WorldWideScience

Sample records for humoral-mediated immune hmi

  1. The Role of Non-specific and Specific Immune Systems in Poultry against Newcastle Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Ayu Hewajuli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Newcastle disease (ND is caused by avian paramyxovirus-1 which belong to Avulavirus genus and Paramyxoviridae family. The birds have abnormalities in humoral (bursa fabricius and cellular (thymus and spleen lymphoid organs. Lesions decrease the immune system. Immune system consists of non-specific and specific immune systems. The main components of non-specific immunity are physical and chemical barrier (feather and skin or mucosa, phagocytic cells (macrophages and natural killer, protein complement and the mediator of inflammation and cytokines. Interferons (IFNs belong to a group of cytokines that play a major role in the nonspecific or innate (natural immunity. The virulent ND virus encodes protein of V gene can be suppressed IFN type I. This leads to non-specific immune system fail to respond to the virulent strains resulting in severe pathogenicity. The defense mechanism of the host is replaced by specific immunity (adaptive immunity when natural immunity fails to overcome the infection. The specific immune system consists of humoral mediated immunity (HMI and cell-mediated immunity (CMI. The cells of immune system that react specifically with the antigen are B lymphocytes producing the antibodies, T lymphocytes that regulate the synthesis of antibodies and T cells as effector or the direct cytotoxic cells. Both non-specific and specific immunities are complementary against the invasion of ND virus in the birds. The objective of this article is to discuss the role of non specific and specific immune system in ND.

  2. HMI scientific publications 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruehlemann, S.

    1992-08-01

    The publications of the staff of the Hahn-Meitner-Institute (HMI) are listed in this catalogue. It contains articles which have been published in journals, books or book chapters, theses or HMI-reports in 1988. Only those publications are included of which a copy was provided to the library. Each title is indexed by a publication number, composed of a code indicating the field of research, the year of publication, and a running number. The fields of research are physics, chemistry, solid state and materials research, and information techniques. The research reactor BER II, the heavy ion accelerator VICKSI, the central information and computer operation, the electronics, and the central library belong to the infrastructure of the HMI. (orig.) [de

  3. HMI - historical flashback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, B.

    1993-01-01

    This brochure is based on a paper read at a HMI colloquium on 14 Juni 1993. The historical information is based on a detailed historical study published in book form under the title ''Industrial-scale Research in Berlin''. (orig./HSCH) [de

  4. Early humoral-mediated graft injuries in ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation in human beings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekijima, M; Shimizu, A; Ishii, Y; Kudo, S; Horita, S; Nakajima, I; Fuchinoue, S; Teraoka, S

    2010-04-01

    Acute humoral rejection is the most important risk factor for early graft loss in ABO-incompatible (ABO-i) renal transplantation (RTx) and is present from the early period after RTx. However, the characteristics of early humoral-mediated graft injury are pathologically uncertain. To analyze tissue from 10 protocol graft biopsies performed in 10 patients within 30 days post-RTx to clarify the pathologic features of early humoral-mediated graft injuries in ABO-i RTx. Pathologic findings were examined using light and electron microscopy and immunofluorescence studies for C4d. Protocol biopsies were performed within 30 days after RTx in the absence of an episode of dysfunction (creatinine concentration 1.21-1.81 mg/dL). The immunofluorescence study demonstrated C4d deposition in peritubular and glomerular capillaries. Acute glomerulitis with infiltration of mononuclear cells and neutrophils was observed in 3 patients. Furthermore, glomerulitis was accompanied by endothelial cell injuries, widening of subendothelial spaces with a double-contoured glomerular basement membrane, and mesangiolysis. In ABO-i RTx, early humoral-mediated graft injuries were observed in approximately 30% of patients despite normal graft function. They were characterized by C4d deposition and glomerular capillary injury. These findings suggest that renal glomeruli are the first site of graft injury by anti-A or anti-B blood type antibody with complement activation in ABO-i RTx.

  5. Effects of CTLA4-Fc on glomerular injury in humorally-mediated glomerulonephritis in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitching, A R; Huang, X R; Ruth, A-J; Tipping, P G; Holdsworth, S R

    2002-06-01

    The effect of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated molecule 4-immunoglobulin fusion protein (CTLA4-Fc) on humorally-mediated glomerulonephritis was studied in accelerated anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) glomerulonephritis induced in BALB/c mice. This strain of mice develops antibody and complement dependent glomerulonephritis under this protocol. Sensitized BALB/c mice developed high levels of circulating autologous antibody titres, intense glomerular deposition of mouse immunoglobulin and complement, significant proteinuria, renal impairment, significant glomerular necrosis and a minor component of crescent formation 10 days after challenge with a nephritogenic antigen (sheep anti-GBM globulin). Early treatment during the primary immune response, or continuous treatment throughout the disease with CTLA4-Fc, significantly suppressed mouse anti-sheep globulin antibody titres in serum, and immunoglobulin and complement deposition in glomeruli. The degree of glomerular necrosis was improved and proteinuria was reduced, particularly in the earlier stages of disease. Late treatment by CTLA4-Fc starting one day after challenge with sheep anti-mouse GBM did not affect antibody production and did not attenuate glomerulonephritis. The low level of crescent formation found in BALB/c mice developing glomerulonephritis was not prevented by the administration of CTLA4-Fc. These results demonstrate that CTLA4-Fc is of benefit in this model of glomerulonephritis by its capacity to attenuate antibody production, without affecting the minor degree of cell-mediated glomerular injury.

  6. HMI annual report 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report describes the activities of the Hahn-Meitner-Institut (HMI) on four special subjects: 1. Nuclear physics (nuclear reactions, nuclear structure, VICKSI accelerator development), 2. photochemical energy conversion (basic and material research, radiation chemistry), 3. structure research (theory of many-body systems, solid-state physics, neutron scattering, highly stressed metallic materials, trace nutrients in health and nutrition), and 4. information technics (software, real time systems, semiconductor subassembly). The following is presented for every special subject: a) the topics worked on in 1989, b) selected results and c) publications, lectures, theses submitted for diplomas and doctoral theses. (orig.) [de

  7. HMI annual report 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This report describes the activities of the Hahn-Meitner-Institut (HMI) on four special subjects: 1. Nuclear physics (nuclear reactions, nuclear structure, VICKSI accelerator development), 2. photochemical energy conversion (basic and material research, radiation chemistry), 3. structure research (theory of many-body systems, solid-state physics, neutron scattering, highly stressed metallic materials, trace nutrients in health and nutrition, and 4. information technics (software technics, real time systems, semiconductor subassembly). The following is presented for every special subject: a) the topics worked on in 1989, b) selected results and c) publications, lectures, theses submitted for diplomas and doctoral theses. (MM) [de

  8. HMI carine system. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axmann, A.; Bischoff, M.; Kind, R.; Kubitz, M.; Muellerburg, M.; Pollet, J.L.; Tschammer, V.

    1979-03-01

    A system for control and data acquisition of neutron scattering experiments (diffractometer, diffractometer with multidetector, triple axis spectrometer and time of flight spectrometer) is described. The experiment electronics of the different experiments is extensively standardized. Each experiment is equipped with its own PDP-11 computer and so fully autonomous. The HMI Carine System I is dedicated to a special experiment but the overall design allows an easy adaption to any experiment of similar environment. Besides an interactive dialog between user and experiment system during a measurement session, the system permits preassembling required commands in a command file which can be executed as one program without further user control. The local computer systems are connected to the HMI computer network. (orig.) [de

  9. Hacker tracking Security system for HMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Rajeev Kumar

    2011-12-01

    Conventional Supervisory control and data Acquisition (SCADA) systems use PC, notebook, thin client, and PDA as a Client. Nowadays the Process Industries are following multi shift system that's why multi- client of different category have to work at a single human Machine Interface (HMI). They may hack the HMI Display and change setting of the other client. This paper introduces a Hacker tracking security (HTS) System for HMI. This is developed by using the conventional and Biometric authentication. HTS system is developed by using Numeric passwords, Smart card, biometric, blood flow and Finger temperature. This work is also able to identify the hackers.

  10. Gas Environment Recoverable Detection (GERD) HMI

    CERN Document Server

    Sillat, Mari Liis

    2016-01-01

    Report on the work done during the summer student project. The goal was to produce HMI panels for the GERD smoke detection system. The required platform was WinCC OA and the running sensor data needed to be displayed, pump controls were needed and an alarm was required to be set for the smoke sensors upper limit range.

  11. Fire protection system HMI in power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainal, Yuda Bakti

    2015-05-01

    The central power station, a place where there are machines that generate power, equipped with substation where the voltage is produced by the generator and increased to a certain voltage with a step up voltage transformer. Effect on transformer oil is very important, transformer may malfunction if the oil that serves as a coolant and insulator gradually decreased its ability, over time their use. Power transformer on usability is vital, so it needs to be maintained so that the temperature rise must be overcome by applying a temperature control that can inform and control the control valve to open the hydrant tap transformer cooling. HMI implemented to facilitate the operators cope with excess heat in the transformer using thermocouple censor. Test results show that the control transformer and monitored using PLC and HMI. Transformer can maintain the condition of a maximum of 80 degrees Celsius heat.

  12. QFD EXAMPLE IN INTERACTION WITH HMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Chudjaková

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the application of the Quality Function Deployment (QFD method and shows how we can use this method in the automotive industry. The cockpit of the modern car is still developing and changing according to technical progress and customers’ requirements. The QFD method enables the setting of the customers’ requirements and then puts them into technical expression. The matrix of QFD sets those technical expressions that are the most important properties customers expect. These chosen properties can be tested during the technical development. The testing of new HMI concepts goes through a driving simulator and can suggest which one is suitable for being used in a real car.

  13. Enhancing SDO/HMI images using deep learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baso, C. J. Díaz; Ramos, A. Asensio

    2018-06-01

    Context. The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) provides continuum images and magnetograms with a cadence better than one per minute. It has been continuously observing the Sun 24 h a day for the past 7 yr. The trade-off between full disk observations and spatial resolution means that HMI is not adequate for analyzing the smallest-scale events in the solar atmosphere. Aims: Our aim is to develop a new method to enhance HMI data, simultaneously deconvolving and super-resolving images and magnetograms. The resulting images will mimic observations with a diffraction-limited telescope twice the diameter of HMI. Methods: Our method, which we call Enhance, is based on two deep, fully convolutional neural networks that input patches of HMI observations and output deconvolved and super-resolved data. The neural networks are trained on synthetic data obtained from simulations of the emergence of solar active regions. Results: We have obtained deconvolved and super-resolved HMI images. To solve this ill-defined problem with infinite solutions we have used a neural network approach to add prior information from the simulations. We test Enhance against Hinode data that has been degraded to a 28 cm diameter telescope showing very good consistency. The code is open source.

  14. Automotive HMI design and participatory user involvement: review and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, Mathilde; Osiurak, François; Fort, Alexandra; Crave, Philippe; Navarro, Jordan

    2017-04-01

    Automotive human-machine interface (HMI) design is facing new challenges due to the technological advances of the last decades. The design process has to be adapted in order to address human factors and road safety challenges. It is now widely accepted that user involvement in the HMI design process is valuable. However, the current form of user involvement in industry remains at the stages of concept assessment and usability tests. Moreover, the literature in other fields (e.g. information systems) promotes a broader user involvement with participatory design (i.e. the user is fully involved in the development process). This article reviews the established benefits of participatory design and reveals perspectives for automotive HMI quality improvement in a cognitive ergonomic framework. Practitioner Summary: Automotive HMI quality determines, in part, drivers' ability to perform primary driving tasks while using in-vehicle devices. User involvement in the design process is a key point to contribute to HMI quality. This article reports the potential benefits of a broad involvement from drivers to meet automotive HMI design challenges.

  15. HMI Radiation Chemistry Department. Scientific report 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Results of the R and D activities of the Radiation Chemistry Department, Hahn-Meitner-Institut, are reported, primarily dealing with the following subjects: a) Interface processes and energy conversion; b) Pulsed radiolysis and kinematics; c) Insulating materials and polymers. Activities belonging to group (a) above include the development of photosensitive materials for energy conversion, photovoltaic solar cells, light-induced hydrogen liberation, and inclusion reactions, model experiments studying photoactive interfaces, rapid kinematic measurements at interfaces after laser-induced excitation, surface preparation of amorphous silicon and its effects on electronic properties, photochemical reactions and catalysts. Work performed in group (b) above included studies into various chemical reactions involving radicals, and on interactions between atoms, ions, molecules and molecular clusters induced by low-energy collisions. Group (c) above all performed studies into the physical and chemical elementary processes induced by high-energy radiation, light and UV light, especially in electronegative gases. Further activities in this group included photochemical and radiation chemical investigations on polymers. The report lists publications and lectures prepared by H.M.I. members and guest scientists in the year 1985. (RB) [de

  16. KGCS and ECS Local HMI Display Control System Engineer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Bryan

    2017-01-01

    My time here at KSC has involved creating and updating HMI displays to support Pad 39B and the Mobile Launcher. I also had the opportunity to be involved with testing PLC hardware for Electromagnetic interferences. This report explains in more detail of the steps involved in successfully completing these responsibilities I have been fortunate enough to be involved with.

  17. Immunization

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a lot worse. Some are even life-threatening. Immunization shots, or vaccinations, are essential. They protect against ... B, polio, tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis (whooping cough). Immunizations are important for adults as well as children. ...

  18. Efficient design of a HMI-system; Effiziente Bediensystemgestaltung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berge, G.; Fischer, O.; Prangenberg, M.; Oesterle, M. [KSB AG, Frankenthal (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    In the last years the functionality of automation solutions is more and more increasing. That makes handling and operation of such solutions more and more complicated. Because of the increasing trend of decentralized automation solutions, new user groups need to handle and operate such complex automation solutions, new user groups need to handle and operate such complex automation solutions. This development calls for unified - minimum company specific - philosphies for the desing of machines and their HMI-Systems. (orig.)

  19. Radioactivity measurements of the HMI after the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrend, U.; Dulski, P.; Friedland, E.M.; Gawlik, D.; Kirschfeld, K.E.; Schubert, P.; Steinmetz, K.H.

    1987-01-01

    The report explains the methods applied and the data measured by the HMI campaign. The material is presented so as to be of interest also to readers who in general are not concerned with aspects of radiation protection. The data measured refer to the local dose rate and to radioactivity in the environment (air, rain, surface waters, soil, food, mother's milk. Also, results of measurements of samples from Eastern Europe are given. (orig./HP) [de

  20. ACHIEVING CONSISTENT DOPPLER MEASUREMENTS FROM SDO /HMI VECTOR FIELD INVERSIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuck, Peter W.; Antiochos, S. K.; Leka, K. D.; Barnes, Graham

    2016-01-01

    NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory is delivering vector magnetic field observations of the full solar disk with unprecedented temporal and spatial resolution; however, the satellite is in a highly inclined geosynchronous orbit. The relative spacecraft–Sun velocity varies by ±3 km s −1 over a day, which introduces major orbital artifacts in the Helioseismic Magnetic Imager (HMI) data. We demonstrate that the orbital artifacts contaminate all spatial and temporal scales in the data. We describe a newly developed three-stage procedure for mitigating these artifacts in the Doppler data obtained from the Milne–Eddington inversions in the HMI pipeline. The procedure ultimately uses 32 velocity-dependent coefficients to adjust 10 million pixels—a remarkably sparse correction model given the complexity of the orbital artifacts. This procedure was applied to full-disk images of AR 11084 to produce consistent Dopplergrams. The data adjustments reduce the power in the orbital artifacts by 31 dB. Furthermore, we analyze in detail the corrected images and show that our procedure greatly improves the temporal and spectral properties of the data without adding any new artifacts. We conclude that this new procedure makes a dramatic improvement in the consistency of the HMI data and in its usefulness for precision scientific studies.

  1. Isolation of potential probiotic Lactobacillus oris HMI68 from mother's milk with cholesterol-reducing property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandharaj, Marimuthu; Sivasankari, Balayogan

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the probiotic properties of Lactobacillus strains isolated from mother's milk and their effects on cholesterol assimilation. In this study 120 isolates from mother's milk were phenotypically and genotypically characterized. Among these, only 6 predominant strains were identified as Lactobacillus spp. The following parameters were selected as important test variables in model stomach passage survival trials: acid and bile tolerance, antimicrobial activity, antibiotic susceptibility and cholesterol reduction. Results showed that the considerable variation existed among six strains. Moreover, the strain HMI68 is the most acid-tolerant and the HMI28 and HMI74 is the most acid-sensitive of all strains tested. HMI118 did not grow at 0.5% and 1% bile concentration after 5 h but the HMI68 and HMI43 showed some tolerance to such bile concentration. The differences found in the growth rate were not significant (P > 0.05). HMI68 showed resistance to most of the antibiotics as well as antagonistic activity against the tested pathogens. The amount of cholesterol reduction is increased when the media supplemented with bile salts. HMI68 assimilate 61.05 ± 0.05 μg/ml cholesterol with the presence of 0.3% bile salt this could be significantly decreased by 25.41 ± 1.09 μg/ml without bile salt. HMI68 was identified to be Lactobacillus oris HMI68 and 16S rRNA sequence was deposited in the National Center for Biotechnological Information (GenBank). For the first time the cholesterol-reducing property of L. oris isolated from mother's milk were investigated in this study. Therefore the effective L. oris HMI68 strain was regarded as a candidate probiotic. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Optical HMI with biomechanical energy harvesters integrated in textile supports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Pasquale, G; De Pasquale, D; Kim, SG

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the design, prototyping and experimental validation of a human-machine interface (HMI), named GoldFinger, integrated into a glove with energy harvesting from fingers motion. The device is addressed to medical applications, design tools, virtual reality field and to industrial applications where the interaction with machines is restricted by safety procedures. The HMI prototype includes four piezoelectric transducers applied to the fingers backside at PIP (proximal inter-phalangeal) joints, electric wires embedded in the fabric connecting the transducers, aluminum case for the electronics, wearable switch made with conductive fabrics to turn the communication channel on and off, and a LED. The electronic circuit used to manage the power and to control the light emitter includes a diodes bridge, leveling capacitors, storage battery and switch made by conductive fabric. The communication with the machine is managed by dedicated software, which includes the user interface, the optical tracking, and the continuous updating of the machine microcontroller. The energetic benefit of energy harvester on the battery lifetime is inversely proportional to the activation time of the optical emitter. In most applications, the optical port is active for 1 to 5% of the time, corresponding to battery lifetime increasing between about 14% and 70%. (paper)

  3. Automation of Underground Cable Laying Equipment Using PLC and Hmi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mal Kothari, Kesar; Samba, Vishweshwar; Tania, Kinza; Udayakumar, R., Dr; Karthikeyan, Ram, Dr

    2018-04-01

    Underground cable laying is an alternative for overhead cable laying of telecommunication and power transmission lines. It is becoming very popular in recent times because of some of its advantages over overhead cable laying. This type of cable laying is mostly practiced in developed countries because it is more expensive than overhead cable laying. Underground cable laying is more suitable when land is not available, and it also increases the aesthetics. This paper implements the automation on a manually operated cable pulling winch machine using programmable logic controller (PLC). Winch machines are useful in underground cable laying. The main aim of the project is to replace all the mechanical functions with electrical controls which are operated through a touch screen (HMI). The idea is that the machine should shift between parallel and series circuit automatically based on the pressure sensed instead of manually operating the solenoid valve. Traditional means of throttling the engine using lever and wire is replaced with a linear actuator. Sensors such as proximity, pressure and load sensor are used to provide the input to the system. The HMI used will display the speed, length and tension of the rope being winded. Ladder logic is used to program the PLC.

  4. Optical HMI with biomechanical energy harvesters integrated in textile supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pasquale, G.; Kim, SG; De Pasquale, D.

    2015-12-01

    This paper reports the design, prototyping and experimental validation of a human-machine interface (HMI), named GoldFinger, integrated into a glove with energy harvesting from fingers motion. The device is addressed to medical applications, design tools, virtual reality field and to industrial applications where the interaction with machines is restricted by safety procedures. The HMI prototype includes four piezoelectric transducers applied to the fingers backside at PIP (proximal inter-phalangeal) joints, electric wires embedded in the fabric connecting the transducers, aluminum case for the electronics, wearable switch made with conductive fabrics to turn the communication channel on and off, and a LED. The electronic circuit used to manage the power and to control the light emitter includes a diodes bridge, leveling capacitors, storage battery and switch made by conductive fabric. The communication with the machine is managed by dedicated software, which includes the user interface, the optical tracking, and the continuous updating of the machine microcontroller. The energetic benefit of energy harvester on the battery lifetime is inversely proportional to the activation time of the optical emitter. In most applications, the optical port is active for 1 to 5% of the time, corresponding to battery lifetime increasing between about 14% and 70%.

  5. Balancing Human-machine Interface (HMI) Design in Complex Supervisory Tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Junsu; Kim, Arryum; Jang, Inseok; Seong, Poonghyun

    2013-01-01

    Human performance aspects such as plant performance, personnel task performance, situation awareness, cognitive workload, teamwork, and anthropomorphic/physiological factor are evaluated with the HUPESS. Even though the HUPESS provides evaluation results in each of the performance aspects for the integrated system validation (ISV), additional researches have been needed to develop methods on how to find out design deficiency leading to poor performance and give a solution for design improvement in HMI. The authors have developed a method of HMI design improvement for the monitoring and detection tasks which was named as 'DEMIS (Difficulty Evaluation Method in Information Searching)'. The DEMIS is a HMI evaluation method which bridge poor performance and design improvement. Lessons learned from the existing studies lead to a question about how to optimize the whole HMI design. Human factors principles provide the foundation for guidelines of various codes and standards in designing HMIs. Also in NPPs, a lot of guidelines directly from various codes and standard and derived from various research and development projects are available for designing MCR HMIs. In this study, a balancing principle and relevant two measures for HMI design optimization are proposed to be used in the HMI design of complex supervisory tasks in NPPs. The balancing principle is that a HMI element (e. g., an indicator or a push button) should be designed according to its importance

  6. 3D Web-based HMI with WebGL Rendering Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muennoi Atitayaporn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An HMI, or Human-Machine Interface, is a software allowing users to communicate with a machine or automation system. It usually serves as a display section in SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition system for device monitoring and control. In this papper, a 3D Web-based HMI with WebGL (Web-based Graphics Library rendering performance is presented. The main purpose of this work is to attempt to reduce the limitations of traditional 3D web HMI using the advantage of WebGL. To evaluate the performance, frame rate and frame time metrics were used. The results showed 3D Web-based HMI can maintain the frame rate 60FPS for #cube=0.5K/0.8K, 30FPS for #cube=1.1K/1.6K when it was run on Internet Explorer and Chrome respectively. Moreover, the study found that 3D Web-based HMI using WebGL contains similar frame time in each frame even though the numbers of cubes are up to 5K. This indicated stuttering incurred less in the proposed 3D Web-based HMI compared to the chosen commercial HMI product.

  7. Balancing Human-machine Interface (HMI) Design in Complex Supervisory Tasks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Junsu [Khalifa Univ. of Science, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Kim, Arryum; Jang, Inseok; Seong, Poonghyun [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    Human performance aspects such as plant performance, personnel task performance, situation awareness, cognitive workload, teamwork, and anthropomorphic/physiological factor are evaluated with the HUPESS. Even though the HUPESS provides evaluation results in each of the performance aspects for the integrated system validation (ISV), additional researches have been needed to develop methods on how to find out design deficiency leading to poor performance and give a solution for design improvement in HMI. The authors have developed a method of HMI design improvement for the monitoring and detection tasks which was named as 'DEMIS (Difficulty Evaluation Method in Information Searching)'. The DEMIS is a HMI evaluation method which bridge poor performance and design improvement. Lessons learned from the existing studies lead to a question about how to optimize the whole HMI design. Human factors principles provide the foundation for guidelines of various codes and standards in designing HMIs. Also in NPPs, a lot of guidelines directly from various codes and standard and derived from various research and development projects are available for designing MCR HMIs. In this study, a balancing principle and relevant two measures for HMI design optimization are proposed to be used in the HMI design of complex supervisory tasks in NPPs. The balancing principle is that a HMI element (e. g., an indicator or a push button) should be designed according to its importance.

  8. HMI Data Processing and Electronics Departmenmt. Scientific report 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The Data Processing and Electronics Department carries out application-centered R+D work in the fields of general and process-related data processing, digital and analog measuring systems, and electronic elements. As part of the HMI infrastructure, the Department carries out central data processing and electronics functions. The R+D activities of the Department and its infrastructural tasks were carried out in seven Working Groups and one Project Group: Computer systems; Mathematics and graphical data processing; Software developments; Process computer systems, hardware; Nuclear electronics, measuring and control systems; Research on structural elements and irradiation testing; Computer center and cooperation in the 'Central Project Leader Group of the German Research Network' (DFN). (orig./RB) [de

  9. Design of the HMI for the operation of a nuclear research reactor; Diseno del HMI para la operacion de un reactor nuclear de investigacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucio V, F. J.; Celis del Angel C, L.; Palacios H, J. C., E-mail: francisco.bucio@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2017-09-15

    The Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) participated in an international tender published by the Colombian Geological Service for the modernization of the Nuclear Reactor Control Console Ian-R1, the participating institutions were: General Atomics (USA), INVAP (Argentina) and ININ (Mexico). The proposal made by the ININ had an important characteristic, the independence of the manufacturer, since it was a project based on modular elements. One of the elements was the Human-Machine Interface (HMI), where the development was proposed under the Free Software (Gnu-GLP) scheme. Java was the programming language on which the HMI was developed to operate the nuclear reactor in Bogota, Colombia. The instrumentation that allows the interaction with the sensors and/or actuators is based on the use of PLC's (programmable logic controllers) with which the computers of the HMI communicate through a local network using the Mod bus protocol over Ethernet. (Author)

  10. HMI Department of Nuclear Chemistry and Reactor. Scientific report 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The annual report presents the results of the R and D activities in the following fields of work: 1) Neutron scattering (crystals physics, crystal structure and chemical bonding, studies for developments and modifications in the BER-2), 2) Radiation-induced damage to solids (defect reactions, atomic transport, change of mechanical properties of materials, or stability of alloys, development of thermonuclear reactor materials). 3) Reactor chemistry (solidification of radioactive wastes, corrosion and behaviour of gases in graphite). 4) Trace elements and their significance for health and food (transport and accumulation in the organism, development of analytical methods for diagnostic and therapy control purposes). 5) Geochemical prospecting of deposits (element abundance in earth crust or deposits, geochemical indicators, complex forming constants and distribution coefficients in geochemical systems). 6. Neutron scattering II (spectrometer equipment for inelastic neutron scattering experiments in the BER-2). The report also lists publications, lectures, and other scientific literature prepared by HMI members in 1985, and work performed by guest scientists. (RB) [de

  11. INFLUENCE OF HMI ERGONOMY ON DRIVERS IN COOPERATIVE SYSTEMS AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Jizba

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern vehicles are getting smarter and utilize more and more the advantages of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS. Deployment of upcoming technologies, such as cooperative systems (V2X, will most likely be the key step towards a significant reduction of accidents across the globe. Some of these systems extend driver’s field of vision, so the driver can be forewarned against a wide range of threats. Unlike technology, the human processing capacity has remained almost unchanged over centuries. Therefore, it is necessary to bear in mind that drivers have restricted capabilities to process multiple warnings. In this context, an important question arises: How can be V2X warnings integrated into the Human Machine Interface (HMI of vehicles, and what warning policy is needed to ensure high usability, acceptance, efficiency and understanding of such a warning interface from the driver’s point of view. Using a human centered design approach, two concepts of visual driver-vehicle interface for V2X warnings were developed and evaluated. One of those interfaces was based on a 1-stage warning policy and the second one utilized a dynamic 3-stage warning approach. The research revealed that drivers prefer to have dynamic warnings that correspond with the level of danger to which they are exposed, rather than only one warning displayed in a situation of imminent danger. However, with regards to overall usability score and workload measurements, results showed that the 3-stage system performed worse in comparison with the 1-stage system.

  12. Sharing human-generated observations by integrating HMI and the Semantic Sensor Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigüenza, Alvaro; Díaz-Pardo, David; Bernat, Jesús; Vancea, Vasile; Blanco, José Luis; Conejero, David; Gómez, Luis Hernández

    2012-01-01

    Current "Internet of Things" concepts point to a future where connected objects gather meaningful information about their environment and share it with other objects and people. In particular, objects embedding Human Machine Interaction (HMI), such as mobile devices and, increasingly, connected vehicles, home appliances, urban interactive infrastructures, etc., may not only be conceived as sources of sensor information, but, through interaction with their users, they can also produce highly valuable context-aware human-generated observations. We believe that the great promise offered by combining and sharing all of the different sources of information available can be realized through the integration of HMI and Semantic Sensor Web technologies. This paper presents a technological framework that harmonizes two of the most influential HMI and Sensor Web initiatives: the W3C's Multimodal Architecture and Interfaces (MMI) and the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) with its semantic extension, respectively. Although the proposed framework is general enough to be applied in a variety of connected objects integrating HMI, a particular development is presented for a connected car scenario where drivers' observations about the traffic or their environment are shared across the Semantic Sensor Web. For implementation and evaluation purposes an on-board OSGi (Open Services Gateway Initiative) architecture was built, integrating several available HMI, Sensor Web and Semantic Web technologies. A technical performance test and a conceptual validation of the scenario with potential users are reported, with results suggesting the approach is sound.

  13. Design of the HMI for the operation of a nuclear research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucio V, F. J.; Celis del Angel C, L.; Palacios H, J. C.

    2017-09-01

    The Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) participated in an international tender published by the Colombian Geological Service for the modernization of the Nuclear Reactor Control Console Ian-R1, the participating institutions were: General Atomics (USA), INVAP (Argentina) and ININ (Mexico). The proposal made by the ININ had an important characteristic, the independence of the manufacturer, since it was a project based on modular elements. One of the elements was the Human-Machine Interface (HMI), where the development was proposed under the Free Software (Gnu-GLP) scheme. Java was the programming language on which the HMI was developed to operate the nuclear reactor in Bogota, Colombia. The instrumentation that allows the interaction with the sensors and/or actuators is based on the use of PLC's (programmable logic controllers) with which the computers of the HMI communicate through a local network using the Mod bus protocol over Ethernet. (Author)

  14. Research Note. Pearsonema plica and Eucoleus böhmi infections and associated lesions in wolves (Canis lupus from Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariacher A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Reports of Pearsonema plica and Eucoleus böhmi infections in wolves (Canis lupus in Europe are limited and data on associated lesions are lacking. In the present study urinary bladders, nasal turbinates and faecal samples from 8 necropsied wolves were examined for P. plica and E. böhmi infections and associated lesions. P. plica was identified in the bladder of four wolves. At histological examination, follicular chronic cystitis and eosinophilic cystitis were found. E. böhmi nematodes and eggs were identified from the nasal turbinates and rectal faecal samples of three wolves. Worms and eggs were found embedded in the mucosa among the nasal bone laminae. Two wolves were found coinfected by P. plica and E. böhmi. This is the first report of P. plica and E. böhmi infections in wolves from Italy and the first description of pathological lesions associated with P. plica infection in wolves.

  15. Improving Usefulness of Automated Driving by Lowering Primary Task Interference through HMI Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederik Naujoks

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available During conditionally automated driving (CAD, driving time can be used for non-driving-related tasks (NDRTs. To increase safety and comfort of an automated ride, upcoming automated manoeuvres such as lane changes or speed adaptations may be communicated to the driver. However, as the driver’s primary task consists of performing NDRTs, they might prefer to be informed in a nondistracting way. In this paper, the potential of using speech output to improve human-automation interaction is explored. A sample of 17 participants completed different situations which involved communication between the automation and the driver in a motion-based driving simulator. The Human-Machine Interface (HMI of the automated driving system consisted of a visual-auditory HMI with either generic auditory feedback (i.e., standard information tones or additional speech output. The drivers were asked to perform a common NDRT during the drive. Compared to generic auditory output, communicating upcoming automated manoeuvres additionally by speech led to a decrease in self-reported visual workload and decreased monitoring of the visual HMI. However, interruptions of the NDRT were not affected by additional speech output. Participants clearly favoured the HMI with additional speech-based output, demonstrating the potential of speech to enhance usefulness and acceptance of automated vehicles.

  16. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 236 - Human-Machine Interface (HMI) Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... center of the operator's field of view by placing items that need to be found quickly in the upper left hand corner and items which are not time-critical in the lower right hand corner of the field of view... scheduling; and (3) HMI design must support contingency planning. (h) Ensure that electronics equipment radio...

  17. The high performance HMI handbook a comprehensive guide to designing, implementing and maintaining effective HMIs for industrial plant operations

    CERN Document Server

    Hollifield, Bill; Nimmo, Ian; Habibi, Eddie

    2008-01-01

    The High Performance HMI Handbook is the first and only comprehensive book containing the best-practice principles for assessing, designing, and implementing proper process control Human-Machine Interfaces (HMIs). Poorly designed and poorly performing Human Machine Interfaces (HMIs) are rampant throughout the process industries. They can degrade safety, production, quality, and profitability. Time after time, they are cited as contributing factors to major industrial accidents. The book contains experience and intellectual property that has never before been released, It is jointly authored by 2 companies, PAS and User Centered Design Services (UCDS), who have decades of experience in process control, HMI design, and human factors. The book reveals many poor yet common HMI practices, provides the justification for change, and shows in great detail the best way to design and implement a truly High Performance HMI. It contains over 90 color illustrations, plus many relevant real world examples, anecdotes, and ...

  18. HMI design of MIRROR PLANT for Safe Operation and Application to Vinyl Acetate Monomer Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatsugai, Emiko; Nakaya, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic plant simulators have always been used off-line for operator training and control loop design prior to the plant construction phase. Here, we propose on-line use of a dynamic simulator for the development of new plant operation. The developed MIRROR PLANT is an on-line dynamic plant simulator that can perfectly simulate dynamic plant behavior, and can also be used to forecast future plant behavior by making the computer run the simulation faster than real-time. Using the estimated and forecast data, the plant operator can detect abnormal situations in the plant. Before activating an alarm from the conventional control system, the operator will be able to perform proactive operation to maintain safety. In this paper, we propose a new human-machine interface (HMI) design to realize proactive operation and discuss application of the HMI to the vinyl acetate monomer process as an example of MIRROR PLANT

  19. New Submersed Chamber for Calibration of Relative Humidity Instruments at HMI/FSB-LPM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sestan, D.; Zvizdic, D.; Sariri, K.

    2018-02-01

    This paper gives a detailed description of a new chamber designed for calibration of relative humidity (RH) instruments at Laboratory for Process Measurement (HMI/FSB-LPM). To the present time, the calibrations of RH instruments at the HMI/FSB-LPM were done by comparison method using a climatic chamber of large volume and calibrated dew point hygrometer with an additional thermometer. Since 2010, HMI/FSB-LPM in cooperation with Centre for Metrology and Accreditation in Finland (MIKES) developed the two primary dew point generators which cover the dew point temperature range between - 70 {°}C and 60 {°}C. In order to utilize these facilities for calibrations of the RH instruments, the new chamber was designed, manufactured and installed in the existing system, aiming to extend its range and reduce the related calibration uncertainties. The chamber construction allows its use in a thermostatic bath of larger volume as well as in the climatic chambers. In the scope of this paper, performances of the new chamber were tested while it was submersed in a thermostated bath. The chamber can simultaneously accommodate up to three RH sensors. In order to keep the design of the chamber simple, only cylindrical RH sensors detachable from display units can be calibrated. Possible optimizations are also discussed, and improvements in the design proposed. By using the new chamber, HMI/FSB-LPM reduced the expanded calibration uncertainties (level of confidence 95 %, coverage factor k=2) from 0.6 %rh to 0.25 %rh at 30 %rh (23 {°}C), and from 0.8 %rh to 0.53 %rh at 70 %rh (23 {°}C).

  20. Achieving Consistent Doppler Measurements from SDO/HMI Vector Field Inversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuck, Peter W.; Antiochos, S. K.; Leka, K. D.; Barnes, Graham

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory is delivering vector magnetic field observations of the full solar disk with unprecedented temporal and spatial resolution; however, the satellite is in a highly inclined geosynchronous orbit. The relative spacecraft-Sun velocity varies by +/-3 kms-1 over a day, which introduces major orbital artifacts in the Helioseismic Magnetic Imager (HMI) data. We demonstrate that the orbital artifacts contaminate all spatial and temporal scales in the data. We describe a newly developed three-stage procedure for mitigating these artifacts in the Doppler data obtained from the Milne-Eddington inversions in the HMI pipeline. The procedure ultimately uses 32 velocity-dependent coefficients to adjust 10 million pixels-a remarkably sparse correction model given the complexity of the orbital artifacts. This procedure was applied to full-disk images of AR 11084 to produce consistent Dopplergrams. The data adjustments reduce the power in the orbital artifacts by 31 dB. Furthermore, we analyze in detail the corrected images and show that our procedure greatly improves the temporal and spectral properties of the data without adding any new artifacts. We conclude that this new procedure makes a dramatic improvement in the consistency of the HMI data and in its usefulness for precision scientific studies.

  1. Human-machine interface (HMI) report for 241-SY-101 data acquisition system (DACS) upgrade study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truitt, R.W.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides an independent evaluation of information for a Windows based Human Machine Interface (HMI) to replace the existing DOS based Iconics HMI currently used in the Data Acquisition and Control System (DACS) used at Tank 241-SY-101. A fundamental reason for this evaluation is because of the difficulty of maintaining the system with obsolete, unsupported software. The DACS uses a software operator interface (Genesis for DOS HMI) that is no longer supported by its manufacturer, Iconics. In addition to its obsolescence, it is complex and difficult to train additional personnel on. The FY 1997 budget allocated $40K for phase 1 of a software/hardware upgrade that would have allowed the old DOS based system to be replaced by a current Windows based system. Unfortunately, budget constraints during FY 1997 has prompted deferral of the upgrade. The upgrade needs to be performed at the earliest possible time, before other failures render the system useless. Once completed, the upgrade could alleviate other concerns: spare pump software may be able to be incorporated into the same software as the existing pump, thereby eliminating the parallel path dilemma; and the newer, less complex software should expedite training of future personnel, and in the process, require that less technical time be required to maintain the system

  2. Effects of ionizing radiation on the immune system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubois, J.B.

    1986-01-01

    After reviewing the different lymphoid organs and the essential phases of the immune response, we studied the morphological and functional effects of ionizing radiation on the immunological system. Histologic changes in the lymph nodes, spleen, thymus, and different lymphocyte subpopulations were studied in relation with the radiation dose and irradiated volume (whole body irradiation, localized irradiation). Functional changes in the immune system induced by ionizing radiation were also investigated by a study of humoral-mediated immunity (antibody formation) and cell-mediated immunity (behavior of macrophages, B-cells, T suppressor cells, T helper cells, T effector cells, and natural killer cells). A study into the mechanisms of action of ionizing radiation and the immune processes it interferes with suggests several likely hypotheses (direct action on the immune cells, on their precursors, on seric mediators or on cell mediators). The effects on cancer patients' immune reactions of low radiation doses delivered to the various lymphoid organs are discussed, as well as the relationships between the host and the evolution of the tumor [fr

  3. Predicting Solar Flares Using SDO /HMI Vector Magnetic Data Products and the Random Forest Algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chang; Deng, Na; Wang, Haimin [Space Weather Research Laboratory, New Jersey Institute of Technology, University Heights, Newark, NJ 07102-1982 (United States); Wang, Jason T. L., E-mail: chang.liu@njit.edu, E-mail: na.deng@njit.edu, E-mail: haimin.wang@njit.edu, E-mail: jason.t.wang@njit.edu [Department of Computer Science, New Jersey Institute of Technology, University Heights, Newark, NJ 07102-1982 (United States)

    2017-07-10

    Adverse space-weather effects can often be traced to solar flares, the prediction of which has drawn significant research interests. The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) produces full-disk vector magnetograms with continuous high cadence, while flare prediction efforts utilizing this unprecedented data source are still limited. Here we report results of flare prediction using physical parameters provided by the Space-weather HMI Active Region Patches (SHARP) and related data products. We survey X-ray flares that occurred from 2010 May to 2016 December and categorize their source regions into four classes (B, C, M, and X) according to the maximum GOES magnitude of flares they generated. We then retrieve SHARP-related parameters for each selected region at the beginning of its flare date to build a database. Finally, we train a machine-learning algorithm, called random forest (RF), to predict the occurrence of a certain class of flares in a given active region within 24 hr, evaluate the classifier performance using the 10-fold cross-validation scheme, and characterize the results using standard performance metrics. Compared to previous works, our experiments indicate that using the HMI parameters and RF is a valid method for flare forecasting with fairly reasonable prediction performance. To our knowledge, this is the first time that RF has been used to make multiclass predictions of solar flares. We also find that the total unsigned quantities of vertical current, current helicity, and flux near the polarity inversion line are among the most important parameters for classifying flaring regions into different classes.

  4. Design and Implementation of Control and Monitoring Systems Based on HMI-PLC for Potable Water Well

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quezada-Quezada José Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This project reports on the design and implementation in a workbench of a control and monitoring system of the discharge of water of a well. Graphic User's Interfaces (GUI are designed for interaction with the operator. The Human Machine Interface (HMI was implement in proprietor software and it contemplates the rules for control and monitoring of the conditions of the system for the operator, the HMI is also interconnected a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC where the rules of protection of the process are implemented in Ladder Diagram (LD.

  5. Comparisons of Supergranule Properties from SDO/HMI with Other Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesnell, William Dean; Williams, Peter E.

    2010-01-01

    While supergranules, a component of solar convection, have been well studied through the use of Dopplergrams, other datasets also exhibit these features. Quiet Sun magnetograms show local magnetic field elements distributed around the boundaries of supergranule cells, notably clustering at the common apex points of adjacent cells, while more solid cellular features are seen near active regions. Ca II K images are notable for exhibiting the chromospheric network representing a cellular distribution of local magnetic field lines across the solar disk that coincides with supergranulation boundaries. Measurements at 304 A further above the solar surface also show a similar pattern to the chromospheric network, but the boundaries are more nebulous in nature. While previous observations of these different solar features were obtained with a variety of instruments, SDO provides a single platform, from which the relevant data products at a high cadence and high-definition image quality are delivered. The images may also be cross-referenced due to their coincidental time of observation. We present images of these different solar features from HMI & AIA and use them to make composite images of supergranules at different atmospheric layers in which they manifest. We also compare each data product to equivalent data from previous observations, for example HMI magnetograms with those from MDI.

  6. Construction of HMI Network System for Individualized Maternity Intervention Service against Birth Defects in Community

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu-huai HU

    2007-01-01

    The paper expounds the community maternity service system against birth defects,from the viewpoint of individualized service in family planning. We have utilized modern information technology to develop health management information (HMI) network with individualized maternity, and to establish the community service system for intervention of birth defects. The service system applied the concept of modern health management information to implementing informational management for screening,treatment, following up, outcome monitoring, so as to provide a base for promotion of health, diagnosis, treatment as well as scientific research, with the prenatal screening of Down's syndrome as a model. The introduction to informational network during the processes of service has been carried out with regards to its composition, function and application, while introducing the effects of computerized case record individualized in prevention, management and research of Down's syndrome.

  7. Using naturalistic driving films as a design tool for investigating driver requirements in HMI design for ADAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Minjuan; Sun, Dong; Chen, Fang

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, there are many naturalistic driving projects have been conducted, such as the 100-Car Project (Naturalistic Driving study in United State), EuroFOT(European Large-Scale Field Operational Tests on Vehicle Systems), SeMi- FOT(Sweden Michigan Naturalistic Field Operational Test and etc. However, those valuable naturalistic driving data hasn't been applied into Human-machine Interaction (HMI) design for Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS), a good HMI design for ADAS requires a deep understanding of drive environment and the interactions between the driving car and other road users in different situations. The results demonstrated the benefits of using naturalistic driving films as a mean for enhancing focus group discussion for better understanding driver's needs and traffic environment constraints. It provided an efficient tool for designers to have inside knowledge about drive and the needs for information presentation; The recommendations for how to apply this method is discussed in the paper.

  8. A Cognitive Systems Engineering Approach to Developing HMI Requirements for New Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fern, Lisa Carolynn

    2016-01-01

    This document examines the challenges inherent in designing and regulating to support human-automation interaction for new technologies that will deployed into complex systems. A key question for new technologies, is how work will be accomplished by the human and machine agents. This question has traditionally been framed as how functions should be allocated between humans and machines. Such framing misses the coordination and synchronization that is needed for the different human and machine roles in the system to accomplish their goals. Coordination and synchronization demands are driven by the underlying human-automation architecture of the new technology, which are typically not specified explicitly by the designers. The human machine interface (HMI) which is intended to facilitate human-machine interaction and cooperation, however, typically is defined explicitly and therefore serves as a proxy for human-automation cooperation requirements with respect to technical standards for technologies. Unfortunately, mismatches between the HMI and the coordination and synchronization demands of the underlying human-automation architecture, can lead to system breakdowns. A methodology is needed that both designers and regulators can utilize to evaluate the expected performance of a new technology given potential human-automation architectures. Three experiments were conducted to inform the minimum HMI requirements a detect and avoid system for unmanned aircraft systems (UAS). The results of the experiments provided empirical input to specific minimum operational performance standards that UAS manufacturers will have to meet in order to operate UAS in the National Airspace System (NAS). These studies represent a success story for how to objectively and systematically evaluate prototype technologies as part of the process for developing regulatory requirements. They also provide an opportunity to reflect on the lessons learned from a recent research effort in order to

  9. Human-machine interface (HMI) report for 241-SY-101 data acquisition [and control] system (DACS) upgrade study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truitt, R.W.

    1997-10-22

    This report provides an independent evaluation of information for a Windows based Human Machine Interface (HMI) to replace the existing DOS based Iconics HMI currently used in the Data Acquisition and Control System (DACS) used at Tank 241-SY-101. A fundamental reason for this evaluation is because of the difficulty of maintaining the system with obsolete, unsupported software. The DACS uses a software operator interface (Genesis for DOS HMI) that is no longer supported by its manufacturer, Iconics. In addition to its obsolescence, it is complex and difficult to train additional personnel on. The FY 1997 budget allocated $40K for phase 1 of a software/hardware upgrade that would have allowed the old DOS based system to be replaced by a current Windows based system. Unfortunately, budget constraints during FY 1997 has prompted deferral of the upgrade. The upgrade needs to be performed at the earliest possible time, before other failures render the system useless. Once completed, the upgrade could alleviate other concerns: spare pump software may be able to be incorporated into the same software as the existing pump, thereby eliminating the parallel path dilemma; and the newer, less complex software should expedite training of future personnel, and in the process, require that less technical time be required to maintain the system.

  10. Design and Ground Calibration of the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) Instrument on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schou, J.; Scherrer, P. H.; Bush, R. I.; Wachter, R.; Couvidat, S.; Rabello-Soares, M. C.; Bogart, R. S.; Hoeksema, J. T.; Liu, Y.; Duvall, T. L., Jr.; hide

    2012-01-01

    The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) investigation will study the solar interior using helioseismic techniques as well as the magnetic field near the solar surface. The HMI instrument is part of the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) that was launched on 11 February 2010. The instrument is designed to measure the Doppler shift, intensity, and vector magnetic field at the solar photosphere using the 6173 Fe I absorption line. The instrument consists of a front-window filter, a telescope, a set of wave plates for polarimetry, an image-stabilization system, a blocking filter, a five-stage Lyot filter with one tunable element, two wide-field tunable Michelson interferometers, a pair of 4096(exo 2) pixel cameras with independent shutters, and associated electronics. Each camera takes a full-disk image roughly every 3.75 seconds giving an overall cadence of 45 seconds for the Doppler, intensity, and line-of-sight magnetic-field measurements and a slower cadence for the full vector magnetic field. This article describes the design of the HMI instrument and provides an overview of the pre-launch calibration efforts. Overviews of the investigation, details of the calibrations, data handling, and the science analysis are provided in accompanying articles.

  11. On the Nature of Off-limb Flare Continuum Sources Detected by SDO /HMI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinzel, P.; Kašparová, J. [Astronomical Institute, Czech Academy of Sciences, 25165 Ondřejov (Czech Republic); Kleint, L.; Krucker, S., E-mail: pheinzel@asu.cas.cz [University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland, Bahnhofstrasse 6, 5210 Windisch (Switzerland)

    2017-09-20

    The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory has provided unique observations of off-limb flare emission. White-light continuum enhancements were detected in the “continuum” channel of the Fe 6173 Å line during the impulsive phase of the observed flares. In this paper we aim to determine which radiation mechanism is responsible for such enhancement being seen above the limb, at chromospheric heights around or below 1000 km. Using a simple analytical approach, we compare two candidate mechanisms, the hydrogen recombination continuum (Paschen) and the Thomson continuum due to scattering of disk radiation on flare electrons. Both mechanisms depend on the electron density, which is typically enhanced during the impulsive phase of a flare as the result of collisional ionization (both thermal and also non-thermal due to electron beams). We conclude that for electron densities higher than 10{sup 12} cm{sup −3}, the Paschen recombination continuum significantly dominates the Thomson scattering continuum and there is some contribution from the hydrogen free–free emission. This is further supported by detailed radiation-hydrodynamical (RHD) simulations of the flare chromosphere heated by the electron beams. We use the RHD code FLARIX to compute the temporal evolution of the flare-heating in a semi-circular loop. The synthesized continuum structure above the limb resembles the off-limb flare structures detected by HMI, namely their height above the limb, as well as the radiation intensity. These results are consistent with recent findings related to hydrogen Balmer continuum enhancements, which were clearly detected in disk flares by the IRIS near-ultraviolet spectrometer.

  12. Time-Series Analyses of Supergranule Characteristics Compared Between SDO/HMI, SOHO/MDI and Simulated Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Peter E.; Pesnell, William Dean

    2012-01-01

    Supergranulation is a well-observed solar phenomenon despite its underlying mechanisms remaining a mystery. Originally considered to arise due to convective motions, alternative mechanisms have been suggested such as the cumulative downdrafts of granules as well as displaying wave-like properties. Supergranule characteristics are well documented, however. Supergranule cells are approximately 35 Mm across, have lifetimes on the order of a day and have divergent horizontal velocities of around 300 mis, a factor of 10 higher than their central radial components. While they have been observed using Doppler methods for more than half a century, their existence is also observed in other datasets such as magneto grams and Ca II K images. These datasets clearly show the influence of supergranulation on solar magnetism and how the local field is organized by the flows of supergranule cells. The Heliospheric and Magnetic Imager (HMI) aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) continues to produce Doppler images enabling the continuation of supergranulation studies made with SOHO/MDI, but with superior temporal and spatial resolution. The size-distribution of divergent cellular flows observed on the photosphere now reaches down to granular scales, allowing contemporaneous comparisons between the two flow components. SOHO/MDI Doppler observations made during the minima of cycles 22/23 and 23/24 exhibit fluctuations of supergranule characteristics (global averages of the supergranule size, size-range and horizontal velocity) with periods of 3-5 days. Similar fluctuations have been observed in SDO/HMI Dopplergrams and the high correlation between co-temporal HMI & MOl suggest a solar origin. Their nature has been probed by invoking data simulations that produce realistic Dopplergrams based on MOl data.

  13. Trypanosoma brucei gambiense: HMI-9 medium containing methylcellulose and human serum supports the continuous axenic in vitro propagation of the bloodstream form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Reet, N; Pyana, P P; Deborggraeve, S; Büscher, P; Claes, F

    2011-07-01

    Trypanosoma brucei (T.b.) gambiense causes the chronic form of human African trypanosomiasis or sleeping sickness. One of the major problems with studying T.b. gambiense is the difficulty to isolate it from its original host and the difficult adaptation to in vivo and in vitro mass propagation. The objective of this study was to evaluate if an established method for axenic culture of pleomorphic bloodstream form T.b. brucei strains, based on methylcellulose containing HMI-9 medium, also facilitated the continuous in vitro propagation of other bloodstream form Trypanozoon strains, in particular of T.b. gambiense. Bloodstream form trypanosomes from one T.b. brucei, two T.b. rhodesiense, one T. evansi and seven T.b. gambiense strains were isolated from mouse blood and each was concurrently cultivated in liquid and methylcellulose-containing HMI-9 based medium, either with or without additional human serum supplementation, for over 10 consecutive sub passages. Although HMI-9 based medium supplemented with 1.1% (w/v) methylcellulose supported the continuous cultivation of all non-gambiense strains better than liquid media could, the in vitro cultivation of all gambiense strains was only achieved in HMI-9 based medium containing 1.1% (w/v) methylcellulose, 15% (v/v) fetal calf serum and 5% (v/v) heat-inactivated human serum. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Development of simulation-based evaluation system for iterative design of HMI to reduce human workload of operating crew in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fumizawa, Motoo; Kameda, Akiyuki; Nakagawa, Takashi; Wu, Wei; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu

    2001-01-01

    Human workload is one of the key factors to reduce the human error during the operation in the commercialized nuclear power plants (NPP). In order to produce a high quality design of human machine interface (HMI), the evaluation and simulation method was developed to analyze operator's workload, where the model of operator crew was adopted on the basis of the model proposed by Reason. The workload such as length of the eye movement and moving length of the operators were visualized in the CRT image as well as the movie-file during the simulation. The developed computer code system was named simulation-based evaluation and analysis support system for man-machine interface design (SEAMAID), which was a simulation-based evaluation and analysis support system for man-machine interface design in the domain of NPP. The SEAMAID simulates the interaction between the operating crew and HMI, thus supports to evaluate the HMI by using the simulation results. The case study was conducted to evaluate the conventional central control room design. As a consequence, the authors were confirmed that SEAMAID was a useful tool to improve HMI design evaluating the workload data among several iterative design. (author)

  15. Case study of a magnetic transient in NOAA 11429 observed by SDO/HMI during the M7.9 flare on 2012 march 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harker, Brian J.; Pevtsov, Alexei A.

