidemiology of the disease, acting as reservoirs of the Anaplasma spp. In this study a duplex PCR assay was used for the simultaneous detection of Anaplasma marginale and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in cattle using two primer pairs targeting msp4 and msp2 genes, respectively. We used this method to analyze DNA preparations derived from 328 blood cattle samples that were collected from 80 farms distributed among Tunisia's four bioclimatic zones. The prevalence of the A. marginale infection (24.7 %) was significantly higher and more widespread (in all bioclimatic areas) than that of A. phagocytophilum (0.6 %), which was found in a mixed infection with A. marginale. The duplex PCR assay used proved to be a rapid, specific and inexpensive mean for the simultaneous detection of Anaplasma marginale and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in cattle blood. It allowed us to report the identification of A. phagocytophilum for the first time in cattle in Tunisia and confirm the presence of A. marginale in cattle from several geographical areas of the country. Further epidemiological studies undertaken using this assay will help improve the surveillance of the associated diseases in the regions where they are endemic.

  6. Acute phase response in cattle infected with Anaplasma marginale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazifi, S; Razavi, S M; Kaviani, F; Rakhshandehroo, E

    2012-03-23

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the acute phase responses via the assessment of the concentration of serum sialic acids (total, lipid bound and protein bound), inflammatory mediators (IFN-γ and TNF-α) and acute phase proteins (Hp and SAA) in 20 adult crossbred cattle naturally infected by Anaplasma marginale. The infected animals were divided into 2 subgroups on the basis of parasitemia rate (20%). Also, as a control group, 10 clinically healthy cattle from the same farms were sampled. Our data revealed significant decreases in red blood cell count (RBC), hematocrite (PCV) and hemoglobine (Hb) in infected cattle compared to healthy ones. Conversely, the concentrations of Hp, SAA, ceruloplasmin, fibrinogen, serum sialic acids and the circulatory IFN-γ and TNF-α were increased in the diseased cattle (P<0.05). In addition, it was evident that the progression of parasitemia in infected cattle did not induce any significant alterations in the hematological indices (RBCs, PCV and Hb) and the concentrations of Hp, SAA, ceruloplasmin and fibrinogen. SAA was the most sensitive factor to change in the diseased cattle. Therefore, increase in SAA concentration may be a good indicator of inflammatory process in cattle naturally infected with Anaplasma marginale.

  7. Serious injuries to Australian veterinarians working with cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, M; Day, L; Fritschi, L

    2013-01-01

    To describe the factors associated with serious injuries sustained during cattle-associated activities by veterinarians responding to the Health Risks of Australian Veterinarians (HRAV) survey. Responses from the HRAV survey were reviewed and the factors associated with serious injuries reported by veterinarians while working with cattle were analysed. All veterinarians who had graduated from Australian veterinary schools between 1960 and 2000 were eligible for inclusion in the survey. The survey identified 474 serious injuries sustained while undertaking cattle-associated activities. Most cattle-associated injuries (82%) were sustained in stock or handling yards and 57% of reported injuries were sustained while undertaking pregnancy testing or undertaking examinations. Nearly 80% of all cattle-associated injuries were sustained as a result of the veterinarian being kicked or struck (49%) or pushed against or stepped on (30%). The part of the body most commonly injured was the upper limbs. Fractures were the most common type of serious injury sustained. The use of safety precautions at the time of the injury was reported by 62% of those veterinarians reporting injury. This study describes factors associated with serious injuries while working with cattle, as reported by veterinarians responding to the HRAV survey. Findings from this study will facilitate discussions aimed at addressing injury prevention for cattle veterinarians, including improving the awareness of safe handling practices and safety precautions. © 2012 The Authors. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2012 Australian Veterinary Association.

  8. 伪随机编码调相在铁路8 mm 驼峰测速雷达的应用研究%Research on Application of Pseudo-random Code Phase Modulation in 8 mm Hump Velocity Radar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄欣萍; 刘功民

    2014-01-01

    根据铁路8 mm驼峰测速雷达的技术条件要求以及在实际应用中存在的各种干扰会使雷达输出多普勒频率不稳定的问题,提出将m码码型变换的互相关技术应用于8 mm驼峰测速雷达,重点对m码码型变换的互相关函数以及应用于驼峰测速雷达的信号处理进行分析,对此种体制的雷达框图、原理、信号处理数学分析以及应用中重要的m序列码的参数选择等技术问题进行研究。通过仿真实验,说明此种体制雷达对测速区以外的远、近距离上的回波干扰和其他杂波干扰具有较大的抑制作用,并可有效地抑制发射机泄露信号产生的噪声干扰。%According to the technical requirements of the 8 mm hump velocity radar and in view of solving the problem existing in application of the 8 mm hump speed radar that various kinds of interference produce instable Doppler radar output frequencies , the m code pattern transform cross-correlation technique was introduced to be utilized in the 8 mm hump speed radar . Analysis was mainly focused on the cross-correlation function and hump radar signal processing . The block diagram ,principle numerical signal processing of the hump radar and selection of the m sequence code parameters in application were studied . Simulation shows as follows :Echo interference and other clutter are significantly decreased outside the velocity measurement area over both far and near distances ;noises generated by the transmitter leakage signal are suppressed effectively .

  9. Parâmetros nutricionais e produtivos em bovinos de corte a pasto alimentados com diferentes quantidades de suplemento Nutritional and productive parameters of beef cattle on pasture fed different amounts of supplement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyana Albino Silva Machado

    2011-06-01

    supplement on the intake, digestibility, body weight gain and microbial synthesis efficiency in beef cattle. Four Holstein-Zebu steers fistulated in the esophagus, rumen and abomasum with an average of 250 kg of body weight were used in experiment 1. The supplement was made up cottonseed meal, ground corn grain, mineral mixture and urea/ammonium sulfate. The diets were: control (salt and supplements levels of 0.33, 0.66 and 1.00% of body weight (BW. Maximum intake of dry matter (DM, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and total digestible nutrients (TDN were estimated at 1.09, 0.73 and 1.20% of BW, respectively. It was observed a linear intake increase to organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE and non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC intake as supplement offer increased. The total digestibility from DM, OM, CP, EE and NDF increased linearly with the intake of supplement but no affected on microbial efficiency. Nineteen Zebu steers aging 18 months and mean body weight of 320 kg were used in experiment 2. The diets were: maintenance, control (salt, and the daily supplement offer of 1, 2 and 3 kg. It was observed linear increase in DM, OM, CP, EE, NDF and NFC intake as supplement offer increased. Maximum intake of TDN, diet TDN content and average daily gain (ADG were estimated to occur as 2.88, 2.62 and 2.69 kg of supplement offer, respectively. A quadratic effect was observed for total digestibility in all diet components. The microbial efficiency was not influenced by diet supplementation. The neutral detergent fiber digestibility is highest for a intake of approximately 1.5 kg of the supplement/day, which results in the best response to the ADG obtained with the intake of 400 g of CP.

