WorldWideScience

Sample records for humoral virus-specific adaptive

  1. Epstein-Barr Virus-Specific Humoral Immune Responses in Health and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middeldorp, Jaap M

    2015-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is widely distributed in the world and associated with a still increasing number of acute, chronic, malignant and autoimmune disease syndromes. Humoral immune responses to EBV have been studied for diagnostic, pathogenic and protective (vaccine) purposes. These studies use a range of methodologies, from cell-based immunofluorescence testing to antibody-diversity analysis using immunoblot and epitope analysis using recombinant or synthetic peptide-scanning. First, the individual EBV antigen complexes (VCA , MA, EA(D), EA(R) and EBNA) are defined at cellular and molecular levels, providing a historic overview. The characteristic antibody responses to these complexes in health and disease are described, and differences are highlighted by clinical examples. Options for EBV vaccination are briefly addressed. For a selected number of immunodominant proteins, in particular EBNA1, the interaction with human antibodies is further detailed at the epitope level, revealing interesting insights for structure, function and immunological aspects, not considered previously. Humoral immune responses against EBV-encoded tumour antigens LMP1, LMP2 and BARF1 are addressed, which provide novel options for targeted immunotherapy. Finally, some considerations on EBV-linked autoimmune diseases are given, and mechanisms of antigen mimicry are briefly discussed. Further analysis of humoral immune responses against EBV in health and disease in carefully selected patient cohorts will open new options for understanding pathogenesis of individual EBV-linked diseases and developing targeted diagnostic and therapeutic approaches.

  2. Dehydroepiandrosterone and metyrapone partially restore the adaptive humoral and cellular immune response in endotoxin immunosuppressed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rearte, Bárbara; Maglioco, Andrea; Machuca, Damián; Greco, Daiana Martire; Landoni, Verónica I; Rodriguez-Rodrigues, Nahuel; Meiss, Roberto; Fernández, Gabriela C; Isturiz, Martín A

    2014-08-01

    Prior exposure to endotoxins renders the host temporarily refractory to subsequent endotoxin challenge (endotoxin tolerance). Clinically, this state has also been pointed out as the initial cause of the non-specific humoral and cellular immunosuppression described in these patients. We recently demonstrated the restoration of immune response with mifepristone (RU486), a receptor antagonist of glucocorticoids. Here we report the treatment with other modulators of glucocorticoids, i.e. dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), a hormone with anti-glucocorticoid properties, or metyrapone (MET) an inhibitor of corticosterone synthesis. These drugs were able to partially, but significantly, restore the humoral immune response in immunosuppressed mice. A significant recovery of proliferative responsiveness was also observed when splenocytes were obtained from DHEA- or MET-treated immunosuppressed mice. In addition, these treatments restored the hypersensitivity response in immunosuppressed mice. Finally, although neither DHEA nor MET improved the reduced CD4 lymphocyte count in spleen from immunosuppressed mice, both treatments promoted spleen architecture reorganization, partially restoring the distinct cellular components and their localization in the spleen. The results from this study indicate that DHEA and MET could play an important role in the restoration of both adaptive humoral and cellular immune response in LPS-immunosuppressed mice, reinforcing the concept of a central involvement of endogenous glucocorticoids on this phenomenon. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  3. Type I interferon suppresses virus-specific B cell responses by modulating CD8+ T cell differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseman, E. Ashley; Wu, Tuoqi; de la Torre, Juan Carlos; Schwartzberg, Pamela L.; McGavern, Dorian B.

    2016-01-01

    Studies have established a role for T cells in resolving persistent viral infections, yet emerging evidence indicates that both T and B cells are required to control some viruses. During persistent infection, a marked lag or failure to generate neutralizing antibodies is commonly observed and likely contributes to an inability to control certain pathogens. Using lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) as a model, we have examined how a persistent viral infection can suppress neutralizing humoral immunity. By tracking the fate of virus-specific B cells in vivo, we report that LCMV-specific B cells were rapidly deleted within a few days of persistent infection, and this deletion was completely reversed by blockade of type I interferon (IFN-I) signaling. Early interference with IFN-I signaling promoted survival and differentiation of LCMV-specific B cells, which accelerated the generation of neutralizing antibodies. This marked improvement in antiviral humoral immunity did not rely on the cessation of IFN-I signaling in B cells but on alterations in the virus-specific CD8+ T cell response. Using two-photon microscopy and in vivo calcium imaging, we observed that cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) productively engaged and killed LCMV-specific B cells in a perforin-dependent manner within the first few days of infection. Blockade of IFN-I signaling protected LCMV-specific B cells by promoting CTL dysfunction. Therapeutic manipulation of this pathway may facilitate efforts to promote humoral immunity during persistent viral infection in humans. Our findings illustrate how events that occur early after infection can disturb the resultant adaptive response and contribute to viral persistence.

  4. Evaluation of specific humoral immune response in pigs vaccinated with cell culture adapted classical swine fever vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrinal K. Nath

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine an efficient vaccination schedule on the basis of the humoral immune response of cell culture adapted live classical swine fever virus (CSFV vaccinated pigs and maternally derived antibody (MDA in piglets of vaccinated sows. Materials and Methods: A cell culture adapted live CSFV vaccine was subjected to different vaccination schedule in the present study. Serum samples were collected before vaccination (day 0 and 7, 14, 28, 42, 56, 180, 194, 208, 270, 284 and 298 days after vaccination and were analyzed by liquid phase blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Moreover, MDA titre was detected in the serum of piglets at 21 and 42 days of age after farrowing of the vaccinated sows. Results: On 28 days after vaccination, serum samples of 83.33% vaccinated pigs showed the desirable level of antibody titer (log10 1.50 at 1:32 dilution, whereas 100% animals showed log10 1.50 at 1:32 dilution after 42 days of vaccination. Animals received a booster dose at 28 and 180 days post vaccination showed stable high-level antibody titre till the end of the study period. Further, piglets born from pigs vaccinated 1 month after conception showed the desirable level of MDA up to 42 days of age. Conclusion: CSF causes major losses in pig industry. Lapinised vaccines against CSFV are used routinely in endemic countries. In the present study, a cell culture adapted live attenuated vaccine has been evaluated. Based on the level of humoral immune response of vaccinated pigs and MDA titer in piglets born from immunized sows, it may be concluded that the more effective vaccination schedule for prevention of CSF is primary vaccination at 2 months of age followed by booster vaccination at 28 and 180 days post primary vaccination and at 1 month of gestation.

  5. Adaptação e validação da Escala de Senso de Humor Situacional Adaptación y validez de la Escala de Sentido del Humor Situacional Adaptation and validation of the Situational Humor Response Questionaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Benevides Soares

    2012-08-01

    transcultural adaptation and evaluation of the psychometric measures for the Brazilian context. The instrument has been translated from the original Portuguese to the Brazilian Portuguese, respecting the stages of semantic adaptation, the comparison of the versions and the adaptation to the cross-cultural in face validity and content. The instrument was applied to a sample of 621 participants. It has extracted factors with oblique rotation, analysis of factorial loadings and internal analysis of consistency. The results have pointed out three main factors: mood with friends and colleagues (α=0.70; influences on moods (α=0.70, and humor in adverse situations (α=0.55. The internal consistency suggests that for the Brazilian context some items can be improved, especially concerning the humor in adverse situations, in order to enhance the precision factor. However, it provides an acceptable internal consistency.

  6. Complement and Humoral Adaptive Immunity in the Human Choroid Plexus: Roles for Stromal Concretions, Basement Membranes, and Epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, G R Wayne; Laule, Cornelia; Leung, Esther; Pavlova, Vladimira; Morgan, B Paul; Esiri, Margaret M

    2016-05-01

    The choroid plexus (CP) provides a barrier to entry of toxic molecules from the blood into the brain and transports vital molecules into the cerebrospinal fluid. While a great deal is known about CP physiology, relatively little is known about its immunology. Here, we show immunohistochemical data that help define the role of the CP in innate and adaptive humoral immunity. The results show that complement, in the form of C1q, C3d, C9, or C9neo, is preferentially deposited in stromal concretions. In contrast, immunoglobulin (Ig) G (IgG) and IgA are more often found in CP epithelial cells, and IgM is found in either locale. C4d, IgD, and IgE are rarely, if ever, seen in the CP. In multiple sclerosis CP, basement membrane C9 or stromal IgA patterns were common but were not specific for the disease. These findings indicate that the CP may orchestrate the clearance of complement, particularly by deposition in its concretions, IgA and IgG preferentially via its epithelium, and IgM by either mechanism.

  7. Humor and sexual selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Robert

    2003-12-01

    Recently Geoffrey Miller has suggested that humor evolved through sexual selection as a signal of "creativity," which in turn implies youthfulness, intelligence, and adaptive unpredictability. Drawing upon available empirical studies, I argue that the evidence for a link between humor and creativity is weak and ambiguous. I also find only tenuous support for Miller's assumption that the attractiveness of the "sense of humor" is to be found in the wittiness of its possessor, since those who use the phrase often seem to associate it with the affects of relatively mirthless "bonding" laughter. Humor, I conclude, may have evolved as an instrument for achieving broad social adhesiveness and for facilitating the individual's maneuverability within the group, but that it evolved through sexual selection has yet to be convincingly demonstrated.

  8. Humor styles, self-esteem, and subjective happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xiao Dong; Liu, Katy Wing-Yin; Jiang, Feng; Hiranandani, Neelam Arjan

    2014-10-01

    Summary.-This study examined how humor styles could mediate the effect of self-esteem on subjective happiness. 227 Hong Kong undergraduate students completed the Humor Styles Questionnaire, the Roxsenberg Self-esteem Scale, and the Subjective Happiness Scale. Results showed adaptive humor styles (affiliative humor and self-enhancing humor) significantly predicted self-esteem and subjective happiness and mediated the relationship between self-esteem and subjective happiness. Maladaptive humor styles (aggressive humor and self-defeating humor) did not strongly predict self-esteem or subjective happiness. The mediation effects of humor styles found in the present research provided useful suggestions for future studies.

  9. Effects of Classroom Humor Climate and Acceptance of Humor Messages on Adolescents' Expressions of Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Yi-Chen; Lee, Chun-Yang; Wang, Hong-Huei

    2016-01-01

    Background: To adapt to dramatic changes from physical growth, physical development and the increasing demand of significant others, humor has been found to be an effective coping strategy. However, previous studies have found that adolescents start to express their humor styles with aggressive components which causes negative consequences, such…

  10. Effects of Classroom Humor Climate and Acceptance of Humor Messages on Adolescents' Expressions of Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Yi-Chen; Lee, Chun-Yang; Wang, Hong-Huei

    2016-01-01

    Background: To adapt to dramatic changes from physical growth, physical development and the increasing demand of significant others, humor has been found to be an effective coping strategy. However, previous studies have found that adolescents start to express their humor styles with aggressive components which causes negative consequences, such…

  11. Flow of Aqueous Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Flow of Aqueous Humor Flow of Aqueous Humor Most, but not all, forms of glaucoma are ... remains normal when some of the fluid (aqueous humor) produced by the eye's ciliary body flows out ...

  12. Powerful Complex Immunoadjuvant Based on Synergistic Effect of Combined TLR4 and NOD2 Activation Significantly Enhances Magnitude of Humoral and Cellular Adaptive Immune Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tukhvatulin, Amir I; Dzharullaeva, Alina S; Tukhvatulina, Natalia M; Shcheblyakov, Dmitry V; Shmarov, Maxim M; Dolzhikova, Inna V; Stanhope-Baker, Patricia; Naroditsky, Boris S; Gudkov, Andrei V; Logunov, Denis Y; Gintsburg, Alexander L

    2016-01-01

    Binding of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) by pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) activates innate immune responses and contributes to development of adaptive immunity. Simultaneous stimulation of different types of PRRs can have synergistic immunostimulatory effects resulting in enhanced production of molecules that mediate innate immunity such as inflammatory cytokines, antimicrobial peptides, etc. Here, we evaluated the impact of combined stimulation of PRRs from different families on adaptive immunity by generating alum-based vaccine formulations with ovalbumin as a model antigen and the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) agonist MPLA and the Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2 (NOD2) agonist MDP adsorbed individually or together on the alum-ovalbumin particles. Multiple in vitro and in vivo readouts of immune system activation all showed that while individual PRR agonists increased the immunogenicity of vaccines compared to alum alone, the combination of both PRR agonists was significantly more effective. Combined stimulation of TLR4 and NOD2 results in a stronger and broader transcriptional response in THP-1 cells compared to individual PRR stimulation. Immunostimulatory composition containing both PRR agonists (MPLA and MDP) in the context of the alum-based ovalbumin vaccine also enhanced uptake of vaccine particles by bone marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) and promoted maturation (up-regulation of expression of CD80, CD86, MHCII) and activation (production of cytokines) of BMDCs. Finally, immunization of mice with vaccine particles containing both PRR agonists resulted in enhanced cellular immunity as indicated by increased proliferation and activation (IFN-γ production) of splenic CD4+ and CD8+ T cells following in vitro restimulation with ovalbumin and enhanced humoral immunity as indicated by higher titers of ovalbumin-specific IgG antibodies. These results indicate that combined stimulation of TLR4 and NOD2

  13. Cognitive Distortions, Humor Styles, and Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Rnic

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive distortions are negative biases in thinking that are theorized to represent vulnerability factors for depression and dysphoria. Despite the emphasis placed on cognitive distortions in the context of cognitive behavioural theory and practice, a paucity of research has examined the mechanisms through which they impact depressive symptomatology. Both adaptive and maladaptive styles of humor represent coping strategies that may mediate the relation between cognitive distortions and depressive symptoms. The current study examined the correlations between the frequency and impact of cognitive distortions across both social and achievement-related contexts and types of humor. Cognitive distortions were associated with reduced use of adaptive Affiliative and Self-Enhancing humor styles and increased use of maladaptive Aggressive and Self-Defeating humor. Reduced use of Self-Enhancing humor mediated the relationship between most types of cognitive distortions and depressed mood, indicating that distorted negative thinking may interfere with an individual’s ability to adopt a humorous and cheerful outlook on life (i.e., use Self-Enhancing humor as a way of regulating emotions and coping with stress, thereby resulting in elevated depressive symptoms. Similarly, Self-Defeating humor mediated the association of the social impact of cognitive distortions with depression, such that this humor style may be used as a coping strategy for dealing with distorted thinking that ultimately backfires and results in increased dysphoria.

  14. Cognitive Distortions, Humor Styles, and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rnic, Katerina; Dozois, David J. A.; Martin, Rod A.

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive distortions are negative biases in thinking that are theorized to represent vulnerability factors for depression and dysphoria. Despite the emphasis placed on cognitive distortions in the context of cognitive behavioural theory and practice, a paucity of research has examined the mechanisms through which they impact depressive symptomatology. Both adaptive and maladaptive styles of humor represent coping strategies that may mediate the relation between cognitive distortions and depressive symptoms. The current study examined the correlations between the frequency and impact of cognitive distortions across both social and achievement-related contexts and types of humor. Cognitive distortions were associated with reduced use of adaptive Affiliative and Self-Enhancing humor styles and increased use of maladaptive Aggressive and Self-Defeating humor. Reduced use of Self-Enhancing humor mediated the relationship between most types of cognitive distortions and depressed mood, indicating that distorted negative thinking may interfere with an individual’s ability to adopt a humorous and cheerful outlook on life (i.e., use Self-Enhancing humor) as a way of regulating emotions and coping with stress, thereby resulting in elevated depressive symptoms. Similarly, Self-Defeating humor mediated the association of the social impact of cognitive distortions with depression, such that this humor style may be used as a coping strategy for dealing with distorted thinking that ultimately backfires and results in increased dysphoria. PMID:27547253

  15. Sense of Humor, Stable Affect, and Psychological Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnie Cann

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A good sense of humor has been implicated as a quality that could contribute to psychological well-being. The mechanisms through which sense of humor might operate include helping to reappraise threats, serving as a character strength, or facilitating happiness. The current research attempts to integrate these possibilities by examining whether a good sense of humor might operate globally by helping to maintain a more stable positive affect. Stable positive affect has been shown to facilitate more effective problem solving and to build resilience. However, not all humor is adaptive humor, so we also examine the roles that different styles of humor use might play. Individual differences in humor styles were used to predict stable levels of affect. Then, in a longitudinal design, humor styles and stable affect were used to predict subsequent resilience and psychological health. The results indicated that stable affect was related to resilience and psychological well-being, and that a sense of humor that involves self-enhancing humor, humor based on maintaining a humorous perspective about one’s experiences, was positively related to stable positive affect, negatively related to stable negative affect, and was mediated through stable affect in influencing resilience, well-being and distress. Thus, while a good sense of humor can lead to greater resilience and better psychological health, the current results, focusing on stable affect, find only self-enhancing humor provides reliable benefits.

  16. 言语幽默的顺应论探析--以情景喜剧《人人都爱雷蒙德》为例%Adaptation Theoretic Approach to Verbal Humor in Sitcom Everybody Loves Raymond

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    In light of Adaptation Theory, to adapt to other communicators’ language structure and situational context created by the speaker is the two key points of generation mechanism of verbal humor.%情景喜剧中的言语幽默深受观众喜欢。从顺应论的角度看,顺应其他交际者话语的语言结构和发话者创造出来的交际语境是情景喜剧中的言语幽默生成的两个重要原因。

  17. Humor og sygepleje

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Inger

    1998-01-01

    I artiklen beskrives og reflekteres der over humors betydning som ressource for såvel patienter som sygeplejersker.......I artiklen beskrives og reflekteres der over humors betydning som ressource for såvel patienter som sygeplejersker....

  18. Can Computers Create Humor?

    OpenAIRE

    Ritchie, Graeme; University of Aberdeen

    2009-01-01

    Despite the fact that AI has always been adventurous in trying to elucidate complex aspects of human behaviour, only recently has there been research into computational modelling of humor. One obstacle to progress is the lack of a precise and detailed theory of how humor operates. Nevertheless, since the early 1990s, there have been a number of small programs that create simple verbal humor, and more recently there have been studies of the automatic classification of the humorous status of te...

  19. Decoding Photocopy Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerns, Dan

    Photocopy humor is defined as any facsimile, photocopy, or wire-copy line drawing, iconography, or textual material that was drawn or written for distribution to a larger select audience using the available technology to disperse material intended to be humorous. Professional humor is excluded from this consideration. The content of photocopy…

  20. Humor, Aggression, and Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrick, Ann Louise; And Others

    Although humor is an important phenomenon in human interactions, it has rarely been studied in the elderly. An understanding of responses to humor in aggressive cartoons as a function of advancing age would provide information regarding both the development of humor and the negative (aggressive) emotional experiences of the elderly. This study was…

  1. Humor and interpersonal attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murstein, B I; Brust, R G

    1985-12-01

    A humor test composed of cartoons, comic strips, and jokes was administered to 30 college couples (26 single, 4 married) who rated them for humor. Subjects also stated how much they loved and liked their partner, their probability of marrying the partner, and filled out Rubin's Liking and Love Scales. The hypotheses were that similarity of rating of the humorous stimuli would be associated with loving, liking, and predisposition to marry. Hypotheses were confirmed.

  2. Humor in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Howard J

    2003-12-01

    Humor and laughter have been a focus of attention in the popular media and in the medical literature. Despite statements about the health benefits of humor, current research is insufficient to validate such claims. There is support in the literature for the role of humor and laughter in other areas, including patient-physician communication, psychological aspects of patient care, medical education, and as a means of reducing stress in medical professionals.

  3. Humor and Giftedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziv, Avner; Gadish, Orit

    1990-01-01

    Two studies investigated humor among a total of 151 gifted adolescents. It was found that (1) in a sociometry of humor test, gifted adolescents received either few or many choices in a bimodal distribution; and (2) gifted adolescent humorists were more extroverted, more creative, and lower in need for social approval than other gifted adolescents.…

  4. Humor, Philosophy and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morreall, John

    2014-01-01

    This article begins by examining the bad reputation humor traditionally had in philosophy and education. Two of the main charges against humor--that it is hostile and irresponsible--are linked to the Superiority Theory. That theory is critiqued and two other theories of laughter are presented--the Relief Theory and the Incongruity Theory. In the…

  5. Humor's healing potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaward, B L

    1992-04-01

    In the past three decades the medical world has begun to take more serious notice of the healing power of humor and the positive emotions associated with it. Humor and laughter are currently being employed by psychotherapists and other care givers as tools to promote and maintain health, as well as intervention and rehabilitation tools for a host of maladies and illnesses related to stress and life-style. Although this empirical medical approach is relatively new, the study of humor has revealed a complex psychological phenomenon. Senses of humor have been categorized in types associated with personality. Humor has many styles and can be found in almost any situation, on any occasion. Theories of humor include the superiority theory, the incongruity theory, the release/relief theory, and the divinity theory. Laughter has many clinical benefits, promoting beneficial physiological changes and an overall sense of well-being. Humor even has long-term effects that strengthen the effectiveness of the immune system. In healthcare, humor therapy can help relieve stress associated with disease and illness. It serves as a diversionary tactic, a therapeutic tool for disorders such as depression, and a coping mechanism. It also is a natural healing component for care givers trying to cope with the stress and personal demands of their occupations.

  6. Humor, Philosophy and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morreall, John

    2014-01-01

    This article begins by examining the bad reputation humor traditionally had in philosophy and education. Two of the main charges against humor--that it is hostile and irresponsible--are linked to the Superiority Theory. That theory is critiqued and two other theories of laughter are presented--the Relief Theory and the Incongruity Theory. In the…

  7. Metonymy And Humor Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凤琴

    2008-01-01

    Study of humor discourse has attracted an increasingly numerousattention since 80's of last century.Traditionally.they approach it mainly from pragmatic aspect.In this paper.I try aflew research perspective,metonymicfunction and scenario concept to study how metonymic link works in theinterpretation of humor asa cognitive and mental process.

  8. Metonymy And Humor Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凤琴

    2008-01-01

    Study of humor discourse has attracted an increasingly numerousattention since 80’s of last century.Traditionally,they approach it mainly from pragmatic aspect.In this paper,I try a new research perspective,metonymic function and scenario concept to study how metonymic link works in the interpretation of humor as a cognitive and mental process.

  9. El humor centenarista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Sánchez

    1963-01-01

    Full Text Available En el número 7 -volumen IV- de julio de 1961, bajo el título de El Humor Parnasiano, fueron publicados cuatro sonetos humorísticos: dos del Maestro Guillermo Valencia y dos de su discípulo Carlos López Narváez.

  10. mTOR Promotes Antiviral Humoral Immunity by Differentially Regulating CD4 Helper T Cell and B Cell Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lilin; Lee, Junghwa; Xu, Lifan; Mohammed, Ata-Ur-Rasheed; Li, Weiyan; Hale, J Scott; Tan, Wendy G; Wu, Tuoqi; Davis, Carl W; Ahmed, Rafi; Araki, Koichi

    2017-02-15

    mTOR has important roles in regulation of both innate and adaptive immunity, but whether and how mTOR modulates humoral immune responses have yet to be fully understood. To address this issue, we examined the effects of rapamycin, a specific inhibitor of mTOR, on B cell and CD4 T cell responses during acute infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. Rapamycin treatment resulted in suppression of virus-specific B cell responses by inhibiting proliferation of germinal center (GC) B cells. In contrast, the number of memory CD4 T cells was increased in rapamycin-treated mice. However, the drug treatment caused a striking bias of CD4 T cell differentiation into Th1 cells and substantially impaired formation of follicular helper T (Tfh) cells, which are essential for humoral immunity. Further experiments in which mTOR signaling was modulated by RNA interference (RNAi) revealed that B cells were the primary target cells of rapamycin for the impaired humoral immunity and that reduced Tfh formation in rapamycin-treated mice was due to lower GC B cell responses that are essential for Tfh generation. Additionally, we found that rapamycin had minimal effects on B cell responses activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which stimulates B cells in an antigen-independent manner, suggesting that rapamycin specifically inhibits B cell responses induced by B cell receptor stimulation with antigen. Together, these findings demonstrate that mTOR signals play an essential role in antigen-specific humoral immune responses by differentially regulating B cell and CD4 T cell responses during acute viral infection and that rapamycin treatment alters the interplay of immune cell subsets involved in antiviral humoral immunity. mTOR is a serine/threonine kinase involved in a variety of cellular activities. Although its specific inhibitor, rapamycin, is currently used as an immunosuppressive drug in transplant patients, it has been reported that rapamycin can also stimulate pathogen

  11. Humor modeling in the interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Cockton, G.; Stock, O.; Korhonen, P.; Dix, A.; Bergman, E.; Bjork, S.; Morkes, J.; Collings, P.; Dey, A.; Draper, S.; Guliksen, J.; Keinonen, T.; Lazar, J.; Lund, A.; Malich, R.; Nakakoji, K.; Nigay, L.; Prates Oliveira, R.; Rieman, J.; Snyder, C.

    2003-01-01

    Humor is a multi-disciplinary field of research. People have been working on humor in many fields of research, such as psychology, philosophy and linguistics, sociology and literature. Especially in the context of computer science (or Artificial Intelligence) humor research aims at modeling humor in

  12. Humor modeling in the interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, A.; Stock, O.; Dix, A.; Morkes, J.; Cockton, G.; Korhonen, P.; Bergman, E.; Bjork, S.; Collings, P.; Dey, A.; Draper, S.; Guliksen, J.; Keinonen, T.; Lazar, J.; Lund, A.; Malich, R.; Nakakoji, K.; Nigay, L.; Prates Oliveira, R.; Rieman, J.; Snyder, C.

    2003-01-01

    Humor is a multi-disciplinary field of research. People have been working on humor in many fields of research, such as psychology, philosophy and linguistics, sociology and literature. Especially in the context of computer science (or Artificial Intelligence) humor research aims at modeling humor in

  13. Humors in Rip Van Winkle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张铂

    2014-01-01

    Humor is widely employed in Irving’s Rip Van Winkle. There are several kinds of humors in this short story, for exam-ple: irony, satire, farce, mockery, etc. Different humors indicate different attitudes the writer adopts toward his subject matter. This essay aims at grasping the main idea of the story through the analyses of various uses of humor.

  14. The value of humor in psycotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Chazenbalk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The main point of this work is to show how humor—when is used properly- has a positive effect on the patient ant the therapist’s self improving their alliance, supervision and team meetings. It’s also good for profesionals to include humor, recreation and rest in their job routines, because these ingredients let them be more effective in psychoterapy. The vast majority of psychological theories agree on its importance. The Cognitive Psychology believes that humor helps the patient evaluate reality in a different way, stops disfunctional thoughts, lets the expression of negative emotions and finds more adaptative patterns. 

  15. The origin of humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, N E

    2002-09-01

    Humor is spread throughout every culture on earth and occupies a large portion of our literature and social interaction. It is so deeply rooted in our culture that it may be a defining characteristic of our species. Yet there has been comparatively little effort to understand its origin. According to the Accepted Theory of Humor all jokes begin with a buildup of tension while an initial paradigm is formed. When the punch line occurs the subject must realign his thinking to accommodate the differences between the initial paradigm and the sudden burst of new information. The Mind Reading Hypothesis extends the accepted theory of humor to include a relationship between the observer and the subject of the humor. The actual source of amusement is the observation of the resolution in the mind of the subject of the collision between old perception and new reality.

  16. Political Uses of Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Ronald G.

    1981-01-01

    Introduces a theoretical framework applicable to the political and social uses made of humor. Focuses on the uses individuals make of jokes and joking in relation to the constant interchange involved between institutional stability and social change. (FL)

  17. The Humor in Horror.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kies, Cosette

    1995-01-01

    Discussion of horror fiction for teenagers focuses on the element of humor. Topics include parodies, plots, the element of mystery, cover art, end-of-chapter cliffhangers, and formula books. An annotated list of 10 pertinent titles is included. (LRW)

  18. Using Humorous Programs as a Vehicle for Humorous Commercials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Stephen D.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Shows that an increased level of humor in commercials was beneficial to recall and purchase intention; increased humor in the television program was detrimental to recall of products advertised; and gender interacted with program humor levels, such that products were viewed less negatively by men when they were exposed to commercials in a more…

  19. Uses of humor in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimmer, S A; Carroll, J L; Wyatt, G K

    1990-06-01

    Given demonstrated usefulness in facilitating learning, aiding healing, and reducing stress, humor has gained recognition as a clinical tool. This article reviews some uses and potential misuses of humor in psychotherapy and suggests directions for practice and research.

  20. Humor and creativity in psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Martín Camacho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the current article principal theories on humor are analyzed, relating them to different conceptions of creativity. Finally, some indications for the use of humor in psychotherapy are introduced, highlighting their positive and negative aspects. 

  1. Cultural Context and Humor Understanding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐中锋

    2009-01-01

    "Humor" is a very general word, which has been studied by numerous scholars from different points of view, pursuing different goals and using different assumptions. This paper holds that cultural context counts for the production and perception of humor.

  2. Humor in Children's Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Frank; Coles, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Humorous literature for children has been around since Randolph Caldecott first started writing and illustrating picturebooks. In the article, the authors try to understand what makes picturebooks funny and discuss ways to use humor in the classroom. Many examples of humorous picturebooks are cited to provide teachers with resources for their…

  3. Using Humor in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barney, David; Christenson, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Humor can be extremely beneficial in everyday life, whether giving or receiving it. It can be used to lighten the mood, give encouragement, or make corrections. Humor in physical education is no exception. Physical educators can use humor as a teaching tool and to create an environment for students to acquire the knowledge to practice a lifetime…

  4. Humor and embodied conversational agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, A.

    2003-01-01

    This report surveys the role of humor in human-to-human interaction and the possible role of humor in human-computer interaction. The aim is to see whether it is useful for embodied conversational agents to integrate humor capabilities in their internal model of intelligence, emotions and interactio

  5. Using Humor in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barney, David; Christenson, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Humor can be extremely beneficial in everyday life, whether giving or receiving it. It can be used to lighten the mood, give encouragement, or make corrections. Humor in physical education is no exception. Physical educators can use humor as a teaching tool and to create an environment for students to acquire the knowledge to practice a lifetime…

  6. Friendship, Intimacy and Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Mordechai

    2014-01-01

    A review of the literature in philosophy in the past 20 years indicates that relatively little has been written on the connection between friendship, intimacy and humor. This article is intended to begin to address the neglect of this topic among philosophers by focusing on some interesting aspects of the relationship between friendship, intimacy…

  7. Glem ikke at bruge humor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Preben Olund

    2017-01-01

    relationer og nærhed. Det er velkendt. Mindre velkendt er måske at gode relationer begynder med humor. Humorbegrebet kan begribes ud fra fire forskellige perspektiver. Humor bliver sammenlignet med leg, der er en undersøgende og seriøs form for læring mellem fantasi og virkelighed. Humor skaber sociale...... fællesskaber, der er grundlag for læring. Humor udvikler følelser, der er en motiverende faktor i undervisningen. Humor udvikler kognition, der er evnen til at kunne tænke....

  8. CXCL10 and trafficking of virus-specific T cells during coronavirus-induced demyelination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiles, Linda N; Liu, Michael T; Kane, Joy A C; Lane, Thomas E

    2009-09-01

    Chronic expression of CXC chemokine ligand 10 (CXCL10) in the central nervous system (CNS) following infection with the neurotropic JHM strain of mouse hepatitis virus (JHMV) is associated with an immune-mediated demyelinating disease. Treatment of mice with anti-CXCL10 neutralizing antibody results in limited CD4+ T cell infiltration into the CNS accompanied by a reduction in white matter damage. The current study determines the antigen-specificity of the T lymphocytes present during chronic disease and evaluates how blocking CXCL10 signaling affects retention of virus-specific T cells within the CNS. CXCL10 neutralization selectively reduced accumulation and/or retention of virus-specific CD4+ T cells, yet exhibited limited effect on virus-specific CD8+ T cells. The response of CXCL10 neutralization on virus-specific T cell subsets is not due to differential expression of the CXCL10 receptor CXCR3 on T cells as there was no appreciable difference in receptor expression on virus-specific T cells during either acute or chronic disease. These findings emphasize the importance of virus-specific CD4+ T cells in amplifying demyelination in JHMV-infected mice. In addition, differential signals are required for trafficking and retention of virus-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells during chronic demyelination in JHMV-infected mice.

  9. Aqueous Humor Dynamics: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Manik; Picciani, Renata G; Lee, Richard K; Bhattacharya, Sanjoy K

    2010-01-01

    Glaucoma is a family of optic neuropathies which cause irreversible but potentially preventable vision loss. Vision loss in most forms of glaucoma is related to elevated IOP with subsequent injury to the optic nerve. Secretion of aqueous humor and regulation of its outflow are physiologically important processes for maintaining IOP in the normal range. Thus, understanding the complex mechanisms that regulate aqueous humor circulation is essential for management of glaucoma. The two main structures related to aqueous humor dynamics are the ciliary body and the trabecular meshwork (TM). Three mechanisms are involved in aqueous humor formation: diffusion, ultrafiltration and active secretion. Active secretion is the major contributor to aqueous humor formation. The aqueous humor flow in humans follows a circadian rhythm, being higher in the morning than at night. The aqueous humor leaves the eye by passive flow via two pathways - the trabecular meshwork and the uveoscleral pathway. In humans, 75% of the resistance to aqueous humor outflow is localized within the TM with the juxtacanalicular portion of the TM being the main site of outflow resistance. Glycosaminoglycan deposition in the TM extracellular matrix (ECM) has been suggested to be responsible for increased outflow resistance at this specific site whereas others have suggested deposition of proteins, such as cochlin, obstruct the aqueous humor outflow through the TM. The uveoscleral outflow pathway is relatively independent of the intraocular pressure and the proportion of aqueous humor exiting the eye via the uveoscleral pathway decreases with age. PMID:21293732

  10. College Students' Perception of Lecturers Using Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamborini, Ron; Zillmann, Dolf

    1981-01-01

    Audio-taped lectures by male or female professors were produced in four versions: no humor; sexual humor; other-disparaging humor; and self-disparaging humor. Male and female students rated lecturers' intelligence and appeal. Intelligence ratings were unaffected by humor variations, but significant lecturer-student sex interactions were found on…

  11. Study on Deep Structure of Humor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫林琼

    2007-01-01

    Humor is the common favorite of people in all walks of life and at all ages. Studying the deep structure of humor, that is, the psychological and cognitive foundation in producing and comprehending humor, is quite practical in helping people first to recognize, understand and appreciate others' humor and then to apply their own humor to their daily communication.

  12. Humor and embodied conversational agents

    OpenAIRE

    Nijholt, A.

    2003-01-01

    This report surveys the role of humor in human-to-human interaction and the possible role of humor in human-computer interaction. The aim is to see whether it is useful for embodied conversational agents to integrate humor capabilities in their internal model of intelligence, emotions and interaction (verbal and nonverbal) capabilities. A current state of the art of research in embodied conversational agents, affective computing and verbal and nonverbal interaction is presented. The report ad...

  13. The German Version of the Humor Styles Questionnaire: Psychometric Properties and Overlap With Other Styles of Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruch, Willibald; Heintz, Sonja

    2016-08-01

    The Humor Styles Questionnaire (HSQ; Martin et al., 2003) is one of the most frequently used questionnaires in humor research and has been adapted to several languages. The HSQ measures four humor styles (affiliative, self-enhancing, aggressive, and self-defeating), which should be adaptive or potentially maladaptive to psychosocial well-being. The present study analyzes the internal consistency, factorial validity, and factorial invariance of the HSQ on the basis of several German-speaking samples combined (total N = 1,101). Separate analyses were conducted for gender (male/female), age groups (16-24, 25-35, >36 years old), and countries (Germany/Switzerland). Internal consistencies were good for the overall sample and the demographic subgroups (.80-.89), with lower values obtained for the aggressive scale (.66-.73). Principal components and confirmatory factor analyses mostly supported the four-factor structure of the HSQ. Weak factorial invariance was found across gender and age groups, while strong factorial invariance was supported across countries. Two subsamples also provided self-ratings on ten styles of humorous conduct (n = 344) and of eight comic styles (n = 285). The four HSQ scales showed small to large correlations to the styles of humorous conduct (-.54 to .65) and small to medium correlations to the comic styles (-.27 to .42). The HSQ shared on average 27.5-35.0% of the variance with the styles of humorous conduct and 13.0-15.0% of the variance with the comic styles. Thus-despite similar labels-these styles of humorous conduct and comic styles differed from the HSQ humor styles.

  14. Humor, helt seriøst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundquist, Lita Sander

    2012-01-01

    Adfærd. Har humor grænser? Dansk humor har i hvert fald. Hvor humor typisk bruges til at glatte ud med, har det ofte den stik modsatte virkning, viser studie.......Adfærd. Har humor grænser? Dansk humor har i hvert fald. Hvor humor typisk bruges til at glatte ud med, har det ofte den stik modsatte virkning, viser studie....

  15. Relationships between Humor Styles and Family Functioning in Parents of Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Alicja; McGrail, J. Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The humor styles and family functioning of parents of children with disabilities are understudied subjects. This study seeks to shed quantitative light on these areas. Seventy-two parents of children with disabilities completed the "Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales" (FACES IV) and the "Humor Styles…

  16. Relationships between Humor Styles and Family Functioning in Parents of Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Alicja; McGrail, J. Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The humor styles and family functioning of parents of children with disabilities are understudied subjects. This study seeks to shed quantitative light on these areas. Seventy-two parents of children with disabilities completed the "Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales" (FACES IV) and the "Humor Styles…

  17. Humor styles and symbolic boundaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, G.

    2009-01-01

    Humor is strongly related to group boundaries. Jokes and other humorous utterances often draw on implicit references and inside knowledge; they tend to refer to sensitive topics which may offend people; and they ideally incite laughter, one of the strongest markers of social solidarity and emotional

  18. A Pragmatic Study of Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibraheem, Sura Dhiaa; Abbas, Nawal Fadhil

    2016-01-01

    Linguistically speaking, the concept of humor, which seems to be vast for people, has specific dimensions by which it is generated including: puns, irony, sarcasm, wittiness, and contrastive utterances in relation to the speakers of those utterances. It is about how the extra linguistics elements dominate the situation and the delivery of humor.…

  19. Humor er en alvorlig sag

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søltoft, Pia

    2016-01-01

    I modsætning til ironi er humor for Kierkegaard fællesskabsgivende – ironikeren hævder sig selv, men humoristen har sympati med den, man ler med. Humor er hos Kierkegaard udtryk for, at humoristen forliger sig med tilværelsen og dens luner, og dermed grænser humoren hos Kierkegaard op til det...

  20. Humor styles and symbolic boundaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, G.

    2009-01-01

    Humor is strongly related to group boundaries. Jokes and other humorous utterances often draw on implicit references and inside knowledge; they tend to refer to sensitive topics which may offend people; and they ideally incite laughter, one of the strongest markers of social solidarity and emotional

  1. Spass Verstehen, Zur Pragmatik von konversationellem Humor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekmann, Bjørn

    2000-01-01

    Spøg, Humor, Komik, Ironi, Kommunikationsteori, Hermeneutik, Gruppedynamik, Logik, Tekstlingvistik......Spøg, Humor, Komik, Ironi, Kommunikationsteori, Hermeneutik, Gruppedynamik, Logik, Tekstlingvistik...

  2. Aqueous humor changes after experimental filtering surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radius, R L; Herschler, J; Claflin, A; Fiorentino, G

    1980-02-01

    We studied aqueous humor of rhesus and owl monkeys for its effect on the growth of subconjunctival fibroblasts in tissue culture. Aqueous humor samples obtained before glaucoma surgery inhibited the initiation of growth of fibroblasts. However, postoperative aqueous humor samples supported growth of fibroblasts. The change in aqueous humor physiology lasted for up to two months after glaucoma surgery. Our study indicated that possibly material added to the postoperative aqueous humor inactivates an inhibitor normally present in primary aqueous humor. An alternative explanation would be that primary aqueous humor, in contrast to secondary aqueous humor, lacks sufficient nutrient material to support fibroblast growth in tissue culture.

  3. Longitudinal Associations Between Humor Styles and Psychosocial Adjustment in Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Louise Fox

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the concurrent and prospective associations between psychosocial adjustment and four humor styles, two of which are adaptive (affiliative, self-enhancing and two maladaptive (aggressive, self-defeating. Participants were 1,234 adolescents (52% female aged 11-13 years, drawn from six secondary schools in England. Self-reports of psychosocial adjustment (loneliness, depressive symptomatology, and self-esteem and humor styles were collected at two time points (fall and summer. In cross-lagged panel analyses, self-defeating humor was associated with an increase in both depressive symptoms and loneliness, and with a decrease in self-esteem. In addition, depressive symptoms predicted an increase in the use of self-defeating humor over time, indicating that these may represent a problematic spiral of thoughts and behaviors. Self-esteem was associated with an increase in the use of affiliative humor over the school year but not vice-versa. These results inform our understanding of the ways in which humor is associated with psychosocial adjustment in adolescence.