    2013-01-01

    NOAA 11429 was the source of an M7.9 X-ray flare at the western solar limb (N18° W63°) on 2012 March 13 at 17:12 UT. Observations of the line-of-sight magnetic flux and the Stokes I and V profiles from which it is derived were carried out by the Solar Dynamics Observatory Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (SDO/HMI) with a 45 s cadence over the full disk, at a spatial sampling of 0.''5. During flare onset, a transient patch of negative flux can be observed in SDO/HMI magnetograms to rapidly appear within the positive polarity penumbra of NOAA 11429. We present here a detailed study of this magnetic transient and offer interpretations as to whether this highly debated phenomenon represents a 'real' change in the structure of the magnetic field at the site of the flare, or is instead a product of instrumental/algorithmic artifacts related to particular SDO/HMI data reduction techniques.

  16. The C1 domain-targeted isophthalate derivative HMI-1b11 promotes neurite outgrowth and GAP-43 expression through PKCα activation in SH-SY5Y cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talman, Virpi; Amadio, Marialaura; Osera, Cecilia; Sorvari, Salla; Boije Af Gennäs, Gustav; Yli-Kauhaluoma, Jari; Rossi, Daniela; Govoni, Stefano; Collina, Simona; Ekokoski, Elina; Tuominen, Raimo K; Pascale, Alessia

    2013-07-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) is a family of serine/threonine phosphotransferases ubiquitously expressed and involved in multiple cellular functions, such as proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation. The C1 domain of PKC represents an attractive drug target, especially for developing PKC activators. Dialkyl 5-(hydroxymethyl)isophthalates are a novel group of synthetic C1 domain ligands that exhibit antiproliferative effect in HeLa cervical carcinoma cells. Here we selected two isophthalates, HMI-1a3 and HMI-1b11, and characterized their effects in the human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y. Both of the active isophthalates exhibited significant antiproliferative and differentiation-inducing effects. Since HMI-1b11 did not impair cell survival even at the highest concentration tested (20μM), and supported neurite growth and differentiation of SH-SY5Y cells, we focused on studying its downstream signaling cascades and effects on gene expression. Consistently, genome-wide gene expression microarray and gene set enrichment analysis indicated that HMI-1b11 (10μM) induced changes in genes mainly related to cell differentiation. In particular, further studies revealed that HMI-1b11 exposure induced up-regulation of GAP-43, a marker for neurite sprouting and neuronal differentiation. These effects were induced by a 7-min HMI-1b11 treatment and specifically depended on PKCα activation, since pretreatment with the selective inhibitor Gö6976 abolished the up-regulation of GAP-43 protein observed at 12h. In parallel, we found that a 7-min exposure to HMI-1b11 induced PKCα accumulation to the cytoskeleton, an effect that was again prevented by pretreatment with Gö6976. Despite similar binding affinities to PKC, the isophthalates had different effects on PKC-dependent ERK1/2 signaling: HMI-1a3-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation was transient, while HMI-1b11 induced a rapid but prolonged ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Overall our data are in accordance with previous studies showing that

  17. Hand motion modeling for psychology analysis in job interview using optical flow-history motion image: OF-HMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, Intissar; Ejbali, Ridha; Zaied, Mourad

    2018-04-01

    To survive the competition, companies always think about having the best employees. The selection is depended on the answers to the questions of the interviewer and the behavior of the candidate during the interview session. The study of this behavior is always based on a psychological analysis of the movements accompanying the answers and discussions. Few techniques are proposed until today to analyze automatically candidate's non verbal behavior. This paper is a part of a work psychology recognition system; it concentrates in spontaneous hand gesture which is very significant in interviews according to psychologists. We propose motion history representation of hand based on an hybrid approach that merges optical flow and history motion images. The optical flow technique is used firstly to detect hand motions in each frame of a video sequence. Secondly, we use the history motion images (HMI) to accumulate the output of the optical flow in order to have finally a good representation of the hand`s local movement in a global temporal template.

  18. Childhood Immunization

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lowest levels in history, thanks to years of immunization. Children must get at least some vaccines before ... child provide protection for many years, adults need immunizations too. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

  19. Immunizations - diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000331.htm Immunizations - diabetes To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Immunizations (vaccines or vaccinations) help protect you from some ...

  20. Immunization Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... room/fact-sheets/detail/immunization-coverage","@context":"http://schema.org","@type":"Article"}; العربية 中文 français русский español ... Plan Global Health Observatory (GHO) data - Immunization More information on vaccines and immunization News 1 in 10 ...

  1. Immunizing Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldine Jody Macdonald

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the complex contexts within which Canadian health professionals engage in immunizing children and focuses on the Canadian practice guidelines and current scientific evidence that direct Canadian health professional competencies. The article begins by presenting two current global vaccine initiatives and links these to immunization in Canada. A selected literature review identifies current best immunization practices. With the purpose of promoting quality improvement, three key Canadian immunization competencies for health professional are highlighted: communication with parents, including those who are experiencing vaccine hesitancy; administration of immunizing agents; and documentation of immunizations. Health professionals are encouraged to reflect on immunization competencies and ensure evidence-based practices underpin vaccine delivery in their primary care settings.

  2. Immune System

    Science.gov (United States)

    A properly functioning immune system is essential to good health. It defends the body against infectious agents and in some cases tumor cells. Individuals with immune deficiencies resulting from genetic defects, diseases (e.g., AIDS, leukemia), or drug therapies are more suscepti...

  3. Systems approach to the design of the CCD sensors and camera electronics for the AIA and HMI instruments on solar dynamics observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltham, N.; Beardsley, S.; Clapp, M.; Lang, J.; Jerram, P.; Pool, P.; Auker, G.; Morris, D.; Duncan, D.

    2017-11-01

    Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) is imaging the Sun in many wavelengths near simultaneously and with a resolution ten times higher than the average high-definition television. In this paper we describe our innovative systems approach to the design of the CCD cameras for two of SDO's remote sensing instruments, the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI). Both instruments share use of a custom-designed 16 million pixel science-grade CCD and common camera readout electronics. A prime requirement was for the CCD to operate with significantly lower drive voltages than before, motivated by our wish to simplify the design of the camera readout electronics. Here, the challenge lies in the design of circuitry to drive the CCD's highly capacitive electrodes and to digitize its analogue video output signal with low noise and to high precision. The challenge is greatly exacerbated when forced to work with only fully space-qualified, radiation-tolerant components. We describe our systems approach to the design of the AIA and HMI CCD and camera electronics, and the engineering solutions that enabled us to comply with both mission and instrument science requirements.

  4. Solar Radius Determination from Sodism/Picard and HMI/SDO Observations of the Decrease of the Spectral Solar Radiance during the 2012 June Venus Transit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauchecorne, A.; Meftah, M.; Irbah, A.; Couvidat, S.; Bush, R.; Hochedez, J.-F.

    2014-03-01

    On 2012 June 5-6, the transit of Venus provided a rare opportunity to determine the radius of the Sun using solar imagers observing a well-defined object, namely, the planet and its atmosphere, partially occulting the Sun. A new method has been developed to estimate the solar radius during a planetary transit. It is based on the estimation of the spectral solar radiance decrease in a region around the contact between the planet and the Sun at the beginning of the ingress and at the end of the egress. The extrapolation to zero of the radiance decrease versus the Sun-to-Venus apparent angular distance allows estimation of the solar radius at the time of first and fourth contacts. This method presents the advantage of being almost independent on the plate scale, the distortion, the refraction by the planetary atmosphere, and on the point-spread function of the imager. It has been applied to two space solar visible imagers, SODISM/PICARD and HMI/SDO. The found results are mutually consistent, despite their different error budgets: 959.''85 ± 0.''19 (1σ) for SODISM at 607.1 nm and 959.''90 ± 0.''06 (1σ) for HMI at 617.3 nm.

  5. Solar radius determination from SODISM/PICARD and HMI/SDO observations of the decrease of the spectral solar radiance during the 2012 June Venus transit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauchecorne, A.; Meftah, M.; Irbah, A.; Hochedez, J.-F.; Couvidat, S.; Bush, R.

    2014-01-01

    On 2012 June 5-6, the transit of Venus provided a rare opportunity to determine the radius of the Sun using solar imagers observing a well-defined object, namely, the planet and its atmosphere, partially occulting the Sun. A new method has been developed to estimate the solar radius during a planetary transit. It is based on the estimation of the spectral solar radiance decrease in a region around the contact between the planet and the Sun at the beginning of the ingress and at the end of the egress. The extrapolation to zero of the radiance decrease versus the Sun-to-Venus apparent angular distance allows estimation of the solar radius at the time of first and fourth contacts. This method presents the advantage of being almost independent on the plate scale, the distortion, the refraction by the planetary atmosphere, and on the point-spread function of the imager. It has been applied to two space solar visible imagers, SODISM/PICARD and HMI/SDO. The found results are mutually consistent, despite their different error budgets: 959.''85 ± 0.''19 (1σ) for SODISM at 607.1 nm and 959.''90 ± 0.''06 (1σ) for HMI at 617.3 nm.

  6. Immunity booster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanescu, Ioan; Titescu, Gheorghe; Tamaian, Radu; Haulica, Ion; Bild, Walther

    2002-01-01

    The immunity booster is, according to its patent description, microbiologically pure water with an D/(D+H) isotopic concentration of 100 ppm, with physical-chemical characteristics similar to those of distilled water. It is obtained by sterilization of a mixture of deuterium depleted water, with a 25 ppm isotopic concentration, with distilled water in a volume ratio of 4:6. Unlike natural immunity boosters (bacterial agents as Bacillus Chalmette-Guerin, Corynebacterium parvum; lipopolysaccharides; human immunoglobulin) or synthetical products (levamysol; isoprinosyne with immunostimulating action), which cause hypersensitivity and shocks, thrill, fever, sickness and the immunity complex disease, the water of 100 ppm D/(D + H) isotopic concentration is a toxicity free product. The testing for immune reaction of the immunity booster led to the following results: - an increase of cell action capacity in the first immunity shielding stage (macrophages), as evidenced by stimulation of a number of essential characterizing parameters, as well as of the phagocytosis capacity, bactericide capacity, and opsonic capacity of serum; - an increase of the number of leucocyte particularly of the granulocyte in peripheral blood, produced especially when medullar toxic agents like caryolysine are used; - it hinders the effect of lowering the number of erythrocytes in peripheral blood produced by experimentally induced chronic inflammation; - an increase of nonspecific immunity defence capacity against specific bacterial aggression of both Gram-positive bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae 558 ) and of the Gram-negative ones (Klebsiella pneumoniae 507 ); - an increase of immunity - stimulating activity (proinflamatory), like that of levamisole as evidenced by the test of stimulation of experimentally induced inflammation by means of carrageenan. The following advantages of the immunity booster are stressed: - it is toxicity free and side effect free; - can be orally administrated as

  7. List of HMI reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The Hahn-Meitner-Institute Berlin publishes a series of reports with the results of R+D work of the institute. This list of publications contains also an author index in alphabetical order which points to annual reports of the institute as well as to the reports of the sections of nuclear and radiation physics, nuclear chemistry and reactor, and the section data processing and electronics. With 440 refs [de

  8. Innate immunity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ronnie Anderson is Director of the Medical Research Council Unit for Inflammation and Immunity. ... field have included macrophage, T cell, cytokine and cytokine activated killer cell interactions .... monocytes, mast cells, lymphocytes, eccrine.

  9. Childhood immunization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romain, Sandra; Schillaci, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To examine childhood immunization levels relative to the number of family physicians, pediatricians, and public health nurses in Ontario. DESIGN Retrospective comparative analysis of publicly available data on immunization coverage levels and the relative number of family physicians, pediatricians, and public health nurses. SETTING Ontario. PARTICIPANTS Seven-year-old children, family physicians, pediatricians, and public health nurses in Ontario. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES The association between immunization coverage levels and the relative number of family physicians, pediatricians, and public health nurses. RESULTS We found correlations between immunization coverage levels and the relative number (ie, per 1000 Ontario residents) of family physicians (ρ = 0.60) and pediatricians (ρ = 0.70) and a lower correlation with the relative number of public health nurses (ρ = 0.40), although none of these correlations was significant. A comparison of temporal trends illustrated that variation in the relative number of family physicians and pediatricians in Ontario was associated with similar variation in immunization coverage levels. CONCLUSION Increasing the number of family physicians and pediatricians might help to boost access to immunizations and perhaps other components of cost-saving childhood preventive care. PMID:19910599

  10. Immune System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the Immune System Print en español El sistema inmunitario Whether you're stomping through the showers ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on TeensHealth® is for ...

  11. Immunizing Adults

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Vaccines aren’t just for kids; adults also need to get immunized. Overall, far too many people 19 years and older aren’t getting the vaccines they need and remain unprotected. In this podcast, Dr. Walter Williams discuss the importance of adults being fully vaccinated.

  12. Vaccines (immunizations) - overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccinations; Immunizations; Immunize; Vaccine shots; Prevention - vaccine ... of the vaccine. VACCINE SCHEDULE The recommended vaccination (immunization) schedule is updated every 12 months by the ...

  13. Adult Immunization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Coskun

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the many advances in modern medicine, each year thousands of people in the world die from diseases that are easily prevented by safe and effective vaccines. Few measures in preventive medicine are of such proven value and as easy to implement as routine immunization against infectious diseases. Prevention of infection by immunization is a lifelong process. There are a number of vaccines that all adults (¡I18 years require. There are also other vaccines that need to be tailored to meet individual variations in risk resulting from occupation, foreign travel, underlying illness, lifestyle and age. In this study, we tried to review this important subject. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(2.000: 159-166

  14. Immunizations for Preterm Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Health Issues Health Issues Conditions Injuries & Emergencies Vaccine Preventable Diseases ... Children > Safety & Prevention > Immunizations > Immunizations For Preterm Babies Safety & ...

  15. Weakened Immune Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Health Issues Health Issues Conditions Injuries & Emergencies Vaccine Preventable Diseases ... Children > Safety & Prevention > Immunizations > Weakened Immune Systems Safety & Prevention ...

  16. Immunizations: Active vs. Passive

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Health Issues Health Issues Conditions Injuries & Emergencies Vaccine Preventable Diseases ... Children > Safety & Prevention > Immunizations > Immunizations: Active vs. Passive Safety & ...

  17. Integrated Circuit Immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sketoe, J. G.; Clark, Anthony

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a DOD E3 program overview on integrated circuit immunity. The topics include: 1) EMI Immunity Testing; 2) Threshold Definition; 3) Bias Tee Function; 4) Bias Tee Calibration Set-Up; 5) EDM Test Figure; 6) EMI Immunity Levels; 7) NAND vs. and Gate Immunity; 8) TTL vs. LS Immunity Levels; 9) TP vs. OC Immunity Levels; 10) 7805 Volt Reg Immunity; and 11) Seventies Chip Set. This paper is presented in viewgraph form.

  18. Immune System Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Quiz: Immune System KidsHealth / For Kids / Quiz: Immune System Print How much do you know about your immune system? Find out by taking this quiz! About Us ...

  19. Immunization Schedules for Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ACIP Vaccination Recommendations Why Immunize? Vaccines: The Basics Immunization Schedule for Adults (19 Years of Age and ... diseases that can be prevented by vaccines . 2018 Immunization Schedule Recommended Vaccinations for Adults by Age and ...

  20. Immunizations and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Immunizations Immunizations and African Americans African American adults are less ... 19 to 35 months had comparable rates of immunization. African American women are as likely to have ...

  1. Instant Childhood Immunization Schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recommendations Why Immunize? Vaccines: The Basics Instant Childhood Immunization Schedule Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Get ... date. See Disclaimer for additional details. Based on Immunization Schedule for Children 0 through 6 Years of ...

  2. T cell immunity

    OpenAIRE

    Emel Bülbül Başkan

    2013-01-01

    Since birth, our immune system is constantly bombarded with self-antigens and foreign pathogens. To stay healthy, complex immune strategies have evolved in our immune system to maintain self-tolerance and to defend against foreign pathogens. Effector T cells are the key players in steering the immune responses to execute immune functions. While effector T cells were initially identified to be immune promoting, recent studies unraveled negative regulatory functions of effector T cells...

  3. Immunization Action Coalition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... IAC | Contact | A-Z Index | Donate | Shop | SUBSCRIBE Immunization Action Coalition Favorites ACIP Recommendations Package Inserts Additional Immunization Resources Photos Adult Vaccination Screening Checklists Ask the ...

  4. New Primary Dew-Point Generators at HMI/FSB-LPM in the Range from -70 °C to +60 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvizdic, Davor; Heinonen, Martti; Sestan, Danijel

    2012-09-01

    To extend the dew-point range and to improve the uncertainties of the humidity scale realization at HMI/FSB-LPM, new primary low- and high-range dew-point generators were developed and implemented in cooperation with MIKES, in 2009 through EUROMET Project No. 912. The low-range saturator is designed for primary realization of the dew-point temperature scale from -70 °C to + 5 °C, while the high-range saturator covers the range from 1 °C to 60 °C. The system is designed as a single-pressure, single-pass dew-point generator. MIKES designed and constructed both the saturators to be implemented in dew-point calibration systems at LPM. The LPM took care of purchasing and adapting liquid baths, of implementing the temperature and pressure measurement equipment appropriate for use in the systems, and development of gas preparation and flow control systems as well as of the computer-based automated data acquisition. The principle and the design of the generator are described in detail and schematically depicted. The tests were performed at MIKES to investigate how close both the saturators are to an ideal saturator. Results of the tests show that both the saturators are efficient enough for a primary realization of the dew-point temperature scale from -70 °C to + 60 °C, in the specified flow-rate ranges. The estimated standard uncertainties due to the non-ideal saturation efficiency are between 0.02 °C and 0.05 °C.

  5. Exploring the Human Plasma Proteome for Humoral Mediators of Remote Ischemic Preconditioning - A Word of Caution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgeland, Erik; Breivik, Lars Ertesvåg; Vaudel, Marc; Svendsen, Øyvind Sverre; Garberg, Hilde; Nordrehaug, Jan Erik; Berven, Frode Steingrimsen; Jonassen, Anne Kristine

    2014-01-01

    Despite major advances in early revascularization techniques, cardiovascular diseases are still the leading cause of death worldwide, and myocardial infarctions contribute heavily to this. Over the past decades, it has become apparent that reperfusion of blood to a previously ischemic area of the heart causes damage in and of itself, and that this ischemia reperfusion induced injury can be reduced by up to 50% by mechanical manipulation of the blood flow to the heart. The recent discovery of remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) provides a non-invasive approach of inducing this cardioprotection at a distance. Finding its endogenous mediators and their operative mode is an important step toward increasing the ischemic tolerance. The release of humoral factor(s) upon RIPC was recently demonstrated and several candidate proteins were published as possible mediators of the cardioprotection. Before clinical applicability, these potential biomarkers and their efficiency must be validated, a task made challenging by the large heterogeneity in reported data and results. Here, in an attempt to reproduce and provide more experimental data on these mediators, we conducted an unbiased in-depth analysis of the human plasma proteome before and after RIPC. From the 68 protein markers reported in the literature, only 28 could be mapped to manually reviewed (Swiss-Prot) protein sequences. 23 of them were monitored in our untargeted experiment. However, their significant regulation could not be reproducibly estimated. In fact, among the 394 plasma proteins we accurately quantified, no significant regulation could be confidently and reproducibly assessed. This indicates that it is difficult to both monitor and reproduce published data from experiments exploring for RIPC induced plasma proteomic regulations, and suggests that further work should be directed towards small humoral factors. To simplify this task, we made our proteomic dataset available via ProteomeXchange, where scientists can mine for novel potential targets. PMID:25333471

  6. Our Immune System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our Immune System A story for children with primary immunodeficiency diseases Written by Sara LeBien IMMUNE DEFICIENCY FOUNDATION A note ... who are immune deficient to better understand their immune system. What is a “ B-cell, ” a “ T-cell, ” ...

  7. Skin innate immune system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berna Aksoy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available All multicellular organisms protect themselves from external universe and microorganisms by innate immune sytem that is constitutively present. Skin innate immune system has several different components composed of epithelial barriers, humoral factors and cellular part. In this review information about skin innate immune system and its components are presented to the reader. Innate immunity, which wasn’t adequately interested in previously, is proven to provide a powerfull early protection system, control many infections before the acquired immunity starts and directs acquired immunity to develop optimally

  8. Imbalanced immune homeostasis in immune thrombocytopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdanbakhsh, Karina

    2016-04-01

    Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an autoimmune bleeding disorder resulting from low platelet counts caused by inadequate production as well as increased destruction by autoimmune mechanisms. As with other autoimmune disorders, chronic ITP is characterized by perturbations of immune homeostasis with hyperactivated effector cells as well as defective regulatory arm of the adaptive immune system, which will be reviewed here. Interestingly, some ITP treatments are associated with restoring the regulatory imbalance, although it remains unclear whether the immune system is redirected to a state of tolerance once treatment is discontinued. Understanding the mechanisms that result in breakdown of immune homeostasis in ITP will help to identify novel pathways for restoring tolerance and inhibiting effector cell responses. This information can then be translated into developing therapies for averting autoimmunity not only in ITP but also many autoimmune disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Immune System (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the Immune System Print en español El sistema inmunitario The immune system, which is made up ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for ...

  10. Immunity by equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberl, Gérard

    2016-08-01

    The classical model of immunity posits that the immune system reacts to pathogens and injury and restores homeostasis. Indeed, a century of research has uncovered the means and mechanisms by which the immune system recognizes danger and regulates its own activity. However, this classical model does not fully explain complex phenomena, such as tolerance, allergy, the increased prevalence of inflammatory pathologies in industrialized nations and immunity to multiple infections. In this Essay, I propose a model of immunity that is based on equilibrium, in which the healthy immune system is always active and in a state of dynamic equilibrium between antagonistic types of response. This equilibrium is regulated both by the internal milieu and by the microbial environment. As a result, alteration of the internal milieu or microbial environment leads to immune disequilibrium, which determines tolerance, protective immunity and inflammatory pathology.

  11. Immunity's ancient arms

    OpenAIRE

    Litman, Gary W.; Cannon, John P.

    2009-01-01

    Diverse receptors on two types of cell mediate adaptive immunity in jawed vertebrates. In the lamprey, a jawless vertebrate, immunity is likewise compartmentalized but the molecular mechanics are very different.

  12. [Immune system and tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terme, Magali; Tanchot, Corinne

    2017-02-01

    Despite having been much debated, it is now well established that the immune system plays an essential role in the fight against cancer. In this article, we will highlight the implication of the immune system in the control of tumor growth and describe the major components of the immune system involved in the antitumoral immune response. The immune system, while exerting pressure on tumor cells, also will play a pro-tumoral role by sculpting the immunogenicity of tumors cells as they develop. Finally, we will illustrate the numerous mechanisms of immune suppression that take place within the tumoral microenvironment which allow tumor cells to escape control from the immune system. The increasingly precise knowledge of the brakes to an effective antitumor immune response allows the development of immunotherapy strategies more and more innovating and promising of hope. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  13. Immune System and Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your immune system is a complex network of cells, tissues, and organs that work together to defend against germs. It ... t, to find and destroy them. If your immune system cannot do its job, the results can be ...

  14. Aging changes in immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004008.htm Aging changes in immunity To use the sharing features ... cells and antibodies that destroy these harmful substances. AGING CHANGES AND THEIR EFFECTS ON THE IMMUNE SYSTEM ...

  15. Immunizations for adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faubion, Stephanie S; Larkin, Lisa C

    2016-12-01

    Immunizations protect individual persons and contribute to public health by reducing morbidity and mortality associated with common infectious diseases. In this Practice Pearl, we review guidelines for adult immunizations and recent and potential changes in vaccines.

  16. Immune system simulation online

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapin, Nicolas; Lund, Ole; Castiglione, Filippo

    2011-01-01

    MOTIVATION: The recognition of antigenic peptides is a major event of an immune response. In current mesoscopic-scale simulators of the immune system, this crucial step has been modeled in a very approximated way. RESULTS: We have equipped an agent-based model of the immune system with immuno...

  17. The Immune System Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Kirsten A.; Gibbs, Melissa A.; Friedman, Erich J.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a card game that helps introductory biology students understand the basics of the immune response to pathogens. Students simulate the steps of the immune response with cards that represent the pathogens and the cells and molecules mobilized by the immune system. In the process, they learn the similarities and differences between the…

  18. Plant innate immunity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Plants are invaded by an array of pathogens of which only a few succeed in causing disease. The attack by others is countered by a sophisticated immune system possessed by the plants. The plant immune system is broadly divided into two, viz. microbial-associated molecular-patterns-triggered immunity (MTI) and ...

  19. Induction of antitumor immunity through xenoplacental immunization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agadjanyan Michael G

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Historically cancer vaccines have yielded suboptimal clinical results. We have developed a novel strategy for eliciting antitumor immunity based upon homology between neoplastic tissue and the developing placenta. Placenta formation shares several key processes with neoplasia, namely: angiogenesis, activation of matrix metalloproteases, and active suppression of immune function. Immune responses against xenoantigens are well known to break self-tolerance. Utilizing xenogeneic placental protein extracts as a vaccine, we have successfully induced anti-tumor immunity against B16 melanoma in C57/BL6 mice, whereas control xenogeneic extracts and B16 tumor extracts where ineffective, or actually promoted tumor growth, respectively. Furthermore, dendritic cells were able to prime tumor immunity when pulsed with the placental xenoantigens. While vaccination-induced tumor regression was abolished in mice depleted of CD4 T cells, both CD4 and CD8 cells were needed to adoptively transfer immunity to naïve mice. Supporting the role of CD8 cells in controlling tumor growth are findings that only freshly isolated CD8 cells from immunized mice were capable of inducing tumor cell caspases-3 activation ex vivo. These data suggest feasibility of using xenogeneic placental preparations as a multivalent vaccine potently targeting not just tumor antigens, but processes that are essential for tumor maintenance of malignant potential.

  20. HMI scientific report - chemistry 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Results of the R and D activities of the Radiation Chemistry Department, Hahn-Meitner-Institut, are reported, primarily dealing with the following subjects: Interface processes and energy conversion, high-energy photochemistry and radiation chemistry as well as trace elements chemistry. A list of publications and lectures is added and gives a view on results obtained in research and development. (EF) [de

  1. HMI scientific report - chemistry 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Results of the R and D activities are reported, dealing with the following subjects: Interface processes and energy conversion, high-energy photochemistry and radiation chemistry as well as trace elements chemistry. A list of publications and lectures is added and gives a view on results obtained in research and development. (EF) [de

  2. Cytokine regulation of immune tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Jie; Xie, Aini; Chen, Wenhao

    2014-01-01

    The immune system provides defenses against invading pathogens while maintaining immune tolerance to self-antigens. This immune homeostasis is harmonized by the direct interactions between immune cells and the cytokine environment in which immune cells develop and function. Herein, we discuss three non-redundant paradigms by which cytokines maintain or break immune tolerance. We firstly describe how anti-inflammatory cytokines exert direct inhibitory effects on immune cells to enforce immune ...

  3. Kidney and innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying-Hui; Zhang, Yu-Gen

    2017-03-01

    Innate immune system is an important modulator of the inflammatory response during infection and tissue injury/repair. The kidney as a vital organ with high energy demand plays a key role in regulating the disease related metabolic process. Increasing research interest has focused on the immune pathogenesis of many kidney diseases. However, innate immune cells such as dendritic cells, macrophages, NK cells and a few innate lymphocytes, as well as the complement system are essential for renal immune homeostasis and ensure a coordinated balance between tissue injury and regeneration. The innate immune response provides the first line of host defense initiated by several classes of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), such as membrane-bound Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs), together with inflammasomes responsible for early innate immune response. Although the innate immune system is well studied, the research on the detailed relationship between innate immunity and kidney is still very limited. In this review, we will focus on the innate immune sensing system in renal immune homeostasis, as well as the corresponding pathogenesis of many kidney diseases. The pivotal roles of innate immunity in renal injury and regeneration with special emphasis on kidney disease related immunoregulatory mechanism are also discussed. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Alternative Immune Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Cadavid Gutierrez

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The immune system in animals is a complex network of molecules, cells and tissues that coordinately maintain the physiological and genetic integrity of the organism. Traditionally, two classes of immunity have been considered, the innate immunity and the adaptive immunity. The former is ancestral, with limited variability and low discrimination. The latter is highly variable, specific and limited to jawed vertebrates. Adaptive immunity is based on antigen receptors that rearrange somatically to generate a nearly unlimited diversity of molecules. Likely, this mechanism of somatic recombination arose as a consequence of a horizontal transfer of transposons and transposases from bacterial genomes in the ancestor of jawed vertebrates. The recent discovery in jawless vertebrates and invertebrates of alternative adaptive immune mechanisms, suggests during evolution different animal groups have found alternative solutions to the problem of immune recognition.

  5. Measuring polio immunity to plan immunization activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorman, Arend; Lyons, Hil M

    2016-11-21

    The Global Polio Eradication Initiative is closer than ever to achieving a polio-free world. Immunization activities must still be carried out in non-endemic countries to maintain population immunity at levels which will stop poliovirus from spreading if it is re-introduced from still-infected areas. In areas where there is no active transmission of poliovirus, programs must rely on surrogate indicators of population immunity to determine the appropriate immunization activities, typically caregiver-reported vaccination history obtained from non-polio acute flaccid paralysis patients identified through polio surveillance. We used regression models to examine the relationship between polio vaccination campaigns and caregiver-reported polio vaccination history. We find that in many countries, vaccination campaigns have a surprisingly weak impact on these commonly used indicators. We conclude that alternative criteria and data, such as routine immunization indicators from vaccination records or household surveys, should be considered for planning polio vaccination campaigns, and that validation of such surrogate indicators is necessary if they are to be used as the basis for program planning and risk assessment. We recommend that the GPEI and similar organizations consider or continue devoting additional resources to rigorously study population immunity and campaign effectiveness in at-risk countries. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Origins of adaptive immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liongue, Clifford; John, Liza B; Ward, Alister

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive immunity, involving distinctive antibody- and cell-mediated responses to specific antigens based on "memory" of previous exposure, is a hallmark of higher vertebrates. It has been argued that adaptive immunity arose rapidly, as articulated in the "big bang theory" surrounding its origins, which stresses the importance of coincident whole-genome duplications. Through a close examination of the key molecules and molecular processes underpinning adaptive immunity, this review suggests a less-extreme model, in which adaptive immunity emerged as part of longer evolutionary journey. Clearly, whole-genome duplications provided additional raw genetic materials that were vital to the emergence of adaptive immunity, but a variety of other genetic events were also required to generate some of the key molecules, whereas others were preexisting and simply co-opted into adaptive immunity.

  7. Reinfection immunity in schistosomiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiya, Haruo

    1987-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is one of the most important parasitic diseases in the world, especially in endemic areas of developing countries. This situation has prompted parasitologist to attempt intensive researches on immune mechanisms, especially those of reinfection immunity associated with eliminating challenge infection. The current knowledge of reinfection immunity against Schistosoma spp. infection was therefore reviewed briefly and discussed with special reference to our data on protective immune responses induced by radiation-attenuated cercarial infection. A recently developed technique of compressed organ autoradiography (COA) has contributed to assessing parasite attrition in immune animals following challenge infection. Our study using COA has demonstrated that major attrition of schistosomula from challenge infection occurs in the skin of CBA/Ca mice vaccinated with 20 Krad gamma radiation-attenuated cercariae of S. mansoni, while in both lungs and liver of similarly vaccinated guinea pig model. Furthermore, gamma-irradiation to cercariae affected their migration potential and surface-antigen profiles. The immunizing stimuli of gamma radiation-attenuated cercariae profoundly affected the expression of responsiveness in vaccinated animals. The change in antigenic profiles and migration potential of those vaccinating population was discussed in relation to the kinetics of reinfection immunity induced in vaccinated amimal models. These works might provide a base line data to develop a practical vaccine for schistosomiasis using defined antigens. It must be emphasized that these vaccines could serve as a practical prophylactic measure for schistosomiasis in the endemic areas, even if the vaccines fail to induce sterilizing immunity. (author). 141 refs

  8. Ethics of Immunization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, M.F.; Quah, S.R.; Cockerham, W.C.

    2017-01-01

    Collective immunization can be highly effective in protecting societies against infectious diseases, but policy decisions about both the character and the content of immunization policies require ethical justification. This article offers an overview of ethical aspects that should be taken into

  9. Immunity and skin cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E.B.; Brysk, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    Observations in humans and animal studies support the theory that immunologic surveillance plays an important role in limiting the development of skin malignancies. These immune responses undergo progressive diminution with age. In addition, other factors, such as bereavement, poor nutrition, and acute and chronic exposure to ultraviolet light, can further diminish immune mechanisms

  10. Immunizations. Position Statement. Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobo, Nichole; Garrett, Jennifer; Teskey, Carmen; Duncan, Kay; Strasser, Kathy; Burrows-Mezu, Alicia L.

    2015-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that immunizations are essential to primary prevention of disease from infancy through adulthood. Promotion of immunizations by the registered professional school nurse (hereinafter referred to as school nurse) is central to the public health focus of school nursing practice…

  11. Disparity in childhood immunizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemstra, Mark; Neudorf, Cory; Opondo, Johnmark; Toye, Jennifer; Kurji, Ayisha; Kunst, Anton; Tournier, Ceal

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Incomplete immunization coverage is common in low-income families and Aboriginal children in Canada. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether child immunization coverage rates at two years of age were lower in low-income neighbourhoods of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. METHODS: Parents who were and

  12. Neural circuitry and immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, Valentin A.; Tracey, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    Research during the last decade has significantly advanced our understanding of the molecular mechanisms at the interface between the nervous system and the immune system. Insight into bidirectional neuroimmune communication has characterized the nervous system as an important partner of the immune system in the regulation of inflammation. Neuronal pathways, including the vagus nerve-based inflammatory reflex are physiological regulators of immune function and inflammation. In parallel, neuronal function is altered in conditions characterized by immune dysregulation and inflammation. Here, we review these regulatory mechanisms and describe the neural circuitry modulating immunity. Understanding these mechanisms reveals possibilities to use targeted neuromodulation as a therapeutic approach for inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. These findings and current clinical exploration of neuromodulation in the treatment of inflammatory diseases defines the emerging field of Bioelectronic Medicine. PMID:26512000

  13. On Modelling an Immune System

    OpenAIRE

    Monroy, Raúl; Saab, Rosa; Godínez, Fernando

    2004-01-01

    Immune systems of live forms have been an abundant source of inspiration to contemporary computer scientists. Problem solving strategies, stemming from known immune system phenomena, have been successfully applied to challenging problems of modern computing. However, research in artificial immune systems has overlooked establishing a coherent model of known immune system behaviour. This paper aims reports on an preliminary computer model of an immune system, where each immune system component...

  14. Rebuilding immunity with Remune.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, L

    1998-01-01

    Remune, an immune response therapy composed of inactivated HIV, is designed to enhance the immune system's ability to recognize and kill HIV proteins. Developed by Dr. Jonas Salk, researchers hope Remune's actions can alter the course of HIV infection and slow disease progression. Remune has gained Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval to enter the critical Phase III trial stage. Two clinical trials are tracking Remune's immunogenicity (ability to provoke an immune response), its immunogenicity relative to dose level, and its effect on viral load. An ongoing trial, approved in February of 1996, enrolled 2,500 patients at 74 sites. The manufacturer, Immune Response Corporation (IRC), announced earlier this year that treatment with Remune induces an immune response to HIV that cross-reacts with different strains of the virus. This immune response is crucial for developing an effective worldwide treatment. Remune decreases levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a). IRC recently began a Phase I clinical trial in Great Britain that combines Remune with a protease inhibitor, two antiviral nucleoside analogues, and Interleukin-2. The trial is designed to determine the role that the drug may play in restoring immune response.

  15. National Network for Immunization Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists . © Copyright National Network for Immunization Information. The information contained in the National Network for Immunization Information Web site should not be ...

  16. Immunity: Insect Immune Memory Goes Viral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligoxygakis, Petros

    2017-11-20

    Adaptive memory in insect immunity has been controversial. In this issue, Andino and co-workers propose that acquisition of viral sequences in the host genome gives rise to anti-sense, anti-viral piRNAs. Such sequences can be regarded as both a genomic archive of past infections and as an armour of potential heritable memory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. HIV and Immunizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS Drugs Clinical Trials Apps skip to content HIV Treatment Home Understanding HIV/AIDS Fact Sheets HIV ... 4 p.m. ET) Send us an email HIV and Immunizations Last Reviewed: February 6, 2018 Key ...

  18. Immunity to parasitic infection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lamb, Tracey J

    2012-01-01

    .... Often endemic in developing countries many parasitic diseases are neglected in terms of research funding and much remains to be understood about parasites and the interactions they have with the immune system...

  19. Exercise and immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007165.htm Exercise and immunity To use the sharing features on ... take a daily walk or follow a simple exercise routine a few times a week. Exercise helps ...

  20. Adults Need Immunizations, Too!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this podcast, Dr. Andrew Kroger from CDC’s National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases discusses simple, safe, and effective ways adults can help protect themselves, their family, and their community from serious and deadly diseases.

  1. [Exosomes and Immune Cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Naohiro

    2017-05-01

    In addition to the cytokines and cytotoxic granules, exosomes have been known as the intercellular communicator and cytotoxic missile of immune cells for the past decade. It has been well known that mature dendritic cell(DC)-derived exosomes participate in the T cell and natural killer(NK)cell activation, while immature DCs secrete tolerogenic exosomes for regulatory T(Treg)cell generation. Treg cell-derived EVs act as a suppressor against pathogenic type-1 T helper(Th1)cell responses. CD8+ T cells produce tumoricidal exosomes for preventing tumor invasion and metastasis transiently after T cell receptor(TCR)-mediated stimulation. Thus, immune cells produce functional exosomes in the activation state- and/or differentiation stage-dependent manner. In this review, the role of immune cell-derived exosomes will be introduced, focusing mainly on immune reaction against tumor.

  2. Immune responses to metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herberman, R.B.; Wiltrout, R.H.; Gorelik, E.

    1987-01-01

    The authors present the changes in the immune system in tumor-bearing hosts that may influence the development of progression of metastases. Included are mononuclear cell infiltration of metastases; alterations in natural resistance mediated by natural killer cells and macrophages; development of specific immunity mediated by T-lymphocytes or antibodies; modulation of tumor-associated antigen expression; and the down-regulation of the immune response to the tumor by several suppressor mechanisms; the augmentation of the immune response and its potential for therapeutic application; includes the prophylaxis of metastases formation by NK cells; the therapy of metastases by augmentation NK-, macrophage-, or T-lymphocyte-mediated responses by biological response modifiers; and the transfer of anticancer activity by cytoxic T-lymphocytes or immunoconjugates of monoclonal antibodies with specificity for tumors

  3. Immunity of international organizations

    CERN Document Server

    Schrijver, Nico

    2015-01-01

    Immunity rules are part and parcel of the law of international organizations. It has long been accepted that international organizations and their staff need to enjoy immunity from the jurisdiction of national courts. However, it is the application of these rules in practice that increasingly causes controversy. Claims against international organizations are brought before national courts by those who allegedly suffer from their activities. These can be both natural and legal persons such as companies. National courts, in particular lower courts, have often been less willing to recognize the immunity of the organization concerned than the organization s founding fathers. Likewise, public opinion and legal writings frequently criticize international organizations for invoking their immunity and for the lack of adequate means of redress for claimants. It is against this background that an international conference was organized at Leiden University in June 2013. A number of highly qualified academics and practit...

  4. Vaccines and immunization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof Ezechukwu

    vaccines for malaria and HIV infection. Despite the ... decades, effective vaccines against the major causes of ... challenge antibodies, specific helper and effector T lymphocytes ... materials to produced immunity to a disease. It was originally ...

  5. Zinc Signals and Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maywald, Martina; Wessels, Inga; Rink, Lothar

    2017-10-24

    Zinc homeostasis is crucial for an adequate function of the immune system. Zinc deficiency as well as zinc excess result in severe disturbances in immune cell numbers and activities, which can result in increased susceptibility to infections and development of especially inflammatory diseases. This review focuses on the role of zinc in regulating intracellular signaling pathways in innate as well as adaptive immune cells. Main underlying molecular mechanisms and targets affected by altered zinc homeostasis, including kinases, caspases, phosphatases, and phosphodiesterases, will be highlighted in this article. In addition, the interplay of zinc homeostasis and the redox metabolism in affecting intracellular signaling will be emphasized. Key signaling pathways will be described in detail for the different cell types of the immune system. In this, effects of fast zinc flux, taking place within a few seconds to minutes will be distinguish from slower types of zinc signals, also designated as "zinc waves", and late homeostatic zinc signals regarding prolonged changes in intracellular zinc.

  6. Immunization in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruslin, Andrée; Steben, Marc; Halperin, Scott; Money, Deborah M; Yudin, Mark H

    2009-11-01

    To review the evidence and provide recommendations on immunization in pregnancy. Outcomes evaluated include effectiveness of immunization, risks and benefits for mother and fetus. The Medline and Cochrane databases were searched for articles published up to June 2008 on the topic of immunization in pregnancy. The evidence obtained was reviewed and evaluated by the Infectious Diseases Committee of the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada (SOGC) under the leadership of the principal authors, and recommendations were made according to guidelines developed by the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care. Implementation of the recommendations in this guideline should result in more appropriate immunization of pregnant and breastfeeding women, decreased risk of contraindicated immunization, and better disease prevention. The quality of evidence reported in this document has been assessed using the evaluation of evidence criteria in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table 1). (1) All women of childbearing age should be evaluated for the possibility of pregnancy before immunization. (III-A). (2) Health care providers should obtain a relevant immunization history from all women accessing prenatal care. (III-A). (3) In general, live and/or live-attenuated virus vaccines should not be administered during pregnancy, as there is a, largely theoretical, risk to the fetus. (II-3B). (4) Women who have inadvertently received immunization with live or live-attenuated vaccines during pregnancy should not be counselled to terminate the pregnancy because of a teratogenic risk. (II-2A). (5) Non-pregnant women immunized with a live or live-attenuated vaccine should be counselled to delay pregnancy for at least four weeks. (III-B). (6) Inactivated viral vaccines, bacterial vaccines, and toxoids can be used safely in pregnancy. (II-1A). (7) Women who are breastfeeding can still be immunized (passive-active immunization, live or killed

  7. Immunization alters body odor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Bruce A; Opiekun, Maryanne; Yamazaki, Kunio; Beauchamp, Gary K

    2014-04-10

    Infections have been shown to alter body odor. Because immune activation accompanies both infection and immunization, we tested the hypothesis that classical immunization might similarly result in the alteration of body odors detectable by trained biosensor mice. Using a Y-maze, we trained biosensor mice to distinguish between urine odors from rabies-vaccinated (RV) and unvaccinated control mice. RV-trained mice generalized this training to mice immunized with the equine West Nile virus (WNV) vaccine compared with urine of corresponding controls. These results suggest that there are similarities between body odors of mice immunized with these two vaccines. This conclusion was reinforced when mice could not be trained to directly discriminate between urine odors of RV- versus WNV-treated mice. Next, we trained biosensor mice to discriminate the urine odors of mice treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; a general elicitor of innate immunological responses) from the urine of control mice. These LPS-trained biosensors could distinguish between the odors of LPS-treated mouse urine and RV-treated mouse urine. Finally, biosensor mice trained to distinguish between the odors of RV-treated mouse urine and control mouse urine did not generalize this training to discriminate between the odors of LPS-treated mouse urine and control mouse urine. From these experiments, we conclude that: (1) immunization alters urine odor in similar ways for RV and WNV immunizations; and (2) immune activation with LPS also alters urine odor but in ways different from those of RV and WNV. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Adults Need Immunizations, Too!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-03-19

    In this podcast, Dr. Andrew Kroger from CDC’s National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases discusses simple, safe, and effective ways adults can help protect themselves, their family, and their community from serious and deadly diseases.  Created: 3/19/2012 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 3/19/2012.

  9. Immune dysfunction in cirrhosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipeki, Nora; Antal-Szalmas, Peter; Lakatos, Peter L; Papp, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Innate and adaptive immune dysfunction, also referred to as cirrhosis-associated immune dysfunction syndrome, is a major component of cirrhosis, and plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of both the acute and chronic worsening of liver function. During the evolution of the disease, acute decompensation events associated with organ failure(s), so-called acute-on chronic liver failure, and chronic decompensation with progression of liver fibrosis and also development of disease specific complications, comprise distinct clinical entities with different immunopathology mechanisms. Enhanced bacterial translocation associated with systemic endotoxemia and increased occurrence of systemic bacterial infections have substantial impacts on both clinical situations. Acute and chronic exposure to bacteria and/or their products, however, can result in variable clinical consequences. The immune status of patients is not constant during the illness; consequently, alterations of the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory processes result in very different dynamic courses. In this review we give a detailed overview of acquired immune dysfunction and its consequences for cirrhosis. We demonstrate the substantial influence of inherited innate immune dysfunction on acute and chronic inflammatory processes in cirrhosis caused by the pre-existing acquired immune dysfunction with limited compensatory mechanisms. Moreover, we highlight the current facts and future perspectives of how the assessment of immune dysfunction can assist clinicians in everyday practical decision-making when establishing treatment and care strategies for the patients with end-stage liver disease. Early and efficient recognition of inappropriate performance of the immune system is essential for overcoming complications, delaying progression and reducing mortality. PMID:24627592

  10. Immunity to Fish Rhabdoviruses

    OpenAIRE

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Laing, Kerry J.; Winton, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Members of the family Rhabdoviridae are single-stranded RNA viruses and globally important pathogens of wild and cultured fish and thus relatively well studied in their respective hosts or other model systems. Here, we review the protective immune mechanisms that fish mount in response to rhabdovirus infections. Teleost fish possess the principal components of innate and adaptive immunity found in other vertebrates. Neutralizing antibodies are critical for long-term protection from fish rhabd...

  11. HMI-Design of System Solutions in Control Rooms. Description of a Working Process from a Human-Machine Perspective; MMI-design av systemloesningar i kontrollrum. Arbetsprocess foer utformning utifraan ett maenniska-maskinperspektiv

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bligaard, Lars-Ola; Andersson, Jonas; Thunberg, Anna; Osvalder, Anna-Lisa

    2008-01-15

    To stay competitive, the process industry of today faces increasing demands of continuous development for efficient use of both technical and human resources. An important step is to create new useful technical solutions, which also bring demands on functionality and usability. Functionality means that the new technology fulfils its purpose, while usability means that the human operator knows how to handle the new technology. If any of these two components are inferior, the potential of new technology will never be fully utilized. Today, a growing amount of advanced information technology is being used in supervisory control, at the same time as the process complexity is increasing. The technology has thereby become more difficult to understand, supervise and control, when processes, connections and logics are not visible in the same way as earlier. An increased level of automation together with reduced work force is also a contributing factor. Due to this, human-machine interaction (HMI) has become a more important aspect of quality in the development of new technology. From the operators' point of view, it is important that the development takes place with an increased transparency of the technical system, as well as reduction of the amount of information that has to be processed by the operator. To achieve a good human-machine interaction, it has to be considered during all phases in the development process of control room design. It is important that relevant hand-books and guidelines are used, but also a working process, which describes how the development work should be performed and the relationship between different parts in the process. The aim of this project was to present a general report in Swedish, which describes a working process for development of useful operator interfaces, work tasks, instructions, and working environments. The report is primarily aimed for the process industry, but can be useful in all other areas including interaction

  12. Immune mediated liver failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojing; Ning, Qin

    2014-01-01

    Liver failure is a clinical syndrome of various etiologies, manifesting as jaundice, encephalopathy, coagulopathy and circulatory dysfunction, which result in subsequent multiorgan failure. Clinically, liver failure is classified into four categories: acute, subacute, acute-on-chronic and chronic liver failure. Massive hepatocyte death is considered to be the core event in the development of liver failure, which occurs when the extent of hepatocyte death is beyond the liver regenerative capacity. Direct damage and immune-mediated liver injury are two major factors involved in this process. Increasing evidence has suggested the essential role of immune-mediated liver injury in the pathogenesis of liver failure. Here, we review the evolved concepts concerning the mechanisms of immune-mediated liver injury in liver failure from human and animal studies. Both innate and adaptive immunity, especially the interaction of various immune cells and molecules as well as death receptor signaling system are discussed. In addition, we highlight the concept of "immune coagulation", which has been shown to be related to the disease progression and liver injury exacerbation in HBV related acute-on-chronic liver failure.

  13. Mammalian Gut Immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassaing, Benoit; Kumar, Manish; Baker, Mark T.; Singh, Vishal; Vijay-Kumar, Matam

    2016-01-01

    The mammalian intestinal tract is the largest immune organ in the body and comprises cells from non-hemopoietic (epithelia, Paneth cells, goblet cells) and hemopoietic (macrophages, dendritic cells, T-cells) origin, and is also a dwelling for trillions of microbes collectively known as the microbiota. The homeostasis of this large microbial biomass is prerequisite to maintain host health by maximizing beneficial symbiotic relationships and minimizing the risks of living in such close proximity. Both microbiota and host immune system communicate with each other to mutually maintain homeostasis in what could be called a “love–hate relationship.” Further, the host innate and adaptive immune arms of the immune system cooperate and compensate each other to maintain the equilibrium of a highly complex gut ecosystem in a stable and stringent fashion. Any imbalance due to innate or adaptive immune deficiency or aberrant immune response may lead to dysbiosis and low-grade to robust gut inflammation, finally resulting in metabolic diseases. PMID:25163502

  14. U.S. Immunization program adult immunization activities and resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, LaDora O.; Bridges, Carolyn B.; Graitcer, Samuel B.; Lamont, Brock

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Adults are recommended to receive vaccines based on their age, medical conditions, prior vaccinations, occupation and lifestyle. However, adult immunization coverage is low in the United States and lags substantially below Healthy People 2020 goals. To assess activities and resources designated for adult immunization programs by state and local health department immunization programs in the United States, we analyzed 2012 and 2013 data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Program Annual Reports and Progress Assessments (PAPA) survey of CDC-funded immunization programs. Fifty-six of 64 funded US immunization programs' responses were included in the analysis. Eighty-two percent of (n = 46) programs reported having a designated adult immunization coordinator in 2012 and 73% (n = 41) in 2013. Of the 46 coordinators reported in 2012, 30% (n = 14) spent more than 50% of their time on adult immunization activities, and only 24% (n = 10) of the 41 adult coordinators in 2013 spent more than 50% of their time on adult immunization activities. In 2012, 23% (n = 13) of the 56 programs had a separate immunization coalition for adults and 68% (n = 38) included adult issues in their overall immunization program coalition. In 2013, 25% (n = 14) had a separate adult immunization coalition while 57% (n = 32) incorporated adult immunizations into their overall immunization program coalition. The results indicate substantial variation across the US in public health infrastructure to support adult immunizations. Continued assessment of adult immunization resources and activities will be important in improving adult immunization coverage levels though program support. With many programs having limited resources dedicated to improving adult immunization rates in the in US, efforts by the health departments to collaborate with providers and other partners in their jurisdictions to increase awareness, increase the use of proven strategies to improve

  15. Filoviral Immune Evasion Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher F. Basler

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Filoviridae family of viruses, which includes the genera Ebolavirus (EBOV and Marburgvirus (MARV, causes severe and often times lethal hemorrhagic fever in humans. Filoviral infections are associated with ineffective innate antiviral responses as a result of virally encoded immune antagonists, which render the host incapable of mounting effective innate or adaptive immune responses. The Type I interferon (IFN response is critical for establishing an antiviral state in the host cell and subsequent activation of the adaptive immune responses. Several filoviral encoded components target Type I IFN responses, and this innate immune suppression is important for viral replication and pathogenesis. For example, EBOV VP35 inhibits the phosphorylation of IRF-3/7 by the TBK-1/IKKε kinases in addition to sequestering viral RNA from detection by RIG-I like receptors. MARV VP40 inhibits STAT1/2 phosphorylation by inhibiting the JAK family kinases. EBOV VP24 inhibits nuclear translocation of activated STAT1 by karyopherin-α. The examples also represent distinct mechanisms utilized by filoviral proteins in order to counter immune responses, which results in limited IFN-α/β production and downstream signaling.