  10. First description of Bartonella bovis in cattle herds in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudoler, Nir; Rasis, Michal; Sharir, Benny; Novikov, Anna; Shapira, Gregory; Giladi, Michael

    2014-09-17

    Bartonella bovis has been described in beef and dairy cattle worldwide, however the reported prevalence rates are inconsistent, with large variability across studies (0-89%). This study describes the first isolation and characterization of B. bovis among cattle herds in the Middle East. Blood samples from two beef cattle herds (each sampled thrice) and one dairy herd (sampled twice) in Israel were collected during a 16-months period. Overall, 71 of 95 blood samples (75%) grew Bartonella sp., with prevalence of 78% and 59% in beef and dairy cattle, respectively. High level bacteremia (≥100,000 colony forming units/mL) was detected in 25 specimens (26%). Such high-level bacteremia has never been reported in cattle. Two dairy cows and one beef cow remained bacteremic when tested 60 or 120 days apart, respectively, suggesting that cattle may have persistent bacteremia. One third of animals were infested with ticks. Sequence analysis of a gltA fragment of 32 bacterial isolates from 32 animals revealed 100% homology to B. bovis. Species identification was confirmed by sequence analysis of the rpoB gene. Phylogenetic analysis based on the concatenated sequences of gltA and rpoB demonstrated that the isolates described herein form a monophyletic group with B. bovis strains originating from cattle worldwide. Taken together, the high prevalence of bacteremia, including high-level bacteremia, in beef and dairy cattle, the potential to develop prolonged bacteremia, the exposure of cattle to arthropod vectors, and proximity of infected animals to humans, make B. bovis a potential zoonotic agent.

  11. Assessing the heat tolerance of 17 beef cattle genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaughan, J. B.; Mader, T. L.; Holt, S. M.; Sullivan, M. L.; Hahn, G. L.

    2010-11-01

    Cattle production plays a significant role in terms of world food production. Nearly 82% of the world's 1.2 billion cattle can be found in developing countries. An increasing demand for meat in developing countries has seen an increase in intensification of animal industries, and a move to cross-bred animals. Heat tolerance is considered to be one of the most important adaptive aspects for cattle, and the lack of thermally-tolerant breeds is a major constraint on cattle production in many countries. There is a need to not only identify heat tolerant breeds, but also heat tolerant animals within a non-tolerant breed. Identification of heat tolerant animals is not easy under field conditions. In this study, panting score (0 to 4.5 scale where 0 = no stress and 4.5 = extreme stress) and the heat load index (HLI) [HLIBG 25°C = 8.62 + 0.38 × rh + 1.55 × BG - 0.5 × WS + e(2.4 - WS), where BG = black globe temperature (oC), rh = relative humidity (decimal form), WS = wind speed (m/s) and e is the base of the natural logarithm] were used to assess the heat tolerance of 17 genotypes (12,757 steers) within 13 Australian feedlots over three summers. The cattle were assessed under natural climatic conditions in which HLI ranged from thermonuetral (HLI 96; black globe temperature = 40.2°C, relative humidity = 64%, wind speed = 1.58 m/s). When HLI > 96 a greater number ( P cattle had a panting score ≥ 2 compared to Brahman cattle, and Brahman-cross cattle. The heat tolerance of the assessed breeds was verified using panting scores and the HLI. Heat tolerance of cattle can be assessed under field conditions by using panting score and HLI.

  12. Pharmacokinetic behaviour of fenbendazole in buffalo and cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyal, P K

    1994-02-01

    Concentrations of fenbendazole and of drug metabolites in plasma were measured in buffalo and cross-bred cattle after single intraruminal administration at two different doses. Plasma concentrations of the parent compound fenbendazole and the two metabolites, viz. oxfendazole and fenbendazole sulfone, were much lower in buffalo compared with cattle, at a dose of 7.5 mg/kg body weight as indicated by lower area under concentration curve and concentration maximum. At a dose of 15 mg/kg body weight there were corresponding increases in plasma metabolite concentrations in cattle. However, buffaloes did not show a similar corresponding increase.

  13. Cattle traceability system in Japan for bovine spongiform encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuaki Sugiura

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available To promote consumer confidence in the safety of beef and to ensure the proper implementation of eradication measures against bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, the Cattle Traceability Law was approved by the Diet in June 2003 and a cattle traceability system has been in operation in Japan since December 2003. The system enables tracing the cohort and offspring animals of a BSE case within 24 h of its detection. The traceability database system also provides distributors, restaurants and consumers with information on the cattle from which the beef that they sell, serve and consume originate.

  14. 不锈钢薄板高速激光焊驼峰焊道形成倾向及其影响因素%STUDY OF HUMPING TENDENCY AND AFFECTING FACTORS IN HIGH SPEED LASER WELDING OF STAINLESS STEEL SHEET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴莹蕾; 单际国; 任家烈

    2012-01-01

    研究了SUS304不锈钢薄板光纤激光焊接时激光功率、焊接速度、保护气对焊道驼峰倾向的影响规律,利用Ti示踪元素和CCD图像,考察了熔池的流动状态.结果表明,焊道驼峰倾向对激光功率不敏感;当焊接速度超过18 m/min时,焊缝出现驼峰现象,且驼峰倾向随着焊接速度的提高而增大;当焊接速度和功率一定时,不同保护气流方向的焊缝驼峰倾向有明显差异,与焊接方向同向吹送保护气有助于降低驼峰倾向.分析认为,焊接速度的提高使熔池流动更加剧烈,进而增加了驼峰倾向;与焊接方向反向吹送保护气体,焊缝几何形状呈“柱状”,与焊接方向同向吹送保护气体,焊缝的几何形状呈“杯状”,“杯状”焊缝增加了U形区域的截面积,降低了熔池流动的剧烈程度,进而降低了驼峰倾向.通过调整保护气流方向改变焊缝的几何形状以增加U形区域的截面积,是降低驼峰倾向的可行途径.%The fiber laser was used to weld austenitic stainless steel SUS304 sheet at the speed of 24 m/min. The effects of laser power, welding speed and shielding gas on humping tendency have been investigated. The melt flow in the molten pool under different welding parameters was studied by Ti tracer method and CCD visual detection system. The results show that the humping tendency is not sensitive to the laser power. The humping is formed when welding speed exceeds 18 m/min, and goes up with the increasing of welding speed. The humping tendency is completely different as changing the direction of shielding gas under constant welding speed and laser power, and it is reduced when the shielding gas direction follows the welding direction. It can be explained that, with the increasing of welding speed, the melt flow becomes fierce, and the humping tendency goes up. The weld shape turns to the "columnar weld" , when the shielding gas direction against the welding direction; the weld shape

  15. 9 CFR 73.6 - Placarding means of conveyance and marking billing of shipments of treated scabby cattle or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... marking billing of shipments of treated scabby cattle or cattle exposed to scabies. 73.6 Section 73.6... INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.6 Placarding means of conveyance and marking billing of shipments of treated scabby cattle or cattle exposed...

