WorldWideScience

Sample records for hump yard control

  1. A Matheuristic Approach for Solving the Railroad Hump Yard Block-to-Track Assignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Jørgen Thorlund; Lusby, Richard Martin

    dependent subproblems. Optimization-based strategies are adopted for two of these, while the third is solved using a greedy heuristic. We demonstrate the efficiency of the complete framework on the official datasets, where solutions within 4-14% of a known lower bound (to a relaxed problem) are found. We......This paper presents a novel matheuristic for solving the Hump Yard Block-to-Track Assignment Problem. This is an important problem rising in the railway freight industry and involves scheduling the transitions of a set of rail cars from a set of inbound trains to a set of outbound trains over...... a certain planning horizon. It was also the topic of the 2014 challenge organised by the Railway Applications Section of the Institute for Operations Research and the Management Sciences for which the proposed matheuristic was awarded first prize. Our approach decomposes the problem into three highly...

  2. Effectiveness of Motorcycle speed controlled by speed hump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pornsiri Urapa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Speed humps are one of the traffic calming measures widely accepted to control vehicle speed in the local road. Humps standards from the western countries are designed mainly for the passenger car. This study, therefore, aims to reveal the effectiveness of speed hump to control the motorcycle speed. This study observes the free-flow speed of the riders at the total of 20 speed bumps and humps. They are 0.3-14.8 meter in width and 5-18 centimeter in height. The results reveal that the 85th percentile speeds reduce 15-65 percent when crossing the speed bumps and speed humps. Besides, this study develops the speed model to predict the motorcycle mean speed and 85th percentile speed. It is found that speed humps follow the ITE standard can control motorcycle crossing speeds to be 25-30 Kph which are suitable to travel on the local road.

  3. Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes Analysis of Zero Efflux Flow Control over a Hump Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumsey, Christopher L.

    2006-01-01

    The unsteady flow over a hump model with zero efflux oscillatory flow control is modeled computationally using the unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. Three different turbulence models produce similar results, and do a reasonably good job predicting the general character of the unsteady surface pressure coefficients during the forced cycle. However, the turbulent shear stresses are underpredicted in magnitude inside the separation bubble, and the computed results predict too large a (mean) separation bubble compared with experiment. These missed predictions are consistent with earlier steady-state results using no-flow-control and steady suction, from a 2004 CFD validation workshop for synthetic jets.

  4. Power efficiency of the active boundary layer control around the hump by a slotted synthetic jet generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pick Petr

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present contribution summarizes the power efficiency of the active flow control of the boundary layer of air around a hump. The synthetic jet generator with a rectangular output part, i.e. a slot, is actuated using a modulated signal. The actuation of the synthetic jet is carried out by modulating the input voltage of acoustic transducers of the generator. This causes the decrease of the loss coefficient and the change of the mixing size area (e.g. wake. A comparison of three types of modulating signals and their influence on the loss coefficient is performed. The main advantages of modulated signal are then described.

  5. Parametric Study of Flow Control Over a Hump Model Using an Unsteady Reynolds- Averaged Navier-Stokes Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumsey, Christopher L.; Greenblatt, David

    2007-01-01

    This is an expanded version of a limited-length paper that appeared at the 5th International Symposium on Turbulence and Shear Flow Phenomena by the same authors. A computational study was performed for steady and oscillatory flow control over a hump model with flow separation to assess how well the steady and unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations predict trends due to Reynolds number, control magnitude, and control frequency. As demonstrated in earlier studies, the hump model case is useful because it clearly demonstrates a failing in all known turbulence models: they under-predict the turbulent shear stress in the separated region and consequently reattachment occurs too far downstream. In spite of this known failing, three different turbulence models were employed to determine if trends can be captured even though absolute levels are not. Overall the three turbulence models showed very similar trends as experiment for steady suction, but only agreed qualitatively with some of the trends for oscillatory control.

  6. Final environmental assessment for vegetation control at VHF stations, microwave stations, electrical substations, and pole yards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-13

    Southwestern Power Adm. operates very high frequency (VHF) and microwave radio stations, electrical substations, and pole yards for electric power transmission throughout AR, MO, and OK. Vegetation growth at the stations must be suppressed for safety of operation and personnel. Southwestern has been using a combination of mechanical/manual and herbicide control for this purpose; Federally- mandated reductions in staff and budgetary resources require Southwestern to evaluate all potentially efficient methods for vegetation control. Three alternatives were examined: no action, mechanical/manual control, and (proposed) a combination of mechanical/manual and herbicide control. Environmental impacts on air and water quality, wetlands, wildlife, endangered species, archaeological and other resources, farmland, human health, transportation, etc. were evaluated.

  7. Consumption Habits and Humps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Holger; Munk, Claus; Seifried, Frank Thomas

    2017-01-01

    We show that the optimal consumption of an individual over the life cycle can have the hump shape (inverted U-shape) observed empirically if the preferences of the individual exhibit internal habit formation. In the absence of habit formation, an impatient individual would prefer a decreasing...... consumption path over life. However, because of habit formation, a high initial consumption would lead to high required consumption in the future. To cover the future required consumption, wealth is set aside, but the necessary amount decreases with age which allows consumption to increase in the early part...... of life. At some age, the impatience outweighs the habit concerns so that consumption starts to decrease. We derive the optimal consumption strategy in closed form, deduce sufficient conditions for the presence of a consumption hump, and characterize the age at which the hump occurs. Numerical examples...

  8. Consumption Habits and Humps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Holger; Munk, Claus; Seifried, Frank Thomas

    We show that the optimal consumption of an individual over the life cycle can have the hump shape (inverted U-shape) observed empirically if the preferences of the individual exhibit internal habit formation. In the absence of habit formation, an impatient individual would prefer a decreasing...... consumption path over life. However, because of habit formation, a high initial consumption would lead to high required consumption in the future. To cover the future required consumption, wealth is set aside, but the necessary amount decreases with age which allows consumption to increase in the early part...... of life. At some age, the impatience outweighs the habit concerns so that consumption starts to decrease. We derive the optimal consumption strategy in closed form, deduce sufficient conditions for the presence of a consumption hump, and characterize the age at which the hump occurs. Numerical examples...

  9. 49 CFR 1242.67 - Switch crews; controlling operations; yard and terminal clerical; locomotive fuel; electric power...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Switch crews; controlling operations; yard and terminal clerical; locomotive fuel; electric power purchased/produced for motive power; operating switches... SERVICE FOR RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Transportation § 1242.67 Switch crews; controlling operations...

  10. The health hump

    OpenAIRE

    Strulik, Holger

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, I suggest a novel explanation for a hump-shaped ageconsumption profile, based on human aging. The model integrates health in the utility function and utilizes recent estimates on the effects of health on the marginal utility of consumption. The parsimonious model has a closed-form solution for the age of peak consumption and the consumption level at that age relative to initial consumption. A calibration of the model with data from gerontology produces an empirically plausible ...

  11. Microgrid Controller Design, Implementation, and Deployment: A Journey from Conception to Implementation at the Philadelphia Navy Yard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uluski, R.; Kumar, J.; Venkata, S. S. Mani; Vishwakarma, D.; Schneider, K.; Mehrizi-Sani, Ali; Terry, Rudy; Agate, Will

    2017-07-01

    The Philadelphia Navy Yard is a fast-evolving community microgrid, currently home to over 150 companies and four Navy activity centers occupying nearly 7 million ft2 of buildings in which approximately 12,000 people are employed. The Navy Yard (TNY) is a national center of excellence for energy research, education, and commercialization, focused specifically on community microgrid design and development. TNY microgrid is equipped with the most cost-effective and sustainable means for meeting electric capacity and energy needs through renewable resources, energy efficiency, and distribution grid infrastructure. This article briefly describes how the community microgrid was conceived and planned to produce a great success story of microgrid implementation and the details of the design, development, and implementation of the TNY microgrid controller.

  12. A Matheuristic Approach to Integrate Humping and Pullout Sequencing Operations at Railroad Hump Yards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Jørgen Thorlund; Lusby, Richard Martin

    2016-01-01

    a certain planning horizon. It was also the topic of the 2014 challenge organized by the Railway Applications Section of the Institute for Operations Research and the Management Sciences for which the proposed matheuristic was awarded first prize. Our approach decomposes the problem into three highly...

  13. Determining average yarding distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger H. Twito; Charles N. Mann

    1979-01-01

    Emphasis on environmental and esthetic quality in timber harvesting has brought about increased use of complex boundaries of cutting units and a consequent need for a rapid and accurate method of determining the average yarding distance and area of these units. These values, needed for evaluation of road and landing locations in planning timber harvests, are easily and...

  14. Evaluation of airborne methyl salicylate for improved conservation biological control of two-spotted spider mite and hop aphid in Oregon hop yards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, J L; James, D G; Lee, J C; Gent, D H

    2011-12-01

    The use of synthetic herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPV) to attract natural enemies has received interest as a tool to enhance conservation biological control (CBC). Methyl salicylate (MeSA) is a HIPV that is attractive to several key predators of two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), and hop aphid, Phorodon humuli (Schrank) (Homoptera: Aphididae). A 2-year study was conducted to evaluate the recommended commercial use of MeSA in hop yards in Oregon. Slow-release MeSA dispensers were stapled to supporting poles in 0.5 ha plots and these plots were compared to a paired non-treated plot on each of three farms in 2008 and 2009. Across both years, there was a trend for reduced (range 40-91%) mean seasonal numbers of T. urticae in five of the six MeSA-baited plots. Stethorus spp., key spider mite predators, tended to be more numerous in MeSA-baited plots compared to control plots on a given farm. Mean seasonal densities of hop aphid and other natural enemies (e.g., Orius spp. and Anystis spp.) were similar between MeSA-treated and control plots. Variability among farms in suppression of two-spotted spider mites and attraction of Stethorus spp. suggests that the use of MeSA to enhance CBC of spider mites in commercial hop yards may be influenced by site-specific factors related to the agroecology of individual farms or seasonal effects that require further investigation. The current study also suggests that CBC of hop aphid with MeSA in this environment may be unsatisfactory.

  15. Effect of speed hump characteristics on pavement condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talaat Ali Abdel-Wahed

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Speed humps are the most common type of traffic calming devices due to their low cost and easy installation. However, in many Egyptian roads, considerable number of these humps is randomly placed without proper engineering studies and justifications. Deterioration of pavement condition is observed near these humps. This paper presents a case study applied to collect and analyze visual inspection data for the reason of evaluating the impact of speed humps on pavement condition on intercity rural roads. The paper used 52 speed humps located in an intercity two-lane, two-way road that connects two cities, Tahta and Gerga, in Upper Egypt. The total length of this road is about 34 km. Pavement condition index (PCI, in road sections, near speed humps in the two directions of travel were calculated from the visual inspection measurements. The characteristics of each speed hump (width, height, and distance from preceding hump were measured. Using statistical analyses, the correlations between the pavement conditions and hump characteristics were examined. Regression analysis models were developed to represent the relationships between pavement conditions and hump characteristics. Generally, the results proved that the pavement conditions are greatly influenced by the presence of speed humps and hump characteristics.

  16. Double hump sign in indentation gonioscopy is correlated with presence of plateau iris configuration regardless of patent iridotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiuchi, Yoshiaki; Kanamoto, Takashi; Nakamura, Takao

    2009-02-01

    A plateau iris is one of the clinical forms of angle closure glaucoma. In patients with a patent iridotomy, the double hump sign detected during indentation gonioscopy has been reported to indicate the existence of a plateau iris configuration. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the double hump sign is correlated with the presence of the plateau iris syndrome regardless of the patency of the iridotomy. Five women and 3 men without a patent iridotomy presented with narrow angles on gonioscopy and a double hump sign on indentation gonioscopy. Ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) imaging was performed to determine the etiology of the narrow angle and double hump sign, and to determine the appropriate treatment to prevent the progression of visual field damage. Ten patients with narrow angles and without a double hump sign were also examined by UBM to serve as a control group. All 8 patients who showed double hump sign had a short iris root, which was inserted anterior to the ciliary face, a typical anatomic appearance of a plateau iris. On the other hand, only 1 eye of 10 eyes in control group appeared to have a plateau iris. A double hump sign observed on indentation gonioscopy is strongly correlated with the presence of a plateau iris, and therefore a useful indicator of a plateau iris configuration regardless of the patency of a laser iridotomy. Thus, a plateau iris configuration can be detected without using a UBM in many cases.

  17. Gardening/Yard Work and Depressive Symptoms in African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Elisa R; Sampselle, Carolyn M; Ronis, David L; Neighbors, Harold W; Gretebeck, Kimberlee A

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the frequency of gardening/yard work in relation to depressive symptoms in African-Americans while controlling for biological and social factors. A secondary analysis was performed on the National Survey of American Life (n=2,903) using logistic regression for complex samples. Gardening/Yard work was measured by self-reported frequency. Depressive symptoms were measured with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale. Biological and social factors, not gardening/yard work, were associated with depressive symptoms. Biological and social factors may need to be addressed before the association between gardening/yard work and depressive symptoms can be determined. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. An improved JWKB approximation for multiple-humped fission barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinelli, T.; Menapace, E.; Ventura, A.

    1977-01-01

    Penetrabilities of two- and three-humped fission barriers are calculated in semiclassical (JWKB) approximation, valid also in the case where classical turning points are close, or coincident (excitation energy near the top of some hump). Numerical results are shown for Th 234 . (author)

  19. An acceleration test for stress corrosion cracking using humped specimen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaya, Masayuki; Fukumura, Takuya; Totsuka, Nobuo

    2003-01-01

    By using the humped specimen, which is processed by the humped die, in the slow strain rate technique (SSRT) test, fracture facet due to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) can be observed in relatively short duration. Although the cold work and concentrated stress and strain caused by the characteristic shape of the specimen accelerate the SCC, to date these acceleration effects have not been examined quantitatively. In the present study, the acceleration effects of the humped specimen were examined through experiments and finite element analyses (FEA). The experiments investigated the SCC of alloy 600 in the primary water environment of a pressurized water reactor. SSRT tests were conducted using two kinds of humped specimen: one was annealed after hump processing in order to eliminate the cold work, and the other was hump processed after the annealing treatment. The work ratio caused by the hump processing and stress/strain conditions during SSRT test were evaluated by FEA. It was found that maximum work ratio of 30% is introduced by the hump processing and that the distribution of the work ratio is not uniform. Furthermore, the work ratio is influenced by the friction between the specimen and dies as well as by the shape of dies. It was revealed that not only the cold work but also the concentrated stress and strain during SSRT test accelerate the crack initiation and growth of the SCC. (author)

  20. Integrated Yard Space Allocation and Yard Crane Deployment Problem in Resource-Limited Container Terminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caimao Tan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Yard storage space and yard crane equipment are the core resources in the container terminal yard area. This paper studies the integrated yard space allocation (outbound container space and yard crane deployment problem in resource-limited container terminals where yard space and yard cranes are extremely scarce. Two corresponding counterstrategies are introduced, respectively, and the integrated problem is solved as mixed integer programming. The model this paper formulated considers the container volume fluctuation of the service line, and the objective is a trade-off between yard sharing space and terminal operation cost. In numerical experiments, this paper tries to reveal the management meaning in practical operation of container terminal and provides decision support for terminal managers; therefore a series of scenarios are presented to analyze the relations among the yard sharing space, the number of yard cranes, the size of yard subblock, and the cost of terminal operation.

  1. Radioactive fuel cask railcar humping study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, L.T.

    1978-01-01

    The response of two radioactive shipping casks due to railroad humping shocks was calculated using a spring-mass model. The two railcars for these casks had different coupling mechanisms and different tiedown arrangements. Humping tests had been performed on one of the railcars (ATMX-600) and the resulting shock spectra was used to adjust the spring-mass model to get matching results. One car (designed for cask shipment) was equipped with Freightmaster E-15 end of car coupler and had about 1 / 8 in. free travel of the cask skid relative to the car. The other car (ATMX-600), equipped with Miner RF-333 draft gear, was designed for nuclear weapon shipment and adapted to nuclear waste shipment by fastening the casks to the floor. Both car frames were built by the same manufacturer and are very similar. The response of the casks was put in shock spectra format and a parametric study was performed with various cask weights. Additional studies were done on the effects of fastening the loose cask, and using the Freightmaster end of car coupler on the ATMX car. Half-sine response spectra were overlaid to include the natural frequency of the cask tiedown. The resulting shock amplitude was plotted against the cask weight for each car. The results show a constant acceleration level for all the weights on the car with hydraulic end-of-car coupler which results from constant force at that impact velocity. The cask acceleration can be reduced by fastening it to the car, rather than allowing it to move freely through some small space. This study also shows that the cask response can be optimized on railcars without hydraulic draft gear by adjusting the tiedown stiffness to keep the tiedown frequency different than car frequencies

  2. Yards face up to future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bru, Jan Gunnar

    1997-01-01

    The article puts the attention to market relations in connection with the Norwegian petroleum industry. The paradox facing Norwegian yards involved in the offshore industry is that while the sector is now experiencing a market boom, within two years contractors could find themselves scrambling for work in a reduced market. 1 tab

  3. Sediments of a retting yard

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Remani, K.N.; Venugopal, P.; Devi, K.S.; Unnithan, R.V.

    (av. 46.8 and 92.3 mg/g respectively) compared to the reference station (20.6 and 48.9 mg/g) and published data on estuarine sediments.C/N ratios were consistently higher in the retting yard. Organic nitrogen, however,did not show this trend. Annual...

  4. 28 CFR 25.56 - Responsibilities of junk yards and salvage yards and auto recyclers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Responsibilities of junk yards and salvage yards and auto recyclers. 25.56 Section 25.56 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE... Responsibilities of junk yards and salvage yards and auto recyclers. (a) By no later than March 31, 2009, and...

  5. Performance of Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes Models in Predicting Separated Flows: Study of the Hump Flow Model Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelli, Daniele; Mansour, Nagi N.

    2012-01-01

    Separation can be seen in most aerodynamic flows, but accurate prediction of separated flows is still a challenging problem for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools. The behavior of several Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) models in predicting the separated ow over a wall-mounted hump is studied. The strengths and weaknesses of the most popular RANS models (Spalart-Allmaras, k-epsilon, k-omega, k-omega-SST) are evaluated using the open source software OpenFOAM. The hump ow modeled in this work has been documented in the 2004 CFD Validation Workshop on Synthetic Jets and Turbulent Separation Control. Only the baseline case is treated; the slot flow control cases are not considered in this paper. Particular attention is given to predicting the size of the recirculation bubble, the position of the reattachment point, and the velocity profiles downstream of the hump.

  6. 'Scrap yard challenge'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollick, A.

    2000-01-01

    'Plutonium'. The word evokes deep reactions outside of the nuclear industry. Although the majority of Plutonium currently in existence is man-made and therefore perceived as being unnatural, plutonium has been found as a product of the Oklo natural reactor in Gabon. This paper seeks to challenge two concepts, that of the Nuclear Control Institute that Plutonium is unnatural, 'fiendishly toxic' and one of the 'substances most hazardous to man' and the second image that a high security Plutonium store is merely a 'scrapyard' containing a material which has little use. The nuclear industry has often been accused of treating Plutonium and its accumulation casually in proportion to the risks perceived by those outside the industry. As a result this paper seeks to demonstrate that the industry is aware of the concerns of the public and is actively seeking viable solutions. The paper looks at Plutonium itself and explores the issues surrounding military and civil Plutonium in adding to the current stockpiles. It also suggests three possible alternatives for dealing with these Plutonium stockpiles and arrives at a conclusion as to which solutions currently appear most viable. (authors)

  7. Allelopathic effects of eucalyptus camaldulensis leaf leachate on the growth of wheat and green gram and its control by farm yard manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, S.; Bibi, S.

    2012-01-01

    Farm Yard Manure (FYM) significantly reduced the allelopathic effects of Eucalyptus camaldulensis leachate. This influence was studied on morphological and physiological aspect of two taxonomically different plants (wheat and green gram). E. camaldulensis aqueous leachate applied (4), 1% and 5% alone and together with FYM and the results showed that E. camaldulensis leaf leachate had inhibitory effects on wheat growth, while promoted shoot and root growth in green gram when supplied in low concentration. The combined effects of litter and FYM reduced the inhibitory effects of leachate and supported the growth of both plants. These results suggested that, if both studied crops have to be cultivated in an agricultural land surrounded by E. camaldulensis tree, the possible growth rate could be supported by the application of FYM. But in the absence of this support, the plant growth was significantly arrested due to allelopathic effect of E. ctunaldulensis leaf leachate. (author)

  8. Allelopathic effects of eucalyptus camaldulensis leaf leachate on the growth of wheat and green gram and its control by farm yard manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, S.; Bibi, S.

    2012-01-01

    Farm Yard Manure (FYM) significantly reduced the allelopathic effects of Eucalyptus camaldulensis leachate. This influence was studied on morphological and physiological aspect of two taxonomically different plants (wheat and green gram). E. camaldtllensis aqueous leachate applied at the rate of 1% and 5% alone and together with FYM and the results showed that E. camaldulensis leaf leachate had inhibitory effects on wheat growth, while promoted shoot and root growth in green gram when supplied in low concentration. The combined effects of litter and FYM reduced the inhibitory effects of leachate and supported the growth of both plants. These results suggested that, if both studied crops have to be cultivated in an agricultural land surrounded by E. camaldulensis tree, the possible growth rate could be supported by the application Of FYM. But in the absence of this support, the plant growth was significantly arrested due to allelopathic effect of E. camaldulensis leaf leachate. (author)

  9. Scaling of spiking and humping in keyhole welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, P S; Chuang, K C [Department of Mechanical and Electro-Mechanical Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); DebRoy, T [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Ku, J S, E-mail: pswei@mail.nsysu.edu.tw, E-mail: cielo.zhuang@gmail.com, E-mail: rtd1@psu.edu, E-mail: jsku@mail.nsysu.edu.tw [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)

    2011-06-22

    Spiking, rippling and humping seriously reduce the strength of welds. The effects of beam focusing, volatile alloying element concentration and welding velocity on spiking, coarse rippling and humping in keyhole mode electron-beam welding are examined through scale analysis. Although these defects have been studied in the past, the mechanisms for their formation are not fully understood. This work relates the average amplitudes of spikes to fusion zone depth for the welding of Al 6061, SS 304 and carbon steel, and Al 5083. The scale analysis introduces welding and melting efficiencies and an appropriate power distribution to account for the focusing effects, and the energy which is reflected and escapes through the keyhole opening to the surroundings. The frequency of humping and spiking can also be predicted from the scale analysis. The analysis also reveals the interrelation between coarse rippling and humping. The data and the mechanistic findings reported in this study are useful for understanding and preventing spiking and humping during keyhole mode electron and laser beam welding.

  10. Effect of welding current and speed on occurrence of humping bead in high-speed GMAW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Ji; Wu Chuansong

    2009-01-01

    The developed mathematical model of humping formation mechanism in high-speed gas metal arc welding (GMAW) is used to analyze the effects of welding current and welding speed on the occurrence of humping bead. It considers both the momentum and heat content of backward flowing molten jet inside weld pool. Three-dimensional geometry of weld pool, the spacing between two adjacent humps and hump height along humping weld bead are calculated under different levels of welding current and welding speed. It shows that wire feeding rate, power intensity and the moment of backward flowing molten jet are the major factors on humping bead formation.

  11. COMPLEX SIMULATION MODEL OF TRAIN BREAKING-UP PROCESS AT THE HUMPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. B. Demchenko

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. One of the priorities of station sorting complex functioning improvement is the breaking-up process energy consumptions reduction, namely: fuel consumption for train pushing and electric energy consumption for cut braking. In this regard, an effective solution of the problem of energy consumption reduction at breaking-up subsystem requires a comprehensive handling of train pushing and cut rolling down processes. At the same time, the analysis showed that the current task of pushing process improvement and cut rolling down effectiveness increase are solved separately. To solve this problem it is necessary to develop the complex simulation model of train breaking up process at humps. Methodology. Pushing process simulation was done based on adapted under the shunting conditions traction calculations. In addition, the features of shunting locomotives work at the humps were taken into account. In order to realize the current pushing mode the special algorithm of hump locomotive controlling, which along with the safety shunting operation requirements takes into account behavioral factors associated with engineer control actions was applied. This algorithm provides train smooth acceleration and further movement with speed, which is close to the set speed. Hump locomotive fuel consumptions were determined based on the amount of mechanical work performed by locomotive traction. Findings. The simulation model of train pushing process was developed and combined with existing cut rolling down model. Cut initial velocity is determined during simulation process. The obtained initial velocity is used for further cut rolling process modeling. In addition, the modeling resulted in sufficiently accurate determination of the fuel rates consumed for train breaking-up. Originality. The simulation model of train breaking-up process at the humps, which in contrast to the existing models allows reproducing complexly all the elements of this process in detail

  12. 40 CFR 60.1915 - What is yard waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is yard waste? 60.1915 Section 60... Municipal Waste Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1915 What is yard waste? Yard waste is grass, grass...

  13. 40 CFR 62.15370 - What is yard waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is yard waste? 62.15370 Section 62... for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 62.15370 What is yard waste? Yard waste is grass, grass...

  14. Scoliosis associated with airflow obstruction due to endothoracic vertebral hump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Kenyu; Kawakami, Noriaki; Miyasaka, Kazuyoshi; Tsuji, Taichi; Ohara, Tetsuya; Nohara, Ayato

    2012-12-01

    A retrospective clinical study of scoliosis-associated airflow obstruction due to endothoracic vertebral hump. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and present anatomical features of patients with scoliosis who showed airflow obstruction caused by endothoracic vertebral hump. It is well known that severe scoliosis causes airflow restriction due to thoracic cage deformity. There have been few reports of clinical data and anatomical features on scoliosis associated with airflow obstruction due to endothoracic vertebral hump. The subjects were 6 patients. The diagnoses were idiopathic scoliosis in 3 patients, symptomatic scoliosis in 2 patients, and thoracogenic scoliosis in 1 patient. The radiological outcome, comorbidities, pre- and postoperative respiratory function, and surgical complication were analyzed. Four patients had preoperative atelectasis on the convex side of the lower lobe and improved after the operations. All patients showed main thoracic curves and their apex was located at T7-T9. All patients had lordoscoliosis except 1, who demonstrated kyphosing scoliosis. The correction rate was 78% (62.8%-83.5%). Preoperative thoracic lordosis within the range of -5° to -47° was postoperatively corrected to a substantially normal kyphosis within the range of 9° to 24°. The average vital capacity, percent VC improved from 0.72 L (0.33-1.17 L) to 1.21 L (0.82-1.71 L) and 45.5% (37.3%- 50.8%) to 63.7% (41.0%-88.6%) relatively. Spine Penetration Index improved from 23% (18%-35%) to 16% (13%-19%). Endothoracic hump ratio improved from 1.34 (0.98-1.93) to 1.12 (0.86-1.28). Each patient with symptomatic scoliosis and thoracogenic scoliosis required relatively long periods of respiration management. Patients having lordoscoliosis with an apex located between T7 and T9 may develop airflow obstruction due to an endothoracic vertebral hump. Correction of lordoscoliosis through anterior and posterior approaches successfully improved endothoracic hump ratio and

  15. Hump-shape Uncertainty, Agency Costs and Aggregate Fluctuations

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Gabriel; Kevin, Salyer; Strobel, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Previously measured uncertainty shocks using the U.S. data show a hump-shape time path: Uncertainty rises for two years before its decline. Current literature on the effects uncertainty on macroeconomics, including housing, has not accounted for this observation. Consequently, the literature on uncertainty and macroeconomics is divided on the effcts and the propagation mechanism of uncertainty on aggregate uctuations. This paper shows that when uncertainty rises and falls over time, th...

  16. Simulation model for port shunting yards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusca, A.; Popa, M.; Rosca, E.; Rosca, M.; Dragu, V.; Rusca, F.

    2016-08-01

    Sea ports are important nodes in the supply chain, joining two high capacity transport modes: rail and maritime transport. The huge cargo flows transiting port requires high capacity construction and installation such as berths, large capacity cranes, respectively shunting yards. However, the port shunting yards specificity raises several problems such as: limited access since these are terminus stations for rail network, the in-output of large transit flows of cargo relatively to the scarcity of the departure/arrival of a ship, as well as limited land availability for implementing solutions to serve these flows. It is necessary to identify technological solutions that lead to an answer to these problems. The paper proposed a simulation model developed with ARENA computer simulation software suitable for shunting yards which serve sea ports with access to the rail network. Are investigates the principal aspects of shunting yards and adequate measures to increase their transit capacity. The operation capacity for shunting yards sub-system is assessed taking in consideration the required operating standards and the measure of performance (e.g. waiting time for freight wagons, number of railway line in station, storage area, etc.) of the railway station are computed. The conclusion and results, drawn from simulation, help transports and logistics specialists to test the proposals for improving the port management.

  17. Evaluation of airborne methyl salicylate for improved conservation biological control of two-spotted spider mites and hop aphid in Oregon hop yards

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of synthetic herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPV) to attract natural enemies has received interest as a tool to enhance conservation biological control (CBC). Methyl salicylate (MeSA) is a HIPV that is attractive to several key predators of two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae K...

  18. Fundamentals of the double-humped fission barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brack, M.

    1980-01-01

    We review the development of the theory of the fission barrier over the past forty years. Special emphasis is put on the shell-correction method of Strutinsky and its foundation and numerical verification from microscopical Hartree-Fock calculations. The different practical realisations of the method and its applications to the calculation of deformation energy surfaces are reviewed. The influence of the different shape degrees of freedom of the nucleus on the form of the fission barrier is discussed. Finally, we summarize some more recent developments concerning both experimental and theoretical aspects of the double-humped fission barrier. (author)

  19. Histogenesis of rumen in one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius)

    OpenAIRE

    E. Salimi Naghani* and L. Akradi1

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to follow several sequence histological changes that occur during the histogenesis of the rumen in one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius). Histogenesis study was carried out on 66 fetuses of camel from 50th day of gestation until birth (390 days), according to the most relevant histo-differentiation characteristics of the rumen in fetuses, these were divided into four groups: group I (5-24 cm crown-rump length (C-RL); 50-140 days); group II (24-30 cm C-RL; 140-160 d...

  20. Optimizing yard operations in port container terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallehauge, Louise Sibbesen

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of positioning containers in a yard block of a port container terminal. The objective of the container positioning problem (CPP) is to minimise the total handling time in the block, i.e. the time required for storage and reshuffling of containers. One...

  1. 76 FR 58167 - Safety Standard for Play Yards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-20

    ... subject matter expert. Thus, EWS contains the best data to support the play yard regulatory work. 1... compressed the airway. One toddler was killed when the play yard collapsed unexpectedly. The child was... hospitalization was caused by the presence of soft bedding in the play yard. This was a severe injury to a 7-week...

  2. Study of effect of a smooth hump on hypersonic boundary layer instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Donghun; Park, Seung O.

    2016-12-01

    Effect of a two-dimensional smooth hump on linear instability of hypersonic boundary layer is studied by using parabolized stability equations. Linear evolution of mode S over a hump is analyzed for Mach 4.5 and 5.92 flat plate and Mach 7.1 sharp cone boundary layers. Mean flow for stability analysis is obtained by solving the parabolized Navier-Stokes equations. Hump with height smaller than local boundary layer thickness is considered. The case of flat plate and sharp cone without the hump are also studied to provide comparable data. For flat plate boundary layers, destabilization and stabilization effect is confirmed for hump located at upstream and downstream of synchronization point, respectively. Results of parametric studies to examine the effect of hump height, location, etc., are also given. For sharp cone boundary layer, stabilization influence of hump is also identified for a specific range of frequency. Stabilization influence of hump on convective instability of mode S is found to be a possible cause of previous experimental observations of delaying transition in hypersonic boundary layers.

  3. Consumption and Wage Humps in a Life-cycle Model with Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Holger; Munk, Claus; Seifried, Frank Thomas

    The observed hump-shaped life-cycle pattern in individuals' consumption cannot be explained by the classical consumption-savings model. We explicitly solve a model with utility of both consumption and leisure and with educational decisions affecting future wages. We show optimal consumption is hump...

  4. Stability analysis of a boundary layer over a hump using parabolized stability equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, B; Park, D H; Park, S O, E-mail: sopark@kaist.ac.kr [Division of Aerospace Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Gusong-dong, Yusong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Parabolized stability equations (PSEs) were used to investigate the stability of boundary layer flows over a small hump. The applicability of PSEs to flows with a small separation bubble was examined by comparing the result with DNS data. It was found that PSEs can efficiently track the disturbance waves with an acceptable accuracy in spite of a small separation bubble. A typical evolution scenario of Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) wave is presented. The adverse pressure gradient and the flow separation due to the hump have a strong effect on the amplification of the disturbances. The effect of hump width and height is also examined. When the width of the hump is reduced, the amplification factor is increased. The height of the hump is found to obviously influence the stability only when it is greater than the critical layer thickness.

  5. Stability analysis of a boundary layer over a hump using parabolized stability equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, B; Park, D H; Park, S O

    2011-01-01

    Parabolized stability equations (PSEs) were used to investigate the stability of boundary layer flows over a small hump. The applicability of PSEs to flows with a small separation bubble was examined by comparing the result with DNS data. It was found that PSEs can efficiently track the disturbance waves with an acceptable accuracy in spite of a small separation bubble. A typical evolution scenario of Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) wave is presented. The adverse pressure gradient and the flow separation due to the hump have a strong effect on the amplification of the disturbances. The effect of hump width and height is also examined. When the width of the hump is reduced, the amplification factor is increased. The height of the hump is found to obviously influence the stability only when it is greater than the critical layer thickness.

  6. STUDY OF TECHNICAL STATE IMPACT OF BRAKE RETARDERS AT THE PROCESSING ABILITY OF HUMPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Kozachenko

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The research aims development of methods for calculating the estimated capacity humps for the loss conditions of brake power retarders. Methodology. The operation of humps is connected with large number of random factors, such as the characteristics of cuts, environmental conditions, the value of braking power implemented by retardants and others. In this regard, to research the set tasks the methods of simulation modeling and mathematical statistics are used. Determination of speed and motion time of cuts on the routes is carried out on the basis of rolling down modeling of their rolling down from the humps. Findings. If the brake power of retarders of the rolling down part of humps is not enough to stop the cuts, it should be provided the intervals during break-up to release the rolling routes from the preliminary cuts. The dependencies allowing to set the duration of these intervals were determined using the methods of the probability theory If the brake power of retarders at the rolling down part of humps and at the classification tracks is not enough to meet the requirements of the aimed regulation of the cuts rolling speed, it is necessary the use the additional brake shoes. The work develops the methods that on the basis of simulation modeling of the humping process allow one to set the desired value of the break-up duration increase. They ensure the traffic safety at the given number of car motion speed regulators. Originality. Authors firstly proposed the improved methods for determining the estimated capacity of humps. Unlike the existing ones, allow taking into account the technological limitations caused by the requirements of the humping process safety and can be used to assess the performance of the humps in the conditions of parametric failures of the retarders. Practical value. The use of the proposed methods allows assessing the influence of the retarders’ disrepair on the performance degradation of humps for the

  7. Wet-Induced Fabrication of Heterogeneous Hump-on-String Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Song

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Inspired by the high adhesiveness of the electrospun fiber, we propose a method to fabricate multi-scale heterogeneous hump-on-string fiber via the adsorption of nanoparticles, the NPCTi which is the hydrolysate of titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4 and the nanoparticles containing Al (NPCAl which is produced by the hydrolysis of Trimethylaluminium (TMA, Al(CH33. The water collection efficiency of the fibers can be easily controlled via changing not only the size of the beads but also the ratio of the Ti and Al. In addition, we introduce a computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulation to show the pressure distribution of on the surface of the fibers, which gives another explanation regarding the high water collection efficiency.

  8. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 3): Paoli Rail Yard, Paoli, PA. (First remedial action), July 1992. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The 428-acre Paoli Rail Yard site is a maintenance, storage, and repair facility located north of Paoli in Chester County, Pennsylvania. Soil contamination in and around the car shop is attributed to releases of fuel oil and PCB-laden transformer fluid from rail cars during maintenance and repair activities. In 1985, EPA identified PCB contamination in soil and sediment, and on building surfaces. The rail companies agreed to address site clean-up activities, including erosion, sedimentation, and stormwater characteristics and control, decontamination, soil sampling, excavation of 3,500 cubic yards residential soil, and implementation of worker protection measures. The ROD provides a final remedy for contaminated soil (from the rail yard and residences), sediment, and structures at the Paoli Rail Yard, and contaminated ground water. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the soil, sediment, debris, and ground water are VOCs, including benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, xylenes; and other organics, including PCBs. The selected remedial action for the site are included

  9. Design and implementation of speed humps: supplement to national guidelines for traffic calming

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Emslie, I

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available This report presents guidelines to assist local authorities and traffic engineers with a uniform approach to the implementation of speed humps. It is recommended that these guidelines be read in conjunction with The National Guidelines for Traffic...

  10. Transient wave behaviour over an underwater sliding hump from experiments and analytical and numerical modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callaghan, David P.; Nielsen, Peter [The University of Queensland, School of Civil Engineering, Brisbane (Australia); Ahmadi, Afshin [Kellogg Brown and Root Pty Ltd, Brisbane, QLD (Australia)

    2011-12-15

    Flume measurements of a one-dimensional sliding hump starting from rest in quiescence fresh water indicate that when the hump travels at speed less than the shallow-water wave celerity, three waves emerge, travelling in two directions. One wave travels in the opposite direction to the sliding hump at approximately the shallow-water wave celerity (backward free wave). Another wave travels approximately in step with the hump (forced wave), and the remaining wave travels in the direction of the hump at approximately the shallow-water wave celerity (forward free wave). These experiments were completed for a range of sliding hump speed relative to the shallow-water wave celerity, up to unity of this ratio, to investigate possible derivation from solutions of the Euler equation with non-linear and non-hydrostatic terms being included or excluded. For the experimental arrangements tested, the forced waves were negative (depression or reduced water surface elevation) waves while the free waves were positive (bulges or increased water surface elevation). For experiments where the sliding hump travelled at less than 80% of the shallow-water wave celerity did not include transient behaviour measurements (i.e. when the three waves still overlapped). The three wave framework was partially supported by these measurements in that the separated forward and forced waves were compared to measurements. For the laboratory scale experiments, the forward free wave height was predicted reasonably by the long-wave equation (ignoring non-linear and non-hydrostatic terms) when the sliding hump speed was less than 80% of the shallow-water wave celerity. The forced wave depression magnitude required the Euler equations for all hump speed tested. The long-wave solution, while being valid in a limited parameter range, does predict the existence of the three waves as found in these experiments (forward travelling waves measured quantitatively while the backward travelling waves visually by video

  11. Humps in the volatility structure of the crude oil futures market: New evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiarella, Carl; Kang, Boda; Nikitopoulos, Christina Sklibosios; Tô, Thuy-Duong

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the volatility structure of commodity derivatives markets. The model encompasses hump-shaped, unspanned stochastic volatility, which entails a finite-dimensional affine model for the commodity futures curve and quasi-analytical prices for options on commodity futures. Using an extensive database of crude oil futures and futures options spanning 21 years, we find the presence of hump-shaped, partially spanned stochastic volatility in the crude oil market. The hump shaped feature is more pronounced when the market is more volatile, and delivers better pricing as well as hedging performance under various dynamic factor hedging schemes. - Highlights: • This paper analyses the volatility structure of commodity derivatives markets. • 21-years of data on crude oil futures and futures options is used. • The crude oil futures market has hump-shaped, unspanned stochastic volatility. • The hump shaped feature is more pronounced when the market is more volatile. • Hump shape delivers better pricing and hedging compared to exponential decay

  12. 40 CFR 60.1440 - What is yard waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is yard waste? 60.1440 Section 60...) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Small Municipal Waste... Reconstruction is Commenced After June 6, 2001 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60...

  13. Flow Physics and Scaling for Discrete Jet Forcing on a Wall-Mounted Hump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Christopher; Tewes, Philipp; Little, Jesse

    2017-11-01

    An experimental study is conducted to explore flow physics and scaling parameters (e.g., aspect ratio, exit area, spacing) for steady jets and fluidic oscillators in support of the development of active flow control technology. Various actuation modules are designed, built and tested on an existing model of the NASA hump geometry. Experiments are carried out at a Reynolds numbers of 1.0 .106 (Ma = 0.09). Time-averaged pressure measurements are conducted along both the chord and span of the model. Stereo PIV is performed downstream of the actuation location to investigate the underlying control mechanisms in more detail. Separation control using spatially distributed steady round jet forcing was applied successfully for a spacing of Δz / c = 1.14 % for Cμ > 0.9 % . A larger spacing (Δz / c = 2.27 %) did not allow for full reattachment and led to 3D behavior in the separated region and also slightly upstream of the actuation. Fluidic oscillators showed control authority for Cμ >= 0.6 % for both presented spacings (Δz / c = 2.27 % and Δz / c = 4.54 %). In contrast to the 3D effects observed with steady jets, the fluidic oscillators provided a more uniform reduction in separation at a significantly lower Cμ even for larger spacing.

  14. Histogenesis of rumen in one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Salimi Naghani* and L. Akradi1

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to follow several sequence histological changes that occur during the histogenesis of the rumen in one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius. Histogenesis study was carried out on 66 fetuses of camel from 50th day of gestation until birth (390 days, according to the most relevant histo-differentiation characteristics of the rumen in fetuses, these were divided into four groups: group I (5-24 cm crown-rump length (C-RL; 50-140 days; group II (24-30 cm C-RL; 140-160 days; group III (30-60 cm C-RL; 160-250 days; group IV (60-108 cm C-RL; 250-390 days. At 50 days, the rumen consisted of four layers: the epithelial layer, propria-submucosa, tunica muscularis and serosa. The epithelium glandular region was pseudostratified and in non-glandular region was stratified. The muscularis mucosa was observed incompletely from 140 days between lamina propria and submucosa in glandular region of the rumen to the birth day. The primary lymphatic nodules appeared in lamina propria of glandular region of the rumen at 160 days of gestation. The epithelium of the glandular region in rumen was formed by a simple columnar layer at 250 days. In all groups, the tunica muscularis layer of rumen was increased with ruminal development, gradually. The non-glandular region of rumen was formed by a stratified epithelium and number of these cells increased with ruminal development. The lymphatic nodules and muscularis mucosa in non-glandular region did not observe in all groups. The study observations revealed that non-glandular region of the rumen in the fetuses of camel are less precocious than the rumen of the domestic ruminants.

  15. PROBABILISTIC APPROACH FOR THE DETERMINATION OF CUTS PERMISSIBLE BRAKING MODES ON THE GRAVITY HUMPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr BOBROVSKYI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the research results of cuts braking modes on the gravity humps. The objective of this paper is developing the methods for assessment of braking modes of cuts under conditions of fuzziness of their rolling properties, as well as selecting the permissible starting speed range of cuts from retardant positions. As a criterion for assessing the modes of target control of cut rolling speed, it was proposed to use an average gap size on a classification track at the established norms of probable exceeding of permissible speed of cars collision and their stop in retarders. As a criterion for evaluating the modes of interval control of cuts rolling speed, using the risk of their non-separation on the switches was proposed. Using the simulation modeling and mathematical statistics, the configuration of the range of permissible speed of cuts coming out from retardant positions has been set. The conducted researches allow simplifying the choice of cut braking modes in systems of automatic control of cut rolling speed.

  16. Generalized double-humped logistic map-based medical image encryption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samar M. Ismail

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of the generalized Double Humped (DH logistic map, used for pseudo-random number key generation (PRNG. The generalized parameter added to the map provides more control on the map chaotic range. A new special map with a zooming effect of the bifurcation diagram is obtained by manipulating the generalization parameter value. The dynamic behavior of the generalized map is analyzed, including the study of the fixed points and stability ranges, Lyapunov exponent, and the complete bifurcation diagram. The option of designing any specific map is made possible through changing the general parameter increasing the randomness and controllability of the map. An image encryption algorithm is introduced based on pseudo-random sequence generation using the proposed generalized DH map offering secure communication transfer of medical MRI and X-ray images. Security analyses are carried out to consolidate system efficiency including: key sensitivity and key-space analyses, histogram analysis, correlation coefficients, MAE, NPCR and UACI calculations. System robustness against noise attacks has been proved along with the NIST test ensuring the system efficiency. A comparison between the proposed system with respect to previous works is presented.

  17. Special cutaneous vascular elements in one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rashad Fath-Elbab

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the histomorphological structure and functional significance of various special regulatory devices of the vascular terminal branches of the skin in one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius. Materials and methods: Skin samples from different body parts (e.g., front, neck and shoulder, back, belly, chest, thigh, flank and tail of camel were used in this study. The samples were stained with Harris hematoxylin and trichrome stain. Semithin sections were also prepared from these samples. Results: The vascular elements demonstrated in the current study included- throttle arteries within the dermis on the level of the hair papillae, glomus bodies within the dermis on the level mid-length of the hair follicles, medium-sized arteries on the level of the secretory end-pieces of the epitrichial sweat glands, and tufts of spirally-oriented arterioles in the nearby of the hair follicles. Conclusions: These vascular elements are either designed to control blood pressure (Hemo-dynamic mechanism or patterned to control body temperature (Thermo-regulatory mechanism. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(2.000: 106-111

  18. Numerical and Experimental Investigations of Humping Phenomena in Laser Micro Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Andreas; Patschger, Andreas; Seiler, Michael

    The Humping effect is a phenomenon which is observed approximately since 50 years in various welding procedures and is characterized by droplets due to a pile-up of the melt pool. It occurs within a broad range of process parameters. Particularly during micro welding, humping effect is critical due to typically high feed rates. In the past, essentially two approaches (fluid-dynamic approach of streaming melt within the molten pool and the Plateau-Rayleigh instability of a liquid jet) were discussed in order to explain the occurrence of the humping effect. But none of both can fully explain all observed effects. For this reason, experimental studies in micro welding of thin metal foils were performed in order to determine the influence of process parameters on the occurrence of humping effects. The experimental observations were compared with results from numerical multi-physical simulations (incorporating beam propagation, incoupling, heat transfer, fluid dynamics etc.) to provide a deeper understanding of the causes for hump formation.

  19. Tabanidae and other Diptera on Camel’s Hump Vermont: Ecological Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Freeman

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A canopy trap and aerial nets led to finding 8 species of Tabanidae. There was an abundance of calyptrate muscoid flies. Camel’s Hump is in the Green Mountains of western New England, USA. Discovering Diptera on Camel’s Hump involved sixteen visits over 40 years. Upwards of 23 other Diptera species are listed. Habitats on the east side and above 762 m (2500 ft elevation on Camel’s Hump differ from the west slope but the boreal forest on both sides is influenced by cloud and fog precipitation on trees. The cliffs just above the 900 m level along the east side are often overlooked, are not seen from the summit and provide access to morning sun for insects. Recent visits explored the role of polarized skylight in relation to the canopy trap, the boreal forest environment and flies found there.

  20. Scheduling freight trains in rail-rail transshipment yards

    OpenAIRE

    Nils Boysen; Erwin Pesch

    2008-01-01

    Transshipment yards, where gantry cranes allow for an effcient transshipment of containers between different freight trains, are important entities in modern railway systems and facilitate the general shift from point-to-point transport to hub-and-spoke railway systems. Modern rail-rail transshipment yards accelerate container handling, so that multiple smaller trains with equal destination can be consolidated to a reduced number of trains without jeopardizing on time deliveries. An important...

  1. Storage yard operations in container terminals : Literature overview, trends, and research directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carlo, Hector J.; Vis, Iris F. A.; Roodbergen, Kees Jan

    2014-01-01

    Inbound and outbound containers are temporarily stored in the storage yard at container terminals. A combination of container demand increase and storage yard capacity scarcity create complex operational challenges for storage yard managers. This paper presents an in-depth overview of storage yard

  2. 49 CFR 232.217 - Train brake tests conducted using yard air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... reduction of brake pipe air pressure at the same, or slower, rate as an engineer's brake valve. (b) The yard... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Train brake tests conducted using yard air. 232... Train brake tests conducted using yard air. (a) When a train air brake system is tested from a yard air...

  3. Computational analysis of locally forced flow over a wall-mounted hump at high-Re number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saric, S.; Jakirlic, S.; Djugum, A.; Tropea, C.