  4. Humor Styles and the Intolerance of Uncertainty Model of Generalized Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A. Kuiper

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Past research suggests that sense of humor may play a role in anxiety. The present study builds upon this work by exploring how individual differences in various humor styles, such as affiliative, self-enhancing, and self-defeating humor, may fit within a contemporary research model of anxiety. In this model, intolerance of uncertainty is a fundamental personality characteristic that heightens excessive worry, thus increasing anxiety. We further propose that greater intolerance of uncertainty may also suppress the use of adaptive humor (affiliate and self-enhancing, and foster the increased use of maladaptive self-defeating humor. Initial correlational analyses provide empirical support for these proposals. In addition, we found that excessive worry and affiliative humor both served as significant mediators. In particular, heightened intolerance of uncertainty lead to both excessive worry and a reduction in affiliative humor use, which, in turn, increased anxiety. We also explored potential humor mediating effects for each of the individual worry content domains in this model. These analyses confirmed the importance of affiliative humor as a mediator for worry pertaining to a wide range of content domains (e.g., relationships, lack of confidence, the future and work. These findings were then discussed in terms of a combined model that considers how humor styles may impact the social sharing of positive and negative emotions.

  5. Three Decades Investigating Humor and Laughter: An Interview With Professor Rod Martin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rod Martin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Since the start of the 21st century, the investigation of various psychological aspects of humor and laughter has become an increasingly prominent topic of research. This growth can be attributed, in no small part, to the pioneering and creative work on humor and laughter conducted by Professor Rod Martin. Dr. Martin’s research interests in humor and laughter began in the early 1980s and continued throughout his 32 year long career as a professor of clinical psychology at the University of Western Ontario. During this time, Dr. Martin published numerous scholarly articles, chapters, and books on psychological aspects of humor and laughter. Professor Martin has just retired in July 2016, and in the present interview he recounts a number of research highlights of his illustrious career. Dr. Martin’s earliest influential work, conducted while he was still in graduate school, stemmed from an individual difference perspective that focused on the beneficial effects of sense of humor on psychological well-being. This research focus remained evident in many of Professor Martin’s subsequent investigations, but became increasingly refined as he developed several measures of different components of sense of humor, including both adaptive and maladaptive humor styles. In this interview, Dr. Martin describes the conceptualization, development and use of the Humor Styles Questionnaire, along with suggestions for future research and development. In doing so, he also discusses the three main components of humor (i.e., cognitive, emotional and interpersonal, as well as the distinctions and similarities between humor and laughter. Further highlights of this interview include Professor Martin’s comments on such diverse issues as the genetic versus environmental loadings for sense of humor, the multifaceted nature of the construct of humor, and the possible limitations of teaching individuals to use humor in a beneficial manner to cope with stress and

  6. Three Decades Investigating Humor and Laughter: An Interview With Professor Rod Martin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Rod; Kuiper, Nicholas A

    2016-08-01

    Since the start of the 21st century, the investigation of various psychological aspects of humor and laughter has become an increasingly prominent topic of research. This growth can be attributed, in no small part, to the pioneering and creative work on humor and laughter conducted by Professor Rod Martin. Dr. Martin's research interests in humor and laughter began in the early 1980s and continued throughout his 32 year long career as a professor of clinical psychology at the University of Western Ontario. During this time, Dr. Martin published numerous scholarly articles, chapters, and books on psychological aspects of humor and laughter. Professor Martin has just retired in July 2016, and in the present interview he recounts a number of research highlights of his illustrious career. Dr. Martin's earliest influential work, conducted while he was still in graduate school, stemmed from an individual difference perspective that focused on the beneficial effects of sense of humor on psychological well-being. This research focus remained evident in many of Professor Martin's subsequent investigations, but became increasingly refined as he developed several measures of different components of sense of humor, including both adaptive and maladaptive humor styles. In this interview, Dr. Martin describes the conceptualization, development and use of the Humor Styles Questionnaire, along with suggestions for future research and development. In doing so, he also discusses the three main components of humor (i.e., cognitive, emotional and interpersonal), as well as the distinctions and similarities between humor and laughter. Further highlights of this interview include Professor Martin's comments on such diverse issues as the genetic versus environmental loadings for sense of humor, the multifaceted nature of the construct of humor, and the possible limitations of teaching individuals to use humor in a beneficial manner to cope with stress and enhance their social and

  7. A Pragmatic Study of Humor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sura Dhiaa Ibraheem

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Linguistically speaking, the concept of humor, which seems to be vast for people, has specific dimensions by which it is generated including: puns, irony, sarcasm, wittiness, and contrastive utterances in relation to the speakers of those utterances. It is about how the extra linguistics elements dominate the situation and the delivery of humor. The researchers of the present paper intend to show how the selected literary extract can be subjected to a linguistic pragmatic analysis and then be explained by applying the incongruity theory of humor by Kant (1790 in order to show the ways or the mechanisms that lead to the flouting, infringing and the violation of Gricean maxims can consequently lead to the creation of humor. Despite the fact that the present paper is qualitative in nature, some tables are provided by the researchers in order to reach into a better, deeper and more understandable analysis. Investigating the ways Gricean maxims are flouted, infringed and violated to create humor, and showing how the imperfect use of language sometimes create unintentional humor are the researchers’ aims of this paper. Keywords: pragmatics, humor, implicature, Gricean maxims, Measure for Measure

  8. Towards environments that have a sense of humor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Reidsma, Dennis; Choi, Insook; Bargar, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Humans have humorous conversations and interactions. Nowadays our real life existence is integrated with our life in social media, videogames, mixed reality and physical environments that sense our activities and that can adapt appearance and properties due to our activities. There are other

  9. Humor and Healing in College Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Barbara J.; Roehrig, James P.; Yang, Peggy H.

    2015-01-01

    Humor is an often neglected but potentially powerful tool in college counseling center interventions. In this article we review potential benefits and hazards of using humor in a college mental health setting along with perspectives on humor's mechanism of action and distinctions between types of humor. Therapist and client-specific…

  10. Humor and Healing in College Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Barbara J.; Roehrig, James P.; Yang, Peggy H.

    2015-01-01

    Humor is an often neglected but potentially powerful tool in college counseling center interventions. In this article we review potential benefits and hazards of using humor in a college mental health setting along with perspectives on humor's mechanism of action and distinctions between types of humor. Therapist and client-specific…

  11. Pragmatic Analysis on Verbal Humor in Friends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳

    2009-01-01

    As a nature of humanity, humor is a way of communication peculiar to human beings. Verbal humor is a cate-gory of humor which is used to express humorist ideas through language, and siteom as a unique comedy performance is an important carrier of humor. This paper applies some basic pragnmtic theories, such as Cooperative Principles (CP) and Relevance Theory(RT), to analyze the verbal humor in American popular situational comedy Friends, aiming to explore the generation mechanism of English humor. And then a better understanding and appreciation of English humor for English learners can be achieved.

  12. Relation between humor and empathic concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampes, W P

    2001-02-01

    A series of studies have shown that humor is associated with close interpersonal relationships and effective in reducing stress, which in turn enhances empathy. Therefore, it was hypothesized that humor and empathic concern would be positively correlated. The Empathic Concern subscale of the Empathy Questionnaire, the Coping Humor Scale, the Multidimensional Sense of Humor Scale, and the Situational Humor Response Questionnaire were given to 124 subjects. Scores on the Empathic Concern subscale were significantly correlated with those on each of the humor scales. Types of humor may be an important variable in the relationship between empathic concern and humor. Both humor and empathic concern are associated for people with emotional intelligence who use these to interact effectively with other individuals. As such, it was suggested that exploration would yield a relation between humor and emotional self-awareness, which is also associated with emotional intelligence.

  13. Humor in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Cristiano S; Li, Rui; Lawrie, Sarah; Bar-Or, Amit; Clarke, Ann E; Da Costa, Deborah; Banerjee, Devi; Bernatsky, Sasha; Lee, Jennifer L; Pineau, Christian A

    2015-03-01

    Humor has neurophysiological effects influencing the release of cortisol, which may have a direct impact on the immune system. Laughter is associated with a decreased production of inflammatory cytokines both in the general population and in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Our objective was to explore the effects of humor on serum cytokines [particularly interleukin-6 (IL-6)] and cortisol levels in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), after a standard intervention (120 min of visual comedy). We enrolled 58 females with SLE from consecutive patients assessed in the Montreal General Hospital lupus clinic. The subjects who consented to participate were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to the intervention (watching 120 min of comedy) or control group (watching a 120 min documentary). Measurements of cytokine and serum cortisol levels as well as 24-h urine cortisol were taken before, during, and after the interventions. We compared serum cytokine levels and serum and 24-h urine cortisol levels in the humor and control groups and performed regression analyses of these outcomes, adjusting for demographics and the current use of prednisone. There were no significant differences between the control and humor groups in demographics or clinical variables. Baseline serum levels of IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and B-cell activating factor were also similar in both groups. There was no evidence of a humor effect in terms of decreasing cytokine levels, although there was some suggestion of lowered cortisol secretion in the humor group based the 24-h urinary cortisol levels in a subgroup. In contrast to what has been published for RA, we saw no clear effects of humor in altering cytokine levels in SLE, although interesting trends were seen for lower cortisol levels after humor intervention compared with the control group.

  14. TCR down-regulation controls virus-specific CD8+ T cell responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonefeld, Charlotte Menné; Haks, Mariëlle; Nielsen, Bodil

    2008-01-01

    molecule Bcl-2. This resulted in a 2-fold reduction in the clonal expansion of virus-specific CD8(+) T cells during the acute phase of vesicular stomatitis virus and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infections. These results identify an important role of CD3gamma-mediated TCR down-regulation in virus...

  15. The individuality of (virus-specific) CD8⁺ T cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Aalderen, M.C.

    2016-01-01

    CD8⁺ T cells are specialized in detecting intracellular pathology. As such, acute phase and memory CD8⁺ T cell responses form an essential line of defense against viral infections. Much of the current knowledge on virus-specific CD8⁺ T cell responses derives from mouse models. However, since mice do

  16. Influenza Virus-specific CD8+ T Cells : -longevity, cross-reactivity and viral evasion-

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.E. van de Sandt (Carolien)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractInfluenza viruses are among the leading causes of acute respiratory tract infections worldwide. Natural influenza virus infections elicit both humoral and cellular immune responses. Although, neutralizing antibodies directed to the hemagglutinin (HA) globular head domain prevent rein

  17. Influenza Virus-specific CD8+ T Cells : -longevity, cross-reactivity and viral evasion-

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.E. van de Sandt (Carolien)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractInfluenza viruses are among the leading causes of acute respiratory tract infections worldwide. Natural influenza virus infections elicit both humoral and cellular immune responses. Although, neutralizing antibodies directed to the hemagglutinin (HA) globular head domain prevent

  18. Detection of virus-specific intrathecally synthesised immunoglobulin G with a fully automated enzyme immunoassay system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weissbrich Benedikt

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The determination of virus-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF is useful for the diagnosis of virus associated diseases of the central nervous system (CNS and for the detection of a polyspecific intrathecal immune response in patients with multiple sclerosis. Quantification of virus-specific IgG in the CSF is frequently performed by calculation of a virus-specific antibody index (AI. Determination of the AI is a demanding and labour-intensive technique and therefore automation is desirable. We evaluated the precision and the diagnostic value of a fully automated enzyme immunoassay for the detection of virus-specific IgG in serum and CSF using the analyser BEP2000 (Dade Behring. Methods The AI for measles, rubella, varicella-zoster, and herpes simplex virus IgG was determined from pairs of serum and CSF samples of patients with viral CNS infections, multiple sclerosis and of control patients. CSF and serum samples were tested simultaneously with reference to a standard curve. Starting dilutions were 1:6 and 1:36 for CSF and 1:1386 and 1:8316 for serum samples. Results The interassay coefficient of variation was below 10% for all parameters tested. There was good agreement between AIs obtained with the BEP2000 and AIs derived from the semi-automated reference method. Conclusion Determination of virus-specific IgG in serum-CSF-pairs for calculation of AI has been successfully automated on the BEP2000. Current limitations of the assay layout imposed by the analyser software should be solved in future versions to offer more convenience in comparison to manual or semi-automated methods.

  19. That’s Not Funny! – But It Should Be: Effects of Humorous Emotion Regulation on Emotional Experience and Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa eKugler

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that humorous reappraisal can reduce elicited negative emotions, suggesting that humor may be a functional strategy to cope with emotionally negative situations. However, the effect of humorous reappraisal on later memory about the emotion-eliciting situation is currently unknown, although this is crucial for more adaptive responding in future situations. To address this issue, we examined the effects of humorous reappraisal on both emotional experience and memory, compared to non-humorous rational reappraisal and a non-reappraisal control condition. Replicating previous findings, humorous reappraisal reduced evoked negative valence and arousal levels very effectively, and the down-regulation of experienced negative emotions was even more pronounced after humorous compared to rational reappraisal. Regarding later memory for emotion-eliciting stimuli, both humorous and rational reappraisal reduced free recall, but recognition memory was unaffected, with memory strength being stronger after humorous than after rational reappraisal. These results indicate that humor seems to be indeed an optimal strategy to cope with negative situations because humor can help us to feel better when confronted with negative stimuli, but still allows us to retrieve stimulus information later when afforded to do so by the presence of appropriate contextual features.

  20. To Be or Not To Be Humorous? Cross Cultural Perspectives on Humor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Yue

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Humor seems to manifest differently in Western and Eastern cultures, although little is known about how culture shapes humor perceptions. The authors suggest that Westerners regard humor as a common and positive disposition; the Chinese regard humor as a special disposition particular to humorists, with controversial aspects. In Study 1, Hong Kong participants primed with Western culture evaluate humor more positively than they do when primed with Chinese culture. In Study 2a, Canadians evaluate humor as being more important in comparison with Chinese participants. In Study 2b, Canadians expect ordinary people to possess humor, while Chinese expect specialized comedians to be humorous. The implications and limitations are discussed.

  1. To Be or Not To Be Humorous? Cross Cultural Perspectives on Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xiaodong; Jiang, Feng; Lu, Su; Hiranandani, Neelam

    2016-01-01

    Humor seems to manifest differently in Western and Eastern cultures, although little is known about how culture shapes humor perceptions. The authors suggest that Westerners regard humor as a common and positive disposition; the Chinese regard humor as a special disposition particular to humorists, with controversial aspects. In Study 1, Hong Kong participants primed with Western culture evaluate humor more positively than they do when primed with Chinese culture. In Study 2a, Canadians evaluate humor as being more important in comparison with Chinese participants. In Study 2b, Canadians expect ordinary people to possess humor, while Chinese expect specialized comedians to be humorous. The implications and limitations are discussed.

  2. To Be or Not To Be Humorous? Cross Cultural Perspectives on Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xiaodong; Jiang, Feng; Lu, Su; Hiranandani, Neelam

    2016-01-01

    Humor seems to manifest differently in Western and Eastern cultures, although little is known about how culture shapes humor perceptions. The authors suggest that Westerners regard humor as a common and positive disposition; the Chinese regard humor as a special disposition particular to humorists, with controversial aspects. In Study 1, Hong Kong participants primed with Western culture evaluate humor more positively than they do when primed with Chinese culture. In Study 2a, Canadians evaluate humor as being more important in comparison with Chinese participants. In Study 2b, Canadians expect ordinary people to possess humor, while Chinese expect specialized comedians to be humorous. The implications and limitations are discussed. PMID:27757091

  3. Affective Style, Humor Styles and Happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Ford

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the relationships between dispositional approach and avoidance motives, humor styles, and happiness. In keeping with previous research, approach motives and the two positive humor styles (self-enhancing and affiliative positively correlated with happiness, whereas avoidance motives and the two negative humor styles (self-defeating and aggressive negatively correlated with happiness. Also, we found support for three new hypotheses. First, approach motives correlated positively with self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles. Second, avoidance motives correlated positively with self-defeating humor style, and third, the positive relationship between approach motives and happiness was mediated by self-enhancing humor style.

  4. Various Means of Achieving Humor in English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温晓棠

    2014-01-01

    Humor can be found everywhere in our daily life. It shows one's wisdom and confidence, which reflects a person's character, mind and cultivation. While it makes people laugh, it enlightens and instruct people. As we all know, English humor is a manifestation of the western literature. However, people in non-English speaking countries cannot completely understand English humor because of the differences of different cultures. The present paper starts from the analysis of English humor, trying to find out some ways of achieving humor so as to better our understanding and appreciation of English humor.

  5. El humor es algo serio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Guiralt Gomar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Reseña del libro colectivo El humor frente al poder. Prensa humorística, cultura política y poderes fácticos en España (1927-1987, editado por Enrique Bordería Ortiz, Francesc-Andreu Martínez Gallego y Josep Lluís Gómez Mompart y publicado en 2015 por Biblioteca Nueva, dentro de su “Colección Historia”. El volumen, resultado del Grupo de Investigación en Comunicación Humorística y Satírica (GRICOHUSA, consiste en una compilación de trabajos científicos y de gran rigor académico acerca de la prensa humorística y satírica española durante las dos transiciones políticas de la historia contemporánea de España. Así, en él se analizan en profundidad semanarios y rotativos fundamentales del periodismo de humor español, tales como La Traca, Gutiérrez, La Codorniz, El Jueves y El Papus, entre muchos otros.

  6. MEK kinase 1 is a negative regulator of virus-specific CD8(+) T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Labuda, Tord; Christensen, Jan Pravsgaard; Rasmussen, Susanne;

    2006-01-01

    MEK kinase 1 (MEKK1) is a potent JNK-activating kinase, a regulator of T helper cell differentiation, cytokine production and proliferation in vitro. Using mice deficient for MEKK1 activity (Mekk1(DeltaKD)) exclusively in their hematopoietic system, we show that MEKK1 has a negative regulatory role...... in the generation of a virus-specific immune response. Mekk1(DeltaKD) mice challenged with vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) showed a fourfold increase in splenic CD8(+) T cell numbers. In contrast, the number of splenic T cells in infected WT mice was only marginally increased. The CD8(+) T cell expansion in Mekk1...... suggest that MEKK1 plays a negative regulatory role in the expansion of virus-specific CD8(+) T cells in vivo....

  7. Dengue virus-specific cross-reactive CD8+ human cytotoxic T lymphocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    Bukowski, J F; Kurane, I; Lai, C J; Bray, M.; Falgout, B.; Ennis, F A

    1989-01-01

    Stimulation with live dengue virus of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from a dengue virus type 4-immune donor generated virus-specific, serotype-cross-reactive, CD8+, class I-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) capable of lysing dengue virus-infected cells and cells pulsed with dengue virus antigens of all four serotypes. These CTL lysed autologous fibroblasts infected with vaccinia virus-dengue virus recombinant viruses containing the E gene or several nonstructural dengue virus type...

  8. Humor and laughter in persons with cognitive impairment and their caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liptak, Amy; Tate, Judith; Flatt, Jason; Oakley, Mary Ann; Lingler, Jennifer

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe humor and laughter in persons with cognitive impairment (PWCI) and caregivers who were recalling a shared experience in a focus group. Twenty participants attended an Art Engagement Activity at the Andy Warhol Art Museum, which included a guided tour and an art project. All PWCI had medically diagnosed cognitive disorders and all caregiver participants did not. Four focus groups were conducted and transcripts of audio-recorded sessions were transferred to a qualitative software program. Words, phrases, and episodes of humor and laughter were used to construct codes, which were refined during group analysis using constant comparison. Humor and laughter were present in all four focus groups. Emerging themes of humor included silliness, sarcasm, and commenting about hardships of dementia. Laughter was identified in segments with and without humor. Some PWCI were unable to follow social cues. Humor and laughter played a role in creating a safe social environment. PWCI were able to engage in humor during social interactions, yet some had difficulty recognizing social cues. Further study may reveal roles of humor and laughter in adaptation to cognitive decline and holistic interventions for improved quality of life.

  9. TCR Down-Regulation Controls Virus-Specific CD8+ T Cell Responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonefeld, Charlotte Menné; Haks, Mariëlle; Nielsen, Bodil

    2008-01-01

    The CD3gamma di-leucine-based motif plays a central role in TCR down-regulation. However, little is understood about the role of the CD3gamma di-leucine-based motif in physiological T cell responses. In this study, we show that the expansion in numbers of virus-specific CD8(+) T cells is impaired...... in mice with a mutated CD3gamma di-leucine-based motif. The CD3gamma mutation did not impair early TCR signaling, nor did it compromise recruitment or proliferation of virus-specific T cells, but it increased the apoptosis rate of the activated T cells by increasing down-regulation of the antiapoptotic...... molecule Bcl-2. This resulted in a 2-fold reduction in the clonal expansion of virus-specific CD8(+) T cells during the acute phase of vesicular stomatitis virus and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infections. These results identify an important role of CD3gamma-mediated TCR down-regulation in virus...

  10. Effect of tobacco mosaic virus infection on host and virus-specific protein synthesis in protoplasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegel, A.; Hari, V.; Kolacz, K.

    1978-04-01

    The nature and rate of virus-specific protein synthesis were determined in tobacco mosaic virus-infected protoplasts as a function of time after inoculation. Samples of infected and mock-infected protoplasts were exposed to radioactive amino acid for relatively short sequential time periods and the consequent labeled proteins were assessed following SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography. The synthesis of three virus-specific proteins of molecular weights 160,000, 135,000, and 17,500 was confirmed. Synthesis of all three proteins was first detected during the 5- to 7-hr postinoculation period at which time the synthetic rate of the 135,000-dalton protein was greatest.This was soon overtaken by the 17,500-dalton capsid protein, the synthetic rate of which kept increasing until it accounted for a major portion of total protoplast protein synthesis. At 1 day postinoculation, it accounted for 50% and, at not quite 2 days, 70% of the total protein synthesis. Evidence is presented to suggest that virus-specific protein synthesis occurs in addition to, rather than at the expense of, normal cellular protein synthesis.

  11. Cooperative Principle and English Humorous Utterance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐芳

    2010-01-01

    <正>Humorous utterances,especially those in the form of conversation in life,have distinctive pragmatic features.There is a close relationship between humor and pragmatics,which can be found in various books on pragmatics.In those books,humorous utterances function as examples for pragmatic analysis.Effective humorous languages often reflect one or several pragmatic features.This paper specifically introduces one of the important theories of pragmatics:cooperative principle,by which the paper analyzes the humorous utterance and explores the relationship between pragmatic rules and humorous utterance.The purpose is to make people know humorous utterance is a matter of pragmatics. The reality of the humor especially depends on implication of the language and the context.

  12. Humor as a Mental Fitness Indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P. Howrigan

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available To explain the pervasive role of humor in human social interaction and among mating partner preferences, Miller (2000a proposed that intentional humor evolved as an indicator of intelligence. To test this, we looked at the relationships among rater-judged humor, general intelligence, and the Big Five personality traits in a sample of 185 college-age students (115 women, 70 men. General intelligence positively predicted rater-judged humor, independent of the Big Five personality traits. Extraversion also predicted rater-judged humor, although to a lesser extent than general intelligence. General intelligence did not interact with the sex of the participant in predicting rating scores on the humor production tasks. The current study lends support to the prediction that effective humor production acts as an honest indicator of intelligence in humans. In addition, extraversion, and to a lesser extent, openness, may reflect motivational traits that encourage humor production.

  13. Neural correlates of humor detection and appreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Joseph M; Wig, Gagan S; Adams, Reginald B; Janata, Petr; Kelley, William M

    2004-03-01

    Humor is a uniquely human quality whose neural substrates remain enigmatic. The present report combined dynamic, real-life content and event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to dissociate humor detection ("getting the joke") from humor appreciation (the affective experience of mirth). During scanning, subjects viewed full-length episodes of the television sitcoms Seinfeld or The Simpsons. Brain activity time-locked to humor detection moments revealed increases in left inferior frontal and posterior temporal cortices, whereas brain activity time-locked to moments of humor appreciation revealed increases in bilateral regions of insular cortex and the amygdala. These findings provide evidence that humor depends critically upon extant neural systems important for resolving incongruities (humor detection) and for the expression of affect (humor appreciation).

  14. Respons imun humoral pada pulpitis (Humoral immune response on pulpitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trijoedani Widodo

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Pulpitis is an inflammation process on dental pulp tissue, and usually as the continuous of caries. The microorganism in the caries is a potential immunogenic triggering the immune respons, both humoral and celluler immune responses. The aim of this research is to explain the humoral immune response changes in the dental pulp tissues of pulpitis. This research was done on three group samples: Irreversible pulpitis, Reversible pulpitis and sound teeth as the control group. The result showed that there were three pulpitis immunopathologic patterns: the sound teeth immunopathologic pattern showing a low humoral immune response, in a low level of IgG, IgA and IgM, the reversible pulpitis pattern showing that in a higher humoral immune response, IgG and IgA decreased but IgM increased, the irreversible pulpitis pattern showing that IgG and IgM increased, but it couldn't be repaired although it has highly immunity, and it showed an unusually low level of IgA. This low level of IgA meant that irreversible pulpitis had a low mucosal immunity.

  15. Black humor in O.Henry's novels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯静楠

    2013-01-01

      Black humor is a kind of literary style rose in American and O .Henry's novels used it to express the satire to society and show the sympathy to the lower class .The most typical works contain black humor two are The Cop and the Anthem and The Gift of the Magi.By using black humor, he created his unique endings .This article is trying to analysis the use of black humor in his novels and the effect.

  16. Humor as a Mental Fitness Indicator

    OpenAIRE

    Howrigan, Daniel P.; Kevin B. MacDonald

    2008-01-01

    To explain the pervasive role of humor in human social interaction and among mating partner preferences, Miller (2000a) proposed that intentional humor evolved as an indicator of intelligence. To test this, we looked at the relationships among rater-judged humor, general intelligence, and the Big Five personality traits in a sample of 185 college-age students (115 women, 70 men). General intelligence positively predicted rater-judged humor, independent of the Big Five personality traits. Extr...

  17. Linguistic Features of Humor in Academic Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalicky, Stephen; Berger, Cynthia M.; Crossley, Scott A.; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2016-01-01

    A corpus of 313 freshman college essays was analyzed in order to better understand the forms and functions of humor in academic writing. Human ratings of humor and wordplay were statistically aggregated using Factor Analysis to provide an overall "Humor" component score for each essay in the corpus. In addition, the essays were also…

  18. Detection of hepatitis A, B, and C virus-specific antibodies using oral fluid for epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amado, Luciane A; Villar, Livia M; de Paula, Vanessa S; de Almeida, Adilson J; Gaspar, Ana Maria C

    2006-03-01

    In this report, we examine the adaptability of commercially available serological kits to detect antibodies markers for viral hepatitis in oral fluid samples. We also assessed the prevalence of hepatitis A, B, and C virus-specific antibodies, and related risk factors for these infectious diseases through sensitivity of the tests in saliva samples to evaluate if oralfluid can be an alternative tool to substitute serum in diagnosis of acute viral hepatitis and in epidemiological studies. One hundred and ten paired serum and saliva specimens from suspect patients of having acute hepatitis were collected to detect antibodies to hepatitis A (total and IgM), hepatitis B (anti-HBs, total anti-HBc and IgM anti-HBc), and hepatitis C (anti-HCV) using commercially available enzyme-linked immunossorbent assay (EIA). In relation to serum samples, oral fluid assay sensitivity and specificity were as follows: 87 and 100% for total anti-HAV, 79 and 100% for anti-HAVIgM, 6 and 95% for anti-HBs, 13 and 100%for total anti-HBc, 100 and 100% for anti-HBc IgM, and 75 and 100% for anti-HCV The consistency observed between antibodies tests in saliva and expected risk factors for hepatitis A and C suggests that the saliva method could replace serum in epidemiological studies for hepatitis A and C.

  19. Detection of hepatitis A, B, and C virus-specific antibodies using oral fluid for epidemiological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane A Amado

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In this report, we examine the adaptability of commercially available serological kits to detect antibodies markers for viral hepatitis in oral fluid samples. We also assessed the prevalence of hepatitis A, B, and C virus-specific antibodies, and related risk factors for these infectious diseases through sensitivity of the tests in saliva samples to evaluate if oral fluid can be an alternative tool to substitute serum in diagnosis of acute viral hepatitis and in epidemiological studies. One hundred and ten paired serum and saliva specimens from suspect patients of having acute hepatitis were collected to detect antibodies to hepatitis A (total and IgM, hepatitis B (anti-HBs, total anti-HBc and IgM anti-HBc, and hepatitis C (anti-HCV using commercially available enzyme-linked immunossorbent assay (EIA. In relation to serum samples, oral fluid assay sensitivity and specificity were as follows: 87 and 100% for total anti-HAV, 79 and 100% for anti-HAV IgM, 6 and 95% for anti-HBs, 13 and 100% for total anti-HBc, 100 and 100% for anti-HBc IgM, and 75 and 100% for anti-HCV. The consistency observed between antibodies tests in saliva and expected risk factors for hepatitis A and C suggests that the saliva method could replace serum in epidemiological studies for hepatitis A and C.

  20. Humor in intimate relationships Ties among sense of humor, similarity in humor and relationship quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barelds, D.P.H.; Barelds-Dijkstra, P.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined relations between different aspects of humor and relationship quality Participants 114 married or cohabiting heterosexual couples from the general community with a mean relationship length of 22 years completed a number of measures assessing these two themes We expected

  1. Humor in intimate relationships Ties among sense of humor, similarity in humor and relationship quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barelds, Dick P. H.; Barelds-Dijkstra, Pieternel

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined relations between different aspects of humor and relationship quality Participants 114 married or cohabiting heterosexual couples from the general community with a mean relationship length of 22 years completed a number of measures assessing these two themes We expected di

  2. Humor in intimate relationships Ties among sense of humor, similarity in humor and relationship quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barelds, D.P.H.; Barelds-Dijkstra, P.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined relations between different aspects of humor and relationship quality Participants 114 married or cohabiting heterosexual couples from the general community with a mean relationship length of 22 years completed a number of measures assessing these two themes We expected di

  3. The Relationship Between Humor Styles and Forgiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampes, William

    2016-01-01

    Research has shown that a factor in a victim’s forgiveness of an offender is the victim’s ability to make more positive, or at least less negative, attributions of the offender’s behavior and that perspective-taking can be a factor in facilitating that process. Self-enhancing humor has been found to be positively correlated with perspective-taking empathy and aggressive humor found to be negatively correlated with perspective-taking empathy. Therefore it was predicted that self-enhancing humor would be positively correlated with forgiveness and aggressive humor negatively correlated with forgiveness. The Humor Styles Questionnaire, the Absence of Negative and Presence of Positive subscales of the Forgiveness Scale, and the Forgiveness Likelihood Scale were administered to 112 college undergraduates. Self-enhancing humor was significantly and positively correlated with all of the forgiveness measures, aggressive humor and self-defeating humor were significantly and negatively correlated with some of the forgiveness measures and affiliative humor was not significantly correlated with any of the forgiveness measures. The results were interpreted in terms of previous findings for humor styles, perspective-taking empathy, depression, self-esteem and anxiety. Future research involving the extent to which other personality variables, such as perspective-taking empathy, mediate the relationship between self-enhancing humor and forgiveness was suggested. PMID:27547252

  4. The Relationship Between Humor Styles and Forgiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Hampes

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown that a factor in a victim’s forgiveness of an offender is the victim’s ability to make more positive, or at least less negative, attributions of the offender’s behavior and that perspective-taking can be a factor in facilitating that process. Self-enhancing humor has been found to be positively correlated with perspective-taking empathy and aggressive humor found to be negatively correlated with perspective-taking empathy. Therefore it was predicted that self-enhancing humor would be positively correlated with forgiveness and aggressive humor negatively correlated with forgiveness. The Humor Styles Questionnaire, the Absence of Negative and Presence of Positive subscales of the Forgiveness Scale, and the Forgiveness Likelihood Scale were administered to 112 college undergraduates. Self-enhancing humor was significantly and positively correlated with all of the forgiveness measures, aggressive humor and self-defeating humor were significantly and negatively correlated with some of the forgiveness measures and affiliative humor was not significantly correlated with any of the forgiveness measures. The results were interpreted in terms of previous findings for humor styles, perspective-taking empathy, depression, self-esteem and anxiety. Future research involving the extent to which other personality variables, such as perspective-taking empathy, mediate the relationship between self-enhancing humor and forgiveness was suggested.

  5. Linguistic Features of Humor in Academic Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Skalicky

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A corpus of 313 freshman college essays was analyzed in order to better understand the forms and functions of humor in academic writing. Human ratings of humor and wordplay were statistically aggregated using Factor Analysis to provide an overall Humor component score for each essay in the corpus. In addition, the essays were also scored for overall writing quality by human raters, which correlated (r = .195 with the humor component score. Correlations between the humor component scores and linguistic features were examined. To investigate the potential for linguistic features to predict the Humor component scores, regression analysis identified four linguistic indices that accounted for approximately 17.5% of the variance in humor scores. These indices were related to text descriptiveness (i.e., more adjective and adverb use, lower cohesion (i.e., less paragraph-to-paragraph similarity, and lexical sophistication (lower word frequency. The findings suggest that humor can be partially predicted by linguistic features in the text. Furthermore, there was a small but significant correlation between the humor and essay quality scores, suggesting a positive relation between humor and writing quality.Keywords: humor, academic writing, text analysis, essay score, human rating

  6. The Dark Side of Humor: DSM-5 Pathological Personality Traits and Humor Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgil Zeigler-Hill

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Basic personality traits (e.g., extraversion have been found to be associated with the humor styles that individuals employ. In the present study, we were interested in determining whether pathological personality traits were also associated with humor styles. We examined the associations between the pathological personality traits captured by the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 (PID-5 and humor styles in a sample of college students (N = 594. Negative affectivity and detachment were negatively associated with the affiliative and self-enhancing humor styles. Antagonism was positively associated with the aggressive humor style but negatively associated with the affiliative humor style. Disinhibition was positively associated with the aggressive humor style, whereas disinhibition and psychoticism were both positively associated with the self-defeating humor style. Discussion focuses on the implications of these findings and how they can expand our understanding of the connections between the darker aspects of personality and humor.

  7. English Humor Derived from the Violation of Cooperative Principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    逯凌虹

    2009-01-01

    Humor is a wisdom, which reflects a person's character, mind and educational level. Humor can be revealed in many ways, yet mainly by means oflanguage. Starting from the analysis of the language of English humor, this paper studies the ways of English humor, especially the English humor on the violation of Cooperative Principle. By analyzing the relationship of English humor and the Cooperative Principle, this paper aims at bettering our understanding and comprehension of the Cooperative Principle and English humor.

  8. Personality, Humor Styles and Happiness: Happy People Have Positive Humor Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Thomas E; Lappi, Shaun K; Holden, Christopher J

    2016-08-01

    The present study examined the relationships between four personality traits, humor styles, and happiness. Replicating previous research, happiness was positively correlated with four personality traits: extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism. Further, happiness positively related to self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles; it related negatively to self-defeating and aggressive humor styles. Thus, happy people habitually engage in positive uses of humor and avoid engaging in negative uses of humor in daily life. We also found support for our hypothesis. People high in extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism are happier because they engage in positive humor in daily life.

  9. Personality, Humor Styles and Happiness: Happy People Have Positive Humor Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Ford

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the relationships between four personality traits, humor styles, and happiness. Replicating previous research, happiness was positively correlated with four personality traits: extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism. Further, happiness positively related to self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles; it related negatively to self-defeating and aggressive humor styles. Thus, happy people habitually engage in positive uses of humor and avoid engaging in negative uses of humor in daily life. We also found support for our hypothesis. People high in extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism are happier because they engage in positive humor in daily life.

  10. Personality, Humor Styles and Happiness: Happy People Have Positive Humor Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Thomas E.; Lappi, Shaun K.; Holden, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the relationships between four personality traits, humor styles, and happiness. Replicating previous research, happiness was positively correlated with four personality traits: extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism. Further, happiness positively related to self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles; it related negatively to self-defeating and aggressive humor styles. Thus, happy people habitually engage in positive uses of humor and avoid engaging in negative uses of humor in daily life. We also found support for our hypothesis. People high in extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism are happier because they engage in positive humor in daily life. PMID:27547251

  11. Mindfulness and self-compassion as predictors of humor styles in US and Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khramtsova I.I.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mindfulness and self-compassion are increasingly coming into mainstream psychological research in the Western world as they correlate with and predict various aspects of mental health and positivity. However, little is known about their relationship to another construct that is also associated with well-being, that is, humor. The unique contribution of the present study is in exploring whether mindfulness and self-compas- sion would predict the use of adaptive and maladaptive humor styles and whether this prediction will be the same across cultures. 90 U.S. and 106 Russian college students responded to a survey consisting of three measures: Mindfulness Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS; Brown & Ryan, 2003, Self-Compassion Scale-Short Form (SCS-SF; Raes, Pommier, Neff, & Van Gucht, 2011, and Humor Styles Questionnaire (HSQ; Martin, Puhlik-Doris, Larsen, Gray, & Weir, 2003. Our findings suggest that mind- fulness and self-compassion can serve as predictors of humor styles, that is, more mind- ful and self-compassionate participants tended to use more adaptive humor styles and less maladaptive styles. However, the contribution of these two variables to the vari- ance in humor styles depended on the culture.

  12. Strategi Penciptaan Humor dengan Pemanfaatan Aspek-aspek Kebahasaan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rohmadi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Humor is universal. Nobody never gets involved with humor. It's the difference lies in its frequency and its target. One person may have a high sense of humor whereas another may have a low sense of humor. In fact every person needs humor in many communication activities. Though humor is only word game, people cannot avoid it. However, humor does not always cause the people to laugh. The creation of humor discourse can make use of articles, pictures, and sounds. Humor consumers assess humor variously. Sometimes people can feel happy when they hear humor; but sometimes they can feel infuriated, hateful, insinuated, or even aggrieved. This is caused by immeasurable humor context in each communication. It depends on the target that the humor creator wants.

  13. Effects of Humor Production, Humor Receptivity, and Physical Attractiveness on Partner Desirability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tornquist, Michelle; Chiappe, Dan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined women’s and men’s preferences for humor production and humor receptivity in long-term and short-term relationships, and how these factors interact with physical attractiveness to influence desirability...

  14. Humor: Aggression, Defence, and Conservatism: Group Characteristics and Differential Humor Appreciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askenasy, George H.

    1976-01-01

    A broad sample of adult male and female subjects was administered an humor appreciation inventory (54 jokes, 9 categories). The major finding was that humor appreciation scores are remarkably similar regardless of background characteristics. (Author/SBP)

  15. Developing a typology of humor in audiovisual media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijzen, M.A.; Valkenburg, P.M.

    2004-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to develop and investigate a typology of humor in audiovisual media. We identified 41 humor techniques, drawing on Berger's (1976, 1993) typology of humor in narratives, audience research on humor preferences, and an inductive analysis of humorous commercials. We

  16. Developing a typology of humor in audiovisual media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijzen, M.A.; Valkenburg, P.M.

    2004-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to develop and investigate a typology of humor in audiovisual media. We identified 41 humor techniques, drawing on Berger's (1976, 1993) typology of humor in narratives, audience research on humor preferences, and an inductive analysis of humorous commercials. We analy

  17. The influence of humor styles in coping strategies in Entre Ríos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Roberto Lillo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the last years there has been a growing interest in the study of the resources that people use from face to a problem. The interest in the study of the characteristics related to the humor has gone in increase, especially for the influence of the development of a new concept in psychology that derives in the call positive psychology (Seligman and Csikszentmihalyi, 2000; Zinder and McCullog 2000, in Martin, Puhlik-Doris, Larsen, Gray, Weir, 2003 which is centered in adaptive strengths such as optimism, faith, courage, as well as humor (Martin 2003, quoted in Martin et al., 2003. Sense of humor has been considered as an unidimensional construct (Omar, 1995 and the consequencies has been some errors in the assesment, as a result of a problem of validity. The present study seeks to introduce certain aspects that have not been considered in the past, so much the potential beneficial effects, as the deleterious forms of the sense of humor as for the psychological well-being. Four dimensions of the sense of humor were assesed (Martin, Puhlik-Doris, Larsen, Gray, Weir, 2003, version Lillo, 2006 relating to the uses or functions in everyday life and the ways of people cope (Fridenberg and Lewis, 1991, version Richaud de Minzi. 2003. They were also significant relationships among styles of humor and ways of coping that could explain the importance of the construct sense of humor, as an important resource to be used. Although it is necessary to highlight that it is not sought to embrace all the components of the sense of humor, but rather it is focused in the interpersonal functions and intrapsíquicas that adolescents use in daily life. These functions are considered most relevant to the well-being. Measuring these aspects of the humor, it is expected that they can explain a greater proportion of the variance as for the ways of people cope. 

  18. Sexual Selection and Humor in Courtship

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    This investigation examines a sexual selection-based argument regarding humor’s role in courtship (i.e., humor production signals intelligence/creativity). Lens model (n =100) analyses suggest that humor production on Facebook profiles were self-reported and perceived to be associated with extroversion, not intelligence. Study 2 (n = 289) found that extroversion was associated humor production, but high school and college grade point average and American College Test (ACT) scores were not. In...

  19. The Cooperative Principle and English Humor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李澜

    2007-01-01

    English jokes are humorous and implicit. They can set people laughing, and at the same time they can also set people thinking. However, people in non-English speaking countries cannot completely understand English humor because of the differences between different cultures. This paper tries to explain the causes of English humor in terms of cooperative principles of conversation. Examples are given to illustrate each cause.

