Background It seems that the core neural regions and cognitive processes implicated in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) pathophysiology may overlap with those involved in humor appreciation. However, to date, there have been no studies that have explored humor appreciation in OCD. The purpose of the present work was to investigate humor appreciation in a group of patients with OCD. Methods We examined 25 patients with OCD and 25 healthy controls, matched by age, education, and gender. We administered Penn's Humor Appreciation Test (PHAT), a computerized test comprising captionless cartoons by Mordillo. Each set of stimuli consisted of two almost identical drawings, one of which was funny due to the alteration of a detail in the cartoon, whereas the other was not funny. Severity of psychopathology was evaluated with the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS). Results No significant effect for group, gender or group × gender interaction was found on the PHAT scores. In OCD patients, humor appreciation was not significantly associated with age of onset, duration of illness, and obsessions, but correlated significantly with compulsions. Conclusions Humor appreciation, based on captionless cartoons in OCD, does not seem to be deficient compared to healthy subjects but may be related to illness characteristics. PMID:22103926
Killlon, Jessica B.; Torres, Aurora
The Connor Davidson Resilience Scale was developed to measure resiliency, an individual's ability to positively adapt to stressful or adverse situations. Resilient individuals have close and secure relationships, have a strong sense of purpose, know when to turn to others for help, and find humor in situations. The focus of this study was on the…
Full Text Available Some animated movies use humor to capture the full attention of its audience. In so doing, the movie’s messages have become a great concern for many theorists and critics by virtue of the idea that a movie can be a repository of ideologies meant to construct a certain type of easy-going and noncritical audience. This paper, therefore, takes the example of Max Fleischer’s Popeye the Sailor Meets Ali Baba and his Forty Thieves (1937 and Robert Clampett’s Ali Baba Bound (1941 as its case studies aiming at spotting the different manifestations of humor, taking Arabs as its subject-matter, becoming a leaked ideology and taming the discourse that is amplified, manipulated, and delivered to the Western public in unwarrantable ways compared to the imagery of Westerners.
Investigando As Origens Do Humor Visual E A Gestação Do Gênero Cartoon: Uma Pesquisa No Antigo Egito / Investigating The Visual Humor From The Origins And Pregnancy The Cartoon Gender: A Survey In Ancient Egypt
Gallas, Ana Kelma Cunha; Faculdade Santo Agostinho
Este trabalho apresenta uma discussão sobreo cartoon, modalidade própria de comunicação queconjuga signos gráficos, visuais e lingüísticos. Nesteestudo, parte-se da concepção de que o cartoon surgiudo humor visual praticado há séculos em algumas dasmaiores civilizações da Antiguidade, o Egito. Nessacivilização, a prática do humor visual tinha uma funçãosignificativa no contexto social. Sobre gênero,consideram-se, neste estudo, as pesquisas pro...
This article focuses on the structures of humor and joke telling that require particular kinds of attentiveness and particular relationships between speaker and audience, or more specifically, between classmates. First, I will analyze the pedagogical and relational preconditions that are necessary for humor to work. If humor is to work well, the…
Berger, Philipp; Bitsch, Florian; Nagels, Arne; Straube, Benjamin; Falkenberg, Irina
Previous research and theory implicate that personality traits, such as extraversion and neuroticism, influence the processing of humor, as indicated by alterations in the activation of fronto-temporal and mesocorticolimbic brain regions during humor processing. In the current study, we sought to complement these findings by testing whether inter-individual differences in functional connectivity of humor-related brain regions are modulated by stable personality characteristics during humor processing. Using fMRI techniques, we studied 19 healthy subjects during the processing of standardized humorous and neutral cartoons. In order to isolate the specific effects of humor appreciation, subjective funniness ratings, collected during the scanning procedure, were implemented in the analysis as parametric modulation. Two distinct clusters in the right amygdala and the left insula were identified. Seed-to-voxel connectivity analysis investigating the effects of personality on inter-individual differences in functional connectivity revealed that amygdala and insula connectivity with brain areas previously related to humor comprehension (e.g. middle temporal gyrus) and appreciation (e.g. caudate nucleus) were significantly modulated by personality dimensions. These results underscore the sensitivity of humor processing to moderating influences, such as personality, and call attention to the importance of brain connectivity measures for the investigation of inter-individual differences in the processing of humor.
Rowell, Elizabeth H.; Goodkind, Thomas B.
Analyzes editorial cartoons from 1972-87 to determine extent and type of attention to environmental issues. Explores cartoons' direct and indirect messages regarding outdoors. Describes cartoons about energy, environment, pollution, space. Discusses artists' use of animals, vegetation, and outdoor activities. Identifies environmental issues as…
Full Text Available Previous research has shown that humor and self-presentation are linked in several ways. With regard to individual differences, it turned out that gelotophilia (the joy of being laughed at and katagelasticism (the joy of laughing at others are substantially associated with the histrionic self-presentation style that is characterized by performing explicit As-If-behaviors (e.g., irony, parodying others in everyday interactions. By contrast, gelotophobia (the fear of being laughed at shows a negative correlation with histrionic self-presentation. In order to further contribute to the nomological network, we have explored whether the three dispositions toward ridicule and laughter as well as histrionic self-presentation are related to humor creation abilities. In doing so, we have assessed the four constructs in a study with 337 participants that also completed the Cartoon Punch line Production Test (CPPT, Köhler and Ruch, 1993, unpublished. In the CPPT, subjects were asked to generate as many funny punch lines as possible for six caption-removed cartoons. The created punch lines were then analyzed with regard to quantitative (e.g., number of punch lines and qualitative (e.g., wittiness of the punch lines and overall wittiness of the person as evaluated by three independent raters humor creation abilities. Results show that both gelotophilia and histrionic self-presentation were positively correlated with quantitative and qualitative humor creation abilities. By contrast, gelotophobia showed slightly negative and katagelasticism no associations with the assessed humor creation abilities. These findings especially apply to the subgroup of participants that created punch lines for each of the six cartoons and partly replicate and extend the results of a previous study by Ruch et al. (2009. Altogether, the results of our study show that individual differences in humor-related traits are associated with the quantity and quality of humorous punch lines
Renner, Karl-Heinz; Manthey, Leonie
Previous research has shown that humor and self-presentation are linked in several ways. With regard to individual differences, it turned out that gelotophilia (the joy of being laughed at) and katagelasticism (the joy of laughing at others) are substantially associated with the histrionic self-presentation style that is characterized by performing explicit As-If-behaviors (e.g., irony, parodying others) in everyday interactions. By contrast, gelotophobia (the fear of being laughed at) shows a negative correlation with histrionic self-presentation. In order to further contribute to the nomological network, we have explored whether the three dispositions toward ridicule and laughter as well as histrionic self-presentation are related to humor creation abilities. In doing so, we have assessed the four constructs in a study with 337 participants that also completed the Cartoon Punch line Production Test (CPPT, Köhler and Ruch, 1993, unpublished). In the CPPT, subjects were asked to generate as many funny punch lines as possible for six caption-removed cartoons. The created punch lines were then analyzed with regard to quantitative (e.g., number of punch lines) and qualitative (e.g., wittiness of the punch lines and overall wittiness of the person as evaluated by three independent raters) humor creation abilities. Results show that both gelotophilia and histrionic self-presentation were positively correlated with quantitative and qualitative humor creation abilities. By contrast, gelotophobia showed slightly negative and katagelasticism no associations with the assessed humor creation abilities. These findings especially apply to the subgroup of participants that created punch lines for each of the six cartoons and partly replicate and extend the results of a previous study by Ruch et al. (2009). Altogether, the results of our study show that individual differences in humor-related traits are associated with the quantity and quality of humorous punch lines. It is
Renner, Karl-Heinz; Manthey, Leonie
Previous research has shown that humor and self-presentation are linked in several ways. With regard to individual differences, it turned out that gelotophilia (the joy of being laughed at) and katagelasticism (the joy of laughing at others) are substantially associated with the histrionic self-presentation style that is characterized by performing explicit As-If-behaviors (e.g., irony, parodying others) in everyday interactions. By contrast, gelotophobia (the fear of being laughed at) shows a negative correlation with histrionic self-presentation. In order to further contribute to the nomological network, we have explored whether the three dispositions toward ridicule and laughter as well as histrionic self-presentation are related to humor creation abilities. In doing so, we have assessed the four constructs in a study with 337 participants that also completed the Cartoon Punch line Production Test (CPPT, Köhler and Ruch, 1993, unpublished). In the CPPT, subjects were asked to generate as many funny punch lines as possible for six caption-removed cartoons. The created punch lines were then analyzed with regard to quantitative (e.g., number of punch lines) and qualitative (e.g., wittiness of the punch lines and overall wittiness of the person as evaluated by three independent raters) humor creation abilities. Results show that both gelotophilia and histrionic self-presentation were positively correlated with quantitative and qualitative humor creation abilities. By contrast, gelotophobia showed slightly negative and katagelasticism no associations with the assessed humor creation abilities. These findings especially apply to the subgroup of participants that created punch lines for each of the six cartoons and partly replicate and extend the results of a previous study by Ruch et al. (2009). Altogether, the results of our study show that individual differences in humor-related traits are associated with the quantity and quality of humorous punch lines. It is
Full Text Available Research has found that more aggressive cartoons are perceived as funnier. The current study (N = 106; 16 cartoons examined this finding in more detail by additionally including painfulness and cleverness rankings of cartoons, and by examining possible moderating effects of different humor styles, self-esteem (explicit, implicit, and social desirability. Aggressive or painful cartoons were not perceived to be funnier, but were rated as having a cleverer punch line. Effects were only weakly correlated with participants’ humor styles, but were independent of self-esteem and social desirability. This suggests that aggressive cartoons are not in general perceived to be funnier than non-aggressive ones, and that there may be other moderators influencing this effect (e.g., the type of cartoons, definition of aggression and funniness, cultural aspects.
Woodbury-Fariña, Michel A; Antongiorgi, Joalex L
Humor has not been taken as seriously as it should be. Humor has many positive effects in the daily lives of patients and clinicians need to take advantage of these. Many indices of stress are attenuated and this serves to improve the therapeutic alliance. Freudian, rational emotive therapy, and kleinian views are presented, as well as examples of how to use playful therapy. In addition, advice on how to develop humor is given. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chambers, Alexis M; Payne, Jessica D
There is extensive evidence that emotional information is better remembered than neutral information across long delays, especially if the delay interval contains an opportunity for sleep. However, as prior studies have focused on memory for negative stimuli, it is unclear whether positive memories benefit from time and sleep as well. To investigate the consolidation of positive memories, the current study examined differences in memory for humorous and non-humorous cartoons. While prior evidence demonstrates that humorous information is preferentially remembered relative to non-humorous information over brief delays, it is unknown whether this benefit lasts across longer delay intervals or whether sleep is important for lasting humor memories to form. Thus, we tested memory for 27 cartoons across 12-h delay periods containing either sleep or wakefulness. Results indicate that humor's enhancing effect on recall memory is robust across a 12-h delay and that a period of sleep facilitates this effect over wakefulness when cartoons are novel to participants and ranked based on subjective emotional ratings. Further, in accordance with previous studies that reveal diminished emotional reactivity to stimuli following sleep, in a supplemental experiment, we found that sleep reduced subjective ratings of humor, arousal, and positivity of humorous cartoons. These findings provide preliminary evidence that sleep's impact on negative emotional memory consolidation and emotional reactivity can be extended to positive stimuli as well.
Irena Oroz Štancl
Full Text Available Product placement is a marketing approach for integrating products or services into selected media content. Studies have shown that the impact of advertising on children and youth are large, and that it can affect their preferences and attitudes. The aim of this article is to determine the existing level of product placement in cartoons that are broadcast on Croatian television stations. Content analysis of cartoons in a period of one month gave the following results: in 30% of cartoons product placement was found; most product placement were visual ads, in 89%, however, auditory product placement and plot connection was also found. Most ads were related to toys and it is significant that even 65% of cartoons are accompanied by a large amount of products available on the Croatian market. This is the result of two sales strategies: brand licensing (selling popular cartoon characters to toys, food or clothing companies and cartoon production based on existing line of toys with the sole aim of making their sales more effective.
Strick, Madelijn; van Baaren, Rick B; Holland, Rob W; van Knippenberg, Ad
Humor in advertising is known to enhance product liking, but this attitude change is often considered nonpredictive of product choice. Previous research relied exclusively on explicit self-report measures to assess attitudes and purchase intentions. The present research shows that unobtrusive association of a product with humor can affect persuasion through implicit attitude change. Participants viewed humorous and nonhumorous cartoons in a mock-up magazine. One of two products was consistently presented in the vicinity of the humorous cartoons, whereas the other product was consistently presented in the vicinity of the nonhumorous cartoons. The results of an evaluative priming task showed enhanced evaluations of products paired with humor (Experiment 1, 2, and 3). Furthermore, these enhanced evaluations mediated the relation between association with humor and product choice (Experiment 2 and 3). Paradoxically, products paired with humor were also less recognized than the control products (Experiments 2 and 3). In summary, the present research demonstrates that mere association with humor enhances product evaluations and product choice in a way that is dissociated from the accessibility of the product in memory. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).
Bowker, Julie C.; Etkin, Rebecca G.
The association between relational aggression and popularity during early adolescence is well established. Yet, little is known about why, exactly, relationally aggressive young adolescents are able to achieve and maintain high popular status among peers. The present study investigated the mediating role of humor in the association between relational aggression and popularity during early adolescence. Also considered was whether the association between relational aggression and humor varies according to adolescents’ gender and their friends’ levels of relational aggression. Participants were 265 sixth-grade students (48% female; 41% racial/ethnic minority; Mage = 12.04 years) who completed peer nomination and friendship measures in their classrooms at two time points (Wave 1: February; Wave 2: May). The results indicated that Wave 1 relational aggression was related to Wave 1 and 2 popularity indirectly through Wave 1 humor, after accounting for the effects of Wave 1 physical aggression, ethnicity, and gender. Additional analyses showed that relational aggression and humor were related significantly only for boys and for young adolescents with highly relationally aggressive friends. The results support the need for further research on humor and aggression during early adolescence and other mechanisms by which relationally aggressive youth achieve high popular status. PMID:24136377
This article is an exploration of the varying applications of comics and cartoon art as primary resources and pedagogical tools within the university setting. Following some background information on cartoon art forms including early American newspaper comics, nineteenth century humor serials, political cartoons and manga, the article explores how…
Bartolo, Angela; Benuzzi, Francesca; Nocetti, Luca; Baraldi, Patrizia; Nichelli, Paolo
Humor is a unique ability in human beings. Suls [A two-stage model for the appreciation of jokes and cartoons. In P. E. Goldstein & J. H. McGhee (Eds.), The psychology of humour. Theoretical perspectives and empirical issues. New York: Academic Press, 1972, pp. 81-100] proposed a two-stage model of humor: detection and resolution of incongruity. Incongruity is generated when a prediction is not confirmed in the final part of a story. To comprehend humor, it is necessary to revisit the story, transforming an incongruous situation into a funny, congruous one. Patient and neuroimaging studies carried out until now lead to different outcomes. In particular, patient studies found that right brain-lesion patients have difficulties in humor comprehension, whereas neuroimaging studies suggested a major involvement of the left hemisphere in both humor detection and comprehension. To prevent activation of the left hemisphere due to language processing, we devised a nonverbal task comprising cartoon pairs. Our findings demonstrate activation of both the left and the right hemispheres when comparing funny versus nonfunny cartoons. In particular, we found activation of the right inferior frontal gyrus (BA 47), the left superior temporal gyrus (BA 38), the left middle temporal gyrus (BA 21), and the left cerebellum. These areas were also activated in a nonverbal task exploring attribution of intention [Brunet, E., Sarfati, Y., Hardy-Bayle, M. C., & Decety, J. A PET investigation of the attribution of intentions with a nonverbal task. Neuroimage, 11, 157-166, 2000]. We hypothesize that the resolution of incongruity might occur through a process of intention attribution. We also asked subjects to rate the funniness of each cartoon pair. A parametric analysis showed that the left amygdala was activated in relation to subjective amusement. We hypothesize that the amygdala plays a key role in giving humor an emotional dimension.
A British 12-year-old boy died while imitating the heroic leaps of the cartoon character Batman. Tragic incidents stemming from cartoon imitation such as this one occur with alarming frequency. Still, many people choose to ignore violence in children's cartoons. Even some experts don't recognize that cartoons may be harmful. Researcher Wilbur…
This article is intended to engage others in a dialogue about the role and meaning of jokes about suicide. Types of jokes involving suicide are examined to distinguish the different types of humor involved. A sample of 118 recent political cartoons in an online website was downloaded, of which 73 concerned suicide bombers. Examples of suicide…
Teixeira, Carlos; Paulo, Gallo; Nogueira, Maria Inês
Communication's Purpose: Identify the artistic expression that uses the language of cartoons and comics for public communication, having as reference the Earth Education for a better planet sustainability. Object/Theme: Cartoons and comics published in newspapers, on five continents, made available in online version. Theoretical: This study is related to the assumption that the public communication of science by cartoons and comics constitute a textual genre, by the fact that they report scientific and complex themes presented in playful language, using humor and artistic traces accessible to the lay public. The scientific cartoons and comics aim to call public attention to scientific discoveries and science themes using illustrative chart features and short texts, both contextualized in a humorous structure. There are in the cartoons and comics, which are created to the public communication of science, an unintentionally pedagogical approach/formal, while transmitting information by unpretentious way and using graphic/artistic communication By the fact that in this specific format of communication there is knowledge being informed, the scientific cartoons and comics can contribute to the scientific empowerment of the society, in addition to being instruments that can also arouse scientific curiosity. The scientific cartoons and comics use objective language and short sentences, also employ words that may have a double meaning. It can be considered as an incentive for people's reflection. Method: It was analyzed cartoons and comics published in newspapers, made available in online version, published on five continents, in English, Portuguese and Spanish. Palavras-chave: science communication, public communication of science and technology; cartoons; comics
Mendiburo-Seguel, Andrés; Páez, Darío; Martínez-Sánchez, Francisco
This research summarizes the knowledge generated in social psychology and positive psychology about the relationship between humor styles, personality and wellbeing. Specifically, a meta-analysis was performed with the results of 15 studies on humor styles measured by the Humor Styles Questionnaire (Martin, Puhlik-Doris, Larsen, Gray & Weir, 2003) in correlation with the personality traits measured by the Big Five Personality model (measured with different scales). Following the steps presented by Rosenthal (1991) for meta-analysis in the case of correlational research, we calculated the total mean r as an indicator of effect size. Results show that affiliative humor has a strong and homogeneous relation to neuroticism and extraversion. The homogeneity and heterogeneity found between variables and possible explanations are discussed in the conclusion. © 2015 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Amir, Ori; Biederman, Irving
Unlike passive humor appreciation, the neural correlates of real-time humor creation have been unexplored. As a case study for creativity, humor generation uniquely affords a reliable assessment of a creative product’s quality with a clear and relatively rapid beginning and end, rendering it amenable to neuroimaging that has the potential for reflecting individual differences in expertise. Professional and amateur “improv” comedians and controls viewed New Yorker cartoon drawings while being scanned. For each drawing, they were instructed to generate either a humorous or a mundane caption. Greater comedic experience was associated with decreased activation in the striatum and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), but increased activation in temporal association regions (TMP). Less experienced comedians manifested greater activation of mPFC, reflecting their deliberate search through TMP association space. Professionals, by contrast, tend to reap the fruits of their spontaneous associations with reduced reliance on top-down guided search. PMID:27932965
Kosiczky, Bonnie; Mullen, Carol A.
How can public schools improve public relations strategies, particularly in communications between teachers and students? The purposes of this study were to investigate teacher leaders' perceptions of the use of humor in the high school classroom and discover how humor might bridge instruction to student learning and strengthen teacher-student…
Fritz, Heidi L; Russek, Leslie N; Dillon, Melissa M
Three studies examined humor and adjustment to stressful events. In Study 1, patients with fibromyalgia syndrome ( N = 22) reported on mental and physical adjustment, social interaction, and reappraisal of their illness. Dispositional humor was associated with reduced distress and fewer physical symptoms. Study 2 ( N = 109) examined undergraduates' reports of stressful events. Dispositional, self-enhancing, affiliative, and self-defeating humor showed direct effects on distress, which were mediated by social interaction and reappraisal. Moreover, dispositional and aggressive humor showed stress-buffering effects. Study 3 ( N = 105) examined undergraduates' adjustment to the September 11, 2001, attacks at 1 and 3 months postattack. At T1, affiliative humor showed a stress-buffering effect on distress. Social interaction mediated the relation of self-enhancing humor with reduced T1 distress, and mediated relations of aggressive and self-defeating humor with greater distress. Relations of T1 dispositional and self-defeating humor to changes in T2 distress were mediated by reappraisal.
The article discusses the language and satirical cartoons that describe African Danes in the Danish media. Starting with a brief historical overview of the social fonction of satirical cartoons in Denmark since the Reformation, it is discussed whether satire and satirical cartoons actually have s...... Danes today when it is considered demeaning and racist in most other countries. The conclusion does emphatically not plead in favour of law enforced limitations of the freedom of expression, but does question the prevalent "freedom of ignorance" concerning black identities which means...
Stanley, Jennifer Tehan; Lohani, Monika; Isaacowitz, Derek M.
Identifying social gaffes is important for maintaining relationships. Older adults are less able than young to discriminate between socially appropriate and inappropriate behavior in video clips. One open question is how these social appropriateness ratings relate to potential age differences in the perception of what is actually funny or not. In the present study, young, middle-aged, and older adults were equally able to discriminate between appropriate and inappropriate social behavior in a diverse set of clips relevant to both age groups. However, young and middle-aged adults rated the gaffe clips as funnier than control clips and young adults smiled more during the inappropriate clips than the control clips. Older adults did not show this pattern, suggesting that they did not find the inappropriate clips funny. Additionally, young adults endorsed a more aggressive humor style than middle-aged and older adults and aggressive humor style endorsement mediated age differences in social appropriateness ratings. Results are discussed in terms of possible mechanisms such as cohort differences in humor and developmental prioritization of certain humor styles, as well as the importance of investigating age differences in both abilities and preferences. PMID:25244473
Full Text Available The Holocaust cartoon competition of 2006 in Iran as an instance of social controversy has the potential to raise social and political arguments over various international and global issues. Through using McGee’s theory of ideograph and Edwards and Winkler’s theory of representative form, I identify the ideographs used in these cartoons and argue that the Holocaust cartoons function ideographically to portray Jews, Judaism, Palestine, Israel, Zionism, and the Holocaust. I explain how these controversial images function as representative characters and representative anecdotes and create different ideological interpretations of the Holocaust and associated issues, such as Israel–Palestine conflicts and Western freedom of speech. I argue that the cartoons suggest a connection between Nazism and Zionism, or the Nazi and Israeli regimes, by juxtaposing various elements and situations. I explain that the cartoons anecdotally refer to the Holocaust and represent it as myth or hoax used by Jews/Zionists to justify creation of the nation of Israel.
Moseley, L. Jeneva
This article discusses how teachers can create cartoons for undergraduate math classes, such as college algebra and basic calculus. The practice of cartooning for teaching can be helpful for communication with students and for students' conceptual understanding.
Bedient, Douglas; Moore, David M.
This study investigated the accuracy and types of interpretations that fifth, eighth, and eleventh graders gave to 24 editorial cartoons in four issue areas and the effect of intelligence on political cartoon interpretation. Numerous misinterpretations and no interpretations indicates assumptions that cartoons are an effective teaching medium…
Roesky, Herbert W.; Kennepohl, Dietmar
Cartoons are part of a much larger effort by chemical educators to introduce activities to enhance learning and student participation. There are a variety of cartoon types used in teaching that have been evaluated and discussed within the chemical education community including caricatures, comics, and concept cartoons. This article focuses on the…
and Islamic movements in Palestine. [...] while the cartoons created a political platform on which Muslims could unite and form a dominant opposition, it is only through an exploration of the local political contexts that one can understand the timing and content of the continuous protests and attacks...
Nimrod, Galit; Berdychevsky, Liza
Focusing on sex, the most salient topic featured in ageist jokes, this study aims at exploring the extent to which seniors' own humor reflects common ageist stereotypes or rather echoes contemporary consumer society representations of seniors' sexuality. The study was based on a quantitative content analysis of 300 humorous sex-related messages posted during one full year by members of 14 leading online communities for seniors. Findings indicated that whereas the portrayal of older adults in humor typically relied on negative ageist stereotypes, their representation in seniors' online sex-related humor depended on the social identity of the butt of this humor. If it was an in-group member (oneself, another community member, or the community as a whole), the portrayal was rather positive, but when the butt belonged to the out-group (older adults in general), the depiction was far more ageist. Nonetheless, the representation of older butts of humor was generally more positive than that of the younger ones. These findings suggest that seniors tend to identify with current cultural representations of sexuality in later life and use sex-related humor as a personal means of resisting ageism. They apply two principal strategies: Distancing-reproducing certain ageist stereotypes by ascribing them to other older adults, but less so to their own group and even less than that to themselves-and equalizing older and younger individuals, even according the former an advantage regarding sexuality. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Chang, Yi-Tzu; Ku, Li-Chuan; Chen, Hsueh-Chih
Numerous behavioral studies and a handful of functional neuroimaging studies have reported sex differences in humor. However, no study to date has examined differences in the time-course of brain activity during multistage humor processing between the sexes. The purpose of this study was to compare real-time dynamics related to humor processing between women and men, with reference to a proposed three-stage model (involving incongruity detection, incongruity resolution, and elaboration stages). Forty undergraduate students (20 women) underwent event-related potential recording while subjectively rating 30 question-answer-type jokes and 30 question-answer-type statements in a random order. Sex differences were revealed by analyses of the mean amplitudes of difference waves during a specific time window between 1000 and 1300 ms poststimulus onset (P1000-1300). This indicates that women recruited more mental resources to integrate cognitive and emotional components at this late stage. In contrast, men recruited more automated processes during the transition from the cognitive operations of the incongruity resolution stage to the emotional response of the humor elaboration stage. Our results suggest that sex differences in humor processing lie in differences in the integration of cognitive and emotional components, which are closely linked and interact reciprocally, particularly in women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
In this study, persuasion theory was used to develop the following predictions about use of humor in persuasive messages for business ethics training: (a) cartoon drawings will enhance persuasion by creating liking for the source, (b) ironic wisecracks will enhance persuasion by serving as a distraction from counterarguments, and (c) self-effacing humor will enhance persuasion by improving source credibility. Canadian business students (N = 148) participated in 1 of 4 versions of "The Ethics Challenge," a training exercise used by the Lockheed Martin Corporation. Three versions were modified by adding or removing cartoon drawings (of cartoon characters Dilbert and Dogbert) and humorous responses (Dogbert's wisecracks). Removing the cartoon drawings had little effect on persuasiveness. Removing ironic wisecracks had more effect, and interfering with the self-effacing combination of cartoons and wisecracks had the strongest effect. The results suggest that researchers should ground their predictions in existing theory and that practitioners should differentiate among humor types.
Khoo, Yin Yin; Malim, Tanjung; Fitzgerald, Robert
This study examines the impact of using cartoons shared through mobile devices to promote awareness and to aid in the development of financial literacy among Economics students in Malaysia. The study also investigates the use of these "mobile cartoons" to develop students' communication skills. The study involved a quasi-experimental…
Jones, Tim; Rosson, Allan S
One of Flash s most common uses is still animation for cartoons, games, advertising etc, and this book takes a fresh look at the topic, breaking it down pre-production, production, and post production, and looking at each section in detail, and covering topics such as storyboarding, character libraries and camera mechanics like no Flash book has before. The book is written by members of the Emmy award winning ANIMAX team, who have created work for clients such as Disney, AOL, Fox, WWE, ESPN, and Sesame workshop. This book is an opportunity for them to share their secrets, and is written to sui
Full Text Available In this article we give a thorough description of the algorithm proposed in [A. Buades, T. Le, J.M. Morel and L. Vese, Fast cartoon + texture image filters, IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, 2010] for cartoon+texture decomposition using of a nonlinear low pass-high pass filter pair.
Samson, Andrea C.; Hegenloh, Michael
The present paper aims to investigate whether individuals with Asperger syndrome (AS) show global humor processing deficits or whether humor comprehension and appreciation depends on stimulus characteristics. Non-verbal visual puns, semantic and Theory of Mind cartoons were rated on comprehension, funniness and the punchlines were explained. AS…
Huang, Wenbin; Chen, Shida; Gao, Xinbo; Yang, Min; Zhang, Jing; Li, Xingyi; Wang, Wei; Zhou, Minwen; Zhang, Xinyu; Zhang, Xiulan
To measure levels of various inflammation-related cytokines in the aqueous humor of patients with acute primary angle-closure (APAC) and senile cataract. Aqueous humor samples were prospectively collected from 23 eyes (12 eyes with current APAC and 11 eyes with previous APAC) of 23 APAC patients and 15 eyes of 15 cataract patients. The levels of 15 inflammation-related cytokines in the aqueous humor of APAC and cataract subjects were measured by using the multiplex bead immunoassay technique. Data on patient demographics and preoperative intraocular pressure (IOP) were also collected for correlation analysis. Compared with the group with previous APAC and the cataract group, the group with current APAC showed clear and significantly elevated concentrations of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1, MCP-3, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) (all P APAC and the cataract group had similar levels of cytokines. Intraocular pressure was positively correlated with IL-8 (P = 0.001), G-CSF (P = 0.002), MCP-3 (P APAC. In addition to controlling IOP, anti-inflammatory treatments are necessary for eyes suffering from APAC.
Bahr, Benjamin; Piccolo, Rina
Do you love quantum physics, cosmology, and the humor behind the popular television show The Big Bang Theory? Have you been on the lookout for a fun, non-technical explanation of the science behind things like time travel, wormholes, antimatter, and dark energy? You’ll find all of that, and more, inside this fact-filled, cartoon-packed book.
Thaler, Avner; Posen, Jennie; Giladi, Nir; Manor, Yael; Mayanz, Connie; Mirelman, Anat; Gurevich, Tanya
To test whether appreciation of humor might be a non-motor function affected by Parkinson's disease (PD). Thirty-nine PD patients and 38 healthy controls participated in this study. Appreciation of humor and effect of the presentation method utilized were assessed. Sense of humor was evaluated by the sense of humor questionnaire (SHQ-6). Humor appreciation was tested using three methods of presentation: videos, audio sketches and pictorial cartoons, each portraying both obvious and non-obvious humor content. Depression, anxiety, cognition, disease severity and quality of life were measured by standardized questionnaires and correlated with humor outcomes. Patients with PD rated humor content lower than controls on every method of presentation as well as on the SHQ-6 (p = 0.004). The greatest between-group difference was noted when the material was presented visually via pictorial cartoons (p < 0.0001). In addition, obvious humor content was rated higher than non-obvious content by the PD group in all three presentation methods (p < 0.05). The degree of depression and anxiety did not influence these results. Patients with PD have a decreased sense of humor compared to healthy controls. Utilizing audio methods of presentation and humor in an obvious mode appears to be the preferred approach for eliciting responses to humor in a PD population. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tian, Fang; Hou, Yuling; Zhu, Wenfeng; Dietrich, Arne; Zhang, Qinglin; Yang, Wenjing; Chen, Qunlin; Sun, Jiangzhou; Jiang, Qiu; Cao, Guikang
As a high-level cognitive activity, humor comprehension requires incongruity detection and incongruity resolution, which then elicits an insight moment. The purpose of the study was to explore the neural basis of humor comprehension, particularly the moment of insight, by using both characters and language-free cartoons in a functional magnetic resonance imaging study. The results showed that insight involving jokes elicited greater activation in language and semantic-related brain regions as well as a variety of additional regions, such as the superior frontal gyrus (SFG), the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), the middle temporal gyrus (MTG), the superior temporal gyrus (STG), the temporoparietal junctions (TPJ), the hippocampus and visual areas. These findings indicate that the MTG might play a role in incongruity detection, while the SFG, IFG and the TPJ might be involved in incongruity detection. The passive insight event elicited by jokes appears to be mediated by a limited number of brain areas. Our study showed that the brain regions associated with humor comprehension were not affected by the type of stimuli and that humor and insight shared common brain areas. These results indicate that one experiences a feeling of insight during humor comprehension, which contributes to the understanding of humor comprehension.
Gafoor, Kunnathodi Abdul; Shilna, V.
Cartoons are valuable aids that prompt interest and foster genuine student engagement in the classroom. Cartoons are part of a much larger effort to introduce rare and amusing activities to boost learning and student participation. Concept cartoons are visual tools composed of three or more characters' proposing ideas, discussing or thinking…
Killgore, William D S; McBride, Sharon A; Killgore, Desiree B; Balkin, Thomas J
Sleep loss consistently impairs performance on measures of alertness, vigilance, and response speed, but its effects on higher-order executive functions are not well delineated. Similarly, whereas deficits in arousal and vigilance can be temporarily countered by the use of several different stimulant medications, it is not clear how these compounds affect complex cognitive processes in sleep-deprived individuals. We evaluated the effects of double-blind administration of 3 stimulant medications or placebo on the ability to appreciate humor in visual (cartoons) or verbal (headlines) stimuli presented on a computer screen following 49.5 hours of sleep deprivation. In-residence sleep-laboratory facility at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research. Fifty-four healthy adults (29 men, 24 women), ranging in age from 18 to 36 years. Each participant was randomly assigned to 1 of 3 stimulant medication groups, including caffeine, 600 mg, n = 12; modafinil, 400 mg, n = 11; dextroamphetamine, 20 mg, n = 16; or placebo, n = 14. Humor appreciation for cartoon stimuli was enhanced by modafinil relative to both placebo and caffeine, but there was no effect of any stimulant medication on the appreciation of verbal humor during sleep loss. In contrast, all 3 stimulants improved psychomotor response speed, whereas only caffeine and dextroamphetamine improved ratings of subjective sleepiness. Findings suggest that, despite similar alerting and vigilance-promoting effects, these 3 compounds have significantly different effects on those highly complex cognitive abilities mediated by the pre-frontal cortex.
Javier Martín Camacho
Full Text Available In the current article principal theories on humor are analyzed, relating them to different conceptions of creativity. Finally, some indications for the use of humor in psychotherapy are introduced, highlighting their positive and negative aspects.
Saman Sepehri Nejad
Full Text Available In this paper, we present a cartoon face generation method that stands on a component-based facial feature extraction approach. Given a frontal face image as an input, our proposed system has the following stages. First, face features are extracted using an extended Active Shape Model. Outlines of the components are locally modified using edge detection, template matching and Hermit interpolation. This modification enhances the diversity of output and accuracy of the component matching required for cartoon generation. Second, to bring cartoon-specific features such as shadows, highlights and, especially, stylish drawing, an array of various face photographs and corresponding hand-drawn cartoon faces are collected. These cartoon templates are automatically decomposed into cartoon components using our proposed method for parameterizing cartoon samples, which is fast and simple. Then, using shape matching methods, the appropriate cartoon component is selected and deformed to fit the input face. Finally, a cartoon face is rendered in a vector format using the rendering rules of the selected template. Experimental results demonstrate effectiveness of our approach in generating life-like cartoon faces.
Le Guellec, Hélène; Guéguen, Nicolas; Jacob, Céline; Pascual, Alexandre
An experiment on consumers' behavior was carried out in a new field context. According to a random assignment, 60 customers from ages 12 to 14 years who entered a candy store were exposed to Top Forty music which was usually played in this store, music from cartoons (Captain Flame, Candy, Olive & Tom, etc.), or no music. Analysis showed that customers spent significantly more time in the store when cartoon music was played, but the two styles of music were not related to the amount of money spent.
Bahr, Benjamin; Lemmer, Boris; Piccolo, Rina
Do you love quantum physics, cosmology, and the humor behind the popular television show The Big Bang Theory? Have you been on the lookout for a fun, non-technical explanation of the science behind things like time travel, wormholes, antimatter, and dark energy? You'll find all of that, and more, inside this fact-filled, cartoon-packed book. In Quirky Quarks: A Cartoon Guide to the Fascinating Realm of Physics you'll get: The latest science behind the mysteries of our universe explained in common everyday language. A major dose of cartoons, comics, and humor. A good grasp on the often-bizarre nature of reality. Start reading and you'll find that hard science does not have to be hard. Whether you're a teacher, a physicist, or just a lover of the curious, this is the book that delivers the facts in an engaging and entertaining cartoon world inhabited by two dogs, a cat, and some very quirky quarks which you might know from The Particle Zoo. With cutting edge science articles by physicists Boris Lemmer and Benjamin Bahr, and drawings by cartoonist Rina Piccolo, this may be the most fun science reading you're likely to find out there.
Bahr, Benjamin; Lemmer, Boris; Piccolo, Rina
Do you love quantum physics, cosmology, and the humor behind the popular television show The Big Bang Theory? Have you been on the lookout for a fun, non-technical explanation of the science behind things like time travel, wormholes, antimatter, and dark energy? You'll find all of that, and more, inside this fact-filled, cartoon-packed book. In Quirky Quarks: A Cartoon Guide to the Fascinating Realm of Physics you'll get: The latest science behind the mysteries of our universe explained in common everyday language. A major dose of cartoons, comics, and humor. A good grasp on the often-bizarre nature of reality. Start reading and you'll find that hard science does not have to be hard. Whether you're a teacher, a physicist, or just a lover of the curious, this is the book that delivers the facts in an engaging and entertaining cartoon world inhabited by two dogs, a cat, and some very quirky quarks which you might know from The Particle Zoo. With cutting edge science articles by physicists Boris Lemmer and Benjamin Bahr, and drawings by cartoonist Rina Piccolo, this may be the most fun science reading you're likely to find out there.
Kostov, Vlaho; Yanagisawa, Hideyoshi; Johansson, Martin; Fukuda, Shuichi
A simple method for extracting emotion from a human face, as a form of non-verbal communication, was developed to cope with and optimize mobile communication in a globalized and diversified society. A cartoon face based model was developed and used to evaluate emotional content of real faces. After a pilot survey, basic rules were defined and student subjects were asked to express emotion using the cartoon face. Their face samples were then analyzed using principal component analysis and the Mahalanobis distance method. Feature parameters considered as having relations with emotions were extracted and new cartoon faces (based on these parameters) were generated. The subjects evaluated emotion of these cartoon faces again and we confirmed these parameters were suitable. To confirm how these parameters could be applied to real faces, we asked subjects to express the same emotions which were then captured electronically. Simple image processing techniques were also developed to extract these features from real faces and we then compared them with the cartoon face parameters. It is demonstrated via the cartoon face that we are able to express the emotions from very small amounts of information. As a result, real and cartoon faces correspond to each other. It is also shown that emotion could be extracted from still and dynamic real face images using these cartoon-based features.
van der Lelij, A.; Rothova, A.; Stilma, J. S.; Vetter, J. C.; Hoekzema, R.; Kijlstra, A.
Autoimmune mechanisms are thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of the chorioretinal changes in ocular onchocerciasis. The humoral autoimmune response was determined by measuring serum levels of autoantibodies, directed against human S-antigen and interphotoreceptor retinoid binding protein
The paper considers what ‘recognition' might mean in theory and which policies would in practice qualify as policies of recognition in relation to multicultural conflicts such as the ‘cartoon controversy' sparked by the publication of drawings of the Prophet Mohammad in the Danish Newspaper...
Morgenavisen Jyllands-Posten on 30 September 2005 and the Danish governments refusal to meet with 11 concerned ambassadors. However, Jyllands-Posten’s record on covering Islam; the ever growing restrictive identity politics and migration policies and the popular association of Islam with terrorism made...... it predictable that something drastic would eventually happen, although neither the form of the counter-reaction or the stubborn anti-Islamic forces were unknown. This collection of chapters seeks to fill out some of the most glaring holes in the media coverage and academic treatment of the Muhammad cartoon...
Ji, Yinghong; Rao, Jun; Rong, Xianfang; Lou, Shang; Zheng, Zhi; Lu, Yi
High myopia is the common eye disorder worldwide, which may contribute to increase the risk of serious disorders including glaucoma and cataract. Although various studies including genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics have been implicated to identify potential biomarkers (genes or proteins) for predicting high myopia and to reveal the underlying mechanism, the comprehensive metabolomics in relation to high myopia is very limited. In this study, we identified 242 metabolites in aqueous humor (AH) from a set of 40 cataract patients (including 20 with high myopia and 20 for controls), using a non-targeted metabolomic technology, gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometer (GC/TOF MS). Further statistical analysis showed that 29 metabolites were significantly changed (Variable important for the projection, VIP ≥ 1 and p ≤ 0.05), between those two groups, while only 2 decreased metabolites were included. Moreover, for the first time, metabolite-metabolite correlations for AH were analyzed, which may dissect key regulatory elements or pathways involved in metabolism of amino acids, carbohydrates, and lipids. Accordingly, metabolic network was constructed based on those 29 changed metabolites in patients with high myopia. More than half of the changed metabolites were highly and positively associated, suggesting important roles of pathways involved in the metabolism of these metabolites in relation to high myopia. Altogether, this work not only provided potential biomarkers for the diagnosis and monitoring of high myopia formation, but also provided new insights into the underlying mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
If the publication of twelve drawings of the Prophet Mohammad in the Danish newspaper Jyllands-Posten, which sparked the ‘cartoon controversy', was wrong, why might this be the case? The article considers four arguments advanced in relation to the quite similar Rushdie affair for judging...... such publications to be wrong, and asks whether they provide plausible moral reasons against such publications, and whether they justify legal restrictions on freedom of speech. The arguments concern: (a) the consistent extension of group defamation legislation to cover Muslims; (b) offence to religious...... for judging the kind of publications under consideration to be morally wrong or suitable objects for legal restrictions. The argument from oppression is different, however, in pointing to different kinds of factors, but its applicability is limited both by a number of conditions for when oppression provides...
Crowley, Richard J.; Mills, Joyce C.
Cartoon research includes the areas of experimental designs carried out in school classroom environments to determine the effects of cartoon viewing on children's behavior and the medical utilization of cartoons as part of an overall treatment program. This study differs from previous research by accepting the reality of cartoon viewing and…
Nadine T Nehme
Full Text Available Two NF-kappaB signaling pathways, Toll and immune deficiency (imd, are required for survival to bacterial infections in Drosophila. In response to septic injury, these pathways mediate rapid transcriptional activation of distinct sets of effector molecules, including antimicrobial peptides, which are important components of a humoral defense response. However, it is less clear to what extent macrophage-like hemocytes contribute to host defense.In order to dissect the relative importance of humoral and cellular defenses after septic injury with three different gram-positive bacteria (Micrococcus luteus, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, we used latex bead pre-injection to ablate macrophage function in flies wildtype or mutant for various Toll and imd pathway components. We found that in all three infection models a compromised phagocytic system impaired fly survival--independently of concomitant Toll or imd pathway activation. Our data failed to confirm a role of the PGRP-SA and GNBP1 Pattern Recognition Receptors for phagocytosis of S. aureus. The Drosophila scavenger receptor Eater mediates the phagocytosis by hemocytes or S2 cells of E. faecalis and S. aureus, but not of M. luteus. In the case of M. luteus and E. faecalis, but not S. aureus, decreased survival due to defective phagocytosis could be compensated for by genetically enhancing the humoral immune response.Our results underscore the fundamental importance of both cellular and humoral mechanisms in Drosophila immunity and shed light on the balance between these two arms of host defense depending on the invading pathogen.
Barbas-Bernardos, Cecilia; Armitage, Emily G; García, Antonia; Mérida, Salvador; Navea, Amparo; Bosch-Morell, Francisco; Barbas, Coral
Aqueous humor is the transparent fluid found in the anterior chamber of the eye that provides the metabolic requirements to the avascular tissues surrounding it. Despite the fact that metabolomics could be a powerful tool in the characterization of this biofluid and in revealing metabolic signatures of common ocular diseases such as myopia, it has never to our knowledge previously been applied in humans. In this research a novel method for the analysis of aqueous humor is presented to show its application in the characterization of this biofluid using CE-MS. The method was extended to a dual platform method (CE-MS and LC-MS) in order to compare samples from patients with different severities of myopia in order to explore the disease from the metabolic phenotype point of view. With this method, a profound knowledge of the metabolites present in human aqueous humor has been obtained: over 40 metabolites were reproducibly and simultaneously identified from a low volume of sample by CE-MS, including among others, a vast number of amino acids and derivatives. When this method was extended to study groups of patients with high or low myopia in both CE-MS and LC-MS, it has been possible to identify over 20 significantly different metabolite and lipid signatures that distinguish patients based on the severity of myopia. Among these, the most notable higher abundant metabolites in high myopia were aminooctanoic acid, arginine, citrulline and sphinganine while features of low myopia were aminoundecanoic acid, dihydro-retinoic acid and cysteinylglycine disulfide. This dual platform approach offered complementarity such that different metabolites were detected in each technique. Together the experiments presented provide a whelm of valuable information about human aqueous humor and myopia, proving the utility of non-targeted metabolomics for the first time in analyzing this type of sample and the metabolic phenotype of this disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights
Shaping children's healthy eating habits with food placements? Food placements of high and low nutritional value in cartoons, Children's BMI, food-related parental mediation strategies, and food choice.
Naderer, Brigitte; Matthes, Jörg; Binder, Alice; Marquart, Franziska; Mayrhofer, Mira; Obereder, Agnes; Spielvogel, Ines
Research on media induced food choices of children has not sufficiently investigated whether food placements of snacks high in nutritional value can strengthen children's healthy eating behavior. Furthermore, we lack knowledge about the moderating role of children's individual characteristics such as parental food-related mediation or BMI. The current study combines data from an experiment involving children with a survey of their parents. We exposed children to a cartoon either containing no food placements, placements of mandarins (i.e., snack high in nutritional value), or placements of fruit gums (i.e., snack low in nutritional value). Afterwards, food consumption was measured by giving children the option to choose between fruit gums or mandarins. Children in both snack placement conditions showed stronger preference for the snack low in nutritional value (i.e., fruit gum) compared to the control group. Interestingly, neither restrictive nor active food-related mediation prevented the effects of the placements on children's choice of snacks low in nutritional value. Compared to children with a low BMI, children with high BMI levels had a stronger disposition to choose the fruit gums if a snack high in nutritional value (i.e., mandarin) was presented. Thus, making snacks high in nutritional attractive for children through media presentation might need stronger persuasive cues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Humor is strongly related to group boundaries. Jokes and other humorous utterances often draw on implicit references and inside knowledge; they tend to refer to sensitive topics which may offend people; and they ideally incite laughter, one of the strongest markers of social solidarity and emotional
Ibraheem, Sura Dhiaa; Abbas, Nawal Fadhil
Linguistically speaking, the concept of humor, which seems to be vast for people, has specific dimensions by which it is generated including: puns, irony, sarcasm, wittiness, and contrastive utterances in relation to the speakers of those utterances. It is about how the extra linguistics elements dominate the situation and the delivery of humor.…
Full Text Available Humor is a complex cognitive function which often leads to laughter. Contemporary humor theorists have begun to formulate hypotheses outlining the possible innate cognitive structures underlying humor. Humor's conspicuous presence in the behavioral repertoire of humankind invites adaptive explanations. This article explores the possible adaptive features of humor and ponders its evolutionary path through hominid history. Current humor theories and previous evolutionary ideas on humor are reviewed. In addition, scientific fields germane to the evolutionary study of humor are examined: animal models, genetics, children's humor, humor in pathological conditions, neurobiology, humor in traditional societies and cognitive archeology. Candidate selection pressures and associated evolutionary mechanisms are considered. The authors conclude that several evolutionary-related topics such as the origins of language, cognition underlying spiritual feelings, hominid group size, and primate teasing could have special relevance to the origins of humor.