    2006-01-01

    An incompressible, high-Reynolds number flow (slightly less then 1 Mio. per chord) over a smoothly contoured, asymmetric, wall-mounted hump was computationally studied using the LES (large eddy simulation) and DES (detached eddy simulation) methods. In addition, several second-moment and eddy-viscosity closures within the RANS (Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes) framework were tested. The focus of the investigation was on the effects of local perturbation of the hump boundary layer introduced by spatially uniform (in the spanwise direction) steady suction and oscillatory suction/blowing through a narrow opening (1.7 mm) situated at the hump crest immediately upstream of the natural separation point. Reference experiments have shown that both flow control mechanisms cause a shortening of the recirculation bubble relative to the baseline configuration with no flow control. All statistical turbulence models used in the RANS framework resulted in a substantially larger recirculation zone independent of the modelling level, being a consequence of a too low turbulence level in the separated shear layer. Accordingly, the effect of the steady suction, namely the reduction of the reattachment length, was underpredicted. The LES method, despite a relatively coarse mesh (with a total of 4 Mio. cells) for such a high-Reynolds number, wall-bounded flow, was capable of capturing important effects of the flow control qualitatively and quantitatively. DES failed to do so in the suction case, despite good results in the baseline and oscillatory blowing/suction cases, indicating that a shallow separation from curved surfaces poses a challenge to this hybrid RANS/LES strategy. A sensitivity study of the RANS/LES interface position within the DES approach shows that a RANS region chosen too thin (with the interface situated at the very beginning of the logarithmic layer) can lead to a strong reduction of the turbulent viscosity causing a low turbulence level within the shear layer

  4. Monitoring Dangerous Goods in Container Yard Using the Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianhong Ding

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Internet of Things (IoT, a network of objects, has been regarded as the next revolution for the global information industry after the Internet. With IoT, many intelligent applications can be accomplished or improved. This paper presents a framework for dangerous goods management in container yard using IoT technology. The framework consists of three layers: perceptual layer, transport layer, and application layer. It offers an infrastructure for management and data analysis and utilization. According to the features of dangerous goods, the framework can be enhanced for container information forecast, container gate-in and gate-out management, environment parameters monitoring, and fire control as well. In order to verify our method, a prototype system is developed, which shows good performance. With our method, safe operation of dangerous goods in container yard can be accomplished.

  5. Multi-hump bright solitons in a Schrödinger-mKdV system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisneros-Ake, Luis A.; Parra Prado, Hugo; López Villatoro, Diego Joselito; Carretero-González, R.

    2018-03-01

    We consider the problem of energy transport in a Davydov model along an anharmonic crystal medium obeying quartic longitudinal interactions corresponding to rigid interacting particles. The Zabusky and Kruskal unidirectional continuum limit of the original discrete equations reduces, in the long wave approximation, to a coupled system between the linear Schrödinger (LS) equation and the modified Korteweg-de Vries (mKdV) equation. Single- and two-hump bright soliton solutions for this LS-mKdV system are predicted to exist by variational means and numerically confirmed. The one-hump bright solitons are found to be the anharmonic supersonic analogue of the Davydov's solitons while the two-hump (in both components) bright solitons are found to be a novel type of soliton consisting of a two-soliton solution of mKdV trapped by the wave function associated to the LS equation. This two-hump soliton solution, as a two component solution, represents a new class of polaron solution to be contrasted with the two-soliton interaction phenomena from soliton theory, as revealed by a variational approach and direct numerical results for the two-soliton solution.

  6. Analysis of vorticity dynamics for hump characteristics of a pump turbine model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Deyou; Gong, Ruzhi; Wang, Hongjie; Han, Lei; Wei, Xianzhu; Qin, Daqing [School of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China)

    2016-08-15

    Conventional parameters based on CFD methodology for the investigation on hump characteristics of a pump turbine cannot reflect the dynamic interaction mechanism between the runner and the fluid. This research presents a dynamic interaction mechanism of a pump turbine operating in the hump region. First, vorticity dynamic parameters were obtained based on the theory of vorticity dynamics. Second, 3-D unsteady flow simulations were performed in a full pump turbine model using the SST k-ω turbulence model, and numerical results have a good agreement with the experiments. Then, analysis was carried out to determine the relation between the vorticity dynamic parameters and hump characteristics. The results indicate that the theory of vorticity dynamics has an advantage in evaluating the dynamic performance of a pump turbine. The energy transfer between the runner and the fluid is through vorticity dynamic parameters-pressure and friction terms, in which the pressure term accounts for the most. Furthermore, vortex generation mainly results from the skin friction. Combining vorticity dynamic analysis with the method of Q-criterion indicates that hump characteristics are related to the reduction of the surface normal pressure work and vortex motion on the suction surfaces close to the leading edges in the runner, and the increase of skin friction work in the stay-guide vanes.

  7. Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever among the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedaries) in Central Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suliman, Hajer M; Adam, Ibrahim A; Saeed, Shamseldin I; Abdelaziz, Sanaa A; Haroun, Eltahir M; Aradaib, Imadeldin E

    2017-08-03

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne viral zoonotic disease caused by Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), a member of the genus Nairovirus in the family Bunyaviridae. CCHF is typically asymptomatic in animals but can be highly fatal in humans approaching case fatality rate of approximately 30%. In the present investigation, a cross sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of CCHF and to identify the potential risk factors associated with CCHFV seropositivity among the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedaries) in Central Sudan. A total of 361 camels selected randomly from six localities were employed in the study. Sera sampled were tested for the presence of CCHFV-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). CCHFV seropositivity was recorded in 77 out of 361 animals accounting for a prevalence rate of 21.3%. Age (OR = 3.6, CI = 1.72-7.79, p-value = 0.026); locality (OR = 5.85, CI = 1.81-18.83, p- value = 0.003), tick number (OR = 4.6, CI = 1.37-9.81, P-value 0.04); tick control (OR = 2.2, CI, 1.11-4.35, P-value = 0.023) and breed (OR = 6.60, CI = 2.38-18.36, P-value = 0.001) were recorded as potential risk factors for contracting CCHF. The prevalence of CCHF is significantly high among camels in Khartoum State, Sudan. Age, breed, locality and tick control are considered as potential risk factors for contracting CCHF. This study would be expected to reduce the impact on the livelihood of pastoral communities and ultimately avoid disease spread in human.

  8. An update on corrosion monitoring in cylinder storage yards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henson, H.M.; Newman, V.S.; Frazier, J.L. [Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Depleted uranium, from US uranium isotope enrichment activities, is stored in the form of solid uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) in A285 and A516 steel cylinders designed and manufactured to ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code criteria. In general, storage facilities are open areas adjacent to the enrichment plants where the cylinders are exposed to weather. This paper describes the Oak Ridge program to determine the general corrosion behavior of UF{sub 6} cylinders, to determine cylinder yard conditions which are likely to affect long term storage of this material, and to assess cylinder storage yards against these criteria. This program is targeted at conditions specific to the Oak Ridge cylinder yards. Based on (a) determination of the current cylinder yard conditions, (b) determination of rusting behavior in regions of the cylinders showing accelerated attack, (c) monitoring of corrosion rates through periodic measurement of test coupons placed within the cylinder yards, and (d) establishment of a computer base to incorporate and retain these data, the technical division is working with the enrichment sites to implement an upgraded system for storage of this material until such time as it is used or converted.

  9. Socioeconomic drivers of yard sustainable practices in a tropical city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvia J. Meléndez-Ackerman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of work has emphasized the importance of residential areas to the overall green infrastructure of cities and recognizes that outcomes related to these areas are best studied using a social-ecological approach. We conducted vegetation surveys to evaluate yard practices that relate to the state of the yard vegetation, including species diversity and abundance, vegetation structure, and the percent of green area of yards versus paved areas, at the Río Piedras watershed within the San Juan metropolitan area. We used concomitant social household surveys to evaluate the association of social-economic and demographic factors at the household scale with these vegetation characteristics, as well as with landscape-level characteristics related to urban morphology and elevation. Our results for this tropical site were consistent with studies elsewhere in that a greater number of social factors at the household scale were more important in explaining the traits related to how green the yards were. On the other hand, we failed to detect the so-called luxury effect on urban vegetation encountered at many sites. Instead, we found consistent vegetation associations with the age of the residents, housing ownership, and, most importantly, with yard size. We have discussed the potential reasons for these discrepancies and the potential consequences of the human-natural links at the household scale to the future dynamics of this portion of the green infrastructure within this urban watershed.

  10. Y-12 old salvage yard scrap metal characterization study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, L.M.; Melton, S.G.; Shaw, S.S.

    1993-11-01

    The purpose of the Y-12 Old Salvage Yard scrap metal Characterization Study is to make conservative estimates of the quantities of total uranium and the wt % 235 U contained in scrap metal. The original project scope included estimates of thorium, but due to the insignificant quantities found in the yards, thorium was excluded from further analysis. Metal in three of the four Y-12 scrap metal yards were characterized. The scrap metal yard east of the PIDAS fence is managed by the Environmental Restoration Program and therefore was not included in this study. For all Y-12 Plant scrap metal shipments, Waste Transportation, Storage, and Disposal (WTSD) personnel must complete a Request for Authorization to Ship Nuclear Materials, UCN-16409, which requires the grams of total uranium, the wt % 235 U, and the grams of 235 U contained in the shipment. This information is necessary to ensure compliance with Department of Transportation regulations, as well as to ensure that the receiving facility is adhering to its operating license. This characterization study was designed to provide a technical basis for determining these necessary radioactive quantities

  11. Variation in training regimens in professional showjumping yards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lönnell, A C; Bröjer, J; Nostell, K; Hernlund, E; Roepstorff, L; Tranquille, C A; Murray, R C; Oomen, A; van Weeren, René; Bitschnau, C; Montavon, S; Weishaupt, M A; Egenvall, A

    2014-01-01

    REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Training regimens of showjumping horses under field conditions are largely undocumented. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to quantify and compare training regimens used in professional-level showjumping yards, with respect to time exercised and type of activity.

  12. Short term performance and effect of speed humps on pavement condition of Alexandria Governorate roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael Bekheet

    2014-12-01

    Some performance trends were observed and found to be statistically significant, including superior short-term performance of projects with good or average construction QC records when compared to poor construction QC records. Raveling was the most widely observed distress, while load-related distresses were not common. The analysis also showed that the presence of improper speed humps significantly affected the pavement condition, reducing the PCI of the pavement sections by up to 19 PCI points.

  13. Analysis of the flow close to a hump at the wall of a circular pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Linsingen, I.; Silva Ferreira, R.T. da

    1981-01-01

    To study the laminar fully developed flow close to a circunferencial square hump placed at the wall of a smooth circular pipe is studied. An experimental set up was used to determine the reattachment legth and the velocity and shear stress profiles of the flow for different Reynolds numbers. Simple relations were obtained from the analysis of the data for the reattachment length, maximum velocity and maximum shear stress in different positions along the flow and different Reynolds numbers. (Author) [pt

  14. Biometric and Ultrasonographic Evaluation of the Testis of One-humped Camel (Camelus dromedarius)

    OpenAIRE

    Riaz Hussain Pasha, Anas Sarwar Qureshi*, Laeeq Akbar Lodhi1 and Huma Jamil1

    2011-01-01

    Twenty four adult clinically healthy one-humped male camels (Camelus dromedarius) were examined three times (beginning, mid and end) in each season (winter, spring, summer and autumn) for establishing the normal ultrasonic appearance and seasonal changes in the testicular parenchyma in the natural ecology of Punjab, Pakistan. The testes of each camel were scanned by using a B-mode real time ultrasound scanner fitted with a 7.5-MHz linear-array transducer. Scrotal biometry was done with the me...

  15. Statistical model calculations with a double-humped fission barrier GIVAB computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delagrange, H.; Gilat, J.

    1979-01-01

    Neutron and gamma emission probabilities and fission probabilities are computed, taking into account the special feature of the actinide fission barriers with two maxima. Spectra and cross sections are directly deduced from these probabilities. Populations of both wells are followed step by step. For each initial E and J, decay rates are computed and normalized in order to obtain the de-excitation probabilities imposed by the two-humped fission barrier

  16. Production of a double-humped ion velocity distribution function in a single-ended Q-machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S.A.; Jensen, Vagn Orla; Michelsen, Poul

    1970-01-01

    An experimental method of producing a double-humped velocity distribution function for the ions in a Q-machine is described. The method is based on charge exchange processes between neutral ceasium and the ions in a ceasium plasma.......An experimental method of producing a double-humped velocity distribution function for the ions in a Q-machine is described. The method is based on charge exchange processes between neutral ceasium and the ions in a ceasium plasma....

  17. The First Record of Linguatula serrata Infection of Two-Humped Camel (Camelus bactrinus In Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Hajimohammadi

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available "nLinguatula serrata, is a cosmopolitan zoonotic parasite. Adult of L. serrrata parasitize the nasopharynx of canids. Con­suming raw glandular material of infected intermediate hosts (camel, sheep, cattle, goat, etc. can infect human. In Iran, two-humped camel is merely found in cold regions (Ardabil and East Azarbijan provinces and is in danger of extinc­tion. A seven-year-old two-humped male camel, due to car accident injury was sent to slaughterhouse of Tabriz, Iran. In meat inspection practice, the visceral organs were taken out. A small red nodule having a white center was observed at the surface of the left lobe of lung. To study more, the whole of the left lobe of lung was sent to the parasitology labora­tory. One nymph of L. serrata was separated from the specimen. This is the first report of infection with L. serrate of two-humped camel in Iran.

  18. Sub-harmonic broadband humps and tip noise in low-speed ring fans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Stéphane; Sanjose, Marlène

    2016-01-01

    A joint experimental and numerical study has been achieved on a low-speed axial ring fan in clean inflow. Experimental evidence shows large periodic broadband humps at lower frequencies than the blade passing frequencies and harmonics even at design conditions. These sub-harmonic humps are also found to be sensitive to the fan process and consequently to its tip geometry. Softer fans yield more intense humps more shifted to lower frequencies with respect to the fan harmonics. Unsteady turbulent flow simulations of this ring fan mounted on a test plenum have been achieved by four different methods that have been validated by comparing with overall performances and detailed hot-wire velocity measurements in the wake. Noise predictions are either obtained directly or are obtained through Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings' analogy, and compared with narrowband and third-octave power spectra. All unsteady simulations correctly capture the low flow rates, the coherent vortex dynamics in the tip clearance and consequently the noise radiation dominated by the tip noise in the low- to mid-frequency range. Yet, only the scale-adaptive simulation and the lattice Boltzmann method simulations which can describe most of the turbulent structures accurately provide the proper spectral shape and levels, and consequently the overall sound power level.

  19. Detection of Candida species by nested PCR method in one-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parin, Ugur; Erbas, Goksel; Kirkan, Sukru; Savasan, Serap; Tugba Yuksel, H; Balat, Gamze

    2018-02-01

    Systemic fungal diseases are the infections caused by false treatment protocols and generally are not taken into consideration especially in the veterinary field. One-humped camels are found in the western side of the Aegean region of our country and bred for wrestling. The aim of this study is the application of diagnosing systemic fungi infection from camel blood samples by the PCR method. In this study, specific primers for DNA topoisomerase II gene sequences were used. As a result, a systemic fungal infection was detected by the nested PCR method from 10 (20%) out of 50 DNA samples taken from camels located on the western side of the Aegean region. In this study, 3 (30%) samples were identified as Candida albicans, 3 (30%) samples were identified as C. glabrata, and 4 (40%) samples were identified as C. parapsilosis. In conclusion, the 20% positive systemic fungal infection rate in one-humped camels observed in the present study showed that the systemic fungal infections are not taken into considerations in veterinary medicine. Further studies are suggested in order to obtain and to maintain extensive data for systemic fungal diseases in our country for one-humped camels.

  20. Dustfall design of open coal yard in the power plant-a case study on the closed reconstruction project of coal storage yard in shengli power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kunpeng; Ji, Weidong; Zhang, Feifei; Yu, Wei; Zheng, Runqing

    2018-02-01

    This thesis, based on the closed reconstruction project of the coal storage yard of Shengli Power Plant which is affiliated to Sinopec Shengli Petroleum Administration, first makes an analysis on the significance of current dustfall reconstruction of open coal yard, then summarizes the methods widely adopted in the dustfall of large-scale open coal storage yard of current thermal power plant as well as their advantages and disadvantages, and finally focuses on this project, aiming at providing some reference and assistance to the future closed reconstruction project of open coal storage yard in thermal power plant.

  1. An Agent-Based Solution Framework for Inter-Block Yard Crane Scheduling Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omor Sharif

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of yard operations is critical to the overall productivity of a container terminal because the yard serves as the interface between the landside and waterside operations. Most container terminals use yard cranes to transfer containers between the yard and trucks (both external and internal. To facilitate vessel operations, an efficient work schedule for the yard cranes is necessary given varying work volumes among yard blocks with different planning periods. This paper investigated an agent-based approach to assign and relocate yard cranes among yard blocks based on the forecasted work volumes. The goal of our study is to reduce the work volume that remains incomplete at the end of a planning period. We offered several preference functions for yard cranes and blocks which are modeled as agents. These preference functions are designed to find effective schedules for yard cranes. In addition, we examined various rules for the initial assignment of yard cranes to blocks. Our analysis demonstrated that our model can effectively and efficiently reduce the percentage of incomplete work volume for any real-world sized problem.

  2. Eratosthenes' teachings with a globe in a school yard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Božić, Mirjana; Ducloy, Martial

    2008-01-01

    A globe, in a school or university yard, which simulates the Earth's orientation in space, could be a very useful and helpful device for teaching physics, geometry, astronomy and the history of science. It would be very useful for science education to utilize the forthcoming International Year of the Planet Earth 2008 and the International Year of Astronomy 2009 by installing globes in many school and university courtyards

  3. First report on circulation of Echinococcus ortleppi in the one humped camel (Camelus dromedaries), Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mohamed E; Eltom, Kamal H; Musa, Nasreen O; Ali, Ibtisam A; Elamin, Fatima M; Grobusch, Martin P; Aradaib, Imadeldin E

    2013-06-25

    Echinococcus granulosus (EG) complex, the cause of cystic echinococcosis (CE), infects humans and several other animal species worldwide and hence the disease is of public health importance. Ten genetic variants, or genotypes designated as (G1-G10), are distributed worldwide based on genetic diversity. The objective of this study was to provide some sequence data and phylogeny of EG isolates recovered from the Sudanese one-humped camel (Camelus dromedaries). Fifty samples of hydatid cysts were collected from the one- humped camels (Camelus dromedaries) at Taboul slaughter house, central Sudan. DNAs were extracted from protoscolices and/or associated germinal layers of hydatid cysts using a commercial kit. The mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (NADH1) gene and the cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene were used as targets for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. The PCR products were purified and partial sequences were generated. Sequences were further examined by sequence analysis and subsequent phylogeny to compare these sequences to those from known strains of EG circulating globally. The identity of the PCR products were confirmed as NADH1 and cox1 nucleotide sequences using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) of NCBI (National Center for Biotechnology Information, Bethesda, MD). The phylogenetic analysis showed that 98% (n = 49) of the isolates clustered with Echinococcus canadensis genotype 6 (G6), whereas only one isolate (2%) clustered with Echinococcus ortleppi (G5). This investigation expands on the existing sequence data generated from EG isolates recovered from camel in the Sudan. The circulation of the cattle genotype (G5) in the one-humped camel is reported here for the first time.

  4. A biometric study of the digestive tract of one-humped camel (camelus dromedarius) fetuses

    OpenAIRE

    A. Bello; B.I. Onyeanusi; M.L. Sonfada; J.B. Adeyanju; M.A. Umaru

    2012-01-01

    A Biometrical study was conducted on the digestive tract of 35 foetuses of the one-humped camel collected from the Sokoto metropolitan abattoir, over a period of five months at different gestational ages. The approximate age of the foetuses was estimated from the crown vertebral rump length (CVRL) and samples were categorised into first, second and third trimester. The mean body weight of the foetus at first, second third trimester ranged from 1.40 ± 0.06 kg, 6.10 ± 0.05 kg and 17.87 ± 0.6 kg...

  5. Optimal systematics of single-humped fission barriers for statistical calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashnik, S.G.

    1993-01-01

    A systematic comparison of the existing phenomenological approaches and models for describing single-humped fast-computing fission barriers are given. The experimental data on excitation energy dependence of the fissility of compound nuclei are analyzed in the framework of the statistical approach by using different models for fission barriers, shell and pairing corrections and level-density parameter in order to identify their reliability and region of applicability for Monte Carlo calculations of evaporative cascades. The energy dependence of fission cross-sections for reactions induced by intermediate energy protons has been analyzed in the framework of the cascade-exiton model. 53 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs

  6. American black bears and bee yard depredation at Okefenokee Swamp, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, J.D.; Dobey, S.; Masters, D.V.; Scheick, B.K.; Pelton, M.R.; Sunquist, M.E.

    2005-01-01

    We studied American black bears (Ursus americanus), on the northwest periphery of Okefenokee Swamp in southeast Georgia, to assess landowner attitudes toward bears, estimate the extent of damage to commercial honey bee operations by bears, and evaluate methods to reduce bear depredations to apiaries. We collected 8,351 black bear radiolocations and identified 51 bee yards on our study area. Twenty-seven of 43 home ranges contained ≥1 bee yard, averaging 11.3 and 5.1 bee yards/home range of males (n = 7) and females (n = 20), respectively. From 1996 to 1998, we documented 7 instances of bears raiding bee yards within our study area and 6 instances in adjacent areas. All but 1 of the 13 raided yards were enclosed by electric fencing. In the 12 cases of damage to electrically fenced yards, however, the fences were not active because of depleted batteries. Based on compositional analysis, bear use of areas 800–1,400 m from bee yards was disproportionately greater than use 0–800 m from bee yards. Bears disproportionately used bay (red bay: Persea borbonia, loblolly bay: Gordonia lasianthus, and southern magnolia: Magnolia virginia), gum (water tupelo: Nyssa aquatic and black gum: N. sylvatica), and cypress (Taxodium spp.) and loblolly bay habitats, however, compared with slash pine (Pinus elliottii) or pine–oak (Quercus spp.), where bee yards usually were placed. The distribution of bear radiolocations likely reflected the use of those swamp and riparian areas, rather than avoidance of bee yards. Distances to streams from damaged bee yards (x̄ = 1,750 m) were less than from undamaged yards (x̄ = 4,442 m), and damaged bee yards were closer to unimproved roads (x̄ = 134 m) than were undamaged bee yards (x̄ = 802 m). Our analysis suggests that bee yard placement away from bear travel routes (such as streams and unimproved roads) can reduce bear depredation problems. Our results strongly indicate that working electric fences are effective deterrents to bear

  7. Microangiopathic Hemolytic Anemia Following Three Different Species of Hump-Nosed Pit Viper (Genus: Hypnale) Envenoming in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namal Rathnayaka, Rathnayaka Mudiyanselage M K; Ranathunga, Anusha Nishanthi; Kularatne, Senanayake A M; Rajapakse, Jayanthe; Ranasinghe, Shirani; Jayathunga, Radha

    2018-03-01

    There are 3 species of hump-nosed pit vipers in Sri Lanka: Hypnale hypnale, Hypnale zara, and Hypnale nepa. The latter 2 are endemic to the country. Microangiopathic hemolytic anemia (MAHA) is a known complication of hump-nosed pit viper bites. It was previously documented as a complication of general viper bites and not species specific. We report a series of 3 patients who developed MAHA after being bitten by each species of hump-nosed pit viper. The first patient was bitten by H hypnale and developed a severe form of MAHA associated with acute kidney injury and thrombocytopenia falling into the category of thrombotic microangiopathy. The other 2 developed MAHA that resolved without any complications. Copyright © 2017 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Biometric and Ultrasonographic Evaluation of the Testis of One-humped Camel (Camelus dromedarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riaz Hussain Pasha, Anas Sarwar Qureshi*, Laeeq Akbar Lodhi1 and Huma Jamil1

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Twenty four adult clinically healthy one-humped male camels (Camelus dromedarius were examined three times (beginning, mid and end in each season (winter, spring, summer and autumn for establishing the normal ultrasonic appearance and seasonal changes in the testicular parenchyma in the natural ecology of Punjab, Pakistan. The testes of each camel were scanned by using a B-mode real time ultrasound scanner fitted with a 7.5-MHz linear-array transducer. Scrotal biometry was done with the measuring tape during all the seasons of year. The tunics of the testes appeared as hyperechoic lines surrounding the homogenous, moderately echogenic parenchyma of the testis. The mediastinum testis was visualized as hyperechoic central line and a spot, in longitudinal and transverse sections, respectively. During winter season, the parenchyma was hyperechoic and mediastinum testis was seen as thin hyperechoic line. In spring, the echogenicity of parenchyma was moderate and mediastinum appeared relatively thick central hyperechoic line. In summer and autumn, less echoic parenchyma and thick band of mediastinum was recorded. Biometric studies showed significantly (P<0.01 higher scrotal length and width of the testis during winter and spring season as compared to summer and autumn. Present study revealed that the ultrasonic structure of camel testis resembles other mammals and season has an apparent effect on the testicular size and echogenicity of the testicular parenchyma in the one-humped camel.

  9. Evaluation of the iPhone with an acrylic sleeve versus the Scoliometer for rib hump measurement in scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izatt Maree T

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vertebral rotation found in structural scoliosis contributes to trunkal asymmetry which is commonly measured with a simple Scoliometer device on a patient's thorax in the forward flexed position. The new generation of mobile 'smartphones' have an integrated accelerometer, making accurate angle measurement possible, which provides a potentially useful clinical tool for assessing rib hump deformity. This study aimed to compare rib hump angle measurements performed using a Smartphone and traditional Scoliometer on a set of plaster torsos representing the range of torsional deformities seen in clinical practice. Methods Nine observers measured the rib hump found on eight plaster torsos moulded from scoliosis patients with both a Scoliometer and an Apple iPhone on separate occasions. Each observer repeated the measurements at least a week after the original measurements, and were blinded to previous results. Intra-observer reliability and inter-observer reliability were analysed using the method of Bland and Altman and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. The Intra-Class Correlation Coefficients (ICC were calculated for repeated measurements of each of the eight plaster torso moulds by the nine observers. Results Mean absolute difference between pairs of iPhone/Scoliometer measurements was 2.1 degrees, with a small (1 degrees bias toward higher rib hump angles with the iPhone. 95% confidence intervals for intra-observer variability were +/- 1.8 degrees (Scoliometer and +/- 3.2 degrees (iPhone. 95% confidence intervals for inter-observer variability were +/- 4.9 degrees (iPhone and +/- 3.8 degrees (Scoliometer. The measurement errors and confidence intervals found were similar to or better than the range of previously published thoracic rib hump measurement studies. Conclusions The iPhone is a clinically equivalent rib hump measurement tool to the Scoliometer in spinal deformity patients. The novel use of plaster torsos as rib

  10. 78 FR 20169 - Notice of Availability of an Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Hudson Yards Concrete...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Hudson Yards Concrete Casing Project in New York, New York AGENCY... of Availability of Environmental Assessment for the Hudson Yards Concrete Casing Construction... the construction of an underground concrete casing to preserve a right-of- way (ROW) (the proposed...

  11. Optimising the Slab Yard Planning and Crane Scheduling Problem using a two-stage heuristic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Dohn; Clausen, Jens

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present the Slab Yard Planning and Crane Scheduling Problem. The problem has its origin in steel production facilities with a large throughput. A slab yard is used as a buffer for slabs that are needed in the upcoming production. Slabs are transported by cranes and the problem...

  12. Production rates and costs of cable yarding wood residue from clearcut units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris B. LeDoux

    1984-01-01

    Wood residue is a little used source of fiber, chips, and fuel because harvest costs are largely unknown. This study calculates incremental production rates and costs for yarding and loading logging residue in clearcut old-growth Douglas-fir/western hemlock forests. Harvest operations were observed for two timber sales in western Oregon. Three different cable yarding...

  13. 40 CFR 60.1450 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1450 Section 60.1450 Protection of Environment... Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1450 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? (a) Use EPA Reference Method 9 in appendix A of...

  14. 40 CFR 60.1925 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1925 Section 60.1925 Protection of Environment... or Before August 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1925 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? (a) Use...

  15. 40 CFR 62.15375 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 62.15375 Section 62.15375 Protection of Environment... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 62.15375 What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard...

  16. 40 CFR 60.1445 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1445 Section 60.1445 Protection of Environment... Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1445 What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? If your air curtain incinerator combusts...

  17. 40 CFR 62.15380 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 62.15380 Section 62.15380 Protection of Environment... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 62.15380 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard...

  18. 40 CFR 60.1920 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1920 Section 60.1920 Protection of Environment... or Before August 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1920 What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? If...

  19. Sequential batch anaerobic composting of municipal solid waste (MSW) and yard waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Keefe, D.M.; Chynoweth, D.P.; Barkdoll, A.W.; Nordstedt, R.A.; Owens, J.M.; Sifontes, J. (Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Agricultural Engineering)

    1993-01-01

    Sequential batch anaerobic composting (SEBAC[sup TM]) was used to treat two fractions of municipal solid waste (MSW), the organic fraction of the MSW (processed MSW) and yard waste. Processed MSW gave a mean methane yield of 0.19 m[sup 3] kg[sup -1] volatile solids (VS) after 42 days. The mean VS reduction was 49.7% for this same period. Yard waste gave a mean methane yield of 0.07 m[sup 3] kg[sup -1] VS. Methane content of the biogas stabilized at a mean of 48% from three to four days after startup. The mean VS reduction for yard waste was 19%. With processed MSW, the volatile acid concentration was over 3000 mg L[sup -1] during startup but these acids were reduced within a few days to negligible levels. The trend was similar with yard waste except that volatile acids reached maximum concentrations of less than 1000 mg L[sup -1]. Composts from the reactors were evaluated for agronomic characteristics and pollution potential. Processed MSW and yard waste residues had marginal fertilizer value but posed no potential for groundwater pollution. Yard waste residue caused no apparent inhibition to mustard (Brassica juncea) germination relative to a commercial growth medium. Anaerobic yard waste compost demonstrated the potential to improve the water holding capacity of Florida soils. (author)

  20. Plant species richness and abundance in residential yards across a tropical watershed: implications for urban sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina P. Vila-Ruiz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Green spaces within residential areas provide important contributions to the sustainability of urban systems. Therefore, studying the characteristics of these areas has become a research priority in cities worldwide. This project evaluated various aspects of the plant biodiversity of residential yards (i.e., front yards and back yards within the Río Piedras watershed in the San Juan metropolitan area of Puerto Rico. Our work included gathering information on vegetation composition and abundance of woody species (i.e., trees, shrubs, palms, ferns and large herbs (>2 m height, species origin (native vs. introduced, and species uses (ornamental, food, and medicinal plants. A total of 424 yards were surveyed within an area of 187,191 m². We found 383 woody species, with shrubs being the most abundant plant habitat. As expected, residential yards hosted a disproportionate amount of introduced species (69.5%. The most common shrub species were all non-native ornamentals, whereas the most common tree species included food trees as well as ornamental plants and two native species. Front yards hosted more ornamental species per unit area than backyards, while the latter had more food plants. The high amount of introduced species may present a challenge in terms of implementation of plant conservation initiatives if there is no clear definition of urban conservation goals. On the other hand, the high frequency of yards containing food plants may facilitate the development of residential initiatives that could provide future adaptive capacity to food shortages.

  1. Effect of farm yard manure and nitrogen application on seed cotton yield under arid climatic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, M.M.

    2005-01-01

    The importance of farm yard manure and green manuring is well established for better crop production. The availability of farm yard manure is becoming difficult due to mechanized farming. An experiment was conducted with farm yard manure application in less quantity i.e. 5000 kg per hectare through fermenter with irrigation water as concentrated solution of farm yard manure. Four levels of nitrogen i.e. 0, 50, 100 and 150 kg/ha were applied through soil to Cotton crop planted on bed-furrows. Two years average results indicated that application of FYM at the rate of 5 metric ton per hectare through fermenter with 0, 50, 100 and 150 kgN/ha through soil increased seed cotton by 7 percent, on over all average basis of all fertilizer levels, as compared with no farm yard manure application. There was 6 percent increase with first 50 kgN/ha in the presence of FYM where as 100 kgN/ha gave 15% increase in seed cotton yield over no nitrogen application. It indicated that the efficiency of nitrogen at the rate of 100 kg/ha in the presence of farm yard manure was increased. There was 7, 15 and 20 percent increase in seed cotton with 50, 100 and 150 kgN/ha over no nitrogen on over all average basis of farm yard manure variables. Benefit cost ratio was more with FYM application alone.(author)

  2. Triple-humped fission barrier model for a new {sup 238}U neutron cross-section evaluation and first validations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Jimenez, M.J. [CEA/DIF/DPTA/Service de Physique Nucleaire, B.P. 12, F-91680 Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France); Morillon, B. [CEA/DIF/DPTA/Service de Physique Nucleaire, B.P. 12, F-91680 Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France); Romain, P. [CEA/DIF/DPTA/Service de Physique Nucleaire, B.P. 12, F-91680 Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France)]. E-mail: pascal.romain@cea.fr

    2005-01-15

    A new neutron-induced cross-section evaluation of {sup 238}U from 1 keV up to 200 MeV has been performed using only nuclear reactions models. A new fission penetrability model taking into account a triple humped barrier has been developed. A clear improvement has been observed for K-effective validation tests (up to 30 MeV) with this new evaluation. This improvement is mainly due to a better treatment of the inelastic exit channel.

  3. One-Humped Camel (Camelus dromedarius Infestation withLinguatula serrata in Tabriz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HR Haddadzadeh

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available "n "nBackground: Linguatula serrata is one of well known members of Pentastomida which infects both human and animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of L. serrata in mesenteric lymph nodes, livers and lungs of camels slaughtered in Tabriz area, Iran. "n "nMethods: Mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs, livers and lungs of 140 one-humped camels slaughtered in Tabriz, north-west of Iran were investigated for nymphs of L. serrata from July 2007 to June 2008. The organs were examined macroscopically and then a tissue digestion method was also done for investigation of liver and lung of the camels that had infected MLN. The liver and lung samples were mostly taken from condemned and rejected part of organs. "n "nResults: The infection rate of L. serrata nymphs in MLNs, livers and lungs was 13.5%, 1.4% and 1.4% respectively. The number of isolated nymph in infected lymph nodes varied from 2 to 18 with a mean of 4.78. Only one nymph was isolated from each infected livers and lungs. The infection rate increased with age (p<0.05. No significant difference in different sex groups and seasons was observed (p>0.05. "n "nConclusion: Considering this fact that consumption of undercooked camel liver was not common in the studied area, the zoonotic importance of this infection should be concluded.

  4. A complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the wild two-humped camel (Camelus bactrianus ferus: an evolutionary history of camelidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng He

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The family Camelidae that evolved in North America during the Eocene survived with two distinct tribes, Camelini and Lamini. To investigate the evolutionary relationship between them and to further understand the evolutionary history of this family, we determined the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the wild two-humped camel (Camelus bactrianus ferus, the only wild survivor of the Old World camel. Results The mitochondrial genome sequence (16,680 bp from C. bactrianus ferus contains 13 protein-coding, two rRNA, and 22 tRNA genes as well as a typical control region; this basic structure is shared by all metazoan mitochondrial genomes. Its protein-coding region exhibits codon usage common to all mammals and possesses the three cryptic stop codons shared by all vertebrates. C. bactrianus ferus together with the rest of mammalian species do not share a triplet nucleotide insertion (GCC that encodes a proline residue found only in the nd1 gene of the New World camelid Lama pacos. This lineage-specific insertion in the L. pacos mtDNA occurred after the split between the Old and New World camelids suggests that it may have functional implication since a proline insertion in a protein backbone usually alters protein conformation significantly, and nd1 gene has not been seen as polymorphic as the rest of ND family genes among camelids. Our phylogenetic study based on complete mitochondrial genomes excluding the control region suggested that the divergence of the two tribes may occur in the early Miocene; it is much earlier than what was deduced from the fossil record (11 million years. An evolutionary history reconstructed for the family Camelidae based on cytb sequences suggested that the split of bactrian camel and dromedary may have occurred in North America before the tribe Camelini migrated from North America to Asia. Conclusion Molecular clock analysis of complete mitochondrial genomes from C. bactrianus ferus and L

  5. Composting of food and yard wastes by locally isolated fungal strains

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PC2094), Lentinus tigrinus M609RQY, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium spp. were used as inocula in source separated organics (food and yard trimmings) from solid waste (SW) to produce biofertilizer and stabilize waste constituents. The results ...

  6. Composting of food and yard wastes by locally isolated fungal strains

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-12-16

    PC2094), Lentinus tigrinus. M609RQY, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium spp. were used as inocula in source separated organics. (food and yard trimmings) from solid waste (SW) to produce biofertilizer and stabilize waste.

  7. How to Park Freight Trains on Rail-Rail Transshipment Yards: The Train Location Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Kellner; Nils Boysen; Malte Fliedner

    2010-01-01

    In modern rail-rail transshipment yards huge gantry cranes spanning all railway tracks allow for an efficent transshipment of containers between different freight trains. This way, multiple trains loaded with cargo for varying destinations can be consolidated to a reduced number of homogeneous trains, which is an essential requirement of hub-and-spoke railway systems. An important problem during the daily operations of such a transshipment yard is the train location problem, which assigns eac...

  8. Atlanta Rail Yard Study: Evaluation of local-scale air pollution ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intermodal rail yards are important nodes in the freight transportation network, where freight is organized and moved from one mode of transport to another, critical equipment is serviced, and freight is routed to its next destination. Rail yard environments are also areas with multiple sources of air pollutant emissions (e.g., heavy-duty vehicles, locomotives, cranes), which may affect local air quality in residential areas nearby. In order to understand emissions and related air quality impacts, two field studies took place over the time span of 2010-2012 to measure air pollution trends in close proximity to the Inman and Tilford rail yard complex in Atlanta, GA. One field study involved long-term stationary monitoring of black carbon, fine particles, and carbon dioxide at two stations nearby the rail yard. In addition, a second field study performed intensive mobile air monitoring for a one month period in the summer of 2012 at a roadway network surrounding the rail yard complex and measured a comprehensive array of pollutants. Real-time mobile particulate measurements included particle counts, extinction coefficient, black carbon via light-absorption and particle incandescence, and particle composition derived by aerosol mass spectrometry. Gas-phase measurements included oxides of nitrogen, sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide, and air toxics (e.g., benzene). Both sets of measurements determined detectable local influence from rail yard-related emissions.

  9. X-Rays from the Location of the Double-humped Transient ASASSN-15lh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margutti, R.; Metzger, B. D.; Chornock, R.; Milisavljevic, D.; Berger, E.; Blanchard, P. K.; Guidorzi, C.; Migliori, G.; Kamble, A.; Lunnan, R.; Nicholl, M.; Coppejans, D. L.; Dall'Osso, S.; Drout, M. R.; Perna, R.; Sbarufatti, B.

    2017-02-01

    We present the detection of persistent soft X-ray radiation with {L}x˜ {10}41-1042 erg s-1 at the location of the extremely luminous, double-humped transient ASASSN-15lh as revealed by Chandra and Swift. We interpret this finding in the context of observations from our multiwavelength campaign, which revealed the presence of weak narrow nebular emission features from the host-galaxy nucleus and clear differences with respect to superluminous supernova optical spectra. Significant UV flux variability on short timescales detected at the time of the rebrightening disfavors the shock interaction scenario as the source of energy powering the long-lived UV emission, while deep radio limits exclude the presence of relativistic jets propagating into a low-density environment. We propose a model where the extreme luminosity and double-peaked temporal structure of ASASSN-15lh is powered by a central source of ionizing radiation that produces a sudden change in the ejecta opacity at later times. As a result, UV radiation can more easily escape, producing the second bump in the light curve. We discuss different interpretations for the intrinsic nature of the ionizing source. We conclude that, if the X-ray source is physically associated with the optical-UV transient, then ASASSN-15lh most likely represents the tidal disruption of a main-sequence star by the most massive spinning black hole detected to date. In this case, ASASSN-15lh and similar events discovered in the future would constitute the most direct probes of very massive, dormant, spinning, supermassive black holes in galaxies. Future monitoring of the X-rays may allow us to distinguish between the supernova hypothesis and the hypothesis of a tidal disruption event.

  10. The One-humped Camel in the Canary Islands: History and Present Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson, RT.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius L. is not indigenous to the Canary Islands but based on historical references was introduced at the very beginning of the fifteenth century. The camel thrived in the subtropical dry environment. A long period of isolation from other animals of the same species meant that the animals were virtually disease free. This made the Islands an ideal base for exporting camels to new areas such that camels from the Canaries went to Peru in the sixteenth century, to Brazil in the eighteenth century, Venezuela and Bolivia in the early part of the nineteenth century and Australia in 1840. Camels went to several Caribbean islands in the middle of the nineteenth century. More recently (late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries some animals were exported from the islands to mainland Europe, notably France, Spain and the Netherlands, and to South America. Camels have been used in military operations, as transport and draught animals in support of agriculture and have found a role in the tourist industry. In early 2013 there were some 1,300 camels distributed over four of the larger islands of the archipelago in herds varying in size from a single animal to herds of as many as 150 head: a large group of about 400 heads kept in a Safari Park on the island of Fuerteventura is considered as the national conservation herd. The "Canary" camel has recently been shown to be genetically distinct from most other populations and it has been proposed that it should be designated as a distinct breed.

  11. A stakeless yard long bean cultivar derived from an interspecific cross between cowpea Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp) and yard long bean Vigna sesquipedalis L. (Verdc.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luadthong, Sanit

    1990-01-01

    Full text: 'Yard long bean' is an important vegetable in the Thai diet, particularly in Northeast Thailand. However, growing 'yard long beans' requires stakes for supporting the twining stems and keeping the pod from touching the ground. Staking costs money, takes time and needs labour. An ideal cultivar would be a 'yard long bean' with erect plant type and under 80 cm in height that produces typical long bean pods and allows convenient picking during the harvest time. An attempt to breed such a cultivar was made by crossing cowpea Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp.) with' yard long bean' Vigna sesquipedalis L. (Verdc.) in 1984. This resulted in a new cultivar 'KKU 25'. This cultivar, having erect plant type, requires no staking for supporting the stem and produces long fresh pods with acceptable taste which can be harvested within 43 days. The average pod length is 48 cm, and pod diameter 1.43 cm. In a preliminary yield trial, an average fresh pod yield of 16 t/ha was obtained. (author)

  12. Self-assembled formation and transformation of In/CdZnTe(110) nano-rings into camel-humps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen-Taguri, G.; Ruzin, A.; Goldfarb, I.

    2012-01-01

    We used in situ scanning tunneling microscopy to monitor in real time the formation of nano-rings at the molecular beam epitaxially grown In/CdZnTe(110) surface, and Auger electron spectroscopy to explore the corresponding compositional changes. In-diffusion of In and segregation of Cd to the surface in course of annealing lead to a formation of elliptically distorted nano-rings, elongated along the fast [110] diffusion direction. Exacerbated diffusion anisotropy in the liquid state, at temperatures above the melting point of In, further distorts the nano-rings into a camel-hump shape.

  13. Effect of Age on Fiber Characteristics of one-humped Female Camels of Semnan Province (Short article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.R Ansari Renani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of age on fiber characteristics of one-humped female camels of Semnan province. 50 grams of wool samples from the left midside area were randomly collected from 28 camels of three different age groups: young, adult and old and fibre characteristics were measured. Statistical model used for this research was completely randomized design (CRD. Analysis of data and comparison of means were performed using Duncan's new multiple range test. The results showed that staple length and cashmere percent in young camels were significantly (P

  14. Destructive role of hot ions in the formation of electrostatic density humps and dips in dusty plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, S.; Saleem, H.

    2003-01-01

    It is shown that the ion thermal energy is destructive for the ion acoustic solitons in the presence of dust, and it decreases the value of Mach number for the formation of solitary structures. The regions of ion density humps and dips are produced simultaneously, corresponding to positive and negative values of the electrostatic potential. The nonlinear electron density also behaves in a similar fashion as that of ions. However, the dust density increases in the regions where the ion and electron densities are depleted and vice versa

  15. Venoms of South Asian hump-nosed pit vipers (Genus: Hypnale cause muscarinic effects in BALB/c mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Silva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Although clinical, in-vivo and in-vitro studies suggest the necrotic, haemorrhagic, pro-coagulant and nephrotoxic effects of South Asian Hump nosed pit vipers, reports on neurotoxic properties are limited to a single in-vitro study. Using BALB/c mice, for the first time, here we demonstrate the signs of envenoming suggestive of possible muscarinic effects of the venoms of all three Hypnale species. Further, we demonstrate that the muscarinic effects are occurred at lower venom doses by H. hypnale venom, compared to H. nepa and H. zara.

  16. Intelligent control of energy-saving power generation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Guoqing; Guo, Zhizhong [Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2013-07-01

    Highway power generation system which is environmentally friendly and sustainable provides an innovative method of energy conversion. It is also as a kind of city science and technology innovation, which has the characteristics of environmental protection and sustainable utilization. Making full use of vehicle impact speed control humps, we design a new kind of highway speed control humps combined with solar electric generation system integration. Developing green energy, energy saving and environment protection can be achieved.

  17. A Robust Productivity Model for Grapple Yarding in Fast-Growing Tree Plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riaan Engelbrecht

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available New techniques have recently appeared that can extend the advantages of grapple yarding to fast-growing plantations. The most promising technique consists of an excavator-base un-guyed yarder equipped with new radio-controlled grapple carriages, fed by another excavator stationed on the cut-over. This system is very productive, avoids in-stand traffic, and removes operators from positions of high risk. This paper presents the results of a long-term study conducted on 12 different teams equipped with the new technology, operating in the fast-growing black wattle (Acacia mangium Willd plantations of Sarawak, Malaysia. Data were collected continuously for almost 8 months and represented 555 shifts, or over 55,000 cycles—each recorded individually. Production, utilization, and machine availability were estimated, respectively at: 63 m3 per productive machine hour (excluding all delays, 63% and 93%. Regression analysis of experimental data yielded a strong productivity forecast model that was highly significant, accounted for 50% of the total variability in the dataset and was validated with a non-significant error estimated at less than 1%. The figures reported in this study are especially robust, because they were obtained from a long-term study that covered multiple teams and accumulated an exceptionally large number of observations.

  18. Morphological characteristic of purple long yard bean cultivars and their tolerance to drought stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M W Lestari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation of purple long yard bean which tolerance to drought stress and have high productivity can improve farming in arid area. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mechanism of the tolerance purple long yard beans to drought stress based on morphologic characters, to get the hypothesis method of tolerance and to obtain tolerance cultivars to the drought stress. Eight cultivars of purple long yard beans, i.e. UBPHU1-41, UBPHU1-130, UBPU3-153, UBPU1-202, UBPU2-222, UBPU1-365, Brawijaya 4 and Bagong 2, were tested in two environmental conditions, 100% field capacity and 50% field capacity. The results showed that drought stress in purple long yard bean affected all morphological characters observed, except for root length and flowering time. Estimation of tolerance to drought stress using the Principles Component Analysis (PCA showed that the shoot fresh weight could be an indicator of purple pod bean tolerance to drought stress. However, the test using Stress Susceptibility Index (SSI was not able to classify the purple long yard bean tolerance to drought stress. The results of analysis using PCA followed by discriminant analysis and clustering dendrogram showed that the UBPU1-41, UBPU1-130, UBPU2-222, UBPU1-365, UB4 and Bagong 2 cultivars were medium cultivars that are tolerant to drought stress. Therefore, they can be planted in semiarid regions.

  19. Work accidents during cable yarding operations in Central Europe 2006 – 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allman, M.; Jankovský, M.; Allmanová, Z.; Ferenčík, M.; Messingerová, V.; Vlčková, M.; Stanimir Stoilov

    2017-01-01

    Aim of study: This study is focused on detailed analysis of accidents in yarding during the years 2006–2014. There is still not enough information about such accidents in Central Europe in the literature available. Area of study: We collected the data on occupational accidents recorded in timber yarding from the databases of the Slovak state forest enterprise. Material and Methods: The data on occupational accidents were recorded according to actual European Regulation, the form of the record meets the requirements of the ESAW (European Statistics on Accidents at Work) methodology. To analyze the data, we used the multiple regression and correlation analysis, contingency tables, and a χ2 –test. Main results: Almost half of the accidents were the foot injuries and the most frequent type of injury was fracture of a bone. The most hazardous operation was yarding. Most of the accidents occurred between 1301-1400 h (22 %). The most frequent agent causing accidents were Particles, dust, splinters, fragments, etc. (14.05 by ESAW). Research highlights: This study informs about the most important risk factors in timber yarding, the most hazardous parts of shift, as well as the days when the most accidents occur during the week, and as such contributes to better understanding of how the accidents happen in timber yarding. The information can be subsequently used in knowledge-based improvement of safety trainings in forest enterprises.

  20. Work accidents during cable yarding operations in Central Europe 2006 – 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allman, M.; Jankovský, M.; Allmanová, Z.; Ferenčík, M.; Messingerová, V.; Vlčková, M.; Stanimir Stoilov

    2017-11-01

    Aim of study: This study is focused on detailed analysis of accidents in yarding during the years 2006–2014. There is still not enough information about such accidents in Central Europe in the literature available. Area of study: We collected the data on occupational accidents recorded in timber yarding from the databases of the Slovak state forest enterprise. Material and Methods: The data on occupational accidents were recorded according to actual European Regulation, the form of the record meets the requirements of the ESAW (European Statistics on Accidents at Work) methodology. To analyze the data, we used the multiple regression and correlation analysis, contingency tables, and a χ2 –test. Main results: Almost half of the accidents were the foot injuries and the most frequent type of injury was fracture of a bone. The most hazardous operation was yarding. Most of the accidents occurred between 1301-1400 h (22 %). The most frequent agent causing accidents were Particles, dust, splinters, fragments, etc. (14.05 by ESAW). Research highlights: This study informs about the most important risk factors in timber yarding, the most hazardous parts of shift, as well as the days when the most accidents occur during the week, and as such contributes to better understanding of how the accidents happen in timber yarding. The information can be subsequently used in knowledge-based improvement of safety trainings in forest enterprises.

  1. Residents' Yard Choices and Rationales in a Desert City: Social Priorities, Ecological Impacts, and Decision Tradeoffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Kelli L.; Casagrande, David; Harlan, Sharon L.; Yabiku, Scott T.