  20. Comparative evaluation of aqueous humor viscosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kyshia; Carter, Renee; Tully, Thomas; Negulescu, Ioan; Storey, Eric

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate aqueous humor viscosity in the raptor, dog, cat, and horse, with a primary focus on the barred owl (Strix varia). Twenty-six raptors, ten dogs, three cats, and one horse. Animals were euthanized for reasons unrelated to this study. Immediately, after horizontal and vertical corneal dimensions were measured, and anterior chamber paracentesis was performed to quantify anterior chamber volume and obtain aqueous humor samples for viscosity analysis. Dynamic aqueous humor viscosity was measured using a dynamic shear rheometer (AR 1000 TA Instruments, New Castle, DE, USA) at 20 °C. Statistical analysis included descriptive statistics, unpaired t-tests, and Tukey's test to evaluate the mean ± standard deviation for corneal diameter, anterior chamber volume, and aqueous humor viscosity amongst groups and calculation of Spearman's coefficient for correlation analyses. The mean aqueous humor viscosity in the barred owl was 14.1 centipoise (cP) ± 9, cat 4.4 cP ± 0.2, and dog 2.9 cP ± 1.3. The aqueous humor viscosity for the horse was 1 cP. Of the animals evaluated in this study, the raptor aqueous humor was the most viscous. The aqueous humor of the barred owl is significantly more viscous than the dog (P humor viscosity of the raptor, dog, cat, and horse can be successfully determined using a dynamic shear rheometer. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  1. Instructional scientific humor in the secondary classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wizner, Francine

    This study is an examination of the manner in which educators employ scientific content humor and how that humor is perceived by their students. Content humor is a useful strategy in drawing the attention of students and improving their receptivity toward scientific information. It is also a useful tool in combating the growing distractions of the electronic classroom. Previous studies have found that humor has a positive effect on knowledge, memory, and understanding. However, few studies have been conducted below the undergraduate level and mainly quantitative measures of student recall have been used to measure learning. This study employed multiple data sources to determine how two secondary biology teachers used humor in order to explain scientific concepts and how their students perceived their teachers' use of scientific instructional humor. Evidence of student humor reception was collected from four students in each of the two classes. All of the scientific instructional humor used in the studied classrooms was cognitive in nature, varying among factual, procedural, conceptual, and metacognitive knowledge. Teachers tended to use dialogic forms of humor. Their scientific humor reflected everyday experiences, presented queries, poked fun at authority, and asked students to search out new perspectives and perform thought experiments. Teachers were the primary actors in performing the humorous events. The events were sometimes physical exaggerations of words or drawings, and they occurred for the purpose of establishing rapport or having students make connections between scientific concepts and prior knowledge. Student perceptions were that teachers did employ humor toward instructional objectives that helped their learning. Helping students become critical thinkers is a trademark of science teachers. Science teachers who take the risk of adopting some attributes of comedians may earn the reward of imparting behaviors on their students like critical thinking

  2. Effectiveness of humor advertising on advertising success

    OpenAIRE

    S, venkatesh; N, senthilkumar

    2015-01-01

    In global advertising ‘humor’ is the most effective emotion used in advertising compared to other emotional appeals. Advertisers and researchers more interested in Humor in advertising for more than 100 years. But there is no review paper for Impact of humor in advertising till twenty two years of time, in between period there was lot of research outcomes published about humor in advertising. The purpose of this paper to get detailed review about Impact of humor in advertising for 40 years an...

  3. Humor: The "Witting" Edge in Business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scriven, Jolene; Hefferin, Linda

    1998-01-01

    Humor contributes to teamwork, creative problem solving, mental flexibility, and risk taking in the workplace. As a classroom tool, it increases student attentiveness and retention of information. (SK)

  4. Humor and College Adjustment: The Predictive Nature of Humor, Academic Achievement, Authoritative Parenting Styles on the Initial Adjustment of Male and Female First-Year College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, Gregory P.; Andrews, David W.

    2003-01-01

    A self-report questionnaire on academic achievement, birth order, and family structure; the Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire; the Parental Authority Questionnaire; and the Coping Humor Scale were administered to 257 first-year college students. Researchers examined the relationships among (a) authoritative parenting style, (b) family…

  5. Humor and College Adjustment: The Predictive Nature of Humor, Academic Achievement, Authoritative Parenting Styles on the Initial Adjustment of Male and Female First-Year College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, Gregory P.; Andrews, David W.

    2003-01-01

    A self-report questionnaire on academic achievement, birth order, and family structure; the Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire; the Parental Authority Questionnaire; and the Coping Humor Scale were administered to 257 first-year college students. Researchers examined the relationships among (a) authoritative parenting style, (b) family…

  6. Humor in leader-follower relationships : Humor styles, similarity and relationship quality.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisse, Barbara; Rietzschel, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The present study focuses on how humor may affect the quality of the relationship between leader and follower (LMX). More specifically, we examined the impact of follower self-reported humor style and leader self-reported humor style on the extent to which followers perceived their relationship with

  7. Humor in leader-follower relationships : Humor styles, similarity and relationship quality.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisse, Barbara; Rietzschel, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The present study focuses on how humor may affect the quality of the relationship between leader and follower (LMX). More specifically, we examined the impact of follower self-reported humor style and leader self-reported humor style on the extent to which followers perceived their relationship with

  8. Intracellular cytokine production by dengue virus-specific T cells correlates with subclinical secondary infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Steven; Endy, Tim P; Thomas, Stephen; Mathew, Anuja; Potts, James; Pazoles, Pamela; Libraty, Daniel H; Gibbons, Robert; Rothman, Alan L

    2011-05-01

    The pathophysiology of dengue virus infection remains poorly understood, although secondary infection is strongly associated with more severe disease. In the present study, we performed a nested, case-control study comparing the responses of pre-illness peripheral blood mononuclear cells between children who would subsequently develop either subclinical or symptomatic secondary infection 6-11 months after the baseline blood samples were obtained and frozen. We analyzed intracellular cytokine production by CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells in response to stimulation with dengue antigen. We found higher frequencies of dengue virus-specific TNFα, IFNγ-, and IL-2-producing T cells among schoolchildren who subsequently developed subclinical infection, compared with those who developed symptomatic secondary dengue virus infection. Although other studies have correlated immune responses during secondary infection with severity of disease, to our knowledge this is the first study to demonstrate a pre-infection dengue-specific immune response that correlates specifically with a subclinical secondary infection.

  9. Effects of hydroxyurea on murine type C virus-specific DNA synthesis in newly infected cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovinger, G G; Gilden, R V; Hatanaka, M

    1978-07-01

    Cell transformation and replication of the Rauscher pseudotype of Moloney murine sarcoma virus in mouse embryo fibroblasts were inhibited by hydroxyurea within a critical time period of 30 to 90 min postinfection. In cells infected by Rauscher leukemia virus, treatment with 1mM hydroxyurea during the critical time period resulted in the accumulation of minus-strand DNA (molecular weight, 3 x 10(6)) in association with the parental viral genoma RNA. This 5 to 6 x 10(6) dalton RNA:DNA hybrid was found in the cytoplasm. Positive-strand DNA of genomic or smaller size was not detected in the presence of hydroxyurea, but virus-specific DNA was found in the nucleus 30 min after removal of drug.

  10. Measuring the diaspora for virus-specific CD8+ T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, D R; Turner, S J; Belz, G T; Wingo, S; Andreansky, S; Sangster, M Y; Riberdy, J M; Liu, T; Tan, M; Doherty, P C

    2001-05-22

    The CD8(+) T cell diaspora has been analyzed after secondary challenge with an influenza A virus that replicates only in the respiratory tract. Numbers of D(b)NP(366)- and D(b)PA(224)-specific CD8(+) T cells were measured by tetramer staining at the end of the recall response, then followed sequentially in the lung, lymph nodes, spleen, blood, and other organs. The extent of clonal expansion did not reflect the sizes of the preexisting memory T cell pools. Although the high-frequency CD8(+) tetramer(+) populations in the pneumonic lung and mediastinal lymph nodes fell rapidly from peak values, the "whole mouse" virus-specific CD8(+) T cell counts decreased only 2-fold over the 4 weeks after infection, then subsided at a fairly steady rate to reach a plateau at about 2 months. The largest numbers were found throughout in the spleen, then the bone marrow. The CD8(+)D(b)NP(366)+ and CD8(+)D(b)PA(224)+ sets remained significantly enlarged for at least 4 months, declining at equivalent rates while retaining the nucleoprotein > acid polymerase immunodominance hierarchy characteristic of the earlier antigen-driven phase. Lowest levels of the CD69 "activation marker" were detected consistently on virus-specific CD8(+) T cells in the blood, then the spleen. Those in the bone marrow and liver were intermediate, and CD69(hi) T cells were very prominent in the regional lymph nodes and the nasal-associated lymphoid tissue. Any population of "resting" CD8(+) memory T cells is thus phenotypically heterogeneous, widely dispersed, and subject to broad homeostatic and local environmental effects irrespective of epitope specificity or magnitude.

  11. Humor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谈华军

    2005-01-01

    As I drove into a car park, I noticed that a utility truck with a dog sitting behind the wheel was rolling towards a female pedestrian. She seemed oblivious. So I hit my horn to get her attention, she looked up just in time to jump out of the truck's path, and the vehicle bumped harmlessly into the herb and stopped.

  12. The Role of Humor in Language Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓艳

    2013-01-01

    Humor plays an important role in many spheres and aspects of human life. The study is intended to analyze the feasibil-ity of utilizing humor as a communicative strategy as well as a tool to create a positive teaching environment for language teach-ing in class.

  13. "That Hurts!": Humor and Sadomasochism in "Lolita."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bick, Ilsa J.

    1994-01-01

    States that humor is dependent on individual perspective, and that the subject matter of "Lolita" (1962), which concerns child abuse and molestation, is difficult to treat with humor. Argues that despite its subject, "Lolita" continues to be funny. Concludes that viewers know the subject matter is not funny, but while watching, viewers do not…

  14. A Study on Intertextuality in Verbal Humor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周燕

    2015-01-01

    This paper talks about how intertextuality and its concerned theories can be well applied to the study of humor.Through analysis of specific samples,the paper finds parody,verbal irony and text allusions are effective intertextual means to produce and understand verbal humor.

  15. American Learners' Comprehension of Russian Textual Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shardakova, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, second language (L2) humor has attracted scholarly attention as both a means and a goal of L2 development. Much of this research, however, has focused on oral communication, whereas virtually no studies address humor as an aspect of reading comprehension. This exploratory study combines these two areas of inquiry, examining…

  16. Humor: A Therapeutic Intervention for Child Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Rachelle G.; Parr, Gerald; Bradley, Loretta J.; Berry, Jeremy J.

    2009-01-01

    Counselors utilize many strategies, techniques, and tools when building a therapeutic alliance or addressing children's issues. Due to the serious nature of discussing problems or perhaps because of the fear of seeming insensitive, counselors often overlook humor as a means to enhance therapy. Whether deliberate or spontaneous, humor can add…

  17. Confessions from a Guy Who Teaches Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Gene L.

    2008-01-01

    Humor is an intriguing topic that exists in the contexts of adult education and human resource development. This paper describes my experiences at developing and facilitating a graduate course on humor and adult learning. Researchers and scholarly practitioners in adult education and human resource development are encouraged to build their…

  18. "That Hurts!": Humor and Sadomasochism in "Lolita."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bick, Ilsa J.

    1994-01-01

    States that humor is dependent on individual perspective, and that the subject matter of "Lolita" (1962), which concerns child abuse and molestation, is difficult to treat with humor. Argues that despite its subject, "Lolita" continues to be funny. Concludes that viewers know the subject matter is not funny, but while watching,…

  19. "That Hurts!": Humor and Sadomasochism in "Lolita."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bick, Ilsa J.

    1994-01-01

    States that humor is dependent on individual perspective, and that the subject matter of "Lolita" (1962), which concerns child abuse and molestation, is difficult to treat with humor. Argues that despite its subject, "Lolita" continues to be funny. Concludes that viewers know the subject matter is not funny, but while watching,…

  20. Differential impact of ageing on cellular and humoral immunity to a persistent murine γ-herpesvirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burkum Claire E

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oncogenic γ-herpesviruses establish life-long infections in their hosts and control of these latent infections is dependent on continual immune surveillance. Immune function declines with age, raising the possibility that immune control of γ-herpesvirus infection becomes compromised with increasing age, allowing viral reactivation and/or increased latent load, both of which are associated with the development of malignancies. Results In this study, we use the experimental mouse γ-herpesvirus model, γHV68, to investigate viral immunity in aged mice. We found no evidence of viral recrudescence or increased latent load in aged latently-infected mice, suggesting that effective immune control of γ-herpesvirus infection remains intact with ageing. As both cellular and humoral immunity have been implicated in host control of γHV68 latency, we independently examined the impact of ageing on γHV68-specific CD8 T cell function and antibody responses. Virus-specific CD8 T cell numbers and cytolytic function were not profoundly diminished with age. In contrast, whereas ELISA titers of virus-specific IgG were maintained over time, there was a progressive decline in neutralizing activity. In addition, although aged mice were able to control de novo acute infection with only slightly delayed viral clearance, serum titers of neutralizing antibody were reduced in aged mice as compared to young mice. Conclusion Although there is no obvious loss of immune control of latent virus, these data indicate that ageing has differential impacts on anti-viral cellular and humoral immune protection during persistent γHV68 infection. This observation has potential relevance for understanding γ-herpesvirus immune control during disease-associated or therapeutic immunosuppression.

  1. Humoral pattern recognition and the complement system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degn, S E; Thiel, S

    2013-08-01

    In the context of immunity, pattern recognition is the art of discriminating friend from foe and innocuous from noxious. The basis of discrimination is the existence of evolutionarily conserved patterns on microorganisms, which are intrinsic to these microorganisms and necessary for their function and existence. Such immutable or slowly evolving patterns are ideal handles for recognition and have been targeted by early cellular immune defence mechanisms such as Toll-like receptors, NOD-like receptors, RIG-I-like receptors, C-type lectin receptors and by humoral defence mechanisms such as the complement system. Complement is a proteolytic cascade system comprising around 35 different soluble and membrane-bound proteins. It constitutes a central part of the innate immune system, mediating several major innate effector functions and modulating adaptive immune responses. The complement cascade proceeds via controlled, limited proteolysis and conformational changes of constituent proteins through three activation pathways: the classical pathway, the alternative pathway and the lectin pathway, which converge in common effector functions. Here, we review the nature of the pattern recognition molecules involved in complement activation, as well as their close relatives with no or unknown capacity for activating complement. We proceed to examine the composition of the pattern recognition complexes involved in complement activation, focusing on those of the lectin pathway, and arrive at a new model for their mechanism of operation, supported by recently emerging evidence.

  2. Humoral immunity in Hansen's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldenise Cossermelli-Messina

    Full Text Available For many years immune response in leprosy has been studied. Since 1960 several reports dealing with humoral immunity have been described in the literature. Different autoantibody rates occur in leprosy. There is an increase in the prevalence of autoantibodies in elderly patients with long standing disease, in lepromatous leprosy and in those with reactional states. The diferences in rates among various studies are attributed to different methods and variations among patient samples concerning age, gender, polar forms, therapy and other elements. The prevalence of numerous antibodies, immune complexes, cryoglobulins and complement levels have been studied by many authors. This also highlights the importance of the more recent reviews of anti-Mycobacterium leprae glycolipid antibodies such as the anti-phenolic glycolipid-I antibodies in which titers are variable and depend on genetic factors.

  3. Humor and creative life styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, J

    2001-01-01

    This paper is based upon the writings of William James in the late 19th century, and Alfred Adler and Sigmund Freud in the 20th, enriched by the contributions of later personality and role theorists. The self is defined as the unique organization of each person; a style is the self in action. Different life styles and their components are expressed in different situations. I posit that humor and positive thinking, combined with meaning and purpose, are vital components of all constructive life styles. The knowledge of life styles cuts through diagnostic labels to reveal our universal humanity. It can be fruitfully applied to patients and nonpatients alike and, I found, for the self-understanding of therapist. The clinical application of life styles is illustrated through numerous vignettes.

  4. El humor es cosa seria

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    La capacidad de goce, trabajo y sobre todo el humor constituyen un criterio importante en la evaluación psicodiagnóstica, a pesar de ser a menudo, un aspecto excluido de los informes. Una razón de dicha exclusión podría ser el hecho de no contribuir por sí mismo a incluir al sujeto evaluado en una categoría psicopatológica. Otra razón que se suma a la anterior, es que el “ sentido del humor” que surge durante el transcurso de un proceso psicodiagnóstico exige de parte del que lo administra un...

  5. Por un humor ético

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Paramo Valero

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Ética del humor es una obra original, abundantemente documentada, de contenido científico y filosófico, que aborda un problema de gran importancia en los actuales estudios de éticas aplicadas. La ética del humor es una nueva ética aplicada que pretende comprender el fenómeno del humor a la luz de sus implicaciones éticas. Como señala el autor, Juan Carlos Siurana, reputado experto en el ámbito de la filosofía práctica, el interés por el humor es un interés por la ética. En la obra no presenta una nueva teoría filosófica del humor –las cuales se han venido sucediendo, al menos, desde los Diálogos de Platón–, sino una nueva teoría ética, que toma al humor como objeto principal de análisis. Por tanto, la finalidad es realizar una aportación dentro del ámbito de la ética. Para ello se nutre de distintos estudios psicológicos, biológicos, fisiológicos y neurológicos sobre el humor, así como de clásicas obras de filosofía que han abordado esta cuestión.

  6. Intranasal Immunization with Influenza Virus-Like Particles Containing Membrane-Anchored Cholera Toxin B or Ricin Toxin B Enhances Adaptive Immune Responses and Protection against an Antigenically Distinct Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xianliang; Ren, Zhiguang; Xu, Na; Meng, Lingnan; Yu, Zhijun; Feng, Na; Sang, Xiaoyu; Li, Shengnan; Li, Yuanguo; Wang, Tiecheng; Zhao, Yongkun; Wang, Hualei; Zheng, Xuexing; Jin, Hongli; Li, Nan; Yang, Songtao; Cao, Jinshan; Liu, Wensen; Gao, Yuwei; Xia, Xianzhu

    2016-04-21

    Vaccination is the most effective means to prevent influenza virus infection, although current approaches are associated with suboptimal efficacy. Here, we generated virus-like particles (VLPs) composed of the hemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA) and matrix protein (M1) of A/Changchun/01/2009 (H1N1) with or without either membrane-anchored cholera toxin B (CTB) or ricin toxin B (RTB) as molecular adjuvants. The intranasal immunization of mice with VLPs containing membrane-anchored CTB or RTB elicited stronger humoral and cellular immune responses when compared to mice immunized with VLPs alone. Administration of VLPs containing CTB or RTB significantly enhanced virus-specific systemic and mucosal antibody responses, hemagglutination inhibiting antibody titers, virus neutralizing antibody titers, and the frequency of virus-specific IFN-γ and IL-4 secreting splenocytes. VLPs with and without CTB or RTB conferred complete protection against lethal challenge with a mouse-adapted homologous virus. When challenged with an antigenically distinct H1N1 virus, all mice immunized with VLPs containing CTB or RTB survived whereas mice immunized with VLPs alone showed only partial protection (80% survival). Our results suggest that membrane-anchored CTB and RTB possess strong adjuvant properties when incorporated into an intranasally-delivered influenza VLP vaccine. Chimeric influenza VLPs containing CTB or RTB may represent promising vaccine candidates for improved immunological protection against homologous and antigenically distinct influenza viruses.

  7. Virus elimination in acute lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection. Correlation with virus-specific delayed-type hypersensitivity rather than cytotoxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Allan Randrup; Volkert, M; Bro-Jørgensen, K

    1983-01-01

    The immunological effector mechanism responsible for the elimination of virus in murine acute non-fatal extracranial lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection was studied. In this infection virus clearance is generally regarded as the result of a direct action of virus-specific cytotoxic T cells...

  8. Resilient Youths Use Humor to Enhance Socioemotional Functioning during a "Day in the Life"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, E. Leslie; Fox, Janice D.; Anderson, Michelle S.; Cameron, Catherine Ann

    2010-01-01

    In order to extend previous early years humor research into early adolescence, the authors adapted an innovative ecological research method such that at-risk adolescents could be filmed during an entire waking day in their life. Community youth advocates nominated one 15-year-old female and one 14-year-old male as doing well despite adverse…

  9. Resilient Youths Use Humor to Enhance Socioemotional Functioning during a "Day in the Life"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, E. Leslie; Fox, Janice D.; Anderson, Michelle S.; Cameron, Catherine Ann

    2010-01-01

    In order to extend previous early years humor research into early adolescence, the authors adapted an innovative ecological research method such that at-risk adolescents could be filmed during an entire waking day in their life. Community youth advocates nominated one 15-year-old female and one 14-year-old male as doing well despite adverse…

  10. Genetic polymorphisms associated with rubella virus-specific cellular immunity following MMR vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Richard B; Ovsyannikova, Inna G; Haralambieva, Iana H; Lambert, Nathaniel D; Pankratz, V Shane; Poland, Gregory A

    2014-11-01

    Rubella virus causes a relatively benign disease in most cases, although infection during pregnancy can result in serious birth defects. An effective vaccine has been available since the early 1970s and outbreaks typically do not occur among highly vaccinated (≥2 doses) populations. Nevertheless, considerable inter-individual variation in immune response to rubella immunization does exist, with single-dose seroconversion rates ~95 %. Understanding the mechanisms behind this variability may provide important insights into rubella immunity. In the current study, we examined associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in selected cytokine, cytokine receptor, and innate/antiviral genes and immune responses following rubella vaccination in order to understand genetic influences on vaccine response. Our approach consisted of a discovery cohort of 887 subjects aged 11-22 at the time of enrollment and a replication cohort of 542 older adolescents and young adults (age 18-40). Our data indicate that SNPs near the butyrophilin genes (BTN3A3/BTN2A1) and cytokine receptors (IL10RB/IFNAR1) are associated with variations in IFNγ secretion and that multiple SNPs in the PVR gene, as well as SNPs located in the ADAR gene, exhibit significant associations with rubella virus-specific IL-6 secretion. This information may be useful, not only in furthering our understanding immune responses to rubella vaccine, but also in identifying key pathways for targeted adjuvant use to boost immunity in those with weak or absent immunity following vaccination.

  11. Towards Humor Modelling and Facilitation in Smart Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Gu Ji, Y.; Choi, S.

    We know about word play, verbal jokes, and about humor that appears spontaneously in conversations. This humor is studied in computational linguistics, together with issues such as verbal incongruities, ambiguities, irony and sarcasm. These appearances of humor are also part of computational humor

  12. Exploring the Relationship between Humor and Aesthetic Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Mordechai

    2012-01-01

    The connection between humor and aesthetic experience has already been recognized by several thinkers and aesthetic educators. For instance, humor theorist John Morreall writes that "humor is best understood as itself a kind of aesthetic experience, equal in value at least to any other kind of aesthetic experience." For Morreall, both humor and…

  13. LOL Teacher! Using Humor to Enhance Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrell, Shelly

    2015-01-01

    Laughing with students can help them connect on a deeper level with the teacher and the learning. This article offers the following four strategies to incorporate humor into teaching: (1) Integrate humorous bits to boost engagement; (2) Choose humorous materials; (3) Create interest with humorous web tools and apps; and (4) Teach with silly…

  14. Towards Humor Modelling and Facilitation in Smart Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Anton; Gu Ji, Y.; Choi, S.

    2014-01-01

    We know about word play, verbal jokes, and about humor that appears spontaneously in conversations. This humor is studied in computational linguistics, together with issues such as verbal incongruities, ambiguities, irony and sarcasm. These appearances of humor are also part of computational humor s

  15. Burnout and Humor Usage among Community College Nursing Faculty Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Laura A.

    2000-01-01

    Assesses the correlation of burnout among community college nursing faculty members and their use of humor to mediate academic stress related to burnout. Differences in burnout between high versus low humor usage respondents showed a higher sense of personal accomplishment with high humor usage. Of those with low humor usage, workload was related…

  16. Differences in Humor Styles between China and America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玮

    2014-01-01

    Humor, as a relaxing topic, is a very complicate thing in the intercultural communication. The famous professor of psychology at the University of Western Ontario, Rod A. Martin who focuses his study on functions of humor and laughter proposes four humor styles. In this essay, I use four dimensions referred by Hofstede to analyze the preferred humor styles in China and America.

  17. Designed and Accidental Humor in the Smart Digital Wild

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Anton; Ruiz Miyares, L.

    2017-01-01

    Humor can be designed and canned, for example as it appears in videogames, sitcoms or amusement parks. We often have humor professionals that have responsibility for this inclusion of humor. Humor can be designed for a particular occasion, for example in an April prank. However, in real life we ofte

  18. Exploring the Relationship between Humor and Aesthetic Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Mordechai

    2012-01-01

    The connection between humor and aesthetic experience has already been recognized by several thinkers and aesthetic educators. For instance, humor theorist John Morreall writes that "humor is best understood as itself a kind of aesthetic experience, equal in value at least to any other kind of aesthetic experience." For Morreall, both humor and…

  19. LOL Teacher! Using Humor to Enhance Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrell, Shelly

    2015-01-01

    Laughing with students can help them connect on a deeper level with the teacher and the learning. This article offers the following four strategies to incorporate humor into teaching: (1) Integrate humorous bits to boost engagement; (2) Choose humorous materials; (3) Create interest with humorous web tools and apps; and (4) Teach with silly…

  20. Humor and Laughter May Influence Health IV. Humor and Immune Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Payne Bennett

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the final article in a four part series reviewing the influence of humor and laughter on physiological and psychological well-being. This final article reviews the evidence for the effect of sense of humor, exposure to a humor stimulus and laughter on various immune system components, with a focus on the effects of laughter on natural killer cell cytotoxicity.

  1. Hibernation is associated with depression of T-cell independent humoral immune responses in the 13-lined ground squirrel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, Hjalmar R.; Henning, Robert H.; Kroese, Frans G. M.; Carey, Hannah V.

    Mammalian hibernation consists of periods of low metabolism and body temperature (torpor), interspersed by euthermic arousal periods. The function of both the innate and adaptive immune system is suppressed during hibernation. In this study, we analyzed the humoral adaptive immune response to a

  2. El humor en los servicios hospitalarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguinaga Benítez Óscar William

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available

    El humor es un fenómeno demasiado complejo para ser explicado fácilmente, sin embargo la risa, es una de las formas más admirables del comportamiento humano. El humor forma parte de nuestra vida cotidiana y todos tenemos de él, ya desde nuestra más tierna infancia un conocimiento intuitivo. Muchos saben que el humor mejora las relaciones humanas, puede favorecer una cierta distensión y facilita el bienestar de todos los miembros de una empresa, dirigentes, empleados y obreros. Muchos esperan encontrar en él la forma de resolver los conflictos y de reducir la agresividad. Allí donde se encuentren hombres, existe el humor, comprenderlo mejor y utilizarlo más libremente y en el momento oportuno, puede ayudarnos a hacer nuestra vida más agradable.

  3. Sexual Selection and Humor in Courtship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey A. Hall

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This investigation examines a sexual selection-based argument regarding humor’s role in courtship (i.e., humor production signals intelligence/creativity. Lens model (n =100 analyses suggest that humor production on Facebook profiles were self-reported and perceived to be associated with extroversion, not intelligence. Study 2 (n = 289 found that extroversion was associated humor production, but high school and college grade point average and American College Test (ACT scores were not. In Study 3, pairs of opposite-sex strangers (n = 102 interacted for 10–12 min. Males’ humor production and females’ responsive laughter were both associated with females’ dating interest. Both partners’ dating interest was associated with simultaneous laughter. Without support for the sexual selection argument, three alternative explanations of humor’s role in courtship are discussed.

  4. Laughter and humor therapy in dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Paul N; Parsons, Trisha; Ben-Moshe, Ros; Weinberg, Melissa; Neal, Merv; Gilbert, Karen; Rawson, Helen; Ockerby, Cherene; Finlay, Paul; Hutchinson, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Laughter and humor therapy have been used in health care to achieve physiological and psychological health-related benefits. The application of these therapies to the dialysis context remains unclear. This paper reviews the evidence related to laughter and humor therapy as a medical therapy relevant to the dialysis patient population. Studies from other groups such as children, the elderly, and persons with mental health, cancer, and other chronic conditions are included to inform potential applications of laughter therapy to the dialysis population. Therapeutic interventions could range from humorous videos, stories, laughter clowns through to raucous simulated laughter and Laughter Yoga. The effect of laughter and humor on depression, anxiety, pain, immunity, fatigue, sleep quality, respiratory function and blood glucose may have applications to the dialysis context and require further research.

  5. Circulating Humorous Antitobacco Videos on Social Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moon J; Chen, Fannin

    2017-03-01

    We investigated whether exposure to same humorous antitobacco videos via different types of social media platforms and contexts (health vs. humor) influences individual's health risk perceptions, attitudes, and behavioral intents. An experiment with a 2 (social media types: YouTube and Facebook) × 2 (message contexts: health-focused and humor-focused contexts) factorial design was conducted. It was found that those who watched the humorous antitobacco videos on Facebook in the health-context exhibited a higher level of risk perception of smoking, less positive attitude toward smokers, and a higher level of intention to avoid smoking in the future than the participants who viewed the same videos on YouTube in the health-context or on Facebook in the humor-context. These findings provide useful practical guidelines in using social media for health communication/promotion. Humorous health promotion messages are best circulated on social networking sites such as Facebook accompanied by others' support for the given health topic (i.e., in health-contexts). Practical/theoretical implications and limitations of the study were further discussed in this article.

  6. Virus-specific adaptations for the production of a pseudorecombinant virus formed by two distinct bipartite geminiviruses from Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unseld, S; Ringel, M; Konrad, A; Lauster, S; Frischmuth, T

    2000-08-15

    Most whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses possess bipartite genomes comprising DNAs A and B. The production of viable pseudorecombinants by reassortment of infectious cloned components is generally limited to isolates/strains of a particular virus. Following exchange of cloned genomic components of Sida golden mosaic virus from Costa Rica (SiGMV/Co) and Sida golden mosaic virus from Honduras (SiGMV/Ho(yv)), the pseudorecombinant viruses were infectious in various plant species. Three DNA B components (B(1), B(2), B(3)), different in a few nucleotides, were isolated from Sida rhombifolia naturally infected with SiGMV/Ho(yv). Only SiGMV/Ho(yv) DNA B(2) was able to form a viable pseudorecombinant with SiGMV/Co DNA A. In protoplasts, as well as in inoculated leaves, SiGMV/Co DNA A trans-replicated the heterogenomic SiGMV/Ho(yv) DNA B(1) component, indicating that impaired movement is involved in the deficiency of SiGMV/Ho(yv) DNA B(1) to form a pseudorecombinant virus with SiGMV/Co DNA A. Even after extensive mutation analysis of SiGMV/Ho(yv) DNA B(1) and B(2), we were unable to pinpoint differences in SiGMV/Ho(yv) DNA B(2) that allowed the formation of a pseudorecombinant virus with SiGMV/Co DNA A. We observed a gradual increase of infectivity from noninfectious SiGMV/Co DNA A/SiGMV/Ho(yv) DNA B(1) and B(3) pseudorecombinant virus to pseudorecombinant viruses showing normal systemic spread of both genomic components associated with symptomatic plants. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  7. Neuropsychology of humor: an introduction. Part II. Humor and the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derouesné, Christian

    2016-09-01

    Impairment of the perception or comprehension of humor is observed in patients with focal brain lesions in both hemispheres, but mainly in the right frontal lobe. Studies by functional magnetic resonance imaging in healthy subjects show that humor is associated with activation of two main neural systems in both hemispheres. The detection and resolution of incongruity, cognitive groundings of humor, are associated with activation of the medial prefrontal and temporoparietal cortex, and the humor appreciation with activation of the orbito-frontal and insular cortex, amygdala and the brain reward system. However, activation of these areas is not humor-specific and can be observed in various cognitive or emotional processes. Event-related potential studies confirm the involvement of both hemispheres in humor processing, and suggest that left prefrontal area is associated with joke comprehension and right prefrontal area with the resolution stage. Humor thus appears to be a complex and dynamic functional process involving, on one hand, two specialized but not specific neural systems linked to humor apprehension and appreciation, and, on the other hand, multiple interconnected functional brain networks including neural patterns underlying the moral framework and belief system, acquired by conditioning or imitation during the cognitive development and social interactions of the individual, and more distributed systems associated with the analysis of the current context of humor occurrence. Disturbances of the sense of humor could then result from focal brain alterations localized in one or two of the specialized areas underlying the comprehension or appreciation of humor, or from perturbations of the network interconnectivity in non-focal brain disorders such as Alzheimer's disease or schizophrenia.

  8. Diminished primary and secondary influenza virus-specific CD8(+) T-cell responses in CD4-depleted Ig(-/-) mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riberdy, J M; Christensen, Jan Pravsgaard; Branum, K

    2000-01-01

    Optimal expansion of influenza virus nucleoprotein (D(b)NP(366))-specific CD8(+) T cells following respiratory challenge of naive Ig(-/-) microMT mice was found to require CD4(+) T-cell help, and this effect was also observed in primed animals. Absence of the CD4(+) population was consistently...... correlated with diminished recruitment of virus-specific CD8(+) T cells to the infected lung, delayed virus clearance, and increased morbidity. The splenic CD8(+) set generated during the recall response in Ig(-/-) mice primed at least 6 months previously showed a normal profile of gamma interferon...... production subsequent to short-term, in vitro stimulation with viral peptide, irrespective of a concurrent CD4(+) T-cell response. Both the magnitude and the localization profiles of virus-specific CD8(+) T cells, though perhaps not their functional characteristics, are thus modified in mice lacking CD4(+) T...

  9. Polyomavirus specific cellular immunity: from BK-virus-specific cellular immunity to BK-virus-associated nephropathy ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    manon edekeyser

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In renal transplantation, BK-virus-associated nephropathy has emerged as a major complication, with a prevalence of 5–10% and graft loss in >50% of cases. BK-virus is a member of the Polyomavirus family and rarely induces apparent clinical disease in the general population. However, replication of polyomaviruses, associated with significant organ disease, is observed in patients with acquired immunosuppression, which suggests a critical role for virus-specific cellular immunity to control virus replication and prevent chronic disease. Monitoring of specific immunity combined with viral load could be used to individually assess the risk of viral reactivation and virus control. We review the current knowledge on BK-virus specific cellular immunity and, more specifically, in immunocompromised patients. In the future, immune-based therapies could allow us to treat and prevent BK-virus-associated nephropathy.

  10. An Explanation of the Relationship between Instructor Humor and Student Learning: Instructional Humor Processing Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanzer, Melissa B.; Frymier, Ann B.; Irwin, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes the Instructional Humor Processing Theory (IHPT), a theory that incorporates elements of incongruity-resolution theory, disposition theory, and the elaboration likelihood model (ELM) of persuasion. IHPT is proposed and offered as an explanation for why some types of instructor-generated humor result in increased student…

  11. Computational Humor 2012 : extended abstacts of the (3rd international) Workshop on computational Humor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Unknown, [Unknown

    2012-01-01

    Like its predecessors in 1996 (University of Twente, the Netherlands) and 2002 (ITC-irst, Trento, Italy), this Third International Workshop on Computational Humor (IWCH 2012) focusses on the possibility to find algorithms that allow understanding and generation of humor. There is the general aim of

  12. Investigating the Effect of Humor Communication Skills Training on Pro-Social and Anti-Social Humor Styles, Cognitive Learning, Self-Efficacy, Motivation, and Humor Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, Lori E.

    2013-01-01

    Humor is an important aspect of interpersonal interactions as it is linked to the development and maintenance of relationships (Merolla, 2006). The purpose of this dissertation was to test the effect of a humor communication skills training program on the ability to minimize anti-social humor (i.e., aggressive, self-defeating) and enhance…

  13. Investigating the Effect of Humor Communication Skills Training on Pro-Social and Anti-Social Humor Styles, Cognitive Learning, Self-Efficacy, Motivation, and Humor Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, Lori E.

    2013-01-01

    Humor is an important aspect of interpersonal interactions as it is linked to the development and maintenance of relationships (Merolla, 2006). The purpose of this dissertation was to test the effect of a humor communication skills training program on the ability to minimize anti-social humor (i.e., aggressive, self-defeating) and enhance…

  14. Identity and Stereotypes: Humor Manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Repšienė

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The traditional understanding of humor as being tolerant, full of non-aggressive life curiosities, funny situations, mocking national or human vices, and related to an optimistic and contemplative attitude towards reality, has changed its main supportive points: the optimistic view of reality has been altered into a pessimistic and destructive one, forbearing ridicule has turned into severe offence, strangeness into stupidity, funny situations into futile misunderstanding. Everything is regarded as a dramatic possibility to survive or an endless situational tragedy where the most strict evaluation criteria, censorship, and dogmatism are empowered, meaning that, in the current times of widely propagated tolerance and overwhelming comprehension, it is extremely dangerous to offend somebody with an innocent joke or light mockery, to evoke an urge to contradict or negate when ideological aspirations are beyond “decency” limits. One of the most advocated rules in the Lithuanian press is: “Joke carefully with foreign nationals” from an interview with Barry Tomelin, London “International house” consultant and teaching director, the author of the book “World’s Business Cultures: And How to Unlock Them” (with Michael Nicks. Identity is to be saved and nourished as the highest sanctity but its formation, meaningfulness and spread are not always attuned to the official approach.Our life is full of stereotypes and our neighboring countries are not to be excluded – we have a preconceived notion of them. Using the national stereotype term we characterize relatively stable generalized opinions, in an open or hidden form, containing one or another assessment of a nation.Our attitude towards neighbors is revealed in nicknames given to them – non-official ethnonyms usually bearing a negative connotation. Some monikers have already lasted for centuries while others have been coined during the last decades. Anecdotes with the most popular

  15. Measles Virus-Specific Immunoglobulin G Isotype Immune Response in Early and Late Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isa, María Beatríz; Martínez, Laura; Giordano, Miguel; Zapata, Marta; Passeggi, Carlos; De Wolff, María Cristina; Nates, Silvia

    2001-01-01

    A total of 154 human serum samples (32 acute-phase and 22 convalescent-phase serum samples obtained within a week and between days 8 and 26 after the onset of rash, respectively, and 100 samples drawn from healthy immune adults) were processed by an immunofluorescence assay for the detection of immunoglobulin M (IgM), total immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4 measles virus-specific antibodies. In the acute phase, IgG1 was seen first, followed by IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4 responses, the mean seropositivity of which gradually increased during convalescence, reaching 100% (standard deviation [SD], 84 to 100%), 57% (SD, 34 to 80%), 86% (SD, 66 to 100%), and 86% (SD, 66 to 100%), respectively. IgG2 rose and fell in connection with IgG3 subclass antibodies, showing a rate of detection of IgG2 and/or IgG3 subclass antibodies of 95.5% (range, 100 to 86.5%) in the convalescent phase of infection. The mean percentage of measles IgG2 and IgG3 seropositivity dropped significantly during the memory phase, to 2% (range, 2 to 6%) and 3% (range, 3 to 7%), respectively (P < 0.05); meanwhile IgG1 and IgG4 subclass responses remained relatively unmodified in samples obtained years after infection (mean 100% [SD, 96 to 100%] and 86% [SD, 79 to 93%], respectively). Results obtained defined two highly different immune isotypic response patterns. One pattern is restrictive to IgG2 and/or IgG3 in the convalescent phase and is kinetically similar to the IgM antibody response, so its detection could be referred to as a recent viral activity. On the other hand, IgG1 and IgG4 were detected in both the convalescent and memory phases of the immune response, but their isolated occurrence without IgG2 and IgG3 could be related to the long-lasting immunity. PMID:11136766

  16. Immune response and histology of humoral rejection in kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Molina, Miguel; Ruiz-Esteban, Pedro; Caballero, Abelardo; Burgos, Dolores; Cabello, Mercedes; Leon, Miriam; Fuentes, Laura; Hernandez, Domingo

    2016-01-01

    The adaptive immune response forms the basis of allograft rejection. Its weapons are direct cellular cytotoxicity, identified from the beginning of organ transplantation, and/or antibodies, limited to hyperacute rejection by preformed antibodies and not as an allogenic response. This resulted in allogenic response being thought for decades to have just a cellular origin. But the experimental studies by Gorer demonstrating tissue damage in allografts due to antibodies secreted by B lymphocytes activated against polymorphic molecules were disregarded. The special coexistence of binding and unbinding between antibodies and antigens of the endothelial cell membranes has been the cause of the delay in demonstrating the humoral allogenic response. The endothelium, the target tissue of antibodies, has a high turnover, and antigen-antibody binding is non-covalent. If endothelial cells are attacked by the humoral response, immunoglobulins are rapidly removed from their surface by shedding and/or internalization, as well as degrading the components of the complement system by the action of MCP, DAF and CD59. Thus, the presence of complement proteins in the membrane of endothelial cells is transient. In fact, the acute form of antibody-mediated rejection was not demonstrated until C4d complement fragment deposition was identified, which is the only component that binds covalently to endothelial cells. This review examines the relationship between humoral immune response and the types of acute and chronic histological lesion shown on biopsy of the transplanted organ. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Humor: a pedagogical tool to promote learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabeli, M

    2008-09-01

    It has become critical that learners are exposed to varied methods of teaching and assessment that will promote critical thinking of learners. Humor creates a relaxed atmosphere where learning can be enhanced and appreciated. When learners are relaxed, thinking becomes eminent. Authoritative and tense environment hinders thinking. This paper seeks to explore the perceptions of nurse teacher learners regarding the use of humor as a pedagogical tool to promote learning. A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual research design was employed (Burns & Grove, 2001:61; Mouton, 1996:103). 130 naive sketches were collected from nurse teacher learners who volunteered to take part in the study (Giorgi in_Omery, 1983:52) Follow up interviews were conducted to verify the findings. A qualitative, open-coding method of content analysis was done Tesch (in Creswell, 1994:155). Measures to ensure trustworthiness of the study were taken in accordance with the protocol of (Lincoln & Guba, 1985:290-326). The findings of the study will assist the nurse educators to create a positive, affective, psychological and social learning environment through the use of humor in a positive manner. Nurse educators will appreciate the fact that integration of humor to the learning content will promote the learners' critical thinking and emotional intelligence. Negative humor has a negative impact on learning. Learner nurses who become critical thinkers will be able to be analytical and solve problems amicably in practice.