  16. Associations between prior management of cattle and risk of bovine respiratory disease in feedlot cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, K E; Morton, J M; Schibrowski, M L; Clements, A C A; Mahony, T J; Barnes, T S

    2016-05-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the major cause of clinical disease and death in feedlot populations worldwide. A longitudinal study was conducted to assess associations between risk factors related to on-farm management prior to transport to the feedlot and risk of BRD in a population of feedlot beef cattle sourced from throughout the cattle producing regions of Australia. Exposure variables were derived from questionnaire data provided by farmers supplying cattle (N=10,721) that were a subset of the population included in a nationwide prospective study investigating numerous putative risk factors for BRD. Causal diagrams were used to inform model building to allow estimation of effects of interest. Multilevel mixed effects logistic regression models were fitted within the Bayesian framework. Animals that were yard weaned were at reduced risk (OR: 0.7, 95% credible interval: 0.5-1.0) of BRD at the feedlot compared to animals immediately returned to pasture after weaning. Animals that had previously been fed grain (OR: 0.6, 95% credible interval: 0.3-1.1) were probably at reduced risk of BRD at the feedlot compared to animals not previously fed grain. Animals that received prior vaccinations against Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (OR: 0.8, 95% credible interval: 0.5-1.1) or Mannheimia haemolytica (OR: 0.8, 95% credible interval: 0.6-1.0) were also probably at reduced risk compared to non-vaccinated animals. The results of this study confirm that on-farm management before feedlot entry can alter risk of BRD after beef cattle enter feedlots.

  17. MLST subtypes and population genetic structure of Cryptosporidium andersoni from dairy cattle and beef cattle in northeastern China's Heilongjiang Province.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhao

    Full Text Available Cattle are the main reservoir host of C. andersoni, which shows a predominance in yearlings and adults of cattle. To understand the subtypes of C. andersoni and the population genetic structure in Heilongjiang Province, fecal specimens were collected from 420 dairy cattle and 405 beef cattle at the age of 12-14 months in eight cattle farms in five areas within this province and were screened for the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts by microscopy after Sheather's sugar flotation technique. The average prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. was 19.15% (158/825 and all the Cryptosporidium isolates were identified as C. andersoni by the SSU rRNA gene nested PCR-RFLP using SspI, VspI and MboII restriction enzymes. A total of 50 C. andersoni isolates were randomly selected and sequenced to confirm the RFLP results before they were subtyped by multilocus sequence typing (MLST at the four microsatellite/minisatellite loci (MS1, MS2, MS3 and MS16. Four, one, two and one haplotypes were obtained at the four loci, respectively. The MLST subtype A4,A4,A4,A1 showed an absolute predominance and a wide distribution among the six MLST subtypes obtained in the investigated areas. Linkage disequilibrium analysis showed the presence of a clonal population genetic structure of C. andersoni in cattle, suggesting the absence of recombination among lineages. The finding of a clonal population genetic structure indicated that the prevalence of C. andersoni in cattle in Heilongjiang Province is not attributed to the introduction of cattle. Thus, prevention and control strategies should be focused on making stricter measures to avoid the occurrence of cross-transmission and re-infection between cattle individuals. These molecular data will also be helpful to explore the source attribution of infection/contamination of C. andersoni and to elucidate its transmission dynamics in Heilongjiang Province, even in China.

  18. REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCES OF FOGERA CATTLE AT METEKEL CATTLE BREEDING AND MULTIPLICATION RANCH, NORTH WEST RTHIOPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. MENALE

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate the reproductive performance and to asses non-genetic factors affecting the reproductive performance of Fogera cattle breed kept at Metekel ranch. For this purpose data collected from 1996 to 2008 in the ranch were used. The data were analyzed using the general linear model procedures of statistical analysis system. The effect of mating system, parity of dam, year of birth and calving, season of birth and calving, sex of calf, and sire breed were considered as fixed effects for evaluating different reproductive parameters. The overall least square means for number of services per conception (NSP, age at first calving (AFC, calving interval (CI, gestation length (GL and days open (DO were 1.28±0.06 and 50.8±0.36 months, 587±5.44, 282±0.26 and 285±4.3 days, respectively. The number of services per conception was significantly (P0.05. Days open was significantly (P<0.01 affected by year of birth. From the present study, it can be concluded that the non-genetic factors had exerted significant effects on the reproductive performance of Fogera Cattle breed kept at ranch. Thus, to improve reproductive performance of the Fogera cattle breed, great effort should be made towards mitigating negative impacts of those non-genetic factors.

  19. Dynamical Patterns of Cattle Trade Movements

    CERN Document Server

    Bajardi, Paolo; Natale, Fabrizio; Savini, Lara; Colizza, Vittoria; 10.1371/journal.pone.0019869

    2011-01-01

    Despite their importance for the spread of zoonotic diseases, our understanding of the dynamical aspects characterizing the movements of farmed animal populations remains limited as these systems are traditionally studied as static objects and through simplified approximations. By leveraging on the network science approach, here we are able for the first time to fully analyze the longitudinal dataset of Italian cattle movements that reports the mobility of individual animals among farms on a daily basis. The complexity and inter-relations between topology, function and dynamical nature of the system are characterized at different spatial and time resolutions, in order to uncover patterns and vulnerabilities fundamental for the definition of targeted prevention and control measures for zoonotic diseases. Results show how the stationarity of statistical distributions coexists with a strong and non-trivial evolutionary dynamics at the node and link levels, on all timescales. Traditional static views of the displ...

  20. Crossbreeding in Dairy Cattle: A Danish Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, M K; Norberg, E; Pedersen, J;

    2008-01-01

    The value of crossbreeding in livestock species has been known for a long time; it has been used heavily within beef cattle, pig, and poultry production systems for several decades. This has not been the case for dairy production but lately there has been increased interest in crossbreeding dairy...... breeds. This review focuses on the practical and theoretical background of crossbreeding and describes the gain to be expected using systematic crossbreeding in dairy production. In Denmark, 24% of dairy farmers would consider starting crossbreeding programs within their herd. Evidence for the value...... through crossbred offspring, this prerequisite can be fulfilled. Crossbreeding can increase dairy income substantially, especially in management systems requiring a high level of functional traits...

  1. Development of ocular inserts for cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, R T; Ryoo, J P

    1987-06-01

    Ring shaped ocular inserts have been developed to administer a therapeutic level of tylosin tartrate throughout a five day period to treat pinkeye in cattle. The inserts are based on polyvinyl chloride rings which are dip coated with a copolymer containing the antibiotic (tylosin tartrate). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) characterization of surfaces has been of value to evaluate the presence and extent of surface flaws in the hydrogel coating, and to contribute to improvement in fabrication of the rings to insure the establishment of satisfactory seals at joints, uniformity of microporosity and cross sections, and the absence of significant cracking or flaking. In vitro release rates were determined using thin layer chromatography techniques, and rates were seen to be above a few micrograms of antibiotic per hour for experiments as long as nine days at simulated tear rates as high as 2 milliliters per hour.