    2009-11-01

    As a dominant land use in urban ecosystems, residential yards impact water and other environmental resources. Converting thirsty lawns into alternative landscapes is one approach to water conservation, yet barriers such as cultural norms reinforce the traditional lawn. Meanwhile, the complex social and ecological implications of yard choices complicate programs aimed at changing grass and other yard features for particular purposes. In order to better understand individual landscape decisions, we qualitatively examined residents’ rationales for their preferred yard types in the desert metropolis of Phoenix, Arizona. After briefly presenting landscape choices across two survey samples, the dominant reasons for preferences are discussed: appearance, maintenance, environment, recreation, microclimate, familiarity, and health/safety. Three broader analytical themes emerged from these descriptive codes: (1) residents’ desires for attractive, comfortable landscapes of leisure encompassing pluralistic tastes, lifestyles, and perceptions; (2) the association of environmental benefits and impacts with different landscape types involving complex social and ecological tradeoffs; and (3) the cultural legacies evident in modern landscape choices, especially in terms of a dichotomous human-nature worldview among long-time residents of the Phoenix oasis. Given these findings, programs aimed at landscape change must recognize diverse preferences and rationalization processes, along with the perceived versus actual impacts and tradeoffs of varying yard alternatives.

  2. Natural phenomena evaluations of the K-25 site UF6 cylinder storage yards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fricke, K.E.

    1996-01-01

    The K-25 Site UF 6 cylinder storage yards are used for the temporary storage of UF 6 normal assay cylinders and long-term storage of other UF 6 cylinders. The K-25 Site UF 6 cylinder storage yards consist of six on-site areas: K-1066-B, K-1066-E, K-1066-F, K-1066-J, K-1066-K and K-1066-L. There are no permanent structures erected on the cylinder yards, except for five portable buildings. The operating contractor for the K-25 Site is preparing a Safety Analysis Report (SAR) to examine the safety related aspects of the K-25 Site UF 6 cylinder storage yards. The SAR preparation encompasses many tasks terminating in consequence analysis for the release of gaseous and liquid UF 6 , one of which is the evaluation of natural phenomena threats, such as earthquakes, floods, and winds. In support of the SAR, the six active cylinder storage yards were evaluated for vulnerabilities to natural phenomena, earthquakes, high winds and tornados, tornado-generated missiles, floods (local and regional), and lightning. This report summarizes those studies. 30 refs

  3. Students Grow Their Own Vegetables in School Yards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanitha Kommu

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The Centre for Environment Education (CEE, Andhra Pradesh State Cell, implemented the project ‘Student Amateurs in School Yard Agriculture (SASYA’ with support from UNICEF Hyderabad and the Department of Education (Sarva Siksha Abhiyan in 150 schools in the Medak district of Andhra Pradesh, India.  The Medak district is a semi-arid district with an average annual rainfall of 80 cm. Agricultural activities are dependent mainly on rainfall. The aim of the project was to provide chemical-free, nutrient-rich vegetables to the children and to provide an opportunity to learn by doing. Schools were selected based on the available space, water, fence.  A small start-up kit was provided with a manual with guidelines, vegetable seeds and other requirements like sample bio-fertilizers, bio-pesticides and equipment like hand sprayers. A resource group was formed for every 10 schools with a teacher, the Mandal Educational Officer, and a field coordinator from a Non-Governmental Organisation (NGO. The resource group was trained at the district level that acted as trainers for the other 9 schools of their mandal (administrative district and provided continuous support.The gardens were initiated with support from the village community who were part of the garden lay out plan, and operations like land preparation, and sowing.  Contributions from the villagers also came in the form of implements, farm yard manure and seeds. Gardens were maintained by the student committees formed for the purpose under guidance of teachers. Suggestions regarding the cultural operations were provided by the community, field coordinators and CEE. The produce was utilised for the mid-day meals served in the school. At times they were also shared by the community and teachers. Preparations (collection of seed from the garden and community were under progress for the next season. This project was implemented successfully in 136 schools where the students had benefited through

  4. Painful rib hump: a new clinical sign for detecting intraspinal rib displacement in scoliosis due to neurofibromatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsalouli Marina

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spinal cord compression and associate neurological impairment is rare in patients with scoliosis and neurofibromatosis. Common reasons are vertebral subluxation, dislocation, angulation and tumorous lesions around the spinal canal. Only twelve cases of intraspinal rib dislocation have been reported in the literature. The aim of this report is to present a case of rib penetration through neural foramen at the apex of a scoliotic curve in neurofibromatosis and to introduce a new clinical sign for its detection. Methods A 13-year-old girl was evaluated for progressive left thoracic kyphoscoliotic curve due to a type I neurofibromatosis. Clinical examination revealed multiple large thoracic and abdominal "cafe-au-lait" spots, neurological impairment of the lower limbs and the presence of a thoracic gibbous that was painful to pressure at the level of the left eighth rib (Painful Rib Hump. CT-scan showed detachment and translocation of the cephalic end of the left eighth rib into the adjacent enlarged neural foramen. The M.R.I. examination of the spine showed neither cord abnormality nor neurogenic tumor. Results The patient underwent resection of the intraspinal mobile eighth rib head and posterior spinal instrumentation and was neurologically fully recovered six months postoperatively. Conclusion Spine surgeons should be aware of intraspinal rib displacement in scoliotic curves in neurofibromatosis. Painful rib hump is a valuable diagnostic tool for this rare clinical entity.

  5. Investigating transportation system in container terminals and developing a yard crane scheduling model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Javanshir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The world trade has tremendous growth in marine transportation. This paper studies yard crane scheduling problem between different blocks in container terminal. Its purpose is to minimize total travel time of cranes between blocks and total delayed workload in blocks at different periods. In this way the problem is formulated as a mixed integer programming (MIP model. The block pairs between which yard cranes will be transferred, during the various periods, is determined by this model. Afterwards the model is coded in LINGO software, which benefits from branch and bound algorithm to solve. Computational results determine the yard cranes movement sequence among blocks to achieve minimum total travel time for cranes and minimum total delayed workload in blocks at different planning periods. Also the results show capability and adequacy of the developed model.

  6. Comparison of planted soil infiltration systems for treatment of log yard runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedmark, Asa; Scholz, Miklas; Aronsson, Par; Elowson, Torbjorn

    2010-07-01

    Treatment of log yard runoff is required to avoid contamination of receiving watercourses. The research aim was to assess if infiltration of log yard runoff through planted soil systems is successful and if different plant species affect the treatment performance at a field-scale experimental site in Sweden (2005 to 2007). Contaminated runoff from the log yard of a sawmill was infiltrated through soil planted with Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gärtner (common alder), Salix schwerinii X viminalis (willow variety "Gudrun"), Lolium perenne (L.) (rye grass), and Phalaris arundinacea (L.) (reed canary grass). The study concluded that there were no treatment differences when comparing the four different plants with each other, and there also were no differences between the tree and the grass species. Furthermore, the infiltration treatment was effective in reducing total organic carbon (55%) and total phosphorus (45%) concentrations in the runoff, even when the loads on the infiltration system increased from year to year.

  7. Data acquisition and PV module power production in upgraded TEP/AzRISE solar test yard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Whit E.; Fishgold, Asher D.; Lai, Teh; Potter, Barrett G.; Simmons-Potter, Kelly

    2017-08-01

    The Tucson Electric Power (TEP)/University of Arizona AzRISE (Arizona Research Institute for Solar Energy) solar test yard is continuing efforts to improve standardization and data acquisition reliability throughout the facility. Data reliability is ensured through temperature-insensitive data acquisition devices with battery backups in the upgraded test yard. Software improvements allow for real-time analysis of collected data, while uploading to a web server. Sample data illustrates high fidelity monitoring of the burn-in period of a polycrystalline silicon photovoltaic module test string with no data failures over 365 days of data collection. In addition to improved DAQ systems, precision temperature monitoring has been implemented so that PV module backside temperatures are routinely obtained. Weather station data acquired at the test yard provides local ambient temperature, humidity, wind speed, and irradiance measurements that have been utilized to enable characterization of PV module performance over an extended test period

  8. 19th century London dust-yards: A case study in closed-loop resource efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velis, Costas A.; Wilson, David C.; Cheeseman, Christopher R.

    2009-01-01

    The material recovery methods used by dust-yards in early 19th century London, England and the conditions that led to their development, success and decline are reported. The overall system developed in response to the market value of constituents of municipal waste, and particularly the high coal ash content of household 'dust'. The emergence of lucrative markets for 'soil' and 'breeze' products encouraged dust-contractors to recover effectively 100% of the residual wastes remaining after readily saleable items and materials had been removed by the thriving informal sector. Contracting dust collection to the private sector allowed parishes to keep the streets relatively clean, without the need to develop institutional capacity, and for a period this also generated useful income. The dust-yard system is, therefore, an early example of organised, municipal-wide solid waste management, and also of public-private sector participation. The dust-yard system had been working successfully for more than 50 years before the Public Health Acts of 1848 and 1875, and was thus important in facilitating a relatively smooth transition to an institutionalised, municipally-run solid waste management system in England. The dust-yards can be seen as early precursors of modern materials recycling facilities (MRFs) and mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) plants; however, it must be emphasised that dust-yards operated without any of the environmental and occupational health considerations that are indispensable today. In addition, there are analogies between dust-yards and informal sector recycling systems currently operating in many developing countries

  9. Atlanta Rail Yard Study: Evaluation of local-scale air pollution trends using stationary and mobile monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intermodal rail yards are important nodes in the freight transportation network, where freight is organized and moved from one mode of transport to another, critical equipment is serviced, and freight is routed to its next destination. Rail yard environments are also areas with ...

  10. Exploring Homeowner Diffusion of Yard Care Knowledge as One Step Toward Improving Urban Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Nicholas F.; Nelson, Kristen C.; Dahmus, Maria E.

    2014-11-01

    Urban ecosystems are increasingly influenced by residential yard care decisions. This had led researchers to focus on homeowner education programs when it comes to yard care. Typically, the success of programs designed to influence yard care is based on whether the target subject changes his or her behavior in a more environmentally conscious manner. This threshold, however, fails to consider if individuals share this information with their friends and neighbors, thus having a possible spillover effect. In this paper, we focus on the transmission of new lawn management information among neighbors and consider (1) if individuals discuss information they learned in a short-term educational program, (2) what factors are associated with diffusion, (3) what information individuals share, and (4) what barriers to transmission exist. In the Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan area, we used data from a mailed survey, group discussions, and mailed information exchanges. Results indicate that best management practices for yards can diffuse through the neighborhood (approximately 34 % shared information with their neighbors in a one-month period). In addition, factors such as (1) attending a group discussion, 2) individual social connectedness, (3) length of home ownership, and (4) the presence of children in the household were found to be positively related to increased sharing of information. Also, for lawns, the content of information shared tended to be about increasing grass height and reducing fertilizer applications. Finally, we find barriers to sharing ideas based on spatial, temporal, or perception factors but overcoming some of these barriers is possible.

  11. Access to Science and Literacy through Inquiry and School Yard Habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox-Petersen, Anne; Spencer, Brenda

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe an integrated science and literacy instructional model in which students build background knowledge by engaging in free-choice learning options during an investigation of school yard habitats. Students interact with their peers while inquiring, discussing findings, and using print resources to enhance learning.

  12. Financial feasibility of a log sort yard handling small-diameter logs: A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han-Sup Han; E. M. (Ted) Bilek; John (Rusty) Dramm; Dan Loeffler; Dave Calkin

    2011-01-01

    The value and use of the trees removed in fuel reduction thinning and restoration treatments could be enhanced if the wood were effectively evaluated and sorted for quality and highest value before delivery to the next manufacturing destination. This article summarizes a preliminary financial feasibility analysis of a log sort yard that would serve as a log market to...

  13. ASSESSMENT OF THE BACTERIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF COMPOST FROM A YARD WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citizen concern over possible pathogenic microorganism contamination in compost and in a runoff collection pond prompted a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) investigation. One out of eight samples collected from the distribution pile at a yard waste compost processing f...

  14. A study on Maruca vitrata infestation of Yard-long beans (Vigna unguiculata subspecies sesquipedalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C. Jayasinghe

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Globally, Maruca vitrata (Geyer is a serious yield constraint on food legumes including Yard-long bean (Vigna unguiculata subspecies sesquipedalis. However, there is a dearth of information on its damage potential, distribution and population dynamics in Yard-long beans. In the present study, the level of M. vitrata larval infestation on flowers and pods of Yard-long beans in Sri Lanka was determined with respect to three consecutive cropping seasons, Yala, Off and Maha. Results indicated that larval infestation and abundance varied with developmental stage of flowers and pods, cropping season and their combined interactive effects. Flowers of Yard-long beans were more prone to M. vitrata larval attack compared to pods. Abundance and level of infestation of M. vitrata varied with plant parts, having a ranking of flower buds (highest > open flowers > mature pods > immature pods (lowest. Peak infestation was observed six and eight weeks after planting on flowers and pods, respectively. Among the three cropping seasons, M. vitrata infestation was found to be higher during Maha and Off seasons compared to Yala. The findings of this study contribute to the identified knowledge gap regarding the field biology of an acknowledged important pest, M. vitrata, in a previously understudied crop in Sri Lanka.

  15. Prevention of spontaneous combustion in coal stockpiles : Experimental results in coal storage yard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fierro, V.; Miranda, J.L.; Romero, C.; Andrés, J.M.; Arriaga, A.; Schmal, D.; Visser, G.H.

    1999-01-01

    The spontaneous ignition of coal stockpiles is a serious economic and safety problem. This paper deals with oxidation and spontaneous combustion of coal piles laid in coal storage yard and the measures to avoid the heat losses produced. Investigations on self heating were carried out with five test

  16. Composting of food and yard wastes by locally isolated fungal strains

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-12-16

    Dec 16, 2011 ... 74% total organic matter (TOM), 7.2 pH and 132% germination index (GI) further showed the potentials of the produced compost. Based on this, food waste (FW) and yard trimmings (YT) showed an economic potential for sustainable production of compost using low technology. Key words: Lignocellulolytic ...

  17. Nonlinear permittivity spectra of supercooled ionic liquids: Observation of a "hump" in the third-order permittivity spectra and comparison to double-well potential models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patro, L N; Burghaus, O; Roling, B

    2017-04-21

    We have measured the third-order permittivity spectra ε 3 3 of a monocationic and of a dicationic liquid close to the glass transition temperature by applying ac electric fields with large amplitudes up to 180 kV/cm. A peak ("hump") in the modulus of ε 3 3 is observed for a mono-cationic liquid after subtraction of the dc contribution from the imaginary part of ε 3 3 . We show that the origin of this experimental "hump" is a peak in the imaginary part of ε 3 3 , with the peak height strongly increasing with decreasing temperature. Overall, the spectral shape of the third-order permittivity of both ionic liquids is similar to the predictions of a symmetric double well potential model, although this model does not predict a "hump" in the modulus. In contrast, an asymmetric double well potential model predicts a "hump," but the spectral shape of both the real and imaginary part of ε 3 3 deviates significantly from the experimental spectra. These results show that not only the modulus of ε 3 3 but also its phase is an important quantity when comparing experimental results with theoretical predictions.

  18. 75 FR 72952 - Safety Zone; 1000-yard radius from position 29°48.77′ N 091°33.02′ W, Charenton Drainage and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; 1000-yard radius from position 29[deg]48.77' N 091[deg]33.02' W, Charenton Drainage.... SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone extending to a 1000-yard radius from... Navigation and Drainage Canal will be closed to all marine traffic within a 1000-yard radius of position 29...

  19. Characterization of stormwater at selected South Carolina Department of Transportation maintenance yard and section shed facilities in Ballentine, Conway, and North Charleston, South Carolina, 2010-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journey, Celeste A.; Conlon, Kevin J.

    2013-01-01

    milliliters in Turkey Creek at North Charleston2, whereas enterococcus concentrations ranged from 512 colonies per 100 milliliters at the Conway1 outfall to 6,329 colonies per 100 milliliters in Turkey Creek at North Charleston2. In comparison to the proposed South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control primary and secondary body contact criterion of 349 colonies per 100 milliliter, stormwater had Escherichia coli concentrations that were greater than the criterion in 4 of the 9 storms at Ballentine retention pond outfall, 1 of the 8 storms at the Conway1 pipe outfall, 5 of the 7 storms at the Conway2 grass-lined ditch outfall, 2 of the 8 storms at North Charleston1 on Turkey Creek, and 8 of the 8 storms at North Charleston2 on Turkey Creek. Of the six trace metals measured in stormwater, only copper and zinc had event-mean concentrations greater than the hardness-dependent South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control aquatic life criteria maximum concentrations. Measured dissolved copper event-mean concentrations in stormwater were greater than the criterion in 5 of the samples at the Ballentine facility, 1 of the samples at Conway1, 2 of the samples at Conway2, and 1 of the samples at North Charleston2. Measured dissolved zinc event-mean concentrations in stormwater were greater than the criterion in 3 of the samples at the Ballentine facility, 1 of the samples at Conway1, 2 of the samples at Conway2, and 0 of the samples at North Charleston2. At North Charleston1 upstream from the North Charleston maintenance yard, the measured dissolved trace-metal concentrations were all less than the criterion maximum concentrations. Among the three facilities, Conway1 outfall had the greatest range in event-mean yields in stormwater for total phosphorus, total nitrogen, total suspended solids, and suspended sediment, and both Conway outfalls tended to have median event-mean yields greater than those of the Ballentine and North Charleston yard

  20. Releases of UF6 to the atmosphere after a potential fire in a cylinder storage yard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombardi, D.A.; Williams, W.R.; Anderson, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    Uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ), a toxic material, is stored in just over 6200 cylinders at the K-25 site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The safety analysis report (SAR) for cylinder yard storage operations at the plant required the development of accident scenarios for the potential release of UF 6 to the atmosphere. In accordance with DOE standards and guidance, the general approach taken in this SAR was to examine the functions and contents of the cylinder storage yards to determine whether safety-significant hazards were present for workers in the immediate vicinity, workers on-site, the general public off-site, or the environment. and to evaluate the significance of any hazards that were found. A detailed accident analysis was performed to determine a set of limiting accidents that have potential for off-site consequences. One of the limiting accidents identified in the SAR was the rupture of a cylinder engulfed in a fire

  1. Monitoring Dangerous Goods in Container Yard Using the Internet of Things

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Lianhong; Chen, Yifan; Li, Juntao

    2016-01-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT), a network of objects, has been regarded as the next revolution for the global information industry after the Internet. With IoT, many intelligent applications can be accomplished or improved. This paper presents a framework for dangerous goods management in container yard using IoT technology. The framework consists of three layers: perceptual layer, transport layer, and application layer. It offers an infrastructure for management and data analysis and utilizati...

  2. Refurbishment of uranium hexafluoride cylinder storage yards C-745-K, L, M, N, and P and construction of a new uranium hexafluoride cylinder storage yard (C-745-T) at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-07-01

    The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) is a uranium enrichment facility owned by the US Department of Energy (DOE). A residual of the uranium enrichment process is depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF6). Depleted UF6, a solid at ambient temperature, is stored in 32,200 steel cylinders that hold a maximum of 14 tons each. Storage conditions are suboptimal and have resulted in accelerated corrosion of cylinders, increasing the potential for a release of hazardous substances. Consequently, the DOE is proposing refurbishment of certain existing yards and construction of a new storage yard. This environmental assessment (EA) evaluates the impacts of the proposed action and no action and considers alternate sites for the proposed new storage yard. The proposed action includes (1) renovating five existing cylinder yards; (2) constructing a new UF6 storage yard; handling and onsite transport of cylinders among existing yards to accommodate construction; and (4) after refurbishment and construction, restacking of cylinders to meet spacing and inspection requirements. Based on the results of the analysis reported in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action that would significantly affect the quality of the human environment within the context of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969. Therefore, DOE is issuing a Finding of No Significant Impact. Additionally, it is reported in this EA that the loss of less than one acre of wetlands at the proposed project site would not be a significant adverse impact

  3. Refurbishment of uranium hexafluoride cylinder storage yards C-745-K, L, M, N, and P and construction of a new uranium hexafluoride cylinder storage yard (C-745-T) at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) is a uranium enrichment facility owned by the US Department of Energy (DOE). A residual of the uranium enrichment process is depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF6). Depleted UF6, a solid at ambient temperature, is stored in 32,200 steel cylinders that hold a maximum of 14 tons each. Storage conditions are suboptimal and have resulted in accelerated corrosion of cylinders, increasing the potential for a release of hazardous substances. Consequently, the DOE is proposing refurbishment of certain existing yards and construction of a new storage yard. This environmental assessment (EA) evaluates the impacts of the proposed action and no action and considers alternate sites for the proposed new storage yard. The proposed action includes (1) renovating five existing cylinder yards; (2) constructing a new UF6 storage yard; handling and onsite transport of cylinders among existing yards to accommodate construction; and (4) after refurbishment and construction, restacking of cylinders to meet spacing and inspection requirements. Based on the results of the analysis reported in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action that would significantly affect the quality of the human environment within the context of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969. Therefore, DOE is issuing a Finding of No Significant Impact. Additionally, it is reported in this EA that the loss of less than one acre of wetlands at the proposed project site would not be a significant adverse impact.

  4. Final Confirmation Sampling and Analysis Report for the POL Yard, Sites SS-06 and ST-40, Wurtsmith AFB, Michigan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    .... Wurtsmith AFBCA and AFCEE/ERT had no comments on the draft final report. This report represents the final contract deliverable for the AFCEE Extended Bioventing Project at the Wurtsmith AFB POL Yard...

  5. Treatment of log yard run-off by irrigation of grass and willows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonsson, Maria; Dimitriou, Ioannis; Aronsson, Paer; Elowson, Torbjoern

    2006-01-01

    Log yard run-off is a potential environmental risk, among other things because it creates an oxygen deficiency in receiving watercourses. This study was conducted to investigate the purification efficiency of soil-plant systems with couchgrass (Elymus repens) and willows (Salix sp.) when intensively irrigated with run-off from an open sprinkling system at a Norway spruce (Picea abies) log yard. The purification efficiency was determined both at the field scale (couchgrass) and in 68-L lysimeters (couchgrass and willows). Groundwater in the field and drainage water from the lysimeters were analysed for Total Organic Carbon (TOC), distillable phenols, total P, and total N. Retention of TOC, phenols and P occurred but no difference between couchgrass and willows was observed. The system had better purification capacity at the field scale than in the lysimeters. -- By irrigating willow and couchgrass soil-plant systems with log yard run-off water, TOC, phenols, and phosphorus were reduced with 35% to 96% in the water

  6. Severe Outbreak of a Yellow Mosaic Disease on the Yard Long Bean in Bogor, West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TRI ASMIRA DAMAYANTI

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available During 2008 crop season, an outbreak of severe yellow mosaic disease on yard long bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. Sesquipedalis occurred in several farmers’ fields in West Java. Yard long bean var. Parade inoculated manually with extracts from symptomatic leaves showed the symptoms indicating the presence of virus. Symptomatic leaf samples tested positive in enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA with antibodies to group specific Potyvirus and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV. Total RNA derived from symptomatic leaves was subjected to reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR using primers specific to the cylindrical inclusion (CI protein of potyviruses and CMV coat protein (CP specific primers. Pair wise comparison of sequences obtained from cloned RT-PCR products with corresponding nucleotide sequences in the GenBank confirmed the presence of Bean common mosaic virus strain Blackeye (BCMV-BlC and CMV in the symptomatic beans. Sequences of BCMV and CMV isolates from the beans showed maximum nucleotide sequence identities (92-97% and (90%, respectively with BCMV-BIC and CMV isolates from Taiwan. Each virus isolate also clustered closely with corresponding isolates from Taiwan in a phylogenetic analyses. These results provide first evidence of the occurrence of multiple infection of BCMV-BIC and CMV in the yard long been from Bogor, West Java.

  7. Direct numerical simulation of a compressible boundary-layer flow past an isolated three-dimensional hump in a high-speed subsonic regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Grazia, D.; Moxey, D.; Sherwin, S. J.; Kravtsova, M. A.; Ruban, A. I.

    2018-02-01

    In this paper we study the boundary-layer separation produced in a high-speed subsonic boundary layer by a small wall roughness. Specifically, we present a direct numerical simulation (DNS) of a two-dimensional boundary-layer flow over a flat plate encountering a three-dimensional Gaussian-shaped hump. This work was motivated by the lack of DNS data of boundary-layer flows past roughness elements in a similar regime which is typical of civil aviation. The Mach and Reynolds numbers are chosen to be relevant for aeronautical applications when considering small imperfections at the leading edge of wings. We analyze different heights of the hump: The smaller heights result in a weakly nonlinear regime, while the larger result in a fully nonlinear regime with an increasing laminar separation bubble arising downstream of the roughness element and the formation of a pair of streamwise counterrotating vortices which appear to support themselves.

  8. Evaluation of landscape coverings to reduce soil lead hazards in urban residential yards: The Safer Yards Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binns, H.J.; Gray, K.A.; Chen Tianyue; Finster, M.E.; Peneff, Nicholas; Schaefer, Peter; Ovsey, Victor; Fernandes, Joyce; Brown, Mavis; Dunlap, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    This study was designed primarily to evaluate the effectiveness of landscape coverings to reduce the potential for exposure to lead-contaminated soil in an urban neighborhood. Residential properties were randomized in to three groups: application of ground coverings/barriers plus placement of a raised garden bed (RB), application of ground coverings/barriers only (no raised bed, NRB), and control. Outcomes evaluated soil lead concentration (employing a weighting method to assess acute hazard soil lead [areas not fully covered] and potential hazard soil lead [all soil surfaces regardless of covering status]), density of landscape coverings (6=heavy, >90% covered; 1=bare, <10% covered), lead tracked onto carpeted entryway floor mats, and entryway floor dust lead loadings. Over 1 year, the intervention groups had significantly reduced acute hazard soil lead concentration (median change: RB, -478 ppm; NRB, -698 ppm; control, +52 ppm; Kruskal-Wallis, P=0.02), enhanced landscape coverings (mean change in score: RB, +0.6; NRB, +1.5; control, -0.6; ANOVA, P<0.001), and a 50% decrease in lead tracked onto the floor mats. The potential hazard soil lead concentration and the entryway floor dust lead loading did not change significantly. Techniques evaluated by this study are feasible for use by property owners but will require continued maintenance. The long-term sustainability of the method needs further examination

  9. Effect of dystocia on some hormonal and biochemical parameters in the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoneim, I M; Waheed, M M; Al-Eknah, M M; Al-Raja'a, A

    2016-08-01

    The present study compared some of the hormonal and biochemical constituents of serum from eutocic and dystocic one-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius). Sera were harvested from eutocic (n = 9) and dystocic (n = 20) camels within the first 15 minutes after delivery. Although there were no differences in the concentrations of estradiol-17β (E2) and prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) between the eutocic and the dystocic animals, the level of progesterone (P4) and cortisol was significantly higher (P dystocia than those that had a normal birth. There were no differences between the concentrations of alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, calcium, cholesterol, creatine kinase, creatinine, or magnesium (Mg) in eutocic and dystocic animals. The nitric oxide concentration was significantly higher (P dystocia than those that had normal births. By contrast, the serum concentrations of glucose, phosphorus (P), and triglycerides were significantly lower (P dystocia. Moreover, stress and hormonal changes may affect the metabolic traits in dystocia camels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Proteome Changes in biceps femoris Muscle of Iranian One-Humped Camel and Their Effect on Meat Quality Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Javad Varidi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study physicochemical and quality traits of biceps femoris and longissimus thoracis muscles of male and female Iranian one-humped camel were determined during 14 days of refrigeration storage. Analysis of variance of the results showed that only shear force and temperature were affected by the gender (p<0.05. Anatomical location of the muscle influenced the meat properties except for drip loss (p<0.05. Also, except for cooking loss, ageing influenced the physicochemical and quality properties of meat; during 14 days of storage, proteolysis resulted in an increase of L* and b* values, drip loss and myofibrillar fragmentation index, and the decrease of a* value, expressed juice, shear force and sarcomere length. Proteome changes (myofi brillar proteins during storage were investigated. Gel analysis revealed that 19 protein spots were signifi cantly changed during 24, 72 and 168 h post-mortem. Fifteen spots were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometer. Correlation analysis revealed significant correlations of actin, troponin T, capping protein, heat shock proteins (HSP and desmin with physicochemical and quality properties of meat (p<0.05. Actin might be a potential protein marker for colour, tenderness and water-holding capacity, and HSP27 and desmin are good candidate markers for colour and tenderness, respectively.

  11. Charge density waves as the origin of dip-hump structures in the differential tunneling conductance of cuprates: The case of d-wave superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabovich, Alexander M., E-mail: gabovich@iop.kiev.ua; Voitenko, Alexander I., E-mail: voitenko@iop.kiev.ua

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • d-Wave superconductivity and charge-density waves compete for the Fermi surface. • Charge-density waves induce pseudogaps and peak-dip-hump structures in cuprates. • Tunnel spectra are non-symmetric due to the dielectric order-parameter phase fixation. • Scatter of the dielectric order parameter smears the tunnel spectra peculiarities. - Abstract: Quasiparticle differential current–voltage characteristics (CVCs) G(V) of non-symmetric tunnel junctions between d-wave superconductors with charge-density waves (CDWs) and normal metals were calculated. The dependences G(V) were shown to have a V-like form at small voltages V and low temperatures, and to be asymmetric at larger V owing to the presence of CDW peak in either of the V-branches. The spatial scatter of the dielectric (CDW) order parameter smears the CDW peak into a hump and induces a peak-dip-hump structure (PDHS) typical of CVCs observed for such junctions. At temperatures larger than the superconducting critical one, the PDHS evolves into a pseudogap depression. The results agree well with the scanning tunneling microscopy data for Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+δ} and YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7−δ}. The results differ substantially from those obtained earlier for CDW s-wave superconductors.

  12. Analyzing the Efficiency of a Start-Up Cable Yarding Crew in Southern China under New Forest Management Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Hoffmann

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This case study analyzed the performance of a start-up cable yarding crew in southern China through operational monitoring by consecutive time studies, long-term log book recordings and efficiency evaluation by stochastic frontier analysis (SFA. The crew, which used a KOLLER K303 H mobile tower yarder, was monitored for two years. During this period, detailed data recordings of 687 yarding cycles of 12 yarding corridors as well as log book recordings of an additional 1122 scheduled system hours (SSH, including all delays were generated. Mean extraction productivity of the system ranged between 5.23 and 6.40 m3 per productive system hour (PSH0, excluding all delays, mostly depending on slope yarding distance and lateral distance. Corresponding gross-productivity ranged from 1.91 to 2.24 m3/SSH, with an overall mean machine utilization rate of 31%. Unproductive yarding times and delays associated with the relative low utilization rate were mainly caused by lengthy rigging processes, as well as organizational deficiencies and not yet fully developed skill sets of the operating crew. The latter was reflected in a mean efficiency effect frontier value of 0.62 based on evaluation of data sets of individual yarding cycles recorded during detailed assessments, suggesting a mean improvement potential of 38% based on the SFA, translating in a potentially achievable gross-productivity of 2.64 to 3.09 m3/SSH. We conclude that current local operating conditions including insufficient planning, implementation and logistics and in particular, frequent discontinuations of system operations of up to three months all resulting in generally low operation hours per shift and per year, inhibit efficient operations and rapid skill development. These circumstances also inhibit an economic utilization of the equipment. Nevertheless, from a technical perspective, yarding systems have a promising potential in southern China.

  13. Planning and scheduling for maritime container yards supporting and facilitating the global supply network

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Wenkai; Goh, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Maximizing reader insights into the challenges facing maritime supply chains and container port logistics service providers in Asia, this book highlights their innovative responses to these challenges through real-world case studies. With a focus on mathematical modeling, simulation and heuristics approaches, this book provides academics, engineers, container terminal operators, students in logistics and supply chain management with the latest approaches that can be used to address the planning and scheduling problem in large container terminal yards. This book can be used on a self-contained basis as teaching cases in an undergraduate or specialist class setting, or on techniques applied to maritime container operations for port operations.

  14. From ship-yard to campus. Rotterdamse Droogdok Maatschappij; Van scheepswerf naar campus. Rotterdamse Droogdok Maatschappij

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosef, J.P. [Wolter en Dros, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Van der Schee, W.G. [Wolter en Dros, Amersfoort (Netherlands)

    2011-03-15

    The industrial buildings and halls of an old ship-yard in the Netherlands of the Rotterdam Droogdok Maatschappij (a shipbuilding and repair company in Rotterdam, Netherlands) has been renovated and transferred into educational facilities and buildings for small-scale businesses. [Dutch] Waar tientallen jaren geleden zware mokerslagen door de hallen galmden, staan nu studenten geconcentreerd gebogen over de fijnste technieken. De voormalige machinehallen van de Rotterdamse Droogdok Maatschappij (RDM) in Rotterdam huisvesten tegenwoordig onderwijsinstellingen en kleinschalige innovatieve bedrijven. Het middelpunt van deze RDM-Campus is het Innovation Dock. Het was een uitdaging om in de oude tochtige hallen een behaaglijk binnenklimaat te creeren voor onderwijsdoeleinden en kantoren.

  15. Comparative in-vivo toxicity of venoms from South Asian hump-nosed pit vipers (Viperidae: Crotalinae: Hypnale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Anjana

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Envenoming by south Asian hump-nosed pit vipers (Genus: Hypnale is a significant health issue in Sri Lanka and in peninsular India. Bites by these snakes frequently lead to local envenoming, coagulopathy and acute renal failure even resulting in death. Recently the genus was revised and the existence of three species viz H. hypnale, H. nepa and H. zara were recognized. There is, however, a paucity of information on the toxicity of the venoms of these species. Hence, we compared the toxic effects of the three Hypnale venoms using BALB/c mice. Findings Intraperitoneal median lethal doses (LD50 for H. hypnale, H. zara and H. nepa venoms were 1.6, 6.0 and 9.5 μg protein/g respectively. Minimum haemorrhagic doses for venoms of H. hypnale, H. zara and H. nepa were 3.4, 11.0 and 16.6 μg protein/mouse respectively. The minimum necrotic doses for the same venoms were 15.0, 55.1 and 68.2 μg protein/mouse respectively. Severe congestion and petecheal haemorrhages were observed in lungs, kidneys, liver and the alimentary tract. Histopathogical examination of kidneys revealed proximal tubular cell injury and acute tubular necrosis with intact basement membrane indicating possible direct nephrotoxicity. Hypnale venoms caused pulmonary oedema, hepatocellular degeneration and necrosis, focal neuronal degeneration in brain and extramedullary haemopoiesis in spleen. H. hypnale venom caused all above histopathological alterations at lower doses compared to the other two. Conclusion Hypnale venoms cause similar pathological changes with marked differences in the severity of the toxic effects in vivo. Therefore, differences in the severity of the clinical manifestations could possibly be seen among bite victims of the three Hypnale species.

  16. Discrete event simulation model for external yard choice of import container terminal in a port buffer area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusgiyarto, Ferry; Sjafruddin, Ade; Frazila, Russ Bona; Suprayogi

    2017-06-01

    Increasing container traffic and land acquisition problem for terminal expansion leads to usage of external yard in a port buffer area. This condition influenced the terminal performance because a road which connects the terminal and the external yard was also used by non-container traffic. Location choice problem considered to solve this condition, but the previous research has not taken account a stochastic condition of container arrival rate and service time yet. Bi-level programming framework was used to find optimum location configuration. In the lower-level, there was a problem to construct the equation, which correlated the terminal operation and the road due to different time cycle equilibrium. Container moves from the quay to a terminal gate in a daily unit of time, meanwhile, it moves from the terminal gate to the external yard through the road in a minute unit of time. If the equation formulated in hourly unit equilibrium, it cannot catch up the container movement characteristics in the terminal. Meanwhile, if the equation formulated in daily unit equilibrium, it cannot catch up the road traffic movement characteristics in the road. This problem can be addressed using simulation model. Discrete Event Simulation Model was used to simulate import container flow processes in the container terminal and external yard. Optimum location configuration in the upper-level was the combinatorial problem, which was solved by Full Enumeration approach. The objective function of the external yard location model was to minimize user transport cost (or time) and to maximize operator benefit. Numerical experiment was run for the scenario assumption of two container handling ways, three external yards, and thirty-day simulation periods. Jakarta International Container Terminal (JICT) container characteristics data was referred for the simulation. Based on five runs which were 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 repetitions, operation one of three available external yards (external yard

  17. One-Humped Camels (Camelus dromedaries Hard Ticks Infestation in Qeshm Island, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Nazifi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The economic importance of tick infestation on camels are important as they are important meat and milk producer animals in the less vegetation area of Iran and their health and production are greatly affected by the high tick infestation. In this investigation, tick infestations on camels (Camelus dromedarius were determined in Qeshm Island, Iran. A total number of 912 adult ticks (472 males and 440 females were collected and identified. Hyalomma dromedarii was the predominant tick specie and accounted for 61.9% of the adult ticks. Other hard ticks were H. anatolicum excavatum (22 %, H. asiaticum asiaticum (14.2 %, H. marginatum (1.9 %, H. impeltatum (0.4 % and Ripicephalus bursa (0.4 %. In conclusion, The provision of tick control programs in the Qeshm Island would seem a prerequisite for improving camel meat and milk production.

  18. EFFECT OF SOME PLANT OILS ON THE FATTY ACIDS OF HUMP BEETLE GIBBIUM PSYLLOIDES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ABBASY, S.A.; ALY, W.M.; REZK, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    The efficiency of some plant oils (sesame oil, camphor oil, castor oil and camomile oil) as insecticides were studied on newly emerged males and females Gibbium psylloids and also the effect of LC50 of each plant oils on fatty acids composition and relative concentration were determined. The obtained results showed that sesame oil had proved to be more effective with it's advantage over other tested oils of being used at lower concentration and it followed by chamomile oil then camphor oil and finally castor oil. The susceptibility of the males and females to plant oils was the same. There were differences in the number and relative concentration of fatty acids between males and females. Nine fatty acids were detected by the analysis of the whole body of untreated males , these fatty acids are capric (C10) , lauric (C12) , myristic (C14), palmiloleic (C16), margic (C17), stearic (C18) , oleic (C18:1) , linoleic (C18:2) and linolenic (C18:3) . Treatments of males with LC50 sesame oil lead to the appearance of ten fatty acids with increase of caprylic acid (C8) while LC50 chamomile oil lead to the appearance of six fatty acids and fatty acid with C10 , C18:1 and C18:2 were disappeared as compared to control. LC50 of camphor oil lead to the appearance of ten fatty acids and castor oil lead to the appearance of six fatty acids. In untreated females, five fatty acids with C12 , C16 , C17 , C18 and C18:1 were detected. Treatments with sesame oil lead to the appearance of new fatty acid with C18:2 and chamomile oil lead to the appearance of nine fatty acids with increase of C8 , C10 , C14 and C18:2 as compared with untreated females. Camphor oil treatment lead to the appearance of nine fatty acids with increase of four fatty acids with C6 , C8 , C10 and C18:2 as compared to untreated females and fatty acid with C18:1 was disappeared in the treatments. Castor oil leads to the appearance of seven fatty acids. The relative concentration of C12 was the highest fatty acid in

  19. Oral health status and treatment needs of Gunj marketing yard laborers of Raichur City, Karnataka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Vengal Rao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral health is a vital part of general health and is a valuable asset of every individual. The working population in India usually belong to the lower socioeconomic group. Aim: This study was conducted to assess the oral health status and treatment needs of Gunj marketing yard laborers. Materials and Methods: A descriptive study was conducted among 550 laborers of Gunj marketing yard of Raichur city. A specially designed questionnaire was used to assess the demographic variables and oral hygiene practices. Oral health status was assessed using the WHO assessment form 1997. Simplified oral hygiene index (1964 was used to assess the oral hygiene status. Results: The mean age of the study participants was 35.1 (± 8.02 years and the mean decayed teeth, missing teeth, filled teeth, and decayed, missing, filled teeth was 2.06 (± 1.49, 0.76 (± 2.53, 0.13 (± 0.39, and 2.95 (± 3.02, respectively. The prevalence of dental caries and periodontal disease was 85.7% and 93.5%, respectively. The oral hygiene status was poor in 45.9% of the study participants. Conclusion: This study demonstrates poor oral hygiene and high prevalence of periodontal diseases and dental caries as well as a large proportion of unmet dental needs among these laborers.

  20. Technical Report: Optimizing the Slab Yard Planning and Crane Scheduling Problem using a Two-Stage Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Dohn; Clausen, Jens

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present The Slab Yard Planning and Crane Scheduling Problem. The problem has its origin in steel production facilities with a large throughput. A slab yard is used as a buffer for slabs that are needed in the upcoming production. Slabs are transported by cranes and the problem...... considered here, is concerned with the generation of schedules for these. The problem is decomposed and modeled in two parts, namely a planning problem and a scheduling problem. In the planning problem a set of crane operations is created to take the yard from its current state to a desired goal state...... schedule for the cranes is generated, where each operation is assigned to a crane and is given a specific time of initiation. For both models, a thorough description of the modeling details is given along with a specification of objective criteria. Variants of the models are presented as well. Preliminary...

  1. Space-sharing Strategy for Building Dynamic Container Yard Storage Considering Uncertainty on Number of Incoming Containers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Nurminarsih

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of AEC (Asian Economic Community leads to demand increase at ports in Indonesia. This increasing demand is followed by operational efficiency at the port as well. In fact, ports in Indonesia have an average dwell time for 5 days. One of the causes of this long dwell time is container transfer inefficiencies during loading process. In this research, we will focus in yard management and increasing land utilization. To increase the land utilization, we develop the space-sharing concept to reduce the initial space needed for a given workload. Since the ships arrivals are also varying, this concept will be possible. We develop the concept by adding uncertainty on number of incoming containers at operational level as the determining factor in planning a shared yard area. We propose a simulation approach to evaluate strategies in making yard template.

  2. Effect of defect creation and migration on hump characteristics of a-InGaZnO thin film transistors under long-term drain bias stress with light illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yong-Jung; Kim, Woo-Sic; Lee, Yeol-Hyeong; Park, Jeong Ki; Kim, Geon Tae; Kim, Ohyun

    2018-06-01

    We investigated the mechanism of formation of the hump that occurs in the current-voltage I-V characteristics of amorphous InGaZnO (a-IGZO) thin film transistors (TFTs) that are exposed to long-term drain bias stress under illumination. Transfer characteristics showed two-stage degradation under the stress. At the beginning of the stress, the I-V characteristics shifted in the negative direction with a degradation of subthreshold slope, but the hump phenomenon developed over time in the I-V characteristics. The development of the hump was related to creation of defects, especially ionized oxygen vacancies which act as shallow donor-like states near the conduction-band minimum in a-IGZO. To further investigate the hump phenomenon we measured a capacitance-voltage C-V curve and performed two-dimensional device simulation. Stretched-out C-V for the gate-to-drain capacitance and simulated electric field distribution which exhibited large electric field near the drain side of TFT indicated that VO2+ were generated near the drain side of TFT, but the hump was not induced when VO2+ only existed near the drain side. Therefore, the degradation behavior under DBITS occurred because VO2+ were created near the drain side, then were migrated to the source side of the TFT.

  3. Hump behind the shoulders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... High level of the hormone cortisol (caused by Cushing syndrome ) Certain genetic disorders that cause unusual fat accumulation ... and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Cushing's Syndrome Read more Neck Injuries and Disorders Read more ...

  4. Over the Hump

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tunner, William H

    1998-01-01

    This book is a classic in the annals of air power history. William Tunner was a master of airlift operations at a time when the airplane itself was transitioning from the pre-modern into the modern era...

  5. Atlanta Rail Yard Study (ARYS): Evaluation of local-scale air pollution trends and emissions quantification using stationary and mobile monitoring strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intermodal rail yards are important nodes in the freight transportation network, where freight is organized and moved from one mode of transport to another, critical equipment is serviced, and freight is routed to its next destination. Rail yard environments are also areas with ...

  6. 40 CFR 60.3063 - When must I comply if my air curtain incinerator burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... incinerator burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3063 Section 60.3063 Protection of... Units That Commenced Construction On or Before December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3063 When must I comply if my air curtain...

  7. Disease-Causing Fungi in Homes and Yards in the Midwestern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis J. Baumgardner

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A number of fungal pathogens that may result in a variety of human diseases are found in residential homes and yards. The growth of these microscopic fungi is often favored by particular characteristics of the dwelling and nearby outdoor environment. Evolved virulence factors or increased ability of specific fungi to grow in diverse, and sometimes harsh, microenvironments presented by the domestic environment may promote growth and pathogenesis. Infection may occur by inhalation or direct inoculation and include endemic fungi in addition to opportunistic or emerging species. Systemic or locally aggressive fungal infections are particularly likely and may be life-threatening in those with compromised immune systems. Allergic disease may include sinusitis, pneumonitis and immediate hypersensitivity. Controversial topics include mycotoxins, volatile organic compounds and sick building syndrome. This narrative review describes the usual presentations, domestic environmental sources, prevention techniques and risk of acquiring these diseases in the Midwestern United States.

  8. Immobilisation of Cu, Pb and Zn in Scrap Metal Yard Soil Using Selected Waste Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamari, A; Putra, W P; Yusoff, S N M; Ishak, C F; Hashim, N; Mohamed, A; Isa, I M; Bakar, S A

    2015-12-01

    Immobilisation of heavy metals in a 30-year old active scrap metal yard soil using three waste materials, namely coconut tree sawdust (CTS), sugarcane bagasse (SB) and eggshell (ES) was investigated. The contaminated soil was amended with amendments at application rates of 0 %, 1 % and 3 % (w/w). The effects of amendments on metal accumulation in water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) and soil metal bioavailability were studied in a pot experiment. All amendments increased biomass yield and reduced metal accumulation in the plant shoots. The bioconcentration factor and translocation factor values of the metals were in the order of Zn > Cu > Pb. The addition of ES, an alternative source of calcium carbonate (CaCO3), has significantly increased soil pH and resulted in marked reduction in soil metal bioavailability. Therefore, CTS, SB and ES are promising low-cost immobilising agents to restore metal contaminated land.

  9. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 166: Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2009-08-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 166 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as 'Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials' and consists of the following seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 2, 3, 5, and 18 of the Nevada Test Site: CAS 02-42-01, Condo Release Storage Yd - North; CAS 02-42-02, Condo Release Storage Yd - South; CAS 02-99-10, D-38 Storage Area; CAS 03-42-01, Conditional Release Storage Yard; CAS 05-19-02, Contaminated Soil and Drum; CAS 18-01-01, Aboveground Storage Tank; and CAS 18-99-03, Wax Piles/Oil Stain. Closure activities were conducted from March to July 2009 according to the FF ACO (1996, as amended February 2008) and the Corrective Action Plan for CAU 166 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2007b). The corrective action alternatives included No Further Action and Clean Closure. Closure activities are summarized. CAU 166, Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials, consists of seven CASs in Areas 2, 3, 5, and 18 of the NTS. The closure alternatives included No Further Action and Clean Closure. This CR provides a summary of completed closure activities, documentation of waste disposal, and confirmation that remediation goals were met. The following site closure activities were performed at CAU 166 as documented in this CR: (1) At CAS 02-99-10, D-38 Storage Area, approximately 40 gal of lead shot were removed and are currently pending treatment and disposal as MW, and approximately 50 small pieces of DU were removed and disposed as LLW. (2) At CAS 03-42-01, Conditional Release Storage Yard, approximately 7.5 yd{sup 3} of soil impacted with lead and Am-241 were removed and disposed as LLW. As a BMP, approximately 22 ft{sup 3} of asbestos tile were removed from a portable building and disposed as ALLW, approximately 55 gal of oil were drained from accumulators and are currently pending disposal as HW, the portable building was removed and

  10. [Transformation of Cu forms in Cynodon dactylon rhizosphere soil of copper tailings yard].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, You-bao; Huang, Yong-jie; Zhen, Quan; Yan, Mi; Yang, Hong-fei; Liu, Deng-yi

    2007-06-01

    The study on the Cu forms in Cynodon dactylon rhizosphere soil of copper tailings yard in Tongling City, Anhui Province showed that among the test Cu forms, the amount of residual form occupied the majority, while that of exchangeable form was relatively low. Compared with non-rhizosphere soil, rhizosphere soil had a higher organic matter content but a lower pH. With the growth of C. dactylon, the contents of organically combined and exchangeable Cu in rhizosphere soil increased by 7.89% and 5%, respectively, while those of carbonate-combined and Fe-Mn oxides-combined Cu decreased. The growth of C. dactylon accelerated the transformation of Cu forms in rhizosphere soil, and decreased the rhizosphere soil Cu content through its absorption.