  16. Immune memory in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milutinović, Barbara; Kurtz, Joachim

    2016-08-01

    Evidence for innate immune memory (or 'priming') in invertebrates has been accumulating over the last years. We here provide an in-depth review of the current state of evidence for immune memory in invertebrates, and in particular take a phylogenetic viewpoint. Invertebrates are a very heterogeneous group of animals and accordingly, evidence for the phenomenon of immune memory as well as the hypothesized molecular underpinnings differ largely for the diverse invertebrate taxa. The majority of research currently focuses on Arthropods, while evidence from many other groups of invertebrates is fragmentary or even lacking. We here concentrate on immune memory that is induced by pathogenic challenges, but also extent our view to a non-pathogenic context, i.e. allograft rejection, which can also show forms of memory and can inform us about general principles of specific self-nonself recognition. We discuss definitions of immune memory and a number of relevant aspects such as the type of antigens used, the route of exposure, and the kinetics of reactions following priming. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Immunity to fish rhabdoviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Laing, Kerry J.; Winton, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Members of the family Rhabdoviridae are single-stranded RNA viruses and globally important pathogens of wild and cultured fish and thus relatively well studied in their respective hosts or other model systems. Here, we review the protective immune mechanisms that fish mount in response to rhabdovirus infections. Teleost fish possess the principal components of innate and adaptive immunity found in other vertebrates. Neutralizing antibodies are critical for long-term protection from fish rhabdoviruses, but several studies also indicate a role for cell-mediated immunity. Survival of acute rhabdoviral infection is also dependent on innate immunity, particularly the interferon (IFN) system that is rapidly induced in response to infection. Paradoxically, rhabdoviruses are sensitive to the effects of IFN but virulent rhabdoviruses can continue to replicate owing to the abilities of the matrix (M) protein to mediate host-cell shutoff and the non-virion (NV) protein to subvert programmed cell death and suppress functional IFN. While many basic features of the fish immune response to rhabdovirus infections are becoming better understood, much less is known about how factors in the environment affect the ecology of rhabdovirus infections in natural populations of aquatic animals.

  18. Immunity to fish rhabdoviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Maureen K; Laing, Kerry J; Winton, James R

    2012-01-01

    Members of the family Rhabdoviridae are single-stranded RNA viruses and globally important pathogens of wild and cultured fish and thus relatively well studied in their respective hosts or other model systems. Here, we review the protective immune mechanisms that fish mount in response to rhabdovirus infections. Teleost fish possess the principal components of innate and adaptive immunity found in other vertebrates. Neutralizing antibodies are critical for long-term protection from fish rhabdoviruses, but several studies also indicate a role for cell-mediated immunity. Survival of acute rhabdoviral infection is also dependent on innate immunity, particularly the interferon (IFN) system that is rapidly induced in response to infection. Paradoxically, rhabdoviruses are sensitive to the effects of IFN but virulent rhabdoviruses can continue to replicate owing to the abilities of the matrix (M) protein to mediate host-cell shutoff and the non‑virion (NV) protein to subvert programmed cell death and suppress functional IFN. While many basic features of the fish immune response to rhabdovirus infections are becoming better understood, much less is known about how factors in the environment affect the ecology of rhabdovirus infections in natural populations of aquatic animals.

  19. Immunity to Fish Rhabdoviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen K. Purcell

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Members of the family Rhabdoviridae are single-stranded RNA viruses and globally important pathogens of wild and cultured fish and thus relatively well studied in their respective hosts or other model systems. Here, we review the protective immune mechanisms that fish mount in response to rhabdovirus infections. Teleost fish possess the principal components of innate and adaptive immunity found in other vertebrates. Neutralizing antibodies are critical for long-term protection from fish rhabdoviruses, but several studies also indicate a role for cell-mediated immunity. Survival of acute rhabdoviral infection is also dependent on innate immunity, particularly the interferon (IFN system that is rapidly induced in response to infection. Paradoxically, rhabdoviruses are sensitive to the effects of IFN but virulent rhabdoviruses can continue to replicate owing to the abilities of the matrix (M protein to mediate host-cell shutoff and the non‑virion (NV protein to subvert programmed cell death and suppress functional IFN. While many basic features of the fish immune response to rhabdovirus infections are becoming better understood, much less is known about how factors in the environment affect the ecology of rhabdovirus infections in natural populations of aquatic animals.

  20. Quercetin, Inflammation and Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In vitro and some animal models have shown that quercetin, a polyphenol derived from plants, has a wide range of biological actions including anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and antiviral activities; as well as attenuating lipid peroxidation, platelet aggregation and capillary permeability. This review focuses on the physicochemical properties, dietary sources, absorption, bioavailability and metabolism of quercetin, especially main effects of quercetin on inflammation and immune function. According to the results obtained both in vitro and in vivo, good perspectives have been opened for quercetin. Nevertheless, further studies are needed to better characterize the mechanisms of action underlying the beneficial effects of quercetin on inflammation and immunity.

  1. Pentraxins and immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Nagar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pentraxin-3 (PTX3 is a multifactorial protein involved in immunity and inflammation, which is rapidly produced and released by several cell types in response to inflammatory signals. It may be suggested that PTX3 is related to periodontal tissue inflammation. Its salivary concentrations may have a diagnostic potential. Pentraxin-3 (PTX3 is an ancient family of multifactorial proteins involved in immunity and inflammation. They are rapidly produced and released by various types of cells when there are indications of inflammation. PTX3 is related to inflammation in the periodontal tissue and it can be suggested that salivary concentrations may be used for diagnosing the same.

  2. Mucosal immunity to poliovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogra, Pearay L; Okayasu, Hiromasa; Czerkinsky, Cecil; Sutter, Roland W

    2011-10-01

    The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) currently based on use of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) has identified suboptimal immunogenicity of this vaccine as a major impediment to eradication, with a failure to induce protection against paralytic poliomyelitis in certain population segments in some parts of the world. The Mucosal Immunity and Poliovirus Vaccines: Impact on Wild Poliovirus Infection, Transmission and Vaccine Failure conference was organized to obtain a better understanding of the current status of global control of poliomyelitis and identify approaches to improve the immune responsiveness and effectiveness of the orally administered poliovirus vaccines in order to accelerate the global eradication of paralytic poliomyelitis.

  3. Training and natural immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bente Klarlund; Helge, Jørn Wulff; Richter, Erik

    2000-01-01

    these subjects were used to eliminate day-to-day variation in the immunological tests. Independently of diet, training increased the percentage of CD3-CD16+ CD56+ natural killer (NK) cells from [mean (SEM)] 14 (1) % to 20 (3) % (P = 0.05), whereas the NK-cell activity, either unstimulated or stimulated...... influence natural immunity, and suggest that ingestion of a fat-rich diet during training is detrimental to the immune system compared to the effect of a carbohydrate-rich diet....

  4. Vaccines and Immunization Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogue, Michael D; Meador, Anna E

    2016-03-01

    Vaccines are among most cost-effective public health strategies. Despite effective vaccines for many bacterial and viral illnesses, tens of thousands of adults and hundreds of children die each year in the United States from vaccine-preventable diseases. Underutilization of vaccines requires rethinking the approach to incorporating vaccines into practice. Arguably, immunizations could be a part all health care encounters. Shared responsibility is paramount if deaths are to be reduced. This article reviews the available vaccines in the US market, as well as practice recommendations of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Immune System and Kidney Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Badri Man

    2017-01-01

    The immune system recognises a transplanted kidney as foreign body and mounts immune response through cellular and humoral mechanisms leading to acute or chronic rejection, which ultimately results in graft loss. Over the last five decades, there have been significant advances in the understanding of the immune responses to transplanted organs in both experimental and clinical transplant settings. Modulation of the immune response by using immunosuppressive agents has led to successful outcomes after kidney transplantation. The paper provides an overview of the general organisation and function of human immune system, immune response to kidney transplantation, and the current practice of immunosuppressive therapy in kidney transplantation in the United Kingdom.

  6. Neuroendocrine-immune interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemenade, van Lidy; Cohen, Nicholas; Chadzinska, Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    It has now become accepted that the immune system and neuroendocrine system form an integrated part of our physiology. Immunological defense mechanisms act in concert with physiological processes like growth and reproduction, energy intake and metabolism, as well as neuronal development. Not only

  7. Amyloid and immune homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying-Hui; Zhang, Yu-Gen

    2018-03-01

    Extracellular amyloid deposition defines a range of amyloidosis and amyloid-related disease. Addition to primary and secondary amyloidosis, amyloid-related disease can be observed in different tissue/organ that sharing the common pathogenesis based on the formation of amyloid deposition. Currently, both Alzheimer's disease and type 2 diabetes can be diagnosed with certainly only based on the autopsy results, by which amyloidosis of the associative tissue/organ is observed. Intriguingly, since it demonstrated that amyloid deposits trigger inflammatory reaction through the activation of cascaded immune response, wherein several lines of evidence implies a protective role of amyloid in preventing autoimmunity. Furthermore, attempts for preventing amyloid formation and/or removing amyloid deposits from the brain have caused meningoencephalitis and consequent deaths among the subjects. Hence, it is important to note that amyloid positively participates in maintaining immune homeostasis and contributes to irreversible inflammatory response. In this review, we will focus on the interactive relationship between amyloid and the immune system, discussing the potential functional roles of amyloid in immune tolerance and homeostasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Lymphoma: Immune Evasion Strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhyay, Ranjan; Hammerich, Linda; Peng, Paul; Brown, Brian; Merad, Miriam; Brody, Joshua D.

    2015-01-01

    While the cellular origin of lymphoma is often characterized by chromosomal translocations and other genetic aberrations, its growth and development into a malignant neoplasm is highly dependent upon its ability to escape natural host defenses. Neoplastic cells interact with a variety of non-malignant cells in the tumor milieu to create an immunosuppressive microenvironment. The resulting functional impairment and dysregulation of tumor-associated immune cells not only allows for passive growth of the malignancy but may even provide active growth signals upon which the tumor subsequently becomes dependent. In the past decade, the success of immune checkpoint blockade and adoptive cell transfer for relapsed or refractory lymphomas has validated immunotherapy as a possible treatment cornerstone. Here, we review the mechanisms by which lymphomas have been found to evade and even reprogram the immune system, including alterations in surface molecules, recruitment of immunosuppressive subpopulations, and secretion of anti-inflammatory factors. A fundamental understanding of the immune evasion strategies utilized by lymphomas may lead to better prognostic markers and guide the development of targeted interventions that are both safer and more effective than current standards of care

  9. Lymphoma: Immune Evasion Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhyay, Ranjan; Hammerich, Linda; Peng, Paul [Division of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Brown, Brian [Department of Genetics and Genomic Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Merad, Miriam [Department of Oncological Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Brody, Joshua D., E-mail: joshua.brody@mssm.edu [Division of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029 (United States)

    2015-04-30

    While the cellular origin of lymphoma is often characterized by chromosomal translocations and other genetic aberrations, its growth and development into a malignant neoplasm is highly dependent upon its ability to escape natural host defenses. Neoplastic cells interact with a variety of non-malignant cells in the tumor milieu to create an immunosuppressive microenvironment. The resulting functional impairment and dysregulation of tumor-associated immune cells not only allows for passive growth of the malignancy but may even provide active growth signals upon which the tumor subsequently becomes dependent. In the past decade, the success of immune checkpoint blockade and adoptive cell transfer for relapsed or refractory lymphomas has validated immunotherapy as a possible treatment cornerstone. Here, we review the mechanisms by which lymphomas have been found to evade and even reprogram the immune system, including alterations in surface molecules, recruitment of immunosuppressive subpopulations, and secretion of anti-inflammatory factors. A fundamental understanding of the immune evasion strategies utilized by lymphomas may lead to better prognostic markers and guide the development of targeted interventions that are both safer and more effective than current standards of care.

  10. Fully immunized child

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mutua, Martin Kavao; Kimani-Murage, Elizabeth; Ngomi, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Background: More efforts have been put in place to increase full immunization coverage rates in the last decade. Little is known about the levels and consequences of delaying or vaccinating children in different schedules. Vaccine effectiveness depends on the timing of its administration, and it ...

  11. Tick Innate Immunity.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopáček, Petr; Hajdušek, Ondřej; Burešová, Veronika; Daffre, S.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 708, - (2010), 137-162 ISSN 0065-2598 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/2136; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : tick * pathogen transmission * innate immunity Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 1.379, year: 2010

  12. Frequently Asked Questions about Immunizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... will be too late for the vaccine to work. The best time to immunize kids is when they're healthy. Can immunizations cause a bad reaction in my child? The most common reactions to vaccines are minor ...

  13. Technique Selectively Represses Immune System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Matters December 3, 2012 Technique Selectively Represses Immune System Myelin (green) encases and protects nerve fibers (brown). A new technique prevents the immune system from attacking myelin in a mouse model of ...

  14. Exploring the human plasma proteome for humoral mediators of remote ischemic preconditioning--a word of caution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Helgeland

    Full Text Available Despite major advances in early revascularization techniques, cardiovascular diseases are still the leading cause of death worldwide, and myocardial infarctions contribute heavily to this. Over the past decades, it has become apparent that reperfusion of blood to a previously ischemic area of the heart causes damage in and of itself, and that this ischemia reperfusion induced injury can be reduced by up to 50% by mechanical manipulation of the blood flow to the heart. The recent discovery of remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC provides a non-invasive approach of inducing this cardioprotection at a distance. Finding its endogenous mediators and their operative mode is an important step toward increasing the ischemic tolerance. The release of humoral factor(s upon RIPC was recently demonstrated and several candidate proteins were published as possible mediators of the cardioprotection. Before clinical applicability, these potential biomarkers and their efficiency must be validated, a task made challenging by the large heterogeneity in reported data and results. Here, in an attempt to reproduce and provide more experimental data on these mediators, we conducted an unbiased in-depth analysis of the human plasma proteome before and after RIPC. From the 68 protein markers reported in the literature, only 28 could be mapped to manually reviewed (Swiss-Prot protein sequences. 23 of them were monitored in our untargeted experiment. However, their significant regulation could not be reproducibly estimated. In fact, among the 394 plasma proteins we accurately quantified, no significant regulation could be confidently and reproducibly assessed. This indicates that it is difficult to both monitor and reproduce published data from experiments exploring for RIPC induced plasma proteomic regulations, and suggests that further work should be directed towards small humoral factors. To simplify this task, we made our proteomic dataset available via ProteomeXchange, where scientists can mine for novel potential targets.

  15. Maternal immunity enhances systemic recall immune responses upon oral immunization of piglets with F4 fimbriae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ut V; Melkebeek, Vesna; Devriendt, Bert; Goetstouwers, Tiphanie; Van Poucke, Mario; Peelman, Luc; Goddeeris, Bruno M; Cox, Eric

    2015-06-23

    F4 enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) cause diarrhoea and mortality in piglets leading to severe economic losses. Oral immunization of piglets with F4 fimbriae induces a protective intestinal immune response evidenced by an F4-specific serum and intestinal IgA response. However, successful oral immunization of pigs with F4 fimbriae in the presence of maternal immunity has not been demonstrated yet. In the present study we aimed to evaluate the effect of maternal immunity on the induction of a systemic immune response upon oral immunization of piglets. Whereas F4-specific IgG and IgA could be induced by oral immunization of pigs without maternal antibodies and by intramuscular immunization of pigs with maternal antibodies, no such response was seen in the orally immunized animals with maternal antibodies. Since maternal antibodies can mask an antibody response, we also looked by ELIspot assays for circulating F4-specific antibody secreting cells (ASCs). Enumerating the F4-specific ASCs within the circulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and the number of F4-specific IgA ASCs within the circulating IgA(+) B-cells revealed an F4-specific immune response in the orally immunized animals with maternal antibodies. Interestingly, results suggest a more robust IgA booster response by oral immunization of pigs with than without maternal antibodies. These results demonstrate that oral immunization of piglets with F4-specific maternal antibodies is feasible and that these maternal antibodies seem to enhance the secondary systemic immune response. Furthermore, our ELIspot assay on enriched IgA(+) B-cells could be used as a screening procedure to optimize mucosal immunization protocols in pigs with maternal immunity.

  16. Vitamin E, immunity, and infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    A normally functioning immune system is critical for the body to fight and eliminate invading pathogens from the environment. On the other hand, the immune system also protects the body from internal risks such as neoplasia growing within and autoimmune responses that attack self. The immune system ...

  17. Immunity to tumour antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Geng; Ali, Selman A; McArdle, Stephanie E B; Mian, Shahid; Ahmad, Murrium; Miles, Amanda; Rees, Robert C

    2005-01-01

    During the last decade, a large number of human tumour antigens have been identified. These antigens are classified as tumour-specific shared antigens, tissue-specific differentiation antigens, overexpressed antigens, tumour antigens resulting from mutations, viral antigens and fusion proteins. Antigens recognised by effectors of immune system are potential targets for antigen-specific cancer immunotherapy. However, most tumour antigens are self-proteins and are generally of low immunogenicity and the immune response elicited towards these tumour antigens is not always effective. Strategies to induce and enhance the tumour antigen-specific response are needed. This review will summarise the approaches to discovery of tumour antigens, the current status of tumour antigens, and their potential application to cancer treatment.

  18. Agency privileges and immunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    Switzerland has become the thirty-fifth Member State to be a party to the Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the International Atomic Energy Agency. Its Resident Representative, Ambassador Alfred Eschler, deposited his Government's instrument of acceptance on 16 September. This is the fourth such instrument to be deposited with the Agency since the beginning of this year, the others being Ecuador on 16 April, Niger on 17 June and Vietnam on 31 July. (author)

  19. Immune disorders in anorexia

    OpenAIRE

    SŁOTWIŃSKA, SYLWIA MAŁGORZATA; SŁOTWIŃSKI, ROBERT

    2017-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa is a disease involving eating disorders. It mainly affects young people, especially teenage women. The disease is often latent and occurs in many sub-clinical and partial forms. Approximately from 0.3% to 1% of the population suffers from anorexia. It has been shown that patients with anorexia develop neurotransmitter-related disorders, leading to uncontrolled changes in the immune and endocrine systems. Interactions between cytokines, neuropeptides, and neurotransmitters pla...

  20. Ebola and Immune System

    OpenAIRE

    KOMENAN, Alexis

    2016-01-01

    Ebola hemorrhagic fever is a formidable disease whose surges always result in a high number of victims in sub-Saharan Africa. There is no official treatment against the virus, which makes the task of containment extremely delicate. However, the existence of survivors to the virus demonstrates curable nature of the disease and suggests the existence of favorable factors of immunity. The author examines these factors and their challenges and perspectives in the cure of the disease.

  1. Immune disorders in anorexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Małgorzata Słotwińska

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Anorexia nervosa is a disease involving eating disorders. It mainly affects young people, especially teenage women. The disease is often latent and occurs in many sub-clinical and partial forms. Approximately from 0.3% to 1% of the population suffers from anorexia. It has been shown that patients with anorexia develop neurotransmitter-related disorders, leading to uncontrolled changes in the immune and endocrine systems. Interactions between cytokines, neuropeptides, and neurotransmitters play an important role in disease development. Significant malnutrition induces disorders and alterations in T-cell populations. The cellular response in patients with anorexia nervosa has been shown to be normal, although opinions on this issue are controversial. Laboratory studies on neutrophils in anorexia patients showed decreased adhesion and reduced bactericidal and cell activities. Despite such unfavourable results, patients with anorexia are resistant to infections, which are very rare in this group. Glutamine improves the performance of the human immune system. The administration of glutamine to anorexia patients, as a supplement to parenteral nutrition, has resulted in significant improvements in immune system parameters. The results of previous studies on the causes and risk factors in the development of anorexia nervosa are still ambiguous. One can hope that the differences and similarities between patients with anorexia nervosa and those with other forms of protein-calorie malnutrition may be helpful in determining the relationship between nutritional status and body defences and susceptibility to infection, and can help to broaden the knowledge about the aetiopathogenesis of anorexia nervosa.

  2. Immune disorders in anorexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słotwińska, Sylwia Małgorzata; Słotwiński, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa is a disease involving eating disorders. It mainly affects young people, especially teenage women. The disease is often latent and occurs in many sub-clinical and partial forms. Approximately from 0.3% to 1% of the population suffers from anorexia. It has been shown that patients with anorexia develop neurotransmitter-related disorders, leading to uncontrolled changes in the immune and endocrine systems. Interactions between cytokines, neuropeptides, and neurotransmitters play an important role in disease development. Significant malnutrition induces disorders and alterations in T-cell populations. The cellular response in patients with anorexia nervosa has been shown to be normal, although opinions on this issue are controversial. Laboratory studies on neutrophils in anorexia patients showed decreased adhesion and reduced bactericidal and cell activities. Despite such unfavourable results, patients with anorexia are resistant to infections, which are very rare in this group. Glutamine improves the performance of the human immune system. The administration of glutamine to anorexia patients, as a supplement to parenteral nutrition, has resulted in significant improvements in immune system parameters. The results of previous studies on the causes and risk factors in the development of anorexia nervosa are still ambiguous. One can hope that the differences and similarities between patients with anorexia nervosa and those with other forms of protein-calorie malnutrition may be helpful in determining the relationship between nutritional status and body defences and susceptibility to infection, and can help to broaden the knowledge about the aetiopathogenesis of anorexia nervosa.

  3. Hyperthermia, immunity and metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopatin, V.F.

    1983-01-01

    The analysis of literature data concerning local hyperthermia effects shows that temperatures over 41-42 deg C (in the whole tumor volume), causing tumor growth inhibition and cell injury, can change antigenic nature of a malignant tissue. The tumor injured by thermal effect is able probably the full length of time of injured tissue resorption to maintain at a sufficiently high level antitumoral immunity and lay obstacles to emergence of metastases or even cause regression of those tumoral foci which have not been exposed to direct effect of the injuring agent. The facts of tumoral foci regression take place also upon radiation effect which is associated as well with participation of immune mechanisms. In.experiments with animals an essential increase of immunogenic character of malignant cells exposed to ionizing radiation effect has been observed. It follows that radiation injury of tumoral tissue as well as thermal one is able to stimulate antitumoral immunity and reduce the probability of emergence of metastases. But in case of radiotherapy immunosuppression effect of ionizing radiation (at the expense of inhibition of proliferation and death of immunocompetent cells) can essentially overlap immunostimulating effect related to the changes in antigenic character of tumoral cells

  4. Linear ubiquitination in immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Yutaka; Taraborrelli, Lucia; Walczak, Henning

    2015-07-01

    Linear ubiquitination is a post-translational protein modification recently discovered to be crucial for innate and adaptive immune signaling. The function of linear ubiquitin chains is regulated at multiple levels: generation, recognition, and removal. These chains are generated by the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC), the only known ubiquitin E3 capable of forming the linear ubiquitin linkage de novo. LUBAC is not only relevant for activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in various signaling pathways, but importantly, it also regulates cell death downstream of immune receptors capable of inducing this response. Recognition of the linear ubiquitin linkage is specifically mediated by certain ubiquitin receptors, which is crucial for translation into the intended signaling outputs. LUBAC deficiency results in attenuated gene activation and increased cell death, causing pathologic conditions in both, mice, and humans. Removal of ubiquitin chains is mediated by deubiquitinases (DUBs). Two of them, OTULIN and CYLD, are constitutively associated with LUBAC. Here, we review the current knowledge on linear ubiquitination in immune signaling pathways and the biochemical mechanisms as to how linear polyubiquitin exerts its functions distinctly from those of other ubiquitin linkage types. © 2015 The Authors. Immunological Reviews Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Adaptation in the innate immune system and heterologous innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Stefan F

    2014-11-01

    The innate immune system recognizes deviation from homeostasis caused by infectious or non-infectious assaults. The threshold for its activation seems to be established by a calibration process that includes sensing of microbial molecular patterns from commensal bacteria and of endogenous signals. It is becoming increasingly clear that adaptive features, a hallmark of the adaptive immune system, can also be identified in the innate immune system. Such adaptations can result in the manifestation of a primed state of immune and tissue cells with a decreased activation threshold. This keeps the system poised to react quickly. Moreover, the fact that the innate immune system recognizes a wide variety of danger signals via pattern recognition receptors that often activate the same signaling pathways allows for heterologous innate immune stimulation. This implies that, for example, the innate immune response to an infection can be modified by co-infections or other innate stimuli. This "design feature" of the innate immune system has many implications for our understanding of individual susceptibility to diseases or responsiveness to therapies and vaccinations. In this article, adaptive features of the innate immune system as well as heterologous innate immunity and their implications are discussed.

  6. Impact of pharmacists providing immunizations on adolescent influenza immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, Steve G

    2016-01-01

    To determine if the Oregon law change in 2011 to allow pharmacists to immunize adolescents 11 to 17 years of age increased influenza immunizations or changed existing immunization venues. With the use of Oregon's ALERT Immunization Information System (IIS), 2 measures of impact were developed. First, the change in adolescent age 11-17 influenza immunizations before (2007-2010) and after (2011-2014) the pharmacy law change was evaluated against a reference cohort (aged 7-10) not affected by the law. Community pharmacies were also compared with other types of influenza immunization sites within one of the study influenza seasons (2013-2014). From 2007 to 2014, adolescent influenza immunizations at community pharmacies increased from 36 to 6372 per year. After the 2011 pharmacy law change, adolescents aged 11 to 17 were more likely to receive an influenza immunization compared with the reference population (odds ratio, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.19-1.22). Analysis of the 2013-2014 influenza season suggests that community pharmacies immunized a different population of adolescents than other providers. The 2011 change in Oregon law allowed pharmacists to increase the total of influenza immunizations given to adolescents. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Pseudoachondroplasia with immune deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kultursay, N.; Taneli, B.; Cavusoglu, A.

    1988-01-01

    A 5-year old boy was admitted to the hospital with failure to thrive since he was 2 years old, with weakness in his legs and a waddling gait. He has normal mental development. His parents are normal phenotypically and are unrelated. In analysing his pedigree only a grandfather is described to have waddling gait. He has a normal craniofacial appearance but a disproportionate body with normal trunk and short extremities with height below the 3rd percentile. The diagnosis of pseudoachondroplasia was made on clinical, radiological and laboratory findings. He also had immune deficiency characterised by low T-lymphocyte populations and a low level of serum immunoglobulin A. (orig.)

  8. FOXP3-specific immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Hald

    2013-01-01

    Forkhead box P3 (FOXP3)-specific cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells are present among human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), especially in cancer patients. Such T lymphocytes are able not only to specifically recognize dendritic cells (DCs) that have been exposed to recombinant FOXP3 and regulat...... and regulatory T cells, but also to kill FOXP3(+) malignant T cells. The natural occurrence of FOXP3-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes among human PBMCs suggests a general role for these cells in the complex network of immune regulation....

  9. Immune Aspects of Female Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Brazdova

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Immune infertility, in terms of reproductive failure, has become a serious health issue involving approximately 1 out of 5 couples at reproductive age. Semen that is defined as a complex fluid containing sperm, cellular vesicles and other cells and components, could sensitize the female genital tract. The immune rejection of male semen in the female reproductive tract is explained as the failure of natural tolerance leading to local and/or systemic immune response. Present active immune mechanism may induce high levels of anti-seminal/sperm antibodies. It has already been proven that iso-immunization is associated with infertility. Comprehensive studies with regards to the identification of antibody-targets and the determination of specific antibody class contribute to the development of effective immuno-therapy and, on the other hand, potential immuno-contraception, and then of course to complex patient diagnosis. This review summarizes the aspects of female immune infertility.

  10. Immune interactions in endometriosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herington, Jennifer L; Bruner-Tran, Kaylon L; Lucas, John A; Osteen, Kevin G

    2011-01-01

    Endometriosis is a common, complex gynecologic disorder characterized by the presence of endometrial glands and stroma at extrauterine (ectopic) sites. In women who develop this disease, alterations in specific biological processes involving both the endocrine and immune systems have been observed, which may explain the survival and growth of displaced endometrial tissue in affected women. In the past decade, a considerable amount of research has implicated a role for alterations in progesterone action at both eutopic and ectopic sites of endometrial growth which may contribute to the excessive inflammation associated with progression of endometriosis; however, it remains unclear whether these anomalies induce the condition or are simply a consequence of the disease process. In this article, we summarize current knowledge of alterations within the immune system of endometriosis patients and discuss how endometrial cells from women with this disease not only have the capacity to escape immunosurveillance, but also use inflammatory mechanisms to promote their growth within the peritoneal cavity. Finally, we discuss evidence that exposure to an environmental endocrine disruptor, such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, can mediate the development of an endometrial phenotype that exhibits both reduced progesterone responsiveness and hypersensitivity to proinflammatory stimuli mimicking the endometriosis phenotype. Future studies in women with endometriosis should consider whether a heightened inflammatory response within the peritoneal microenvironment contributes to the development and persistence of this disease. PMID:21895474

  11. Skin Immunization Obviates Alcohol-Related Immune Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhonda M. Brand

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholics suffer from immune dysfunction that can impede vaccine efficacy. If ethanol (EtOH-induced immune impairment is in part a result of direct exposure of immune cells to EtOH, then reduced levels of exposure could result in less immune dysfunction. As alcohol ingestion results in lower alcohol levels in skin than blood, we hypothesized that the skin immune network may be relatively preserved, enabling skin-targeted immunizations to obviate the immune inhibitory effects of alcohol consumption on conventional vaccines. We employed the two most common chronic EtOH mouse feeding models, the liver-damaging Lieber-DeCarli (LD and liver-sparing Meadows-Cook (MC diets, to examine the roles of EtOH and/or EtOH-induced liver dysfunction on alcohol related immunosuppression. Pair-fed mice were immunized against the model antigen ovalbumin (OVA by DNA immunization or against flu by administering the protein-based influenza vaccine either systemically (IV, IM, directly to liver (hydrodynamic, or cutaneously (biolistic, ID. We measured resulting tissue EtOH levels, liver stress, regulatory T cell (Treg, and myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC populations. We compared immune responsiveness by measuring delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH, antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL, and antibody induction as a function of delivery route and feeding model. We found that, as expected, and independent of the feeding model, EtOH ingestion inhibits DTH, CTL lysis, and antigen-specific total IgG induced by traditional systemic vaccines. On the other hand, skin-targeted vaccines were equally immunogenic in alcohol-exposed and non-exposed subjects, suggesting that cutaneous immunization may result in more efficacious vaccination in alcohol-ingesting subjects.

  12. Immune Evasion, Immunopathology and the Regulation of the Immune System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Faivre

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Costs and benefits of the immune response have attracted considerable attention in the last years among evolutionary biologists. Given the cost of parasitism, natural selection should favor individuals with the most effective immune defenses. Nevertheless, there exists huge variation in the expression of immune effectors among individuals. To explain this apparent paradox, it has been suggested that an over-reactive immune system might be too costly, both in terms of metabolic resources and risks of immune-mediated diseases, setting a limit to the investment into immune defenses. Here, we argue that this view neglects one important aspect of the interaction: the role played by evolving pathogens. We suggest that taking into account the co-evolutionary interactions between the host immune system and the parasitic strategies to overcome the immune response might provide a better picture of the selective pressures that shape the evolution of immune functioning. Integrating parasitic strategies of host exploitation can also contribute to understand the seemingly contradictory results that infection can enhance, but also protect from, autoimmune diseases. In the last decades, the incidence of autoimmune disorders has dramatically increased in wealthy countries of the northern hemisphere with a concomitant decrease of most parasitic infections. Experimental work on model organisms has shown that this pattern may be due to the protective role of certain parasites (i.e., helminths that rely on the immunosuppression of hosts for their persistence. Interestingly, although parasite-induced immunosuppression can protect against autoimmunity, it can obviously favor the spread of other infections. Therefore, we need to think about the evolution of the immune system using a multidimensional trade-off involving immunoprotection, immunopathology and the parasitic strategies to escape the immune response.

  13. Persistent hepatitis virus infection and immune homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    ZHOU Yun

    2014-01-01

    Homeostasis between the host and viruses is naturally maintained. On the one hand, the immune system activates the immune response to kill or eliminate viruses; on the other hand, the immune system controls the immune response to maintain immune homeostasis. The cause of persistent infections with hepatitis viruses such as HBV and HCV is that viral molecules damage the immune system of the host and their variants escape immune clearance. Long-term coexistence of the host and viruses is the pr...

  14. Oral immune therapy: targeting the systemic immune system via the gut immune system for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilan, Yaron

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are associated with an altered systemic immune response leading to inflammation-mediated damage to the gut and other organs. Oral immune therapy is a method of systemic immune modulation via alteration of the gut immune system. It uses the inherit ability of the innate system of the gut to redirect the systemic innate and adaptive immune responses. Oral immune therapy is an attractive clinical approach to treat autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. It can induce immune modulation without immune suppression, has minimal toxicity and is easily administered. Targeting the systemic immune system via the gut immune system can serve as an attractive novel therapeutic method for IBD. This review summarizes the current data and discusses several examples of oral immune therapeutic methods for using the gut immune system to generate signals to reset systemic immunity as a treatment for IBD.

  15. Immunization Information System and Informatics to Promote Immunizations: Perspective From Minnesota Immunization Information Connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscoplat, Miriam Halstead; Rajamani, Sripriya

    2017-01-01

    The vision for management of immunization information is availability of real-time consolidated data and services for all ages, to clinical, public health, and other stakeholders. This is being executed through Immunization Information Systems (IISs), which are population-based and confidential computerized systems present in most US states and territories. Immunization Information Systems offer many functionalities, such as immunization assessment reports, client follow-up, reminder/recall feature, vaccine management tools, state-supplied vaccine ordering, comprehensive immunization history, clinical decision support/vaccine forecasting and recommendations, data processing, and data exchange. This perspective article will present various informatics tools in an IIS, in the context of the Minnesota Immunization Information Connection.

  16. The Major Players in Adaptive Immunity-Cell-mediated Immunity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 6. The Major Players in Adaptive Immunity - Cell-mediated Immunity. Asma Ahmed Banishree Saha Anand Patwardhan Shwetha Shivaprasad Dipankar Nandi. General Article Volume 14 Issue 6 June 2009 pp 610-621 ...

  17. Partial immunity in murine by immunization with a toxoplasmic DNA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    arsenal

    2012-06-12

    Jun 12, 2012 ... vaccine can be effective in partial protection against this parasite. In this study ... that mice immunized by pcROP1 with or without alum produced high Th1 immune response compared .... antigen-specific antibodies, 96-well costar plates were coated .... vaccines against some protozoa, for example, malaria,.

  18. The Immune Response of Maternally Immune Chicks to Vaccination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Immune Response of Maternally Immune Chicks to Vaccination with Newcastle Disease Virus. ... G A El-Tayeb, M Y El-Ttegani, I E Hajer, M A Mohammed ... This study was conducted to determine the persistence of maternally derived antibodies (MDA) to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in newly hatched chicks and the ...

  19. Immune reactivities against gums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojdani, Aristo; Vojdani, Charlene

    2015-01-01

    Different kinds of gums from various sources enjoy an extremely broad range of commercial and industrial use, from food and pharmaceuticals to printing and adhesives. Although generally recognized as safe by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), gums have a history of association with sensitive or allergic reactions. In addition, studies have shown that gums have a structural, molecular similarity to a number of common foods. A possibility exists for cross-reactivity. Due to the widespread use of gums in almost every aspect of modern life, the overall goal of the current investigation was to determine the degree of immune reactivity to various gum antigens in the sera of individuals representing the general population. The study was a randomized, controlled trial. 288 sera purchased from a commercial source. The sera was screened for immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies against extracts of mastic gum, carrageenan, xantham gum, guar gum, gum tragacanth, locust bean gum, and β-glucan, using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) testing. For each gum antigen, inhibition testing was performed on the 4 sera that showed the highest IgG and IgE immune reactivity against the different gums used in the study. Inhibition testing on these same sera for sesame albumin, lentil, corn, rice, pineapple, peanut, pea protein, shrimp, or kidney bean was used to determine the cross-reactivity of these foods with the gum. Of the 288 samples, 4.2%-27% of the specimens showed a significant elevation in IgG antibodies against various gums. Only 4 of 288, or 1.4%, showed a simultaneous elevation of the IgG antibody against all 7 gum extracts. For the IgE antibody, 15.6%-29.1% of the specimens showed an elevation against the various gums. A significant percentage of the specimens, 12.8%, simultaneously produced IgE antibodies against all 7 tested extracts. Overall, the percentage of elevation in IgE antibodies against different gum extracts, with

  20. Sculpting humoral immunity through dengue vaccination to enhance protective immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne eCrill

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Dengue viruses (DENV are the most important mosquito transmitted viral pathogens infecting humans. DENV infection produces a spectrum of disease, most commonly causing a self-limiting flu-like illness known as dengue fever; yet with increased frequency, manifesting as life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF. Waning cross-protective immunity from any of the four dengue serotypes may enhance subsequent infection with another heterologous serotype to increase the probability of DHF. Decades of effort to develop dengue vaccines are reaching the finishing line with multiple candidates in clinical trials. Nevertheless, concerns remain that imbalanced immunity, due to the prolonged prime-boost schedules currently used in clinical trials, could leave some vaccinees temporarily unprotected or with increased susceptibility to enhanced disease. Here we develop a DENV serotype 1 (DENV-1 DNA vaccine with the immunodominant cross-reactive B cell epitopes associated with immune enhancement removed. We compare wild-type (WT with this cross-reactivity reduced (CRR vaccine and demonstrate that both vaccines are equally protective against lethal homologous DENV-1 challenge. Under conditions mimicking natural exposure prior to acquiring protective immunity, WT vaccinated mice enhanced a normally sub-lethal heterologous DENV-2 infection resulting in DHF-like disease and 95% mortality in AG129 mice. However, CRR vaccinated mice exhibited redirected serotype-specific and protective immunity, and significantly reduced morbidity and mortality not differing from naïve mice. Thus, we demonstrate in an in vivo DENV disease model, that non-protective vaccine-induced immunity can prime vaccinees for enhanced DHF-like disease and that CRR DNA immunization significantly reduces this potential vaccine safety concern. The sculpting of immune memory by the modified vaccine and resulting redirection of humoral immunity provide insight into DENV vaccine induced immune

  1. Microscale Immune Studies Laboratory.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poschet, Jens Fredrich; Carroll-Portillo, Amanda; Wu, Meiye; Manginell, Ronald Paul; Herr, Amy Elizabeth; Martino, Anthony A.; Perroud, Thomas D.; Branda, Catherine; Srivastava, Nimisha; Sinclair, Michael B.; Moorman, Matthew Wallace; Apblett, Christopher Alan; Sale, Kenneth L.; James, Conrad D.; Carles, Elizabeth L.; Lidke, Diane S. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Van Benthem, Mark Hilary; Rebeil, Roberto; Kaiser, Julie; Seaman, William (University of California, San Francisco, CA); Rempe, Susan; Brozik, Susan Marie; Jones, Howland D. T.; Gemperline, Paul (East Carolina University, Greenville, NC); Throckmorton, Daniel J.; Misra, Milind; Murton, Jaclyn K.; Carson, Bryan D.; Zhang, Zhaoduo; Plimpton, Steven James; Renzi, Ronald F.; Lane, Todd W.; Ndiaye-Dulac, Elsa; Singh, Anup K.; Haaland, David Michael; Faulon, Jean-Loup Michel; Davis, Ryan W.; Ricken, James Bryce; Branda, Steven S.; Patel, Kamlesh D.; Joo, Jaewook; Kubiak, Glenn D.; Brennan, James S.; Martin, Shawn Bryan; Brasier, Allan (University of Texas Mecial Branch, Galveston, TX)

    2009-01-01

    The overarching goal is to develop novel technologies to elucidate molecular mechanisms of the innate immune response in host cells to pathogens such as bacteria and viruses including the mechanisms used by pathogens to subvert/suppress/obfuscate the immune response to cause their harmful effects. Innate immunity is our first line of defense against a pathogenic bacteria or virus. A comprehensive 'system-level' understanding of innate immunity pathways such as toll-like receptor (TLR) pathways is the key to deciphering mechanisms of pathogenesis and can lead to improvements in early diagnosis or developing improved therapeutics. Current methods for studying signaling focus on measurements of a limited number of components in a pathway and hence, fail to provide a systems-level understanding. We have developed a systems biology approach to decipher TLR4 pathways in macrophage cell lines in response to exposure to pathogenic bacteria and their lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Our approach integrates biological reagents, a microfluidic cell handling and analysis platform, high-resolution imaging and computational modeling to provide spatially- and temporally-resolved measurement of TLR-network components. The Integrated microfluidic platform is capable of imaging single cells to obtain dynamic translocation data as well as high-throughput acquisition of quantitative protein expression and phosphorylation information of selected cell populations. The platform consists of multiple modules such as single-cell array, cell sorter, and phosphoflow chip to provide confocal imaging, cell sorting, flow cytomtery and phosphorylation assays. The single-cell array module contains fluidic constrictions designed to trap and hold single host cells. Up to 100 single cells can be trapped and monitored for hours, enabling detailed statistically-significant measurements. The module was used to analyze translocation behavior of transcription factor NF-kB in macrophages upon activation

  2. Modeling rejection immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Andrea De

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transplantation is often the only way to treat a number of diseases leading to organ failure. To overcome rejection towards the transplanted organ (graft, immunosuppression therapies are used, which have considerable side-effects and expose patients to opportunistic infections. The development of a model to complement the physician’s experience in specifying therapeutic regimens is therefore desirable. The present work proposes an Ordinary Differential Equations model accounting for immune cell proliferation in response to the sudden entry of graft antigens, through different activation mechanisms. The model considers the effect of a single immunosuppressive medication (e.g. cyclosporine, subject to first-order linear kinetics and acting by modifying, in a saturable concentration-dependent fashion, the proliferation coefficient. The latter has been determined experimentally. All other model parameter values have been set so as to reproduce reported state variable time-courses, and to maintain consistency with one another and with the experimentally derived proliferation coefficient. Results The proposed model substantially simplifies the chain of events potentially leading to organ rejection. It is however able to simulate quantitatively the time course of graft-related antigen and competent immunoreactive cell populations, showing the long-term alternative outcomes of rejection, tolerance or tolerance at a reduced functional tissue mass. In particular, the model shows that it may be difficult to attain tolerance at full tissue mass with acceptably low doses of a single immunosuppressant, in accord with clinical experience. Conclusions The introduced model is mathematically consistent with known physiology and can reproduce variations in immune status and allograft survival after transplantation. The model can be adapted to represent different therapeutic schemes and may offer useful indications for the optimization of

  3. Cholinergic signalling in gut immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhawan, Shobhit; Cailotto, Cathy; Harthoorn, Lucien F.; de Jonge, Wouter J.

    2012-01-01

    The gut immune system shares many signalling molecules and receptors with the autonomic nervous system. A good example is the vagal neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh), for which many immune cell types express cholinergic receptors (AChR). In the last decade the vagal nerve has emerged as an

  4. Alcohol, aging, and innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boule, Lisbeth A; Kovacs, Elizabeth J

    2017-07-01

    The global population is aging: in 2010, 8% of the population was older than 65 y, and that is expected to double to 16% by 2050. With advanced age comes a heightened prevalence of chronic diseases. Moreover, elderly humans fair worse after acute diseases, namely infection, leading to higher rates of infection-mediated mortality. Advanced age alters many aspects of both the innate and adaptive immune systems, leading to impaired responses to primary infection and poor development of immunologic memory. An often overlooked, yet increasingly common, behavior in older individuals is alcohol consumption. In fact, it has been estimated that >40% of older adults consume alcohol, and evidence reveals that >10% of this group is drinking more than the recommended limit by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol consumption, at any level, alters host immune responses, including changes in the number, phenotype, and function of innate and adaptive immune cells. Thus, understanding the effect of alcohol ingestion on the immune system of older individuals, who are already less capable of combating infection, merits further study. However, there is currently almost nothing known about how drinking alters innate immunity in older subjects, despite innate immune cells being critical for host defense, resolution of inflammation, and maintenance of immune homeostasis. Here, we review the effects of aging and alcohol consumption on innate immune cells independently and highlight the few studies that have examined the effects of alcohol ingestion in aged individuals. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  5. VACCINES AND IMMUNIZATION: WORLD SITUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.H. Brundtland

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The last issue of the report «vaccines and immunization: world situation» stresses considerable success in immunization at the global level since the mid 90 s — completely total eradication of poliomyelitis across the world, as well as the drastic reduction of the new measles and tetanus cases among mothers and newborns in some poor countries. The report also briefly describes the progress in the development and implementation of the new life saving vaccines, which may save millions of lives annually. The authors have explained some of the reasons, why the global community should invest in immunization, as well as the perspectives for the use of vaccines and immunization in future.Key words: vaccine, immunization, children.

  6. Immune Mechanisms in Myelodysplastic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Glenthøj

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS is a spectrum of diseases, characterized by debilitating cytopenias and a propensity of developing acute myeloid leukemia. Comprehensive sequencing efforts have revealed a range of mutations characteristic, but not specific, of MDS. Epidemiologically, autoimmune diseases are common in patients with MDS, fueling hypotheses of common etiological mechanisms. Both innate and adaptive immune pathways are overly active in the hematopoietic niche of MDS. Although supportive care, growth factors, and hypomethylating agents are the mainstay of MDS treatment, some patients—especially younger low-risk patients with HLA-DR15 tissue type—demonstrate impressive response rates after immunosuppressive therapy. This is in contrast to higher-risk MDS patients, where several immune activating treatments, such as immune checkpoint inhibitors, are in the pipeline. Thus, the dual role of immune mechanisms in MDS is challenging, and rigorous translational studies are needed to establish the value of immune manipulation as a treatment of MDS.

  7. [Stress and auto-immunity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delévaux, I; Chamoux, A; Aumaître, O

    2013-08-01

    The etiology of auto-immune disorders is multifactorial. Stress is probably a participating factor. Indeed, a high proportion of patients with auto-immune diseases report uncommon stress before disease onset or disease flare. The biological consequences of stress are increasingly well understood. Glucocorticoids and catecholamines released by hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis during stress will alter the balance Th1/Th2 and the balance Th17/Treg. Stress impairs cellular immunity, decreases immune tolerance and stimulates humoral immunity exposing individuals to autoimmune disease among others. The treatment for autoimmune disease should include stress management. Copyright © 2012 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Immune Mechanisms in Myelodysplastic Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glenthøj, Andreas; Ørskov, Andreas Due; Hansen, Jakob Werner

    2016-01-01

    diseases are common in patients with MDS, fueling hypotheses of common etiological mechanisms. Both innate and adaptive immune pathways are overly active in the hematopoietic niche of MDS. Although supportive care, growth factors, and hypomethylating agents are the mainstay of MDS treatment, some patients......-especially younger low-risk patients with HLA-DR15 tissue type-demonstrate impressive response rates after immunosuppressive therapy. This is in contrast to higher-risk MDS patients, where several immune activating treatments, such as immune checkpoint inhibitors, are in the pipeline. Thus, the dual role of immune...... mechanisms in MDS is challenging, and rigorous translational studies are needed to establish the value of immune manipulation as a treatment of MDS....

  9. Melatonin: Buffering the Immune System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M. Guerrero

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin modulates a wide range of physiological functions with pleiotropic effects on the immune system. Despite the large number of reports implicating melatonin as an immunomodulatory compound, it still remains unclear how melatonin regulates immunity. While some authors argue that melatonin is an immunostimulant, many studies have also described anti-inflammatory properties. The data reviewed in this paper support the idea of melatonin as an immune buffer, acting as a stimulant under basal or immunosuppressive conditions or as an anti-inflammatory compound in the presence of exacerbated immune responses, such as acute inflammation. The clinical relevance of the multiple functions of melatonin under different immune conditions, such as infection, autoimmunity, vaccination and immunosenescence, is also reviewed.

  10. Melatonin: Buffering the Immune System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Vico, Antonio; Lardone, Patricia J.; Álvarez-Sánchez, Nuria; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Ana; Guerrero, Juan M.

    2013-01-01

    Melatonin modulates a wide range of physiological functions with pleiotropic effects on the immune system. Despite the large number of reports implicating melatonin as an immunomodulatory compound, it still remains unclear how melatonin regulates immunity. While some authors argue that melatonin is an immunostimulant, many studies have also described anti-inflammatory properties. The data reviewed in this paper support the idea of melatonin as an immune buffer, acting as a stimulant under basal or immunosuppressive conditions or as an anti-inflammatory compound in the presence of exacerbated immune responses, such as acute inflammation. The clinical relevance of the multiple functions of melatonin under different immune conditions, such as infection, autoimmunity, vaccination and immunosenescence, is also reviewed. PMID:23609496

  11. Candidate immune biomarkers for radioimmunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Antonin; Nigro, Giulia; Sansonetti, Philippe J; Deutsch, Eric

    2017-08-01

    Newly available immune checkpoint blockers (ICBs), capable to revert tumor immune tolerance, are revolutionizing the anticancer armamentarium. Recent evidence also established that ionizing radiation (IR) could produce antitumor immune responses, and may as well synergize with ICBs. Multiple radioimmunotherapy combinations are thenceforth currently assessed in early clinical trials. Past examples have highlighted the need for treatment personalization, and there is an unmet need to decipher immunological biomarkers that could allow selecting patients who could benefit from these promising but expensive associations. Recent studies have identified potential predictive and prognostic immune assays at the cellular (tumor microenvironment composition), genomic (mutational/neoantigen load), and peripheral blood levels. Within this review, we collected the available evidence regarding potential personalized immune biomarker-directed radiation therapy strategies that might be used for patient selection in the era of radioimmunotherapy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Student pharmacists' perceptions of immunizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubli, Kara; McBane, Sarah; Hirsch, Jan D; Lorentz, Sarah

    2017-05-01

    The primary aim of this study was to explore changes in knowledge level, perceived importance and apprehension of immunizations by first year pharmacy students pre- vs. post-immunization education and training. First year pharmacy students at the University of California San Diego Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences (UC San Diego SSPPS) completed a pre- and post-immunization training course questionnaire. Knowledge base and perceived importance level of immunizations including hepatitis B, influenza, measles, mumps, rubella (MMR), varicella, tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis (Tdap), meningococcal and human papilloma virus (HPV) were assessed. In addition, apprehension of needle administration and fears regarding safety and efficacy were evaluated. Of 120 students, 85 (71%) completed pre- and post-course questionnaires for this study. Mean knowledge test scores increased from 56% pre-course to 83% post-course. Pre-course, 73% of participants considered immunizations as very important in preventing future disease outbreaks. Post-course, this percentage climbed to 94%. Prior to taking the course, 52% of students were apprehensive about administering injections; however, after completing the course this percentage declined to 33%. The majority of students who had been fearful prior to the course retained their fears of receiving needle injections. The proportion of students believing immunizations should be a personal choice, not mandatory, did not significantly change from pre-course (49%) to post-course (44%). The UC San Diego SSPPS immunization course increased student knowledge of immunization facts and the perceived importance of immunizations. However, a substantial portion of students retained apprehension about administering and receiving needle injections and the proportion believing immunizations should be a personal choice, almost half, did not change appreciably. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Immune oncology, immune responsiveness and the theory of everything.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Tolga; Kannan, Deepti; Patel, Maulik; Matthew Barnes, J; Tanlimco, Sonia G; Lu, Rongze; Halliwill, Kyle; Kongpachith, Sarah; Kline, Douglas E; Hendrickx, Wouter; Cesano, Alessandra; Butterfield, Lisa H; Kaufman, Howard L; Hudson, Thomas J; Bedognetti, Davide; Marincola, Francesco; Samayoa, Josue

    2018-06-05

    Anti-cancer immunotherapy is encountering its own checkpoint. Responses are dramatic and long lasting but occur in a subset of tumors and are largely dependent upon the pre-existing immune contexture of individual cancers. Available data suggest that three landscapes best define the cancer microenvironment: immune-active, immune-deserted and immune-excluded. This trichotomy is observable across most solid tumors (although the frequency of each landscape varies depending on tumor tissue of origin) and is associated with cancer prognosis and response to checkpoint inhibitor therapy (CIT). Various gene signatures (e.g. Immunological Constant of Rejection - ICR and Tumor Inflammation Signature - TIS) that delineate these landscapes have been described by different groups. In an effort to explain the mechanisms of cancer immune responsiveness or resistance to CIT, several models have been proposed that are loosely associated with the three landscapes. Here, we propose a strategy to integrate compelling data from various paradigms into a "Theory of Everything". Founded upon this unified theory, we also propose the creation of a task force led by the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC) aimed at systematically addressing salient questions relevant to cancer immune responsiveness and immune evasion. This multidisciplinary effort will encompass aspects of genetics, tumor cell biology, and immunology that are pertinent to the understanding of this multifaceted problem.

  14. Immunization Schedules for Infants and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ACIP Vaccination Recommendations Why Immunize? Vaccines: The Basics Immunization Schedule for Infants and Children (Birth through 6 ... any questions please talk to your doctor. 2018 Immunization Schedule Recommended Vaccinations for Infants and Children Schedule ...

  15. Immunizations and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Immunizations Immunizations and Asians and Pacific Islanders Asian/Pacific Islander ... 35 months reached the Healthy People goal for immunizations for hepatitis B, MMR (measles-mumps-rubella), polio ...

  16. Play the Immune System Defender Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Questionnaire The Immune System Play the Immune System Game About the game Granulocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells are immune cells ... last will in Paris. Play the Blood Typing Game Try to save some patients and learn about ...