  18. Adult Playfulness, Humor Styles, and Subjective Happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xiao D; Leung, Chun-Lok; Hiranandani, Neelam A

    2016-12-01

    Playfulness has been referred to as a disposition that involves reframing a situation to amuse others and to make the situation more stimulating and enjoyable. It may serve to shift one's perspective when dealing with environmental threats. Despite all the benefits of playfulness towards psychological well-being, it remains a largely understudied subject in psychology, particularly in Chinese societies. Hence, this study examined the association between adult playfulness, humor styles, and subjective happiness among a sample of 166 university students in Hong Kong and 159 students in Guangzhou, who completed a self-administered questionnaire, including the Short Measure for Adult Playfulness, the Chinese Humor Styles Questionnaire, and the Subjective Happiness Scale. Results showed that adult playfulness was positively correlated with affiliative humor, self-enhancing humor, and subjective happiness in both Hong Kong and Guangzhou samples. By its implication, highly playful Chinese students preferred using affiliative and self-enhancing humor to amuse themselves and others. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. El humor como herramienta para lograr aprendizajes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Torres de Sánchez

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Una tendencia mundial se ha originado: el uso del humor como herramienta para lograr aprendizajes y mejorar el ambiente donde la persona se encuentre. En el área educativa hay pruebas que demuestran su utilidad y que efectivamente origina cambios positivos, medidos en las evaluaciones, tanto en los estudiantes como en participantes de sesiones de facilitación. El objetivo del experimento realizado fue: Determinar el comportamiento a través de la calificaciones en la primera prueba, del efecto del uso del humor en el dictado de clases utilizando diferentes herramientas como: chistes, anécdotas, analogías en los contenidos. A través de un estudio experimental con un grupo de control realizado en dos aulas de clases con 35 alumnos cada uno, al grupo experimental se le aplicó diferentes recursos humorísticos como herramientas de aprendizaje. Se analizaron las calificaciones en la primera prueba a través de porcentajes de aprobados y aplazados, observándose que el grupo experimental arrojó los mayores porcentajes de aprobados. Tales resultados confirman que el humor como herramienta, si induce a un desempeño excelente en alumnos, lo que lleva a implementar acciones de adiestramiento para los facilitadores, así como el surgimiento de investigaciones más profundas sobre el uso del humor en la educación.

  20. [Positive aspects of old ages - humor of seniors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mareš, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    This survey study has five parts. In the first part two conceptual approaches to humor are characterized. One considers "the comic" to be an umbrella concept, and humor is only one of its rather positive forms. The other comes out from the umbrella concept "humor", and distinguishes between various forms of humor including the negative ones. Three main theories of humor are presented: theory of superiority, theory of incongruity, and a relief theory. The second part introduces humor in the elderly and draws the attention to the fact that we know relatively little about humor in old age because most research has been carried out in children, adolescents or adults in productive age. The third part of the study describes the process of diagnostics of humor in the elderly. For example, within the qualitative methods, in-depth interviews with seniors or analyses of their diary entries are used. Within quantitative methods, questionnaires are used, and this study presents the survey of seven most frequent ones applied in the studies of humor in the elderly. In the context of mixed methods, understanding of humor in young and seniors, or understanding of humor in relatively healthy seniors and seniors after stroke are compared. The fourth part of the study presents the Gelkopfs model on relationship between humor, treatment and cure of patients. The fifth part of the study demonstrates the options how to use humor to improve the mental state of the elderly (by means of individual or group interventions).

  1. Alloreactivity of Virus-Specific T Cells: Possible Implication of Graft-Versus-Host Disease and Graft-Versus-Leukemia Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuji, Shigeo; Kapp, Markus; Einsele, Hermann

    2013-01-01

    Immune reconstitution of functional virus-specific T cells after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has been intensively investigated. However, the possible role of crossreactivity of these virus-specific T cells against allogeneic targets is still unclear. Theoretically, as in the field of organ transplantation, virus-specific T cells possess crossreactivity potential after allogeneic HSCT. Such crossreactivity is assumed to play a role in graft-versus-host disease and graft-versus-leukemia effects. In this article, we aim to give a comprehensive overview of current understanding about crossreactivity of virus-specific T cells. PMID:24133497

  2. Ciliary Blood Flow and Aqueous Humor Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, J.W.; Hollingsworth, M.; Rao, R.; Chen, M.; Reitsamer, H.A.

    2010-01-01

    Aqueous humor production is a metabolically active process sustained by the delivery of oxygen and nutrients and removal of metabolic waste by the ciliary circulation. This article describes our investigations into the relationship between ciliary blood flow and aqueous humor production. The results presented indicate that there is a dynamic relationship between ciliary blood flow and aqueous humor production, with production being blood flow independent above a critical level of perfusion, and blood flow dependent below it. The results also show that the plateau portion of the relationship shifts up or down depending on the level of secretory stimulation or inhibition, and that oxygen is one critical factor provided by ciliary blood flow. Also presented is a theoretical model of ocular hydrodynamics incorporating these new findings. PMID:20801226

  3. Mecanismos de humor verbal en Twitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Simarro Vázquez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The present article aims to characterize samples of verbal humor published on the social network Twitter. To do so, an analysis of 81 humorous texts published under the hashtag #otegi during 1 March 2016, on which date Arnaldo Otegi was released from prison after six years, was carried out. A pragmatic study of the tweets was performed, opting for the General Theory of Verbal Humor as a basis. The examination conducted reveals that the manner of presentation of opposing scripts, the logical mechanisms availed of to resolve this kind of incongruity, the special narrative strategies selected and the linguistic choices made are determined at all times by the circumstances in which the texts are presented and the upper limit constraint of 140 characters per Twitter publication.

  4. Virus-specific immune memory at peripheral sites of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jingya; Veselenak, Ronald L; Gorder, Summer R; Bourne, Nigel; Milligan, Gregg N

    2014-01-01

    Despite its importance in modulating HSV-2 pathogenesis, the nature of tissue-resident immune memory to HSV-2 is not completely understood. We used genital HSV-2 infection of guinea pigs to assess the type and location of HSV-specific memory cells at peripheral sites of HSV-2 infection. HSV-specific antibody-secreting cells were readily detected in the spleen, bone marrow, vagina/cervix, lumbosacral sensory ganglia, and spinal cord of previously-infected animals. Memory B cells were detected primarily in the spleen and to a lesser extent in bone marrow but not in the genital tract or neural tissues suggesting that the HSV-specific antibody-secreting cells present at peripheral sites of HSV-2 infection represented persisting populations of plasma cells. The antibody produced by these cells isolated from neural tissues of infected animals was functionally relevant and included antibodies specific for HSV-2 glycoproteins and HSV-2 neutralizing antibodies. A vigorous IFN-γ-secreting T cell response developed in the spleen as well as the sites of HSV-2 infection in the genital tract, lumbosacral ganglia and spinal cord following acute HSV-2 infection. Additionally, populations of HSV-specific tissue-resident memory T cells were maintained at these sites and were readily detected up to 150 days post HSV-2 infection. Unlike the persisting plasma cells, HSV-specific memory T cells were also detected in uterine tissue and cervicothoracic region of the spinal cord and at low levels in the cervicothoracic ganglia. Both HSV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ resident memory cell subsets were maintained long-term in the genital tract and sensory ganglia/spinal cord following HSV-2 infection. Together these data demonstrate the long-term maintenance of both humoral and cellular arms of the adaptive immune response at the sites of HSV-2 latency and virus shedding and highlight the utility of the guinea pig infection model to investigate tissue-resident memory in the setting of HSV-2 latency

  5. Humor in the classroom using faculty skits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Cheryl Mixon; Noviello, Sheri Reynolds

    2012-01-01

    The infusion of humor in the classroom through faculty-developed skits is a teaching-learning strategy that engages nursing students in the learning process. Gardner's Multiple Intelligence Theory for Adult Learners provides the framework for the use of humor as a strategy in higher education. Three exemplars are presented with a description of the specific strategy, an objective for each strategy, and the effect of the strategy on student engagement in nursing education. In the exemplars, the authors provide "ready to use" ideas with some "pearls of wisdom" for other faculty interested in developing similar learning activities.

  6. [The Use of Humor in Psychotherapy: a View].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaloult, Guillaume; Blondeau, Claude

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this article is to expose different aspects of the use of humor in therapy. We hope that it will stimulate reflection and guide the clinician toward appropriate use of humorous interventions. Historical highlights of the topic will be presented. Then a practical definition of therapeutic humor and the main theories about humor will be reviewed. We will also discuss the probable mechanisms of action explaining the efficacy of humor in psychotherapy, as well as potential risks and benefits of its use. We will try to determine different factors influencing the patient's receptivity to humor. Subsequently, a classification of humor will be proposed, followed by a description of selected types of humor often used in therapy, with clinical cases as examples.

  7. Humor in romantic contexts: do men participate and women evaluate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbur, Christopher J; Campbell, Lorne

    2011-07-01

    Several lines of research illustrate that humor plays a pivotal role in relationship initiation. The current article applies sexual selection theory to argue that humor production is a fitness indicator, allowing men to transmit information tacitly about their underlying qualities. And whereas prior research has emphasized women's appreciation of humor as a signal of interest, the focus here is on how women evaluate prospective suitors' humorous offerings. Two studies, including an ecologically valid study of online dating advertisements, provided evidence for men's production and women's evaluation of humor in romantic contexts. A third study revealed that women's evaluations of potential mates' humor are predictive of their romantic interest. Moreover, this article shows that preferences for and perceptions of humor are associated with preferences for and perceptions of intelligence and warmth, consistent with the argument that one function of humor is as a fitness indicator that provides information about underlying mate quality.

  8. Risky business: When humor increases and decreases status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitterly, T Bradford; Brooks, Alison Wood; Schweitzer, Maurice E

    2017-03-01

    Across 8 experiments, we demonstrate that humor can influence status, but attempting to use humor is risky. The successful use of humor can increase status in both new and existing relationships, but unsuccessful humor attempts (e.g., inappropriate jokes) can harm status. The relationship between the successful use of humor and status is mediated by perceptions of confidence and competence. The successful use of humor signals confidence and competence, which in turn increases the joke teller's status. Interestingly, telling both appropriate and inappropriate jokes, regardless of the outcome, signals confidence. Although signaling confidence typically increases status and power, telling inappropriate jokes signals low competence and the combined effect of high confidence and low competence harms status. Rather than conceptualizing humor as a frivolous or ancillary behavior, we argue that humor plays a fundamental role in shaping interpersonal perceptions and hierarchies within groups. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Analysis on the Translation Strategies in English humor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王乐

    2015-01-01

    1.Definition and connotation of humor The English word"humor"came from Latin originally which was used to refer to"wet"and"fluid"After a series of evolution,it finally evolved into the word used in daily life in the16th century.Then it was used to describe a kind of people who are humorous,funny and clever.Humor is a cultural phenomenon based on language.There are

  10. Semantic Perspective:Verbal Humor in Chinese Cross Talk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Shao-li

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to study the verbal humor in Guo Degang’s cross talk from semantic perspective. The focus is to illus-trate the generating process and the mechanism of verbal humor. Three aspects of semantics which produce humorous effect, morpheme absorption, ambiguity, and script opposition will be discussed. Finally, it is found out that script opposition can take place of morpheme absorption, ambiguity to explain how humor is caused fundamentally.

  11. Humor and Laughter may Influence Health. I. History and Background

    OpenAIRE

    Mary Payne Bennett; Lengacher, Cecile A.

    2006-01-01

    Articles in both the lay and professional literature have extolled the virtues of humor, many giving the impression that the health benefits of humor are well documented by the scientific and medical community. The concept that humor or laughter can be therapeutic goes back to biblical times and this belief has received varying levels of support from the scientific community at different points in its history. Current research indicates that using humor is well accepted by the public and is...

  12. Truly Funny: Humor, Irony, and Satire as Moral Criticism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadlez, E. M.

    2011-01-01

    The occasional role of humor as a vehicle for moral criticism is investigated. I begin by distinguishing between this particular role and the other kinds of ways in which humor and amusement might be regarded through a moral lens, consider historical approaches to humor that corroborate the kind of role for it on which my investigation focuses,…

  13. Factors Affecting the Humorous Language Style of Mark Twin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙秀丽

    2014-01-01

    As we all know, Mark Twain is an expert in handling humor.The formation of his language style has close connection with three aspects. Local literature influences Mark Twain very much. Western humor is another influential element. And his per-sonal experience is also contributed to his humorous language style.

  14. Assessing Students' Perceptions of Inappropriate and Appropriate Teacher Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frymier, Ann Bainbridge; Wanzer, Melissa Bekelja; Wojtaszczyk, Ann M.

    2008-01-01

    This study replicated and extended a preliminary typology of appropriate and inappropriate teacher humor and advanced three explanations for differences in interpretations of teacher humor. Students were more likely to view teacher humor as inappropriate when it was perceived as offensive and when it demeaned students as a group or individually.…

  15. Humor styles moderate borderline personality traits and suicide ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Neil A; Helle, Ashley C; Tucker, Raymond P; Lengel, Gregory J; DeShong, Hilary L; Wingate, LaRicka R; Mullins-Sweatt, Stephanie N

    2017-03-01

    The way individuals use humor to interact interpersonally has been associated with general personality, depression, and suicidality. Certain humor styles may moderate the risk for suicide ideation (SI) in individuals who are high in specific risk factors (e.g., thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness). Previous research suggests a relationship between humor styles and borderline personality disorder (BPD) and an increased risk of suicidality and suicide completion in individuals with BPD. Participants (n =176) completed measures of BPD traits, SI, and humor styles. It was hypothesized that BPD traits would be positively correlated with negative humor styles and negatively correlated with positive humor styles, and that humor styles would significantly moderate BPD traits and SI. Results showed that BPD traits were negatively correlated with self-enhancing humor styles and positively correlated with self-defeating humor styles, but that they were not significantly correlated with affiliative or aggressive humor styles. Bootstrapping analyses demonstrated that the affiliative, self-enhancing, and self-defeating humor styles significantly moderated BPD traits and SI, while the aggressive humor style did not. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Higher Education Lecturing and Humor: From Perspectives to Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri, Fuzhan; Mafakheri, Fereshteh

    2015-01-01

    This article will review the issues surrounding the use of humor as an informal teaching method in higher education lecturing. The impact and usefulness of humor, from both a teacher's and a student's perspective, will be investigated. The aim is to classify the challenges and limitations of using humor in classrooms and to investigate and…

  17. Truly Funny: Humor, Irony, and Satire as Moral Criticism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadlez, E. M.

    2011-01-01

    The occasional role of humor as a vehicle for moral criticism is investigated. I begin by distinguishing between this particular role and the other kinds of ways in which humor and amusement might be regarded through a moral lens, consider historical approaches to humor that corroborate the kind of role for it on which my investigation focuses,…

  18. Humor Styles and Leadership Styles: Community College Presidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrica, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between leadership styles (transformational, transactional, laissez-faire) and humor styles (affiliative, self-enhancing, aggressive, self-defeating) of community college presidents. Research has shown that humor and leadership styles are related and that humor may enhance interpersonal…

  19. Strategically Funny: Romantic Motives Affect Humor Style in Relationship Initiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa E. DiDonato

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Not all humor is the same, yet little is known about the appeal of specific humor styles in romantic initiation. The current experimental study addresses this gap by investigating how romantic motives (short-term or long-term affect individuals’ anticipated use of, and response to, positive humor and negative humor. Heterosexual participants (n = 224 imagined the pursuit of either a desired short-term or long-term relationship, indicated the extent to which they would produce positive and negative humor, and reported how their own interest would change in response to the imaginary target’s use of positive or negative humor. Results revealed that individuals are strategic in their humor production as a function of relational motives. Individuals produced positive humor in both contexts but limited their use of negative humor when pursuing a long-term relationship. The target’s positive humor increased individuals’ attraction, especially women’s, and although negative humor boosted attraction, it did not boost attraction more for short-term than long-term relationships. Findings extend a trait-indicator model of humor and their implications are discussed in light of other theoretical perspectives.

  20. A Study of Linguistic Humor Translation of British Sitcoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟瑾

    2015-01-01

    The translatability of humor is gradually accepted and linguistic humor based on specific features in the phonology, morphology or syntax of particular languages is considered to be the most difficult to translate. This paper is to study the linguistic humor translation of British sitcoms in the light of Skopos theory and explore practical ways of E-C translation of linguistic hu⁃mor.

  1. Teaching French Language and Culture by Means of Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berwald, Jean-Pierre

    1992-01-01

    Humor can enliven classes, establish and maintain rapport, create ambiance for learning, and enhance student acquisition and retention. Ways to use humor in the classroom are presented, including clearly verbal approaches, visual aid techniques (magazines, cartoons, ads, etc.), and the humor of stand-up comedians. (12 references) (LB)

  2. The Influence of Humorous Atmosphere on Divergent Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziv, Avner

    1983-01-01

    In one experiment, 78 adolescents were shown humorous film clips and required to write captions for cartoons. A creativity test was administered. In a second study, the experimental group completed the Torrance Creativity Test with humorous responses. In both studies, a humorous atmosphere was found to significantly increase creativity scores.…

  3. Humor in Context: Fire Service and Joking Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Larry; Roth, Gene

    2013-01-01

    Although theorizing about humor has occurred for several decades, scant research exists that examines humor in the broad context of human resource development. Humor exists in workplaces and it is historicized in the professional and organizational contexts of workers. This paper explores aspects of a joking culture within the specific work…

  4. Humor Styles and Leadership Styles: Community College Presidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrica, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between leadership styles (transformational, transactional, laissez-faire) and humor styles (affiliative, self-enhancing, aggressive, self-defeating) of community college presidents. Research has shown that humor and leadership styles are related and that humor may enhance interpersonal…

  5. Encyclopedia of 20th-Century American Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Alleen Pace; Nilsen, Don L. F.

    This reference encyclopedia contains information on both the historical and contemporary aspects of humor and comedy in the United States. Arranged in an A-to-Z format, the encyclopedia is a collection of article-length essays that examine humor from many perspectives, from defining terms; to providing information on humor writers, comedians, and…

  6. A Good Manufacturing Practice procedure to engineer donor virus-specific T cells into potent anti-leukemic effector cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loenen, Marleen M; de Boer, Renate; van Liempt, Ellis; Meij, Pauline; Jedema, Inge; Falkenburg, J H Frederik; Heemskerk, Mirjam H M

    2014-04-01

    A sequential, two-step procedure in which T-cell-depleted allogeneic stem cell transplantation is followed by treatment with donor lymphocyte infusion at 6 months can significantly reduce the risk and severity of graft-versus-host disease, with postponed induction of the beneficial graft-versus-leukemia effect. However, patients with high-risk leukemia have a substantial risk of relapse early after transplantation, at a time when administration of donor lymphocytes has a high likelihood of resulting in graft-versus-host disease, disturbing a favorable balance between the graft-versus-leukemia effect and graft-versus-host disease. New therapeutic modalities are, therefore, required to allow early administration of T cells capable of exerting a graft-versus-leukemia effect without causing graft-versus-host disease. Here we describe the isolation of virus-specific T cells using Streptamer-based isolation technology and subsequent transfer of the minor histocompatibility antigen HA-1-specific T-cell receptor using retroviral vectors. Isolation of virus-specific T cells and subsequent transduction with HA-1-T-cell receptor resulted in rapid in vitro generation of highly pure, dual-specific T cells with potent anti-leukemic reactivity. Due to the short production procedure of only 10-14 days and the defined specificity of the T cells, administration of virus-specific T cells transduced with the HA-1-T-cell receptor as early as 8 weeks after allogeneic stem cell transplantation is feasible. (This clinical trial is registered at www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu as EudraCT number 2010-024625-20).

  7. Monoclonal antibody against IFN-gamma inhibits Moloney murine sarcoma virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanovello, P.; Vallerani, E.; Biasi, G.; Landolfo, S.; Collavo, D.

    1988-02-15

    The role of autochthonous IFN- production was evaluated in immune reactions to Moloney murine sarcoma virus (M-MSV)-induced tumors which are characterized by spontaneous regression mainly caused by virus-specific CTL activity. A functional IFN- depletion, induced by repeated administration of mAb anti-IFN- at the site of virus inoculation, prevented tumor regression in M-MSV-injected mice. Moreover, this antibody inhibited in vitro both proliferation and differentiation of M-MSV-specific T lymphocytes obtained in bulk cultures, but not growth and lytic activity of the already differentiated virus-specific CTL clone CHM-14 stimulated with rIL-2 and relevant tumor Ag. In addition, in mice receiving mAb treatment the frequency of M-MSV-specific CTL precursors, evaluated by means of limiting dilution analysis, was strongly reduced in comparison with that of control mice injected only with virus. Because CTL secrete IFN- following antigenic stimulation, the possibility that non-T effector cells recruited by this lymphokine might mediate tumor regression was also considered. Adoptive immunotherapy experiments, performed in T cell-deficient (Tx + BM) and in sublethally irradiated mice, demonstrated that transfer of CHM-14 CTL clone, which secretes IFN-, was able to counteract M-MSV tumor growth despite the local mAb anti-IFN- treatment which may have prevented host cell recruitment. Moreover, repeated local rIFN- inoculations in Tx + BM mice did not counteract M-MSV tumor progression, thus confirming that other IFN- properties such as non-T cell recruitment, antiviral or anti-proliferative IFN- activities have little or no relevance when M-MSV-specific CTL are lacking. On the whole, these results indicate that in M-MSV-injected mice, tumor enhancement after mAb anti-IFN- treatment is principally caused by impaired differentiation of virus-specific CTL precursors.

  8. Most influenza A virus-specific memory cytotoxic T lymphocytes react with antigenic epitopes associated with internal virus determinants

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    This paper shows that most murine (C57BL/6) influenza A virus-specific memory cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) clones tested in limiting dilution did not react with the influenza A virus surface glycoproteins, hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). This lysis of syngeneic target cells infected with the influenza A virus strains, Aichi (H3N2), PR8 (H1N1), or recombinant strain X31 (H3N2) indicates that most antigenic epitopes recognized are associated with internal virus determinants. X31 and ...

  9. Mark Twain and American Humor [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000

    In this three-part lesson, students examine structure and characterization in the short story and consider the significance of humor through a study of Mark Twain's "The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County." In Part I, through skits and storytelling, students first examine the structure of Twain's story and the role he creates for his…

  10. Comic Relief: Engaging Students through Humor Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Bruce A.

    2009-01-01

    In this time of high-stakes tests and school accountability, English classrooms have been pushed to become increasingly serious places. Combining NCLB pressures with desires to use literature to do important cultural work--such as fighting ethnic, gender, and social-class discrimination--virtually bans humor from the classroom. This is unfortunate…

  11. Humor in the Films of Alfred Hitchcock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Glenn D.

    Although usually considered the "master of suspense," Alfred Hitchcock relished working humor into his films, frequently juxtaposing it against scenes of utter gruesomeness. This placement of comic elements--comic relief--in an otherwise serious murder mystery or suspense thriller became a Hitchcock trademark early in his career.…

  12. Humor: A pedagogical tool to promote learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Chabeli

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available It has become critical that learners are exposed to varied methods of teaching and assessment that will promote critical thinking of learners. Humor creates a relaxed atmosphere where learning can be enhanced and appreciated. When learners are relaxed, thinking becomes eminent. Authoritative and tense environment hinders thinking.

  13. Vaccination to gain humoral immune memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkander, Jana; Hojyo, Shintaro; Tokoyoda, Koji

    2016-12-01

    The concept of immune memory forms the biological basis for vaccination programs. Despite advancements in the field of immune memory and vaccination, most current vaccines are evaluated by magnitude of antigen-specific antibody titers in serum or mucosa after vaccination. It has been shown, however, that antibody-mediated humoral immune memory is established regardless of the magnitude and duration of immune reactions, suggesting that assessment of vaccine efficacy should be performed for several years after vaccination. This long-term investigation is disadvantageous for prevalent and pandemic infections. Long-lived memory plasma cells and memory helper T cells which contribute to humoral immune memory are generated in the bone marrow after migration of memory cell precursors through bloodstream. Thus, it may be a novel evaluation strategy to assess the precursors of memory cells in the blood in the early phase of the immune reaction(s). We here review recent advances on the generation and maintenance of immune memory cells involved in humoral immunity and introduce a current concept of direct and short-term assessment of humoral immune memory formation upon vaccination as a correlate of protection.

  14. The Role of Humor in Children's Sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogh, Suzanne L.

    A total of 40 children in the three primary grades were studied to determine if they would donate more to a worthy cause after having been exposed to a humorous situation, in contrast to exposure to a serious one. The children who had heard a serious story about sharing donated slightly more to help Ethiopian refugees than did children who had…

  15. Economics with a Sense of Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Diane

    1985-01-01

    In this humorous dialogue that can be read and acted out as a play in high school economics classes, Karl Marx, a spokesman for communism, and Adam Smith, the father of capitalism, debate (1) whether an economy should produce designer jeans and (2) who should own McDonald's restaurant. (RM)

  16. T cells and the humoral immune system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.B. van Muiswinkel (Willem)

    1975-01-01

    textabstractLymphoid cells and macrophages play an important role in the development and rnaintance of humoral and cellular immunity in mammals. The lymphoid cells in the peripheral lymphoid organs are divided into two major classes: (1) thymus-derived lymphocytes or T cells and (2) bursa-equivalent

  17. T cells and the humoral immune system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.B. van Muiswinkel (Willem)

    1975-01-01

    textabstractLymphoid cells and macrophages play an important role in the development and rnaintance of humoral and cellular immunity in mammals. The lymphoid cells in the peripheral lymphoid organs are divided into two major classes: (1) thymus-derived lymphocytes or T cells and (2) bursa-equivalent

  18. Dialogic Grounds of Humor in Mathnavi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ar Mohammadi Kalesar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available “Dialogue”, in Bakhtin’s thought, is a term which has a methodological nature. This term shows a method for facing cases which are not hegemonic. Dialogue, therefore, is in opposition to the hegemony of monophonic forces. The origins of the dialogical aspects of humor, laugh and carnival are in very character. In this article, we want to investigate the bases that make the dialogical carnival and form the humorous elements. In the first section, we illustrate the subversion of the superior voice as a semantic and formal structural method in Mathnavi. In the second section, the reflection of this method in formation of humor in the stories of Mathnavi has been investigated. In these stories, presence of the superior voice in the public space and its dialogue with the suppressed voices makes a space steeped in the elements of carnival and laugh. It can be said that the humors in Mathnavi are not the techniques for embellishing the text but the affects of the transcendental method of Mathnavi for interpreting the world.

  19. Computers that smile: Humor in the interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, A.; Blythe, M.

    2002-01-01

    It is certainly not the case that wen we consider research on the role of human characteristics in the user interface of computers that no attention has been paid to the role of humor. However, when we compare efforts in this area with efforts and experiments that attempt to demonstrate the positive

  20. Anomalous hypothalamic responses to humor in cataplexy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan L Reiss

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cataplexy is observed in a subset of patients with narcolepsy and affects approximately 1 in 2,000 persons. Cataplexy is most often triggered by strong emotions such as laughter, which can result in transient, yet debilitating, muscle atonia. The objective of this study was to examine the neural systems underlying humor processing in individuals with cataplexy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: While undergoing functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI, we showed ten narcolepsy-cataplexy patients and ten healthy controls humorous cartoons. In addition, we examined the brain activity of one subject while in a full-blown cataplectic attack. Behavioral results showed that participants with cataplexy rated significantly fewer humorous cartoons as funny compared to controls. Concurrent fMRI showed that patients, when compared to controls and in the absence of overt cataplexy symptoms, showed pronounced activity in the emotional network including the ventral striatum and hypothalamus while viewing humorous versus non-humorous cartoons. Increased activity was also observed in the right inferior frontal gyri--a core component of the inhibitory circuitry. In comparison, the one subject who experienced a cataplectic attack showed dramatic reductions in hypothalamic activity. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest an overdrive of the emotional circuitry and possible compensatory suppression by cortical inhibitory regions in cataplexy. Moreover, during cataplectic attacks, the hypothalamus is characterized by a marked decrease in activity similar to that observed during sleep. One possible explanation for these findings is an initial overdrive and compensatory shutdown of the hypothalamus resulting in full cataplectic symptoms.

  1. Humor and laughter may influence health. I. History and background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Mary Payne; Lengacher, Cecile A

    2006-03-01

    Articles in both the lay and professional literature have extolled the virtues of humor, many giving the impression that the health benefits of humor are well documented by the scientific and medical community. The concept that humor or laughter can be therapeutic goes back to biblical times and this belief has received varying levels of support from the scientific community at different points in its history. Current research indicates that using humor is well accepted by the public and is frequently used as a coping mechanism. However, the scientific evidence of the benefits of using humor on various health related outcomes still leaves many questions unanswered.

  2. Humor and Laughter may Influence Health. I. History and Background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Payne Bennett

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Articles in both the lay and professional literature have extolled the virtues of humor, many giving the impression that the health benefits of humor are well documented by the scientific and medical community. The concept that humor or laughter can be therapeutic goes back to biblical times and this belief has received varying levels of support from the scientific community at different points in its history. Current research indicates that using humor is well accepted by the public and is frequently used as a coping mechanism. However, the scientific evidence of the benefits of using humor on various health related outcomes still leaves many questions unanswered.

  3. On the Humor Translation in Subtitling of American Sitcom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石杨

    2014-01-01

    The subtitling translation in American sitcom is of great significance which helps Chinese audiences to understand pro-grams. Humor element is an essential part of the sitcom. However, the loss of humor is very common in subtitling translation, so the vivid and accurate translation for humor in sitcoms has become a challenge for the translators. This thesis analyzes the defini-tion of humor and the main features of subtitling translation, and then discusses several examples of humor loss in the subtitling translation of Friends to put forward corresponding strategies.

  4. DNAk is a dominant epitope in the humoral immune response of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) to Flavobacterium columnare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccination remains a viable alternative for bacterial disease protection in fish; however additional work is required to understand the mechanisms of adaptive immunity in the channel catfish. To assess the humoral immune response to Flavobacterium columnare; a group of channel catfish were first im...

  5. Building and optimizing a virus-specific T cell receptor library for targeted immunotherapy in viral infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banu, Nasirah; Chia, Adeline; Ho, Zi Zong; Garcia, Alfonso Tan; Paravasivam, Komathi; Grotenbreg, Gijsbert M; Bertoletti, Antonio; Gehring, Adam J

    2014-02-25

    Restoration of antigen-specific T cell immunity has the potential to clear persistent viral infection. T cell receptor (TCR) gene therapy can reconstitute CD8 T cell immunity in chronic patients. We cloned 10 virus-specific TCRs targeting 5 different viruses, causing chronic and acute infection. All 10 TCR genetic constructs were optimized for expression using a P2A sequence, codon optimization and the addition of a non-native disulfide bond. However, maximum TCR expression was only achieved after establishing the optimal orientation of the alpha and beta chains in the expression cassette; 9/10 TCRs favored the beta-P2A-alpha orientation over alpha-P2A-beta. Optimal TCR expression was associated with a significant increase in the frequency of IFN-gamma+ T cells. In addition, activating cells for transduction in the presence of Toll-like receptor ligands further enhanced IFN-gamma production. Thus, we have built a virus-specific TCR library that has potential for therapeutic intervention in chronic viral infection or virus-related cancers.

  6. Licensing virus-specific T cells to secrete the neutrophil attracting chemokine CXCL-8 during hepatitis B virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J Gehring

    Full Text Available T cell functional plasticity helps tailor antiviral immunity during different phases of infections. We tested whether, during different phases of HBV infection, virus-specific T cells can acquire specific proinflammatory functions that could drive granulocyte/mononuclear cell liver infiltration. Multifunctional analysis of HBV-specific T cells during acute and chronic HBV infection revealed that HBV-specific T cells had the capacity to produce the neutrophil chemokine CXCL-8 but not IL-17. CXCL-8 producing T cells were detectable in the liver of chronic HBV patients with active hepatitis; while in acute HBV patients CXCL-8 production by T cells was temporally limited to the acute phase of disease, concomitant with the peak of liver inflammation. Characterization of the conditions necessary for the development of CXCL-8 producing T cells showed a requirement for IL-7 and IL-15 during T cell expansion. These data show that functional plasticity of virus-specific T cells spontaneously occurs during HBV infection and that an environment rich IL-7 and IL-15 can license T cells with the ability to produce CXCL-8 and potentially influence liver pathology.

  7. Humor style similarity and difference in friendship dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Simon C; Fox, Claire L; Jones, Siân E

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the concurrent and prospective (fall to spring) associations between four different humor styles to assess the degree to which stable friendships are characterized by similarity, and to assess whether best friends' humor styles influence each other's later use of humor. Participants were aged 11-13 years, with 87 stable, reciprocal best friend dyads. Self-report assessments of humor styles were completed on both occasions. Results indicated that there was no initial similarity in dyads' levels of humor. However, dyads' use of humor that enhances interpersonal relationships (Affiliative humor) became positively correlated by spring. Additionally, young people's use of this humor style was positively associated with their best friend's later use of the same. No such effects were present for humor which was aggressive, denigrating toward the self, or used to enhance the self. These results have clear implications for theories of humor style development, highlighting an important role for Affiliative humor within stable friendship dyads. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of humor on interpersonal attraction and mate selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Elizabeth; Shevlin, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined whether different levels of sense of humor would influence respondents' ratings about a potentially desirable partner. The authors used vignettes to predict that the targets who possessed a good sense of humor would receive significantly higher ratings in measures of attractiveness and suitability as a long-term partner than would those who possessed an average or no sense of humor. In an experimental design--with gender and humor as independent variables and level of attractiveness and suitability as a long-term partner as dependent variables--the authors analyzed the data using a multivariate analysis of variance. Results show that the targets with a good sense of humor received significantly higher ratings of attractiveness and suitability than did those with an average or no sense of humor. Furthermore, male participants rated female targets as significantly more attractive than female participants rated male targets. The authors found no significant interaction between gender and humor.

  9. The Analysis of Lin Yutang’s Humor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓琴

    2014-01-01

    Lin Yutang is called the master humorist in China. He advocates humor and spiritual literature in his maga-zine Lun Yu (Analects) which attracts essays and readership. His informal but polished style in both Chinese and English makes him one of the most influential writers of his generation, and his compilations and translations of classic Chinese texts into English are bestsellers in the West. Humor is a distinctive feature in his works. In his book, he uses humor as he sees appropriate, and through humor he criticizes social realities, depicts characters and introduces original expressions, etc. His humor can be related to some aspects in his life. In this paper, I will briefly analysis Lin's sense of humor and how Lin' applies humor in his works.

  10. Differentiating what is humorous from what is not.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Caleb; McGraw, A Peter

    2016-03-01

    After 2.5 millennia of philosophical deliberation and psychological experimentation, most scholars have concluded that humor arises from incongruity. We highlight 2 limitations of incongruity theories of humor. First, incongruity is not consistently defined. The literature describes incongruity in at least 4 ways: surprise, juxtaposition, atypicality, and a violation. Second, regardless of definition, incongruity alone does not adequately differentiate humorous from nonhumorous experiences. We suggest revising incongruity theory by proposing that humor arises from a benign violation: something that threatens a person's well-being, identity, or normative belief structure but that simultaneously seems okay. Six studies, which use entertainment, consumer products, and social interaction as stimuli, reveal that the benign violation hypothesis better differentiates humorous from nonhumorous experiences than common conceptualizations of incongruity. A benign violation conceptualization of humor improves accuracy by reducing the likelihood that joyous, amazing, and tragic situations are inaccurately predicted to be humorous. (PsycINFO Database Record

  11. Mathematics and Humor: John Allen Paulos and the Numeracy Crusade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul H. Grawe

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available John Allen Paulos at minimum gave the Numeracy movement a name through his book Innumeracy: Mathematical Illiteracy and Its Consequences. What may not be so obvious was Paulos’ strong interest in the relationship between mathematics and mathematicians on the one hand and humor and stand-up-comedian joke structures on the other. Innumeracy itself could be seen as a typically mathematical Gotcha joke on American culture generally. In this perspective, a Minnesotan acculturated to Minnesota-Nice Humor of Self-Immolation Proclivities (SImP looks at the more raw-boned, take-no-prisoners humor style Paulos outlined in Mathematics and Humor and implemented in Innumeracy. Despite the difference in humor styles, there is much to applaud in Paulos’ analysis of the relationship between certain types of humor and professional interests of mathematicians in Mathematics and Humor. Much humor relies on the sense of incongruity which Paulos’ claims to be central to all humor and key to mathematical reductio ad absurdum. Mathematics is rightfully famous for a sense of combinatorial playfulness in its most elegant proofs, as humor often relies on clashing combinations of word play. And a great range of mathematical lore is best understood within a concept of a sudden drop from one sense of certainty to another (essentially a Gotcha on the audience. Innumeracy repeatedly exemplifies Gotchas on the great unwashed and unmathematical majority. Extensive empirical evidence over the last quarter century allows us to synthesize these Paulos observations into the idea that inculcated mathematical humor has strong propensities to complex Intellectual, Advocate, and Crusader humor forms. However, the Paulos humors do not include the Sympathetic Pain humor form, the inclusion of which may increase teaching effectiveness.

  12. The Effect of Context (Humorous vs. Non-humorous on Vocabulary Acquisition and Retention of Iranian EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Ghaffari

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available For almost four decades, ESL/EFL scholars have been trying to find which learning type, contextualized vs. decontextualized, leads to better vocabulary acquisition and retention. In an attempt to solve this problem, this study tried to examine the possible effectiveness of using humorous context on vocabulary acquisition and retention. Another issue that was undertaken in the present study was comparing the efficiency of contextualized and decontextualized vocabulary learning and retention. For this purpose, 58 Iranian EFL learners were categorized into 3 groups: a humorous, b non-humorous, and c decontextualized. The findings were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey post hoc test. As the results revealed, the participants in decontextualized group outperformed the participants in both humorous and non-humorous groups. However, it should be noted that the performance of humorous group was significantly better than the performance of non-humorous group.

  13. Vaccination to gain humoral immune memory

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkander, Jana; Hojyo, Shintaro; Tokoyoda, Koji

    2016-01-01

    The concept of immune memory forms the biological basis for vaccination programs. Despite advancements in the field of immune memory and vaccination, most current vaccines are evaluated by magnitude of antigen-specific antibody titers in serum or mucosa after vaccination. It has been shown, however, that antibody-mediated humoral immune memory is established regardless of the magnitude and duration of immune reactions, suggesting that assessment of vaccine efficacy should be performed for sev...

  14. Sentido del humor en el adulto mayor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina M. Labarca R.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available El humor es un fenómeno poco estudiado dentro del contexto de la psicología, menos aún, en el adulto mayor, grupo etario que se encuentra en constante crecimiento dentro de nuestro país.En tal sentido, la investigación, guiada por los planteamientos de Carbelo (2007 y DAnello (2010, denominada sentido del humor en el adulto mayor, tuvo por objetivo, determinar el significado que tiene este fenómeno para el adulto mayor. Para ello, se realizó un estudio de corte cualitativo,donde se utilizó la Entrevista en Profundidad como método de recolección de la información. Los informantes fueron 4 adultos mayores (2 hombres y 2 mujeres con edades comprendidas entre 60 y 73 años de edad, los cuales fueron seleccionados como una muestra de propósito. Para el análisis, se utilizó la Teoría Fundamentada, concluyéndose que para el adulto mayor, cuando el sentido del humor se convierte en parte de la personalidad, es un factor protector de la salud, da sentido de pertenencia y cambia positivamente el ambiente, trayendo como consecuencia una mejor calidad de vida, siendo esto último el principal significante que surgió del análisis de la información. Igualmente, se determinó que el sentido del humor es una construcción social que se va elaborando a lo largo de la vida y que se afianza en esta etapa vital.