  11. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 166: Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 166 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as 'Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials' and consists of the following seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 2, 3, 5, and 18 of the Nevada Test Site: CAS 02-42-01, Condo Release Storage Yd - North; CAS 02-42-02, Condo Release Storage Yd - South; CAS 02-99-10, D-38 Storage Area; CAS 03-42-01, Conditional Release Storage Yard; CAS 05-19-02, Contaminated Soil and Drum; CAS 18-01-01, Aboveground Storage Tank; and CAS 18-99-03, Wax Piles/Oil Stain. Closure activities were conducted from March to July 2009 according to the FF ACO (1996, as amended February 2008) and the Corrective Action Plan for CAU 166 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2007b). The corrective action alternatives included No Further Action and Clean Closure. Closure activities are summarized. CAU 166, Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials, consists of seven CASs in Areas 2, 3, 5, and 18 of the NTS. The closure alternatives included No Further Action and Clean Closure. This CR provides a summary of completed closure activities, documentation of waste disposal, and confirmation that remediation goals were met. The following site closure activities were performed at CAU 166 as documented in this CR: (1) At CAS 02-99-10, D-38 Storage Area, approximately 40 gal of lead shot were removed and are currently pending treatment and disposal as MW, and approximately 50 small pieces of DU were removed and disposed as LLW. (2) At CAS 03-42-01, Conditional Release Storage Yard, approximately 7.5 yd 3 of soil impacted with lead and Am-241 were removed and disposed as LLW. As a BMP, approximately 22 ft 3 of asbestos tile were removed from a portable building and disposed as ALLW, approximately 55 gal of oil were drained from accumulators and are currently pending disposal as HW, the portable building was removed and disposed as LLW, and

  12. Multi-hump potentials for efficient wave absorption in the numerical solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silaev, A. A.; Romanov, A. A.; Vvedenskii, N. V.

    2018-03-01

    In the numerical solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation by grid methods, an important problem is the reflection and wrap-around of the wave packets at the grid boundaries. Non-optimal absorption of the wave function leads to possible large artifacts in the results of numerical simulations. We propose a new method for the construction of the complex absorbing potentials for wave suppression at the grid boundaries. The method is based on the use of the multi-hump imaginary potential which contains a sequence of smooth and symmetric humps whose widths and amplitudes are optimized for wave absorption in different spectral intervals. We show that this can ensure a high efficiency of absorption in a wide range of de Broglie wavelengths, which includes wavelengths comparable to the width of the absorbing layer. Therefore, this method can be used for high-precision simulations of various phenomena where strong spreading of the wave function takes place, including the phenomena accompanying the interaction of strong fields with atoms and molecules. The efficiency of the proposed method is demonstrated in the calculation of the spectrum of high-order harmonics generated during the interaction of hydrogen atoms with an intense infrared laser pulse.

  13. Interplay of superconductivity and bosonic coupling in the peak-dip-hump structure of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 +δ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Tristan L.; Zhang, Wentao; Ma, Jonathan; Eisaki, Hiroshi; Moore, Joel E.; Lanzara, Alessandra

    2018-04-01

    Because of the important role of electron-boson interactions in conventional superconductivity, it has long been asked whether any similar mechanism is at play in high-temperature cuprate superconductors. Evidence for strong electron-boson coupling is observed in cuprates with angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES), in the form of a dispersion kink and peak-dip-hump structure. What is missing is evidence of a causal relation to superconductivity. Here we revisit the problem using the technique of time-resolved ARPES on Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 +δ . We focus on the peak-dip-hump structure, and show that laser pulses shift spectral weight into the dip as superconductivity is destroyed on picosecond time scales. We compare our results to simulations of Eliashberg theory in a superconductor with an Einstein boson, and find that the magnitude of the shift in spectral weight depends on the degree to which the bosonic mode contributes to superconductivity. Further study could address one of the longstanding mysteries of high-temperature superconductivity.

  14. Bee Fauna and Floral Abundance Within Lawn-Dominated Suburban Yards in Springfield, MA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerman, S B; Milam, J

    2016-09-01

    Private yards comprise a significant component of urban lands, with managed lawns representing the dominant land cover. Lawns blanket > 163,000 km 2 of the United States, and 50% of urban and suburban areas. When not treated with herbicides, lawns have the capacity to support a diversity of spontaneous (e.g., not planted) flowers, with the potential to provide nectar and pollen resources for pollinators such as native bees. In order to determine the extent to which suburban lawns support these important species, we surveyed lawns in 17 suburban yards in Springfield, MA, between May and September 2013 and 2014. Householders participating in the study did not apply chemical pesticides or herbicides to lawns for the duration of the study. We collected 5,331 individual bees, representing 111 species, and 29% of bee species reported for the state. The majority of species were native to North America (94.6%), nested in soil (73%), and solitary (48.6%). Species richness was lower for oligolectic (specialists on a single plant; 9.9%) and parasitic species (12.6%). Abundance percentages for number of individuals were similar. We documented 63 plant species in the lawns, the majority of which were not intentionally planted. The most abundant lawn flowers were dandelion ( Taraxacum officinale ) and clover ( Trifolium sp. ). Nearly 30% of the spontaneous plant species growing in the lawns were native to North America. Our study suggests that the spontaneous lawn flowers could be viewed as supplemental floral resources and support pollinators, thereby enhancing the value of urban green spaces.

  15. Anaerobic digestion and gasification hybrid system for potential energy recovery from yard waste and woody biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Zhiyi; Li, Wangliang; Kan, Xiang; Dai, Yanjun; Tong, Yen Wah; Wang, Chi-Hwa

    2017-01-01

    There is a rapid growing interest in using biomass as an alternative source for clean and sustainable energy production. In this work, a hybrid system was developed to combine anaerobic digestion (AD) and gasification for energy recovery from yard waste and woody biomass. The feasibility of the proposed hybrid system was validated experimentally and numerically and the energy efficiency was maximized by varying energy input in the drying process. The experiments were performed in two stages. At the first stage, AD of yard waste was conducted by mixing with anaerobic sludge. At the second stage, co-gasification was added as post-treatment for the AD residue for syngas production. The co-gasification experiments of AD residue and woody biomass were conducted at varying mixing ratios and varying moisture contents of AD residue. Optimal energy efficiency was found to be 70.8% at mixing ratio of 20 wt% AD residue with 30 wt% moisture content. Two kinetic models were then adapted for prediction of biogas produced in AD process and syngas produced in gasification process, respectively. Both experimental and numerical results showed that full utilization of biomass could be realized to produce energy through the combination of these two technologies. - Highlights: • The feasibility of the proposed two-stage hybrid system was validated experimentally and numerically. • The proposed hybrid system could effectively improve the quality of produced gas. • The operating parameters were optimized to improve the overall energy efficiency of the system. • Drying process was found to play an important role in determining overall energy efficiency. • Optimal moisture content of AD residue was investigated for maximizing energy efficiency.

  16. Optimizing the Steel Plate Storage Yard Crane Scheduling Problem Using a Two Stage Planning/Scheduling Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Dohn; Clausen, Jens

    This paper presents the Steel Plate Storage Yard Crane Scheduling Problem. The task is to generate a schedule for two gantry cranes sharing tracks. The schedule must comply with a number of constraints and at the same time be cost efficient. We propose some ideas for a two stage planning...

  17. 78 FR 36545 - Notice of Ability To Pay-Cash-out Settlement Agreement for the Jefferson City Residential Yards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-18

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9824-4] Notice of Ability To Pay--Cash-out Settlement... payment of certain response costs incurred at the Jefferson City Residential Yards Site in Jefferson City... portion of the past costs expended at the Site. Payment shall be made in 35 installments of $2,500 per...

  18. MINE WASTE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM; PHOSPHATE STABILIZATION OF HEAVY METALS CONTAMINATED MINE WASTE YARD SOILS, JOPLIN, MISSOURI NPL SITE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document summarizes the results of Mine Waste Technology Project 22-Phosphate Stabilization of Heavy Metals-Contaminated Mine Waste Yard Soils. Mining, milling, and smelting of ores near Joplin, Missouri, have resulted in heavy metal contamination of the area. The Joplin s...

  19. To mow or to mow less: Lawn mowing frequency affects bee abundance and diversity in suburban yards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susannah B. Lerman; Alexandra R. Contosta; Joan Milam; Christofer Bang

    2018-01-01

    Green spaces embedded within the urban matrix, particularly residential yards, could mitigate negative aspects of urban development and provide pollinator habitat. Lawns represent a dominant green space, and their management consists of frequent mowing to inhibit the growth of ostensibly “weedy” species (e.g., dandelions and clover). Since widespread population...

  20. A branch-and-price algorithm to solve the integrated berth allocation and yard assignment problem in bulk ports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robenek, Tomáš; Umang, Nitish; Bierlaire, Michel

    2014-01-01

    In this research, two crucial optimization problems of berth allocation and yard assignment in the context of bulk ports are studied. We discuss how these problems are interrelated and can be combined and solved as a single large scale optimization problem. More importantly we highlight the diffe...

  1. Biochemical methane potential, biodegradability, alkali treatment and influence of chemical composition on methane yield of yard wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunaseelan, Victor Nallathambi

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the biochemical CH4 potential, rate, biodegradability, NaOH treatment and the influence of chemical composition on CH4 yield of yard wastes generated from seven trees were examined. All the plant parts were sampled for their chemical composition and subjected to the biochemical CH4 potential assay. The component parts exhibited significant variation in biochemical CH4 potential, which was reflected in their ultimate CH4 yields that ranged from 109 to 382 ml g(-1) volatile solids added and their rate constants that ranged from 0.042 to 0.173 d(-1). The biodegradability of the yard wastes ranged from 0.26 to 0.86. Variation in the biochemical CH4 potential of the yard wastes could be attributed to variation in the chemical composition of the different fractions. In the Thespesia yellow withered leaf, Tamarindus fruit pericarp and Albizia pod husk, NaOH treatment enhanced the ultimate CH4 yields by 17%, 77% and 63%, respectively, and biodegradability by 15%, 77% and 61%, respectively, compared with the untreated samples. The effectiveness of NaOH treatment varied for different yard wastes, depending on the amounts of acid detergent fibre content. Gliricidia petals, Prosopis leaf, inflorescence and immature pod, Tamarindus seeds, Albizia seeds, Cassia seeds and Delonix seeds exhibited CH4 yields higher than 300 ml g(-1) volatile solids added. Multiple linear regression models for predicting the ultimate CH4 yield and biodegradability of yard wastes were designed from the results of this work. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. A Novel Protocol to Assess Acclimation Rate in Bos taurus Heifers during Yard Weaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica E. Monk

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The speed with which animals acclimate to a new environment could be an important measure of ability to cope with management induced stress. This study developed a measure of acclimation rate in a group of 50 Bos taurus heifers during yard weaning over nine days. We recorded the time and order in which heifers moved through a novel funnel structure into a feeding yard daily. We hypothesised that addition of an obstacle at the entrance would increase the time it took heifers to move through the funnel, but that they would acclimate to the obstacle over a three-day period. The change in latency to move through could then be used as a measure of acclimation rate. We hypothesised that individuals which acclimated to obstacles at a faster rate might display favourable temperament as assessed by flight time. All heifers took longer to move through the funnel after a novel object was introduced, then latency decreased over the following two days while the object was present. This indicates the protocol could be useful for measuring acclimation rate at a group level. Individual acclimation rate variables, measured as change in times and orders of heifers between test days, did not appear to have any consistent relationships with flight time or weight change during or post-weaning (p > 0.05. We concluded that the protocol was inappropriate for assessing acclimation rate at an individual level, due to social effects while testing heifers as a group. Heifers which were consistently one of the first 20 to move through the funnel had a significantly greater average weight 5 and 10 months post-weaning (345 ± 9 kg and 518 ± 10 kg respectively than heifers which were consistently one of the last 20 through the funnel (311 ± 8 kg and 484 ± 8 kg respectively; p < 0.001. This may indicate order of movement through the funnel was related to feeding motivation or another aspect of temperament not reflected by flight time.

  3. Study of the Variability of the Reflection Component in Seyfert 1 Galaxies: Connecting the Fe K Variability with the Compton Hump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponti, G.; Miniutti, G.; Malaguti, G.; Gallo, L.; Goldwurm, A.

    2009-05-01

    We present preliminary results of an ongoing project devoted to the study of the continuum and Fe K band variability in a sample of bright AGNs. These kind of studies may break the spectral degeneracy between the different absorption/emission models, allowing ``safe'' measurements of the disc and black hole properties from the broad line shapes. In fact, the Fe K band, alone, allows a first separation between the different components. Here we show the case of NGC 3783 which shows both a constant and a variable reflection component as well as strong ionized absorption. We show that a fundamental contribution will be given by Simbol-X that will allow to simultaneously measure not only the Fe K variability, but also the connected reflection hump variations.

  4. Distribution, enrichment and accumulation of heavy metals in coastal sediments of Alang-Sosiya ship scrapping yard, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, M Srinivasa; Basha, Shaik; Sravan Kumar, V G; Joshi, H V; Ramachandraiah, G

    2004-06-01

    Since its inception in 1982, the Alang-Sosiya yard has become the largest ship scrapping works in the world. Several hundreds of ships arrive every year. The degree of heavy metal contamination has been studied in bulk and fine sediments from the intertidal zone of this ship scrapping yard, two stations, one on either side at 5 km distance and one reference station 60 km distance near Mahuva, towards the south. The samples have been subjected to a total digestion technique and analysed for elements: Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn and Al, and %TOC. The absolute metal concentrations reflected variations in BF and FF sediment samples with organic matter content. Enrichment factors (EF) and geoaccumulation indices (Igeo) have been calculated and the relative contamination levels are assessed at these sites. At Alang-Sosiya, the enrichment of heavy metals has been observed to be relatively high.

  5. Analysis of Container Yard Capacity In North TPK Using ARIMA Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirajuddin; Cut Gebrina Hisbach, M.; Ekawati, Ratna; Ade Irman, SM

    2018-03-01

    North container terminal known as North TPK is container terminal located in Indonesia Port Corporation area serving domestic container loading and unloading. It has 1006 ground slots with a total capacity of 5,544 TEUs and the maximum throughput of containers is 539,616 TEUs / year. Container throughput in the North TPK is increasing year by year. In 2011-2012, the North TPK container throughput is 165,080 TEUs / year and in 2015-2016 has reached 213,147 TEUs / year. To avoid congestion, and prevent possible losses in the future, this paper will analyze the flow of containers and the level of Yard Occupation Ratio in the North TPK at Tanjung Priok Port. The method used is the Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) Model. ARIMA is a model that completely ignores independent variables in making forecasting. ARIMA results show that in 2016-2017 the total throughput of containers reached 234,006 TEUs / year with field effectiveness of 43.4% and in 2017-2018 the total throughput of containers reached 249,417 TEUs / year with field effectiveness 46.2%.

  6. Ozone for removal of acute toxicity from wood yard run-off

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zenaitis, G.; Duff, S.J.B. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2001-06-01

    Environmental regulators are increasingly concerned about stormwater run-off from wood handling facilities. The authors discussed the use of ozone in the development of treatment methods to deal with toxic run-off from wood yard and dryland sorts. Two sawmills were selected, one located on the north coast of British Columbia (mill A), while mill B was located on Vancouver Island. Balsam fir, western hemlock, Sitka spruce,and western red cedar were processed at mill A, while mill B processed a wide range of species, where it is not unusual to undergo a complete change in a 24-hour period. Water samples from the run-off were obtained at the two mills, which were then kept in 20-L plastic containers stored in the dark at 4 Celsius upon receipt. Ozone was used to treat the centrifuged samples in a lab-scale reactor. Results indicated an 80-90 per cent reduction in toxicity through ozonation, a 90-95 per cent reduction for tannin and lignin (TL), and a 95-100 per cent reduction in dehydroabietic acid (DHA). Neutral solutions tended to improve slightly the toxicity and DHA removal when compared to acidic solutions. The influence of mass transfer effects, the influence of non-toxic dissolved organics, and the potential gains through the use of catalysts are still being investigated. 25 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  7. Phytostabilization Potential of Yard long bean in Removing Cadmium from Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deivanai S.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of cadmium (Cd on growth, physiology, distribution and tolerance was examined in root, shoot and leaves of yard-long bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis L.. The seeds were grown in pot culture under laboratory conditions for 60 days in Ferriera and Davis nutrient solution with three different concentrations (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mM of cadmium. Cd toxicity was evident from chlorosis in young leaves and increased concentrations of Cd brought significant negative effects on plant growth, photosynthetic rate and protein biosynthesis. Translocation of Cd was found to be more in roots than the above ground parts and the accumulation was in the order of root > shoot > leaf. Low root to shoot translocation of Cd makes the crop ideal for phytostabilization. Relatively high metal tolerance index obtained in the study indicated that the crop has greater tolerance to increase Cd exposure, though accumulation of Cd had altered thickness of root and root biomass. Owing to the crop’s adaptability to high temperature, drought conditions and ability to retain Cd in roots makes it a promising candidate for phytostabilization of soil contaminated by Cd.

  8. Glazed yard climate in the Kredittkassen office block in Middelthunsgt. 17. [Oslo, Norway]. Glassgaardsklima i Kredittkassens kontorbygg i Middelthunsgt. 17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novakovic, V; Harsem, T T

    1986-09-01

    The report deals with the glazed yard climate in the Kredittkassen head office block in Oslo (Norway). The climate has been simulated by means of the computer program Royal-DEBAK. Considered in particular are the summery and bright sunny day conditions together with the annual power required and energy consumption. The use of insulating glasses, indoor curtains, ventilation systems in the narrow zone of the glass roof, and cooling systems in the floor are important parts of the concept. 9 drawings.

  9. Requirement of a Ship Breaking Yard at the Arvand Free Zone Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homayoun Yousefi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the author is going to investigate the concept of ship recycling which implies to the materials and equipment including end of ships life. The scraped steel is melted down and is commonly used in the construction industries of ship recycling countries, and some equipment might be re-used in other industries too. A segment of this paper is dedicated to describe about the strategic position of Arvand River and the location of Arvand Free Zone area at the Persian Gulf. It should be noted that ship recycling commonly takes place in developing countries which tend to have a competitive advantage due to the low cost labor, may have weaker environmental protection / worker health and safety regulations, and have national demand for the outputs of the activity. The International Maritime Organization (IMO adopted the Hong Kong International Convention related to the safety and environmental sound recycling of ships to address the growing about the environment, job health and safety risks related to ship recycling. A part of this paper dedicated to review the role of the Hong Kong Convention in order to ensure the process of ship recycling without risks to human health and to the environment. The main part of this paper is designated to evaluate the role of establishment of a ship scraping yard at the Arvand Free Zone Area, its market at the Persian Gulf and improving the safety of navigation at the Arvand River. The research methodology of this paper will be designated to consider the qualitative part of this research by using interview with the experts in order to find out and select the key factors for further consideration; as a result of that a model will be created which can be tested by a questioner. In addition to the above explanation, relationship between the variables and testing hypothesizes of this research will be analyzed by using SPSS and Lisrel software as quantitative part of this research.

  10. Batangas Heavy Fabrication Yard Multi-Purpose Cooperative: Basis for Business Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JENNIFER D. MASICAT

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to determine the proposed business initiatives to enhance the operation of Batangas Heavy Fabrication Yard Multi-Purpose Cooperative for the long survival and growth. More specifically, it shall answer the following objectives to describe the profile of the respondents in terms of their age, gender, type of membership and shared capital; to assess the business operation of the cooperative in the aspects of its management, marketing, finances, facilities and technology and their delivery of services; to identify the problems encountered by the cooperative in its business operation; to determine the significant relationship between the profile of the respondents and their assessment to its business operation; and to propose an action plan and to assess the business operation of BHFY Multi-Purpose Cooperative. The researcher used the descriptive correlation design in the study to obtain information concerning the current status of the BHFY-MPC cooperative; to describe what exists with respect to the variables or conditions in a situation. Based on the result, majority of the members are aged 51 to 55 years old, holding the regular type of membership and have a shared capital ranging from 51,001 to 100,000.The finding of the study states that the BHFY Multi-purpose cooperative performs well in terms of its management, marketing, finances, facilities and technology and delivery of services. Also, there are problems seldom encountered in the operation of the cooperative but the cooperative never encountered problems like overinvestment, ineffective leadership of management team and board of directors, inadequate source of fund, income of cooperative affected by negative issues and mismanagement of funds by the officers. Also, the type of membership influences the members’ assessment on the type of delivery of services; moreover, age contributes to the assessment of the business operation in terms of management and delivery of

  11. Global Trade, Local Impacts: Lessons from California on Health Impacts and Environmental Justice Concerns for Residents Living near Freight Rail Yards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hricko, Andrea; Rowland, Glovioell; Eckel, Sandrah; Logan, Angelo; Taher, Maryam; Wilson, John

    2014-01-01

    Global trade has increased nearly 100-fold since 1950, according to the World Trade Organization. Today, major changes in trade are occurring with the advent of mega-ships that can transport thousands more containers than cargo ships now in use. Because global trade is expected to increase dramatically, the railroad industry—in the U.S. alone—has invested more than $5 billion a year over the past decade to expand rail yards and enhance rail routes to transport goods from ports to retail destinations. This article describes cancer risks for residents living in close proximity to rail yards with emissions of diesel particulate matter pollution from locomotives, trucks and yard equipment. The article examines the demographics (income, race/ethnicity) of populations living in the highest estimated cancer risk zones near 18 major rail yards in California, concluding that the majority are over-represented by either lower-income or minority residents (or both). The authors also describe a review of the news media and environmental impact reports to determine if rail yards are still being constructed or expanded in close proximity to homes and schools or in working class/working poor communities of color. The paper suggests policy efforts that might provide more public health protection and result in more “environmentally just” siting of rail yards. The authors conclude that diesel pollution from rail yards, which creates significant diesel cancer risks for those living near the facilities, is an often overlooked public health, health disparities and environmental justice issue in the U.S. The conclusions are relevant to other countries where international trade is increasing and large new intermodal rail facilities are being considered. PMID:24518649

  12. A novel approach to estimating potential maximum heavy metal exposure to ship recycling yard workers in Alang, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshpande, Paritosh C.; Tilwankar, Atit K.; Asolekar, Shyam R., E-mail: asolekar@iitb.ac.in

    2012-11-01

    The 180 ship recycling yards located on Alang-Sosiya beach in the State of Gujarat on the west coast of India is the world's largest cluster engaged in dismantling. Yearly 350 ships have been dismantled (avg. 10,000 ton steel/ship) with the involvement of about 60,000 workers. Cutting and scrapping of plates or scraping of painted metal surfaces happens to be the commonly performed operation during ship breaking. The pollutants released from a typical plate-cutting operation can potentially either affect workers directly by contaminating the breathing zone (air pollution) or can potentially add pollution load into the intertidal zone and contaminate sediments when pollutants get emitted in the secondary working zone and gets subjected to tidal forces. There was a two-pronged purpose behind the mathematical modeling exercise performed in this study. First, to estimate the zone of influence up to which the effect of plume would extend. Second, to estimate the cumulative maximum concentration of heavy metals that can potentially occur in ambient atmosphere of a given yard. The cumulative maximum heavy metal concentration was predicted by the model to be between 113 {mu}g/Nm{sup 3} and 428 {mu}g/Nm{sup 3} (at 4 m/s and 1 m/s near-ground wind speeds, respectively). For example, centerline concentrations of lead (Pb) in the yard could be placed between 8 and 30 {mu}g/Nm{sup 3}. These estimates are much higher than the Indian National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Pb (0.5 {mu}g/Nm{sup 3}). This research has already become the critical science and technology inputs for formulation of policies for eco-friendly dismantling of ships, formulation of ideal procedure and corresponding health, safety, and environment provisions. The insights obtained from this research are also being used in developing appropriate technologies for minimizing exposure to workers and minimizing possibilities of causing heavy metal pollution in the intertidal zone of ship recycling

  13. Description of the small plastics fragments in marine sediments along the Alang-Sosiya ship-breaking yard, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasa Reddy, M.; Basha, Shaik; Adimurthy, S.; Ramachandraiah, G.

    2006-07-01

    This study aimed to assess the accumulation of small plastic debris in the intertidal sediments of the world's largest ship-breaking yard at Alang-Sosiya, India. Small plastics fragments were collected by flotation and separated according to their basic polymer type under a microscope, and subsequently identified by FT-IR spectroscopy as polyurethane, nylon, polystyrene, polyester and glass wool. The morphology of these materials was also studied using a scanning electron microscope. Overall, there were on average 81 mg of small plastics fragments per kg of sediment. The described plastic fragments are believed to have resulted directly from the ship-breaking activities at the site.

  14. A novel approach to estimating potential maximum heavy metal exposure to ship recycling yard workers in Alang, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshpande, Paritosh C.; Tilwankar, Atit K.; Asolekar, Shyam R.

    2012-01-01

    The 180 ship recycling yards located on Alang–Sosiya beach in the State of Gujarat on the west coast of India is the world's largest cluster engaged in dismantling. Yearly 350 ships have been dismantled (avg. 10,000 ton steel/ship) with the involvement of about 60,000 workers. Cutting and scrapping of plates or scraping of painted metal surfaces happens to be the commonly performed operation during ship breaking. The pollutants released from a typical plate-cutting operation can potentially either affect workers directly by contaminating the breathing zone (air pollution) or can potentially add pollution load into the intertidal zone and contaminate sediments when pollutants get emitted in the secondary working zone and gets subjected to tidal forces. There was a two-pronged purpose behind the mathematical modeling exercise performed in this study. First, to estimate the zone of influence up to which the effect of plume would extend. Second, to estimate the cumulative maximum concentration of heavy metals that can potentially occur in ambient atmosphere of a given yard. The cumulative maximum heavy metal concentration was predicted by the model to be between 113 μg/Nm 3 and 428 μg/Nm 3 (at 4 m/s and 1 m/s near-ground wind speeds, respectively). For example, centerline concentrations of lead (Pb) in the yard could be placed between 8 and 30 μg/Nm 3 . These estimates are much higher than the Indian National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Pb (0.5 μg/Nm 3 ). This research has already become the critical science and technology inputs for formulation of policies for eco-friendly dismantling of ships, formulation of ideal procedure and corresponding health, safety, and environment provisions. The insights obtained from this research are also being used in developing appropriate technologies for minimizing exposure to workers and minimizing possibilities of causing heavy metal pollution in the intertidal zone of ship recycling yards in India. -- Highlights

  15. 76 FR 5586 - California State Motor Vehicle and Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Mobile Cargo...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ... requirements are designed to use best available control technologies to reduce public exposure to emissions of...-use yard trucks to meet BACT performance standards primarily through accelerated turnover of older...

  16. Enrichment of antibiotic resistance genes in soil receiving composts derived from swine manure, yard wastes, or food wastes, and evidence for multiyear persistence of swine Clostridium spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Andrew; Tien, Yuan-Ching; Drury, Craig F; Reynolds, W Daniel; Topp, Edward

    2018-03-01

    The impact of amendment with swine manure compost (SMC), yard waste compost (YWC), or food waste compost (FWC) on the abundance of antibiotic resistance genes in soil was evaluated. Following a commercial-scale application of the composts in a field experiment, soils were sampled periodically for a decade, and archived air-dried. Soil DNA was extracted and gene targets quantified by qPCR. Compared with untreated control soil, all 3 amendment types increased the abundance of gene targets for up to 4 years postapplication. The abundance of several gene targets was much higher in soil amended with SMC than in soil receiving either YWC or FWC. The gene target ermB remained higher in the SMC treatment for a decade postapplication. Clostridia were significantly more abundant in the SMC-amended soil throughout the decade following application. Eight percent of Clostridium spp. isolates from the SMC treatment carried ermB. Overall, addition of organic amendments to soils has the potential to increase the abundance of antibiotic resistance genes. Amendments of fecal origin, such as SMC, will in addition entrain bacteria carrying antibiotic resistance genes. Environmentally recalcitrant clostridia, and the antibiotic resistance genes that they carry, will persist for many years under field conditions following the application of SMC.

  17. Iron K and Compton hump reverberation in SWIFT J2127.4+5654 and NGC 1365 revealed by NuSTAR and XMM–Newton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kara, E.; Zoghbi, A.; Marinucci, A.

    2015-01-01

    In the past five years, a flurry of X-ray reverberation lag measurements of accreting supermassive black holes have been made using the XMM–Newton telescope in the 0.3–10 keV energy range. In this work, we use the NuSTAR (Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array) telescope to extend the lag analysis...... up to higher energies for two Seyfert galaxies, SWIFT J2127.4+5654 and NGC 1365. X-ray reverberation lags are due to the light travel time delays between the direct continuum emission and the reprocessed emission from the inner radii of an ionized accretion disc. XMM–Newton has been particularly...... evidence for Compton reflection, known as the Compton ‘hump’. The XMM–Newton data show Fe K lags in both SWIFT J2127.4+5654 and NGC 1365. The NuSTAR data provide independent confirmation of these Fe K lags, and also show evidence for the corresponding Compton hump lags, especially in SWIFT J2127...

  18. Turbulence growth and its dependency of wake vortices on excitation frequency by local body-force around two-dimensional hump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakeno, Aiko; Abe, Yoshiaki; Nonomura, Taku; Kawai, Soshi; Fujii, Kozo

    2017-11-01

    We investigated details of wake vortex dynamics to cause turbulence increase and early flow-reattachment under excitation forcing by a plasma actuator setting around a 2D hump numerically. The local body-force was homogeneous in the spanwise direction and bursting temporally. That actuation generates two-dimensional roll vortices and other turbulence motions such like three-dimensional rib structure in downstream. These dynamics depended on the excitation frequency. We tried to discuss multi-scaled vortices separately with considering the temporal phaseaveraged statistics of the excitation frequency and others, those are related to roll vortices and others with rib structure between rolls. It was found that the maximum value of non-periodic fluctuation in downstream correlated with flow-reattachment performance more than that of periodic fluctuation of roll vortices. The amplitude becomes large around separation position in early reattachment cases. The spacial growth rates of peak values in the wall-normal direction are same for high frequency cases, K-H instability modes, however not true for low frequency cases. In high frequency cases, amplitude in the early state of separation plays a significant rule to increase it in downstream. Strategic Programs for Innovative Research of the High Performance Computing Initiative (No. hp120296,hp130001,hp140207, hp150219) Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research(B) (No. 15K21677) by the MEXT.

  19. Ascaris and hookworm transmission in preschool children from rural Panama: role of yard environment, soil eggs/larvae and hygiene and play behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Rachel J; Koski, Kristine G; Pons, Emérita; Sandoval, Nidia; Sinisterra, Odalis; Scott, Marilyn E

    2015-10-01

    This study explored whether the yard environment and child hygiene and play behaviours were associated with presence and intensity of Ascaris and hookworm in preschool children and with eggs and larvae in soil. Data were collected using questionnaires, a visual survey of the yard, soil samples and fecal samples collected at baseline and following re-infection. The presence of eggs/larvae in soil was associated negatively with water storage (eggs) but positively with dogs (eggs) and distance from home to latrine (larvae). Baseline and re-infection prevalences were: hookworm (28.0%, 3.4%); Ascaris (16.9%, 9.5%); Trichuris (0.9%, 0.7%). Zero-inflated negative binomial regression models revealed a higher baseline hookworm infection if yards had eggs or larvae, more vegetation or garbage, and if the child played with soil. Baseline Ascaris was associated with dirt floor, dogs, exposed soil in yard, open defecation and with less time playing outdoors, whereas Ascaris re-infection was associated with water storage, vegetation cover and garbage near the home and not playing with animals. Our results show complex interactions between infection, the yard environment and child behaviours, and indicate that transmission would be reduced if latrines were closer to the home, and if open defecation and water spillage were reduced.

  20. Genome wide analysis of the evolution of Senecavirus A from swine clinical material and assembly yard environmental samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanhong Xu

    Full Text Available Senecavirus A (SVA, previously known as Seneca Valley virus, was first isolated in the United States in 2002. SVA was associated with porcine idiopathic vesicular disease in Canada and the USA in 2007 and 2012, respectively. Recent increase in SVA outbreaks resulting in neonatal mortality of piglets and/or vesicular lesions in sows in Brazil, the USA and Canada point to the necessity to study the pathogenicity and molecular epidemiology of the virus. Here, we report the analysis of the complete coding sequences of SVA from 2 clinical cases and 9 assembly yard environmental samples collected in 2015 in Canada, along with 22 previously released complete genomes in the GenBank. With this combined data set, the evolution of the SVA over a 12-month period in 2015/2016 was evaluated. These SVA isolates were characterized by a rapid accumulation of genetic variations driven mainly by a high nucleotide substitution rate and purifying selection. The SVA sequences clustered in clearly defined geographical areas with reported cases of SVA infection. No transmission links were identified between assembly yards, suggesting that point source introductions may have occurred. In addition, 25 fixed non-synonymous mutations were identified across all analyzed strains when compared to the prototype SVA strain (SVV-001. This study highlights the importance of monitoring SVA mutations for their role in increased virulence and impact on SVA diagnostics.

  1. Understanding the Importance of Front Yard Accessibility for Community Building: A Case Study of Subiaco, Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Yousuf Swapan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The residential built form, including open space, provides the physical environment for social interaction. Understanding urban open space, including semi-public and public domains, through the lens of physical accessibility and visual permeability can potentially facilitate the building of a sense of community contributing to a better quality of life. Using an inner-city suburb in Perth, Western Australia as a case study, this research explores the importance of physical accessibility patterns and visual permeability for socialising in semi-public and public domains, such as the front yard and the residential streets. It argues that maintaining a balance between public and private inter-relationship in inner city residential neighbourhoods is important for creating and maintaining a sense of community.

  2. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 481: Area 12 T-Tunnel Conditional Release Storage Yard, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 481 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as Area 12 T-Tunnel Conditional Release Storage Yard. CAU 481 is located in Area 12 of the Nevada Test Site, which is approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. This CAU consists of one Corrective Action Site (CAS), CAS 12-42-05, Housekeeping Waste. CAU 481 closure activities were conducted by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency from August 2007 through July 2008 according to the FFACO and Revision 3 of the Sectored Clean-up Work Plan for Housekeeping Category Waste Sites. Closure activities included removal and disposal of construction debris and low-level waste. Drained fluids, steel, and lead was recycled as appropriate. Waste generated during closure activities was appropriately managed and disposed.

  3. Effect of Resistance Tube Exercises on Kicking Accuracy, Vertical Jump and 40-Yard Technical Test in Competitive Football Players – An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirumala Alekhya

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Kicking, jumping and agility are important skills in football. These activities require adequate lower limb strength, which can be enhanced with resistance training. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of resistance tube exercises on kicking accuracy, vertical jump performance and 40-yard technical test results in competitive football players. Methods. The study involved 23 competitive football players (11 males, 12 females aged from 18-20 years recruited from three different universities in Belgaum, Karnataka, India. Back heel kick accuracy, vertical jump height and 40-yard technical test time were evaluated before and after a 2-week resistance tube exercise program. Results. Significant improvements in post-intervention kicking accuracy were found when males and females were treated as a single group (p = 0.01. Vertical jump height also showed a highly significant post-intervention improvement in the males and for the combined group of males and females (p = 0.001. The 40-yard technical test values significantly improved in the females and in the combined results for males and females (p = 0.001. Conclusions. The two-week resistance tube exercise program was found to have an effect on kicking accuracy, vertical jump height and 40-yard technical test performance in competitive football players. Resistance tube exercises can thus be included as a component of a regular strength training program for such athletes.

  4. 1978 Insect Pest Management Guide: Home, Yard, and Garden. Circular 900.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This publication lists certain insecticides to control insect pests of food, fabrics, structures, man and animals, lawns, shrubs, trees, flowers and vegetables. Suggestions are given for selection, dosage and application of insecticides to combat infestation. (CS)

  5. Response of bacterial community structure to seasonal fluctuation and anthropogenic pollution on coastal water of Alang-Sosiya ship breaking yard, Bhavnagar, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vilas; Munot, Hitendra; Shouche, Yogesh S; Madamwar, Datta

    2014-06-01

    Bacterial community structure was analyzed from coastal water of Alang-Sosiya ship breaking yard (ASSBY), world's largest ship breaking yard, near Bhavnagar, using 16S rRNA gene sequencing (cultured dependent and culture independent). In clone libraries, total 2324 clones were retrieved from seven samples (coastal water of ASSBY for three seasons along with one pristine coastal water) which were grouped in 525 operational taxonomic units. Proteobacteria was found to be dominant in all samples. In pristine samples, Gammaproteobacteria was found to be dominant, whereas in polluted samples dominancy of Gammaproteobacteria has shifted to Betaproteobacteria and Epsilonproteobacteria. Richness and diversity indices also indicated that bacterial community in pristine sample was the most diverse followed by summer, monsoon and winter samples. To the best of knowledge, this is the first study describing bacterial community structure from coastal water of ASSBY, and it suggests that seasonal fluctuation and anthropogenic pollutions alters the bacterial community structure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Naphthalene degradation by bacterial consortium (DV-AL) developed from Alang-Sosiya ship breaking yard, Gujarat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vilas; Jain, Siddharth; Madamwar, Datta

    2012-03-01

    Naphthalene degrading bacterial consortium (DV-AL) was developed by enrichment culture technique from sediment collected from the Alang-Sosiya ship breaking yard, Gujarat, India. The 16S rRNA gene based molecular analyzes revealed that the bacterial consortium (DV-AL) consisted of four strains namely, Achromobacter sp. BAB239, Pseudomonas sp. DV-AL2, Enterobacter sp. BAB240 and Pseudomonas sp. BAB241. Consortium DV-AL was able to degrade 1000 ppm of naphthalene in Bushnell Haas medium (BHM) containing peptone (0.1%) as co-substrate with an initial pH of 8.0 at 37°C under shaking conditions (150 rpm) within 24h. Maximum growth rate and naphthalene degradation rate were found to be 0.0389 h(-1) and 80 mg h(-1), respectively. Consortium DV-AL was able to utilize other aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons such as benzene, phenol, carbazole, petroleum oil, diesel fuel, and phenanthrene and 2-methyl naphthalene as sole carbon source. Consortium DV-AL was also efficient to degrade naphthalene in the presence of other pollutants such as petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Taxonomic profiling of bacterial community structure from coastal sediment of Alang-Sosiya shipbreaking yard near Bhavnagar, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vilas; Munot, Hitendra; Shah, Varun; Shouche, Yogesh S; Madamwar, Datta

    2015-12-30

    The Alang-Sosiya shipbreaking yard (ASSBY) is considered the largest of its kind in the world, and a major source of anthropogenic pollutants. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of shipbreaking activities on the bacterial community structure with a combination of culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches. In the culture-dependent approach, 200 bacterial cultures were isolated and analyzed by molecular fingerprinting and 16S ribosomal RNA (r-RNA) gene sequencing, as well as being studied for degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In the culture-independent approach, operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were related to eight major phyla, of which Betaproteobacteria (especially Acidovorax) was predominantly found in the polluted sediments of ASSBY and Gammaproteobacteria in the pristine sediment sample. The statistical approaches showed a significant difference in the bacterial community structure between the pristine and polluted sediments. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study investigating the effect of shipbreaking activity on the bacterial community structure of the coastal sediment at ASSBY. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Biodegradation of phenanthrene in bioaugmented microcosm by consortium ASP developed from coastal sediment of Alang-Sosiya ship breaking yard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vilas; Patel, Janki; Madamwar, Datta

    2013-09-15

    A phenanthrene-degrading bacterial consortium (ASP) was developed using sediment from the Alang-Sosiya shipbreaking yard at Gujarat, India. 16S rRNA gene-based molecular analyses revealed that the bacterial consortium consisted of six bacterial strains: Bacillus sp. ASP1, Pseudomonas sp. ASP2, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strain ASP3, Staphylococcus sp. ASP4, Geobacillus sp. ASP5 and Alcaligenes sp. ASP6. The consortium was able to degrade 300 ppm of phenanthrene and 1000 ppm of naphthalene within 120 h and 48 h, respectively. Tween 80 showed a positive effect on phenanthrene degradation. The consortium was able to consume maximum phenanthrene at the rate of 46 mg/h/l and degrade phenanthrene in the presence of other petroleum hydrocarbons. A microcosm study was conducted to test the consortium's bioremediation potential. Phenanthrene degradation increased from 61% to 94% in sediment bioaugmented with the consortium. Simultaneously, bacterial counts and dehydrogenase activities also increased in the bioaugmented sediment. These results suggest that microbial consortium bioaugmentation may be a promising technology for bioremediation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Intensification and Intimacy:An Examination of Charles and Ray Eames's Film, Blacktop: A Story of the Washing of a School Play Yard (1952)

    OpenAIRE

    Ewing, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    Through a close reading of Blacktop: A Story of the Washing of a School Play Yard (1952), this paper aims, like the film, to suggest an urbanism of heightened sensation. An everyday material and action is intensified through a combination of staged and found circumstance. Intimacy is evoked through manipulation of visual and aural components of the cinematography. Close attention to the film reveals strategies for flattening, heightening and overlay that enable the imagination to shift tempor...

  10. Revised RCRA closure plan for the Interim Drum Yard (S-030) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.M.

    1994-09-01

    The Interim Drum Yard (IDY) facility is a containerized waste storage area located in the Y-12 exclusion area. It was used to store waste materials which are regulated by RCRA (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act); uranyl nitrate solutions were also stored there. The closure plan outlines the actions required to achieve closure of IDY and is being submitted in accordance with TN Rule 1200-1-11.05(7) and 40 CFR 265.110

  11. Characterization of stormwater at selected South Carolina Department of Transportation maintenance yards and section shed facilities in Ballentine, Conway, and North Charleston, South Carolina, 2010-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journey, Celeste A.; Conlon, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    Increased impervious surfaces (driveways, parking lots, and buildings) and human activities (residential, industrial, and commercial) have been linked to substantial changes in both the quality and quantity of stormwater on a watershed scale (Brabec and others, 2002; Pitt and Maestre, 2005). Small-scale storage and equipment repair facilities increase impervious surfaces that prevent infiltration of stormwater, and these facilities accommodate activities that can introduce trace metals, organic compounds, and other contaminants to the facility’s grounds. Thus, these small facilities may contribute pollutants to the environment during storm events (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1992). The South Carolina Department of Transportation (SCDOT) operates section shed and maintenance yard facilities throughout the State. Prior to this investigation, the SCDOT had no data to define the quality of stormwater leaving these facilities. To provide these data, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the SCDOT, conducted an investigation to identify and quantify constituents that are transported in stormwater from two maintenance yards and a section shed in three different areas of South Carolina. The two maintenance yards, in North Charleston and Conway, S.C., were selected because they represent facilities where equipment and road maintenance materials are stored and complete equipment repair operations are conducted. The section shed, in Ballentine, S.C., was selected because it is a facility that stores equipment and road maintenance material. Characterization of the constituents that were transported in stormwater from these representative SCDOT maintenance facilities may be used by the SCDOT in the development of stormwater management plans for similar section shed and maintenance yard facilities throughout the State to improve stormwater quality.

  12. Operations Charioteer, Musketeer, Touchstone, Cornerstone, Aqueduct, Sculpin and Julin. Tests Mill Yard, Diamond Beech, Mighty Oak, Middle Note Mission Ghost, Mission Cyber, Misty Echo, Disko Elm, Mineral Quarry, Distant Zenith, Diamond Fortune, and Hunters Trophy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schoengold, Carole

    1999-01-01

    ...; Tests MILL YARD, DIAMOND BEECH, MIGHTY OAK, MIDDLE NOTE, MISSION GHOST, MISSION CYBER, MISTY ECHO, DISKO ELM, MINERAL QUARRY, DISTANT ZENITH, DIAMOND FORTUNE, and HUNTERS TROPHY, 9 October 1985 to 18 September 1992...

  13. Defense Scrap Yard Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-01

    Shall consist of brass castings, rolled brass, rod brass, tubing and 26 Honey . miscellaneous yellow brasses, including plated brass. Must be free of...surveillance. (See torns include: dry cough , irritation of throat and OSHA 1910.1025) tightness of chest leading to difficulty in breath- (1) Lead...selected conditions, e.g., styrene- up the cure of a compound when added in minor acrylonitrile copolymer resins blended with butadi- quantity as compared

  14. Junk Yard Treasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathes, Len

    2009-01-01

    The author describes a project that she developed as a challenge for her students and ended up with some fantastic student paintings. The author told her group of reluctant art students they must first research on the Internet for old, junky cars. The older and more junky the cars, the better. Once a vehicle is selected, it is driven into Adobe…

  15. Site Characterization Report ORGDP Diffusion Facilities Permanent Shutdown K-700 Power House and K-27 Switch Yard/Switch House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas R.J., Blanchard R.D.

    1988-06-13

    The K-700 Power House area, initially built to supply power to the K-25 gaseous diffusion plant was shutdown and disassembled in the 1960s. This shutdown was initiated by TVA supplying economical power to the diffusion plant complex. As a result of world wide over production of enriched, reactor grade U{sup 235}, the K-27 switch yard and switch house area was placed in standby in 1985. Subsequently, as the future production requirements decreased, the cost of production increased and the separation technologies for other processes improved, the facility was permanently shutdown in December, 1987. This Site Characterization Report is a part of the FY-88 engineering Feasibility Study for placing ORGDP Gaseous Diffusion Process facilities in 'Permanent Shutdown'. It is sponsored by the Department of Energy through Virgil Lowery of Headquarters--Enrichment and through Don Cox of ORO--Enrichment Operations. The primary purpose of these building or site characterization reports is to document, quantify, and map the following potential problems: Asbestos; PCB containing fluids; Oils, coolants, and chemicals; and External contamination. With the documented quantification of the concerns (problems) the Engineering Feasibility Study will then proceed with examining the potential solutions. For this study, permanent shutdown is defined as the securing and/or conditioning of each facility to provide 20 years of safe service with minimal expenditures and, where feasible, also serving DOE's needs for long-term warehousing or other such low-risk use. The K-700 power house series of buildings were either masonry construction or a mix of masonry and wood. The power generating equipment was removed and sold as salvage in the mid 1960s but the buildings and auxiliary equipment were left intact. The nine ancillary buildings in the power house area use early in the Manhattan Project for special research projects, were left intact minus the original special equipment

  16. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 166: Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David Strand

    2006-01-01

    Corrective Action Unit 166 is located in Areas 2, 3, 5, and 18 of the Nevada Test Site, which is 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 166 is comprised of the seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs) listed below: (1) 02-42-01, Cond. Release Storage Yd - North; (2) 02-42-02, Cond. Release Storage Yd - South; (3) 02-99-10, D-38 Storage Area; (4) 03-42-01, Conditional Release Storage Yard; (5) 05-19-02, Contaminated Soil and Drum; (6) 18-01-01, Aboveground Storage Tank; and (7) 18-99-03, Wax Piles/Oil Stain. These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation (CAI) before evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on February 28, 2006, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture; and Bechtel Nevada. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 166. Appendix A provides a detailed discussion of the DQO methodology and the DQOs specific to each CAS. The scope of the CAI for CAU 166 includes the following activities: (1) Move surface debris and/or materials, as needed, to facilitate sampling. (2) Conduct radiological surveys. (3) Perform field screening. (4) Collect and submit environmental samples for laboratory analysis to determine if

  17. The spatial concentration of dust emissions measured by using 3D scanning lidar in the open storage yards of steel-making company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Chih-Wei; Chiang, Hong-Wei; Chou, Huann-Ming; Sun, Shu-Huang; Lee, Jiann-Shen

    2017-06-01

    The wind-blown dust emissions frequently occur in the open storage yards of steel-making companies. Tracking the dust source and monitoring their dispersion are rather difficult. This type of open-air storage yards poses many environmental hazards. The 3-D scanning lidar system is effective in environmental monitoring (e.g., dust) with high temporal and spatial resolution, which is lacking in traditional ground-based measurement. The objective of this paper is to make an attempt for the flux estimation of dust concentration by using lidar system. Further, we investigate the dynamical process of dust and their relationship with local air quality monitoring data. The results show that the material storage erosion by wind ( 3.6 m/s) could cause dust to elevate up to 20m height above the material storage, and produces the flux of dust around 674 mg/s. The flux of dust is proportional to the dust mass concentration (PM10) measured by commercial ambient particular monitors.

  18. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 166: Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site, Nevada with Errata Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant Evenson

    2007-03-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 166, Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (1996). The corrective action sites (CASs) are located in Areas 2, 3, 5, and 18 of the Nevada Test Site, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 166 is comprised of the following CASs: • 02-42-01, Cond. Release Storage Yd - North • 02-42-02, Cond. Release Storage Yd - South • 02-99-10, D-38 Storage Area • 03-42-01, Conditional Release Storage Yard • 05-19-02, Contaminated Soil and Drum • 18-01-01, Aboveground Storage Tank • 18-99-03, Wax Piles/Oil Stain The purpose of this CADD is to identify and provide the rationale for the recommendation of a corrective action alternative (CAA) for the seven CASs within CAU 166. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from July 31, 2006, through February 28, 2007, as set forth in the CAU 166 Corrective Action Investigation Plan (NNSA/NSO, 2006).