  2. Genomic selection in small dairy cattle populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomasen, Jørn Rind

    Genomic selection provides more accurate estimation of genetic merit for breeding candidates without own recordings and is now an integrated part of most dairy breeding schemes. However, the method has turned out to be less efficient in the numerically smaler breeds. This thesis focuses on optimi......Genomic selection provides more accurate estimation of genetic merit for breeding candidates without own recordings and is now an integrated part of most dairy breeding schemes. However, the method has turned out to be less efficient in the numerically smaler breeds. This thesis focuses...... on optimization of genomc selction for a small dairy cattle breed such as Danish Jersey. Implementing genetic superior breeding schemes thus requires more accurate genomc predictions. Besides international collaboration, genotyping of cows is an efficient way to obtain more accurate genomic predictions...

  3. Identification of microsatellites in cattle unigenes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiuliang Yan; Yinghan Zhang; Hongbin Li; Caihong Wei; Lili Niu; Shan Guan; Shangang Li; Lixin Du

    2008-01-01

    To identify EST-SSR molecular markers, 41,986 cattle UniGene sequences from NCBI were mined for analyzing SSRs. A total of 1,831 SSRs were identified from 1,666 ESTs, which represented an average density of 19.88 kb per SSR. The frequency of EST-SSRs was 4.0%. The dinucleotide repeat motif was the most abundant SSR, accounting for 54%, followed by 22%, 13%, 7% and 4%, respec-tively, for tri-, hexa-, penta- and tetra-nucleotide repeats. Depending upon the length of the repeat unit, the length of microsatellites varied from 14 to 86 bp. Among the di- and tri-nucleotide repeats, AC/TG (57%) and AGC (12%) were the most abundant type. Annotation of EST-SSRs was also carried out. Three hundred primer pairs were randomly designed using Prime Premier 5.0 program and Oligo 5.0 for further experimental validation.

  4. Prevalence of Hydatid Disease in Cattle and Camel Slaughtered at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of Hydatid Disease in Cattle and Camel Slaughtered at Damaturu ... Sahel Journal of Veterinary Sciences ... No significant difference (p>0.05) was observed between the organs inspected including the lungs (0.15%) the liver ...

  5. Indigenous knowledge in cattle breeding in Sierra Leone | Abdul ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and production under traditional cattle production system in Sierra Leone. ... were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire and by direct observation. ... Solid fawn color was the most preferred (93%) followed by complete spotted ...

  6. Cattle Rustling and Banditry in North-Western Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    socio-economic and political impact of banditry and cattle rustling. In the ..... armed conflicts generally followed predictable patterns and were soon followed by .... whom were women and children, were killed in the ethnocide (Amnesty.

  7. THE FUTURE ROLE OF IMPROVED PASTURES FOR BEEF CATTLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tinue to provide the bulk of the forage demands for beef cattle. various ... While the summer day temperatures are rnoderate (max ... one another to achieve the desired effect. The most sig- ... Wherever possible legumes should be established.

  8. Performance of Improved Dairy Cattle Technologies Among Farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    In pastoral system dominated milk production in Nigeria, it still supplies considerable ... return of sales of dairy products and constraints encountered by dairy cattle .... to improve herd productivity is to cross local cows to the exotic bulls and/or.

  9. Metagenomics of rumen bacteriophage from thirteen lactating dairy cattle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ross, Elizabeth M; Petrovski, Steve; Moate, Peter J; Hayes, Ben J

    2013-01-01

    ... (the rumen microbiome). We used massively parallel sequencing of virus like particles to investigate the diversity of the rumen virome in thirteen lactating Australian Holstein dairy cattle all housed in the same location...

  10. EGG TRANSFER AS AN ADJUNCT TO TWINNING IN CATTLE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Other techniques being used employ synchronization rsing a relatively short term ... Ehret, 1974 - personal communication). Likewise .... blood serum does not appear to be useful for cattle egg storage during ... nutrition and breeding. However ...

  11. Cysticercosis in cattle and its public health implications in Mekelle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    centers on7171human patients' positive for various parasitic infections ... classification was Meat Inspection judgment described by Kenyan Meat Control .... from sewage treatment plants, on the prevalence of C.bovis infection in cattle.

  12. Cattle cults of the Arabian Neolithic and early territorial societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCorriston, Joy; Harrower, Michael; Martin, Louise; Oches, Eric

    2012-01-01

    At the cusp of food production, Near Eastern societies adopted new territorial practices, including archaeologically visible sedentism and nonsedentary social defenses more challenging to identify archaeologically. New archaeological and paleoenvironmental evidence for Arabia's earliest-known sacrifices points to territorial maintenance in arid highland southern Yemen. Here sedentism was not an option prior to agriculture. Seasonally mobile pastoralists developed alternate practices to reify cohesive identities, maintain alliances, and defend territories. Archaeological and paleoenvironmental evidence implies cattle sacrifices were commemorated with a ring of more than 42 cattle skulls and a stone platform buried by 6,400-year-old floodplain sediments. Associated with numerous hearths, these cattle rites suggest feasting by a large gathering, with important sociopolitical ramifications for territories. A GIS analysis of the early Holocene landscape indicates constrained pasturage supporting small resident human populations. Cattle sacrifice in southern Arabia suggests a model of mid-Holocene Neolithic territorial pastoralism under environmental and cultural conditions that made sedentism unsusta

  13. Blumea lacera Plant Poisoning in Cattle; Epidemiology and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mst. Nusrat Zahan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Plant poisoning in grazing animals is more common in Bangladesh, especially during the scarcity period. The present study was undertaken to find out the epidemiology of Blumea lacera fresh plant poisoning and its management in cattle. A total of 765 suspected clinical cases were examined, of these 48 were diagnosed as Blumea lacera plant poisoning. The poisoning was found more in local cattle (92% than that of crossbred (8% cattle. Most of the cases were found in autumn (71%, in compare to summer (23% and winter (6%. The highest occurrence of poisoning was observed in cattle of 6 months to 2 years of age (57% in comparison to other age category. Therapeutic response (16% was found if treatments were given within 4 hours of ingestion of the plant and the effective treatment was a combination of laxative, normal saline, vitamin B1. Veterinarian can apply this treatment during Blumea lacera poisoning in animals.

  14. Improved production efficiency in cattle to reduce their carbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improved production efficiency in cattle to reduce their carbon footprint for beef ... is the second most important greenhouse gas (GHG) after carbon dioxide (CO2). ... to climate change, since enteric fermentation is responsible for 28% of global ...

  15. Crossbreeding Holstein-Friesian with Ethiopian Boran cattle in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    Additive genetic effects for the Holstein-Friesian breed were estimated as ... Holstein-Friesian cattle produced 4.5 times more milk than Boran and nearly 1000 kg more ... crosses and exotic dairy breeds evaluated under tropical environments.