Recently a collection of 120 cartoons which tell the story of Mars exploration and scientific discovery, past, present and future, was held in London. We discuss the aims of the exhibition, to what extent we believe the original aims were met and report on additional outreach opportunities resulting from the project. The overriding aim was to capitalise on the popular appeal of accessible art - most people admit to enjoying cartoons. This was strengthened by hanging the originals of cartoons which had, mostly, been published in newspapers and magazines in a wide selection of countries. The provenances served to indicate the attraction of Mars to a wide public. We were fortunate to work with the Cartoon Art Trust of the UK who was in the process of relocating to new premises and opening as The Cartoon Museum, in the tourist area of Bloomsbury, central London, very close to the British Museum. "Mars in their Eyes" ran for 10 weeks during April to July 2006; immediately following which a selection of the cartoons was displayed at the week-long Royal Society Summer Exhibition. We explore the differences between the two exhibitions and comment on the various audience responses. We use this comparison to discuss whether a project which is primarily art can be extended to explain science. Does the coupling merely result in dumbing-down of both cultures or is there a true synergy? The experience has led us to coin the phrase "extreme outreach". Projects which are as ambitious as "Mars in their Eyes", without the security of a safe, captive audience, for example at a Science Centre, must be judged by different criteria. Indeed if the project does not meet comparable targets like large visitor numbers, then the honest evaluation of such details can only inform future activities and must not be reflected in the future funding of only "safe" outreach activities.
Ford, Thomas E.; Lappi, Shaun K.; Holden, Christopher J.
The present study examined the relationships between four personality traits, humor styles, and happiness. Replicating previous research, happiness was positively correlated with four personality traits: extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism. Further, happiness positively related to self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles; it related negatively to self-defeating and aggressive humor styles. Thus, happy people habitually engage in positive uses of humor and avoid engaging in negative uses of humor in daily life. We also found support for our hypothesis. People high in extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism are happier because they engage in positive humor in daily life. PMID:27547251
Ford, Thomas E; Lappi, Shaun K; Holden, Christopher J
The present study examined the relationships between four personality traits, humor styles, and happiness. Replicating previous research, happiness was positively correlated with four personality traits: extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism. Further, happiness positively related to self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles; it related negatively to self-defeating and aggressive humor styles. Thus, happy people habitually engage in positive uses of humor and avoid engaging in negative uses of humor in daily life. We also found support for our hypothesis. People high in extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism are happier because they engage in positive humor in daily life.
Thomas E. Ford
Full Text Available The present study examined the relationships between four personality traits, humor styles, and happiness. Replicating previous research, happiness was positively correlated with four personality traits: extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism. Further, happiness positively related to self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles; it related negatively to self-defeating and aggressive humor styles. Thus, happy people habitually engage in positive uses of humor and avoid engaging in negative uses of humor in daily life. We also found support for our hypothesis. People high in extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism are happier because they engage in positive humor in daily life.
Smith, Latisha L.; Clausen, Courtney K.; Teske, Jolene K.; Ghayoorrad, Maryam; Gray, Phyllis; Al Subia, Sukainah; Atwood-Blaine, Dana; Rule, Audrey C.
This document describes a strategy for increasing student leadership and creativity skills through the creation of cartoons. Creating cartoons engages students in divergent thinking and cognitive processes, such as perception, recall, and mental processing. When students create cartoons focused on a particular topic, they are making connections to…
Machowski, James Stanley; Brown, James William
To examine the role of the animated cartoon in propaganda associated with World War II, 194 of 262 cartoons produced for theatrical release by Warner Brothers, Inc., from 1939 to 1946 were analyzed. Propaganda content was determined by the number and nature of symbols used and the cartoon's "attitudes" toward these symbols. An analysis…
Mayes, Sandra L.; Valentine, K. B.
Explores the role children's cartoon programs may play in forming sex role identities in children through the presentation of sex-typed personality attributes of the cartoon characters. Fourteen dependent variables of cartoon character personality were analyzed by sex of the character and sex of the viewer. (JVP)
This study investigated audience perception of television animated cartoons as tool for political communication. The specific objectives of the study were: to find out the frequency of exposure to television animated cartoons between males and females; to find out the frequency of exposure to television animated cartoons ...
The paper explores the semiotics of cartoons using selected samples from The punch and The Guardian, newspapers based in Nigeria. It seeks to bridge the gap between semiotics and the act of cartooning. It also attempts to show the relationship between the cartoons and the semiotic resources employed. It analyses how ...
A review of the literature in philosophy in the past 20 years indicates that relatively little has been written on the connection between friendship, intimacy and humor. This article is intended to begin to address the neglect of this topic among philosophers by focusing on some interesting aspects of the relationship between friendship, intimacy…
van den Berg, E.; Kruit, Patricia
Concept cartoons can be used to diagnose misconceptions and stimulate discussion of basic concepts and phenomena. However, the teacher can also present a cartoon and then ask students to think of experiments to further investigate the phenomenon shown in the cartoon. Our experience is that students
This article explores the similarities and differences between the process followed to develop a sermon and that followed to develop a cartoon. It first examines the representation of the jester or clown in some recent publications by homileticians before describing the process of development of a sermon, as proposed by ...
Takeuchi, Masaru; Sato, Tomohito; Sakurai, Yutaka; Taguchi, Manzo; Harimoto, Kozo; Karasawa, Yoko; Ito, Masataka
Inflammation is known to be involved in the progression of diabetic retinopathy. We have recently reported that vitreous levels of IL-4, IL-17A, IL-22, IL-31, and TNFα are higher than the respective serum levels in proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) patients, and that vitreous levels of these cytokines are higher in PDR than in other non-inflammatory vitreoretinal diseases or uveitis associated with sarcoidosis. In the present study, we investigated inflammatory cytokines including Th17 cell-related cytokines in aqueous humor samples obtained from eyes with PDR, and analyzed the association between the aqueous humor and vitreous fluid levels of individual cytokines. The study group consisted of 31 consecutive type 2 diabetic patients with PDR who underwent cataract surgery and vitrectomy for vitreous hemorrhage and/or tractional retinal detachment. Undiluted aqueous humor was collected during cataract surgery, and then vitreous fluid was obtained using a 25G vitreous cutter inserted into the mid-vitreous cavity at the beginning of vitrectomy. IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-21, IL-22, IL-23, IL-25, IL-31, IL-33, IFN-γ, soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L), and TNFα levels in the aqueous humor and vitreous fluid were measured using a beads-array system. Although IL-17A was detected in the aqueous humor of eyes with PDR and the level correlated with IL-17A level in the vitreous fluid, both percent detectable and level of IL-17A in the aqueous humor were significantly lower than those in the vitreous fluid. Vitreous IL-17A level was related significantly to IL-10, IL-22, and TNFα levels in aqueous humor as well as in vitreous fluid, On the other hand, aqueous IL-17A level was not related significantly to aqueous or vitreous levels of IL-10, IL-22 or TNFα level. The present study demonstrated that IL-17A level and detectable rate in the aqueous humor of patients with PDR are markedly lower than those in the vitreous fluid and aqueous IL-17A does not
... Home Flow of Aqueous Humor Flow of Aqueous Humor Most, but not all, forms of glaucoma are ... remains normal when some of the fluid (aqueous humor) produced by the eye's ciliary body flows out ...
This dissertation is about health-related sense of humor measurement and associations between a sense of humor and health. Two sense of humor measures were developed, the QOHC and the HCL. The QOHC measures four humorous coping styles, aimed at acquiring positive affective states: antecedent-focused
The focus of this study was the collective images of aging that were unconsciously used despite rationally led social discourse on aging. Hypothesized was that despite changes in aging over the last 50 years these images went unaltered and thereby negative stereotypes of previous generations were maintained. In an effort to verify this hypothesis images of aging in cartoons were empirically examined, a first in the field of German language. Using a social scientific operationalization of age stereotypes and culturally historical topoi as a basis, a content analysis was conducted on 2,546 cartoons (with 8,882 characters) from the years 1960-1964 and 2007. In general both young and old age are equally encoded with negative connotations by deficient characteristics and acknowledged stereotypes partially significantly more often in the cartoons from 2007 than from 1960-1964. The last 50 years have seen no substantial changes in the images of aging as depicted by magazine and newspaper cartoons. Humor requires more frequent analysis as it often unconsciously reveals socially unacceptable images of aging, even those embedded in science.
Full Text Available Humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (HHM is caused by the oversecretion of parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP from malignant tumors. Although any tumor may cause HHM, that induced by intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC or gastric cancer (GC is rare. We report here a 74-year-old male who displayed HHM with both ICC and GC and showed an elevated serum PTHrP level. Treatment of the hypercalcemia with saline, furosemide, elcatonin, and zoledronic acid corrected his serum calcium level and improved symptoms. Because treatment of ICC should precede that of GC, we chose chemotherapy with cisplatin (CDDP and gemcitabine (GEM. Chemotherapy reduced the size of the ICC and decreased the serum PTHrP level. One year after diagnosis, the patient was alive in the face of a poor prognosis for an ICC that produced PTHrP. Immunohistochemical staining for PTHrP was positive for the ICC and negative for the GC, leading us to believe that the cause of the HHM was a PTHrP-secreting ICC. In conclusion, immunohistochemical staining for PTHrP may be useful in discovering the cause of HHM in the case of two cancers accompanied by an elevated serum PHTrP level. Chemotherapy with CDDP and GEM may be the most appropriate treatment for a PTHrP-secreting ICC.
Surlin, Stuart H.
There are three "communication contexts": interpersonal, intrapersonal (relating to others through internal thought), and mass media, especially television (relating to others in an indirect, impersonal manner). People satisfy different needs through different contexts. Open-minded people may choose television for relaxation and the interpersonal…
Heiki Ernitsa ja Janno Põldma "Kontsert porgandipirukale" valiti Santiago de Compostelas (Hispaania) üleantava animafilmi auhinna Cartoon d'Or viie nominendi hulka. Loetletud ka konkureerivad filmid
Bullough, Robert V., Jr.
The author explores humor during a time of increasingly hostile accountability measures directed toward educators. Drawing on incongruity and other theories of humor, he explores both "light" and "dark" humor and some aspects of the educational potential and power of humor. Noting how humor is related to creativity and problem management, the…
Full Text Available A good sense of humor has been implicated as a quality that could contribute to psychological well-being. The mechanisms through which sense of humor might operate include helping to reappraise threats, serving as a character strength, or facilitating happiness. The current research attempts to integrate these possibilities by examining whether a good sense of humor might operate globally by helping to maintain a more stable positive affect. Stable positive affect has been shown to facilitate more effective problem solving and to build resilience. However, not all humor is adaptive humor, so we also examine the roles that different styles of humor use might play. Individual differences in humor styles were used to predict stable levels of affect. Then, in a longitudinal design, humor styles and stable affect were used to predict subsequent resilience and psychological health. The results indicated that stable affect was related to resilience and psychological well-being, and that a sense of humor that involves self-enhancing humor, humor based on maintaining a humorous perspective about one’s experiences, was positively related to stable positive affect, negatively related to stable negative affect, and was mediated through stable affect in influencing resilience, well-being and distress. Thus, while a good sense of humor can lead to greater resilience and better psychological health, the current results, focusing on stable affect, find only self-enhancing humor provides reliable benefits.
WASHINGTON SILVA DE FARIAS
Full Text Available In this paper we reflect on the discourse of political humor and its constitution from gestures of interpretation related to inscription and movement of subjects and senses in/among affiliation and memory networks. As analysis unit, we have chosen an electronic cartoon that textualizes the electoral dispute between the political parties PT and PSDB aired in 2015 on the website charges.com.br by Maurício Ricardo. Analysis of the selected text allowed us to observe the work of subject-author signifying the political events, as well as on the network of meanings regarding Brazilian political memory. This article enrolls in the theoretical field of French and Brazilian tradition of Discourse Analysis taking as basic references Pêcheux and Orlandi’s works.
A.C. Burlamaque- Neto
Full Text Available Evaluation of gene therapy protocols in our laboratory led us to detect the need for the development of more friendly and comprehensive approach esto theexperimental techniquesinvolved. Two sequential cartoon stories were created to portrait plasmid purification, electrophoresis separation, gel band purification and cell culture transfection protocols. This work aims the implementation of art-education materi als in scientific research. Scripts were created based onprotocols used in our lab. Four studentsfrom Centro de Terapia Gênicawere selected to participate of each stories’ implementation . Participants received theoretical explanations about protocols , attended a demo nstration and performed the respective techniques individually. Students were interviewed using a semi -structured script. Interviews’ contentswerequalitatively analyzedin regard to Edgar Morin’s complexity theoretical reference. A complementary activity was heldwith the participants. Techniques mentioned above are portraitin two comicsstories named Freedom for ß- Galleyand Purification for Cell RealityTransformation. The association of cartoons to formal protocols is viable. Memory andcomplex thinking stimuli were reported, as well as better comprehension of the inter- relationships between protocols’ steps. This work has produced art -education materials that provide better understanding of protocols and stimulate students’ reflections on scientific method and science learning in a n academic biological research environment . A soundtrack for cartoons is being recorded.
Nielsen, N. O.; Bloch, P.; Simonsen, P. E.
The filarial-specific humoral responses (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4 and IgE) to a Brugia pahangi antigen was assessed in 9 groups of adult individuals from a Wuchereria bancrofti-endemic area in north-east Tanzania. In 5 of the groups, individuals were negative for microfilariae (mf) and circulating ...
Abd El-Aal, Amany Ahmed; Hassan, Marwa Adel; Gawdat, Heba Ismail; Ali, Meran Ahmed; Barakat, Manal
The chief manifestations of scabies are mediated through hypersensitivity-like reactions and immune responses which are so far not well understood and remain poorly characterized. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of inflammatory cytokines in relation to humoral immunity in patients with scabies. Serum levels of total IgE, specific IgG, IL-10, IL-6, INF-γ, and TNF-α were investigated in a cross-sectional study including 37 patients with manifestations suggestive of scabies and serologically positive for anti-Sarcoptes IgG, in addition to 20 healthy controls. The median value of total IgE was 209 (range, 17-1219 IU/mL), reflecting its wide range within cases. IL-10 showed significant higher levels (287 ±: 139) in cases than in controls (17.4 ± 11.32). A positive correlation was reported between total IgE and severity of manifestations (r = 0.429, P <0.005). A significant positive correlation was observed between total IgE and both IgG and IL-6. On the contrary, a negative correlation was recorded between IL-6 and TNF-α which makes us suggested anti-inflammatory rather than pro-inflammatory effect of IL-6. Moreover, a negative correlation was noticed between the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and severity of manifestations, specific IgG, total IgE, and INF-γ. Therefore, the current study theorized a regulatory role of IL-10 in inflammatory responses of scabietic patients suggesting further future analysis of its therapeutic potential. © The Author(s) 2016.
This thesis is the first critical critical study of animated cartoon production in the Arab world. From the 1930s until the recent spread of online animations, animated cartoon production in the Arab world was the privilege of individuals and institutions with strong links to academic, media and
Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.
This booklet of cartoon guides contains 83 units of instructional materials prepared by the Defense Language Insitute for use in an intensive, conversational, Russian course. Included are cartoon guides to dialogues and dialogue recombinations which focus on social concerns and military matters. (RL)
Hapkiewicz, Walter G.
This paper reviews ten studies on the effects of television cartoon violence on aggressive behavior in children and discusses possible reasons for the inconsistent results. Methodology and results of field and laboratory studies are compared, and study limitations are noted. The impact of cartoons is discussed in terms of human vs. animal…
This study was focused on the political cartoons selected from some Nigerian tabloids at the eve of the 2003 general elections. We set out to analyze the language of the inscriptions, dialogues, monologues, labels and songs used alongside the pictures in the cartoons with emphasis on the layers of meaning such as ...
Mina, Nurawati; Putranti, Sulistini Dwi
Cartoon comes from an Italian word "Cartone" meaning a large paper. It is designed not only as the media to describe daily activities, but also to entertain, criticize, provoke, and even to teach people. A lot of studies have been conducted regarding the implementation of cartoon in classroom or outside classroom context. It is proven…
Full Text Available Cognitive distortions are negative biases in thinking that are theorized to represent vulnerability factors for depression and dysphoria. Despite the emphasis placed on cognitive distortions in the context of cognitive behavioural theory and practice, a paucity of research has examined the mechanisms through which they impact depressive symptomatology. Both adaptive and maladaptive styles of humor represent coping strategies that may mediate the relation between cognitive distortions and depressive symptoms. The current study examined the correlations between the frequency and impact of cognitive distortions across both social and achievement-related contexts and types of humor. Cognitive distortions were associated with reduced use of adaptive Affiliative and Self-Enhancing humor styles and increased use of maladaptive Aggressive and Self-Defeating humor. Reduced use of Self-Enhancing humor mediated the relationship between most types of cognitive distortions and depressed mood, indicating that distorted negative thinking may interfere with an individual’s ability to adopt a humorous and cheerful outlook on life (i.e., use Self-Enhancing humor as a way of regulating emotions and coping with stress, thereby resulting in elevated depressive symptoms. Similarly, Self-Defeating humor mediated the association of the social impact of cognitive distortions with depression, such that this humor style may be used as a coping strategy for dealing with distorted thinking that ultimately backfires and results in increased dysphoria.
Rnic, Katerina; Dozois, David J A; Martin, Rod A
Cognitive distortions are negative biases in thinking that are theorized to represent vulnerability factors for depression and dysphoria. Despite the emphasis placed on cognitive distortions in the context of cognitive behavioural theory and practice, a paucity of research has examined the mechanisms through which they impact depressive symptomatology. Both adaptive and maladaptive styles of humor represent coping strategies that may mediate the relation between cognitive distortions and depressive symptoms. The current study examined the correlations between the frequency and impact of cognitive distortions across both social and achievement-related contexts and types of humor. Cognitive distortions were associated with reduced use of adaptive Affiliative and Self-Enhancing humor styles and increased use of maladaptive Aggressive and Self-Defeating humor. Reduced use of Self-Enhancing humor mediated the relationship between most types of cognitive distortions and depressed mood, indicating that distorted negative thinking may interfere with an individual's ability to adopt a humorous and cheerful outlook on life (i.e., use Self-Enhancing humor) as a way of regulating emotions and coping with stress, thereby resulting in elevated depressive symptoms. Similarly, Self-Defeating humor mediated the association of the social impact of cognitive distortions with depression, such that this humor style may be used as a coping strategy for dealing with distorted thinking that ultimately backfires and results in increased dysphoria.
This survey study has five parts. In the first part two conceptual approaches to humor are characterized. One considers "the comic" to be an umbrella concept, and humor is only one of its rather positive forms. The other comes out from the umbrella concept "humor", and distinguishes between various forms of humor including the negative ones. Three main theories of humor are presented: theory of superiority, theory of incongruity, and a relief theory. The second part introduces humor in the elderly and draws the attention to the fact that we know relatively little about humor in old age because most research has been carried out in children, adolescents or adults in productive age. The third part of the study describes the process of diagnostics of humor in the elderly. For example, within the qualitative methods, in-depth interviews with seniors or analyses of their diary entries are used. Within quantitative methods, questionnaires are used, and this study presents the survey of seven most frequent ones applied in the studies of humor in the elderly. In the context of mixed methods, understanding of humor in young and seniors, or understanding of humor in relatively healthy seniors and seniors after stroke are compared. The fourth part of the study presents the Gelkopfs model on relationship between humor, treatment and cure of patients. The fifth part of the study demonstrates the options how to use humor to improve the mental state of the elderly (by means of individual or group interventions).
Petrini, Paulo; Universidade Estadual de Londrina
This study analyses a sample of humor discursive iconographic genres, represented by the caricature, by the political caricature and by the cartoon, published in the newspaper O Pasquim. The aim was to understand how the publication was able to capture the spirit of the time (zeitgeist) during the civil-military dictatorship of the 1970s, looking at the cognitive processes of development of the collective imagination and, above all, how was it able to express the critical opinions towards the...
Cheung, Roanna Yuk-Heng
My dissertation analyzes the representations of gender in cartoons and popular literature in 1920s and 1930s Guangzhou as a window onto the intersection among gender, humor, and identity construction in Republican-era (1911-1949) China. During this period, Guangzhou, among other cities, saw a proliferation of comical works that created an affective community in which both authors and audiences could enjoy, question, or escape from their urban experiences. The scenes and stories represented of...
Cappelli, V.; di Benedetto, C.
Attivamente: Big discoveries with Galileo and Phineas & Ferb, an educational entertainment project for children, was a collaboration between Disney Television Italy and the Education and Public Outreach office of the INAF Astronomical Observatory of Padua, Italy. The project started during the International Year of Astronomy 2009 and came to an end in June 2010. It consisted of a cartoon series, several articles in a Disney magazine and an educational kit focused on Galileo Galilei and the Moon. The kit, called the First Astronomical Kit, was distributed to 30 000 children in Italy, and included a board game about the Moon, an observation diary and a lunar fact card. The aim of the kit was to give children some basic astronomical knowledge and to demonstrate the essential role that observation plays in understanding the heavens. This article discusses how a research institute and a major entertainment company -- each with very different working practices -- were able to work together to form a successful partnership.
Rumstay, Kenneth S.
Astronomy has always enjoyed broad public appeal, as evidenced by the extensive media attention given to the recent "demotion" of Pluto by the IAU. While public planetaria and college courses provide limited outreach, most members of the public have little formal exposure to astronomy as a scientific discipline. Consequently, public opinion as to what astronomers do is largely shaped by the news media and by popular culture. One icon of "elite" popular culture is The New Yorker magazine. Founded by Harold Ross and his wife Jane Grant, The New Yorker was intended to be a sophisticated cosmopolitan humor magazine. The first issue appeared on newsstands on February 17, 1925. While humor was always an important aspect of the magazine, The New Yorker quickly established itself as a forum for serious journalism and fiction. It currently boasts a worldwide circulation of well over one million readers. For many readers the cartoons are the highlight of each issue of The New Yorker, and since its first issue more than 70,000 have appeared in print. These have been analyzed to see how professional astronomers are typically portrayed. Not surprisingly, the average reader would conclude that observational astronomy is done almost exclusively at visible wavelengths with ground-based telescopes, usually large-aperture refractors which protrude through the slit of a traditional hemispherical dome. In a few cases the artist has been inspired by a real (and readily recognizable) telescope. Radio and space-based telescopes are rarely cartoon subjects. The professional astronomer is typically portrayed as a middle-aged male, unfortunate when one considers the large representation of women in our field. Amateur astronomy appears with surprising frequency, but rarely as a serious pursuit. Finally, astronomical objects (Pluto, Halley's comet, etc.) frequently appear as cartoon subjects when they have been in the news, but rarely otherwise.
Renata de Paula dos Santos
Full Text Available Mandela’s victory in the 1994 elections in South Africa is a reference point for South African history and represented the transition from apartheid to multiracial democracy. Since then Nelson Mandela (1994-1999, Thabo Mbeki (1999-2008 and Jacob Zuma (2009 - current, occupied the post of president of the country and led, each in its own way, the new direction of the country. During the nearly twenty years of multiracial democracy, one in particular cartoonist, Jonathan Shapiro, popularly known by the pseudonym Zapiro, portrayed the everyday life of this story. In this sense, the objective of this research is to analyze how Zapiro portrayed the political and social aspects, as well as the psychological characteristics of each of the three postapartheid presidents and which social representations are formed from their cartoon production. The choice of Zapiro explained by openly declared his opposition to apartheid and also for being the best known outside South African cartoonist. We elected to cartoon as an object of study because it is an iconographic object constituted by communicative humor, which adds to its constitution arguments transgression of the established order, enabling an analysis of South African history through a critical bias. As methods for the development of the work, we decided to gather historical research, the literature search and analysis of cartooon speech. Among the theoretical frameworks stand out Magnoli (1998, 2009, Jonge (1991 and Carlin (2009 in the South African question; reflections about social representations, we resort to Moscovici (2011 and Jodelet (1993, in the field the cartoon and humor, the references are Miani (2005; 2012, Romualdo (2000 and Eco (1989. With the completion of the analysis, we observed that Zapiro acts in different ways in the construction of the representation of each of the presidents in question and that the cartoonist presents Mandela as a competent leader marked by heroism and
Yi, Shuang; Zhou, Yicong; Pun, Chi-Man; Chen, C. L. Philip
Existing collage steganographic methods suffer from low payload of embedding messages. To improve the payload while providing a high level of security protection to messages, this paper introduces a new collage steganographic algorithm using cartoon design. It embeds messages into the least significant bits (LSBs) of color cartoon objects, applies different permutations to each object, and adds objects to a cartoon cover image to obtain the stego image. Computer simulations and comparisons demonstrate that the proposed algorithm shows significantly higher capacity of embedding messages compared with existing collage steganographic methods.
Carrica, Jennifer L.
The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between leadership styles (transformational, transactional, laissez-faire) and humor styles (affiliative, self-enhancing, aggressive, self-defeating) of community college presidents. Research has shown that humor and leadership styles are related and that humor may enhance interpersonal…
Bozikas, Vasilis P; Kosmidis, Mary H; Giannakou, Maria; Anezoulaki, Dimitra; Petrikis, Petros; Fokas, Kostas; Karavatos, Athanasios
The purpose in undertaking the present study was to investigate humor appreciation in patients with schizophrenia. Moreover, we sought to explore the potential relationship of humor appreciation with measures of psychopathology and cognitive functioning among the patients. Thirty-six patients with schizophrenia were compared with 31 normal controls matched for age, sex, and education on a computerized test comprising captionless cartoons: Penn's Humor Appreciation Test (PHAT). The patients were also evaluated on the symptom dimensions derived from the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (positive symptoms, negative symptoms, cognitive symptoms, depression, and excitement), as well as a battery of neuropsychological tests measuring executive functions, attention, working memory, verbal and visual memory, visuospatial ability, and psychomotor speed. Patients with schizophrenia had significantly lower scores on the PHAT than normal controls. The patients' performance on the PHAT correlated with scores on Penn's Continuous Performance Test, the Stroop Color-Word Test, and the phonological subscale of the Greek Verbal Fluency Test. Our findings indicated impaired humor appreciation among patients with schizophrenia. The relationship found between the appreciation of captionless cartoons involved an incongruous detail and performance on a broad neuropsychological battery suggested that the deficit in humor appreciation in schizophrenia could be attributed to impairment in more basic neurocognitive domains, namely, selective and sustained attention as well as phonological word fluency.
Robalo Nunes, Inês; José, Helena; Capelas, Manuel Luís
The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between humor and professional grief. Findings confirm that these are not independent phenomena. Using humor as a coping mechanism emerged as a response to death-related work. Likewise, positive attitudes toward humor seem to alleviate the distress associated with end-of-life care.
Heiki Ernitsa ja Janno Põldma "Kontsert porgandipirukale" valiti Santiago de Compostelas (Hispaania) üleantava animafilmi auhinna Cartoon d'Or viie nominendi hulka. Auhinna sai siiski Virgil Widrichi lühifilm "Kiire film" ("Fast Film") : Austria - Luksemburg 2003
Historians have extensively researched and reported on the images presented by United States presidents. Political cartoons have been an effective means of depicting government figures’ behaviors, actions and deficiencies. The goal of this thesis is to examine images of President Richard Nixon as captured in political cartoons, with particular attention to the themes represented in works following the President’s key speeches. Nixon’s “Address to the Nation on the War in Vietnam” (1969), “Toa...
Barelds, D.P.H.; Barelds-Dijkstra, P.
The present study examined relations between different aspects of humor and relationship quality Participants 114 married or cohabiting heterosexual couples from the general community with a mean relationship length of 22 years completed a number of measures assessing these two themes We expected
Ed van den Berg
Full Text Available Concept cartoons can be used to diagnose misconceptions and stimulate discussion of basic concepts and phenomena. However, the teacher can also present a cartoon and then ask students to think of experiments to further investigate the phenomenon shown in the cartoon. Our experience is that students from age 9–18 very quickly come with creative ideas and start investigations. That is, of course, only the beginning. The teacher will have to follow the work of the students closely and help them to develop their investigation skills and critical thinking. In the workshop you will experience how to start an investigation with the cartoon and then we will focus on how to use formative assessment to improve the work of students.
Theresa E. DiDonato
Full Text Available Not all humor is the same, yet little is known about the appeal of specific humor styles in romantic initiation. The current experimental study addresses this gap by investigating how romantic motives (short-term or long-term affect individuals’ anticipated use of, and response to, positive humor and negative humor. Heterosexual participants (n = 224 imagined the pursuit of either a desired short-term or long-term relationship, indicated the extent to which they would produce positive and negative humor, and reported how their own interest would change in response to the imaginary target’s use of positive or negative humor. Results revealed that individuals are strategic in their humor production as a function of relational motives. Individuals produced positive humor in both contexts but limited their use of negative humor when pursuing a long-term relationship. The target’s positive humor increased individuals’ attraction, especially women’s, and although negative humor boosted attraction, it did not boost attraction more for short-term than long-term relationships. Findings extend a trait-indicator model of humor and their implications are discussed in light of other theoretical perspectives.
Full Text Available Violence is probably the most discussed effect of television. 61% of the children programs contain violence. The amount of violence in the cartoons is higher. There is a relation between the violence on television and children’s violent behavior. Previous studies show that, children learn and attempt the positive and negative behaviors they see on TV. Children look at the television from the perspective of a researcher and try to make sense of what they watch. Their interest is generally in characters, rapid change of scenes and violence. The frequent use of violent elements in cartoons, which are broadcasted on Kids TV channels in Turkey, brings serious risks to the children of our country. Children who are affected by violence in the media are afraid and worried that they may also be victims of violence. For such children, the following tendencies increase: frequency of crying, aggression tendency, sleeping disorders, decrease in self-esteem, attention focusing problems and depression
Mary Payne Bennett
Full Text Available Articles in both the lay and professional literature have extolled the virtues of humor, many giving the impression that the health benefits of humor are well documented by the scientific and medical community. The concept that humor or laughter can be therapeutic goes back to biblical times and this belief has received varying levels of support from the scientific community at different points in its history. Current research indicates that using humor is well accepted by the public and is frequently used as a coping mechanism. However, the scientific evidence of the benefits of using humor on various health related outcomes still leaves many questions unanswered.
Shigehatake, Yuya; Yokota, Chiaki; Amano, Tatsuo; Tomii, Yasuhiro; Inoue, Yasuteru; Hagihara, Takaaki; Toyoda, Kazunori; Minematsu, Kazuo
We investigated whether junior high school students could be educated regarding stroke with an animated cartoon and a Manga that we produced for the purpose of dissemination of this knowledge. We produced a 10-minute animated cartoon and a Manga that provided information regarding stroke risk factors, stroke signs and symptoms, and awareness to immediately contact emergent medical service (EMS) on identification of stroke signs and symptoms. From December 2011 to March 2012, 493 students in 15 classes of the first grade (age 12-13 years) of 3 junior high schools were enrolled in the study. Each subject watched the animated cartoon and read the Manga; this was referred to as "training." Lessons about stroke were not given. Questionnaires on stroke knowledge were evaluated at baseline, immediately after the training, and 3 months after the training. The proportion of correct answers given immediately after the training was higher for all questions, except those related to arrhythmia, compared with baseline. Percentage of correct answers given at 3 months was higher than that at baseline in questions related to facial palsy (75% versus 33%), speech disturbance (91% versus 60%), hemiplegia (79% versus 52%), numbness of 1 side (58% versus 51%), calling for EMS (90% versus 85%), alcohol intake (96% versus 72%), and smoking (69% versus 54%). At 3 months after the training, 56% of students answered the FAST (facial droop, arm weakness, speech disturbance, time to call for EMS) mnemonic correctly. Stroke education using these teaching aids of the animated cartoon and the Manga improved stroke knowledge in junior high school students. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This article begins by examining the bad reputation humor traditionally had in philosophy and education. Two of the main charges against humor--that it is hostile and irresponsible--are linked to the Superiority Theory. That theory is critiqued and two other theories of laughter are presented--the Relief Theory and the Incongruity Theory. In the…
Impairment of the perception or comprehension of humor is observed in patients with focal brain lesions in both hemispheres, but mainly in the right frontal lobe. Studies by functional magnetic resonance imaging in healthy subjects show that humor is associated with activation of two main neural systems in both hemispheres. The detection and resolution of incongruity, cognitive groundings of humor, are associated with activation of the medial prefrontal and temporoparietal cortex, and the humor appreciation with activation of the orbito-frontal and insular cortex, amygdala and the brain reward system. However, activation of these areas is not humor-specific and can be observed in various cognitive or emotional processes. Event-related potential studies confirm the involvement of both hemispheres in humor processing, and suggest that left prefrontal area is associated with joke comprehension and right prefrontal area with the resolution stage. Humor thus appears to be a complex and dynamic functional process involving, on one hand, two specialized but not specific neural systems linked to humor apprehension and appreciation, and, on the other hand, multiple interconnected functional brain networks including neural patterns underlying the moral framework and belief system, acquired by conditioning or imitation during the cognitive development and social interactions of the individual, and more distributed systems associated with the analysis of the current context of humor occurrence. Disturbances of the sense of humor could then result from focal brain alterations localized in one or two of the specialized areas underlying the comprehension or appreciation of humor, or from perturbations of the network interconnectivity in non-focal brain disorders such as Alzheimer's disease or schizophrenia.
DiFranza, J R; Richards, J W; Paulman, P M; Wolf-Gillespie, N; Fletcher, C; Jaffe, R D; Murray, D
To determine if RJR Nabisco's cartoon-theme advertising is more effective in promoting Camel cigarettes to children or to adults. To determine if children see, remember, and are influenced by cigarette advertising. Use of four standard marketing measures to compare the effects of Camel's Old Joe cartoon advertising on children and adults. High school students, grades 9 through 12, from five regions of the United States, and adults, aged 21 years and over, from Massachusetts. Recognition of Camel's Old Joe cartoon character, product and brand name recall, brand preference, appeal of advertising themes. Children were more likely to report prior exposure to the Old Joe cartoon character (97.7% vs 72.2%; P less than .0001). Children were better able to identify the type of product being advertised (97.5% vs 67.0%; P less than .0001) and the the Camel cigarette brand name (93.6% vs 57.7%; P less than .0001). Children also found the Camel cigarette advertisements more appealing (P less than .0001). Camel's share of the illegal children's cigarette market segment has increased from 0.5% to 32.8%, representing sales estimated at $476 million per year. Old Joe Camel cartoon advertisements are far more successful at marketing Camel cigarettes to children than to adults. This finding is consistent with tobacco industry documents that indicate that a major function of tobacco advertising is to promote and maintain tobacco addiction among children.
Gombosi, T. I.
Over the last half a century physics-based global computer simulations became a bridge between experiment and basic theory and now it represents the "third pillar" of geospace research. Today, many of our scientific publications utilize large-scale simulations to interpret observations, test new ideas, plan campaigns, or design new instruments. Realistic simulations of the complex Sun-Earth system have been made possible by the dramatically increased power of both computing hardware and numerical algorithms. Early magnetosphere models were based on simple E&M concepts (like the Chapman-Ferraro cavity) and hydrodynamic analogies (bow shock). At the beginning of the space age current system models were developed culminating in the sophisticated Tsyganenko-type description of the magnetic configuration. The first 3D MHD simulations of the magnetosphere were published in the early 1980s. A decade later there were several competing global models that were able to reproduce many fundamental properties of the magnetosphere. The leading models included the impact of the ionosphere by using a height-integrated electric potential description. Dynamic coupling of global and regional models started in the early 2000s by integrating a ring current and a global magnetosphere model. It has been recognized for quite some time that plasma kinetic effects play an important role. Presently, global hybrid simulations of the dynamic magnetosphere are expected to be possible on exascale supercomputers, while fully kinetic simulations with realistic mass ratios are still decades away. In the 2010s several groups started to experiment with PIC simulations embedded in large-scale 3D MHD models. Presently this integrated MHD-PIC approach is at the forefront of magnetosphere simulations and this technique is expected to lead to some important advances in our understanding of magnetosheric physics. This talk will review the evolution of magnetosphere modeling from cartoons to current systems
Nijholt, Antinus; Cockton, G.; Stock, O.; Korhonen, P.; Dix, A.; Bergman, E.; Bjork, S.; Morkes, J.; Collings, P.; Dey, A.; Draper, S.; Guliksen, J.; Keinonen, T.; Lazar, J.; Lund, A.; Malich, R.; Nakakoji, K.; Nigay, L.; Prates Oliveira, R.; Rieman, J.; Snyder, C.
Humor is a multi-disciplinary field of research. People have been working on humor in many fields of research, such as psychology, philosophy and linguistics, sociology and literature. Especially in the context of computer science (or Artificial Intelligence) humor research aims at modeling humor in
Özdemir, Özlem; Özdemir, Emrah
Political cartoons demonstrate the Syrian refugee crisis and their influx into bordering and European countries from different perspectives by using both visual and verbal metaphors in a caricaturised way. For this reason, this research aims to reveal how political cartoons represent the perilous journey of Syrian refugees and their families visually and verbally. In this regard, twelve political cartoons were selected randomly from the international political cartoon website cagle.com betwee...
Discussion of horror fiction for teenagers focuses on the element of humor. Topics include parodies, plots, the element of mystery, cover art, end-of-chapter cliffhangers, and formula books. An annotated list of 10 pertinent titles is included. (LRW)
In an electoral process in 1988 and 1989, voters replaced General Augusto Pinochet as leader of Chile. The use of political cartoons by both pro- and anti-Pinochet forces is explored in this paper. Cartoons have long been recognized as a form of mass communication. In the Chilean elections cartoons played an important role in the battle for the…
Full Text Available Este artigo examina a construção social e cultural de um estereótipo sobre lésbicas, baseado na percepção de que elas não possuem senso de humor. Analisa-se como lésbicas são retratadas por comediantes, programas de TV, quadrinhos e na literatura, e compara essas representações a outros estereótipos, como aqueles relacionados a alemães e gays extravagantes. Ao investigar as relações entre masculinidade, feminilidade e falta de humor, demonstra-se que considerar lésbicas como incompatíveis com o riso e a graça significa caracterizá-las como destituídas de humanidade. The article Humorless lesbians examines the social and cultural construction of a lesbian stereotype, based on the perception that they lack sense of humor. It is analyzed how lesbians are portrayed by comedians, TV shows, comic strips, and in literature. These representations are compared to other stereotypes such as those related to Germans and campy gays. By investigating the relations between masculinity, femininity and humorlessness, it is demonstrated that considering lesbians as incompatible with laughter and fun means to depicting them as deprived of humanity.
Kaeslin, Martha Andrea; Killer, Hanspeter Ezriel; Fuhrer, Cyril Adrian; Zeleny, Nauke; Huber, Andreas Robert; Neutzner, Albert
To investigate the aqueous humor proteome in patients with glaucoma and a control group. Aqueous humor was obtained from five human donors diagnosed with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) and five age- and sex-matched controls undergoing cataract surgery. Quantitative proteome analysis of the aqueous humor by hyper reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (HRM-MS) based on SWATH technology was performed. Expression levels of 87 proteins were found to be different between glaucomatous and control aqueous humor. Of the 87 proteins, 34 were significantly upregulated, whereas 53 proteins were downregulated in the aqueous humor from glaucoma patients compared to controls. Differentially expressed proteins were found to be involved in cholesterol-related, inflammatory, metabolic, antioxidant as well as proteolysis-related processes. Glaucoma leads to profound changes to the aqueous humor proteome consistent with an altered metabolic state, an inflammatory response and impaired antioxidant defense.
Martha Andrea Kaeslin
Full Text Available To investigate the aqueous humor proteome in patients with glaucoma and a control group.Aqueous humor was obtained from five human donors diagnosed with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG and five age- and sex-matched controls undergoing cataract surgery. Quantitative proteome analysis of the aqueous humor by hyper reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (HRM-MS based on SWATH technology was performed.Expression levels of 87 proteins were found to be different between glaucomatous and control aqueous humor. Of the 87 proteins, 34 were significantly upregulated, whereas 53 proteins were downregulated in the aqueous humor from glaucoma patients compared to controls. Differentially expressed proteins were found to be involved in cholesterol-related, inflammatory, metabolic, antioxidant as well as proteolysis-related processes.Glaucoma leads to profound changes to the aqueous humor proteome consistent with an altered metabolic state, an inflammatory response and impaired antioxidant defense.
Phillips, Kari A; Singh Ospina, Naykky; Rodriguez-Gutierrez, Rene; Castaneda-Guarderas, Ana; Gionfriddo, Michael R; Branda, Megan; Montori, Victor
Little is known about humor's use in clinical encounters, despite its many potential benefits. We aimed to describe humor during clinical encounters. We analyzed 112 recorded clinical encounters. Two reviewers working independently identified instances of humor, as well as information surrounding the logistics of its use. Of the 112 encounters, 66 (59%) contained 131 instances of humor. Humor was similarly frequent in primary care (36/61, 59%) and in specialty care (30/51, 59%), was more common in gender-concordant interactions (43/63, 68%), and was most common during counseling (81/112, 62%). Patients and clinicians introduced humor similarly (63 vs 66 instances). Typically, humor was about the patient's medical condition (40/131, 31%). Humor is used commonly during counseling to discuss the patient's medical condition and to relate to general life events bringing warmth to the medical encounter. The timing and topic of humor and its use by all parties suggests humor plays a role in the social connection between patients and physicians and allows easier discussion of difficult topics. Further research is necessary to establish its impact on clinicians, patients, and outcomes. © Copyright 2018 by the American Board of Family Medicine.
Full Text Available The visual environment of humans contains abundant ambiguity and fragmentary information. Therefore, an early step of vision must disambiguate the incessant stream of information. Humorous stimuli produce a situation that is strikingly analogous to this process: Funniness is associated with the incongruity contained in a joke, pun, or cartoon. Like in vision in general, appreciating a visual pun as funny necessitates disambiguation of incongruous information. Therefore, perceived funniness of visual puns was implemented to study visual perception in a sample of 36 schizophrenia patients and 56 healthy control participants. We found that both visual incongruity and Theory of Mind (ToM content of the puns were associated with increased experienced funniness. This was significantly less so in participants with schizophrenia, consistent with the gestalt hypothesis of schizophrenia, which would predict compromised perceptual organization in patients. The association of incongruity with funniness was not mediated by known predictors of humor appreciation, such as affective state, depression, or extraversion. Patients with higher excitement symptoms and, at a trend level, reduced cognitive symptoms, reported lower funniness experiences. An open question remained whether patients showed this deficiency of visual incongruity detection independent of their ToM deficiency. Humorous stimuli may be viewed as a convenient method to study perceptual processes, but also fundamental questions of higher-level cognition.
The paper saw cartoon as an instrument in the hands of the journalist who can use it to break the chain of communication that has been blocked by appointed or elected public office holders. We adopted literature review as the methodology for the research. We also carried out some casual oral interviews with stakeholders ...
For 53 years, Clifford K. Berryman was a political cartoonist for "The Washington Post" and "The Washington Evening Star". He drew thousands of cartoons commenting on the congressional and presidential candidates, campaigns, issues, and elections of the first half of the twentieth century. Berryman was a Washington institution, and his decades of…
This study examined the influence of cartoon strips as instructional medium on the academic performance of secondary school students in Cross River State. The instrument used was a structured. Achievement Test in Fine Arts (SATFA). The sample used consisted of 46 Junior Secondary School two students. SATFA was ...
Fouts, Gregory; Callan, Mitchell; Piasentin, Kelly; Lawson, Andrea
The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of demonizing in the two major media that young children use (television and movies). Two content analyses were conducted using the animated feature films (n = 34) of the Walt Disney Company and after-school cartoons (n = 41). Each was coded for the modeling of the use of "evil" words when…
This study examined the influence of cartoon strips as instructional medium on the academic performance of secondary school students in Cross River State. The instrument used was a structured Achievement Test in Fine Arts (SATFA). The sample used consisted of 46 Junior Secondary School two students. SATFA was ...
Achievement Test in Fine Arts (SATFA). The sample used consisted of 46 Junior Secondary School two students. SATFA was analyzed using the independent .... hold the students concentration. At the end of the lesson students were administered a structured achievement test. Sample; Two Page Layout of Cartoon Strip ...
This paper takes a critical look at the effectiveness of cartoons in print media communication and the safety they offer for the print media in terms of freedom of expression, especially during the .... newspaper industry that through it a type of journalism that lays emphasis on sensationalism, gossip, crime, sex, etc. got the ...
This article explores the similarities and differences between the process followed to develop a sermon and that followed to develop a cartoon. It first examines the representation of the jester or clown in some recent publications by homileticians before describing the process of development of a sermon, as proposed by ...
Gildberg, Frederik Alkier; Bradley, Stephen K.; Paaske, Kristian J.
Humor utilized in the practice of forensic mental health nursing might seem somehow inappropriate, given the serious circumstances surrounding most forensic mental health patients. However, some recent research has pointed to the use of humor as an important component in staff interactions...... with forensic mental health patients. This study reviews the existing international forensic mental health research literature on humor to investigate (a) what characterizes forensic mental health staff-patient use of humor and (b) what significance humor holds within the forensic mental health setting...... identified: (a) "humor as staff skill," showing that staff found humor to be important as an interpersonal ability; (b) "humor as a relational tool" with the purpose of establishing and maintaining staff-patient interactions; and (c) " the impact of humor on patients," describing impacts on conflicts...
McCartney Matthews, Melissa Lee
Research literature relating to the use of humor as a teaching method or curricula specifically designed to include humor was reviewed to investigate the effects of humor on student learning in various environments from elementary schools to post-secondary classrooms. In this multi-method study, four instruments and a humor treatment were selected…
Full Text Available Recently, two forms of virtue-related humor, benevolent and corrective, have been introduced. Benevolent humor treats human weaknesses and wrongdoings benevolently, while corrective humor aims at correcting and bettering them. Twelve marker items for benevolent and corrective humor (the BenCor were developed, and it was demonstrated that they fill the gap between humor as temperament and virtue. The present study investigates responses to the BenCor from 25 samples in 22 countries (overall N = 7,226. The psychometric properties of the BenCor were found to be sufficient in most of the samples, including internal consistency, unidimensionality, and factorial validity. Importantly, benevolent and corrective humor were clearly established as two positively related, yet distinct dimensions of virtue-related humor. Metric measurement invariance was supported across the 25 samples, and scalar invariance was supported across six age groups (from 18 to 50+ years and across gender. Comparisons of samples within and between four countries (Malaysia, Switzerland, Turkey, and the UK showed that the item profiles were more similar within than between countries, though some evidence for regional differences was also found. This study thus supported, for the first time, the suitability of the 12 marker items of benevolent and corrective humor in different countries, enabling a cumulative cross-cultural research and eventually applications of humor aiming at the good.
Heintz, Sonja; Ruch, Willibald; Platt, Tracey; Pang, Dandan; Carretero-Dios, Hugo; Dionigi, Alberto; Argüello Gutiérrez, Catalina; Brdar, Ingrid; Brzozowska, Dorota; Chen, Hsueh-Chih; Chłopicki, Władysław; Collins, Matthew; Ďurka, Róbert; Yahfoufi, Najwa Y El; Quiroga-Garza, Angélica; Isler, Robert B; Mendiburo-Seguel, Andrés; Ramis, TamilSelvan; Saglam, Betül; Shcherbakova, Olga V; Singh, Kamlesh; Stokenberga, Ieva; Wong, Peter S O; Torres-Marín, Jorge
Recently, two forms of virtue-related humor, benevolent and corrective, have been introduced. Benevolent humor treats human weaknesses and wrongdoings benevolently, while corrective humor aims at correcting and bettering them. Twelve marker items for benevolent and corrective humor (the BenCor) were developed, and it was demonstrated that they fill the gap between humor as temperament and virtue. The present study investigates responses to the BenCor from 25 samples in 22 countries (overall N = 7,226). The psychometric properties of the BenCor were found to be sufficient in most of the samples, including internal consistency, unidimensionality, and factorial validity. Importantly, benevolent and corrective humor were clearly established as two positively related, yet distinct dimensions of virtue-related humor. Metric measurement invariance was supported across the 25 samples, and scalar invariance was supported across six age groups (from 18 to 50+ years) and across gender. Comparisons of samples within and between four countries (Malaysia, Switzerland, Turkey, and the UK) showed that the item profiles were more similar within than between countries, though some evidence for regional differences was also found. This study thus supported, for the first time, the suitability of the 12 marker items of benevolent and corrective humor in different countries, enabling a cumulative cross-cultural research and eventually applications of humor aiming at the good.