  19. CHANGING THE LANDSCAPE--LOW-TECH SOLUTIONS TO THE PADUCAH SCRAP METAL REMOVAL PROJECT ARE PROVIDING SAFE, COST-EFFECTIVE REMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED SCRAP YARDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, Dan; Eyman, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    Between 1974 and 1983, contaminated equipment was removed from the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) process buildings as part of an enrichment process upgrade program. The upgrades consisted of the dismantlement, removal, and on-site storage of contaminated equipment, cell components, and scrap material (e.g., metal) from the cascade facilities. Scrap metal including other materials (e.g., drums, obsolete equipment) not related to this upgrade program have thus far accumulated in nine contiguous radiologically-contaminated and non-contaminated scrap yards covering 1.05E5 m2 (26 acres) located in the northwestern portion of the PGDP. This paper presents the sequencing of field operations and methods used to achieve the safe removal and disposition of over 47,000 tonnes (53,000 tons) of metal and miscellaneous items contained in these yards. The methods of accomplishment consist of mobilization, performing nuclear criticality safety evaluations, moving scrap metal to ground level, inspection and segregation, sampling and characterization, scrap metal sizing, packaging and disposal, and finally demobilization. Preventing the intermingling of characteristically hazardous and non-hazardous wastes promotes waste minimization, allowing for the metal and materials to be segregated into 13 separate waste streams. Low-tech solutions such as using heavy equipment to retrieve, size, and package scrap materials in conjunction with thorough planning that integrates safe work practices, commitment to teamwork, and incorporating lessons learned ensures that field operations will be conducted efficiently and safely

  20. [Evaluation of ectoparasites and hemoparasites in dogs kept in apartments and houses with yards in the city of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Aline O; Souza, Aline D; Feliciano, Eveline A; Rodrigues, André F S F; D'Agosto, Marta; Daemon, Erik

    2006-01-01

    Fleas and ticks transmit various pathogens while feeding on the blood of dogs. This study sought to verify the occurrence of ectoparasitism and hemoparasitism in dogs from two urban areas in the city of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Between February and August 2003, 101 dogs were studied: 50 came from apartments in the downtown region and 51 from houses with grassy yards. The ectoparasites were collected and conserved in etanol 70%. The occurrence of hemoparasites was verified by examining blood smears from sample taken from the dogs'ears. The blood smears were stained with Giemsa and 100 fields per slide were examined, studying the erythrocytes to determine parasitism. From among the dogs living in apartments, we found (with respective prevalence and mean intensity): Ctenocephalides felis (12%), (3.3+/-2.0); Rhipicephalus sanguineus (2%); and ixodid nymphs (2%). In this environment in the dogs were not found hemoparasites. From the houses with grassy yards, we observed the following prevalence levels and mean intensities: C. felis (14%), (2.28+/-1.9); R. sanguineus (35%), (7.8+/-9.8); ixodid nymph (18%), (1.4+/-0.7); and ixodid larvae (4%), (12+/-14.4). The hemoparasites found were: Ehrlichia canis (16%) and Babesia canis (2%).

  1. Determinants of Visceral Leishmaniasis: A Case-Control Study in Gedaref State, Sudan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabienne Nackers

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Improving knowledge on local determinants of visceral leishmaniasis (VL is crucial to guide the development of relevant control strategies. This study aimed to identify individual and household level determinants of primary VL in 24 highly endemic villages of Tabarak Allah hospital's catchment area, Gedaref State, Sudan.From September 2012 to July 2013, in an unmatched case-control design, 198 patients with primary VL were compared to 801 controls free of VL symptoms and with a negative VL rapid test. Using random spatial sampling, controls were selected with a distribution of age, sex and village of residence proportionate to the distribution of the target population. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire.Children and men were at higher risk of VL. Reporting VL patient(s in the household in the previous year was the strongest VL risk factor. In a multivariate analysis, VL risk increased with household size, sleep location (outside the yard, not in the farm, evening outdoor activities in the rainy season (playing, watching TV, radio listening, use of ground nut oil as animal repellent and of smoke of Acacia seyal as indoor repellent, presence of dogs in the yard at night, Acacia nilotica in the yard's immediate surroundings and of a forest at eye range. VL risk appeared to decrease with the use of drinking water sources other than the village water tank, a buffer distance from the adjacent house yard, and with the presence of animals other than dogs in the yard at night. In contrast with previous studies, housing factors, mosquito-net use, black cotton soil, ethnicity, socioeconomic index, presence of Balanites aegyptica and Azadirachta indica in the yard were not independent VL determinants.Although these results do not provide evidence of causality, they provide useful suggestions for guiding further intervention studies on VL preventive measures.

  2. Survey Report For The Characterization Of The Five Tanks Located Near The Old Salvage Yard At The Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rollow, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    This summary report presents analytical results, radiological survey data, and other data/information for disposition planning of the five tanks located west of the Old Salvage Yard (OSY) at the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Field personnel from Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU) and URS-CH2M Oak Ridge LLC completed data collection in May 2012 per the project-specific plan (PSP) (ORAU 2012). Deviations from the PSP are addressed in the body of this report. Characterization activities included three data collection modes: visual inspection, radiological survey, and volumetric sampling/analysis. This report includes the final validated dataset and updates associated with the Tank 2 residues originally thought to be a biological bloom (e.g., slime mold) but ultimately identified as iron sulfate crystals

  3. 77 FR 50502 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; In-Use Heavy-Duty Vehicles (As...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL 9716-9] California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; In- Use Heavy-Duty Vehicles (As Applicable to Yard Trucks and Two-Engine Sweepers); Opportunity... control of emissions from new nonroad engines which are used in construction equipment or vehicles or used...

  4. Combined Log Inventory and Process Simulation Models for the Planning and Control of Sawmill Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillermo A. Mendoza; Roger J. Meimban; Philip A. Araman; William G. Luppold

    1991-01-01

    A log inventory model and a real-time hardwood process simulation model were developed and combined into an integrated production planning and control system for hardwood sawmills. The log inventory model was designed to monitor and periodically update the status of the logs in the log yard. The process simulation model was designed to estimate various sawmill...

  5. Geophysical survey work plan for White Wing Scrap Yard (Waste Area Grouping 11) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    The White Wing Scrap Yard, located on the U.S. Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation, served as an aboveground storage and disposal area for contaminated debris and scrap from the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, and the Oak Ridge National laboratory. The site is believed to have been active from the early 1950s until the mid-1960s. A variety of materials were disposed of at the site, including contaminated steel tanks and vehicles. As an interim corrective action, a surface debris removal effort was initiated in November 1993 to reduce the potential threat to human health and the environment from the radionuclide-contaminated debris. Following this removal effort, a geophysical survey will be conducted across the site to locate and determine the lateral extent of buried nonindigenous materials. This survey will provide the data necessary to prepare a map showing areas of conductivity and magnetic intensity that vary from measured background values. These anomalies represent potential buried materials and therefore can be targeted for further evaluation. This work plan outlines the activities necessary to conduct the geophysical survey

  6. Salinization/sodification of soil and physiological dynamics of sunflower irrigated with saline–sodic water amending by potassium and farm yard manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ashraf

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. plants were grown with saline–sodic water (SSW by treating with potassium (K @ 100 and 200 mg K2O kg−1 soil and farm yard manure (FYM @ 5 and 10% of soil, w/w. Irrigation with untreated SSW caused soil salinization/sodification, leading to an increase in electrical conductivity (EC of 165% and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR 100% with the subsequent increase of 736% in shoot Na+, a decrease of 52% in shoot K+ and 94% in shoot K+:Na+ratio compared to canal water. SSW also decreased physiological activities: 31% relative water content (RWC, 34% membrane stability index (MSI, 51% protein, 33% chlorophyll and 58% photosynthetic rate compared to canal water. Integrated application of K and FYM, at higher level, decreased soil EC by 54% and SAR 43%, and shoot Na+ 57% with a corresponding improvement in soil organic matter 166%, shoot K+ 360%, shoot K+:Na+ratio 987%, RWC 34%, MSI 37%, protein 60%, photosynthetic rate 102%, superoxide dismutase 92%, peroxidase 78% and catalase 52% compared to SSW without K and/or FYM. In conclusion, exogenous application of K and FYM could be a promising approach to use brackish water in agriculture on a sustainable basis.

  7. 76 FR 4532 - Safety Zone; 500 Yards North and South, Bank to Bank, of Position 29°48.77′ N 091°33.02′ W...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; 500 Yards North and South, Bank to Bank, of Position 29[deg]48.77' N 091[deg]33.02' W... and South, bank to bank, of position 29[deg]48.77' N 091[deg]33.02' W, Charenton Drainage and Navigation Canal, St. Mary Parish, LA. This Safety Zone is needed to protect the general public, vessels and...

  8. Remedial investigation report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (rust spoil area, spoil area 1, and SY-200 yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 2. Appendixes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This document contains the appendices to the Remedial Investigation Report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (Rust Spoil Area, Spoil Area 1, and SY-200 Yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The appendices include Current and historical soil boring and groundwater monitoring well information, well construction logs, and field change orders; Analytical data; Human health risk assessment data; and Data quality.

  9. Remedial investigation report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (rust spoil area, spoil area 1, and SY-200 yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 2. Appendixes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This document contains the appendices to the Remedial Investigation Report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (Rust Spoil Area, Spoil Area 1, and SY-200 Yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The appendices include Current and historical soil boring and groundwater monitoring well information, well construction logs, and field change orders; Analytical data; Human health risk assessment data; and Data quality

  10. DETERMINATION OF BRAKING OPTIMAL MODE OF CONTROLLED CUT OF DESIGN GROUP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Dorosh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The application of automation systems of breaking up process on the gravity hump is the efficiency improvement of their operation, absolute provision of trains breaking up safety demands, as well as improvement of hump staff working conditions. One of the main tasks of the indicated systems is the assurance of cuts reliable separation at all elements of their rolling route to the classification track. This task is a sophisticated optimization problem and has not received a final decision. Therefore, the task of determining the cuts braking mode is quite relevant. The purpose of this research is to find the optimal braking mode of control cut of design group. Methodology. In order to achieve the purpose is offered to use the direct search methods in the work, namely the Box complex method. This method does not require smoothness of the objective function, takes into account its limitations and does not require calculation of the function derivatives, and uses only its value. Findings. Using the Box method was developed iterative procedure for determining the control cut optimal braking mode of design group. The procedure maximizes the smallest controlled time interval in the group. To evaluate the effectiveness of designed procedure the series of simulation experiments of determining the control cut braking mode of design group was performed. The results confirmed the efficiency of the developed optimization procedure. Originality. The author formalized the task of optimizing control cut braking mode of design group, taking into account the cuts separation of design group at all elements (switches, retarders during cuts rolling to the classification track. The problem of determining the optimal control cut braking mode of design group was solved. The developed braking mode ensures cuts reliable separation of the group not only at the switches but at the retarders of brake position. Practical value. The developed procedure can be

  11. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 166: Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Strand

    2006-06-01

    Corrective Action Unit 166 is located in Areas 2, 3, 5, and 18 of the Nevada Test Site, which is 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 166 is comprised of the seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs) listed below: (1) 02-42-01, Cond. Release Storage Yd - North; (2) 02-42-02, Cond. Release Storage Yd - South; (3) 02-99-10, D-38 Storage Area; (4) 03-42-01, Conditional Release Storage Yard; (5) 05-19-02, Contaminated Soil and Drum; (6) 18-01-01, Aboveground Storage Tank; and (7) 18-99-03, Wax Piles/Oil Stain. These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation (CAI) before evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on February 28, 2006, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture; and Bechtel Nevada. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 166. Appendix A provides a detailed discussion of the DQO methodology and the DQOs specific to each CAS. The scope of the CAI for CAU 166 includes the following activities: (1) Move surface debris and/or materials, as needed, to facilitate sampling. (2) Conduct radiological surveys. (3) Perform field screening. (4) Collect and submit environmental samples for laboratory analysis to determine if

  12. New equipment for mechanization of warehouse operations and its use in Donbass timber yards and material stores. Novoe oborudovanie dlya mekhanizatsii skladskikh rabot i opyt ego primeneniya na lesnykh i materialinykh skladakh Donbassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    Constructional features and characteristics of new warehouse equipment are described which were developed by Donetsk Scientific Research Coal Institute in cooperation with other establishments. Experience is reviewed in the use of: turning platforms (PPG3); lifting-hoisting units (PTU); motor-hydraulic grab (MGK3M); fork-lift racks ZOD; complex KLT for mechanization of operations in timber yards; chain conveyors (T2Ts); cyclone bunkers; preparation of support timber (sawing units PRK, SRT); devices for packing and conveying timber, concrete and other materials; equipment for warehouses (racks UN, UP, KB) and others. The equipment is widely used in UkSSR Minugleprom stores and provides safer working conditions.

  13. Remedial Investigation Report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (Rust Spoil Area, Spoil Area 1, and SY-200 Yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1, Main text

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This report on the BCV OU 2 at the Y-12 Plant, was prepared in accordance with requirements under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) for reporting the results of a site characterization for public review. It provides the Environmental Restoration Program with information about the results of the 1993 investigation. It includes information on risk assessments that have evaluated impacts to human health and the environment. Field activities included collection of subsurface soil samples, groundwater and surface water samples, and sediments and seep at the Rust Spoil Area (RSA), SY-200 Yard, and SA-1

  14. Remedial Investigation Report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (Rust Spoil Area, Spoil Area 1, and SY-200 Yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1, Main text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    This report on the BCV OU 2 at the Y-12 Plant, was prepared in accordance with requirements under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) for reporting the results of a site characterization for public review. It provides the Environmental Restoration Program with information about the results of the 1993 investigation. It includes information on risk assessments that have evaluated impacts to human health and the environment. Field activities included collection of subsurface soil samples, groundwater and surface water samples, and sediments and seep at the Rust Spoil Area (RSA), SY-200 Yard, and SA-1.

  15. REDUCTION IN CUTS SPEED AT THE BEGINNING OF A SORTING SIDINGS, EQUIPPED WITH QUASI-CONTINUOUS SPEED CONTROL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Nazarov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Clear and uninterrupted operation of humps depends on the quality of technical equipment and control technology of cuts speed. Technology of interval and purposive regulation of cuts speed is used at most humps. The article discusses ways to reduce the cuts rolling speed to a safe level at the beginning of the sorting sidings equipped with quasi-continuous speed control system. Methodology. It proposed three fundamentally different ways to reduce the cuts rolling speed at the beginning of the sorting siding. The analysis of the ways to reduce cuts rolling speed to a safe level at the beginning of the sorting sidings was conducted using simulation the process of cuts rolling from humps equipped with quasi-continuous speed control. Findings. As a result of analysis, the inappropriateness of opposite elevation using on the roll-out part of the hump after the last separation switch point. Spot regulators of cars speed can be used to reduce the cuts rolling speed at the beginning of the sorting siding, but this leads to a division conditions deterioration on the last separating switch points of long cuts with the following after them short cuts. Reducing the cuts rolling speed at the beginning of the sorting siding can be carried out using the beam on a stationary wagon retarders park brake position. Control Algorithm park brake position is quite simple. All produce should be unhooked from it at a safe speed. If the accuracy of the implementation of the set speed output to unhook from the park brake position is low, it is possible to eliminate the error of point regulators cars speed. Originality. The question where to start location point of wagon retarders zone to reduce speed to cut level requires additional research. Reducing rolling cut the speed at the beginning of the sorting sidings can be carried out using the beam on a stationary wagon retarders park brake position. Practical value. Control Algorithm park brake position is quite

  16. Patlayıcı yardımı ile form vermede patlayıcı kütlesinin genetic algoritma kullanılarak optimizasyonu

    OpenAIRE

    GÜLCAN, Orhan; GEMALMAYAN, Nihat

    2011-01-01

    Bu çalışmada, genetik algoritma kullanılarak, günümüzde özellikle uçak sanayinde büyük parçaların üretiminde kullanılan patlayıcı yardımı ile form verme tekniğinde patlayıcı kütlesinin optimizasyonu yapılmıştır. Genetik algoritma yirmi yıldan fazla süredir farklı bilim dallarına uygulanan bir yapay zeka optimizasyon tekniğidir. Bu metotta, doğada meydana gelen seçme, çaprazlama ve mutasyon gibi genetik operatörlerin bilgisayar ortamına uyarlanmış kodları kullanılır. Patlayıcı yardımı ile form...

  17. Automation and control in industrial installations. Its application in pressurized fluidized bed plants, coal washeries etc. Automatizacion y control en instalaciones industriales. Su aplicacion en centrales de lecho fluido a presion, lavaderos de carbon etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trujillo Tarifa, R. (ENDESA, Madrid (Spain))

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents the automation and electronic control systems, based on the most advanced technologies on the market. The most recent techniques concerning industrial plant supervision and the processing of information obtained from the above mentioned systems are discussed. Intraplant communications between the control systems and the supervision computers as well as communications among cascade computers are described. These studies are applied to specific cases of pressurized fluidized bed plants, coal washing plants, coal yards, etc.

  18. Regulator Interface Strategies Implemented at the Y-12 National Security Complex Old Salvage Yard Soils Remediation Project, Oak Ridge, TN - 12162

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, Linda [Alliant Corporation (United States); Wilkerson, Laura; Skinner, Ralph [US DOE-ORO EM (United States); Birchfield, Joseph W. III [Link Technologies (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex housed an area known as the Old Salvage Yard (OSY) that was approximately 7 acres. The OSY was used as an area for the accumulation, processing and storage of scrap metal and equipment from Y-12 operations extending from 1968 until 2009. Areas in the northern sections of OSY also have been used for the storage of used oils containing solvents and the accumulation and recycling or de-heading and crushing of 55-gal metal drums. Scrap metal operations historically involved the accumulation, sorting, storage, public sale or disposal of scrap metal and equipment. Non-containerised storage of scrap metal was routine until 1995 when scrap metal received at OSY was placed in B-24 and B-25 boxes. Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), approximately 26,759 cubic meters of scrap metal and debris were removed and disposed at both on and off-site disposal facilities including the on-site, Oak Ridge Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) landfill in 2010 and 2011. This removal action was performed in accordance with a CERCLA Record of Decision (ROD) and a close working relationship with both the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region IV and Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC). Due to efficiencies and the excellent cooperative relationship forged with EPA Region IV and TDEC for Y-12 ARRA Cleanup Projects, a surplus of funding was available for additional remediation work that was completed in fiscal year (FY) 2011. The underlying OSY soils were targeted for characterization and potential remediation. To expedite these important activities, the U.S. Department of Energy Oak Ridge Environmental Management partnered with the regulators during detailed planning sessions through a variety of means to quickly and efficiently characterize and pinpoint areas requiring remediation according to previous ROD commitments. Data Quality Objectives (DQOs

  19. XML Anahtar Kelimeleri Yardımıyla Türkçe Aritmetik Problemlerin Anlaşılması ve Çözülmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman EKEN

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Doğal Dil İşleme; matematik, bilgisayar bilimi, yapay zekâ ve dilbilimi alanlarındaki çalışmaları kapsamaktadır. Yapay zekâ alanındaki çalışmaların hedeflerinden biri doğal dilde söyleneni anlamaktır. Doğal dili anlamaya yönelik birçok çalışma mevcuttur. Bu çalışmalardan bazıları matematik, fizik ve mekanik alandaki problemlerin anlaşılması ve çözülmesi ile ilgilidir. Bu çalışmada, ilkokul seviyesindeki matematik problemleri anlayabilen ve çözebilen bir aritmetik problem çözücü sistem önerilmektedir. Uygulama, kelimelerin morfolojik analizi, problem tipinin tanımlanması (toplama, çıkarma, çarpma, bölme ve sonucun hesaplanması adımlarını içermektedir. Problem tipleri bir XML dokümanı yardımıyla belirlenmekte, bu doküman ise problem tiplerine karşılık gelen anahtar kelimeleri içermektedir. Bu uygulamanın temel katkısı, öğretmenlerin öğrencilerini daha iyi değerlendirmesi açısından kullanacakları eğitim materyallerini hazırlamalarına yardımcı olmaktır

  20. The Roots of the Command and Control of Air Power: An Appraisal of Three Air Forces Through 1945

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-17

    aircraft could still be 400 meters apart. The controller then called “Pauke, Pauke” (literally, “kettledrums, kettledrums”). If the fighter saw the enemy...determined to stop those missions led to a need to orchestrate airpower. When war started, those tentative steps became a sprint , both on the continent...technology now allowed aircraft to operate wirelessly every 400 yards while cooperating with artillery and not jam each other due to frequency

  1. IMPROVEMENT OF BUS OPERATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS WHILE USING INTEGRATED CONTROL OF SUSPENSION AND TRANSMISSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Mikhailau

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Semi-natural tests for active pneumatic suspension of a 18-tonne tourist bus with the system of automatic body stabilization of the mobile machine and feed-back coupling according to kinematics parameter. The test have been executed in the cases when the bus is stocked with an automatic hydro-mechanical transmission in the process of speed picking up, gear-changing or road braking which is assigned by accidental road humps. A computer simulation of dynamic structures in combination with virtual devices and real objects (HIL – Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation has been carried in the paper. Personal computers, software, programmed logic controller, frequency generator, solenoid-operated valve have been used for the investigation process. The paper proposes an unconventional method for improvement operational characteristics which is based on integrated control of a suspension and automatic hydro-mechanical transmission. A mathematical model includes systems of automatic transmission, suspension and module for generation of accidental road humps. The model has been considered as a basis for semi-natural laboratory bench with industrially-manufactured controller, other components of automatic systems and standard control organs. The most efficient method for body stabilization is control of the suspension according to the parameter of angular rate during vertical turn of an automobile’s center line with a turning point in the center of mass. The developed algorithm and stabilization system according to angular rate of body’s center line turning have made it possible to improve dynamics of the bus while making gear-changing and to reduce fuel consumption during starting-up and speed picking-up processes. During the braking process such system simultaneously decreases oscillation amplitude of some parameters more than two-fold.

  2. The Effect of Solarization and Manure in Controlling Sugar Beet Cyst Nematode Heterodera schachtii Schmidt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mehdi Nasr Esfahani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Sugar beet cyst nematode, Heterodera schachtii Schmidt is the major disease of sugar beet worldwide, causing considerable damages, and even death of the plants, in the infested fields. There are several suggested methods of controls, which may have its own difficulties to be taken into consideration. To avoid the use of nematicides, and reduced the risk of chemical hazards in the environment, any sorts of nonchemical management is incorrigible. However, any method of management must be safe, large scale application and economical. Thus, in this manuscript, polyethylene sheaths were used to solarize and or disinfection of the infested soils to H. schachtii. And, also, the incorporation of the farm yards manure was taken into consideration too. Therefore, the field experiments were carried out in infected sugar beet growing regions, where there was a heavy infestation to the sugar beet nematodes, Isfahan province, Iran, to determine the effects of soil solarization alone and or along with undecomposed farm yard manure on sugar beet cyst nematode, H. schachtii. Material and Methods. Transparent Polyethylene sheaths of 2microns were used to solarize and or disinfection of the infested soils to H. schachtii. The fresh farm yards manure for 40 tons per hector for the incorporation was taken into consideration. The field experiments were carried out in infected sugar beet growing regions, where, there was a heavy infestation to the sugar beet nematodes, Jey and Ghahab of Isfahan, Isfahan province, Iran, for determination of the effects of soil solarization alone and or along with undecomposed farm yard manure on sugar beet cyst nematode, H. schachtii. Treatments were consisted of soil solarization with transparent polyethylene sheets, fresh yard manure, integration of soil solarization with farm yard manure and untreated, control and or ckecks in a randomized block design in three replications each in an infested field conditions, in the

  3. X-ray Fluorescence in Member States: Ghana. The Use of XRF for Contaminated Site Assessment in Ghana. 2. Estimation of Heavy Metals Contamination at Agbogbloshie E-scrap Yard Using EDXRF Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atiemo, S.M.; Ofosu, F.G.; Aboh, I.J. Kwame

    2012-01-01

    The emergence of the digital age has underscored the important role that electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) plays in a nation's socioeconomic development, including education, health delivery and communications, as well as global connectivity. In 2003 Ghana formulated its policy on information and communications technology (ICT) for accelerated development, with the understanding for instance, that Ghana's accelerated development would not be possible without an ICT-driven development agenda. The demand for EEE in Ghana grows by the day with a corresponding high rate of waste electrical and electronic (WEEE) generation. The WEEE industry in Ghana is a very vibrant one, growing at an amazing rate year after year. Ghana currently imports about 215 000 tonnes of electrical and electronic equipment per annum out of which an estimated 70% are second hand products. About 60-70% of the second hand products arrive in good working condition, 20-30% can be repaired or refurbished to get them functioning and 10-20% are junk and sent directly for the informal recycling. The Agbogbloshie scrap market in Accra came into the limelight following the publication of the report entitled 'Poisoning the Poor' by Greenpeace International. The report gave a damning revelation about the activities of scrap dealers and recyclers at the market. It was noted from the report that surface dust samples contained high concentrations of both heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants due to the unsafe and crude means of retrieving metals and components from the WEEE. This project was therefore designed to determine the heavy metal concentration of surface dust using the EDXRF and estimate the degree of contamination of the dust samples. Surface dust samples were collected from various vicinities within the scrap yard using the methods described above.

  4. Effects of powdery mildew fungicide programs on twospotted spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae), hop aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and their natural enemies in hop yards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gent, D H; James, D G; Wright, L C; Brooks, D J; Barbour, J D; Dreves, A J; Fisher, G C; Walton, V M

    2009-02-01

    Twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), and hop aphid, Phorodon humuli (Schrank) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), are the most important arthropod pests of hop (Humulus lupulus L.) in the Northern Hemisphere. A potential barrier for greater adoption of conservation biological control strategies for spider mites and hop aphid is the extensive use of fungicides for management of hop powdery mildew, Podosphaera macularis (Wallr.:Fr.) U. Braun & S. Takamatsu. Field studies conducted in experimental plots in Oregon and Washington in 2005 and 2006 quantified the effects of powdery mildew fungicide programs (i.e., sulfur, paraffinic oil, and synthetic fungicides) on arthropod pests and natural enemies on hop. Fungicide treatment significantly affected spider mite populations in all four studies. Multiple applications of sulfur fungicides applied before burr development resulted in 1.4-3.3-fold greater spider mite populations during summer. Near the cessation of the sulfur applications, or after a lag of 20-30 d, spider mite populations increased significantly faster on sulfur treated plants compared with water-treated plants in three of four experiments. The effect of paraffinic oil on spider mites was varied, leading to exacerbation of spider mites in Oregon and Washington in 2005, suppression of mites in Oregon in 2006, and no significant effect compared with water in Washington in 2006. Significant relative treatment effects for cone damage due to spider mite feeding were detected in Oregon in 2005 in plots treated with sulfur and paraffinic oil compared with water and synthetic fungicides. Mean populations of hop aphids were similar among treatments in Oregon, although sulfur treatment suppressed hop aphid populations in Washington in 2005 and 2006. Populations of individual predacious insect species and cumulative abundance of macropredators were not consistently suppressed or stimulated by treatments in all trials. However, predatory mite

  5. Lymph node hemangioma in one-humped camel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Aljameel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hemangioma is a benign tumor of blood and lymphatic vessels. It is common in skin, mucosa and soft tissues, and its occurrence in lymph nodes is extremely rare. A 10 year-old she-camel was slaughtered at Nyala slaughterhouse, South Darfur State, Sudan. Grossly, the carcass was emaciated. The left ventral superficial cervical lymph node was enlarged, hard on palpation and protruded outside the body. Its cut surface was dark red in color and measured (18 cm in diameter. Histopathologically, the sections revealed vascular masses were composed of non-encapsulated clusters of small and medium sized with thick and thin-walled, filled with blood, separated by courageous stroma and surrounded by closely packed proliferating capillaries. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first record of the left ventral superficial cervical lymph node hemangioma in a camel in the Sudan.

  6. Semiclassical shell structure and nuclear double-humped fission barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Magner

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We derived the semiclassical trace formulas for the level density as sums over periodic-orbit families and isolated orbits within the improved stationary phase method. Averaged level-density shell corrections and shell-structure energies are continuous through all symmetry-breaking (bifurcation points with the correct asymptotics of the standard stationary phase approach accounting for continuous symmetries. We found enhancement of the nuclear shell structure near bifurcations in the superdeformed region. Our semiclassical results for the averaged level densities with the gross-shell and more thin-shell structures and the energy shell corrections for critical deformations are in good agreement with the quantum calculations for several single-particle Hamiltonians, in particular for the potentials with a sharp spheroidal shape. Enhancement of the shell structure owing to bifurcations of the shortest 3-dimensional orbits from equatorial orbits is responsible for the second well of fission barrier in a superdeformation region.

  7. Acoustical Environment of Three Stations at Rileys Hump

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Passive acoustic recorders were deployed to record acoustic signals over the time span of two years, and the data analyzed for the existence of known spawning sounds...

  8. Bleed water testing program for controlled low strength material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langton, C.A.

    1996-01-01

    Bleed water measurements for two Controlled Low Strength Material (CLSM) mixes were conducted to provide engineering data for the Tank 20F closure activities. CLSM Mix 1 contained 150 pounds of cement per cubic yard whereas CLSM Mix 2 contained 50 pounds per cub yard. SRS currently used CLSM Mix 2 for various applications. Bleed water percentages and generation rates were measured along with flow and compressive strength. This information will be used to select a mix design for the Tank 20F closure activities and to establish the engineering requirements, such as, lift height, time required between lifts and quantity of bleed water to be removed from the tank during the placement activities. Mix 1 is recommended for placement within Tank 20F because it has better flow characteristics, less segregation, lower percentage of bleed water and slightly higher strength. Optimization of Mix 1 was beyond the scope of this study. However, further testing of thickening additives, such as clays (bentonite), sodium silicate or fine silicas maybe useful for decreasing or eliminating bleed water

  9. Protecting wood fences for yard and garden

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. C. De Groot; W. C. Feist; W. E. Eslyn; L. R. Gjovik

    For maximum protection against wood decay and termites, use posts that have an in-depth preservative treatment, preferably a pressure treatment for below ground use. When selecting posts of naturally decay-resistant woods, choose posts with mostly heartwood. Horizontal rails require more protection from decay than do vertical boards. In regions of high and moderate...

  10. Incorporating biopulping technology into wood yard operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary M. Scott; Eric. Horn; Masood. Akhtar; Ross E. Swaney; Michael J. Lentz; David F. Shipley

    1998-01-01

    Biopulping is the treatment of wood chips and other lignocellulosic materials with lignin-degrading fungi prior to pulping. Ten years of industry-sponsored research has demonstrated the technical feasibility of the technology for mechanical pulping at a laboratory scale. Two 50-ton outdoor chip pile trials recently conducted at the USDA Forest Service, Forest Products...

  11. Corrales de piedra, campos abiertos y pampas de camaruco: Memorias de relacionalidad en la meseta central de Chubut Stone yards, open fields and sacred places: Memories of relatedness in the Chubut´s central plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ramos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available La "cuestión indígena" como política de estado en Argentina ha estado acompañada por la elaboración académica de mapas étnicos. Las definiciones hegemónicas de estas entidades han presupuesto generalmente algún elemento "esencial" como, por ejemplo, fenotipos, uso de una lengua, o la aglutinación en torno a linajes consanguíneos. A partir de las reformulaciones de las teorías del parentesco desde el modelo heurístico de las sociedades de casas y las teorías sobre la relacionalidad proponemos una aproximación a la memoria social como marco alternativo de interpretación histórica. Esta contempla las prácticas sociales del parentesco y la objetivación de la continuidad de los grupos de pertenencia en las políticas y lugares de la memoria -corrales de piedra, actividades productivas y pampas de camaruco- en la región de la "meseta" de Chubut. Dichas relaciones con el espacio físico cuestionan tanto las definiciones académicas tradicionales de parentesco y de cacicazgo como las clasificaciones étnicas-nacionales.The "Indigenous issue" as a state policy in Argentina has been accompanied by an academic production of ethnic maps. Hegemonic definitions of these entities used to presume some "essential" elements like the phenotype, the use of language or consanguineous lineage membership. Based on the reformulation of kinship theory, which came from the heuristic model of houses and relatedness theory, we propose an approach to social memory as an alternative framework for historical interpretation. This includes kinship social practices as well as the materialization of group membership's continuity in policies and places of memory -such as stone yards, productive activities, open fields and sacred places- in the Chubut central plateau. Finally, we argue that regarding a physical space, these relations question not only the ethnic-national classifications but also the traditional academic definitions of kinship and chieftaincy.

  12. Wind turbine with automatic pitch and yaw control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, Jr., Marvin Chapin; Spierings, Petrus A. M.

    1978-01-01

    A wind turbine having a flexible central beam member supporting aerodynamic blades at opposite ends thereof and fabricated of uni-directional high tensile strength material bonded together into beam form so that the beam is lightweight, and has high tensile strength to carry the blade centrifugal loads, low shear modulus to permit torsional twisting thereof for turbine speed control purposes, and adequate bending stiffness to permit out-of-plane deflection thereof for turbine yard control purposes. A selectively off-set weighted pendulum member is pivotally connected to the turbine and connected to the beam or blade so as to cause torsional twisting thereof in response to centrifugal loading of the pendulum member for turbine speed control purposes.

  13. Economic evaluation of an area-wide integrated pest management program to control the Asian tiger mosquito in New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Donald S; Halasa, Yara A; Fonseca, Dina M; Farajollahi, Ary; Healy, Sean P; Gaugler, Randy; Bartlett-Healy, Kristen; Strickman, Daniel A; Clark, Gary G

    2014-01-01

    Aedes albopictus is the most invasive mosquito in the world, an important disease vector, and a biting nuisance that limits outdoor activities. Area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) is the recommended control strategy. We conducted an economic evaluation of the AW-IPM project in Mercer and Monmouth Counties, New Jersey with a controlled design (AW-IPM vs. control) from 2009 through 2011. The study analyzed financial documents and staff time for AW-IPM and surveyed an average of 415 randomly chosen households in AW-IPM and control areas each fall from 2008 through 2011. Hours lost from yard and porch activities were calculated as differences between actual and potential hours of these activities in an average summer week if there had been no mosquito concerns. Net estimated benefits of AW-IPM were based on cross-over and difference-in-difference analyses. Reductions in hours lost were valued based on respondents' willingness to pay for a hypothetical extra hour free of mosquitoes spent on yard or porch activities and literature on valuation of a quality adjusted life year (QALY). The incremental cost of AW-IPM per adult was $41.18 per year. Number of hours lost due to mosquitoes in AW-IPM areas between the base year (2008) and the intervention years (2009-2011) declined by 3.30 hours per summer week in AW-IPM areas compared to control areas. Survey respondents valued this improvement at $27.37 per adult per summer week. Over the 13-week summer, an average adult resident gained 42.96 hours of yard and porch time, worth $355.82. The net benefit over the summer was $314.63. With an average of 0.0027 QALYs gained per adult per year, AW-IPM was cost effective at $15,300 per QALY gained. The benefit-cost ratio from hours gained was 8.64, indicating that each $1 spent on AW-IPM gave adults additional porch and yard time worth over $8.

  14. Economic evaluation of an area-wide integrated pest management program to control the Asian tiger mosquito in New Jersey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald S Shepard

    Full Text Available Aedes albopictus is the most invasive mosquito in the world, an important disease vector, and a biting nuisance that limits outdoor activities. Area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM is the recommended control strategy. We conducted an economic evaluation of the AW-IPM project in Mercer and Monmouth Counties, New Jersey with a controlled design (AW-IPM vs. control from 2009 through 2011. The study analyzed financial documents and staff time for AW-IPM and surveyed an average of 415 randomly chosen households in AW-IPM and control areas each fall from 2008 through 2011. Hours lost from yard and porch activities were calculated as differences between actual and potential hours of these activities in an average summer week if there had been no mosquito concerns. Net estimated benefits of AW-IPM were based on cross-over and difference-in-difference analyses. Reductions in hours lost were valued based on respondents' willingness to pay for a hypothetical extra hour free of mosquitoes spent on yard or porch activities and literature on valuation of a quality adjusted life year (QALY. The incremental cost of AW-IPM per adult was $41.18 per year. Number of hours lost due to mosquitoes in AW-IPM areas between the base year (2008 and the intervention years (2009-2011 declined by 3.30 hours per summer week in AW-IPM areas compared to control areas. Survey respondents valued this improvement at $27.37 per adult per summer week. Over the 13-week summer, an average adult resident gained 42.96 hours of yard and porch time, worth $355.82. The net benefit over the summer was $314.63. With an average of 0.0027 QALYs gained per adult per year, AW-IPM was cost effective at $15,300 per QALY gained. The benefit-cost ratio from hours gained was 8.64, indicating that each $1 spent on AW-IPM gave adults additional porch and yard time worth over $8.

  15. Fuzzy crane control with sensorless payload deflection feedback for vibration reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoczek, Jaroslaw

    2014-05-01

    Different types of cranes are widely used for shifting cargoes in building sites, shipping yards, container terminals and many manufacturing segments where the problem of fast and precise transferring a payload suspended on the ropes with oscillations reduction is frequently important to enhance the productivity, efficiency and safety. The paper presents the fuzzy logic-based robust feedback anti-sway control system which can be applicable either with or without a sensor of sway angle of a payload. The discrete-time control approach is based on the fuzzy interpolation of the controllers and crane dynamic model's parameters with respect to the varying rope length and mass of a payload. The iterative procedure combining a pole placement method and interval analysis of closed-loop characteristic polynomial coefficients is proposed to design the robust control scheme. The sensorless anti-sway control application developed with using PAC system with RX3i controller was verified on the laboratory scaled overhead crane.

  16. A case-control study of risk factors associated with scrub typhus infection in Beijing, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanning Lyu

    Full Text Available To investigate the risk factors of scrub typhus infection in Beijing, China, a case-control study was carried out. Cases (n = 56 were defined as persons who were diagnosed by PCR and serological method within three years. Three neighborhood control subjects were selected by matching for age and occupation. Living at the edge of the village, living in the houses near grassland, vegetable field or ditch, house yard without cement floor, piling weeds in the house or yard, all of these were risk factors for scrub typhus infection. Working in vegetable fields and hilly areas, and harvesting in autumn posed the highest risks, with odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs of 3.7 (1.1-11.9, 8.2 (1.4-49.5, and 17.2 (5.1-57.9, respectively. These results would be useful for the establishment of a detail control strategy for scrub typhus infection in Beijing, China.

  17. Geomorphic controls on elevational gradients of species richness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertuzzo, Enrico; Carrara, Francesco; Mari, Lorenzo; Altermatt, Florian; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2016-02-16

    Elevational gradients of biodiversity have been widely investigated, and yet a clear interpretation of the biotic and abiotic factors that determine how species richness varies with elevation is still elusive. In mountainous landscapes, habitats at different elevations are characterized by different areal extent and connectivity properties, key drivers of biodiversity, as predicted by metacommunity theory. However, most previous studies directly correlated species richness to elevational gradients of potential drivers, thus neglecting the interplay between such gradients and the environmental matrix. Here, we investigate the role of geomorphology in shaping patterns of species richness. We develop a spatially explicit zero-sum metacommunity model where species have an elevation-dependent fitness and otherwise neutral traits. Results show that ecological dynamics over complex terrains lead to the null expectation of a hump-shaped elevational gradient of species richness, a pattern widely observed empirically. Local species richness is found to be related to the landscape elevational connectivity, as quantified by a newly proposed metric that applies tools of complex network theory to measure the closeness of a site to others with similar habitat. Our theoretical results suggest clear geomorphic controls on elevational gradients of species richness and support the use of the landscape elevational connectivity as a null model for the analysis of the distribution of biodiversity.

  18. 77 FR 9916 - California State Motor Vehicle and Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Mobile Cargo...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... performance standards for engines equipped in newly purchased, leased, or rented (collectively known as... section 209 proceeding is to: Consider all evidence that passes the threshold test of materiality and... regulations also set forth in- use performance standards applicable to non-new yard and non-yard trucks. To...

  19. Metallurgical and mechanical parameters controlling alloy 718 stress corrosion cracking resistance in PWR primary water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deleume, J.

    2007-11-01

    Improving the performance and reliability of the fuel assemblies of the pressurized water reactors requires having a perfect knowledge of the operating margins of both the components and the materials. The choice of alloy 718 as reference material for this study is justified by the industrial will to identify the first order parameters controlling the excellent resistance of this alloy to Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC). For this purpose, a specific slow strain rate (SSR) crack initiation test using tensile specimen with a V-shaped hump in the middle of the gauge length was developed and modeled. The selectivity of such SSR tests in simulated PWR primary water at 350 C was clearly established by characterizing the SCC resistance of nine alloy 718 thin strip heats. Regardless of their origin and in spite of a similar thermo-mechanical history, they did not exhibit the same susceptibility to SCC crack initiation. All the characterized alloy 718 heats develop oxide scale of similar nature for various exposure times to PWR primary medium in the temperature range [320 C - 360 C]. δ phase precipitation has no impact on alloy 718 SCC initiation behavior when exposed to PWR primary water, contrary to interstitial contents and the triggering of plastic instabilities (PLC phenomenon). (author)

  20. Tonal noise of a controlled-diffusion airfoil at low angle of attack and Reynolds number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padois, Thomas; Laffay, Paul; Idier, Alexandre; Moreau, Stéphane

    2016-07-01

    The acoustic signature of a controlled-diffusion airfoil immersed in a flow is experimentally characterized. Acoustic measurements have been carried out in an anechoic open-jet-wind-tunnel for low Reynolds numbers (from 5 × 10(4) to 4.3 × 10(5)) and several angles of attack. As with the NACA0012, the acoustic spectrum is dominated by discrete tones. These tonal behaviors are divided into three different regimes. The first one is characterized by a dominant primary tone which is steady over time, surrounded by secondary peaks. The second consists of two unsteady primary tones associated with secondary peaks and the third consists of a hump dominated by several small peaks. A wavelet study allows one to identify an amplitude modulation of the acoustic signal mainly for the unsteady tonal regime. This amplitude modulation is equal to the frequency interval between two successive tones. Finally, a bispectral analysis explains the presence of tones at higher frequencies.

  1. A Self-Calibrating Remote Control Chemical Monitoring System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jessica Croft

    2007-06-01

    The Susie Mine, part of the Upper Tenmile Mining Area, is located in Rimini, MT about 15 miles southwest of Helena, MT. The Upper Tenmile Creek Mining Area is an EPA Superfund site with 70 abandoned hard rock mines and several residential yards prioritized for clean up. Water from the Susie mine flows into Tenmile Creek from which the city of Helena draws part of its water supply. MSE Technology Applications in Butte, Montana was contracted by the EPA to build a treatment system for the Susie mine effluent and demonstrate a system capable of treating mine waste water in remote locations. The Idaho National Lab was contracted to design, build and demonstrate a low maintenance self-calibrating monitoring system that would monitor multiple sample points, allow remote two-way communications with the control software and allow access to the collected data through a web site. The Automated Chemical Analysis Monitoring (ACAM) system was installed in December 2006. This thesis documents the overall design of the hardware, control software and website, the data collected while MSE-TA’s system was operational, the data collected after MSE-TA’s system was shut down and suggested improvements to the existing system.

  2. 77 FR 52272 - Safety Standard for Play Yards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... for Laboratory Sciences, Consumer Product Safety Commission, 5 Research Place, Rockville, MD 20850.... Introduction The Regulatory Flexibility Act (``RFA''), 5 U.S.C. 601-612, requires agencies to consider the... political subdivision of a state may establish or continue in effect a requirement dealing with the same...

  3. Cyberbullying Detection; A Step Toward a Safer Internet Yard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dadvar, M.; de Jong, Franciska M.G.

    2012-01-01

    As a result of the invention of social networks friendships, relationships and social communications have all gone to a new level with new definitions. One may have hundreds of friends without even seeing their faces. Meanwhile, alongside this transition there is increasing evidence that online

  4. Degradation of plastic compost bags used for yard waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taber, H.G.; Cox, D.F.

    1993-01-01

    Three trials, beginning June, July, and September 1991, examined the breakdown of photodegradable plastic bags. The plastic contained a light-sensitive compound dissolved in the polymer to hasten degradation. The bags were placed in east-west rows on bare ground. Other factors studied included turning the bags over either every 3 or 7 days and either filling the bags with fresh grass clippings or leaving them empty. Strength loss was determined with a hand-held puncture tester. Strength increased initially by 36%, 32%, and 63% in the three trials, respectively. The bags took 33, 35, and 64 days to reach brittleness (puncture strength of 180 g) in the three trials, respectively. Once degradation began, all trials showed similar rates of decline. However, the degradation began 7 days after exposure in the first two trials, but not until 14 days after exposure in the September trial. The addition of grass clippings to the bags increased the initial strength and delayed the onset of degradation. Turning the bags every 3 days rather than every 7 did not affect degradation

  5. k-Shortest routing of trains on shunting yards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riezebos, Jan; van Wezel, Wout

    2009-01-01

    We consider the problem of designing algorithmic support for k-best routing decisions in train shunting scheduling. A study at the Netherlands Railways revealed that planners like to interact with the solution process of finding suitable routes. Two types of interaction were required: the

  6. Pine straw production: from forest to front yard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janice F. Dyer; Rebecca J. Barlow; John S. Kush; John C. Gilbert

    2012-01-01

    Southern forestry may be undergoing a paradigm shift in which timber production is not necessarily the major reason for owning forested land. However, there remains interest in generating income from the land and landowners are exploring alternatives, including agroforestry practices and production of non-timber forest products (NTFPs). One such alternative more recent...

  7. 78 FR 50328 - Safety Standard for Play Yards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... following conditions are met: At the time of testing, the product was tested by a laboratory that was ISO/IEC 17025:2005(E) accredited by an ILAC-MRA member at the time of the test. At the time of testing...

  8. Ebola global response: 'not in my back yard' | Bateman | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As the 8-month West African Ebola outbreak death tally accelerated beyond 4 500 (of 9 000 people infected) by mid-October, Spain and the USA became the first non- African countries to record secondary dom estic infections after entry by Ebola infected people.

  9. APPLICATIONS OF ACTION CAM SENSORS IN THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL YARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pepe

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, special digital cameras called “action camera” or “action cam”, have become popular due to their low price, smallness, lightness, strength and capacity to make videos and photos even in extreme environment surrounding condition. Indeed, these particular cameras have been designed mainly to capture sport actions and work even in case of dirt, bumps, or underwater and at different external temperatures. High resolution of Digital single-lens reflex (DSLR cameras are usually preferred to be employed in photogrammetric field. Indeed, beyond the sensor resolution, the combination of such cameras with fixed lens with low distortion are preferred to perform accurate 3D measurements; at the contrary, action cameras have small and wide-angle lens, with a lower performance in terms of sensor resolution, lens quality and distortions. However, by considering the characteristics of the action cameras to acquire under conditions that may result difficult for standard DSLR cameras and because of their lower price, these could be taken into consideration as a possible and interesting approach during archaeological excavation activities to document the state of the places. In this paper, the influence of lens radial distortion and chromatic aberration on this type of cameras in self-calibration mode and an evaluation of their application in the field of Cultural Heritage will be investigated and discussed. Using a suitable technique, it has been possible to improve the accuracy of the 3D model obtained by action cam images. Case studies show the quality and the utility of the use of this type of sensor in the survey of archaeological artefacts.

  10. 77 FR 52220 - Safety Standard for Play Yards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... and social media, and offering information on the Web site: www.saferproducts.gov , in addition to... well as popular social media outlets, such as Twitter, YouTube and Flickr, to disseminate information... to public outreach and education campaigns that could prevent infant fatalities caused by unsafe...

  11. Controllable circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    A switch-mode power circuit comprises a controllable element and a control unit. The controllable element is configured to control a current in response to a control signal supplied to the controllable element. The control unit is connected to the controllable element and provides the control...

  12. Korunan alanların zamansal ve ekolojik değişiminin parçalılık analizi yardımıyla izlenmesi: Karagöl-Sahara Milli Parkı örneği

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet YAVUZ

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Korunan alanlar yeryüzündeki biyolojik çeşitliliğin korunmasında en etkin mekanizmalardan biridir. Korunan alanların sürdürülebilir bir şekilde yönetilmesi, barındırdığı habitat tipleri ve ekolojik yapının devamlılığının sağlanması için alanda geçmişten günümüze yaşanan değişimin sistematik bir şekilde izlenip değerlendirilmesi gerekmektedir. Bu çalışma, Karagöl-Sahara Milli Parkı’ndaki habitat yapısının zamansal ve ekolojik bakımdan ne ölçüde değiştiğini ölçmek ve değişimin ne yönde ilerlediğini ortaya koymak amacıyla parça, sınıf ve tüm alan düzeyinde parçalılık analizi ve fragmantasyon indeksleri yardımıyla gerçekleştirilmiştir. Bu amaçla, veri kaynağı olarak 1971 ve 1984 yıllarına ait memleket paftaları, 1984 ve 2015 yıllarına ait meşcere haritaları ve 2015 yılına ait dijital renkli kızıl ötesi hava fotoğraflarından yararlanılmıştır. Sahadaki ekolojik yapının 45 yıllık değişimi çekirdek alan (MCA, parça yoğunluğu (PD, ortalama parça büyüklüğü (MPS, ortalama şekil indisi (MSI, ortalama en yakın komşuluk mesafesi (MNN ve karışım-dizilim (IJI indisleri kullanılarak CBS ortamında analiz edilmiştir. Analiz sonuçlarına göre toplam orman alanlarının (verimli+bozuk 1971’den 1984 yılına kadar %3 oranında düşüş gösterdiği, 1984 yılından 2015 yılına kadar bu düşüşün % 12 oranında devam ettiği görülmüştür. Orman alanlarındaki bu habitat kaybının doğal afetler sonucunda orman içi açıklıklara dönüştüğü, OT alanlarındaki son 45 yılda meydana gelen % 40 artış ile açıklanabilir. Diğer taraftan 1984 yılında sırasıyla 30 ve 221 ha genişliğinde olan iskân ve ziraat alanları, çoğunlukla bozuk ve verimli ormana dönüşerek 2015 yılında 20 ve 158 ha’a inmiştir. İskân ve ziraat alanlarındaki bu gerileme, 1980’li yıllarda hızlanmaya başlayan kırdan kente göç sonucu

  13. Control rod control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seiji, Takehiko; Obara, Kohei; Yanagihashi, Kazumi

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a device suitable for switching of electric motors for driving each of control rods in a nuclear reactor. Namely, in a control rod controlling device, a plurality of previously allotted electric motors connected in parallel as groups, and electric motors of any selected group are driven. In this case, a voltage of not driving predetermined selected electric motors is at first applied. In this state an electric current supplied to the circuit of predetermined electric motors is detected. Whether integration or failure of a power source and the circuit of the predetermined electric motors are normal or not is judged by the detected electric current supplied. After they are judged normal, the electric motors are driven by a regular voltage. With such procedures, whether the selected circuit is normal or not can be accurately confirmed previously. Since the electric motors are not driven just at the selected time, the control rods are not operated erroneously. (I.S.)