  16. Cattle practice: ready to adapt to a changing world?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huxley, Jon

    2016-10-15

    How well placed is UK cattle practice to meet future challenges? This question was addressed at a recent meeting of the Nottingham Dairy Health Innovation Forum. Forum member, Jon Huxley, reports on the outcome.

  17. Intake and rumen degradation in cattle fed napier grass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    P.O. Box 29053, Nairobi, Kenya; 4National Animal Husbandry Research ... Inclusion of desmodium and sweet potato vine led to small increases in concentrations of total ..... Dairy Cattle & Poultry Research Project, and we are indeed grateful.

  18. Genetic parameters for reproductive traits in a beef cattle herd ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    a composite multibreed beef cattle herd using multitrait analysis. A REML procedure ... complex, CD and AFC (because of its high heritability) may be considered as selection criteria for ..... Marshall, D.M., Minqiang, W. & Freking, B.A., 1990.

  19. Análise multivariada de resultados da ovulação múltipla seguida de transferência de embriões de doadoras zebuínas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peixoto M.G.C.D.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Resultados de 1390 ovulações múltiplas seguidas de transferência de embriões foram submetidas à análise multivariada para estudo da relação entre algumas variáveis envolvidas no processo. As superovulações foram realizadas no período de 1989 a 1999 em várias doadoras zebuínas das raças Brahman (31, Gir (22, Guzerá (68 e Nelore (411, provenientes de 61 rebanhos de diversas regiões do Brasil. As doadoras tinham idades entre 1,5 e 19,5 anos. Analisaram-se apenas dados de primeira colheita e dados de colheitas consecutivas. As principais correlações encontradas com a análise de ambos os arquivos pelo método de Pearson foram de: 0,72 entre o total de estruturas recuperadas (ER e o número de embriões viáveis (EV; 0,66 entre ER e o total de prenhezes positivas (PP; 0,53 entre ER e o número de corpos lúteos palpados (CL; 0,89 entre EV e PP; 0,33 entre EV e CL; e 0,30 entre PP e CL. Observou-se associação entre coeficiente de endogamia, idade das doadoras à superovulação, droga estimuladora, dose da droga estimuladora, ordem de colheita e número de inseminações. Foram estimados os seguintes fatores nas análises de colheitas consecutivas: fator 1 - que reduz a resposta à superovulação, fator 2 - que define os esquemas de superovulação de doadoras e fator 3 - que define o sucesso do esquema de superovulação. Com os dados de primeira colheita foram obtidos: fator 1 - que define a idade ótima à superovulação, fator 2 - que define os esquemas de superovulação de doadoras e fator 3 - que define esquema alternativo de superovulação. As análises indicaram que os resultados de superovulação são muito variáveis e que há grande efeito da idade da doadora à superovulação, do coeficiente de endogamia da doadora, da ordem de colheita, da dose da droga e do número de inseminações sobre esses resultados. O número de embriões viáveis por superovulação e a correlação entre número de embriões vi

  20. FED INTAKE AND MILK PRODUCTION OF HOLSTEIN-ZEBU CROSSBREED COWS HOLD IN DIFFERENT TROPICAL PASTURES CONSUMO DE ALIMENTOS E PRODUÇÃO DE LEITE DE VACAS MESTIÇAS MANTIDAS EM DIFERENTES PASTAGENS TROPICAIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luiza Costa Cruz Borges

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Fed intake and milk production of Holstein-Zebu crossbred cows, grazing Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum (NAP, Brachiaria decumbens (BRA and Guinea grass (Pannicum maximum (COL and supplemented with four kg of concentrate, were evaluated in a double Latin square (3x3. Fecal production and feed intake were calculated using Cr2O3 and in vitro digestibility. Dry mater intake (DMI was similar among forages (18kg/cow which represented 2.72%; 2.84% and 2.96% of the live weight for NAP, BRACH and COL respectively. The intake per unit of metabolic size (g DM/kg0.75 was 130 for NAP, 135 for BRACH and 145 for COL. The intake of BRACH resulted in lower milk production (14,4kg than NAP (15,5kg and COL (16,1Kg. Grasses did not affected the milk composition which showed 4,03% of fat, 2,46% of protein and 12,42% of total solids. It was concluded that NAP, BRACH and COL are good alternatives for milk production in grazing systems.

    KEY WORDS: Brachiaria decumbens, Guinea grass, Panicum maximum, Napier, Pennisetum purpureum.

    Realizou-se a avaliação do consumo de alimentos e da produção de leite de vacas mestiças pastejando piquetes de capim Napier (Pennisetum purpureum (NAP, Brachiaria decumbens (BRA e Colonião (Pannicum maximum (COL e suplementadas com quatro kg de concentrado em um esquema de quadrado latino (3x3 duplo. Calcularam-se a produção fecal e o consumo de alimentos com o auxílio do Cr2O3 e da digestibilidade in vitro. O consumo diário de MS foi semelhante entre as forragens (18kg/vaca, as quais representaram 2,72%; 2,84% e 2,96% do p.v. para o NAP, BRACH e COL, respectivamente. O consumo por unidade de tamanho metabólico (g MS/kg0,75 foi de 130 para o NAP, 135 para a BRACH e 145 para

  1. CORRELAÇÕES DA MORFOMETRIA OVARIANA E HORMONAIS DE PROGESTERONA E CORTISOL EM VACAS ZEBUS NÃO PRENHES OVARIAN MORPHOMETRY AND HORMONAL CORRELATIONS OF PROGESTERONE AND CORTISOL IN NO PREGNANT ZEBU COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Oba

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O estudo da morfometria ovariana está diretamente ligado as suas aplicações práticas, na realização e interpretação dos achados dos exames ginecológicos em vacas. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi estudar as correlações morfométricas e hormonais de 114 pares de ovários de vacas zebus não prenhes coletados em abatedouro entre os dias sete e quatorze do ciclo estral, procedendo-se a sua mensuração quanto a espessura, comprimento, largura e volume; diâmetro e volume do folículo, diâmetro e área do corpo lúteo, e concentrações de progesterona e cortisol. Observou-se diferença significativa para largura (1,95 cm e 1,83 cm e volume (7,26 mL e 6,23 mL do ovário esquerdo e direito, respectivamente. Houve correlação positiva (p<0,01 entre o volume do ovário esquerdo e a área do corpo lúteo. Houve predomínio do corpo lúteo do tipo maciço e protruso, presente em 43,39% dos 53 ovários, em relação ao tipo cavitário e incluso. Dos 84 ovários com corpos lúteos, 26,20% eram do tipo incluso e não houve correlação entre a área do corpo lúteo, progesterona e cortisol. Conclui-se que a área do corpo lúteo influencia no tamanho do ovário, havendo predominância dos corpos lúteos maciços e protrusos. Não existe correlação entre a produção de progesterona pelos corpos lúteos e a secreção de cortisol.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Abatedouro, bovino, corpo lúteo, folículo. The study of ovarian morphometry is directly related to its practical applications to interpret the examination of the reproductive tract of the cow. The objective of this work was to study the morphometry and hormonal correlations in ovaries collected in slaughterhouse between 7 and 14 days post estrus in no pregnant zebu cows. One hundred fourteen pairs of ovaries were collected from slaughterhouse, measured in thickness, length, width and volume, diameter and volume of the follicle, diameter and area of the corpus luteum. Significative