  15. Humoral Immune Response in Tuberculous Pleuritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabha C.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculous pleuritis is a good human model to understand the local and protective immune response against tuberculosis, due to the self-limitedness of the disease. Although the cellular immune response has been well characterised in tuberculous pleurisy, much less is known about the humoral immune response operating at the site of infection. To understand the humoral immune response, B cells were enumerated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC and pleural fluid mononuclear cells (PFMC of tuberculous (TP and non-tuberculous pleuritis patients (NTP. The levels of IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies for PPD, culture filtrate (CF and sonicate antigens (Son Ag were assessed in plasma (BL and pleural fluid (PF and a western blot was carried out with the CF antigen. The percentage of CD19+B-cells was similar in PBMC and PFMC of TP patients but was significantly lower in PFMCs of NTP patients. The IgG levels for PPD and CF antigens were higher in PF of TP than NTP patients. The antigen recognition patterns did not differ in plasma and pleural fluid of the same patient in both groups pointing out the passive diffusion of the plasma to the pleura. The antigens 25, 31, 33, 70, 110, 124 and 132 kDa were recognized exclusively by the TP patients. Thus our study showed that the local humoral response in TP did not differ from the systemic response. However, the humoral response differed in TP patients when compared to NTP patients.

  16. The Applicability of Humorous Print Ads%幽默平面广告的适用性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨海波

    2012-01-01

    为了探讨哪一类别商品的平面广告更适合于采用幽默的诉求方式,研究随机选取160大学生为被试,以16则改编平面广告为实验材料,以广告类型(幽默,非幽默)、商品类别为自变量,以广告评价、广告顺序为协变量,以商品的印象、喜爱程度、购买意向为因变量,进行平衡设计实验。结果表明,幽默广告具有较好广告效果,可以提高受众对大宗工具、小奖赏和小工具型商品的记忆;幽默平面广告更适用于低风险、功能性商品,不适用于高风险、享乐性商品。%Humor is widely used in advertisements. However, it is not applicable to all. If not used properly, the humor inthe advertisements may have reversed influence. This research attempted to find out which types of merchandise humor was more applicable, using Product Color Matrix as the standard classification for merchandises. I chose two kinds of representative merchandise from each category, which were big tools (range hood, water heater), big toys (diamond bracelet, sports car), little treats (beer, juice), and little tools (toothpaste and beer bottle opener). Two different print advertisements were made for each merchandise, respectively, humorous ad and non-humorous ad. Two hypotheses were put forward : ( 1 ) humor always harvested good advertising effect ; ( 2 ) humor acted dif- ferently on the merchandise of different types. A total of 16 adapted unfamiliar or foreign print advertisements were shown to 160 college students, who were randomly selected to take the questionnaire. In this experiment with balanced design, univariate analysis variance and multivariate analysis of variance were applied to analyze data. Whether humor was used in advertisement was the independent variable. Evaluation and the order of the ads were the covariates. Impression, preference, and purchase intention toward the merchandise were the dependent variables

  17. Short-term in-vitro expansion improves monitoring and allows affordable generation of virus-specific T-cells against several viruses for a broad clinical application.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Geyeregger

    Full Text Available Adenoviral infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT in pediatric patients. Adoptive transfer of donor-derived human adenovirus (HAdV-specific T-cells represents a promising treatment option. However, the difficulty in identifying and selecting rare HAdV-specific T-cells, and the short time span between patients at high risk for invasive infection and viremia are major limitations. We therefore developed an IL-15-driven 6 to 12 day short-term protocol for in vitro detection of HAdV-specific T cells, as revealed by known MHC class I multimers and a newly identified adenoviral CD8 T-cell epitope derived from the E1A protein for the frequent HLA-type A*02∶01 and IFN-γ. Using this novel and improved diagnostic approach we observed a correlation between adenoviral load and reconstitution of CD8(+ and CD4(+ HAdV-specific T-cells including central memory cells in HSCT-patients. Adaption of the 12-day protocol to good manufacturing practice conditions resulted in a 2.6-log (mean expansion of HAdV-specific T-cells displaying high cytolytic activity (4-fold compared to controls and low or absent alloreactivity. Similar protocols successfully identified and rapidly expanded CMV-, EBV-, and BKV-specific T-cells. Our approach provides a powerful clinical-grade convertible tool for rapid and cost-effective detection and enrichment of multiple virus-specific T-cells that may facilitate broad clinical application.

  18. Short-term in-vitro expansion improves monitoring and allows affordable generation of virus-specific T-cells against several viruses for a broad clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyeregger, René; Freimüller, Christine; Stevanovic, Stefan; Stemberger, Julia; Mester, Gabor; Dmytrus, Jasmin; Lion, Thomas; Rammensee, Hans-Georg; Fischer, Gottfried; Eiz-Vesper, Britta; Lawitschka, Anita; Matthes, Susanne; Fritsch, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    Adenoviral infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in pediatric patients. Adoptive transfer of donor-derived human adenovirus (HAdV)-specific T-cells represents a promising treatment option. However, the difficulty in identifying and selecting rare HAdV-specific T-cells, and the short time span between patients at high risk for invasive infection and viremia are major limitations. We therefore developed an IL-15-driven 6 to 12 day short-term protocol for in vitro detection of HAdV-specific T cells, as revealed by known MHC class I multimers and a newly identified adenoviral CD8 T-cell epitope derived from the E1A protein for the frequent HLA-type A*02∶01 and IFN-γ. Using this novel and improved diagnostic approach we observed a correlation between adenoviral load and reconstitution of CD8(+) and CD4(+) HAdV-specific T-cells including central memory cells in HSCT-patients. Adaption of the 12-day protocol to good manufacturing practice conditions resulted in a 2.6-log (mean) expansion of HAdV-specific T-cells displaying high cytolytic activity (4-fold) compared to controls and low or absent alloreactivity. Similar protocols successfully identified and rapidly expanded CMV-, EBV-, and BKV-specific T-cells. Our approach provides a powerful clinical-grade convertible tool for rapid and cost-effective detection and enrichment of multiple virus-specific T-cells that may facilitate broad clinical application.

  19. Can the use of humor in psychotherapy be taught?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Lisa; Gabbard, Glen O

    2014-02-01

    Despite an abundance of literature detailing the potential benefits of the use of humor in therapy, humor is rarely taught to psychiatric residents as a method of therapeutic intervention. This communication attempts to explain how current understanding of attachment theory and neuroscience may assist psychiatric faculty and supervisors in their teaching of humorous therapeutic interventions. This article reviews and synthesizes the extant literature on the use of humor, as well as recent work in neuroscience, attachment theory, and mentalization. Humor can be conceptualized as an instance of implicit relational knowing and may thus contribute significantly to the therapeutic action of psychotherapy as a subcategory of "moments of meeting" between therapist and patient. However, training residents to use humor in psychotherapy requires more individualized attention in supervision and classroom seminars. Factors such as individual proclivities for humorous repartee, mentalizing capacity, and an authentic interest in adding humor to the session may be necessary to incorporate spontaneous humor into one's technique. New findings from the areas of attachment theory, neuroscience, and right-hemisphere learning are providing potential opportunities for sophisticated teaching of the use of humor in psychotherapy.

  20. The use of humor in the care of psychiatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrysodimitra Galatou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Humor is defined as a state of good spirit, exhibited with a smile or laughter, as a response to external stimuli. It constitutes a special form of human communication as well as a form of social conduct. The word «humor» appears for the first time in Hippocrates' writings. Psychology considers humor as one of the most powerful weapons against depression and disappointment. In psychiatric therapeutics humor serves many purposes, thereby acting as a supplement, not a substitute to treatment received. Purpose: of this article is to highlight the positive effects of humor in humans, health professionals and patient. Material and method: An extensive literature search databases such as Medline, Pub Med, Wikipedia, Cinahl, Medscape, with key words: humor, psychiatric patient, care, humor scales Results: Humor is an interpersonal process which facilitates and promotes expression and exchange of views; however it requires prudence, cautiousness and respect to patients' personality and sensitive issues. Humor is not innate, it is acquired and it can be learning and taught. Conclusion: The correct use of humor in therapeutic practice, contributes to the development of a therapeutic relationship between patient and healthcare professional as well as a sense of trust between them.

  1. Unconventional aqueous humor outflow: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark; McLaren, Jay W; Overby, Darryl R

    2017-05-01

    Aqueous humor flows out of the eye primarily through the conventional outflow pathway that includes the trabecular meshwork and Schlemm's canal. However, a fraction of aqueous humor passes through an alternative or 'unconventional' route that includes the ciliary muscle, supraciliary and suprachoroidal spaces. From there, unconventional outflow may drain through two pathways: a uveoscleral pathway where aqueous drains across the sclera to be resorbed by orbital vessels, and a uveovortex pathway where aqueous humor enters the choroid to drain through the vortex veins. We review the anatomy, physiology and pharmacology of these pathways. We also discuss methods to determine unconventional outflow rate, including direct techniques that use radioactive or fluorescent tracers recovered from tissues in the unconventional pathway and indirect methods that estimate unconventional outflow based on total outflow over a range of pressures. Indirect methods are subject to a number of assumptions and generally give poor agreement with tracer measurements. We review the variety of animal models that have been used to study conventional and unconventional outflow. The mouse appears to be a promising model because it captures several aspects of conventional and unconventional outflow dynamics common to humans, although questions remain regarding the magnitude of unconventional outflow in mice. Finally, we review future directions. There is a clear need to develop improved methods for measuring unconventional outflow in both animals and humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The evolution of humor from male aggression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuster S

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sam ShusterNewcastle University, Newcastle Upon Type, NE1 7RU, UKAbstract: The response to seeing a man riding a unicycle was reported to be consistently related to the viewer's sex and stage of physical development. To see if this observation was universal, observations of responses were collected from 23 male and 9 female unicyclists aged 15–69 years, with 2–40 years cycling experience across four continents. With two exceptions among men, the findings were the same as those originally reported: children showed interest and curiosity, young girls showed little interest, while adult women showed a kindly, concerned, praising response. By contrast, boys showed physical aggression, which became more verbal, merging in the later teens to the snide, aggressive, stereotyped humorous response shown by adult males, which became less frequent in elderly men. The universality of the response across different individuals, environments, and dates of observation suggests an endogenous mechanism, and the association with masculine development relates this to androgen. The theoretical consequences are discussed. It is concluded that humor develops from aggression in males and is evolutionarily related to sexual selection.Keywords: humor evolution, male aggressive behavior

  3. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus-Specific Antibody Detection in Cattle in Mauritania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sas, Miriam A; Mertens, Marc; Isselmou, Ekaterina; Reimer, Nicole; El Mamy, Bezeid O; Doumbia, Baba; Groschup, Martin H

    2017-08-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) was detected for the first time in Mauritania in 1983 and several CCHFV outbreaks were reported in the following years. The last human case was diagnosed in 2015. However, no recent data exist about the prevalence of CCHFV in animals, although it is already described that prevalence studies in animals serve as good risk indicators. CCHFV can cause a severe hemorrhagic fever with a high case fatality rate in humans. Therefore, a precise risk assessment on the basis of updated data is very important. This article gives an overview about the current CCHFV prevalence in cattle in Mauritania. A seroprevalence study was carried out using 495 cattle sera from Mauritania, which were collected in the year 2013. The sera were analyzed by an inhouse CCHFV-IgG-ELISA. As second screening test, an adapted commercial CCHFV-IgG-ELISA was performed. Inconclusive sera were additionally tested by a modified commercial CCHFV-IgG-IFA. All assays showed high diagnostic sensitivity (>95%) and specificity (>98%). The overall prevalence of CCHFV-specific antibodies found in Mauritanian cattle was 67%, ranging from 56% to 90% in different provinces. This study shows a very high CCHFV-specific antibody prevalence in cattle in Mauritania. It is the highest seroprevalence detected in Mauritania so far. This strengthens the hypothesis that CCHFV is a serious and ongoing threat for public health in Mauritania.

  4. Varicella-zoster virus-specific antibody responses in 50-59-year-old recipients of zoster vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Myron J; Schmader, Kenneth E; Gnann, John W; McNeil, Shelly A; Vesikari, Timo; Betts, Robert F; Keay, Susan; Stek, Jon E; Bundick, Nickoya D; Su, Shu-Chih; Zhao, Yanli; Li, Xiaoming; Chan, Ivan S F; Annunziato, Paula W; Parrino, Janie

    2013-11-01

    Prevaccination and 6-week postvaccination samples from the immunogenicity substudy (n = 2269) of the zoster vaccine (ZV) efficacy trial (N = 22 439) in 50-59-year-old subjects were examined for varicella-zoster virus-specific antibody responses to vaccination. The varicella-zoster virus geometric mean titer (GMT) and geometric mean fold rise were higher in ZV recipients than in placebo recipients (GMT, 660.0 vs 293.1 glycoprotein enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay units/mL [P < .001], respectively; geometric mean fold rise, 2.31 vs 1.00 [P < .025]). In each group there was a strong inverse correlation between postvaccination GMT and risk of subsequent herpes zoster. Although these data provide strong evidence that relates ZV-induced antibody and the risk of herpes zoster, a protective threshold was not determined. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT00534248.

  5. Virus-Specific Proteins Synthesized in Cells Infected with RNA+ Temperature-Sensitive Mutants of Sindbis Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheele, Christina M.; Pfefferkorn, E. R.

    1970-01-01

    All Sindbis virus temperature-sensitive mutants defective in “late” functions were systematically surveyed by acrylamide-gel electrophoresis for similarities and differences in the intracellular pattern of virus-specific proteins synthesized at the permissive and nonpermissive temperatures. Only cells infected with mutants of complementation group C showed an altered pattern. At the nonpermissive temperature, these mutants failed to induce the synthesis of a polypeptide corresponding to the nucleocapsid protein and instead overproduced a protein of higher molecular weight than either viral structural protein. This defect was shown to be irreversible by the finding that 3H-leucine incorporated at 41.5 C specifically failed to appear in the nucleocapsid of virions subsequently released at 29 C. Attempts to demonstrate a precursor protein in wild-type infections were inconclusive. PMID:5461887

  6. Modeling the dynamics and migratory pathways of virus-specific antibody-secreting cell populations in primary influenza infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Miao

    Full Text Available The B cell response to influenza infection of the respiratory tract contributes to viral clearance and establishes profound resistance to reinfection by related viruses. Numerous studies have measured virus-specific antibody-secreting cell (ASC frequencies in different anatomical compartments after influenza infection and provided a general picture of the kinetics of ASC formation and dispersion. However, the dynamics of ASC populations are difficult to determine experimentally and have received little attention. Here, we applied mathematical modeling to investigate the dynamics of ASC growth, death, and migration over the 2-week period following primary influenza infection in mice. Experimental data for model fitting came from high frequency measurements of virus-specific IgM, IgG, and IgA ASCs in the mediastinal lymph node (MLN, spleen, and lung. Model construction was based on a set of assumptions about ASC gain and loss from the sampled sites, and also on the directionality of ASC trafficking pathways. Most notably, modeling results suggest that differences in ASC fate and trafficking patterns reflect the site of formation and the expressed antibody class. Essentially all early IgA ASCs in the MLN migrated to spleen or lung, whereas cell death was likely the major reason for IgM and IgG ASC loss from the MLN. In contrast, the spleen contributed most of the IgM and IgG ASCs that migrated to the lung, but essentially none of the IgA ASCs. This finding points to a critical role for regional lymph nodes such as the MLN in the rapid generation of IgA ASCs that seed the lung. Results for the MLN also suggest that ASC death is a significant early feature of the B cell response. Overall, our analysis is consistent with accepted concepts in many regards, but it also indicates novel features of the B cell response to influenza that warrant further investigation.

  7. Propagation of respiratory viruses in human airway epithelia reveals persistent virus-specific signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essaidi-Laziosi, Manel; Brito, Francisco; Benaoudia, Sacha; Royston, Léna; Cagno, Valeria; Fernandes-Rocha, Mélanie; Piuz, Isabelle; Zdobnov, Evgeny; Huang, Song; Constant, Samuel; Boldi, Marc-Olivier; Kaiser, Laurent; Tapparel, Caroline

    2017-08-07

    Leading etiologies of acute illnesses, respiratory viruses typically cause self-limited diseases, though severe complications can occur in fragile patients. Rhinoviruses, respiratory enteroviruses, influenza virus, respiratory syncytial viruses and coronaviruses are highly prevalent respiratory pathogens, but due to the lack of reliable animal models, their differential pathogenesis remains poorly characterized. To compare infections by respiratory viruses isolated from clinical specimens using reconstituted human airway epithelia. Tissues were infected with rhinoviruses RV-A55, RV-A49, RV-B48, RV-C8 and RV-C15, respiratory enterovirus EV-D68, influenza virus H3N2, respiratory syncytial virus RSV-B and coronavirus HCoV-OC43. Replication kinetics, cell tropism, impact on tissue integrity and cytokine secretion were compared. Virus adaptation and tissue response were assessed through RNA-sequencing. Rhinoviruses, RSV-B and HCoV-OC43 infected ciliated cells and caused no major cell death while H3N2 and EV-D68 induced ciliated cell loss and tissue integrity disruption. H3N2 was also detected in rare goblet and basal cells. All viruses except RV-B48 and HCoV-OC43 altered cilia beating and MCC. H3N2 was the strongest cytokine-inducer and HCoV-OC43 the weakest. Persistent infection was observed in all cases. RNA-sequencing highlighted perturbation of tissue metabolism and induction of a transient but important immune response at 4-days post-infection. No majority mutations emerged in the viral population. Our results highlight the differential in vitro pathogenesis of respiratory viruses during the acute infection-phase and their ability to persist under immune tolerance. These data help to appreciate the range of disease severity observed in vivo and the occurrence of chronic respiratory infections in immunocompromised hosts. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Humor as an adjunct to occupational therapy interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooper, V O

    1984-01-01

    Although humor and laughter have been a natural part of human life in all cultures as far back as recorded history can determine, the conscious use of humor as a therapeutic technique is comparatively recent. This article suggests that health specialists have been slow to adopt the ideas of some of the better known researchers and writers in the field due to professional and cultural attitudes toward humor as a "frivolous" subject. As more information on the positive benefits of humor and laughter is being disseminated in books and workshops, previous myths regarding humor are being dispelled and attitudes are changing. A brief history of the state of the art over the past decade is included along with a few ideas from seminars and workshops on the use of humor as a planned activity in health and educational settings.

  9. Humor Style and Motor Skills: Understanding Vulnerability to Bullying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Plenty

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the role of humor style and motor skills in vulnerability to bullying. 729 adults responded to the Humor Style Questionnaire (HSQ and items retrospectively addressing their motor skills and bullying experiences during childhood. Consistent with recent research, poorer motor skills were associated with a greater extent of having been bullied. An association between stronger motor skills and affiliative humor was found, lending support to a shared biological basis theory underlying social and motor competency processes. Most importantly, being bullied was associated with higher self-defeating humor and lower affiliative humor. This supports earlier theoretical work by Klein and Kuiper (2006 and highlights the role that humor styles play in social interactions that can promote positive peer acceptance and wellbeing.

  10. Humor and older adults: what makes them laugh?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Barbara G; Prazak, Mark

    2006-09-01

    Laughter, the physical response to perceived humor, has demonstrated positive effects on physical and psychological well-being. Studies that focus on effects of humor on health and well-being of older adults are scarce. No studies were found that examine what older adults find humorous. The purpose of this descriptive study was to explore the humor stimulus in a population of older adults. One hundred thirty (130) hospital auxiliary personnel aged 50 and older were asked the question What makes you laugh? Content analysis of responses revealed nine themes in two major categories, which were (a) people or animals and (b) situations or events. Children represented the largest category of people (30%), and telling jokes represented the largest category of situations or events (51%). Humor can be used by nurses as an effective therapeutic tool when caring for older adults if appropriate sources of humor are identified and applied.

  11. Cultures of (Un)happiness: Teaching, Schooling, and Light and Dark Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullough, Robert V., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The author explores humor during a time of increasingly hostile accountability measures directed toward educators. Drawing on incongruity and other theories of humor, he explores both "light" and "dark" humor and some aspects of the educational potential and power of humor. Noting how humor is related to creativity and problem management, the…

  12. Humor recognition and appreciation deficits in early psychosis

    OpenAIRE

    吳愷晴; Ng, Hoi-ching, Iris

    2013-01-01

    Humor recognition and appreciation are important aspects to enhance psychological well-being and enrich social relationships and interactions. The present study hypothesized that first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients with adult onset in the Chinese society have deficits in humor recognition and appreciation compared with healthy controls. It also predicted FEP patients with a diminished ability in recalling humorous stimuli. Moreover, this study sought to explore the potential associations o...

  13. Humor: Power Conveying Social Structures Inside Forensic Mental Health Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildberg, Frederik A; Paaske, Kristian J; Rasmussen, Vivian L; Nissen, Ricko D; Bradley, Stephen K; Hounsgaard, Lise

    2016-01-01

    According to research literature, humor inside the staff-patient interaction seems to be significant in the area of forensic mental healthcare. However, existing literature on the subject is limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the characteristics of the use humor by forensic mental health staff members in interactions with forensic mental health inpatients. The study included 32 forensic mental health staff members, used 307 hours of participant observations, 48 informal interviews, and seven formal semistructured interviews. Outcomes identify four themes concerning the conveyance of power to, from, and between forensic mental health staff and patients as they interact: (a) "the informal use: the human-to-human approach," characterized by an informal use of humor and without any reference to mental health issues; (b) the "formal use of humor: the staff-patient approach," characterized as formal with a view on the patient as mentally ill, unable to understand humor, and with the aim of using humor to prevent conflicts or negative behavior; (c) "protest against requested care: the human-patient approach," characterized by the use of humor as a protest against requested care; and the use of (d) "inadequacy humor: the staff-human approach," characterized by the use of inadequacy-humor referring to, for example, patients' physical features. Recommendations and clinical implications are discussed.

  14. Humor as a Complementary Therapy: A Narrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raziyeh Ghafouri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research on the subject of laughter commenced on the 20th century. In recent decades researcher demonstrated that humor and laughter has positive impact on physical body same as psychological aspect. This study was conduct for integrate knowledge about humor as complementary therapy through the narrative review. Evidence Acquisition: The keywords humor, laughter, joking and humor therapy and humor sense were used. Data was collected from PUBMED, Ovid, ProQuest, Science Direct electronic databases. Literatures that were published in English or Persian between 1970- 2015 that were addressed humor were included. 181 literatures were collected. Based on the in clouding criteria 52 articles were included for review and finally 33 articles were selected after critical reviewing. Results: Humor reduces acute and chronic pain, decrease stress hormone and depression, boost self-esteem, increased encephalin and endorphins, decreased blood pressure through increasing nitric oxide, decreasing catecholamine and regulating vascular wall function, increased cardiac output, improve pulmonary ventilation and prevent diabetic nephropathy. Conclusion: Humor could be helpful for patient and it improve quality of life but it needed more research especially meta-analysis. We must don’t forget that lough with others not to each other's. Implications of key findings: Humor gives patients the opportunity to forget about their anxiety and pain, if only for a brief period of time.

  15. Trait humor and longevity: do comics have the last laugh?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotton, J

    1992-01-01

    Four sets of biographical data were analyzed in order to test the hypothesis that the ability to generate humor is associated with longevity. Although steps were taken to ensure that tests had high levels of statistical power, analyses provided very little support for the idea that individuals with a well-developed sense of humor live longer than serious writers and other entertainers. In addition, a subsidiary analysis revealed that those in the business of entertaining others died at an earlier age than those in other lines of endeavor. These findings suggest that researchers should turn their attention from trait humor to the effects of humorous material.

  16. Effectiveness of humor training among adolescents with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ching-Lin; Liu, Ya-Ru; Kuo, Ching-Chih; Chen, Hsueh-Chih; Chang, Yu-Lin

    2016-12-30

    Humor training has been applied to educational and clinical cases and has been found to be effective, but humor training for individuals with autism is relatively rare. The present study proposed a humor-knowledge and humor-skill training workshop to enhance the humor comprehension and appreciation of individuals with autism and examined the effects of the training. Participants were 20 adolescents with autism and average intelligence (above 70 in WAIS-III). They were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. Both questionnaire of joke comprehension and appreciation and a humor style questionnaire were used as instruments. The results supported the effectiveness of the 15-h training. The comprehension and appreciation of nonsense humor were significantly increased in the experimental group in comparison with the control group, although the incongruity-resolution jokes remained difficult to comprehend. The tendency to use affiliative humor was greater among individuals with autism in the experimental group, suggesting that the appreciation of humor can be learned.

  17. Analysis on the Mechanism Whereby Humor is Produced

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周先军

    2014-01-01

    Humor, a distinctive linguistic phenomenon, plays an important role in the language culture. In addition, humor has become a topic in linguistics. As the most important principles in pragmatics, the CP has provided a theoretical tool for analyzing humor, which is the product of the speaker’s intentional or unintentional violation of certain maxim of the Cooperative Principle. Participants should understand the literal meaning of an utterance firstly, and then, by relating the utterance to the specific context and certain background information, they come to realize the violation of the CP and appreciate the humor.

  18. A Study of the Translation of Humor in English Movies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丹丹

    2016-01-01

    What is believed to be the most important thing in translating English movie subtitle is the transmission of humorous effects. Humor is the development result of language and culture, and it is human's wisdom. Based on Vermeer's Skopostheorie theory of functionalist approaches, the thesis suggests that the instrumental translation strategy based on the source text analysis can be used for the translation of humor discourses. The translator can translate humorous languages by way of literal translation, annotation, combination of literal translation and free translation.

  19. Self-esteem instability and humor styles: does the stability of self-esteem influence how people use humor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Jessica; Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Arnau, Randolph C

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine whether self-esteem instability moderated the association between self-esteem level and the use of humor. This was accomplished by examining the associations that humor styles had with self-esteem level and self-esteem instability among 499 undergraduates. The results of the present study show that self-esteem instability moderated the association between self-esteem level and humor styles such that individuals with stable high self-esteem reported the highest levels of affiliative humor as well as the lowest levels of aggressive and self-defeating humor. These results suggest that individuals with stable and unstable forms of self-esteem employ different styles of humor.

  20. A single nine-amino acid peptide induces virus-specific, CD8+ human cytotoxic T lymphocyte clones of heterogeneous serotype specificities

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    It is generally accepted that virus-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) recognize nine-amino acid peptides in conjunction with HLA class I molecules. We recently reported that dengue virus- specific CD8+ CTLs of two different serotype specificities, which were established by stimulation with dengue virus, recognize a single nine- amino acid peptide of the nonstructural protein NS3 of dengue virus type 4 (D4V) in an HLA-B35-restricted fashion. To further analyze the relationships betw...

  1. Hippocrates' humoral pathology in nowaday's reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujalkova, M; Straka, S; Jureckova, A

    2001-01-01

    Ancient medicine integrated three components: experience (empirical observation), religion/magic and speculations of natural philosophers. The Greek medicine out-achieved medicine of other ancient nations in starting to investigate the true causes of health and diseases and thus laying foundations for the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment. Hippocrates, the most famous physician of the ancient times, made a synthesis of existing philosophical opinions from the point of view of a physician. His 58 writings were preserved in the collection "Corpus Hippocraticum". The most relevant writing in it--"Peri fyseos anthropu" (On the nature of man)--is ascribed to Hippocrates' son-in-law Polybos to whom we are grateful for the ancient humoral-pathological theory. In explaining human organism and its processes the author integrated ancient teachings on 4 basic humors (humoral theory), elements and qualities with observations of manifestations of health and disease. Normal condition (health) was defined as balance between the body fluids (eukrasia) and external environment. If this balance is disturbed, the result is dyskrasia, i.e. disease studied by pathology. According to Hippocrates disease causes can be understood only through empirical study. A man has a power to overcome disease, but to achieve it the right diet is necessary to keep harmony in body fluids of an organism. The role of a physician was just to support the nature. "Prognosis", another writing included in "Corpus Hippocraticum", reflects Hippocrates' understanding of prognosis as a necessary development of diagnosis based on past knowledge (anamnesis) and present observation. Ideas of Hippocrates and his medical school are still valuable and inspiring especially for today's very sophisticated medicine--concept of fighting diseases by natural means: maintaining healthy lifestyle and harmony within the organism, or an effort for perfect understanding of human creature and for humanization of medicine. (Fig. 3

  2. Thanatochemistry: Study of vitreous humor potassium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilesh Keshav Tumram

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study has been carried out to determine the death interval from the biochemical parameter of vitreous potassium. In 308 medicolegal cases vitreous humor was taken and analyzed for potassium with known time of death. There was a linear rise in potassium concentration with increasing death interval. Regression equation was calculated for the same. The study indicates that potassium levels in vitreous for determining death interval are useful and can afford a good method of determining the death interval along with other traditional methods. Also the previously established formulae for estimating death interval from vitreous potassium were also studied.

  3. Dengue virus-specific, human CD4+ CD8- cytotoxic T-cell clones: multiple patterns of virus cross-reactivity recognized by NS3-specific T-cell clones.

    OpenAIRE

    Kurane, I; Brinton, M.A.; Samson, A L; Ennis, F A

    1991-01-01

    Thirteen dengue virus-specific, cytotoxic CD4+ CD8- T-cell clones were established from a donor who was infected with dengue virus type 3. These clones were examined for virus specificity and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) restriction in cytotoxic assays. Six patterns of virus specificities were determined. Two serotype-specific clones recognized only dengue virus type 3. Two dengue virus subcomplex-specific clones recognized dengue virus types 2, 3, and 4, and one subcomplex-specific clone re...

  4. Humor processing in children: influence of temperament, age and IQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrticka, Pascal; Black, Jessica M; Neely, Michelle; Walter Shelly, Elizabeth; Reiss, Allan L

    2013-11-01

    Emerging evidence from fMRI studies suggests that humor processing is a specific social cognitive-affective human function that comprises two stages. The first stage (cognitive humor component) involves the detection and resolution of incongruity, and is associated with activity in temporo-occipito-parietal brain areas. The second stage (emotional humor component) comprises positive feelings related to mirth/reward, and is linked with reward-related activity in mesocorticolimbic circuits. In healthy adults, humor processing was shown to be moderated by temperament traits like intro-/extraversion, neuroticism, or social anxiety, representing risk factors for psychopathology. However, comparable data from early developmental stages is crucially lacking. Here, we report for the first time data from 22 children (ages 6 to 13) revealing an influence of temperament on humor processing. Specifically, we assessed the effects of Emotionality, Shyness, and Sociability, which are analogous to neuroticism, behavioral inhibition/fear and extraversion in adults. We found Emotionality to be positively, but Shyness negatively associated with brain activity linked with both cognitive and emotional humor components. In addition, Shyness and Sociability were positively related to activity in the periaqueductal gray region during humor processing. These findings are of potential clinical relevance regarding the early detection of childhood psychopathology. Previous data on humor processing in both adults and children furthermore suggest that intelligence (IQ) supports incongruity detection and resolution, whereas mirth and associated brain activity diminishes with increasing age. Here, we found that increasing age and IQ were linked with stronger activity to humor in brain areas implicated in the cognitive component of humor. Such data suggest that humor processing undergoes developmental changes and is moderated by higher IQ scores, both factors likely improving incongruity detection

  5. Humor en línea. Línea del humor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dra. Mirta Clara Echevarría

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available La autora indaga el humor propuesto por el diario ‘InterVoz’ (Córdoba, Argentina. El medio publica el "típico humor cordobés". Historietas, chistes y relatos representan la vida urbana cotidiana, confluencia de lo popular y lo masivo, a través de la inclusión de usos lingüísticos, costumbres, personajes típicos y personajes públicos, sobre todo políticos. Estos textos, en algunos casos, reproducen lo publicado en papel; sin embargo, son manifestaciones diferentes. En este discurso emergente, estudia las condiciones de producción, circulación y consumo desde varias vertientes. Subraya la autora la relación del humor con el resto del diario por: la fuerte relación intertextual con la información y el diseño hipertextual. Destaca tópicas y retórica del humor como parte de una política discursiva centrada en lo regional, con el objeto de construir un discurso identitario de clara apelación a "los cordobeses en el mundo". El humor de ‘InterVoz’ (el diario en su totalidad, en el marco de la globalización, se manifiesta como una otra voz, sin llegar a establecerse como contradiscurso. Este periódico –como tantos en la red– subraya las marcas de lo local para permanecer en lo global.

  6. Effects of Humor on Teacher Stress, Affect, and Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Jacqueline Dena

    2013-01-01

    Teachers are at high risk for stress, negative emotion, and job dissatisfaction, which has been linked with health problems and early attrition. Humor has been found to relieve various forms of stress. However, there is a gap in the literature regarding humor effects on teacher stress and its related consequences. The purpose of this quantitative,…

  7. Did You Hear the One about...? Humor in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Jim

    2006-01-01

    Used properly, humor can be a valuable educational tool. It also helps middle school students cope with many of the personal issues that arise and focus on school, and helps teachers connect with their students. From silly costumes to movie music, this article describes how some teachers and administrators incorporate humor into their daily school…

  8. An Empirical Foundation for a Taxonomy of Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froman, Richard L., Jr.

    The reliability of a taxonomy of humor was tested in two studies. The first study involved rater identification of nine categories for humorous incidents excerpted from television comedy programs (wordplay, exaggeration/understatement, contrast, audience knowledge, aggression, emotion, taboo, pratfall/slapstick, and repetition). The second study,…

  9. Examining Teachers' Motivation Level According to School Principals' Humor Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recepoglu, Ergun; Kilinc, Ali Cagatay; Cepni, Osman

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the motivation level of teachers according to school principals' humor styles. The humor styles survey and job motivation scale were used to gather data from 305 randomly selected teachers employed in primary schools in Karabuk. Results indicated that 141 of the teachers claimed school principal had…

  10. Does humor moderate the effects of experimentally-induced stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, M G; Stone, A A

    1996-06-01

    This study attempted to determine whether humor production moderates mood and physiological responses to stress of subjects high and low in trait humor. Forty subjects who were high and 40 subjects who were low in trait humor were selected. Half of each group was randomly assigned to one of two conditions. In one condition they generated a humorous monologue and in the other condition they generated a serious monologue to a silent stressful film. Heart rate, skin conductance level, and skin temperature were taken continuously for the fifteen minutes before, during, and fifteen minutes after the film. Pre- and post-stress mood and tension ratings were also recorded. Analyses of covariance were conducted with baseline mood and tension as covariates. Compared to the production of a serious narrative, humor production led to lower negative affect, lower tension, and reduced psychophysiological reactivity for both high and low trait-humor groups. These results suggest that humor production may be an effective coping strategy, even for individuals who do not typically use humor to cope with stress.

  11. The Humor Continuum: From Text to Smart Environments (Keynote Paper)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus

    Humor is important in our daily life, whether our activities are at home, at work, or in public spaces, for example during sports or other recreational and entertainment activities. Until now, computational humor, the research area that investigates rules and algorithms to understand and to generate

  12. Examining Teachers' Motivation Level According to School Principals' Humor Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recepoglu, Ergun; Kilinc, Ali Cagatay; Cepni, Osman

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the motivation level of teachers according to school principals' humor styles. The humor styles survey and job motivation scale were used to gather data from 305 randomly selected teachers employed in primary schools in Karabuk. Results indicated that 141 of the teachers claimed school principal had…

  13. Pastoral Perspectives of Humor's Use in Ministry Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jonathan W.

    2012-01-01

    Results from a qualitative component of a mixed-methods research design are reported regarding the use of humor in pastoral ministry. Thirteen Southern Baptist (SB) pastors were interviewed, from a total of 37 exemplars identified in the quantitative component of the study, regarding their perspectives toward humor in ministry. Results overall…

  14. Effects of Humor on Teacher Stress, Affect, and Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Jacqueline Dena

    2013-01-01

    Teachers are at high risk for stress, negative emotion, and job dissatisfaction, which has been linked with health problems and early attrition. Humor has been found to relieve various forms of stress. However, there is a gap in the literature regarding humor effects on teacher stress and its related consequences. The purpose of this quantitative,…

  15. Stimulus Characteristics Affect Humor Processing in Individuals with Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Andrea C.; Hegenloh, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The present paper aims to investigate whether individuals with Asperger syndrome (AS) show global humor processing deficits or whether humor comprehension and appreciation depends on stimulus characteristics. Non-verbal visual puns, semantic and Theory of Mind cartoons were rated on comprehension, funniness and the punchlines were explained. AS…

  16. Multilingual Manipulation and Humor in "I Love Lucy"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschen, Bryan

    2013-01-01

    "I Love Lucy" is considered to have been one of the most humorous television programs in the United States as early as the 1950s. This paper explores the use of language by the protagonists, Lucy and Ricky Ricardo, in order to understand the source of the program's humor. Linguistic analysis of the Ricardos' speech is applied,…

  17. Subversion or Socialization? Humor and Carnival in Morris Gleitzman's Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Kathryn

    2004-01-01

    Like their counterparts elsewhere, Australian children favour humorous novels; comedic writers consistently dominate the preteen and early teen fiction market in Australia. Regardless of its popularity, however, in comparison to more serious writing, humorous literature has received little critical attention. Of the studies aimed at this area,…

  18. Welcome to HELL : Humor in English Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncay, Hidayet

    2007-01-01

    Humor means understanding not only the language and words but their use, meaning, subtle nuances, the underlying culture, implications and unwritten messages. Humor does not often travel well from one culture to another, as each society has a somewhat different concept of what is funny (Dobson, 1987). In Foreign Language Learning (FLL), the…

  19. Embodied Agents: A New Impetus to Humor Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, A.; Stock, O.; Strapparava, C.; Nijholt, A.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we survey the role of humor in human-to-human interaction with the aim to see whether it is useful for embodied conversational agents to integrate humor capabilities in their internal model of intelligence, emotions and interaction (verbal and nonverbal) capabilities. For that reason w

  20. Conversational Agents and the Construction of Humorous Acts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Anton; Nishida, Toyoaki

    2007-01-01

    In this chapter we discuss the generation of humorous acts by embodied agents. It is observed that in future interfaces that are meant to allow natural interaction, embodied agents can play useful roles. Humor plays an important role in human-human interaction and therefore it is useful to investiga

  1. An Analysis of Black Humor in the Movie The Simpsons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵筱婧

    2016-01-01

    Black humor is widely applied in literature, drama, and film. This paper, through analyzing the theme, plot, and stereotypes of The Simpsons, aims to make a research of black humor and its application in this movie in order to facilitate the understanding of the movie and present its significance on modern society.

  2. Humor: What Can It Do for Tertiary Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Mehmet

    2004-01-01

    Given the important role of the affective variables in the process of learning, this paper examines ways of overcoming negative effects (i.e. anxiety, boredom) of the contextual factors. Exemplifying the uses of humor through context-specific, purpose-driven jokes, it maintains that humor can be utilized to produce a resourceful, encouraging and…

  3. The humor continuum: from text to smart environments (keynote paper)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Anton

    2015-01-01

    Humor is important in our daily life, whether our activities are at home, at work, or in public spaces, for example during sports or other recreational and entertainment activities. Until now, computational humor, the research area that investigates rules and algorithms to understand and to generate

  4. A Computational Model of Linguistic Humor in Puns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Justine T.; Levy, Roger; Goodman, Noah D.

    2016-01-01

    Humor plays an essential role in human interactions. Precisely what makes something funny, however, remains elusive. While research on natural language understanding has made significant advancements in recent years, there has been little direct integration of humor research with computational models of language understanding. In this paper, we…

  5. Subversion or Socialization? Humor and Carnival in Morris Gleitzman's Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Kathryn

    2004-01-01

    Like their counterparts elsewhere, Australian children favour humorous novels; comedic writers consistently dominate the preteen and early teen fiction market in Australia. Regardless of its popularity, however, in comparison to more serious writing, humorous literature has received little critical attention. Of the studies aimed at this area,…

  6. Humor: What Can It Do for Tertiary Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Mehmet

    2004-01-01

    Given the important role of the affective variables in the process of learning, this paper examines ways of overcoming negative effects (i.e. anxiety, boredom) of the contextual factors. Exemplifying the uses of humor through context-specific, purpose-driven jokes, it maintains that humor can be utilized to produce a resourceful, encouraging and…

  7. Humorous Stimuli and Depression: An Examination of Beck's Premise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scogin, Forrest R.; Merbaum, Michael

    1983-01-01

    Studied the relationship between depression and humor in 85 college students who took the Beck Depression Inventory and then rated 10 cartoons. Results showed no difference between mildly depressed and nondepressed subjects. However, some trends were noted on a mood scale related to immediate feelings and humor preference. (Author/JAC)

  8. Pelanggaran Prinsip Kooperatif dalam Wacana Humor di Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Sihombing, Marintan

    2010-01-01

    Penelitian ini menganalisis pelanggaran prinsip kooperatif dalam wacana humor di internet. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menjelaskan bagaimana proses terjadinya pelanggaran prinsip kooperatif dan mendeskripsikan faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi terjadinya pelanggaran prinsip kooperatif wacana humor di internet. Teori yang digunakan adalah implikatur percakapan, pertuturan atau tindak bahasa, konteks situasi. Pengumpulan data digunakan dengan metode simak, yaitu penyimakan terhadap penggunaan b...