  14. CONTROLLING THE SPEED OF ROLLING CUTS IN CONDITIONS OF REDUCTION OF BRAKE POWER OF CAR RETARDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Kozachenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The study aims to develop the requirements for organization of the marshalling process in the conditions when the power of retarder positions is less than the nominal one. Methodology. The research is carried out using the train traffic safety theory and mathematical modelling of hump processes. Findings. The current technical standard documents regulating the operational performance of humps do not contain direct instructions on how to proceed in the event of brake power loss by car retarders, thus creating threats to the traffic safety. This problem is quite acute for the Ukrainian railways in connection with a chronic shortage of funds for the repair and renewal of technical equipment, including the humps. At the same time, a significant drop in the volume of work leads to the fact that the hump required processing capacity can be provided in case of partial failure of retarders as well. Herewith the most important task is to ensure the breaking-up safety in conditions of parametric failures of retarders. The analysis of dangerous situations, the occurrence of which is possible at humps, as well as the modelling of cut rolling, allowed establishing the connection between the value of retarder tire pressing force on the car wheels and the breaking-up modes, providing the safety of marshalling process. The paper sets the application areas of such measures as the breaking-up speed reduction, breaking-up termination, the use of additional braking by block hangers. Originality. The originality of the work lies in the fact that it first obtained the complex of dependencies that determine the performance requirements for the power of hump retarders and allow the staff to enter the appropriate limits for breaking-up modes to ensure the marshalling process safety. Practical value. The results of the research can be used to supplement the «Instruction on the maintenance of facilities of mechanized and automated humps» in order to determine

  15. On Pointwise Approximation of Conjugate Functions by Some Hump Matrix Means of Conjugate Fourier Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Łenski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The results generalizing some theorems on N, pnE, γ summability are shown. The same degrees of pointwise approximation as in earlier papers by weaker assumptions on considered functions and examined summability methods are obtained. From presented pointwise results, the estimation on norm approximation is derived. Some special cases as corollaries are also formulated.

  16. COMPARATIVE GROSS ANATOMICAL STUDIES OF THE SKULL OF ONE-HUMPED CAMEL (CAMELUS DROMEDARIUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. U. Shahid and R. Kausar

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The skull of camel when viewed from above was irregularly pentagonal in outline. It was widest in the frontal region and contained the orbits laterally. The occipital bone formed the entire nuchal surface and encroached upon the dorsal surface about 1.75 to 2 inches. It joined the parietal bone at transverse suture. A rough transverse ridge separated the parietal and nuchal surfaces. The mastoid foramen was very large and situated in a deep fossa in the occipital bone in contrast to ox, where it lay at the junction of occipital and temporal bones. The cornual processes were absent. The supraorbital foramen was in the form of a deep fissure, at the rostrolateral margin of the orbit. There was no maxillary tuberosity and facial crest. The pre maxilla had a dorsomedially concave and narrow pointed body. The nasal bones were notched rostromedially and nasal apertures were oval in outline. The body of mandible was long, narrow and concave dorsomedially. The intermandibular space was “V” shaped. The vertical ramus of mandible was thin and convex caudally and the angles were not pronounced, while the rostral border was thick and wide. The coronoid process was almost straight with caudal end slightly pointed. The condyliod process was large and its dorsal surface contained the extensive articular surfaces, which were convex. There was a shallow mandibular notch. The mandibular foramen was in the middle of the medial surface of the ramus of mandible.

  17. First report on circulation of Echinococcus ortleppi in the one humped camel (Camelus dromedaries), Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmed, Mohamed E.; Eltom, Kamal H.; Musa, Nasreen O.; Ali, Ibtisam A.; Elamin, Fatima M.; Grobusch, Martin P.; Aradaib, Imadeldin E.

    2013-01-01

    Echinococcus granulosus (EG) complex, the cause of cystic echinococcosis (CE), infects humans and several other animal species worldwide and hence the disease is of public health importance. Ten genetic variants, or genotypes designated as (G1-G10), are distributed worldwide based on genetic

  18. Development of large area CsI photocathodes for the Alice/Humped Rich detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoedlmoser, H.

    2005-03-01

    The work carried out within the framework of this PhD deals with the measurement of the photoelectric properties of large area thin film cesium iodide photocathodes (PCs) which are to be used as a photon converter in a proximity focusing RICH detector for High Momentum Particle Identification (HMPID) in the ALICE experiment at the LHC. The objective was to commission a VUV-scanner setup for in-situ measurements of the photoelectric response of the CsI PCs and the use of this system to investigate the properties of these photon detectors. Among the investigated phenomena the most important ones were: - Post deposition treatment: from R and D studies it was known, that the PC response can be increased by heating the PC after the coating process. Within this thesis it was shown that the enhancement effect is mandatory to achieve the photon conversion efficiency required by the detector design and that any difference in PC quality is due to differences in this enhancement effect. - Ageing effects: CsI PCs age under exposure to humidity due to the hygroscopicity of CsI and under high photon flux and ion bombardment inside the Multi Wire Proportional Chamber (MWPC) of the detector. All three effects have been investigated with the VUV scanner. The first effect requires a careful treatment of the CsI PCs to avoid exposure to humid air. Furthermore this effect was found to be reversible if the PC is heated. High photon fluxes are irrelevant in a Cherenkov detector dealing with single photons, however, the problem needed to be investigated to verify that the measurement process itself does not damage the PCs. The third mechanism is very important as it occurs during normal detector operation and depends only on the radiation environment of the experiment. For a dose corresponding to 20 years of operation inside ALICE an accelerated test showed a clear degradation of up to 40 % of the PC response. With the results of these studies the first 17 PCs (of 42) for the detector were produced and analyzed in the VUV-scanner. The results were compared with an evaluation of the PCs inside the final detector modules using charged particle beams. The comparison of scanner and test beam results showed the reliability of the VUV-scanner system and the comparability of a high photon flux photocurrent measurement under vacuum with the single photon counting process in the detector. (author)

  19. Soroprevalência do Toxoplasma gondii em galinhas (Gallus gallus domesticus de criações domésticas, oriundas de propriedades rurais do Norte do Paraná, Brasil Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in back yard chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus from rural properties in North region of Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Luis Garcia

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available O Toxoplasma gondii é um protozoário que pode infectar todos os animais homeotérmicos. No presente trabalho, verificou-se a ocorrência de anticorpos anti-T. gondii em galinhas de criações domésticas (fundo de quintal, oriundas de propriedades rurais localizadas no município de Jaguapitã, Estado do Paraná, Brasil. Estudos prévios demostraram que o parasita está amplamente disseminado nas diferentes espécies de animais domésticos, de companhia e no homem nessas mesmas propriedades. Os soros foram submetidos à reação de Imunofluorescência Indireta, sendo a positividade considerada para àqueles títulos maiores ou iguais a 16. Foram estudados 155 soros , sendo que 16 (10,3% foram reagentes à toxoplasmose, e 139 (89,7% não reagentes. Os títulos mais freqüentes foram de 64 (5/31,2%, 16 e 1024 (ambos com 4/25% e o maior t��tulo encontrado foi de 1024 (4/25%. A soroprevalência do T. gondii não foi influenciada pelo sexo da ave (Exato de Fisher p = 0,12, pela finalidade da criação (corte ou postura, Exato de Fisher p = 0,39, pela percentagem de felinos sororeagentes na propriedade (r = -0,19 p = 0,27, nem pelo número de felinos sororeagentes (r = -0,09 p = 0,60. Através do presente trabalho, demostrou-se uma ocorrência elevada da resposta sorológica ao T. gondii em aves domésticas oriundas de propriedades rurais neste município, conseqüentemente esses animais podem representar risco de infecção para o homem e para outros animais quando consumidos crus ou mal cozidos.Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoa that can infect all homeothermic animals. The occurrence of antibodies against T. gondii in back yard chicken, from rural properties of Jaguapitã county, Paraná State, Brazil was studied, serun samples were analysed by Indirect Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA. Titers higher or equal to 16 were considered positives. A total of 155 sera were studied, 16 (10.3% of which were positive to T. gondii, whereas 139 (89.7% were non

  20. Control Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This feature class represents electric power Control Areas. Control Areas, also known as Balancing Authority Areas, are controlled by Balancing Authorities, who are...

  1. Control of control charts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sri Nurdiati, S.N.

    2005-01-01

    Although the Shewhart chart is widely used in practice because of its simplicity, applying this control chart to monitor the mean of a process may lead to two types of problems. The first concerns the typically unknown parameters involved in the distribution, while the second concerns the validity

  2. DETERMINATION OF HYDRODYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF A RADIO-CONTROLLED AIRPLANE MODEL WITH AIR CUSHION LANDING GEAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of the hydrodynamic parameters of radio-controlled models (RCM of the aircraft with the landing gear on an air cushion (REFERENCED obtained during tests in the water tank of TSAGI NIMC on land- ing modes with varying alignment and pressure in air cushion chassis on calm and disturbed water surfaces.ACLG’s RCM is based on the Froude criterion. The experimental data of the real aircraft Dingo, LMS, An-26, C-130 Hercules (size, weight, thrust parameters were processed. Tests were carried out, using the standard testbed, utiliz- ing the dynamically-corresponding models in the water tank. Drag best value rate while travelling along the smooth water was reached at the rear centering, with balloon pressure on the water of 700 Pa. In this case, the hump drag, at velocity of 2 mps, does not exceed 29 Newtons (hydrodynamic fineness on the ‘drag hump’ is, Кг=13,5, while at velocity of 10 mps, the drag is 30 Newtons, at Кг =13.The most unfavourable mode of motion is the one with configuration of lowered pressure in the balloons (400 Pa.In these cases, the Кг = 6,5. At motion with yaw angle of 10º, the drag rate meaning practically stands stable (Кг = 13,1, while at 20º it grows (Кг = 10,6.At motion along the waved surface, the critical wave length equals to two thirds of the ACU, while drag raises by the quarter, compared to other wave types. Such vehicles can be used in the hard-to-reach regions of the Russian Federation.

  3. Dream controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, George Shu-Xing; Mulkey, Steven L; Wang, Qiang; Chow, Andrew J

    2013-11-26

    A method and apparatus for intelligently controlling continuous process variables. A Dream Controller comprises an Intelligent Engine mechanism and a number of Model-Free Adaptive (MFA) controllers, each of which is suitable to control a process with specific behaviors. The Intelligent Engine can automatically select the appropriate MFA controller and its parameters so that the Dream Controller can be easily used by people with limited control experience and those who do not have the time to commission, tune, and maintain automatic controllers.

  4. Controllable dose; Dosis controlable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez R, J T; Anaya M, R A [ININ, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    With the purpose of eliminating the controversy about the lineal hypothesis without threshold which found the systems of dose limitation of the recommendations of ICRP 26 and 60, at the end of last decade R. Clarke president of the ICRP proposed the concept of Controllable Dose: as the dose or dose sum that an individual receives from a particular source which can be reasonably controllable by means of any means; said concept proposes a change in the philosophy of the radiological protection of its concern by social approaches to an individual focus. In this work a panorama of the foundations is presented, convenient and inconveniences that this proposal has loosened in the international community of the radiological protection, with the purpose of to familiarize to our Mexican community in radiological protection with these new concepts. (Author)

  5. Metallurgical and mechanical parameters controlling alloy 718 stress corrosion cracking resistance in PWR primary water; Facteurs metallurgiques et mecaniques controlant l'amorcage de defauts de corrosion sous contrainte dans l'alliage 718 en milieu primaire des reacteurs a eau sous pression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deleume, J

    2007-11-15

    Improving the performance and reliability of the fuel assemblies of the pressurized water reactors requires having a perfect knowledge of the operating margins of both the components and the materials. The choice of alloy 718 as reference material for this study is justified by the industrial will to identify the first order parameters controlling the excellent resistance of this alloy to Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC). For this purpose, a specific slow strain rate (SSR) crack initiation test using tensile specimen with a V-shaped hump in the middle of the gauge length was developed and modeled. The selectivity of such SSR tests in simulated PWR primary water at 350 C was clearly established by characterizing the SCC resistance of nine alloy 718 thin strip heats. Regardless of their origin and in spite of a similar thermo-mechanical history, they did not exhibit the same susceptibility to SCC crack initiation. All the characterized alloy 718 heats develop oxide scale of similar nature for various exposure times to PWR primary medium in the temperature range [320 C - 360 C]. {delta} phase precipitation has no impact on alloy 718 SCC initiation behavior when exposed to PWR primary water, contrary to interstitial contents and the triggering of plastic instabilities (PLC phenomenon). (author)

  6. Mosquito Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Labs and Research Centers Contact Us Share Mosquito Control About Mosquitoes General Information Life Cycle Information from ... Repellent that is Right for You DEET Mosquito Control Methods Success in mosquito control: an integrated approach ...

  7. Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birth control, also known as contraception, is designed to prevent pregnancy. Birth control methods may work in a number of different ... eggs that could be fertilized. Types include birth control pills, patches, shots, vaginal rings, and emergency contraceptive ...

  8. Neurofuzzy Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Jan

    1997-01-01

    These notes are for a course in fuzzy control and neural networks. By neural networks we more precisely mean neurofuzzy systems rather than pure neural network theory. The notes are an extension to the existing notes on fuzzy control (Jantzen, Fuzzy Control, 1994).......These notes are for a course in fuzzy control and neural networks. By neural networks we more precisely mean neurofuzzy systems rather than pure neural network theory. The notes are an extension to the existing notes on fuzzy control (Jantzen, Fuzzy Control, 1994)....

  9. Control rod position control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubukata, Shinji.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a control rod position control device which stores data such as of position signals and driving control rod instruction before and after occurrence of abnormality in control for the control rod position for controlling reactor power and utilized the data effectively for investigating the cause of abnormality. Namely, a plurality of individual control devices have an operation mismatching detection circuit for outputting signals when difference is caused between a driving instruction given to the control rod position control device and the control rod driving means and signals from a detection means for detecting an actual moving amount. A general control device collectively controls the individual control devices. In addition, there is also disposed a position storing circuit for storing position signals at least before and after the occurrence of the control rod operation mismatching. With such procedures, the cause of the abnormality can be determined based on the position signals before and after the occurrence of control rod mismatching operation stored in the position storing circuit. Accordingly, the abnormality cause can be determined to conduct restoration in an early stage. (I.S.)

  10. Efavirenz, Emtricitabine, and Tenofovir

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HIV-related illnesses such as serious infections or cancer. Taking these medications along with practicing safer sex ... of hormonal contraceptives (birth control pills, patches, rings, implants, or ... (''buffalo hump''), breasts, and around your stomach. You may notice a ...

  11. Control rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Hiromi.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To realize effective utilization, cost reduction and weight reduction in neutron absorbing materials. Constitution: Residual amount of neutron absorbing material is averaged between the top end region and other regions of a control rod upon reaching to the control rod working life, by using a single kind of neutron absorbing material and increasing the amount of the neutron absorber material at the top end region of the control rod as compared with that in the other regions. Further, in a case of a control rod having control rod blades such as in a cross-like control rod, the amount of the neutron absorbing material is decreased in the middle portion than in the both end portions of the control rod blade along the transversal direction of the rod, so that the residual amount of the neutron absorbing material is balanced between the central region and both end regions upon reaching the working life of the control rod. (Yoshihara, H.)

  12. Control apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doll, D.W.

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear reactor system is described in which flexible control rods are used to enable insertion of the control rods into guide holes in the core which are distributed over an area larger than the cross section of the control rod penetration in the reactor pressure vessel. Guide tubes extend from the penetration and fan out to the guide holes for guiding the control rods from the penetration to the guide holes

  13. Gaining control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enden, van der E.; Laan, van der R.

    2008-01-01

    The article reports on the efforts of companies to find a solution for tax risk management, tax accounting and being in control. In trying to find a solution, companies work towards an integrated tax control framework (TCF), a tax risk management and control environment embedded in the internal

  14. Associational control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Helge Søndergaard; Lund, Henrik Lambrecht; Grosen, Sidsel Lond

    2010-01-01

    Over the last 30 years, the concept of control has had a central position in research into the psychological working environment. Control has been understood as individual autonomy and individual opportunities for development. This article examines whether the concept of control has the same key...

  15. Optimal control

    CERN Document Server

    Aschepkov, Leonid T; Kim, Taekyun; Agarwal, Ravi P

    2016-01-01

    This book is based on lectures from a one-year course at the Far Eastern Federal University (Vladivostok, Russia) as well as on workshops on optimal control offered to students at various mathematical departments at the university level. The main themes of the theory of linear and nonlinear systems are considered, including the basic problem of establishing the necessary and sufficient conditions of optimal processes. In the first part of the course, the theory of linear control systems is constructed on the basis of the separation theorem and the concept of a reachability set. The authors prove the closure of a reachability set in the class of piecewise continuous controls, and the problems of controllability, observability, identification, performance and terminal control are also considered. The second part of the course is devoted to nonlinear control systems. Using the method of variations and the Lagrange multipliers rule of nonlinear problems, the authors prove the Pontryagin maximum principle for prob...

  16. Automatic Adviser on stationary devices status identification and anticipated change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabelnikov, A. N.; Liabakh, N. N.; Gibner, Ya M.; Pushkarev, E. A.

    2018-05-01

    A task is defined to synthesize an Automatic Adviser to identify the automation systems stationary devices status using an autoregressive model of changing their key parameters. An applied model type was rationalized and the research objects monitoring process algorithm was developed. A complex of mobile objects status operation simulation and prediction results analysis was proposed. Research results are commented using a specific example of a hump yard compressor station. The work was supported by the Russian Fundamental Research Fund, project No. 17-20-01040.

  17. Automatic Adviser on Mobile Objects Status Identification and Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabelnikov, A. N.; Liabakh, N. N.; Gibner, Ya M.; Saryan, A. S.

    2018-05-01

    A mobile object status identification task is defined within the image discrimination theory. It is proposed to classify objects into three classes: object operation status; its maintenance is required and object should be removed from the production process. Two methods were developed to construct the separating boundaries between the designated classes: a) using statistical information on the research objects executed movement, b) basing on regulatory documents and expert commentary. Automatic Adviser operation simulation and the operation results analysis complex were synthesized. Research results are commented using a specific example of cuts rolling from the hump yard. The work was supported by Russian Fundamental Research Fund, project No. 17-20-01040.

  18. Leisure-time physical activity patterns by weight control status: 1999-2002 NHANES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Judy; Yore, Michelle M; Kohl, Harold W

    2007-05-01

    Regular physical activity reduces the risk of hypertension, type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, stroke, and some cancers. Physical activity is associated inversely with overweight and obesity prevalence, thus potentially assisting in weight control efforts. The purpose of this paper is to examine the variability of physical activity levels and their patterns by self-reported weight control status in a nationally representative sample. Four years of data from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used to examine leisure-time physical activity patterns (regular, irregular, inactive) and the prevalence of weight control practices (trying to lose, trying to maintain, not trying to lose or maintain) among U.S. adults (N = 9496). The prevalence of regular physical activity was 32.6% among people trying to lose weight, 37.9% among people trying to maintain weight, and 21.8% among those not trying to lose or maintain weight. Those trying to lose weight were almost three times as likely to be regularly active (vs inactive), and those trying to maintain weight were over three times more likely to be regularly active (vs inactive) than those not trying to lose or maintain weight. The most commonly reported activities among those trying to lose weight were walking (38.3%), yard work (14.5%), biking (12.5%), and running (11.6%). Despite the importance of physical activity, fewer than half the people trying to lose or maintain weight were regularly active during leisure-time. People trying to lose or maintain weight had a higher likelihood of being regularly active than those not trying to lose or maintain weight. Walking was the most common type of physical activity among all weight control groups. Health promotion efforts should promote increased levels of physical activity among all adults.

  19. Taking Control

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-01

    This podcast gives action steps and reasons to control diabetes.  Created: 11/1/2007 by National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP), a joint program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health.   Date Released: 11/2/2007.

  20. Control Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toso, Robert B.

    2000-01-01

    Inspired by William Glasser's Reality Therapy ideas, Control Theory (CT) is a disciplinary approach that stresses people's ability to control only their own behavior, based on internal motivations to satisfy five basic needs. At one North Dakota high school, CT-trained teachers are the program's best recruiters. (MLH)

  1. CONTROL ROD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D.E.; Matras, S.

    1963-04-30

    This patent shows a method of making a fuel or control rod for a nuclear reactor. Fuel or control material is placed within a tube and plugs of porous metal wool are inserted at both ends. The metal wool is then compacted and the tube compressed around it as by swaging, thereby making the plugs liquid- impervious but gas-pervious. (AEC)

  2. Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... even if you aren’t going for birth control. What doesn’t work to prevent pregnancy? top It’s ... and taking care of a baby’s many needs. What if I need birth control in an emergency? top Emergency contraception (EC) is ...

  3. Integrated controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollaway, F.W.

    1985-01-01

    During 1984, all portions of the Nova control system that were necessary for the support of laser activation and completion of the Nova project were finished and placed in service on time. The Nova control system has been unique in providing, on schedule, the capabilities required in the central control room and in various local control areas throughout the facility. The ambitious goal of deploying this system early enough to use it as an aid in the activation of the laser was accomplished; thus the control system made a major contribution to the completion of Nova activation on schedule. Support and enhancement activities continued during the year on the VAX computer systems, central control room, operator consoles and displays, Novanet data communications network, system-level software for both the VAX and LSI-11 computers, Praxis control system computer language, software management tools, and the development system, which includes office terminals. Computational support was also supplied for a wide variety of test fixtures required by the optical and mechanical subsystems. Significant new advancements were made in four areas in integrated controls this year: the integration software (which includes the shot scheduler), the Praxis language, software quality assurance audit, and software development and data handling. A description of the accomplishments in each of these areas follows

  4. Controlling Hypertension

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    A recent study found an increase in self-reported high blood pressure among U.S. adults, and an increase in the use of medications to control high blood pressure. This podcast discusses the importance of controlling high blood pressure.

  5. Experiencing control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monaci, G.; Braspenning, R.A.C.; Meerbeek, B.W.; Bingley, P.; Rajagopalan, R.; Triki, M.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the activities carried out in the first part of the Experiencing Control project (2008-324). The guiding idea of the project is to make control part of the experience, exploring new interaction solutions for complex, engaging interactions with Philips devices in the living

  6. Control rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, Kazuo; Shimoshige, Takanori; Nishimura, Akira

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: A control rod has been developed, which provided a plurality of through-holes in the vicinity of the sheath fitting position, in order to flatten burn-up, of fuel rods in positions confronting a control rod. Thereby to facilitate the manufacture of the control rods and prevent fuel rod failures. Constitution: A plurality of through-holes are formed in the vicinity of the sheath fitting position of a central support rod to which a sheath for the control rod is fitted. These through-holes are arranged in the axial direction of the central support rod. Accordingly, burn-up of fuel rods confronting the control rods can be reduced by through-holes and fuel rod failures can be prevented. (Yoshino, Y.)

  7. Describing control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouet, J.M.; Starynkevitch, B.

    1987-01-01

    Incremental development and maintenance of large systems imply that control be clearly separated from knowledge. Finding efficient control for a given class of knowledge is itself a matter of expertise, to which knowledge-based methods may and should be applied. We present here two attempts at building root systems that may later be tuned by knowledge engineers, using the semantics of each particular application. These systems are given heuristics in a declarative manner, which they use to control the application of heuristics. Eventually, some heuristics may be used to compile others (or themselves) into efficient pieces of programmed code

  8. Drug Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leviton, Harvey S.

    1975-01-01

    This article attempts to assemble pertinent information about the drug problem, particularily marihuana. It also focuses on the need for an educational program for drug control with the public schools as the main arena. (Author/HMV)

  9. Institutional Controls

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of institutional control data from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different...

  10. Control rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preuss, W.

    1990-01-01

    The current state of knowledge about screen systems for application in traffic (e.g., flight control), process control, and production is presented. The 29 lectures, 5 of which relate to aviation, deal with the optimization of the man-machine interface with respect to unusual operating situations and adequate presentation and action methods on the basis of taks and event analyses integrating the users. (DG) [de

  11. Controlling Hypertension

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Hypertension, or high blood pressure, affects one third of U.S. adults and is a leading cause of heart disease and stroke. A recent study found an increase in self-reported high blood pressure among U.S. adults, and an increase in the use of medications to control high blood pressure. In this podcast, Dr. Fleetwood Loustalot discusses the importance of controlling high blood pressure.

  12. Control rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koga, Isao; Masuoka, Ryuzo.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent fuel element failures during power conditioning by removing liquid absorbents in poison tubes of control rods in a fast power up step and extracting control rods to slightly increase power in a medium power up step. Constitution: A plurality of poison tubes are disposed in a coaxial or plate-like arrangement and divided into a region capable of compensating the reactivity from the initial state at low temperature to 40% power operation and a region capable of compensating the reactivity in the power up above 40% power operation. Soluble poisons are used as absorbers in the poison tubes corresponding to above 40% power operation and they are adapted to be removed independently from the driving of control rods. The poison tubes filled with the soluble absorbers are responsible for the changes in the reactivity from the initial state at low temperature to the medium power region and the reactivity control is conducted by the elimination of liquid absorbers from the poison tubes. In the succeeding slight power up region above the medium power, power up is proceeding by extracting the control rods having remaining poison tubes filled with solid or liquid absorbers. (Seki, T.)

  13. Losing control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leppink, Eric; Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Lust, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    picking disorder). CONCLUSIONS: Assaultive behavior appears fairly common among college students and is associated with symptoms of depression and impulse control disorders. Significant distress and diminished behavioral control suggest that assaultive behaviors may often be associated with significant......OBJECTIVE: Assaultive behaviors are common among young people and have been associated with a range of other unhealthy, impulsive behaviors such as substance use and problem gambling. This study sought to determine the predictive ability of single assaultive incidents for impulse control disorders......, an association that has yet to be examined, especially in young adults. METHODS: The authors conducted a university-wide email survey in the spring of 2011 on 6000 university students. The survey examined assaultive behavior and associated mental health variables (using a clinically validated screening...

  14. Coordinating controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1986-07-15

    While physics Laboratories are having to absorb cuts in resources, the machines they rely on are becoming more and more complex, requiring increasingly sophisticated systems. Rather than being a resourceful engineer or physicist able to timber together solutions in his 'backyard', the modern controls specialist has become a professional in his own right. Because of possible conflicts between increasing sophistication on one hand and scarcer resources on the other, there was felt a need for more contacts among controls specialists to exchange experiences, coordinate development and discuss 'family problems', away from meetings where the main interest is on experimental physics.

  15. Helicopter Controllability

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-01

    106 3. Program CC Systems Technology, Inc. (STI) of Hawthorne, CA., develops and markets PC control system analysis and design software including...is marketed in Palo Alto, Ca., by Applied i and can be used for both linear and non- linear control system analysis. Using TUTSIM involves developing...gravity centroid ( ucg ) can be calculated as 112 n m pi - 2 zi acg n i (7-5) where pi = poles zi = zeroes n = number of poles m = number of zeroes If K

  16. Coordinating controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    While physics Laboratories are having to absorb cuts in resources, the machines they rely on are becoming more and more complex, requiring increasingly sophisticated systems. Rather than being a resourceful engineer or physicist able to timber together solutions in his 'backyard', the modern controls specialist has become a professional in his own right. Because of possible conflicts between increasing sophistication on one hand and scarcer resources on the other, there was felt a need for more contacts among controls specialists to exchange experiences, coordinate development and discuss 'family problems', away from meetings where the main interest is on experimental physics

  17. Topology control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchin, K.; Buchin, M.; Wagner, D.; Wattenhofer, R.

    2007-01-01

    Information between two nodes in a network is sent based on the network topology, the structure of links connecting pairs of nodes of a network. The task of topology control is to choose a connecting subset from all possible links such that the overall network performance is good. For instance, a

  18. Control mental

    OpenAIRE

    Bueno i Torrens, David, 1965-

    2013-01-01

    La revista especialitzada NeuroReport ha publicat un article que m'ha aportat nous elements de reflexió sobre els mecanismes neurals de control mental que, de forma innata, realitzem les persones com a part de la nostra vida social.

  19. Control rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, Takao; Yoshimoto, Yuichiro; Sugawara, Satoshi; Fukumoto, Takashi; Endo, Zen-ichiro; Saito, Shozo; Shinpo, Katsutoshi; Nishimura, Akira; Ozawa, Michihiro

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a sufficient shutdown margin upon reactor shutdown, prevent sheath deformation without decreasing neutron absorbents and prevent impact shocks exerted to structural materials. Constitution: The control rod of the present invention comprises a neutron absorption region, a sheath deformation means attached to the side wall and means for restricting and supporting axial movement of the neutron absorbent rod. Then, the amount of absorptive nuclei chained absorbents in the lower region is reduced than that in the upper region. In this way, effective neutron absorbing performance can be obtained relative to the neutron importance distribution during reactor shutdown. In addition, since the operationability is improved by reducing the weight of the control rod and the absorptive nuclei chained neutron abosrbers are used, mechanical nuclear life of the control rod can be increased. Thus, it is possible to prevent the outward deformation of the sheath, as well as prevent collision between the neutron absorber rod and the structural material on the side of inserting the control rod generated upon reactor scram by a simple structure. (Kamimura, M.)

  20. New Shinkansen operation management and control systems for Tohoku-Joetsu Shinkansen; Tohoku Joetsu Shinkansen no atarashii Shinkansen sogo system `COSMOS`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otsuki, K. [East Japan Railway Co., Tokyo (Japan); Koda, K.; Uchimura, T.; Okazaki, S.; Imagawa, T.; Kawaguchi, K. [Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    Computerized Safety, Maintenance and Operation Systems of Shinkansen (COSMOS) has been developed to properly deal with the diversification and modernization of Shinkansen business and the improvement of its system. To avoid the concentration of duties and loads on any part of the system, the system functions are distributed into eight subsystems, which respectively cover transportation planning, operation management, maintenance work management, power system control, rolling stock management, centralized information management, facilities management, and yard operation management. The COSMOS is a huge system distributed across a large area whose 500 computers and terminals located in the eight subsystems and offices related with Shinkansen are linked by a network. A concept of autonomy and distribution is introduced into the system so that the impact on the others will be kept to the minimum in case some subsystems come to a stop. The new system is excellent in maintainability, flexibility, and extendability, and its operation room is quite compact. The COSMOS has been working smoothly since the beginning of its service, contributing to the modernization of Shinkansen business, such as rapid restoration in case of timetable disturbance, reduction in station workload, improved passenger guidance service, and centralization of section control business. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  1. Model of a Nuclear Security Naval Agency for radiation control of the Industrial Complex of of Submarine Construction and Maintenance Ship with Nuclear Propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lins Junior, Amilton de Sousa

    2017-01-01

    Due to the construction, by Brazilian Navy, of a Submarine Construction and Maintenance Ship with Nuclear Propulsion, where, among other activities, the commissioning and exchange of the fuel elements of the reactor in the future Nuclear Submarine, and of a Naval Base where the Nuclear Submarine and the Conventional Submarines, it is necessary the establishment of a Nuclear Security Naval Agency to monitor activities involving ionizing radiation sources and nuclear materials aimed at the radiological protection of exposed occupationally individuals (IOE), the general public and the environment. It should be noted that nuclear and radioactive material will be present only in a part of the yard called Radiological Complex. Therefore, the development of a structure for the control of the Radiological Complex is fundamental, considering that the future licensing process will be unprecedented in Brazil and will face several difficulties. This work presents a model of a structure for the radiological control of the industrial complex for the construction and maintenance of the submarine with nuclear propulsion, as well as the fundamental concepts of the activities, such as inspection, regulations and authorizations, to be carried out by the various component sectors of the Nuclear Security Naval Agency. (author)

  2. COPD - control drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - control drugs; Bronchodilators - COPD - control drugs; Beta agonist inhaler - COPD - control drugs; Anticholinergic inhaler - COPD - control drugs; Long-acting inhaler - COPD - control drugs; ...

  3. Morphological studies on the seasonal changes in the epididymal duct of the one-humped camel (camelus dromedarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed El-Zuhry Zayed

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The present work was carried out on 20 testes and epididymis of sexually mature camels to elucidate the gross anatomical, morphometerical, light microscopical and scanning electron microscopical features of the epididymis in different seasons. Anatomically, the epididymal duct of a camel consists of three parts head, body and tail. Histomorphologically, the epididymal duct is subdivided into initial, middle and terminal segments, of which the middle segment is further subdivided into proximal, intermediate and distal parts. There is a gradual decrease in the epithelial height of the epididymal duct from the initial to the terminal segments. This mechanically facilities passage of the sperms toward the terminal segment. High epithelium in the initial segment may indicate a more absorptive power of the epithelium in this segment. The seasonal reproductivety of the epididymal duct in the camel expressed by variations in the weight and volume of the epididymis, total diameter of the epididymal duct, epithelial height, length of the stereocilia, thickness of the muscular coat and cellular distributions in different segments. The spring months offer ideal circumstances for maximal reproductive activity in this species. The cellular components of the epididymal duct epithelium of the camel displays important morphological changes from season to another showing signs of increasing activity during spring in comparison to decreasing activity in other seasons. PAS positive granules are demonstrated in different segments of the epididymal duct and intraepithelial glands in different seasons. These granules are relatively more numerous in spring. The lamina propria surrounding the epididymal duct contains a layer of the elastic fibers which is very thick in winter, thick in spring and thin in other seasons. This increase in thickness of the elastic fibers predisposes for the increase in the total diameter of the epididymal duct in spring. It was conclude that the muscular coat of the middle and terminal segments is the thickest in spring that may be helpful for powerful ejaculation.

  4. Environmental controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, S.

    1996-01-01

    Members of the public are exposed to environmental radiations from a variety of sources. In terms of average dose received the major component is from natural sources of radiation for which there is little or no scope to reduce exposure. Where such opportunities do exist, in those homes with high radon concentrations, the householders tend to ignore the risks despite the availability of comparatively straightforward and inexpensive remediation measures. By comparison there is significant public concern about radioactive waste management and the disposal and discharge of radioactivity to the environment despite strict environmental controls. This paper describes the controls and the wider policy context for radioactive waste management following a major review of policy last year. (author)

  5. Controllable dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez R, J.T.; Anaya M, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    With the purpose of eliminating the controversy about the lineal hypothesis without threshold which found the systems of dose limitation of the recommendations of ICRP 26 and 60, at the end of last decade R. Clarke president of the ICRP proposed the concept of Controllable Dose: as the dose or dose sum that an individual receives from a particular source which can be reasonably controllable by means of any means; said concept proposes a change in the philosophy of the radiological protection of its concern by social approaches to an individual focus. In this work a panorama of the foundations is presented, convenient and inconveniences that this proposal has loosened in the international community of the radiological protection, with the purpose of to familiarize to our Mexican community in radiological protection with these new concepts. (Author)

  6. quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skujina, A.; Purina, S.; Riekstina, D.

    1999-01-01

    The optimal objects: soils, spruce needles and bracken ferns were found for the environmental monitoring in the regions of possible radioactive contamination - near SalaspiIs nuclear reactor and Ignalina nuclear power plant. The determination of Sr-90 was based on the radiochemical separation of Sr-90 (=Y-90) by HDEHP extraction and counting the Cerenkov radiation. The quality control of the results was carried out. (authors)

  7. Vehicle Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    UNISTICK is an airplane-like joystick being developed by Johnson Engineering under NASA and VA sponsorship. It allows a driver to control a vehicle with one hand, and is based upon technology developed for the Apollo Lunar Landings of the 1970's. It allows severely handicapped drivers to operate an automobile or van easily. The system is expected to be in production by March 1986.

  8. Control rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Toshikazu; Inoue, Kotaro.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To flatten the power distribution in the reactor core without impairing neutron economy by disposing pins containing elements of lower atomic number in the central region of a shroud and loading pins containing depleted uranium in the periphery region thereof. Constitution: The shroud has a layer of pins containing depleted uranium in the peripheral region and a layer of pins containing elements of lower atomic number such as beryllium in the central region. Heat removal from those pins containing depleted uranium and elements of lower atomic number (neutron moderator) is effected by sodium flow outside of the cladding material. The control rod operation is conducted by inserting or extracting the central portion (pins containing elements of lower atomic number such as beryllium) inside of the stainless pipe. Upon extraction of the control rod, the moderator in the central region is removed whereby high speed neutrons are no more deccelerated and the absorption rate to the depleted uranium is decreased. This can flatten the power distribution in the reactore core with the disposition of a plurality of control rods at a better neutron economy as compared with the use of neutron absorber such as boron. (Seki, T.)

  9. Control rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumoto, Takashi; Hirakawa, Hiromasa; Kawashima, Norio; Goto, Yasuyuki.

    1994-01-01

    Neutron absorbers are contained in a tubular member comprising, integrally a tubular portion and four corners disposed at the outer circumference of the tubular portion at every 90deg, to provide a neutron absorbing tube. A plurality of neutron absorbing tubes are arranged in parallel in the lateral direction, and adjacent corners are joined, into a blade to constitute a control rod. Such a control rod has a great structural strength, simple in the structure and relatively light in weight and can contain a great amount of neutron absorbers. Upon formation of the control rod by arranging the blades in a cross-like shape, at least a portion thereof is constituted with short neutron absorbing tubes shorter than the entire length of the blade, and gaps are formed at positions in adjacent in the axial direction. With such a constitution, there is no worry that a wing end of the blade collides against or be abraded with a fuel channel box or a fuel support. Even if fuel channels are vibrated upon scram of the reactor, such as occurrence of earthquakes, it can be inserted to the reactor easily. (N.H.)

  10. Controlled fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, Werner

    2002-01-01

    Contrary to natural fragmentation, controlled fragmentation offers the possibility to adapt fragment parameters like size and mass to the performance requirements in a very flexible way. Known mechanisms like grooves inside the casing, weaken the structure. This is, however, excluded for applications with high accelerations during launch or piercing requirements for example on a semi armor piercing penetrator. Another method to achieve controlled fragmentation with an additional grid layer is presented with which the required grooves are produced 'just in time' inside the casing during detonation of the high explosive. The process of generating the grooves aided by the grid layer was studied using the hydrocode HULL with respect to varying grid designs and material combinations. Subsequent to this, a large range of these theoretically investigated combinations was contemplated in substantial experimental tests. With an optimised grid design and a suitable material selection, the controlled fragment admits a very flexible adaptation to the set requirements. Additional advantages like the increase of perforation performance or incendiary amplification can be realized with the grid layer

  11. The Distribution and Movement of American Cockroaches in Urban Niches of New Orleans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, John C; Rabito, Felicia A; Werthmann, Derek; Fox, Mark

    2017-10-01

    American cockroaches are an important source of household allergens in tropical and semitropical climates. To determine which outdoor niches produce American cockroaches, traps were placed at 40 homes in New Orleans to collect nymphs. Nymphs were collected from the sewers, yards, and within the homes themselves. To compare sewers and yards as sources of cockroaches entering homes, adult cockroaches were collected, marked, and released into yards and sewers. No sewer-released cockroaches were collected in homes. Cockroaches released into yards were collected in the homes, suggesting that yards, rather than sewers, are a more important source niche. A field trial applying boric acid granules to the yard was performed in an effort to reduce entry of cockroaches. There was a significant reduction in the cockroach antigen collected in intervention homes compared with controls.

  12. Flow Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    can be written as â fj (t) =WO tanh( WIx (t)+bI)+bO, (38) where WI , WO are the input and output matrices, respectively, and bI and bO are the input...applications, present on envisioned airborne optical platforms . One of the problems is that all adaptive optical systems rely on mechanically moving some...of successfully controlling the optical aberration due to the flow over the aperture of airborne optical platforms . As outlined above, systems

  13. Soil treatment and groundwater control for No. 6 fuel oil and PCB contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girioni, M.J.; St. Hilaire, W.J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that as part of a Short-Term Measure ordered by the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection (DEP), soil contaminated by No. 6 fuel oil and low-level polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was excavated, treated and recycled on-site as an asphalt base course for a parking lot at an industrial complex in New Bedford, Massachusetts. Approximately 300 cubic yards of contaminated soil were treated with an asphalt emulsion and utilized as a aggregate component for asphalt processed at ambient temperatures during the month of December 1990. In order to determine if the contaminated soils to be recycled would be classified as a hazardous waste (as defined by the Massachusetts Hazardous Waste Regulations, 310 CMR 30.000), or if the soil to be recycled would pose a significant risk to health, safety or the environment, analytical testing of the contaminated soil was conducted prior, during and after treatment. Analytical testing included Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure (TCLP) analyses of the untreated and treated soil. An alternative solution to the standard groundwater pump-and-treat method was designed and constructed to control and recover the highly viscous floating petroleum product. A series of precast leaching galleys (oil collection chambers) and a precast leach pit (groundwater discharge structure) were constructed to alter the local groundwater table to induce groundwater flow by gravity into the leaching chambers. Passive (i.e., nonpumping) groundwater flow to the leaching chambers was induced by placing of the groundwater discharge structure hydraulically downgradient of the leaching chambers. Collected oil, separated by gravity, will be periodically vacuumed, as necessary, for proper off-site disposal. Excess water discharges to the downgradient leach pit

  14. Control rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, Takao; Sugawara, Satoshi; Yoshimoto, Yuichiro; Saito, Shozo; Fukumoto, Takashi.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce the weight and thereby obtain satisfactory operationability of control rods by combining absorbing nuclear chain type neutron absorbers and conventional type neutron absorbers in the axial direction of blades. Constitution: Neutron absorber rods and long life type neutron absorber rods are disposed in a tie rod and a sheath. The neutron absorber rod comprises a poison tube made of stainless steels and packed with B 4 C powder. The long life type neutron absorber rod is prepared by packing B-10 enriched boron carbide powder into a hafnium metal rod, hafnium pipe, europium and stainless made poison tube. Since the long life type absorber rod uses HF as the absorbing nuclear chain type neutron absorber, it absorbs neutrons to form new neutron absorbers to increase the nuclear life. (Yoshino, Y.)

  15. Control Valve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Wayne R.

    2018-03-20

    A control valve includes a first conduit having a first inlet and a first outlet and defining a first passage; a second conduit having a second inlet and a second outlet and defining a second passage, the second conduit extending into the first passage such that the second inlet is located within the first passage; and a valve plate disposed pivotably within the first passage, the valve plate defining a valve plate surface. Pivoting of the valve plate within the first passage varies flow from the first inlet to the first outlet and the valve plate is pivotal between a first position and a second position such that in the first position the valve plate substantially prevents fluid communication between the first passage and the second passage and such that in the second position the valve plate permits fluid communication between the first passage and the second passage.

  16. Control Prenatal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Susana Aguilera, DRA.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Los principales objetivos del control prenatal son identificar aquellos pacientes de mayor riesgo, con el fin de realizar intervenciones en forma oportuna que permitan prevenir dichos riesgos y así lograr un buen resultado perinatal. Esto se realiza a través de la historia médica y reproductiva de la mujer, el examen físico, la realización de algunos exámenes de laboratorio y exámenes de ultrasonido. Además es importante promover estilos de vida saludables, la suplementación de ácido fólico, una consejería nutricional y educación al respecto.

  17. Custom controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butell, Bart

    1996-02-01

    Microsoft's Visual Basic (VB) and Borland's Delphi provide an extremely robust programming environment for delivering multimedia solutions for interactive kiosks, games and titles. Their object oriented use of standard and custom controls enable a user to build extremely powerful applications. A multipurpose, database enabled programming environment that can provide an event driven interface functions as a multimedia kernel. This kernel can provide a variety of authoring solutions (e.g. a timeline based model similar to Macromedia Director or a node authoring model similar to Icon Author). At the heart of the kernel is a set of low level multimedia components providing object oriented interfaces for graphics, audio, video and imaging. Data preparation tools (e.g., layout, palette and Sprite Editors) could be built to manage the media database. The flexible interface for VB allows the construction of an infinite number of user models. The proliferation of these models within a popular, easy to use environment will allow the vast developer segment of 'producer' types to bring their ideas to the market. This is the key to building exciting, content rich multimedia solutions. Microsoft's VB and Borland's Delphi environments combined with multimedia components enable these possibilities.

  18. Control rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirukawa, Koji.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To ensure the fuel safety by constituting a control rod with a plurality of poison bodies suspended in a cross-like section and shorter length poison bodies made movable and engageable in the gap between each of the above poison bodies thereby maintaining the function of the shorter length poison constant. Constitution: Cross-like supports are secured to the upper and lower parts of a driving shaft journaled in a sheath and poison bodies composed of neutron absorber poisons of a large thermal neutron absorption cross section and neutron absorber poison tubes for containing them are suspended from the supports. A movable cross-like support is mounted slidably at its base to the lower part of the driving shaft and poison bodies shorter than the above poison bodies and composed of neutron absorber poisons having a greater absorption cross section at the neutron energy region higher than thermal neutron region and neutron poison tubes for containing them are suspended to the movable support at the position capable of engaging in the gap between each of the poison bodies. (Kawakami, Y.)