Serafini, Frank; Coles, Richard
Humorous literature for children has been around since Randolph Caldecott first started writing and illustrating picturebooks. In the article, the authors try to understand what makes picturebooks funny and discuss ways to use humor in the classroom. Many examples of humorous picturebooks are cited to provide teachers with resources for their…
Barney, David; Christenson, Robert
Humor can be extremely beneficial in everyday life, whether giving or receiving it. It can be used to lighten the mood, give encouragement, or make corrections. Humor in physical education is no exception. Physical educators can use humor as a teaching tool and to create an environment for students to acquire the knowledge to practice a lifetime…
This report surveys the role of humor in human-to-human interaction and the possible role of humor in human-computer interaction. The aim is to see whether it is useful for embodied conversational agents to integrate humor capabilities in their internal model of intelligence, emotions and
Wu, Ching-Lin; Liu, Ya-Ru; Kuo, Ching-Chih; Chen, Hsueh-Chih; Chang, Yu-Lin
Humor training has been applied to educational and clinical cases and has been found to be effective, but humor training for individuals with autism is relatively rare. The present study proposed a humor-knowledge and humor-skill training workshop to enhance the humor comprehension and appreciation of individuals with autism and examined the effects of the training. Participants were 20 adolescents with autism and average intelligence (above 70 in WAIS-III). They were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. Both questionnaire of joke comprehension and appreciation and a humor style questionnaire were used as instruments. The results supported the effectiveness of the 15-h training. The comprehension and appreciation of nonsense humor were significantly increased in the experimental group in comparison with the control group, although the incongruity-resolution jokes remained difficult to comprehend. The tendency to use affiliative humor was greater among individuals with autism in the experimental group, suggesting that the appreciation of humor can be learned. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zhang, Yingnan; Liang, Qingfeng; Liu, Yang; Pan, Zhiqiang; Baudouin, Christophe; Labbé, Antoine; Lu, Qingxian
Although a series of reports on corneal fungal infection have been published, studies on pathogenic mechanisms and inflammation-associated cytokines remain limited. In this study, aqueous humor samples from fungal keratitis patients were collected to examine cytokine patterns and cellular profile for the pathogenesis of fungal keratitis. The aqueous humor samples were collected from ten patients with advanced stage fungal keratitis. Eight aqueous humor samples from patients with keratoconus or corneal dystrophy were taken as control. Approximately 100 μl to 300 μl of aqueous humor in each case were obtained for examination. The aqueous humor samples were centrifuged and the cells were stained and examined under optical microscope. Bacterial and fungal cultures were performed on the aqueous humor and corneal buttons of all patients. Cytokines related to inflammation including IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α, and IFN-γ were examined using multiplex bead-based Luminex liquid protein array systems. Fungus infection was confirmed in these ten patients by smear stains and/or fungal cultures. Bacterial and fungal cultures revealed negative results in all aqueous humor specimens. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes were the predominant infiltrating cells in the aqueous humor of fungal keratitis. At the advanced stages of fungal keratitis, the levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and IFN-γ in the aqueous humor were significantly increased when compared with control (phumor was associated with fungal keratitis.
Craun, Sarah W; Bourke, Michael L
Those who work with human trauma often use humor to handle job stressors. Research has demonstrated that lighthearted humor is related to lower secondary traumatic stress scores, while gallows humor has the inverse relationship. This work explores how three types of humor relate to secondary traumatic stress: (a) humor at the expense of victims, (b) humor at the expense of offenders, and (c) humor containing sexual innuendo. Internet crimes against children taskforce personnel completed questionnaires about secondary traumatic stress and coping techniques. Humor at the expense of victims was rarely used, but when it was, it was indicative of higher secondary traumatic stress. There were no relationships between secondary traumatic stress and the use of humor at the expense of offenders or humor containing sexual innuendo.
Vrticka, Pascal; Black, Jessica M; Neely, Michelle; Walter Shelly, Elizabeth; Reiss, Allan L
Emerging evidence from fMRI studies suggests that humor processing is a specific social cognitive-affective human function that comprises two stages. The first stage (cognitive humor component) involves the detection and resolution of incongruity, and is associated with activity in temporo-occipito-parietal brain areas. The second stage (emotional humor component) comprises positive feelings related to mirth/reward, and is linked with reward-related activity in mesocorticolimbic circuits. In healthy adults, humor processing was shown to be moderated by temperament traits like intro-/extraversion, neuroticism, or social anxiety, representing risk factors for psychopathology. However, comparable data from early developmental stages is crucially lacking. Here, we report for the first time data from 22 children (ages 6 to 13) revealing an influence of temperament on humor processing. Specifically, we assessed the effects of Emotionality, Shyness, and Sociability, which are analogous to neuroticism, behavioral inhibition/fear and extraversion in adults. We found Emotionality to be positively, but Shyness negatively associated with brain activity linked with both cognitive and emotional humor components. In addition, Shyness and Sociability were positively related to activity in the periaqueductal gray region during humor processing. These findings are of potential clinical relevance regarding the early detection of childhood psychopathology. Previous data on humor processing in both adults and children furthermore suggest that intelligence (IQ) supports incongruity detection and resolution, whereas mirth and associated brain activity diminishes with increasing age. Here, we found that increasing age and IQ were linked with stronger activity to humor in brain areas implicated in the cognitive component of humor. Such data suggest that humor processing undergoes developmental changes and is moderated by higher IQ scores, both factors likely improving incongruity detection
Shirley, Jacqueline Dena
Teachers are at high risk for stress, negative emotion, and job dissatisfaction, which has been linked with health problems and early attrition. Humor has been found to relieve various forms of stress. However, there is a gap in the literature regarding humor effects on teacher stress and its related consequences. The purpose of this quantitative,…
Craun, Sarah W; Bourke, Michael L
Professionals in the area of sexual violence often use humor, both lighthearted and gallows humor, in an attempt to counteract the effects of the work on their well-being. There is little research, however, on whether the use of humor is effective in reducing symptoms of secondary traumatic stress. In the current study, more than 500 Internet Crimes Against Children task force personnel were surveyed about their level of secondary traumatic stress and the coping techniques utilized to mitigate work-related stressors. The use of gallows and light-hearted humor were independently related to secondary traumatic stress scores, even controlling for other coping strategies. The two types of humor were not related to secondary traumatic stress in the same direction, nor at the same magnitude.
Full Text Available The experimental research that looks into the effects of political humor on an individual’s attitudes toward politics and politicians does not evaluate its long-term effects. With this in mind, this study aims to determine the possible effects that being exposed to humor which belittles politicians may have on an ordinary citizen’s trust in them, while at the same time it observes the possible effects that such exposure has on them and the time such effects last. Two hypotheses were tested. The first one was that humor involves less cognitive elaboration, which leads to a short-term impact on the perception of the individual. The second one was that the repetition of a message can augment the swing of such message. Also, a series of elements regarding disposition toward politicians and political affiliation were considered. Two experiments were designed. The first experiment, (N = 94, considered three groups: one exposed to political disparagement humor; one control group exposed to disparagement humor against non-politician subjects; and a control group exposed to a non-humorous political video. Trust in politicians was evaluated first at baseline, then immediately after the experimental manipulation, and once again a week after the experimental manipulation had happened. In the second experiment (N = 146, participants were randomly assigned to one experimental and two control groups. The trust in politicians of the three groups was estimated and they were sent political cartoons, non-political cartoons, and newspaper headlines regarding political topics twice a day for a week via WhatsApp. Trust in politicians among the three groups was assessed again after 1 week, and for a third time 1 week after that. As a result, it was observed that a one-off exposure to political disparagement humor affects trust in politicians negatively; however, the effect it attains is short-lived and can be explained through the political content of the item and
Mendiburo-Seguel, Andrés; Vargas, Salvador; Rubio, Andrés
The experimental research that looks into the effects of political humor on an individual’s attitudes toward politics and politicians does not evaluate its long-term effects. With this in mind, this study aims to determine the possible effects that being exposed to humor which belittles politicians may have on an ordinary citizen’s trust in them, while at the same time it observes the possible effects that such exposure has on them and the time such effects last. Two hypotheses were tested. The first one was that humor involves less cognitive elaboration, which leads to a short-term impact on the perception of the individual. The second one was that the repetition of a message can augment the swing of such message. Also, a series of elements regarding disposition toward politicians and political affiliation were considered. Two experiments were designed. The first experiment, (N = 94), considered three groups: one exposed to political disparagement humor; one control group exposed to disparagement humor against non-politician subjects; and a control group exposed to a non-humorous political video. Trust in politicians was evaluated first at baseline, then immediately after the experimental manipulation, and once again a week after the experimental manipulation had happened. In the second experiment (N = 146), participants were randomly assigned to one experimental and two control groups. The trust in politicians of the three groups was estimated and they were sent political cartoons, non-political cartoons, and newspaper headlines regarding political topics twice a day for a week via WhatsApp. Trust in politicians among the three groups was assessed again after 1 week, and for a third time 1 week after that. As a result, it was observed that a one-off exposure to political disparagement humor affects trust in politicians negatively; however, the effect it attains is short-lived and can be explained through the political content of the item and not only humor
Mendiburo-Seguel, Andrés; Vargas, Salvador; Rubio, Andrés
The experimental research that looks into the effects of political humor on an individual's attitudes toward politics and politicians does not evaluate its long-term effects. With this in mind, this study aims to determine the possible effects that being exposed to humor which belittles politicians may have on an ordinary citizen's trust in them, while at the same time it observes the possible effects that such exposure has on them and the time such effects last. Two hypotheses were tested. The first one was that humor involves less cognitive elaboration, which leads to a short-term impact on the perception of the individual. The second one was that the repetition of a message can augment the swing of such message. Also, a series of elements regarding disposition toward politicians and political affiliation were considered. Two experiments were designed. The first experiment, ( N = 94), considered three groups: one exposed to political disparagement humor; one control group exposed to disparagement humor against non-politician subjects; and a control group exposed to a non-humorous political video. Trust in politicians was evaluated first at baseline, then immediately after the experimental manipulation, and once again a week after the experimental manipulation had happened. In the second experiment ( N = 146), participants were randomly assigned to one experimental and two control groups. The trust in politicians of the three groups was estimated and they were sent political cartoons, non-political cartoons, and newspaper headlines regarding political topics twice a day for a week via WhatsApp. Trust in politicians among the three groups was assessed again after 1 week, and for a third time 1 week after that. As a result, it was observed that a one-off exposure to political disparagement humor affects trust in politicians negatively; however, the effect it attains is short-lived and can be explained through the political content of the item and not only humor
Levín, Florencia Paula
En esta investigación se intenta bordear a partir del análisis sistemático de las representaciones sobre lo político construidas por el humor gráfico del diario Clarín, que por entonces ya era el matutino de mayor tirada a nivel nacional. Dado el amplio margen de inespecificidad y ambigüedad del término, es importante aclarar que cuando me refiero al "humor gráfico" del diario Clarín estoy aludiendo conjuntamente a los "cartoon" de Landrú publ...
McGrail, Ewa; Rieger, Alicja
This article explores instances of humor in literature as it relates to children with disabilities and offers ways to help children and adolescents build an authentic understanding of disability and disability humor. The prevalent message in the books reviewed is that children with disability not only appreciate humor but also can produce various…
The integration of machine learning techniques and cartoon animation research is fast becoming a hot topic. This book helps readers learn the latest machine learning techniques, including patch alignment framework; spectral clustering, graph cuts, and convex relaxation; ensemble manifold learning; multiple kernel learning; multiview subspace learning; and multiview distance metric learning. It then presents the applications of these modern machine learning techniques in cartoon animation research. With these techniques, users can efficiently utilize the cartoon materials to generate animations
Soydan, Sema Büyüktaskapu; Alakoç pirpir, Devlet; Azak, Hayriye
The main purpose of this study is to identify the predictive power of the following variables for physical and relational aggression level of children: cartoon preferences of children, parental attitudes and teacher-student relationship. Study group consisted of 300 preschool children their mothers and 18 preschool teachers. The results showed a…
Full Text Available In January and February 2006, Norwegians witnessed the burning of their national flag in Palestine, the burning of Norwegian embassies and consulates in Syria, Lebanon and Iran; all simply because twelve Danish Mohammed cartoons from Jyllands-Posten had been reprinted in Norway; the cartoons were published in a marginal Christian conservative weekly newspaper, Magazinet, three months after their original appearance in Denmark. In February 2006 the Norwegian ISAF-forces in Afghanistan were attacked. This conflict had a surprising impact on domestic and foreign policy, and the Norwegian publication of the cartoons triggered a global escalation of the controversy; Norwegian newspapers wrote that the country was "almost at war". I have focused on how some leading Norwegian newspapers (Aften, Aftenposten, Dagbladet, Dagens Næringsliv, Dagsavisen and VG covered this unexpected crisis and studied the different discourses that became a substantial part of the media coverage. In my analysis I have used an overall approach of War versus Peace journalism. War and Peace journalism was not created as a concept for analysing media texts or photographs, but to provide practical tools for journalists in the field of conflict and war situations. Nevertheless, this approach gives an opportunity to examine the results of journalistic work and compare them with the press'es ideals and ethical codes. At the same time, the occurrence of discourses like "clash of civilisations", freedom of speech, "us" versus "them", i.e., "us" versus the Muslims, and the newspapers' choice of sources for their stories, seem to fit with a model of War and Peace journalism. The focus is on opinion materials like editorials and comments, as well as on domestic reports and reportage by correspondents. By analysing samples of articles I have tried to outline some areas where the concept of Peace versus War journalism still needs to be developed, in order to become a comprehensive or more
Full Text Available Political cartoons are anything but innocent caricatures. They have been described as “a confrontational art form” (Oliphant 25, as “purposefully designed to elicit strong emotions and reactions from readers” (Long, Bunch, and Lloyd 651, and as “among the more extreme forms of expression” (Long, Bunch, and Lloyd 651. Stories abound with the harsh punishments endured by political cartoonists under oppressive regimes. One might even say that what allows liberal and conservative American cartoonists to feel any sense of solidarity with one another is their bond through the First Amendment and their belief in the democratic enterprise that is criticizing government.
Elklit, Ask; Nielsen, Louise Hjort; Lasgaard, Mathias; Duch, Christina
Research on childhood posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is sparse. This is partly due to the limited availability of empirically validated measures for children who are insecure readers. The present study examined the reliability and validity of a cartoon-based measure of PTSD symptoms in children exposed to a disaster. Cartoons were generated…
This column focuses on promoting learning through assessment. This month's issue uses concept cartoons to assess students' ideas about the moon. Concept cartoons, formative assessment tools that reveal students' preconceptions and probe for conceptual understanding, have recently become popular in the United States, with teachers…
Ören, Fatma Sasmaz; Meriç, Gülçin
The aim of this study is to determine the efficiency of use of concept cartoons in elementary school 7th grade students Science and Technology course according to students' perceptions. In terms of this aim, the unit of "Force and Motion" has been taught by concept cartoons and at the end of this period, semi-structured interviews were…
Labrecque, Marie-Elise; Coutu, Marie-France; Durand, Marie-José; Fassier, Jean-Baptiste; Loisel, Patrick
Purpose This study assesses how well two cartoons transfer knowledge of principles of work disability prevention among stakeholders, according to their level of experience. We also document stakeholders' perceptions of the usefulness of the cartoons. Method We performed a descriptive study. Two groups of stakeholders were recruited: (1) experienced (working for more than 2 years in work disability), (2) non-experienced (in training). A self-administered questionnaire with open-ended questions documented stakeholders' understanding of each cartoon box and their perception of the possible usefulness of the cartoons. We transformed qualitative responses into quantitative responses for descriptive purposes. We performed independent t tests to compare the groups' level of understanding, and content analysis for the perception of usefulness. Results Overall, 149 stakeholders (50 experienced and 99 non-experienced) participated and identified 79.4 and 61.4 % of all principles presented in each of the two cartoons respectively. Experienced stakeholders identified more principles compared to non-experienced stakeholders (p = 0.007). Both cartoons were perceived to be useful for knowledge transfer. Conclusions Principles were generally well identified in the cartoons by all participants. Cartoons can be used as an effective tool among stakeholders to achieve a common understanding in order to coordinate their actions.
Full Text Available The aim of the research is to determine how the use of cartoons in a functional direction impacts on students’ achievement in teaching Turkish as a foreign language. One group post-test model is designed to be used in qualitative research. The sample group of the research consists of 15 participants who study Turkish at A1-elementary level as a foreign language at TOMER in Antalya International University. In the study for the purpose of collecting data question paper which contains the questions about the cartoon named ‘Oscar in the Desserts’ was used. Participants have watched short animated film called ‘Oscar in the Desserts’ twice. From watched visual to the screen photos which are belong to place questions asked were transferred to Power Point. Participants saw photos related to each sentence with a reminder function in the Power Point screen. In the result of this study ıt has been shown that the Turkish language teaching to the foreigners right visual materials such as cartoons are found useful when used functional in accordance with the age and level. In teaching Turkish as a foreign language courses; cartoons and other visuals have been found to provide a better understanding of the class they help to have an enjoyable lesson.
Lundquist, Lita Sander
Adfærd. Har humor grænser? Dansk humor har i hvert fald. Hvor humor typisk bruges til at glatte ud med, har det ofte den stik modsatte virkning, viser studie.......Adfærd. Har humor grænser? Dansk humor har i hvert fald. Hvor humor typisk bruges til at glatte ud med, har det ofte den stik modsatte virkning, viser studie....
Raymond P. Tucker
Full Text Available Research has demonstrated that a self-defeating humor style is related to indicators of psychopathology and interpersonal dysfunction, including depression, anxiety, loneliness, thwarted belongingness, and perceived burdensomeness. The current study continued this investigation by examining how self-defeating humor is related to suicidal ideation and a ruminative response style. Analyses indicated that a self-defeating humor style was positively associated to rumination, brooding, reflection, and suicidal ideation. Results of bootstrapping analyses indicated that self-defeating humor mediated the relationship between rumination and suicidal ideation. This same effect was seen for both brooding and reflection individually. Results indicate that self-defeating humor may serve as an interpersonal means of ruminating as this humor style involves consistent focus on perceived flaws and weaknesses. The assessment of this humor style may provide additional information about the maintenance of suicidal thinking.
Kuo, Hsien-Chu; Chuang, Shang-Wen
Abstract The study aimed to explore the humor processing elicited through the manipulation of artistic drawings. Using the Comprehension–Elaboration Theory of humor as the main research background, the experiment manipulated the head portraits of celebrities based on the independent variables of facial deformation (large/small) and addition of affective features (positive/negative). A 64-channel electroencephalography was recorded in 30 participants while viewing the incongruous drawings of celebrities. The electroencephalography temporal and spectral responses were measured during the three stages of humor which included incongruity detection, incongruity comprehension and elaboration of humor. Analysis of event-related potentials indicated that for humorous vs non-humorous drawings, facial deformation and the addition of affective features significantly affected the degree of humor elicited, specifically: large > small deformation; negative > positive affective features. The N170, N270, N400, N600-800 and N900-1200 components showed significant differences, particularly in the right prefrontal and frontal regions. Analysis of event-related spectral perturbation showed significant differences in the theta band evoked in the anterior cingulate cortex, parietal region and posterior cingulate cortex; and in the alpha and beta bands in the motor areas. These regions are involved in emotional processing, memory retrieval, and laughter and feelings of amusement induced by elaboration of the situation. PMID:28402573
Wang, Regina W Y; Kuo, Hsien-Chu; Chuang, Shang-Wen
The study aimed to explore the humor processing elicited through the manipulation of artistic drawings. Using the Comprehension-Elaboration Theory of humor as the main research background, the experiment manipulated the head portraits of celebrities based on the independent variables of facial deformation (large/small) and addition of affective features (positive/negative). A 64-channel electroencephalography was recorded in 30 participants while viewing the incongruous drawings of celebrities. The electroencephalography temporal and spectral responses were measured during the three stages of humor which included incongruity detection, incongruity comprehension and elaboration of humor. Analysis of event-related potentials indicated that for humorous vs non-humorous drawings, facial deformation and the addition of affective features significantly affected the degree of humor elicited, specifically: large > small deformation; negative > positive affective features. The N170, N270, N400, N600-800 and N900-1200 components showed significant differences, particularly in the right prefrontal and frontal regions. Analysis of event-related spectral perturbation showed significant differences in the theta band evoked in the anterior cingulate cortex, parietal region and posterior cingulate cortex; and in the alpha and beta bands in the motor areas. These regions are involved in emotional processing, memory retrieval, and laughter and feelings of amusement induced by elaboration of the situation. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.
Spøg, Humor, Komik, Ironi, Kommunikationsteori, Hermeneutik, Gruppedynamik, Logik, Tekstlingvistik......Spøg, Humor, Komik, Ironi, Kommunikationsteori, Hermeneutik, Gruppedynamik, Logik, Tekstlingvistik...
Woehlk, Heinz D.
The Bible contains a variety of literary genres including drama, tragedy, and epic poetry, and it is an excellent basis for character study. It also contains a certain amount of humor, which should not be overlooked by students of biblical literature. Examples of intentional humor include the second version of the creation, found in the second…
I modsætning til ironi er humor for Kierkegaard fællesskabsgivende – ironikeren hævder sig selv, men humoristen har sympati med den, man ler med. Humor er hos Kierkegaard udtryk for, at humoristen forliger sig med tilværelsen og dens luner, og dermed grænser humoren hos Kierkegaard op til det...
Cook, William G.; Figueras, Pau; Kunesch, Markus; Sperhake, Ulrich; Tunyasuvunakool, Saran
We present in detail the Einstein equations in the Baumgarte-Shapiro-Shibata-Nakamura formulation for the case of D-dimensional spacetimes with SO(D - d) isometry based on a method originally introduced in Ref. 1. Regularized expressions are given for a numerical implementation of this method on a vertex centered grid including the origin of the quasi-radial coordinate that covers the extra dimensions with rotational symmetry. Axisymmetry, corresponding to the value d = D - 2, represents a special case with fewer constraints on the vanishing of tensor components and is conveniently implemented in a variation of the general method. The robustness of the scheme is demonstrated for the case of a black-hole head-on collision in D = 7 spacetime dimensions with SO(4) symmetry.
Courville, Z.; Carbaugh, S.; Defrancis, G.; Donegan, R.; Brown, C.; Perovich, D. K.; Richter-Menge, J.
Climate Comics is a collaborative outreach effort between the Montshire Museum of Science, in Norwich, VT, the Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) research staff, and freelance artist and recent graduate of the Center for Cartoon Studies in White River Junction, VT, Sam Carbaugh. The project involves the cartoonist, the education staff from the museum, and researchers from CRREL creating a series of comic books with polar science and research themes, including sea ice monitoring, sea ice albedo, ice cores, extreme microbial activity, and stories and the process of fieldwork. The aim of the comic series is to provide meaningful science information in a comic-format that is both informative and fun, while highlighting current polar research work done at the lab. The education staff at the Montshire Museum develops and provides a series of hands-on, inquiry-based activity descriptions to complement each comic book, and CRREL researchers provide science background information and reiterative feedback about the comic books as they are being developed. Here, we present the motivation for using the comic-book medium to present polar research topics, the process involved in creating the comics, some unique features of the series, and the finished comic books themselves. Cartoon illustrating ways snow pack can be used to determine past climate information.
Chiang, Yi-Chen; Lee, Chun-Yang; Wang, Hong-Huei
Background: To adapt to dramatic changes from physical growth, physical development and the increasing demand of significant others, humor has been found to be an effective coping strategy. However, previous studies have found that adolescents start to express their humor styles with aggressive components which causes negative consequences, such…
Full Text Available Theories about black humor usually regard that it as a contemporary phenomenon and a culmination of the literary modernism and beginning of post-modernism. My intent in this paper is to refute the thesis that the black humor is a modern invention. I am going to prove its existence still in Greek antiquity, quoting and analyzing humorous epitaphs and black humor epigrams. Putting in relation black humor with the joy and humor in religious (fertility and funeral rituals, I am also going to set a question about the attitude to death and life inherent for this kind of humor, arguing that its origin should be searched in the folk tradition.
Truly Almendo Pasaribu
Full Text Available Gender-related humors have their own way of being funny; and this research aims to find out how and why they are funny. For this purpose, both researchers have collected 50 gender cyber humors and analyzed them, first, to decode how their logical mechanism relates to specific linguistic features, and secondly, to uncover how gender stereotyping contributes to the comical effects. The twisting of logic and linguistic ambiguity is analyzed formally using Attardos (2001 General Theory of Verbal Humor (GTVH and supported by gender studies. The findings reveal that the logical mechanism consists of elements of incongruities, and gender stereotyping presents negative stereotypical images. The analysis further shows that some gender stereotypical images ridicule traditional roles of man and woman while others make fun of non-traditional representations. This shift from women only to both men and women as targets of gender humors has been an impact of effective feminist movements.
Thomas, Barbara J.; Roehrig, James P.; Yang, Peggy H.
Humor is an often neglected but potentially powerful tool in college counseling center interventions. In this article we review potential benefits and hazards of using humor in a college mental health setting along with perspectives on humor's mechanism of action and distinctions between types of humor. Therapist and client-specific…
Pulpitis is an inflammation process on dental pulp tissue, and usually as the continuous of caries. The microorganism in the caries is a potential immunogenic triggering the immune respons, both humoral and celluler immune responses. The aim of this research is to explain the humoral immune response changes in the dental pulp tissues of pulpitis. This research was done on three group samples: Irreversible pulpitis, Reversible pulpitis and sound teeth as the control group. The result showed th...
bargaining, a gradual recovery of employment and struggles for salary increments as well as tripartite agreements between government, industry and traditional union organizations. The study focuses on the case of Clarín, taking into account the place of privilege both as a political and economic actor in the national scene. This journal is part of and constitutes the cornerstone of the Grupo Clarín, a holding company that is the major national multimedia control group of newspapers and magazines, television licensing, Internet, radio stations and producers, among others. The idea of analysing the mass media representations of the trade union force focalizing on the humorous representations that appear in political cartoons and jokes evolves from the belief that the political humour functions as a device that "enchants the unaware addressee, who naively accepts many of the premises hidden in the message." (Mazzei 1997:88. The question that guided the research is how humour works in the mass media narratives, shaping and exploiting certain common sense notions around issues related to historical matters of the national trade union.
Full Text Available In this interview, Dr. Arnie Cann discusses his research and views on the ubiquitous role of humor in psychological health and well-being. The interview begins with Professor Cann recounting how he originally became interested in studying humor. He then reflects on the main findings associated with the wide variety of humor-related studies he has conducted over the years. In doing so, Dr. Cann provides suggestions and ideas for further research investigating the role of humor in health and well-being. Specific topic areas discussed include the use of humor in the workplace and other social domains, personality approaches to humor, humor and interpersonal processes, humor and psychopathology, and humor’s role in dealing with stress and well-being. One of the prominent themes in this interview is the clear recognition of sense of humor as a multi-dimensional construct that includes various components that may either be beneficial or detrimental to well-being. A further important theme is the major distinction between humor as an inherent personality construct versus humor that results from exposure to stimuli (e.g., a comedy film. Comments are also provided by Dr. Cann on how the positive affect stemming from humor may be of particular benefit to the individual. Also discussed is the recent move to more fully integrate contemporary humor research with positive psychology approaches. The interview concludes with Dr. Cann providing several recommendations regarding future theorizing and research on the role of humor in psychological well-being.
Sawahata, Yasuhito; Komine, Kazuteru; Morita, Toshiya; Hiruma, Nobuyuki
Humans naturally have a sense of humor. Experiencing humor not only encourages social interactions, but also produces positive physiological effects on the human body, such as lowering blood pressure. Recent neuro-imaging studies have shown evidence for distinct mental state changes at work in people experiencing humor. However, the temporal characteristics of these changes remain elusive. In this paper, we objectively measured humor-related mental states from single-trial functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data obtained while subjects viewed comedy TV programs. Measured fMRI data were labeled on the basis of the lag before or after the viewer's perception of humor (humor onset) determined by the viewer-reported humor experiences during the fMRI scans. We trained multiple binary classifiers, or decoders, to distinguish between fMRI data obtained at each lag from ones obtained during a neutral state in which subjects were not experiencing humor. As a result, in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the right temporal area, the decoders showed significant classification accuracies even at two seconds ahead of the humor onsets. Furthermore, given a time series of fMRI data obtained during movie viewing, we found that the decoders with significant performance were also able to predict the upcoming humor events on a volume-by-volume basis. Taking into account the hemodynamic delay, our results suggest that the upcoming humor events are encoded in specific brain areas up to about five seconds before the awareness of experiencing humor. Our results provide evidence that there exists a mental state lasting for a few seconds before actual humor perception, as if a viewer is expecting the future humorous events.
Sawahata, Yasuhito; Komine, Kazuteru; Morita, Toshiya; Hiruma, Nobuyuki
Humans naturally have a sense of humor. Experiencing humor not only encourages social interactions, but also produces positive physiological effects on the human body, such as lowering blood pressure. Recent neuro-imaging studies have shown evidence for distinct mental state changes at work in people experiencing humor. However, the temporal characteristics of these changes remain elusive. In this paper, we objectively measured humor-related mental states from single-trial functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data obtained while subjects viewed comedy TV programs. Measured fMRI data were labeled on the basis of the lag before or after the viewer’s perception of humor (humor onset) determined by the viewer-reported humor experiences during the fMRI scans. We trained multiple binary classifiers, or decoders, to distinguish between fMRI data obtained at each lag from ones obtained during a neutral state in which subjects were not experiencing humor. As a result, in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the right temporal area, the decoders showed significant classification accuracies even at two seconds ahead of the humor onsets. Furthermore, given a time series of fMRI data obtained during movie viewing, we found that the decoders with significant performance were also able to predict the upcoming humor events on a volume-by-volume basis. Taking into account the hemodynamic delay, our results suggest that the upcoming humor events are encoded in specific brain areas up to about five seconds before the awareness of experiencing humor. Our results provide evidence that there exists a mental state lasting for a few seconds before actual humor perception, as if a viewer is expecting the future humorous events. PMID:24324656
Schnepf, Abigail; Yappert, Marta Cecilia; Borchman, Douglas
This project explores the regional phospholipid distribution in porcine vitreous humor, retina, and lens. Matrix-assisted laser desorption mass spectrometry has been used previously to image lipids, proteins, and other metabolites in retinas and lenses. However, the regional composition of phospholipids in vitreous humors is not known. To address this issue, we have applied this mass spectral method to explore the regional phospholipid distribution in porcine vitreous humor both ex-situ and in-vitro. To establish the possible source(s) of phospholipids in the vitreous humor, compositional studies of the lens and retina were also pursued. Due to the overall low levels of phospholipids in vitreous humor, it was necessary to optimize the experimental approaches for ex-situ and in-vitro studies. The sensitivity observed in the spectra of methanol extracts from the lens and retina was higher than that for methanol:chloroform extracts, but the compositional trends were the same. A fourfold improvement in sensitivity was observed in the analysis of vitreous humor extracts obtained with the Bligh and Dyer protocol relative to the other two extraction methods. For ex-situ studies, the 'stamp method' with para-nitroaniline as the matrix was chosen. Throughout the vitreous humor, phosphatidylcholines were the most abundant phospholipids. In-vitro results showed higher relative levels of phospholipids compared to the 'stamp' method. However, more details in the regional phospholipid distribution were provided by the ex-situ approach. Both in-vitro and ex-situ results indicated higher levels of phospholipids in the posterior vitreous region, followed by the anterior and central regions. The posterior region contained more unsaturated species whereas more saturated phospholipids were detected in the anterior region. The observed trends suggest that the phospholipids detected in the posterior vitreous humor migrate from the retina and associated vasculature while those present in
Perotti, Ivane Laurete
Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Comunicação e Expressão Propõe-se uma leitura de textos humorísticos sob a ótica da Análise do Discurso, recortando-se "tipos" de humor e propondo uma leitura das características do humor político. Tematizam-se questões basilares da Análise do Discurso que estruturam teoricamente o trabalho, expondo reflexões sobre o riso e o risível, e os diferentes processos possivelmente causadores do riso. Discute-se a possibili...
Moura, Cristiano S; Li, Rui; Lawrie, Sarah; Bar-Or, Amit; Clarke, Ann E; Da Costa, Deborah; Banerjee, Devi; Bernatsky, Sasha; Lee, Jennifer L; Pineau, Christian A
Humor has neurophysiological effects influencing the release of cortisol, which may have a direct impact on the immune system. Laughter is associated with a decreased production of inflammatory cytokines both in the general population and in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Our objective was to explore the effects of humor on serum cytokines [particularly interleukin-6 (IL-6)] and cortisol levels in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), after a standard intervention (120 min of visual comedy). We enrolled 58 females with SLE from consecutive patients assessed in the Montreal General Hospital lupus clinic. The subjects who consented to participate were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to the intervention (watching 120 min of comedy) or control group (watching a 120 min documentary). Measurements of cytokine and serum cortisol levels as well as 24-h urine cortisol were taken before, during, and after the interventions. We compared serum cytokine levels and serum and 24-h urine cortisol levels in the humor and control groups and performed regression analyses of these outcomes, adjusting for demographics and the current use of prednisone. There were no significant differences between the control and humor groups in demographics or clinical variables. Baseline serum levels of IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and B-cell activating factor were also similar in both groups. There was no evidence of a humor effect in terms of decreasing cytokine levels, although there was some suggestion of lowered cortisol secretion in the humor group based the 24-h urinary cortisol levels in a subgroup. In contrast to what has been published for RA, we saw no clear effects of humor in altering cytokine levels in SLE, although interesting trends were seen for lower cortisol levels after humor intervention compared with the control group.
Lale Cerrah Ozsevgeç
Full Text Available The aim of the study is to examine the effects of concept cartoons on eliminating students’ misconceptions about the global warming and greenhouse effect. The sample of the study is consisted of 17 students from the 7 grade of Rize Çay Primary School. Simple experimental study design was used in the study. Test and semi-structured interview were used to collect the data. The results of the study showed that the students had misconceptions about global warming and greenhouse effect. The teaching process comprising concept cartoons treated most of these misconceptions. Students indicated that the teaching process was enjoyable and it eased the students’ remembering of the given knowledge. Based on the results, it was suggested that the teachers should be informed about the usage of concept cartoon in the classroom and combination of different teaching methods which is supported by concept cartoon may be more useful for different science subjects.
Fernandes Davies, Vanessa; Mafra, Rafaella; Beltran, Alicia; Baranowski, Thomas; Lu, Amy Shirong
This article presents the results of interviews conducted with children regarding their cognitive and affective responses toward a narrative and a non-narrative cartoon. The findings will be used to further explore the role of a narrative in motivating continued active videogame play. Twenty children (8-11 years old of mixed gender) watched two cartoons (narrative and non-narrative) and were subsequently interviewed. A thematic matrix was used to analyze the interviews. The narrative cartoon (n = 11) was only slightly preferred compared with the non-narrative one (n = 9), with little difference among the participants. The theme categories identified during the analyses were plot, characters, and suggestions. The fight scenes were mentioned by the children as a likeable aspect of the narrative cartoon. In the non-narrative cartoon, the vast majority (n = 17) liked the information about physical activity that was provided. The children enjoyed the appearance and personalities of the characters in both cartoons. A discrepancy in the data about the fight scenes (narrative cartoon) and characters (both cartoons) was found among the female participants (i.e., some girls did not like the fight and thought the characters were too aggressive). However, most of the children wanted to see more action in the story, an increase in the number of fight scenes (narrative cartoon), or more information about exercise and examples of exercises they could do (non-narrative cartoon). They also suggested adding a game to the non-narrative cartoon, including more characters, and improving the animation in both cartoons. The children preferred the narrative cartoon because of the story and the fight. Some gender differences were found, which further studies should investigate.
Lee, Yong-Il; Choi, Yeojeong; Jeong, Jaeseung
In its most basic form, empathy refers to the ability to understand another person's feelings and emotions, representing an essential component of human social interaction. Owing to an increase in the use of mass media, which is used to distribute high levels of empathy-inducing content, media plays a key role in individual and social empathy induction. We investigated empathy induction in cartoons using eye movement, EEG and behavioral measures to explore whether empathy factors correlate with character drawing styles. Two different types of empathy-inducing cartoons that consisted of three stages and had the same story plot were used. One had an iconic style, while the other was realistic style. Fifty participants were divided into two groups corresponding to the individual cartoon drawing styles and were presented with only one type of drawing style. We found that there were no significant differences of empathy factors between iconic and realistic style. However, the Induced Empathy Score (IES) had a close relationship with subsequent attentional processing (total fixation length for gaze duration). Furthermore, iconic style suppressed the fronto-central area more than realistic style in the gamma power band. These results suggest that iconic cartoons have the advantage of abstraction during empathy induction, because the iconic cartoons induced the same level of empathy as realistic cartoons while using the same story plot (top-down process), even though lesser time and effort were required by the cartoon artist to draw them. This also means that the top-down process (story plot) is more important than the bottom-up process (drawing style) in empathy induction when viewing cartoons.
Yang Qicheng; Ma Yunshen; Luo Bing; Chen Yong; Chen Yongfu
Taking Hongta's detecting cigarette cartoon lacking pieces and eliminating it in the course of end-product automatic sorting consignment as an example, this paper introduces detailedly one type of cigarette cartoon lacking pieces online detection system with advantages of original principle, accurate detection, high speed and reliable performance, from the aspects of project design, detection principle, hard-ware configuration, applied technique, running status and etc. Gives one method of detecting and controlling cigarette product lacking pieces for cigarette manufactures. (authors)
This paper shows how Venuti's theory on foreignization and domestication can be applied to film translation and presents the analysis of culture-specific items' translation in the Lithuanian subtitles of cartoon Ratatouille. The translation analysis considers 135 culture-specific items that can be divided into two groups, which are the names of occupations of the people who work in the kitchen and the names of food items, dishes and drinks. The cartoon also contains other culture-specific wor...
In the tenth year after Danish daily Jyllands-Posten published twelve cartoons, the Muhammad Cartoons, this media event—and the hegemonic understanding behind it—continues to be a discursive reference point for new controversies around national borders and racial boundaries. Then, since late 2010....... It keeps informing news coverage of media events as terror and thereby risking describing the hegemony more than adequately understanding the events at hand....
Full Text Available In its most basic form, empathy refers to the ability to understand another person’s feelings and emotions, representing an essential component of human social interaction. Owing to an increase in the use of mass media, which is used to distribute high levels of empathy-inducing content, media plays a key role in individual and social empathy induction. We investigated empathy induction in cartoons using eye movement, EEG and behavioral measures to explore whether empathy factors correlate with character drawing styles. Two different types of empathy-inducing cartoons that consisted of three stages and had the same story plot were used. One had an iconic style, while the other was realistic style. Fifty participants were divided into two groups corresponding to the individual cartoon drawing styles and were presented with only one type of drawing style. We found that there were no significant differences of empathy factors between iconic and realistic style. However, the Induced Empathy Score (IES had a close relationship with subsequent attentional processing (total fixation length for gaze duration. Furthermore, iconic style suppressed the fronto-central area more than realistic style in the gamma power band. These results suggest that iconic cartoons have the advantage of abstraction during empathy induction, because the iconic cartoons induced the same level of empathy as realistic cartoons while using the same story plot (top-down process, even though lesser time and effort were required by the cartoon artist to draw them. This also means that the top-down process (story plot is more important than the bottom-up process (drawing style in empathy induction when viewing cartoons
Yue, Xiaodong; Jiang, Feng; Lu, Su; Hiranandani, Neelam
Humor seems to manifest differently in Western and Eastern cultures, although little is known about how culture shapes humor perceptions. The authors suggest that Westerners regard humor as a common and positive disposition; the Chinese regard humor as a special disposition particular to humorists, with controversial aspects. In Study 1, Hong Kong participants primed with Western culture evaluate humor more positively than they do when primed with Chinese culture. In Study 2a, Canadians evaluate humor as being more important in comparison with Chinese participants. In Study 2b, Canadians expect ordinary people to possess humor, while Chinese expect specialized comedians to be humorous. The implications and limitations are discussed.
Full Text Available Humor seems to manifest differently in Western and Eastern cultures, although little is known about how culture shapes humor perceptions. The authors suggest that Westerners regard humor as a common and positive disposition; the Chinese regard humor as a special disposition particular to humorists, with controversial aspects. In Study 1, Hong Kong participants primed with Western culture evaluate humor more positively than they do when primed with Chinese culture. In Study 2a, Canadians evaluate humor as being more important in comparison with Chinese participants. In Study 2b, Canadians expect ordinary people to possess humor, while Chinese expect specialized comedians to be humorous. The implications and limitations are discussed.
Miall, R Chris; Gowen, Emma; Tchalenko, John
We report a functional imaging study of drawing cartoon faces. Normal, untrained participants were scanned while viewing simple black and white cartoon line drawings of human faces, retaining them for a short memory interval, and then drawing them without vision of their hand or the paper. Specific encoding and retention of information about the faces were tested for by contrasting these two stages (with display of cartoon faces) against the exploration and retention of random dot stimuli. Drawing was contrasted between conditions in which only memory of a previously viewed face was available versus a condition in which both memory and simultaneous viewing of the cartoon were possible, and versus drawing of a new, previously unseen, face. We show that the encoding of cartoon faces powerfully activates the face-sensitive areas of the lateral occipital cortex and the fusiform gyrus, but there is no significant activation in these areas during the retention interval. Activity in both areas was also high when drawing the displayed cartoons. Drawing from memory activates areas in posterior parietal cortex and frontal areas. This activity is consistent with the encoding and retention of the spatial information about the face to be drawn as a visuo-motor action plan, either representing a series of targets for ocular fixation or as spatial targets for the drawing action.
Kraak, V I; Story, M
Reducing the extent and persuasive power of marketing unhealthy foods to children worldwide are important obesity prevention goals. Research is limited to understand how brand mascots and cartoon media characters influence children's diet. We conducted a systematic review of five electronic databases (2000?2014) to identify experimental studies that measured how food companies' mascots and entertainment companies' media characters influence up to 12 diet-related cognitive, behavioural and hea...
This thesis investigates the stereotypical portrayal of Muslims in the American media. More specifically, it explores the relative importance of stereotype theory, prejudice theory and the stereotype content model in the media’s remaking and reinforcing of common stereotypes of Muslims. This study argues that that Muslims were stereotypically portrayed in The New York Times’ and The Washington Times’ coverage of the Muhammad cartoons controversy and the tradition of veiling among Muslim women...
Thomas E. Ford
Full Text Available The present study examined the relationships between dispositional approach and avoidance motives, humor styles, and happiness. In keeping with previous research, approach motives and the two positive humor styles (self-enhancing and affiliative positively correlated with happiness, whereas avoidance motives and the two negative humor styles (self-defeating and aggressive negatively correlated with happiness. Also, we found support for three new hypotheses. First, approach motives correlated positively with self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles. Second, avoidance motives correlated positively with self-defeating humor style, and third, the positive relationship between approach motives and happiness was mediated by self-enhancing humor style.
Kosenko, Kami A; Rintamaki, Lance S
Research has indicated that HIV service providers commonly use humor to cope with work-related stress; however, little is known about the forms and functions of humor used by these professionals. In this study, 25 HIV service providers from five AIDS service organizations were interviewed about their use of humor. Participants described five primary types of humor as prevalent within AIDS service organizations and noted that humor served a variety of functions, which were either adaptive or maladaptive. Adaptive functions included boosting morale and reducing tension, whereas maladaptive functions ranged from masking emotions to alienating certain groups. Results emphasized the importance of context in the study of humor use and the need for continued investigations of the stress and coping of HIV service providers.
Melton, Laura M
This study examined the relationship among humor coping, optimism, neuroticism, and depression in a sample of breast cancer survivors and matched control participants. Breast cancer survivors reported marginally lower levels of depression than the controls. In both groups, humor coping was not related to depression, optimism, or neuroticism, but depression was correlated negatively with optimism and positively with neuroticism. In the breast cancer group, humor coping was correlated with the coping subscales of self-distraction, positive reframing, planning, and active coping. In the control group, humor coping was correlated with the coping sub-scales of self-distraction, positive reframing, planning, venting, and using instrumental support. These results suggest either that humor coping is not a stable variable or that whether humor is a positive or negative coping technique depends partly on the population under study.
Full Text Available This study attempts to describe the meaning of comic tale "Pak Andir" with the perspective of hermeneutics. This study is focused on exploring the main character with the theory of functional models and aktan, developed by Greimas. The source of data is the story of "Pak Andir" from the community of South Bengkulu. From the analysis, it is concluded that the behavior of the husband as the central character has made the wife a victim. The husband’s arrogance in strictly practicing the patriarchal tradition makes the wife have no courage to be herself. The wife’s claim at the end of the story is a positive thing, but it's too late. As a form of appreciation of literary work, the meaning of these stories need to be disseminated to the public, especially the residents in Bengkulu, that the husband and wife’s attitudes ares incorrect and need to be avoided. This study attempts to describe the meaning of comic tale "Pak Andir" with the perspective of hermeneutics. This study is focused on exploring the main character with the theory of functional models and aktan, developed by Greimas. The source of data is the story of "Pak Andir" from the community of South Bengkulu. From the analysis, it is concluded that the behavior of the husband as the central character has made the wife a victim. The husband’s arrogance in strictly practicing the patriarchal tradition makes the wife have no courage to be herself. The wife’s claim at the end of the story is a positive thing, but it's too late. As a form of appreciation of literary work, the meaning of these stories need to be disseminated to the public, especially the residents in Bengkulu, that the husband and wife’s attitudes ares incorrect and need to be avoided Key Words: comic tale; aktan model; functional model; hermeneutic Abstrak: Penelitian ini berusaha mendeskripsikan makna cerita humor “Pak Andir” dengan perspektif hermeneutika. Kajian ini difokuskan untuk mengeksplorasi tokoh utama
Full Text Available Pulpitis is an inflammation process on dental pulp tissue, and usually as the continuous of caries. The microorganism in the caries is a potential immunogenic triggering the immune respons, both humoral and celluler immune responses. The aim of this research is to explain the humoral immune response changes in the dental pulp tissues of pulpitis. This research was done on three group samples: Irreversible pulpitis, Reversible pulpitis and sound teeth as the control group. The result showed that there were three pulpitis immunopathologic patterns: the sound teeth immunopathologic pattern showing a low humoral immune response, in a low level of IgG, IgA and IgM, the reversible pulpitis pattern showing that in a higher humoral immune response, IgG and IgA decreased but IgM increased, the irreversible pulpitis pattern showing that IgG and IgM increased, but it couldn't be repaired although it has highly immunity, and it showed an unusually low level of IgA. This low level of IgA meant that irreversible pulpitis had a low mucosal immunity.
Skalicky, Stephen; Berger, Cynthia M.; Crossley, Scott A.; McNamara, Danielle S.