  2. Concentrações séricas hormonais em vacas azebuadas submetidas à baixa e alta ingestão alimentar Serum hormone concentrations of zebu cows under low and high feed intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Carvalho Martins

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência da ingestão alimentar nas concentrações séricas de hormônios reprodutivos e metabólicos em vacas azebuadas. Dezoito vacas foram divididas em dois grupos: 170% (alta ingestão = A e 66% (baixa ingestão = B da dieta de manutenção. Com 21 dias nas dietas experimentais, as vacas tiveram o estro sincronizado. Posteriormente, os ovários foram avaliados por ultra-sonografia transretal e sangue foi coletado diariamente até o dia 7 do ciclo (ovulação = dia 1. Na análise estatística, utilizou-se o teste t. As vacas ganharam 1,1 kg por dia no grupo A e perderam 1,5 kg por dia de PV no grupo B. Apesar de não ter havido diferença entre os grupos no diâmetro máximo do folículo ovulatório, o grupo A apresentou pico pré-ovulatório de estradiol sérico menor. Não foi observada diferença entre os grupos quanto ao volume luteal e concentração sérica de progesterona no dia 7 do ciclo e de FSH, IGF-I e insulina séricos no período peri-ovulatório. As dietas experimentais não alteraram a função ovariana e as concentrações séricas de hormônios reprodutivos e metabólicos, com exceção do estradiol, sugerindo que, no grupo de alta ingestão, ocorreu maior metabolismo desse hormônio.The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of feed intake on serum concentrations of reproductive and metabolic hormones in zebu cows. Eighteen cows were divided into two groups: 170% (high feed intake = H and 66% (low feed intake = L of the maintenance diet. Within 21 days on the experimental diets, cows had estrus synchronized. Subsequently, ovaries were scanned by trans-rectal ultrasonography and blood samples were collected daily until day 7 of the cycle (ovulation = day 1. For statistical analysis, t test was utilized. Cows from group H gained 1.1 kg per day and from group L lost 1.5 kg per day of body weight. Although there was no difference between groups regarding maximum diameter

  3. History of commercializing sexed semen for cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, D L; Seidel, G E

    2008-04-15

    Although the basic principles controlling the sex of mammalian offspring have been known for a relatively long time, recent application of certain modern cellular methodologies has led to development of a flow cytometric system capable of differentiating and separating living X- and Y-chromosome-bearing sperm in amounts suitable for AI and therefore, commercialization of this sexing technology. After a very long history of unsuccessful attempts to differentiate between mammalian sperm that produce males from those that produce females, a breakthrough came in 1981 when it was demonstrated that precise DNA content could be measured. Although these initial measurements of DNA content killed the sperm in the process, they led to the ultimate development of a sperm sorting system that was capable, not only of differentiating between live X- and Y-sperm, but of sorting them into relatively pure X- and Y-sperm populations without obvious cellular damage. Initial efforts to predetermine the sex of mammalian offspring in 1989 required surgical insemination, but later enhancements provided sex-sorted sperm in quantities suitable for use with IVF. Subsequent advances in flow sorting provided minimal numbers of sperm sufficient for use in AI. It was not until the flow cytometric sorting system was improved greatly and successful cryopreservation of sex-sorted bull sperm was developed that efficacious approaches to commercialization of sexed semen could be implemented worldwide in cattle. A number of companies now offer sex-sorted bovine sperm. Innovative approaches by a diverse group of scientists along with advances in computer science, biophysics, cell biology, instrumentation, and applied reproductive physiology provided the basis for commercializing sexed semen in cattle.

  4. Prediction of enteric methane emissions from cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Luis E; Strathe, Anders B; Fadel, James G; Casper, David P; Kebreab, Ermias

    2014-07-01

    Agriculture has a key role in food production worldwide and it is a major component of the gross domestic product of several countries. Livestock production is essential for the generation of high quality protein foods and the delivery of foods in regions where animal products are the main food source. Environmental impacts of livestock production have been examined for decades, but recently emission of methane from enteric fermentation has been targeted as a substantial greenhouse gas source. The quantification of methane emissions from livestock on a global scale relies on prediction models because measurements require specialized equipment and may be expensive. The predictive ability of current methane emission models remains poor. Moreover, the availability of information on livestock production systems has increased substantially over the years enabling the development of more detailed methane prediction models. In this study, we have developed and evaluated prediction models based on a large database of enteric methane emissions from North American dairy and beef cattle. Most probable models of various complexity levels were identified using a Bayesian model selection procedure and were fitted under a hierarchical setting. Energy intake, dietary fiber and lipid proportions, animal body weight and milk fat proportion were identified as key explanatory variables for predicting emissions. Models here developed substantially outperformed models currently used in national greenhouse gas inventories. Additionally, estimates of repeatability of methane emissions were lower than the ones from the literature and multicollinearity diagnostics suggested that prediction models are stable. In this context, we propose various enteric methane prediction models which require different levels of information availability and can be readily implemented in national greenhouse gas inventories of different complexity levels. The utilization of such models may reduce errors

  5. Syndrome of arachnomelia in Simmental cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weppert Myriam

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The syndrome of arachnomelia is an inherited malformation mainly of limbs, back and head in cattle. At present the arachnomelia syndrome has been well known mainly in Brown Swiss cattle. Nevertheless, the arachnomelia syndrome had been observed in the Hessian Simmental population during the decade 1964–1974. Recently, stillborn Simmental calves were observed having a morphology similar to the arachnomelia syndrome. The goal of this work was the characterization of the morphology and genealogy of the syndrome in Simmental to establish the basis for an effective management of the disease. Results The first pathologically confirmed arachnomelia syndrome-cases in the current Simmental population appeared in the year 2005. By 2007, an additional 140 calves with the arachnomelia syndrome were identified. The major pathological findings were malformed bones affecting the head, long bones of the legs and the vertebral column. It could be shown that, with the exception of two cases that were considered as phenocopies, all of the paternal and about two-third of the maternal pedigrees of the affected calves could be traced back to one common founder. Together with the data from experimental matings, the pedigree data support an autosomal recessive mutation being the etiology of the arachnomelia syndrome. The frequency of the mutation in the current population was estimated to be 3.32%. Conclusion We describe the repeated occurrence of the arachnomelia syndrome in Simmental calves. It resembles completely the same defect occurring in the Brown Swiss breed. The mutation became relatively widespread amongst the current population. Therefore, a control system has to be established and it is highly desirable to map the disease and develop a genetic test system.