  17. HMI-networks I and II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, D.

    1980-05-01

    Two computer networks are considered within this paper: HMINETI, operating since 1976 and HMINET II, being under development since 1979. The first one will be fully replaced by the second one at the end of 1981. This paper describes the reasons and underlying difficulties of such a step. Additionally, structural dissimilarities between the higher-level protocols of local and open networks are described. Some analytical techniques for forecasting performance values and costs are denoted thereby. (orig.) [de

  18. WFF - Darstellung Fahrzeuge im Apron-HMI

    OpenAIRE

    Loth, Steffen

    2010-01-01

    Während der Laufzeit des WFF-Projektes wurde das operationelle A-SMGCS am Flughafen Hamburg realisiert. Dazu gehört neben den verschiedenen Systemkomponenten auch das Verkehrslagedisplay, das für Tower und Apron verwendet wird. Das System wurde gegen Ende des WFF-Projektes fertig gestellt. Wesentliches Element für die Arbeit eines Lotsen mit Unterstützung eines A-SMGCS ist dabei das Verkehrslagedisplay, dem eine topografische Darstellung des Flughafens zu Grunde liegt. Dazu kommt die Darst...

  19. Reports of the HMI 1978-1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-08-01

    The publication shows the research reports of the institute in the years 1978-1980. The following fields have been referred: 1) nuclear chemistry and reactor, 2) data processing and electronics, 3) nuclear and radiation physics, 4) radiation chemistry, 5) radiation protection. (PW) [de

  20. Dynamics of immune system vulnerabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromberg, Sean P.

    The adaptive immune system can be viewed as a complex system, which adapts, over time, to reflect the history of infections experienced by the organism. Understanding its operation requires viewing it in terms of tradeoffs under constraints and evolutionary history. It typically displays "robust, yet fragile" behavior, meaning common tasks are robust to small changes but novel threats or changes in environment can have dire consequences. In this dissertation we use mechanistic models to study several biological processes: the immune response, the homeostasis of cells in the lymphatic system, and the process that normally prevents autoreactive cells from entering the lymphatic system. Using these models we then study the effects of these processes interacting. We show that the mechanisms that regulate the numbers of cells in the immune system, in conjunction with the immune response, can act to suppress autoreactive cells from proliferating, thus showing quantitatively how pathogenic infections can suppress autoimmune disease. We also show that over long periods of time this same effect can thin the repertoire of cells that defend against novel threats, leading to an age correlated vulnerability. This vulnerability is shown to be a consequence of system dynamics, not due to degradation of immune system components with age. Finally, modeling a specific tolerance mechanism that normally prevents autoimmune disease, in conjunction with models of the immune response and homeostasis we look at the consequences of the immune system mistakenly incorporating pathogenic molecules into its tolerizing mechanisms. The signature of this dynamic matches closely that of the dengue virus system.

  1. Immune regulation by microbiome metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang H

    2018-03-22

    Commensal microbes and the host immune system have been co-evolved for mutual regulation. Microbes regulate the host immune system, in part, by producing metabolites. A mounting body of evidence indicates that diverse microbial metabolites profoundly regulate the immune system via host receptors and other target molecules. Immune cells express metabolite-specific receptors such as P2X 7 , GPR41, GPR43, GPR109A, aryl hydrocarbon receptor precursor (AhR), pregnane X receptor (PXR), farnesoid X receptor (FXR), TGR5 and other molecular targets. Microbial metabolites and their receptors form an extensive array of signals to respond to changes in nutrition, health and immunological status. As a consequence, microbial metabolite signals contribute to nutrient harvest from diet, and regulate host metabolism and the immune system. Importantly, microbial metabolites bidirectionally function to promote both tolerance and immunity to effectively fight infection without developing inflammatory diseases. In pathogenic conditions, adverse effects of microbial metabolites have been observed as well. Key immune-regulatory functions of the metabolites, generated from carbohydrates, proteins and bile acids, are reviewed in this article. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Pregnancy: an immune challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angelica Ehara Watanabe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Several studies demonstrate the importance of immunological aspects of pregnancy. During pregnancy, the embryo is implanted in the womb, where it will develop until the end of pregnancy. Amongst the immune aspects, the importance of the modulation of T lymphocytes, natural killers (NK cells and many cytokines in maternal organism can be mentioned. The maternal tolerance to the fetus appears to be mediated by specific maternal hormones and by the expression of human leukocyte antigen G (HLA-G - characteristic in pregnancy. Other studies suggest that fetal rejection and complications during pregnancy may occur because of the presence of minor histocompatibility antigens (mHAg, acquired by blood sharing of the mother with the fetus, and because of the presence of maternal antibodies against the sperm and against the fetus. The purpose of this review is to describe the immunological aspects that allow maternal tolerance to the fetus during pregnancy, as well as possible causes for rejection of the embryo and complications during pregnancy.

  3. Immunity's fourth dimension: approaching the circadian-immune connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjona, Alvaro; Silver, Adam C; Walker, Wendy E; Fikrig, Erol

    2012-12-01

    The circadian system ensures the generation and maintenance of self-sustained ~24-h rhythms in physiology that are linked to internal and environmental changes. In mammals, daily variations in light intensity and other cues are integrated by a hypothalamic master clock that conveys circadian information to peripheral molecular clocks that orchestrate physiology. Multiple immune parameters also vary throughout the day and disruption of circadian homeostasis is associated with immune-related disease. Here, we discuss the molecular links between the circadian and immune systems and examine their outputs and disease implications. Understanding the mechanisms that underlie circadian-immune crosstalk may prove valuable for devising novel prophylactic and therapeutic interventions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Leptin as immune mediator: Interaction between neuroendocrine and immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procaccini, Claudio; La Rocca, Claudia; Carbone, Fortunata; De Rosa, Veronica; Galgani, Mario; Matarese, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Leptin is an adipocyte-derived hormone/cytokine that links nutritional status with neuroendocrine and immune functions. Initially described as an anti-obesity hormone, leptin has subsequently been shown to exert pleiotropic effects, being also able to influence haematopoiesis, thermogenesis, reproduction, angiogenesis, and more importantly immune homeostasis. As a cytokine, leptin can affect both innate and adaptive immunity, by inducing a pro-inflammatory response and thus playing a key role in the regulation of the pathogenesis of several autoimmune/inflammatory diseases. In this review, we discuss the most recent advances on the role of leptin as immune-modulator in mammals and we also provide an overview on its main functions in non-mammalian vertebrates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. immune response can measuring immunity to hiv during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-11-01

    Nov 1, 2005 ... inhibitors (PIs), have resulted in significant suppression of viral replication. ... thymus, with the potential for immune reconstitution when ..... HIV-exposed but uninfected Gambian women [published erratum appears in. Nat Med ...

  6. Curating the innate immunity interactome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lynn, David J

    2010-01-01

    The innate immune response is the first line of defence against invading pathogens and is regulated by complex signalling and transcriptional networks. Systems biology approaches promise to shed new light on the regulation of innate immunity through the analysis and modelling of these networks. A key initial step in this process is the contextual cataloguing of the components of this system and the molecular interactions that comprise these networks. InnateDB (http:\\/\\/www.innatedb.com) is a molecular interaction and pathway database developed to facilitate systems-level analyses of innate immunity.

  7. Spirochetal Lipoproteins and Immune Evasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulides, Alexei; Boyadjian, Ani; Kelesidis, Theodoros

    2017-01-01

    Spirochetes are a major threat to public health. However, the exact pathogenesis of spirochetal diseases remains unclear. Spirochetes express lipoproteins that often determine the cross talk between the host and spirochetes. Lipoproteins are pro-inflammatory, modulatory of immune responses, and enable the spirochetes to evade the immune system. In this article, we review the modulatory effects of spirochetal lipoproteins related to immune evasion. Understanding lipoprotein-induced immunomodulation will aid in elucidating innate pathogenesis processes and subsequent adaptive mechanisms potentially relevant to spirochetal disease vaccine development and treatment. PMID:28424696

  8. Immunizations challenge healthcare personnel and affects immunization rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohfus, Pamela K; Kim, Susan C; Palma, Sara; Duke, Russell A; Remington, Richard; Roberts, Caleb

    2017-02-01

    This study measured 1. medical office immunization rates and 2. health care personnel competency in managing vaccine practices before and after evidence-based immunization education was provided. This descriptive study compared 32 family medicine and pediatric offices and 178 medical assistants, licensed practical nurses, registered nurses, nurse practitioners, and physicians in knowledge-based testing pre-education, post-education, and 12-months post-education. Immunization rates were assessed before and 18-months post-education. Immunization rates increased 10.3% - 18months post-education; knowledge increased 7.8% - 12months post-education. Family medicine offices, licensed practical nurses, and medical assistants showed significant knowledge deficits before and 12-months post-education. All demographic groups scored less in storage/handling 12-months post-education. This study is one of the first studies to identify competency challenges in effective immunization delivery among medical assistants, licensed practical nurses, and family medicine offices. Formal and continuous education in immunization administration and storage/handling is recommended among these select groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. 2012 National Immunization Survey Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tweet Share Compartir This website is archived for historical purposes and is no longer being maintained or ... 12, 2013: Content on this page kept for historical reasons. National Immunization Survey (NIS) – Children (19-35 ...

  10. Pregnancy immunology: decidual immune cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanguansermsri, Donruedee; Pongcharoen, Sutatip

    2008-01-01

    Human pregnancy is a complex process. Placental development depends on the function of secretory molecules produced by placental trophoblast cells as well as by maternal uterine immune cells within the decidua. These decidual immune cells are T cells, natural killer cells, macrophages and dendritic cells. The interactions between the trophoblast cells and the maternal immune cells have an impact on the outcome of the pregnancy. Knowledge about the phenotypes and functions of the maternal immune cells in normal and pathological pregnancies including recurrent spontaneous abortions, preeclampsia and hydatidiform moles may improve our understanding of the immunobiology of the normal pregnancy as a whole and may provide approaches for improving the treatment of pathological pregnancies.

  11. Pauci-immune necrotizing glomerulonephritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutgers, Abraham; Sanders, Jan S F; Stegeman, Coen A; Kallenberg, Cees G M

    Pauci-immune necrotizing glomerulonephritis is the most frequent cause of rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis and, in most cases, is associated with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA). It is either the renal manifestation of Wegener's granulomatosis, microscopic polyangiitis of

  12. Arkansas community pharmacists' opinions on providing immunizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Anne C; Flowers, Schwanda K; Hastings, Jan K

    2010-10-01

    To determine community pharmacists' attitudes and knowledge on providing immunizations including perceived barriers to immunizing. The study also examined the percentage of Arkansas pharmacists providing immunizations and the utilization of student pharmacists. Survey. Arkansas community pharmacies from February to March 2009. Community pharmacists. Mailed survey. Perceived barriers to providing immunizations, pharmacists' attitudes regarding immunizations, number of immunization-certified pharmacists, immunization administration rates within the last year, and senior student pharmacists utilization. A total of 350 surveys were mailed, and 129 were returned. In all, 79% of the respondents believed administering immunizations has advanced or significantly advanced the profession. Being certified and attitude toward providing immunizations were correlated; 37% of the respondents held certification to immunize, of which 77% reported immunizing within the last year. Commonly reported barriers included time (76%) followed by reimbursement and legal liability. Only half the respondents realized fourth year student pharmacists could immunize and only 33% of certified pharmacists utilized student pharmacists to immunize. Pharmacists perceive many barriers to providing immunizations. Training student pharmacists to give immunizations may not result in them providing immunizations upon graduation. Additional education on overcoming potential barriers and using senior student pharmacists to administer immunizations is needed.

  13. Innate Immunity and Breast Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacho, Nicole Theresa; Lawrence, Robert M

    2017-01-01

    Human milk is a dynamic source of nutrients and bioactive factors; unique in providing for the human infant's optimal growth and development. The growing infant's immune system has a number of developmental immune deficiencies placing the infant at increased risk of infection. This review focuses on how human milk directly contributes to the infant's innate immunity. Remarkable new findings clarify the multifunctional nature of human milk bioactive components. New research techniques have expanded our understanding of the potential for human milk's effect on the infant that will never be possible with milk formulas. Human milk microbiome directly shapes the infant's intestinal microbiome, while the human milk oligosaccharides drive the growth of these microbes within the gut. New techniques such as genomics, metabolomics, proteomics, and glycomics are being used to describe this symbiotic relationship. An expanded role for antimicrobial proteins/peptides within human milk in innate immune protection is described. The unique milieu of enhanced immune protection with diminished inflammation results from a complex interaction of anti-inflammatory and antioxidative factors provided by human milk to the intestine. New data support the concept of mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue and its contribution to the cellular content of human milk. Human milk stem cells (hMSCs) have recently been discovered. Their direct role in the infant for repair and regeneration is being investigated. The existence of these hMSCs could prove to be an easily harvested source of multilineage stem cells for the study of cancer and tissue regeneration. As the infant's gastrointestinal tract and immune system develop, there is a comparable transition in human milk over time to provide fewer immune factors and more calories and nutrients for growth. Each of these new findings opens the door to future studies of human milk and its effect on the innate immune system and the developing infant.

  14. Innate Immunity and Breast Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Theresa Cacho

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Human milk is a dynamic source of nutrients and bioactive factors; unique in providing for the human infant’s optimal growth and development. The growing infant’s immune system has a number of developmental immune deficiencies placing the infant at increased risk of infection. This review focuses on how human milk directly contributes to the infant’s innate immunity. Remarkable new findings clarify the multifunctional nature of human milk bioactive components. New research techniques have expanded our understanding of the potential for human milk’s effect on the infant that will never be possible with milk formulas. Human milk microbiome directly shapes the infant’s intestinal microbiome, while the human milk oligosaccharides drive the growth of these microbes within the gut. New techniques such as genomics, metabolomics, proteomics, and glycomics are being used to describe this symbiotic relationship. An expanded role for antimicrobial proteins/peptides within human milk in innate immune protection is described. The unique milieu of enhanced immune protection with diminished inflammation results from a complex interaction of anti-inflammatory and antioxidative factors provided by human milk to the intestine. New data support the concept of mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue and its contribution to the cellular content of human milk. Human milk stem cells (hMSCs have recently been discovered. Their direct role in the infant for repair and regeneration is being investigated. The existence of these hMSCs could prove to be an easily harvested source of multilineage stem cells for the study of cancer and tissue regeneration. As the infant’s gastrointestinal tract and immune system develop, there is a comparable transition in human milk over time to provide fewer immune factors and more calories and nutrients for growth. Each of these new findings opens the door to future studies of human milk and its effect on the innate immune system

  15. Imunidade inata da glândula mamária bovina: resposta à infecção Innate immunity of the bovine mammary gland: response to infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deolinda Maria Vieira Filha Carneiro

    2009-09-01

    infection's site by numerous stimulations, and these answers are not enhanced by repeated exposure to the same agent. The first obstacle to be faced by the agent is the barrier represented by the teat sphincter and the keratin plug. When the pathogenic agent crosses the teat canal and reaches the teat cistern, starts to act the humoral factors and the phagocytic cells starts do act. Among the humoral mediators there are the lactoperoxidase, complement, cytokines, lactoferrin, lysozyme and NAGase. The non-specific cellular defenses are represented by neutrophils, macrophages and natural killer cells. If these mechanisms have been functioning adequately, the majority of pathogens will be eliminated in a short time, before the specific immune system be activated. The fast elimination of the microorganisms will not allow these alterations in the amount or quality of produced milk. The best understanding of the defense mechanisms of the mammary gland and its alterations during the critical periods of infection, is an useful tool in devising and developing methods to control the mastitis, the major illness of dairy ruminants. This paper overviewed the most important aspects of the innate immunity of bovine mammary gland.

  16. Gut immunity in Lepidopteran insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kai; Yang, Bing; Huang, Wuren; Dobens, Leonard; Song, Hongsheng; Ling, Erjun

    2016-11-01

    Lepidopteran insects constitute one of the largest fractions of animals on earth, but are considered pests in their relationship with man. Key to the success of this order of insects is its ability to digest food and absorb nutrition, which takes place in the midgut. Because environmental microorganisms can easily enter Lepidopteran guts during feeding, the innate immune response guards against pathogenic bacteria, virus and microsporidia that can be devoured with food. Gut immune responses are complicated by both resident gut microbiota and the surrounding peritrophic membrane and are distinct from immune responses in the body cavity, which depend on the function of the fat body and hemocytes. Due to their relevance to agricultural production, studies of Lepidopteran insect midgut and immunity are receiving more attention, and here we summarize gut structures and functions, and discuss how these confer immunity against different microorganisms. It is expected that increased knowledge of Lepidopteran gut immunity may be utilized for pest biological control in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Universal immunity to influenza must outwit immune evasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Manuel Quinones-Parra

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Although an influenza vaccine has been available for 70 years, influenza virus still causes seasonal epidemics and worldwide pandemics. Currently available vaccines elicit strain-specific antibody responses to the surface haemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA proteins, but these can be ineffective against serologically-distinct viral variants and novel subtypes. Thus, there is a need for cross-protective or universal influenza vaccines to overcome the necessity for annual immunisation against seasonal influenza and to provide immunity to reduce the severity of infection with pandemic or outbreak viruses. It is well established that natural influenza infection can provide cross-reactive immunity that can reduce the impact of infection with distinct influenza type A strains and subtypes, including H1N1, H3N2, H2N2, H5N1 and H7N9. The key to generating universal influenza immunity via vaccination is to target functionally-conserved regions of the virus, which include epitopes on the internal proteins for cross-reactive T cell immunity or on the HA stem for broadly reactive antibody responses. In the wake of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, broadly neutralizing antibodies have been characterized and isolated from convalescent and vaccinated individuals, inspiring development of new vaccination techniques to elicit such responses. Induction of influenza-specific T cell responses through vaccination has also been examined in clinical trials. Strong evidence is available from human and animal models of influenza to show that established influenza-specific T cell memory can reduce viral shedding and symptom severity. However, the published evidence also shows that CD8+ T cells can efficiently select immune escape mutants early after influenza virus infection. Here, we discuss universal immunity to influenza viruses mediated by both cross-reactive T cells and antibodies, the mechanisms of immune evasion in influenza, and how to counteract commonly occurring

  18. Immunization coverage among Hispanic ancestry, 2003 National Immunization Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Natalie J; Barker, Lawrence E; Shefer, Abigail M; Chu, Susan Y

    2005-12-01

    The Hispanic population is increasing and heterogeneous (Hispanic refers to persons of Spanish, Hispanic, or Latino descent). The objective was to examine immunization rates among Hispanic ancestry for the 4:3:1:3:3 series (> or = 4 doses diphtheria, tetanus toxoids, and pertussis vaccine; > or = 3 doses poliovirus vaccine; > or = 1 doses measles-containing vaccine; > or = 3 doses Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine; and > or = 3 doses hepatitis B vaccine). The National Immunization Survey measures immunization coverage among 19- to 35-month-old U.S. children. Coverage was compared from combined 2001-2003 data among Hispanics and non-Hispanic whites using t-tests, and among Hispanic ancestry using a chi-square test. Hispanics were categorized as Mexican, Mexican American, Central American, South American, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Spanish Caribbean (primarily Dominican Republic), other, and multiple ancestry. Children of Hispanic ancestry increased from 21% in 1999 to 25% in 2003. These Hispanic children were less well immunized than non-Hispanic whites (77.0%, +/-2.1% [95% confidence interval] compared to 82.5%, +/-1.1% (95% CI) > in 2003). Immunization coverage did not vary significantly among Hispanics of varying ancestries (p=0.26); however, there was substantial geographic variability. In some areas, immunization coverage among Hispanics was significantly higher than non-Hispanic whites. Hispanic children were less well immunized than non-Hispanic whites; however, coverage varied notably by geographic area. Although a chi-square test found no significant differences in coverage among Hispanic ancestries, the range of coverage, 79.2%, +/-5.1% for Cuban Americans to 72.1%, +/-2.4% for Mexican descent, may suggest a need for improved and more localized monitoring among Hispanic communities.

  19. Artificial Immune Networks: Models and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian Shen

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Artificial Immune Systems (AIS, which is inspired by the nature immune system, has been applied for solving complex computational problems in classification, pattern rec- ognition, and optimization. In this paper, the theory of the natural immune system is first briefly introduced. Next, we compare some well-known AIS and their applications. Several representative artificial immune networks models are also dis- cussed. Moreover, we demonstrate the applications of artificial immune networks in various engineering fields.

  20. SOME ISSUES OF DIAGNOSTICS IN IMMUNE PATHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Tousankina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Present lecture contains an author's opinion concerning diagnostic issues in immunopathology, including primary and secondary immune deficiencies, immune-dependent states that are based on immunopathological syndromes. Original formulations are suggested for some key categories of clinical immunology, physical, instrumental and laboratory diagnostics of immune deficiencies and immune-dependent diseases. The results of original long-term observations, as well as data on Sverdlovsk Regional Register of primary immune deficiencies are presented in the work.

  1. Monounsaturated fats and immune function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Yaqoob

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Animal studies suggest that olive oil is capable of modulating functions of cells of the immune system in a manner similar to, albeit weaker than, fish oils. There is some evidence that the effects of olive oil on immune function in animal studies are due to oleic acid rather than to trace elements or antioxidants. Importantly, several studies have demonstrated effects of oleic acid-containing diets on in vivo immune responses. In contrast, consumption of a monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA-rich diet by humans does not appear to bring about a general suppression of immune cell functions. The effects of this diet in humans are limited to decreasing aspects of adhesion of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, although there are trends towards decreases in natural killer cell activity and proliferation. The lack of a clear effect of MUFA in humans may be attributable to the higher level of monounsaturated fat used in the animal studies, although it is ultimately of importance to examine the effects of intakes which are in no way extreme. The effects of MUFA on adhesion molecules are potentially important, since these molecules appear to have a role in the pathology of a number of diseases involving the immune system. This area clearly deserves further exploration

  2. Immunization delivery in British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, John; Buxton, Jane; Kaczorowski, Janusz; Catterson, Jason; Li, Jane; Derban, Andrea; Hasselback, Paul; Machin, Shelagh; Linekin, Michelle; Morgana, Tamsin; O’Briain, Barra; Scheifele, David; Dawar, Meena

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To explore the experiences of family physicians and pediatricians delivering immunizations, including perceived barriers and supports. Design Qualitative study using focus groups. Setting Ten cities throughout British Columbia. Participants A total of 46 family physicians or general practitioners, 10 pediatricians, and 2 residents. Methods A semistructured dialogue guide was used by a trained facilitator to explore participants’ experiences and views related to immunization delivery in British Columbia. Verbatim transcriptions were independently coded by 2 researchers. Key themes were analyzed and identified in an iterative manner using interpretive description. Main findings Physicians highly valued vaccine delivery. Factors facilitating physician-delivered immunizations included strong beliefs in the value of vaccines and having adequate information. Identified barriers included the large time commitment and insufficient communication about program changes, new vaccines, and the adult immunization program in general. Some physicians reported good relationships with local public health, while others reported the opposite experience, and this varied by geographic location. Conclusion These findings suggest that physicians are supportive of delivering vaccines. However, there are opportunities to improve the sustainability of physician-delivered immunizations. While compensation schemes remain under the purview of the provincial governments, local public health authorities can address the information needs of physicians. PMID:24627403

  3. Immune function in arctic mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desforges, Jean-Pierre; Jasperse, Lindsay; Jensen, Trine Hammer

    2018-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are a vital part of the rapid and non-specific immune defense against invading pathogens and tumor cells. This study evaluated NK cell-like activity by flow cytometry for the first time in three ecologically and culturally important Arctic mammal species: polar bear (Ursus...... the effector:target cell ratio increased. Comparing NK activity between fresh and cryopreserved mouse lymphocytes revealed little to no difference in function, highlighting the applicability of cryopreserving cells in field studies. The evaluation of this important innate immune function in Arctic mammals can...... contribute to future population health assessments, especially as pollution-induced suppression of immune function may increase infectious disease susceptibility....

  4. Immune response to H pylori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Giovanni; Reyes, Victor E; Beswick, Ellen J

    2006-01-01

    The gastric mucosa separates the underlying tissue from the vast array of antigens that traffic through the stomach lumen. While the extreme pH of this environment is essential in aiding the activation of enzymes and food digestion, it also renders the gastric epithelium free from bacterial colonization, with the exception of one important human pathogen, H pylori. This bacterium has developed mechanisms to survive the harsh environment of the stomach, actively move through the mucosal layer, attach to the epithelium, evade immune responses, and achieve persistent colonization. While a hallmark of this infection is a marked inflammatory response with the infiltration of various immune cells into the infected gastric mucosa, the host immune response is unable to clear the infection and may actually contribute to the associated pathogenesis. Here, we review the host responses involved during infection with H pylori and how they are influenced by this bacterium. PMID:17007009

  5. Innate Immune Responses in Leprosy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Roberta Olmo; Schmitz, Veronica; Silva, Bruno Jorge de Andrade; Dias, André Alves; de Souza, Beatriz Junqueira; de Mattos Barbosa, Mayara Garcia; de Almeida Esquenazi, Danuza; Pessolani, Maria Cristina Vidal; Sarno, Euzenir Nunes

    2018-01-01

    Leprosy is an infectious disease that may present different clinical forms depending on host immune response to Mycobacterium leprae. Several studies have clarified the role of various T cell populations in leprosy; however, recent evidences suggest that local innate immune mechanisms are key determinants in driving the disease to its different clinical manifestations. Leprosy is an ideal model to study the immunoregulatory role of innate immune molecules and its interaction with nervous system, which can affect homeostasis and contribute to the development of inflammatory episodes during the course of the disease. Macrophages, dendritic cells, neutrophils, and keratinocytes are the major cell populations studied and the comprehension of the complex networking created by cytokine release, lipid and iron metabolism, as well as antimicrobial effector pathways might provide data that will help in the development of new strategies for leprosy management. PMID:29643852

  6. Immune tolerance in radiation chimeras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awaya, Kazuhiko; Kuniki, Hiromichi; Neki, Miyuki

    1978-01-01

    Establishment of immune tolerance in radiation chimeras and the mechanism of maintaining it were discussed from certain points. Semiallogeneic radiation chimeras are mostly of long-living, and the hematopoietic organ of this individual consists mainly of the cells derived from the marrow donor, i. e., F 1 -type cells. F 1 -type lymphocytes can distinguish parental strain cells from themselves. In these chimeras, a F 1 -skin graft maintains to be fresh as long as the host is alive, showing immune tolerance effective through its life. In establishment and maintenance of this immune tolerance, the suppressing mechanism of host-type or F 1 -type seems to be involved. The allogeneic radiation chimera has very poor long-survival rate compared with that of the semiallogeneic radiation chimera. To raise this survival rate, efforts are now being made from the immunological point of view. (Ueda, J.)

  7. Chromatin Remodeling and Plant Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W; Zhu, Q; Liu, Y; Zhang, Q

    Chromatin remodeling, an important facet of the regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes, is performed by two major types of multisubunit complexes, covalent histone- or DNA-modifying complexes, and ATP-dependent chromosome remodeling complexes. Snf2 family DNA-dependent ATPases constitute the catalytic subunits of ATP-dependent chromosome remodeling complexes, which accounts for energy supply during chromatin remodeling. Increasing evidence indicates a critical role of chromatin remodeling in the establishment of long-lasting, even transgenerational immune memory in plants, which is supported by the findings that DNA methylation, histone deacetylation, and histone methylation can prime the promoters of immune-related genes required for disease defense. So what are the links between Snf2-mediated ATP-dependent chromosome remodeling and plant immunity, and what mechanisms might support its involvement in disease resistance? © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Innate Immunity against Leishmania Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurung, Prajwal; Kanneganti, Thirumala-Devi

    2015-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a major health problem that affects more than 300 million people throughout the world. The morbidity associated with the disease causes serious economic burden in Leishmania endemic regions. Despite the morbidity and economic burden associated with Leishmaniasis, this disease rarely gets noticed and is still categorized under neglected tropical diseases. The lack of research combined with the ability of Leishmania to evade immune recognition has rendered our efforts to design therapeutic treatments or vaccines challenging. Herein, we review the literature on Leishmania from innate immune perspective and discuss potential problems as well as solutions and future directions that could aid in identifying novel therapeutic targets to eliminate this parasite. PMID:26249747

  9. Immune epitope database analysis resource

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Yohan; Ponomarenko, Julia; Zhu, Zhanyang

    2012-01-01

    The immune epitope database analysis resource (IEDB-AR: http://tools.iedb.org) is a collection of tools for prediction and analysis of molecular targets of T- and B-cell immune responses (i.e. epitopes). Since its last publication in the NAR webserver issue in 2008, a new generation of peptide......, and the homology mapping tool was updated to enable mapping of discontinuous epitopes onto 3D structures. Furthermore, to serve a wider range of users, the number of ways in which IEDB-AR can be accessed has been expanded. Specifically, the predictive tools can be programmatically accessed using a web interface...

  10. Innate immunity in the pathogenesis of psoriasis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sweeney, Cheryl M

    2011-12-01

    Psoriasis is a common, immune-mediated inflammatory skin disorder. T helper(h)1 and Th17 lymphocytes contribute to the pathogenesis of psoriasis through the release of inflammatory cytokines that promote further recruitment of immune cells, keratinocyte proliferation and sustained inflammation. The innate immune system is the first line of defence against infection and plays a crucial role in the initiation of the adaptive immune response. The presence of innate immune cells and their products in psoriatic skin plaques suggests a role for innate immunity in this disease. In addition, the innate immune system can direct the development of pathogenic Th cells in psoriasis. In this article, we will summarise the role of the innate immune system in psoriasis with particular emphasis on the role of cytokines, signalling pathways and cells of the innate immune system.

  11. Season of birth shapes neonatal immune function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thysen, Anna Hammerich; Rasmussen, Morten Arendt; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil

    2016-01-01

    Birth season has been reported to be a risk factor for several immune-mediated diseases. We hypothesized that this association is mediated by differential changes in neonatal immune phenotype and function with birth season. We sought to investigate the influence of season of birth on cord blood...... immune cell subsets and inflammatory mediators in neonatal airways. Cord blood was phenotyped for 26 different immune cell subsets, and at 1 month of age, 20 cytokines and chemokines were quantified in airway mucosal lining fluid. Multivariate partial least squares discriminant analyses were applied...... to determine whether certain immune profiles dominate by birth season, and correlations between individual cord blood immune cells and early airway immune mediators were defined. We found a birth season-related fluctuation in neonatal immune cell subsets and in early-life airway mucosal immune function...

  12. Immune regulation by pericytes: modulating innate and adaptive immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navarro, Rocio; Compte, Marta; Álvarez-Vallina, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Pericytes (PC) are mural cells that surround endothelial cells (EC) in small blood vessels. PC have traditionally been endowed with structural functions, being essential for vessel maturation and stabilization. However, accumulating evidence suggest that PC also display immune properties. They ca...

  13. The Concordance of Parent and Child Immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, Steve G; Osborn, Andrew W

    2017-05-01

    A substantial body of work has related survey-based parental vaccine hesitancy to noncompliant childhood immunization. However little attention has been paid to the connection between parents' own immunization behavior and the immunizations their children receive. Using the Oregon ALERT Immunization Information System, we identified adult caregiver-child pairs for children between 9 months and 17 years of age. The likelihood of adult-child concordance of influenza immunization per influenza season from 2010-2011 through 2014-2015 was assessed. The utility of adult immunization as a predictor was also assessed for other, noninfluenza recommended immunizations for children and adolescents. A total of 450 687 matched adult caregiver-child pairs were included in the study. The children of immunizing adults were 2.77 times more likely to also be immunized for seasonal influenza across all seasons (95% confidence interval, 2.74-2.79), with similar results applying within each season. Adult immunization status was also significantly associated with the likelihood of children and adolescents getting other noninfluenza immunizations, such as the human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV). When adults improved their own behavior from nonimmunizing to immunizing across influenza seasons, their children if not immunized in the previous season were 5.44 times (95% confidence interval, 5.35-5.53) more likely to become immunized for influenza. Children's likelihood of following immunization recommendations is associated with the immunization behavior of their parents. Encouraging parental immunization is a potential tool for increasing children's immunization rates. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  14. Hormonal signaling in plant immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caarls, L.

    2016-01-01

    Insect hervivores and pathogens are a major problem in agriculture and therefore, control of these pests and diseases is essential. For this, understanding the plant immune response can be instrumental. The plant hormones salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) play an essential role in defense

  15. Alternative adaptive immunity in invertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurtz, Joachim; Armitage, Sophie Alice Octavia

    2006-01-01

    Vertebrate adaptive immunity is characterized by challenge-specific long-term protection. This specific memory is achieved through the vast diversity of somatically rearranged immunological receptors such as antibodies. Whether or not invertebrates are capable of a comparable phenotypic plasticity...

  16. The Immune Landscape of Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thorsson, Vésteinn; Gibbs, David L.; Brown, Scott D.; Wolf, Denise; Bortone, Dante S.; Ou Yang, Tai Hsien; Porta-Pardo, Eduard; Gao, Galen F.; Plaisier, Christopher L.; Eddy, James A.; Ziv, Elad; Culhane, Aedin C.; Paull, Evan O.; Sivakumar, I. K.Ashok; Gentles, Andrew J.; Malhotra, Raunaq; Farshidfar, Farshad; Colaprico, Antonio; Parker, Joel S.; Mose, Lisle E.; Vo, Nam Sy; Liu, Jianfang; Liu, Yuexin; Rader, Janet; Dhankani, Varsha; Reynolds, Sheila M.; Bowlby, Reanne; Califano, Andrea; Cherniack, Andrew D.; Anastassiou, Dimitris; Bedognetti, Davide; Rao, Arvind; Chen, Ken; Krasnitz, Alexander; Hu, Hai; Malta, Tathiane M.; Noushmehr, Houtan; Pedamallu, Chandra Sekhar; Bullman, Susan; Ojesina, Akinyemi I.; Lamb, Andrew; Zhou, Wanding; Shen, Hui; Choueiri, Toni K.; Weinstein, John N.; Guinney, Justin; Saltz, Joel; Holt, Robert; Rabkin, Charles E.; Caesar-Johnson, Samantha J.; Demchok, John A.; Felau, Ina; Kasapi, Melpomeni; Ferguson, Martin L.; Hutter, Carolyn M.; Sofia, Heidi J.; Tarnuzzer, Roy; Wang, Zhining; Yang, Liming; Zenklusen, Jean C.; Zhang, Jiashan (Julia); Chudamani, Sudha; Liu, Jia; Lolla, Laxmi; Naresh, Rashi; Pihl, Todd; Sun, Qiang; Wan, Yunhu; Wu, Ye; Cho, Juok; DeFreitas, Timothy; Frazer, Scott; Gehlenborg, Nils; Getz, Gad; Heiman, David I.; Kim, Jaegil; Lawrence, Michael S.; Lin, Pei; Meier, Sam; Noble, Michael S.; Saksena, Gordon; Voet, Doug; Zhang, Hailei; Bernard, Brady; Chambwe, Nyasha; Dhankani, Varsha; Knijnenburg, Theo; Kramer, Roger; Leinonen, Kalle; Liu, Yuexin; Miller, Michael; Reynolds, Sheila; Shmulevich, Ilya; Thorsson, Vesteinn; Zhang, Wei; Akbani, Rehan; Broom, Bradley M.; Hegde, Apurva M.; Ju, Zhenlin; Kanchi, Rupa S.; Korkut, Anil; Li, Jun; Liang, Han; Ling, Shiyun; Liu, Wenbin; Lu, Yiling; Mills, Gordon B.; Ng, Kwok Shing; Rao, Arvind; Ryan, Michael; Wang, Jing; Weinstein, John N.; Zhang, Jiexin; Abeshouse, Adam; Armenia, Joshua; Chakravarty, Debyani; Chatila, Walid K.; de Bruijn, Ino; Gao, Jianjiong; Gross, Benjamin E.; Heins, Zachary J.; Kundra, Ritika; La, Konnor; Ladanyi, Marc; Luna, Augustin; Nissan, Moriah G.; Ochoa, Angelica; Phillips, Sarah M.; Reznik, Ed; Sanchez-Vega, Francisco; Sander, Chris; Schultz, Nikolaus; Sheridan, Robert; Sumer, S. Onur; Sun, Yichao; Taylor, Barry S.; Wang, Jioajiao; Zhang, Hongxin; Anur, Pavana; Peto, Myron; Spellman, Paul; Benz, Christopher; Stuart, Joshua M.; Wong, Christopher K.; Yau, Christina; Hayes, D. Neil; Parker, Joel S.; Wilkerson, Matthew D.; Ally, Adrian; Balasundaram, Miruna; Bowlby, Reanne; Brooks, Denise; Carlsen, Rebecca; Chuah, Eric; Dhalla, Noreen; Holt, Robert; Jones, Steven J.M.; Kasaian, Katayoon; Lee, Darlene; Ma, Yussanne; Marra, Marco A.; Mayo, Michael; Moore, Richard A.; Mungall, Andrew J.; Mungall, Karen; Robertson, A. Gordon; Sadeghi, Sara; Schein, Jacqueline E.; Sipahimalani, Payal; Tam, Angela; Thiessen, Nina; Tse, Kane; Wong, Tina; Berger, Ashton C.; Beroukhim, Rameen; Cherniack, Andrew D.; Cibulskis, Carrie; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Gao, Galen F.; Ha, Gavin; Meyerson, Matthew; Schumacher, Steven E.; Shih, Juliann; Kucherlapati, Melanie H.; Kucherlapati, Raju S.; Baylin, Stephen; Cope, Leslie; Danilova, Ludmila; Bootwalla, Moiz S.; Lai, Phillip H.; Maglinte, Dennis T.; Van Den Berg, David J.; Weisenberger, Daniel J.; Auman, J. Todd; Balu, Saianand; Bodenheimer, Tom; Fan, Cheng; Hoadley, Katherine A.; Hoyle, Alan P.; Jefferys, Stuart R.; Jones, Corbin D.; Meng, Shaowu; Mieczkowski, Piotr A.; Mose, Lisle E.; Perou, Amy H.; Perou, Charles M.; Roach, Jeffrey; Shi, Yan; Simons, Janae V.; Skelly, Tara; Soloway, Matthew G.; Tan, Donghui; Veluvolu, Umadevi; Fan, Huihui; Hinoue, Toshinori; Laird, Peter W.; Shen, Hui; Zhou, Wanding; Bellair, Michelle; Chang, Kyle; Covington, Kyle; Creighton, Chad J.; Dinh, Huyen; Doddapaneni, Harsha Vardhan; Donehower, Lawrence A.; Drummond, Jennifer; Gibbs, Richard A.; Glenn, Robert; Hale, Walker; Han, Yi; Hu, Jianhong; Korchina, Viktoriya; Lee, Sandra; Lewis, Lora; Li, Wei; Liu, Xiuping; Morgan, Margaret; Morton, Donna; Muzny, Donna; Santibanez, Jireh; Sheth, Margi; Shinbrot, Eve; Wang, Linghua; Wang, Min; Wheeler, David A.; Xi, Liu; Zhao, Fengmei; Hess, Julian; Appelbaum, Elizabeth L.; Bailey, Matthew; Cordes, Matthew G.; Ding, Li; Fronick, Catrina C.; Fulton, Lucinda A.; Fulton, Robert S.; Kandoth, Cyriac; Mardis, Elaine R.; McLellan, Michael D.; Miller, Christopher A.; Schmidt, Heather K.; Wilson, Richard K.; Crain, Daniel; Curley, Erin; Gardner, Johanna; Lau, Kevin; Mallery, David; Morris, Scott; Paulauskis, Joseph; Penny, Robert; Shelton, Candace; Shelton, Troy; Sherman, Mark; Thompson, Eric; Yena, Peggy; Bowen, Jay; Gastier-Foster, Julie M.; Gerken, Mark; Leraas, Kristen M.; Lichtenberg, Tara M.; Ramirez, Nilsa C.; Wise, Lisa; Zmuda, Erik; Corcoran, Niall; Costello, Tony; Hovens, Christopher; Carvalho, Andre L.; de Carvalho, Ana C.; Fregnani, José H.; Longatto-Filho, Adhemar; Reis, Rui M.; Scapulatempo-Neto, Cristovam; Silveira, Henrique C.S.; Vidal, Daniel O.; Burnette, Andrew; Eschbacher, Jennifer; Hermes, Beth; Noss, Ardene; Singh, Rosy; Anderson, Matthew L.; Castro, Patricia D.; Ittmann, Michael; Huntsman, David; Kohl, Bernard; Le, Xuan; Thorp, Richard; Andry, Chris; Duffy, Elizabeth R.; Lyadov, Vladimir; Paklina, Oxana; Setdikova, Galiya; Shabunin, Alexey; Tavobilov, Mikhail; McPherson, Christopher; Warnick, Ronald; Berkowitz, Ross; Cramer, Daniel; Feltmate, Colleen; Horowitz, Neil; Kibel, Adam; Muto, Michael; Raut, Chandrajit P.; Malykh, Andrei; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S.; Barrett, Wendi; Devine, Karen; Fulop, Jordonna; Ostrom, Quinn T.; Shimmel, Kristen; Wolinsky, Yingli; Sloan, Andrew E.; De Rose, Agostino; Giuliante, Felice; Goodman, Marc; Karlan, Beth Y.; Hagedorn, Curt H.; Eckman, John; Harr, Jodi; Myers, Jerome; Tucker, Kelinda; Zach, Leigh Anne; Deyarmin, Brenda; Hu, Hai; Kvecher, Leonid; Larson, Caroline; Mural, Richard J.; Somiari, Stella; Vicha, Ales; Zelinka, Tomas; Bennett, Joseph; Iacocca, Mary; Rabeno, Brenda; Swanson, Patricia; Latour, Mathieu; Lacombe, Louis; Têtu, Bernard; Bergeron, Alain; McGraw, Mary; Staugaitis, Susan M.; Chabot, John; Hibshoosh, Hanina; Sepulveda, Antonia; Su, Tao; Wang, Timothy; Potapova, Olga; Voronina, Olga; Desjardins, Laurence; Mariani, Odette; Roman-Roman, Sergio; Sastre, Xavier; Stern, Marc Henri; Cheng, Feixiong; Signoretti, Sabina; Berchuck, Andrew; Bigner, Darell; Lipp, Eric; Marks, Jeffrey; McCall, Shannon; McLendon, Roger; Secord, Angeles; Sharp, Alexis; Behera, Madhusmita; Brat, Daniel J.; Chen, Amy; Delman, Keith; Force, Seth; Khuri, Fadlo; Magliocca, Kelly; Maithel, Shishir; Olson, Jeffrey J.; Owonikoko, Taofeek; Pickens, Alan; Ramalingam, Suresh; Shin, Dong M.; Sica, Gabriel; Van Meir, Erwin G.; Zhang, Hongzheng; Eijckenboom, Wil; Gillis, Ad; Korpershoek, Esther; Looijenga, Leendert; Oosterhuis, Wolter; Stoop, Hans; van Kessel, Kim E.; Zwarthoff, Ellen C.; Calatozzolo, Chiara; Cuppini, Lucia; Cuzzubbo, Stefania; DiMeco, Francesco; Finocchiaro, Gaetano; Mattei, Luca; Perin, Alessandro; Pollo, Bianca; Chen, Chu; Houck, John; Lohavanichbutr, Pawadee; Hartmann, Arndt; Stoehr, Christine; Stoehr, Robert; Taubert, Helge; Wach, Sven; Wullich, Bernd; Kycler, Witold; Murawa, Dawid; Wiznerowicz, Maciej; Chung, Ki; Edenfield, W. Jeffrey; Martin, Julie; Baudin, Eric; Bubley, Glenn; Bueno, Raphael; De Rienzo, Assunta; Richards, William G.; Kalkanis, Steven; Mikkelsen, Tom; Noushmehr, Houtan; Scarpace, Lisa; Girard, Nicolas; Aymerich, Marta; Campo, Elias; Giné, Eva; Guillermo, Armando López; Van Bang, Nguyen; Hanh, Phan Thi; Phu, Bui Duc; Tang, Yufang; Colman, Howard; Evason, Kimberley; Dottino, Peter R.; Martignetti, John A.; Gabra, Hani; Juhl, Hartmut; Akeredolu, Teniola; Stepa, Serghei; Hoon, Dave; Ahn, Keunsoo; Kang, Koo Jeong; Beuschlein, Felix; Breggia, Anne; Birrer, Michael; Bell, Debra; Borad, Mitesh; Bryce, Alan H.; Castle, Erik; Chandan, Vishal; Cheville, John; Copland, John A.; Farnell, Michael; Flotte, Thomas; Giama, Nasra; Ho, Thai; Kendrick, Michael; Kocher, Jean Pierre; Kopp, Karla; Moser, Catherine; Nagorney, David; O'Brien, Daniel; O'Neill, Brian Patrick; Patel, Tushar; Petersen, Gloria; Que, Florencia; Rivera, Michael; Roberts, Lewis; Smallridge, Robert; Smyrk, Thomas; Stanton, Melissa; Thompson, R. Houston; Torbenson, Michael; Yang, Ju Dong; Zhang, Lizhi; Brimo, Fadi; Ajani, Jaffer A.; Gonzalez, Ana Maria Angulo; Behrens, Carmen; Bondaruk, Jolanta; Broaddus, Russell; Czerniak, Bogdan; Esmaeli, Bita; Fujimoto, Junya; Gershenwald, Jeffrey; Guo, Charles; Lazar, Alexander J.; Logothetis, Christopher; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Moran, Cesar; Ramondetta, Lois; Rice, David; Sood, Anil; Tamboli, Pheroze; Thompson, Timothy; Troncoso, Patricia; Tsao, Anne; Wistuba, Ignacio; Carter, Candace; Haydu, Lauren; Hersey, Peter; Jakrot, Valerie; Kakavand, Hojabr; Kefford, Richard; Lee, Kenneth; Long, Georgina; Mann, Graham; Quinn, Michael; Saw, Robyn; Scolyer, Richard; Shannon, Kerwin; Spillane, Andrew; Stretch, onathan; Synott, Maria; Thompson, John; Wilmott, James; Al-Ahmadie, Hikmat; Chan, Timothy A.; Ghossein, Ronald; Gopalan, Anuradha; Levine, Douglas A.; Reuter, Victor; Singer, Samuel; Singh, Bhuvanesh; Tien, Nguyen Viet; Broudy, Thomas; Mirsaidi, Cyrus; Nair, Praveen; Drwiega, Paul; Miller, Judy; Smith, Jennifer; Zaren, Howard; Park, Joong Won; Hung, Nguyen Phi; Kebebew, Electron; Linehan, W. Marston; Metwalli, Adam R.; Pacak, Karel; Pinto, Peter A.; Schiffman, Mark; Schmidt, Laura S.; Vocke, Cathy D.; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Worrell, Robert; Yang, Hannah; Moncrieff, Marc; Goparaju, Chandra; Melamed, Jonathan; Pass, Harvey; Botnariuc, Natalia; Caraman, Irina; Cernat, Mircea; Chemencedji, Inga; Clipca, Adrian; Doruc, Serghei; Gorincioi, Ghenadie; Mura, Sergiu; Pirtac, Maria; Stancul, Irina; Tcaciuc, Diana; Albert, Monique; Alexopoulou, Iakovina; Arnaout, Angel; Bartlett, John; Engel, Jay; Gilbert, Sebastien; Parfitt, Jeremy; Sekhon, Harman; Thomas, George; Rassl, Doris M.; Rintoul, Robert C.; Bifulco, Carlo; Tamakawa, Raina; Urba, Walter; Hayward, Nicholas; Timmers, Henri; Antenucci, Anna; Facciolo, Francesco; Grazi, Gianluca; Marino, Mirella; Merola, Roberta; de Krijger, Ronald; Gimenez-Roqueplo, Anne Paule; Piché, Alain; Chevalier, Simone; McKercher, Ginette; Birsoy, Kivanc; Barnett, Gene; Brewer, Cathy; Farver, Carol; Naska, Theresa; Pennell, Nathan A.; Raymond, Daniel; Schilero, Cathy; Smolenski, Kathy; Williams, Felicia; Morrison, Carl; Borgia, Jeffrey A.; Liptay, Michael J.; Pool, Mark; Seder, Christopher W.; Junker, Kerstin; Omberg, Larsson; Dinkin, Mikhail; Manikhas, George; Alvaro, Domenico; Bragazzi, Maria Consiglia; Cardinale, Vincenzo; Carpino, Guido; Gaudio, Eugenio; Chesla, David; Cottingham, Sandra; Dubina, Michael; Moiseenko, Fedor; Dhanasekaran, Renumathy; Becker, Karl Friedrich; Janssen, Klaus Peter; Slotta-Huspenina, Julia; Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed H.; Aziz, Dina; Bell, Sue; Cebulla, Colleen M.; Davis, Amy; Duell, Rebecca; Elder, J. Bradley; Hilty, Joe; Kumar, Bahavna; Lang, James; Lehman, Norman L.; Mandt, Randy; Nguyen, Phuong; Pilarski, Robert; Rai, Karan; Schoenfield, Lynn; Senecal, Kelly; Wakely, Paul; Hansen, Paul; Lechan, Ronald; Powers, James; Tischler, Arthur; Grizzle, William E.; Sexton, Katherine C.; Kastl, Alison; Henderson, Joel; Porten, Sima; Waldmann, Jens; Fassnacht, Martin; Asa, Sylvia L.; Schadendorf, Dirk; Couce, Marta; Graefen, Markus; Huland, Hartwig; Sauter, Guido; Schlomm, Thorsten; Simon, Ronald; Tennstedt, Pierre; Olabode, Oluwole; Nelson, Mark; Bathe, Oliver; Carroll, Peter R.; Chan, June M.; Disaia, Philip; Glenn, Pat; Kelley, Robin K.; Landen, Charles N.; Phillips, Joanna; Prados, Michael; Simko, Jeffry; Smith-McCune, Karen; VandenBerg, Scott; Roggin, Kevin; Fehrenbach, Ashley; Kendler, Ady; Sifri, Suzanne; Steele, Ruth; Jimeno, Antonio; Carey, Francis; Forgie, Ian; Mannelli, Massimo; Carney, Michael; Hernandez, Brenda; Campos, Benito; Herold-Mende, Christel; Jungk, Christin; Unterberg, Andreas; von Deimling, Andreas; Bossler, Aaron; Galbraith, Joseph; Jacobus, Laura; Knudson, Michael; Knutson, Tina; Ma, Deqin; Milhem, Mohammed; Sigmund, Rita; Godwin, Andrew K.; Madan, Rashna; Rosenthal, Howard G.; Adebamowo, Clement; Adebamowo, Sally N.; Boussioutas, Alex; Beer, David; Giordano, Thomas; Mes-Masson, Anne Marie; Saad, Fred; Bocklage, Therese; Landrum, Lisa; Mannel, Robert; Moore, Kathleen; Moxley, Katherine; Postier, Russel; Walker, Joan; Zuna, Rosemary; Feldman, Michael; Valdivieso, Federico; Dhir, Rajiv; Luketich, James; Pinero, Edna M.Mora; Quintero-Aguilo, Mario; Carlotti, Carlos Gilberto; Dos Santos, Jose Sebastião; Kemp, Rafael; Sankarankuty, Ajith; Tirapelli, Daniela; Catto, James; Agnew, Kathy; Swisher, Elizabeth; Creaney, Jenette; Robinson, Bruce; Shelley, Carl Simon; Godwin, Eryn M.; Kendall, Sara; Shipman, Cassaundra; Bradford, Carol; Carey, Thomas; Haddad, Andrea; Moyer, Jeffey; Peterson, Lisa; Prince, Mark; Rozek, Laura; Wolf, Gregory; Bowman, Rayleen; Fong, Kwun M.; Yang, Ian; Korst, Robert; Rathmell, W. Kimryn; Fantacone-Campbell, J. Leigh; Hooke, Jeffrey A.; Kovatich, Albert J.; Shriver, Craig D.; DiPersio, John; Drake, Bettina; Govindan, Ramaswamy; Heath, Sharon; Ley, Timothy; Van Tine, Brian; Westervelt, Peter; Rubin, Mark A.; Lee, Jung Il; Aredes, Natália D.; Mariamidze, Armaz; Lazar, Alexander J.; Serody, Jonathan S.; Demicco, Elizabeth G.; Disis, Mary L.; Vincent, Benjamin G.; Shmulevich, llya

    2018-01-01

    We performed an extensive immunogenomic analysis of more than 10,000 tumors comprising 33 diverse cancer types by utilizing data compiled by TCGA. Across cancer types, we identified six immune subtypes—wound healing, IFN-γ dominant, inflammatory, lymphocyte depleted, immunologically quiet, and TGF-β

  17. Immune evasion in ebolavirus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audet, Jonathan; Kobinger, Gary P

    2015-02-01

    Ebola virus (EBOV) infects humans as well as several animal species. It can lead to a highly lethal disease, with mortality rates approaching 90% in primates. Recent advances have deepened our understanding of how this virus is able to prevent the development of protective immune responses. The EBOV genome encodes eight proteins, four of which were shown to interact with the host in ways that counteract the immune response. The viral protein 35 (VP35) is capable of capping dsRNA and interacts with IRF7 to prevent detection of the virus by immune cells. The main role of the soluble glycoprotein (sGP) is still unclear, but it is capable of subverting the anti-GP1,2 antibody response. The GP1,2 protein has shown anti-tetherin activity and the ability to hide cell-surface proteins. Finally, VP24 interferes with the production of interferons (IFNs) and with IFN signaling in infected cells. Taken together, these data point to extensive adaptation of EBOV to evade the immune system of dead end hosts. While our understanding of the interactions between the human and viral proteins increases, details of those interactions in other hosts remain largely unclear and represent a gap in our knowledge.