A corpus of 313 freshman college essays was analyzed in order to better understand the forms and functions of humor in academic writing. Human ratings of humor and wordplay were statistically aggregated using Factor Analysis to provide an overall "Humor" component score for each essay in the corpus. In addition, the essays were also…
Vincent Le Guen
Full Text Available We consider the problem of decomposing an image into a cartoon part and a textural part. The geometric and smoothly-varying component, referred to as cartoon, is composed of object hues and boundaries. The texture is an oscillatory component capturing details and noise. Variational models form a general framework to obtain u + v image decompositions, where cartoon and texture are forced into different functional spaces. The TV-L1 model consists in a L1 data fidelity term and a Total Variation (TV regularization term. The L1 norm is particularly well suited for the cartoon+texture decomposition since it better preserves geometric features than the L2 norm. The TV regularization has become famous in inverse problems because it enables to recover sharp variations. However, the nondifferentiability of TV makes the underlying problems challenging to solve. There exists a wide literature of variants and numerical attempts to solve these optimization problems. In this paper, we present an implementation of a primal dual algorithm proposed by Antonin Chambolle and Thomas Pock applied to this image decomposition problem with the TV-L1 model. A thorough experimental comparison is performed with a recent filter pair proposed in IPOL for the cartoon+texture decomposition.
Humoralism, the view that the human body is composed of a limited number of elementary fluids, is one of the most characteristic aspects of ancient medicine. The psychological dimension of humoral theory in the ancient world has thus far received a relatively small amount of scholarly attention.
Dijkstra, Pieternel; Barelds, Dick; Ronner, Sieuwke; Nauta, Arnolda
The present study examined the extent to which a sample of 202 gifted individuals (members of Mensa) engaged in four humor styles and the extent to which these humor styles were related to their well-being. These results were compared to a comparative population sample (n = 265). Results showed that gifted individuals most often used positive…
Swanson, Peter B.
Research suggests that second/foreign language teachers' sense of humor is directly related to many outcomes for teachers and their students. This research investigates the relationship between the perceived sense of humor of in-service Spanish teachers' (n?=?102) and their students' (n?=?5,419) score on the National Spanish Exams…
Hampes, William P
In a previous study, a significant negative correlation between shyness with affiliative humor and a significant positive one with self-defeating humor were reported. Since shyness and loneliness share many of the same characteristics, poor social skills and negative affect, for example, significant negative correlations of loneliness with affiliative and self-enhancing humor and a significant positive one with self-defeating humor were hypothesized. 106 community college students (34 men, 72 women) ranging in age from 17 to 52 years (M=23.5, SD=7.7) were tested. The hypotheses were supported. Interrelationships among humor, shyness, and loneliness should be examined within one study.
Full Text Available Research has shown that a factor in a victim’s forgiveness of an offender is the victim’s ability to make more positive, or at least less negative, attributions of the offender’s behavior and that perspective-taking can be a factor in facilitating that process. Self-enhancing humor has been found to be positively correlated with perspective-taking empathy and aggressive humor found to be negatively correlated with perspective-taking empathy. Therefore it was predicted that self-enhancing humor would be positively correlated with forgiveness and aggressive humor negatively correlated with forgiveness. The Humor Styles Questionnaire, the Absence of Negative and Presence of Positive subscales of the Forgiveness Scale, and the Forgiveness Likelihood Scale were administered to 112 college undergraduates. Self-enhancing humor was significantly and positively correlated with all of the forgiveness measures, aggressive humor and self-defeating humor were significantly and negatively correlated with some of the forgiveness measures and affiliative humor was not significantly correlated with any of the forgiveness measures. The results were interpreted in terms of previous findings for humor styles, perspective-taking empathy, depression, self-esteem and anxiety. Future research involving the extent to which other personality variables, such as perspective-taking empathy, mediate the relationship between self-enhancing humor and forgiveness was suggested.
Research has shown that a factor in a victim's forgiveness of an offender is the victim's ability to make more positive, or at least less negative, attributions of the offender's behavior and that perspective-taking can be a factor in facilitating that process. Self-enhancing humor has been found to be positively correlated with perspective-taking empathy and aggressive humor found to be negatively correlated with perspective-taking empathy. Therefore it was predicted that self-enhancing humor would be positively correlated with forgiveness and aggressive humor negatively correlated with forgiveness. The Humor Styles Questionnaire, the Absence of Negative and Presence of Positive subscales of the Forgiveness Scale, and the Forgiveness Likelihood Scale were administered to 112 college undergraduates. Self-enhancing humor was significantly and positively correlated with all of the forgiveness measures, aggressive humor and self-defeating humor were significantly and negatively correlated with some of the forgiveness measures and affiliative humor was not significantly correlated with any of the forgiveness measures. The results were interpreted in terms of previous findings for humor styles, perspective-taking empathy, depression, self-esteem and anxiety. Future research involving the extent to which other personality variables, such as perspective-taking empathy, mediate the relationship between self-enhancing humor and forgiveness was suggested.
Kelly, Bridget; Hattersley, Libby; King, Lesley; Flood, Victoria
While there is a recognized link between high levels of exposure to advertising of unhealthy foods and overweight and obesity among children, there is little research on the extent to which these exposures include persuasive marketing techniques. This study aimed to measure children's exposure to the use of persuasive marketing within television food advertisements. Advertisements broadcast on all three commercial Australian television channels were recorded for an equivalent 1 week period in May 2006 and 2007 (714 h). Food advertisements were analysed for their use of persuasive marketing, including premium offers, such as competitions, and the use of promotional characters, including celebrities and cartoon characters. Advertised foods were categorized as core, non-core or miscellaneous foods. Commercial data were purchased to determine children's peak viewing times and popular programs. A total of 20 201 advertisements were recorded, 25.5% of which were for food. Significantly more food advertisements broadcast during children's peak viewing times, compared to non-peak times, contained promotional characters (P persuasive marketing during all viewing periods were for non-core foods. Persuasive marketing techniques are frequently used to advertise non-core foods to children, to promote children's brand recognition and preference for advertised products. Future debate relating to television advertising regulations must consider the need to restrict the use of persuasive marketing techniques to children.
Domínguez, Martí; Mateu, Anna
The theory of evolution has played a major role in the press since it was put forward by Charles Darwin in 1859. Its key role in biology and human philosophy is reflected by its presence in press cartoons, sections where the image of social reality is depicted in a more direct and satirical light. Through cartoons, artists have used their ingenuity or wit to portray one of the most controversial scientific figures of the past two centuries. This study examines the views portrayed by Spanish cartoonists about Charles Darwin and evolutionary theory in 2009, the bicentenary of the naturalist's birth and the celebration of 150 years since the publication of On the Origin of Species. These cartoons show how the controversy between Darwinism and religion remain latent in the heart of Spanish society, and how the figure of Darwin has become one of the main icons of science.
Atasoy, Sengül; Ergin, Serap
Background: A substantial review study of concept cartoons reports that few studies have indicated their functions. For this reason, the present study illuminates the extent to which concept cartoon-embedded worksheets (through constructivist context) accomplish these functions in conceptual learning. Purpose: The purpose of the study is to…
Aitken, Joan E.
New technologically-oriented cartoons have been developed in the 1980s, and they may influence the attitudes and behaviors of their viewing audiences, who are comprised primarily of male children. A study analyzed "The Transformers" television program (a new robotic cartoon consisting of a mixture of violence, technology, space travel,…
Cataloged from PDF version of article. This thesis examines the leading Turkish cartoon magazines, outlining how cartoons reflect “infidelity” in content, style and way of representation, in the light of sociology, psychology and graphic design. Fişenk, Halime M.S.
Mazlack, L.J.; Paz, N.M.
Newspaper cartoons can graphically display the result of ambiguity in human speech; the result can be unexpected and funny. Likewise, computer analysis of natural language statements also needs to successfully resolve ambiguous situations. Computer techniques already developed use restricted world knowledge in resolving ambiguous language use. This paper illustrates how these techniques can be used in resolving ambiguous situations arising in cartoons. 8 references.
Full Text Available Basic personality traits (e.g., extraversion have been found to be associated with the humor styles that individuals employ. In the present study, we were interested in determining whether pathological personality traits were also associated with humor styles. We examined the associations between the pathological personality traits captured by the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 (PID-5 and humor styles in a sample of college students (N = 594. Negative affectivity and detachment were negatively associated with the affiliative and self-enhancing humor styles. Antagonism was positively associated with the aggressive humor style but negatively associated with the affiliative humor style. Disinhibition was positively associated with the aggressive humor style, whereas disinhibition and psychoticism were both positively associated with the self-defeating humor style. Discussion focuses on the implications of these findings and how they can expand our understanding of the connections between the darker aspects of personality and humor.
Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; McCabe, Gillian A; Vrabel, Jennifer K
Basic personality traits (e.g., extraversion) have been found to be associated with the humor styles that individuals employ. In the present study, we were interested in determining whether pathological personality traits were also associated with humor styles. We examined the associations between the pathological personality traits captured by the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 (PID-5) and humor styles in a sample of college students (N = 594). Negative affectivity and detachment were negatively associated with the affiliative and self-enhancing humor styles. Antagonism was positively associated with the aggressive humor style but negatively associated with the affiliative humor style. Disinhibition was positively associated with the aggressive humor style, whereas disinhibition and psychoticism were both positively associated with the self-defeating humor style. Discussion focuses on the implications of these findings and how they can expand our understanding of the connections between the darker aspects of personality and humor.
Stańczak, Aleksander; Drabek, Marcin
The aim of the paper is to present the Polish adaptation of the Humor Climate Questionnaire (HCQ), designed to measure humor as organizational climate feature. The authors employed back-translation and independent judges method to choose the best version of the translated items. The psychometric properties of HCQ were estimated on the basis of 2 samples: the basic group of employees (N = 217) and the group of employees who had completed the survey twice (N = 55). The results of statistical analyses proved that HCQ is a reliable tool. Explorative Factor Analysis supported the 4-factor structure of the original method's theoretical model. The validity of the subscales is high, Cronbach's α varied from 0.8 to 0.9. The directions and values of intercorrelations between subscales were similar to those of the English version. The Humor Climate Questionnaire is a relatively time-stable tool (r = 0.44-0.74). Polish adaptation is reliable and applicable for cross-sectional studies. The obtained results are comparable to the characteristics of the original version. However, the results of factor analysis show that the data do not fully fit the theoretical model. Med Pr 2018;69(2):143-152. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.
Humor is, from a psychological point of view, a complex process involving cognitive, affective, interspersonal and social elements in a interpersonal context. Its cognitive core is based on the perception of incongruity between two related inconsistent or contradictory mental representations. The total or partial resolution of incongruity in a playful frame is associated with a specific positive emotion, which characteristics and intensity are determined by the structure of the humoristic stimulus more than its content, and the personal and social contexts. Main theories of humor are reviewed as well as its development, its cognitive and affective correlates, and the influence of genre, age and personality.
Mignone, C.; Baldwin, E.; O'Flaherty, K. S.; Homfeld, A. M.; Bauer, M.; McCaughrean, M.; Marcu, S.; Palazzari, C.
Once upon a time... is a series of short cartoons that have been developed as part of the European Space Agency's communication campaign to raise awareness about the Rosetta mission. The series features two anthropomorphic characters depicting the Rosetta orbiter and Philae lander, introducing the mission story, goals and milestones with a fairy- tale air. This article explores the development of the cartoon series and the level of engagement it generated, as well as presenting various issues that were encountered using this approach. We also examine how different audiences responded to our decision to anthropomorphise the spacecraft.
Lehmann-Willenbrock, Nale; Allen, Joseph A
Research on humor in organizations has rarely considered the social context in which humor occurs. One such social setting that most of us experience on a daily basis concerns the team context. Building on recent theorizing about the humor-performance link in teams, this study seeks to increase our understanding of the function and effects of humor in team interaction settings. We examined behavioral patterns of humor and laughter in real teams by videotaping and coding humor and laughter during 54 regular organizational team meetings. Performance ratings were obtained immediately following the team meetings as well as at a later time point from the teams' supervisors. At the behavioral unit level within the team interaction process, lag sequential analysis identified humor and laughter patterns occurring above chance (e.g., a joke followed by laughter, followed by another joke). Moreover, humor patterns triggered positive socioemotional communication, procedural structure, and new solutions. At the team level, humor patterns (but not humor or laughter alone) positively related to team performance, both immediately and 2 years later. Team-level job insecurity climate was identified as a boundary condition: In low job insecurity climate conditions, humor patterns were positively related to performance, whereas in high job insecurity climate conditions, humor patterns did not relate to team performance. The role of job insecurity as a boundary condition persisted at both time points. These findings underscore the importance of studying team interactions for understanding the role of humor in organizations and considering team-level boundary conditions over time. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is one of the opportunistic infections associated with significant morbidity and mortality among HIV/AIDS patients especially before introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Little is known regarding the humoral immune response against HCMV in relation to CD4 counts among HIV ...
Full Text Available This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Humor Styles Questionnaire (HSQ and the relation between humor and psychological well-being within the context of Italy. A total of 293 (178 females, 115 males Italian high school and undergraduate university students – whose ages ranged from 14 to 25 years – completed the Italian versions of the HSQ and the Ryff’s Psychological Well-Being scales (RPWB. The HSQ scale reliabilities were generally acceptable, and intercorrelations among the scales were rather low; the confirmatory factor analysis supported the four-factor structure. Males reported significantly more use of Aggressive humor than did females; no differences were found between adolescents and young adults in the use of humor styles. Affiliative and Self-enhancing humor styles were positively associated with the six dimensions of the RPWB, whereas Self-defeating humor was negatively correlated with the RPWB scales. SEM analysis showed a significant and positive relationship between humor as measured by the HSQ and psychological well-being as assessed by the RPWB. Overall, the findings supported the theoretical structure and usefulness of the HSQ in an Italian context and the differential role of humor components in the various dimensions of psychological well-being.
Slaby, Isabella; Holmes, Amanda; Moran, Joseph M; Eddy, Marianna D; Mahoney, Caroline R; Taylor, Holly A; Brunyé, Tad T
The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of transcranial direct current stimulation targeting the left temporoparietal junction (TPJ) on humor appreciation during a dynamic video rating task. In a within-participants design, we targeted the left TPJ with anodal, cathodal, or no transcranial direct current stimulation, centered at electrode site C3 using a 4×1 targeted stimulation montage. During stimulation, participants dynamically rated a series of six stand-up comedy videos for perceived humor. We measured event-related (time-locked to crowd laughter) modulation of humor ratings as a function of stimulation condition. Results showed decreases in rated humor during anodal (vs. cathodal or none) stimulation; this pattern was evident for the majority of videos and was only partially predicted by individual differences in humor style. We discuss the possibility that upregulation of neural circuits involved in the theory of mind and empathizing with others may reduce appreciation of aggressive humor. In conclusion, the present data show that neuromodulation of the TPJ can alter the mental processes underlying humor appreciation, suggesting critical involvement of this cortical region in detecting, comprehending, and appreciating humor.
Yue, Xiao Dong; Liu, Katy Wing-Yin; Jiang, Feng; Hiranandani, Neelam Arjan
Summary.-This study examined how humor styles could mediate the effect of self-esteem on subjective happiness. 227 Hong Kong undergraduate students completed the Humor Styles Questionnaire, the Roxsenberg Self-esteem Scale, and the Subjective Happiness Scale. Results showed adaptive humor styles (affiliative humor and self-enhancing humor) significantly predicted self-esteem and subjective happiness and mediated the relationship between self-esteem and subjective happiness. Maladaptive humor styles (aggressive humor and self-defeating humor) did not strongly predict self-esteem or subjective happiness. The mediation effects of humor styles found in the present research provided useful suggestions for future studies.
Buijzen, M.A.; Valkenburg, P.M.
The main aim of this study was to develop and investigate a typology of humor in audiovisual media. We identified 41 humor techniques, drawing on Berger's (1976, 1993) typology of humor in narratives, audience research on humor preferences, and an inductive analysis of humorous commercials. We
Ramsey, E. Michele
Contributes to scholarship advancing the understanding of human communication by examining the rhetorical invention strategies of suffrage rhetoric in the cultural context of World War I. Shows how the political cartoons published in the mainstream Suffrage Movement's "The Woman Citizen" constructed women as strong, competent, and…
AlBzour, Naser Naif
The primary concern of this study is to explore the subtle implications of the "Semiotranslation Approach vis-a-vis" analyzing the semiotic elements of discourse in Jordanian cartoons as creative artistic texts in which various signs manifest simultaneous interaction, thus achieving both entertainment and purposeful satire. Therefore,…
Despite curriculum imperatives, in South Africa and worldwide, for learners to have more autonomy in investigations, they remain largely teacher controlled with learners having only limited opportunities in planning. This design-based study explored how a cartoon can be employed in a Grade 9 Natural Sciences class in ...
Karpyn, Allison; Allen, Michael; Marks, Samantha; Filion, Nicole; Humphrey, Debora; Ye, Ai; May, Henry; Gardner, Meryl P
In order to address the pervasive trend of underconsumption of fruits and vegetables among children, we examined the hypothesis that children would be more likely to select fruits (apple slices, bananas, and oranges) and vegetables (baby carrots) when paired with animal cartoon image than when available without the character image. Tested in a randomized experiment using counterbalancing, products were arranged on two tables at two separate family fun nights held at a local zoo. Animal character produce parings were manipulated by placing one of two animals (tamarin or iguana) next to two of the four fruit or vegetable selections at each table, and by changing when available without the image. In total, 755 produce selections were made. Significantly more products paired with a character were selected (62.38%) than the same products, not paired (37.62%), χ 2 = 46.32, df = 1, p < .001. The odds ratio of the treatment versus control was 1.66 (i.e., 471/284), indicating that children were 66% more likely to select a snack when paired with an animal cartoon. Study findings highlight the positive impact of animal cartoons on children's fruit and vegetable snack selections, and results suggest the potential for using animal cartoons to encourage fruit and vegetable selection for children.
Brownlow, Sheila; Durham, Staci
Examines whether children's television cartoons portray male and female characters using science and technology in a different manner. Findings indicate that most characters were male and were often depicted using science and technology, usually while being aggressive while female characters were depicted as prosocial and using science and…
Karakas, Ali; Sariçoban, Arif
This study aimed to find out whether watching subtitled cartoons influences incidental vocabulary learning. The study was conducted with 42 first grade English Language Teaching (ELT) department students at the University of Mehmet Akif Ersoy, Burdur. To collect data from the subjects, a 5-point vocabulary knowledge scale was used and 18 target…
Rostbøll, Christian Fogh
During the Danish cartoon controversy in 2005-2006 appeals to universal liberal values were often made in ways that marginalized Muslims. An analysis of the controversy shows that referring to "universal values" can be exclusionary when dominant actors fail to distinguish their own culture's embo...
Bahrani, Taher; Sim, Tam Shu
In today's audiovisually driven world, various audiovisual programs can be incorporated as authentic sources of potential language input for second language acquisition. In line with this view, the present research aimed at discovering the effectiveness of exposure to news, cartoons, and films as three different types of authentic audiovisual…
Bormann, Ernest G.; And Others
A Q-analysis of cartoons published during the 1976 presidential campaign provides evidence of the complex patterns of shared fantasies among various types of voters, and the relationships between these fantasies and those dramatized by various groups during the political campaign. (JMF)
The purpose of this study is to create an awareness of light pollution on seventh grade students via computer aided concept cartoon applications and outdoor science activities and to help them develop solutions; and to determine student opinions on the practices carried out. The study was carried out at a middle school in Mugla province of Aegean…
Taber, Nancy; Woloshyn, Vera
In this paper, we focus on gendered themes promulgated in three books written in diary cartoon form. Although written for different audiences, each of these books constructs gender norms in similar ways. They promote heteronormative gender roles for boys and girls by endorsing traditional femininities and hegemonic masculinities through the…
Margot Coppin; Jean-Luc Gaspard
Dying subjects that resort to humor, whom we shall call "humorants", question themselves and especially us. How could they possibly allow themselves such an outrage at this precise moment of their existence? When they do so, it is through the particular and rather crude form of black humor. On the basis of Freud's and Lacan's contributions regarding the question of death and of the clinical exercise of palliative care, the article addresses the expression of a linguistic jouissance on the pa...
Scriven, Jolene; Hefferin, Linda
Humor contributes to teamwork, creative problem solving, mental flexibility, and risk taking in the workplace. As a classroom tool, it increases student attentiveness and retention of information. (SK)
This study is an examination of the manner in which educators employ scientific content humor and how that humor is perceived by their students. Content humor is a useful strategy in drawing the attention of students and improving their receptivity toward scientific information. It is also a useful tool in combating the growing distractions of the electronic classroom. Previous studies have found that humor has a positive effect on knowledge, memory, and understanding. However, few studies have been conducted below the undergraduate level and mainly quantitative measures of student recall have been used to measure learning. This study employed multiple data sources to determine how two secondary biology teachers used humor in order to explain scientific concepts and how their students perceived their teachers' use of scientific instructional humor. Evidence of student humor reception was collected from four students in each of the two classes. All of the scientific instructional humor used in the studied classrooms was cognitive in nature, varying among factual, procedural, conceptual, and metacognitive knowledge. Teachers tended to use dialogic forms of humor. Their scientific humor reflected everyday experiences, presented queries, poked fun at authority, and asked students to search out new perspectives and perform thought experiments. Teachers were the primary actors in performing the humorous events. The events were sometimes physical exaggerations of words or drawings, and they occurred for the purpose of establishing rapport or having students make connections between scientific concepts and prior knowledge. Student perceptions were that teachers did employ humor toward instructional objectives that helped their learning. Helping students become critical thinkers is a trademark of science teachers. Science teachers who take the risk of adopting some attributes of comedians may earn the reward of imparting behaviors on their students like critical thinking
Davis, Kyshia; Carter, Renee; Tully, Thomas; Negulescu, Ioan; Storey, Eric
To evaluate aqueous humor viscosity in the raptor, dog, cat, and horse, with a primary focus on the barred owl (Strix varia). Twenty-six raptors, ten dogs, three cats, and one horse. Animals were euthanized for reasons unrelated to this study. Immediately, after horizontal and vertical corneal dimensions were measured, and anterior chamber paracentesis was performed to quantify anterior chamber volume and obtain aqueous humor samples for viscosity analysis. Dynamic aqueous humor viscosity was measured using a dynamic shear rheometer (AR 1000 TA Instruments, New Castle, DE, USA) at 20 °C. Statistical analysis included descriptive statistics, unpaired t-tests, and Tukey's test to evaluate the mean ± standard deviation for corneal diameter, anterior chamber volume, and aqueous humor viscosity amongst groups and calculation of Spearman's coefficient for correlation analyses. The mean aqueous humor viscosity in the barred owl was 14.1 centipoise (cP) ± 9, cat 4.4 cP ± 0.2, and dog 2.9 cP ± 1.3. The aqueous humor viscosity for the horse was 1 cP. Of the animals evaluated in this study, the raptor aqueous humor was the most viscous. The aqueous humor of the barred owl is significantly more viscous than the dog (P humor viscosity of the raptor, dog, cat, and horse can be successfully determined using a dynamic shear rheometer. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.
Wisse, Barbara; Rietzschel, Eric
The present study focuses on how humor may affect the quality of the relationship between leader and follower (LMX). More specifically, we examined the impact of follower self-reported humor style and leader self-reported humor style on the extent to which followers perceived their relationship with
Chris M Fiacconi
Full Text Available Despite its pervasiveness in popular culture, there remains much to be learned about the psychological and physiological processes that underlie our experience of humor. In the present study, we examined the temporal profile of verbal humor elicitation using psychophysiological measures of heart rate (HR and facial electromyography (EMG. Consistent with recent prior research on cardiovascular changes to perceived humor, we found that HR acceleration was greater for jokes relative to non-jokes, and was positively related to the level of perceived humor elicited by these jokes. In addition, activity recorded from the zygomaticus major muscle that controls smiling was found to be greater for jokes relative to non-jokes. To link these physiological changes to the psychological processes that govern humor comprehension, we took the initial inflection point of the zygomatic EMG response as a marker for the onset of humor comprehension, and used this marker to probe the pattern of cardiovascular activity at this time-point. We estimated the onset of the humor response to occur during the initial HR deceleration phase, and found that jokes relative to non-jokes elicited a decreased HR response at this time-point. This result questions the previously forwarded notion that the psychological "moment of insight" that signals the start of the humor response is always associated with heightened cardiovascular activity. This discrepancy is discussed in relation to possible differences in the cognitive processes required to comprehend different forms of humor. At a broader level, our results also demonstrate the advantages of combining different psychophysiological measures to examine psychological phenomena, and illustrate how one such measure can constrain the interpretation of others.
Fiacconi, Chris M; Owen, Adrian M
Despite its pervasiveness in popular culture, there remains much to be learned about the psychological and physiological processes that underlie our experience of humor. In the present study, we examined the temporal profile of verbal humor elicitation using psychophysiological measures of heart rate (HR) and facial electromyography (EMG). Consistent with recent prior research on cardiovascular changes to perceived humor, we found that HR acceleration was greater for jokes relative to non-jokes, and was positively related to the level of perceived humor elicited by these jokes. In addition, activity recorded from the zygomaticus major muscle that controls smiling was found to be greater for jokes relative to non-jokes. To link these physiological changes to the psychological processes that govern humor comprehension, we took the initial inflection point of the zygomatic EMG response as a marker for the onset of humor comprehension, and used this marker to probe the pattern of cardiovascular activity at this time-point. We estimated the onset of the humor response to occur during the initial HR deceleration phase, and found that jokes relative to non-jokes elicited a decreased HR response at this time-point. This result questions the previously forwarded notion that the psychological "moment of insight" that signals the start of the humor response is always associated with heightened cardiovascular activity. This discrepancy is discussed in relation to possible differences in the cognitive processes required to comprehend different forms of humor. At a broader level, our results also demonstrate the advantages of combining different psychophysiological measures to examine psychological phenomena, and illustrate how one such measure can constrain the interpretation of others.
Full Text Available Ligado inicialmente ao desenho humorístico e a ilustração infantil, o desenho animado se desenvolveu durante os primeiros oitenta anos de cinema, especialmente em seu segundo período, o disneyano, dentro da vertente de um esquematismo herdado da caricatura, como foi observado por Gombrich. A partir dos anos sessenta, e sobretudo, desde os oitenta, o desenho animado cresce em complexidade, variedade visual e narrativa, privilegia o componente hipertextual e metadiscursivo e elege o público infantil como alvo por causa da ausência de restrições estáveis, semânticas ou sintáticas que definam essa orientação. Palavras-chave desenho animado, caricatura, estilo de época, esquematismo, complexidade, metadiscurso Abstract Linked initially to the comic strip and childrenâ€™s illustration, the animated cartoon was developed during the first eighty years of cinema, specially in its second period, the Disney era, primarily inside a schematism inherited from the caricature, according to Gombrich. From the 60â€™s on and specially since the 80â€™s, we notice a growth in complexity, visual variety and narrative, emphasis on the hypertextual component and on metadiscourse and a choice for the child public as the cartoonâ€™s target group because of the lack of stable, semantical or syntactic restrictions that define this orientation. Key words animated cartoon, caricature, epoch style, schematism, complexity and metadiscourse
Fernandes, Cláudia Joana Alves
Dissertação de Mestrado em Cuidados Paliativos apresentada na Escola Superior de Saúde do Instituto Politécnico de Viana do Castelo O ser humano diferencia-se dos outros seres vivos pela capacidade que possui de sorrir. Esta característica ajuda-o a enfrentar os problemas que se lhe afiguram no quotidiano da vida, sejam eles de índole pessoal, profissional, familiar ou relacional. Assim o humor, presente desde sempre, emerge como uma necessidade para o crescimento individual, e ...
Jääskeläinen, Iiro P; Pajula, Juha; Tohka, Jussi; Lee, Hsin-Ju; Kuo, Wen-Jui; Lin, Fa-Hsuan
Humor is crucial in human social interactions. To study the underlying neural processes, three comedy clips were shown twice to 20 volunteers during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Inter-subject similarities in humor ratings, obtained immediately after fMRI, explained inter-subject correlation of hemodynamic activity in right frontal pole and in a number of other brain regions. General linear model analysis also indicated activity in right frontal pole, as well as in additional cortical areas and subcortically in striatum, explained by humorousness. The association of the right frontal pole with experienced humorousness is a novel finding, which might be related to humor unfolding over longer time scales in the movie clips. Specifically, frontal pole has been shown to exhibit longer temporal receptive windows than, e.g., sensory areas, which might have enabled processing of humor in the clips based on holding information and reinterpreting that in light of new information several (even tens of) seconds later. As another novel finding, medial and lateral prefrontal areas, frontal pole, posterior-inferior temporal areas, posterior parietal areas, posterior cingulate, striatal structures and amygdala showed reduced activity upon re-viewing of the clips, suggesting involvement in processing of humor related to novelty of the comedic events.
Donelson, Kenneth, Ed.
According to the "Arizona English Bulletin" (AEB), not enough attention is given to humor or satire in high school English classes. AEB suggests that if the English class is a place for bringing reality into the curriculum, humor must become a part of the total English program. Featured in this issue are 25 essays on various aspects of…
Over the past decade, second language (L2) humor has attracted scholarly attention as both a means and a goal of L2 development. Much of this research, however, has focused on oral communication, whereas virtually no studies address humor as an aspect of reading comprehension. This exploratory study combines these two areas of inquiry, examining…
Berg, Rachelle G.; Parr, Gerald; Bradley, Loretta J.; Berry, Jeremy J.
Counselors utilize many strategies, techniques, and tools when building a therapeutic alliance or addressing children's issues. Due to the serious nature of discussing problems or perhaps because of the fear of seeming insensitive, counselors often overlook humor as a means to enhance therapy. Whether deliberate or spontaneous, humor can add…
In this article we study the characteristics of the language of representation and perception of American humour, its linguistic and cultural features in humorous texts of American comics from the American linguistic culture. The material for research is the humorous texts and fragments of the performances of American ...
Bick, Ilsa J.
States that humor is dependent on individual perspective, and that the subject matter of "Lolita" (1962), which concerns child abuse and molestation, is difficult to treat with humor. Argues that despite its subject, "Lolita" continues to be funny. Concludes that viewers know the subject matter is not funny, but while watching,…
Koch, Michael; Denzler, Joachim; Redies, Christoph
Art images and natural scenes have in common that their radially averaged (1D) Fourier spectral power falls according to a power-law with increasing spatial frequency (1/f(2) characteristics), which implies that the power spectra have scale-invariant properties. In the present study, we show that other categories of man-made images, cartoons and graphic novels (comics and mangas), have similar properties. Further on, we extend our investigations to 2D power spectra. In order to determine whether the Fourier power spectra of man-made images differed from those of other categories of images (photographs of natural scenes, objects, faces and plants and scientific illustrations), we analyzed their 2D power spectra by principal component analysis. Results indicated that the first fifteen principal components allowed a partial separation of the different image categories. The differences between the image categories were studied in more detail by analyzing whether the mean power and the slope of the power gradients from low to high spatial frequencies varied across orientations in the power spectra. Mean power was generally higher in cardinal orientations both in real-world photographs and artworks, with no systematic difference between the two types of images. However, the slope of the power gradients showed a lower degree of mean variability across spectral orientations (i.e., more isotropy) in art images, cartoons and graphic novels than in photographs of comparable subject matters. Taken together, these results indicate that art images, cartoons and graphic novels possess relatively uniform 1/f(2) characteristics across all orientations. In conclusion, the man-made stimuli studied, which were presumably produced to evoke pleasant and/or enjoyable visual perception in human observers, form a subset of all images and share statistical properties in their Fourier power spectra. Whether these properties are necessary or sufficient to induce aesthetic perception remains
Full Text Available Art images and natural scenes have in common that their radially averaged (1D Fourier spectral power falls according to a power-law with increasing spatial frequency (1/f(2 characteristics, which implies that the power spectra have scale-invariant properties. In the present study, we show that other categories of man-made images, cartoons and graphic novels (comics and mangas, have similar properties. Further on, we extend our investigations to 2D power spectra. In order to determine whether the Fourier power spectra of man-made images differed from those of other categories of images (photographs of natural scenes, objects, faces and plants and scientific illustrations, we analyzed their 2D power spectra by principal component analysis. Results indicated that the first fifteen principal components allowed a partial separation of the different image categories. The differences between the image categories were studied in more detail by analyzing whether the mean power and the slope of the power gradients from low to high spatial frequencies varied across orientations in the power spectra. Mean power was generally higher in cardinal orientations both in real-world photographs and artworks, with no systematic difference between the two types of images. However, the slope of the power gradients showed a lower degree of mean variability across spectral orientations (i.e., more isotropy in art images, cartoons and graphic novels than in photographs of comparable subject matters. Taken together, these results indicate that art images, cartoons and graphic novels possess relatively uniform 1/f(2 characteristics across all orientations. In conclusion, the man-made stimuli studied, which were presumably produced to evoke pleasant and/or enjoyable visual perception in human observers, form a subset of all images and share statistical properties in their Fourier power spectra. Whether these properties are necessary or sufficient to induce aesthetic
Koch, Michael; Denzler, Joachim; Redies, Christoph
Art images and natural scenes have in common that their radially averaged (1D) Fourier spectral power falls according to a power-law with increasing spatial frequency (1/f2 characteristics), which implies that the power spectra have scale-invariant properties. In the present study, we show that other categories of man-made images, cartoons and graphic novels (comics and mangas), have similar properties. Further on, we extend our investigations to 2D power spectra. In order to determine whether the Fourier power spectra of man-made images differed from those of other categories of images (photographs of natural scenes, objects, faces and plants and scientific illustrations), we analyzed their 2D power spectra by principal component analysis. Results indicated that the first fifteen principal components allowed a partial separation of the different image categories. The differences between the image categories were studied in more detail by analyzing whether the mean power and the slope of the power gradients from low to high spatial frequencies varied across orientations in the power spectra. Mean power was generally higher in cardinal orientations both in real-world photographs and artworks, with no systematic difference between the two types of images. However, the slope of the power gradients showed a lower degree of mean variability across spectral orientations (i.e., more isotropy) in art images, cartoons and graphic novels than in photographs of comparable subject matters. Taken together, these results indicate that art images, cartoons and graphic novels possess relatively uniform 1/f2 characteristics across all orientations. In conclusion, the man-made stimuli studied, which were presumably produced to evoke pleasant and/or enjoyable visual perception in human observers, form a subset of all images and share statistical properties in their Fourier power spectra. Whether these properties are necessary or sufficient to induce aesthetic perception remains to be
Yarahmadi, Peyman; Miandare, Hamed Kolangi; Fayaz, Sahel; Caipang, Christopher Marlowe A
The present study investigated the effects of various stocking densities on the health status (stress and immune responses) of rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss). Juvenile rainbow trout were acclimated, placed in circular tanks under stocking densities of 10, 40 and 80 kg m(-3) and reared for 30 days. The relative expression of genes involved in stress and immunity such as HSP70, LyzII, TNF-1α, IL-1β, IL-8 and IFN-γ1 in the head kidney was determined. Serum cortisol, ACTH, total antioxidant capacity, osmolality and lactate were measured after 30 days of culture at different stocking densities (D1:10 kg m(-3), D2: 40 kg m(-3) and D3: 80 kg m(-3)) as indices of stress responses. In addition, the effects of stocking densities on serum complement, bactericidal activity, agglutinating antibody titers, serum IgM, anti-protease activity, serum total protein and alkaline phosphatase of the fish were measured. HSP70 gene expression was significantly density-dependent upregulated in D2 and D3 densities compared to D1 (P < 0.05). Also, there was significant downregulation in expression of LyzII, TNF-1α, IL-1β, IL-8 and IFN-γ1 in fish reared at density of either D2 or D3 (P < 0.05). In terms of stress responses, serum ACTH, cortisol and lactate level showed significant density-dependent increase (P < 0.05) while serum osmolality and total antioxidant capacity showed significant decline (P < 0.05) in fish reared at higher densities (D2 and D3) compared to fish reared at lower density (D1) (P < 0.05). Concordant with the expression of the immune-related genes, the serum complement and bactericidal activity as well as specific antibody titer against Aeromonas hydrophila, IgM and anti-protease activity decreased along with elevation of stocking density from D1 to D3 (P < 0.05). However, different stocking densities had no significant effect on serum total protein level and alkaline phosphatase activity. These results suggested that elevation of stocking
Pablo Roberto Lillo
Full Text Available Over the last years there has been a growing interest in the study of the resources that people use from face to a problem. The interest in the study of the characteristics related to the humor has gone in increase, especially for the influence of the development of a new concept in psychology that derives in the call positive psychology (Seligman and Csikszentmihalyi, 2000; Zinder and McCullog 2000, in Martin, Puhlik-Doris, Larsen, Gray, Weir, 2003 which is centered in adaptive strengths such as optimism, faith, courage, as well as humor (Martin 2003, quoted in Martin et al., 2003. Sense of humor has been considered as an unidimensional construct (Omar, 1995 and the consequencies has been some errors in the assesment, as a result of a problem of validity. The present study seeks to introduce certain aspects that have not been considered in the past, so much the potential beneficial effects, as the deleterious forms of the sense of humor as for the psychological well-being. Four dimensions of the sense of humor were assesed (Martin, Puhlik-Doris, Larsen, Gray, Weir, 2003, version Lillo, 2006 relating to the uses or functions in everyday life and the ways of people cope (Fridenberg and Lewis, 1991, version Richaud de Minzi. 2003. They were also significant relationships among styles of humor and ways of coping that could explain the importance of the construct sense of humor, as an important resource to be used. Although it is necessary to highlight that it is not sought to embrace all the components of the sense of humor, but rather it is focused in the interpersonal functions and intrapsíquicas that adolescents use in daily life. These functions are considered most relevant to the well-being. Measuring these aspects of the humor, it is expected that they can explain a greater proportion of the variance as for the ways of people cope.
Nakamura, Tagiru; Matsui, Tomoko; Utsumi, Akira; Yamazaki, Mika; Makita, Kai; Harada, Tokiko; Tanabe, Hiroki C; Sadato, Norihiro
A dominant theory of humor comprehension suggests that people understand humor by first perceiving some incongruity in an expression and then resolving it. This is called "the incongruity-resolution theory." Experimental studies have investigated the neural basis of humor comprehension, and multiple neural substrates have been proposed; however, the specific substrate for incongruity resolution is still unknown. The reason may be that the resolution phase, despite its importance in humor comprehension, has not been successfully distinguished from the perception phase because both phases occur almost simultaneously. To reveal the substrate, we conducted a functional magnetic resonance study using 51 healthy participants. We used a humor-producing frame of "Given A, I'd say B, because C" so as to focus on the resolution phase independently by suspending humor processing just after the perception phase. This frame allowed us to separate the two phases. Based on our results, incongruity resolution evoked positive emotion and activated the left amygdala, which is known to be related to positive emotion. On the basis of these findings, we argue that the amygdala plays an important role in humor comprehension, considering its functional role in emotional evaluation, particularly the relevance detection for incoming stimuli.
Abdul Aziz Turhan Kariko
Full Text Available This study discusses Internet memes found by Internet users and how they appeal for them, by deconstructing what internet meme is and what it does. Analysis are conducted especially on how the relation between images, text, and meanings connect with each other to form social messages, political messages, universal emotions, or merely to make humor and entertain its users. Researcher examines five samples of internet memes on the internet and decodes their relation between images, texts, and meanings using semiotics. These samples are then introduced as writing assignments to two BINUS University’s English department classes and one Global English Class. The study reveals that humor and creativity in using internet memes are related to the students’ achievement in their studies.
Chen, Haiwen; Russell, Richard; Nakayama, Ken; Livingstone, Margaret
Adaptation can shift what individuals identify to be a prototypical or attractive face. Past work suggests that low-level shape adaptation can affect high-level face processing but is position dependent. Adaptation to distorted images of faces can also affect face processing but only within sub-categories of faces, such as gender, age, and race/ethnicity. This study assesses whether there is a representation of face that is specific to faces (as opposed to all shapes) but general to all kinds of faces (as opposed to subcategories) by testing whether adaptation to one type of face can affect perception of another. Participants were shown cartoon videos containing faces with abnormally large eyes. Using animated videos allowed us to simulate naturalistic exposure and avoid positional shape adaptation. Results suggest that adaptation to cartoon faces with large eyes shifts preferences for human faces toward larger eyes, supporting the existence of general face representations. PMID:20465173
Rostbøll, Christian F.
In the course of the Danish cartoon controversy, appeals to universal liberal values were often made in ways that marginalized Muslims. An analysis of the controversy reveals that referring to "universal values" can be exclusionary when dominant actors fail to distinguish their own culture......'s embodiment of these values from the more abstract ideas. The article suggests that the solution to this problem is not to discard liberal principles but rather to see them in a more fallibilistic and deliberative democratic way. This means that we should move from focusing on citizens merely as subjects...... of law and right holders to see them as co-authors of shared legal and moral norms. A main shortcoming of the way in which dominant actors in Denmark responded to the cartoons was exactly that they failed to see the Muslim minority as capable of participating in interpreting and giving shared norms...
Domínguez, Martí; Mateu, Anna; Torgersen, Helge; Porcar, Manuel
How do scientists perceive the media coverage of synthetic biology (SB)? In this paper, we approach this question by studying a set of cartoons devoted to SB. Based on a categorization of the cartoons into five large thematic groups an international survey was carried out to assess the opinion of SB research groups on science communication with regard to the public image of their discipline. The 101 responses obtained indicate that in general, their perception of the communication is not negative, although many respondents raised concerns on the media's inclination to sensationalism and over-simplification. However, the results also suggest that (in the light of the unfortunate experiences with GMO communication) scientists should think twice before proposing metaphorical interpretations of their research.
This paper is based upon the writings of William James in the late 19th century, and Alfred Adler and Sigmund Freud in the 20th, enriched by the contributions of later personality and role theorists. The self is defined as the unique organization of each person; a style is the self in action. Different life styles and their components are expressed in different situations. I posit that humor and positive thinking, combined with meaning and purpose, are vital components of all constructive life styles. The knowledge of life styles cuts through diagnostic labels to reveal our universal humanity. It can be fruitfully applied to patients and nonpatients alike and, I found, for the self-understanding of therapist. The clinical application of life styles is illustrated through numerous vignettes.
Soner Yavuz; Cem Büyükekşi
Misconceptions are common problems in chemistry education for teachers and students. These non-scientific ideas are reflecting students’ not consistent ideas, biases and daily-life experiences. This situation is an obstacle for students to learn chemistry topics. In the research, concept cartoons, which are intended to give information about heat and temperature subject, are used to get rid of misconceptions. Sample of the research is 35 students who are enrolled Elementary Science Education ...
Full Text Available The essay deals with basic techniques that can be detected in various humor genres, whose rationale is to generate amusement. A long list of basic humor techniques has come to attention as a result of problematising and analysis of different humor genres done by the American media professor Arthur A. Berger. A. Berger is by and large unknown to the Serbian scientific community, so the initial piece of the thesis is dedicated to the presentation of the aforementioned author and his body of work. What follows are the basic humor techniques that are perused through native yarns. Berger believes that the joke, due to its condensed form, is a particularly successful vehicle for illuminating the functioning of humor techniques, an explanation that is an integral part of the thesis. It is evident that not all techniques are helpful in the examination of jokes, which is why it was necessary, for a number of them, to divulge other humor genres. This fact, as indeed many others, has led to a critical reexamination of Berger's techniques and to analysis of how they could be further developed, modified and used in anthropological and folklore researcher, a matter that is dealt with in the conclusion. Basic humor techniques that are identified by Arthur A. Berger as containing great methodological potency that can be of significance in the analysis of different genres and narratives. As such, these techniques are certainly an admirable form from the standpoint of the effort that was put into their formation.
Full Text Available This article examines the use of politeness principle in cartoon movie entitled “Stand By Me Doraemon”. It aims at giving a description on the use of politeness principle in this movie so that this is the source of data as well. The data are collected by note taking technique and then analyzed descriptively. After analyzing the data, the researcher finds the use of politeness principle in the movie script. They are utterances of the use of politeness principle covering the kinds of maxim in politeness principle. The utterances covey the use of tact maxim, generosity maxim, approbation maxim, modesty maxim, agreement maxim, and sympathy maxim. Then, it focused also in politeness scale such as formality scale, hesitancy scale, and equality scale. The finding result showed that there are 25 politeness principle found in cartoon movie “Stand By Me Doraemon”. 1 tact maxim, 3 generosity maxim, 6 approbation maxim, 1 modesty maxim, 2 agreement maxim, 3 sympathy maxim, 2 formality scale, 4 hesitancy scale, and 3 equality scale. Approbation maxim is the maxim of the most numerous in the movie. This is because the characters in this film seek to avoid conflict and create an environment that is comfortable in communication. Key words: politeness principle, cartoon movie, utterance, maxim, scale.
Elizabeth Maxwell MD
Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate if addition of educational cartoon to pediatric bowel preparation instructions improves the quality of bowel preparation and patient experience. Methods: Patients were randomized to control group receiving standard bowel preparation instructions or intervention group receiving additional educational cartoon. To objectively rate bowel preparation, a blinded endoscopist completed numeric Ottawa score (0-14, with 0 being best. The family also completed a questionnaire rating the bowel preparation process. Results: Data from 23 patients were analyzed. Mean Ottawa score in the intervention group compared with controls was not significantly different (mean scores 3.73 and 3.33, respectively; P = .384. Level of education was significantly correlated with better Ottawa score in the overall population (ρ = −.462, P = .026 and within the control group (ρ = −.658, P = .02. Both groups of patients reported positive experience with bowel preparation. Conclusion: There may be benefit to further investigation of this educational cartoon in parents with less than college level education or non-English-speaking families in larger population of patients.
"Bruno Braunerde und die Bodentypen" is a German-language learning material that fosters discovery of soil diversity and soil functions in kids, teens and adults who enjoy interactive learning activities. The learning material consists of (i) a large poster (dimensions 200 x 120 cm) showing an imaginative illustrated landscape that could be situated in Austria, Switzerland or southern Germany and (ii) a set of 15 magnetic cards that show different soil cartoon characters, e.g. Bruno Braunerde (Cambisol), Stauni Pseudogley (Stagnic Luvisol) or Heidi Podsol (Podzol) on the front and a fun profession and address (linked to the respective soil functions) on the back side. The task is to place the soil cartoon characters to their 'home' in the landscape. This learning material was developed as a contribution to the International Year of Soils 2015 and is supported by the German, Austrian and Swiss Soil Sciences Societies and the Swiss Federal Office for the Environment. The soil cartoon characters are an adaptation of the original concept by the James Hutton Institute, Aberdeen, Scotland (www.hutton.ac.uk/learning/dirt-doctor).
Nijholt, Antinus; Gu Ji, Y.; Choi, S.
We know about word play, verbal jokes, and about humor that appears spontaneously in conversations. This humor is studied in computational linguistics, together with issues such as verbal incongruities, ambiguities, irony and sarcasm. These appearances of humor are also part of computational humor
The connection between humor and aesthetic experience has already been recognized by several thinkers and aesthetic educators. For instance, humor theorist John Morreall writes that "humor is best understood as itself a kind of aesthetic experience, equal in value at least to any other kind of aesthetic experience." For Morreall, both humor and…
Laughing with students can help them connect on a deeper level with the teacher and the learning. This article offers the following four strategies to incorporate humor into teaching: (1) Integrate humorous bits to boost engagement; (2) Choose humorous materials; (3) Create interest with humorous web tools and apps; and (4) Teach with silly…
Nijholt, Anton; Ruiz Miyares, L.
Humor can be designed and canned, for example as it appears in videogames, sitcoms or amusement parks. We often have humor professionals that have responsibility for this inclusion of humor. Humor can be designed for a particular occasion, for example in an April prank. However, in real life we
Kariko, Abdul Aziz Turhan
This study discusses Internet memes found by Internet users and how they appeal for them, bydeconstructing what internet meme is and what it does. Analysis are conducted especially on how therelation between images, text, and meanings connect with each other to form social messages,political messages, universal emotions, or merely to make humor and entertain its users. Researcherexamines five samples of internet memes on the internet and decodes their relation between images,texts, and meanin...