  9. Application of Relevance Translation Theory in Humor Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵秀丽

    2013-01-01

    This thesis,aiming to investigate the process of English-Chinese translation of humor from the perspective of RT theory(relevance translation theory),endeavors to apply its principles and methods to the re-construction of humor in the target language.

  10. Laugh yourself to sleep: memory consolidation for humorous information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Alexis M; Payne, Jessica D

    2014-05-01

    There is extensive evidence that emotional information is better remembered than neutral information across long delays, especially if the delay interval contains an opportunity for sleep. However, as prior studies have focused on memory for negative stimuli, it is unclear whether positive memories benefit from time and sleep as well. To investigate the consolidation of positive memories, the current study examined differences in memory for humorous and non-humorous cartoons. While prior evidence demonstrates that humorous information is preferentially remembered relative to non-humorous information over brief delays, it is unknown whether this benefit lasts across longer delay intervals or whether sleep is important for lasting humor memories to form. Thus, we tested memory for 27 cartoons across 12-h delay periods containing either sleep or wakefulness. Results indicate that humor's enhancing effect on recall memory is robust across a 12-h delay and that a period of sleep facilitates this effect over wakefulness when cartoons are novel to participants and ranked based on subjective emotional ratings. Further, in accordance with previous studies that reveal diminished emotional reactivity to stimuli following sleep, in a supplemental experiment, we found that sleep reduced subjective ratings of humor, arousal, and positivity of humorous cartoons. These findings provide preliminary evidence that sleep's impact on negative emotional memory consolidation and emotional reactivity can be extended to positive stimuli as well.

  11. The evolution and functions of laughter and humor: a synthetic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervais, Matthew; Wilson, David Sloan

    2005-12-01

    A number of recent hypotheses have attempted to explain the ultimate evolutionary origins of laughter and humor. However most of these have lacked breadth in their evolutionary frameworks while neglecting the empirical existence of two distinct types of laughter--Duchenne and non-Duchenne--and the implications of this distinction for the evolution of laughter as a signal. Most of these hypotheses have also been proposed in relative isolation of each other and remain disjointed from the relevant empirical literature. Here we attempt to remedy these shortcomings through a synthesis of previous laughter and humor research followed by (i) a reevaluation of this research in light of theory and data from several relevant disciplines, and (ii) the proposal of a synthetic evolutionary framework that takes into account phylogeny and history as well as proximate mechanisms and adaptive significance. We consider laughter to have been a preadaptation that was gradually elaborated and co-opted through both biological and cultural evolution. We hypothesize that Duchenne laughter became fully ritualized in early hominids between 4 and 2 mya as a medium for playful emotional contagion. This mechanism would have coupled the emotions of small hominid groups and promoted resource-building social play during the fleeting periods of safety and satiation that characterized early bipedal life. We further postulate that a generalized class of nonserious social incongruity would have been a reliable indicator of such safe times and thereby came to be a potent distal elicitor of laughter and playful emotion. This class of stimuli had its origins in primate social play and was the foundation for formal human humor. Within this framework, Duchenne laughter and protohumor were well established in the hominid biobehavioral repertoire when more cognitively sophisticated traits evolved in the hominid line between 2 mya and the present. The prior existence of laughter and humor allowed them to be

  12. Playing with expectations: a contextual view of humor development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Airenti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the developmental literature it has been advanced that young children would not understand the specificity of nonliteral communicative acts. In this article I shall focus on young children’s ability to produce and understand different forms of humor. I shall explore children’s acquisition of the communicative contexts that constitute the background enabling them to perform humorous interactions before being able to analyze them in the terms allowed by a full fledged ToM. I consider that different forms of humor share a number of basic features and that we can draw a continuum from simple forms to sophisticated ones. In particular I shall focus on teasing, a form of humor already present in preverbal infants but also considered as a typical feature of irony. I shall argue that all forms of humor can be described in the terms of a kind of interaction that I propose to call playing with expectations.

  13. CLASSICAL CONDITIONING OF THREE KINDS OF HUMOR IN PUBLICITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAROLINA M. CIFUENTES

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of humor in advertisement published in Colombia were investigated in regards to brands,advertisement, purchase intention, recall and recognition.A simultaneous Classical Conditioning procedure was carried out, using Incongruous, Hostile and Allusivehumor associated to three brands. The procedure was applied to 30 university students. Results revealedthat the three kinds of humor work as unconditioning stimulus, generating positive attitudes towardsadvertisement and brand. Humor influences the purchase intention and recognition, but not the remembranceof brand when compared to neutral advertisement. Incongrous and Hostile Humor generate recognitionand positive attitude towards advertisement and brand. Allusions have a greater effect on purchaseintention than the other ones. Results corroborate the effectiveness of humor as an advertisement tool.

  14. Humor intervention program for children with chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, In Ok

    2015-11-01

    This study developed and implemented a humor intervention program for school-aged children with chronic diseases. Thirty-three children with atopic dermatitis and type 1 diabetes were divided into experimental and control groups. The experimental group included 17 children while the control group included 16 children. The experimental group participated in 6 weekly sessions of a 60-minute humor intervention. The subject and type of humorous material was collected from a survey of parents and children. Outcome measures assessed pre- and post-intervention included stress, behavior profile scores, and resilience. There was a significant decrease in behavior problems and increase in resiliency in experimental group compared to control group. There was no difference in stress cortisol measures between the groups. This study was the first to examine a humor intervention for children with chronic diseases in South Korea and offers practical implications for humor interventions in pediatric nursing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Humor, laughter, and physical health: methodological issues and research findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, R A

    2001-07-01

    All published research examining effects of humor and laughter on physical health is reviewed. Potential causal mechanisms and methodological issues are discussed. Laboratory experiments have shown some effects of exposure to comedy on several components of immunity, although the findings are inconsistent and most of the studies have methodological problems. There is also some evidence of analgesic effects of exposure to comedy, although similar findings are obtained with negative emotions. Few significant correlations have been found between trait measures of humor and immunity, pain tolerance, or self-reported illness symptoms. There is also little evidence of stress-moderating effects of humor on physical health variables and no evidence of increased longevity with greater humor. More rigorous and theoretically informed research is needed before firm conclusions can be drawn about possible health benefits of humor and laughter.

  16. Co-operative Principle of Conversation and Humor in English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付岚

    2012-01-01

    Language humor is a usual phenomenon in human communication. It is an interdisciplinary subject connected with a wide range of learning. Up to now, a great deal of research has been done from the viewpoint of psychology and sociology. In the field of linguistics, some explorations have already been made in regard to its semantic and rhetorical aspects, but due attention has not been paid to it in pragmatics in that in everyday verbal communication, humorous utterances are easy to enjoy but hard to define. Apart from its capability of laughter-making, language humor is more often than not, produced to implicitly perform some communicative functions, not achievable by explicit expressions. This the - sis, based on the fruitful studies of humor, attempts to investigate the mechanisms of English humor from the perspective of a new theory 一 Co- operative Principle.

  17. Plasmid DNA initiates replication of yellow fever vaccine in vitro and elicits virus-specific immune response in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tretyakova, Irina; Nickols, Brian; Hidajat, Rachmat; Jokinen, Jenny; Lukashevich, Igor S; Pushko, Peter

    2014-11-01

    Yellow fever (YF) causes an acute hemorrhagic fever disease in tropical Africa and Latin America. To develop a novel experimental YF vaccine, we applied iDNA infectious clone technology. The iDNA represents plasmid that encodes the full-length RNA genome of 17D vaccine downstream from a cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter. The vaccine was designed to transcribe the full-length viral RNA and to launch 17D vaccine virus in vitro and in vivo. Transfection with 10 ng of iDNA plasmid was sufficient to start replication of vaccine virus in vitro. Safety of the parental 17D and iDNA-derived 17D viruses was confirmed in AG129 mice deficient in receptors for IFN-α/β/γ. Finally, direct vaccination of BALB/c mice with a single 20 μg dose of iDNA plasmid resulted in seroconversion and elicitation of virus-specific neutralizing antibodies in animals. We conclude that iDNA immunization approach combines characteristics of DNA and attenuated vaccines and represents a promising vaccination strategy for YF.

  18. Virus-specific regulatory T cells ameliorate encephalitis by repressing effector T cell functions from priming to effector stages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxian Zhao

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have demonstrated the presence of pathogen-specific Foxp3+ CD4 regulatory T cells (Treg in infected animals, but little is known about where and how these cells affect the effector T cell responses and whether they are more suppressive than bulk Treg populations. We recently showed the presence of both epitope M133-specific Tregs (M133 Treg and conventional CD4 T cells (M133 Tconv in the brains of mice with coronavirus-induced encephalitis. Here, we provide new insights into the interactions between pathogenic Tconv and Tregs responding to the same epitope. M133 Tregs inhibited the proliferation but not initial activation of M133 Tconv in draining lymph nodes (DLN. Further, M133 Tregs inhibited migration of M133 Tconv from the DLN. In addition, M133 Tregs diminished microglia activation and decreased the number and function of Tconv in the infected brain. Thus, virus-specific Tregs inhibited pathogenic CD4 T cell responses during priming and effector stages, particularly those recognizing cognate antigen, and decreased mortality and morbidity without affecting virus clearance. These cells are more suppressive than bulk Tregs and provide a targeted approach to ameliorating immunopathological disease in infectious settings.

  19. The DNase of gammaherpesviruses impairs recognition by virus-specific CD8+ T cells through an additional host shutoff function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Jianmin; Thomas, Wendy; van Leeuwen, Daphne; Middeldorp, Jaap M; Wiertz, Emmanuel J H J; Ressing, Maaike E; Rowe, Martin

    2008-03-01

    The DNase/alkaline exonuclease (AE) genes are well conserved in all herpesvirus families, but recent studies have shown that the AE proteins of gammaherpesviruses such as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) exhibit an additional function which shuts down host protein synthesis. One correlate of this additional shutoff function is that levels of cell surface HLA molecules are downregulated, raising the possibility that shutoff/AE genes of gammaherpesviruses might contribute to viral immune evasion. In this study, we show that both BGLF5 (EBV) and SOX (KSHV) shutoff/AE proteins do indeed impair the ability of virus-specific CD8+ T-cell clones to recognize endogenous antigen via HLA class I. Random mutagenesis of the BGLF5 gene enabled us to genetically separate the shutoff and AE functions and to demonstrate that the shutoff function was the critical factor determining whether BGLF5 mutants can impair T-cell recognition. These data provide further evidence that EBV has multiple mechanisms to modulate HLA class I-restricted T-cell responses, thus enabling the virus to replicate and persist in the immune-competent host.

  20. Lighter side of adaptive optics

    CERN Document Server

    Tyson, Robert K

    2009-01-01

    Adaptive optics has been under development for well over 40 years. It is an indisputable necessity for all major ground-based astronomical telescopes and is the foundation for laser and wavefront sensor design. Lighter Side of Adaptive Optics is a nontechnical explanation of optics, the atmosphere, and the technology for ""untwinkling"" the stars. While interweaving a fictional romantic relationship as an analogy to adaptive optics, and inserting satire, humor, and philosophical rants, Tyson makes a difficult scientific topic understandable. The ""why"" and ""how"" of adaptive optics has never

  1. An acidic microenvironment sets the humoral pattern recognition molecule PTX3 in a tissue repair mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doni, Andrea; Musso, Tiziana; Morone, Diego; Bastone, Antonio; Zambelli, Vanessa; Sironi, Marina; Castagnoli, Carlotta; Cambieri, Irene; Stravalaci, Matteo; Pasqualini, Fabio; Laface, Ilaria; Valentino, Sonia; Tartari, Silvia; Ponzetta, Andrea; Maina, Virginia; Barbieri, Silvia S; Tremoli, Elena; Catapano, Alberico L; Norata, Giuseppe D; Bottazzi, Barbara; Garlanda, Cecilia; Mantovani, Alberto

    2015-06-01

    Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is a fluid-phase pattern recognition molecule and a key component of the humoral arm of innate immunity. In four different models of tissue damage in mice, PTX3 deficiency was associated with increased fibrin deposition and persistence, and thicker clots, followed by increased collagen deposition, when compared with controls. Ptx3-deficient macrophages showed defective pericellular fibrinolysis in vitro. PTX3-bound fibrinogen/fibrin and plasminogen at acidic pH and increased plasmin-mediated fibrinolysis. The second exon-encoded N-terminal domain of PTX3 recapitulated the activity of the intact molecule. Thus, a prototypic component of humoral innate immunity, PTX3, plays a nonredundant role in the orchestration of tissue repair and remodeling. Tissue acidification resulting from metabolic adaptation during tissue repair sets PTX3 in a tissue remodeling and repair mode, suggesting that matrix and microbial recognition are common, ancestral features of the humoral arm of innate immunity. © 2015 Doni et al.

  2. Laughing at the Looking Glass: Does Humor Style Serve as an Interpersonal Signal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgil Zeigler-Hill

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The provision of information appears to be an important feature of humor. The present studies examined whether humor serves as an interpersonal signal such that an individual's style of humor is associated with how the individual is perceived by others. Method: We examined this issue across two studies. In Study 1, undergraduate participants (257 targets were rated more positively by their friends and family members (1194 perceivers when they possessed more benign humor styles. In Study 2, 1190 community participants rated the romantic desirability of targets ostensibly possessing different humor styles. Results: Across both studies, our results were consistent with the possibility that humor serves as a signal. More specifically, individuals with benign humor styles (affiliative and self-enhancing humor styles were evaluated more positively than those targets with injurious humor styles (aggressive and self-defeating humor styles. Conclusion: These findings are discussed in terms of the role that humor may play in interpersonal perception and relationships.

  3. Hipercalcemia humoral secundaria a carcinoma mixto de endometrio Humoral hypercalcemia in mixed endometrial carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Pinal-Fernández

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available La hipercalcemia secundaria a enfermedad neoplásica es una entidad frecuente causada en la mayor parte de los casos por secreción ectópica de PTHrp. A pesar de esto hay ciertos tumores, como los carcinomas uterinos, en donde este tipo de manifestación paraneoplásica está muy poco descrita. Presentamos un caso de hipercalcemia humoral en un carcinoma mixto de endometrio.Hypercalcemia secondary to neoplastic disease is a frequent entity caused in the majority of cases by ectopic secretions of PTHrP. Despite this there are certain tumours, such as uterine carcinomas, in which this type of paraneoplastic manifestation has been described very little. We present a case of humoral hypercalcemia in a mixed endometrial carcinoma.

  4. Science For The Public: Collaboration and Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wargo, Richard

    2013-04-01

    The transformation of all things media and information into a dynamic environment of user access has created what seems infinite possibilities to inform the public in many different ways - as well as seemingly infinite possibilities to confuse. This talk will describe a rather non-conventional collaboration between two different creative cultures and its significance to maintaining scientific accuracy and devising strategies important to audience engagement - among them, humor. While focusing on the award-winning effort ``When Things Get Small'' created by University of California Television producer R. Wargo in collaboration with condensed matter physicist I.K. Schuller and actor Adam J. Smith, with both NSF and private support, the case study provides insight into a model and modes which can be used successfully by other scientists to engage the public in what they do.

  5. The role of verbal humor in second language education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ziyaeemehr

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Instructor humor serves a wide range of functions in educational contexts. This paper reports on a study that investigated the functions of instructors' humorous verbalizations in academic classrooms at a university where English is used as a second language. Data were collected through audio-recordings and classroom observations. The results of an inductive analysis led to the development of three major categories, namely “foregrounding form”, “reinforcing meaning” and “highlighting cultural dissimilarities”. These categories represented the strategies that served as instructional functions of humor in the context of L2 (second language education. Findings indicate that using verbal humor in L2 classrooms offers opportunities to facilitate access to L2 linguistic and cultural knowledge resources that are embedded in humorous exchanges. Additionally, the findings suggest that L2 instructors must have specific (socio linguistic and sociocultural humor competence to use humor to engage learners and communicate finer aspects of the L2. The implications of the findings are explored within the context of second language learning and teaching.

  6. Laughter, Humor and Pain Perception in Children: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Stuber

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Although there are many clinical programs designed to bring humor into pediatric hospitals, there has been very little research with children or adolescents concerning the specific utility of humor for children undergoing stressful or painful procedures. Rx Laughter™, a non-profit organization interested in the use of humor for healing, collaborated with UCLA to collect preliminary data on a sample of 18 children aged 7–16 years. Participants watched humorous video-tapes before, during and after a standardized pain task that involved placing a hand in cold water. Pain appraisal (ratings of pain severity and pain tolerance (submersion time were recorded and examined in relation to humor indicators (number of laughs/smiles during each video and child ratings of how funny the video was. Whereas humor indicators were not significantly associated with pain appraisal or tolerance, the group demonstrated significantly greater pain tolerance while viewing funny videos than when viewing the videos immediately before or after the cold-water task. The results suggest that humorous distraction is useful to help children and adolescents tolerate painful procedures. Further study is indicated to explore the specific mechanism of this benefit.

  7. Plasmid DNA initiates replication of yellow fever vaccine in vitro and elicits virus-specific immune response in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tretyakova, Irina; Nickols, Brian; Hidajat, Rachmat [Medigen, Inc., 8420 Gas House Pike, Suite S, Frederick, MD 21701 (United States); Jokinen, Jenny; Lukashevich, Igor S. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Medicine, Center for Predictive Medicine and Emerging Infectious Diseases, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY (United States); Pushko, Peter, E-mail: ppushko@medigen-usa.com [Medigen, Inc., 8420 Gas House Pike, Suite S, Frederick, MD 21701 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Yellow fever (YF) causes an acute hemorrhagic fever disease in tropical Africa and Latin America. To develop a novel experimental YF vaccine, we applied iDNA infectious clone technology. The iDNA represents plasmid that encodes the full-length RNA genome of 17D vaccine downstream from a cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter. The vaccine was designed to transcribe the full-length viral RNA and to launch 17D vaccine virus in vitro and in vivo. Transfection with 10 ng of iDNA plasmid was sufficient to start replication of vaccine virus in vitro. Safety of the parental 17D and iDNA-derived 17D viruses was confirmed in AG129 mice deficient in receptors for IFN-α/β/γ. Finally, direct vaccination of BALB/c mice with a single 20 μg dose of iDNA plasmid resulted in seroconversion and elicitation of virus-specific neutralizing antibodies in animals. We conclude that iDNA immunization approach combines characteristics of DNA and attenuated vaccines and represents a promising vaccination strategy for YF. - Highlights: • The iDNA{sup ®} platform combines advantages of DNA and live attenuated vaccines. • Yellow fever (YF) 17D vaccine was launched from iDNA plasmid in vitro and in vivo. • Safety of iDNA-generated 17D virus was confirmed in AG129 mice. • BALB/c mice seroconverted after a single-dose vaccination with iDNA. • YF virus-neutralizing response was elicited in iDNA-vaccinated mice.

  8. Vaccine-induced boosting of influenza virus-specific CD4 T cells in younger and aged humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas V Dolfi

    Full Text Available Current yearly influenza virus vaccines induce strain-specific neutralizing antibody (NAb responses providing protective immunity to closely matched viruses. However, these vaccines are often poorly effective in high-risk groups such as the elderly and challenges exist in predicting yearly or emerging pandemic influenza virus strains to include in the vaccines. Thus, there has been considerable emphasis on understanding broadly protective immunological mechanisms for influenza virus. Recent studies have implicated memory CD4 T cells in heterotypic immunity in animal models and in human challenge studies. Here we examined how influenza virus vaccination boosted CD4 T cell responses in younger versus aged humans. Our results demonstrate that while the magnitude of the vaccine-induced CD4 T cell response and number of subjects responding on day 7 did not differ between younger and aged subjects, fewer aged subjects had peak responses on day 14. While CD4 T cell responses were inefficiently boosted against NA, both HA and especially nucleocaspid protein- and matrix-(NP+M specific responses were robustly boosted. Pre-existing CD4 T cell responses were associated with more robust responses to influenza virus NP+M, but not H1 or H3. Finally pre-existing strain-specific NAb decreased the boosting of CD4 T cell responses. Thus, accumulation of pre-existing influenza virus-specific immunity in the form of NAb and cross-reactive T cells to conserved virus proteins (e.g. NP and M over a lifetime of exposure to infection and vaccination may influence vaccine-induced CD4 T cell responses in the aged.

  9. Compartmentalization of Total and Virus-Specific Tissue-Resident Memory CD8+ T Cells in Human Lymphoid Organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woon, Heng Giap; Braun, Asolina; Li, Jane; Smith, Corey; Edwards, Jarem; Sierro, Frederic; Feng, Carl G; Khanna, Rajiv; Elliot, Michael; Bell, Andrew; Hislop, Andrew D; Tangye, Stuart G; Rickinson, Alan B; Gebhardt, Thomas; Britton, Warwick J; Palendira, Umaimainthan

    2016-08-01

    Disruption of T cell memory during severe immune suppression results in reactivation of chronic viral infections, such as Epstein Barr virus (EBV) and Cytomegalovirus (CMV). How different subsets of memory T cells contribute to the protective immunity against these viruses remains poorly defined. In this study we examined the compartmentalization of virus-specific, tissue resident memory CD8+ T cells in human lymphoid organs. This revealed two distinct populations of memory CD8+ T cells, that were CD69+CD103+ and CD69+CD103-, and were retained within the spleen and tonsils in the absence of recent T cell stimulation. These two types of memory cells were distinct not only in their phenotype and transcriptional profile, but also in their anatomical localization within tonsils and spleen. The EBV-specific, but not CMV-specific, CD8+ memory T cells preferentially accumulated in the tonsils and acquired a phenotype that ensured their retention at the epithelial sites where EBV replicates. In vitro studies revealed that the cytokine IL-15 can potentiate the retention of circulating effector memory CD8+ T cells by down-regulating the expression of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor, required for T cell exit from tissues, and its transcriptional activator, Kruppel-like factor 2 (KLF2). Within the tonsils the expression of IL-15 was detected in regions where CD8+ T cells localized, further supporting a role for this cytokine in T cell retention. Together this study provides evidence for the compartmentalization of distinct types of resident memory T cells that could contribute to the long-term protection against persisting viral infections.

  10. New Laugh-making Mechanism of Verbal Humor%幽默言语制笑机制新探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈春彤

    2015-01-01

    In linguistic domain ,there are abundant literatures having been made from different per-spectives to study verbal humor.Centering on the main productive mechanism of verbal humor :incon-gruity ,this study analyze the surface and deep structure of verbal humor and combine its generative mechanism into "The Relevance-Adaptation Model" (Yang Ping ,2001).Therefore ,a comprehensive model for a verbal humor is built.%幽默言语研究在语言学界成果颇丰.围绕着言语幽默制笑的关键机制——"不协调" ,以话语的生成为立足点和切入点——杨平博士(2001 )提出的"关联 -顺应"模式为基础 ,该研究更为深入地剖析言语幽默的组成成分与深层运作机制之后 ,将其纳入言语生成的"关联-顺应"模式中考察 ,从而建立言语幽默制笑机制的统一模型.

  11. Danish Humor in Cross-Cultural Professional Settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundquist, Lita Sander

    2014-01-01

    , with no limits or taboos. These characteristics of Danish humor are analyzed here using two different theoretical frameworks: linguistics – where an explanation is found in certain type-specific features of the Danish language, namely the dialogical particles typical of the Nordic languages in general...... welfare state. Work relationships in Denmark are based on a horizontal, flat structure with low power distance, a structure for which management researchers actually recommend the use of humor, irony and self-irony. Finally, the specificities of Danish humor are linked to a low degree of gelotophobia...

  12. Tipos de humor en la publicidad impresa en Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina María Cifuentes

    2005-01-01

    Una de las herramientas frecuentemente utilizadas por los publicistas para persuadir es el humor. De ahí el creciente interés por estudiar su influencia en el procesamiento, actitudes y comportamiento de los individuos. Se realizó una revisión de investigaciones sobre humor publicitario y sus efectos en la persuasión, atención, comprensión, actitudes y memoria, así como estudios sobre humor y factores culturales, de audiencia, medios masivos y tipos de producto. Se pre...

  13. Political humor as a confrontational tool against the syrian regime

    OpenAIRE

    Camps-Febrer, Blanca

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this working paper is to analyze the inclusion of political humor into the set of actions used by opponents to the Syrian regime during the first year of a state-wide uprising in 2011. The research ar-gues that although political humor has traditionally been seen mainly as a concealed voice against dominant elites, it can nevertheless take a confrontational stance and challenge a regime. In this paper we assess the role of political humor in challenging the legitimacy of the Syrian...

  14. Humor in the teaching of writing: A microethnographic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian F. Hempelmann

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the content of a critical thinking and writing course, along with similar courses derived from it, designed around the topic of humor and culminating in a microethnographic investigation of humor in students’ lives. The aims of the paper are threefold: to offer a general rationale for using humor in the writing classroom; to illustrate different types of potentials and dangers of such an approach; and to suggest extensions of the findings to the second-language writing classroom. The paper offers texts, writing prompts, and activities for instructors teaching classes that focus on the writing process in a first or second language.

  15. ROLE OF PREEXISTING VIRUS-SPECIFIC IgG IN PRIMARY DISEASE AND IN REINFECTION WITH RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Z. Krivitskaya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The aim of the study is evaluation of links between presence in blood of specific pre-existing IgG to respiratory-syncytial virus (RSV, clinical course of RSV infection and character specific to RSV humoral immune response in patients of different ages. The antibodies were detected by ELISA using whole RS virus or synthetic peptides corresponded to the selected determinants of the envelope RSV proteins. It was shown that RS specific maternal IgG antibodies passively transferred to babies in utero can circulate in the blood up to 10 months of life. The analysis of paired sera of 45 babies in the age of 1–10 months revealed firstly that presence of maternal IgG specific antibodies to the conservative B-cell immunogenic determinants of the F-protein (amino acids 221–232 and/or the G-protein (amino acids 152–164 and 184–198 is coupled with more high morbidity of primary RSV infection (89% versus 56%, p = 0.023, and also with more high frequency of complicated by bronchus obstruction course of the disease (81% versus 20%, р = 0.001 in compare with babies who were serologically negative to the maternal determinants specific antibodies. The correlation analysis has shown that the high presence of maternal determinant-specific IgG in the blood in babies till 10 months of life is associated in the case of primary infection with disbalance of humoral anti-viral immune response: intensive synthesis of serum RSV IgA. This is evidence of complicated course of infection with simultaneous suppression of response to RSV specific IgG. As opposed to the primary RSV infection in patients older than 3 years (n = 121 it was not detected links between anamnestic determinant-specific IgG synthesized by own immune system as the results of previous disease episodes and synthesis of anti-RSV IgG, IgM, IgE and IgA in RSV re-infections. In the contrast to babies in more older patients the feedback connection between level of pre-existing determinant

  16. Differential effects of self-esteem and interpersonal competence on humor styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCosker, Bernadette; Moran, Carmen C

    2012-01-01

    Background In contrast with an early implicit “facilitative hypothesis” of humor, a revised specificity hypothesis predicts that the benefits of humor depend on the specific style of humor used. Information on predictors of these humor styles in turn enhances the ability to predict the effect on well-being. Methods We examined the relationships between interpersonal competence, self-esteem, and different styles of humor, while also examining the contributions of age and gender. Participants (n = 201) aged 18–63 years completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory, the Interpersonal Competence Questionnaire, and the Humor Styles Questionnaire, and gave demographic information. Results High self-esteem was associated with higher use of affiliative, aggressive, and self-enhancing humor styles, but lower use of self-defeating humor. High interpersonal competence predicted greater use of affiliative humor, whereas low interpersonal competence predicted greater use of aggressive humor. Further analyses showed that initiation competence predicted affiliative humor (positively) but both initiation competence (positively) and conflict management competence (negatively) predicted aggressive humor. Conclusion The findings that both self-esteem and initiation competence contribute to use of aggressive humor add to knowledge of who is likely to use this potentially harmful humor style. We conclude that a readiness to initiate humorous interactions is not on its own a general and positive attribute contributing to “good” humor. PMID:23180973

  17. Those Who Laugh Are Defenseless: How Humor Breaks Resistance to Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strick, Madelijn; Holland, Rob W.; van Baaren, Rick B.; van Knippenberg, Ad

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments illustrate that humor in advertisements prevents the development of negative brand associations due to resistance. Previous research on humor in advertising suggested that humor can counter negative responses during ad processing, but less is known about the effect of humor on the development of negative brand associations in…

  18. Exploratory Theoretical Tests of the Instructor Humor-Student Learning Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolkan, San; Goodboy, Alan K.

    2015-01-01

    Instructors' use of humor is generally a positive influence on student outcomes. However, examinations of humor have found that specific types of messages may not impact, or may even reverse, its positive effect. Instructional humor processing theory (IHPT) has been used to explain how humor impacts student learning. The current study sought to…

  19. Those Who Laugh Are Defenseless: How Humor Breaks Resistance to Influence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strick, M.A.; Holland, R.W.; Baaren, R.B. van; Knippenberg, A.F.M. van

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments illustrate that humor in advertisements prevents the development of negative brand associations due to resistance. Previous research on humor in advertising suggested that humor can counter negative responses during ad processing, but less is known about the effect of humor on the

  20. The puzzle of joking: Disentangling the cognitive and affective components of humorous distraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strick, M.A.; Holland, R.W.; Baaren, R.B. van; Knippenberg, A.F.M. van

    2010-01-01

    Studies in cognitive psychology, marketing, and education indicate that humor distracts attention from non-humorous information presented at the same time. Two experiments investigated why humor distracts attention. The two basic components of humor comprise (1) incongruency resolution, which poses

  1. Those Who Laugh Are Defenseless: How Humor Breaks Resistance to Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strick, Madelijn; Holland, Rob W.; van Baaren, Rick B.; van Knippenberg, Ad

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments illustrate that humor in advertisements prevents the development of negative brand associations due to resistance. Previous research on humor in advertising suggested that humor can counter negative responses during ad processing, but less is known about the effect of humor on the development of negative brand associations in…

  2. Those Who Laugh Are Defenseless: How Humor Breaks Resistance to Influence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strick, M.A.; Holland, R.W.; Baaren, R.B. van; Knippenberg, A.F.M. van

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments illustrate that humor in advertisements prevents the development of negative brand associations due to resistance. Previous research on humor in advertising suggested that humor can counter negative responses during ad processing, but less is known about the effect of humor on the

  3. Demonstration of Aleutian disease virus-specific lymphocyte response in mink with progressive Aleutian disease: comparison of sapphire and pastel mink infected with different virus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Race, R E; Bloom, M E; Coe, J E

    1983-09-01

    Lymphocyte blastogenesis was used to study the antiviral lymphocyte response of sapphire (Aleutian) and pastel (nonAleutian) mink inoculated with Pullman or Utah 1 Aleutian disease virus (ADV). Both mink genotypes developed a virus-specific response when inoculated with Utah 1 ADV. In contrast, after inoculation of Pullman ADV, sapphire mink had a positive virus-specific response, whereas pastel mink did not. Response occurred late after infection (8 wk) and correlated with the development of progressive Aleutian disease (AD). The response to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) and concanavalin A (Con A) was also determined. Most mink of either genotype, inoculated with either virus strain, maintained an anti-KLH response during disease. Most mink also responded to Con A, although some exhibited suppressed Con A response late in the disease course. These results indicated that mink develop an anti-ADV lymphocyte response during progressive AD and are not immunosuppressed with regard to other antigens or mitogens.

  4. THE TIME IS NOW: MOVING TOWARDS VIRUS-SPECIFIC T CELLS AFTER ALLOGENIC HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION AS THE STANDARD OF CARE

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Adoptive immunotherapy—in particulary T cell therapy—has recently emerged as a useful strategy with the potential to overcome many of the limitations of antiviral drugs for the treatment of viral complications after hematopietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). In this review we briefly summarize the current methods for virus- specific T cell isolation or selection and we report results from clinical trials employing these techniques, focusing specifically on the strategies aimed to broaden ...

  5. THE TIME IS NOW: MOVING TOWARDS VIRUS-SPECIFIC T CELLS AFTER ALLOGENIC HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION AS THE STANDARD OF CARE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saglio, Francesco; Hanley, Patrick J; Bollard, Catherine M

    2014-01-01

    Adoptive immunotherapy—in particulary T cell therapy—has recently emerged as a useful strategy with the potential to overcome many of the limitations of antiviral drugs for the treatment of viral complications after hematopietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). In this review we briefly summarize the current methods for virus- specific T cell isolation or selection and we report results from clinical trials employing these techniques, focusing specifically on the strategies aimed to broaden the application of this technology. PMID:24438896

  6. CODING LOGICAL MECHANISM AND STEREOTYPING IN GENDER CYBER HUMORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truly Almendo Pasaribu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Gender-related humors have their own way of being funny; and this research aims to find out how and why they are funny. For this purpose, both researchers have collected 50 gender cyber humors and analyzed them, first, to decode how their logical mechanism relates to specific linguistic features, and secondly, to uncover how gender stereotyping contributes to the comical effects. The twisting of logic and linguistic ambiguity is analyzed formally using Attardos (2001 General Theory of Verbal Humor (GTVH and supported by gender studies. The findings reveal that the logical mechanism consists of elements of incongruities, and gender stereotyping presents negative stereotypical images. The analysis further shows that some gender stereotypical images ridicule traditional roles of man and woman while others make fun of non-traditional representations. This shift from women only to both men and women as targets of gender humors has been an impact of effective feminist movements.

  7. Universalidad y variabilidad cultural de la risa y el humor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Jáuregui

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available La risa es un fenómeno aparentemente universal, pero el humor que la provoca muestra una variabilidad casi infinita. Este artículo trata de distinguir entre los aspectos universales de la risa y los que son culturalmente variables. Define la risa como una emoción básica del ser humano, provocada por un estímulo cognitivo que depende de definiciones sociales de la situación, lo cual explica al menos en parte su aparente heterogeneidad. Otros aspectos que también pueden variar son las normas y costumbres relativas a la expresión de la risa y del humor, los géneros humorísticos, las instituciones del humor y las definiciones culturales de la risa misma.

  8. La capacidad retorica del humor grafico: la columna grafica

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lemos-Alonso, Haizea

    2012-01-01

    .... En este estudio se plantea un exhaustivo analisis retorico del humor grafico que permita no solo definir su capacidad argumentativa, sino ubicar dicho producto dentro de los estudios tradicionales...

  9. Clonal repertoires of virus-specific CD8+ T lymphocytes are shared in mucosal and systemic compartments during chronic simian immunodeficiency virus infection in rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sircar, Piya; Furr, Kathryn L; Dorosh, Lauren A; Letvin, Norman L

    2010-08-15

    Because it is thought that mucosal tissues play a fundamental role in early HIV/SIV infection, it is crucial to understand the virus-specific responses in mucosal tissues to facilitate devising strategies to prevent and control these infections. We have employed TCR repertoire analyses to define the clonal composition of a dominant SIV epitope-specific CD8(+) T cell population in mucosal and systemic compartments of SIV-infected rhesus monkeys during both acute and chronic infection. We show that the CD8(+) T cell repertoire in mucosal tissues of uninfected rhesus monkeys is oligoclonal, whereas the CD8(+) T cell repertoire in blood is polyclonal. Early postinfection, the SIV-specific CD8(+) T cell clonal repertoire is distinct in mucosal compartments and peripheral blood. However, we observed a narrowing of the virus-specific CD8(+) T cell clonal repertoire in all sampled anatomic compartments as infection progressed from acute to chronic, and there was comparable clonal diversity in all anatomic compartments. We showed during chronic infection that the same clonal populations of virus-specific CD8(+) T cells are present in all compartments. These data indicate that the SIV-specific CD8(+) T cells in systemic and mucosal sites have a shared clonal origin and are, therefore, capable of both responding to infection in the systemic circulation and trafficking to mucosal tissues.

  10. Regional distribution of phospholipids in porcine vitreous humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnepf, Abigail; Yappert, Marta Cecilia; Borchman, Douglas

    2017-07-01

    This project explores the regional phospholipid distribution in porcine vitreous humor, retina, and lens. Matrix-assisted laser desorption mass spectrometry has been used previously to image lipids, proteins, and other metabolites in retinas and lenses. However, the regional composition of phospholipids in vitreous humors is not known. To address this issue, we have applied this mass spectral method to explore the regional phospholipid distribution in porcine vitreous humor both ex-situ and in-vitro. To establish the possible source(s) of phospholipids in the vitreous humor, compositional studies of the lens and retina were also pursued. Due to the overall low levels of phospholipids in vitreous humor, it was necessary to optimize the experimental approaches for ex-situ and in-vitro studies. The sensitivity observed in the spectra of methanol extracts from the lens and retina was higher than that for methanol:chloroform extracts, but the compositional trends were the same. A fourfold improvement in sensitivity was observed in the analysis of vitreous humor extracts obtained with the Bligh and Dyer protocol relative to the other two extraction methods. For ex-situ studies, the 'stamp method' with para-nitroaniline as the matrix was chosen. Throughout the vitreous humor, phosphatidylcholines were the most abundant phospholipids. In-vitro results showed higher relative levels of phospholipids compared to the 'stamp' method. However, more details in the regional phospholipid distribution were provided by the ex-situ approach. Both in-vitro and ex-situ results indicated higher levels of phospholipids in the posterior vitreous region, followed by the anterior and central regions. The posterior region contained more unsaturated species whereas more saturated phospholipids were detected in the anterior region. The observed trends suggest that the phospholipids detected in the posterior vitreous humor migrate from the retina and associated vasculature while those present in

  11. How fun are your meetings? How and when humor patterns emerge and impact team performance.

    OpenAIRE

    Lehmann-Willenbrock, N.K.; Allen, J A

    2014-01-01

    Research on humor in organizations has rarely considered the social context in which humor occurs. One such social setting that most of us experience on a daily basis concerns the team context. Building on recent theorizing about the humor–performance link in teams, this study seeks to increase our understanding of the function and effects of humor in team interaction settings. We examined behavioral patterns of humor and laughter in real teams by videotaping and coding humor and laughter dur...

  12. Gastric cancer progression associated with local humoral immune responses

    OpenAIRE

    Yolanda, López-Vidal; Sergio, Ponce-de-León; Hugo, Esquivel-Solís; Isabel, Amieva-Fernández Rosa; Rafael, Barreto-Zúñiga; Aldo, Torre-Delgadillo; Gonzalo, Castillo-Rojas

    2015-01-01

    Background Although the association between H. pylori and gastric cancer has been well described, the alterations studies are scarce in the humoral immune response in specific anatomical areas of stomach and during the stages of gastric cancer. The aim in this study was to determine the influence of humoral immune responses against H. pylori infection on gastric carcinoma. Methods We selected 16 gastric cancer cases and approximately one matched control per case at the National Institute of M...

  13. The Experience of Failed Humor: Implications for Interpersonal Affect Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Michele; Emich, Kyle J

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate failed interpersonal affect regulation through the lens of humor. We investigated individual differences that influenced people's affective and cognitive responses to failed humor and their willingness to persist in the interpersonal regulation of positive affect after a failed attempt. Using well-established autobiographical narrative methods and surveys, we collected data at two time points. All participants (n = 127) received identical surveys at time 1. At time 2, they were randomly assigned to complete a narrative about either successful or failed humor as well as a second survey. Using moderated regression analyses and SEM, we found significant differences between our failed and successful humor conditions. Specifically, individual differences, including gender, affective perspective taking, and humor self-efficacy, were associated with negative reactions to failed humor and the willingness of individuals to persist in the interpersonal regulation of positive affect. Moreover, affective perspective taking moderated the effect of gender in both the failed and successful humor conditions. Our results suggest that failed humor is no laughing matter. Understanding individuals' willingness to continue in attempts to regulate the affect of others contributes to the comprehension of an understudied phenomenon that has implications for interpersonal behavior in organizations such as helping, group decision making, and intragroup conflict. Studies of interpersonal affect regulation often focus on people's ability to successfully regulate others' emotions. In contrast, this is the first quantitative study to explore factors that influence individual's willingness to persist in interpersonal affect regulation after failure, and to investigate how individual differences influence the personal outcomes associated with failed attempts.

  14. Conversational Agents and the Construction of Humorous Acts

    OpenAIRE

    Nijholt, Anton; Nishida, Toyoaki

    2007-01-01

    In this chapter we discuss the generation of humorous acts by embodied agents. It is observed that in future interfaces that are meant to allow natural interaction, embodied agents can play useful roles. Humor plays an important role in human-human interaction and therefore it is useful to investigate how it should become part of the internal modeling of an embodied agent, along with intelligence and emotion modeling. Employment of embodied agents will also give rise to expectations concernin...

  15. Embodied Agents: A New Impetus to Humor Research

    OpenAIRE

    Stock, O.; Strapparava, C.; Nijholt, A.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we survey the role of humor in human-to-human interaction with the aim to see whether it is useful for embodied conversational agents to integrate humor capabilities in their internal model of intelligence, emotions and interaction (verbal and nonverbal) capabilities. For that reason we shortly survey the current state of the art of research in embodied conversational agents, affective computing and verbal and nonverbal interaction. We adhere to the ‘Computers Are Social Actors’...