  18. The Immune System in Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trott, Daniel W.; Harrison, David G.

    2014-01-01

    While hypertension has predominantly been attributed to perturbations of the vasculature, kidney, and central nervous system, research for almost 50 yr has shown that the immune system also contributes to this disease. Inflammatory cells accumulate in the kidneys and vasculature of humans and experimental animals with hypertension and likely…

  19. Recommendations for Institutional Prematriculation Immunizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of American College Health, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The recommendations presented in this article are provided to colleges and universities to facilitate the implementation of a comprehensive institutional prematriculation immunization policy. Vaccine-preventable diseases continue to occur on American campuses. In response to changing epidemiology and the introduction of new vaccines, the ACHA…

  20. Immunity to gastrointestinal nematode infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorobetea, D.; Svensson Frej, M.; Grencis, R.

    2018-01-01

    Numerous species of nematodes have evolved to inhabit the gastrointestinal tract of animals and humans, with over a billion of the world's population infected with at least one species. These large multicellular pathogens present a considerable and complex challenge to the host immune system give...

  1. The most common friend first immunization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nian Fu-Zhong; Hu Cha-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a standard susceptible-infected-recovered-susceptible(SIRS) epidemic model based on the Watts–Strogatz (WS) small-world network model and the Barabsi–Albert (BA) scale-free network model is established, and a new immunization scheme — “the most common friend first immunization” is proposed, in which the most common friend’s node is described as being the first immune on the second layer protection of complex networks. The propagation situations of three different immunization schemes — random immunization, high-risk immunization, and the most common friend first immunization are studied. At the same time, the dynamic behaviors are also studied on the WS small-world and the BA scale-free network. Moreover, the analytic and simulated results indicate that the immune effect of the most common friend first immunization is better than random immunization, but slightly worse than high-risk immunization. However, high-risk immunization still has some limitations. For example, it is difficult to accurately define who a direct neighbor in the life is. Compared with the traditional immunization strategies having some shortcomings, the most common friend first immunization is effective, and it is nicely consistent with the actual situation. (paper)

  2. Immunization of Epidemics in Multiplex Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dawei; Wang, Lianhai; Li, Shudong; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Lin; Gao, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Up to now, immunization of disease propagation has attracted great attention in both theoretical and experimental researches. However, vast majority of existing achievements are limited to the simple assumption of single layer networked population, which seems obviously inconsistent with recent development of complex network theory: each node could possess multiple roles in different topology connections. Inspired by this fact, we here propose the immunization strategies on multiplex networks, including multiplex node-based random (targeted) immunization and layer node-based random (targeted) immunization. With the theory of generating function, theoretical analysis is developed to calculate the immunization threshold, which is regarded as the most critical index for the effectiveness of addressed immunization strategies. Interestingly, both types of random immunization strategies show more efficiency in controlling disease spreading on multiplex Erdös-Rényi (ER) random networks; while targeted immunization strategies provide better protection on multiplex scale-free (SF) networks. PMID:25401755

  3. Immune Cells in Blood Recognize Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI scientists have developed a novel strategy for identifying immune cells circulating in the blood that recognize specific proteins on tumor cells, a finding they believe may have potential implications for immune-based therapies.

  4. Immune System Dysfunction in the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Eduardo; Fuentes, Manuel; Alarcón, Marcelo; Palomo, Iván

    2017-01-01

    Human aging is characterized by both physical and physiological frailty that profoundly affects the immune system. In this context aging is associated with declines in adaptive and innate immunity established as immunosenescence. Immunosenescence is a new concept that reflects the age-associated restructuring changes of innate and adaptive immune functions. Thus elderly individuals usually present chronic low-level inflammation, higher infection rates and chronic diseases. A study of alterations in the immune system during aging could provide a potentially useful biomarker for the evaluation of immune senescence treatment. The immune system is the result of the interplay between innate and adaptive immunity, yet the impact of aging on this function is unclear. In this article the function of the immune system during aging is explored.

  5. Unique aspects of the perinatal immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhivaki, Dania; Lo-Man, Richard

    2017-08-01

    The early stages of life are associated with increased susceptibility to infection, which is in part due to an ineffective immune system. In the context of infection, the immune system must be stimulated to provide efficient protection while avoiding insufficient or excessive activation. Yet, in early life, age-dependent immune regulation at molecular and cellular levels contributes to a reduced immunological fitness in terms of pathogen clearance and response to vaccines. To enable microbial colonization to be tolerated at birth, epigenetic immune cell programming and early life-specific immune regulatory and effector mechanisms ensure that vital functions and organ development are supported and that tissue damage is avoided. Advancement in our understanding of age-related remodelling of immune networks and the consequent tuning of immune responsiveness will open up new possibilities for immune intervention and vaccine strategies that are designed specifically for early life.

  6. Weakened Immune System and Adult Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Basics Adult Vaccination Resources for Healthcare Professionals Weakened Immune System and Adult Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... people with health conditions such as a weakened immune system. If you have cancer or other immunocompromising conditions, ...

  7. Immunization of epidemics in multiplex networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dawei; Wang, Lianhai; Li, Shudong; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Lin; Gao, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Up to now, immunization of disease propagation has attracted great attention in both theoretical and experimental researches. However, vast majority of existing achievements are limited to the simple assumption of single layer networked population, which seems obviously inconsistent with recent development of complex network theory: each node could possess multiple roles in different topology connections. Inspired by this fact, we here propose the immunization strategies on multiplex networks, including multiplex node-based random (targeted) immunization and layer node-based random (targeted) immunization. With the theory of generating function, theoretical analysis is developed to calculate the immunization threshold, which is regarded as the most critical index for the effectiveness of addressed immunization strategies. Interestingly, both types of random immunization strategies show more efficiency in controlling disease spreading on multiplex Erdös-Rényi (ER) random networks; while targeted immunization strategies provide better protection on multiplex scale-free (SF) networks.

  8. Immunization of epidemics in multiplex networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawei Zhao

    Full Text Available Up to now, immunization of disease propagation has attracted great attention in both theoretical and experimental researches. However, vast majority of existing achievements are limited to the simple assumption of single layer networked population, which seems obviously inconsistent with recent development of complex network theory: each node could possess multiple roles in different topology connections. Inspired by this fact, we here propose the immunization strategies on multiplex networks, including multiplex node-based random (targeted immunization and layer node-based random (targeted immunization. With the theory of generating function, theoretical analysis is developed to calculate the immunization threshold, which is regarded as the most critical index for the effectiveness of addressed immunization strategies. Interestingly, both types of random immunization strategies show more efficiency in controlling disease spreading on multiplex Erdös-Rényi (ER random networks; while targeted immunization strategies provide better protection on multiplex scale-free (SF networks.

  9. Drug-induced immune hemolytic anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immune hemolytic anemia secondary to drugs; Anemia - immune hemolytic - secondary to drugs ... Drugs that can cause this type of hemolytic anemia include: Cephalosporins (a class of antibiotics), most common ...

  10. Immune-Neuroendocrine Interactions and Autoimmune Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis J. Jara

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between immune-neuroendocrine system is firmly established. The messengers of this connection are hormones, neuropeptides, neurotransmitters and cytokines. The immune-neuroendocrine system have the capacity to synthesize and release these molecules, which, in turn, can stimulate or suppress the activity of immune or neuroendocrine cells by binding to receptors. In fact, hormones, neuropeptides and neurotransmitters participate in innate and adaptive immune response.

  11. SOME ISSUES OF DIAGNOSTICS IN IMMUNE PATHOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    I. A. Tousankina

    2010-01-01

    Present lecture contains an author's opinion concerning diagnostic issues in immunopathology, including primary and secondary immune deficiencies, immune-dependent states that are based on immunopathological syndromes. Original formulations are suggested for some key categories of clinical immunology, physical, instrumental and laboratory diagnostics of immune deficiencies and immune-dependent diseases. The results of original long-term observations, as well as data on Sverdlovsk Regional Reg...

  12. Immune Repertoire Characteristics and Dynamics in Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiao

    The diversity of T and B cells in terms of their receptors is huge in the invertebrate’s immune system, to provide broad protection against the vast diversity of pathogens. Immune repertoire is defined as the sum of total subtypes that makes the organism’s immune system, either T cell receptor or...

  13. Viral immune evasion: a masterpiece of evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vossen, Mireille T. M.; Westerhout, Ellen M.; Söderberg-Nauclér, Cécilia; Wiertz, Emmanuel J. H. J.

    2002-01-01

    Coexistence of viruses and their hosts imposes an evolutionary pressure on both the virus and the host immune system. On the one hand, the host has developed an immune system able to attack viruses and virally infected cells, whereas on the other hand, viruses have developed an array of immune

  14. Cellular immune responses to respiratory viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Helden, M.J.G.

    2011-01-01

    When a respiratory virus successfully infects the lungs, cascades of immune responses are initiated aimed to remove the pathogen. Immediate non-specific protection is provided by the innate immune system and this reduces the viral load during the first days of infection. The adaptive immune response

  15. Immune System Toxicity and Immunotoxicity Hazard Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to chemicals may alter immune system health, increasing the risk of infections, allergy and autoimmune diseases. The chapter provides a concise overview of the immune system, host factors that affect immune system heal, and the effects that xenobiotic exposure may have ...

  16. Role of Microbiota in Sexually Dimorphic Immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elderman, Marlies; de Vos, Paul; Faas, Marijke

    2018-01-01

    Sex differences in peripheral immune responses are well recognized. This is associated with sex differences in many immunological diseases. As the intestinal microbiota is known to influence the immune system, such sex differences in immune responses may be a consequence of sex-specific microbiota.

  17. Increasing Immunization Compliance by Reducing Provisional Admittance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Wendy S.; Varni, Susan E.; Barry, Sara E.; Frankowski, Barbara L.; Harder, Valerie S.

    2016-01-01

    Students in Vermont with incomplete or undocumented immunization status are provisionally admitted to schools and historically had a calendar year to resolve their immunization status. The process of resolving these students' immunization status was challenging for school nurses. We conducted a school-based quality improvement effort to increase…

  18. Altered Cellular Metabolism Drives Trained Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabi, Yahya; Godfrey, Rinesh; Findeisen, Hannes M

    2018-04-04

    Exposing innate immune cells to an initial insult induces a long-term proinflammatory response due to metabolic and epigenetic alterations which encompass an emerging new concept called trained immunity. Recent studies provide novel insights into mechanisms centered on metabolic reprogramming which induce innate immune memory in hematopoietic stem cells and monocytes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Immune regulation in gut and cord : opportunities for directing the immune system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Roock, S.

    2012-01-01

    The gut is an important organ for the immune system. Microbes and immune cells interact directly or via epithelial cells. Both TH17 and Treg cells mature in this environment. The composition of the microbiota has an important influence on the immune homeostasis. Influencing the immune system via the

  20. Nutritional components regulate the gut immune system and its association with intestinal immune disease development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamichhane, Aayam; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Kunisawa, Jun

    2013-12-01

    The gut is equipped with a unique immune system for maintaining immunological homeostasis, and its functional immune disruption can result in the development of immune diseases such as food allergy and intestinal inflammation. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that nutritional components play an important role in the regulation of gut immune responses and also in the development of intestinal immune diseases. In this review, we focus on the immunological functions of lipids, vitamins, and nucleotides in the regulation of the intestinal immune system and as potential targets for the control of intestinal immune diseases. © 2013 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  1. Immunization against Small Ruminant Lentiviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Amorena

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Multisystemic disease caused by Small Ruminant Lentiviruses (SRLV in sheep and goats leads to production losses, to the detriment of animal health and welfare. This, together with the lack of treatments, has triggered interest in exploring different strategies of immunization to control the widely spread SRLV infection and, also, to provide a useful model for HIV vaccines. These strategies involve inactivated whole virus, subunit vaccines, DNA encoding viral proteins in the presence or absence of plasmids encoding immunological adjuvants and naturally or artificially attenuated viruses. In this review, we revisit, comprehensively, the immunization strategies against SRLV and analyze this double edged tool individually, as it may contribute to either controlling or enhancing virus replication and/or disease.

  2. Innate immune system and preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra ePerez-Sepulveda

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal pregnancy is considered as a Th2 type immunological state that favors an immune-tolerance environment in order to prevent fetal rejection. PE has been classically described as a Th1/Th2 imbalance; however, the Th1/Th2 paradigm has proven insufficient to fully explain the functional and molecular changes observed during normal/pathological pregnancies. Recent studies have expanded the Th1/Th2 into a Th1⁄Th2⁄Th17 and regulatory T (Treg cells paradigm and where dendritic cells could have a crucial role. Recently, some evidence has emerged supporting the idea that mesenchymal stem cells might be part of the feto-maternal tolerance environment. This review will discuss the involvement of the innate immune system in the establishment of a physiological environment that favors pregnancy and possible alterations related to the development of preeclampsia.

  3. The Immune Landscape of Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Thorsson, Vésteinn; Gibbs, David L.; Brown, Scott D.; Wolf, Denise; Bortone, Dante S.; Ou Yang, Tai Hsien; Porta-Pardo, Eduard; Gao, Galen F.; Plaisier, Christopher L.; Eddy, James A.; Ziv, Elad; Culhane, Aedin C.; Paull, Evan O.; Sivakumar, I. K.Ashok; Gentles, Andrew J.

    2018-01-01

    We performed an extensive immunogenomic analysis of more than 10,000 tumors comprising 33 diverse cancer types by utilizing data compiled by TCGA. Across cancer types, we identified six immune subtypes—wound healing, IFN-γ dominant, inflammatory, lymphocyte depleted, immunologically quiet, and TGF-β dominant—characterized by differences in macrophage or lymphocyte signatures, Th1:Th2 cell ratio, extent of intratumoral heterogeneity, aneuploidy, extent of neoantigen load, overall cell prolifer...

  4. Immunizations Part II: Shingles Vaccine

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-09-24

    This podcast discusses older adults and shingles, as well as the importance of getting the shingles vaccine. It is primarily targeted to public health and aging services professionals.  Created: 9/24/2008 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP) and National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 9/24/2008.

  5. The Epitranscriptome and Innate Immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary A O'Connell

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Our knowledge of the variety and abundances of RNA base modifications is rapidly increasing. Modified bases have critical roles in tRNAs, rRNAs, translation, splicing, RNA interference, and other RNA processes, and are now increasingly detected in all types of transcripts. Can new biological principles associated with this diversity of RNA modifications, particularly in mRNAs and long non-coding RNAs, be identified? This review will explore this question by focusing primarily on adenosine to inosine (A-to-I RNA editing by the adenine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR enzymes that have been intensively studied for the past 20 years and have a wide range of effects. Over 100 million adenosine to inosine editing sites have been identified in the human transcriptome, mostly in embedded Alu sequences that form potentially innate immune-stimulating dsRNA hairpins in transcripts. Recent research has demonstrated that inosine in the epitranscriptome and ADAR1 protein establish innate immune tolerance for host dsRNA formed by endogenous sequences. Innate immune sensors that detect viral nucleic acids are among the readers of epitranscriptome RNA modifications, though this does preclude a wide range of other modification effects.

  6. Eosinophils in mucosal immune responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travers, J; Rothenberg, M E

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophils, multifunctional cells that contribute to both innate and adaptive immunity, are involved in the initiation, propagation and resolution of immune responses, including tissue repair. They achieve this multifunctionality by expression of a diverse set of activation receptors, including those that directly recognize pathogens and opsonized targets, and by their ability to store and release preformed cytotoxic mediators that participate in host defense, to produce a variety of de novo pleotropic mediators and cytokines and to interact directly and indirectly with diverse cell types, including adaptive and innate immunocytes and structural cells. Herein, we review the basic biology of eosinophils and then focus on new emerging concepts about their role in mucosal immune homeostasis, particularly maintenance of intestinal IgA. We review emerging data about their development and regulation and describe new concepts concerning mucosal eosinophilic diseases. We describe recently developed therapeutic strategies to modify eosinophil levels and function and provide collective insight about the beneficial and detrimental functions of these enigmatic cells. PMID:25807184

  7. The commensal microbiota drives immune homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Claire eArrieta

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available For millions of years, microbes have coexisted with eukaryotic cells at the mucosal surfaces of vertebrates in a complex, yet usually harmonious symbiosis. An ever-expanding number of reports describe how eliminating or shifting the intestinal microbiota has profound effects on the development and functionality of the mucosal and systemic immune systems. Here, we examine some of the mechanisms by which bacterial signals affect immune homeostasis. Focusing on the strategies that microbes use to keep our immune system healthy, as opposed to trying to correct the immune imbalances caused by dysbiosis, may prove to be a more astute and efficient way of treating immune-mediated disease.

  8. Diversity and dialogue in immunity to helminths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Judith E; Maizels, Rick M

    2011-06-01

    The vertebrate immune system has evolved in concert with a broad range of infectious agents, including ubiquitous helminth (worm) parasites. The constant pressure of helminth infections has been a powerful force in shaping not only how immunity is initiated and maintained, but also how the body self-regulates and controls untoward immune responses to minimize overall harm. In this Review, we discuss recent advances in defining the immune cell types and molecules that are mobilized in response to helminth infection. Finally, we more broadly consider how these immunological players are blended and regulated in order to accommodate persistent infection or to mount a vigorous protective response and achieve sterile immunity.

  9. Mechanisms regulating skin immunity and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasparakis, Manolis; Haase, Ingo; Nestle, Frank O

    2014-05-01

    Immune responses in the skin are important for host defence against pathogenic microorganisms. However, dysregulated immune reactions can cause chronic inflammatory skin diseases. Extensive crosstalk between the different cellular and microbial components of the skin regulates local immune responses to ensure efficient host defence, to maintain and restore homeostasis, and to prevent chronic disease. In this Review, we discuss recent findings that highlight the complex regulatory networks that control skin immunity, and we provide new paradigms for the mechanisms that regulate skin immune responses in host defence and in chronic inflammation.

  10. Immunity to Fasciola hepatica in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armour, J.; Dargie, J.D.

    1974-01-01

    Experiments were carried out which demonstrated an acquired immunity to Fasciola hapatica in the rat. It was shown that this immunity could be transferred to recipients using either lymphoid cells or serum from infected donor rats. The extent of the protection obtained by cells appeared to be related to the quantity and persistence of the antigenic stimulus in the donor. Likewise, the degree of immunity conferred by immune serum was dependent upon the volume transferred. The significance of these results in relation to the mechanism of immunity to fascioliasis is discussed

  11. Immune regulation and CNS autoimmune disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antel, J P; Owens, T

    1999-01-01

    The central nervous system is a demonstrated target of both clinical and experimental immune mediated disorders. Immune regulatory mechanisms operative at the levels of the systemic immune system, the blood brain barrier, and within the CNS parenchyma are important determinants of the intensity...... and duration of the tissue directed injury. Convergence of research, involving direct manipulation of specific cells and molecular mediators in animal models and in vitro analysis of human immune and neural cells and tissues, is providing increasing insight into the role of these immune regulatory functions...

  12. Immunomodulator, immunosuppression of radiation and immune reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Jianping; Fang Jing; Zhou Ying; Cui Yufang; Jiang Zhujun; Du Li; Ma Qiong

    2010-01-01

    There is a refined and complicated regulatory network between immune cells, and between immune cells and secretory factors. The immune system is kept in a homeostasis and equilibrium by positive activation and negative inhibition. In recent years, the mechanisms of immunosuppression in depth for successful allograft transplantation were studied, and many immunosuppressants and immunosuppressive drugs have been developed for clinical use. Most of them are targeting T cell receptors and three kinds of singnal pathways. The receptors of the immunosuppression were either found highly expressed in immune cells after irradiation. To relieve the suppression by regulating the receptors could help the immune reconstruction out of radiation damage. Many new immunoenhancers have been discovered to improve the immune system function for radiation by Toll-like receptors. The search for new immunoenhancers and agents for relieving immunosuppression is of great importance to immune construction for radiation sickness. (authors)

  13. Innate immunity in vertebrates: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riera Romo, Mario; Pérez-Martínez, Dayana; Castillo Ferrer, Camila

    2016-06-01

    Innate immunity is a semi-specific and widely distributed form of immunity, which represents the first line of defence against pathogens. This type of immunity is critical to maintain homeostasis and prevent microbe invasion, eliminating a great variety of pathogens and contributing with the activation of the adaptive immune response. The components of innate immunity include physical and chemical barriers, humoral and cell-mediated components, which are present in all jawed vertebrates. The understanding of innate defence mechanisms in non-mammalian vertebrates is the key to comprehend the general picture of vertebrate innate immunity and its evolutionary history. This is also essential for the identification of new molecules with applications in immunopharmacology and immunotherapy. In this review, we describe and discuss the main elements of vertebrate innate immunity, presenting core findings in this field and identifying areas that need further investigation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Evaluation of lung immunity in chimpanzees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bice, D.E.; Harris, D.L.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Bowen, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of inhaled pollutants on the immune defenses in the lung can be studied in several animal species. To assure that the data obtained can be extrapolated to man, it is essential that the development of lung immunity is similar in the experimental animal selected and in humans. Because of the similarity of immune responses in chimpanzees and in humans, the development of immunity in the chimpanzee after lung immunization was evaluated. The results from the chimpanzees were qualitatively the same as those from previous studies in which single lung lobes of dogs were immunized. It was concluded that immunotoxicology data obtained in dogs can be used to estimate the effects of inhaled pollutants on the immune defense mechanism in the human lung

  15. Immune Regulation by Self-Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Hald

    2015-01-01

    Circulating T cells that specifically target normal self-proteins expressed by regulatory immune cells were first described in patients with cancer, but can also be detected in healthy individuals. The adaptive immune system is distinguished for its ability to differentiate between self......-antigens and foreign antigens. Thus, it was remarkable to discover T cells that apparently lacked tolerance to important self-proteins, eg, IDO, PD-L1, and FoxP3, expressed in regulatory immune cells. The ability of self-reactive T cells to react to and eliminate regulatory immune cells can influence general immune...... reactions. This suggests that they may be involved in immune homeostasis. It is here proposed that these T cells should be termed antiregulatory T cells (anti-Tregs). The role of anti-Tregs in immune-regulatory networks may be diverse. For example, pro-inflammatory self-reactive T cells that react...

  16. Reinforcement Learning Based Artificial Immune Classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Karakose

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the widely used methods for classification that is a decision-making process is artificial immune systems. Artificial immune systems based on natural immunity system can be successfully applied for classification, optimization, recognition, and learning in real-world problems. In this study, a reinforcement learning based artificial immune classifier is proposed as a new approach. This approach uses reinforcement learning to find better antibody with immune operators. The proposed new approach has many contributions according to other methods in the literature such as effectiveness, less memory cell, high accuracy, speed, and data adaptability. The performance of the proposed approach is demonstrated by simulation and experimental results using real data in Matlab and FPGA. Some benchmark data and remote image data are used for experimental results. The comparative results with supervised/unsupervised based artificial immune system, negative selection classifier, and resource limited artificial immune classifier are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed new method.

  17. Evaluation of Mucosal and Systemic Immune Responses Elicited by GPI-0100-Adjuvanted Influenza Vaccine Delivered by Different Immunization Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Heng; Patil, Harshad P.; de Vries-Idema, Jacqueline; Wilschut, Jan; Huckriede, Anke

    2013-01-01

    Vaccines for protection against respiratory infections should optimally induce a mucosal immune response in the respiratory tract in addition to a systemic immune response. However, current parenteral immunization modalities generally fail to induce mucosal immunity, while mucosal vaccine delivery

  18. Immunizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vaccine leaves a person unprotected and still at risk for getting a disease. Other vaccinations require a booster shot every few years to ... who get diseases like mumps may be at risk for side effects of the illness, such ... children). Vaccinations are about protecting you in the future, not ...

  19. Immune defense and host life history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuk, Marlene; Stoehr, Andrew M

    2002-10-01

    Recent interest has focused on immune response in an evolutionary context, with particular attention to disease resistance as a life-history trait, subject to trade-offs against other traits such as reproductive effort. Immune defense has several characteristics that complicate this approach, however; for example, because of the risk of autoimmunity, optimal immune defense is not necessarily maximum immune defense. Two important types of cost associated with immunity in the context of life history are resource costs, those related to the allocation of essential but limited resources, such as energy or nutrients, and option costs, those paid not in the currency of resources but in functional or structural components of the organism. Resource and option costs are likely to apply to different aspects of resistance. Recent investigations into possible trade-offs between reproductive effort, particularly sexual displays, and immunity have suggested interesting functional links between the two. Although all organisms balance the costs of immune defense against the requirements of reproduction, this balance works out differently for males than it does for females, creating sex differences in immune response that in turn are related to ecological factors such as the mating system. We conclude that immune response is indeed costly and that future work would do well to include invertebrates, which have sometimes been neglected in studies of the ecology of immune defense.

  20. Local and systemic tumor immune dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enderling, Heiko

    Tumor-associated antigens, stress proteins, and danger-associated molecular patterns are endogenous immune adjuvants that can both initiate and continually stimulate an immune response against a tumor. In retaliation, tumors can hijack intrinsic immune regulatory programs that are intended to prevent autoimmune disease, thereby facilitating continued growth despite the activated antitumor immune response. In metastatic disease, this ongoing tumor-immune battle occurs at each site. Adding an additional layer of complexity, T cells activated at one tumor site can cycle through the blood circulation system and extravasate in a different anatomic location to surveil a distant metastasis. We propose a mathematical modeling framework that incorporates the trafficking of activated T cells between metastatic sites. We extend an ordinary differential equation model of tumor-immune system interactions to multiple metastatic sites. Immune cells are activated in response to tumor burden and tumor cell death, and are recruited from tumor sites elsewhere in the body. A model of T cell trafficking throughout the circulatory system can inform the tumor-immune interaction model about the systemic distribution and arrival of T cells at specific tumor sites. Model simulations suggest that metastases not only contribute to immune surveillance, but also that this contribution varies between metastatic sites. Such information may ultimately help harness the synergy of focal therapy with the immune system to control metastatic disease.

  1. NEUROTRANSMITTERS AND IMMUNITY: 1. DOPAMINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Hritcu

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine is one of the principal neurotransmitters in the central nervous system (CNC, and its neuronal pathways are involved in several key functions such as behavior (Hefco et al., 2003a,b, control of movement, endocrine regulation, immune response (Fiserova et al., 2002; Levite et al., 2001, Hritcu et al., 2006a,b,c, and cardiovascular function. Dopamine has at least five G-protein, coupled receptor subtypes, D1-D5, each arising from a different gene (Sibley et al., 1993. Traditionally, these receptors have been classified into D1-like (the D1 and D5 and D2-like (D2, D3 and D4 receptors subtypes, primarily according to their ability to stimulate or inhibit adenylate cyclase, respectively, and to their pharmacological characteristics (Seeman et al., 1993. Receptors for dopamine (particularly of D2 subclass are the primary therapeutic target in a number of neuropathological disorders including schizophrenia, Parkinson’s disease and Huntington’s chorea (Seeman et al., 1987. Neither dopamine by itself, nor dopaminergic agonists by themselves, has been shown to activate T cell function. Nevertheless, lymphocytes are most probably exposed to dopamine since the primary and secondary lymphoid organs of various mammals are markedly innervated, and contain nerve fibers which stain for tyrosine hydroxylase (Weihe et al., 1991, the enzyme responsible for dopamine synthesis. Moreover, cathecolamines and their metabolites are present in single lymphocytes and in extracts of T and B cell clones, and pharmacological inhibition of tyrosine hydroxylase reduces catecholamine levels, suggesting catecholamine synthesis by lymphocytes (Bergquist et al., 1994. The existence of putative dopamine receptors of D2, D3, D4 and D5 subtypes on immune cells has been proposed of several authors, primarily on the basis of dopaminergic ligand binding assays and specific mRNA expression as monitored by reverse transcription-PCR. Several experiments evoked the idea of a

  2. Investing in Immunity: Prepandemic Immunization to Combat Future Influenza Pandemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Jesse L

    2016-02-15

    We are unlikely, with current technologies, to have sufficient pandemic influenza vaccine ready in time to impact the first wave of the next pandemic. Emerging data show that prior immunization with an immunologically distinct hemagglutinin of the same subtype offers the potential to "prime" recipients for rapid protection with a booster dose, years later, of a vaccine then manufactured to match the pandemic strain. This article proposes making prepandemic priming vaccine(s) available for voluntary use, particularly to those at high risk of early occupational exposure, such as first responders and healthcare workers, and to others maintaining critical infrastructure. In addition to providing faster protection and potentially reducing social disruption, being able, early in a pandemic, to immunize those who had received prepandemic vaccine with one dose of the pandemic vaccine, rather than the 2 doses typically required, would reduce the total doses of pandemic vaccine then needed, extending vaccine supplies. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  3. Vitamin C and Immune Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anitra C. Carr

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin C is an essential micronutrient for humans, with pleiotropic functions related to its ability to donate electrons. It is a potent antioxidant and a cofactor for a family of biosynthetic and gene regulatory enzymes. Vitamin C contributes to immune defense by supporting various cellular functions of both the innate and adaptive immune system. Vitamin C supports epithelial barrier function against pathogens and promotes the oxidant scavenging activity of the skin, thereby potentially protecting against environmental oxidative stress. Vitamin C accumulates in phagocytic cells, such as neutrophils, and can enhance chemotaxis, phagocytosis, generation of reactive oxygen species, and ultimately microbial killing. It is also needed for apoptosis and clearance of the spent neutrophils from sites of infection by macrophages, thereby decreasing necrosis/NETosis and potential tissue damage. The role of vitamin C in lymphocytes is less clear, but it has been shown to enhance differentiation and proliferation of B- and T-cells, likely due to its gene regulating effects. Vitamin C deficiency results in impaired immunity and higher susceptibility to infections. In turn, infections significantly impact on vitamin C levels due to enhanced inflammation and metabolic requirements. Furthermore, supplementation with vitamin C appears to be able to both prevent and treat respiratory and systemic infections. Prophylactic prevention of infection requires dietary vitamin C intakes that provide at least adequate, if not saturating plasma levels (i.e., 100–200 mg/day, which optimize cell and tissue levels. In contrast, treatment of established infections requires significantly higher (gram doses of the vitamin to compensate for the increased inflammatory response and metabolic demand.

  4. Adaptive immunity in autoimmune hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhi, Maria Serena; Ma, Yun; Mieli-Vergani, Giorgina; Vergani, Diego

    2010-01-01

    The histological lesion of interface hepatitis, with its dense portal cell infiltrate consisting of lymphocytes, monocytes/macrophages and plasma cells, was the first to suggest an autoaggressive cellular immune attack in the pathogenesis of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). Immunohistochemical studies, focused on the phenotype of inflammatory cells infiltrating the liver parenchyma, have shown a predominance of alphabeta-T cells. Amongst these cells, the majority have been CD4 helper/inducers, while a sizeable minority have consisted of CD8 cytotoxic/suppressors. Lymphocytes on non-T cell lineage included natural killer cells, monocytes/macrophages and B lymphocytes. For autoimmunity to arise, the self-antigenic peptide, embraced by an human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II molecule, must be presented to an uncommitted T helper (T(H)0) lymphocyte by professional antigen-presenting cells. Once activated and according to the presence in the milieu of interleukin 12 (IL-12) or IL-4, T(H)0 lymphocytes can differentiate into T(H)1 cells, which are pivotal to macrophage activation; enhance HLA class I expression, rendering liver cells vulnerable to CD8 T-cell attack; and induce HLA class II expression on hepatocytes; or they can differentiate into T(H)2 cells, which produce IL-4, IL-10 and IL-13, cytokines favouring autoantibody production by B lymphocytes. Autoantigen recognition is tightly controlled by regulatory mechanisms, such as those exerted by CD4+CD25(high) regulatory T cells. Numerical and functional regulatory T cell impairment characterises AIH and permits the perpetuation of effector immune responses with ensuing persistent liver destruction. Advances in the study of autoreactive T cells stem mostly from AIH type 2, where the main autoantigen, cytochrome P450IID6 (CYP2D6), is known to enable characterisation of antigen-specific immune responses. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Stressor Controllability and Immune Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-10-17

    susceptibility to infectious disease . In E. Kurstak, P. V. Morozov, & Z. P. Lipowski (Eds.), Viruses , immunity, and mental health. Plenum Press, in press. w...following inmunization . a. ELISA Procedure. We-Tsof a flat bottomed microtiter plate (NUNC, certified Immunopla.e I) were coated with KLH (0.2 mi/well, 0.5 mg...because the, rats were being infected with viruses and other agents tnat could alter proliferation. We thus began to purchase pathogen-free animals and

  6. The Immune System: Basis of so much Health and Disease: 3. Adaptive Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Crispian; Georgakopoulou, Eleni A; Hassona, Yazan

    2017-04-01

    The immune system is the body’s primary defence mechanism against infections, and disturbances in the system can cause disease if the system fails in defence functions (in immunocompromised people), or if the activity is detrimental to the host (as in auto-immune and auto-inflammatory states). A healthy immune system is also essential to normal health of dental and oral tissues. This series presents the basics for the understanding of the immune system; this article covers adaptive immunity. Clinical relevance: Dental clinicians need a basic understanding of the immune system as it underlies health and disease.

  7. Zinc and immunity: An essential interrelation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maares, Maria; Haase, Hajo

    2016-12-01

    The significance of the essential trace element zinc for immune function has been known for several decades. Zinc deficiency affects immune cells, resulting in altered host defense, increased risk of inflammation, and even death. The micronutrient zinc is important for maintenance and development of immune cells of both the innate and adaptive immune system. A disrupted zinc homeostasis affects these cells, leading to impaired formation, activation, and maturation of lymphocytes, disturbed intercellular communication via cytokines, and weakened innate host defense via phagocytosis and oxidative burst. This review outlines the connection between zinc and immunity by giving a survey on the major roles of zinc in immune cell function, and their potential consequences in vivo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Mucosal immunity to pathogenic intestinal bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Lopez, Araceli; Behnsen, Judith; Nuccio, Sean-Paul; Raffatellu, Manuela

    2016-03-01

    The intestinal mucosa is a particularly dynamic environment in which the host constantly interacts with trillions of commensal microorganisms, known as the microbiota, and periodically interacts with pathogens of diverse nature. In this Review, we discuss how mucosal immunity is controlled in response to enteric bacterial pathogens, with a focus on the species that cause morbidity and mortality in humans. We explain how the microbiota can shape the immune response to pathogenic bacteria, and we detail innate and adaptive immune mechanisms that drive protective immunity against these pathogens. The vast diversity of the microbiota, pathogens and immune responses encountered in the intestines precludes discussion of all of the relevant players in this Review. Instead, we aim to provide a representative overview of how the intestinal immune system responds to pathogenic bacteria.

  9. Neuromuscular complications of immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Noah A; Trevino, Christopher R; Waheed, Waqar; Sobhani, Fatemeh; Landry, Kara K; Thomas, Alissa A; Hehir, Mike

    2018-01-17

    Immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICPI) therapy unleashes the body's natural immune system to fight cancer. ICPIs improve overall cancer survival, however, the unbridling of the immune system may induce a variety of immune-related adverse events. Neuromuscular immune complications are rare but they can be severe. Myasthenia gravis and inflammatory neuropathy are the most common neuromuscular adverse events but a variety of others including inflammatory myopathy are reported. The pathophysiologic mechanism of these autoimmune disorders may differ from that of non-ICPI-related immune diseases. Accordingly, while the optimal treatment for ICPI-related neuromuscular disorders generally follows a traditional paradigm, there are important novel considerations in selecting appropriate immunosuppressive therapy. This review presents 2 new cases, a summary of neuromuscular ICPI complications, and an approach to the diagnosis and treatment of these disorders. Muscle Nerve, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Immunity to Trichinella spiralis in irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakelin, D.; Wilson, M.M.

    1980-01-01

    Irradiation prevented the accelerated expulsion of Trichinella spiralis from mice immunized by transfer of immune mesenteric lymph node cells (IMLNC) or by prior infection. Nevertheless, worms in irradiated immune mice were smaller and less fecund than those in controls. In adoptively immunized and irradiated mice expulsion could not be achieved by increasing the numbers of IMLNC transferred, although the effect upon worm length was more severe. Thus IMLNC express a direct, anti-worm immunity which is independent of their role in worm expulsion. IMLNC cause expulsion in irradiated mice only when adequate levels of bone marrow-derived cells are available. The results are discussed in terms of a possible antibody-mediated basis for direct anti-worm immunity. (author)

  11. Incomplete immune recovery in HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaardbo, Julie C; Hartling, Hans J; Gerstoft, Jan

    2012-01-01

    -infected patients do not achieve optimal immune reconstitution despite suppression of viral replication. These patients are referred to as immunological nonresponders (INRs). INRs present with severely altered immunological functions, including malfunction and diminished production of cells within lymphopoetic...... tissue, perturbed frequencies of immune regulators such as regulatory T cells and Th17 cells, and increased immune activation, immunosenescence, and apoptosis. Importantly, INRs have an increased risk of morbidity and mortality compared to HIV-infected patients with an optimal immune reconstitution....... Additional treatment to HAART that may improve immune reconstitution has been investigated, but results thus far have proved disappointing. The reason for immunological nonresponse is incompletely understood. This paper summarizes the known and unknown factors regarding the incomplete immune reconstitution...

  12. The immune system vs. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Østrup; Givskov, Michael; Bjarnsholt, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Ilya Metchnikoff and Paul Ehrlich were awarded the Nobel price in 1908. Since then, numerous studies have unraveled a multitude of mechanistically different immune responses to intruding microorganisms. However, in the vast majority of these studies, the underlying infectious agents have appeared...... in the planktonic state. Accordingly, much less is known about the immune responses to the presence of biofilm-based infections (which is probably also due to the relatively short period of time in which the immune response to biofilms has been studied). Nevertheless, more recent in vivo and in vitro studies have...... revealed both innate as well as adaptive immune responses to biofilms. On the other hand, measures launched by biofilm bacteria to achieve protection against the various immune responses have also been demonstrated. Whether particular immune responses to biofilm infections exist remains to be firmly...

  13. Cardiac allograft immune activation: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang D

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available David Chang, Jon Kobashigawa Cedars-Sinai Heart Institute, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: Heart transplant remains the most durable option for end-stage heart disease. Cardiac allograft immune activation and heart transplant rejection remain among the main complications limiting graft and recipient survival. Mediators of the immune system can cause different forms of rejection post-heart transplant. Types of heart transplant rejection include hyperacute rejection, cellular rejection, antibody-mediated rejection, and chronic rejection. In this review, we will summarize the innate and adaptive immune responses which influence the post-heart transplant recipient. Different forms of rejection and their clinical presentation, detection, and immune monitoring will be discussed. Treatment of heart transplant rejection will be examined. We will discuss potential treatment strategies for preventing rejection post-transplant in immunologically high-risk patients with antibody sensitization. Keywords: heart transplant, innate immunity, adaptive immunity, rejection, immunosuppression

  14. Molecular and Functional Neuroscience in Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, Valentin A; Chavan, Sangeeta S; Tracey, Kevin J

    2018-04-26

    The nervous system regulates immunity and inflammation. The molecular detection of pathogen fragments, cytokines, and other immune molecules by sensory neurons generates immunoregulatory responses through efferent autonomic neuron signaling. The functional organization of this neural control is based on principles of reflex regulation. Reflexes involving the vagus nerve and other nerves have been therapeutically explored in models of inflammatory and autoimmune conditions, and recently in clinical settings. The brain integrates neuro-immune communication, and brain function is altered in diseases characterized by peripheral immune dysregulation and inflammation. Here we review the anatomical and molecular basis of the neural interface with immunity, focusing on peripheral neural control of immune functions and the role of the brain in the model of the immunological homunculus. Clinical advances stemming from this knowledge within the framework of bioelectronic medicine are also briefly outlined.

  15. Immunization of networks with community structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Naoki

    2009-01-01

    In this study, an efficient method to immunize modular networks (i.e. networks with community structure) is proposed. The immunization of networks aims at fragmenting networks into small parts with a small number of removed nodes. Its applications include prevention of epidemic spreading, protection against intentional attacks on networks, and conservation of ecosystems. Although preferential immunization of hubs is efficient, good immunization strategies for modular networks have not been established. On the basis of an immunization strategy based on eigenvector centrality, we develop an analytical framework for immunizing modular networks. To this end, we quantify the contribution of each node to the connectivity in a coarse-grained network among modules. We verify the effectiveness of the proposed method by applying it to model and real networks with modular structure.

  16. Honeybee immunity and colony losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Nazzi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The decline of honeybee colonies and their eventual collapse is a widespread phenomenon in the Northern hemisphere of the globe, which severely limits the beekeeping industry. This dramatic event is associated with an enhanced impact of parasites and pathogens on honeybees, which is indicative of reduced immunocompetence. The parasitic mite Varroa destructor and the vectored viral pathogens appear to play a key-role in the induction of this complex syndrome. In particular, the Deformed Wing Virus (DWV is widespread and is now considered, along with Varroa, one of the major causes of bee colony losses. Several lines of evidence indicate that this mite/DWV association severely affects the immune system of honeybees and makes them more sensitive to the action of other stress factors. The molecular mechanisms underpinning these complex interactions are currently being investigated and the emerging information has allowed the development of a new functional model, describing how different stress factors may synergistically concur in the induction of bee immune alteration and health decline. This provides a new logical framework in which to interpret the proposed multifactorial origin of bee colony losses and sets the stage for a more comprehensive and integrated analysis of the effect that multiple stress agents may have on honeybees.

  17. Immunologically mediated oral diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Jimson, Sudha; Balachader, N.; Anita, N.; Babu, R.

    2015-01-01

    Immune mediated diseases of oral cavity are uncommon. The lesions may be self-limiting and undergo remission spontaneously. Among the immune mediated oral lesions the most important are lichen planus, pemphigus, erythema multiformi, epidermolysis bullosa, systemic lupus erythematosis. Cellular and humoral mediated immunity play a major role directed against epithelial and connective tissue in chronic and recurrent patterns. Confirmatory diagnosis can be made by biopsy, direct and indirect imm...

  18. Report of a patient with complex composites of hepatitis B virus, allergic asthma and diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Shamsadin Athari

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available HBV is a non-cytopathic virus and cell mediated immune response against this. Humoral mediated immune response are responsible for allergic diseases. Balance between these two subsets of Th CD4+ cells are result of the immune system response. A 56 year old woman presented with chronic HBV infection, allergic asthma, type 2 diabetes mellitus and high blood pressure and high blood lipid. Patients should be followed for the allergic and autoimmune diseases along with their viral reactivation.

  19. Rab GTPases in Immunity and Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akriti Prashar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Strict spatiotemporal control of trafficking events between organelles is critical for maintaining homeostasis and directing cellular responses. This regulation is particularly important in immune cells for mounting specialized immune defenses. By controlling the formation, transport and fusion of intracellular organelles, Rab GTPases serve as master regulators of membrane trafficking. In this review, we discuss the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which Rab GTPases regulate immunity and inflammation.

  20. Rab GTPases in Immunity and Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prashar, Akriti; Schnettger, Laura; Bernard, Elliott M; Gutierrez, Maximiliano G

    2017-01-01

    Strict spatiotemporal control of trafficking events between organelles is critical for maintaining homeostasis and directing cellular responses. This regulation is particularly important in immune cells for mounting specialized immune defenses. By controlling the formation, transport and fusion of intracellular organelles, Rab GTPases serve as master regulators of membrane trafficking. In this review, we discuss the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which Rab GTPases regulate immunity and inflammation.

  1. Noise immunity of optimal tracking demodulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uriadnikov, Iu. F.; Vasilev, N. A.

    1982-05-01

    The noise immunity of optimal discrete tracking demodulators, used in space communication systems, is analyzed in the case of an arbitrary relationship between the signal pulse repetition period and the interval of message correlation. Expressions are obtained which are then used to compare the noise immunities of discrete and continuous tracking demodulators, used for the transmission of messages with spectra approximated by Butterworth polynomials. It is shown that the noise immunity of the discrete demodulator significantly deteriorates

  2. Reversibility of alcohol-induced immune depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, H; Kaiser, A H; Nielsen, B B

    1992-01-01

    Alcohol abusers have suppressed cellular immune function. The aim of the study was to investigate the time of sobriety required to normalize immune function. Delayed hypersensitivity was investigated during disulfiram controlled abstinence in ten heavy alcoholics and in seven moderate drinkers...... months of abstinence. The results suggest that while 2 weeks of abstinence from alcohol will improve the depressed cellular immunity, 2 months of sobriety is necessary to normalize it....

  3. Poppers: more evidence of suppressed immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, J S

    1999-08-20

    Evidence from studies in mice shows that exposure to isobutyl nitrite suppresses the immune system. This immune suppression allows for bacterial growth in the lungs and livers of infected mice and can inhibit the ability of mediastinal lymph nodes to respond to antigen-specific stimulation. The mechanism for immune suppression may be a reduction in CD4+ and CD8+ T cell populations in the mediastinal lymph nodes following pulmonary infection with Listeria monocytogenes.

  4. Insect Immunity: The Post-Genomic Era

    OpenAIRE

    Bangham, Jenny; Jiggins, Frank; Lemaitre, Bruno

    2006-01-01

    Insects have a complex and effective immune system, many components of which are conserved in mammals. But only in the last decade have the molecular mechanisms that regulate the insect immune response--and their relevance to general biology and human immunology--become fully appreciated. A meeting supported by the Centre National de la Récherche Scientifique (France) was held to bring together the whole spectrum of researchers working on insect immunity. The meeting addressed diverse aspects...

  5. Evolution of transgenerational immunity in invertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Pigeault, R.; Garnier, R.; Rivero, A.; Gandon, S.

    2016-01-01

    Over a decade ago, the discovery of transgenerational immunity in invertebrates shifted existing paradigms on the lack of sophistication of their immune system. Nonetheless, the prevalence of this trait and the ecological factors driving its evolution in invertebrates remain poorly understood. Here, we develop a theoretical host–parasite model and predict that long lifespan and low dispersal should promote the evolution of transgenerational immunity. We also predict that in species that produ...

  6. Feeding Our Immune System: Impact on Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Wolowczuk

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous intestinal microflora and environmental factors, such as diet, play a central role in immune homeostasis and reactivity. In addition, microflora and diet both influence body weight and insulin-resistance, notably through an action on adipose cells. Moreover, it is known since a long time that any disturbance in metabolism, like obesity, is associated with immune alteration, for example, inflammation. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on how nutrients-derived factors (mostly focusing on fatty acids and glucose impact the innate and acquired immune systems, including the gut immune system and its associated bacterial flora. We will try to show the reader how the highly energy-demanding immune cells use glucose as a main source of fuel in a way similar to that of insulin-responsive adipose tissue and how Toll-like receptors (TLRs of the innate immune system, which are found on immune cells, intestinal cells, and adipocytes, are presently viewed as essential actors in the complex balance ensuring bodily immune and metabolic health. Understanding more about these links will surely help to study and understand in a more fundamental way the common observation that eating healthy will keep you and your immune system healthy.

  7. An Immunization Strategy Based on Propagation Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yixin Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the ubiquity of smart phones, wearable equipment, and wireless sensors, the topologies of networks composed by them change along with time. The immunization strategies in which network immune nodes are chosen by analyzing the static aggregation network topologies have been challenged. The studies about interaction propagations between two pathogens show that the interaction can change propagation threshold and the final epidemic size of each other, which provides a new thinking of immunization method. The eradication or inhibition of the virus can be achieved through the spread of its opposite party. Here, we put forward an immunization strategy whose implementation does not depend on the analysis of network topology. The immunization agents are randomly placed on a few of individuals of network and spread out from these individuals on network in a propagation method. The immunization agents prevent virus infecting their habitat nodes with certain immune success rate. The analysis and simulation of evolution equation of the model show that immune propagation has a significant impact on the spread threshold and steady-state density of virus on a finite size of BA networks. Simulations on some real-world networks also suggest that the immunization strategy is feasible and effective.

  8. Training pharmacy technicians to administer immunizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeirnan, Kimberly C; Frazier, Kyle R; Nguyen, Maryann; MacLean, Linda Garrelts

    To evaluate the effectiveness of an immunization training program for pharmacy technicians on technicians' self-reported confidence, knowledge, and number of vaccines administered. A one-group pre- and posttest study was conducted with certified pharmacy technicians from Albertsons and Safeway community pharmacies in Idaho. Thirty pharmacy technicians were recruited to participate in an immunization administration training program comprising a 2-hour home study and a 2-hour live training. Pharmacy technician scores on a 10-question knowledge assessment, responses on a pre- and posttraining survey, and number of immunizations administered in the 6-month period following the training were collected. Twenty-five pharmacy technicians completed the home study and live portions of the immunization training program. All 29 pharmacy technicians who took the home study assessment passed with greater than 70% competency on the first attempt. Technicians self-reported increased confidence with immunization skills between the pretraining survey and the posttraining survey. From December 2016 to May 2017, the technicians administered 953 immunizations with 0 adverse events reported. For the first time, pharmacy technicians have legally administered immunizations in the United States. Trained pharmacy technicians demonstrated knowledge of vaccination procedures and self-reported improved confidence in immunization skills and administered immunizations after participating in a 4-hour training program. Copyright © 2018 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Overcoming Challenges to Childhood Immunizations Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabnis, Svapna S; Conway, James H

    2015-10-01

    Vaccines are one of the greatest public health achievements, preventing both mortality and morbidity. However, overall immunization rates are still below the 90% target for Healthy People 2020. There remain significant disparities in immunization rates between children of different racial/ethnic groups, as well as among economically disadvantaged populations. There are systemic issues and challenges in providing access to immunization opportunities. In addition, vaccine hesitancy contributes to underimmunization. Multiple strategies are needed to improve immunization rates, including improving access to vaccines and minimizing financial barriers to families. Vaccine status should be assessed and vaccines given at all possible opportunities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of immune organs and functioning in humans and test animals: Implications for immune intervention studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuper, C Frieke; van Bilsen, Jolanda; Cnossen, Hilde; Houben, Geert; Garthoff, Jossie; Wolterbeek, Andre

    2016-09-01

    A healthy immune status is mostly determined during early life stages and many immune-related diseases may find their origin in utero and the first years of life. Therefore, immune health optimization may be most effective during early life. This review is an inventory of immune organ maturation events in relation to developmental timeframes in minipig, rat, mouse and human. It is concluded that time windows of immune organ development in rodents can be translated to human, but minipig reflects the human timeframes better; however the lack of prenatal maternal-fetal immune interaction in minipig may cause less responsiveness to prenatal intervention. It is too early to conclude which immune parameters are most appropriate, because there are not enough comparative immune parameters. Filling these gaps will increase the predictability of results observed in experimental animals, and guide future intervention studies by assessing relevant parameters in the right corresponding developmental time frames. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The twilight of immunity: emerging concepts in aging of the immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolich-Žugich, Janko

    2018-01-01

    Immunosenescence is a series of age-related changes that affect the immune system and, with time, lead to increased vulnerability to infectious diseases. This Review addresses recent developments in the understanding of age-related changes that affect key components of immunity, including the effect of aging on cells of the (mostly adaptive) immune system, on soluble molecules that guide the maintenance and function of the immune system and on lymphoid organs that coordinate both the maintenance of lymphocytes and the initiation of immune responses. I further address the effect of the metagenome and exposome as key modifiers of immune-system aging and discuss a conceptual framework in which age-related changes in immunity might also affect the basic rules by which the immune system operates.

  12. Studies on the transfer of protective immunity with lymphoid cells from mice immune to malaria sporozoites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhave, J.P.; Strickland, G.T.; Jaffe, H.A.; Ahmed, A.

    1978-01-01

    In an effort to understand the mechanisms involved in the protective immunity to malarial sporozoites, an A/J mouse/Plasmodium berghei model was studied. Protective immunity could consistently be adoptively transferred only by using sublethal irradiation of recipients (500 R); a spleen equivalent (100 x 10 6 ) of donor cells from immune syngeneic mice; and a small booster immunization (1 x 10 4 ) of recipients with irradiation-attenuated sporozoites. Recipient animals treated in this manner were protected from lethal challenge with 1 x 10 4 nonattenuated sporozoites. Immune and nonimmune serum and spleen cells from nonimmune animals did not protect recipient mice. Fewer immune spleen cells (50 x 10 6 ) protected some recipients. In vitro treatment of immune spleen cells with anti-theta sera and complement abolished their ability to transfer protection. This preliminary study suggests that protective sporozoite immunity can be transferred with cells, and that it is T cell dependent

  13. In immune defense: redefining the role of the immune system in chronic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinow, Katya B; Rubinow, David R

    2017-03-01

    The recognition of altered immune system function in many chronic disease states has proven to be a pivotal advance in biomedical research over the past decade. For many metabolic and mood disorders, this altered immune activity has been characterized as inflammation, with the attendant assumption that the immune response is aberrant. However, accumulating evidence challenges this assumption and suggests that the immune system may be mounting adaptive responses to chronic stressors. Further, the inordinate complexity of immune function renders a simplistic, binary model incapable of capturing critical mechanistic insights. In this perspective article, we propose alternative paradigms for understanding the role of the immune system in chronic disease. By invoking allostasis or systems biology rather than inflammation, we can ascribe greater functional significance to immune mediators, gain newfound appreciation of the adaptive facets of altered immune activity, and better avoid the potentially disastrous effects of translating erroneous assumptions into novel therapeutic strategies.