Full Text Available Dying subjects that resort to humor, whom we shall call "humorants", question themselves and especially us. How could they possibly allow themselves such an outrage at this precise moment of their existence? When they do so, it is through the particular and rather crude form of black humor. On the basis of Freud's and Lacan's contributions regarding the question of death and of the clinical exercise of palliative care, the article addresses the expression of a linguistic jouissance on the part of subjects who are on the way to that which will forever calm their drives - the place in which the joint influence of capitalist and scientific discourse make it possible to affirm the accidental nature of death in our modern world. In this sense, "humorants" seem to be responding to the anxious perplexity of many dying patients when confronted by the traumatic real.
Kraak, V I; Story, M
Reducing the extent and persuasive power of marketing unhealthy foods to children worldwide are important obesity prevention goals. Research is limited to understand how brand mascots and cartoon media characters influence children's diet. We conducted a systematic review of five electronic databases (2000-2014) to identify experimental studies that measured how food companies' mascots and entertainment companies' media characters influence up to 12 diet-related cognitive, behavioural and health outcomes for children under 12 years. Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria. Studies used 21 unique popular media characters, but no brand mascots. Results suggest that cartoon media character branding can positively increase children's fruit or vegetable intake compared with no character branding. However, familiar media character branding is a more powerful influence on children's food preferences, choices and intake, especially for energy-dense and nutrient-poor foods (e.g. cookies, candy or chocolate) compared with fruits or vegetables. Future research should use a theoretically grounded conceptual model and larger and more diverse samples across settings to produce stronger findings for mediating and moderating factors. Future research can be used to inform the deliberations of policymakers, practitioners and advocates regarding how media character marketing should be used to support healthy food environments for children. © 2014 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of World Obesity.
Kraak, V I; Story, M
Reducing the extent and persuasive power of marketing unhealthy foods to children worldwide are important obesity prevention goals. Research is limited to understand how brand mascots and cartoon media characters influence children's diet. We conducted a systematic review of five electronic databases (2000–2014) to identify experimental studies that measured how food companies' mascots and entertainment companies' media characters influence up to 12 diet-related cognitive, behavioural and health outcomes for children under 12 years. Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria. Studies used 21 unique popular media characters, but no brand mascots. Results suggest that cartoon media character branding can positively increase children's fruit or vegetable intake compared with no character branding. However, familiar media character branding is a more powerful influence on children's food preferences, choices and intake, especially for energy-dense and nutrient-poor foods (e.g. cookies, candy or chocolate) compared with fruits or vegetables. Future research should use a theoretically grounded conceptual model and larger and more diverse samples across settings to produce stronger findings for mediating and moderating factors. Future research can be used to inform the deliberations of policymakers, practitioners and advocates regarding how media character marketing should be used to support healthy food environments for children. PMID:25516352
Tosun, Sümeyra; Faghihi, Nafiseh; Vaid, Jyotsna
To explore lay conceptions of characteristics of an ideal sense of humor as embodied in a known individual, our study examined elicited written narratives by male and female participants from three different countries of origin: United States, Iran, and Turkey. As reported in an earlier previous study with United States-based participants (Crawford and Gressley, 1991), our study also found that the embodiment of an ideal sense of humor was predominantly a male figure. This effect was more pronounced for male than for female participants but did not differ by country. Relative mention of specific humor characteristics differed by participant gender and by country of origin. Whereas all groups mentioned creativity most often as a component of an ideal sense of humor, this attribute was mentioned significantly more often by Americans than by the other two groups; hostility/sarcasm was also mentioned significantly more often by Americans than Turkish participants who mentioned it more often than Iranian participants. Caring was mentioned significantly more often by Americans and Iranians than by Turkish participants. These findings show a shared pattern of humor characteristics by gender but group differences in the relative prominence given to specific humor characteristics. Further work is needed to corroborate the group differences observed and to pinpoint their source.
Full Text Available The present study investigates the feasibility of a humor training for a subclinical sample suffering from increased stress, depressiveness, or anxiety. Based on diagnostic interviews, 35 people were invited to participate in a 7-week humor training. Evaluation measures were filled in prior training, after training, and at a 1-month follow-up including humor related outcomes (coping humor and cheerfulness and mental health-related outcomes (perceived stress, depressiveness, anxiety, and well-being. Outcomes were analyzed using repeated-measures ANOVAs. Within-group comparisons of intention-to-treat analysis showed main effects of time with large effect sizes on all outcomes. Post hoc tests showed medium to large effect sizes on all outcomes from pre to post and results remained stable until follow-up. Satisfaction with the training was high, attrition rate low (17.1%, and participants would highly recommend the training. Summarizing the results, the pilot study showed promising effects for people suffering from subclinical symptoms. All outcomes were positively influenced and showed stability over time. Humor trainings could be integrated more into mental health care as an innovative program to reduce stress whilst promoting also positive emotions. However, as this study was a single-arm pilot study, further research (including also randomized controlled trials is still needed to evaluate the effects more profoundly.
Nijholt, Antinus; Unknown, [Unknown
Like its predecessors in 1996 (University of Twente, the Netherlands) and 2002 (ITC-irst, Trento, Italy), this Third International Workshop on Computational Humor (IWCH 2012) focusses on the possibility to find algorithms that allow understanding and generation of humor. There is the general aim of
Bolkan, San; Griffin, Darrin J.; Goodboy, Alan K.
This study was conducted to examine the impact of integrated humor on direct measures of students' ability to retain and transfer information from educational lessons. In two experiments, participants were randomly exposed to either a lesson with humorous examples or standard examples and were subsequently asked to take tests on the material. Data…
Wanzer, Melissa B.; Frymier, Ann B.; Irwin, Jeffrey
This paper proposes the Instructional Humor Processing Theory (IHPT), a theory that incorporates elements of incongruity-resolution theory, disposition theory, and the elaboration likelihood model (ELM) of persuasion. IHPT is proposed and offered as an explanation for why some types of instructor-generated humor result in increased student…
García Moreno, Aitor
Full Text Available This article focuses on the critical edition, description and analysis of 53 covers of the humorous newspaper El Ĵuguetón of Constantinople. They are characterized by the rare use of graphic humour in contemporary Sephardic press. Both images (photographs, cartoons, etc. and surrounding texts contain invaluable information about the daily life of Sephardic communities in Turkey during the interwar period. In addition, they chronicle the process of westernization, modernization and secularization of the Sephardic Jews of Turkey and the Balkans.El presente trabajo se dedica a la edición, descripción y análisis de un corpus de 53 portadas del periódico humorístico El Ĵuguetón de Constantinopla, caracterizadas por el recurso al humor gráfico, hecho casi único en la prensa sefardí del momento. Tanto las imágenes (fotografías, caricaturas, etc. como los textos que las acompañan están llenos de valiosísima información sobre la vida diaria de la comunidad sefardí de Turquía en el período de entreguerras, y nos muestran de primera mano el proceso de occidentalización, modernización y secularización de los sefardíes de Turquía y los Balcanes.
Vela, Lori E.
Humor is an important aspect of interpersonal interactions as it is linked to the development and maintenance of relationships (Merolla, 2006). The purpose of this dissertation was to test the effect of a humor communication skills training program on the ability to minimize anti-social humor (i.e., aggressive, self-defeating) and enhance…
LEE, JI YOUNG; SLATER, MICHAEL D.; TCHERNEV, JOHN
Humor is sometimes employed in health messages. However, little is known about contingencies under which different types of humor may or may not be effective. This experiment crossed humorous vs. non-humorous and self- vs. other-deprecating messages about binge drinking, and tested how differences in personal investment in alcohol use moderates the effects of such messages on college binge drinkers. Results showed significant three-way interaction effects on subjective norms and behavioral intentions largely consistent with hypotheses. Assessment of significant differences in the interactions indicated that for binge drinkers who weren’t high in personal investment in alcohol use, other-deprecating humor tended to reduce their perceived subjective norms about the acceptability of binge drinking behavior and their behavioral intentions. The effect of the experimental manipulation on subjective norms among these binge drinkers was shown to mediate the effect on intentions to binge drink in the future. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:26020507
Downey, La Vonne A; Zun, Leslie S
The purpose of this study was to determine whether the viewing of cartoons in the acute care setting reduces the perception of pain by pediatric patients. A convenience prospective study of pediatric patients in pain was performed at a community teaching level I pediatric and adult emergency department, with 44,000 patient visits per year. The inclusion criteria for entry into the study were any child who presented to the emergency department in acute pain from any cause. The younger children were randomized to watch a Barney cartoon in Spanish or English, and the older children were randomized to view a Tarzan cartoon in Spanish or English. The younger children were assessed 5 minutes before the procedure, during the procedure, and 5 minutes after the procedure using Poker Chip Tool and Faces Scale. The older children were assessed at the same time interval using self-reporting and a visual analog scale. The study was internal review board approved. A difference of 20% or greater was considered a significant difference. The data were analyzed using a general linear model-repeated measures a priori level of significance of P < 0.05. There was a significant difference within subject effects: F(1)= 9.268, significant at 0.03, with observed power at 0.85 or 85%, with the α set at 0.05 or less. A comparison of the groups revealed that there were no differences in the causes of pain (F(1) = 0.301, P = 0.585), pain duration (F(1) = 0.062, P = 0.084), or type of anesthesia, if used (F(1) = 0.064, P = 0.804) between groups. This lack of difference was upheld for age (F(1) = 3.0407, P = 0.068), race (F(1) = 0.537, P = 0.466), and sex (F(1) = 0.002, P = 0.964). The finding that cartoon viewing was effective does illustrate 1 more pain relief tool for use in the ED when pediatric patients present. It is useful because of the fact that it does not interfere with assessment of patients' presenting or underlying problems. The need for more ways in which to address pediatric
Nikolić Desanka P.
Full Text Available This paper discusses humorous stories collected in the village of Brekovo near Arilje; the stories were created in the first half of the 20th century and noted down by Momčilo Jovanović, a villager from Brekovo. Later on, in the 1980's, the stories were passed down to the author of this paper. These narrations are mostly short stories and anecdotes; in a very realistic fashion, the stories depict life and culture of the Dinaric race from old Vlah - Zlatibor cultural area, namely, the type of person also known as "Era", well-known for its wittiness, smartness and wisdom. Based on the analysis of seven Era-stories, the author identified the social and cultural values highlighted in the stories (such as attitudes toward authorities intergenerational relationship, status of women, power relations between townsmen and peasants, propensity toward justice and truth. In summary, the stories document the mutual influence between traditional culture and the Era personality in this particular rural region; therefore, they could contribute to studies on character traits of the inhabitants in a given area of western Serbia.
It has become critical that learners are exposed to varied methods of teaching and assessment that will promote critical thinking of learners. Humor creates a relaxed atmosphere where learning can be enhanced and appreciated. When learners are relaxed, thinking becomes eminent. Authoritative and tense environment hinders thinking. This paper seeks to explore the perceptions of nurse teacher learners regarding the use of humor as a pedagogical tool to promote learning. A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual research design was employed (Burns & Grove, 2001:61; Mouton, 1996:103). 130 naive sketches were collected from nurse teacher learners who volunteered to take part in the study (Giorgi in_Omery, 1983:52) Follow up interviews were conducted to verify the findings. A qualitative, open-coding method of content analysis was done Tesch (in Creswell, 1994:155). Measures to ensure trustworthiness of the study were taken in accordance with the protocol of (Lincoln & Guba, 1985:290-326). The findings of the study will assist the nurse educators to create a positive, affective, psychological and social learning environment through the use of humor in a positive manner. Nurse educators will appreciate the fact that integration of humor to the learning content will promote the learners' critical thinking and emotional intelligence. Negative humor has a negative impact on learning. Learner nurses who become critical thinkers will be able to be analytical and solve problems amicably in practice.
Yue, Xiao D; Leung, Chun-Lok; Hiranandani, Neelam A
Playfulness has been referred to as a disposition that involves reframing a situation to amuse others and to make the situation more stimulating and enjoyable. It may serve to shift one's perspective when dealing with environmental threats. Despite all the benefits of playfulness towards psychological well-being, it remains a largely understudied subject in psychology, particularly in Chinese societies. Hence, this study examined the association between adult playfulness, humor styles, and subjective happiness among a sample of 166 university students in Hong Kong and 159 students in Guangzhou, who completed a self-administered questionnaire, including the Short Measure for Adult Playfulness, the Chinese Humor Styles Questionnaire, and the Subjective Happiness Scale. Results showed that adult playfulness was positively correlated with affiliative humor, self-enhancing humor, and subjective happiness in both Hong Kong and Guangzhou samples. By its implication, highly playful Chinese students preferred using affiliative and self-enhancing humor to amuse themselves and others. © The Author(s) 2016.
Lee, Sang Uk
Human beings inevitably experience anxiety but attempt to avoid facing it through various forms of self-deception. This avoidance can lead to pathological symptoms. Young and middle-aged adults may be especially susceptible to suffering from anxiety because they are often single-mindedly pursuing means of achieving security. For these and others who fail to embrace life with warm enthusiasm, humor can serve to alleviate stress. This article views humor as a characteristic disposition of older adults-their humor signifying a sense of integrity and wisdom that often accompanies the aging process. Humor binds together feelings of despair and joy and contributes to a faithful reframing of faith and life. This article proposes that individuals acquire humor by perceiving the world as if on a journey to an exotic new place, seeing with new eyes even the most mundane of everyday objects and events. This capacity to perceive beauty in the ordinary world reflects a wisdom of older adults potentially available even to the young.
Humor and laughter are integral parts of human life and communication - and so of course they occur in medical contacts.Humor is defined as a personality based cognitive emotional style of processing situations, characterized by the ability to find positive aspects even in negative situations, and the ability to communicate this point of view to others and to cheer them up. Humor can support healing processes and coping with illness. Humor and jokes reduce anxiety and stress (for patients and doctors). Humorous people have a more realistic, flexible and less fearful behaviour. Humor helps to overcome negative experience. Humor can help the patient to gain new views towards the disease and a healthy distance towards occurring symptoms. Humor improves the relationship between patient and doctor. But beware: jokes can also be used to express fears, aggression or shame. Therefore it is worthwhile to listen carefully to what patients want to express. Humor reduces the risk of burnout. In contact with patients, it is important to give their humor room, to use it and respond to it, more than making jokes. Humor can be trained. Humor training and creation of a humorous atmosphere in health care facilities should also be supported by health insurance funds, institutions' sponsors and public authorities. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analysis the effects of cartoons telecasted on Turkish televisions on the socialization process of elementary education students. The data were collected by the “The Behavior Scale on the Evaluation of the Effects of Animated Cartoons Telecasted on Turkish Televisions to Primary Education Students’ Socialization Process”. Participants were in 18 schools, randomly selected from the elementary schools in 9 central counties in Ankara. The characteristics of the variables were assessed and t-test, variance analysis (ANOVA, Kruskal Wallis H Test and Mann-Whitney U Test was conducted. There was no significant difference found in terms of socializing scale scores (p>0,05 between the television animation film watching hours. There was no significant difference in terms of socialization scale scores between the class levels of the children participating in the research (p>0,05. There was significant difference found in terms of socialization scale scores between the income groups of the families of the children participating in the research (p<0,05. It was concluded in the application process that animation productions telecasted on TV had a partial effect on the socialization process of the primary school students.
Chaloult, Guillaume; Blondeau, Claude
The goal of this article is to expose different aspects of the use of humor in therapy. We hope that it will stimulate reflection and guide the clinician toward appropriate use of humorous interventions. Historical highlights of the topic will be presented. Then a practical definition of therapeutic humor and the main theories about humor will be reviewed. We will also discuss the probable mechanisms of action explaining the efficacy of humor in psychotherapy, as well as potential risks and benefits of its use. We will try to determine different factors influencing the patient's receptivity to humor. Subsequently, a classification of humor will be proposed, followed by a description of selected types of humor often used in therapy, with clinical cases as examples.
Bitterly, T Bradford; Brooks, Alison Wood; Schweitzer, Maurice E
Across 8 experiments, we demonstrate that humor can influence status, but attempting to use humor is risky. The successful use of humor can increase status in both new and existing relationships, but unsuccessful humor attempts (e.g., inappropriate jokes) can harm status. The relationship between the successful use of humor and status is mediated by perceptions of confidence and competence. The successful use of humor signals confidence and competence, which in turn increases the joke teller's status. Interestingly, telling both appropriate and inappropriate jokes, regardless of the outcome, signals confidence. Although signaling confidence typically increases status and power, telling inappropriate jokes signals low competence and the combined effect of high confidence and low competence harms status. Rather than conceptualizing humor as a frivolous or ancillary behavior, we argue that humor plays a fundamental role in shaping interpersonal perceptions and hierarchies within groups. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Smith, Cheryl Mixon; Noviello, Sheri Reynolds
The infusion of humor in the classroom through faculty-developed skits is a teaching-learning strategy that engages nursing students in the learning process. Gardner's Multiple Intelligence Theory for Adult Learners provides the framework for the use of humor as a strategy in higher education. Three exemplars are presented with a description of the specific strategy, an objective for each strategy, and the effect of the strategy on student engagement in nursing education. In the exemplars, the authors provide "ready to use" ideas with some "pearls of wisdom" for other faculty interested in developing similar learning activities.
Full Text Available The main point of this work is to show how humor—when is used properly- has a positive effect on the patient ant the therapist’s self improving their alliance, supervision and team meetings. It’s also good for profesionals to include humor, recreation and rest in their job routines, because these ingredients let them be more effective in psychoterapy. The vast majority of psychological theories agree on its importance. The Cognitive Psychology believes that humor helps the patient evaluate reality in a different way, stops disfunctional thoughts, lets the expression of negative emotions and finds more adaptative patterns.
Los estudios clásicos sobre el humor identifican una interrelación estrecha entre humor y angustia. En la serie narrativa Papelucho, esta interacción es constante en la trama de las distintas novelas. Este trabajo describe la interacción entre humor y angustia que se da en la obra y reflexiona sobre su sentido. Se concluye que la serie propone el humor como estrategia para enfrentar los hechos angustiantes ineludibles en la vida.
Humor becomes an important part in institutionalizing the culture of pesantren. Yet, the humor in pesantren often ignores the values that respect gender equality. Understanding Islam pesantren patriarchy becomes the root for establishing the themes of humor that exploit women's bodies and sexuality. Study of humor and sexuality in pesantren in Indonesia are still unnoticed. This study used a qualitative research approach with a feminist analysis in pesantren Priangan West Java. The results of...
Doni, Andrea; D'Amico, Giovanna; Morone, Diego; Mantovani, Alberto; Garlanda, Cecilia
Innate immunity is involved in regulating inflammatory and tissue repair responses to injury. In particular, humoral innate immunity plays functions related to wound clearance from tissue debris, and regulation of macrophage and stromal cell activities. PTX3, a component of humoral innate immunity, orchestrates tissue repair by interacting with plasminogen and fibrin. Fluid-phase molecules of innate immunity interact with elements of the extracellular matrix, and some of the latter display opsonic activity against certain bacterial species. Thus, recognition of extracellular matrix and microbial components is a recurrent theme in the humoral arm of the innate immune system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Noras, Francisco Miguel Raimundo
O presente relatório de estágio reflete sobre a produção de conteúdos audiovisuais no Canal Q, com base no Humor e na Ficção. A ele adjacente, encontramos uma reflexão teórica sobre o poder do Humor, enquanto instrumento de comunicação, ao longo da história. Este trabalho pondera a relação partilhada entre o riso, Humor e, em última ...
Lundquist, Lita Sander
The specificities of national humor are often mentioned in humor research, but seldom explained in depth. This article concerns two studies, which reveal that Danish humor (as used in professional settings) is judged by Danes and non-Danes alike as ironic, self-ironic, sarcastic, and direct, with...
Nijholt, Anton; Niculescu, Andreea; Valitutti, Alessandro; Banchs, Rafael E.; Joshi, Anirudha; Balkrishan, Devanuj K.; Dalvi, Girish; Winckler, Marco
This paper is a short survey on humor in human-computer interaction. It describes how humor is designed and interacted with in social media, virtual agents, social robots and smart environments. Benefits and future use of humor in interactions with artificial entities are discussed based on
Dadlez, E. M.
The occasional role of humor as a vehicle for moral criticism is investigated. I begin by distinguishing between this particular role and the other kinds of ways in which humor and amusement might be regarded through a moral lens, consider historical approaches to humor that corroborate the kind of role for it on which my investigation focuses,…
Nasiri, Fuzhan; Mafakheri, Fereshteh
This article will review the issues surrounding the use of humor as an informal teaching method in higher education lecturing. The impact and usefulness of humor, from both a teacher's and a student's perspective, will be investigated. The aim is to classify the challenges and limitations of using humor in classrooms and to investigate and…
Moran, Larry; Roth, Gene
Although theorizing about humor has occurred for several decades, scant research exists that examines humor in the broad context of human resource development. Humor exists in workplaces and it is historicized in the professional and organizational contexts of workers. This paper explores aspects of a joking culture within the specific work…
Meyer, Neil A; Helle, Ashley C; Tucker, Raymond P; Lengel, Gregory J; DeShong, Hilary L; Wingate, LaRicka R; Mullins-Sweatt, Stephanie N
The way individuals use humor to interact interpersonally has been associated with general personality, depression, and suicidality. Certain humor styles may moderate the risk for suicide ideation (SI) in individuals who are high in specific risk factors (e.g., thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness). Previous research suggests a relationship between humor styles and borderline personality disorder (BPD) and an increased risk of suicidality and suicide completion in individuals with BPD. Participants (n =176) completed measures of BPD traits, SI, and humor styles. It was hypothesized that BPD traits would be positively correlated with negative humor styles and negatively correlated with positive humor styles, and that humor styles would significantly moderate BPD traits and SI. Results showed that BPD traits were negatively correlated with self-enhancing humor styles and positively correlated with self-defeating humor styles, but that they were not significantly correlated with affiliative or aggressive humor styles. Bootstrapping analyses demonstrated that the affiliative, self-enhancing, and self-defeating humor styles significantly moderated BPD traits and SI, while the aggressive humor style did not. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hohberger, Bettina; Chaudhri, M Anwar; Michalke, Bernhard; Lucio, Marianna; Nowomiejska, Katarzyna; Schlötzer-Schrehardt, Ursula; Grieb, Pawel; Rejdak, Robert; Jünemann, Anselm G M
Trace elements might play a role in the complex multifactorial pathogenesis of open-angle glaucoma. The aim of this study was to analyze concentrations of trace elements in aqueous humor samples of patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and pseudoexfoliation glaucoma (PEXG). Thirty-three aqueous humor samples were obtained from patients undergoing cataract surgery: 12 patients with POAG (age 65.3±10.50, female 8, male 4), 10 patients with PEXG (age 65.9±11.27, female 6, male 4) and 11 patients without glaucoma (age 69.5±13.70, female 7, male 4) serving as controls. Aqueous humor levels of cadmium, iron, manganese, cobalt, copper and zinc were measured by Flow-Injection-Inductively-Coupled-Plasma-Mass-Spectrometry (FI-ICP-MS). From the statistical evaluation, we observed that patients with POAG had significantly higher aqueous humor levels of zinc (p=0.006) compared to controls. Increased aqueous humor levels of zinc were also observed in patients with PEXG in relation to control (p=0.0006). For iron we observed a significantly reduction in PEXG compared to control (p=0.002) and a significant difference between POAG and PEXG (p=0.0091). No significant differences were observed in aqueous humor levels of manganese, cobalt, copper, cadmium between glaucoma and control patients. No differences were seen for iron (POAG vs. controls). Analysis of trace element ratios was added. Significant differences in aqueous humor levels of zinc and iron between glaucoma and control patients support the hypothesis that these trace elements are involved in the pathogenesis of open-angle glaucoma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Sheikh, Mona Kanwal; Gad, Ulrik Pram
activism: to provoke religious taboos in order to insist on the right to provoke religious taboos. And because an equally recognizable genre of responses to this sort of provocations is being formed: Riots, mass demonstrations, boycotts, and in its extreme version physical threats and violent action...
The aim of this study is to determine the opinions primary school administrators and teachers on humor climates in primary schools. The study was modeled as a convergent parallel design, one of the mixed methods. The data gathered from 253 administrator questionnaires, and 651 teacher questionnaires was evaluated for the quantitative part of the…
Blythe, M.; Nijholt, Antinus
It is certainly not the case that wen we consider research on the role of human characteristics in the user interface of computers that no attention has been paid to the role of humor. However, when we compare efforts in this area with efforts and experiments that attempt to demonstrate the positive
Gadanidis, George; Gadanidis, Janette M.; Huang, Alyssa Y.
Mathematical humor and insight are creative and pleasurable experiences. Both help students develop a positive attitude toward mathematics and facilitate higher-order thinking. The authors' classroom experience suggests that many middle school students have come to view mathematics as being a superficial and an uncreative activity where they…
Full Text Available It has become critical that learners are exposed to varied methods of teaching and assessment that will promote critical thinking of learners. Humor creates a relaxed atmosphere where learning can be enhanced and appreciated. When learners are relaxed, thinking becomes eminent. Authoritative and tense environment hinders thinking.
This study has been carried out to determine the death interval from the biochemical parameter of vitreous potassium. In 308 medicolegal cases vitreous humor was taken and analyzed for potassium with known time of death. There was a linear rise in potassium concentration with increasing death interval. Regression ...
Mala, Cynthia Lindquist
Humor is not only instinctive and a basic human need, but it also is very good medicine. Laughter boosts the immune system, lowers blood pressure, reduces stress hormones, and is linked to healthy functioning organs. [This article was written with Mylo Redwater Smith.
Bezbaruah, Nandita; Brunt, Ardith
Objective: The aim of the present study is to determine the influence of cartoon characters in preferences of fruit and vegetables among children. Methods: A 10-item survey was used in this cross-sectional study to determine the factors that influence a child's likelihood of eating fruits and vegetables. Seven factors influencing consumption of…
Miyahara, Motohide; Bray, Anne; Tsujii, Masatsugu; Fujita, Chikako; Sugiyama, Toshiro
This study used a choice reaction-time paradigm to test the perceived impairment of facial affect recognition in Asperger's disorder. Twenty teenagers with Asperger's disorder and 20 controls were compared with respect to the latency and accuracy of response to happy or disgusted facial expressions, presented in cartoon or real images and in…
Demirci, Filiz; Özyürek, Cengiz
The objective of this study is to research the effects of using concept cartoons in the "Solar System and Beyond" unit, which is included in seventh grade science lessons, on students' critical thinking skills. The study group consisted of 58 students, selected using an appropriate sampling method, who were students in a state secondary…
Ozmen, Haluk; Demircioglu, Gokhan; Burhan, Yasemin; Naseriazar, Akbar; Demircioglu, Hulya
The aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of an intervention based on a series of laboratory activities enhanced with concept cartoons. The purpose of the intervention was to enhance students' understanding of acid-base chemistry for eight grade students' from two classes in a Turkish primary school. A pretest-posttest non-equivalent…
Fay Caroline Mary Geisler
Full Text Available Whether or not one uses humor to cope with a setback may depend on the idiosyncratic relation of the setback to feeling of self-worth. All people pursue the higher order goal of self-validation, but people differ in what domains of life their self-worth is contingent upon and to what extent. In this article based on an incongruity theory of humor we argue that the use of humor in coping with a highly self-worth-contingent setback may be impeded by two cognitive-motivational processes: goal-driven activation and goal shielding. From the outlined theory we derived the hypothesis that the more a domain is contingent upon self-worth, the less likely a person will be to use humor to deal with a setback in that domain. We tested this hypothesis in two studies employing two forms of self-report, i.e., ratings of reaction likelihood to setbacks described at an abstract domain level (Study 1, and ranking of reaction likelihood to concrete setbacks from different domains (Study 2. The hypothesis was affirmed in different domains of self-worth contingency controlling for the influence of habitual coping with humor, coping by disengagement, and global self-esteem.
Mireault, Gina; Sparrow, John; Poutre, Merlin; Perdue, Brittany; Macke, Laura
Infancy is a critical time for the development of secure attachment, which is facilitated by emotionally synchronous interactions with parents. Humor development, which includes shared laughter and joint attention to an event, emerges concurrently with attachment, but little is known regarding the relationship, if any, between humor development and attachment in the first year. Thirty 3-month-old infants were videoed at home each month until they were 6-months old while their parents attempted to amuse them. Frequency of infants’ smiles and laughs served as a measure of “state humor”, and the smiling/laughing subscale of the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised served as a measure of “trait humor”. State and trait humor were not correlated. Lower trait humor as 6 months predicted higher attachment security on the Attachment Q-sort at 12-months (r=. 46), suggesting that less good-humored infants elicit greater parental engagement, which works to the benefit of attachment, or vice versa. Future studies should examine the importance of smiling and laughter as they relate to other developmental phenomena in the first year. PMID:22982281
Duan, W C; Lan, L M; Guo, Y D; Zha, L; Yan, J; Ding, Y J; Cai, J F
Estimation of postmortem interval （PMI） plays a crucial role in forensic study and identification work. Because of the unique anatomy location, vitreous humor is considered to be used for estima- ting PMI, which has aroused interest among scholars, and some researches have been carried out. The detection techniques of vitreous humor are constantly developed and improved which have been gradually applied in forensic science, meanwhile, the study of PMI estimation using vitreous humor is updated rapidly. This paper reviews various techniques and instruments applied to vitreous humor detection, such as ion selective electrode, capillary ion analysis, spectroscopy, chromatography, nano-sensing technology, automatic biochemical analyser, flow cytometer, etc., as well as the related research progress on PMI estimation in recent years. In order to provide a research direction for scholars and promote a more accurate and efficient application in PMI estimation by vitreous humor analysis, some inner problems are also analysed in this paper. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine.
Yovetich, N A; Dale, J A; Hudak, M A
The benefits of humor in reducing anxiety were investigated in a laboratory study, in which subjects were falsely led to believe that they would receive a shock in 12 min. Participants were 53 undergraduate students with either high or low sense of humor as measured by the Situational Humor Response Questionnaire of Martin and Lefcourt (1984). During the anticipatory period, subjects listened to either a humorous tape, a nonhumorous tape, or no tape. Dependent variables were repeated measures of self-reported anxiety, heart rate, and zygomatic facial activity. Anxiety increased over the anticipatory period, as predicted. A significant interaction between condition and time indicated that subjects from the humor condition consistently rated themselves as less anxious and reported less increase in stress as the shock approached. A three-way interaction concentrating on the final 3 min. indicated a tendency for subjects with low sense of humor to have higher heart rates in the no-tape condition than in the humorous or nonhumorous tape conditions. Analysis for zygomatic activity indicated more smiling by subjects with high sense of humor and by subjects in the humor condition. Also, the humorous tape elicited more smiling by subjects with high sense of humor.
Hunter, Simon C; Fox, Claire L; Jones, Siân E
This study assessed the concurrent and prospective (fall to spring) associations between four different humor styles to assess the degree to which stable friendships are characterized by similarity, and to assess whether best friends' humor styles influence each other's later use of humor. Participants were aged 11-13 years, with 87 stable, reciprocal best friend dyads. Self-report assessments of humor styles were completed on both occasions. Results indicated that there was no initial similarity in dyads' levels of humor. However, dyads' use of humor that enhances interpersonal relationships (Affiliative humor) became positively correlated by spring. Additionally, young people's use of this humor style was positively associated with their best friend's later use of the same. No such effects were present for humor which was aggressive, denigrating toward the self, or used to enhance the self. These results have clear implications for theories of humor style development, highlighting an important role for Affiliative humor within stable friendship dyads. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Bryan D. Fantie
Full Text Available Regarding the notion of putative “best” practices in social neuroscience and science in general, we contend that following established procedures has advantages, but prescriptive uniformity in methodology can obscure flaws, bias thinking, stifle creativity, and restrict exploration. Generating hypotheses is at least as important as testing hypotheses. To illustrate this process, we describe the following exploratory study. Psychiatric patients have difficulties with social functioning that affect their quality of life adversely. To investigate these impediments, we compared the performances of patients with schizophrenia and those with bipolar disorder to healthy controls on a task that involved matching photographs of facial expressions to a faceless protagonist in each of a series of drawn cartoon emotion-related situations. These scenarios involved either a single character (Nonsocial or multiple characters (Social. The Social scenarios were also Congruent, with everyone in the cartoon displaying the same emotion, or Noncongruent (with everyone displaying a different emotion than the protagonist should. In this preliminary study, both patient groups produced lower scores than controls (p < 0.001, but did not perform differently from each other. All groups performed best on the social-congruent items and worst on the social-noncongruent items (p < 0.001. Performance varied inversely with illness duration, but not symptom severity. Complete emotional, social, cognitive, or perceptual inability is unlikely because these patient groups could still do this task. Nevertheless, the differences we saw could be meaningful functionally and clinically significant and deserve further exploration. Therefore, we stress the need to continue developing novel, alternative ways to explore social cognition in patients with psychiatric disorders and to clarify which elements of the multidimensional process contribute to difficulties in daily functioning.
Warren, Caleb; McGraw, A Peter
After 2.5 millennia of philosophical deliberation and psychological experimentation, most scholars have concluded that humor arises from incongruity. We highlight 2 limitations of incongruity theories of humor. First, incongruity is not consistently defined. The literature describes incongruity in at least 4 ways: surprise, juxtaposition, atypicality, and a violation. Second, regardless of definition, incongruity alone does not adequately differentiate humorous from nonhumorous experiences. We suggest revising incongruity theory by proposing that humor arises from a benign violation: something that threatens a person's well-being, identity, or normative belief structure but that simultaneously seems okay. Six studies, which use entertainment, consumer products, and social interaction as stimuli, reveal that the benign violation hypothesis better differentiates humorous from nonhumorous experiences than common conceptualizations of incongruity. A benign violation conceptualization of humor improves accuracy by reducing the likelihood that joyous, amazing, and tragic situations are inaccurately predicted to be humorous. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Zélia Lopes Silva
Full Text Available This article discusses the meanings of imagistic representations (drawings, cartoons published in A Plebe (The Plebs, from May 1947 to May 1949, the last period of the Edgard Leuenroth’s headship. Created in 1917, the newspaper, supported by libertarian principles, set up as a public sphere suited for the proletarian world because of discussing the problems that workers were facing in their daily lives. The paper printed whipping criticisms against the country's elites and fought, without respite, the capitalist system – qualified as parasitic, violent and expropriator –, supported by mystifying and equally violent enactments from its religious arm, expressed in the actions of the Catholic Church and whose struggle against was also systematic.
Full Text Available For almost four decades, ESL/EFL scholars have been trying to find which learning type, contextualized vs. decontextualized, leads to better vocabulary acquisition and retention. In an attempt to solve this problem, this study tried to examine the possible effectiveness of using humorous context on vocabulary acquisition and retention. Another issue that was undertaken in the present study was comparing the efficiency of contextualized and decontextualized vocabulary learning and retention. For this purpose, 58 Iranian EFL learners were categorized into 3 groups: a humorous, b non-humorous, and c decontextualized. The findings were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey post hoc test. As the results revealed, the participants in decontextualized group outperformed the participants in both humorous and non-humorous groups. However, it should be noted that the performance of humorous group was significantly better than the performance of non-humorous group.
Evgeniya A. Solovyova
Full Text Available The article deals with the use of metaphors as an effective tool for embodying the humor in the modern French substandard military vocabulary. The analysis of the metaphors encoding the military realities allows considering the humor as the most common way to achieve the comic representation of professional sphere. The sources of metaphorical transfer are frequently based on the ordinary realities specific to the civil life. This kind of metaphorical thinking reflects the «naive» picture of professional world conveyed by the humorous metaphors. Furthermore, the metaphor may contribute to the psychological adaptation to the military-related stress. The analysis of the humorous metaphors may also permit to understand some mental particularities specific to the native speakers issued from a given social community.
Li, Bingbing; Li, Xu; Pan, Yangu; Qiu, Jiang; Zhang, Dajun
A self-enhancing humor style (SEHS) plays an important role in the regulation of negative emotion through humorous perspective-taking. Following the mind-reading theories of humor, we investigated the relationship between gray-matter volume (GMV) of brain areas related to theory of mind and SEHS in young college students, using voxel-based morphometry analysis. We then performed a voxel-wise analysis of covariance to assess any moderation effect of cognitive empathy on the relationship. Results demonstrated that higher SEHS scores were associated with larger GMV of the precuneus in the group with high cognitive empathy, but there was no association in the group with low cognitive empathy. These results suggest that high cognitive empathy and increased precuneus volume can predict greater use of self-enhancing humor in young healthy individuals.
Mª. Gorete Reis
Full Text Available Los mayores están sujetos a riesgos acrecentados por el poco compromiso con la vida, el aislamiento, la precariedad de recursos y la enfermedad, entre otros. Hoy, la depresión es considerada la perturbación mental con mayor crecimiento, repercutiendo en los cambios en el estilo de vida y en la salud. Nos cuestionamos sobre el estado de humor deprimido de los mayores que viven en la comunidad. El objetivo es evaluar la depresión e identificar los factores relacionados con ella. Estudio descriptivo correlacional. Conclusión: Hay un número elevado de personas con humor deprimido. Ser mujer y estar enferma revela relaciones con la depresión, así como tener limitaciones para ejecutar las actividades.Old people are submit to risk factors that increase from life disengagement; loneliness, decrease in income and in resources and also from diseases, among others. Today depression is considered a mental disturb in a growing process which affects life style and health. That's why we questioned old people living in community, about depressed humor. The aim of this study is to evaluate depression's level nd associate factors. It's a descriptive, correlate study. Conclusions: There are a great number of people with depressed humor and, be woman, have diseabilities are factors relate to depression.
Wang, Y W; Lin, C D; Yuan, B; Huang, L; Zhang, W X; Shen, D L
Prior to developing an understanding of another person's mental state, an ability termed "theory of mind" (ToM), a perception of that person's appearance and actions is required. However the relationship between this "person perception" and ToM is unclear. To investigate the time course of ToM and person perception, event-related potentials (ERP) were recorded while 17 normal adults received three kinds of visual stimuli: cartoons involving people (person perception cartoons), cartoons involving people and also requiring ToM for comprehension (ToM cartoons), and scene cartoons. We hypothesized that the respective patterns of brain activation would be different under these three stimuli, at different stages in time. Our findings supported this proposal: the peak amplitudes of P200 for scene cartoons were significantly lower than for person perception or ToM cartoons, while there were no significant differences between the latter two for P200. During the 1000-1300 ms epoch, the mean amplitudes of the late positive components (LPC) for person perception were more positive than for scene representation, while the mean amplitudes of the LPC for ToM were more positive than for person perception. The present study provides preliminary evidence of the neural dynamic that underlies the dissociation between person perception and ToM. Copyright 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dean, Ruth Anne Kinsman; Gregory, David M
Humor and laughter are present in most of human interaction. Interactions in health care settings are no exception. Palliative care practitioners know from experience that humor and laughter are common in palliative care despite the seriousness of the care context. Research establishing the significance of humor in care of the dying is limited. Clinical ethnography conducted in a 30-bed inpatient palliative care unit served as the means of exploring the functions of humor in care of the dying. Clinical ethnography is intended for examination of the human experience of illness or of caregiving in an interpersonal context (Kleinman, 1992). The method emphasizes the subjective experience and the realm of communication and interaction for both patients and caregivers. Data were collected through participant observation, informal interviews with patients and families, and semistructured interviews with members of the health care team. Humor and laughter were widespread and important in the research setting. An overall attitude of good humor prevailed. Within that atmosphere, humor served myriad functions. Functions were identified in three overarching themes; building relationships, contending with circumstances, and expressing sensibility. Humor among patients, families, and staff most commonly served to build therapeutic relationships, relieve tension, and protect dignity and a sense of worth. Humor was particularly significant in maintaining collegial relationships, managing stressful situations, and maintaining a sense of perspective. Findings established the significance of humor and laughter as humanizing dimensions of care of the dying and contributes to the volume of research supporting evidence-based practice.
Johnson, Mark; McLaren, Jay W; Overby, Darryl R
Aqueous humor flows out of the eye primarily through the conventional outflow pathway that includes the trabecular meshwork and Schlemm's canal. However, a fraction of aqueous humor passes through an alternative or 'unconventional' route that includes the ciliary muscle, supraciliary and suprachoroidal spaces. From there, unconventional outflow may drain through two pathways: a uveoscleral pathway where aqueous drains across the sclera to be resorbed by orbital vessels, and a uveovortex pathway where aqueous humor enters the choroid to drain through the vortex veins. We review the anatomy, physiology and pharmacology of these pathways. We also discuss methods to determine unconventional outflow rate, including direct techniques that use radioactive or fluorescent tracers recovered from tissues in the unconventional pathway and indirect methods that estimate unconventional outflow based on total outflow over a range of pressures. Indirect methods are subject to a number of assumptions and generally give poor agreement with tracer measurements. We review the variety of animal models that have been used to study conventional and unconventional outflow. The mouse appears to be a promising model because it captures several aspects of conventional and unconventional outflow dynamics common to humans, although questions remain regarding the magnitude of unconventional outflow in mice. Finally, we review future directions. There is a clear need to develop improved methods for measuring unconventional outflow in both animals and humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Humoralism, the view that the human body is composed of a limited number of elementary fluids, is one of the most characteristic aspects of ancient medicine. The psychological dimension of humoral theory in the ancient world has thus far received a relatively small amount of scholarly attention. Medical psychology in the ancient world can only be correctly understood by relating it to psychological thought in other fields, such as ethics and rhetoric. The concept that ties these various domains together is character (êthos), which involves a view of human beings focused on clearly distinguishable psychological types that can be recognized on the basis of external signs. Psychological ideas based on humoral theory remained influential well into the early modern period. Yet, in 17th-century medicine and philosophy, humoral physiology and psychology started to lose ground to other theoretical perspectives on the mind and its relation to the body. This decline of humoralist medical psychology can be related to a broader reorientation of psychological thought in which the traditional concept of character lost its central position. Instead of the focus on types and stable character traits, a perspective emerged that was primarily concerned with individuality and transient passions.
Kopytin, Alexander; Lebedev, Alexey
This article presents findings from a study of the therapeutic effects of group art therapy in a psychotherapy unit of a Russian hospital for war veterans. The researchers randomly assigned 112 veterans being treated for stress-related disorders to an experimental group (art therapy) and a control group. The emphasis was on the use of humor in the…
Wecker, Thomas; Hoffmeier, Klaus; Plötner, Anne; Grüning, Björn Andreas; Horres, Ralf; Backofen, Rolf; Reinhard, Thomas; Schlunck, Günther
Extracellular microRNAs (miRNAs) in aqueous humor were suggested to have a role in transcellular signaling and may serve as disease biomarkers. The authors adopted next-generation sequencing (NGS) techniques to further characterize the miRNA profile in single samples of 60 to 80 μL human aqueous humor. Samples were obtained at the outset of cataract surgery in nine independent, otherwise healthy eyes. Four samples were used to extract RNA and generate sequencing libraries, followed by an adapter-driven amplification step, electrophoretic size selection, sequencing, and data analysis. Five samples were used for quantitative PCR (qPCR) validation of NGS results. Published NGS data on circulating miRNAs in blood were analyzed in comparison. One hundred fifty-eight miRNAs were consistently detected by NGS in all four samples; an additional 59 miRNAs were present in at least three samples. The aqueous humor miRNA profile shows some overlap with published NGS-derived inventories of circulating miRNAs in blood plasma with high prevalence of human miR-451a, -21, and -16. In contrast to blood, miR-184, -4448, -30a, -29a, -29c, -19a, -30d, -205, -24, -22, and -3074 were detected among the 20 most prevalent miRNAs in aqueous humor. Relative expression patterns of miR-451a, -202, and -144 suggested by NGS were confirmed by qPCR. Our data illustrate the feasibility of miRNA analysis by NGS in small individual aqueous humor samples. Intraocular cells as well as blood plasma contribute to the extracellular aqueous humor miRNome. The data suggest possible roles of miRNA in intraocular cell adhesion and signaling by TGF-β and Wnt, which are important in intraocular pressure regulation and glaucoma.
Full Text Available In 2010, there were estimated to be approximately 60.5 million people with glaucoma. This number is expected to increase to 79.6 million by 2020. In 2010, there were 8.4 million people with bilateral blindness caused by glaucoma, and this number is expected in increase to 11.2 million by 2020. Filtering implants are special devices that have been developed to reduce intraocular pressure in patients with refractory glaucoma. The success rate of these implants is relatively low, and they continue to fail over time. To avoid failure caused by the formation of scar tissue around the implants, attempts have been made to drain the aqueous humor to various sites, including the venous system, lacrimal sac, sinuses, and conjunctival fornix. Recently, a system to shunt aqueous humor from the anterior chamber to the peritoneum has been developed. The surgical technique involved in this system is a modification of the technique currently used by neurosurgeons for the treatment of hydrocephalus. We present the first case operated using this technique.
Bains, Gurinder Singh; Berk, Lee S; Lohman, Everett; Daher, Noha; Petrofsky, Jerrold; Schwab, Ernie; Deshpande, Pooja
increased by 12.6%, 16.7%, and 8.3%, respectively (P = .321). For levels of salivary cortisol, the research team found significant and borderline decreases for the humor group between baseline and (1) post-RAVLT1 (P = .047), (2) postvideo (P = .046), and (3) post-RAVLT2 (P = .062). The diabetic group showed significant decreases between baseline and (1) post-RAVLT1 (P = .047), (2) postvideo (P = .025), and (3) post-RAVLT2 (P = .034). The study found no significant changes for the control group. The research findings supported potential clinical and rehabilitative benefits for humor that can be applied to whole-person wellness programs for older adults. The cognitive components-learning ability and delayed recall-become more challenging as individuals age and are essential to older adults for providing a high quality of life: mind, body, and spirit. Because older adults can experience age-related memory deficits, complementary, enjoyable, and beneficial humor therapies should be implemented for them.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the role of humor style and motor skills in vulnerability to bullying. 729 adults responded to the Humor Style Questionnaire (HSQ and items retrospectively addressing their motor skills and bullying experiences during childhood. Consistent with recent research, poorer motor skills were associated with a greater extent of having been bullied. An association between stronger motor skills and affiliative humor was found, lending support to a shared biological basis theory underlying social and motor competency processes. Most importantly, being bullied was associated with higher self-defeating humor and lower affiliative humor. This supports earlier theoretical work by Klein and Kuiper (2006 and highlights the role that humor styles play in social interactions that can promote positive peer acceptance and wellbeing.
Full Text Available The author of this text gave lessons of graphic humour and comics dealing with local customs, in the classrooms at the Círculo de Bellas Artes in Madrid during a week in the 2010 summer. His report about these days shows a way to consider the teaching of the comic that places the information about the media and its own narrative tools in close-up and then, the mere plastic accuracy. This way of teaching also proposes specific exercises and alternation of new and traditional technologies. Giving the creative historical precedents and the sector publishing reality, is also a matter of importance from a professional point of view. At the same time, the author explains his theory on the humouristic speech, some considerations about the nature of the drawing and championed a very large definition of the two words: “cartoon story”.
El autor de este texto impartió un taller de humor gráfico e historieta costumbrista en las aulas del madrileño Círculo de Bellas Artes durante una semana del verano de 2010. Su relato de aquellos días esboza una forma de abordar la enseñanza de la historieta que coloca en primer término el conocimiento del medio y sus herramientas narrativas sobre la mera habilidad plástica. En esa dirección, propone ejercicios concretos y procedimientos que alternan nuevas y tradicionales tecnologías. También destaca la importancia formativa de dar a conocer los antecedentes creativos históricos del medio y la realidad editorial del sector desde el punto de vista profesional, al mismo tiempo que expone fugazmente su particular teoría sobre la estructura del discurso humorístico, emite diversas consideraciones sobre la naturaleza del dibujo y aboga por una amplísima definición del término historieta.