  16. Humorous Names in the Light of Incongruity Theory

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The article addresses the humorous function of proper names in the light of incongruity theory. It aims at proving that, although names are often defined as pragmatically “transparent,” they may possess some humorous value due to semantic and pragmatic shifts resulting from the disturbance of ordinary patterns of proper names identification and interpretation. After a brief introduction, the author discusses different variants of incongruity theory as resented in the works by Victor Raskin an...

  17. Humor, laughter, learning, and health! A brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Brandon M; Lujan, Heidi L; Thipparthi, Raghavendar R; DiCarlo, Stephen E

    2017-09-01

    Human emotions, such as anxiety, depression, fear, joy, and laughter, profoundly affect psychological and physiological processes. These emotions form a set of basic, evolved functions that are shared by all humans. Laughter is part of a universal language of basic emotions that all humans recognize. Health care providers and educators may utilize the power of laughter to improve health and enhance teaching and learning. This is an important consideration because teaching is not just about content: it is also about forming relationships and strengthening human connections. In this context, when used effectively, humor is documented to build relationships and enhance performance. Specifically, humor improves student performance by attracting and sustaining attention, reducing anxiety, enhancing participation, and increasing motivation. Moreover, humor stimulates multiple physiological systems that decrease levels of stress hormones, such as cortisol and epinephrine, and increase the activation of the mesolimbic dopaminergic reward system. To achieve these benefits, it is important to use humor that is relevant to the course content and not disparaging toward others. Self-effacing humor illustrates to students that the teacher is comfortable making mistakes and sharing these experiences with the classroom. In this brief review, we discuss the history and relationship between humor, laughing, learning, and health with an emphasis on the powerful, universal language of laughter. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Hipercalcemia humoral secundaria a carcinoma mixto de endometrio Humoral hypercalcemia in mixed endometrial carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    I. Pinal-Fernández

    2010-01-01

    La hipercalcemia secundaria a enfermedad neoplásica es una entidad frecuente causada en la mayor parte de los casos por secreción ectópica de PTHrp. A pesar de esto hay ciertos tumores, como los carcinomas uterinos, en donde este tipo de manifestación paraneoplásica está muy poco descrita. Presentamos un caso de hipercalcemia humoral en un carcinoma mixto de endometrio.Hypercalcemia secondary to neoplastic disease is a frequent entity caused in the majority of cases by ectopic secretions of P...

  19. The humor after of the humor: concepts around Pablo Holberg´s Eden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Turnes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of 21st century comics production in Argentina have experienced the emergence of new methods of publication, promotion and circulation consisting of a series of devices whose complex relationship has redefined the authorial figureas well as a new reading audience. The passage from the Internet and digital formats to the book has established itself as post-industrial strategy in the context of the reconstitution of a diverse comics field, where the national tradition of humor serves as example of the mentioned changes

  20. Humor styles and personality: A meta-analysis of the relation between humor styles and the Big Five personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendiburo-Seguel, Andrés; Páez, Darío; Martínez-Sánchez, Francisco

    2015-06-01

    This research summarizes the knowledge generated in social psychology and positive psychology about the relationship between humor styles, personality and wellbeing. Specifically, a meta-analysis was performed with the results of 15 studies on humor styles measured by the Humor Styles Questionnaire (Martin, Puhlik-Doris, Larsen, Gray & Weir, 2003) in correlation with the personality traits measured by the Big Five Personality model (measured with different scales). Following the steps presented by Rosenthal (1991) for meta-analysis in the case of correlational research, we calculated the total mean r as an indicator of effect size. Results show that affiliative humor has a strong and homogeneous relation to neuroticism and extraversion. The homogeneity and heterogeneity found between variables and possible explanations are discussed in the conclusion.

  1. Humorous "Era" stories from the Arilje region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Desanka P.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses humorous stories collected in the village of Brekovo near Arilje; the stories were created in the first half of the 20th century and noted down by Momčilo Jovanović, a villager from Brekovo. Later on, in the 1980's, the stories were passed down to the author of this paper. These narrations are mostly short stories and anecdotes; in a very realistic fashion, the stories depict life and culture of the Dinaric race from old Vlah - Zlatibor cultural area, namely, the type of person also known as "Era", well-known for its wittiness, smartness and wisdom. Based on the analysis of seven Era-stories, the author identified the social and cultural values highlighted in the stories (such as attitudes toward authorities intergenerational relationship, status of women, power relations between townsmen and peasants, propensity toward justice and truth. In summary, the stories document the mutual influence between traditional culture and the Era personality in this particular rural region; therefore, they could contribute to studies on character traits of the inhabitants in a given area of western Serbia.

  2. Convective transport resistance in the vitreous humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penkova, Anita; Sadhal, Satwindar; Ratanakijsuntorn, Komsan; Moats, Rex; Tang, Yang; Hughes, Patrick; Robinson, Michael; Lee, Susan

    2012-11-01

    It has been established by MRI visualization experiments that the convection of nanoparticles and large molecules with high rate of water flow in the vitreous humor will experience resistance, depending on the respective permeabilities of the injected solute. A set of experiments conducted with Gd-DTPA (Magnevist, Bayer AG, Leverkusen, Germany) and 30 nm gadolinium-based particles (Gado CELLTrackTM, Biopal, Worcester, MA) as MRI contrast agents showed that the degree of convective transport in this Darcy-type porous medium varies between the two solutes. These experiments consisted of injecting a mixture of the two (a 30 μl solution of 2% Magnevist and 1% nanoparticles) at the middle of the vitreous of an ex vivo whole bovine eye and subjecting the vitreous to water flow rate of 100 μl/min. The water (0.9% saline solution) was injected at the top of the eye, and was allowed to drain through small slits cut at the bottom of the eyeball. After 50 minutes of pumping, MRI images showed that the water flow carried the Gd-DTPA farther than the nanoparticles, even though the two solutes, being mixed, were subjected to the same convective flow conditions. We find that the convected solute lags the water flow, depending on the solute permeability. The usual convection term needs to be adjusted to allow for the filtration effect on the larger particles in the form (1- σ) u . ∇ c with important implications for the modeling of such systems.

  3. Whole vitreous humor dissection for vitreodynamic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murali, Karthik; Kashani, Amir H; Humayun, Mark S

    2015-05-24

    The authors propose an effective technique to isolate whole, intact vitreous core and cortex from post mortem enucleated porcine eyes. While previous studies have shown the results of such dissections, the detailed steps have not been described, precluding researchers outside the field from replicating their methods. Other studies harvest vitreous either through aspiration, which does not maintain the vitreous structure anatomy, or through partial dissection, which only isolates the vitreous core. The proposed method isolates the whole vitreous body, with the vitreous core and cortex intact, while maintaining vitreous anatomy and structural integrity. In this method, a full thickness scleral flap in an enucleated porcine eye is first created and through this, the choroid tissue can be separated from the sclera. The scleral flap is then expanded and the choroid is completely separated from the sclera. Finally the choroid-retina tissue is peeled off the vitreous to leave an isolated intact vitreous body. The proposed vitreous dissection technique can be used to study physical properties of the vitreous humor. In particular, this method has significance for experimental studies involving drug delivery, vitreo-retinal oxygen transport, and intraocular convection.

  4. Intrathecal Humoral Immunity to Encephalitic RNA Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia C. Bergmann

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The nervous system is the target for acute encephalitic viral infections, as well as a reservoir for persisting viruses. Intrathecal antibody (Ab synthesis is well documented in humans afflicted by infections associated with neurological complications, as well as the demyelinating disease, multiple sclerosis. This review focuses on the origin, recruitment, maintenance, and biological relevance of Ab-secreting cells (ASC found in the central nervous system (CNS following experimental neurotropic RNA virus infections. We will summarize evidence for a highly dynamic, evolving humoral response characterized by temporal alterations in B cell subsets, proliferation, and differentiation. Overall local Ab plays a beneficial role via complement-independent control of virus replication, although cross or self-reactive Ab to CNS antigens may contribute to immune-mediated pathogenesis during some infections. Importantly, protective Ab exert anti-viral activity not only by direct neutralization, but also by binding to cell surface-expressed viral glycoproteins. Ab engagement of viral glycoproteins blocks budding and mediates intracellular signaling leading to restored homeostatic and innate functions. The sustained Ab production by local ASC, as well as chemokines and cytokines associated with ASC recruitment and retention, are highlighted as critical components of immune control.

  5. Study on the CE/EC Humorous Utterances Translation under the Skopos Theory%Study on the CE/EC Humorous Utterances Translation under the Skopos Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛昆

    2012-01-01

    This thesis takes the Skopos Theory which is the core of German functionalism as the breakthrough point. According to the general classification of humorous utterance, this thesis divides it into situational humor and language humor. This thesis aims to analyze the application of the Skopos Theory in the two classifications of humorous utterances translation from the two perspectives which are conformity and conflict between the source-te~tfunction and the target-text function.

  6. Priming Cross-Protective Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus-Specific Immunity Using Live-Vectored Mosaic Antigens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xin; Waghela, Suryakant D.; Bray, Jocelyn; Njongmeta, Leo M.; Herring, Andy; Abdelsalam, Karim W.; Chase, Christopher; Mwangi, Waithaka

    2017-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) plays a key role in bovine respiratory disease complex, which can lead to pneumonia, diarrhea and death of calves. Current vaccines are not very effective due, in part, to immunosuppressive traits and failure to induce broad protection. There are diverse BVDV strains and thus, current vaccines contain representative genotype 1 and 2 viruses (BVDV-1 & 2) to broaden coverage. BVDV modified live virus (MLV) vaccines are superior to killed virus vaccines, but they are susceptible to neutralization and complement-mediated destruction triggered by passively acquired antibodies, thus limiting their efficacy. We generated three novel mosaic polypeptide chimeras, designated NproE2123; NS231; and NS232, which incorporate protective determinants that are highly conserved among BVDV-1a, 1b, and BVDV-2 genotypes. In addition, strain-specific protective antigens from disparate BVDV strains were included to broaden coverage. We confirmed that adenovirus constructs expressing these antigens were strongly recognized by monoclonal antibodies, polyclonal sera, and IFN-γ-secreting T cells generated against diverse BVDV strains. In a proof-of-concept efficacy study, the multi-antigen proto-type vaccine induced higher, but not significantly different, IFN-γ spot forming cells and T-cell proliferation compared to a commercial MLV vaccine. In regards to the humoral response, the prototype vaccine induced higher BVDV-1 specific neutralizing antibody titers, whereas the MLV vaccine induced higher BVDV-2 specific neutralizing antibody titers. Following BVDV type 2a (1373) challenge, calves immunized with the proto-type or the MLV vaccine had lower clinical scores compared to naïve controls. These results support the hypothesis that a broadly protective subunit vaccine can be generated using mosaic polypeptides that incorporate rationally selected and validated protective determinants from diverse BVDV strains. Furthermore, regarding biosafety of using a

  7. Humor as a Communication Strategy in Provider-Patient Communication in a Chronic Care Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöpf, Andrea C; Martin, Gillian S; Keating, Mary A

    2017-02-01

    Humor is a potential communication strategy to accomplish various and potentially conflicting consultation goals. We investigated humor use and its reception in diabetes consultations by analyzing how and why humor emerges and its impact on the interaction. We did this by using an interactional sociolinguistics approach. We recorded 50 consultations in an Irish diabetes setting. Analysis of the humor events drew on framework analysis and on concepts from Conversation Analysis and pragmatics. The study also comprised interviews using tape-assisted recall. We identified 10 humor functions and two umbrella functions. A key finding is that most humor is relationship-protecting humor initiated by patients, that is, they voice serious messages and deal with emotional issues through humor. Our findings imply that patients' and providers' awareness of indirect communication strategies needs to be increased. We also recommend that researchers employ varied methods to adequately capture the interactive nature of humor.

  8. The Use of Humor in Forensic Mental Health Staff-Patient Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, Lise; Alkier Gildberg, Frederik; Bradley, S. K.;

    2014-01-01

    Humor utilized in the practice of forensic mental health nursing might seem somehow inappropriate, given the serious circumstances surrounding most forensic mental health patients. However, some recent research has pointed to the use of humor as an important component in staff interactions...... with forensic mental health patients. This study reviews the existing international forensic mental health research literature on humor to investigate (a) what characterizes forensic mental health staff-patient use of humor and (b) what significance humor holds within the forensic mental health setting...... identified: (a) "humor as staff skill," showing that staff found humor to be important as an interpersonal ability; (b) "humor as a relational tool" with the purpose of establishing and maintaining staff-patient interactions; and (c) "the impact of humor on patients," describing impacts on conflicts...

  9. Vitreous humor rheology after Nd:YAG laser photo disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelkawi, Salwa A; Abdel-Salam, Ahmed M; Ghoniem, Dina F; Ghaly, Sally K

    2014-03-01

    This work aimed to consider the hazardous side effect of eye floaters treatment with Q-switched Nd:YAG laser on the protein and viscoelastic properties of the vitreous humor, and evaluate the protective role of vitamin C against laser photo disruption. Five groups of New Zealand rabbits were divided as follows: control group for (n = 3) without any treatment, the second group (n = 9) treated with Q-switched Nd:YAG laser energy of 5 mJ × 100 pulse delivered to the anterior, middle, and posterior vitreous, respectively (n = 3 for each). The third group (n = 9) received a daily dose of 25 mg/kg body weight vitamin C for 2 weeks, and then treated with laser as the previous group. The fourth group (n = 9) treated with 10 mJ 9 50 pulse delivered to the anterior, middle, and posterior vitreous, respectively (n = 3 rabbits each). The fifth group (n = 9) received a daily dose of 25 mg/kg body weight vitamin C for 2 weeks, and then treated with laser as the previous group. After 2 weeks of laser treatment, the protein content, refractive index (RI), and the rheological properties of vitreous humor, such as consistency, shear stress, and viscosity, were determined. The results showed that, the anterior vitreous group exposed to of 5 mJ × 100 pulse and/or supplemented with vitamin C, showed no obvious change. Furthermore, all other treated groups especially for mid-vitreous and posterior vitreous humor showed increase in the protein content, RI and the viscosity of vitreous humor. The flow index remained below unity indicating the non-Newtonian behavior of the vitreous humor. Application of Q-switched Nd:YAG laser should be restricted to the anterior vitreous humor to prevent the deleterious effect of laser on the gel state of the vitreous humor.

  10. Cannabis e humor Cannabis and mood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Faria Sanches

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as relações entre o uso agudo e crônico de cannabis e alterações do humor. MÉTODO: Os artigos foram selecionados por meio de busca eletrônica no indexador PubMed. Capítulos de livros e as listas de referências dos artigos selecionados também foram revisados. RESULTADOS: Observam-se elevados índices de comorbidade entre abuso/dependência de cannabis e transtornos afetivos em estudos transversais e em amostras clínicas. Estudos longitudinais indicam que, em longo prazo, o uso mais intenso de cannabis está relacionado com um risco maior de desenvolvimento de doença bipolar e, talvez, depressão maior em indivíduos inicialmente sem quadros afetivos; porém, os mesmos não encontraram maior risco de uso de cannabis entre aqueles com mania ou depressão sem esta comorbidade. Outra importante observação é que o uso de substâncias psicoativas em bipolares pode estar associado a uma série de características negativas, como dificuldade na recuperação dos sintomas afetivos, maior número de internações, piora na adesão ao tratamento, risco aumentado de suicídio, agressividade e a uma pobre resposta ao lítio. Tratamentos psicossociais e farmacológicos são indicados para o manejo da comorbidade entre cannabis e transtornos afetivos. CONCLUSÃO: As relações entre o uso de cannabis e alterações do humor são observadas tanto epidemiologicamente quanto nos contextos clínicos.OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the relationship between acute and chronic use of cannabis and mood changes. METHOD: Articles were selected by electronic search in PubMed. Chapters in books and reference lists of selected articles were also reviewed. As the research did not involve humans, there was no evaluation by a Research Ethics Committee. RESULTS: High rates of comorbidity between use/abuse/dependence of cannabis and affective disorders in longitudinal studies and in clinical samples were observed. Longitudinal studies indicate that, in long

  11. Humoral immune response of the small-spotted catshark, Scyliorhinus canicula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Kathryn; Smith, Lauren E; Williams, Rebecca; Cao, Wei; Lee, Mike; Jensen, Allan; Dooley, Helen

    2013-05-01

    Cartilaginous fishes are the oldest group in which an adaptive immune system based on immunoglobulin-superfamily members is found. This manuscript compares humoral immune function in small-spotted catshark (Scyliorhinus canicula) with that described for spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias), another member of the Squalomorphi superorder, and nurse shark, the model for humoral immunity in elasmobranchs and a member of the Galeomorphi superorder. Although small-spotted catshark and nurse shark are separated by over 200 million years we found that immunoglobulin isoforms are well conserved between the two species. However, the plasma protein profile of small-spotted catshark was most similar to that of spiny dogfish, with low levels of pentameric IgM, and IgNAR present as a multimer in plasma rather than a monomer. We show that an antigen-specific monomeric IgM response, with a profile similar to that described previously for nurse sharks, can be raised in small-spotted catshark. Lacking polyclonal or monoclonal antibody reagents for detecting catshark IgNAR we investigated phage-display and recombinant Fc-fusion protein expression as alternative methods to look for an antigen-specific response for this isotype. However, we could find no evidence of an antigen-specific IgNAR in the animals tested using either of these techniques. Thus, unlike nurse sharks where antigen-specific monomeric IgM and IgNAR appear together, it seems there may be a temporal or complete 'uncoupling' of these isotypes during a humoral response in the small-spotted catshark.

  12. A Study of Humor in Lost in Thailand from the Perspective of Presupposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洁

    2014-01-01

    Humor study enjoys a long history with a variety of theories and methods. Among them, the pragmatic approach is a relatively new and vigorous perspective. Scholars have adopted the cooperative principle and relevance theory to explain humor. However, as to studying humor from the perspective of pragmatic presupposition, very few researches have been done in this regard. Such being the case, this paper will use presupposition as a tool to analyze humor in Lost in Thailand which is a sensational comedy in China. By analyzing cases from this film, the paper aims to explore how presupposition functions in the production of humorous effect, and to provide some new insights into humor study.

  13. An Analysis of Verbal Humor in American Sitcom The Big Bang Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴珍; 芮艳芳

    2015-01-01

    Humor plays an indispensable part in human communication. This thesis is a tentative analysis of verbal humor under-standing within the framework of Relevance Theory. This paper, using The Big Bang Theory as a corpus, analyzes the humor gener-ated in the cognitive process of searching for relevance. According to the Relevance Theory, the understanding of humor is a pro-cess in which the hearer finds"relevance"in what seems"irrelevant". The author hopes that this analysis can help more people un-derstand and appreciate the humor in The Big Bang Theory. And meanwhile their personal sense of humor can also be improved.

  14. Does Humor Explain Why Relationally Aggressive Adolescents Are Popular?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, Julie C.; Etkin, Rebecca G.

    2013-01-01

    The association between relational aggression and popularity during early adolescence is well established. Yet, little is known about why, exactly, relationally aggressive young adolescents are able to achieve and maintain high popular status among peers. The present study investigated the mediating role of humor in the association between relational aggression and popularity during early adolescence. Also considered was whether the association between relational aggression and humor varies according to adolescents’ gender and their friends’ levels of relational aggression. Participants were 265 sixth-grade students (48% female; 41% racial/ethnic minority; Mage = 12.04 years) who completed peer nomination and friendship measures in their classrooms at two time points (Wave 1: February; Wave 2: May). The results indicated that Wave 1 relational aggression was related to Wave 1 and 2 popularity indirectly through Wave 1 humor, after accounting for the effects of Wave 1 physical aggression, ethnicity, and gender. Additional analyses showed that relational aggression and humor were related significantly only for boys and for young adolescents with highly relationally aggressive friends. The results support the need for further research on humor and aggression during early adolescence and other mechanisms by which relationally aggressive youth achieve high popular status. PMID:24136377

  15. The time is now: moving toward virus-specific T cells after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation as the standard of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saglio, Francesco; Hanley, Patrick J; Bollard, Catherine M

    2014-02-01

    Adoptive immunotherapy-in particular, T-cell therapy-has recently emerged as a useful strategy with the potential to overcome many of the limitations of antiviral drugs for the treatment of viral complications after hematopietic stem cell transplantation. In this review, we briefly summarize the current methods for virus-specific T-cell isolation or selection and we report results from clinical trials that have used these techniques, focusing specifically on the strategies aimed to broaden the application of this technology.

  16. Differential effects of self-esteem and interpersonal competence on humor styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCosker B

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Bernadette McCosker, Carmen C MoranSchool of Psychology, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, NSW, AustraliaBackground: In contrast with an early implicit “facilitative hypothesis” of humor, a revised specificity hypothesis predicts that the benefits of humor depend on the specific style of humor used. Information on predictors of these humor styles in turn enhances the ability to predict the effect on well-being.Methods: We examined the relationships between interpersonal competence, self-esteem, and different styles of humor, while also examining the contributions of age and gender. Participants (n = 201 aged 18–63 years completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory, the Interpersonal Competence Questionnaire, and the Humor Styles Questionnaire, and gave demographic information.Results: High self-esteem was associated with higher use of affiliative, aggressive, and self-enhancing humor styles, but lower use of self-defeating humor. High interpersonal competence predicted greater use of affiliative humor, whereas low interpersonal competence predicted greater use of aggressive humor. Further analyses showed that initiation competence predicted affiliative humor (positively but both initiation competence (positively and conflict management competence (negatively predicted aggressive humor.Conclusion: The findings that both self-esteem and initiation competence contribute to use of aggressive humor add to knowledge of who is likely to use this potentially harmful humor style. We conclude that a readiness to initiate humorous interactions is not on its own a general and positive attribute contributing to “good” humor.Keywords: self-esteem, interpersonal competence, humor styles, differential effects

  17. The Use of Humor in Serious Mental Illness: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Gelkopf

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is now a relatively good understanding of the broad range of direct and indirect effects of humor and laughter on perceptions, attitudes, judgments and emotions, which can potentially benefit the physical and psychological state. This article presents a review and discussion of the use of humor and laughter in treating people with serious mental illness, distinguishing between clinical papers on individual and group psychotherapy, and empirical research reports describing humor and laughter interventions. In spite of the exponential growth of the field over the last 30 years, I conclude that empirical studies are still lacking, the studies that do exist have major methodological shortcomings, and the field is in dire need of further investigation.

  18. The Use of Humor in Serious Mental Illness: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelkopf, Marc

    2011-01-01

    There is now a relatively good understanding of the broad range of direct and indirect effects of humor and laughter on perceptions, attitudes, judgments and emotions, which can potentially benefit the physical and psychological state. This article presents a review and discussion of the use of humor and laughter in treating people with serious mental illness, distinguishing between clinical papers on individual and group psychotherapy, and empirical research reports describing humor and laughter interventions. In spite of the exponential growth of the field over the last 30 years, I conclude that empirical studies are still lacking, the studies that do exist have major methodological shortcomings, and the field is in dire need of further investigation. PMID:19687190

  19. Using humor in systematic desensitization to reduce fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventis, W L; Higbee, G; Murdock, S A

    2001-04-01

    Effectiveness of systematic desensitization for fear reduction, using humorous hierarchy scenes without relaxation, was tested. Participants were 40 students highly fearful of spiders. Using a 24-item behavioral approach test with an American tarantula, participants were matched on fear level and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups: (a) systematic desensitization, (b) humor desensitization, and (c) untreated controls. Each participant was seen for 6 sessions, including pretest and posttest. Analyses of covariance of posttest scores revealed that the 2 treatment groups showed greater reduction in fear than the controls on 3 measures but did not differ from each other. Therefore, humor in systematic desensitization reduced fear as effectively as more traditional desensitization. This finding may have therapeutic applications; however, it may also be applicable in advertising to desensitize fear of a dangerous product, such as cigarettes.

  20. Was that really funny? The politics of humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, M M

    1995-07-01

    Everybody loves a comic--or do they? A Human Resources Department picked up a pattern when several departing employees, all excellent performers, said they liked their jobs but felt "excluded" from the camaraderie. One said he'd found the humor "barbed." Another said she's never seen anything funny in jokes that seemed to convulse everyone else. The past five years have been so gloomy, economically speaking, that, in many hospitals and health care organizations, laughter is a mega-event. But lately I've been listening to what employees joke about and watching how their humor affects others. Physician executives need to be alert to some kinds of humor that are weapons used by employees against other employees, their managers, and the company generally.

  1. VIOLENCE DRESSED IN HUMOR: COMEDIC VIOLENCE IN ADVERTISING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia Gradinaru

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the concepts of humor and violence and their complex relationships contextualised in the advertising domain. Thus, the main theories of humor and the most important elements from media violence paradigms are critically pointed out. The effects of comedic violence in advertising may be positive (great involvement with the ad message, retention of brand information, higher pass-along probability, and also negative (offending the audience, desensitization, damaging the reputation and the brand equity. A lot of factors change the perception of comedic violent ads (gender, social norm beliefs etc., so that a multidimensional analysis of consumer perceptions is needed if we want to draw a more accurate picture of this phenomenon. The analysis of the specific ad that I developed in the second part of this paper showed clearly the interplay between perceived humor and perceived violence and also the relevance of the cultural background in its interpretation.

  2. Analysis on the Humor and Irony in Pride and Prejudice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓越

    2016-01-01

    Pride and Prejudice, published in 1813, is the most influential work of British female writer Jane Austen (1775-1817). By analyzing Jane Austen's representative novel, Pride and Prejudice, we are convinced by the excellent humor and irony used in it. Irony in Pride and Prejudice is mainly embodied in Austen's verbal irony, situational irony and dramatic irony. Under the perspective of stylistics, this paper analyzes dialogues, descriptive and commentary language and the arrangement of the whole plots of Austen's Pride and Prejudice to show how the different tones of humor and irony are reflected in the novel. This paper also focuses on the significance in portraying the characteristics of the roles and theme performance of humor and irony used in Pride and Prejudice, which help us to appreciate the satire literature.

  3. Reconsidering language teaching through a focus on humor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Bell

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Formal language education is often predicated on a series of modernist fictions that greatly simplify the nature of language and the process of communication. Acts of linguistic creativity involving humor and language play are frequently either ignored or considered deviant. In this paper, we contribute to ongoing efforts to re-conceptualize language education in ways that make use of more robust (and less modernist theories of language and communication. We revisit calls for more pedagogical focus on humor and language play and illustrate how more attention to these types of language might help us to move away from some of the classroom fictions that currently constrain teachers and learners alike. Specifically, we present recent conceptions of language and of communication, and discuss how, in light of these, humor and language play can be used to increase learners’ metalinguistic awareness and expand their communicative/interpretive repertoires.

  4. Validation of the Humor Style Questionnaire with university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Cassaretto B.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study validates the Humor Style Questionnaire in a group of 315 university students of both genders from Lima, Peru, with an average age of 19,7. The Humor Style Questionnaire (HSQ by Martin, Puhlik-Doris, Larsen, Gray & Weir (2003, the Psychological Well-Being Scale (BIEPS-A by Casullo (2002 and the Hope Scale by Herth (1991 were used. After the neutralization of four items, results show reliability coefficients between 0,64 to 0,78 and a factorial structure confirming the existence of four factors (42,94% of the total variance.Results show positive associations between psychological well-being and hope with affiliation and self-enhancing styles, and negative associations between aggression and self-defeating humor. Results support the convergence validity and the construct of the scale.

  5. Erotismo, sexualidad y humor en las danzas del altiplano boliviano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveline Sigl

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo analiza la importancia del erotismo, la sexualidad y el humor en las danzas del altiplano boliviano. Demuestra que estos elementos performativos no solo están fuertemente interconectados, sino también íntimamente ligados a la sacralidad andina. La primera parte del texto está dedicada a los componentes humorísticos y lúdicos del enamoramiento mediante la danza, postulando que humor y alegría forman parte del “erotismo andino”. Mientras tanto, la segunda parte estudia el “transformismo ritual andino”, que consiste en presentaciones dancísticas sumamente jocosas y fuertemente sexuadas a cargo de hombres hetero y homosexuales disfrazados de mujer.

  6. Maternal antibody transfer can lead to suppression of humoral immunity in developing zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Loren; Grindstaff, Jennifer L

    2014-01-01

    Maternally transferred antibodies have been documented in a wide range of taxa and are thought to adaptively provide protection against parasites and pathogens while the offspring immune system is developing. In most birds, transfer occurs when females deposit immunoglobulin Y into the egg yolk, and it is proportional to the amount in the female's plasma. Maternal antibodies can provide short-term passive protection as well as specific and nonspecific immunological priming, but high levels of maternal antibody can result in suppression of the offspring's humoral immune response. We injected adult female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) with one of two antigens (lipopolysaccharide [LPS] or keyhole limpet hemocyanin [KLH]) or a control and then injected offspring with LPS, KLH, or a control on days 5 and 28 posthatch to examine the impact of maternally transferred antibodies on the ontogeny of the offspring's humoral immune system. We found that offspring of females exposed to KLH had elevated levels of KLH-reactive antibody over the first 17-28 days posthatch but reduced KLH-specific antibody production between days 28 and 36. We also found that offspring exposed to either LPS or KLH exhibited reduced total antibody levels, compared to offspring that received a control injection. These results indicate that high levels of maternal antibodies or antigen exposure during development can have negative repercussions on short-term antibody production and may have long-term fitness repercussions for the offspring.

  7. Validation of the Humor Style Questionnaire with university students

    OpenAIRE

    Mónica Cassaretto B.; Patricia Martínez U.

    2009-01-01

    This study validates the Humor Style Questionnaire in a group of 315 university students of both genders from Lima, Peru, with an average age of 19,7. The Humor Style Questionnaire (HSQ) by Martin, Puhlik-Doris, Larsen, Gray & Weir (2003), the Psychological Well-Being Scale (BIEPS-A) by Casullo (2002) and the Hope Scale by Herth (1991) were used. After the neutralization of four items, results show reliability coefficients between 0,64 to 0,78 and a factorial structure confirming the exis...

  8. Humor e Shoah: O trem da vida, de Radu Mihaileanu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyslei Nascimento

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Um vilarejo da Ucrânia, na Europa Oriental, no ano de 1941, é o cenário do filme O trem da vida, do diretor romeno Radu Mihaileanu. O roteiro, ao se afastar de dados históricos e de uma configuração realista da Shoah, configura-­se como uma fábula. Não é fácil fazer humor, muito menos, sobre a catástrofe. O humor presente no filme de Mihaileanu é reflexivo, expondo, com leveza, as fraturas do discurso.

  9. [Neuropsychology of humor: an introduction Part 1. Psychological data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derouesné, Christian

    2016-03-01

    Humor is, from a psychological point of view, a complex process involving cognitive, affective, interspersonal and social elements in a interpersonal context. Its cognitive core is based on the perception of incongruity between two related inconsistent or contradictory mental representations. The total or partial resolution of incongruity in a playful frame is associated with a specific positive emotion, which characteristics and intensity are determined by the structure of the humoristic stimulus more than its content, and the personal and social contexts. Main theories of humor are reviewed as well as its development, its cognitive and affective correlates, and the influence of genre, age and personality.

  10. Using Humor in Treatment of Substance Use Disorders: Worthy of Further Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canha, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Throughout the literature, humor has demonstrated positive effects on memory and learning, as well as physiological and psychological well being. Research has described improvements in communication and trust through the use of humor in the nurse-patient relationship. The utilization of humor with certain populations, including those with anxiety disorders, cancer patients and mood disorders has also been widely described in the literature but little research has been conducted with humor use in patients' recovery from substance use disorders. This population might benefit from the thoughtful applications of humor to promote laughter and mirth as well as learning recovery principles. A review of the humor theories, theoretical processes and humor styles are discussed for their use in individuals with substance use disorders, in particularly for early recovery engagement in 12 step programs and other recover support social networks. The application of humor in efforts to support recovery with substance use disorder patients is worth investigating further.

  11. Humor in print health advertisements: enhanced attention, privileged recognition, and persuasiveness of preventive messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, Nathalie; Brigaud, Emmanuelle

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the effect of humor in one particular type of print advertisement: the preventive health ads for three topics (alcohol, tobacco, obesity). Previous research using commercial ads demonstrated that individuals' attention is spontaneously attracted by humor, leading to a memory advantage for humorous information over nonhumorous information. Two experiments investigated whether the positive effect of humor can occur with preventive health ads. In Experiment 1, participants observed humorous and nonhumorous health ads while their viewing times were recorded. In Experiment 2, to compare humorous and nonhumorous ads, the memory of health messages was assessed through a recognition task and a convincing score was collected. The results confirmed that, compared to nonhumorous health ads, those using humor received prolonged attention, were judged more convincing, and their messages were better recognized. Overall, these findings suggest that humor can be of use in preventive health communication.

  12. Analysis of Humor in The Big Bang Theory Based on the Conversational Relevance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Yang

    2014-01-01

    Humor is the life buoy in waves of life. Pragmatics and humor are closely linked. Relevance is one of the important topics of Pragmatics. This paper takes the lines from The Big Bang Theory as a case study and analyzes the humorous effect from the perspective of Principle of Relevance and Conversational Relevance, hoping to help people deepen the appreciation and un⁃derstanding of humor.

  13. Why We Laugh and What Makes Us Laugh: The Enigma of Humor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Asa Berger

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Humor (and related concerns such as the nature of comedy and of laughter is an enigmatic subject that has perplexed our greatest thinkers from Aristotle’s time to the present. There are four competing theories that explain humor, each of which argues that all humor is based on: superiority, incongruity, cognitive problems in processing humor and psychoanalytic perspectives (such as masked aggression.

  14. Was That Levity or Livor Mortis? Crime Scene Investigators' Perspectives on Humor and Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivona, Brian D.

    2012-01-01

    Humor is common and purposeful in most work settings. Although researchers have examined humor and joking behavior in various work settings, minimal research has been done on humor applications in the field of crime scene investigation. The crime scene investigator encounters death, trauma, and tragedy in a more intimate manner than any other…

  15. The Use of Humor as a Teaching Strategy in Nursing Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukehart, Dennis E.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to determine the use of humor as a teaching strategy among a sample of nurse educators employed by community colleges and universities in Northern and Central California nursing programs. The study also identified the types of humor used, how humor is used in the classroom, and nurse educators' perceptions of…

  16. Humor in Literature about Children with Disability: What Are We Seeing in Literature?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrail, Ewa; Rieger, Alicja

    2014-01-01

    This article explores instances of humor in literature as it relates to children with disabilities and offers ways to help children and adolescents build an authentic understanding of disability and disability humor. The prevalent message in the books reviewed is that children with disability not only appreciate humor but also can produce various…

  17. Learning to Laugh at Ourselves: Humor, Self-Transcendence, and the Cultivation of Moral Virtues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Mordechai

    2010-01-01

    In this essay Mordechai Gordon begins to address the neglect of humor among philosophers of education by focusing on some interesting connections between humor, self-transcendence, and the development of moral virtues. More specifically, he explores the kind of humor that makes fun of oneself and how it can affect educational encounters. Gordon…

  18. Was That Levity or Livor Mortis? Crime Scene Investigators' Perspectives on Humor and Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivona, Brian D.

    2012-01-01

    Humor is common and purposeful in most work settings. Although researchers have examined humor and joking behavior in various work settings, minimal research has been done on humor applications in the field of crime scene investigation. The crime scene investigator encounters death, trauma, and tragedy in a more intimate manner than any other…

  19. Use and Non-Use of Humor in Academic ESL Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziyaeemehr, Ali; Kumar, Vijay; Abdullah, Mohd S. Faiz

    2011-01-01

    A substantial body of research emphasizes the importance of humor in teaching/learning processes; however, research on the reasons for non-use of humor in academic contexts has enjoyed scant attention. Addressing this gap, this study examines the reasons for instructors' humor avoidance taking into account student perceived benefits of using humor…

  20. Statistics? You Must Be Joking: The Application and Evaluation of Humor when Teaching Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, David L.; Hood, Michelle; Neumann, Michelle M.

    2009-01-01

    Humor has been promoted as a teaching tool that enhances student engagement and learning. The present report traces the pathway from research to practice by reflecting upon various ways to incorporate humor into the face-to-face teaching of statistics. The use of humor in an introductory university statistics course was evaluated via interviews…

  1. "I May Be Crackin', But Um Fackin": Racial Humor in "The Watsons Go To Birmingham--1963"

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNair, Jonda C.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the utilization of racial humor in Christopher Paul Curtis' novel, "The Watsons Go To Birmingham--1963." The theoretical perspectives that inform the analysis include critical race theory and humor theory. The results of the analysis reveal that the use of humor in this book is influenced to a significant degree by race and…

  2. A Study of Dicken’s Humor Weiting——With Incongruity Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李如红

    2008-01-01

    Many scholars have shown great interest in Dickens’ humor writing.On the basis of the scholars’ studies,this thesis will make an analysis on the humor in his works that arise as reaction to what we perceive "incongruous".The thesis will apply the incongruity theory to Dickens’ humor writing.

  3. Hope, Laughter, and Humor in Residents and Staff at an Assisted Living Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westburg, Nancy G.

    2003-01-01

    Assesses and compares hope levels and laughter and humor experiences of 24 elderly residents and 21 staff at an assisted living facility. Residents and staff reported numerous benefits from humor and laughing, but differences arose between the two groups about the source and frequency of humor and laughter. Implications for mental health…

  4. The Effects of Professor Humor on College Students' Attention and Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantooth, James D.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this present study was to investigate the effect of instructor humor on college students' levels of engagement and retention of material. A convenience sample of junior- and senior-level students enrolled in four separate courses within the College of Education were exposed to two different lectures--one humorous, one non-humorous.…

  5. The Relationship between Instructor Humor Orientation and Students' Report on Second Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziyaeemehr, Ali; Kumar, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    Humor is an integral component of any language and therefore has an impact on the way languages are acquired/learned. Numerous studies have investigated the role of instructor humor in teaching/learning processes; however, there is little empirical research on the relationship between instructor humor and learning of a second language. This paper…

  6. Perception of aggressive humor in relation to gelotophobia, gelotophilia, and katagelasticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea C. Samson

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates humor appreciation of aggressive cartoons in relation to gelotophobia, gelotophilia, and katagelasticism. These traits were described to have a peculiar relation to laughter-related phenomena, in particular to disparagement humor. 185 participants rated highly aggressive and non-aggressive humorous stimuli for funniness and aversiveness and their scores on the gelotophobia, gelotophilia and katagelasticism scales were measured. The cartoons were controlled for their structural basis, i.e., incongruity-resolution and nonsense humor, as these two types of humor strongly influence the appreciation of humorous stimuli. The results revealed that high scores on gelotophobia lead to higher aversion to aggressive humor, whereas high scores on katagelasticism lead to more enjoyment of aggressive humor with less aversion. Gelotophobia and katagelasticism lead to sensitivity to aggression in humor, which fits the overt behavior of reacting sensitively towards laughter (gelotophobia and enjoying to laugh at others (katagelasticism. Gelotophilia did not predict reactions to either aggressive or non-aggressive humor but did predict more amusement in general: High scorers on gelotophilia seem to be relaxed towards any form of humor, even if it has an aggressive note. This study confirms the three dimensions to have peculiar responses to aggressive types of humor and opens up several questions to be explored in future research.

  7. Learning to Laugh at Ourselves: Humor, Self-Transcendence, and the Cultivation of Moral Virtues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Mordechai

    2010-01-01

    In this essay Mordechai Gordon begins to address the neglect of humor among philosophers of education by focusing on some interesting connections between humor, self-transcendence, and the development of moral virtues. More specifically, he explores the kind of humor that makes fun of oneself and how it can affect educational encounters. Gordon…

  8. Targeting the humoral immune system of patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teng, Yoe Kie Onno

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to unravel the role of the humoral immune system in rheumatoid arthritis patients by employing new immunosuppressive strategies, i.e. specific B-cell depletion with Rituximab and non-specific lymfoablative treatment with high dose chemotherapy and hematopoeietic stem cell

  9. Humor and the Emeritus Professor: An Interview with Gene Roth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivona, Brian

    2015-01-01

    This essay is a compilation of several conversations with Dr. Gene Roth, Distinguished Teaching Professor Emeritus at Northern Illinois University. Dr. Roth is past President of the Academy of Human Resource Development, and although he is well known for his efforts in bringing humor into the field of HRD, he is not the same Gene Roth that played…

  10. Humor in Father-Daughter Immigration Narratives of Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    This article draws from an ethnography on Mexican immigrant fathers and their children to examine humor in immigration narratives as acts of resistance. The analysis focuses on the devices employed by a father and daughter during their everyday talk and co-narration of an incident with police officers. Findings illustrate how the form and content…

  11. The Muhammad cartoon controversy and the globalization of humor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Kuipers

    2008-01-01

    At the 2006 conference of the International Society for Humor Studies (Danish University of Education, Copenhagen), several panels addressed issues raised by the Muhammad cartoon story. Among these, a colloquium organized by Paul Lewis and decorously titled "Transnational Ridicule and Response" focu

  12. Antioxidant status of dog aqueous humor after extracapsular lens extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barros P.S.M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We determined the antioxidant status of the aqueous humor after extracapsular lens extraction in 14 mongrel dogs weighing about 10 kg. The animals were examined by slit lamp biomicroscopy, applanation tonometry and indirect ophthalmoscopy. One eye was submitted to conventional extracapsular lens extraction and the other was used as control. Samples of aqueous humor were obtained by anterior chamber paracentesis before and at days 1, 2, 3, 7 and 15 after surgery. Total antioxidant status was determined as the capacity of aqueous humor to inhibit free radical generation by 2,2-azobis(2-amidopropane chlorine. Ascorbic acid concentration was measured by HPLC with UV detection. Protein content was determined with the biuret reagent. Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA followed by the Tukey-Kramer test. Protein concentration increased from 0.61 to 22 mg/ml 24 h after surgery. These levels were maintained and returned to normal at day 7. Total antioxidant capacity was reduced from 50 to about 30 min until day 3 and at day 7 it was equal to control. Ascorbic acid levels were reduced from 252 to about 110 µM and then returned to control values at day 15. Considering the importance of ascorbic acid concentration in aqueous humor for the maintenance of the antioxidant status of the anterior segment of the eye, the decrease of antioxidant defenses suggests that the surgical procedures promote an oxidative stress condition in the eye.