  14. Barriers to Immunizations and Strategies to Enhance Immunization Rates in Adults with Autoimmune Inflammatory Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, Elizabeth; Ruffing, Victoria

    2017-02-01

    For as long as there have been immunizations, there have been barriers to them. Immunization rates in the United States are below target. Rheumatologists and rheumatology practitioners need to understand the issues of immunizations in patients with autoimmune inflammatory disease to identify and overcome barriers to immunization. Several strategies for overcoming these barriers are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Acquired and innate immunity to polyaromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusuf, Nabiha; Timares, Laura; Seibert, Megan D.; Xu Hui; Elmets, Craig A.

    2007-01-01

    Polyaromatic hydrocarbons are ubiquitous environmental pollutants that are potent mutagens and carcinogens. Researchers have taken advantage of these properties to investigate the mechanisms by which chemicals cause cancer of the skin and other organs. When applied to the skin of mice, several carcinogenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons have also been shown to interact with the immune system, stimulating immune responses and resulting in the development of antigen-specific T-cell-mediated immunity. Development of cell-mediated immunity is strain-specific and is governed by Ah receptor genes and by genes located within the major histocompatibility complex. CD8 + T cells are effector cells in the response, whereas CD4 + T cells down-regulate immunity. Development of an immune response appears to have a protective effect since strains of mice that develop a cell-mediated immune response to carcinogenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons are less likely to develop tumors when subjected to a polyaromatic hydrocarbon skin carcinogenesis protocol than mice that fail to develop an immune response. With respect to innate immunity, TLR4-deficient C3H/HeJ mice are more susceptible to polyaromatic hydrogen skin tumorigenesis than C3H/HeN mice in which TLR4 is normal. These findings support the hypothesis that immune responses, through their interactions with chemical carcinogens, play an active role in the prevention of chemical skin carcinogenesis during the earliest stages. Efforts to augment immune responses to the chemicals that cause tumors may be a productive approach to the prevention of tumors caused by these agents

  16. Integrated Circuit Electromagnetic Immunity Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sketoe, J. G.

    2000-08-01

    This handbook presents the results of the Boeing Company effort for NASA under contract NAS8-98217. Immunity level data for certain integrated circuit parts are discussed herein, along with analytical techniques for applying the data to electronics systems. This handbook is built heavily on the one produced in the seventies by McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company (MDAC, MDC Report E1929 of 1 August 1978, entitled Integrated Circuit Electromagnetic Susceptibility Handbook, known commonly as the ICES Handbook, which has served countless systems designers for over 20 years). Sections 2 and 3 supplement the device susceptibility data presented in section 4 by presenting information on related material required to use the IC susceptibility information. Section 2 concerns itself with electromagnetic susceptibility analysis and serves as a guide in using the information contained in the rest of the handbook. A suggested system hardening requirements is presented in this chapter. Section 3 briefly discusses coupling and shielding considerations. For conservatism and simplicity, a worst case approach is advocated to determine the maximum amount of RF power picked up from a given field. This handbook expands the scope of the immunity data in this Handbook is to of 10 MHz to 10 GHz. However, the analytical techniques provided are applicable to much higher frequencies as well. It is expected however, that the upper frequency limit of concern is near 10 GHz. This is due to two factors; the pickup of microwave energy on system cables and wiring falls off as the square of the wavelength, and component response falls off at a rapid rate due to the effects of parasitic shunt paths for the RF energy. It should be noted also that the pickup on wires and cables does not approach infinity as the frequency decreases (as would be expected by extrapolating the square law dependence of the high frequency roll-off to lower frequencies) but levels off due to mismatch effects.

  17. Inside the mucosal immune system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry R McGhee

    Full Text Available An intricate network of innate and immune cells and their derived mediators function in unison to protect us from toxic elements and infectious microbial diseases that are encountered in our environment. This vast network operates efficiently by use of a single cell epithelium in, for example, the gastrointestinal (GI and upper respiratory (UR tracts, fortified by adjoining cells and lymphoid tissues that protect its integrity. Perturbations certainly occur, sometimes resulting in inflammatory diseases or infections that can be debilitating and life threatening. For example, allergies in the eyes, skin, nose, and the UR or digestive tracts are common. Likewise, genetic background and environmental microbial encounters can lead to inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs. This mucosal immune system (MIS in both health and disease is currently under intense investigation worldwide by scientists with diverse expertise and interests. Despite this activity, there are numerous questions remaining that will require detailed answers in order to use the MIS to our advantage. In this issue of PLOS Biology, a research article describes a multi-scale in vivo systems approach to determine precisely how the gut epithelium responds to an inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, given by the intravenous route. This article reveals a previously unknown pathway in which several cell types and their secreted mediators work in unison to prevent epithelial cell death in the mouse small intestine. The results of this interesting study illustrate how in vivo systems biology approaches can be used to unravel the complex mechanisms used to protect the host from its environment.

  18. [Immunization against varicella and zoster].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floret, Daniel

    2007-06-01

    Two vaccines against varicella-zoster virus are available in France. These live attenuated vaccines are derived from the Oka strain used in Japan since 1974. They are indicated for healthy subjects from 12 months of age, at a dose of one injection until 12 years of age, and two injections 4-8 weeks apart for older children and adults. Seroconversion occurs in 95% of cases and the antibodies persist beyond 5 years. Clinical efficacy is about 85% against all forms of varicella and nearly 100% against severe forms. Post-exposure vaccination within 3 days may also prevent the disease. A universal immunization program against varicella was implemented in the USA in 1995. Now, with vaccine coverage at about 80%, the incidence of the disease has been reduced by 85%, with the largest decrease in 1- to 4-year-olds. Tolerability is generally good, with only mild reactions at the injection site and moderate fever The length of protection is not yet known. A two-dose schedule seems advisable to avoid breakthrough varicella, which occurs in 4% of vaccinees each year. Insufficient coverage is expected to lead to later disease onset, with more severe cases in adolescents and adults. Universal immunization could also increase the incidence of zoster. These problems indeed seem to be emerging in the United States. France has adopted restrictive guidelines on VZV vaccination, but they are expected to be revised when the combined MMR-V vaccine becomes available. Zoster vaccine, prepared with the same strain but at a higher concentration, has moderate efficacy on zoster and on post-zoster neuralgia in patients over 70. This vaccine is not yet recommended in France, because the length of protection is not known and there is a potential risk of delaying the occurrence of zoster and, thus, of increasing the risk of post zoster neuralgia.

  19. Self-consuming innate immunity in Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofius, Daniel; Mundy, John; Petersen, Morten

    2009-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) associated with the pathogen-induced hypersensitive response (HR) is a hallmark of plant innate immunity. HR PCD is triggered upon recognition of pathogen effector molecules by host immune receptors either directly or indirectly via effector modulation of host targets...

  20. Immunization registries in the EMR Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Lindsay A.; Palma, Jonathan P.; Pandher, Kiran K.; Longhurst, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The CDC established a national objective to create population-based tracking of immunizations through regional and statewide registries nearly 2 decades ago, and these registries have increased coverage rates and reduced duplicate immunizations. With increased adoption of commercial electronic medical records (EMR), some institutions have used unidirectional links to send immunization data to designated registries. However, access to these registries within a vendor EMR has not been previously reported. Purpose: To develop a visually integrated interface between an EMR and a statewide immunization registry at a previously non-reporting hospital, and to assess subsequent changes in provider use and satisfaction. Methods: A group of healthcare providers were surveyed before and after implementation of the new interface. The surveys addressed access of the California Immunization Registry (CAIR), and satisfaction with the availability of immunization information. Information Technology (IT) teams developed a “smart-link” within the electronic patient chart that provides a single-click interface for visual integration of data within the CAIR database. Results: Use of the tool has increased in the months since its initiation, and over 20,000 new immunizations have been exported successfully to CAIR since the hospital began sharing data with the registry. Survey data suggest that providers find this tool improves workflow and overall satisfaction with availability of immunization data. (p=0.009). Conclusions: Visual integration of external registries into a vendor EMR system is feasible and improves provider satisfaction and registry reporting. PMID:23923096

  1. Modulation of host immunity by tick saliva

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kotál, Jan; Langhansová, H.; Lieskovská, J.; Andersen, J. F.; Francischetti, I.M.B.; Chavakis, T.; Kopecký, J.; Pedra, J. H. F.; Kotsyfakis, Michalis; Chmelař, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 128, OCT 14 2015 (2015), s. 58-68 ISSN 1874-3919 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/12/2409 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Adaptive immunity * Innate immunity * Saliva * Salivary glands * Tick Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.867, year: 2015

  2. 45 CFR 61.16 - Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Immunity. 61.16 Section 61.16 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION HEALTHCARE INTEGRITY AND PROTECTION DATA BANK... Information by the Healthcare Integrity and Protection Data Bank § 61.16 Immunity. Individuals, entities or...

  3. Complement anaphylatoxins as immune regulators in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayegh, Eli T; Bloch, Orin; Parsa, Andrew T

    2014-08-01

    The role of the complement system in innate immunity is well characterized. However, a recent body of research implicates the complement anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a as insidious propagators of tumor growth and progression. It is now recognized that certain tumors elaborate C3a and C5a and that complement, as a mediator of chronic inflammation and regulator of immune function, may in fact foster rather than defend against tumor growth. A putative mechanism for this function is complement-mediated suppression of immune effector cells responsible for immunosurveillance within the tumor microenvironment. This paradigm accords with models of immune dysregulation, such as autoimmunity and infectious disease, which have defined a pathophysiological role for abnormal complement signaling. Several types of immune cells express the cognate receptors for the complement anaphylatoxins, C3aR and C5aR, and demonstrate functional modulation in response to complement stimulation. In turn, impairment of antitumor immunity has been intimately tied to tumor progression in animal models of cancer. In this article, the literature was systematically reviewed to identify studies that have characterized the effects of the complement anaphylatoxins on the composition and function of immune cells within the tumor microenvironment. The search identified six studies based upon models of lymphoma and ovarian, cervical, lung, breast, and mammary cancer, which collectively support the paradigm of complement as an immune regulator in the tumor microenvironment. © 2014 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Immunity to Babesia in mice I. Adoptive transfer of immunity to Babesia rodhaini with immune spleen cells and the effect of irradiation on the protection of immune mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuil, H.; Zivkovic, D.; Seinen, W.; Albers-van Bemmel, C.M.G.; Speksnijder, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    Immunisation of Balb/c mice against Babesia rodhaini by an amicarbalide- controlled infection resulted in a solid immunity which lasted for 216 days. With spleen cells of immune mice protection could be transferred both to naive mice pretreated with cyclophosphamide. Treatment of naive mice with

  5. Necroptotic signaling in adaptive and innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jennifer V; Chen, Helen C; Walsh, Craig M

    2014-11-01

    The vertebrate immune system is highly dependent on cell death for efficient responsiveness to microbial pathogens and oncogenically transformed cells. Cell death pathways are vital to the function of many immune cell types during innate, humoral and cellular immune responses. In addition, cell death regulation is imperative for proper adaptive immune self-tolerance and homeostasis. While apoptosis has been found to be involved in several of these roles in immunity, recent data demonstrate that alternative cell death pathways are required. Here, we describe the involvement of a programmed form of cellular necrosis called "necroptosis" in immunity. We consider the signaling pathways that promote necroptosis downstream of death receptors, type I transmembrane proteins of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family. The involvement of necroptotic signaling through a "RIPoptosome" assembled in response to innate immune stimuli or genotoxic stress is described. We also characterize the induction of necroptosis following antigenic stimulation in T cells lacking caspase-8 or FADD function. While necroptotic signaling remains poorly understood, it is clear that this pathway is an essential component to effective vertebrate immunity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The skin as an organ of immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J. D.

    1997-01-01

    During evolution, the skin has developed a specific immunological environment that is known as the skin immune system (SIS). A substantial number of immunological phenomena exemplify the special place the skin occupies as a peripheral immune organ. These include the continuous exposure to sun rays,

  7. how to evade the immune system?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    HCV usually induces robust immune responses, but it frequently escapes the immune defense to establish persistent infection. The fact that HCV exists as an evolving quasispecies plays an important role in the selection of escape mutants. Furthermore, several viral proteins interfere with cellular functions, in particular, ...

  8. Pathogen Pressure Puts Immune Defense into Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horrocks, Nicholas P. C.; Matson, Kevin D.; Tieleman, B. Irene

    2011-01-01

    The extent to which organisms can protect themselves from disease depends on both the immune defenses they maintain and the pathogens they face. At the same time, immune systems are shaped by the antigens they encounter, both over ecological and evolutionary time. Ecological immunologists often

  9. Performance, immunity, serum biochemical and hematological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... results suggest that supplementing broilers' diet with 5 g/kg thyme can indicate favorable influences of antibiotic growth promoter on performance without any detrimental impacts on immune responses and blood parameters. Key words: Broiler, thyme, growth performance, immunity, serum biochemistry, hematology.

  10. Determinants Of Missed Opportunities For Immunization Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors responsible for the missed opportunities included the attitude of the health worker, prolonged time of waiting to receive vaccine, immunization clashing with other schedules and transportation problem. Respondents' level ofknowledge on immunization and educational background were significantly associated with ...

  11. Population growth changes targets for immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuljapurkar, S; John, A M

    1995-01-01

    The faster the rate of population growth in developing countries, the less likely it is that current protocols for immunization against measles, rubella, and mumps will eradicate these childhood diseases. Standard protocols (timing, percentage of children to be immunized) do not take into account the rapid rates of population growth in developing countries (3.0% per year on average in sub-Saharan Africa and 2.0% in the rest of Africa, in Latin America, and in Asia, excluding China). Most public health planning models in this area were created based on static infant populations. The World Health Organization advises vaccinating at least 85% of children aged 6 to 9 months, a 3-month immunization window during which maternal antibodies are low (so the vaccination takes) and herd immunity is high (the probability that a child will encounter the disease is low because most children have been immunized). In practice, the immunization window in developing countries is 1 year or more. More susceptible children are present than assumed by the models. A larger number of susceptible babies are added each year during rapid population growth. As the age range for immunization widens, a higher percentage of children must be vaccinated to eradicate disease (chart). The proportion of each birth cohort that must be immunized rises as the population growth rate increases. At zero population growth, 94% must be vaccinated; at population growth rates greater than 3%, 98% must be vaccinated.

  12. The Immune System and Bodily Defence

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    perhaps, with others, but together, these characteristics make the immune ..... 1 year. 2 days. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. • •. •. 0. 0. 0. vV\\NVv. RESONANCE I January 1997 ... can maintain immune memory and make vaccines possible. Of course, the ...

  13. Evolution of transgenerational immunity in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigeault, R; Garnier, R; Rivero, A; Gandon, S

    2016-09-28

    Over a decade ago, the discovery of transgenerational immunity in invertebrates shifted existing paradigms on the lack of sophistication of their immune system. Nonetheless, the prevalence of this trait and the ecological factors driving its evolution in invertebrates remain poorly understood. Here, we develop a theoretical host-parasite model and predict that long lifespan and low dispersal should promote the evolution of transgenerational immunity. We also predict that in species that produce both philopatric and dispersing individuals, it may pay to have a plastic allocation strategy with a higher transgenerational immunity investment in philopatric offspring because they are more likely to encounter locally adapted pathogens. We review all experimental studies published to date, comprising 21 invertebrate species in nine different orders, and we show that, as expected, longevity and dispersal correlate with the transfer of immunity to offspring. The validity of our prediction regarding the plasticity of investment in transgenerational immunity remains to be tested in invertebrates, but also in vertebrate species. We discuss the implications of our work for the study of the evolution of immunity, and we suggest further avenues of research to expand our knowledge of the impact of transgenerational immune protection in host-parasite interactions. © 2016 The Author(s).

  14. Cerebral Innate Immunity in Drosophila Melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian P. Leung

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Modeling innate immunity in Drosophila melanogaster has a rich history that includes ground-breaking discoveries in pathogen detection and signaling. These studies revealed the evolutionary conservation of innate immune pathways and mechanisms of pathogen detection, resulting in an explosion of findings in the innate immunity field. In D. melanogaster, studies have focused primarily on responses driven by the larval fat body and hemocytes, analogs to vertebrate liver and macrophages, respectively. Aside from pathogen detection, many recent mammalian studies associate innate immune pathways with development and disease pathogenesis. Importantly, these studies stress that the innate immune response is integral to maintain central nervous system (CNS health. Microglia, which are the vertebrate CNS mononuclear phagocytes, drive vertebrate cerebral innate immunity. The invertebrate CNS contains microglial-like cells-ensheathing glia and reticular glia-that could be used to answer basic questions regarding the evolutionarily conserved innate immune processes in CNS development and health. A deeper understanding of the relationship between D. melanogaster phagocytic microglial-like cells and vertebrate microglia will be key to answering basic and translational questions related to cerebral innate immunity.

  15. Growth and recruitment in the immune network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, R.J. de; Hogeweg, P.; Perelson, A.S.

    1992-01-01

    The development of the immune repertoire during neonatal life involves a strong selection process among different clones. We investigate the hypothetis that repertoire selection is carried out during early life by the immune network. There are at least two processes in repertoire selection: clonal

  16. Learning and Memory... and the Immune System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Ioana; Kipnis, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    The nervous system and the immune system are two main regulators of homeostasis in the body. Communication between them ensures normal functioning of the organism. Immune cells and molecules are required for sculpting the circuitry and determining the activity of the nervous system. Within the parenchyma of the central nervous system (CNS),…

  17. Immune reactivity of candidate reference materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez-Rivas, Montserrat; Aalbers, Marja; Fötisch, Kay; de Heer, Pleuni; Notten, Silla; Vieths, Stefan; van Ree, Ronald

    2006-01-01

    Immune reactivity is a key issue in the evaluation of the quality of recombinant allergens as potential reference materials. Within the frame of the CREATE project, the immune reactivity of the natural and recombinant versions of the major allergens of birch pollen (Bet v 1), grass pollen (Phl p 1

  18. Genetics Home Reference: common variable immune deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disorders are immune thrombocytopenia purpura, which is an abnormal bleeding disorder caused by a decrease in cell fragments involved ... antibodies makes it difficult for people with this disorder to fight off infections. Abnormal and deficient immune responses over time likely contribute ...

  19. Antitumor Immunity Is Controlled by Tetraspanin Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleur Schaper

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Antitumor immunity is shaped by the different types of immune cells that are present in the tumor microenvironment (TME. In particular, environmental signals (for instance, soluble factors or cell–cell contact transmitted through the plasma membrane determine whether immune cells are activated or inhibited. Tetraspanin proteins are emerging as central building blocks of the plasma membrane by their capacity to cluster immune receptors, enzymes, and signaling molecules into the tetraspanin web. Whereas some tetraspanins (CD81, CD151, CD9 are widely and broadly expressed, others (CD53, CD37, Tssc6 have an expression pattern restricted to hematopoietic cells. Studies using genetic mouse models have identified important immunological functions of these tetraspanins on different leukocyte subsets, and as such, may be involved in the immune response against tumors. While multiple studies have been performed with regards to deciphering the function of tetraspanins on cancer cells, the effect of tetraspanins on immune cells in the antitumor response remains understudied. In this review, we will focus on tetraspanins expressed by immune cells and discuss their potential role in antitumor immunity. New insights in tetraspanin function in the TME and possible prognostic and therapeutic roles of tetraspanins will be discussed.

  20. Tetraspanins in the immune response against cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenbergen, S.; van Spriel, A.B.

    2011-01-01

    The role of the immune system in the defense against cancer, a process termed tumor immunosurveillance, has been extensively studied. Evidence is accumulating that the molecular organization of proteins and lipids in the plasma membrane of immune cells is of critical importance. Tetraspanin proteins

  1. Nutritional support for the infant's immune system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niers, L.; Stasse-Wolthuis, M.; Rombouts, F.M.; Rijkers, G.T.

    2007-01-01

    Newborn babies possess a functional but immature immune system as a defense against a world teeming with microorganisms. Breast milk contains a number of biological, active compounds that support the infant's immune system. These include secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA), which confers specific

  2. Immune functions in crustaceans: lessons from flies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stet, R.J.M.; Arts, J.A.J.

    2005-01-01

    In recent years insects, notably Drosophila, have emerged as a popular model for studying immune responses to bacterial and fungal pathogens. Due to the availability of the complete genome sequence, genome-wide scans of immune responses have been performed using microarray analyses. These analyses

  3. Gastrointestinal immune responses in HIV infected subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LRR Castello-Branco

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available The gut associated lymphoid tissue is responsible for specific responses to intestinal antigens. During HIV infection, mucosal immune deficiency may account for the gastrointestinal infections. In this review we describe the humoral and cellular mucosal immune responses in normal and HIV-infected subjects.

  4. Initial experience with laparoscopic splenectomy for immune ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is an immune- mediated disease characterised by thrombocytopenia, the degree of which determines the increased risk of bleeding.[1] It can be primary (idiopathic) or secondary. Secondary ITP can occur with systemic lupus erythematosus, chronic lymphocytic leukaemia,.

  5. The Immune System and Bodily Defence

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 2. The Immune System and Bodily Defence How Do Parasites and the Immune System Choose their Dances? Vineeta Bal Satyajit Rath. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 2 February 1997 pp 17-24 ...

  6. The Immune System and Bodily Defence

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 6. The Immune System and Bodily Defence How Does the Immune System Organize Itself so as to Connect Target Recognition to Expected Functions? Vineeta Bal Satyajit Rath. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 6 June 1997 pp 25-38 ...

  7. The Immune System and Bodily Defence

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 9. The Immune System and Bodily Defence How Does the Immune System Recognize Everything Under the Sun? Vineeta Bal Satyajit Rath. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 9 September 1997 pp 6-10 ...

  8. Improving microphage innate immunity by modulating protein ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Diseases that result from an infection are most often resolved by cells that use an immune response to clear foreign agents. ... The authors hypothesize that certain PTPs favour the generation of the pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages, thereby regulating the functions leading to promoting immune surveillance and killing of ...

  9. Immune Evasion by Epstein-Barr Virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ressing, Maaike E; van Gent, Michiel; Gram, Anna M; Hooykaas, Marjolein J G; Piersma, Sytse J; Wiertz, EJHJ

    2015-01-01

    Epstein-Bar virus (EBV) is widespread within the human population with over 90% of adults being infected. In response to primary EBV infection, the host mounts an antiviral immune response comprising both innate and adaptive effector functions. Although the immune system can control EBV infection to

  10. The Changing World of Childhood Immunizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graville, Iris

    2010-01-01

    Theories and practices in early childhood education continually evolve, and the same is true in the health field. Such change is especially apparent in the area of childhood immunizations. Since vaccination to prevent smallpox was first started in the late 1700s, recommendations for which immunizations to give and when to give them have been…

  11. Dendritic cells in peripheral tolerance and immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, Monika; Claesson, Mogens Helweg; Pedersen, Anders Elm

    2003-01-01

    Dendritic cells capable of influencing immunity exist as functionally distinct subsets, T cell-tolerizing and T cell-immunizing subsets. The present paper reviews how these subsets of DCs develop, differentiate and function in vivo and in vitro at the cellular and molecular level. In particular...

  12. Parents Questioning Immunization: Evaluation of an Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gust, Deborah A.; Kennedy, Allison; Weber, Deanne; Evans, Geoff; Kong, Yuan; Salmon, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To compare attitudes of parents who filed or considered filing an exemption to school immunization requirements and/or would not have their child immunized if it were not required by law (cases) to controls. To develop and evaluate a brochure intervention for parents considering an exemption. Methods: Interviews, focus groups, mailed…

  13. Early nutrition and immunity - progress and perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calder, Philip C.; Krauss-Etschmann, Susanne; de Jong, Esther C.; Dupont, Christophe; Frick, Julia-Stefanie; Frokiaer, Hanne; Heinrich, Joachim; Garn, Holger; Koletzko, Sibylle; Lack, Gideon; Mattelio, Gianluca; Renz, Harald; Sangild, Per T.; Schrezenmeir, Jürgen; Stulnig, Thomas M.; Thymann, Thomas; Wold, Agnes E.; Koletzko, Berthold

    2006-01-01

    The immune system exists to protect the host against pathogenic organisms and highly complex pathways of recognition, response, elimination and memory have evolved in order to fulfil this role. The immune system also acts to ensure tolerance to 'self', to food and other environmental components, and

  14. Immune cells in term and preterm labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Lopez, Nardhy; StLouis, Derek; Lehr, Marcus A; Sanchez-Rodriguez, Elly N; Arenas-Hernandez, Marcia

    2014-01-01

    Labor resembles an inflammatory response that includes secretion of cytokines/chemokines by resident and infiltrating immune cells into reproductive tissues and the maternal/fetal interface. Untimely activation of these inflammatory pathways leads to preterm labor, which can result in preterm birth. Preterm birth is a major determinant of neonatal mortality and morbidity; therefore, the elucidation of the process of labor at a cellular and molecular level is essential for understanding the pathophysiology of preterm labor. Here, we summarize the role of innate and adaptive immune cells in the physiological or pathological activation of labor. We review published literature regarding the role of innate and adaptive immune cells in the cervix, myometrium, fetal membranes, decidua and the fetus in late pregnancy and labor at term and preterm. Accumulating evidence suggests that innate immune cells (neutrophils, macrophages and mast cells) mediate the process of labor by releasing pro-inflammatory factors such as cytokines, chemokines and matrix metalloproteinases. Adaptive immune cells (T-cell subsets and B cells) participate in the maintenance of fetomaternal tolerance during pregnancy, and an alteration in their function or abundance may lead to labor at term or preterm. Also, immune cells that bridge the innate and adaptive immune systems (natural killer T (NKT) cells and dendritic cells (DCs)) seem to participate in the pathophysiology of preterm labor. In conclusion, a balance between innate and adaptive immune cells is required in order to sustain pregnancy; an alteration of this balance will lead to labor at term or preterm. PMID:24954221

  15. Frequent adaptive immune responses against arginase-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinenaite, Evelina; Mortensen, Rasmus Erik Johansson; Hansen, Morten

    2018-01-01

    The enzyme arginase-1 reduces the availability of arginine to tumor-infiltrating immune cells, thus reducing T-cell functionality in the tumor milieu. Arginase-1 is expressed by some cancer cells and by immune inhibitory cells, such as myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and tumor-associated...

  16. Regional specialization within the intestinal immune system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mowat, Allan M.; Agace, William Winston

    2014-01-01

    The intestine represents the largest compartment of the immune system. It is continually exposed to antigens and immunomodulatory agents from the diet and the commensal microbiota, and it is the port of entry for many clinically important pathogens. Intestinal immune processes are also increasingly...... implicated in controlling disease development elsewhere in the body. In this Review, we detail the anatomical and physiological distinctions that are observed in the small and large intestines, and we suggest how these may account for the diversity in the immune apparatus that is seen throughout...... the intestine. We describe how the distribution of innate, adaptive and innate-like immune cells varies in different segments of the intestine and discuss the environmental factors that may influence this. Finally, we consider the implications of regional immune specialization for inflammatory disease...

  17. Recent Advances in Aptamers Targeting Immune System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Piao-Ping

    2017-02-01

    The immune system plays important role in protecting the organism by recognizing non-self molecules from pathogen such as bacteria, parasitic worms, and viruses. When the balance of the host defense system is disturbed, immunodeficiency, autoimmunity, and inflammation occur. Nucleic acid aptamers are short single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) or RNA ligands that interact with complementary molecules with high specificity and affinity. Aptamers that target the molecules involved in immune system to modulate their function have great potential to be explored as new diagnostic and therapeutic agents for immune disorders. This review summarizes recent advances in the development of aptamers targeting immune system. The selection of aptamers with superior chemical and biological characteristics will facilitate their application in the diagnosis and treatment of immune disorders.

  18. Conceptual Spaces of the Immune System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierz, Walter

    2016-01-01

    The immune system can be looked at as a cognitive system. This is often done in analogy to the neuro-psychological system. Here, it is demonstrated that the cognitive functions of the immune system can be properly described within a new theory of cognitive science. Gärdenfors' geometrical framework of conceptual spaces is applied to immune cognition. Basic notions, like quality dimensions, natural properties and concepts, similarities, prototypes, saliences, etc., are related to cognitive phenomena of the immune system. Constraints derived from treating the immune system within a cognitive theory, like Gärdenfors' conceptual spaces, might well prove to be instrumental for the design of vaccines, immunological diagnostic tests, and immunotherapy.

  19. The emergence of neurotransmitters as immune modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Rafael; Pacheco, Rodrigo; Lluis, Carmen; Ahern, Gerard P; O'Connell, Peta J

    2007-09-01

    Initially, the idea that neurotransmitters could serve as immunomodulators emerged with the discovery that their release and diffusion from nervous tissue could lead to signaling through lymphocyte cell-surface receptors and the modulation of immune function. It is now evident that neurotransmitters can also be released from leukocytes and act as autocrine or paracrine modulators. Here, we review the data indicating that leukocytes synthesize and release 'neurotransmitters' and we also discuss the diverse effects that these compounds exert in a variety of immune cells. The role of neurotransmitters in immune-related diseases is also reviewed succinctly. Current and future developments in understanding the cross-talk between the immune and nervous systems will probably identify new avenues for treating immune-mediated diseases using agonists or antagonists of neurotransmitter receptors.

  20. Transport modeling: An artificial immune system approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodorović Dušan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an artificial immune system approach (AIS to modeling time-dependent (dynamic, real time transportation phenomenon characterized by uncertainty. The basic idea behind this research is to develop the Artificial Immune System, which generates a set of antibodies (decisions, control actions that altogether can successfully cover a wide range of potential situations. The proposed artificial immune system develops antibodies (the best control strategies for different antigens (different traffic "scenarios". This task is performed using some of the optimization or heuristics techniques. Then a set of antibodies is combined to create Artificial Immune System. The developed Artificial Immune transportation systems are able to generalize, adapt, and learn based on new knowledge and new information. Applications of the systems are considered for airline yield management, the stochastic vehicle routing, and real-time traffic control at the isolated intersection. The preliminary research results are very promising.

  1. Spreading of multiple epidemics with cross immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uekermann, Florian; Sneppen, Kim

    2012-09-01

    Pathogen-host relationships are the result of an ongoing coevolutionary race where the immune system of the host attempts to eliminate the pathogen, while the successful pathogen mutates to become invisible for the host's immune system. We here propose a minimal pathogen-host evolution model that takes into account cross immunization and allows for evolution of a spatially heterogeneous immune status of a population of hosts. With only the mutation rate as a determining parameter, the model allows us to produce an evolutionary tree of diseases which is highly branched, but hardly ever splits into separate long-lived trunks. Side branches remain short lived and seldom diverge to the extent of losing all cross immunizations.

  2. Immune system and melanoma biology: a balance between immunosurveillance and immune escape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passarelli, Anna; Mannavola, Francesco; Stucci, Luigia Stefania; Tucci, Marco; Silvestris, Francesco

    2017-12-01

    Melanoma is one of the most immunogenic tumors and its relationship with host immune system is currently under investigation. Many immunomodulatory mechanisms, favoring melanomagenesis and progression, have been described to interfere with the disablement of melanoma recognition and attack by immune cells resulting in immune resistance and immunosuppression. This knowledge produced therapeutic advantages, such as immunotherapy, aiming to overcome the immune evasion. Here, we review the current advances in cancer immunoediting and focus on melanoma immunology, which involves a dynamic interplay between melanoma and immune system, as well as on effects of "targeted therapies" on tumor microenvironment for combination strategies.

  3. Role of maternally derived immunity in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, P; Nayak, S K

    2009-08-01

    Maternal immunity is of paramount importance for protection of young ones at early stage of life since the immune factors of an immunocompetent female are transferred transplacentally or through colostrum, milk or yolk to an immunologically naive neonate. Both innate and adaptive type of immunity are transferred of from mother to offspring in fishes. These factors include immunoglobulin (Ig)/antibody, complement factors, lysozymes, protease inhibitors like alpha macroglobulin, different types of lectins and serine proteases like molecules. Among different types of Ig viz. IgM, IgD, IgT/IgZ and IgM-IgZ chimera types, IgM is present in most of the teleostean fishes. In teleosts, IgM either as a reduced/breakdown product or monomeric form is usually transferred to the offsprings. The maternally derived IgM usually persists for a limited duration, exhausts within the completion of yolk absorption process, and completely disappears thereafter during larval stages. Maternal transfer of immunity which provides defense to embryo and larvae depends upon the health as well as the immune status of brood fish. The overall health status of brood fish can affect breeding performances, quality seed production and protection of offsprings. However, factors such as age, maturation, reproductive behaviour and nutrition (micro and macro-nutrients) may affect the immunity in brood fishes. Besides these, seasonal changes such as photoperiods, temperature, adverse environmental conditions, and stress conditions like handling, crowding, and water pollution/contamination can also affect the immunity of brood fishes. The maintenance of the brood stock immunity at high level during vitellogenesis and oogenesis, is utmost important for reducing mortalities at larval/post larval stages through maximum/optimum transfer of maternal immunity. Brood stock immunization prior to breeding as well as selective breeding among the disease resistant families might be the ideal criteria for producing

  4. Immune mechanisms in Babesia-infected animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, R.S.

    1980-01-01

    The course of a Babesia infection depends on the species of host and parasite involved. Animals infected with virulent babesias may need chemotherapy before acquired immunity develops. Maintenance of immunity is not dependent on the presence of the parasite. Babesia infections are characteristically of long duration. The immune response to babesias includes both humoral and cellular components. Antibody levels detected in serodiagnostic tests do not relate to levels of resistance to the parasite. Some antibodies, however, appear to be protective. Antiparasitic antibodies may damage parasites in or outside the red cell and act as opsonins. T-cell-deficient and anti-lymphocyte-serum-treated rodents are more susceptible to rodent piroplasms indicating a role for T-cells as either helper cells and/or as mediators of cell-mediated immunity (CMI). There is indirect evidence of CMI, but the cell-mediated mechanisms involved in parasite killing are not known. In domestic animals immunity is largely species- and strain-specific. Antigenic variation by babesias occurs. In rodents, however, there is cross-immunity between different species of rodent piroplasms and between rodent piroplasms and some malaria parasites. Prior infection with agents such as BCG, and Corynebacterium parvum, gives mice non-specific resistance to rodent piroplasms possibly mediated through a soluble non-antibody factor. This factor may also be liberated during piroplasm infections and by being toxic to malaria parasites account for heterologous immunity. Active immunization against babesias has been achieved with avirulent strains, irradiated parasites and dead parasites in adjuvant. During Babesia infections the primary and, to a lesser degree, the secondary immune response to heterologous antigens can be depressed. Maximum depression coincides with peak parasitaemia when antigen priming may be abolished completely. Immunosuppression during Babesia infections can prolong or exacerbate concurrent

  5. Cross-immunity among allogeneic tumors of rats immunized with solid tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogasawara, Masamichi

    1979-01-01

    Several experiments were done for the study of cross-immunity among allogeneic rat tumors by immunization using gamma-irradiated or non-irradiated solid tumors. Each group of rats which were immunized with gamma-irradiation solid tumor inocula from ascites tumor cell line of tetra-ploid Hirosaki sarcoma, Usubuchi sarcoma or AH 130, showed an apparent resistance against the intraperitoneal challenge with Hirosaki sarcoma. A similar resistance was demonstrated in the case of the challenge with Usubuchi sarcoma into rats immunized with non-irradiated methylcholanthrene (MCA)-induced tumors. In using solid MCA tumors as immunogen and Hirosaki sarcoma as challenge tumor, it was also demonstrated in 2 out of 3 groups immunized with non-irradiated tumors. In the experiment of trying to induce cross-immunity between 2 MCA tumors by immunization with irradiated solid tumor only, the inhibitory effect on the growth was observed in the early stage in the treated groups as compared with the control one. From the above results, it may be considered that the immunization with irradiated solid tumors fromas cites cell lines and non-irradiated solid MCA tumors induced strong cross-immunity in general, but that the immunization with only irradiated solid MCA tumors induced weak cross-immunity commonly. (author)

  6. The cell-mediated immunity of Drosophila melanogaster: hemocyte lineages, immune compartments, microanatomy and regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honti, Viktor; Csordás, Gábor; Kurucz, Éva; Márkus, Róbert; Andó, István

    2014-01-01

    In the animal kingdom, innate immunity is the first line of defense against invading pathogens. The dangers of microbial and parasitic attacks are countered by similar mechanisms, involving the prototypes of the cell-mediated immune responses, the phagocytosis and encapsulation. Work on Drosophila has played an important role in promoting an understanding of the basic mechanisms of phylogenetically conserved modules of innate immunity. The aim of this review is to survey the developments in the identification and functional definition of immune cell types and the immunological compartments of Drosophila melanogaster. We focus on the molecular and developmental aspects of the blood cell types and compartments, as well as the dynamics of blood cell development and the immune response. Further advances in the characterization of the innate immune mechanisms in Drosophila will provide basic clues to the understanding of the importance of the evolutionary conserved mechanisms of innate immune defenses in the animal kingdom. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cross-immunity between syngeneic tumors in mice immunized with gamma-irradiated ascites tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, Hajime; Waga, Takashi; Sato, Tatsusuke; Ogasawara, Masamichi; Ito, Izumi

    1980-01-01

    C3H/He mice immunized repeatedly with irradiated (13,000 rads 60 Co) MM46 or MM48, both transplantable ascites mammary carcinomas of the same strain, were subcutaneously challenged with the identical or the different tumor. In mice immunized with irradiated MM46, the growth of challenges of not only MM46 but also MM48 was inhibited. On the other hand, in mice immunized with irradiated MM48, the growth of challenges of MM48 was inhibited, but the inhibition of the growth of MM46 was not observed. Cross-immunity, therefore, was shown by immunization with MM46 but not with MM48. These findings were considered to indicate that MM46 expressed cross-immunity against MM48 because of its high resistance to the irradiation, and that MM48 did not show cross-immunity to MM46 because of its low resistance to the irradiation. (author)

  8. The effect of maternal and paternal immune challenge on offspring immunity and reproduction in a cricket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, K B; van Lieshout, E; Simmons, L W

    2014-06-01

    Trans-generational immune priming is the transmission of enhanced immunity to offspring following a parental immune challenge. Although within-generation increased investment into immunity demonstrates clear costs on reproductive investment in a number of taxa, the potential for immune priming to impact on offspring reproductive investment has not been thoroughly investigated. We explored the reproductive costs of immune priming in a field cricket, Teleogryllus oceanicus. To assess the relative importance of maternal and paternal immune status, mothers and fathers were immune-challenged with live bacteria or a control solution and assigned to one of four treatments in which one parent, neither or both parents were immune-challenged. Families of offspring were reared to adulthood under a food-restricted diet, and approximately 10 offspring in each family were assayed for two measures of immunocompetence. We additionally quantified offspring reproductive investment using sperm viability for males and ovary mass for females. We demonstrate that parental immune challenge has significant consequences for the immunocompetence and, in turn, reproductive investment of their male offspring. A complex interaction between maternal and paternal immune status increased the antibacterial immune response of male offspring. This increased immune response was associated with a reduction in son's sperm viability, implicating a trans-generational resource trade-off between investment into immunocompetence and reproduction. Our data also show that these costs are sexually dimorphic, as daughters did not demonstrate a similar increase in immunity, despite showing a reduction in ovary mass. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  9. Studies on pathogenesis and treatment of experimental immune complex glomerulonephrtis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleuren, Gerard Johannes Maria

    1976-01-01

    Chapter 1. In this thesis an investigation into pathogenetic mechanisms of epimembranous immune complex depostion in the glomeruli was described. For this study we used two related models of experimental immune complex glemerulonephritis: the heterologous and the autologous immune complex

  10. Modulation of immune homeostasis by commensal bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Ivaylo I.; Littman, Dan R.

    2011-01-01

    Intestinal bacteria form a resident community that has co-evolved with the mammalian host. In addition to playing important roles in digestion and harvesting energy, commensal bacteria are crucial for the proper functioning of mucosal immune defenses. Most of these functions have been attributed to the presence of large numbers of “innocuous” resident bacteria that dilute or occupy niches for intestinal pathogens or induce innate immune responses that sequester bacteria in the lumen, thus quenching excessive activation of the mucosal immune system. However it has recently become obvious that commensal bacteria are not simply beneficial bystanders, but are important modulators of intestinal immune homeostasis and that the composition of the microbiota is a major factor in pre-determining the type and robustness of mucosal immune responses. Here we review specific examples of individual members of the microbiota that modify innate and adaptive immune responses, and we focus on potential mechanisms by which such species-specific signals are generated and transmitted to the host immune system. PMID:21215684

  11. Modulation of Immune Functions by Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuichi Kaminogawa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence is rapidly accumulating as to the beneficial effects of foods. However, it is not always clear whether the information is based on data evaluated impartially in a scientific fashion. Human research into whether foods modulate immune functions in either intervention studies or randomized controlled trials can be classified into three categories according to the physical state of subjects enrolled for investigation: (i studies examining the effect of foods in healthy individuals; (ii studies analyzing the effect of foods on patients with hypersensitivity; and (iii studies checking the effect of foods on immunocompromized subjects, including patients who had undergone surgical resection of cancer and newborns. The systematization of reported studies has made it reasonable to conclude that foods are able to modulate immune functions manifesting as either innate immunity (phagocytic activity, NK cell activity or acquired immunity (T cell response, antibody production. Moreover, improvement of immune functions by foods can normalize the physical state of allergic patients or cancer patients, and may reduce the risk of diseases in healthy individuals. Therefore, it is valuable to assess the immune-modulating abilities of foods by measuring at least one parameter of either innate or acquired immunity.

  12. Immune escape strategies of malaria parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollyanna Stephanie Gomes

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is one of the most life-threatening infectious diseases worldwide. Immunity to malaria is slow and short-lived despite the repeated parasite exposure in endemic areas. Malaria parasites have evolved refined machinery to evade the immune system based on a range of genetic changes that include allelic variation, biomolecular exposure of proteins and intracellular replication. All of these features increase the probability of survival in both mosquitoes and the vertebrate host. Plasmodium species escape from the first immunological trap in its invertebrate vector host, the Anopheles mosquitoes. The parasites have to pass through various immunological barriers within the mosquito such as anti-microbial molecules and the mosquito microbiota in order to achieve successful transmission to the vertebrate host. Within these hosts, Plasmodium species employ various immune evasion strategies during different life cycle stages. Parasite persistence against the vertebrate immune response depends on the balance among virulence factors, pathology, metabolic cost of the host immune response, and the parasites ability to evade the immune response. In this review we discuss the strategies that Plasmodium parasites use to avoid the vertebrate host immune system and how they promote successful infection and transmission.

  13. Immune chromatography: a quantitative radioimmunological assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.W.; Demetriades, M.; Bowen, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    Immune chromatography, a radioimmunological binding assay, employs paper chromatography to separate immune complexes from free antigen and antibodies. During chromatography free antigen and antibodies become distributed throughout the paper, while immune complexes remain near the bottoms of the strips. The chromatographic differences can be made quantitative by using either iodinated antigens or antibodies. Under these conditions nanogram quantities of antigen can be detected or antibodies in sera diluted several 1000-fold. The immune chromatography assay can also be performed as an indirect assay, since the paper strips are cut from nitrocellulose paper. In this case the immune components are absorbed by the paper during chromatography. Antigen is then detected with an iodinated second antibody. The indirect immune chromatography assay is particularly useful for identifying different sera that react with the same antigen. Reaction with the first serum before chromatography reduces the amount of antigen available to the second serum following chromatography. In addition to characterizing the immune chromatography procedure, we discuss the possible applications of chromatography assays for the quantitation of other types of molecular binding interactions. (Auth.)

  14. Addiction, adolescence, and innate immune gene induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulton T Crews

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Repeated drug use/abuse amplifies psychopathology, progressively reducing frontal lobe behavioral control and cognitive flexibility while simultaneously increasing limbic temporal lobe negative emotionality. The period of adolescence is a neurodevelopmental stage characterized by poor behavioral control as well as strong limbic reward and thrill seeking. Repeated drug abuse and/or stress during this stage increase the risk of addiction and elevate activator innate immune signaling in the brain. Nuclear factor-kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB is a key glial transcription factor that regulates proinflammatory chemokines, cytokines, oxidases, proteases, and other innate immune genes. Induction of innate brain immune gene expression (e.g., NF-κB facilitates negative affect, depression-like behaviors, and inhibits hippocampal neurogenesis. In addition, innate immune gene induction alters cortical neurotransmission consistent with loss of behavioral control. Studies with anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-depressant drugs as well as opiate antagonists link persistent innate immune gene expression to key behavioral components of addiction, e.g. negative affect-anxiety and loss of frontal cortical behavioral control. This review suggests that persistent and progressive changes in innate immune gene expression contribute to the development of addiction. Innate immune genes may represent a novel new target for addiction therapy.

  15. Nutritional strategies to optimize dairy cattle immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sordillo, L M

    2016-06-01

    Dairy cattle are susceptible to increased incidence and severity of both metabolic and infectious diseases during the periparturient period. A major contributing factor to increased health disorders is alterations in bovine immune mechanisms. Indeed, uncontrolled inflammation is a major contributing factor and a common link among several economically important infectious and metabolic diseases including mastitis, retained placenta, metritis, displaced abomasum, and ketosis. The nutritional status of dairy cows and the metabolism of specific nutrients are critical regulators of immune cell function. There is now a greater appreciation that certain mediators of the immune system can have a reciprocal effect on the metabolism of nutrients. Thus, any disturbances in nutritional or immunological homeostasis can provide deleterious feedback loops that can further enhance health disorders, increase production losses, and decrease the availability of safe and nutritious dairy foods for a growing global population. This review will discuss the complex interactions between nutrient metabolism and immune functions in periparturient dairy cattle. Details of how either deficiencies or overexposure to macro- and micronutrients can contribute to immune dysfunction and the subsequent development of health disorders will be presented. Specifically, the ways in which altered nutrient metabolism and oxidative stress can interact to compromise the immune system in transition cows will be discussed. A better understanding of the linkages between nutrition and immunity may facilitate the design of nutritional regimens that will reduce disease susceptibility in early lactation cows. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Innate and Adaptive Immunity to Mucorales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghuman, Harlene; Voelz, Kerstin

    2017-09-05

    Mucormycosis is an invasive fungal infection characterised by rapid filamentous growth, which leads to angioinvasion, thrombosis, and tissue necrosis. The high mortality rates (50-100%) associated with mucormycosis are reflective of not only the aggressive nature of the infection and the poor therapeutics currently employed, but also the failure of the human immune system to successfully clear the infection. Immune effector interaction with Mucorales is influenced by the developmental stage of the mucormycete spore. In a healthy immune environment, resting spores are resistant to phagocytic killing. Contrarily, swollen spores and hyphae are susceptible to damage and degradation by macrophages and neutrophils. Under the effects of immune suppression, the recruitment and efficacy of macrophage and neutrophil activity against mucormycetes is considerably reduced. Following penetration of the endothelial lining, Mucorales encounter platelets. Platelets adhere to both mucormycete spores and hyphae, and exhibit germination suppression and hyphal damage capacity in vitro. Dendritic cells are activated in response to Mucorales hyphae only, and induce adaptive immunity. It is crucial to further knowledge regarding our immune system's failure to eradicate resting spores under intact immunity and inhibit fungal growth under immunocompromised conditions, in order to understand mucormycosis pathogenicity and enhance therapeutic strategies for mucormycosis.

  17. The immortality of humoral immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgueta, Raul; de Vries, Victor C; Noelle, Randolph J

    2010-07-01

    Decades of high-titered antibody are sustained due to the persistence of memory B cells and long-lived plasma cells (PCs). The differentiation of each of these subsets is antigen- and T-cell driven and is dependent on signals acquired and integrated during the germinal center response. Inherent in the primary immune response must be the delivery of signals to B cells to create these populations, which have virtual immortality. Differences in biology and chemotactic behavior disperse memory B cells and long-lived PCs to a spectrum of anatomic sites. Each subset must rely on survival factors that can support their longevity. This review focuses on the generation of each of these subsets, their survival, and renewal, which must occur to sustain serological memory. In this context, we discuss the role of antigen, bystander inflammation, and cellular niches. The contribution of BAFF (B-cell activating factor belonging to the tumor necrosis factor family) and APRIL (a proliferation-inducing ligand) to the persistence of memory B cells and PCs are also detailed. Insights that have been provided over the past few years in the regulation of long-lived B-cell responses will have profound impact on vaccine development, the treatment of pre-sensitized patients for organ transplantation, and therapeutic interventions in both antibody- and T-cell-mediated autoimmunity.

  18. Improving immunization approaches to cholera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Amit; Rosewell, Alexander; Hayen, Andrew; MacIntyre, C Raina; Qadri, Firdausi

    2017-03-01

    Cholera's impact is greatest in resource-limited countries. In the last decade several large epidemics have led to a global push to improve and implement the tools for cholera prevention and control. Areas covered: PubMed, Google Scholar and the WHO website were searched to review the literature and summarize the current status of cholera vaccines to make recommendations on improving immunization approaches to cholera. Oral cholera vaccines (OCVs) have demonstrated their effectiveness in endemic, outbreak response and emergency settings, highlighting their potential for wider adoption. While two doses of the currently available OCVs are recommended by manufacturers, a single dose would be easier to implement. Encouragingly, recent studies have shown that cold chain requirements may no longer be essential. The establishment of the global OCV stockpile in 2013 has been a major advance in cholera preparedness. New killed and live-attenuated vaccines are being actively explored as candidate vaccines for endemic settings and/or as a traveller's vaccine. The recent advances in cholera vaccination approaches should be considered in the global cholera control strategy. Expert commentary: The development of affordable cholera vaccines is a major success to improve cholera control. New vaccines and country specific interventions will further reduce the burden of this disease globally.

  19. Effects of anti-schistosomal chemotherapy on immune responses, protection and immunity. II. Concomitant immunity and immunization with irradiated cercariae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawfik, A.F.; Colley, D.G.

    1986-01-01

    Resistance of mice to challenge infections of Schistosoma mansoni was evaluated before and after elimination of their primary, established S. mansoni infections with the chemotherapeutic drug praziquantel. Mice treated after either 10 or 20 weeks of primary infection were challenged 6 or 10 weeks after treatment. Mice infected for for 10 weeks prior to treatment expressed progressively less resistance 6 and 10 weeks after treatment. By 10 weeks after treatment significant levels of protection were no longer observed. Resistance waned more slowly if mice were treated 20 weeks after infection, and there was still significant expression of resistance to challenge 10 weeks after treatment. A separate set of experiments evaluated the use of highly irradiated cercariae as a vaccine in mice that had been previously infected with S. mansoni and cured with praziquantel. It was observed that effective immunizations were possible in previously infected mice. These studies demonstrate that established resistance waned after treatment and the rate of loss of protection was dependent upon the duration of infection prior to treatment. Furthermore, the irradiated cercarial vaccine studies indicate that in the murine model induction of immunological resistance was feasible following chemotherapeutic treatment of infected populations

  20. Local immune mechanisms against parasites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, S.

    1981-01-01

    The secretory immunological system of the gastrointestinal tract is associated with the production of secretory IgA immunoglobulins. However, despite the fact that secretory IgA antibodies are known to mediate protection against infection with a number of bacteria and viruses, little information is available on their role in protection against infection with parasites. Thus, although elevated levels of IgA immunoglobulins and antibodies are present in the gastrointestinal tract after infection with a number of helminths and protozoa, conclusive evidence that these are associated with protection against infection is often lacking. However, it has now been demonstrated that intestinal IgA antibodies are associated with protection against infection with Taenia taeniaeformis in mice. In addition, secretory IgA antibodies arising from the common mucosal immunological system of the mammary gland are associated with protection against infection with T. taeniaeformis in mice and rats. Thus, since the portal of entry and site of residence of many parasites is the gastrointestinal tract, the secretory immunological system may act as a first line of defence against infection, and it is possible that oral immunization and local stimulation of the gastrointestinal tract may be effective in inducing protection against infection. The use of nuclear techniques (radioisotope-labelled IgA, autoradiography to follow the role of hepatocytes in IgA transport across the liver) are mentioned marginally only in this review

  1. The Epidemiology of Immune Thrombocytopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter F Schlech

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Three cases of immune thrombocytopenia (ITP associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection prompted a review of community-acquired thrombocytopenia in Nova Scotia from January 1980 to December 1987. Two hundred and seven patients meeting the case definition of ITP were identified. The incidence of ITP rose from 2.0×105 in 1980 to 3.3×105 in 1987. More cases of ITP in the sexually active population occurred between 1984 and 1987 than in the previous four years (P=0.034. All three cases of known HIV associated ITP were captured in the retrospective surveillance system. The study concluded that increases in community-acquired ITP in a sexually active population may be a surrogate marker of the HIV epidemic, even in geographic areas with a low seroprevalence for HIV. Serological tests for HIV infection should be a routine part of the diagnostic investigation of ITP in all sexually active patients or those with other potential risk factors for HIV infection.