  19. Radiation control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Akira

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes on how the condition of radiation level in the ring (storage ring) experimentation room changes corresponding to the operating stage of SOR-ring (synchrotron radiation storage ring), and does not describe on the present radiation control in the SOR facility. The operating stage of SOR is divided into the following five: (1) 307 MeV electron injection, (2) 307 MeV electron storage (used for SOR experiments), (3) energy increase from 307 to 380 MeV, (4) 380 MeV electron storage, (5) re-injection and completion of operation. Gamma and X ray levels are shown when electron beam is injected from the electron synchrotron to the SOR-ring. Two main causes of the high level are reported. Spatial dose rate in storing 307 MeV electrons in also illustrated. This is sufficiently lower than that at electron incidence. The measurement of radiation level at the time of energy increase from 307 to 380 MeV has just started. Since the radiation level in 380 MeV storage, measured at the points about 20 cm apart from the electron orbit, showed several mR/h, the level seems to be negligible at the points where experiments are carried out, 1 m away from the measurement points. The radiation level in electron reinjection and completion of operation may be large during a short period (a few Roentgen) like the time of energy increase. Therefore, the beam shall be re-injected or decreased after confirming that all experimenters have retreated into the predetermined place. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  20. Microbial control on decomposition of radionuclides-containing oily waste in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selivanovskaya, Svetlana; Galitskaya, Polina

    2014-05-01

    The oily wastes are formed annually during extraction, refinement, and transportation of the oil and may cause pollution of the environment. These wastes contain different concentrations of waste oil (40-60%), waste water (30-90%), and mineral particles (5-40%). Some oily wastes also contain naturally occurring radionuclides which were incorporated by water that was pumped up with the oil. For assessment of the hazard level of waste treated soil, not only measurements of contaminants content are needed, because bioavailability of oily components varies with hydrocarbon type, and soil properties. As far as namely microbial communities control the decomposition of organic contaminants, biological indicators have become increasingly important in hazard assessment and the efficiency of remediation process. In this study the decomposition of radionuclides-containing oily waste by soil microbial communities were estimated. Waste samples collected at the Tikchonovskii petroleum production yard (Tatarstan, Russia) were mixed with Haplic greyzem soil at ratio 1:4 and incubated for 120 days. During incubation period, the total hydrocarbon content of the soil mixed with the waste reduced from 156 ± 48 g kg-1 to 54 ± 8 g kg-1 of soil. The concentrations of 226Ra and 232Th were found to be 643 ± 127, 254 ± 56 Bq kg-1 and not changed significantly during incubation. Waste application led to a soil microbial biomass carbon decrease in comparison to control (1.9 times after 1 day and 1.3 times after 120 days of incubation). Microbial respiration increased in the first month of incubation (up to 120% and 160% of control after 1 and 30 days, correspondingly) and decreased to the end of incubation period (74% of control after 120 days). Structure of bacterial community in soil and soil/waste mixture was estimated after 120 days of incubation using SSCP method. The band number decreased in contaminated soil in comparison to untreated soil. Besides, several new dominant DNA

  1. Model of a Nuclear Security Naval Agency for radiation control of the Industrial Complex of of Submarine Construction and Maintenance Ship with Nuclear Propulsion; Modelo de uma Agência Naval de Segurança Nuclear para o controle radiológico do complexo industrial de construção e manutenção do submarino com propulsão nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lins Junior, Amilton de Sousa

    2017-07-01

    Due to the construction, by Brazilian Navy, of a Submarine Construction and Maintenance Ship with Nuclear Propulsion, where, among other activities, the commissioning and exchange of the fuel elements of the reactor in the future Nuclear Submarine, and of a Naval Base where the Nuclear Submarine and the Conventional Submarines, it is necessary the establishment of a Nuclear Security Naval Agency to monitor activities involving ionizing radiation sources and nuclear materials aimed at the radiological protection of exposed occupationally individuals (IOE), the general public and the environment. It should be noted that nuclear and radioactive material will be present only in a part of the yard called Radiological Complex. Therefore, the development of a structure for the control of the Radiological Complex is fundamental, considering that the future licensing process will be unprecedented in Brazil and will face several difficulties. This work presents a model of a structure for the radiological control of the industrial complex for the construction and maintenance of the submarine with nuclear propulsion, as well as the fundamental concepts of the activities, such as inspection, regulations and authorizations, to be carried out by the various component sectors of the Nuclear Security Naval Agency. (author)

  2. Bayesian evaluation of budgets for endemic disease control: An example using management changes to reduce milk somatic cell count early in the first lactation of Irish dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, S C; Mc Coy, F; Wapenaar, W; Green, M J

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine budgets for specific management interventions to control heifer mastitis in Irish dairy herds as an example of evidence synthesis and 1-step Bayesian micro-simulation in a veterinary context. Budgets were determined for different decision makers based on their willingness to pay. Reducing the prevalence of heifers with a high milk somatic cell count (SCC) early in the first lactation could be achieved through herd level management interventions for pre- and peri-partum heifers, however the cost effectiveness of these interventions is unknown. A synthesis of multiple sources of evidence, accounting for variability and uncertainty in the available data is invaluable to inform decision makers around likely economic outcomes of investing in disease control measures. One analytical approach to this is Bayesian micro-simulation, where the trajectory of different individuals undergoing specific interventions is simulated. The classic micro-simulation framework was extended to encompass synthesis of evidence from 2 separate statistical models and previous research, with the outcome for an individual cow or herd assessed in terms of changes in lifetime milk yield, disposal risk, and likely financial returns conditional on the interventions being simultaneously applied. The 3 interventions tested were storage of bedding inside, decreasing transition yard stocking density, and spreading of bedding evenly in the calving area. Budgets for the interventions were determined based on the minimum expected return on investment, and the probability of the desired outcome. Budgets for interventions to control heifer mastitis were highly dependent on the decision maker's willingness to pay, and hence minimum expected return on investment. Understanding the requirements of decision makers and their rational spending limits would be useful for the development of specific interventions for particular farms to control heifer mastitis, and other

  3. Active vibration control by robust control techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohar, F.A.

    2001-01-01

    This paper studies active vibration control of multi-degree-of-freedom system. The control techniques considered are LTR, H/sup 2/ and H/sup infinite/. The results show that LTR controls the vibration but its respective settling time is higher than that of the other techniques. The control performance of H/sup infinite/ control is similar to that of H/sup 2/ control in the case of it weighting functions. However, H/sup infinite/ control is superior to H/sup 2/ control with respect to robustness, steady state error and settling time. (author)

  4. Design of the network for the radiological control in the recycling of metal scrap in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez Ley, Orlando; Caveda Ramos, Celia; Ramos Viltre, Enma O.; Capote Ferrera, Eduardo; Alonso Abad, Dolores; Zerquera, Juan Tomas

    2008-01-01

    Full text: During the last six years, the Centre of Protection and Hygiene of the Radiations (CPHR) has given answer to the problem about the presence of radioactive materials in the scrap which is exported in Cuba. The service of radioactivity measurement in scraps has reduced the risks of the occurrence of this type of events in the main import and export enterprises in Cuba. This has been carried out using few resources, a properly qualified staff and a laboratory credited by the norm ISO 17025:00. There is not the same control in the enterprises that manipulate and process metallic scrap inside the country. With the objective of extending the radiological control of the metallic scrap to the whole country, a monitoring network was designed. The design was based on the experience accumulated during the years of service to the import and export enterprises. First, It was defined the most vulnerable points in the whole recycle chain for each province, prioritizing the scrap melting plants and the longest scrap yards. All possible scenarios were identified, a quality system was also designed and implemented and a course of Radiological Protection oriented to the metallurgist technicians who are linked with the performance of this practice was elaborated. The monitoring has two phases. First, the measurements are carried out in the measurement points in each province and the transmissions of the data related to the monitored scrap loads are sent to the CPHR. The second phase is the confection of the Declaration of Conformity at the CPHR. This declaration certifies that this scrap may be processed. For the operation of this network, two software were developed and are currently used. One of them allows the control of the information in monitoring point and sends the necessary data to CPHR for the confection of the Declaration of Conformity. The other controls all the information received from the monitoring points and generates the Declaration of Conformity

  5. Laboratory Investigation of Rill Erosion on Compost Blankets under Concentrated Flow Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    A flume study was conducted using a soil, yard waste compost, and an erosion control compost to investigate the response to concentrated flow and determine if the shear stress model could be used to describe the response. Yard waste compost (YWC) and the bare Cecil soil (CS) cont...

  6. Controlling Separation in Turbomachines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Simon; Himmel, Christoph; Power, Bronwyn; Wakelam, Christian; Xu, Liping; Hynes, Tom; Hodson, Howard

    2010-01-01

    Four examples of flow control: 1) Passive control of LP turbine blades (Laminar separation control). 2) Aspiration of a conventional axial compressor blade (Turbulent separation control). 3) Compressor blade designed for aspiration (Turbulent separation control). 4.Control of intakes in crosswinds (Turbulent separation control).

  7. Control panel for CMC 8080 crate controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masayuki Inokuchi

    1978-01-01

    The main features of Control Panel for CAMAC Crate Controller CMC 8080 are described. The control panel can be directly connected with CRATE CONTROLLER's front panel connector with a 50 lines cable without any changes in CMC 8080 system circuits. (author)

  8. Uniting Control Lyapunov and Control Barrier Functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romdlony, Zakiyullah; Jayawardhana, Bayu

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a nonlinear control design for solving the problem of stabilization with guaranteed safety. The design is based on the merging of a Control Lyapunov Function and a Control Barrier Function. The proposed control method allows us to combine the design of a stabilizer based on

  9. Interaction between production control and quality control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bij, van der J.D.; Ekert, van J.H.W.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a qualitative study on interaction between systems for production control and quality control within industrial organisations. Production control and quality control interact in a sense. Good performance for one aspect often influences or frustrates the performance of the other. As far as

  10. Results of the remote sensing feasibility study for the uranium hexafluoride storage cylinder yard program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balick, L.K.; Bowman, D.R.

    1997-02-01

    The US DOE manages the safe storage of approximately 650,000 tons of depleted uranium hexafluoride remaining from the Cold War. This slightly radioactive, but chemically active, material is contained in more than 46,000 steel storage cylinders that are located at Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Paducah, Kentucky; and Portsmouth, Ohio. Some of the cylinders are more than 40 years old, and approximately 17,500 are considered problem cylinders because their physical integrity is questionable. These cylinders require an annual visual inspection. The remainder of the 46,000-plus cylinders must be visually inspected every four years. Currently, the cylinder inspection program is extremely labor intensive. Because these inspections are accomplished visually, they may not be effective in the early detection of leaking cylinders. The inspection program requires approximately 12--14 full-time-equivalent (FTE) employees. At the cost of approximately $125K per FTE, this translates to $1,500K per annum just for cylinder inspection. As part of the technology-development portion of the DOE Cylinder Management Program, the DOE Office of Facility Management requested the Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) to evaluate remote sensing techniques that have potential to increase the effectiveness of the inspection program and, at the same time, reduce inspection costs and personnel radiation exposure. During two site visits (March and May 1996) to the K-25 Site at Oak Ridge, TN, RSL personnel tested and characterized seven different operating systems believed to detect leakage, surface contamination, thickness and corrosion of cylinder walls, and general area contamination resulting from breached cylinders. The following techniques were used and their performances are discussed: Laser-induced fluorescent imaging; Long-range alpha detection; Neutron activation analysis; Differential gamma-ray attenuation; Compton scatterometry; Active infrared inspection; and Passive thermal infrared imaging

  11. Security from Within: Independent Review of the Washington Navy Yard Shooting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    operations such as 9/11, al Qaeda has increasingly turned to franchise operations, leveraging the individual jihad and encouraging HVEs. 199 As...the “Actuarial Versus Clinical” Assessment Debate, Psychiatric Services; 59 (2008):184-190) a relatively high number which would naturally herald...contracting personnel; assesses the suitability of foreign ownership in covered industries; tracks suspicious activity reports that may lead to

  12. Chlorine leak on Mumbai Port Trust's Sewri yard: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rakesh Kumar; Chawla, Raman; Kumar, Surendra

    2010-01-01

    Chemical emergencies involving hazardous chemicals are not uncommon in India. More than 25 incidents have been identified in National Disaster Management Guidelines – Chemical (Industrial) Disaster Management, released in May 2007. In a recent occurrence on the morning of 14 July 2010, nearly at 3:00 a.m., chlorine leak was reported from a gas cylinder referred as turner, weighing about 650 kg, corroding with time at the Haji Bunder hazardous cargo warehouse in Mumbai Port Trust, Sewri, affecting over 120 people in the neighborhood, including students, laborers, port workers and fire fighters, of whom 70 were reported critical. It has been observed to be a blatant case of ignorance and negligence as well as contraventions to the safety and environmental safeguard requirements under existing statues as well as non-maintenance of failsafe conditions at the site requisite for chlorine storage. The analysis revealed significant gaps in the availability of neutralization mechanism and the chlorine stored in open increased the possibility of formation of ingress mixture due to busting of chlorine filled tankers. The Government of India has institutionalized emergency preparedness framework at national, state and district level as envisaged in Disaster Management Act, 2005, to prepare the nation to mitigate such incidences, if all the preventive safety provisions fail. Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF) is preparing National Action Plan-Chemical (Industrial) Disaster Management based on National Guidelines to implement all the mechanisms of capacity development across the country. PMID:21829311

  13. Hardwood lumber distribution yards: Output, demands, and perceptions of their role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urs Buehlmann; Omar Espinoza; Robert Smith; Matthew Bumgardner

    2011-01-01

    Efficient and effective supply chains strengthen the entire forest products industry value chain. As the secondary wood products industry has been transformed by the decline of large manufacturers in some industry segments, the industry's supply chain has responded to these new realities. Remaining and new customers tend to be smaller and have unique needs and...

  14. Design of a Municipal Yard Waste Composting Facility for Anderson County, South Carolina

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klapmeyer, Michael

    2003-01-01

    .... Large-scale composting is a proven method by which Anderson County can demonstrate sound environmental stewardship while drastically reducing the volume of waste entering county landfills, thereby...

  15. Requirement of a Ship Breaking Yard at the Arvand Free Zone Area

    OpenAIRE

    Homayoun Yousefi

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the author is going to investigate the concept of ship recycling which implies to the materials and equipment including end of ships life. The scraped steel is melted down and is commonly used in the construction industries of ship recycling countries, and some equipment might be re-used in other industries too. A segment of this paper is dedicated to describe about the strategic position of Arvand River and the location of Arvand Free Zone area at the Persian Gulf. It should b...

  16. Chlorine leak on Mumbai port trust′s Sewri yard: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar Sharma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical emergencies involving hazardous chemicals are not uncommon in India. More than 25 incidents have been identified in National Disaster Management Guidelines - Chemical (Industrial Disaster Management, released in May 2007. In a recent occurrence on the morning of 14 July 2010, nearly at 3:00 a.m., chlorine leak was reported from a gas cylinder referred as turner, weighing about 650 kg, corroding with time at the Haji Bunder hazardous cargo warehouse in Mumbai Port Trust, Sewri, affecting over 120 people in the neighborhood, including students, laborers, port workers and fire fighters, of whom 70 were reported critical. It has been observed to be a blatant case of ignorance and negligence as well as contraventions to the safety and environmental safeguard requirements under existing statues as well as non-maintenance of failsafe conditions at the site requisite for chlorine storage. The analysis revealed significant gaps in the availability of neutralization mechanism and the chlorine stored in open increased the possibility of formation of ingress mixture due to busting of chlorine filled tankers. The Government of India has institutionalized emergency preparedness framework at national, state and district level as envisaged in Disaster Management Act, 2005, to prepare the nation to mitigate such incidences, if all the preventive safety provisions fail. Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF is preparing National Action Plan-Chemical (Industrial Disaster Management based on National Guidelines to implement all the mechanisms of capacity development across the country.

  17. An analysis of production and costs in high-lead yarding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus E. Tennas; Robert H. Ruth; Carl M. Berntsen

    1955-01-01

    In recent years loggers and timber owners have needed better information for estimating logging costs in the Douglas-fir region. Brandstrom's comprehensive study, published in 1933 (1), has long been used as a guide in making cost estimates. But the use of new equipment and techniques and an overall increase in logging costs have made it increasingly difficult to...

  18. Pattern Analysis of Vegetation and Structure Mapping of Yard Plant in Gatak District, Sukoharjo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofyan Anif

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Target of research is to know 1 level of type variety (diversitas and mount the closeness (densitas of lawn crop which conducting in region of District of Gatak of Sub Province Sukoharjo; 2 pattern of mapping of lawn crop which conducting in region District of Gatak of Sub Province Sukoharjo of pursuant to variety level and its closeness. This research is field survey done with the method of multi stage that is stratified purposive of sampling and random sampling. Focus the survey is does the stocktaking of lawn crop which conducting in house lawn. To know the structure of vegetate data processed by using formula Cox (1989 to know the closeness level, while to know the level of species variety, data analyzed to use the index of diversities Simpson. Pursuant to result of inferential solution and research 1 result analyze the structure of vegetate of lawn crop indicate that (a District Gatak have the level of high diversities lawn crop, with the index diversities of equal to 0,84159 and index predominate equal to 0,15841, and also highest PIE 0,20657 and PIE lowerest of equal to 0,00032. Species of lawn crop having high domination that is melinjo (Gnetum gnemon, (b closeness of lawn crop at every countryside in District Gatak of included in category very meeting of because  relied on by a closeness value of every countryside more than 75%. Crop found in research are having high closeness level for example: melinjo, banana, mango, rambutan, papaya, tapioca, and coconut, while crop having low closeness level for example: jambu mete, tapak doro, flower pukul empat; and 2 mapping of lawn crop cover the function value and amount of lawn crop found by a number of 57 type of lawn crop found in researh area, can be grouped to become 5 faction that is drug crop, vegetable faction, fruit crop, decorative crop, and protector crop.

  19. Utilization of Yard for Vegetable Hydroponics in Serut Village, Panti Sub-District, Jember District

    OpenAIRE

    dewanti, parawita

    2018-01-01

    Vegetables as a horticultural product is a food source that is always consumed by humans daily, including in urban areas. Assorted Vegetables can be eaten raw or processed and it takes as a decoration on the food. Needs vegetables including lettuce, green pakcoy and other vegetables from day to day continues to increase. Therefore, it needs supply of vegetables from the area around the town of Jember including Serut Village, District Panti Sub-District, Jember District. Serut village has the ...

  20. Remember the days in the old school yard: from lectures to online learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, P A; Mason, R; Eaton, K A

    2008-04-26

    Claims have been made that the traditional classroom/lecture-room mode of teaching is under threat with the future being purely online-based. There is no doubt that the impact of ICT systems and services have and will continue to transform teaching practice. From PowerPoint slides introduced to enliven lectures to virtual reality models accessed remotely, technology is bringing about new educational paradigms. The result is the emergence of new forms of distance learning with terms such as flexible learning, blended learning and full online instruction. All are making major contributions to the student experience, allowing access to more information and greater resources as well as opportunities for learning in a manner and timescale that is more attuned to their aims, abilities and lifestyles. In dental education the transition is providing undergraduates, postgraduates and CPD students with a greater variety of courses, access to more expertise and the opportunity for lifetime learning.

  1. Chemical behavior of residential lead in urban yards in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elless, M.P.; Bray, C.A.; Blaylock, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    Long after federal regulations banned the use of lead-based paints and leaded gasoline, residential lead remains a persistent challenge. Soil lead is a significant contributor to this hazard and an improved understanding of physicochemical properties is likely to be useful for in situ abatement techniques such as phytoremediation and chemical stabilization. A laboratory characterization of high-lead soils collected from across the United States shows that the lead contaminants were concentrating in the silt and clay fractions, in the form of discrete particles of lead, as observed by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Soil lead varied widely in its solubility behavior as assessed by sequential and chelate extractions. Because site-specific factors (e.g., soil pH, texture, etc.) are believed to govern the solubility of the lead, understanding the variability in these characteristics at each site is necessary to optimize in situ remediation or abatement of these soils. - Site-specific solubility behavior of lead in soils has important implications for the selection of remediation approaches

  2. Chemical behavior of residential lead in urban yards in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elless, M P; Bray, C A; Blaylock, M J

    2007-07-01

    Long after federal regulations banned the use of lead-based paints and leaded gasoline, residential lead remains a persistent challenge. Soil lead is a significant contributor to this hazard and an improved understanding of physicochemical properties is likely to be useful for in situ abatement techniques such as phytoremediation and chemical stabilization. A laboratory characterization of high-lead soils collected from across the United States shows that the lead contaminants were concentrating in the silt and clay fractions, in the form of discrete particles of lead, as observed by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Soil lead varied widely in its solubility behavior as assessed by sequential and chelate extractions. Because site-specific factors (e.g., soil pH, texture, etc.) are believed to govern the solubility of the lead, understanding the variability in these characteristics at each site is necessary to optimize in situ remediation or abatement of these soils.

  3. Elevated soil lead concentrations in residential yards in Appleton, WI, a small Midwestern city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, J. J.; Knudsen, A. C.

    2010-12-01

    Elevated soil lead concentrations are well documented in large urban areas, having been attributed to a combination of leaded-paint, leaded-gasoline, and industrial emissions. Fewer studies, however, have been conducted in smaller communities. We analyzed 200 surface soils in the neighborhood near Lawrence University’s campus in Appleton, WI (population ~70,000). Like many larger cities Appleton has a historic city-center. However, it is has no high-density housing or commercial districts and has not seen heavy traffic. The socioeconomic pressures that lead to disrepair of inner city neighborhoods have been less prevalent here as well. At each property 3 integrated samples were taken, one adjacent to the front of the house, one in the front lawn, and one between the road and sidewalk. We correlated building and property traits (e.g. structure age, distance from road, exterior type, exterior condition, direction of exposure, and assessed home value) with soil lead concentrations determined by XRF and subsequently, mapped these data for geospatial patterns. Soil lead concentrations in the city park and campus greens were typically less than 100 ppm. The highest lead concentrations are close to campus, which has a number of civil war era buildings and homes. High lead concentrations (averaging over 1,000 ppm near the home, with concentrations as high as 10,000 ppm) were associated with aging, poorly maintained structures as expected. However, a number of well-maintained structures also show substantially elevated concentrations. These soil lead concentrations are not dissimilar to those found in much larger cities such as New Orleans, Milwaukee, and Chicago. Lead levels dropped quickly as distance from the house increased suggesting that the contamination is from lead paint and not from gasoline exhaust. Furthermore, samples taken adjacent to the main arterial through town exhibited relatively low, but slightly elevated lead levels (~250 ppm). Not surprisingly, these concentrations are in line with those typically found in suburban settings, rather than urban settings. Studying the nature and distribution of soil lead contamination in a smaller city such as Appleton will allow for a better understanding of the public health risks in this and similar cities. Additionally, with fewer likely contributors to soil lead contamination, this study allows a clearer connection to be drawn between one primary factor, paint, and the distribution of soil lead.

  4. A Full Overhead Cost Model for the U.S. Coast Guard Yard, Curtis Bay, Maryland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    80.0 STORAGE SHED B 43 A 35000.50 700.00 B 50 I IMPROVE SHINGLES 1750.43 40.70 B 75 I RELOCTE FLAMB STOR 22432.18 1246.23 81.0 FLAMABLE STORAGE B 43 A...35000.50 700.00 B 45 I UNKWN IMPRVMNT 50.48 1.04 B 50 I IMPROVE SHINGLES 1750.43 40.70 B 75 I RELOCTE FLAMB STOR 22432.18 1246.22 85.0 STORAGE SHED B

  5. Community participation in mosquito breeding site control: an interdisciplinary mixed methods study in Curaçao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsinga, Jelte; van der Veen, Henry T; Gerstenbluth, Izzy; Burgerhof, Johannes G M; Dijkstra, Arie; Grobusch, Martin P; Tami, Adriana; Bailey, Ajay

    2017-09-19

    As the arboviral diseases dengue, chikungunya and Zika emerge in the Americas, so does the need for sustainable vector control policies. To successfully achieve mosquito control, joint efforts of both communities and governments are essential. This study investigates this important, but by-and-large neglected topic. In June and July 2015, a cross-sectional mixed methods study applying a survey questionnaire (response rate of 82.5%; n = 339), in-depth interviews (n = 20) and focus group discussions (n = 7; 50 participants) was performed in Curaçao. The study was designed based on an integrated theoretical framework of the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Participants showed a good knowledge of, and a high-level performance of mosquito breeding site control (MBSC) practices. Personal protection against mosquitoes (e.g. topical repellents) was perceived as relatively less effective thus practiced to lower extent compared to MBSC practices (i.e. larval source management). A lower intention to perform MBSC was independently associated with: (i) satisfaction on governmental MBSC (P = 0.012); (ii) barriers to perform MBSC practices, i.e. 'Government doesn't control other breeding sites' (P = 0.005), 'Don't know how to control breeding sites' (P = 0.041), and 'a mosquito does not transmit dengue' (P = 0.016), (iii) attitudes towards MBSC (P = 0.001) and self-efficacy (person's perceived ability to act) to perform MBSC (P = 0.002). Mixed-methods evidence highlights three possible ways of improving community participation in MBSC. First, it highlights the need for ongoing media coverage, targeting (i) communities' perceptions on transmission routes of dengue and chikungunya, and (ii) presence of car tires in yards. Secondly, it shows that promotion of governmental activities in MBSC can enhance MBSC of communities, if people develop a sense of responsibility to perform MBSC at their own properties. Thirdly, this study describes

  6. Control heeft vele gezichten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steens, H.B.A.

    The editorial summarizes several perspectives of control, including the control conducted by supervisors, control based on classical budgeting, control by analytics, et cetera, and relates these angles to the papers in this issue of the journal.

  7. Pediatric endurance and limb strengthening for children with cerebral palsy (PEDALS – a randomized controlled trial protocol for a stationary cycling intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simms Victoria

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past, effortful exercises were considered inappropriate for children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP due to concern that they would escalate abnormalities including spasticity and abnormal movement patterns. Current scientific evidence indicates that these concerns were unfounded and that therapeutic interventions focused on muscle strengthening can lead to improved functional ability. However, few studies have examined the potential benefits of cardiorespiratory fitness exercises in this patient population. Methods/design The rationale and design of a randomized controlled trial examining the effects of a stationary cycling intervention for children with CP are outlined here. Sixty children with spastic diplegic CP between the ages of 7 and 18 years and Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS levels of I, II, or III will be recruited for this study. Participants will be randomly assigned to either an intervention (cycling or a control (no cycling group. The cycling intervention will be divided into strengthening and cardiorespiratory endurance exercise phases. During the strengthening phase, the resistance to lower extremity cycling will be progressively increased using a uniquely designed limb-loaded mechanism. The cardiorespiratory endurance phase will focus on increasing the intensity and duration of cycling. Children will be encouraged to exercise within a target heart rate (HR range (70 – 80% maximum HR. Thirty sessions will take place over a 10–12 week period. All children will be evaluated before (baseline and after (follow-up the intervention period. Primary outcome measures are: knee joint extensor and flexor moments, or torque; the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM; the 600 Yard Walk-Run test and the Thirty-Second Walk test (30 sec WT. Discussion This paper presents the rationale, design and protocol for Pediatric Endurance and Limb Strengthening (PEDALS; a Phase I randomized controlled trial

  8. Hierarchical Control of Thermostatically Controller Loads for Primary Frequency Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Haoran; Wu, Qiuwei; Huang, Shaojun

    2016-01-01

    reserve references. At the middle level, distribution substations estimate the available power of TCLs based on the aggregated bin model, and dispatch control signals to individual TCLs. At the local level, a supplementary frequency control loop is implemented at the local controller, which makes TCLs...... respond to the frequency event autonomously. Case studies show that the proposed controller can efficiently respond to frequency events and fulfill the requirement specified by the system operator. The users’ comforts are not compromised and the short cycling of TCLs is largely reduced. Due...... to the autonomous control, the communication requirement is minimized....

  9. Incoherent control of locally controllable quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Daoyi; Zhang Chenbin; Rabitz, Herschel; Pechen, Alexander; Tarn, T.-J.

    2008-01-01

    An incoherent control scheme for state control of locally controllable quantum systems is proposed. This scheme includes three steps: (1) amplitude amplification of the initial state by a suitable unitary transformation, (2) projective measurement of the amplified state, and (3) final optimization by a unitary controlled transformation. The first step increases the amplitudes of some desired eigenstates and the corresponding probability of observing these eigenstates, the second step projects, with high probability, the amplified state into a desired eigenstate, and the last step steers this eigenstate into the target state. Within this scheme, two control algorithms are presented for two classes of quantum systems. As an example, the incoherent control scheme is applied to the control of a hydrogen atom by an external field. The results support the suggestion that projective measurements can serve as an effective control and local controllability information can be used to design control laws for quantum systems. Thus, this scheme establishes a subtle connection between control design and controllability analysis of quantum systems and provides an effective engineering approach in controlling quantum systems with partial controllability information.

  10. Assessing the impact of different persuasive messages on the intentions and behaviour of cat owners: A randomised control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Lynette J; Hine, Donald W; Bengsen, Andrew J; Driver, Aaron B

    2017-10-01

    Owners of free-ranging domestic cats (Felis catus) are under increasing pressure to keep their pet contained within their house or yard, in an effort to reduce adverse impacts on cat welfare, ecosystem biodiversity and neighbourhoods. We conducted a randomised online experiment to assess the effectiveness of two persuasive messages to encourage cat owners to contain their pets. A total of 512 Australian cat owners, who currently do not contain their cats, were randomly assigned to view one of three short video messages: one framed to highlight the negative impact of cats' on wildlife and biodiversity ('wildlife protection' frame), one framed to highlight the health and safety benefits of keeping cats contained ('cat benefit' frame), and a control message focused on general information about cats ('neutral' frame). We assessed the impact of these video messages on two post-treatment outcome variables: (1) the intention of owners to contain their cat; and (2) the adoption of containment practices, based on a 4-week follow-up survey. Mediation analysis revealed both the 'wildlife protection' and 'cat benefit' messages increased owners' motivation to contain their cat and their beliefs that they could effectively contain their cat to achieve the desired outcomes (response efficacy). In turn, higher levels of motivation and response efficacy predicted increased cat containment intentions and increased adoption of cat containment. In addition, the response efficacy effects of the 'cat benefit' message were strengthened by the cat owner's bond to their pet, suggesting audience segmentation may improve the effectiveness of interventions. Implications for future intervention development are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Covariance upperbound controllers for networked control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Sang Ho

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with designing covariance upperbound controllers for a linear system that can be used in a networked control environment in which control laws are calculated in a remote controller and transmitted through a shared communication link to the plant. In order to compensate for possible packet losses during the transmission, two different techniques are often employed: the zero-input and the hold-input strategy. These use zero input and the latest control input, respectively, when a packet is lost. For each strategy, we synthesize a class of output covariance upperbound controllers for a given covariance upperbound and a packet loss probability. Existence conditions of the covariance upperbound controller are also provided for each strategy. Through numerical examples, performance of the two strategies is compared in terms of feasibility of implementing the controllers

  12. Output Control Using Feedforward And Cascade Controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seraji, Homayoun

    1990-01-01

    Report presents theoretical study of open-loop control elements in single-input, single-output linear system. Focus on output-control (servomechanism) problem, in which objective is to find control scheme that causes output to track certain command inputs and to reject certain disturbance inputs in steady state. Report closes with brief discussion of characteristics and relative merits of feedforward, cascade, and feedback controllers and combinations thereof.

  13. Controlling chaotic systems via nonlinear feedback control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ju H.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, a new method to control chaotic systems is proposed. Using Lyapunov method, we design a nonlinear feedback controller to make the controlled system be stabilized. A numerical example is given to illuminate the design procedure and advantage of the result derived

  14. Personal exposure control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Ken-ichi; Akashi, Michio

    1994-01-01

    Nuclear power stations are under strict radiation control. Exposure control for nuclear workers is the most important operation, and so carefully thought out measures are taken. This paper introduces Fuji Electric's personal exposure control system that meets strict exposure control and rationalizes control operations. The system has a merit that it can provide required information in an optimum form using the interconnection of a super minicomputer and exposure control facilities and realizes sophisticated exposure control operations. (author)

  15. Introduction of digital control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Jin

    1988-01-01

    This book is one of mechatronics series. It deals with digital control, which includes what is digital control?, display way of control system, output of primary system, secondary system like example of system and display way of the system, stabilizing of control system such as method to decide stability and system out of control, displaying equation of state into vector, good control such as the right characteristic, transient behavior and design of position control system using DC servo motor.

  16. Solid state controller three axes controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, C. L., Jr. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    The reported flight controller features a handle grip which is mounted on a longitudinally extending control element. The handle grip is pivotally mounted on the control element about a pitch axis which is perpendicular to the longitudinal axis through the control element. The pivotal mounting includes a resilient force mounting mechanism which centers the grip relative to the control element. Rotation of the handle grip produces a direct rotation of a transducer element in a transducer which provides an electrical indication of the rotative movement about three mutually perpendicular axes.

  17. PID control with robust disturbance feedback control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kawai, Fukiko; Vinther, Kasper; Andersen, Palle

    2015-01-01

    Disturbance Feedback Control (DFC) is a technique, originally proposed by Fuji Electric, for augmenting existing control systems with an extra feedback for attenuation of disturbances and model errors. In this work, we analyze the robustness and performance of a PID-based control system with DFC...... and performance (if such gains exist). Finally, two different simulation case studies are evaluated and compared. Our numerical studies indicate that better performance can be achieved with the proposed method compared with a conservatively tuned PID controller and comparable performance can be achieved when...... compared with an H-infinity controller....

  18. Organizational Control: Two Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouchi, William G.; Maguire, Mary Ann

    1975-01-01

    Distinguishes between two modes of organizational control, personal surveillance (behavior control) and the measurement of outputs (output control). Output control occurs in response to a manager's need to provide legitimate evidence of performance, while behavior control is exerted when means-ends relations are known and appropriate instruction…

  19. Structural Pest Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, M. S.; Hoffman, W. M.

    This manual is designed for those who seek certification as pesticide applicators for industrial, institutional, structural, and health-related pest control. It is divided into six sections covering general pest control, wood-destroying organisms, bird control, fumigation, rodent control, and industrial weed control. The manual gives information…

  20. BSF control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irie, Y.; Ishii, K.; Ninomiya, S.; Sasaki, H.; Sakai, I.

    1982-08-01

    The booster synchrotron utilization facility (BSF) is a facility which utilizes the four fifths of available beam pulses from the KEK booster synchrotron. The BSF control system includes the beam line control, interactions with the PS central control room and the experimental facilities, and the access control system. A brief description of the various components in the control system is given. (author)

  1. Motion control report

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Please note this is a short discount publication. In today's manufacturing environment, Motion Control plays a major role in virtually every project.The Motion Control Report provides a comprehensive overview of the technology of Motion Control:* Design Considerations* Technologies* Methods to Control Motion* Examples of Motion Control in Systems* A Detailed Vendors List

  2. Integrated Control Using the SOFFT Control Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halyo, Nesim

    1996-01-01

    The need for integrated/constrained control systems has become clearer as advanced aircraft introduced new coupled subsystems such as new propulsion subsystems with thrust vectoring and new aerodynamic designs. In this study, we develop an integrated control design methodology which accomodates constraints among subsystem variables while using the Stochastic Optimal Feedforward/Feedback Control Technique (SOFFT) thus maintaining all the advantages of the SOFFT approach. The Integrated SOFFT Control methodology uses a centralized feedforward control and a constrained feedback control law. The control thus takes advantage of the known coupling among the subsystems while maintaining the identity of subsystems for validation purposes and the simplicity of the feedback law to understand the system response in complicated nonlinear scenarios. The Variable-Gain Output Feedback Control methodology (including constant gain output feedback) is extended to accommodate equality constraints. A gain computation algorithm is developed. The designer can set the cross-gains between two variables or subsystems to zero or another value and optimize the remaining gains subject to the constraint. An integrated control law is designed for a modified F-15 SMTD aircraft model with coupled airframe and propulsion subsystems using the Integrated SOFFT Control methodology to produce a set of desired flying qualities.

  3. ISABELLE control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphrey, J.W.; Frankel, R.S.; Niederer, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    Design principles for the Brookhaven ISABELLE control intersecting storage ring accelerator are described. Principal features include a locally networked console and control computer complex, a system wide process data highway, and intelligent local device controllers. Progress to date is summarized

  4. Control Measure Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EPA Control Measure Dataset is a collection of documents describing air pollution control available to regulated facilities for the control and abatement of air...

  5. Olivo-Cerebellar Controller

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bandyopadhyay, Promode R

    2008-01-01

    ...) used in a maneuvering controller or control system of an underwater vehicle. In order to attain the objects described, the present invention provides closed-loop control of multiple inferior olives (IOs...

  6. Birth control pills - combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000655.htm Birth control pills - combination To use the sharing features on ... both progestin and estrogen. What Are Combination Birth Control Pills? Birth control pills help keep you from ...

  7. Riot Control Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Facts About Riot Control Agents Interim document Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir What riot control agents are Riot control agents (sometimes referred to ...

  8. Essure Permanent Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prosthetics Essure Permanent Birth Control Essure Permanent Birth Control Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... Print Essure is a a permanently implanted birth control device for women (female sterilization). Implantation of Essure ...

  9. Wisdom Appliance Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrick; Jheng, Jyun-Teng; Tsai, Chen-Chai; Liou, Jia-Wei; Wang, Zhi-Hao; Jong, Gwo-Jia

    2017-07-01

    Intelligent appliances wisdom involves security, home care, convenient and energy saving, but the home automation system is still one of the core unit, and also using micro-processing electronics technology to centralized and control the home electrical products and systems, such as: lighting, television, fan, air conditioning, stereo, it composed of front-controller systems and back-controller panels, user using front-controller to control command, and then through the back-controller to powered the device.

  10. Test Control Center (TCC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Test Control Center (TCC) provides a consolidated facility for planning, coordinating, controlling, monitoring, and analyzing distributed test events. ,The TCC...

  11. A new controllable damper with neuro controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, N.; Kobayashi, H.; Saito, O.; Yokoi, R.; Morishita, S.

    1993-01-01

    A new controllable damper is proposed for suppressing the vibration of the piping system for wide frequency range. Electro-Rheological fluid (ER fluid) is enclosed in the damper casing in place of oil, and the apparent viscosity of ER fluid can be varied by applying electric field strength (E.F.S.), which is controlled by an adaptive neural network controller. The shaking test is conducted about a simplified L-shaped piping model with a prototype controllable damper. The test results show the effectiveness of the presented controllable damper for suppressing very small amplitude vibration of the piping system. Furthermore an application of neural network is discussed to control E.F.S. of the electrode. (author)

  12. Digital control programmer for temperature control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajore, S.B.; Kumar, S.V.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes a PC based digital control programmer for controlling and programming temperature of a high vacuum resistance heating furnace and the software developed to control power using PID algorithm. It also describes the amplifier specially developed to suit the input requirement of the non-standard W5 thermocouple and the software and hardware protections introduced in the system. (author). 5 refs., 8 figs., 1 appendix

  13. Control and optimal control theories with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Burghes, D N

    2004-01-01

    This sound introduction to classical and modern control theory concentrates on fundamental concepts. Employing the minimum of mathematical elaboration, it investigates the many applications of control theory to varied and important present-day problems, e.g. economic growth, resource depletion, disease epidemics, exploited population, and rocket trajectories. An original feature is the amount of space devoted to the important and fascinating subject of optimal control. The work is divided into two parts. Part one deals with the control of linear time-continuous systems, using both transfer fun

  14. Reactor control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukami, Haruo; Morimoto, Yoshinori.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To operate a reactor always with safety operation while eliminating the danger of tripping. Constitution: In a reactor control device adapted to detect the process variants of a reactor, control a control rod drive controlling system based on the detected signal to thereby control the driving the control rods, control the reactor power and control the electric power generated from an electric generator by the output from the reactor, detection means is provided for the detection of the electric power from said electric generator, and a compensation device is provided for outputting control rod driving compensation signals to the control rod driving controlling system in accordance with the amount of variation in the detected value. (Seki, T.)

  15. Power control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukawa, Naohiro.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To alleviate the load of an operator by automatically operating the main controller, the speed controller, etc. of a recirculation control system and safely operating them without erroneous operation for long period of time, thereby improving the efficiency of a plant. Constitution: An electric type hydraulic control device controls loads of a turbine and a generator and outputs a control signal also to the main controller of a recirculation flow rate control system. At this time, the main controller is set at an automatic position, and the speed controller receives a recirculation pump speed signal from the main controller at the automatic position. The speed controller outputs a pump speed control signal to the recirculation pump system, and a reactor generates a power corresponding thereto. When the power control is automatically performed by the recirculation flow rate control, an operator sets a rate of change of the recirculation pump speed and the rate of change of the mean power range monitor at a change rate setting unit. Therefore, the control of the recirculation flow rate under the power control can be substantially entirely automated. (Yoshigara, H.)

  16. Process and apparatus for controlling control rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebelin, B.; Couture, R.

    1987-01-01

    This process and apparatus is characterized by 2 methods, for examination of cluster of nuclear control rods. Foucault current analyzer which examines fraction by fraction all the control rods. This examination is made by rotation of the cluster. Doubtful rods are then analysed by ultrasonic probe [fr

  17. Robust control charts in statistical process control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nazir, H.Z.

    2014-01-01

    The presence of outliers and contaminations in the output of the process highly affects the performance of the design structures of commonly used control charts and hence makes them of less practical use. One of the solutions to deal with this problem is to use control charts which are robust

  18. Try to Control Yourself!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esque, Timm J.

    1996-01-01

    Conventional management controls employees, but successful management encourages and enables employees to control themselves. Where control resides in an organization can be determined by examining its performance tracking systems. Most are management information systems. The best are owned and used by the employees to control and adjust their own…

  19. Evaluation of Internal Control

    OpenAIRE

    Gheorghe Suciu; Pipu-Nicolae Barsan

    2013-01-01

    Performance is indissolubly tied to control. Performance cannot be obtained without a strong, adequate control, regardless if it is in the public or private sector. Control is one of management’s attributes and it must be organized, implemented and evaluated in every company, regardless of its size. Each person from a company participates to a greater or lesser extent in the control activities.

  20. Programmable dc motor controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, J. E.

    1982-11-01

    A portable programmable dc motor controller, with features not available on commercial instruments was developed for controlling fixtures during welding processes. The controller can be used to drive any dc motor having tachometer feedback and motor requirements not exceeding 30 volts, 3 amperes. Among the controller's features are delayed start time, upslope time, speed, and downslope time.

  1. Exotic biological control agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hajek, Ann E.; Hurley, Brett P.; Kenis, Marc; Garnas, Jeffrey R.; Bush, Samantha J.; Wingfield, Michael J.; Lenteren, van Joop C.; Cock, Matthew J.W.

    2016-01-01

    Biological control is a valuable and effective strategy for controlling arthropod pests and has been used extensively against invasive arthropods. As one approach for control of invasives, exotic natural enemies from the native range of a pest are introduced to areas where control is needed.

  2. Optimal decoupling controllers revisited

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kučera, Vladimír

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 1 (2013), s. 1-16 ISSN 0324-8569 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TE01020197 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : linear systems * fractional representations * decoupling control lers * stabilizing control lers * optimal control lers Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory

  3. Automatic control systems engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Yun Gi

    2004-01-01

    This book gives descriptions of automatic control for electrical electronics, which indicates history of automatic control, Laplace transform, block diagram and signal flow diagram, electrometer, linearization of system, space of situation, state space analysis of electric system, sensor, hydro controlling system, stability, time response of linear dynamic system, conception of root locus, procedure to draw root locus, frequency response, and design of control system.

  4. Catastrophes control problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velichenko, V.V.

    1994-01-01

    The problem of catastrophe control is discussed. Catastrophe control aims to withdraw responsible engineering constructions out of the catastrophe. The mathematical framework of catastrophes control systems is constructed. It determines the principles of systems filling by the concrete physical contents and, simultaneously, permits to employ modern control methods for the synthesis of optimal withdrawal strategy for protected objects

  5. Adaptive Extremum Control and Wind Turbine Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Xin

    1997-01-01

    This thesis is divided into two parts, i.e., adaptive extremum control and modelling and control of a wind turbine. The rst part of the thesis deals with the design of adaptive extremum controllers for some processes which have the behaviour that process should have as high e ciency as possible...... in parameters, and thus directly lends itself to parameter estimation and adaptive control. The extremum control law is derived based on static optimization of a performance function. For a process with nonlinearity at output the intermediate signal between the linear part and nonlinear part plays an important....... Firstly, it is assumed that the nonlinear processes can be divided into a dynamic linear part and static nonlinear part. Consequently the processes with input nonlinearity and output nonlinearity are treated separately. With the nonlinearity at the input it is easy to set up a model which is linear...

  6. HYDRAULIC SERVO CONTROL MECHANISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussey, R.B.; Gottsche, M.J. Jr.

    1963-09-17

    A hydraulic servo control mechanism of compact construction and low fluid requirements is described. The mechanism consists of a main hydraulic piston, comprising the drive output, which is connected mechanically for feedback purposes to a servo control piston. A control sleeve having control slots for the system encloses the servo piston, which acts to cover or uncover the slots as a means of controlling the operation of the system. This operation permits only a small amount of fluid to regulate the operation of the mechanism, which, as a result, is compact and relatively light. This mechanism is particuiarly adaptable to the drive and control of control rods in nuclear reactors. (auth)

  7. Precision digital control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyskub, V. G.; Rozov, B. S.; Savelev, V. I.

    This book is concerned with the characteristics of digital control systems of great accuracy. A classification of such systems is considered along with aspects of stabilization, programmable control applications, digital tracking systems and servomechanisms, and precision systems for the control of a scanning laser beam. Other topics explored are related to systems of proportional control, linear devices and methods for increasing precision, approaches for further decreasing the response time in the case of high-speed operation, possibilities for the implementation of a logical control law, and methods for the study of precision digital control systems. A description is presented of precision automatic control systems which make use of electronic computers, taking into account the existing possibilities for an employment of computers in automatic control systems, approaches and studies required for including a computer in such control systems, and an analysis of the structure of automatic control systems with computers. Attention is also given to functional blocks in the considered systems.

  8. CONTROLLING AND BUSINESS EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Vuko

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Managing business successfully in dynamic environment requires effective controlling system. Controlling is the process of defining objectives, planning and management control so that every decision maker can act in accordance with agreed objectives. Controlling function as a separate department contributes business efficiency trough ensuring transparency of business result and business processes. Controlling takes place when manager and controller cooperate. The aim of this paper is to investigate the effectiveness of controlling function (i.e. controlling department in Croatian companies and to address the specific features of the function that contribute significantly to overall business performance. The research is conducted on the sample of companies listed on the Regulated market of the Zagreb Stock Exchange. Survey is used as a method to collect the data regarding the controlling function, while financial data necessary for the research are extracted from the published financial statements. Results of the research indicate that controlling department has positive effects on the business performance.

  9. Undergraduate reactor control experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, R.M.; Power, M.A.; Bryan, M.

    1992-01-01

    A sequence of reactor and related experiments has been a central element of a senior-level laboratory course at Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) for more than 20 yr. A new experiment has been developed where the students program and operate a computer controller that manipulates the speed of a secondary control rod to regulate TRIGA reactor power. Elementary feedback control theory is introduced to explain the experiment, which emphasizes the nonlinear aspect of reactor control where power level changes are equivalent to a change in control loop gain. Digital control of nuclear reactors has become more visible at Penn State with the replacement of the original analog-based TRIGA reactor control console with a modern computer-based digital control console. Several TRIGA reactor dynamics experiments, which comprise half of the three-credit laboratory course, lead to the control experiment finale: (a) digital simulation, (b) control rod calibration, (c) reactor pulsing, (d) reactivity oscillator, and (e) reactor noise

  10. Control of Bioprocesses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of bioprocess control is to ensure that the plant operates as designed. This chapter presents the fundamental principles for control of biochemical processes. Through examples, the selection of manipulated and controlled variables in the classical reactor configurations is discussed, so...... are control objectives and the challenges in obtaining good control of the bioreactor. The objective of this chapter is to discuss the bioreactor control problems and to highlight some general traits that distinguish operation of bioprocesses from operation of processes in the conventional chemical process...... industries. It also provides a number of typical control loops for different objectives. A brief introduction to the general principles of process control, the PID control algorithm is discussed, and the design and effect of tuning are shown in an example. Finally, a discussion of novel, model-free control...

  11. Foundations Of Fuzzy Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Jan

    The objective of this textbook is to acquire an understanding of the behaviour of fuzzy logic controllers. Under certain conditions a fuzzy controller is equivalent to a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller. Using that equivalence as a link, the book applies analysis methods from...... linear and nonlinear control theory. In the linear domain, PID tuning methods and stability analyses are transferred to linear fuzzy controllers. The Nyquist plot shows the robustness of different settings of the fuzzy gain parameters. As a result, a fuzzy controller is guaranteed to perform as well...... as any PID controller. In the nonlinear domain, the stability of four standard control surfaces is analysed by means of describing functions and Nyquist plots. The self-organizing controller (SOC) is shown to be a model reference adaptive controller. There is a possibility that a nonlinear fuzzy PID...

  12. Reactor control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kameda, Akiyuki.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To enable three types of controls, that is, level control, scram control and excess reactivity control required for a reactor by a same mechanism by feeding neutron absorber liquid and pressure control gas to several blind pipes provided in the reactor core. Constitution: A plurality of blind pipes are disposed spaced apart in a reactor core and connected by way of injection pipes to a neutron absorber liquid tank. A pressure regulator is connected to the blind pipes, to which pressure control gas is supplied. The neutron absorber liquid used herein consists of sodium, potassium or their alloy, or mercury as a basic substance incorporated with one or more selected from boron, tantalum, rhenium, europium or their compounds. The level control, scram control and excess reactivity control can be attained by moderating the pressure changes in the pressure control gas or by regulating the fluctuation in the liquid level. (Horiughi, T.)

  13. Applied predictive control

    CERN Document Server

    Sunan, Huang; Heng, Lee Tong

    2002-01-01

    The presence of considerable time delays in the dynamics of many industrial processes, leading to difficult problems in the associated closed-loop control systems, is a well-recognized phenomenon. The performance achievable in conventional feedback control systems can be significantly degraded if an industrial process has a relatively large time delay compared with the dominant time constant. Under these circumstances, advanced predictive control is necessary to improve the performance of the control system significantly. The book is a focused treatment of the subject matter, including the fundamentals and some state-of-the-art developments in the field of predictive control. Three main schemes for advanced predictive control are addressed in this book: • Smith Predictive Control; • Generalised Predictive Control; • a form of predictive control based on Finite Spectrum Assignment. A substantial part of the book addresses application issues in predictive control, providing several interesting case studie...

  14. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Akira.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to monitor the coupling state between a control rod and a control rod drive. Constitution: After the completion of a control rod withdrawal, a coolant pressure is applied to a control rod drive being adjusted so as to raise only the control rod drive and, in a case where the coupling between the control rod drive and the control rod is detached, the former is elevated till it contacts the control rod and then stopped. The actual stopping position is detected by an actual position detection circuit and compared with a predetermined position stored in a predetermined position detection circuit. If both of the positions are not aligned with each other, it is judged by a judging circuit that the control rod and the control rod drives are not combined. (Sekiya, K.)

  15. TFTR diagnostic vacuum controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, D.; Persons, R.

    1981-01-01

    The TFTR diagnostic vacuum controller (DVC) provides in conjunction with the Central Instrumentation Control and Data Acquisition System (CICADA), control and monitoring for the pumps, valves and gauges associated with each individual diagnostic vacuum system. There will be approximately 50 systems on TFTR. Two standard versions of the controller (A and B) wil be provided in order to meet the requirements of two diagnostic manifold arrangements. All pump and valve sequencing, as well as protection features, will be implemented by the controller

  16. Trust and controlling

    OpenAIRE

    Bieńkowska Agnieszka; Zabłocka-Kluczka Anna

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to discuss the trust within and towards an organisation in the context of implementation of controlling therein. In this context the essence of trust and its importance in organisation management was presented, as well as trust in the contemporary management methods and concepts. Controlling as a trust-building factor inside an organisation was pointed out. Especially controlling and control were described. Moreover management by considering deviations in controll...

  17. Arduino based laser control

    OpenAIRE

    Bernal Muñoz, Ferran

    2015-01-01

    ARDUINO is a vey usefull platform for prototypes. In this project ARDUINO will be used for controling a Semiconductor Tuneable Laser. [ANGLÈS] Diode laser for communications control based on an Arduino board. Temperature control implementation. Software and hardware protection for the laser implementation. [CASTELLÀ] Control de un láser de comunicaciones ópticas desde el ordenador utilizando una placa Arduino. Implementación de un control de temperatura y protección software y hardware ...

  18. Pneumatic control technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tae, Seong Gil; Kim, Won Hoe; Nam, Dae Hyun

    1993-03-01

    This book contains property of pneumatic pressure drive, pneumatic pressure device like air cleaning, pressure control, lubricators, air pressure pipe, kinds and function of pneumatic pressure equipment like pneumatic cylinders, pneumatic motor, flow control valve, direction control valve, design of pneumatic control circuit, pneumatic system design, cause and measurement of pneumatic circuit failure, PLC and pneumatic control like introduction and system application and method of PLC programing.