Ruiz Gurillo, Leonor
The aim of this paper is to analyze children’s production of humor from a linguistic perspective. Our research focuses on linguistic aspects of humor production and appreciation analyzed through a corpus of 148 narratives in Spanish about the same subject –a school trip to Mars‒ handwritten by nine-to-ten-year-old schoolchildren. Understanding humor as “the experience of finding something amusing”, the types of appreciation that children enjoy are: physical discrepancy; violation of expectati...
The study presented in this thesis is concerned with changes in the humoral immune system as a function of age in different inbred mouse strains. Their capacity to develop humoral immune responses to experimentally given thymus-dependent and thymus-independent antigens under various conditions is compared. Furthermore, experiments employing thymus transplantation and thymic humoral factors which are directed at the restoration of the diminished T cell functions in old age are reported. (Auth.)
Zulfadli A. Aziz
Full Text Available The Malay cartoons that air on Indonesian television channels are now popular among children in Indonesia. The shows Upin & Ipin, Boboboi, and Pada Zaman Dahulu are especially popular with Acehnese children. Initial observations found that these cartoons have played a great role in the increased use of contemporary Malay in their Indonesian. Thus, this study discusses the cross-linguistic influences of Malay from cartoons in Indonesian children’s language use in the home domain. Data were collected through recordings and field notes. Some steps based on the framework by Lacey and Luff (2007 were taken to analyze the data. The results were transcribed and sifted to distinguish the significant data. The recording and its transcription were then re-checked. The last step was categorizing the data into cross-linguistic influences based on Ringbom (1987. These influences include borrowing, hybrids, phonetic influence, and relexification. The results showed the presence of only two aspects of cross-linguistic influences: borrowing and phonetic influences. Borrowing was the most frequent aspect, followed by phonetic influence. Relexification and hybrid did not appear in the data. Nevertheless, there were other cross-linguistic aspects that were found in the data, including intonation, parenthetic remark, and interjection. In the broad-spectrum, the initial mimic on the Malay cartoon characters has expanded to employment in the language use of the children while speaking Indonesian. This study is expected to contribute in some ways or another towards the development of sociolinguistics, especially in cross-linguistic influence in children’s language use. Indonesia and Malaysia are neighboring countries, and language contact between the two countries is inevitable and evident. Hence, the study on the influences can benefit sociolinguistics, especially when investigating language change in the future.
Four sets of biographical data were analyzed in order to test the hypothesis that the ability to generate humor is associated with longevity. Although steps were taken to ensure that tests had high levels of statistical power, analyses provided very little support for the idea that individuals with a well-developed sense of humor live longer than serious writers and other entertainers. In addition, a subsidiary analysis revealed that those in the business of entertaining others died at an earlier age than those in other lines of endeavor. These findings suggest that researchers should turn their attention from trait humor to the effects of humorous material.
Full Text Available Los estudios clásicos sobre el humor identifican una interrelación estrecha entre humor y angustia. En la serie narrativa Papelucho, esta interacción es constante en la trama de las distintas novelas. Este trabajo describe la interacción entre humor y angustia que se da en la obra y reflexiona sobre su sentido. Se concluye que la serie propone el humor como estrategia para enfrentar los hechos angustiantes ineludibles en la vida.
Gildberg, Frederik A; Paaske, Kristian J; Rasmussen, Vivian L; Nissen, Ricko D; Bradley, Stephen K; Hounsgaard, Lise
According to research literature, humor inside the staff-patient interaction seems to be significant in the area of forensic mental healthcare. However, existing literature on the subject is limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the characteristics of the use humor by forensic mental health staff members in interactions with forensic mental health inpatients. The study included 32 forensic mental health staff members, used 307 hours of participant observations, 48 informal interviews, and seven formal semistructured interviews. Outcomes identify four themes concerning the conveyance of power to, from, and between forensic mental health staff and patients as they interact: (a) "the informal use: the human-to-human approach," characterized by an informal use of humor and without any reference to mental health issues; (b) the "formal use of humor: the staff-patient approach," characterized as formal with a view on the patient as mentally ill, unable to understand humor, and with the aim of using humor to prevent conflicts or negative behavior; (c) "protest against requested care: the human-patient approach," characterized by the use of humor as a protest against requested care; and the use of (d) "inadequacy humor: the staff-human approach," characterized by the use of inadequacy-humor referring to, for example, patients' physical features. Recommendations and clinical implications are discussed.
Whitt, O R; Jilcott Pitts, S B; Rafferty, A P; Payne, C R; Ng, S W
This study's purpose was to examine changes in healthy and unhealthy items purchased following the implementation of traffic light and cartoon labelling in a small retail food venue (Café Bay) in a children's hospital in eastern North Carolina. Between October 2015 and March 2016, daily food and beverage sales from Café Bay were obtained during baseline, traffic light labelling, a washout period, cartoon labelling (on healthy foods only) and a final washout period. Pearson chi-squared tests and multiple linear regressions were used to examine effects of labelling strategies, controlling for the holidays. In unadjusted analyses, traffic light labelling was associated with significant decreases in purchases of unhealthy items purchased, while cartoon labelling was associated with increases in unhealthy items purchased. In adjusted linear regression analysis, traffic light labelling was associated with fewer unhealthy purchases and thus may have potential to decrease the amount of unhealthy items purchased in a children's hospital food retail venue. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.
Wie man’s nimmt. Zum Zusammenhang von Rassentheorien und Humor in den Schriften von Fritz von Herzmanovksy-Orlando[How you look at it. The relations between grotesque humour and racial theories in the writings of Fritz von Herzmanovsky-Orlando
Full Text Available This article discusses the relationship between grotesque humor and racial theories in the works of Fritz von Herzmanovsky-Orlando. The humor of his literary works comprises deviant characters and slips of the tongue, exposing a penchant for physiological and philological deviations. In his esoteric writings, ariosophic legends and etymological acumen serve to reconstruct inhabitants and languages of a fallen age. The author’s humor is thus based on political beliefs of the 1920’s, rendering him, his people and language greater than they could actually be.
Bujalkova, M; Straka, S; Jureckova, A
Ancient medicine integrated three components: experience (empirical observation), religion/magic and speculations of natural philosophers. The Greek medicine out-achieved medicine of other ancient nations in starting to investigate the true causes of health and diseases and thus laying foundations for the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment. Hippocrates, the most famous physician of the ancient times, made a synthesis of existing philosophical opinions from the point of view of a physician. His 58 writings were preserved in the collection "Corpus Hippocraticum". The most relevant writing in it--"Peri fyseos anthropu" (On the nature of man)--is ascribed to Hippocrates' son-in-law Polybos to whom we are grateful for the ancient humoral-pathological theory. In explaining human organism and its processes the author integrated ancient teachings on 4 basic humors (humoral theory), elements and qualities with observations of manifestations of health and disease. Normal condition (health) was defined as balance between the body fluids (eukrasia) and external environment. If this balance is disturbed, the result is dyskrasia, i.e. disease studied by pathology. According to Hippocrates disease causes can be understood only through empirical study. A man has a power to overcome disease, but to achieve it the right diet is necessary to keep harmony in body fluids of an organism. The role of a physician was just to support the nature. "Prognosis", another writing included in "Corpus Hippocraticum", reflects Hippocrates' understanding of prognosis as a necessary development of diagnosis based on past knowledge (anamnesis) and present observation. Ideas of Hippocrates and his medical school are still valuable and inspiring especially for today's very sophisticated medicine--concept of fighting diseases by natural means: maintaining healthy lifestyle and harmony within the organism, or an effort for perfect understanding of human creature and for humanization of medicine. (Fig. 3
Sakamoto, Yuki; Yokota, Chiaki; Miyashita, Fumio; Amano, Tatsuo; Shigehatake, Yuya; Oyama, Satoshi; Itagaki, Naruhiko; Okumura, Kosuke; Toyoda, Kazunori; Minematsu, Kazuo
Stroke education for the youth is expected to reduce prehospital delay by informing the bystander of appropriate action to take and providing knowledge to prevent onset of stroke in future. Previously, we developed effective teaching materials consisting of an animated cartoon and a Manga for junior high school students. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of our educational materials for stroke education taught by schoolteachers to elementary school children. Using our teaching materials, a 30-minute lesson was given by trained general schoolteachers. Questionnaires on stroke knowledge (symptoms and risk factors) and action to take on identification of suspected stroke symptoms were filled out by school children before, immediately after, and at 3 months after completion of the lesson. A total of 219 children (aged 10 or 11 years) received the stroke lesson. Stroke knowledge significantly increased immediately after the lesson compared with before (symptoms, P Manga that was previously used for junior high school students was feasible for elementary school children. However, revision of the materials is required for better retention of stroke knowledge for children. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Mass-mediated American culture and the English language became raw materials for vernacular protest humor alongside images of headscarf-wearing middle-aged “aunties” during antigovernment protests in Turkey in the summer of 2013. Focusing on posts shared on Facebook and Twitter by Turkish protestors and their supporters in the first two months of the protests, this article studies the complex linguistic and visual humor that developed around Gezi Park and relates it to the identity politics mobilized during the resistance. Exploring how the protestors projected themselves as both cosmopolitan (through the use of American mass culture and the English language and locally rooted (through the use of auntie humor, the essay delineates how “America” can function in local Middle Eastern politics even in the absence of actual US intervention on the ground. Humor at Gezi demonstrates how closely analyzing transculturated vernacular communication can help us modify Western-derived academic theories about culture and power, making the case for incorporating the study of folklore into transnational American Studies.
Houssen, Maha E; El-Hussiny, Mona Abo Bakr; El-Kannishy, Amr; Sabry, Dalia; El Mahdy, Rasha; Shaker, Mohamed E
Interleukin (IL)-27 has been reported to possess anti- and proinflammatory properties in several immune related-disorders, but its role in diabetic retinopathy is still elusive. Here, we aimed to (i) evaluate IL-27 concentrations in serum and aqueous humor of diabetic patients with or without retinopathy and (ii) test whether IL-27 is correlated with some risk factors of diabetic retinopathy. The study comprised 60 diabetic patients with and without retinopathy along with 20 healthy controls. Serum and aqueous humor concentrations of IL-27 were assessed by ELISA. The mean of IL-27 concentration in aqueous humor in patients with diabetic retinopathy (6.7 ± 2.7 ng/L) was significantly elevated in comparison with either diabetic patients without retinopathy (4.6 ± 0.5 ng/L) or healthy control group (4.1 ± 0.8 ng/L). Besides, IL-27 concentration in aqueous humor was positively correlated with serum glucose, lipid profile and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Based on this study, IL-27 is implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy and positively correlates with the disorder progression.
Obert, Alexandre; Gierski, Fabien; Calmus, Arnaud; Flucher, Aurélie; Portefaix, Christophe; Pierot, Laurent; Kaladjian, Arthur; Caillies, Stéphanie
Irony is a kind of figurative language used by a speaker to say something that contrasts with the context and, to some extent, lends humor to a situation. However, little is known about the brain regions that specifically support the processing of these two common features of irony. The present study had two main aims: (i) investigate the neural basis of irony processing, by delivering short ironic spoken sentences (and their literal counterparts) to participants undergoing fMRI; and (ii) assess the neural effect of two irony parameters, obtained from normative studies: degree of contrast and humor appreciation. Results revealed activation of the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), posterior part of the left superior temporal gyrus, medial frontal cortex, and left caudate during irony processing, suggesting the involvement of both semantic and theory-of-mind networks. Parametric models showed that contrast was specifically associated with the activation of bilateral frontal and subcortical areas, and that these regions were also sensitive to humor, as shown by a conjunction analysis. Activation of the bilateral IFG is consistent with the literature on humor processing, and reflects incongruity detection/resolution processes. Moreover, the activation of subcortical structures can be related to the reward processing of social events. PMID:27851821
Hernández-Martínez, F J; Piñas-García, P; Lleó-Pérez, A V; Zanón-Moreno, V C; Bendala-Tufanisco, E; García-Medina, J J; Vinuesa-Silva, I; Pinazo-Durán, M D
To investigate the lipid peroxidation (PEROX) processes in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) patients, and whether this mechanism may be related to disease progression. A prospective, observational, cross-sectional, non-experimental, and analytical study was conducted on a case and a comparison group, consisting of 175 surgical patients divided into: 1) POAG group (GG; n=88) and 2) comparison group of patients with cataracts (CG; n=87). Demographic data, patient characteristics, lifestyle data, as well as ophthalmological examination were registered in an Excel spreadsheet. Biochemical data were obtained by processing the aqueous humor collected at the beginning of surgery. Determination of malondialdehyde/thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (MDA/TBARS) and total antioxidant activity (AAO) was assayed using enzymatic-colorimetric methods in the aqueous humor samples. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 15.0 software. Aqueous humor MDA/TBARS levels were significantly higher (P<.001) and the AAO significantly lower (P<.001) in the GG than in the GC. The MDA/TBARS directly correlated with intraocular pressure (IOP) values and the cup-to-disc ratio (CDR). Decreased AAO activity correlated inversely with IOP and CDR. Differences between groups were noticeably higher in the GG as regards obesity, alcohol consumption, anxiety, depression, and sedentary lifestyle. In the multivariate analysis, the variables that showed a better predictive ability were: MDA/TBARS, PIO, AAO, CDR, and depression. The POAG patients have a PEROX background that is reflected in the aqueous humor by variations in MDA/TBARS and AAO. Moreover, both the MDA/TBARS and AAO correlated with IOP values and the CDR. We propose that determination of MDA/TBARS and AAO in the aqueous humor of POAG patients can be used as biomarkers for monitoring the disease, as well the changes in lifestyle and other related risk factors. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by
Brown, Alan S.; Itzig, Jerry M.
The effects of humorous test questions on test performance of high and low-anxious college students was investigated. It was hypothesized that humor should reduce the anxiety level of high-anxious subjects, and thus improve their performance, while having little effect on low-anxious subjects. Students were assigned to a low or high-anxious group…
Used properly, humor can be a valuable educational tool. It also helps middle school students cope with many of the personal issues that arise and focus on school, and helps teachers connect with their students. From silly costumes to movie music, this article describes how some teachers and administrators incorporate humor into their daily school…
Dean, Ruth Anne Kinsman; Gregory, David M
Humor and laughter are ubiquitous in human interactions. Terminal illness, however, is often accompanied by circumstances of anxiety, fear, and sadness. Hospice/palliative care emphasizes quality of life and the importance of human relationships. In this context, humor finds its place in authentic person-to-person connectedness. This article presents findings from a clinical ethnography that investigated the phenomena of humor and laughter in an inpatient palliative care unit. As a participant observer, the lead author accompanied 6 nurses throughout their day-to-day activities, twice weekly over 12 weeks. In addition to more than 200 hours of fieldwork, informal conversations were held with patients and families and semistructured interviews were conducted with nurses (n = 11), physicians (n = 2), a social worker (n = 1), and a physiotherapist (n = 1). Humor was pervasive, varied in the setting, and occurred across a range of intensities. Both clients and team members used humor to build relationships, contend with circumstances, and express sensibilities. Humor was affected by differences in people, differing circumstances, ethnicity, gender, and degree of stress. Participants relied on intuition as well as a constellation of other factors in discerning whether or not to use humor. Techniques for assessment included identification of cues such as expression in the eyes and timing as indications of receptivity. Combined with caring and sensitivity, humor is a powerful therapeutic asset in hospice/palliative care. It must neither be taken for granted nor considered trivial.
Humor is important in our daily life, whether our activities are at home, at work, or in public spaces, for example during sports or other recreational and entertainment activities. Until now, computational humor, the research area that investigates rules and algorithms to understand and to generate
Recepoglu, Ergun; Kilinc, Ali Cagatay; Cepni, Osman
The purpose of this research is to examine the motivation level of teachers according to school principals' humor styles. The humor styles survey and job motivation scale were used to gather data from 305 randomly selected teachers employed in primary schools in Karabuk. Results indicated that 141 of the teachers claimed school principal had…
Young, Jonathan W.
Results from a qualitative component of a mixed-methods research design are reported regarding the use of humor in pastoral ministry. Thirteen Southern Baptist (SB) pastors were interviewed, from a total of 37 exemplars identified in the quantitative component of the study, regarding their perspectives toward humor in ministry. Results overall…
Wortley, Amy; Dotson, Elizabeth
This paper examines the use of instructional humor in higher education settings and makes connections between the levels of student achievement in academics and the influence of appropriate instructional humor. The work of prominent researchers such as Wanzer, Frymier, and Irwin (2010), and Segrist & Hupp (2015), who postulate that…
Kao, Justine T.; Levy, Roger; Goodman, Noah D.
Humor plays an essential role in human interactions. Precisely what makes something funny, however, remains elusive. While research on natural language understanding has made significant advancements in recent years, there has been little direct integration of humor research with computational models of language understanding. In this paper, we…
"I Love Lucy" is considered to have been one of the most humorous television programs in the United States as early as the 1950s. This paper explores the use of language by the protagonists, Lucy and Ricky Ricardo, in order to understand the source of the program's humor. Linguistic analysis of the Ricardos' speech is applied,…
Alvarez, Lawrence J.; Zamudio, Aldo C.; Candia, Oscar A.
Sildenafil citrate increases ocular blood flow and accelerates the rate of anterior chamber refilling after paracentesis. The latter effect could have resulted from a reduction in outflow facility or from an increase in aqueous humor (AH) production. In this study, we used scanning ocular fluorophotometry to examine the effects of sildenafil on AH turnover, and thus, AH production in eyes of live normal rabbits. For this, the rate of aqueous humor flow (AHF) was quantified with a commercially available fluorophotometer that measured the rate of fluorescein clearance from the anterior segment, which predominantly occurs via the trabecular meshwork. After ≈ 2 hrs of control scans to determine the baseline rate of AHF, the rabbits were fed 33 mg of sildenafil and allowed ≈ 45 min for the drug to enter the systemic circulation. Thereafter, fluorescence scans were retaken for an additional 90–120 min. Sildenafil ingestion increased AHF by about 36%, from 2.31 μL/min to 3.14 μL/min (PViagra, Revatio), stimulates AHF in rabbits. Our results seem consistent with reports indicating that the drug dilates intraocular arteries and augments intraocular vascular flow. These physiological responses to the agent apparently led to increased fluid entry into the anterior chamber. As such, the drug might have utility in patients with ocular hypotony resulting from insufficient AH formation. PMID:23562660
Delhaye, Jessica; Jenkins, Tania; Glaizot, Olivier; Christe, Philippe
Plasmodium parasites are known to impose fitness costs on their vertebrate hosts. Some of these costs are due to the activation of the immune response, which may divert resources away from self-maintenance. Plasmodium parasites may also immuno-deplete their hosts. Thus, infected individuals may be less able to mount an immune response to a new pathogen than uninfected ones. However, this has been poorly investigated. The effect of Plasmodium infection on bird humoral immune response when encountering a novel antigen was tested. A laboratory experiment was conducted on canaries (Serinus canaria) experimentally infected with Plasmodium relictum (lineage SGS1) under controlled conditions. Birds were immune challenged with an intra-pectoral injection of a novel non-pathogenic antigen (keyhole limpet haemocyanin, KLH). One week later they were challenged again. The immune responses to the primary and to the secondary contacts were quantified as anti-KLH antibody production via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). There was no significant difference in antibody production between uninfected and Plasmodium infected birds at both primary and secondary contact. However, Plasmodium parasite intensity in the blood increased after the primary contact with the antigen. There was no effect of Plasmodium infection on the magnitude of the humoral immune response. However, there was a cost of mounting an immune response in infected individuals as parasitaemia increased after the immune challenge, suggesting a trade-off between current control of chronic Plasmodium infection and investment against a new immune challenge.
CAROLINA M. CIFUENTES
Full Text Available Effects of humor in advertisement published in Colombia were investigated in regards to brands,advertisement, purchase intention, recall and recognition.A simultaneous Classical Conditioning procedure was carried out, using Incongruous, Hostile and Allusivehumor associated to three brands. The procedure was applied to 30 university students. Results revealedthat the three kinds of humor work as unconditioning stimulus, generating positive attitudes towardsadvertisement and brand. Humor influences the purchase intention and recognition, but not the remembranceof brand when compared to neutral advertisement. Incongrous and Hostile Humor generate recognitionand positive attitude towards advertisement and brand. Allusions have a greater effect on purchaseintention than the other ones. Results corroborate the effectiveness of humor as an advertisement tool.
Full Text Available In the developmental literature it has been advanced that young children would not understand the specificity of nonliteral communicative acts. In this article I shall focus on young children’s ability to produce and understand different forms of humor. I shall explore children’s acquisition of the communicative contexts that constitute the background enabling them to perform humorous interactions before being able to analyze them in the terms allowed by a full fledged ToM. I consider that different forms of humor share a number of basic features and that we can draw a continuum from simple forms to sophisticated ones. In particular I shall focus on teasing, a form of humor already present in preverbal infants but also considered as a typical feature of irony. I shall argue that all forms of humor can be described in the terms of a kind of interaction that I propose to call playing with expectations.
In the developmental literature, the idea has been proposed that young children do not understand the specificity of non-literal communicative acts. In this article, I focus on young children’s ability to produce and understand different forms of humor. I explore the acquisition of the communicative contexts that enable children to engage in humorous interactions before they possess the capacity to analyze them in the terms afforded by a full-fledged theory of mind. I suggest that different forms of humor share several basic features and that we can construct a continuum from simple to sophisticated forms. In particular, I focus on teasing, a form of humor already present in preverbal infants that is also considered a typical feature of irony. I argue that all forms of humor can be regarded as a type of interaction that I propose to call “playing with expectations.” PMID:27703438
Lacerda, Luciana C C; de Souza-Pollo, Andressa; Padua, Ivan Ricardo M; Conceição, Luciano F; da Silveira, Camila P Balthazar; Silva, Germana A; Maluta, Renato P; Laus, José L
Bacterial contamination of the anterior chamber during cataract surgery is one of the main responsible for endophthalmitis postoperative. Phacoemulsification is a less invasive technique for cataract treatment, although it does not exclude the possibility of contamination. In this study, bacterial contaminants of aqueous humor collected pre- and post-phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation (IOL) of twenty dogs were identified. As the conjunctival microbiota constitute a significant source of anterior chamber contamination, bacterial isolates from aqueous humor were genetically compared with those present in the conjunctival surface of the patients. Three dogs presented bacterial growth in both aqueous humor and conjunctival surface samples. Bacterial isolates from these samples were grouped according to their genetic profiles by repetitive-element PCR (rep-PCR) and their representatives were identified by 16S rRNA sequencing. Isolates from conjunctival surface were identified as Enterobacter spp., Staphylococcus spp. and S. aureus; and from aqueous humor samples as Enterobacter spp., Pantoea spp., Streptococcus spp. and Staphylococcus spp., respectively in decreasing order of prevalence. According to the rep-PCR analysis, 16.6% of Enterobacter spp. isolates from conjunctival surface were genetically similar to those from aqueous humor. The rest of isolates encountered in aqueous humor were genetically distinct from those of conjunctival surface. The significant genetic diversity of bacterial isolates found in the aqueous humor samples after surgery denoted the possibility of anterior chamber contamination during phacoemulsification by bacteria not only from conjunctival surface but also from different sources related to surgical environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Objective: The provision of information appears to be an important feature of humor. The present studies examined whether humor serves as an interpersonal signal such that an individual's style of humor is associated with how the individual is perceived by others. Method: We examined this issue across two studies. In Study 1, undergraduate participants (257 targets were rated more positively by their friends and family members (1194 perceivers when they possessed more benign humor styles. In Study 2, 1190 community participants rated the romantic desirability of targets ostensibly possessing different humor styles. Results: Across both studies, our results were consistent with the possibility that humor serves as a signal. More specifically, individuals with benign humor styles (affiliative and self-enhancing humor styles were evaluated more positively than those targets with injurious humor styles (aggressive and self-defeating humor styles. Conclusion: These findings are discussed in terms of the role that humor may play in interpersonal perception and relationships.
Humor operates through a variety of techniques, which first generate surprise and then amusement and laughter once the unexpected incongruity is resolved. As different types of jokes use different techniques, the corresponding humor processes also differ. The present study builds on the framework of the 'tri-component theory of humor,' which details the mechanisms involved in cognition (comprehension), affect (appreciation), and laughter (expression). This study seeks to identify differences among joke types and between sexes/genders in the neural mechanisms underlying humor processing. Three types of verbal jokes, bridging-inference jokes (BJs), exaggeration jokes (EJs), and ambiguity jokes (AJs), were used as stimuli. The findings revealed differences in brain activity for an interaction between sex/gender and joke type. For BJs, women displayed greater activation in the temporoparietal-mesocortical-motor network than men, demonstrating the importance of the temporoparietal junction (TPJ) presumably for 'theory of mind' processing, the orbitofrontal cortex for motivational functions and reward coding, and the supplementary motor area for laughter. Women also showed greater activation than men in the frontal-mesolimbic network associated with EJs, including the anterior (frontopolar) prefrontal cortex (aPFC, BA 10) for executive control processes, and the amygdala and midbrain for reward anticipation and salience processes. Conversely, AJs elicited greater activation in men than women in the frontal-paralimbic network, including the dorsal prefrontal cortex (dPFC) and parahippocampal gyrus. All joke types elicited greater activation in the aPFC of women than of men, whereas men showed greater activation than women in the dPFC. To confirm the findings related to sex/gender differences, random group analysis and within group variance analysis were also performed. These findings help further establish the mechanisms underlying the processing of different joke types
Sjoberg, Y.; Bouchard, F.; Deshpande, B.; Fritz, M.; Malenfant-Lepage, J.; Nieuwendam, A.; Paquette, M.; Rudy, A.; Siewert, M. B.; Veillette, A.; Weege, S.; Habeck, J. O.; Harbor, J.
Communicating science about a phenomenon found under ground and defined by its thermal properties in an easy, fun, and engaging way, can be a challenge. Two years ago, a group of young researchers from Canada and Europe united to tackle this problem by combining arts and science to produce a series of outreach comic strips about permafrost (frozen ground). Because this concerns us all. As the climate warms, permafrost thaws and becomes unstable for houses, roads and airports.The thawing also disrupts ecosystems, impacts water quality, and releases greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, making climate change even stronger. The Frozen Ground Cartoon project aims to present and explain permafrost research, placing emphasis on field work and the rapidly changing northern environment. The target audience is kids, youth, parents and teachers, with the general goal of making permafrost science more fun and accessible to the public. The project has so far produced 22 pages of comics through an iterative process of exchanging ideas between two artists and thirteen scientists. The project artists were selected through an application call that received 49 applications from artists in 16 countries. With input from scientists, artists Noémie Ross (Canada) and Heta Nääs (Finland) have created a set of beautiful, artistic, humoristic, and pedagogic comics.. The comics are available for free download through the project web page (in English and Swedish), and printed copies have so far been handed out to school kids and general public in Europe. Prints in North America are planned for the fall of 2017. The next steps of the project are (1) to distribute the comics as wide as possible, (2) work towards translations into more languages, and (3) to evaluate the effectiveness of the science communication through the comics, in collaboration with schools and pedagogic experts.
Inmaculada Sánchez-Labella Martín
Full Text Available With the advancement of technology, Internet it has become the primary means for audiovisual consumption while presenting a critical situation around the debate the quality of the content. With the emergence of DTT (Digital Terrestrial Television in Spain television networks, public and private, they have created new thematics channels focused on content for children. At the same time, with the rise of new electronic devices such as tablets and smartphones, they have moved such content to the network by creating of platforms whose programs are aimed childhood. The non-linearity and immediacy in consumption make the Internet becomes an active mean giving autonomy and freedom to access a multitude of content regardless of time and the device. In this situation the child consumers is the audience that worries both parents and educational institutions. Restless, therefore, that children do not find programs adjusted to their age. The quality concept harbors no concrete definition because of the multitude of factors and perspectives that influence it. This paper, and based on different measurement criteria set by countries like Argentina, Chile, Spain, France, Italy, Japan, Sweden, the University of Pennsylvania (USA or the ACTF (Australian Children´s Television Foundation poses as main objective to analyze the online platforms Clan RTVE, Neox Kidz and Boing of television TVE, Antena 3 and Telecinco, respectively, because they are considered spaces with audiovisual material created for children. With the intention of demonstrating that they are presented as quality environments for children who access them it will conduct a qualitative methodology. Using the content analysis technique to each of the animated titles we can say that the cartoons, as outlined above, are quality entertainment programs.
The transformation of all things media and information into a dynamic environment of user access has created what seems infinite possibilities to inform the public in many different ways - as well as seemingly infinite possibilities to confuse. This talk will describe a rather non-conventional collaboration between two different creative cultures and its significance to maintaining scientific accuracy and devising strategies important to audience engagement - among them, humor. While focusing on the award-winning effort ``When Things Get Small'' created by University of California Television producer R. Wargo in collaboration with condensed matter physicist I.K. Schuller and actor Adam J. Smith, with both NSF and private support, the case study provides insight into a model and modes which can be used successfully by other scientists to engage the public in what they do.
Vyborny, P.; Hornova, J.
Aqueous humor dynamics was observed in patients treated for glaucoma. Aqueous flow was measured using the radionuclide method of contact application of 22 NaCl and the detection of gamma radiation with external detectors. The sample of 184 eyes was divided into three groups: open-angle glaucoma with therapy, open-angle glaucoma without therapy and angle-closure glaucoma 47 eyes were used as controls. Changes were observed in 22 Na outflow half-time in dependence on the duration of the disease, therapy, intraocular pressUre and changes in the perimeter. The new technique has been fully proven in practice, is a contribution to the diagnosis of glaucoma and an indicator of the compensation of the disease. (author)
James, Lucy Amelia; Fox, Claire Louise
It has been proposed that four main styles of humor exist, two which are thought to be adaptive (affiliative, self-enhancing) and two which are thought to be maladaptive (aggressive, self-defeating). Whilst the existence of these four humor styles has been supported in older children, it is suggested that for younger children, self-enhancing and self-defeating humor may develop at a later point. To investigate this further, the current research involved five semi-structured paired interviews with children aged eight to eleven years to explore the use and understanding of self-enhancing and self-defeating humor in this age group. Findings indicated that use of both self-enhancing and self-defeating humor were apparent in some children, but not all. It therefore seems appropriate that attempts to investigate humor in this age group should aim to include all four styles of humor. The current research also demonstrated the value of paired interviews when carrying out this sort of research with children. PMID:27547258
James, Lucy Amelia; Fox, Claire Louise
It has been proposed that four main styles of humor exist, two which are thought to be adaptive (affiliative, self-enhancing) and two which are thought to be maladaptive (aggressive, self-defeating). Whilst the existence of these four humor styles has been supported in older children, it is suggested that for younger children, self-enhancing and self-defeating humor may develop at a later point. To investigate this further, the current research involved five semi-structured paired interviews with children aged eight to eleven years to explore the use and understanding of self-enhancing and self-defeating humor in this age group. Findings indicated that use of both self-enhancing and self-defeating humor were apparent in some children, but not all. It therefore seems appropriate that attempts to investigate humor in this age group should aim to include all four styles of humor. The current research also demonstrated the value of paired interviews when carrying out this sort of research with children.
Clemmensen, Tor Skibsted; Eiskjær, Hans; Kofoed-Nielsen, Pernille B
This case displays limited utility of left ventricular ejection fraction to detect acute graft failure due to microvascular vasculopathy and suspected humoral rejection. Despite severe and progressive graft failure, clinically and by right heart catheterizations, left ventricular ejection fraction...... remained unchanged, indicating need of more reliable noninvasive methods for graft function surveillance. Global longitudinal strain relates to clinical heart failure, filling pressure, and cardiac index during suspected humoral rejection and microvascular dysfunction in this HTX patient. We suggest...
Christian F. Hempelmann
Full Text Available This paper presents the content of a critical thinking and writing course, along with similar courses derived from it, designed around the topic of humor and culminating in a microethnographic investigation of humor in students’ lives. The aims of the paper are threefold: to offer a general rationale for using humor in the writing classroom; to illustrate different types of potentials and dangers of such an approach; and to suggest extensions of the findings to the second-language writing classroom. The paper offers texts, writing prompts, and activities for instructors teaching classes that focus on the writing process in a first or second language.
Engelthaler, Tomas; Hills, Thomas T
Humor ratings are provided for 4,997 English words collected from 821 participants using an online crowd-sourcing platform. Each participant rated 211 words on a scale from 1 (humorless) to 5 (humorous). To provide for comparisons across norms, words were chosen from a set common to a number of previously collected norms (e.g., arousal, valence, dominance, concreteness, age of acquisition, and reaction time). The complete dataset provides researchers with a list of humor ratings and includes information on gender, age, and educational differences. Results of analyses show that the ratings have reliability on a par with previous ratings and are not well predicted by existing norms.
César Ulloa Tapia
El humor político en los medios de comunicación tiene enorme acogida en las audiencias ya que logra lo que pueden editoriales, análisis académicos y demás espacios de opinión. Es la mejor manera de denunciar, advertir, sancionar e incluso develar lo que hace o deja de hacer el poder político. El humor político está considerado como contrapoder. El periodismo que usa el humor es eficaz, tanto en el mensaje como en su efecto, pues describe las situaciones y recurre a comparaciones y símiles....
McCosker, Bernadette; Moran, Carmen C
In contrast with an early implicit "facilitative hypothesis" of humor, a revised specificity hypothesis predicts that the benefits of humor depend on the specific style of humor used. Information on predictors of these humor styles in turn enhances the ability to predict the effect on well-being. We examined the relationships between interpersonal competence, self-esteem, and different styles of humor, while also examining the contributions of age and gender. Participants (n = 201) aged 18-63 years completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory, the Interpersonal Competence Questionnaire, and the Humor Styles Questionnaire, and gave demographic information. High self-esteem was associated with higher use of affiliative, aggressive, and self-enhancing humor styles, but lower use of self-defeating humor. High interpersonal competence predicted greater use of affiliative humor, whereas low interpersonal competence predicted greater use of aggressive humor. Further analyses showed that initiation competence predicted affiliative humor (positively) but both initiation competence (positively) and conflict management competence (negatively) predicted aggressive humor. The findings that both self-esteem and initiation competence contribute to use of aggressive humor add to knowledge of who is likely to use this potentially harmful humor style. We conclude that a readiness to initiate humorous interactions is not on its own a general and positive attribute contributing to "good" humor.
Bolkan, San; Goodboy, Alan K.
Instructors' use of humor is generally a positive influence on student outcomes. However, examinations of humor have found that specific types of messages may not impact, or may even reverse, its positive effect. Instructional humor processing theory (IHPT) has been used to explain how humor impacts student learning. The current study sought to…
Strick, Madelijn; Holland, Rob W.; van Baaren, Rick B.; van Knippenberg, Ad
Three experiments illustrate that humor in advertisements prevents the development of negative brand associations due to resistance. Previous research on humor in advertising suggested that humor can counter negative responses during ad processing, but less is known about the effect of humor on the development of negative brand associations in…
McCosker, Bernadette; Moran, Carmen C
Background In contrast with an early implicit “facilitative hypothesis” of humor, a revised specificity hypothesis predicts that the benefits of humor depend on the specific style of humor used. Information on predictors of these humor styles in turn enhances the ability to predict the effect on well-being. Methods We examined the relationships between interpersonal competence, self-esteem, and different styles of humor, while also examining the contributions of age and gender. Participants (n = 201) aged 18–63 years completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory, the Interpersonal Competence Questionnaire, and the Humor Styles Questionnaire, and gave demographic information. Results High self-esteem was associated with higher use of affiliative, aggressive, and self-enhancing humor styles, but lower use of self-defeating humor. High interpersonal competence predicted greater use of affiliative humor, whereas low interpersonal competence predicted greater use of aggressive humor. Further analyses showed that initiation competence predicted affiliative humor (positively) but both initiation competence (positively) and conflict management competence (negatively) predicted aggressive humor. Conclusion The findings that both self-esteem and initiation competence contribute to use of aggressive humor add to knowledge of who is likely to use this potentially harmful humor style. We conclude that a readiness to initiate humorous interactions is not on its own a general and positive attribute contributing to “good” humor. PMID:23180973
Humor is the type of expression and writing representing the humorous aspect of life by adorning with jokes and wit. The main objective of humor is to criticize, ironize, and correct the flaws and hideousness in life. Humor develops the sensitivity, the empathizing ability and social facts' multidimensional perception of individuals. Humor…
Elantseva S. A.
The article considers the psychological analysis of the cartoon as one of the forms of organization of independent work of students on discipline «Child psychology» in the conditions of the competence-based approach in higher professional pedagogical edu-cation. We offer the technology of the organization of this forms of independent work of students. The example of the psychological analysis of the cartoon «Naughty bear» (director N. Berezovaya) and the form of educational tasks.
Ogle, Andrew D; Graham, Dan J; Lucas-Thompson, Rachel G; Roberto, Christina A
Over-consuming unhealthful foods and beverages contributes to pediatric obesity and associated diseases. Food marketing influences children's food preferences, choices, and intake. To examine whether adding licensed media characters to healthful food/beverage packages increases children's attention to and preference for these products. We hypothesized that children prefer less- (vs more-) healthful foods, and pay greater attention to and preferentially select products with (vs without) media characters regardless of nutritional quality. We also hypothesized that children prefer more-healthful products when characters are present over less-healthful products without characters. On a computer, participants viewed food/beverage pairs of more-healthful and less-healthful versions of similar products. The same products were shown with and without licensed characters on the packaging. An eye-tracking camera monitored participant gaze, and participants chose which product they preferred from each of 60 pairs. Six- to 9-year-old children (n=149; mean age=7.36, standard deviation=1.12) recruited from the Twin Cities, MN, area in 2012-2013. Visual attention and product choice. Attention to products was compared using paired-samples t tests, and product choice was analyzed with single-sample t tests. Analyses of variance were conducted to test for interaction effects of specific characters and child sex and age. Children paid more attention to products with characters and preferred less-healthful products. Contrary to our prediction, children chose products without characters approximately 62% of the time. Children's choices significantly differed based on age, sex, and the specific cartoon character displayed, with characters in this study being preferred by younger boys. Results suggest that putting licensed media characters on more-healthful food/beverage products might not encourage all children to make healthier food choices, but could increase selection of healthy foods
Baron, Robert A.; Ball, Rodney L.
The present experiment sought to investigate the hypothesis that exposure to nonhostile humor would be highly effective in reducing the level of aggression subsequently evidenced by angry individuals. (Author/RK)
Yang, M Z; Li, H J; Zhang, T Y; Ding, Z J; Wu, S F; Qiu, X G; Liu, Q
To test the changes of the potassium （K⁺） and magnesium （Mg²⁺） concentrations in vitreous humor of rabbits along with postmortem interval （PMI） under different temperatures, and explore the feasibility of PMI estimation using mixed-effect model. After sacrifice, rabbit carcasses were preserved at 5 ℃, 15 ℃, 25 ℃ and 35 ℃, and 80-100 μL of vitreous humor was collected by the double-eye alternating micro-sampling method at every 12 h. The concentrations of K⁺ and Mg²⁺ in vitreous humor were measured by a biochemical-immune analyser. The mixed-effect model was used to perform analysis and fitting, and established the equations for PMI estimation. The data detected from the samples that were stoned at 10 ℃, 20 ℃ and 30 ℃ with 20, 40 and 65 h were used to validate the equations of PMI estimation. The concentrations of K⁺ and Mg²⁺ [f（ x , y ）] in vitreous humor of rabbits under different temperature increased along with PMI （ x ）. The relative equations of K⁺ and Mg²⁺ concentration with PMI and temperature under 5 ℃~35 ℃ were f K⁺ （ x , y ）=3.413 0+0.309 2 x +0.337 6 y +0.010 83 xy -0.002 47 x ² （ P PMI estimation by K⁺ and Mg²⁺ was in 10 h when PMI was between 0 to 40 h, and the time of deviation was in 21 h when PMI was between 40 to 65 h. the ambient temperature range of 5 ℃-35 ℃, the mixed-effect model based on temperature and vitreous humor substance concentrations can provide a new method for the practical application of vitreous humor chemicals for PMI estimation. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine.
Claire Louise Fox
Full Text Available This study assessed the concurrent and prospective associations between psychosocial adjustment and four humor styles, two of which are adaptive (affiliative, self-enhancing and two maladaptive (aggressive, self-defeating. Participants were 1,234 adolescents (52% female aged 11-13 years, drawn from six secondary schools in England. Self-reports of psychosocial adjustment (loneliness, depressive symptomatology, and self-esteem and humor styles were collected at two time points (fall and summer. In cross-lagged panel analyses, self-defeating humor was associated with an increase in both depressive symptoms and loneliness, and with a decrease in self-esteem. In addition, depressive symptoms predicted an increase in the use of self-defeating humor over time, indicating that these may represent a problematic spiral of thoughts and behaviors. Self-esteem was associated with an increase in the use of affiliative humor over the school year but not vice-versa. These results inform our understanding of the ways in which humor is associated with psychosocial adjustment in adolescence.
Savage, Brandon M; Lujan, Heidi L; Thipparthi, Raghavendar R; DiCarlo, Stephen E
Human emotions, such as anxiety, depression, fear, joy, and laughter, profoundly affect psychological and physiological processes. These emotions form a set of basic, evolved functions that are shared by all humans. Laughter is part of a universal language of basic emotions that all humans recognize. Health care providers and educators may utilize the power of laughter to improve health and enhance teaching and learning. This is an important consideration because teaching is not just about content: it is also about forming relationships and strengthening human connections. In this context, when used effectively, humor is documented to build relationships and enhance performance. Specifically, humor improves student performance by attracting and sustaining attention, reducing anxiety, enhancing participation, and increasing motivation. Moreover, humor stimulates multiple physiological systems that decrease levels of stress hormones, such as cortisol and epinephrine, and increase the activation of the mesolimbic dopaminergic reward system. To achieve these benefits, it is important to use humor that is relevant to the course content and not disparaging toward others. Self-effacing humor illustrates to students that the teacher is comfortable making mistakes and sharing these experiences with the classroom. In this brief review, we discuss the history and relationship between humor, laughing, learning, and health with an emphasis on the powerful, universal language of laughter. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.
Fox, Claire Louise; Hunter, Simon Christopher; Jones, Siân Emily
This study assessed the concurrent and prospective associations between psychosocial adjustment and four humor styles, two of which are adaptive (affiliative, self-enhancing) and two maladaptive (aggressive, self-defeating). Participants were 1,234 adolescents (52% female) aged 11-13 years, drawn from six secondary schools in England. Self-reports of psychosocial adjustment (loneliness, depressive symptomatology, and self-esteem) and humor styles were collected at two time points (fall and summer). In cross-lagged panel analyses, self-defeating humor was associated with an increase in both depressive symptoms and loneliness, and with a decrease in self-esteem. In addition, depressive symptoms predicted an increase in the use of self-defeating humor over time, indicating that these may represent a problematic spiral of thoughts and behaviors. Self-esteem was associated with an increase in the use of affiliative humor over the school year but not vice-versa. These results inform our understanding of the ways in which humor is associated with psychosocial adjustment in adolescence.
Full Text Available Aki Kondo,1 Mari Goto,2 Tatsuya Mimura,1 Masao Matsubara1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Tokyo Women’s Medical University Medical Center East, 2Tokyo Metropolitan Cancer and Infectious Diseases Center, Komagome Hospital, Tokyo, Japan Purpose: Silent information regulator T1 (SIRT1, a member of the sirtuin family, has a preventive role in various ocular diseases. We evaluated the relations between the aqueous humor level of SIRT1 and age, sex, systemic diseases, the severity of lens opacity, and other factors. Setting: This study was conducted at a university teaching hospital in Tokyo, Japan. Design: This study was designed based on the consecutive case series. Methods: Aqueous humor samples were obtained from 29 eyes of the 21 consecutive patients undergoing surgery for age-related cataract (ARC. SIRT1 levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Aqueous humor levels of SIRT1 showed a positive correlation with visual acuity (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution and with the severity of nuclear cataract (r=0.32 and 0.30, respectively, P<0.05. However, only visual acuity was correlated with SIRT1 according to the stepwise multiple regression analysis (P<0.05. Conclusion: These findings suggest that SIRT1 may have an effect on the formation of ARC, acting as a defensive factor against ARC. Keywords: SIRT1, sirtuin, cataract surgery, oxidative stress, resveratrol, ocular aging
Hervet, Tania; Teresiński, Grzegorz; Hejna, Petr; Descloux, Emilienne; Grouzmann, Eric; Palmiere, Cristian
The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic value of catecholamines and their O-methylated metabolites in vitreous humor samples in identifying antemortem cold exposure and fatal hypothermia in the forensic casework. A total of 80 autopsy cases (40 hypothermia fatalities and 40 cases in which hypothermia as the main or contributory cause of death was excluded) were selected for this study. Catecholamines and their O-methylated metabolites were measured in urine and vitreous humor samples collected at autopsy. Urine catecholamine and their O-methylated metabolite concentrations were significantly higher in hypothermia-related deaths. On the other hand, measurements in vitreous humor samples did not reveal statistically significant differences between hypothermia-related deaths and controls. Globally considered, our findings seem to suggest that, contrary to urine catecholamines and their O-methylated metabolites, vitreous levels of these compounds appear to be of limited value in characterizing human antemortem stress reactions due to cold exposure and can hardly be used in the forensic setting to support the diagnosis of hypothermia.
Full Text Available At the beginning of 21st century comics production in Argentina have experienced the emergence of new methods of publication, promotion and circulation consisting of a series of devices whose complex relationship has redefined the authorial figureas well as a new reading audience. The passage from the Internet and digital formats to the book has established itself as post-industrial strategy in the context of the reconstitution of a diverse comics field, where the national tradition of humor serves as example of the mentioned changes
Murali, Karthik; Kashani, Amir H; Humayun, Mark S
The authors propose an effective technique to isolate whole, intact vitreous core and cortex from post mortem enucleated porcine eyes. While previous studies have shown the results of such dissections, the detailed steps have not been described, precluding researchers outside the field from replicating their methods. Other studies harvest vitreous either through aspiration, which does not maintain the vitreous structure anatomy, or through partial dissection, which only isolates the vitreous core. The proposed method isolates the whole vitreous body, with the vitreous core and cortex intact, while maintaining vitreous anatomy and structural integrity. In this method, a full thickness scleral flap in an enucleated porcine eye is first created and through this, the choroid tissue can be separated from the sclera. The scleral flap is then expanded and the choroid is completely separated from the sclera. Finally the choroid-retina tissue is peeled off the vitreous to leave an isolated intact vitreous body. The proposed vitreous dissection technique can be used to study physical properties of the vitreous humor. In particular, this method has significance for experimental studies involving drug delivery, vitreo-retinal oxygen transport, and intraocular convection.
Penkova, Anita; Sadhal, Satwindar; Ratanakijsuntorn, Komsan; Moats, Rex; Tang, Yang; Hughes, Patrick; Robinson, Michael; Lee, Susan
It has been established by MRI visualization experiments that the convection of nanoparticles and large molecules with high rate of water flow in the vitreous humor will experience resistance, depending on the respective permeabilities of the injected solute. A set of experiments conducted with Gd-DTPA (Magnevist, Bayer AG, Leverkusen, Germany) and 30 nm gadolinium-based particles (Gado CELLTrackTM, Biopal, Worcester, MA) as MRI contrast agents showed that the degree of convective transport in this Darcy-type porous medium varies between the two solutes. These experiments consisted of injecting a mixture of the two (a 30 μl solution of 2% Magnevist and 1% nanoparticles) at the middle of the vitreous of an ex vivo whole bovine eye and subjecting the vitreous to water flow rate of 100 μl/min. The water (0.9% saline solution) was injected at the top of the eye, and was allowed to drain through small slits cut at the bottom of the eyeball. After 50 minutes of pumping, MRI images showed that the water flow carried the Gd-DTPA farther than the nanoparticles, even though the two solutes, being mixed, were subjected to the same convective flow conditions. We find that the convected solute lags the water flow, depending on the solute permeability. The usual convection term needs to be adjusted to allow for the filtration effect on the larger particles in the form (1- σ) u . ∇ c with important implications for the modeling of such systems.