  2. Non-specific immunization against babesiosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, F.E.G.

    1980-01-01

    The rodent babesias, Babesia rodhaini and the less virulent B. microti, are useful models with which to study immunity to and immunization against babesiosis. In contrast with the difficulty in inducing specific immunity to these parasites it is comparatively easy to induce non-specific immunity by prior exposure to related and unrelated intra-erythrocytic protozoa, micro-organisms such as Mycobacterium bovis (BCG) and Corynebacterium parvum, microbial extracts and muramyl dipeptide. This non-specific immunity is long lasting and extremely effective. It is characterized by the facts that (a) it occurs early in the infection at the height of the first peak of parasitaemia, and (b) it involves the intra-erythrocytic death of the parasites. After the primary parasitaemia has resolved, some parasites continue to persist at a low level and when introduced into clean mice produce only low-level 'attenuated' infections in these. Non-specific immunity is not equally effective in all strains of mice. It is suggested that immunity to babesiosis, and infections caused by other intra-erythrocytic protozoa, involves two mechanisms, the first non-specific and the second specific. The actual balance between these two mechanisms varies from parasite to parasite and from host to host. An effective vaccine would have to be based on an understanding of the roles of non-specific immunity in the actual disease under consideration, and would ideally combine an adjuvant that would also stimulate non-specific immunity and an attenuated strain of parasite that would induce a specific response. (author)

  3. Immune Evasion by Epstein-Barr Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ressing, Maaike E; van Gent, Michiel; Gram, Anna M; Hooykaas, Marjolein J G; Piersma, Sytse J; Wiertz, Emmanuel J H J

    2015-01-01

    Epstein-Bar virus (EBV) is widespread within the human population with over 90% of adults being infected. In response to primary EBV infection, the host mounts an antiviral immune response comprising both innate and adaptive effector functions. Although the immune system can control EBV infection to a large extent, the virus is not cleared. Instead, EBV establishes a latent infection in B lymphocytes characterized by limited viral gene expression. For the production of new viral progeny, EBV reactivates from these latently infected cells. During the productive phase of infection, a repertoire of over 80 EBV gene products is expressed, presenting a vast number of viral antigens to the primed immune system. In particular the EBV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ memory T lymphocytes can respond within hours, potentially destroying the virus-producing cells before viral replication is completed and viral particles have been released. Preceding the adaptive immune response, potent innate immune mechanisms provide a first line of defense during primary and recurrent infections. In spite of this broad range of antiviral immune effector mechanisms, EBV persists for life and continues to replicate. Studies performed over the past decades have revealed a wide array of viral gene products interfering with both innate and adaptive immunity. These include EBV-encoded proteins as well as small noncoding RNAs with immune-evasive properties. The current review presents an overview of the evasion strategies that are employed by EBV to facilitate immune escape during latency and productive infection. These evasion mechanisms may also compromise the elimination of EBV-transformed cells, and thus contribute to malignancies associated with EBV infection.

  4. Cancer as an immune-mediated disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shurin MR

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Michael R ShurinDepartments of Pathology and Immunology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USAAbstract: The link between oncology and immunology has a long history and its development is forced by the necessity to develop innovative and highly efficient modalities for immunological destruction of malignant cells. The limited efficacy of surgery, chemotherapy and radiation also exemplify these issues, as these treatments do not eliminate all cancerous cells, do not address the immunosuppressive nature of the disease and can further impair the patient's immune response weakening patient's resistance to the cancer. Multidisciplinary analysis of the interaction between the immune system and cancer in preclinical and clinical settings suggests that the immune system is closely intertwined with both cancer pathogenesis and treatment. On the one hand, cancer is a manifestation of malfunctions in immunity, as malignant cells manage to escape recognition and elimination by the immune system. Chronic infections and inflammation associated with limited or polarized immune responses also contribute to carcinogenesis and tumor progression. The tumor immunoenvironment represents specific conditions and elements that support cancerous cell survival, proliferation and spreading. On the other hand, the specificity and strength of antitumor immunity is a powerful and efficient tool that can be used to recognize and destroy neoplastic cells or their supporting microenvironment. Understanding the role of the immune system in controlling and supporting tumor initiation, formation, growth and progression has crucial implications for cancer therapy and will therefore guide the future development of cancer immunotherapy and its combination with conventional therapies to achieve optimal antitumor effects in patients with different types of cancer.Keywords: tumor immunology and immunotherapy, tumor immunoenvironment, cancer, immunosuppression

  5. Knowledge, attitude and practice of childhood immunization among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Objectives: Vaccine preventable diseases cause significant morbidity ... This study determined childhood immunization uptake and associated factors ... The commonest immunizations missed were measles and yellow fever.

  6. The interrelationship between clinical and immunity variables in epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalinin Vladimir V.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The role of cellular immunity in the pathogenesis of epilepsy, as an interaction between immunity and clinical and neurobiological variables is not properly understood.

  7. 75 FR 30044 - Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ..., Kent ``Oz'' Nelson Auditorium, Atlanta, Georgia 30333. Status: Open to the public, limited only by the... for More Information: Antonette Hill, Immunization Services Division, National Center for Immunization...

  8. Impact of Pharmacist Immunization Authority on Seasonal Influenza Immunization Rates Across States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozd, Edward M; Miller, Laura; Johnsrud, Michael

    2017-08-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the impact on immunization rates of policy changes that allowed pharmacists to administer influenza immunizations across the United States. Influenza immunization rates across states were compared before and after policy changes permitting pharmacists to administer influenza immunizations. The study used Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey data on influenza immunization rates between 2003 and 2013. Logistic regression models were constructed and incorporated adjustments for the complex sample design of the BRFSS to predict the likelihood of a person receiving an influenza immunization based on various patient health, demographic, and access to care factors. Overall, as states moved to allow pharmacists to administer influenza immunizations, the odds that an adult resident received an influenza immunization rose, with the effect increasing over time. The average percentage of people receiving influenza immunizations in states was 35.1%, rising from 32.2% in 2003 to 40.3% in 2013. The policy changes were associated with a long-term increase of 2.2% to 7.6% in the number of adults aged 25 to 59 years receiving an influenza immunization (largest for those aged 35-39 years) and no significant change for those younger or older. These findings suggest that pharmacies and other nontraditional settings may offer accessible venues for patients when implementing other public health initiatives. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Immune Genetic Learning of Fuzzy Cognitive Map

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Chun-mei; HE Yue; TANG Bing-yong

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a hybrid methodology of automatically constructing fuzzy cognitive map (FCM). The method uses immune genetic algorithm to learn the connection matrix of FCM. In the algorithm, the DNA coding method is used and an immune operator based on immune mechanism is constructed. The characteristics of the system and the experts' knowledge are abstracted as vaccine for restraining the degenerative phenomena during evolution so as to improve the algorithmic efficiency. Finally, an illustrative example is provided, and its results suggest that the method is capable of automatically generating FCM model.

  10. Correlates of Immunity to Filovirus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Bavari

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Filoviruses can cause severe, often fatal hemorrhagic fever in humans. Recent advances in vaccine and therapeutic drug development have provided encouraging data concerning treatment of these infections. However, relatively little is known about immune responses in fatal versus non-fatal filovirus infection. This review summarizes the published literature on correlates of immunity to filovirus infection, and highlights deficiencies in our knowledge on this topic. It is likely that there are several types of successful immune responses, depending on the type of filovirus, and the presence and timing of vaccination or drug treatment.

  11. Mechanism of immune evasion in breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mozhi; Zhang, Changwang; Song, Yongxi; Wang, Zhenning; Wang, Yaojia; Luo, Fang; Xu, Yujie; Zhao, Yi; Wu, Zhonghua; Xu, Yingying

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is the most common malignant tumor among women, with high morbidity and mortality. Its onset, development, metastasis, and prognosis vary among individuals due to the interactions between tumors and host immunity. Many diverse mechanisms have been associated with BC, with immune evasion being the most widely studied to date. Tumor cells can escape from the body’s immune response, which targets abnormal components and foreign bodies, using different approaches including modification of surface antigens and modulation of the surrounding environment. In this review, we summarize the mechanisms and factors that impact the immunoediting process and analyze their functions in detail. PMID:28352189

  12. Immunotherapy and Immune Evasion in Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, Archana; Vaishampayan, Ulka; Lum, Lawrence G.

    2013-01-01

    Metastatic prostate cancer remains to this day a terminal disease. Prostatectomy and radiotherapy are effective for organ-confined diseases, but treatment for locally advanced and metastatic cancer remains challenging. Although advanced prostate cancers treated with androgen deprivation therapy achieves debulking of disease, responses are transient with subsequent development of castration-resistant and metastatic disease. Since prostate cancer is typically a slowly progressing disease, use of immune-based therapies offers an advantage to target advanced tumors and to induce antitumor immunity. This review will discuss the clinical merits of various vaccines and immunotherapies in castrate resistant prostate cancer and challenges to this evolving field of immune-based therapies

  13. Immunotherapy and Immune Evasion in Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakur, Archana, E-mail: thakur@karmanos.org; Vaishampayan, Ulka [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Lum, Lawrence G., E-mail: thakur@karmanos.org [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Department of Medicine, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Department of Immunology and Microbiology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States)

    2013-05-24

    Metastatic prostate cancer remains to this day a terminal disease. Prostatectomy and radiotherapy are effective for organ-confined diseases, but treatment for locally advanced and metastatic cancer remains challenging. Although advanced prostate cancers treated with androgen deprivation therapy achieves debulking of disease, responses are transient with subsequent development of castration-resistant and metastatic disease. Since prostate cancer is typically a slowly progressing disease, use of immune-based therapies offers an advantage to target advanced tumors and to induce antitumor immunity. This review will discuss the clinical merits of various vaccines and immunotherapies in castrate resistant prostate cancer and challenges to this evolving field of immune-based therapies.

  14. Childhood immunization: when physicians and parents disagree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmour, Joan; Harrison, Christine; Asadi, Leyla; Cohen, Michael H; Vohra, Sunita

    2011-11-01

    Persistent fears about the safety and efficacy of vaccines, and whether immunization programs are still needed, have led a significant minority of parents to refuse vaccination. Are parents within their rights when refusing to consent to vaccination? How ought physicians respond? Focusing on routine childhood immunization, we consider the ethical, legal, and clinical issues raised by 3 aspects of parental vaccine refusal: (1) physician counseling; (2) parental decision-making; and (3) continuing the physician-patient relationship despite disagreement. We also suggest initiatives that could increase confidence in immunization programs.

  15. The Immune Epitope Database 2.0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoof, Ilka; Vita, R; Zarebski, L

    2010-01-01

    The Immune Epitope Database (IEDB, www.iedb.org) provides a catalog of experimentally characterized B and T cell epitopes, as well as data on Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) binding and MHC ligand elution experiments. The database represents the molecular structures recognized by adaptive...... immune receptors and the experimental contexts in which these molecules were determined to be immune epitopes. Epitopes recognized in humans, nonhuman primates, rodents, pigs, cats and all other tested species are included. Both positive and negative experimental results are captured. Over the course...

  16. Modulating the immune system through nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacoba, Tamara G; Olivera, Ana; Torres, Dolores; Crecente-Campo, José; Alonso, María José

    2017-12-01

    Nowadays, nanotechnology-based modulation of the immune system is presented as a cutting-edge strategy, which may lead to significant improvements in the treatment of severe diseases. In particular, efforts have been focused on the development of nanotechnology-based vaccines, which could be used for immunization or generation of tolerance. In this review, we highlight how different immune responses can be elicited by tuning nanosystems properties. In addition, we discuss specific formulation approaches designed for the development of anti-infectious and anti-autoimmune vaccines, as well as those intended to prevent the formation of antibodies against biologicals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Adaptive Immunity to Cryptococcus neoformans Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane Mukaremera

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Cryptococcus neoformans/Cryptococcus gattii species complex is a group of fungal pathogens with different phenotypic and genotypic diversity that cause disease in immunocompromised patients as well as in healthy individuals. The immune response resulting from the interaction between Cryptococcus and the host immune system is a key determinant of the disease outcome. The species C. neoformans causes the majority of human infections, and therefore almost all immunological studies focused on C. neoformans infections. Thus, this review presents current understanding on the role of adaptive immunity during C. neoformans infections both in humans and in animal models of disease.

  18. Antimicrobial peptides in innate immune responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, O.E.; Borregaard, N.; Cole, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are ancient effector molecules in the innate immune response of eukaryotes. These peptides are important for the antimicrobial efficacy of phagocytes and for the innate immune response mounted by epithelia of humans and other mammals. AMPs are generated either by de...... novo synthesis or by proteolytic cleavage from antimicrobially inactive proproteins. Studies of human diseases and animal studies have given important clues to the in vivo role of AMPs. It is now evident that dysregulation of the generation of AMPs in innate immune responses plays a role in certain...

  19. Resilience: Building immunity in psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shastri, Priyvadan Chandrakant

    2013-01-01

    The challenges in our personal, professional, financial, and emotional world are on rise, more so in developing countries and people will be longing for mental wellness for achieving complete health in their life. Resilience stands for one's capacity to recover from extremes of trauma and stress. Resilience in a person reflects a dynamic union of factors that encourages positive adaptation despite exposure to adverse life experiences. One needs to have a three-dimensional construct for understanding resilience as a state (what is it and how does one identify it?), a condition (what can be done about it?), and a practice (how does one get there?). Evaluating the level of resilience requires the measurement of internal (personal) and external (environmental) factors, taking into account that family and social environment variables of resilience play very important roles in an individual's resilience. Protection factors seem to be more important in the development of resilience than risk factors. Resilience is a process that lasts a lifetime, with periods of acquisition and maintenance, and reduction and loss for assessment. Overall, currently available data on resilience suggest the presence of a neurobiological substrate, based largely on genetics, which correlates with personality traits, some of which are configured via social learning. The major questions about resilience revolve around properly defining the concept, identifying the factors involved in its development and recognizing whether it is actually possible to immunize mental health against adversities. In the clinical field, it may be possible to identify predisposing factors or risk factors for psychopathologies and to develop new intervention strategies, both preventive and therapeutic, based on the concept of resilience. The preferred environments for application of resilience are health, education, and social policy and the right approach in integrating; it can be developed only with more research

  20. Cross-immunity among allogeneic tumors in rats immunized with gamma-irradiated ascites tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Tatsusuke; Suga, Michio; Kudo, Hajime; Waga, Takashi; Ogasawara, Masamichi

    1980-01-01

    Non-inbred rats of the Gifu strain were intraperitoneally challenged with Hirosaki sarcoma (Tetraploid type, 10 5 cells) after repeated immunization with gamma-irradiated (13,000 rads 60 Co) allogeneic non-viral tumors of ascites type (Tetraploid or diploid type of Hirosaki sarcoma, Usubuchi sarcoma or AH130). In rats immunized not only with the same tumor as the immunizing tumor but also with a different tumor, the growth of the challenge tumor was markedly inhibited as compared with the control in non-immunized rats. It is considered that these tumors retained common antigen(s) by the resistance to irradiation because of their form of ascites tumor. The marked cross-immunity in rats immunized with AH130 may be explained by the fact that gamma-irradiated AH130 cells were alive longer in the peritoneal cavity than other tumors on account of its high resistance to irradiation. (author)

  1. Measuring the immune system: a comprehensive approach for the analysis of immune functions in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claus, Maren; Dychus, Nicole; Ebel, Melanie; Damaschke, Jürgen; Maydych, Viktoriya; Wolf, Oliver T; Kleinsorge, Thomas; Watzl, Carsten

    2016-10-01

    The immune system is essential to provide protection from infections and cancer. Disturbances in immune function can therefore directly affect the health of the affected individual. Many extrinsic and intrinsic factors such as exposure to chemicals, stress, nutrition and age have been reported to influence the immune system. These influences can affect various components of the immune system, and we are just beginning to understand the causalities of these changes. To investigate such disturbances, it is therefore essential to analyze the different components of the immune system in a comprehensive fashion. Here, we demonstrate such an approach which provides information about total number of leukocytes, detailed quantitative and qualitative changes in the composition of lymphocyte subsets, cytokine levels in serum and functional properties of T cells, NK cells and monocytes. Using samples from a cohort of 24 healthy volunteers, we demonstrate the feasibility of our approach to detect changes in immune functions.

  2. Pathogen recognition in the innate immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Himanshu; Kawai, Taro; Akira, Shizuo

    2009-04-28

    Immunity against microbial pathogens primarily depends on the recognition of pathogen components by innate receptors expressed on immune and non-immune cells. Innate receptors are evolutionarily conserved germ-line-encoded proteins and include TLRs (Toll-like receptors), RLRs [RIG-I (retinoic acid-inducible gene-I)-like receptors] and NLRs (Nod-like receptors). These receptors recognize pathogens or pathogen-derived products in different cellular compartments, such as the plasma membrane, the endosomes or the cytoplasm, and induce the expression of cytokines, chemokines and co-stimulatory molecules to eliminate pathogens and instruct pathogen-specific adaptive immune responses. In the present review, we will discuss the recent progress in the study of pathogen recognition by TLRs, RLRs and NLRs and their signalling pathways.

  3. Immune intervention in type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, Aaron W; Eisenbarth, George S

    2011-06-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a chronic autoimmune disease that results in the specific immune destruction of insulin producing beta cells. Currently there is no cure for T1D and treatment for the disease consists of lifelong administration of insulin. Immunotherapies aimed at preventing beta cell destruction in T1D patients with residual c-peptide or in individuals developing T1D are being evaluated. Networks of researchers such as TrialNet and the Immune Tolerance Network in the U.S. and similar networks in Europe have been established to evaluate such immunotherapies. This review focuses on immune intervention for the prevention and amelioration of human T1D with a focus on potential immune suppressive, antigen specific and environmental therapies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Metabolic immune restraints: implications for anticancer vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocellin, Simone

    2010-01-01

    Metabolic immune restraints belong to a highly complex network of molecular mechanisms underlying the failure of naturally occurring and therapeutically induced immune responses against cancer. In the light of the disappointing results yielded so far with anticancer vaccines in the clinical setting, the dissection of the cascade of molecular events leading to tumor immune escape appears the most promising way to develop more effective immunotherapeutic strategies. Here we review the significant advances recently made in the understanding of the tumor-specific metabolic features that contribute to keep malignant cells from being recognized and destroyed by immune effectors. These mechanistic insights are fostering the development of rationally designed therapeutics aimed to revert the immunosuppressive circuits and thus to enhance the effectiveness of anticancer vaccines.

  5. Immune Epitope Database and Analysis Resource (IEDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This repository contains antibody/B cell and T cell epitope information and epitope prediction and analysis tools for use by the research community worldwide. Immune...

  6. Cholinergic Modulation of Type 2 Immune Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goele Bosmans

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the bidirectional relationship between the nervous and immune system has become increasingly clear, and its role in both homeostasis and inflammation has been well documented over the years. Since the introduction of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, there has been an increased interest in parasympathetic regulation of both innate and adaptive immune responses, including T helper 2 responses. Increasing evidence has been emerging suggesting a role for the parasympathetic nervous system in the pathophysiology of allergic diseases, including allergic rhinitis, asthma, food allergy, and atopic dermatitis. In this review, we will highlight the role of cholinergic modulation by both nicotinic and muscarinic receptors in several key aspects of the allergic inflammatory response, including barrier function, innate and adaptive immune responses, and effector cells responses. A better understanding of these cholinergic processes mediating key aspects of type 2 immune disorders might lead to novel therapeutic approaches to treat allergic diseases.

  7. Viral subversion of the immune system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillet, L.; Vanderplasschen, A.

    2005-01-01

    The continuous interactions between host and viruses during their co-evolution have shaped not only the immune system but also the countermeasures used by viruses. Studies in the last decade have described the diverse arrays of pathways and molecular targets that are used by viruses to elude immune detection or destruction, or both. These include targeting of pathways for major histocompatibility complex class I and class II antigen presentation, natural killer cell recognition, apoptosis, cytokine signalling, and complement activation. This paper provides an overview of the viral immune-evasion mechanisms described to date. It highlights the contribution of this field to our understanding of the immune system, and the importance of understanding this aspect of the biology of viral infection to develop efficacious and safe vaccines. (author)

  8. Mitochondrial contribution to innate immune pathways | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... that alert neighbouring cells to the infection, particularly cells of the immune system. ... Bello (Chile), and the National Institute of Biological Sciences (China). ... research competition of the Joint Canada-Israel Health Research Program, ...

  9. Effects of microbes on the immune system

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fujinami, Robert S; Cunningham, Madeleine W

    2000-01-01

    .... The book synthesizes recent discoveries on the various mechanisms by which microbes subvert the immune response and on the role of these immunologic mechanisms in the pathogenesis of infectious diseases...

  10. Immunity to VHS virus in rainbow trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Niels; Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Koch, C.

    1999-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is the rhabdovirus that causes most disease problems in farmed rainbow trout in Europe. Survivors of infection are usually immune to reinfection but as with other fish viruses, development of a modern recombinant vaccine has been complicated by the limited...... knowledge of the immune mechanisms and antigens involved in induction of immunity. Neutralizing and protective monoclonal antibodies recognize the envelope glycoprotein (G protein) which is the only viral protein known to be present on the surface of the virus particle. Immunoblotting analyses...... with monoclonal antibodies as well as with sera from immunized trout have indicated that protein conformation plays an important role in neutralization epitopes. The virus neutralizing activity often found in sera from convalescent trout is highly dependent on a poorly defined complementing activity in normal...

  11. The influence of pregnancy on systemic immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Michael; Sperling, Rhoda S; Moran, Thomas M; Kraus, Thomas A

    2012-12-01

    Adaptations in maternal systemic immunity are presumed to be responsible for observed alterations in disease susceptibility and severity as pregnancy progresses. Epidemiological evidence as well as animal studies have shown that influenza infections are more severe during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy, resulting in greater morbidity and mortality, although the reason for this is still unclear. Our laboratory has taken advantage of 20 years of experience studying the murine immune response to respiratory viruses to address questions of altered immunity during pregnancy. With clinical studies and unique animal model systems, we are working to define the mechanisms responsible for altered immune responses to influenza infection during pregnancy and what roles hormones such as estrogen or progesterone play in these alterations.

  12. Immune Reactions Among Marine and Other Invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Frederik B.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the defense mechanisms and immune reaction found in invertebrates, and examines the wealth of related biological problems that need study and many of the leads that have recently been developed. (JR)

  13. An immune origin of type 2 diabetes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolb, H; Mandrup-Poulsen, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Subclinical, low-grade systemic inflammation has been observed in patients with type 2 diabetes and in those at increased risk of the disease. This may be more than an epiphenomenon. Alleles of genes encoding immune/inflammatory mediators are associated with the disease, and the two major...... environmental factors the contribute to the risk of type 2 diabetes-diet and physical activity-have a direct impact on levels of systemic immune mediators. In animal models, targeting of immune genes enhanced or suppressed the development of obesity or diabetes. Obesity is associated with the infiltration...... and proinflammatory activity of macrophages in adipose tissue, and immune mediators may be important regulators of insulin resistance, mitochondrial function, ectopic lipid storage and beta cell dysfunction or death. Intervention studies targeting these pathways would help to determine the contribution...

  14. Future targets for immune therapy in colitis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Nanna Ny; Claesson, M H

    2008-01-01

    Crohn's disease and Ulcerative Colitis, collectively termed inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), are chronic inflammatory disorders of the bowel. It is generally accepted that the pathology associated with IBD is characterized by a hyper-reactive immune response in the gut wall directed against...... the commensal intestinal bacterial flora, and that the CD4+ T cells dominate the adaptive immune response. Chemokines are small proteins involved in the guidance of migration of immune cells during normal homeostasis and inflammation. Chemokines have been shown to play a central role in recruiting inflammatory...... cells from congenic normal mice are transplanted into immune deficient mice, which in turn develop a chronic lethal colitis within 1-2 months. By simultaneous transplantation of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) it is possible to hinder development of colitis. Thus the model is well suited...

  15. Immune defense in leaf-cutting ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armitage, Sophie A O; Broch, Jens F; Marín, Hermogenes Fernández

    2011-01-01

    To ameliorate the impact of disease, social insects combine individual innate immune defenses with collective social defenses. This implies that there are different levels of selection acting on investment in immunity, each with their own trade-offs. We present the results of a cross......-fostering experiment designed to address the influences of genotype and social rearing environment upon individual and social immune defenses. We used a multiply mating leaf-cutting ant, enabling us to test for patriline effects within a colony, as well as cross-colony matriline effects. The worker's father influenced...... both individual innate immunity (constitutive antibacterial activity) and the size of the metapleural gland, which secretes antimicrobial compounds and functions in individual and social defense, indicating multiple mating could have important consequences for both defense types. However, the primarily...

  16. IMMUNITY AND RESISTANCE IN CLINICAL CANCER*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mechanism of immunity must have appeared early in the course of evolution .... carbons in smokes, fogs, industrial fumes, pitch, and cigarette tars;45,4i,48 .... change rendering it susceptible to immunological and phagocytic processes in ...

  17. Cellular immune therapy for chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kater, Arnon P.; van Oers, Marinus H. J.; Kipps, Thomas J.

    2007-01-01

    Although chemotherapy can induce complete responses in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), it is not considered curative. Treated patients generally develop recurrent disease requiring additional therapy, which can cause worsening immune dysfunction, myelosuppression, and selection for

  18. Experiences from polio supplementary immunization activities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-05-31

    May 31, 2014 ... lessons from supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) conducted in the State that will be useful to ... Poliovirus invades the central nervous system and causes ..... The vaccine wastage rate of 6.6% was slightly higher.

  19. Immune effects of the probiotic Bifidobacterium breve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ezendam J; Loveren H van; TOX

    2007-01-01

    Bifidobacterium breve, a probiotic, has beneficial effects on both allergy and autoimmunity - an immune reaction against the body's own constituents -in experimental animals. Probiotics are called 'friendly bacteria' in advertisements, in which manufacturers claim their beneficial effects on gut

  20. The immune system, adaptation, and machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, J. Doyne; Packard, Norman H.; Perelson, Alan S.

    1986-10-01

    The immune system is capable of learning, memory, and pattern recognition. By employing genetic operators on a time scale fast enough to observe experimentally, the immune system is able to recognize novel shapes without preprogramming. Here we describe a dynamical model for the immune system that is based on the network hypothesis of Jerne, and is simple enough to simulate on a computer. This model has a strong similarity to an approach to learning and artificial intelligence introduced by Holland, called the classifier system. We demonstrate that simple versions of the classifier system can be cast as a nonlinear dynamical system, and explore the analogy between the immune and classifier systems in detail. Through this comparison we hope to gain insight into the way they perform specific tasks, and to suggest new approaches that might be of value in learning systems.

  1. Immunization after renal transplantation: current clinical practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struijk, G. H.; Lammers, A. J. J.; Brinkman, R. J.; Lombarts, M. J. M. H.; van Vugt, M.; van der Pant, K. A. M. I.; ten Berge, I. J. M.; Bemelman, F. J.

    2015-01-01

    The use of potent immunosuppressive drugs and increased travel by renal transplant recipients (RTR) has augmented the risk for infectious complications. Immunizations and changes in lifestyle are protective. The Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) Transplant Work Group has developed

  2. Intestinal commensal microbes as immune modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Ivaylo I; Honda, Kenya

    2012-10-18

    Commensal bacteria are necessary for the development and maintenance of a healthy immune system. Harnessing the ability of microbiota to affect host immunity is considered an important therapeutic strategy for many mucosal and nonmucosal immune-related conditions, such as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), celiac disease, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and microbial infections. In addition to well-established immunostimulatory effects of the microbiota, the presence of individual mutualistic commensal bacteria with immunomodulatory effects has been described. These organisms are permanent members of the commensal microbiota and affect host immune homeostasis in specific ways. Identification of individual examples of such immunomodulatory commensals and understanding their mechanisms of interaction with the host will be invaluable in designing therapeutic strategies to reverse intestinal dysbiosis and recover immunological homeostasis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Immune barriers of Ebola virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, Anita K; Mühlberger, Elke; Muñoz-Fontela, César

    2018-02-01

    Since its initial emergence in 1976 in northern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Ebola virus (EBOV) has been a global health concern due to its virulence in humans, the mystery surrounding the identity of its host reservoir and the unpredictable nature of Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreaks. Early after the first clinical descriptions of a disease resembling a 'septic-shock-like syndrome', with coagulation abnormalities and multi-system organ failure, researchers began to evaluate the role of the host immune response in EVD pathophysiology. In this review, we summarize how data gathered during the last 40 years in the laboratory as well as in the field have provided insight into EBOV immunity. From molecular mechanisms involved in EBOV recognition in infected cells, to antigen processing and adaptive immune responses, we discuss current knowledge on the main immune barriers of infection as well as outstanding research questions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Auto-immune hepatitis following delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Vandana; Gupta, Mamta; Mishra, S K

    2013-05-01

    Auto-immune hepatitis first presenting in the early postpartum period is rare. Immunosuppressive effects of pregnancy result in delayed manifestation of auto-immune hepatitis, and in established cases, the spontaneous improvements are there. Auto-immune hepatitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of liver dysfunction first presenting in the early postpartum period. A case of postpartum hepatitis of auto-immune aetiology is being presented here. It is disease of unknown aetiology, characterised by inflammation of liver (as evidenced by raised serum transaminases, presence of interface hepatitis on histological examination), hypergammaglobulinaemia (> 1.5 times normal), presence of auto-antibodies [(antinuclear antibodies (ANA)], smooth muscle antibody (SMA) and antibody to liver-kidney microsome type 1 (LKM1) in the absence of viral markers ie, hepatitis B (HBsAg) and C (AntiHCV) and excellent response to corticosteroid therapy.

  5. RNA-Binding Proteins in Plant Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Woloshen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant defence responses against pathogen infection are crucial to plant survival. The high degree of regulation of plant immunity occurs both transcriptionally and posttranscriptionally. Once transcribed, target gene RNA must be processed prior to translation. This includes polyadenylation, 5′capping, editing, splicing, and mRNA export. RNA-binding proteins (RBPs have been implicated at each level of RNA processing. Previous research has primarily focused on structural RNA-binding proteins of yeast and mammals; however, more recent work has characterized a number of plant RBPs and revealed their roles in plant immune responses. This paper provides an update on the known functions of RBPs in plant immune response regulation. Future in-depth analysis of RBPs and other related players will unveil the sophisticated regulatory mechanisms of RNA processing during plant immune responses.

  6. Mast cell activators as novel immune regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Weaver, Brandi; Choi, Hae Woong; Abraham, Soman N; Staats, Herman F

    2018-05-26

    Mast cells are an important cell type of the innate immune system that when activated, play a crucial role in generating protective innate host responses after bacterial and viral infection. Additionally, activated mast cells influence lymph node composition to regulate the induction of adaptive immune responses. The recognition that mast cells play a beneficial role in host responses to microbial infection and induction of adaptive immunity has provided the rationale to evaluate mast cell activators for use as antimicrobials or vaccine adjuvants. This review summarizes the role of mast cell activators in antimicrobial responses while also discussing the use of different classes of mast cell activators as potent vaccine adjuvants that enhance the induction of protective immune responses. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Immunization history of children with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soon, Ing Shian; deBruyn, Jennifer C C; Wrobel, Iwona

    2013-04-01

    Protection against vaccine-preventable diseases is important in children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) due to frequent immunosuppressive therapy use. The chronic relapsing nature and treatment regimen of IBD may necessitate modified timing of immunizations. To evaluate the completeness of immunizations in children with IBD. Immunization records of all children with IBD followed at the Alberta Children's Hospital (Calgary, Alberta) were reviewed. For children with incomplete immunization according to the province of Alberta schedule, the reasons for such were clarified. Demographic data and age at diagnosis were also collected. Immunization records were obtained from 145 (79%) children with IBD. Fifteen children had incomplete routine childhood immunizations, including two with no previous immunizations. The most common incomplete immunizations included hepatitis B (n=9), diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis at 14 to 16 years of age (n=7), and diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, inactivated polio at four to six years of age (n=6). The reasons for incomplete immunization included use of immunosuppressive therapy at time of scheduled immunization; IBD-related symptoms at time of scheduled immunization; parental refusal; recent move from elsewhere with different immunization schedule; unawareness of routine immunization; and needle phobia. Although the majority of children with IBD had complete childhood immunizations, suboptimal immunizations were present in 10%. With increasing use of immunosuppressive therapy in IBD, physicians caring for children with IBD must periodically evaluate immunization status and ensure the completeness of childhood immunizations.

  8. ROUTINE IMMUNIZATION IN INDIA: A PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Taneja

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Universal Immunization Programme is possibly the longest and one of the biggest public health intervention measures undertaken in India. To improve immunization coverage in the country various initiatives have been undertaken since the inception of the programme in 1985; key inputs being strengthening and expanding the cold chain system, establishing a network of outreach immunization sites, alternate vaccine delivery model, capacity building of health functionaries and medical officers and intensified polio control measures. Introduction of new and underutilized vaccines, drafting of the national vaccine policy, tracking of beneficiaries through the Maternal and Child Tracking system are some of the recent developments. However in spite of more than 25 years since inception the programme is still adversely impacted by challenges across key thematic areas of programme management, cold chain and vaccine management, recording and reporting and injection safety. To further strengthen and improve service delivery 2012-13 has been declared as the “Year of Intensification of Routine Immunization” with the objective of improving immunization coverage rates across poor performing districts and states so as to attain Global Immunization Vision and Strategy goals of 90% coverage at national and more than 80% coverage at district level. Key activities planned during the year include sustained advocacy at all levels, improved communication and social mobilization, robust and regular program reviews, comprehensive microplanning, strengthening cold chain and vaccine logistics system, special catch up rounds through immunization weeks, piloting the teeka express, improved surveillance systems, strengthened partnerships and operational research activities. The current review pertains to the existing scenario of Universal Immunization Program in the country with impetus on the existing challenges, progress achieved till date as a result of various

  9. Parametric Immunization in Bond Portfolio Management

    OpenAIRE

    Bravo, Jorge; Fonseca, José

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the relative immunization performance of the multifactor parametric interest rate risk model based on the Nelson-Siegel-Svensson specification of the yield curve with that of standard benchmark investment strategies, using European Central Bank yield curve data in the period between January 3, 2005 and December 31, 2011. In addition, we examine the role of portfolio design in the success of immunization strategies, particularly the role of the maturit...

  10. Radiotherapy and immune reaction of oncologic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pankina, V.Kh.; Sarkisyan, Yu.KH.

    1978-01-01

    Represented is a review of data accumulated in literature (1970-1976) on oppression of protection of oncologic patients and more oppression of immune reactions during radiotherapy. Underlined is the significance of studying immune homeostasis in a clinic of radiotherapy to evaluate total resistance of patients before the beginning and in the process of treatment. The prognostic significance of immunodepressive disturbances in patients with malignant tumors is elucidated

  11. The Commensal Microbiota Drives Immune Homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Arrieta, Marie-Claire; Finlay, Barton Brett

    2012-01-01

    For millions of years, microbes have coexisted with eukaryotic cells at the mucosal surfaces of vertebrates in a complex, yet usually harmonious symbiosis. An ever-expanding number of reports describe how eliminating or shifting the intestinal microbiota has profound effects on the development and functionality of the mucosal and systemic immune systems. Here, we examine some of the mechanisms by which bacterial signals affect immune homeostasis. Focusing on the strategies that microbes use t...

  12. Regulatory T cells: immune suppression and beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Wan, Yisong Y

    2010-01-01

    Foxp3-expressing regulatory T cells (Tregs) were originally identified as critical in maintaining self-tolerance and immune homeostasis. The immunosuppressive functions of Tregs are widely acknowledged and have been extensively studied. Recent studies have revealed many diverse roles of Tregs in shaping the immune system and the inflammatory response. This review will discuss our efforts as well as the efforts of others towards understanding the multifaceted function of Treg...

  13. Innate and intrinsic antiviral immunity in skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Tatsuyoshi; Ogawa, Youichi; Aoki, Rui; Shimada, Shinji

    2014-09-01

    As the body's most exposed interface with the environment, the skin is constantly challenged by potentially pathogenic microbes, including viruses. To sense the invading viruses, various types of cells resident in the skin express many different pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) such as C-type lectin receptors (CLRs), Toll-like receptors (TLRs), nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs), retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs) and cytosolic DNA sensors, that can detect the pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) of the viruses. The detection of viral PAMPs initiates two major innate immune signaling cascades: the first involves the activation of the downstream transcription factors, such as interferon regulatory factors (IRFs), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and activator protein 1 (AP-1), which cooperate to induce the transcription of type I interferons and pro-inflammatory cytokines. The second signaling pathway involves the caspase-1-mediated processing of IL-1β and IL-18 through the formation of an inflammasome complex. Cutaneous innate immunity including the production of the innate cytokines constitutes the first line of host defence that limits the virus dissemination from the skin, and also plays an important role in the activation of adaptive immune response, which represents the second line of defence. More recently, the third immunity "intrinsic immunity" has emerged, that provides an immediate and direct antiviral defense mediated by host intrinsic restriction factors. This review focuses on the recent advances regarding the antiviral immune systems, highlighting the innate and intrinsic immunity against the viral infections in the skin, and describes how viral components are recognized by cutaneous immune systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Towards a General Theory of Immunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberl, Gérard; Pradeu, Thomas

    2018-04-01

    Theories are indispensable to organize immunological data into coherent, explanatory, and predictive frameworks. We propose to combine different models to develop a unifying theory of immunity which situates immunology in the wider context of physiology. We believe that the immune system will be increasingly understood as a central component of a network of partner physiological systems that interconnect to maintain homeostasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Radioresistance and immunization effectiveness under internal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kal'nitskij, S.A.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of preliminary immunization on the radioresistance of mice to internal irradiation from incorporated 137 Cs or 90 Sr was studied, and it was found that a preliminary single immunization with bacterial vaccines had a favorable effect on the outcome of radiation injury. The present results suggested that vaccination had a very pronounced radioprotective effect and so may be used as a means of biologic protection from internal irradiation

  16. Some biochemical studies on thyroid immunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoush, M.A.M.

    1980-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of induced immunological environment on: a - Carbohydrate metabolism as reflected by immunoreactive insulin and blood sugar levels. b - Biochemical parameters, namely total protein, albumin, globulin, alkaline phosphatase and transaminases, reflecting liver function. c - Radioimmunological tests reflecting thyroid function. The study comprised 36 male rabbits, boscate strain of six months age assigned randomly to : control, albumin immunized and thyroglobulin immunized groups

  17. Human neutrophils in auto-immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieblemont, Nathalie; Wright, Helen L; Edwards, Steven W; Witko-Sarsat, Véronique

    2016-04-01

    Human neutrophils have great capacity to cause tissue damage in inflammatory diseases via their inappropriate activation to release reactive oxygen species (ROS), proteases and other tissue-damaging molecules. Furthermore, activated neutrophils can release a wide variety of cytokines and chemokines that can regulate almost every element of the immune system. In addition to these important immuno-regulatory processes, activated neutrophils can also release, expose or generate neoepitopes that have the potential to break immune tolerance and result in the generation of autoantibodies, that characterise a number of human auto-immune diseases. For example, in vasculitis, anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) that are directed against proteinase 3 or myeloperoxidase are neutrophil-derived autoantigens and activated neutrophils are the main effector cells of vascular damage. In other auto-immune diseases, these neutrophil-derived neoepitopes may arise from a number of processes that include release of granule enzymes and ROS, changes in the properties of components of their plasma membrane as a result of activation or apoptosis, and via the release of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps (NETs). NETs are extracellular structures that contain chromatin that is decorated with granule enzymes (including citrullinated proteins) that can act as neo-epitopes to generate auto-immunity. This review therefore describes the processes that can result in neutrophil-mediated auto-immunity, and the role of neutrophils in the molecular pathologies of auto-immune diseases such as vasculitis, rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We discuss the potential role of NETs in these processes and some of the debate in the literature regarding the role of this phenomenon in microbial killing, cell death and auto-immunity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of kefir fractions on innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinderola, Gabriel; Perdigon, Gabriela; Duarte, Jairo; Thangavel, Deepa; Farnworth, Edward; Matar, Chantal

    2006-01-01

    Innate immunity that protects against pathogens in the tissues and circulation is the first line of defense in the immune reaction, where macrophages have a critical role in directing the fate of the infection. We recently demonstrated that kefir modulates the immune response in mice, increasing the number of IgA+ cells in the intestinal and bronchial mucosa and the phagocytic activity of peritoneal and pulmonary macrophages. The aim of this study was to further characterize the immunomodulating capacity of the two fractions of kefir (F1: solids including bacteria and F2: liquid supernatant), by studying the cytokines produced by cells from the innate immune system: peritoneal macrophages and the adherent cells from Peyer's patches. BALB/c mice were fed either kefir solid fraction (F1) or kefir supernatant (F2) for 2, 5 or 7 consecutive days. The number of cytokine (IL-1alpha, IFNgamma, TNFalpha, IL-6 and IL-10) producing cells was determined on peritoneal macrophages and adherent cells from Peyer's patches. Both kefir fractions (F1 and F2) induced similar cytokine profiles on peritoneal macrophages (only TNFalpha and IL-6 were up-regulated). All cytokines studied on adherent cells from Peyer's patches were enhanced after F1 and F2 feeding, except for IFNgamma after F2 administration. Moreover, the percentage of IL-10+cells induced by fraction F2 on adherent cells from Peyer's patches was significantly higher than the one induced by fraction F1. Different components of kefir have an in vivo role as oral biotherapeutic substances capable of stimulating immune cells of the innate immune system, to down-regulate the Th2 immune phenotype or to promote cell-mediated immune responses against tumours and also against intracellular pathogenic infections.

  19. Phylogeny, longevity and evolution of adaptive immunity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vinkler, Michal; Albrecht, Tomáš

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 3 (2011), s. 277-282 ISSN 0139-7893 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/0640; GA ČR GA206/08/1281; GA ČR GAP505/10/1871 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : acquired immunity * evolutionary immunology * immunological priming * innate immunity * invertebrates Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.554, year: 2011

  20. Rules Extraction with an Immune Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deqin Yan

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a method of extracting rules with immune algorithms from information systems is proposed. Designing an immune algorithm is based on a sharing mechanism to extract rules. The principle of sharing and competing resources in the sharing mechanism is consistent with the relationship of sharing and rivalry among rules. In order to extract rules efficiently, a new concept of flexible confidence and rule measurement is introduced. Experiments demonstrate that the proposed method is effective.

  1. The ontogeny of the porcine immune system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šinkora, Marek; Butler, J. E.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 3 (2009), s. 273-283 ISSN 0145-305X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/07/0087; GA ČR GA523/07/0088 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : ontogeny of the porcine immune system * swine adaptive immunity * development of alpha beta and gamma delta T cells Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.290, year: 2009

  2. Vaccine Education During Pregnancy and Timeliness of Infant Immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerasingam, Priya; Grant, Cameron C; Chelimo, Carol; Philipson, Kathryn; Gilchrist, Catherine A; Berry, Sarah; Carr, Polly Atatoa; Camargo, Carlos A; Morton, Susan

    2017-09-01

    Pregnant women routinely receive information in support of or opposing infant immunization. We aimed to describe immunization information sources of future mothers' and determine if receiving immunization information is associated with infant immunization timeliness. We analyzed data from a child cohort born 2009-2010 in New Zealand. Pregnant women ( N = 6822) at a median gestation of 39 weeks described sources of information encouraging or discouraging infant immunization. Immunizations received by cohort infants were determined through linkage with the National Immunization Register ( n = 6682 of 6853 [98%]). Independent associations of immunization information received with immunization timeliness were described by using adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Immunization information sources were described by 6182 of 6822 (91%) women. Of these, 2416 (39%) received information encouraging immunization, 846 (14%) received discouraging information, and 565 (9%) received both encouraging and discouraging information. Compared with infants of women who received no immunization information (71% immunized on-time), infants of women who received discouraging information only (57% immunized on time, OR = 0.49, 95% CI 0.38-0.64) or encouraging and discouraging information (61% immunized on time, OR = 0.51, 95% CI 0.42-0.63) were at decreased odds of receiving all immunizations on time. Receipt of encouraging information only was not associated with infant immunization timeliness (73% immunized on time, OR = 1.00, 95% CI 0.87-1.15). Receipt, during pregnancy, of information against immunization was associated with delayed infant immunization regardless of receipt of information supporting immunization. In contrast, receipt of encouraging information is not associated with infant immunization timeliness. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  3. Immune Response to Dengue and Zika.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngono, Annie Elong; Shresta, Sujan

    2018-04-26

    Flaviviruses such as dengue (DENV), yellow fever (YFV), West Nile (WNV), and Zika (ZIKV) are human pathogens of global significance. In particular, DENV causes the most prevalent mosquito-borne viral diseases in humans, and ZIKV emerged from obscurity into the spotlight in 2016 as the etiologic agent of congenital Zika syndrome. Owing to the recent emergence of ZIKV as a global pandemic threat, the roles of the immune system during ZIKV infections are as yet unclear. In contrast, decades of DENV research implicate a dual role for the immune system in protection against and pathogenesis of DENV infection. As DENV and ZIKV are closely related, knowledge based on DENV studies has been used to prioritize investigation of ZIKV immunity and pathogenesis, and to accelerate ZIKV diagnostic, therapeutic, and vaccine design. This review discusses the following topics related to innate and adaptive immune responses to DENV and ZIKV: the interferon system as the key mechanism of host defense and viral target for immune evasion, antibody-mediated protection versus antibody-dependent enhancement, and T cell-mediated protection versus original T cell antigenic sin. Understanding the mechanisms that regulate the balance between immune-mediated protection and pathogenesis during DENV and ZIKV infections is critical toward development of safe and effective DENV and ZIKV therapeutics and vaccines.

  4. Immune Interventions to Eliminate the HIV Reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Denise C; Ananworanich, Jintanat

    2017-10-26

    Inducing HIV remission is a monumental challenge. A potential strategy is the "kick and kill" approach where latently infected cells are first activated to express viral proteins and then eliminated through cytopathic effects of HIV or immune-mediated killing. However, pre-existing immune responses to HIV cannot eradicate HIV infection due to the presence of escape variants, inadequate magnitude, and breadth of responses as well as immune exhaustion. The two major approaches to boost immune-mediated elimination of infected cells include enhancing cytotoxic T lymphocyte mediated killing and harnessing antibodies to eliminate HIV. Specific strategies include increasing the magnitude and breadth of T cell responses through therapeutic vaccinations, reversing the effects of T cell exhaustion using immune checkpoint inhibition, employing bispecific T cell targeting immunomodulatory proteins or dual-affinity re-targeting molecules to direct cytotoxic T lymphocytes to virus-expressing cells and broadly neutralizing antibody infusions. Methods to steer immune responses to tissue sites where latently infected cells are located need to be further explored. Ultimately, strategies to induce HIV remission must be tolerable, safe, and scalable in order to make a global impact.

  5. Oral candidosis in relation to oral immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, L; Khammissa, R A G; Chandran, R; Altini, M; Lemmer, J

    2014-09-01

    Symptomatic oral infection with Candida albicans is characterized by invasion of the oral epithelium by virulent hyphae that cause tissue damage releasing the inflammatory mediators that initiate and sustain local inflammation. Candida albicans triggers pattern-recognition receptors of keratinocytes, macrophages, monocytes and dendritic cells, stimulating the production of IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-23. These cytokines induce the differentiation of Th17 cells and the generation of IL-17- and/or IL-22-mediated antifungal protective immuno-inflammatory responses in infected mucosa. Some immune cells including NKT cells, γδ T cells and lymphoid cells that are innate to the oral mucosa have the capacity to produce large quantities of IL-17 in response to C. albicans, sufficient to mediate effective protective immunity against C. albicans. On the other hand, molecular structures of commensal C. albicans blastoconidia, although detected by pattern-recognition receptors, are avirulent, do not invade the oral epithelium, do not elicit inflammatory responses in a healthy host, but induce regulatory immune responses that maintain tissue tolerance to the commensal fungi. The type, specificity and sensitivity of the protective immune response towards C. albicans is determined by the outcome of the integrated interactions between the intracellular signalling pathways of specific combinations of activated pattern-recognition receptors (TLR2, TLR4, Dectin-1 and Dectin-2). IL-17-mediated protective immune response is essential for oral mucosal immunity to C. albicans infection. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Microbial-immune cross-talk and regulation of the immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahenzli, Julia; Balmer, Maria L; McCoy, Kathy D

    2013-01-01

    We are all born germ-free. Following birth we enter into a lifelong relationship with microbes residing on our body's surfaces. The lower intestine is home to the highest microbial density in our body, which is also the highest microbial density known on Earth (up to 10(12) /g of luminal contents). With our indigenous microbial cells outnumbering our human cells by an order of magnitude our body is more microbial than human. Numerous immune adaptations confine these microbes within the mucosa, enabling most of us to live in peaceful homeostasis with our intestinal symbionts. Intestinal epithelial cells not only form a physical barrier between the bacteria-laden lumen and the rest of the body but also function as multi-tasking immune cells that sense the prevailing microbial (apical) and immune (basolateral) milieus, instruct the underlying immune cells, and adapt functionally. In the constant effort to ensure intestinal homeostasis, the immune system becomes educated to respond appropriately and in turn immune status can shape the microbial consortia. Here we review how the dynamic immune-microbial dialogue underlies maturation and regulation of the immune system and discuss recent findings on the impact of diet on both microbial ecology and immune function. © 2012 The Authors. Immunology © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. New Players in Immunity to Tuberculosis: The Host Microbiome, Lung Epithelium, and Innate Immune Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nancy; Kumar, Rakesh; Agrawal, Babita

    2018-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a highly contagious infection and devastating chronic disease, causing 10.4 million new infections and 1.8 million deaths every year globally. Efforts to control and eradicate TB are hampered by the rapid emergence of drug resistance and limited efficacy of the only available vaccine, BCG. Immunological events in the airways and lungs are of major importance in determining whether exposure to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) results in successful infection or protective immunity. Several studies have demonstrated that the host microbiota is in constant contact with the immune system, and thus continually directs the nature of immune responses occurring during new infections. However, little is known about its role in the eventual outcome of the mycobacterial infection. In this review, we highlight the changes in microbial composition in the respiratory tract and gut that have been linked to the alteration of immune responses, and to the risk, prevention, and treatment of TB. In addition, we summarize our current understanding of alveolar epithelial cells and the innate immune system, and their interaction with Mtb during early infection. Extensive studies are warranted to fully understand the all-inclusive role of the lung microbiota, its interaction with epithelium and innate immune responses and resulting adaptive immune responses, and in the pathogenesis and/or protection from Mtb infection. Novel interventions aimed at influencing the microbiota, the alveolar immune system and innate immunity will shape future strategies of prevention and treatment for TB. PMID:29692778

  8. [Effect of vitamine A on mice immune response induced by specific periodontal pathogenic bacteria-immunization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiao-Ping; Zhou, Xiao-Jia; Liu, Hong-Li; DU, Li-Li; Toshihisa, Kawai

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of vitamine-A deficiency on the induction of specific periodontal pathogenic bacteria A. actinomycetetemcomitans(Aa) immunization. BALB/c mice were fed with vitamine A-depleted diet or control regular diet throughout the whole experiment period. After 2 weeks, immunized formalin-killed Aa to build immunized models, 6 weeks later, sacrificed to determine specific antibody-IgG, IgM and sub-class IgG antibody titers in serum, and concentration of IL-10, IFN-γ, TNF-α and RANKL in T cell supernatant were measured by ELISA and T cell proliferation was measured by cintilography. SPSS 11.5 software package was used for statistical analysis. The levels of whole IgG and IgM antibody which were immunized by Aa significantly elevated, non-immune group was unable to produce any antibody. Compared with Aa immunized+RD group, the level of whole IgG in Aa immunized+VAD group was significantly higher (Pvitamin-A diet can increase the immunized mice's susceptibility to periodontal pathogenic bacteria and trigger or aggravate immune inflammatory response. Adequate vitamin A is an important factor in maintaining body health. Supported by Natural Science Foundation of Liaoning Province (Grant No.20092139) and Science and Technology Program of Shenyang Municipality (Grant No.F10-149-9-32).

  9. Immune response in the lungs following oral immunization with bacterial lysates of respiratory pathogens.

    OpenAIRE

    Ruedl, C; Frühwirth, M; Wick, G; Wolf, H

    1994-01-01

    We have investigated the local immune response of the BALB/c mouse respiratory tract after oral immunization with a bacterial lysate of seven common respiratory pathogens. After two immunization on five consecutive days, we examined the immunoglobulin (immunoglobulin G [IgG], IgM, and IgA) secretion rates of cells isolated from the lungs and compared them with those of spleen cells of orally immunized and nonimmunized animals by using a new test system based on time-resolved fluorescence. The...