  19. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Hiroyasu.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To enable rapid control in a simple circuit by providing a motor control device having an electric capacity capable of simultaneously driving all of the control rods rapidly only in the inserting direction as well as a motor controlling device capable of fine control for the insertion and extraction at usual operation. Constitution: The control rod drives comprise a first motor control device capable of finely controlling the control rods both in inserting and extracting directions, a second motor control device capable of rapidly driving the control rods only in the inserting direction, and a first motor switching circuit and a second motor switching circuit switched by switches. Upon issue of a rapid insertion instruction for the control rods, the second motor switching circuit is closed by the switch and the second motor control circuit and driving motors are connected. Thus, each of the control rod driving motors is driven at a high speed in the inserting direction to rapidly insert all of the control rods. (Yoshino, Y.)

  20. SODR Memory Control Buffer Control ASIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodson, Robert F.

    1994-01-01

    The Spacecraft Optical Disk Recorder (SODR) is a state of the art mass storage system for future NASA missions requiring high transmission rates and a large capacity storage system. This report covers the design and development of an SODR memory buffer control applications specific integrated circuit (ASIC). The memory buffer control ASIC has two primary functions: (1) buffering data to prevent loss of data during disk access times, (2) converting data formats from a high performance parallel interface format to a small computer systems interface format. Ten 144 p in, 50 MHz CMOS ASIC's were designed, fabricated and tested to implement the memory buffer control function.

  1. Controlling chaos in Internet congestion control model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Liang; Wang Xiaofan; Han Zhengzhi

    2004-01-01

    The TCP end-to-end congestion control plus RED router queue management can be modeled as a discrete-time dynamical system, which may create complex bifurcating and chaotic behavior. Based on the basic features of the TCP-RED model, we propose a time-dependent delayed feedback control algorithm to control chaos in the system by perturbing the accessible RED parameter p max . This method is able to stabilized a router queue occupancy at a level without knowing the exact knowledge of the network. Further, we study the situation of the presence of the UDP traffic

  2. Generic device controller for accelerator control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariotti, R.; Buxton, W.; Frankel, R.; Hoff, L.

    1987-01-01

    A new distributed intelligence control system has become operational at the AGS for transport, injection, and acceleration of heavy ions. A brief description of the functionality of the physical devices making up the system is given. An attempt has been made to integrate the devices for accelerator specific interfacing into a standard microprocessor system, namely, the Universal Device Controller (UDC). The main goals for such a generic device controller are to provide: local computing power; flexibility to configure; and real time event handling. The UDC assemblies and software are described

  3. Controlling chaos in Internet congestion control model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Liang E-mail: chenmoon110@yahoo.com.cn; Wang Xiaofan; Han Zhengzhi

    2004-07-01

    The TCP end-to-end congestion control plus RED router queue management can be modeled as a discrete-time dynamical system, which may create complex bifurcating and chaotic behavior. Based on the basic features of the TCP-RED model, we propose a time-dependent delayed feedback control algorithm to control chaos in the system by perturbing the accessible RED parameter p{sub max}. This method is able to stabilized a router queue occupancy at a level without knowing the exact knowledge of the network. Further, we study the situation of the presence of the UDP traffic.

  4. Vehicle Dynamics and Control

    CERN Document Server

    Rajamani, Rajesh

    2012-01-01

    Vehicle Dynamics and Control provides a comprehensive coverage of vehicle control systems and the dynamic models used in the development of these control systems. The control system applications covered in the book include cruise control, adaptive cruise control, ABS, automated lane keeping, automated highway systems, yaw stability control, engine control, passive, active and semi-active suspensions, tire-road friction coefficient estimation, rollover prevention, and hybrid electric vehicle. In developing the dynamic model for each application, an effort is made to both keep the model simple enough for control system design but at the same time rich enough to capture the essential features of the dynamics. A special effort has been made to explain the several different tire models commonly used in literature and to interpret them physically. In the second edition of the book, chapters on roll dynamics, rollover prevention and hybrid electric vehicles have been added, and the chapter on electronic stability co...

  5. Balancing Trust and Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    This paper focuses on the leadership challenge of balancing trust and control. The relation between trust and control has for a long time been a puzzling issue for management researchers. In the paper I first show that there has been a dramatic change in the way the relation between trust...... and control has been conceptualized in trust research. While the relation between trust and control earlier was conceptualized as a more or less stable balance between trust and control, more recent research conceptualizes the relation between trust and control more as a dynamical process that involves...... an ongoing process of balancing the relation between trust and control. Second, taking the departure in the recent conceptualization of the balance between trust and control as an interactive process I discuss the challenges for management in handling this more subtle balancing of trust and control...

  6. CAMAC multipurpose microprocessor controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyakova, M.P.; Nemesh, T.; Buj Zoan Chong.

    1978-01-01

    The use of CAMAC controllers in an autonomous system of data acquisition and measurement is considered. The system consists of a control intelligence controller, memory modules, and user modules in the CAMAC standard. The controller and all the modules have an output into the highway and this permits to exchange data among them without using special external cables. To increase the servicing rate, an auxiliary controller which has direct access to memory and controls the user modules, is additionally connected to the data acquisition and measurement system. In this case, the intelligence controller is passive. The system of data acquisition can be realized in the form of a multiple system with branch usage. The controller module width is three units, and the controller incorporates the Intel-8080-type microprocessor and the following interfaces: of CAMAC highways, of interruption, of memory bootstrap, and of data sequence channel

  7. Control rod shutdown system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Yoshiyuki; Higashigawa, Yuichi.

    1996-01-01

    The present invention provides a control rod terminating system in a BWR type nuclear power plant, which stops an induction electric motor as rapidly as possible to terminate the control rods. Namely, the control rod stopping system controls reactor power by inserting/withdrawing control rods into a reactor by driving them by the induction electric motor. The system is provided with a control device for controlling the control rods and a control device for controlling the braking device. The control device outputs a braking operation signal for actuating the braking device during operation of the control rods to stop the operation of the control rods. Further, the braking device has at least two kinds of breaks, namely, a first and a second brakes. The two kinds of brakes are actuated by receiving the brake operation signals at different timings. The brake device is used also for keeping the control rods after the stopping. Even if a stopping torque of each of the breaks is small, different two kinds of brakes are operated at different timings thereby capable of obtaining a large stopping torque as a total. (I.S.)

  8. Plasma position control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takase, Haruhiko.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To conduct position control stably to various plasmas and reduce the burden on the control coil power source. Constitution: Among the proportional, integration and differentiation controls, a proportional-differentiation control section and an integration control section are connected in parallel. Then, a signal switching circuit is disposed to the control signal input section for the proportional-differentiation control section such that either a present position of plasmas or deviation between the present plasma position and an aimed value can be selected as a control signal depending on the control procedures or the state of the plasmas. For instance, if a rapid response is required for the control, the deviation between the present plasma position and the aimed value is selected as the input signal to conduct proportional, integration and differentiation controls. While on the other hand, if it is intended to reduce the burden on the control coil power source, it is adapted such that the control signal inputted to the proportional-differentiation control section itself can select the present plasma position. (Yoshihara, H.)

  9. Control rod assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Akio.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To enable reliable insertion and drops of control rods, as well as insure a sufficient flow rate of coolants flowing through the control rods for attaining satisfactory cooling thereof to enable relexation of thermal stress resulted to rectifying mechanisms or the likes. Constitution: To the outer circumference of a control rod contained vertically movably within a control rod guide tube, resistive members are retractably provided in such a way as to project to close the gap between outer circumference of the control rod and the inner surface of the control rod guide tube upon engagement of a gripper of control rod drives, and retract upon release of the engagement of the gripper. Thus, since the resistive members project to provide a greater resistance to the coolants flowing between them and the control rod guide tube in the normal operation where the gripper is engaged to drive the control rod by the control rod drives, a major part of the coolant flowing into the control rod guide tube flows into the control rod. This enables to cool the control rod effectively and make the temperature distribution uniform for the coolant flowing from the upper end of the control rod guide tube to thereby attain the relaxation of the thermal stress resulted in the rectifying mechanisms or the likes. (Moriyama, K.)

  10. Control rod displacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazato, S.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear reactor including a core, cylindrical control rods, a single support means supporting the control rods from their upper ends in spaced apart positions and movable for displacing the control rods in their longitudinal direction between a first end position in which the control rods are fully inserted into the core and a second end position in which the control rods are retracted from the core, and guide means contacting discrete regions of the outer surface of each control rod at least when the control rods are in the vicinity of the second end position. The control rods are supported by the support means for longitudinal movement without rotation into and out of the core relative to the guide means to thereby cause the outer surface of the control rods to experience wear as a result of sliding contact with the guide means. The support means are so arranged with respect to the core and the guide means that it is incapable of rotation relative to the guide means. The improvement comprises displacement means being operatively coupled to a respective one of the control rods for periodically rotating the control rod in a single angular direction through an angle selected to change the locations on the outer surfaces of the control rods at which the control rods are contacted by the guide means during subsequent longitudinal movement of the control rods

  11. Community-based control of the brown dog tick in a region with high rates of Rocky Mountain spotted fever, 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexler, Naomi; Miller, Mark; Gerding, Justin; Todd, Suzanne; Adams, Laura; Dahlgren, F Scott; Bryant, Nelva; Weis, Erica; Herrick, Kristen; Francies, Jessica; Komatsu, Kenneth; Piontkowski, Stephen; Velascosoltero, Jose; Shelhamer, Timothy; Hamilton, Brian; Eribes, Carmen; Brock, Anita; Sneezy, Patsy; Goseyun, Cye; Bendle, Harty; Hovet, Regina; Williams, Velda; Massung, Robert; McQuiston, Jennifer H

    2014-01-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) transmitted by the brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato) has emerged as a significant public health risk on American Indian reservations in eastern Arizona. During 2003-2012, more than 250 RMSF cases and 19 deaths were documented among Arizona's American Indian population. The high case fatality rate makes community-level interventions aimed at rapid and sustained reduction of ticks urgent. Beginning in 2012, a two year pilot integrated tick prevention campaign called the RMSF Rodeo was launched in a ∼ 600-home tribal community with high rates of RMSF. During year one, long-acting tick collars were placed on all dogs in the community, environmental acaricides were applied to yards monthly, and animal care practices such as spay and neuter and proper tethering procedures were encouraged. Tick levels, indicated by visible inspection of dogs, tick traps and homeowner reports were used to monitor tick presence and evaluate the efficacy of interventions throughout the project. By the end of year one, <1% of dogs in the RMSF Rodeo community had visible tick infestations five months after the project was started, compared to 64% of dogs in Non-Rodeo communities, and environmental tick levels were reduced below detectable levels. The second year of the project focused on use of the long-acting collar alone and achieved sustained tick control with fewer than 3% of dogs in the RMSF Rodeo community with visible tick infestations by the end of the second year. Homeowner reports of tick activity in the domestic and peridomestic setting showed similar decreases in tick activity compared to the non-project communities. Expansion of this successful project to other areas with Rhipicephalus-transmitted RMSF has the potential to reduce brown dog tick infestations and save human lives.

  12. Community-based control of the brown dog tick in a region with high rates of Rocky Mountain spotted fever, 2012-2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Drexler

    Full Text Available Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF transmitted by the brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato has emerged as a significant public health risk on American Indian reservations in eastern Arizona. During 2003-2012, more than 250 RMSF cases and 19 deaths were documented among Arizona's American Indian population. The high case fatality rate makes community-level interventions aimed at rapid and sustained reduction of ticks urgent. Beginning in 2012, a two year pilot integrated tick prevention campaign called the RMSF Rodeo was launched in a ∼ 600-home tribal community with high rates of RMSF. During year one, long-acting tick collars were placed on all dogs in the community, environmental acaricides were applied to yards monthly, and animal care practices such as spay and neuter and proper tethering procedures were encouraged. Tick levels, indicated by visible inspection of dogs, tick traps and homeowner reports were used to monitor tick presence and evaluate the efficacy of interventions throughout the project. By the end of year one, <1% of dogs in the RMSF Rodeo community had visible tick infestations five months after the project was started, compared to 64% of dogs in Non-Rodeo communities, and environmental tick levels were reduced below detectable levels. The second year of the project focused on use of the long-acting collar alone and achieved sustained tick control with fewer than 3% of dogs in the RMSF Rodeo community with visible tick infestations by the end of the second year. Homeowner reports of tick activity in the domestic and peridomestic setting showed similar decreases in tick activity compared to the non-project communities. Expansion of this successful project to other areas with Rhipicephalus-transmitted RMSF has the potential to reduce brown dog tick infestations and save human lives.

  13. Community-Based Control of the Brown Dog Tick in a Region with High Rates of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, 2012–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexler, Naomi; Miller, Mark; Gerding, Justin; Todd, Suzanne; Adams, Laura; Dahlgren, F. Scott; Bryant, Nelva; Weis, Erica; Herrick, Kristen; Francies, Jessica; Komatsu, Kenneth; Piontkowski, Stephen; Velascosoltero, Jose; Shelhamer, Timothy; Hamilton, Brian; Eribes, Carmen; Brock, Anita; Sneezy, Patsy; Goseyun, Cye; Bendle, Harty; Hovet, Regina; Williams, Velda; Massung, Robert; McQuiston, Jennifer H.

    2014-01-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) transmitted by the brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato) has emerged as a significant public health risk on American Indian reservations in eastern Arizona. During 2003–2012, more than 250 RMSF cases and 19 deaths were documented among Arizona's American Indian population. The high case fatality rate makes community-level interventions aimed at rapid and sustained reduction of ticks urgent. Beginning in 2012, a two year pilot integrated tick prevention campaign called the RMSF Rodeo was launched in a ∼600-home tribal community with high rates of RMSF. During year one, long-acting tick collars were placed on all dogs in the community, environmental acaricides were applied to yards monthly, and animal care practices such as spay and neuter and proper tethering procedures were encouraged. Tick levels, indicated by visible inspection of dogs, tick traps and homeowner reports were used to monitor tick presence and evaluate the efficacy of interventions throughout the project. By the end of year one, <1% of dogs in the RMSF Rodeo community had visible tick infestations five months after the project was started, compared to 64% of dogs in Non-Rodeo communities, and environmental tick levels were reduced below detectable levels. The second year of the project focused on use of the long-acting collar alone and achieved sustained tick control with fewer than 3% of dogs in the RMSF Rodeo community with visible tick infestations by the end of the second year. Homeowner reports of tick activity in the domestic and peridomestic setting showed similar decreases in tick activity compared to the non-project communities. Expansion of this successful project to other areas with Rhipicephalus-transmitted RMSF has the potential to reduce brown dog tick infestations and save human lives. PMID:25479289

  14. Intelligent control-III: fuzzy control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagrial, M.H.

    2004-01-01

    During the last decade or so, fuzzy logic control (FLC) has emerged as one of the most active and fruitful areas of research and development. The applications include industrial process control to medical diagnostic and financial markets. Many consumer products using this technology are available in the market place. FLC is best suited to complex ill-defined processes that can be controlled by a skilled human operator without much knowledge of their underlying dynamics. This lecture will cover the basic architecture and the design methodology of fuzzy logic controllers. FLC will be strongly based on the concepts of fuzzy set theory, introduced in first lecture. Some practical applications will also be discussed and presented. (author)

  15. Control and automation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, R.; Zillich, H.

    1986-01-01

    A survey is given of the development of control and automation systems for energy uses. General remarks about control and automation schemes are followed by a description of modern process control systems along with process control processes as such. After discussing the particular process control requirements of nuclear power plants the paper deals with the reliability and availability of process control systems and refers to computerized simulation processes. The subsequent paragraphs are dedicated to descriptions of the operating floor, ergonomic conditions, existing systems, flue gas desulfurization systems, the electromagnetic influences on digital circuits as well as of light wave uses. (HAG) [de

  16. Electricity sequence control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Heung Ryeol

    2010-03-01

    The contents of the book are introduction of control system, like classification and control signal, introduction of electricity power switch, such as push-button and detection switch sensor for induction type and capacitance type machinery for control, solenoid valve, expression of sequence and type of electricity circuit about using diagram, time chart, marking and term, logic circuit like Yes, No, and, or and equivalence logic, basic electricity circuit, electricity sequence control, added condition, special program control about choice and jump of program, motor control, extra circuit on repeat circuit, pause circuit in a conveyer, safety regulations and rule about classification of electricity disaster and protective device for insulation.

  17. VOC emissions control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spessard, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    The air pollution control equipment marketplace offers many competing technologies for controlling emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in air. If any technology was economically and technically superior under all conditions, it would be the only one on the market. In fact, each technology used to control VOCs is superior under some set of conditions. The reasons for choosing one control technology over another are situation-specific. Some general guidelines to VOC control technologies and the situations where each may be appropriate are presented in this article. The control technologies and applications are summarized in a table

  18. Programmable Digital Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassick, Gregory J.

    2012-01-01

    An existing three-channel analog servo loop controller has been redesigned for piezoelectric-transducer-based (PZT-based) etalon control applications to a digital servo loop controller. This change offers several improvements over the previous analog controller, including software control over proportional-integral-derivative (PID) parameters, inclusion of other data of interest such as temperature and pressure in the control laws, improved ability to compensate for PZT hysteresis and mechanical mount fluctuations, ability to provide pre-programmed scanning and stepping routines, improved user interface, expanded data acquisition, and reduced size, weight, and power.

  19. Robot welding process control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romine, Peter L.

    1991-01-01

    This final report documents the development and installation of software and hardware for Robotic Welding Process Control. Primary emphasis is on serial communications between the CYRO 750 robotic welder, Heurikon minicomputer running Hunter & Ready VRTX, and an IBM PC/AT, for offline programming and control and closed-loop welding control. The requirements for completion of the implementation of the Rocketdyne weld tracking control are discussed. The procedure for downloading programs from the Intergraph, over the network, is discussed. Conclusions are made on the results of this task, and recommendations are made for efficient implementation of communications, weld process control development, and advanced process control procedures using the Heurikon.

  20. Control system design method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David G [Tijeras, NM; Robinett, III, Rush D.

    2012-02-21

    A control system design method and concomitant control system comprising representing a physical apparatus to be controlled as a Hamiltonian system, determining elements of the Hamiltonian system representation which are power generators, power dissipators, and power storage devices, analyzing stability and performance of the Hamiltonian system based on the results of the determining step and determining necessary and sufficient conditions for stability of the Hamiltonian system, creating a stable control system based on the results of the analyzing step, and employing the resulting control system to control the physical apparatus.

  1. Robust Self Tuning Controllers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    1985-01-01

    The present thesis concerns robustness properties of adaptive controllers. It is addressed to methods for robustifying self tuning controllers with respect to abrupt changes in the plant parameters. In the thesis an algorithm for estimating abruptly changing parameters is presented. The estimator...... has several operation modes and a detector for controlling the mode. A special self tuning controller has been developed to regulate plant with changing time delay.......The present thesis concerns robustness properties of adaptive controllers. It is addressed to methods for robustifying self tuning controllers with respect to abrupt changes in the plant parameters. In the thesis an algorithm for estimating abruptly changing parameters is presented. The estimator...

  2. Control integral systems; Sistemas integrales de control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgos, Estrella [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1999-12-31

    Almost two third of the electric power generation in Mexico are obtained from hydrocarbons, for that reasons Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) dedicated special commitment in modernizing the operation of fossil fuel central stations. In attaining this objective the control systems play a fundamental roll, from them depend a good share of the reliability and the efficiency of the electric power generation process, as well as the extension of the equipment useful life. Since 1984 the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) has been working, upon the request of CFE, on the development of digital control systems. To date it has designed and implemented a logic control system for gas burners, which controls 32 burners of the Unit 4 boiler of the Generation Central of Valle de Mexico and two systems for distributed control for two combined cycle central stations, which are: Dos Bocas, Veracruz Combined cycle central, and Gomez Palacio, Durango combined cycle central. With these two developments the IIE enters the World tendency of implementing distributed control systems for the fossil fuel power central update [Espanol] Casi las dos terceras partes de la generacion electrica en Mexico se obtienen a partir de hidrocarburos, es por eso que la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) puso especial empeno en modernizar la operacion de las centrales termoelectricas de combustibles fosiles. En el logro de este objetivo los sistemas de control desempenan un papel fundamental, de ellos depende una buena parte la confiabilidad y la eficiencia en el proceso de generacion de energia electrica, asi como la prolongacion de la vida util de los equipos. Desde 1984 el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) ha trabajado, a solicitud de la CFE, en el desarrollo de sistemas digitales de control. A la fecha se han disenado e implantado un sistema de control logico de quemadores de gas, el cual controla 32 quemadores de la caldera de la unidad 4 de la central de generacion

  3. Control integral systems; Sistemas integrales de control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgos, Estrella [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    Almost two third of the electric power generation in Mexico are obtained from hydrocarbons, for that reasons Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) dedicated special commitment in modernizing the operation of fossil fuel central stations. In attaining this objective the control systems play a fundamental roll, from them depend a good share of the reliability and the efficiency of the electric power generation process, as well as the extension of the equipment useful life. Since 1984 the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) has been working, upon the request of CFE, on the development of digital control systems. To date it has designed and implemented a logic control system for gas burners, which controls 32 burners of the Unit 4 boiler of the Generation Central of Valle de Mexico and two systems for distributed control for two combined cycle central stations, which are: Dos Bocas, Veracruz Combined cycle central, and Gomez Palacio, Durango combined cycle central. With these two developments the IIE enters the World tendency of implementing distributed control systems for the fossil fuel power central update [Espanol] Casi las dos terceras partes de la generacion electrica en Mexico se obtienen a partir de hidrocarburos, es por eso que la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) puso especial empeno en modernizar la operacion de las centrales termoelectricas de combustibles fosiles. En el logro de este objetivo los sistemas de control desempenan un papel fundamental, de ellos depende una buena parte la confiabilidad y la eficiencia en el proceso de generacion de energia electrica, asi como la prolongacion de la vida util de los equipos. Desde 1984 el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) ha trabajado, a solicitud de la CFE, en el desarrollo de sistemas digitales de control. A la fecha se han disenado e implantado un sistema de control logico de quemadores de gas, el cual controla 32 quemadores de la caldera de la unidad 4 de la central de generacion

  4. Embedded controllers for local board-control

    CERN Document Server

    Neufeld, Niko; Mini, Giuseppe; Sannino, Mario; Guzik, Zbigniew; Jacobsson, Richard; Jost, Beat

    2005-01-01

    The LHCb experiment at CERN has a large number of custom electronic boards performing high-speed data-processing. Like in any large experiment the control and monitoring of these crate-mounted boards must be integrated into the overall control-system. Traditionally this has been done by using buses like VME on the back-plane of the crates. LHCb has chosen to equip every board with an embedded micro-controller and connecting them in a large Local Area Network. The intelligence of these devices allows complex (soft) real-time control and monitoring, required for modern powerful FPGA driven electronics. Moreover each board has its own, isolated control access path, which increases the robustness of the entire system. The system is now in pre-production at several sites and will go into full production during next year. The hardware and software will be discussed and experiences from the R&D and pre-production will be reviewed, with an emphasis on advantages and difficulties of this approach to board-control.

  5. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program: Mercury Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, A.P.; Redinger, K.W.; Holmes, M.J.

    1997-07-01

    McDermott Technology, Inc. (a subsidiary of Babcock ampersand Wilcox) is conducting the Advanced Emissions Control Development Project (AECDP) which is aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPS) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for such controls may arise as the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proceeds with implementation of requirements set forth in the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA's) of 1990. Promulgation of air toxics emissions regulations for electric utility plants could dramatically impact utilities burning coal, their industrial and residential customers, and the coal industry. AECDP project work will supply the information needed by utilities to respond to potential HAPs regulations in a timely, cost-effective, enviromnentally-sound manner which supports the continued use of the Nation's abundant reserves of coal, such as those in the State of Ohio. The development work is being carried out using the 10 MW Clean Environment Development Facility wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions. The specific objectives of the project are to (1) measure and understand production and partitioning of air toxics species for a variety of coals, (2) optimize the air toxics removal performance of conventional flue gas cleanup systems, (3) develop advanced air toxics emissions control concepts, (4) develop and validate air toxics emissions measurement and monitoring techniques, and (5) establish a comprehensive, self-consistent air toxics data library. This project is supported by the Department of Energy, the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Department of Development and Babcock ampersand Wilcox. A comprehensive assessment of HAP emissions from coal-fired electric utility boilers sponsored by the Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute concluded that with the exception of

  6. Control room design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinke, H.

    1980-01-01

    To control a 1300 megawatt nuclear power plant, about 15000 plant parameters must be collected together to control and operate the plant. The control room design therefore is of particular importance. The main design criteria are: Required functions of the power plant process - Level of Automation - Ergonomics - Available Technology. Extensive analysis has resulted in a control room design method. This ensures that an objective solution will be reached. Resulting from this methodical approach are: 1. Scope, position and appearance of the instrumentation. 2. Scope, position and appearance of the operator controls. Process analysis dictates what instrumentation and operator controls are needed. The priority and importance of the control and instrumentation (this we define as the utilisation areas), dictates the rough layout of the control room. (orig./RW)

  7. Intelligent Mission Controller Node

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perme, David

    2002-01-01

    The goal of the Intelligent Mission Controller Node (IMCN) project was to improve the process of translating mission taskings between real-world Command, Control, Communications, Computers, and Intelligence (C41...

  8. NGS Survey Control Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NGS Survey Control Map provides a map of the US which allows you to find and display geodetic survey control points stored in the database of the National...

  9. Method of controlling reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tochihara, Hiroshi.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the reactivity controlling characteristics by artificially controlling the leakage of neutron from a reactor and providing a controller for controlling the reactivity. Method: A reactor core is divided into several water gaps to increase the leakage of neutron, its reactivity is reduced, a gas-filled control rod or a fuel assembly is inserted into the gap as required, the entire core is coupled in a system to reduce the leakage of the neutron, and the reactivity is increased. The reactor shutdown is conducted by the conventional control rod, and to maintain critical state, boron density varying system is used together. Futher, a control rod drive is used with that similar to the conventional one, thereby enabling fast reactivity variation, and the positive reactivity can be obtained by the insertion, thereby improving the reactivity controlling characteristics. (Yoshihara, H.)

  10. The remote control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansweijer, P.P.M.

    1988-01-01

    The remote-control system is applied in order to control various signals in the car of the spectrometer at distance. The construction (hardware and software) as well as the operation of the system is described. (author). 20 figs

  11. Systems and Control Engineering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    activities directed towards the students and the general public. Designed .... attention has been directed towards the use of control and automation to mitigate the effects of those ... The history of automatic control can be divided into four main.

  12. A modular control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, B.; Drexler, J.; Olcese, G.; Santome, D.

    1990-01-01

    The main objective of the modular control system is to provide the requirements to most of the processes supervision and control applications within the industrial automatization area. The design is based on distribution, modulation and expansion concepts. (Author) [es

  13. Birth Control Shot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Birth Control Shot KidsHealth / For Teens / Birth Control Shot What's ...

  14. Birth Control Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Birth Control Ring KidsHealth / For Teens / Birth Control Ring What's ...

  15. Birth Control Pill

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Birth Control Pill KidsHealth / For Teens / Birth Control Pill What's ...

  16. Birth Control Patch

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Birth Control Patch KidsHealth / For Teens / Birth Control Patch What's ...

  17. Birth control pills overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002599.htm Birth control pill overdose To use the sharing features on ... the medicine was prescribed for the person Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly ...

  18. Poison Control Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1222 immediately. Name State American Association of Poison Control Centers Address AAPCC Central Office NOT A POISON ... not for emergency use. Arkansas ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center Address 1717 S. Philo Road, Suite 36 Urbana, ...

  19. Cholera Prevention and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... name=”commit” type=”submit” value=”Submit” /> Prevention & Control Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Prevention of ... of cholera and other diarrheal disease prevention. Prevention & Control Topics Ending Cholera: The Global Roadmap to 2030 ...

  20. SPECT quality control tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robilotta, C.C.; Rebelo, M.F.S.; Oliveira, M.A.; Abe, R.

    1987-01-01

    Quality control tests of tomographic system composed by a rotatory chamber (CGR Gammatomome T-9000) and a microcomputer are presented. Traditional quality control tests for scintilation chambers and specific tests for tomographic systems are reported. (M.A.C.) [pt

  1. Identification for Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tøffner-Clausen, S.

    1995-01-01

    Identification of model error bounds for robust control design has recently achieved much attention.......Identification of model error bounds for robust control design has recently achieved much attention....

  2. The LHCb Run Control

    CERN Document Server

    Alessio, F; Callot, O; Duval, P-Y; Franek, B; Frank, M; Galli, D; Gaspar, C; v Herwijnen, E; Jacobsson, R; Jost, B; Neufeld, N; Sambade, A; Schwemmer, R; Somogyi, P

    2010-01-01

    LHCb has designed and implemented an integrated Experiment Control System. The Control System uses the same concepts and the same tools to control and monitor all parts of the experiment: the Data Acquisition System, the Timing and the Trigger Systems, the High Level Trigger Farm, the Detector Control System, the Experiment's Infrastructure and the interaction with the CERN Technical Services and the Accelerator. LHCb's Run Control, the main interface used by the experiment's operator, provides access in a hierarchical, coherent and homogeneous manner to all areas of the experiment and to all its sub-detectors. It allows for automated (or manual) configuration and control, including error recovery, of the full experiment in its different running modes. Different instances of the same Run Control interface are used by the various sub-detectors for their stand-alone activities: test runs, calibration runs, etc. The architecture and the tools used to build the control system, the guidelines and components provid...

  3. Fine motor control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gross (large, general) motor control. An example of gross motor control is waving an arm in greeting. Problems ... out the child's developmental age. Children develop fine motor skills over time, by practicing and being taught. To ...

  4. Cell Control Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Hans Jørgen Birk; Alting, Leo

    1996-01-01

    The engineering process of creating cell control systems is described, and a Cell Control Engineering (CCE) concept is defined. The purpose is to assist people, representing different disciplines in the organisation, to implement cell controllers by addressing the complexity of having many systems...... in physically and logically different and changing manufacturing environments. The defined CCE concept combines state-of-the-art of commercially available enabling technologies for automation system software development, generic cell control models and guidelines for the complete engineering process...

  5. System for controlling apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzrichter, John F

    2015-05-05

    An implanted stimulation device or air control device are activated by an external radar-like sensor for controlling apnea. The radar-like sensor senses the closure of the air flow cavity, and associated control circuitry signals (1) a stimulator to cause muscles to open the air passage way that is closing or closed or (2) an air control device to open the air passage way that is closing or closed.

  6. Strategies for humidity control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgarth, S

    1987-01-01

    Humidity and temperature control in air-conditioning systems mostly involves coupled closed-loop control circuits. The author discusses their uncoupling and resulting consequences as well as energy-optimized control of recirculation air flaps or enthalpy recovering systems (h-x control) in detail. Special reference is made of the application of the DDC technology and its scope, limits and preconditions. In conclusions, the author presents pertinent measurement results. (orig.).

  7. Defining Quantum Control Flow

    OpenAIRE

    Ying, Mingsheng; Yu, Nengkun; Feng, Yuan

    2012-01-01

    A remarkable difference between quantum and classical programs is that the control flow of the former can be either classical or quantum. One of the key issues in the theory of quantum programming languages is defining and understanding quantum control flow. A functional language with quantum control flow was defined by Altenkirch and Grattage [\\textit{Proc. LICS'05}, pp. 249-258]. This paper extends their work, and we introduce a general quantum control structure by defining three new quantu...

  8. Quality control in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batalla, A.

    2009-01-01

    The authors discuss the modalities and periodicities of internal quality control on radiotherapy installations. They indicate the different concerned systems and the aspects and items to be controlled (patient and personnel security, apparatus mechanical characteristics, beam quality, image quality, isodose and irradiation duration calculation, data transfer). They present the measurement instruments and tools used for the mechanical controls, dose measurement, beam homogeneity and symmetry, anatomic data acquisition systems, and dose distribution and control imagery calculation

  9. Fuzzy Control Tutorial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dotoli, M.; Jantzen, Jan

    1999-01-01

    The tutorial concerns automatic control of an inverted pendulum, especially rule based control by means of fuzzy logic. A ball balancer, implemented in a software simulator in Matlab, is used as a practical case study. The objectives of the tutorial are to teach the basics of fuzzy control......, and to show how to apply fuzzy logic in automatic control. The tutorial is distance learning, where students interact one-to-one with the teacher using e-mail....

  10. Control rod velocity limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cearley, J.E.; Carruth, J.C.; Dixon, R.C.; Spencer, S.S.; Zuloaga, J.A. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    This patent describes a velocity control arrangement for a reciprocable, vertically oriented control rod for use in a nuclear reactor in a fluid medium, the control rod including a drive hub secured to and extending from one end therefrom. The control device comprises: a toroidally shaped control member spaced from and coaxially positioned around the hub and secured thereto by a plurality of spaced radial webs thereby providing an annular passage for fluid intermediate the hub and the toroidal member spaced therefrom in coaxial position. The side of the control member toward the control rod has a smooth generally conical surface. The side of the control member away from the control rod is formed with a concave surface constituting a single annular groove. The device also comprises inner and outer annular vanes radially spaced from one another and spaced from the side of the control member away from the control rod and positioned coaxially around and spaced from the hub and secured thereto by spaced radial webs thereby providing an annular passage for fluid intermediate the hub and the vanes. The vanes are angled toward the control member, the outer edge of the inner vane being closer to the control member and the inner edge of the outer vane being closer to the control member. When the control rod moves in the fluid in the direction toward the drive hub the vanes direct a flow of fluid turbulence which provides greater resistance to movement of the control rod in the direction toward the drive hub than in the other direction

  11. Tokamak control simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edelbaum, T.N.; Serben, S.; Var, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    A computer model of a tokamak experimental power reactor and its control system is being constructed. This simulator will allow the exploration of various open loop and closed loop strategies for reactor control. This paper provides a brief description of the simulator and some of the potential control problems associated with this class of tokamaks

  12. Reactor control system. PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    At present, 23 units of PWR type reactors have been operated in Japan since the start of Mihama Unit 1 operation in 1970 and various improvements have been made to upgrade operability of power stations as well as reliability and safety of power plants. As the share of nuclear power increases, further improvements of operating performance such as load following capability will be requested for power stations with more reliable and safer operation. This article outlined the reactor control system of PWR type reactors and described the control performance of power plants realized with those systems. The PWR control system is characterized that the turbine power is automatic or manually controlled with request of the electric power system and then the nuclear power is followingly controlled with the change of core reactivity. The system mainly consists of reactor automatic control system (control rod control system), pressurizer pressure control system, pressurizer water level control system, steam generator water level control system and turbine bypass control system. (T. Tanaka)

  13. Process control program development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dameron, H.J.

    1985-01-01

    This paper details the development and implementation of a ''Process Control Program'' at Duke Power's three nuclear stations - Oconee, McGuire, and Catawba. Each station is required by Technical Specification to have a ''Process Control Program'' (PCP) to control all dewatering and/or solidification activities for radioactive wastes

  14. Adaptive LQG controller tuning

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, Miroslav; Böhm, Josef; Nedoma, Petr; Tesař, Ludvík

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 150, č. 6 (2003), s. 655-665 ISSN 1350-2379 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/02/0204; GA AV ČR IBS1075102 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1075907 Keywords : adaptive controller * LQG controller * controller design Subject RIV: JB - Sensors, Measurment, Regulation Impact factor: 0.745, year: 2003

  15. Survivability via Control Objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CAMPBELL,PHILIP L.

    2000-08-11

    Control objectives open an additional front in the survivability battle. A given set of control objectives is valuable if it represents good practices, it is complete (it covers all the necessary areas), and it is auditable. CobiT and BS 7799 are two examples of control objective sets.

  16. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-21

    Intersoft- ware, Logic Control Control y Aplicaciones , Dielsa, Eliop, EISA, Sainco CTNE, Fagor Electronica, Standard CTNE, Fagor Electronica, Piher...regulation systems Industrial turbine of advanced design Alfa Sewing Machines Control y Aplicaciones , Danobat, Etxe-Tar C02, CO and ultraviolet lasers

  17. FFTF control system experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warrick, R.P.

    1981-01-01

    The FFTF control systems provide control equipment for safe and efficient operation of the plant. For convenience, these systems will be divided into three parts for discussions: (1) Plant Protection System (PPS); (2) Plant Control System (PCS); and (3) General Observations. Performance of each of these systems is discussed

  18. Atomic Energy Control Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    This act provides for the establishment of the Atomic Energy Control Board. The board is responsible for the control and supervision of the development, application and use of atomic energy. The board is also considered necessary to enable Canada to participate effectively in measures of international control of atomic energy

  19. Quality control of radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdera, E.S.

    1994-01-01

    The quality control of radiopharmaceuticals is based in physics, physics-chemical and biological controls. Between the different controls can be enumerated the following: visual aspect,side, number of particle beams,activity,purity,ph,isotonicity,sterility,radioinmunoessay,toxicity,stability and clinical essay

  20. Optimisation of load control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koponen, P.

    1998-01-01

    Electricity cannot be stored in large quantities. That is why the electricity supply and consumption are always almost equal in large power supply systems. If this balance were disturbed beyond stability, the system or a part of it would collapse until a new stable equilibrium is reached. The balance between supply and consumption is mainly maintained by controlling the power production, but also the electricity consumption or, in other words, the load is controlled. Controlling the load of the power supply system is important, if easily controllable power production capacity is limited. Temporary shortage of capacity causes high peaks in the energy price in the electricity market. Load control either reduces the electricity consumption during peak consumption and peak price or moves electricity consumption to some other time. The project Optimisation of Load Control is a part of the EDISON research program for distribution automation. The following areas were studied: Optimization of space heating and ventilation, when electricity price is time variable, load control model in power purchase optimization, optimization of direct load control sequences, interaction between load control optimization and power purchase optimization, literature on load control, optimization methods and field tests and response models of direct load control and the effects of the electricity market deregulation on load control. An overview of the main results is given in this chapter

  1. Fluid control valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, J.

    1980-01-01

    A fluid control valve is described in which it is not necessary to insert a hand or a tool into the housing to remove the valve seat. Such a valve is particularly suitable for the control of radioactive fluids since maintenance by remote control is possible. (UK)

  2. Neutron generator control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peelman, H.E.; Bridges, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    A method is described of controlling the neutron output of a neutron generator tube used in neutron well logging. The system operates by monitoring the target beam current and comparing a function of this current with a reference voltage level to develop a control signal used in a series regulator to control the replenisher current of the neutron generator tube. (U.K.)

  3. Optimisation of load control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koponen, P [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    Electricity cannot be stored in large quantities. That is why the electricity supply and consumption are always almost equal in large power supply systems. If this balance were disturbed beyond stability, the system or a part of it would collapse until a new stable equilibrium is reached. The balance between supply and consumption is mainly maintained by controlling the power production, but also the electricity consumption or, in other words, the load is controlled. Controlling the load of the power supply system is important, if easily controllable power production capacity is limited. Temporary shortage of capacity causes high peaks in the energy price in the electricity market. Load control either reduces the electricity consumption during peak consumption and peak price or moves electricity consumption to some other time. The project Optimisation of Load Control is a part of the EDISON research program for distribution automation. The following areas were studied: Optimization of space heating and ventilation, when electricity price is time variable, load control model in power purchase optimization, optimization of direct load control sequences, interaction between load control optimization and power purchase optimization, literature on load control, optimization methods and field tests and response models of direct load control and the effects of the electricity market deregulation on load control. An overview of the main results is given in this chapter

  4. Distributed Power Flow Controller

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, Z.

    2010-01-01

    In modern power systems, there is a great demand to control the power flow actively. Power flow controlling devices (PFCDs) are required for such purpose, because the power flow over the lines is the nature result of the impedance of each line. Due to the control capabilities of different types of

  5. Global marketing control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    John Rance; Galina Zhiltsova

    2009-01-01

    The reasoning issue of this work is to research and define the efficient methods of global marketing control. The report is focused on the following aspects: the importance of the control systems in global marketing environment, the relationship between planning and controlling, types and the

  6. Plasma control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takase, Haruhiko.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain the optimum controllability for the plasmas and the thermonuclear device by selectively executing control operation for proportion, integration and differentiation (PID) by first and second controllers respectively based on selection instruction signals. Constitution: Deviation between a vertical direction equilibrium position: Zp as the plasma status amount measured in a measuring section and an aimed value Zref thereof is inputted to a first PID selection controller. The first controller selectively executes one of the PID control operations in accordance with the first selection signal instruction instructed by a PID control operation instruction circuit. Further, Zp is also inputted to a second PID selection controller, which selectively executes one of the PID control operations in accordance with the second selection instruction signal in the same manner as in the first controller. The deviation amount u between operations signals u1 and u2 from the first and second PID selection controllers is inputted to a power source to thereby supply a predetermined current value to control coils that generate equilibrium magnetic fields for making the vertical direction equilibrium position of plasmas constant. (Kamimura, M.)

  7. Control of mitochondrial respiration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tager, J. M.; Wanders, R. J.; Groen, A. K.; Kunz, W.; Bohnensack, R.; Küster, U.; Letko, G.; Böhme, G.; Duszynski, J.; Wojtczak, L.

    1983-01-01

    The control theory of Kacser and Burns [in: Rate Control of Biological Processes (Davies, D.D. ed) pp. 65-104, Cambridge University Press, London, 1973] and Heinrich and Rapoport [Eur. J. Biochem. (1974) 42, 97-105] has been used to quantify the amount of control exerted by different steps on

  8. Microbial control of pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, J C; Gadd, G M; Herbert, R A; Jones, C W; Watson-Craik, I A [eds.

    1992-01-01

    12 papers are presented on the microbial control of pollution. Topics covered include: bioremediation of oil spills; microbial control of heavy metal pollution; pollution control using microorganisms and magnetic separation; degradation of cyanide and nitriles; nitrogen removal from water and waste; and land reclamation and restoration.

  9. Power oscillation damping controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    A power oscillation damping controller is provided for a power generation device such as a wind turbine device. The power oscillation damping controller receives an oscillation indicating signal indicative of a power oscillation in an electricity network and provides an oscillation damping control...

  10. Optimal magnetic attitude control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Markley, F.L.

    1999-01-01

    because control torques can only be generated perpendicular to the local geomagnetic field vector. This has been a serious obstacle for using magnetorquer based control for three-axis stabilization of a low earth orbit satellite. The problem of controlling the spacecraft attitude using only magnetic...

  11. Automobile control technology and traffic control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takaba, Sadao [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)

    1988-09-05

    In the field of automobile control technology, electronic was first adopted for the electronic fuel control as an answer to the exhaust gas regulations. The operations of the driving system, frame system or the automobile itself which is the combination of the two were optimized by adding sensors, computers, actuators, etc. to alleviate the burden of the driver, offering easier drivability and confortableness. For local driving control, measurement of distance up to obstacle has been practiced using the ultrasonic radar sensor. Research and development of microwave radar sensor have been carried out for years. Automatic driving has been a dream technology, and the study for the technology was started since early times. Remarkable progress was made recently in the navigation system for traffic control in wide area. New automobile traffic information communication and other systems are being developed. Historical description is made on the control and information systems for road transportation, dividing the period into the 1st, 2nd and 3rd generations. 10 references.

  12. Arbitrating Control of Control and Display Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugden, Paul C.

    2007-01-01

    The ARINC 739 Switch is a computer program that arbitrates control of two multi-function control and display units (MCDUs) between (1) a commercial flight-management computer (FMC) and (2) NASA software used in research on transport aircraft. (MCDUs are the primary interfaces between pilots and FMCs on many commercial aircraft.) This program was recently redesigned into a software library that can be embedded in research application programs. As part of the redesign, this software was combined with software for creating custom pages of information to be displayed on a CDU. This software commands independent switching of the left (pilot s) and right (copilot s) MCDUs. For example, a custom CDU page can control the left CDU while the FMC controls the right CDU. The software uses menu keys to switch control of the CDU between the FMC or a custom CDU page. The software provides an interface that enables custom CDU pages to insert keystrokes into the FMC s CDU input interface. This feature allows the custom CDU pages to manipulate the FMC as if it were a pilot.

  13. Control rod drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawke, B.C.

    1986-01-01

    A reactor core, one or more control rods, and a control rod drive are described for selectively inserting and withdrawing the one or more control rods into and from the reactor core, which consists of: a support structure secured beneath the reactor core; control rod positioning means supported by the support structure for movably supporting the control rod for movement between a lower position wherein the control rod is located substantially beneath the reactor core and an upper position wherein at least an upper portion of the control rod extends into the reactor core; transmission means; primary drive means connected with the control rod positioning means by the transmission means for positioning the control rod under normal operating conditions; emergency drive means for moving the control rod from the lower position to the upper position under emergency conditions, the emergency drive means including a weight movable between an upper and a lower position, means for movably supporting the weight, and means for transmitting gravitational force exerted on the weight to the control rod positioning means to move the control rod upwardly when the weight is pulled downwardly by gravity; the transmission means connecting the control rod positioning means with the emergency drive means so that the primary drive means effects movement of the weight and the control rod in opposite directions under normal conditions, thus providing counterbalancing to reduce the force required for upward movement of the control rod under normal conditions; and restraint means for restraining the fall of the weight under normal operating conditions and disengaging the primary drive means to release the weight under emergency conditions

  14. Customs control of goods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mentor Gashi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Customs control, is regulated by law in different countries. Different countries define through the law, the control of goods.. Main purpose of this paper is to analyze two types of customs controls, and their effect in reducing avoidance of duty or tax evasion which may be caused by the import of goods of certain companies. For this reason we researched which model is implemented in developing countries and what results were reached through questionnaires. In this sense the next research question, consists in defining the moment of customs control pre or post-clearance control of goods.

  15. Internet congestion control

    CERN Document Server

    Varma, Subir

    2015-01-01

    Internet Congestion Control provides a description of some of the most important topics in the area of congestion control in computer networks, with special emphasis on the analytical modeling of congestion control algorithms. The field of congestion control has seen many notable advances in recent years and the purpose of this book, which is targeted towards the advanced and intermediate reader, is to inform about the most important developments in this area. The book should enable the reader to gain a good understanding of the application of congestion control theory to a number of applic

  16. [Controlling instruments in radiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, M

    2013-10-01

    Due to the rising costs and competitive pressures radiological clinics and practices are now facing, controlling instruments are gaining importance in the optimization of structures and processes of the various diagnostic examinations and interventional procedures. It will be shown how the use of selected controlling instruments can secure and improve the performance of radiological facilities. A definition of the concept of controlling will be provided. It will be shown which controlling instruments can be applied in radiological departments and practices. As an example, two of the controlling instruments, material cost analysis and benchmarking, will be illustrated.

  17. Span of control matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathcart, Deb; Jeska, Susan; Karnas, Joan; Miller, Sue E; Pechacek, Judy; Rheault, Lolita

    2004-09-01

    Prompted by manager concerns about span of control, a large, integrated health system set out to determine if span of control really mattered. Was there something to it, or was it just an excuse for poor performance? A team of middle managers studied the problem and ultimately demonstrated a strong relationship between span of control and employee engagement. Consequently, it was decided to add 4 management positions to note the effect. One year later, positive changes were observed in employee engagement scores in all 4 areas. This study suggests careful review of manager spans of control to address the untoward effects of large spans of control on employee engagement.

  18. Scheme of stepmotor control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grashilin, V.A.; Karyshev, Yu.Ya.

    1982-01-01

    A 6-cycle scheme of step motor is described. The block-diagram and the basic circuit of the step motor control are presented. The step motor control comprises a pulse shaper, electronic commutator and power amplifiers. The step motor supply from 6-cycle electronic commutator provides for higher reliability and accuracy than from 3-cycle commutator. The control of step motor work is realised by the program given by the external source of control signals. Time-dependent diagrams for step motor control are presented. The specifications of the step-motor is given

  19. Fault Tolerant Feedback Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, Jakob; Niemann, H.

    2001-01-01

    An architecture for fault tolerant feedback controllers based on the Youla parameterization is suggested. It is shown that the Youla parameterization will give a residual vector directly in connection with the fault diagnosis part of the fault tolerant feedback controller. It turns out...... that there is a separation be-tween the feedback controller and the fault tolerant part. The closed loop feedback properties are handled by the nominal feedback controller and the fault tolerant part is handled by the design of the Youla parameter. The design of the fault tolerant part will not affect the design...... of the nominal feedback con-troller....

  20. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futatsugi, Masao.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To secure the reactor operation safety by the provision of a fluid pressure detecting section for control rod driving fluid and a control rod interlock at the midway of the flow pass for supplying driving fluid to the control rod drives. Constitution: Between a driving line and a direction control valve are provided a pressure detecting portion, an alarm generating device, and a control rod inhibition interlock. The driving fluid from a driving fluid source is discharged by way of a pump and a manual valve into the reactor in which the control rods and reactor fuels are contained. In addition, when the direction control valve is switched and the control rods are inserted and extracted by the control rod drives, the pressure in the driving line is always detected by the pressure detection section, whereby if abnormal pressure is resulted, the alarm generating device is actuated to warn the abnormality and the control rod inhibition interlock is actuated to lock the direction control valve thereby secure the safety operation of the reactor. (Seki, T.)