  6. Prevalence of cryptosporidiosis in dairy cattle, cattle-keeping families, their non-cattle-keeping neighbours and HIV-positive individuals in Dagoretti Division, Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kange'the, Erastus; McDermott, Brigid; Grace, Delia; Mbae, Cecilia; Mulinge, Erastus; Monda, Joseph; Nyongesa, Concepta; Ambia, Julie; Njehu, Alice

    2012-09-01

    This paper reports a study estimating the prevalence of cryptosporidiosis, an emerging zoonosis, in people and cattle in Dagoretti, Nairobi. A repeated cross-sectional survey was carried out among randomly selected cattle keepers in Dagoretti, their dairy cattle and their non-cattle-keeping neighbours in the dry and wet seasons of 2006. A survey was also carried out among a group of people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Faecal samples were examined for Cryptosporidium oocysts using the modified Ziehl-Neelsen method; 16 % of the samples were also examined using immunofluorescence antibody (IFA) technique. Quality control consisted of blind reviews of slides, examining split samples and confirming slide results with IFA. We found that members of dairy households had a dry season cryptosporidiosis prevalence of 4 % and wet season prevalence of 0.3 %, and non-dairy households, a prevalence of 5 and 0 %, respectively. The cattle dry season prevalence was 15 %, and the wet season prevalence, 11 %. The prevalence in people living with HIV was 5 %. The laboratory quality control system showed some inconsistency within and between different tests, indicating challenges in obtaining consistent results under difficult field and working conditions. In conclusion, this is the first reported study to simultaneously survey livestock, livestock keepers and their neighbours for cryptosporidiosis. We failed to find evidence that zoonotic cryptosporidiosis is important overall in this community. This study also draws attention to the importance of quality control and its reporting in surveys in developing countries.

  7. The cattle farming activities in Aǧrı province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahinler, Zeki; Demir, Yücel

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to present the current data in the existing situation and potential of the cattle breeding. East Anatolia has an important place in Turkey's cattle breeding sector. Thus, Aǧrı is one of the key cities in the region and livestock breeding is a major resource of income for the population. According to Turkish Statistical Institute's data, the city of Aǧrı has the 8th place with its 321 710 head of cattle currently. In cattle gene types, with 170 583 head in local breeds it is in the first place, while it is in the 10thplace with a total of 131 195 head in crossbreeding and it stands in 63th place with 19 932 head culture race. Once again, according to the Turkish Statistical Institute's data, cattle farming brought in 382 987 750 TL as a result of 259 011 tons of the milk, 5 665 tons of meat and 8 887 skins. In 2014, Turkish Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock subsidized cattle farming in the city by paying 20 551 816 TL. Therefore, it is important to determine the existing conditions of livestock sector of the city, especially cattle farming, with regard to its potential and problems. Consequently, it would be possible to develop short term, mid-term, long term goals and solutions for the problems. As a conclusion, the city has a remarkable place in the region with its cattle population, characteristics of animal production and its position in the employment. Aǧrı represents a small model in local level for Turkey's overall livestock farming.

  8. Environmental conditions in typical cattle transport vehicles in Scandinavia

    OpenAIRE

    Wikner, Isabelle

    2003-01-01

    The current licentiate thesis is dealing with transport of cattle from farms to abattoirs. During transport the animals are confined in the vehicle and are exposed to an unfamiliar environment, including heat, cold, humidity and vibration that might be stressful to them. To determine how inside condition in the vehicle during transportation varies depending of season, loading density, transport time and dynamic performances field experiments were made in commercial cattle transport vehicles. ...

  9. WELFARE ASPECTS OF THE LONG DISTANCE TRANSPORTATION OF CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EVANGELIA N. SOSSIDOU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper sets out to examine the facts behind the trade of long distance transportation of cattle. In particular it looks at the various welfare implications during handling and transport with examples from research work on cattle. The role of the science is explained and the methodology for assessing the welfare of animals is then presented. Finally, public concerns and legal position are presented as they play an important role to promote farm animal welfare principles during transportation.

  10. Reconstruction of metabolic pathways for the cattle genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Seongwon; Lewin, Harris A

    2009-03-12

    Metabolic reconstruction of microbial, plant and animal genomes is a necessary step toward understanding the evolutionary origins of metabolism and species-specific adaptive traits. The aims of this study were to reconstruct conserved metabolic pathways in the cattle genome and to identify metabolic pathways with missing genes and proteins. The MetaCyc database and PathwayTools software suite were chosen for this work because they are widely used and easy to implement. An amalgamated cattle genome database was created using the NCBI and Ensembl cattle genome databases (based on build 3.1) as data sources. PathwayTools was used to create a cattle-specific pathway genome database, which was followed by comprehensive manual curation for the reconstruction of metabolic pathways. The curated database, CattleCyc 1.0, consists of 217 metabolic pathways. A total of 64 mammalian-specific metabolic pathways were modified from the reference pathways in MetaCyc, and two pathways previously identified but missing from MetaCyc were added. Comparative analysis of metabolic pathways revealed the absence of mammalian genes for 22 metabolic enzymes whose activity was reported in the literature. We also identified six human metabolic protein-coding genes for which the cattle ortholog is missing from the sequence assembly. CattleCyc is a powerful tool for understanding the biology of ruminants and other cetartiodactyl species. In addition, the approach used to develop CattleCyc provides a framework for the metabolic reconstruction of other newly sequenced mammalian genomes. It is clear that metabolic pathway analysis strongly reflects the quality of the underlying genome annotations. Thus, having well-annotated genomes from many mammalian species hosted in BioCyc will facilitate the comparative analysis of metabolic pathways among different species and a systems approach to comparative physiology.

  11. Reconstruction of metabolic pathways for the cattle genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewin Harris A

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic reconstruction of microbial, plant and animal genomes is a necessary step toward understanding the evolutionary origins of metabolism and species-specific adaptive traits. The aims of this study were to reconstruct conserved metabolic pathways in the cattle genome and to identify metabolic pathways with missing genes and proteins. The MetaCyc database and PathwayTools software suite were chosen for this work because they are widely used and easy to implement. Results An amalgamated cattle genome database was created using the NCBI and Ensembl cattle genome databases (based on build 3.1 as data sources. PathwayTools was used to create a cattle-specific pathway genome database, which was followed by comprehensive manual curation for the reconstruction of metabolic pathways. The curated database, CattleCyc 1.0, consists of 217 metabolic pathways. A total of 64 mammalian-specific metabolic pathways were modified from the reference pathways in MetaCyc, and two pathways previously identified but missing from MetaCyc were added. Comparative analysis of metabolic pathways revealed the absence of mammalian genes for 22 metabolic enzymes whose activity was reported in the literature. We also identified six human metabolic protein-coding genes for which the cattle ortholog is missing from the sequence assembly. Conclusion CattleCyc is a powerful tool for understanding the biology of ruminants and other cetartiodactyl species. In addition, the approach used to develop CattleCyc provides a framework for the metabolic reconstruction of other newly sequenced mammalian genomes. It is clear that metabolic pathway analysis strongly reflects the quality of the underlying genome annotations. Thus, having well-annotated genomes from many mammalian species hosted in BioCyc will facilitate the comparative analysis of metabolic pathways among different species and a systems approach to comparative physiology.