  10. Polio immunity and the impact of mass immunization campaigns in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorman, Arend; Hoff, Nicole A; Doshi, Reena H; Alfonso, Vivian; Mukadi, Patrick; Muyembe-Tamfum, Jean-Jacques; Wemakoy, Emile Okitolonda; Bwaka, Ado; Weldon, William; Gerber, Sue; Rimoin, Anne W

    2017-10-09

    In order to prevent outbreaks from wild and vaccine-derived poliovirus, maintenance of population immunity in non-endemic countries is critical. We estimated population seroprevalence using dried blood spots collected from 4893 children 6-59months olds in the 2013-2014 Demographic and Health Survey in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Population immunity was 81%, 90%, and 70% for poliovirus types 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Among 6-59-month-old children, 78% reported at least one dose of polio in routine immunization, while only 15% had three doses documented on vaccination cards. All children in the study had been eligible for at least two trivalent oral polio vaccine campaigns at the time of enrollment; additional immunization campaigns seroconverted 5.0%, 14%, and 5.5% of non-immune children per-campaign for types 1, 2, and 3, respectively, averaged over relevant campaigns for each serotype. Overall polio immunity was high at the time of the study, though pockets of low immunity cannot be ruled out. The DRC still relies on supplementary immunization campaigns, and this report stresses the importance of the quality and coverage of those campaigns over their quantity, as well as the importance of routine immunization. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. An Immune Agent for Web-Based AI Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Tao; Cai, Zixing

    2006-01-01

    To overcome weakness and faults of a web-based e-learning course such as Artificial Intelligence (AI), an immune agent was proposed, simulating a natural immune mechanism against a virus. The immune agent was built on the multi-dimension education agent model and immune algorithm. The web-based AI course was comprised of many files, such as HTML…

  12. Evaluation of Traditional Medicines III: The Mechanism of Immune ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These results show that PHELA did not stimulate Th1 cytokines of a normal immune system but stimulated them when the immune system was suppressed by cyclosporine-A. In conclusion, PHELA is an immune-stimulant to a compromised immune system. Key words: PHELA, traditional medicine, cyclosporine-A, cytokines, ...

  13. Tetanus toxoid immunization coverage among mothers of below one ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poverty and lack of health facilities also contributed to the low level of immunization coverage. For TT immunization to improve in the area studied, factors impeding immunization must be addressed. Keywords: tetanus, immunization, coverage. African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology Vol. 6 (3) 2005: 233- ...

  14. CMV immune evasion and manipulation of the immune system with aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Sarah E; Redeker, Anke; Arens, Ramon; van Baarle, Debbie; van den Berg, Sara P H; Benedict, Chris A; Čičin-Šain, Luka; Hill, Ann B; Wills, Mark R

    2017-06-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) encodes numerous proteins and microRNAs that function to evade the immune response and allow the virus to replicate and disseminate in the face of a competent innate and acquired immune system. The establishment of a latent infection by CMV, which if completely quiescent at the level of viral gene expression would represent an ultimate in immune evasion strategies, is not sufficient for lifelong persistence and dissemination of the virus. CMV needs to reactivate and replicate in a lytic cycle of infection in order to disseminate further, which occurs in the face of a fully primed secondary immune response. Without reactivation, latency itself would be redundant for the virus. It is also becoming clear that latency is not a totally quiescent state, but is characterized by limited viral gene expression. Therefore, the virus also needs immune evasion strategies during latency. An effective immune response to CMV is required or viral replication will cause morbidity and ultimately mortality in the host. There is clearly a complex balance between virus immune evasion and host immune recognition over a lifetime. This poses the important question of whether long-term evasion or manipulation of the immune response driven by CMV is detrimental to health. In this meeting report, three groups used the murine model of CMV (MCMV) to examine if the contribution of the virus to immune senescence is set by the (i) initial viral inoculum, (ii) inflation of T cell responses, (iii) or the balance between functionally distinct effector CD4+ T cells. The work of other groups studying the CMV response in humans is discussed. Their work asks whether the ability to make immune responses to new antigens is compromised by (i) age and HCMV carriage, (ii) long-term exposure to HCMV giving rise to an overall immunosuppressive environment and increased levels of latent virus, or (iii) adapted virus mutants (used as potential vaccines) that have the capacity to

  15. Regulation of intestinal homeostasis by innate immune cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayama, Hisako; Nishimura, Junichi; Takeda, Kiyoshi

    2013-12-01

    The intestinal immune system has an ability to distinguish between the microbiota and pathogenic bacteria, and then activate pro-inflammatory pathways against pathogens for host defense while remaining unresponsive to the microbiota and dietary antigens. In the intestine, abnormal activation of innate immunity causes development of several inflammatory disorders such as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Thus, activity of innate immunity is finely regulated in the intestine. To date, multiple innate immune cells have been shown to maintain gut homeostasis by preventing inadequate adaptive immune responses in the murine intestine. Additionally, several innate immune subsets, which promote Th1 and Th17 responses and are implicated in the pathogenesis of IBD, have recently been identified in the human intestinal mucosa. The demonstration of both murine and human intestinal innate immune subsets contributing to regulation of adaptive immunity emphasizes the conserved innate immune functions across species and might promote development of the intestinal innate immunity-based clinical therapy.

  16. Manipulations of the immune response in the chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bixler, G.S. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The chicken with its dissociation of immune responses in cell-mediated immunity, dependent on the thymus, and humoral immunity, dependent on the bursa of Fabricius, provides a unique model for studying the two components of the immune system. While there are methods of obtaining selective, profound deficiency of humoral immunity, in this species, methods for obtaining a consistent, profound selective deficiency of cell-mediated immunity have been lacking. Oxisuran, 2[(methylsulfinyl)acetal] pyridine, has been reported to have the unique ability to differentially suppress cell-mediated immunity in several species of mammals without a concomitant reduction in antibody forming capacity. The effect of this compound on two parameters of cell-mediated immune responses in chickens was investigated. In further attempts to create a deficiency of both cell-mediated and humoral immunity, the effects of a combination of cyclophosphamide treatment and x-irradiation early in life on immune responses were studied

  17. Mental resilience, perceived immune functioning, and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Schrojenstein Lantman M

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Marith Van Schrojenstein Lantman,1 Marlou Mackus,1 Leila S Otten,1 Deborah de Kruijff,1 Aurora JAE van de Loo,1,2 Aletta D Kraneveld,1,2 Johan Garssen,1,3 Joris C Verster1,2,4 1Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 2Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 3Nutricia Research, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 4Centre for Human Psychopharmacology, Swinburne University, Melbourne, Australia Background: Mental resilience can be seen as a trait that enables an individual to recover from stress and to face the next stressor with optimism. People with resilient traits are considered to have a better mental and physical health. However, there are limited data available assessing the relationship between resilient individuals and their perspective of their health and immune status. Therefore, this study was conducted to examine the relationship between mental resilience, perceived health, and perceived immune status. Methods: A total of 779 participants recruited at Utrecht University completed a questionnaire consisting of demographic characteristics, the brief resilience scale for the assessment of mental resilience, the immune function questionnaire (IFQ, and questions regarding their perceived health and immune status. Results: When correcting for gender, age, height, weight, smoker status, amount of cigarettes smoked per week, alcohol consumption status, amount of drinks consumed per week, drug use, and frequency of past year drug use, mental resilience was significantly correlated with perceived health (r=0.233, p=0.0001, perceived immune functioning (r=0.124, p=0.002, and IFQ score (r=−0.185, p=0.0001. Conclusion: A significant, albeit modest, relationship was found between mental resilience and perceived immune functioning and health. Keywords: mental resilience, immune functioning, health, vitality, quality of life

  18. Exercise and the Regulation of Immune Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Richard J; Kunz, Hawley; Agha, Nadia; Graff, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Exercise has a profound effect on the normal functioning of the immune system. It is generally accepted that prolonged periods of intensive exercise training can depress immunity, while regular moderate intensity exercise is beneficial. Single bouts of exercise evoke a striking leukocytosis and a redistribution of effector cells between the blood compartment and the lymphoid and peripheral tissues, a response that is mediated by increased hemodynamics and the release of catecholamines and glucocorticoids following the activation of the sympathetic nervous system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Single bouts of prolonged exercise may impair T-cell, NK-cell, and neutrophil function, alter the Type I and Type II cytokine balance, and blunt immune responses to primary and recall antigens in vivo. Elite athletes frequently report symptoms associated with upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) during periods of heavy training and competition that may be due to alterations in mucosal immunity, particularly reductions in secretory immunoglobulin A. In contrast, single bouts of moderate intensity exercise are "immuno-enhancing" and have been used to effectively increase vaccine responses in "at-risk" patients. Improvements in immunity due to regular exercise of moderate intensity may be due to reductions in inflammation, maintenance of thymic mass, alterations in the composition of "older" and "younger" immune cells, enhanced immunosurveillance, and/or the amelioration of psychological stress. Indeed, exercise is a powerful behavioral intervention that has the potential to improve immune and health outcomes in the elderly, the obese, and patients living with cancer and chronic viral infections such as HIV. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Immune System in Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremon, Cesare; Carini, Giovanni; Bellacosa, Lara; Zecchi, Lisa; De Giorgio, Roberto; Corinaldesi, Roberto; Stanghellini, Vincenzo

    2011-01-01

    The potential relevance of systemic and gastrointestinal immune activation in the pathophysiology and symptom generation in the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is supported by a number of observations. Infectious gastroenteritis is the strongest risk factor for the development of IBS and increased rates of IBS-like symptoms have been detected in patients with inflammatory bowel disease in remission or in celiac disease patients on a gluten free diet. The number of T cells and mast cells in the small and large intestine of patients with IBS is increased in a large proportion of patients with IBS over healthy controls. Mediators released by immune cells and likely from other non-immune competent cells impact on the function of enteric and sensory afferent nerves as well as on epithelial tight junctions controlling mucosal barrier of recipient animals, isolated human gut tissues or cell culture systems. Antibodies against microbiota antigens (bacterial flagellin), and increased levels of cytokines have been detected systemically in the peripheral blood advocating the existence of abnormal host-microbial interactions and systemic immune responses. Nonetheless, there is wide overlap of data obtained in healthy controls; in addition, the subsets of patients showing immune activation have yet to be clearly identified. Gender, age, geographic differences, genetic predisposition, diet and differences in the intestinal microbiota likely play a role and further research has to be done to clarify their relevance as potential mechanisms in the described immune system dysregulation. Immune activation has stimulated interest for the potential identification of biomarkers useful for clinical and research purposes and the development of novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:22148103

  20. Physical Activities, Exercises, and Their Effects to the Immune System

    OpenAIRE

    Nurmasitoh, Titis

    2015-01-01

    Every systems in human body correlate to maintain homeostasis. One of those systems which contribute to maintain homeostasis is the immune system. The immune system defends physiological functions against foreign substances and cancer cells through a complex and multilayered mechanism. The ability to defend against foreign substances and abnormal cells is done by two types of immune system, which are Innate immune system and adaptive/acquired immune system. There are also certain factors that...

  1. Regulation of vitamin D homeostasis: implications for the immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Etten, Evelyne; Stoffels, Katinka; Gysemans, Conny; Mathieu, Chantal; Overbergh, Lut

    2008-10-01

    Vitamin D homeostasis in the immune system is the focus of this review. The production of both the activating (25- and 1alpha-hydroxylase) and the metabolizing (24-hydroxylase) enzymes by cells of the immune system itself, indicates that 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) can be produced locally in immune reaction sites. Moreover, the strict regulation of these enzymes by immune signals is highly suggestive for an autocrine/paracrine role in the immune system, and opens new treatment possibilities.

  2. Active and passive immunity, vaccine types, excipients and licensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, David

    2007-12-01

    Abstract Immunity is the state of protection against infectious disease conferred either through an immune response generated by immunization or previous infection or by other non-immunological factors. This article reviews active and passive immunity and the differences between them: it also describes the four different commercially available vaccine types (live attenuated, killed/inactivated, subunit and toxoid): it also looks at how these different vaccines generate an adaptive immune response.

  3. Convergent and Divergent Signaling in PAMP-Triggered Immunity and Effector-Triggered Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yujun; van Wersch, Rowan; Zhang, Yuelin

    2018-04-01

    Plants use diverse immune receptors to sense pathogen attacks. Recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by pattern recognition receptors localized on the plasma membrane leads to PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). Detection of pathogen effectors by intracellular or plasma membrane-localized immune receptors results in effector-triggered immunity (ETI). Despite the large variations in the magnitude and duration of immune responses triggered by different PAMPs or pathogen effectors during PTI and ETI, plasma membrane-localized immune receptors activate similar downstream molecular events such as mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, oxidative burst, ion influx, and increased biosynthesis of plant defense hormones, indicating that defense signals initiated at the plasma membrane converge at later points. On the other hand, activation of ETI by immune receptors localized to the nucleus appears to be more directly associated with transcriptional regulation of defense gene expression. Here, we review recent progress in signal transductions downstream of different groups of plant immune receptors, highlighting the converging and diverging molecular events.

  4. Immune-Modulating Perspectives for Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields in Innate Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Manuela Rosado

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the effects of electromagnetic fields (EMFs on the immune system have received a considerable interest, not only to investigate possible negative health impact but also to explore the possibility to favorably modulate immune responses. To generate beneficial responses, the immune system should eradicate pathogens while “respecting” the organism and tolerating irrelevant antigens. According to the current view, damage-associated molecules released by infected or injured cells, or secreted by innate immune cells generate danger signals activating an immune response. These signals are also relevant to the subsequent activation of homeostatic mechanisms that control the immune response in pro- or anti-inflammatory reactions, a feature that allows modulation by therapeutic treatments. In the present review, we describe and discuss the effects of extremely low frequency (ELF-EMF and pulsed EMF on cell signals and factors relevant to the activation of danger signals and innate immunity cells. By discussing the EMF modulating effects on cell functions, we envisage the use of EMF as a therapeutic agent to regulate immune responses associated with wound healing.

  5. Incorporating immunizations into routine obstetric care to facilitate Health Care Practitioners in implementing maternal immunization recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Heather; Street, Jackie; Marshall, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Immunization against pertussis, influenza, and rubella reduces morbidity and mortality in pregnant women and their offspring. Health care professionals (HCPs) caring for women perinatally are uniquely placed to reduce maternal vaccine preventable diseases (VPDs). Despite guidelines recommending immunization during the perinatal period, maternal vaccine uptake remains low. This qualitative study explored the role of obstetricians, general practitioners, and midwives in maternal vaccine uptake. Semi-structured interviews (n = 15) were conducted with perinatal HCPs at a tertiary maternity hospital in South Australia. HCPs were asked to reflect on their knowledge, beliefs, and practice relating to immunization advice and vaccine provision. Interviews were transcribed and coded using thematic analysis. Data collection and analysis was an iterative process, with collection ceasing with theoretical saturation. Participants unanimously supported maternal vaccination as an effective way of reducing risk of disease in this vulnerable population, however only rubella immunity detection and immunization is embedded in routine care. Among these professionals, delegation of responsibility for maternal immunization was unclear and knowledge about maternal immunization was variable. Influenza and pertussis vaccine prevention measures were not included in standard pregnancy record documentation, information provision to patients was "ad hoc" and vaccinations not offered on-site. The key finding was that the incorporation of maternal vaccinations into standard care through a structured process is an important facilitator for immunization uptake. Incorporating vaccine preventable disease management measures into routine obstetric care including incorporation into the Pregnancy Record would facilitate HCPs in implementing recommendations. Rubella prevention provides a useful 'template' for other vaccines.

  6. Non-immune hydrops fetalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Yurdakök

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Non-immune hydrops fetalis (NIHF refers to hydrops in the absence of maternal circulating red-cell antibodies, and constitutes up to 90% of all described hydrops fetalis cases. One-third of hydropic fetuses are discovered incidentally during prenatal sonography in the first or second trimester of gestation. Although hydrops is a fetal condition, in many cases there are associated maternal findings, such as preeclampsia, polyhydramnios, and mirror syndrome (generalized maternal edema, that ‘mirrors’ the edema of the hydropic fetus and placenta. NIHF should be seen as a symptom or clinical phenotype rather than as a disorder, and considered as a non-specific, end-stage status of a wide variety of disorders. Numerous disorders including fetal disorders, maternal diseases (e.g., severe maternal anemia, diabetes and maternal indomethacin use and placental/cord abnormalities have been associated with NIHF. Despite extensive investigations, the etiology on NIHF may remain unknown in 15% to 25% of patients, even after an autopsy has been performed. Chromosomal abnormalities are the cause of NIHF in 25-70% of the cases. Therefore, fetal or neonatal chromosome analysis is indicated in all cases of NIHF. Abnormalities of the cardiovascular system are responsible for as many as 40% of cases of NIHF. Thoracic abnormalities increase intrathoracic pressure and can obstruct venous return to the heart, leading to peripheral venous congestion, or they may obstruct the lymphatic duct, resulting in lymphedema. Fetal anemia accounts for 10-27% of hydrops. To evaluate the risk of fetal anemia, Doppler measurement of the middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity should be performed in all hydropic fetuses after 16 weeks of gestation. Parvovirus B19 is the most common infectious agent associated with hydrops. Even in persistent severe anemia, the prognosis is generally good if the fetus is supported by intrauterine fetal transfusions. The development of hydrops

  7. Problematic Internet Usage and Immune Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Phil; Vile, Rebecca; Osborne, Lisa A; Romano, Michela; Truzoli, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Problematic internet use has been associated with a variety of psychological comorbidities, but it relationship with physical illness has not received the same degree of investigation. The current study surveyed 505 participants online, and asked about their levels of problematic internet usage (Internet Addiction Test), depression and anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales), social isolation (UCLA Loneliness Questionnaire), sleep problems (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), and their current health - General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), and the Immune Function Questionnaire. The results demonstrated that around 30% of the sample displayed mild or worse levels of internet addiction, as measured by the IAT. Although there were differences in the purposes for which males and females used the internet, there were no differences in terms of levels of problematic usage between genders. The internet problems were strongly related to all of the other psychological variables such as depression, anxiety, social-isolation, and sleep problems. Internet addiction was also associated with reduced self-reported immune function, but not with the measure of general health (GHQ-28). This relationship between problematic internet use and reduced immune function was found to be independent of the impact of the co-morbidities. It is suggested that the negative relationship between level of problematic internet use and immune function may be mediated by levels of stress produced by such internet use, and subsequent sympathetic nervous activity, which related to immune-supressants, such as cortisol.

  8. Cytomegalovirus immune evasion of myeloid lineage cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmann, Melanie M; Dağ, Franziska; Hengel, Hartmut; Messerle, Martin; Kalinke, Ulrich; Čičin-Šain, Luka

    2015-06-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) evades the immune system in many different ways, allowing the virus to grow and its progeny to spread in the face of an adverse environment. Mounting evidence about the antiviral role of myeloid immune cells has prompted the research of CMV immune evasion mechanisms targeting these cells. Several cells of the myeloid lineage, such as monocytes, dendritic cells and macrophages, play a role in viral control, but are also permissive for CMV and are naturally infected by it. Therefore, CMV evasion of myeloid cells involves mechanisms that qualitatively differ from the evasion of non-CMV-permissive immune cells of the lymphoid lineage. The evasion of myeloid cells includes effects in cis, where the virus modulates the immune signaling pathways within the infected myeloid cell, and those in trans, where the virus affects somatic cells targeted by cytokines released from myeloid cells. This review presents an overview of CMV strategies to modulate and evade the antiviral activity of myeloid cells in cis and in trans.

  9. Comparison of immunization strategies in geographical networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Bing; Aihara, Kazuyuki [Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)] [ERATO Aihara Complexity Modelling Project, JST, Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo, 153-8505 (Japan); Kim, Beom Jun, E-mail: beomjun@skku.ed [BK21 Physics Research Division and Department of Energy Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Computational Biology, School of Computer Science and Communication, Royal Institute of Technology, 100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-10-12

    The epidemic spread and immunizations in geographically embedded scale-free (SF) and Watts-Strogatz (WS) networks are numerically investigated. We make a realistic assumption that it takes time which we call the detection time, for a vertex to be identified as infected, and implement two different immunization strategies: one is based on connection neighbors (CN) of the infected vertex with the exact information of the network structure utilized and the other is based on spatial neighbors (SN) with only geographical distances taken into account. We find that the decrease of the detection time is crucial for a successful immunization in general. Simulation results show that for both SF networks and WS networks, the SN strategy always performs better than the CN strategy, especially for more heterogeneous SF networks at long detection time. The observation is verified by checking the number of the infected nodes being immunized. We found that in geographical space, the distance preferences in the network construction process and the geographically decaying infection rate are key factors that make the SN immunization strategy outperforms the CN strategy. It indicates that even in the absence of the full knowledge of network connectivity we can still stop the epidemic spread efficiently only by using geographical information as in the SN strategy, which may have potential applications for preventing the real epidemic spread.

  10. Role of the Immune System in Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Iturbe, Bernardo; Pons, Hector; Johnson, Richard J

    2017-07-01

    High blood pressure is present in more than one billion adults worldwide and is the most important modifiable risk factor of death resulting from cardiovascular disease. While many factors contribute to the pathogenesis of hypertension, a role of the immune system has been firmly established by a large number of investigations from many laboratories around the world. Immunosuppressive drugs and inhibition of individual cytokines prevent or ameliorate experimental hypertension, and studies in genetically-modified mouse strains have demonstrated that lymphocytes are necessary participants in the development of hypertension and in hypertensive organ injury. Furthermore, immune reactivity may be the driving force of hypertension in autoimmune diseases. Infiltration of immune cells, oxidative stress, and stimulation of the intrarenal angiotensin system are induced by activation of the innate and adaptive immunity. High blood pressure results from the combined effects of inflammation-induced impairment in the pressure natriuresis relationship, dysfunctional vascular relaxation, and overactivity of the sympathetic nervous system. Imbalances between proinflammatory effector responses and anti-inflammatory responses of regulatory T cells to a large extent determine the severity of inflammation. Experimental and human studies have uncovered autoantigens (isoketal-modified proteins and heat shock protein 70) of potential clinical relevance. Further investigations on the immune reactivity in hypertension may result in the identification of new strategies for the treatment of the disease. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Leishmania Hijacks Myeloid Cells for Immune Escape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Martínez-López

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Protozoan parasites of the Leishmania genus are the causative agents of leishmaniasis, a group of neglected tropical diseases whose clinical manifestations vary depending on the infectious Leishmania species but also on host factors. Recognition of the parasite by host myeloid immune cells is a key to trigger an effective Leishmania-specific immunity. However, the parasite is able to persist in host myeloid cells by evading, delaying and manipulating host immunity in order to escape host resistance and ensure its transmission. Neutrophils are first in infiltrating infection sites and could act either favoring or protecting against infection, depending on factors such as the genetic background of the host or the parasite species. Macrophages are the main host cells where the parasites grow and divide. However, macrophages are also the main effector population involved in parasite clearance. Parasite elimination by macrophages requires the priming and development of an effector Th1 adaptive immunity driven by specific subtypes of dendritic cells. Herein, we will provide a comprehensive outline of how myeloid cells regulate innate and adaptive immunity against Leishmania, and the mechanisms used by the parasites to promote their evasion and sabotage. Understanding the interactions between Leishmania and the host myeloid cells may lead to the development of new therapeutic approaches and improved vaccination to leishmaniases, an important worldwide health problem in which current therapeutic or preventive approaches are limited.

  12. Role of Osmolytes in Regulating Immune System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Tarun; Yadav, Manisha; Singh, Laishram Rajendrakumar

    2016-01-01

    The immune system has evolved to protect the host organism from diverse range of pathogenic microbes that are themselves constantly evolving. It is a complex network of cells, humoral factors, chemokines and cytokines. Dysregulation of immune system results in various kinds of immunological disorders. There are several external agents which govern the regulation of immune system. Recent studies have indicated the role of osmolytes in regulation of various immunological processes such as Ag-Ab interaction, Ig assembly, Ag presentation etc. In this present review, we have systematically discussed the role of osmolytes involved in regulation of several key immunological processes. Osmolytes are involved in the regulation of several key immunological processes such as immunoglobulin assembly and folding, immune cells proliferation, regulation of immune cells function, Ag-Ab interaction, antigen presentation, inflammatory response and protection against photo-immunosuppression. Hence, osmolytes and their transporters might be used as potential drug and drug targets respectively. This review is therefore designed to help clinicians in development of osmolyte based therapeutic strategies in the treatment of various immunological disorders. Appropriate future perspectives have also been included.

  13. Problematic Internet Usage and Immune Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil Reed

    Full Text Available Problematic internet use has been associated with a variety of psychological comorbidities, but it relationship with physical illness has not received the same degree of investigation. The current study surveyed 505 participants online, and asked about their levels of problematic internet usage (Internet Addiction Test, depression and anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales, social isolation (UCLA Loneliness Questionnaire, sleep problems (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and their current health - General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28, and the Immune Function Questionnaire. The results demonstrated that around 30% of the sample displayed mild or worse levels of internet addiction, as measured by the IAT. Although there were differences in the purposes for which males and females used the internet, there were no differences in terms of levels of problematic usage between genders. The internet problems were strongly related to all of the other psychological variables such as depression, anxiety, social-isolation, and sleep problems. Internet addiction was also associated with reduced self-reported immune function, but not with the measure of general health (GHQ-28. This relationship between problematic internet use and reduced immune function was found to be independent of the impact of the co-morbidities. It is suggested that the negative relationship between level of problematic internet use and immune function may be mediated by levels of stress produced by such internet use, and subsequent sympathetic nervous activity, which related to immune-supressants, such as cortisol.

  14. Problematic Internet Usage and Immune Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Phil; Vile, Rebecca; Osborne, Lisa A.; Romano, Michela; Truzoli, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Problematic internet use has been associated with a variety of psychological comorbidities, but it relationship with physical illness has not received the same degree of investigation. The current study surveyed 505 participants online, and asked about their levels of problematic internet usage (Internet Addiction Test), depression and anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales), social isolation (UCLA Loneliness Questionnaire), sleep problems (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), and their current health – General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), and the Immune Function Questionnaire. The results demonstrated that around 30% of the sample displayed mild or worse levels of internet addiction, as measured by the IAT. Although there were differences in the purposes for which males and females used the internet, there were no differences in terms of levels of problematic usage between genders. The internet problems were strongly related to all of the other psychological variables such as depression, anxiety, social-isolation, and sleep problems. Internet addiction was also associated with reduced self-reported immune function, but not with the measure of general health (GHQ-28). This relationship between problematic internet use and reduced immune function was found to be independent of the impact of the co-morbidities. It is suggested that the negative relationship between level of problematic internet use and immune function may be mediated by levels of stress produced by such internet use, and subsequent sympathetic nervous activity, which related to immune-supressants, such as cortisol. PMID:26244339

  15. Immune checkpoint inhibitors for metastatic bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massari, Francesco; Di Nunno, Vincenzo; Cubelli, Marta; Santoni, Matteo; Fiorentino, Michelangelo; Montironi, Rodolfo; Cheng, Liang; Lopez-Beltran, Anto; Battelli, Nicola; Ardizzoni, Andrea

    2018-03-01

    Chemotherapy has represented the standard therapy for unresectable or metastatic urothelial carcinoma for more than 20 years. The growing knowledge of the interaction between tumour and immune system has led to the advent of new classes of drugs, the immune-checkpoints inhibitors, which are intended to change the current scenario. To date, immunotherapy is able to improve the overall responses and survival. Moreover, thanks to its safety profile immune-checkpoint inhibitors could be proposed also to patients unfit for standard chemotherapy. No doubts that these agents have started a revolution expected for years, but despite this encouraging results it appears clear that not all subjects respond to these agents and requiring the development of reliable predictive response factors able to isolate patients who can more benefit from these treatments as well as new strategies aimed to improve immunotherapy clinical outcome. In this review we describe the active or ongoing clinical trials involving Programmed Death Ligand 1 (PD-L1), Programmed Death receptor 1 (PD-1) and Cytotoxic-T Lymphocyte Antigen 4 (CTLA 4) inhibitors in urothelial carcinoma focusing our attention on the developing new immune-agents and combination strategies with immune-checkpoint inhibitors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. siRNA and innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Marjorie; Judge, Adam; MacLachlan, Ian

    2009-06-01

    Canonical small interfering RNA (siRNA) duplexes are potent activators of the mammalian innate immune system. The induction of innate immunity by siRNA is dependent on siRNA structure and sequence, method of delivery, and cell type. Synthetic siRNA in delivery vehicles that facilitate cellular uptake can induce high levels of inflammatory cytokines and interferons after systemic administration in mammals and in primary human blood cell cultures. This activation is predominantly mediated by immune cells, normally via a Toll-like receptor (TLR) pathway. The siRNA sequence dependency of these pathways varies with the type and location of the TLR involved. Alternatively nonimmune cell activation may also occur, typically resulting from siRNA interaction with cytoplasmic RNA sensors such as RIG1. As immune activation by siRNA-based drugs represents an undesirable side effect due to the considerable toxicities associated with excessive cytokine release in humans, understanding and abrogating this activity will be a critical component in the development of safe and effective therapeutics. This review describes the intracellular mechanisms of innate immune activation by siRNA, the design of appropriate sequences and chemical modification approaches, and suitable experimental methods for studying their effects, with a view toward reducing siRNA-mediated off-target effects.

  17. Metallothioneins: Emerging Modulators in Immunity and Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavitha Subramanian Vignesh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Metallothioneins (MTs are a family of metal-binding proteins virtually expressed in all organisms including prokaryotes, lower eukaryotes, invertebrates and mammals. These proteins regulate homeostasis of zinc (Zn and copper (Cu, mitigate heavy metal poisoning, and alleviate superoxide stress. In recent years, MTs have emerged as an important, yet largely underappreciated, component of the immune system. Innate and adaptive immune cells regulate MTs in response to stress stimuli, cytokine signals and microbial challenge. Modulation of MTs in these cells in turn regulates metal ion release, transport and distribution, cellular redox status, enzyme function and cell signaling. While it is well established that the host strictly regulates availability of metal ions during microbial pathogenesis, we are only recently beginning to unravel the interplay between metal-regulatory pathways and immunological defenses. In this perspective, investigation of mechanisms that leverage the potential of MTs to orchestrate inflammatory responses and antimicrobial defenses has gained momentum. The purpose of this review, therefore, is to illumine the role of MTs in immune regulation. We discuss the mechanisms of MT induction and signaling in immune cells and explore the therapeutic potential of the MT-Zn axis in bolstering immune defenses against pathogens.

  18. Maximizing Tumor Immunity With Fractionated Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaue, Doerthe, E-mail: dschaue@mednet.ucla.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Ratikan, Josephine A.; Iwamoto, Keisuke S.; McBride, William H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: Technologic advances have led to increased clinical use of higher-sized fractions of radiation dose and higher total doses. How these modify the pathways involved in tumor cell death, normal tissue response, and signaling to the immune system has been inadequately explored. Here we ask how radiation dose and fraction size affect antitumor immunity, the suppression thereof, and how this might relate to tumor control. Methods and Materials: Mice bearing B16-OVA murine melanoma were treated with up to 15 Gy radiation given in various-size fractions, and tumor growth followed. The tumor-specific immune response in the spleen was assessed by interferon-{gamma} enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay with ovalbumin (OVA) as the surrogate tumor antigen and the contribution of regulatory T cells (Tregs) determined by the proportion of CD4{sup +}CD25{sup hi}Foxp3{sup +} T cells. Results: After single doses, tumor control increased with the size of radiation dose, as did the number of tumor-reactive T cells. This was offset at the highest dose by an increase in Treg representation. Fractionated treatment with medium-size radiation doses of 7.5 Gy/fraction gave the best tumor control and tumor immunity while maintaining low Treg numbers. Conclusions: Radiation can be an immune adjuvant, but the response varies with the size of dose per fraction. The ultimate challenge is to optimally integrate cancer immunotherapy into radiation therapy.

  19. Comparison of immunization strategies in geographical networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bing; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Kim, Beom Jun

    2009-01-01

    The epidemic spread and immunizations in geographically embedded scale-free (SF) and Watts-Strogatz (WS) networks are numerically investigated. We make a realistic assumption that it takes time which we call the detection time, for a vertex to be identified as infected, and implement two different immunization strategies: one is based on connection neighbors (CN) of the infected vertex with the exact information of the network structure utilized and the other is based on spatial neighbors (SN) with only geographical distances taken into account. We find that the decrease of the detection time is crucial for a successful immunization in general. Simulation results show that for both SF networks and WS networks, the SN strategy always performs better than the CN strategy, especially for more heterogeneous SF networks at long detection time. The observation is verified by checking the number of the infected nodes being immunized. We found that in geographical space, the distance preferences in the network construction process and the geographically decaying infection rate are key factors that make the SN immunization strategy outperforms the CN strategy. It indicates that even in the absence of the full knowledge of network connectivity we can still stop the epidemic spread efficiently only by using geographical information as in the SN strategy, which may have potential applications for preventing the real epidemic spread.

  20. Corruption of innate immunity by bacterial proteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potempa, Jan; Pike, Robert N

    2009-01-01

    The innate immune system of the human body has developed numerous mechanisms to control endogenous and exogenous bacteria and thus prevent infections by these microorganisms. These mechanisms range from physical barriers such as the skin or mucosal epithelium to a sophisticated array of molecules and cells that function to suppress or prevent bacterial infection. Many bacteria express a variety of proteases, ranging from non-specific and powerful enzymes that degrade many proteins involved in innate immunity to proteases that are extremely precise and specific in their mode of action. Here we have assembled a comprehensive picture of how bacterial proteases affect the host's innate immune system to gain advantage and cause infection. This picture is far from being complete since the numbers of mechanisms utilized are as astonishing as they are diverse, ranging from degradation of molecules vital to innate immune mechanisms to subversion of the mechanisms to allow the bacterium to hide from the system or take advantage of it. It is vital that such mechanisms are elucidated to allow strategies to be developed to aid the innate immune system in controlling bacterial infections.

  1. Maximizing Tumor Immunity With Fractionated Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaue, Dörthe; Ratikan, Josephine A.; Iwamoto, Keisuke S.; McBride, William H.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Technologic advances have led to increased clinical use of higher-sized fractions of radiation dose and higher total doses. How these modify the pathways involved in tumor cell death, normal tissue response, and signaling to the immune system has been inadequately explored. Here we ask how radiation dose and fraction size affect antitumor immunity, the suppression thereof, and how this might relate to tumor control. Methods and Materials: Mice bearing B16-OVA murine melanoma were treated with up to 15 Gy radiation given in various-size fractions, and tumor growth followed. The tumor-specific immune response in the spleen was assessed by interferon-γ enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay with ovalbumin (OVA) as the surrogate tumor antigen and the contribution of regulatory T cells (Tregs) determined by the proportion of CD4 + CD25 hi Foxp3 + T cells. Results: After single doses, tumor control increased with the size of radiation dose, as did the number of tumor-reactive T cells. This was offset at the highest dose by an increase in Treg representation. Fractionated treatment with medium-size radiation doses of 7.5 Gy/fraction gave the best tumor control and tumor immunity while maintaining low Treg numbers. Conclusions: Radiation can be an immune adjuvant, but the response varies with the size of dose per fraction. The ultimate challenge is to optimally integrate cancer immunotherapy into radiation therapy.

  2. Altered Immune Regulation in Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zóka, András; Műzes, Györgyi; Somogyi, Anikó; Varga, Tímea; Szémán, Barbara; Al-Aissa, Zahra; Hadarits, Orsolya; Firneisz, Gábor

    2013-01-01

    Research in genetics and immunology was going on separate strands for a long time. Type 1 diabetes mellitus might not be characterized with a single pathogenetic factor. It develops when a susceptible individual is exposed to potential triggers in a given sequence and timeframe that eventually disarranges the fine-tuned immune mechanisms that keep autoimmunity under control in health. Genomewide association studies have helped to understand the congenital susceptibility, and hand-in-hand with the immunological research novel paths of immune dysregulation were described in central tolerance, apoptotic pathways, or peripheral tolerance mediated by regulatory T-cells. Epigenetic factors are contributing to the immune dysregulation. The interplay between genetic susceptibility and potential triggers is likely to play a role at a very early age and gradually results in the loss of balanced autotolerance and subsequently in the development of the clinical disease. Genetic susceptibility, the impaired elimination of apoptotic β-cell remnants, altered immune regulatory functions, and environmental factors such as viral infections determine the outcome. Autoreactivity might exist under physiologic conditions and when the integrity of the complex regulatory process is damaged the disease might develop. We summarized the immune regulatory mechanisms that might have a crucial role in disease pathology and development. PMID:24285974

  3. Altered Immune Regulation in Type 1 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András Zóka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Research in genetics and immunology was going on separate strands for a long time. Type 1 diabetes mellitus might not be characterized with a single pathogenetic factor. It develops when a susceptible individual is exposed to potential triggers in a given sequence and timeframe that eventually disarranges the fine-tuned immune mechanisms that keep autoimmunity under control in health. Genomewide association studies have helped to understand the congenital susceptibility, and hand-in-hand with the immunological research novel paths of immune dysregulation were described in central tolerance, apoptotic pathways, or peripheral tolerance mediated by regulatory T-cells. Epigenetic factors are contributing to the immune dysregulation. The interplay between genetic susceptibility and potential triggers is likely to play a role at a very early age and gradually results in the loss of balanced autotolerance and subsequently in the development of the clinical disease. Genetic susceptibility, the impaired elimination of apoptotic β-cell remnants, altered immune regulatory functions, and environmental factors such as viral infections determine the outcome. Autoreactivity might exist under physiologic conditions and when the integrity of the complex regulatory process is damaged the disease might develop. We summarized the immune regulatory mechanisms that might have a crucial role in disease pathology and development.

  4. Immune Antibody Libraries: Manipulating The Diverse Immune Repertoire for Antibody Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Theam Soon; Chan, Soo Khim

    2016-01-01

    Antibody phage display is highly dependent on the availability of antibody libraries. There are several forms of libraries depending mainly on the origin of the source materials. There are three major classes of libraries, mainly the naïve, immune and synthetic libraries. Immune antibody libraries are designed to isolate specific and high affinity antibodies against disease antigens. The pre-exposure of the host to an infection results in the production of a skewed population of antibodies against the particular infection. This characteristic takes advantage of the in vivo editing machinery to generate bias and specific immune repertoire. The skewed but diverse repertoire of immune libraries has been adapted successfully in the generation of antibodies against a wide range of diseases. We envisage immune antibody libraries to play a greater role in the discovery of antibodies for diseases in the near future. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. Aging of immune system: Immune signature from peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets in 1068 healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Ling; Jing, Xie; Qiu, Zhifeng; Cao, Wei; Jiao, Yang; Routy, Jean-Pierre; Li, Taisheng

    2016-05-01

    Aging is a major risk factor for several conditions including neurodegenerative, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Functional impairments in cellular pathways controlling genomic stability, and immune control have been identified. Biomarker of immune senescence is needed to improve vaccine response and to develop therapy to improve immune control. To identify phenotypic signature of circulating immune cells with aging, we enrolled 1068 Chinese healthy volunteers ranging from 18 to 80 years old. The decreased naïve CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, increased memory CD4+ or CD8+ T cells, loss of CD28 expression on T cells and reverse trend of CD38 and HLA-DR, were significant for aging of immune system. Conversely, the absolute counts and percentage of NK cells and CD19+B cells maintained stable in aging individuals. The Chinese reference ranges of absolute counts and percentage of peripheral lymphocyte in this study might be useful for future clinical evaluation.

  6. Immune markers and correlates of protection for vaccine induced immune responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thakur, Aneesh; Pedersen, Lasse Eggers; Jungersen, Gregers

    2012-01-01

    of an appropriate humoral response currently remain the best validated correlates of protective immunity after vaccination. Despite advancements in the field of immunology over the past few decades currently there are, however, no sufficiently validated immune correlates of vaccine induced protection against......-specific production of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) has been promoted as a quantitative marker of protective cell-mediated immune responses over the past couple of decades. More recently, however, evidence from several infections has pointed towards the quality of the immune response, measured through increased levels...... of antigen-specific polyfunctional T cells capable of producing a triad of relevant cytokines, as a better correlate of sustained protective immunity against this type of infections. Also the possibilities to measure antigen-specific cytotoxic T cells (CTL) during infection or in response to vaccination...

  7. Balancing immune protection and immune pathology by CD8+ T cell responses to influenza infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susu eDuan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Influenza A virus (IAV is a significant human pathogen causing annual epidemics and periodic pandemics. CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL-mediated immunity contributes to clearance of virus-infected cells; CTL immunity targeting the conserved internal proteins of IAVs is a key protection mechanism when neutralizing antibodies are absent during heterosubtypic IAV infection. However, CTL infiltration into the airways, their cytotoxicity, and the effects of produced pro-inflammatory cytokines can cause severe lung tissue injury, thereby contributing to immunopathology. Studies have discovered complicated and exquisite stimulatory and inhibitory mechanisms that regulate CTL magnitude and effector activities during IAV infection. Here, we review the state of knowledge on the roles of IAV-specific CTLs in immune protection and immunopathology during IAV infection in animal models, highlighting the key findings of various requirements and constraints regulating the balance of immune protection and pathology involved in CTL immunity. We also discuss the evidence of cross-reactive CTL immunity as a positive correlate of cross-subtype protection during secondary IAV infection in both animal and human studies. We argue that the effects of CTL immunity on protection and immunopathology depend on multiple layers of host and viral factors, including complex host mechanisms to regulate CTL magnitude and effector activity, the pathogenic nature of the IAV, the innate response milieu, and the host historical immune context of influenza infection. Future efforts are needed to further understand these key host and viral factors, especially to differentiate those that constrain optimally effective CTL anti-viral immunity from those necessary to restrain CTL-mediated nonspecific immunopathology in the various contexts of IAV infection, in order to develop better vaccination and therapeutic strategies for modifying protective CTL immunity.

  8. Maternal immunization increases nestling energy expenditure, immune function, and fledging success in a passerine bird

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Burness

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Female birds transfer maternally derived antibodies (matAb to their nestlings, via the egg yolk. These antibodies are thought to provide passive protection, and allow nestlings to avoid the costs associated with mounting an innate immune response. To test whether there is an energetic benefit to nestlings from receiving matAb, we challenged adult female tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor prior to clutch initiation with either lipopolysaccharide (LPS or saline (Control. Following hatching, one half of each female's nestlings were immunized on day 8 post-hatch with LPS or saline, and the 4-h post-immunization nestling metabolic rate (MR was measured. There was no difference in either LPS-reactive antibodies or total Ig levels between offspring of immunized and non-immunized mothers on day 6 or 14 post-hatch, possibly reflecting a relatively short half-life of matAbs in altricial birds. Additionally, we found no evidence that nestlings from LPS-immunized mothers could avoid the growth suppression that may result from activation of an inflammatory response. Unexpectedly, we found that control nestlings from LPS mothers had higher resting MR than control nestlings of control mothers. We attribute the increased MR to the costs associated with a general non-specific enhancement of immune function in nestlings from LPS-immunized mothers. Consistent with enhanced immune function, nestlings of immunized mothers had a more robust inflammatory response to phytohaemagglutinin and higher fledging success. Our results suggest that maternal antigen exposure pre-laying can result in increased fitness for both mothers and offspring, depending on food availability.

  9. Centrality measures for immunization of weighted networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khansari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Effective immunization of individual communities with minimal cost in vaccination has made great discussion surrounding the realm of complex networks. Meanwhile, proper realization of relationship among people in society and applying it to social networks brings about substantial improvements in immunization. Accordingly, weighted graph in which link weights represent the intensity and intimacy of relationships is an acceptable approach. In this work we employ weighted graphs and a wide variety of weighted centrality measures to distinguish important individuals in contagion of diseases. Furthermore, we propose new centrality measures for weighted networks. Our experimental results show that Radiality-Degree centrality is satisfying for weighted BA networks. Additionally, PageRank-Degree and Radiality-Degree centralities showmoreacceptable performance in targeted immunization of weighted networks.

  10. Long noncoding RNA in hematopoiesis and immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satpathy, Ansuman T; Chang, Howard Y

    2015-05-19

    Dynamic gene expression during cellular differentiation is tightly coordinated by transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms. An emerging theme is the central role of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in the regulation of this specificity. Recent advances demonstrate that lncRNAs are expressed in a lineage-specific manner and control the development of several cell types in the hematopoietic system. Moreover, specific lncRNAs are induced to modulate innate and adaptive immune responses. lncRNAs can function via RNA-DNA, RNA-RNA, and RNA-protein target interactions. As a result, they affect several stages of gene regulation, including chromatin modification, mRNA biogenesis, and protein signaling. We discuss recent advances, future prospects, and challenges in understanding the roles of lncRNAs in immunity and immune-mediated diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Non-specific immunization against parasites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, F.E.G.

    1981-01-01

    Non-specific resistance to tumours can be induced by pretreating animals with micro-organisms, microbial extracts or various synthetic substances. Mycobacterium bovis, Corynebacterium parvum and a number of other micro-organisms also protect mice against rodent piroplasms and there is evidence that they are also protective against other parasites including Schistosoma mansoni. The actual mechanisms of non-specific immunity are still unclear but it is influenced by both the genetic make-up of the host and the nature of the parasite. Non-specific immunization may be a possible alternative to specific immunization and may avoid many of the potential immunopathological changes induced during parasite infections. Irradiated vaccines (Dictyocaulus viviparus, schistomiasis) are mentioned marginally only

  12. Impact of methamphetamine on infection and immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio A Salamanca

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of methamphetamine (METH use is estimated at ~35 million people worldwide, with over 10 million users in the United States. METH use elicits a myriad of social consequences and the behavioral impact of the drug is well understood. However, new information has recently emerged detailing the devastating effects of METH on host immunity, increasing the acquisition of diverse pathogens and exacerbating the severity of disease. These outcomes manifest as modifications in protective physical and chemical defenses, pro-inflammatory responses, and the induction of oxidative stress pathways. Through these processes, significant neurotoxicities arise, and, as such, chronic abusers with these conditions are at a higher risk for heightened consequences. METH use also influences the adaptive immune response, permitting the unrestrained development of opportunistic diseases. In this review, we discuss recent literature addressing the impact of METH on infection and immunity, and identify areas ripe for future investigation.

  13. Stress proteins and the immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, P

    2000-07-25

    The heat shock or stress response is one of the most highly conserved adaptive responses in nature. In single cell organisms, the stress response confers tolerance to a variety of stresses including hyperthermia, hyperoxia, hypoxia, and other perturbations, which alter protein synthesis. This tolerance phenomenon is also extremely important in the multicellular organism, resulting in not only thermal tolerance, but also resistance to stresses of the whole organism such as ischemia-reperfusion injury. Moreover, recent data indicates that these stress proteins have the ability to modulate the cellular immune response. Although the terms heat shock proteins (HSPs) and stress proteins are often used interchangeably, the term stress proteins includes the HSPs, the glucose-regulated proteins (GRPs) and ubiquitin. The stress proteins may be grouped by molecular weight ranging from the large 110 kDa HSP110 to ubiquitin at 8 kDa. These proteins serve as cellular chaperones, participating in protein synthesis and transport through the various cellular compartments. Because these proteins have unique cellular localizations, the chaperone function of the stress proteins often involves a transfer of peptides between stress proteins as the peptide is moved between cellular compartments. For example, HSP70 is a cytosolic and nuclear chaperone, which is critical for the transfer of cellular peptides in the mitochondrion through a hand-off that involves mitochondrial HSP60 at the inner mitochondrial membrane. Similarly, cytosolic proteins are transferred from HSP70 to gp96 as they move into the endoplasmic reticulum. The central role of the stress proteins in the transfer of peptides through the cell may be responsible for the recently recognized importance of the stress proteins in the modulation of the immune system [Feder, M.E., Hofmann, G.E., 1999. Heat-shock proteins, molecular chaperones, and the stress response: evolutionary and ecological physiology. Annu. Rev. Physiol. 61

  14. Phospholipase C-β in immune cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Toshiaki; Xiao, Wenbin

    2013-09-01

    Great progress has recently been made in structural and functional research of phospholipase C (PLC)-β. We now understand how PLC-β isoforms (β1-β4) are activated by GTP-bound Gαq downstream of G protein-coupled receptors. Numerous studies indicate that PLC-βs participate in the differentiation and activation of immune cells that control both the innate and adaptive immune systems. The PLC-β3 isoform also interplays with tyrosine kinase-based signaling pathways, to inhibit Stat5 activation by recruiting the protein-tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1, with which PLC-β3 and Stat5 form a multi-molecular signaling platform, named SPS complex. The SPS complex has important regulatory roles in tumorigenesis and immune cell activation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Inflammation, immunity, and vaccines for Helicobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aebischer, Toni; Meyer, Thomas F; Andersen, Leif P

    2010-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori represents the major etiologic agent of gastritis, gastric, and duodenal ulcer disease and can cause gastric cancer and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue B-cell lymphoma. It is clear that the consequences of infection reflect diverse outcomes of the interaction of bacteria......, a novel class of immune response regulators. Furthermore, we learned new details on how infection is detected by innate pattern recognition receptors. Induction of effective cell-mediated immunity will be key for the development of a vaccine, and new work published analyzed the relevance and contribution...... of CD4 T helper cell subsets to the immune reaction. Th17 cells, which are also induced during natural infection, were shown to be particularly important for vaccination. Cost-efficiency of vaccination was re-assessed and confirmed. Thus, induction and shaping of the effector roles of such protective Th...

  16. Overview of Drosophila immunity: a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imler, Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    The functional analysis of genes from the model organism Drosophila melanogaster has provided invaluable information for many cellular and developmental or physiological processes, including immunity. The best-understood aspect of Drosophila immunity is the inducible humoral response, first recognized in 1972. This pioneering work led to a remarkable series of findings over the next 30 years, ranging from the identification and characterization of the antimicrobial peptides produced, to the deciphering of the signalling pathways activating the genes that encode them and, ultimately, to the discovery of the receptors sensing infection. These studies on an insect model coincided with a revival of the field of innate immunity, and had an unanticipated impact on the biomedical field. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Artificial immune system applications in computer security

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Ying

    2016-01-01

    This book provides state-of-the-art information on the use, design, and development of the Artificial Immune System (AIS) and AIS-based solutions to computer security issues. Artificial Immune System: Applications in Computer Security focuses on the technologies and applications of AIS in malware detection proposed in recent years by the Computational Intelligence Laboratory of Peking University (CIL@PKU). It offers a theoretical perspective as well as practical solutions for readers interested in AIS, machine learning, pattern recognition and computer security. The book begins by introducing the basic concepts, typical algorithms, important features, and some applications of AIS. The second chapter introduces malware and its detection methods, especially for immune-based malware detection approaches. Successive chapters present a variety of advanced detection approaches for malware, including Virus Detection System, K-Nearest Neighbour (KNN), RBF networ s, and Support Vector Machines (SVM), Danger theory, ...

  18. Immune system alterations in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovden, H; Frederiksen, J L; Pedersen, S W

    2013-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a disease of which the underlying cause and pathogenesis are unknown. Cumulatative data clearly indicates an active participation by the immune system in the disease. An increasingly recognized theory suggests a non-cell autonomous mechanism, meaning that multiple...... cells working together are necessary for the pathogenesis of the disease. Observed immune system alterations could indicate an active participation in this mechanism. Damaged motor neurons are able to activate microglia, astrocytes and the complement system, which further can influence each other...... and contribute to neurodegeneration. Infiltrating peripheral immune cells appears to correlate with disease progression, but their significance and composition is unclear. The deleterious effects of this collaborating system of cells appear to outweigh the protective aspects, and revealing this interplay might...

  19. TAM Receptor Signaling in Immune Homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothlin, Carla V.; Carrera-Silva, Eugenio A.; Bosurgi, Lidia; Ghosh, Sourav

    2015-01-01

    The TAM receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs)—TYRO3, AXL, and MERTK—together with their cognate agonists GAS6 and PROS1 play an essential role in the resolution of inflammation. Deficiencies in TAM signaling have been associated with chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Three processes regulated by TAM signaling may contribute, either independently or collectively, to immune homeostasis: the negative regulation of the innate immune response, the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, and the restoration of vascular integrity. Recent studies have also revealed the function of TAMs in infectious diseases and cancer. Here, we review the important milestones in the discovery of these RTKs and their ligands and the studies that underscore the functional importance of this signaling pathway in physiological immune settings and disease. PMID:25594431

  20. Vitamin D and neonatal immune function.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Clancy, N

    2013-05-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is widespread in the neonatal and paediatric population of northern latitudes, particularly in children of African, Middle Eastern and Asian ethnicity. This is associated with diminished immune function and increases the risk of Th1 autoimmune diseases like type 1 diabetes. Epidermiological studies have also shown a link between vitamin D deficiency in children and a more severe course of illness with lower respiratory tract infection or Respiratory Syncitial Virus (RSV) bronchiolitis. The mechanism by which vitamin D enhances immunity is complex. It acts through the innate immune system by inducing antimicrobial peptides in epithelial cells, neutrophils and macrophages. The role of Vitamin D in neonatal and paediatric immunomodulation requires further study.