Ruch, Willibald; Heintz, Sonja
The Humor Styles Questionnaire (HSQ; Martin et al., 2003) is one of the most frequently used questionnaires in humor research and has been adapted to several languages. The HSQ measures four humor styles (affiliative, self-enhancing, aggressive, and self-defeating), which should be adaptive or potentially maladaptive to psychosocial well-being. The present study analyzes the internal consistency, factorial validity, and factorial invariance of the HSQ on the basis of several German-speaking samples combined (total N = 1,101). Separate analyses were conducted for gender (male/female), age groups (16-24, 25-35, >36 years old), and countries (Germany/Switzerland). Internal consistencies were good for the overall sample and the demographic subgroups (.80-.89), with lower values obtained for the aggressive scale (.66-.73). Principal components and confirmatory factor analyses mostly supported the four-factor structure of the HSQ. Weak factorial invariance was found across gender and age groups, while strong factorial invariance was supported across countries. Two subsamples also provided self-ratings on ten styles of humorous conduct (n = 344) and of eight comic styles (n = 285). The four HSQ scales showed small to large correlations to the styles of humorous conduct (-.54 to .65) and small to medium correlations to the comic styles (-.27 to .42). The HSQ shared on average 27.5-35.0% of the variance with the styles of humorous conduct and 13.0-15.0% of the variance with the comic styles. Thus-despite similar labels-these styles of humorous conduct and comic styles differed from the HSQ humor styles.
Full Text Available Objective: To study the correlation of EPO and VEGF levels in serum and aqueous humor with ocular hemodynamics and oxidative stress - mitochondrial function in patients with neovascular glaucoma (NVG. Methods: A total of 47 patients who were diagnosed with neovascular glaucoma in Mianyang Wanjiang Ophthalmic Hospital between April 2015 and April 2017 were selected as the NVG group of the study, and 75 patients who were diagnosed with cataract in Mianyang Wanjiang Ophthalmic Hospital over the same period were selected as the CAT group of the study. The aqueous humor and serum samples were collected to determine the contents of EPO, VEGF, oxidative stress molecules and mitochondrial function molecules; the intraocular vascular hemodynamic parameters were detected. Results: EPO and VEGF contents in serum as well as EPO and VEGF contents in aqueous humor of NVG group were significantly higher than those of CAT group; EDV and PSA levels of central retinal artery as well as EDV and PSA levels of short posterior ciliary artery in NVG group were significantly lower than those in CAT group and negatively correlated with EPO and VEGF contents in aqueous humor; MDA, AOPP, Drp1, CytC, Apaf-1 and caspase-3 contents in aqueous humor of NVG group were significantly higher than those of CAT group and positively correlated with EPO and VEGF contents in aqueous humor while SOD, GSH-Px, CAT, Mfn1 and Mfn2 contents were significantly lower than those of CAT group and negatively correlated with EPO and VEGF contents in aqueous humor. Conclusion: The abnormal increase of EPO and VEGF contents in serum and aqueous humor of patients with glaucoma is closely related to the increase of ocular blood resistance, activation of oxidative stress reaction and mitochondrial dysfunction.
Elrod, G. Franklin; Obringer, S. John
Many researchers have attempted to link children's drawings to intelligence. The Goodenough-Harris Draw-a-Man (DAM) and Draw-a-Woman (DAW) test has been accepted as an indicator of intelligence. This study, via examination of specific cases, explored the effect that instruction in drawing cartoons had on the DAM and DAW performance of 16…
Full Text Available Objective: To study and investigate the change state of serum, aqueous humor oxidative stress and EGF, FGF, NO, TNF-α in patients with cataract. Methods: Seventy cases of cataract patients who were treated in our hospital from September 2011 to September 2013 were selected and constituted the observation group. Then, 70 cases of ocular trauma patients who were treated in the same year were the control group. The changing levels of serum, aqueous humor oxidative stress and EGF, FGF, NO, TNF-α of the two groups were detected and compared, and simultaneously the serum and aqueous humor aqueous of patients in the observation group in different stages were also detected and compared. Results: The serum and aqueous humor CAT and SOD of patients in the observation group were all lower than those of the control group, while the serum and aqueous MDA and EGF, FGF, NO, TNF-α levels were all higher than those of the control group; and the aqueous humor detection and serum differences comparison of patients in the early, immature, mature and over-mature stages had statistical significances (P<0.05. Conclusions: The serum, aqueous humor oxidative stress and EGF, FGF, NO, TNF-α in cataract patients change relatively greatly, and the differences between different stages of the disease are also evident.
Karnieli-Miller, Orit; Michael, Keren; Segal, Oz; Steinberger, Aharon
Teaching and applying interpersonal communication skills (ICS) and humor in medicine is challenging. The present study assessed an innovative course focused on enhancing ICS and humor based on the Four Habits Model and theater concepts. Medical students enrolled in the course (the study group) were assessed pre- and post-intervention, as well as compared with their peers (the control group) using quantitative methods to measure attitudes, self-efficacy, and behaviors. Qualitative methods were used to learn about students' change in perceptions related to ICS and humor following the course, as well as their experiences of developing these skills during the course. Post-intervention study group participants scored significantly higher on all ICS measurements and on humor behavior compared with pre-intervention, and significantly higher on all humor measurements compared with control group participants. Interviews indicated students' increased understanding and difficulties in learning these skills. Analyses showed how framing humor as one possible ICS and focusing on specific parts of the medical encounter can promote patient-centered care.
Schöpf, Andrea C; Martin, Gillian S; Keating, Mary A
Humor is a potential communication strategy to accomplish various and potentially conflicting consultation goals. We investigated humor use and its reception in diabetes consultations by analyzing how and why humor emerges and its impact on the interaction. We did this by using an interactional sociolinguistics approach. We recorded 50 consultations in an Irish diabetes setting. Analysis of the humor events drew on framework analysis and on concepts from Conversation Analysis and pragmatics. The study also comprised interviews using tape-assisted recall. We identified 10 humor functions and two umbrella functions. A key finding is that most humor is relationship-protecting humor initiated by patients, that is, they voice serious messages and deal with emotional issues through humor. Our findings imply that patients' and providers' awareness of indirect communication strategies needs to be increased. We also recommend that researchers employ varied methods to adequately capture the interactive nature of humor.
Pattabiraman, Padmanabhan P; Toris, Carol B
Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is an optic neuropathy and an irreversible blinding disease. The etiology of glaucoma is not known but numerous risk factors are associated with this disease including aging, elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), race, myopia, family history and use of steroids. In POAG, the resistance to the aqueous humor drainage is increased leading to elevated IOP. Lowering the resistance and ultimately the IOP has been the only way to slow disease progression and prevent vision loss. The primary drainage pathway comprising of the trabecular meshwork (TM) is made up of relatively large porous beams surrounded by extracellular matrix (ECM). Its juxtacanalicular tissue (JCT) or the cribriform meshwork is made up of cells embedded in dense ECM. The JCT is considered to offer the major resistance to the aqueous humor outflow. This layer is adjacent to the endothelial cells forming Schlemm's canal, which provides approximately 10% of the outflow resistance. The ECM in the TM and the JCT undergoes continual remodeling to maintain normal resistance to aqueous humor outflow. It is believed that the TM is a major contributor of ECM proteins and evidence points towards increased ECM deposition in the outflow pathway in POAG. It is not clear how and from where the ECM components emerge to hinder the normal aqueous humor drainage. This review focuses on the involvement of the ECM in ocular hypertension and glaucoma and the mechanisms by which various ocular hypotensive drugs, both current and emerging, target ECM production, remodeling, and deposition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Biochemical analysis of body fluids after death is a helpful tool in veterinary forensic medicine. Synovial fluid, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and vitreous humor are easily accessible and well preserved from contamination. Five donkeys (Equus africanus asinus aged 1 - 2 years old were subjected to the study. Samples (Synovial fluid, CSF and vitreous humor were collected before death (antimortem and then at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 hours postmortem. Samples were analyzed for glucose, chloride, sodium, magnesium, potassium, enzymes and total protein. Synovial fluid analysis showed that glucose concentration started to decrease at 6 hours postmortem, while magnesium level increased with time. Other parameters were more stable. CSF analysis showed several changes related to time after death as the decrease in glucose and sodium levels, and the increased levels of potassium, magnesium, calcium and total protein. Vitreous analysis revealed a reduction in glucose level and increased potassium and magnesium concentrations. The present study concluded that biochemical analysis of synovial fluid, vitreous humor and CSF can help in determination of time since death in donkeys. This study recommend using CSF for determination of early post-mortem intervals.
A general review of radiobiology, immunology system,mechanism of biological effect of radiation and their biological damaging on cells and organs and specifically radiation effects on humoral immune system are given. The purpose is investigating the side effects of occupational exposures caused by ionizing radiation, and reviewing the decreasing probability of humoral immune responses in industrial radiographers. Generally, it measures the following humoral factors of industrial radiographers by value of different exposures: 1-Measuring immunoglobulins serum which consist of IgM, IgG, IgA, IgE. 2-Electrophoresis of serum proteins to investigate gamma globulins changes and also the changes occur in serum globulins after exposure. 3-Investigating the titration of isohem glutins serum (or natural immunoglobulins) that is mostly from IgM. 4-Measuring the above experiments on health control personnel who have not exposed to occupational or biological radiation effects. 5-Comparing the results of the two groups by statistical analysis. 6-Trying to relate the exposure to the information obtained from the above experiments. 7-Finally, to obtain this response whether mutation as low dose of radiation as investigated in this project is a threatening factor to the health and immunity of industrial radiographers
Rafael Faria Sanches
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as relações entre o uso agudo e crônico de cannabis e alterações do humor. MÉTODO: Os artigos foram selecionados por meio de busca eletrônica no indexador PubMed. Capítulos de livros e as listas de referências dos artigos selecionados também foram revisados. RESULTADOS: Observam-se elevados índices de comorbidade entre abuso/dependência de cannabis e transtornos afetivos em estudos transversais e em amostras clínicas. Estudos longitudinais indicam que, em longo prazo, o uso mais intenso de cannabis está relacionado com um risco maior de desenvolvimento de doença bipolar e, talvez, depressão maior em indivíduos inicialmente sem quadros afetivos; porém, os mesmos não encontraram maior risco de uso de cannabis entre aqueles com mania ou depressão sem esta comorbidade. Outra importante observação é que o uso de substâncias psicoativas em bipolares pode estar associado a uma série de características negativas, como dificuldade na recuperação dos sintomas afetivos, maior número de internações, piora na adesão ao tratamento, risco aumentado de suicídio, agressividade e a uma pobre resposta ao lítio. Tratamentos psicossociais e farmacológicos são indicados para o manejo da comorbidade entre cannabis e transtornos afetivos. CONCLUSÃO: As relações entre o uso de cannabis e alterações do humor são observadas tanto epidemiologicamente quanto nos contextos clínicos.OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the relationship between acute and chronic use of cannabis and mood changes. METHOD: Articles were selected by electronic search in PubMed. Chapters in books and reference lists of selected articles were also reviewed. As the research did not involve humans, there was no evaluation by a Research Ethics Committee. RESULTS: High rates of comorbidity between use/abuse/dependence of cannabis and affective disorders in longitudinal studies and in clinical samples were observed. Longitudinal studies indicate that, in long
Full Text Available Transmembrane activator and calcium-modulating cyclophilin ligand interactor (TACI is one of the receptors of B cell activating factor of the tumor necrosis factor family (BAFF and a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL. TACI is a regulator in the immune responses. TACI inhibits B cell expansion and promotes the differentiation and survival of plasma cells. The mechanisms underlying these effects probably involve changed expressions of some crucial molecules, such as B lymphocyte induced maturation protein-1 (Blimp-1 and inducible T-cell costimulator ligand (ICOSL in B cells and/or plasma cells. However, abnormal TACI signaling may relate to autoimmune disorders. Common variable immune deficiency (CVID patients with heterozygous mutations in TACI alleles increase susceptibility to autoimmune diseases. Taci−/− mice and BAFF transgenic mice both develop signs of human SLE. These findings that indicate inappropriate levels of TACI signaling may disrupt immune system balance, thereby promoting the development of autoimmune diseases. In this review, we summarize the basic characteristics of the TACI ligands BAFF and APRIL, and detail the research findings on the role of TACI in humoral immunity. We also discuss the possible mechanisms underlying the susceptibility of CVID patients with TACI mutations to autoimmune diseases and the role of TACI in the pathogenesis of SLE.
Banchonhattakit, Pannee; Duangsong, Rujira; Muangsom, Niramon; Kamsong, Theppamon; Phangwan, Krittiya
The objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of brain-based learning (BBL) and animated cartoons on video compact discs (VCDs) in enhancing the healthy habits of school children. A representative sample of 1085 school children in the first through the third grades at 16 schools was selected by multistage random sampling. Knowledge of healthy habits and self-reported adoption of practices were assessed by a questionnaire. BBL and VCD, either combined or as single-intervention techniques, led to improved knowledge and practice of healthy behavior, whereas conventional teaching did not. As a single-intervention technique, BBL on its own led to a greater improvement in healthy practices than VCD, but the addition of BBL to VCD made no difference, and there was no difference between BBL and VCD in terms of improvements in knowledge. In conclusion, both BBL and VCD are effective, but VCD requires fewer resources. Recommendations are made for further research. © 2012 APJPH.
Full Text Available The graphic satire label encompasses different trends in cartoon art, especially in Britain. Although the hate cartoon tradition actually represents a minority of published cartoons, it has been especially remarkable since the First World War. In various confrontational contexts, great artists feature in this tradition, ranging from Edmund Sullivan (1869-1933 to one of the leading cartoonists in the present generation, Steve Bell. This article focuses on aspects of the specific graphic rhetoric to be found in these images, and on their political impact as well as their echo in the media. The issues that cartoonists have recurringly been trying to bring up are also considered.
Giovanni Kuckartz Pergher
Full Text Available O número de estudos que visam compreender as interações entre processos cognitivos e afetivos vem aumentando nos últimos anos, principalmente em função das suas inúmeras implicações práticas, com destaque para a psicoterapia e a área forense. O presente artigo tem por objetivo apresentar algumas das possíveis interações entre processos afetivos e a memória. Inicialmente são assumidas definições para os termos emoção, humor e afeto. Depois, são abordadas as relações entre humor, emoção e memória, descrevendo-se os principais fenômenos investigados nessas áreas. Para cada fenômeno descrito, são expostos fundamentos empíricos e teorias explicativas. Ao final, são discutidas limitações e implicações dos estudos sobre as relações entre humor, emoção e memória, apontando-se para a necessidade de um maior consenso entre os pesquisadores da área.El número de estudios que visan comprender las interacciones entre procesos cognitivos y afectivos viene aumentando en los últimos años, principalmente en función de sus incontables implicaciones prácticas, con destaque para la psicoterapia y el área forense. El presente artículo tiene por objetivo presentar algunas de las posibles interacciones entre procesos afectivos y la memoria. Inicialmente se asumen definiciones para los términos emoción, humor y afecto y para los sistemas de memoria. Enseguida, se abordan los fenómenos de la memoria congruente con el humor, memoria dependiente del humor, memorias autobiográficas súper generalizadas y del impacto de la emoción/estrés sobre los sistemas de memoria semántica y autobiográfica. También se exponen algunos hallazgos experimentales y teorías explicativas de tales fenómenos. Al final, se discuten implicaciones de las investigaciones en el área de emoción vs. cognición.The number of studies that aim to understand the interactions between the cognitive and affective processes has been increasing over
Romundstad, Solfrid; Svebak, Sven; Holen, Are; Holmen, Jostein
Associations between the sense of humor and survival in relation to specific diseases has so far never been studied. We conducted a 15-year follow-up study of 53,556 participants in the population-based Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, Norway. Cognitive, social, and affective components of the sense of humor were obtained, and associations with all-cause mortality, mortality due to cardiovascular diseases (CVD), infections, cancer, and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases were estimated by hazard ratios (HRs). After multivariate adjustments, high scores on the cognitive component of the sense of humor were significantly associated with lower all-cause mortality in women (HR = 0.52, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.33-0.81), but not in men (HR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.59-1.32). Mortality due to CVD was significantly lower in women with high scores on the cognitive component (HR = 0.27, 95% CI = 0.15-0.47), and so was mortality due to infections both in men (HR = 0.26, 95% CI = 0.09-0.74) and women (HR = 0.17, 95% CI = 0.04-0.76). The social and affective components of the sense of humor were not associated with mortality. In the total population, the positive association between the cognitive component of sense of humor and survival was present until the age of 85 years. The cognitive component of the sense of humor is positively associated with survival from mortality related to CVD and infections in women and with infection-related mortality in men. The findings indicate that sense of humor is a health-protecting cognitive coping resource.
Full Text Available Bernadette McCosker, Carmen C MoranSchool of Psychology, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, NSW, AustraliaBackground: In contrast with an early implicit “facilitative hypothesis” of humor, a revised specificity hypothesis predicts that the benefits of humor depend on the specific style of humor used. Information on predictors of these humor styles in turn enhances the ability to predict the effect on well-being.Methods: We examined the relationships between interpersonal competence, self-esteem, and different styles of humor, while also examining the contributions of age and gender. Participants (n = 201 aged 18–63 years completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory, the Interpersonal Competence Questionnaire, and the Humor Styles Questionnaire, and gave demographic information.Results: High self-esteem was associated with higher use of affiliative, aggressive, and self-enhancing humor styles, but lower use of self-defeating humor. High interpersonal competence predicted greater use of affiliative humor, whereas low interpersonal competence predicted greater use of aggressive humor. Further analyses showed that initiation competence predicted affiliative humor (positively but both initiation competence (positively and conflict management competence (negatively predicted aggressive humor.Conclusion: The findings that both self-esteem and initiation competence contribute to use of aggressive humor add to knowledge of who is likely to use this potentially harmful humor style. We conclude that a readiness to initiate humorous interactions is not on its own a general and positive attribute contributing to “good” humor.Keywords: self-esteem, interpersonal competence, humor styles, differential effects
Branco, Jerônimo Costa
Os transtornos de humor são caracterizados por manifestações afetivas consideradas inadequadas em termos de intensidade, frequência e duração. A prática de atividade física tem sido identificada como uma intervenção benéfica no tratamento de transtornos mentais e pesquisas relacionam o exercício físico com a regulação de marcadores neurobiológicos associados aos transtornos de humor. A presente tese se propõe a três objetivos: 1) Analisar a associação entre transtornos de humor e a prática de...
Full Text Available Formal language education is often predicated on a series of modernist fictions that greatly simplify the nature of language and the process of communication. Acts of linguistic creativity involving humor and language play are frequently either ignored or considered deviant. In this paper, we contribute to ongoing efforts to re-conceptualize language education in ways that make use of more robust (and less modernist theories of language and communication. We revisit calls for more pedagogical focus on humor and language play and illustrate how more attention to these types of language might help us to move away from some of the classroom fictions that currently constrain teachers and learners alike. Specifically, we present recent conceptions of language and of communication, and discuss how, in light of these, humor and language play can be used to increase learners’ metalinguistic awareness and expand their communicative/interpretive repertoires.
Full Text Available This paper investigates the concepts of humor and violence and their complex relationships contextualised in the advertising domain. Thus, the main theories of humor and the most important elements from media violence paradigms are critically pointed out. The effects of comedic violence in advertising may be positive (great involvement with the ad message, retention of brand information, higher pass-along probability, and also negative (offending the audience, desensitization, damaging the reputation and the brand equity. A lot of factors change the perception of comedic violent ads (gender, social norm beliefs etc., so that a multidimensional analysis of consumer perceptions is needed if we want to draw a more accurate picture of this phenomenon. The analysis of the specific ad that I developed in the second part of this paper showed clearly the interplay between perceived humor and perceived violence and also the relevance of the cultural background in its interpretation.
Han, Ju; Yu, Guang-biao; Dong, Ye-qiang; Fang, Chao; Jing, Hua-lan; Luo, Si-min
To explored the relationship between the concentration of potassium ion as well as sodium ion in the aqueous humor and post-mortem interval (PMI). The concentrations of potassium ion and sodium ion in the aqueous humor of swine within 48 h after death at 4 degrees C and 28 degrees C were detected using Z-500 atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The concentrations of potassium ion and sodium ion in aqueous humor of isolated swine eyeballs within 48 h after death when the environmental temperature was 4 degrees C were significantly related to PMI. The relationship between PMI and the concentration of potassium ion was PMI = -0.178[K+]2 + 49.978 (R2 = 0.995). The relationship between PMI and the rate of sodium ion and potassium ion was PMI = 120.987/[Na+/K+]-28.834 (R2 = 0.905). The concentration of potassium in aqueous humor of isolated swine eyeballs may be one of the reference indicators to estimate PMI of the corpses at lower temperatures.
Wang, Wenjia; Qian, Xiuqing; Song, Hongfang; Zhang, Mindi; Liu, Zhicheng
Glaucoma is the primary cause of irreversible blindness worldwide associated with high intraocular pressure (IOP). Elevated intraocular pressure will affect the normal aqueous humor outflow, resulting in deformation of iris. However, the deformation ability of iris is closely related to its material properties. Meanwhile, the passive deformation of the iris aggravates the pupillary block and angle closure. The nature of the interaction mechanism of iris deformation and aqueous humor fluid flow has not been fully understood and has been somewhat a controversial issue. The purpose here was to study the effect of IOP, localization, and temperature on the flow of the aqueous humor and the deformation of iris interacted by aqueous humor fluid flow. Based on mechanisms of aqueous physiology and fluid dynamics, 3D model of anterior chamber (AC) was constructed with the human anatomical parameters as a reference. A 3D idealized standard geometry of anterior segment of human eye was performed. Enlarge the size of the idealization geometry model 5 times to create a simulation device by using 3D printing technology. In this paper, particle image velocimetry technology is applied to measure the characteristic of fluid outflow in different inlet velocity based on the device. Numerically calculations were made by using ANSYS 14.0 Finite Element Analysis. Compare of the velocity distributions to confirm the validity of the model. The fluid structure interaction (FSI) analysis was carried out in the valid geometry model to study the aqueous flow and iris change. In this paper, the validity of the model is verified through computation and comparison. The results indicated that changes of gravity direction of model significantly affected the fluid dynamics parameters and the temperature distribution in anterior chamber. Increased pressure and the vertical position increase the velocity of the aqueous humor fluid flow, with the value increased of 0.015 and 0.035 mm/s. The results
Blanc, Nathalie; Brigaud, Emmanuelle
This study tested the effect of humor in one particular type of print advertisement: the preventive health ads for three topics (alcohol, tobacco, obesity). Previous research using commercial ads demonstrated that individuals' attention is spontaneously attracted by humor, leading to a memory advantage for humorous information over nonhumorous information. Two experiments investigated whether the positive effect of humor can occur with preventive health ads. In Experiment 1, participants observed humorous and nonhumorous health ads while their viewing times were recorded. In Experiment 2, to compare humorous and nonhumorous ads, the memory of health messages was assessed through a recognition task and a convincing score was collected. The results confirmed that, compared to nonhumorous health ads, those using humor received prolonged attention, were judged more convincing, and their messages were better recognized. Overall, these findings suggest that humor can be of use in preventive health communication.
Throughout the literature, humor has demonstrated positive effects on memory and learning, as well as physiological and psychological well being. Research has described improvements in communication and trust through the use of humor in the nurse-patient relationship. The utilization of humor with certain populations, including those with anxiety disorders, cancer patients and mood disorders has also been widely described in the literature but little research has been conducted with humor use in patients' recovery from substance use disorders. This population might benefit from the thoughtful applications of humor to promote laughter and mirth as well as learning recovery principles. A review of the humor theories, theoretical processes and humor styles are discussed for their use in individuals with substance use disorders, in particularly for early recovery engagement in 12 step programs and other recover support social networks. The application of humor in efforts to support recovery with substance use disorder patients is worth investigating further.
Courses: Public speaking; communication courses requiring speeches. Objective: Students will learn how to apply humor principles to speeches through a slideshow method supportive of this goal, and to become more discerning about the possibilities and pitfalls of humorous communication.
Woo, F L; Johnson, A P; Caldwell, D R; Lertora, J J; George, W J
Thirty patients scheduled to undergo elective intraocular surgery were each given 4 g of piperacillin intravenously. Specimens of serum, tears, and aqueous humor were collected from zero to nine hours after infusion and assayed for piperacillin content by high pressure liquid chromatography. In noninflamed eyes piperacillin sodium distributed into tears and aqueous humor in concentrations exceeding the minimum inhibitory concentration required for many gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. Higher levels of piperacillin were anticipated in patients with inflamed eyes who possessed an altered blood-aqueous barrier, and in patients receiving serial doses of this agent.
As a mature science, geophysics often employs abstract mathematical ideas in the development of methods to query the physical system. Since abstract mathematics is not usually part of the traditional meteorological education, it is sometimes necessary to communicate these ideas in a manner that not only explains but also demystifies them. Humor is an ideal tool for allowing an audience to develop a degree of comfort with unfamiliar concepts. I will give several examples where abstract ideas are made concrete in the context of stochastic climate modeling by use of humorous presentations.
Skripsi yang berjudul Pragmatic Analysis in Humorous Text in Reader’s Digest Magazine, menganalisis konteks dari humor yang berbentuk dialog dan bagaimana humor tersebut diinterpretasikan; yang terdapat di dalam teks humor di dalam majalah Reader’s Digest edisi Agustus, September, Oktober, November dan Desember 2010. Analisis ini menggunakan teori Yule tahun 1996 yang mengatakan bahwa beberapa fokus kajian pragmatik adalah mengkaji makna penutur di dalam konteks tertentu dan bagaimana konteks...
Westburg, Nancy G.
Assesses and compares hope levels and laughter and humor experiences of 24 elderly residents and 21 staff at an assisted living facility. Residents and staff reported numerous benefits from humor and laughing, but differences arose between the two groups about the source and frequency of humor and laughter. Implications for mental health…
Prerost, Frank J.; Ruma, Christine
Tested 40 male and 40 female college students for level of relaxation and mood state following exposure to three types of humor content or a nonhumorous control. Humor appreciation was found to be effective in aiding relaxation while promoting positive affective mood state in subjects. Humor appreciation may be possible adjunct to biofeedback…
In this essay Mordechai Gordon begins to address the neglect of humor among philosophers of education by focusing on some interesting connections between humor, self-transcendence, and the development of moral virtues. More specifically, he explores the kind of humor that makes fun of oneself and how it can affect educational encounters. Gordon…
Huss, John; Eastep, Shannon
Faculty members in a College of Education responded to a mixed methods questionnaire regarding their attitudes toward the use of humor as a pedagogical tool. Quantitative data and coding of open response questions revealed that instructors overall considered humor to be an integral part of their teaching plan and that humor relaxes students,…
Neumann, David L.; Hood, Michelle; Neumann, Michelle M.
Humor has been promoted as a teaching tool that enhances student engagement and learning. The present report traces the pathway from research to practice by reflecting upon various ways to incorporate humor into the face-to-face teaching of statistics. The use of humor in an introductory university statistics course was evaluated via interviews…
Ziyaeemehr, Ali; Kumar, Vijay
Humor is an integral component of any language and therefore has an impact on the way languages are acquired/learned. Numerous studies have investigated the role of instructor humor in teaching/learning processes; however, there is little empirical research on the relationship between instructor humor and learning of a second language. This paper…
Vivona, Brian D.
Humor is common and purposeful in most work settings. Although researchers have examined humor and joking behavior in various work settings, minimal research has been done on humor applications in the field of crime scene investigation. The crime scene investigator encounters death, trauma, and tragedy in a more intimate manner than any other…
Lukehart, Dennis E.
The purpose of this research study was to determine the use of humor as a teaching strategy among a sample of nurse educators employed by community colleges and universities in Northern and Central California nursing programs. The study also identified the types of humor used, how humor is used in the classroom, and nurse educators' perceptions of…
Ziyaeemehr, Ali; Kumar, Vijay; Abdullah, Mohd S. Faiz
A substantial body of research emphasizes the importance of humor in teaching/learning processes; however, research on the reasons for non-use of humor in academic contexts has enjoyed scant attention. Addressing this gap, this study examines the reasons for instructors' humor avoidance taking into account student perceived benefits of using humor…
Circulating forms of immunoreactive parathyroid hormone-related protein for identifying patients with humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy. A comparative study with C-terminal (109-141)- and N-terminal (1-86)-region-specific PTHrP radioassay
Suehiro, Mitsuko; Murakami, Minoru; Fukuchi, Minoru (Hyogo Coll. of Medicine, Nishinomiya (Japan))
We evaluated the circulating forms of immunoreactive parathyroid hormone-related protein(PTHrP) in 115 healthy subjects and 122 patients with malignant diseases by using radioassay systems (RAS) specific for the C-terminal (109-141) fragment of PTHrP (C-RAS) and for the N-terminal(1-86) (N-RAS). PTHrP levels in healthy controls ranged from 1.5 to 38.2 (mean: 24.5) pmol/L with the C-RAS and from 0.9 to 2.5 (mean: 1.7) pmol/L with the N-RAS. The ratio of circulating N-terminal fragment (N) to C-terminal fragment (C) of PTHrP was calculated to be about 1 : 14.4 in the healthy subjects. Of the 122 patients with malignant diseases, 40 (32.8%) had circulating PTHrP levels undetectable with the N-RAS, but only 11 (9.0%) patients had levels undetectable with the C-RAS. Of the former 122 patients, 41 (33.6%) had high PTHrP as determined with the C-RAS, and 10 (8.2%) had high PTHrP as determined with the N-RAS. The former of these included only 8 (19.5%) humoral hypercalcemia malignancy(HHM) patients, while the latter included 8 (80.0%) HHM patients. The circulating N to C ratio was about 1 : 70.7 in the HHM patients. The N and C obtained with the different RASs showed a close correlation (r=0.86). The values also showed a close correlation with serum Ca; r=0.75 for C-RAS and r=0.81 for N-RAS. In addition, the correlation between the PTHrP reading obtained with the different RASs and serum Cr were: r=0.42 with C-RAS and r=0.26 with N-RAS. The circulating form of immunoreactive PTHrP fragments is therefore comprised mainly of PTHrP (109-141). In contrast, circulating concentrations of the PTHrP (1-86) fragment are very low, but detection of the PTHrP (1-86) fragment with the N-RAS is a more useful indicator of HHM with fewer false positive results and is less likely to be influenced by renal function than the detection of the PHPrP (109-141) fragment with C-RAS. (author).
Circulating forms of immunoreactive parathyroid hormone-related protein for identifying patients with humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy. A comparative study with C-terminal (109-141)- and N-terminal (1-86)-region-specific PTHrP radioassay
Suehiro, Mitsuko; Murakami, Minoru; Fukuchi, Minoru
We evaluated the circulating forms of immunoreactive parathyroid hormone-related protein(PTHrP) in 115 healthy subjects and 122 patients with malignant diseases by using radioassay systems (RAS) specific for the C-terminal (109-141) fragment of PTHrP (C-RAS) and for the N-terminal(1-86) (N-RAS). PTHrP levels in healthy controls ranged from 1.5 to 38.2 (mean: 24.5) pmol/L with the C-RAS and from 0.9 to 2.5 (mean: 1.7) pmol/L with the N-RAS. The ratio of circulating N-terminal fragment (N) to C-terminal fragment (C) of PTHrP was calculated to be about 1 : 14.4 in the healthy subjects. Of the 122 patients with malignant diseases, 40 (32.8%) had circulating PTHrP levels undetectable with the N-RAS, but only 11 (9.0%) patients had levels undetectable with the C-RAS. Of the former 122 patients, 41 (33.6%) had high PTHrP as determined with the C-RAS, and 10 (8.2%) had high PTHrP as determined with the N-RAS. The former of these included only 8 (19.5%) humoral hypercalcemia malignancy(HHM) patients, while the latter included 8 (80.0%) HHM patients. The circulating N to C ratio was about 1 : 70.7 in the HHM patients. The N and C obtained with the different RASs showed a close correlation (r=0.86). The values also showed a close correlation with serum Ca; r=0.75 for C-RAS and r=0.81 for N-RAS. In addition, the correlation between the PTHrP reading obtained with the different RASs and serum Cr were: r=0.42 with C-RAS and r=0.26 with N-RAS. The circulating form of immunoreactive PTHrP fragments is therefore comprised mainly of PTHrP (109-141). In contrast, circulating concentrations of the PTHrP (1-86) fragment are very low, but detection of the PTHrP (1-86) fragment with the N-RAS is a more useful indicator of HHM with fewer false positive results and is less likely to be influenced by renal function than the detection of the PHPrP (109-141) fragment with C-RAS. (author)
Ruch, Willibald; Heintz, Sonja; Platt, Tracey; Wagner, Lisa; Proyer, René T.
The present study introduces eight comic styles (i.e., fun, humor, nonsense, wit, irony, satire, sarcasm, and cynicism) and examines the validity of a set of 48 marker items for their assessment, the Comic Style Markers (CSM). These styles were originally developed to describe literary work and are used here to describe individual differences. Study 1 examines whether the eight styles can be distinguished empirically, in self- and other-reports, and in two languages. In different samples of altogether more than 1500 adult participants, the CSM was developed and evaluated with respect to internal consistency, homogeneity, test–retest reliability, factorial validity, and construct and criterion validity. Internal consistency was sufficiently high, and the median test-retest reliability over a period of 1–2 weeks was 0.86 (N = 148). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses showed that the eight styles could be distinguished in both English- (N = 303) and German-speaking samples (N = 1018 and 368). Comparing self- and other-reports (N = 210) supported both convergent and discriminant validity. The intercorrelations among the eight scales ranged from close to zero (between humor and sarcasm/cynicism) to large and positive (between sarcasm and cynicism). Consequently, second-order factor analyses revealed either two bipolar factors (based on ipsative data) or three unipolar factors (based on normative data). Study 2 related the CSM to instruments measuring personality (N = 999), intelligence (N = 214), and character strengths (N = 252), showing that (a) wit was the only style correlated with (verbal) intelligence, (b) fun was related to indicators of vitality and extraversion, (c) humor was related to character strengths of the heart, and (d) comic styles related to mock/ridicule (i.e., sarcasm, cynicism, but also irony) correlated negatively with character strengths of the virtues temperance, transcendence, and humanity. By contrast, satire had a moral goodness
Full Text Available The present study introduces eight comic styles (i.e., fun, humor, nonsense, wit, irony, satire, sarcasm, and cynicism and examines the validity of a set of 48 marker items for their assessment, the Comic Style Markers (CSM. These styles were originally developed to describe literary work and are used here to describe individual differences. Study 1 examines whether the eight styles can be distinguished empirically, in self- and other-reports, and in two languages. In different samples of altogether more than 1500 adult participants, the CSM was developed and evaluated with respect to internal consistency, homogeneity, test–retest reliability, factorial validity, and construct and criterion validity. Internal consistency was sufficiently high, and the median test-retest reliability over a period of 1–2 weeks was 0.86 (N = 148. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses showed that the eight styles could be distinguished in both English- (N = 303 and German-speaking samples (N = 1018 and 368. Comparing self- and other-reports (N = 210 supported both convergent and discriminant validity. The intercorrelations among the eight scales ranged from close to zero (between humor and sarcasm/cynicism to large and positive (between sarcasm and cynicism. Consequently, second-order factor analyses revealed either two bipolar factors (based on ipsative data or three unipolar factors (based on normative data. Study 2 related the CSM to instruments measuring personality (N = 999, intelligence (N = 214, and character strengths (N = 252, showing that (a wit was the only style correlated with (verbal intelligence, (b fun was related to indicators of vitality and extraversion, (c humor was related to character strengths of the heart, and (d comic styles related to mock/ridicule (i.e., sarcasm, cynicism, but also irony correlated negatively with character strengths of the virtues temperance, transcendence, and humanity. By contrast, satire had a moral goodness
Ruch, Willibald; Heintz, Sonja; Platt, Tracey; Wagner, Lisa; Proyer, René T
The present study introduces eight comic styles (i.e., fun, humor, nonsense, wit, irony, satire, sarcasm, and cynicism) and examines the validity of a set of 48 marker items for their assessment, the Comic Style Markers (CSM). These styles were originally developed to describe literary work and are used here to describe individual differences. Study 1 examines whether the eight styles can be distinguished empirically, in self- and other-reports, and in two languages. In different samples of altogether more than 1500 adult participants, the CSM was developed and evaluated with respect to internal consistency, homogeneity, test-retest reliability, factorial validity, and construct and criterion validity. Internal consistency was sufficiently high, and the median test-retest reliability over a period of 1-2 weeks was 0.86 ( N = 148). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses showed that the eight styles could be distinguished in both English- ( N = 303) and German-speaking samples ( N = 1018 and 368). Comparing self- and other-reports ( N = 210) supported both convergent and discriminant validity. The intercorrelations among the eight scales ranged from close to zero (between humor and sarcasm/cynicism) to large and positive (between sarcasm and cynicism). Consequently, second-order factor analyses revealed either two bipolar factors (based on ipsative data) or three unipolar factors (based on normative data). Study 2 related the CSM to instruments measuring personality ( N = 999), intelligence ( N = 214), and character strengths ( N = 252), showing that (a) wit was the only style correlated with (verbal) intelligence, (b) fun was related to indicators of vitality and extraversion, (c) humor was related to character strengths of the heart, and (d) comic styles related to mock/ridicule (i.e., sarcasm, cynicism, but also irony) correlated negatively with character strengths of the virtues temperance, transcendence, and humanity. By contrast, satire had a moral
Siegfried, Carla J; Shui, Ying-Bo; Tian, Baohe; Nork, T Michael; Heatley, Gregg A; Kaufman, Paul L
The purpose of this study is to evaluate effects of vitrectomy (PPV) and lens extraction with intraocular lens implantation (PE/IOL) on molecular oxygen (pO2) distribution, aqueous humor antioxidant-oxidant balance, aqueous humor dynamics, and histopathologic changes in the trabecular meshwork (TM) in the older macaque monkey. Six rhesus monkeys underwent PPV followed by PE/IOL. pO2, outflow facility, and intraocular pressure (IOP) were measured. Aqueous and vitreous humor specimens were analyzed for antioxidant status and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a marker of oxidative damage. TM specimens were obtained for immunohistochemical and quantitative PCR analysis. pO2 at baseline revealed steep gradients in the anterior chamber and low levels in the posterior chamber (PC) and around the lens. Following PPV and PE/IOL, pO2 significantly increased in the PC, around the IOL, and angle. IOP increased following both surgical interventions, with no change in outflow facility. Histopathologic analysis did not show changes in TM cell quantification, but there was an increase in 8-OHdG. Quantitative PCR did not reveal significant differences in glaucoma-related gene expression. Aqueous and vitreous humor analysis revealed decreased ascorbate and total reactive antioxidant potential and increased 8-OHdG in the aqueous humor only in the surgical eyes. Oxygen distribution in the older rhesus monkey is similar to humans at baseline and following surgical interventions. Our findings of histopathologic changes of TM oxidative damage and alterations in the oxidant-antioxidant balance suggest a potential correlation of increased oxygen exposure with oxidative stress/damage and the development of open angle glaucoma.
Objectives: Endocrine and immune interactions mediate breast cancer which is currently incurable. This study attempts at elucidating mechanisms by which breast cancer progresses by determining the levels of oestradiol and humoral immune parameters at different stages of breast cancer compared with women without ...
Nijholt, Antinus; Reidsma, Dennis; Choi, Insook; Bargar, Robin
Humans have humorous conversations and interactions. Nowadays our real life existence is integrated with our life in social media, videogames, mixed reality and physical environments that sense our activities and that can adapt appearance and properties due to our activities. There are other
Although the BVDV non-structural N-terminal protease (Npro) acts as an interferon antagonist and subverts the host innate immunity, little is known about its immunogenicity. Hence, we expressed a recombinant BVDV Npro–His fusion protein (28 kDa) in E. coli and determined the humoral immune response generated by it ...
Full Text Available We determined the antioxidant status of the aqueous humor after extracapsular lens extraction in 14 mongrel dogs weighing about 10 kg. The animals were examined by slit lamp biomicroscopy, applanation tonometry and indirect ophthalmoscopy. One eye was submitted to conventional extracapsular lens extraction and the other was used as control. Samples of aqueous humor were obtained by anterior chamber paracentesis before and at days 1, 2, 3, 7 and 15 after surgery. Total antioxidant status was determined as the capacity of aqueous humor to inhibit free radical generation by 2,2-azobis(2-amidopropane chlorine. Ascorbic acid concentration was measured by HPLC with UV detection. Protein content was determined with the biuret reagent. Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA followed by the Tukey-Kramer test. Protein concentration increased from 0.61 to 22 mg/ml 24 h after surgery. These levels were maintained and returned to normal at day 7. Total antioxidant capacity was reduced from 50 to about 30 min until day 3 and at day 7 it was equal to control. Ascorbic acid levels were reduced from 252 to about 110 µM and then returned to control values at day 15. Considering the importance of ascorbic acid concentration in aqueous humor for the maintenance of the antioxidant status of the anterior segment of the eye, the decrease of antioxidant defenses suggests that the surgical procedures promote an oxidative stress condition in the eye.
Full Text Available Eiki Oshida, Yukihiro Matsumoto, Kiyomi Arai1Department of Ophthalmology, Dokkyo Medical University Koshigaya Hospital, Koshigaya, Saitama, JapanPurpose: To clarify the presence of oxidative stress in glaucoma and discuss whether free radicals contribute to neovascular glaucoma (NVG and non-NVG.Methods: Two patient groups were formed: the NVG group (n = 10 and the non-NVG group (n = 17. Free radicals in aqueous humor were detected by measuring the electron spin resonance (ESR. To identify free radical species, either superoxide dismutase (SOD or catalase was added to the aqueous humor and compared with aqueous humor in which SOD or catalase was not added.Results: In the NVG group, free radical waveforms were detected that differed from ascorbate-free radical (AFR in all cases. Under SOD was added, the characteristic waveforms disappeared and the AFR of a specific waveform appeared. After catalase was added, the waveforms were unchanged. In the non-NVG group, the AFR of specific waveforms were detected in all cases. In 4 cases, the waveforms detected the presence of a trace of superoxide.Conclusions: In the NVG group, superoxides were detected, suggesting that superoxide scavenging activity was decreased markedly. L-ascorbic acid likely has an antioxidative function in the non-NVG group, suggesting that the aqueous humor in the NVG group was under higher oxidative stress compared with the non-NVG group.Keywords: oxidative stress, free radicals, glaucoma, ascorbate
Teng, Yoe Kie Onno
The aim of this thesis was to unravel the role of the humoral immune system in rheumatoid arthritis patients by employing new immunosuppressive strategies, i.e. specific B-cell depletion with Rituximab and non-specific lymfoablative treatment with high dose chemotherapy and hematopoeietic stem cell
This article draws from an ethnography on Mexican immigrant fathers and their children to examine humor in immigration narratives as acts of resistance. The analysis focuses on the devices employed by a father and daughter during their everyday talk and co-narration of an incident with police officers. Findings illustrate how the form and content…
This essay is a compilation of several conversations with Dr. Gene Roth, Distinguished Teaching Professor Emeritus at Northern Illinois University. Dr. Roth is past President of the Academy of Human Resource Development, and although he is well known for his efforts in bringing humor into the field of HRD, he is not the same Gene Roth that played…
The main aim of this paper is to investigate speech pauses and gestures as means to engage the audience and present the humorous message in an effective way. The data consist of two speeches by the USA president Barack Obama at the 2011 and 2016 Annual White House Correspondents’ Association Dinner...
Cecil, H. Wayne
This article shares the motivation, process, and outcomes of using humorous scenes from television comedies to teach the real world of tax practice. The article advances the literature by reviewing the use of video clips in a previously unexplored discipline, discussing the process of identifying and selecting appropriate clips, and introducing…
Full Text Available The article aims at examining how the main character Snowman’s image is constructed by applying an abundant number of deictic expressions in the Lithuanian, Russian and English versions of the cartoon Snow Postman. The research was based on M. Consten’s conception of direct and indirect reference and the model of visual-verbal cohesion proposed by N. Baumgarten. The study has revealed that in both, Russian and Lithuanian versions of the cartoon, the main character’s dialogues are loaded with deictic expressions which mark the same referents. In this way, the main character is shaped as a dull, forgetful being, unable to store and process a huge amount of information in his head. In the English version, deictic instances are sparsely used, thus the character image is quite different here: the snowman is less absent-minded and fuzzy.
Knoblauch, Heidi Katherine
On March 23, 2010, President Barack Obama signed the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) into law. As it went through Congress, the legislation faced forceful resistance. Individuals and organizations opposing the ACA circulated propaganda that varied from photographs of fresh graves or coffins with the caption "Result of ObamaCare" to portrayals of President Obama as the Joker from the Batman movies, captioned with the single word "socialism." The arguments embedded in these images have striking parallels to cartoons circulated by physicians to their patients in earlier fights against national health care. Examining cartoons used in the formative health care reform debates of the 1940s provides a means for tracing the lineage of emotional arguments employed against health care reform.
Knoblauch, Heidi Katherine
On March 23, 2010, President Barack Obama signed the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) into law. As it went through Congress, the legislation faced forceful resistance. Individuals and organizations opposing the ACA circulated propaganda that varied from photographs of fresh graves or coffins with the caption “Result of ObamaCare” to portrayals of President Obama as the Joker from the Batman movies, captioned with the single word “socialism.” The arguments embedded in these images have striking parallels to cartoons circulated by physicians to their patients in earlier fights against national health care. Examining cartoons used in the formative health care reform debates of the 1940s provides a means for tracing the lineage of emotional arguments employed against health care reform. PMID:24328659
Coakes, R L; Brubaker, R F
A new method of measuring aqueous humor flow and corneal endothelial permeability to fluorescein using a fluorophotometry nomogram is described. This method is compared to four other methods, two of which have been described previously. All five methods were carried out simultaneously in a group of 20 normal human subjects. All methods give closely comparable results in most of the eyes tested. A tabular comparison of the results of the nomographic method and the published results of other investigators, which are in good agreement, is given. The relative advantages and disadvantages of the nomographic technique are discussed.