  12. Cattle production: PR China and Republic of Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksić S.; Sunfang; Jingming Z.; Meiyu Q.; Jiabo W.; Liuli; Liudi; Petrović M.M.; Ostojić-Andrić D.; Nikšić D.

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents data on the cattle industry in the People's Republic of China and the Republic of Serbia. China is the third largest dairy producing country and the third largest beef producing country in the world. In 2011, the dairy cow population in China was 14.4 million. Chinese dairy breed is mainly obtained by grading hybridization from Holstein, Simmental, etc. which were introduced from foreign countries, and local cattle breeds for long ...

  13. Molecular characterization of bovine leukemia virus from Moldovan dairy cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Pluta, Aneta; Rola-Łuszczak, Marzena; Kubiś, Piotr; Balov, Svetlana; Moskalik, Roman; Choudhury, Bhudipa; Kuźmak, Jacek

    2017-01-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is the causative agent of enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL), a disease that has worldwide distribution. Whilst it has been eradicated in most of Western Europe and Scandinavia, it remains a problem in other regions, particularly Eastern Europe and South America. For this study, in 2013, 24 cattle from three farms in three regions of Moldova were screened by ELISA and nested PCR. Of these cattle, 14 which were PCR positive, and these were molecularly characterized base...

  14. GENOMIC VARIABILITY AMONG CATTLE POPULATIONS BASED ON RUNS OF HOMOZYGOSITY

    OpenAIRE

    Veronika Šidlová; Radovan Kasarda; Nina Moravčíková; Anna Trakovická; Ino Curik; Maja Ferenčaković

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the distribution of different lengths ROH (runs of homozygosity) in six cattle breeds was described. A total of 122 animals from six cattle breeds (Holstein, Simmental, Austrian Pinzgau, Ayrshire, MRI-Meuse Rhine Issel and Slovak Pinzgau) were analysed. The ROH approach was used to distinguish Slovak Pinzgau population from other investigated breeds as well as to differentiate between ancient and recent inbreeding. The average number of ROH per animal ranged from 17.06 in Holste...

  15. Methane emissions from feedlot cattle fed barley or corn diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchemin, K A; McGinn, S M

    2005-03-01

    Methane emitted from the livestock sector contributes to greenhouse gas emissions worldwide. Understanding the variability in enteric methane production related to diet is essential to decreasing uncertainty in greenhouse gas emission inventories and to identifying viable greenhouse gas reduction strategies. Our study focused on measuring methane in growing beef cattle fed corn- or barley-based diets typical of those fed to cattle in North American feedlots. The experiment was designed as a randomized complete block (group) design with two treatments, barley and corn. Angus heifer calves (initial BW = 328 kg) were allocated to two groups (eight per group), with four cattle in each group fed a corn or barley diet. The experiment was conducted over a 42-d backgrounding phase, a 35-d transition phase and a 32-d finishing phase. Backgrounding diets consisted of 70% barley silage or corn silage and 30% concentrate containing steam-rolled barley or dry-rolled corn (DM basis). Finishing diets consisted of 9% barley silage and 91% concentrate containing barley or corn (DM basis). All diets contained monensin (33 mg/kg of DM). Cattle were placed into four large environmental chambers (two heifers per chamber) during each phase to measure enteric methane production for 3 d. During the backgrounding phase, DMI was greater by cattle fed corn than for those fed barley (10.2 vs. 7.6 kg/d, P cattle were in the chambers; thus, methane emissions (g/d) reported may underestimate those of the feedlot industry. Methane emissions per kilogram of DMI and as a percentage of GE intake were not affected by grain source during the backgrounding phase (24.6 g/kg of DMI; 7.42% of GE), but were less (P methane emissions of cattle fed high-forage backgrounding diets and barley-based finishing diets. Mitigating methane losses from cattle will have long-term environmental benefits by decreasing agriculture's contribution to greenhouse gas emissions.

  16. Methane conversion factors from cattle manure in México

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Methane emission factors from different cattle manure management systems including simulated slurry system fermentation were experimentally determined in this and a previous study (González-Avalos and Ruiz-Suárez, 2001). Combining results from both studies, we report values for maximum CH4 yield, called B0, for manure produced by cattle under different production systems and climates, which also implies different quality of feeds and associated methane conversion factors (MCF) for distinct ma...

  17. [Pharmacology of licensed antibiotics for use in cattle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäumer, W

    2012-10-17

    There is an ongoing public debate about the use of antibiotics in farm animals. In this context it is reasonable to provide an update of the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of antibiotics currently licensed for cattle. The key pharmacologic data of β-lactam-antibiotics, sulfonamide/trimethoprim combinations, tetracyclines, aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, macrolide antibiotics, phenicoles, lincosamides and polypeptide antibiotics are presented with particular focus on their use in cattle.

  18. Seroprevalence of Brucella abortus and Leptospira hardjo in cattle

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to assess the seroprevalence of B. abortus and Leptospira hardjo in the cattle population of Bihar, this work was carried out. Materials and Methods: Randomly selected 450 cattle from nine districts of Bihar were serologically screened for antibodies against L. hardjo and B. abortus. DAS-ELISA for leptospira and AB-ELISA for brucella were carried out. Based on the results prevalence in each district and the state are reported herewith. Results and Discussion: In this study, i...

  19. UJAS 35.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    A study was carried out to evaluate growth performance of Zebu cattle and their crosses with. Sahiwal and Boran ... Genetic group of the calf (Zebu, Boran or Sahiwal crosses) was a significant ... beef and milk production but also for draft power ...

  20. Mycobacteria in Terrestrial Small Mammals on Cattle Farms in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lies Durnez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The control of bovine tuberculosis and atypical mycobacterioses in cattle in developing countries is important but difficult because of the existence of wildlife reservoirs. In cattle farms in Tanzania, mycobacteria were detected in 7.3% of 645 small mammals and in cow's milk. The cattle farms were divided into “reacting” and “nonreacting” farms, based on tuberculin tests, and more mycobacteria were present in insectivores collected in reacting farms as compared to nonreacting farms. More mycobacteria were also present in insectivores as compared to rodents. All mycobacteria detected by culture and PCR in the small mammals were atypical mycobacteria. Analysis of the presence of mycobacteria in relation to the reactor status of the cattle farms does not exclude transmission between small mammals and cattle but indicates that transmission to cattle from another source of infection is more likely. However, because of the high prevalence of mycobacteria in some small mammal species, these infected animals can pose a risk to humans, especially in areas with a high HIV-prevalence as is the case in Tanzania.