Mahanty, Sarmistha; Kawali, Ankush A; Dakappa, Shruthi Shirur; Mahendradas, Padmamalini; Kurian, Mathew; Kharbanda, Varun; Shetty, Rohit; Setty, Subba Rao Gangi
Antibiotics such as fluoroquinolones (FQLs) are commonly used to treat ocular infections but are also known to cause dermal melanocyte toxicity. The release of dispersed pigments from the iris into the aqueous humor has been considered a possible ocular side effect of the systemic administration of FQLs such as Moxifloxacin, and this condition is known as bilateral acute iris transillumination (BAIT). Bilateral acute depigmentation of iris (BADI) is a similar condition, with iris pigment released into the aqueous, but it has not been reported as a side effect of FQL. Iris pigments are synthesized by the melanogenic enzyme tyrosinase (TYR) and can be detected but not quantified by using slit-lamp biomicroscopy. The correlation between dispersed pigments in the aqueous and the extent of melanocyte toxicity due to topical antibiotics in vivo is not well studied. Here, we aimed to study the effect of topical FQLs on iris tissue, the pigment release in the aqueous humor and the development of clinically evident iris atrophic changes. We evaluated this process by measuring the activity of TYR in the aqueous humor of 82 healthy eyes undergoing cataract surgery following topical application of FQLs such as Moxifloxacin (27 eyes, preservative-free) or Ciprofloxacin (29 eyes, with preservative) or the application of non-FQL Tobramycin (26 eyes, with preservative) as a control. In addition, the patients were questioned and examined for ocular side effects in pre- and post-operative periods. Our data showed a significantly higher mean TYR activity in the aqueous humor of Ciprofloxacin-treated eyes compared to Moxifloxacin- (preservative free, p humor from both Ciprofloxacin- and Moxifloxacin-treated eyes showed the presence of soluble TYR enzyme, thus reflecting its toxicity to iris melanocytes and corresponding to its activity in the aqueous humor. Intriguingly, none of these patients developed any clinically appreciable ocular side effects characteristic of BAIT or BADI
Lenzhofer, Markus; Schroedl, Falk; Trost, Andrea; Kaser-Eichberger, Alexandra; Wiedemann, Helmut; Strohmaier, Clemens; Hohensinn, Melchior; Strasser, Michael; Muckenthaler, Martina U; Grabner, Guenther; Aigner, Elmar; Reitsamer, Herbert A
Hereditary hyperferritinemia cataract syndrome (HHCS) is a rare autosomal dominant hereditary disease, characterized by hyperferritinemia but with absence of body iron excess and early onset of bilateral cataracts. Although 5- to 20-fold increased serum ferritin concentrations have been reported in HHCS patients, data of ferritin levels in aqueous humor have not been obtained. We therefore aimed to investigate the ferritin levels in aqueous humor and serum and further present histological and ultrastructural data of the lens. During cataract extraction and intraocular lens implantation, aqueous humor and lens aspirate of a 37-year-old HHCS patient were obtained from both eyes. Ferritin levels in serum and aqueous humor were quantitatively analyzed via immunoassays in the HHCS patient and healthy control subjects (n = 6). Lens aspirate in HHCS was analyzed histologically and at the ultrastructural level. Further, genetic mutation screening by polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing in blood was performed. Serum ferritin levels in the control group were 142.2 ± 38.7 μg/L, whereas in the HHCS patient, this parameter was excessively increased (1086 μg/L). Analysis of ferritin in aqueous humor revealed 6.4 ± 3.8 μg/L in normal control subjects and 146.3 μg/L (OD) and 160.4 μg/L (OS) in the HHCS patient. DNA analysis detected a C>A mutation on position +18, a T>G mutation on position +22, a T>C mutation on position +24, and a T>G polymorphism on position +26 in the iron-responsive element of the light-chain ferritin (L-ferritin) gene. In the HHCS patient, a 23-fold (OD) to 25-fold (OS) increased aqueous humor ferritin level was detected. Therefore, the formation of bilateral cataract in HHCS is most likely a result of elevated aqueous humor ferritin. In addition, a novel mutation in this rare disease in the iron-responsive element of L-ferritin gene is reported.
Mariane Oliveira Caetano
Full Text Available Nowadays, the tasks of translation, subtitle and dubbing professionals are frequently required and also considered fundamental due to the television industry development and its great significance. Concerning this aspect, this research aims to analyze previously selected subtitles fragments, which involve humor, from the sitcom The Big Bang Theory – usually related to cultural-linguistic aspects – which present challenges to the translator. The analyses of these excerpts were made from a qualitative approach, considering the profile of the virtual subtitlers, ABNT norms to subtitle genre and the theories applied to humor translation. It was possible to conclude, through the analyses of the subtitles, that due to the lack of accurate referents between the languages and also the specificities of the subtitle genre, humor was sometimes reconstructed in the target language. In this way, it is considered unjustifiable to focus on the concept of fidelity related to linguistics when it comes to a subtitle translation.
Xu, Xiao-ming; Gong, Zhi-qiang; Sun, Yue-gang
To seek a exact method of estimating postmortem interval (PMI). This study detected the concentration of magnesium (Mg) and iron (Fe) in vitreous humor of rabbit at 96 h after death and explored the relationship between their concentration and PMI using a method ICP-MS. The concentra-tion of Mg in vitreous humor of rabbit at 48 h after death and Fe in vitreous humor of rabbit at 6-48 h after death were related to PMI significantly. The formulae of the relationship between PMI and Mg concentrations is y = 0.0738x2 + 0.6997x + 11.45 (within 48 h, R2 = 0.9119). The formulae of the relationship between PMI and Fe concentrations is y = 0.0411x2 - 0.3148x + 1.4113 (within 6-48 h, R2 = 0.9594). The concentration of Mg in vitreous humor of rabbit at 48 h after death and Fe in vitreous humor of rabbit at 6-48 h after death may be as reference indicator to estimate PMI.
Bhanushali, J K; Murthy, K K; Ragland, W L
The effects of various doses of mibolerone, an analog of testosterone, in the development of the bursa of Fabricius and the humoral immune system were examined by injecting 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10 or 100 micrograms mibolerone into the chorio-allantoic cavity of 12-day-old chick embryos. Treatment with 0.01 or 0.1 micrograms of mibolerone caused slight or no bursal atrophy, 1 microgram caused substantial bursal atrophy, and 10 or 100 micrograms caused severe bursal atrophy at the time of hatching and at 6 weeks of age. When mibolerone-treated birds were challenged with sheep red blood cells and killed Brucella abortus at 4 and 5 weeks of age, birds treated with 10 or 100 micrograms of mibolerone had suppressed humoral responses to sheep erythrocytes and B. abortus whereas birds treated with 0.01 and 0.1 micrograms of mibolerone had normal humoral immune responses. Birds treated with 1 microgram mibolerone had normal humoral immune responses to sheep erythrocytes and B. abortus (except for low IgG responses to B. abortus) despite the fact that the birds had substantially atrophic bursae during their embryonic and post-embryonic development. These results are discussed in relation to an earlier claim that mibolerone given in microgram quantities in feed during the post-hatch period causes rapid development of the humoral immune system.
Nicholas A. Kuiper
Full Text Available This article considers how humor may fit within a resiliency perspective. Following a brief overview of resiliency approaches, including selected work on positive psychology, several lines of research that provide initial support for resiliency effects of humor on stress and trauma are highlighted. This work ranges from anecdotal case report descriptions of facilitative humor use in extremely traumatic situations (e.g., paramedics, to more rigorous studies examining moderator and cognitive appraisal effects of humor on psychological well-being. Although these initial findings are quite promising, it is noted that some resiliency-based approaches to humor are limited by a sole focus on humor as a positive attribute. As such, a humor styles model, which acknowledges both the adaptive and maladaptive aspects of humor, is used to describe broader avenues of research within a resiliency perspective. This process orientation to humor use also highlights the importance of both negative and positive emotion regulation in modulating coping and growth. This model is then used to comment on limitations and potential extensions of current resiliency perspectives on humor, including programs and exercises that attempt to train humor use in a facilitative manner.
Gross, Lawrence W.
The literature on humor generally focuses on the nature of incongruities as the root of humor. In this article, the author takes the examination of humor one step further by meditating on the mental frame involved with humor. He is interested in what cultural experiences would predispose the individuals within a given culture to have a sense of…
Maruyama, Junichi; Fuji, Kei
In this study we aimed to examine the contents of humor in the Japanese workplace and to understand the effects of humor on mental/physical health and self-evaluation of job performance. Japanese workers (N = 436) responded to questionnaires addressing workplace humor, feelings about workplace, workplace communication, mental/physical health, and perceived job performance. An exploratory factor analysis indicated that there are five types of workplace humor: norm-violating humor, experience-sharing humor workplace-enjoying humor, people-recalling humor, and outside-mocking humor. A covariance structural analysis showed that norm-violating humor and workplace-enjoying humor decreased mental and physical health by promoting both negative feelings in the workplace and self-disclosure about the negative side of work. Results also revealed that experience-sharing humor, people-recalling humor, and outside-mocking humor had a positive effect on the self-evaluation of job performance as well as mental and physical health, by promoting both positive feelings and mutual communication in the workplace. Results suggest that humor in the workplace has various influences on workers depending on the type of workplace humor.
Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; Kubitschek-Barreira, Paula H; Fernandes, Geisa Ferreira; de Almeida, Sandro Rogério; Lopes-Bezerra, Leila M; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires
Sporotrichosis is a polymorphic disease that affects both humans and animals worldwide. The fungus gains entry into a warm-blooded host through minor trauma to the skin, typically by contaminated vegetation or by scratches and bites from a diseased cat. Cellular and humoral responses triggered upon pathogen introduction play important roles in the development and severity of the disease. We investigated molecules expressed during the host-parasite interplay that elicit the humoral response in human sporotrichosis. For antigenic profiling, Sporothrix yeast cell extracts were separated by two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis and probed with pooled sera from individuals with fixed cutaneous and lymphocutaneous sporotrichosis. Thirty-five IgG-seroreactive spots were identified as eight specific proteins by MALDI-ToF/MS. Remarkable cross-reactivity among Sporothrix brasiliensis, Sporothrix schenckii, and Sporothrix globosa was noted and antibodies strongly reacted with the 70-kDa protein (gp70), irrespective of clinical manifestation. Gp70 was successfully identified in multiple spots as 3-carboxymuconate cyclase. In addition, 2D-DIGE characterization suggested that the major antigen of sporotrichosis undergoes post-translational modifications involving glycosylation and amino acid substitution, resulting in at least six isoforms and glycoforms that were present in the pathogenic species but absent in the ancestral non-virulent Sporothrix mexicana. Although a primary environmental function related to the benzoate degradation pathway of aromatic polymers has been attributed to orthologs of this molecule, our findings support the hypothesis that gp70 is important for pathogenesis and invasion in human sporotrichosis. We propose a diverse panel of new putative candidate molecules for diagnostic tests and vaccine development. Outbreaks due to Sporothrix spp. have emerged over time, affecting thousands of patients worldwide. A sophisticated host-pathogen interplay drives
Full Text Available How strongly does humor (i.e., the construct-relevant content in the Humor Styles Questionnaire (HSQ; Martin et al., 2003 determine the responses to this measure (i.e., construct validity? Also, how much does humor influence the relationships of the four HSQ scales, namely affiliative, self-enhancing, aggressive, and self-defeating, with personality traits and subjective well-being (i.e., criterion validity? The present paper answers these two questions by experimentally manipulating the 32 items of the HSQ to only (or mostly contain humor (i.e., construct-relevant content or to substitute the humor content with non-humorous alternatives (i.e., only assessing construct-irrelevant context. Study 1 (N = 187 showed that the HSQ affiliative scale was mainly determined by humor, self-enhancing and aggressive were determined by both humor and non-humorous context, and self-defeating was primarily determined by the context. This suggests that humor is not the primary source of the variance in three of the HQS scales, thereby limiting their construct validity. Study 2 (N = 261 showed that the relationships of the HSQ scales to the Big Five personality traits and subjective well-being (positive affect, negative affect, and life satisfaction were consistently reduced (personality or vanished (subjective well-being when the non-humorous contexts in the HSQ items were controlled for. For the HSQ self-defeating scale, the pattern of relationships to personality was also altered, supporting an positive rather than a negative view of the humor in this humor style. The present findings thus call for a reevaluation of the role that humor plays in the HSQ (construct validity and in the relationships to personality and well-being (criterion validity.
Ruch, Willibald; Heintz, Sonja
How strongly does humor (i.e., the construct-relevant content) in the Humor Styles Questionnaire (HSQ; Martin et al., 2003) determine the responses to this measure (i.e., construct validity)? Also, how much does humor influence the relationships of the four HSQ scales, namely affiliative, self-enhancing, aggressive, and self-defeating, with personality traits and subjective well-being (i.e., criterion validity)? The present paper answers these two questions by experimentally manipulating the 32 items of the HSQ to only (or mostly) contain humor (i.e., construct-relevant content) or to substitute the humor content with non-humorous alternatives (i.e., only assessing construct-irrelevant context). Study 1 ( N = 187) showed that the HSQ affiliative scale was mainly determined by humor, self-enhancing and aggressive were determined by both humor and non-humorous context, and self-defeating was primarily determined by the context. This suggests that humor is not the primary source of the variance in three of the HQS scales, thereby limiting their construct validity. Study 2 ( N = 261) showed that the relationships of the HSQ scales to the Big Five personality traits and subjective well-being (positive affect, negative affect, and life satisfaction) were consistently reduced (personality) or vanished (subjective well-being) when the non-humorous contexts in the HSQ items were controlled for. For the HSQ self-defeating scale, the pattern of relationships to personality was also altered, supporting an positive rather than a negative view of the humor in this humor style. The present findings thus call for a reevaluation of the role that humor plays in the HSQ (construct validity) and in the relationships to personality and well-being (criterion validity).
Michael S Piepenbrink
Full Text Available Injection drug use is a growing major public health concern. Injection drug users (IDUs have a higher incidence of co-morbidities including HIV, Hepatitis, and other infections. An effective humoral response is critical for optimal homeostasis and protection from infection; however, the impact of injection heroin use on humoral immunity is poorly understood. We hypothesized that IDUs have altered B cell and antibody profiles.A comprehensive systems biology-based cross-sectional assessment of 130 peripheral blood B cell flow cytometry- and plasma- based features was performed on HIV-/Hepatitis C-, active heroin IDUs who participated in a syringe exchange program (n = 19 and healthy control subjects (n = 19. The IDU group had substantial polydrug use, with 89% reporting cocaine injection within the preceding month. IDUs exhibited a significant, 2-fold increase in total B cells compared to healthy subjects, which was associated with increased activated B cell subsets. Although plasma total IgG titers were similar between groups, IDUs had significantly higher IgG3 and IgG4, suggestive of chronic B cell activation. Total IgM was also increased in IDUs, as well as HIV Envelope-specific IgM, suggestive of increased HIV exposure. IDUs exhibited numerous features suggestive of systemic inflammation, including significantly increased plasma sCD40L, TNF-α, TGF-α, IL-8, and ceramide metabolites. Machine learning multivariate analysis distilled a set of 10 features that classified samples based on group with absolute accuracy.These results demonstrate broad alterations in the steady-state humoral profile of IDUs that are associated with increased systemic inflammation. Such dysregulation may impact the ability of IDUs to generate optimal responses to vaccination and infection, or lead to increased risk for inflammation-related co-morbidities, and should be considered when developing immune-based interventions for this growing population.
Adiguzel, U; Bilgihan, K; Ozdek, S C; Sancak, B; Hasanreisoglu, B
To measure the nitric oxide (NO) levels of aqueous humor in rabbits after photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and to evaluate the alterations of NO levels according to the PRK surgery steps, ablation depth, and time. Fifty eyes of 25 New Zealand white rabbits were included in the study. One eye was later randomly excluded from the study in order to equalize the number of eyes in groups. Eyes were divided into seven groups, each comprising seven eyes: unwounded control (Group 1), epithelial scrape (Group 2; aqueous humor samples taken at the 4th hour), superficial PRK (Group 3; samples taken at the 4th hour), deep PRK (Group 4; samples taken at the 4th hour), epithelial scrape (Group 5; samples taken at the 24th hour), superficial PRK (Group 6; samples taken at the 24th hour), and deep PRK (Group 7; samples taken at the 24th hour). The corneal epithelium was mechanically removed in surgical groups. The authors performed superficial corneal ablation (59 microm) in Groups 3 and 6 and deep corneal ablation (99 microm) in Groups 4 and 7. Aqueous humor samples were taken at the 4th hour (Groups 2-4) or 24th hour (Groups 5-7) after corneal surgeries. NO measurements were performed indirectly by using the Griess reaction with a spectrophotometer. Aqueous humor NO levels 4 hours after corneal surgery were statistically significantly lower than the control group (p0.05). At the 24th hour, the deep PRK group had significantly lower NO levels than both the control group and Groups 5 and 6 (p0.05) but remained stable at lower levels in deep PRK groups (p<0.05). Corneal surgery caused low NO levels in aqueous humor 4 hours after surgery. However, 24 hours after surgery, NO levels normalized following epithelial scrape and superficial PRK and were stable at lower levels in the deep PRK group. Complications of deep PRK application are possibly induced by low NO existence in the aqueous humor.
Mahony, D L; Mann, V A
This study uses linguistic humor to show that an awareness of only those linguistic units transcribed by the orthography bears a special relation to early reading success. The subjects were 48 second-grade children tested on ten "phoneme/morpheme" riddles which manipulate phonemes and bound morphemes and ten "control" riddles which depend on awareness of other aspects of linguistic structure and "common sense". Each child also received the Word Identification and Word Attack subtests of the Woodcock Reading Mastery Tests and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test. Reading ability was significantly related to correct resolution of the phoneme/morpheme riddles but not to correct resolution of the control riddles. PPVT scores were significantly related to performance on both types of riddles but not to reading ability. Thus, while IQ is related to the resolution of riddles in general, reading ability has a special relation to riddles which manipulate phonemes and morphemes, consistent with the morphophonological nature of English orthography.
The present thesis analyses political humour as an opinion and critical discourse of political power. This kind of discourse is reviewed historically on one hand and placed in the context of political debate in contemporary media on the other. The political cartoon as a frequent manifestation of political humour in the media is selected and qualities and caracteristics of this journalistic genre are analysed. The political cartoon published in the Spanish and Greek press during 2011-2012 ...
Lic. Elena del Carmen Pérez
Full Text Available El presente trabajo se propone dar cuenta de las estrategias con que el humor hace emerger, en el contexto general de los discursos, aquellos fragmentos omitidos por el decir oficial. Por su naturaleza de articulador ideológico, el texto publicitario (como todo texto remite a lo ya dicho en un estado dado de sociedad. En este sentido, resulta interesante observar qué fragmentos del discurso social recoge la publicidad humorística, con qué retórica los hace risibles y quiénes son aquellos sobre los que recae la risa. Se comentan avisos que son emitidos actualmente por canales de cable o aire en la ciudad de Córdoba, Argentina.
Full Text Available Este artículo analiza el uso del humor negro del caricaturista Fontanarrosa en su serie Semblanzas Deportivas, definiendo, a la vez que deslindando, lo humorístico y lo cómico. Se aborda también el lugar que ocupa la obra de Fontanarrosa en la cultura popular, en donde destacan sobre todo temas deportivos como: fútbol, boxeo, atletismo y lucha libre. Se observa el uso de la literatura borgeana en Fontanarrosa y cómo, a partir de la exageración en imágenes de los rasgos de sus personajes, se consigue elaborar una crítica sin que sea necesario recurrir a la abierta oposición.
Ridley, Julia; Dance, Derry; Pare, Daniel
Humor frequently occurs in palliative care environments; however, the acceptability of humor, particularly between patients and health care providers has not been previously examined. To explore the importance and acceptability of humor to participants who are patients in a palliative care context, the study determines if demographics are correlated with the degree of acceptability, and examines the acceptance of humor by patients with advanced illness when interacting with nurses or physicians. One hundred participants admitted to a palliative care unit or residential hospice were surveyed. Basic demographic data were collected, as well as responses on a five-point Likert scale to a variety of questions regarding the participants' attitudes about humor before and after their illness and the acceptability of humor in a palliative setting. Participants were also given the opportunity to comment freely on the topic of humor and the palliative experience. A large majority of participants valued humor highly both prior to (77%) and during (76%) their illness experience. Despite this valuation, the frequency of laughter in their daily lives diminished significantly as patients' illness progressed. Most participants remembered laughing with a nurse (87%) and a doctor (67%) in the week prior to the survey, and found humor with their doctors (75%) and nurses appropriate (88%). The vast majority of participants found humorous interactions with their health care providers acceptable and appropriate, and this may indicate a opportunity for enhanced and more effective end-of-life care in the future.
Yue, Xiao Dong; Hui, Anna Na
Humor is found to be an essential element of creative thinking in Western culture. In Eastern culture, however, the relationship between creativity and humor is ambivalent. This study examined the relationship among humor styles, creative personality traits, and creative thinking abilities. A sample of 118 Chinese undergraduates in Hong Kong was recruited to complete the Humor Styles Questionnaire, the three Creative Personality subscales of the Chinese Personality Assessment Inventory-2 (CPAI-2), and the Verbal Test of the Wallach-Kogan Creativity Tests. Results show that humor styles are uncorrelated with creative thinking abilities of flexibility, fluency, and originality, but affiliative humor and aggressive humor are correlated with creative personality traits of novelty and diversity. A hierarchical multiple regression shows that both humor styles and creative personality traits of novelty and diversity account for non-significant variance on creative thinking abilities. These findings largely support a hypothesized non-association between humor styles and creative measures. They also pose a sharp contrast to findings obtained in the West, in which humor styles are typically correlated with both creative thinking abilities and creative personality traits.
Mak, Wingyun; Sörensen, Silvia
Little is known about humor and purpose in life in people with dementia. Although having a sense of humor is typically associated with positive psychological outcomes, recent evidence suggests that outcomes may vary depending on whether the humor being used is adaptive versus maladaptive. The goal of this study was to determine whether humor styles are predictive of purpose in life in people with dementia. Questionnaires were verbally administered to people with mild-to-moderate dementia to measure humor styles and purpose in life. Adaptive humor styles were associated with purpose in life whereas maladaptive humor styles were not. Having a sense of humor in dementia may be associated with a stronger sense of purpose in life, but it depends on the type of humor used. Results are discussed in the context of understanding the role of humor in the daily lives of people with dementia and implications for care. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Holmes, H.C.; Tuffrey, M.; Barnes, R.D.; Steuden, J.; Hilgers, J.
A solid-phase radioimmunoassay utilising binding of 125 I-labelled protein A to antibodies bound to virus adsorbed onto microtitre plates was shown to be suitable for detection of humoral immunity to Gross murine leukaemia virus (MuLV). The specificity of the reaction was shown by the fact that only homologous or closely related viruses effectively inhibited binding of antibodies to adsorbed virus. With this method a low level of spontaneous humoral immunity was demonstrated in sera from AKR/Crc mice, a strain with high concentrations of endogenous virus, whereas little or no anti-viral activity was found in CBA/H-T6Crc, a subline that does not appear to express MuLV. (Auth.)
Teng, Yoe Kie Onno
The aim of this thesis was to unravel the role of the humoral immune system in rheumatoid arthritis patients by employing new immunosuppressive strategies, i.e. specific B-cell depletion with Rituximab and non-specific lymfoablative treatment with high dose chemotherapy and hematopoeietic stem cell transplantation. This thesis evaluates the clinical benefit of these strategies as well as the immunological changes that coincide with clinical improvement. By combining clinical outcome with immu...
Leandro Silva Marques
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Although several studies have discussed nickel influence on the development of immunological reactions in orthodontic patients, it is noticed that the evidence towards the appliances, as well as towards the possible consequences of this material on the oral and general health of the individual are still inconsistent. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article is to present the current stage of knowledge on this issue, highlighting the most recent findings considering the periodontal and humoral aspects of allergic subjects.
Full Text Available Since the start of the 21st century, the investigation of various psychological aspects of humor and laughter has become an increasingly prominent topic of research. This growth can be attributed, in no small part, to the pioneering and creative work on humor and laughter conducted by Professor Rod Martin. Dr. Martin’s research interests in humor and laughter began in the early 1980s and continued throughout his 32 year long career as a professor of clinical psychology at the University of Western Ontario. During this time, Dr. Martin published numerous scholarly articles, chapters, and books on psychological aspects of humor and laughter. Professor Martin has just retired in July 2016, and in the present interview he recounts a number of research highlights of his illustrious career. Dr. Martin’s earliest influential work, conducted while he was still in graduate school, stemmed from an individual difference perspective that focused on the beneficial effects of sense of humor on psychological well-being. This research focus remained evident in many of Professor Martin’s subsequent investigations, but became increasingly refined as he developed several measures of different components of sense of humor, including both adaptive and maladaptive humor styles. In this interview, Dr. Martin describes the conceptualization, development and use of the Humor Styles Questionnaire, along with suggestions for future research and development. In doing so, he also discusses the three main components of humor (i.e., cognitive, emotional and interpersonal, as well as the distinctions and similarities between humor and laughter. Further highlights of this interview include Professor Martin’s comments on such diverse issues as the genetic versus environmental loadings for sense of humor, the multifaceted nature of the construct of humor, and the possible limitations of teaching individuals to use humor in a beneficial manner to cope with stress and
Martin, Rod; Kuiper, Nicholas A
Since the start of the 21st century, the investigation of various psychological aspects of humor and laughter has become an increasingly prominent topic of research. This growth can be attributed, in no small part, to the pioneering and creative work on humor and laughter conducted by Professor Rod Martin. Dr. Martin's research interests in humor and laughter began in the early 1980s and continued throughout his 32 year long career as a professor of clinical psychology at the University of Western Ontario. During this time, Dr. Martin published numerous scholarly articles, chapters, and books on psychological aspects of humor and laughter. Professor Martin has just retired in July 2016, and in the present interview he recounts a number of research highlights of his illustrious career. Dr. Martin's earliest influential work, conducted while he was still in graduate school, stemmed from an individual difference perspective that focused on the beneficial effects of sense of humor on psychological well-being. This research focus remained evident in many of Professor Martin's subsequent investigations, but became increasingly refined as he developed several measures of different components of sense of humor, including both adaptive and maladaptive humor styles. In this interview, Dr. Martin describes the conceptualization, development and use of the Humor Styles Questionnaire, along with suggestions for future research and development. In doing so, he also discusses the three main components of humor (i.e., cognitive, emotional and interpersonal), as well as the distinctions and similarities between humor and laughter. Further highlights of this interview include Professor Martin's comments on such diverse issues as the genetic versus environmental loadings for sense of humor, the multifaceted nature of the construct of humor, and the possible limitations of teaching individuals to use humor in a beneficial manner to cope with stress and enhance their social and
Ganz, Freda DeKeyser; Jacobs, Jeremy M
A convenience sample of community-dwelling older people attending senior centers was asked to participate in a quasi-experimental study to examine the impact of a humor therapy workshop on physical and mental health. Participants were assessed at baseline and at six months for physical (general health and health quality of life) and mental (general well-being, anxiety, depression and psychological distress) health. The sample consisted of 92 subjects, 42 in the control group and 50 in the workshop. Compared to controls, subjects in the workshop had significantly lower follow-up levels of anxiety and depression and improved general well-being. No differences were observed for general health, health quality of life, or psychological distress. This humor therapy workshop was associated with a positive effect upon mental health. It is recommended that attendance at humor workshops be encouraged and that further investigations into the efficacy of such programs on mental and physical health be investigated. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Dobber, R.; Tielemans, M.; Nagelkerken, L.
In the present study we investigated whether age-related changes in the composition and functional properties of murine CD4+ T cells are reflected in vivo by a changed humoral response to influenza vaccine in aged mice. After the primary immunization, the titers of influenza-specific IgM, IgG1,
Full Text Available Previous studies have compared the immune systems of wild and of laboratory rodents in an effort to determine how laboratory rodents differ from their naturally occurring relatives. This comparison serves as an indicator of what sorts of changes might exist between modern humans living in Western culture compared to our hunter-gatherer ancestors. However, immunological experiments on wild-caught animals are difficult and potentially confounded by increased levels of stress in the captive animals. In this study, the humoral immune responses of laboratory rats in a traditional laboratory environment and in an environment with enriched biodiversity were examined following immunization with a panel of antigens. Biodiversity enrichment included colonization of the laboratory animals with helminths and co-housing the laboratory animals with wild-caught rats. Increased biodiversity did not apparently affect the IgE response to peanut antigens following immunization with those antigens. However, animals housed in the enriched biodiversity setting demonstrated an increased mean humoral response to T-independent and T-dependent antigens and increased levels of "natural" antibodies directed at a xenogeneic protein and at an autologous tissue extract that were not used as immunogens.
Pi, Cinthia; Allott, Emma H.; Ren, Daniel; Poulton, Susan; Lee, S. Y. Ryan; Perkins, Sarah; Everett, Mary Lou; Holzknecht, Zoie E.; Lin, Shu S.; Parker, William
Previous studies have compared the immune systems of wild and of laboratory rodents in an effort to determine how laboratory rodents differ from their naturally occurring relatives. This comparison serves as an indicator of what sorts of changes might exist between modern humans living in Western culture compared to our hunter-gatherer ancestors. However, immunological experiments on wild-caught animals are difficult and potentially confounded by increased levels of stress in the captive animals. In this study, the humoral immune responses of laboratory rats in a traditional laboratory environment and in an environment with enriched biodiversity were examined following immunization with a panel of antigens. Biodiversity enrichment included colonization of the laboratory animals with helminths and co-housing the laboratory animals with wild-caught rats. Increased biodiversity did not apparently affect the IgE response to peanut antigens following immunization with those antigens. However, animals housed in the enriched biodiversity setting demonstrated an increased mean humoral response to T-independent and T-dependent antigens and increased levels of “natural” antibodies directed at a xenogeneic protein and at an autologous tissue extract that were not used as immunogens. PMID:25853852
Evaldo Gondim dos Santos
Full Text Available This article aims at analyzing the relationship between fiction and salvific discourse in the novel Miss Lonelyhearts (1933, by Nathanael West, understanding this problematic narrative as a liberating performance of the humor classified as black, from which dogmatic contents are dissociated, with a shift beyond the psychological dimension and religious representations that contents take into account. To do so, we carried out our reading by making use of the myth of Dionysus that allows us to articulate the vertiginous logics that takes place in West’s text, leading it to the nonsense that contaminates the religious discourse and deposes it from the sovereign power in this fictional world. Furthermore, our study is grounded on Deleuze’s recreation of Nietzsche’s eternal return. We also resort to the philosophy of religion to understand Nietzsche’s criticism of Christianity and its relation to the myth of Dionysus and eternal return in the analyzed work. The analysis made of such novel points to the insertion of irony and humor in the novel as a constant literary element that causes discursive heterogeneity, pointing the ambivalences and inconsistencies of Christianity conveyed by media in the discourse of messianic metanarrative.
Knosalla, C; Grauhan, O; Muller, J; Pfitzmann, R; Fietze, E; Cohnert, T; Volk, H D; Hetzer, R
The purpose of this study was to prove the reliability of intramyocardial electrogram (IMEG) recordings for diagnosis and treatment monitoring of (1) cellular and (2) humoral mediated allograft rejection after heart transplantation. Fifteen beagle dogs underwent heterotopic neck-heart transplantation. Eight of them were previously sensitized through several skin transplantations. IMEG recordings were performed daily. Donor-specific antibodies (IgG, IgM) were determinated in serum daily. Transmyocardial biopsies were performed every two days. In the sensitized group (group I) accelerated rejection occurred under triple drug immunosuppression with cyclosporine A, azathioprine, and cortisone on the fifth postoperative day (range: 4th-5th). All episodes were detected through IMEG diagnosis. In each case rejection could be treated successfully. In the cellular mediated group (group II), the average sensitivity for rejection diagnosis of a single lead was 24% for the unipolar and 42% for the bipolar leads. When the voltages of different leads were summed up the sensitivity rose to 36% (3 unipolar), 81% (3 bipolar) and 100% (all leads). During rejection therapy the IMEG recovered within 24-48 hours. The IMEG detects cellular and humoral mediated rejection early and with high reliability. The rejection-related changes of grade 2/3a rejection in IMEG seem to follow a Ofocal patternO similar to the histology. Therefore the recording of several, preferably bipolar, electrode configurations appears to enhance diagnostic reliability.
Reddan, J.R.; Weinsieder, A.; Wilson, D.
Experiments were designed to gain a better understanding of the relationship between ocular inflammation and cell proliferation in the lens epithelium. Aqueous humor (AH) was collected from rabbit eyes that had been subjected to a variety of traumata, including paracentesis, needle injury, X-irradiation and the intravitreal administration of an antigen. In all cases the protein content of the AH increased, reflecting a breakdown in the blood aqueous barrier. Rabbit lenses from non-traumatized eyes were isolated and cultured in medium KEI-4 containing samples of the various aqueous humors noted above. Control lenses were cultured in medium KEI-4 alone or in KEI-4 containing rabbit serum albumen at a protein concentration equivalent to that used in the AH studies. In contrast to controls, the epithelial cells of lenses exposed to AH from injured or inflamed eyes exhibited mitosis throughout the normally amitotic regions of epithelium. Moreover, the specific activity of AH collected 15 min after initial paracentesis, relative to both DNA synthesis and mitosis, exceeded that of rabbit serum. An identification of the mitogenic factor(s) in the AH may help in understanding the environmental conditions that regulate the mitotic response which normally precedes wound healing in the lens in situ, and may help in elucidating the mechanism which controls mitosis and differentiation in the lens in vivo. (author)
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the frequency of use of different types of humor in the classroom for a possible relationship with perceived and actual learning. This relationship was examined using quantitative methods. Participants answered questions about their perceived and actual learning and the type of humor to which they were exposed (examining the frequency of such exposure. Student’s final grade in the course served as the measure of actual learning. The study consisted of 195 undergraduate students ranging in age from 18 to 25. A factor analysis identified two distinct types of humor (relevant/appropriate and non-relevant used in the classroom with relevant/appropriate humor predicting perceived learning. No relationship was found between the different types of humor and actual learning. There was also no difference in the interaction between different types of humor with gender.
Esther Rodríguez Ortiz
Full Text Available La representación de los interiores y los muebles en el humor gráfico, ofrece un punto de vista diferente sobre este tema y lo haremos a través del trabajo de Tomás Niembro, uno de los dibujantes más importantes de la década de los sesenta en Asturias. Gracias a estos chistes podremos ver la vida de la clase media, los interiores y los objetos decorativos de sus casas. En este punto, podemos analizar cómo cambian los hábitos y las tendencias. España, en aquella época, tiene una nueva política como el Plan de Estabilización de 1959, fue una ley reguladora de la economía española tras la Autarquía. En otras palabras el consumismo se está estableciendo en nuestro país. Pero no es sólo una cuestión sobre el mueble, sino sobre las personas, sobre la sociedad, y por último, sobre el humor gráfico. A través de los ojos de Tomás Niembro vamos a ver los cambios en la sociedad española.The representation of interior design and furniture in the graphic humour offers a different point of view. We’ll address this subject considering Tomás Niembro’s work, who was one of the most popular cartoonists in the sixties in Asturias. Thanks to these cartoons, we can analyze the lives of people from the middleclass, interior designs and some decorative objects in their homes. At this point, we may study how habits and trends keep changing. At that time, Spain faced new political developments like the Stabilization Plan of 1959, which was a law aimed at regulating the Spanish economy after the Autarchy. In other words, a new consuming culture was being established in our country. However, this was not only a matter of furniture, but also of people, society and, at last, humour. We will study and analyze all these changes in the Spanish society through Tomás Niembro’s eyes.
Bast, Elizabeth S.; Berry, Elliot M.
This review explores the potential overlap between the fields of nutrition and therapeutic humor, together with the role of humor as a possible tool for aiding those in whom emotions, particularly negative ones, trigger eating as a means to improve mood. We review emotional eating, obesity, and the hypothesized mechanisms of emotional eating. We then review the field of therapeutic humor and its ability to de-stress individuals, possibly through endorphin and opioid systems, both of which are...
Ashworth Briggs, Esther L; Toh, Tze'Yo; Eri, Rajaraman; Hewitt, Alex W; Cook, Anthony L
The pathophysiological changes occurring in the trabecular meshwork in primary open angle glaucoma are poorly understood, but are thought to include increased extracellular matrix deposition, trabecular meshwork cell apoptosis, inflammation, trabecular meshwork calcification and altered protein composition of the aqueous humor. Although many proteins are present in aqueous humor, relatively few have been studied extensively, and their potential roles in primary open angle glaucoma are unknown. Analyte concentrations in aqueous humor from 19 primary open angle glaucoma and 18 cataract patients were measured using a multiplex immunoassay. Fisher's exact test was used to assess statistical significance between groups, and correlations of analyte concentrations with age, intraocular pressure, pattern standard deviation, mean deviation, cup-to-disc ratio and disease duration since commencing treatment were tested by Spearman's method. CHI3L1, FLRG, HGF, MIF, P-selectin and Uteroglobin were detected in more than 50% of samples of one or both patient groups, some of which have not previously been quantified in aqueous humor. In the glaucoma but not the cataract group, significant correlations were determined with age for Uteroglobin/SCGB1A1 (r s = 0.805, p < 0.0001) and FLRG (r s = 0.706, p = 0.0007). Furthermore, HGF correlated significantly with disease duration (r s = - 0.723, p = 0.0007). There were no differences in analyte concentrations between groups, and no other significant associations with clinical descriptors that passed correction for multiple testing. The correlations of uteroglobin and FLRG with age in primary open angle glaucoma but not cataract may suggest a heightened requirement for anti-inflammatory (uteroglobin) or anti-calcification (FLRG) activity in the ageing glaucomatous trabecular meshwork.
Ma, Wei-Yin; Peng, Shao; Zhang, Ting
To investigate the changes in serum YKL-40 level and humoral immune function and their significance in children with recurrent pneumonia. Blood samples were collected from 30 children with recurrent pneumonia (recurrent pneumonia group), 30 children with acute pneumonia (acute pneumonia group), and 30 healthy children (control group). Serum YKL-40 levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The correlation between serum YKL-40 level and laboratory indices related to humoral immune function was analyzed. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to analyze the diagnostic value of serum YKL-40 level for recurrent pneumonia. The recurrent pneumonia group had a significantly higher serum YKL-40 level than the acute pneumonia and control groups (Ppneumonia group had a significantly higher serum YKL-40 level than the control group (Ppneumonia group were significantly lower than in the acute pneumonia group (Ppneumonia was 0.958 (95%CI: 0.921-0.994). Humoral immune function is low in children with recurrent pneumonia. Serum YKL-40 may be involved in the occurrence of recurrent pneumonia and can be used as a reference index for diagnosing recurrent pneumonia.
Full Text Available Joking and teasing permeated all aspects of life in New Spain. Using court records from Mexico City and its surrounding communities, this article explores the ways that laughter was deployed within New Spain’s culture of masculinity. Humor was both a means for to relate to each other but also to mark differences. It was a normal part of the day to day interactions of men in New Spain between friends who joked and teased but it could also fall flat when one person did not have the right tone. Yet the border between joking and insulting comments was imprecise and thus often led to conflicts. Laughter brought people together when they were of the same social class but when it was used in an offensive manner, it was transformed into a weapon to assert social distance. Such humor was also part of seductions and similarly had political overtones when it was used in satirical songs. Humor brought people together and created groups of insiders and outsiders. Laughter was a powerful tool within social interactions and provides an alternate way to understand the culture of masculinity in colonial Mexico.
Riffe, Daniel; And Others
A study examined differences between political cartoonists and op-ed page editors on both traditional ethical issues (such as conflicts of interest) and the special, style-related concerns of editorial cartoonists. Hypotheses proposed were that editors and cartoonists (1) would condemn "cloning" or copying, reflecting an ethical…
Full Text Available Background: The pain caused by the invasive procedures, such as vaccination, could be associated with mental tension and tissue damage in children. Therefore, one of the priorities of the healthcare providers is to manage this pain. Regarding this, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of distraction using inflating balloons and watching cartoons on the intensity of the pain induced by diphtheria tetanus and pertussis (DPT vaccine in school-age children. Methods: This clinical trial was conducted on the school-age children, who referred to Sayyid Al-Shuhada Healthcare Center in Zahedan, Iran, in 2015. In total, 120 patients were selected through convenience sampling technique. The subjects were randomly divided into three groups of 40 cases. The participants of the first group were encouraged to inflate balloons throughout the vaccination process. On the other hand, the subjects of the second group watched a cartoon started two min before the vaccination and lasting to the end of this procedure. No intervention was carried out for the control group. The pain intensity was measured immediately after the vaccination using the Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability scale (FLACC scale. The data analysis was performed in the SPSS version 22 using the descriptive statistics and one-way ANOVA test. Results: In this study, the mean pain scores were 1.87±1.30, 1.40±0.87, and 3.22±1.38 in the first, second, and control groups, respectively. The results of the ANOVA test revealed a difference between the study groups regarding the pain intensity (P<0.001; however, this difference was not significant. Conclusion: According to the findings of this study, two distraction methods of inflating balloon and watching cartoons could effectively decrease the pain induced by DPT vaccine. Therefore, the use of these techniques is recommended to manage the pain in children since they are inexpensive and have no side effects.
Hone, Liana S E; Hurwitz, William; Lieberman, Debra
Evolutionary-minded scientists have proposed that humor is a sexually selected trait in men that signals mate quality. Indeed, women tend to prefer men who make them laugh and men tend to prefer women who laugh at their jokes. However, it is unclear how robust this pattern is. Here we report a replication of one of the first studies (Bressler, Martin, and Balshine, 2006) to examine the sex differences in preferences for humor receptivity versus humor production. We replicate Bressler et al.'s (2006) findings that men prefer women who are receptive to their humor whereas women prefer men who produce humor. These findings held even after we modified Bressler et al.'s questionnaire for better conceptual validity. Furthermore, using a separate measure designed to assess trade-offs, we found that men viewed humor receptivity as a necessity and humor production as a luxury when they were asked to create an ideal long-term partner. For women, it was just the opposite. These results bolster the claim that sexual selection has shaped sex differences regarding preferences for a prospective mate's sense of humor and that what one means by "sense of humor" can vary.
Gustavo Lara Rodriguez; Elsa Catalina Lizcano; Monica Reyes Rojas
La apreciación del humor incluye varios procesos cognitivos y sociales. No se puede decir que dos comunidades se rían de los mismos chistes y que encuentren divertidos los mismos contenidos humorísticos. En este estudio se trabajaron las diferencias en la apreciación del sentido del humor en estudiantes universitarios y se hicieron comparaciones entre sexo y edad de los participantes. Para valorar la apreciación del sentido del humor se construyó un instrumento con 15 chistes escritos present...
Reyes Rojas, Monica; Lara-Rodriguez, Gustavo; Lizcano-Lopez, Elsa-Catalina
La apreciación del humor incluye varios procesos cognitivos y sociales. No se puede decir que dos comunidades se rían de los mismos chistes y que encuentren divertidos los mismos contenidos humorísticos. En este estudio se trabajaron las diferencias en la apreciación del sentido del humor en estudiantes universitarios y se hicieron comparaciones entre sexo y edad de los participantes. Para valorar la apreciación del sentido del humor se construyó un instrumento con 15 chistes escritos present...
Berg, E M; Lippman, L G
The authors proposed that item selection during shopping is based on brand name recognition rather than recall. College students rated advertisements and news stories of a simulated radio program for level of amusement (orienting activity) before participating in a surprise recognition test. Humor level of the advertisements was varied systematically, and content was controlled. According to signal detection analysis, humor did not affect the strength of recognition memory for brand names (nonsense units). However, brand names and product types were significantly more likely to be associated when appearing in humorous advertisements than in nonhumorous advertisements. The results are compared with prior findings concerning humor and recall.
Pinna, Miguel Ángel Cuervo; Mahtani-Chugani, Vinita; Sánchez Correas, Miguel Ángel; Sanz Rubiales, Alvaro
Humor has its own place in the context of medicine. Nevertheless, its acceptance by terminal stage patients and health-care professionals has not been studied in depth and is not free from controversy. To understand the significance, appropriateness, and pertinence of the use of humor in palliative care and to analyze its applicability. A narrative systematic review was undertaken and included in PROSPERO. Online searches were carried out on PUBMED, PSYCINFO, EBSCO (CINHAL), EMBASE, SCIELO, SCOPUS, TESEO, WEB of SCIENCE, and COCHRANE between their launch date and December 31, 2015, complemented with manual searches with queries to experts. A total of 156 studies were identified, which were then filtered in pairs by means of an established hierarchy, selecting studies that discussed the use of humor specifically in palliative care from all perspectives and designs, and finally published in Spanish, English, French, or Portuguese. Critical reading of all the selected studies took place, with no exclusions due to quality evaluation. Thirty-four studies were included. Five main topics were identified: (1) definition of humor, (2) use and functions of humor in palliative care, (3) how to use humor, (4) when not to use humor, and (5) humor before and after the diagnosis of terminal illness. Humor plays an unquestionable role in palliative care, but its use needs training and appropriate use.
Dorrego-Keiter, Elisa; Tóth, József; Dikker, Lieke; Sielhorst, Jutta; Schusser, Gerald Fritz
In the ongoing discussion regarding the aetiopathogenesis of equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) it was the aim of the present study to elucidate the relationship of leptospira infection and ERU. In a population of 225 horses leptospira were examined in vitreous humor by culture and leptospira antibody were detected in vitreous humor and serum samples. Preoperative serum samples were collected from 221/225 ERU patients of different age, gender and breed. Undiluted vitreous humor was aseptically taken from 198/225 patients that underwent pars plana vitrectomy at the beginning of surgery and from 27/225 patients' eyeball after enucleation: Serum and vitreous humor were tested for specific leptospiral antibodies by microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Furthermore, vitreous humor was examined by culture. 20 patients which were euthanized due to a live-threatening disease other than ERU served as a control group. A total of 127/221 (57.5%) horses had serum antibodies (≥ 1:100). Most frequently antibodies against L. interrogans serovar Grippotyphosa were detected (79/127), followed by L. interrogans serovar lcterohaemorrhagiae (34/127) and L. interrogans serovar Bratislava (29/127). Only 79/225 horses (35.1%) had leptospiral antibodies in vitreous humor, in which L. interrogans serovar Grippotyphosa (67/79) was identified most frequently followed by L. interrogans serovar Pomona (18/79) and L. interrogans serovar lcterohaemorrhagiae (8/79) which was identified as single or multiple reaction. Isolation of leptospira from vitreous humor was positive in 34/212 horses (16%). 10/20 control horses had a positive antibody titer against leptospira in serum and 2/20 horses in vitreous humor, whereas there was no leptospira detected in culture. The result of 84% negative cultures from vitreous humor of 212 ERU patients is decisive for the diagnosis and therapy of ERU.
Humoral immunity is the cause of multiple diseases related to antibodies (IgA, IgG, IgM) produced by the patient. Two groups of diseases are identified. The first group is related to circulating antigen-antibody complexes. The antigens are various. They are often unknown. These immune complexes cause a vascular inflammation due to the complement fixation. Consequently, this group is dominated by inflammatory vasculitis. In the second group, the pathology is due to the fixation in situ of antibodies to a target antigen of the skin that is no more recognized by the patient. This group is represented by the auto-immune bullous dermatoses. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
Farré Torras, Begoña
Full Text Available This paper discusses the notion of modernism by relating it to three artistic movements – Modernisme, Noucentisme and the Avant-garde – which developed in Catalonia between the 1880s and the early 1920s. From a common commitment to modernity these three movements produced, nonetheless, widely different aesthetic proposals. Notwithstanding their differences, this paper identifies common features in their artistic practices in order to contribute to the ongoing critical review of modernism. Thus, rather than a self-referential, medium-specific quest with abstraction as a natural endpoint, modernism is presented here as an open, interrogative artistic practice engaged in a debate in pursuit of ‘the modern’. This understanding of modernism is then tested against the case of Xavier Nogués, an artist associated with Noucentisme, and his contribution to the artistic debate of his time through the necessarily figurative language of caricature.
Llera, José Antonio
Full Text Available The author of this article suggests a diachronic approach to the humorous mode and criticizes any essentialist theory that defines the concept as a closed category. Every kind of humour within the whole spectrum, i.e. satire and irony, should be looked at following semantic and pragmatic principles, not forgetting the influence of classical rhetoric. As regards the recent history of Spanish humour, the contributions of the most important authors of the so-called «otra generación del 27» shall be analyzed by considering the reasons for their ostracism and for the lack of a present high quality generation of authors able to take over their literary tradition.El autor de este artículo propone un acercamiento diacrónico a la modalidad humorística, y crítica cualquier aproximación de carácter esencialista que trate de fijar el concepto como una categoría cerrada. Cada una de las especies del espectro humorístico —la sátira y la ironía, por ejemplo— debieran abordarse desde una óptica que combine la semántica con la pragmática, sin olvidar el concurso de la antigua retórica. En cuanto a la historia más reciente del humorismo hispano, se valoran los autores más representativos de la llamada «otra generación del 27», reflexionando sobre la causa de su postergación y sobre la ausencia en la actualidad de un relevo de verdadera calidad literaria.