  13. "The Truth Is Funny": A Study of Jesse Stuart's Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Wade

    This study of works of Jesse Stuart treats in some depth the setting and background for the humor in his writings, his reverence for the eastern Kentucky hill country, and the various ways he uses materials from his own life and observations as subject matter for his fictional world. After establishing Stuart's kinship with earlier frontier…

  14. Humor in Father-Daughter Immigration Narratives of Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    This article draws from an ethnography on Mexican immigrant fathers and their children to examine humor in immigration narratives as acts of resistance. The analysis focuses on the devices employed by a father and daughter during their everyday talk and co-narration of an incident with police officers. Findings illustrate how the form and content…

  15. Using Humorous Sitcom Clips in Teaching Federal Income Taxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecil, H. Wayne

    2014-01-01

    This article shares the motivation, process, and outcomes of using humorous scenes from television comedies to teach the real world of tax practice. The article advances the literature by reviewing the use of video clips in a previously unexplored discipline, discussing the process of identifying and selecting appropriate clips, and introducing…

  16. Humor As a Weapon in Virginia Woolf's "Orlando."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Robin

    Virginia Woolf's "Orlando" is an excellent example of mock biography to use in literature classes concerned with analyzing literary genres. Woolf used humor to undermine some conventions of the genre of biography and to reform biography into a shape adequate to express the life of Vita Sackville-West. An ordinary biography most likely…

  17. Humor and the Emeritus Professor: An Interview with Gene Roth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivona, Brian

    2015-01-01

    This essay is a compilation of several conversations with Dr. Gene Roth, Distinguished Teaching Professor Emeritus at Northern Illinois University. Dr. Roth is past President of the Academy of Human Resource Development, and although he is well known for his efforts in bringing humor into the field of HRD, he is not the same Gene Roth that played…

  18. Laugh and Learn: Using Humor to Teach Tragedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggieri, Colleen A.

    1999-01-01

    Describes how one high school English teacher used humor when teaching Shakespearean tragedy. Describes how this improved students' attitudes and appreciation of the tragedies, helped them appreciate literature devices in the plays, and helped them review prior to their exam. (SR)

  19. Humorous Names in the Light of Incongruity Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Rutkowski

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses the humorous function of proper names in the light of incongruity theory. It aims at proving that, although names are often defined as pragmatically “transparent,” they may possess some humorous value due to semantic and pragmatic shifts resulting from the disturbance of ordinary patterns of proper names identification and interpretation. After a brief introduction, the author discusses different variants of incongruity theory as resented in the works by Victor Raskin and Thomas C. Veatch as well as their possible application to the study of humorous names. The second part of the paper provides an analysis of the humorous effects of proper names which includes anthroponyms, toponyms, trade names, football team names and names in literature. The first section of this part concentrates on names in which humour is unintentional and seems to be induced by the context, while the second section focuses on names which are intentionally humourous, i.e. supposed to amuse from the moment of their creation. The author argues that the incongruity theory can provide a useful framework for the study of the different mechanisms responsible of the semantic shifts which determine the variation of pragmatic values of proper names.

  20. Aqueous humor ferritin in hereditary hyperferritinemia cataract syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzhofer, Markus; Schroedl, Falk; Trost, Andrea; Kaser-Eichberger, Alexandra; Wiedemann, Helmut; Strohmaier, Clemens; Hohensinn, Melchior; Strasser, Michael; Muckenthaler, Martina U; Grabner, Guenther; Aigner, Elmar; Reitsamer, Herbert A

    2015-04-01

    Hereditary hyperferritinemia cataract syndrome (HHCS) is a rare autosomal dominant hereditary disease, characterized by hyperferritinemia but with absence of body iron excess and early onset of bilateral cataracts. Although 5- to 20-fold increased serum ferritin concentrations have been reported in HHCS patients, data of ferritin levels in aqueous humor have not been obtained. We therefore aimed to investigate the ferritin levels in aqueous humor and serum and further present histological and ultrastructural data of the lens. During cataract extraction and intraocular lens implantation, aqueous humor and lens aspirate of a 37-year-old HHCS patient were obtained from both eyes. Ferritin levels in serum and aqueous humor were quantitatively analyzed via immunoassays in the HHCS patient and healthy control subjects (n = 6). Lens aspirate in HHCS was analyzed histologically and at the ultrastructural level. Further, genetic mutation screening by polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing in blood was performed. Serum ferritin levels in the control group were 142.2 ± 38.7 μg/L, whereas in the HHCS patient, this parameter was excessively increased (1086 μg/L). Analysis of ferritin in aqueous humor revealed 6.4 ± 3.8 μg/L in normal control subjects and 146.3 μg/L (OD) and 160.4 μg/L (OS) in the HHCS patient. DNA analysis detected a C>A mutation on position +18, a T>G mutation on position +22, a T>C mutation on position +24, and a T>G polymorphism on position +26 in the iron-responsive element of the light-chain ferritin (L-ferritin) gene. In the HHCS patient, a 23-fold (OD) to 25-fold (OS) increased aqueous humor ferritin level was detected. Therefore, the formation of bilateral cataract in HHCS is most likely a result of elevated aqueous humor ferritin. In addition, a novel mutation in this rare disease in the iron-responsive element of L-ferritin gene is reported.

  1. Aqueous humor tyrosinase activity is indicative of iris melanocyte toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahanty, Sarmistha; Kawali, Ankush A; Dakappa, Shruthi Shirur; Mahendradas, Padmamalini; Kurian, Mathew; Kharbanda, Varun; Shetty, Rohit; Setty, Subba Rao Gangi

    2017-09-01

    Antibiotics such as fluoroquinolones (FQLs) are commonly used to treat ocular infections but are also known to cause dermal melanocyte toxicity. The release of dispersed pigments from the iris into the aqueous humor has been considered a possible ocular side effect of the systemic administration of FQLs such as Moxifloxacin, and this condition is known as bilateral acute iris transillumination (BAIT). Bilateral acute depigmentation of iris (BADI) is a similar condition, with iris pigment released into the aqueous, but it has not been reported as a side effect of FQL. Iris pigments are synthesized by the melanogenic enzyme tyrosinase (TYR) and can be detected but not quantified by using slit-lamp biomicroscopy. The correlation between dispersed pigments in the aqueous and the extent of melanocyte toxicity due to topical antibiotics in vivo is not well studied. Here, we aimed to study the effect of topical FQLs on iris tissue, the pigment release in the aqueous humor and the development of clinically evident iris atrophic changes. We evaluated this process by measuring the activity of TYR in the aqueous humor of 82 healthy eyes undergoing cataract surgery following topical application of FQLs such as Moxifloxacin (27 eyes, preservative-free) or Ciprofloxacin (29 eyes, with preservative) or the application of non-FQL Tobramycin (26 eyes, with preservative) as a control. In addition, the patients were questioned and examined for ocular side effects in pre- and post-operative periods. Our data showed a significantly higher mean TYR activity in the aqueous humor of Ciprofloxacin-treated eyes compared to Moxifloxacin- (preservative free, p humor from both Ciprofloxacin- and Moxifloxacin-treated eyes showed the presence of soluble TYR enzyme, thus reflecting its toxicity to iris melanocytes and corresponding to its activity in the aqueous humor. Intriguingly, none of these patients developed any clinically appreciable ocular side effects characteristic of BAIT or BADI

  2. Characterization of Cellular and Humoral Immune Responses After IBV Infection in Chicken Lines Differing in MBL Serum Concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærup, Rikke Munkholm; Dalgaard, Tina Sørensen; Norup, Liselotte Rothmann

    2014-01-01

    Chickens from two inbred lines selected for high (L10H) or low (L10L) mannose-binding lectin (MBL) serum concentrations were infected with infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), and innate as well as adaptive immunological parameters were measured throughout the experimental period. Chickens with high...... L10H chickens than in the infected and noninfected L10L chickens. Thus, these results indicate that MBL is produced locally and may be involved in the regulation of the cellular immune response after an IBV infection. However, MBL did not appear to influence the humoral immune response after IBV...

  3. Recombinant MHC Tetramers for Isolation of Virus-Specific CD8(+) Cells from Healthy Donors: Potential Approach for Cell Therapy of Posttransplant Cytomegalovirus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vdovin, A S; Filkin, S Y; Yefimova, P R; Sheetikov, S A; Kapranov, N M; Davydova, Y O; Egorov, E S; Khamaganova, E G; Drokov, M Y; Kuzmina, L A; Parovichnikova, E N; Efimov, G A; Savchenko, V G

    2016-11-01

    Patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation have a high risk of cytomegalovirus reactivation, which in the absence of T-cell immunity can result in the development of an acute inflammatory reaction and damage of internal organs. Transfusion of the virus-specific donor T-lymphocytes represents an alternative to a highly toxic and often ineffective antiviral therapy. Potentially promising cell therapy approach comprises transfusion of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, specific to the viral antigens, immediately after their isolation from the donor's blood circulation without any in vitro expansion. Specific T-cells could be separated from potentially alloreactive lymphocytes using recombinant major histocompatibility complex (MHC) multimers, carrying synthetic viral peptides. Rapid transfusion of virus-specific T-cells to patients has several crucial advantages in comparison with methods based on the in vitro expansion of the cells. About 30% of hematopoietic stem cell donors and 46% of transplant recipients at the National Research Center for Hematology were carriers of the HLA-A*02 allele. Moreover, 94% of Russian donors have an immune response against the cytomegalovirus (CMV). Using recombinant HLA-A*02 multimers carrying an immunodominant cytomegalovirus peptide (NLV), we have shown that the majority of healthy donors have pronounced T-cell immunity against this antigen, whereas shortly after the transplantation the patients do not have specific T-lymphocytes. The donor cells have the immune phenotype of memory cells and can be activated and proliferate after stimulation with the specific antigen. Donor lymphocytes can be substantially enriched to significant purity by magnetic separation with recombinant MHC multimers and are not activated upon cocultivation with the antigen-presenting cells from HLA-incompatible donors without addition of the specific antigen. This study demonstrated that strong immune response to CMV of healthy donors and

  4. Towards a new structural model of the sense of humor: preliminary findings

    OpenAIRE

    N.D.van

    2012-01-01

    In this article some formal, content-related and procedural considerations towards the sense of humor are articulated and the analysis of both everyday humor behavior and of comic styles leads to the initial proposal of a four factor- model of humor (4FMH). This model is tested in a new dataset and it is also examined whether two forms of comic styles (benevolent humor and moral mockery) do fit in. The model seems to be robust but further studies on the structure of the sense of humor as a pe...

  5. A Study of the Humor in Modern Family from the Perspective of Frame Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾红玲; 沈金婷

    2014-01-01

    Humor, which plays a very important role in people’s lives,has been studied from the perspectives of sociology,psy⁃chology,linguistics,etc.And in the discipline of linguistics,most studies are from the angle of pragmatics,semantics, rhetorics and cognitive linguistics.While rare study on humor are based on frame theory.And category,an indispensable element in frame,plays an essential role in humor analysis.This thesis attempts to analyze the humor in Modern Family from the perspective of frame theo⁃ry and to help readers have a deeper understanding on how humor occurs in conversation.

  6. Study of hepatitis C virus specific immuine responses in anti- HCV positive patients without hepatitis Cviremia%抗一HCV阳性无病毒血症患者HCV特异性免疫反应研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective To study the hepatitis C virus specific immune responses in anti - HCV positive patientswithout hepatitis C viremia. Methods 15 anti- HCV positive patients without hepatitis C viremia, 15 patientswith chronic HCV infection and 1 5 normal controls were selected for this study. The T cell responses, NK cell(natu-ral killer cells)activity Cytokine production and HCV specific antibodies were detected by MTT, LDH release andELISA. Results Our study showed that the T cell proliferative reaction of patients without hepatitis C viremia wassignificantly higher than that of patients with chronic HCV infection and normal controls and the T cell response forHCV core antigen were higher than NS3 and NS4, but there was no significant proliferative response to NS5 anti-gen. We also found that there were no differences in anti - HCV antibody production and NK cell activity betweenthe two groups and the level of IFN - γin patients without hepatitis C viremia was higher than that in patients withrersistent HCV infection. Conclusion There are a lot of advantageous changes of HCV specific humoral and cel-lular immume response in anti - HCV positive patients without hepatitis C viremia, these immune responses may playa role in clearance of HCV.%目的 研究抗HCV阳性无病毒血症患者特异的体液及细胞免疫状态。方法 对15例抗HCV阳性无病毒血症患者,15例慢性HCV持续感染者及15例正常对照者进行研究,通过MTT、LDH释放法、酶联免疫等方法 观察患者外周T细胞反应、自然杀伤(NK)细胞活性、细胞因子分泌及特异性体液免疫反应。结果 无病毒血症者T细胞增殖反应明显大于持续感染者及对照组,并且T细胞对核心区抗原增殖最大,NS3次之,对NS5则无明显增值。而NK细胞活性较持续感染者及对照组稍高,但无统计学差异。此外我们观察了患者抗HCV抗体产生,发现无病毒血症患者与持续感染者抗-HCV抗

  7. Ridiculed death and the dead: Black humor on the epitaphs and epigrams of the ancient Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Lađa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Theories about black humor usually regard that it as a contemporary phenomenon and a culmination of the literary modernism and beginning of post-modernism. My intent in this paper is to refute the thesis that the black humor is a modern invention. I am going to prove its existence still in Greek antiquity, quoting and analyzing humorous epitaphs and black humor epigrams. Putting in relation black humor with the joy and humor in religious (fertility and funeral rituals, I am also going to set a question about the attitude to death and life inherent for this kind of humor, arguing that its origin should be searched in the folk tradition.

  8. Humor styles and loneliness: a study among Hong Kong and Hangzhou undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xiao Dong; Wong, Ashley Yuen Man; Hiranandani, Neelam Arjan

    2014-08-01

    This study examined the relationship between humor styles and loneliness among a sample of Hong Kong and Mainland Chinese. A total of 159 Hong Kong undergraduates and 178 Hangzhou undergraduates were recruited to complete a survey composed of the Humor Styles Questionnaire and the Emotional and Social Loneliness Scales. Multiple regression analyses showed that self-defeating humor explained significant variance in both social and emotional loneliness for Hong Kong students, but only in social loneliness for Hangzhou students. Hong Kong students scored significantly higher on aggressive humor and self-defeating humor, and scored significantly lower on affiliative humor and self-enhancing humor than did their counterparts in Hangzhou. This could be attributed to the greater influence of Confucianism in Mainland China than in Hong Kong.

  9. Rumination, Suicidal Ideation, and the Mediating Effect of Self-Defeating Humor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond P. Tucker

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Research has demonstrated that a self-defeating humor style is related to indicators of psychopathology and interpersonal dysfunction, including depression, anxiety, loneliness, thwarted belongingness, and perceived burdensomeness. The current study continued this investigation by examining how self-defeating humor is related to suicidal ideation and a ruminative response style. Analyses indicated that a self-defeating humor style was positively associated to rumination, brooding, reflection, and suicidal ideation. Results of bootstrapping analyses indicated that self-defeating humor mediated the relationship between rumination and suicidal ideation. This same effect was seen for both brooding and reflection individually. Results indicate that self-defeating humor may serve as an interpersonal means of ruminating as this humor style involves consistent focus on perceived flaws and weaknesses. The assessment of this humor style may provide additional information about the maintenance of suicidal thinking.

  10. On Untranslatability of Humor in Mark Twain's Novels and Compensating Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹小路

    2016-01-01

    Mark Twain was a well-known 19th-century American author and a reputed critical realist. His novels are excellent for combining humor with irony, which reveal his criticism of kinds of miserable reality in American society. His humor is not just for humorous effect, but has serious and profound social connotations. So when readers of the target language are reading his novels, their understanding of the deep purpose and connotations would be influenced by the quality of translation of those humors. Therefore, translators must own language competence and sufficient knowledge about the cultural background, for humor is a typical example of untranslatability. This paper makes an analysis of the two types of untranslatability: the cultural untranslatability and the linguistic and takes translation of humor in Mark Twain's novels as examples to analyze the untranslatability of humor in literature and gives suggestions of compensating strategy.

  11. Virus-Specific Interleukin-17-Producing CD4+ T Cells Are Detectable in Early Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infection ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Feng Yun; Merchant, Asad; Kovacs, Colin M.; Loutfy, Mona; Persad, Desmond; Ostrowski, Mario A.

    2008-01-01

    TH-17 cells have been shown to play a role in bacterial defense, acute inflammation, and autoimmunity. We examined the role of interleukin 17 (IL-17) production in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. Both HIV-1- and cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific IL-17-producing CD4+ T cells were detectable in early HIV-1 infection but were reduced to nondetectable levels in chronic and nonprogressive HIV-1 infection. IL-17-producing CMV-specific cells were not detected in blood from HIV-1-uninfected normal volunteers. Virus-specific TH-17 cells could coexpress other cytokines and could express CCR4 or CXCR3. Although the etiology of these cells has yet to be established, we propose that microbial translocation may induce them. PMID:18434403

  12. Selection of restriction specificities of virus-specific cytotoxic T cells in the thymus: no evidence for a crucial role of antigen-presenting cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinkernagel, R.M.

    1982-12-01

    The proposal was tested that (P1 X P2) F1 leads to P1 irradiation bone marrow chimeras expressed predominantly P1-restricted T cells because donor derived stem cells were exposed to recipient derived antigen-presenting cells in the thymus. Because P1 recipient-derived antigen-presenting cells are replaced only slowly after 6-8 wk by (P1 X P2) donor-derived antigen-presenting cells in the thymus and because replenished pools of mature T cells may by then prevent substantial numbers of P2-restricted T cells to be generated, a large portion of thymus cells and mature T cells were eliminated using the following treatments of 12-20-wk-old (P1 X P2) F1 leads to P1 irradiation bone marrow chimeras: (a) cortisone plus antilymphocyte serum, (b) Cytoxan, (c) three doses of sublethal irradiation (300 rad) 2d apart, and (d) lethal irradiation (850 rad) and reconstitution with T cell-depleted (P1 X P2) F1 stem cells. 12-20 wk after this second treatment, (P1 X P2) leads to P1 chimeras were infected with vaccinia-virus. Virus-specific cytotoxic T cell reactivity was expressed by chimeric T cells of (P1 X P(2) F1 origin and was restricted predominantly to P1. Virus-specific cytotoxic T cells, therefore, do not seem to be selected to measurable extent by the immigrating donor-derived antigen-presenting cells in the thymus; their selection depends apparently from the recipient-derived radioresistant thymus cells.

  13. Differential functional avidity of dengue virus-specific T-cell clones for variant peptides representing heterologous and previously encountered serotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imrie, Allison; Meeks, Janet; Gurary, Alexandra; Sukhbataar, Munkhzul; Kitsutani, Paul; Effler, Paul; Zhao, Zhengshan

    2007-09-01

    Proinflammatory cytokines secreted by memory CD8+ and CD4+ T cells are thought to play a direct role in the pathogenesis of dengue virus infection by increasing vascular permeability and thereby inducing the pathophysiologic events associated with dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. Severe disease is frequently observed in the setting of secondary infection with heterologous dengue virus serotypes, suggesting a role for cross-reactive memory T cells in the immunopathogenesis of severe disease. We used a large panel of well-characterized dengue virus-specific CD8+ T-cell clones isolated from Pacific Islanders previously infected with dengue virus 1 to examine effector memory function, focusing on a novel dominant HLA-B*5502-restricted NS5(329-337) epitope, and assessed T-cell responses to stimulation with variant peptides representing heterologous serotypes. Variant peptides were differentially recognized by dengue virus 1-specific effector CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) in a heterogeneous and clone-specific manner, in which cytolytic function and cytokine secretion could be enhanced, diminished, or abrogated compared with cognate peptide stimulation. Dengue virus-specific CTL stimulated with cognate and variant peptides demonstrated a cytokine response hierarchy of gamma IFN (IFN-gamma) > tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) > interleukin-2 (IL-2), and a subset of clones also produced IL-4 and IL-6. Individual clones demonstrated greater avidity for variant peptides representing heterologous serotypes, including serotypes previously encountered by the subject, and IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha secretion was enhanced by stimulation with these heterologous peptides. Altered antiviral T-cell responses in response to stimulation with heterologous dengue virus serotypes have implications for control of virus replication and for disease pathogenesis.

  14. [The effect of humor in the workplace on mental/physical health and self-evaluation of job performance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Junichi; Fuji, Kei

    2016-04-01

    In this study we aimed to examine the contents of humor in the Japanese workplace and to understand the effects of humor on mental/physical health and self-evaluation of job performance. Japanese workers (N = 436) responded to questionnaires addressing workplace humor, feelings about workplace, workplace communication, mental/physical health, and perceived job performance. An exploratory factor analysis indicated that there are five types of workplace humor: norm-violating humor, experience-sharing humor workplace-enjoying humor, people-recalling humor, and outside-mocking humor. A covariance structural analysis showed that norm-violating humor and workplace-enjoying humor decreased mental and physical health by promoting both negative feelings in the workplace and self-disclosure about the negative side of work. Results also revealed that experience-sharing humor, people-recalling humor, and outside-mocking humor had a positive effect on the self-evaluation of job performance as well as mental and physical health, by promoting both positive feelings and mutual communication in the workplace. Results suggest that humor in the workplace has various influences on workers depending on the type of workplace humor.

  15. Experimentally Manipulating Items Informs on the (Limited) Construct and Criterion Validity of the Humor Styles Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruch, Willibald; Heintz, Sonja

    2017-01-01

    How strongly does humor (i.e., the construct-relevant content) in the Humor Styles Questionnaire (HSQ; Martin et al., 2003) determine the responses to this measure (i.e., construct validity)? Also, how much does humor influence the relationships of the four HSQ scales, namely affiliative, self-enhancing, aggressive, and self-defeating, with personality traits and subjective well-being (i.e., criterion validity)? The present paper answers these two questions by experimentally manipulating the 32 items of the HSQ to only (or mostly) contain humor (i.e., construct-relevant content) or to substitute the humor content with non-humorous alternatives (i.e., only assessing construct-irrelevant context). Study 1 (N = 187) showed that the HSQ affiliative scale was mainly determined by humor, self-enhancing and aggressive were determined by both humor and non-humorous context, and self-defeating was primarily determined by the context. This suggests that humor is not the primary source of the variance in three of the HQS scales, thereby limiting their construct validity. Study 2 (N = 261) showed that the relationships of the HSQ scales to the Big Five personality traits and subjective well-being (positive affect, negative affect, and life satisfaction) were consistently reduced (personality) or vanished (subjective well-being) when the non-humorous contexts in the HSQ items were controlled for. For the HSQ self-defeating scale, the pattern of relationships to personality was also altered, supporting an positive rather than a negative view of the humor in this humor style. The present findings thus call for a reevaluation of the role that humor plays in the HSQ (construct validity) and in the relationships to personality and well-being (criterion validity).

  16. Decoding Humor Experiences from Brain Activity of People Viewing Comedy Movies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawahata, Yasuhito; Komine, Kazuteru; Morita, Toshiya; Hiruma, Nobuyuki

    2013-01-01

    Humans naturally have a sense of humor. Experiencing humor not only encourages social interactions, but also produces positive physiological effects on the human body, such as lowering blood pressure. Recent neuro-imaging studies have shown evidence for distinct mental state changes at work in people experiencing humor. However, the temporal characteristics of these changes remain elusive. In this paper, we objectively measured humor-related mental states from single-trial functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data obtained while subjects viewed comedy TV programs. Measured fMRI data were labeled on the basis of the lag before or after the viewer’s perception of humor (humor onset) determined by the viewer-reported humor experiences during the fMRI scans. We trained multiple binary classifiers, or decoders, to distinguish between fMRI data obtained at each lag from ones obtained during a neutral state in which subjects were not experiencing humor. As a result, in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the right temporal area, the decoders showed significant classification accuracies even at two seconds ahead of the humor onsets. Furthermore, given a time series of fMRI data obtained during movie viewing, we found that the decoders with significant performance were also able to predict the upcoming humor events on a volume-by-volume basis. Taking into account the hemodynamic delay, our results suggest that the upcoming humor events are encoded in specific brain areas up to about five seconds before the awareness of experiencing humor. Our results provide evidence that there exists a mental state lasting for a few seconds before actual humor perception, as if a viewer is expecting the future humorous events. PMID:24324656

  17. Decoding humor experiences from brain activity of people viewing comedy movies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhito Sawahata

    Full Text Available Humans naturally have a sense of humor. Experiencing humor not only encourages social interactions, but also produces positive physiological effects on the human body, such as lowering blood pressure. Recent neuro-imaging studies have shown evidence for distinct mental state changes at work in people experiencing humor. However, the temporal characteristics of these changes remain elusive. In this paper, we objectively measured humor-related mental states from single-trial functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data obtained while subjects viewed comedy TV programs. Measured fMRI data were labeled on the basis of the lag before or after the viewer's perception of humor (humor onset determined by the viewer-reported humor experiences during the fMRI scans. We trained multiple binary classifiers, or decoders, to distinguish between fMRI data obtained at each lag from ones obtained during a neutral state in which subjects were not experiencing humor. As a result, in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the right temporal area, the decoders showed significant classification accuracies even at two seconds ahead of the humor onsets. Furthermore, given a time series of fMRI data obtained during movie viewing, we found that the decoders with significant performance were also able to predict the upcoming humor events on a volume-by-volume basis. Taking into account the hemodynamic delay, our results suggest that the upcoming humor events are encoded in specific brain areas up to about five seconds before the awareness of experiencing humor. Our results provide evidence that there exists a mental state lasting for a few seconds before actual humor perception, as if a viewer is expecting the future humorous events.

  18. Is Laughing at the Expense of Victims and Offenders a Red Flag? Humor and Secondary Traumatic Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craun, Sarah W; Bourke, Michael L

    2015-01-01

    Those who work with human trauma often use humor to handle job stressors. Research has demonstrated that lighthearted humor is related to lower secondary traumatic stress scores, while gallows humor has the inverse relationship. This work explores how three types of humor relate to secondary traumatic stress: (a) humor at the expense of victims, (b) humor at the expense of offenders, and (c) humor containing sexual innuendo. Internet crimes against children taskforce personnel completed questionnaires about secondary traumatic stress and coping techniques. Humor at the expense of victims was rarely used, but when it was, it was indicative of higher secondary traumatic stress. There were no relationships between secondary traumatic stress and the use of humor at the expense of offenders or humor containing sexual innuendo.

  19. Evening types among german university students score higher on sense of humor after controlling for big five personality factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randler, Christoph

    2008-10-01

    Humor research has focused on relationships between humor and various personality traits. As personality and morningness-eveningness, as well as personality and humor, are related based on genetics and neurobehavioral function, one might also expect a relationship between humor and chronotype. 197 students responded to the Composite Scale of Morningness as a measure of chronotype, the Sense of Humor Questionnaire and a 10-item version of the Big Five Inventory. Individuals scoring as evening types reported a greater sense of humor than morning individuals, with higher morningness scores. In a stepwise linear regression, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Openness, and Chronotype each accounted for a significant amount of variance in sense of Humor scores. That is, the relationship between scores on Sense of Humor and evening orientation was significant after controlling for personality dimensions. Eveningness was related to sense of Humor scores in women but not in men. Social but not cognitive humor was predicted by eveningness.

  20. T-cell effector function and unresponsiveness in the murine lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection. I. On the mechanism of a selective suppression of the virus-specific delayed-type hypersensitivity response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marker, O; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    1986-01-01

    -cell response remains essentially unchanged. When low-dose spleen effectors were transferred intravenously into intracerebrally infected high-dose mice, fatal LCM disease occurred, which means that infected central nervous system target structures in these animals are sensitive to virus-specific T cells. When......When the virus dose is increased from 10(2) (low dose) to 10(4) LD50 (high dose) a fatal lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection is changed into a subclinical one, and a selective virus-specific delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) unresponsiveness is induced, while the cytotoxic T...... low-dose cells were transferred to intravenously infected high-dose mice, these animals regained their TD function (the effect of T cells mediating DTH). Since this indicates that the survival of intracerebrally infected high-dose mice is intimately linked with the absence of virus-specific DTH...

  1. How fun are your meetings? Investigating the relationship between humor patterns in team interactions and team performance

    OpenAIRE

    Lehmann-Willenbrock, N.K.; Allen, J A

    2014-01-01

    Research on humor in organizations has rarely considered the social context in which humor occurs. One such social setting that most of us experience on a daily basis concerns the team context. Building on recent theorizing about the humor–performance link in teams, this study seeks to increase our understandingof the function and effects of humor in team interaction settings. We examined behavioral patterns of humor and laughter in real teams by videotaping and coding humor and laughter duri...

  2. Humorous Writing Exercise Using Internet Memes On English Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Aziz Turhan Kariko

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses Internet memes found by Internet users and how they appeal for them, by deconstructing what internet meme is and what it does. Analysis are conducted especially on how the relation between images, text, and meanings connect with each other to form social messages, political messages, universal emotions, or merely to make humor and entertain its users. Researcher examines five samples of internet memes on the internet and decodes their relation between images, texts, and meanings using semiotics. These samples are then introduced as writing assignments to two BINUS University’s English department classes and one Global English Class. The study reveals that humor and creativity in using internet memes are related to the students’ achievement in their studies.

  3. Semblanzas deportivas: humor, deporte y terror en Fontanarrosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Palacios

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza el uso del humor negro del caricaturista Fontanarrosa en su serie Semblanzas Deportivas, definiendo, a la vez que deslindando, lo humorístico y lo cómico. Se aborda también el lugar que ocupa la obra de Fontanarrosa en la cultura popular, en donde destacan sobre todo temas deportivos como: fútbol, boxeo, atletismo y lucha libre. Se observa el uso de la literatura borgeana en Fontanarrosa y cómo, a partir de la exageración en imágenes de los rasgos de sus personajes, se consigue elaborar una crítica sin que sea necesario recurrir a la abierta oposición.

  4. La grata dominación del humor publicitario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lic. Elena del Carmen Pérez

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo se propone dar cuenta de las estrategias con que el humor hace emerger, en el contexto general de los discursos, aquellos fragmentos omitidos por el decir oficial. Por su naturaleza de articulador ideológico, el texto publicitario (como todo texto remite a lo ya dicho en un estado dado de sociedad. En este sentido, resulta interesante observar qué fragmentos del discurso social recoge la publicidad humorística, con qué retórica los hace risibles y quiénes son aquellos sobre los que recae la risa. Se comentan avisos que son emitidos actualmente por canales de cable o aire en la ciudad de Córdoba, Argentina.

  5. Cartooning Humor: How Arabs are Laughably Derided in Animations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Belamghari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Some animated movies use humor to capture the full attention of its audience. In so doing, the movie’s messages have become a great concern for many theorists and critics by virtue of the idea that a movie can be a repository of ideologies meant to construct a certain type of easy-going and noncritical audience. This paper, therefore, takes the example of Max Fleischer’s Popeye the Sailor Meets Ali Baba and his Forty Thieves (1937 and Robert Clampett’s Ali Baba Bound (1941 as its case studies aiming at spotting the different manifestations of humor, taking Arabs as its subject-matter, becoming a leaked ideology and taming the discourse that is amplified, manipulated, and delivered to the Western public in unwarrantable ways compared to the imagery of Westerners.

  6. Comparative Study of Two Vitreous Humor Sampling Methods in Rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lan; ZHOU Weiguang; REN Liang; LIU Qian; LIU Liang

    2006-01-01

    To compare and evaluate two methodologies, entire-sampling and micro-sampling for the harvesting of vitreous humor, the vitreous humor of rabbits were sampled with the two methods respectively, and the concentrations of calcium, chlorine, potassium, sodium and phosphorus of the were measured. The results showed that the differences in the variance coefficient and two-eye concentrations of micro-sampled specimens were less than those of the entire-sampled specimens. In the micro-sampling group, the concentrations of repeated micro-sampling showed no differences among different groups (P>0.05) and the intra-ocular fluid dynamics did not have significant influence on post-mortem sampling. The sampling technique may affect the concentrations of specimen collected.Our study suggests that micro-sampling is less influenced by the human factor and is reliable, reproducible, and more suitable for forensic investigation.

  7. Mother, melancholia, and humor in Erik H. Erikson's earliest writings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, Donald

    2008-09-01

    Erik H. Erikson wrote three articles when he was in his late-twenties and an up-and-coming member of the psychoanalytic community in Vienna. At the time he wrote these articles, he was in a training psychoanalysis with Anna Freud, teaching at the Heitzing School in Vienna, and learning the Montessori method of teaching. These articles focus on the loss of primary narcissism and the development of the superego (or punitive conscience) in early childhood, especially through the child's conflict with maternal authority. They support the idea that melancholia, with its internalized rage against the mother, is the inevitable outcome of the loss of primary narcissism. I note, however, that the third of these articles makes a case for the restorative role of humor, especially when Freud's view that humor is a function of the superego is taken into account.

  8. KEPEKAAN HUMOR DENGAN DEPRESI PADA REMAJA DITINJAU DARI JENIS KELAMIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Hidayah

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the relationship between sense of humorsand depression in adolescents in terms of gender. The subjects of this studywere students of SMA Negeri 1 Sewon, Bantul, Yogyakarta class X andXI. The data collection tools of this study used the Beck Depression Inventory(BDI and the Sense of Humor Scale Version-B, and used the analysiscovariance method to analyze the data. The results of this study showedsignificant differences in depression among female subjects and male subjects with a value of F = 6.905 and p = 0.010 (p <0.05 by controlling the sense of humor variable. The average level of female depression (7.284 was higher than male subjects (6.196. This result will be discussed further in this paper.

  9. Hipercalcemia humoral secundaria a carcinoma mixto de endometrio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Pinal-Fernández

    Full Text Available La hipercalcemia secundaria a enfermedad neoplásica es una entidad frecuente causada en la mayor parte de los casos por secreción ectópica de PTHrp. A pesar de esto hay ciertos tumores, como los carcinomas uterinos, en donde este tipo de manifestación paraneoplásica está muy poco descrita. Presentamos un caso de hipercalcemia humoral en un carcinoma mixto de endometrio.

  10. American Humor reflected in English Film The Big Bang Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘珍

    2016-01-01

    With the accelerated process of globalization, we are able to access to the wide variety of cultural forms from all over the world conveniently. The United States, a typical country of immigrants, enjoys the world's first place of ethnic cultural melt-ing. In this paper, the writer takes popular sitcom, The Big Bang Theory, for example to explore the humorous culture of the United States as well as its sources and characteristics from the perspective of subtitle translation.

  11. Humor on the unpublished poetry of Vinicius de Moraes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Gil

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this essay is to present the humor in poems that Vinicius de Moraes left unpublished in books, its types and incidence. It reviews the development of the comic instances in his work, and makes a close analysis of the poems “Mote e contramote” and “Sob o trópico do câncer”.

  12. Comprehension of humor in primary agenesis of the corpus callosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Warren S; Paul, Lynn K; Symington, Melissa; Dietrich, Rosalind

    2005-01-01

    Individuals with agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC) can, in some cases, perform normally on standardized intelligence tests. Nevertheless, recent studies suggest that individuals with ACC and normal IQ scores have deficits in domains of fluid and social intelligence. Anecdotal reports from families suggest diminished appreciation of the subtleties of social interactions, and deficits in the comprehension of jokes and stories. In this research, both the cartoon and narrative joke subtests of a humor test (developed by Brownell et al. [Brownell, H., Michel, D., Powelson, J., & Gardner, H. (1983). Surprise but not coherence: sensitivity to verbal humor in right-hemisphere patients. Brain and language, 18(1), 20-27] and Bihrle et al. [Bihrle, A. M., Brownell, H. H., Powelson, J. A., & Gardner, H. (1986). Comprehension of humorous and non-humorous materials by left and right brain-damaged patients. Brain and Cognition, 5(4), 399-411]) were given to 16 adults with complete ACC (all with IQs>80) and 31 controls of similar age and IQ. Individuals with ACC performed worse than controls on the narrative joke subtest (p<.025) when VIQ was controlled. However, on the cartoon subtest the two groups were not significantly different. Covarying age, forms of IQ, narrative memory, set-switching, and literal language comprehension did not substantially alter the group difference. However, covarying comprehension of nonliteral language and proverbs eliminated the difference, suggesting a common origin for the comprehension of jokes, nonliteral language, and proverbs, most likely related to capacity for understanding second-order meanings.

  13. Linguistic aspects of verbal humor in stand-up comedy

    OpenAIRE

    Schwarz, Jeannine

    2009-01-01

    This study attempts to explore the ways in which stand-up comedians organize and perform their material in order to create humor, elicit laughter, and make the audience appreciate their performances. It also examines the audience's central role in comedians' organization and presentation of the material. In order to provide authentic material, performances by comedians Jerry Seinfeld and Steven Wright were transcribed and served as main data for the analytical part of this study. The crea...

  14. The acceptability of humor between palliative care patients and health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, Julia; Dance, Derry; Pare, Daniel

    2014-04-01

    Humor frequently occurs in palliative care environments; however, the acceptability of humor, particularly between patients and health care providers has not been previously examined. To explore the importance and acceptability of humor to participants who are patients in a palliative care context, the study determines if demographics are correlated with the degree of acceptability, and examines the acceptance of humor by patients with advanced illness when interacting with nurses or physicians. One hundred participants admitted to a palliative care unit or residential hospice were surveyed. Basic demographic data were collected, as well as responses on a five-point Likert scale to a variety of questions regarding the participants' attitudes about humor before and after their illness and the acceptability of humor in a palliative setting. Participants were also given the opportunity to comment freely on the topic of humor and the palliative experience. A large majority of participants valued humor highly both prior to (77%) and during (76%) their illness experience. Despite this valuation, the frequency of laughter in their daily lives diminished significantly as patients' illness progressed. Most participants remembered laughing with a nurse (87%) and a doctor (67%) in the week prior to the survey, and found humor with their doctors (75%) and nurses appropriate (88%). The vast majority of participants found humorous interactions with their health care providers acceptable and appropriate, and this may indicate a opportunity for enhanced and more effective end-of-life care in the future.

  15. HUMOR STYLES, CREATIVE PERSONALITY TRAITS, AND CREATIVE THINKING IN A HONG KONG SAMPLE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xiao Dong; Hui, Anna Na

    2015-12-01

    Humor is found to be an essential element of creative thinking in Western culture. In Eastern culture, however, the relationship between creativity and humor is ambivalent. This study examined the relationship among humor styles, creative personality traits, and creative thinking abilities. A sample of 118 Chinese undergraduates in Hong Kong was recruited to complete the Humor Styles Questionnaire, the three Creative Personality subscales of the Chinese Personality Assessment Inventory-2 (CPAI-2), and the Verbal Test of the Wallach-Kogan Creativity Tests. Results show that humor styles are uncorrelated with creative thinking abilities of flexibility, fluency, and originality, but affiliative humor and aggressive humor are correlated with creative personality traits of novelty and diversity. A hierarchical multiple regression shows that both humor styles and creative personality traits of novelty and diversity account for non-significant variance on creative thinking abilities. These findings largely support a hypothesized non-association between humor styles and creative measures. They also pose a sharp contrast to findings obtained in the West, in which humor styles are typically correlated with both creative thinking abilities and creative personality traits.

  16. The effect of humor on aggression catharsis in the classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziv, A

    1987-07-01

    Two studies were designed to measure the cathartic effects of humor on aggressive responses. In the first study, two versions (easy and difficult) of Raven's intelligence test were administered to two groups of high school students. Only the easy version could be solved in the alloted time. Rosenzweig's (1951) Picture Frustration test was then administered and the students' aggressive responses were scored. Results showed that those who did not solve the problems had significantly higher scores on aggressivity than did the others. The second study, using four different groups, was planned according to a modified Solomon design. Two of the four groups of students completed the difficult part of the Raven test, and then two video-tapes were presented: a humorous one to two groups and a neutral one to the others. Finally, the Rosenzweig Picture Frustration test was administered to all four groups. An analysis of variance computed on the aggressivity scores showed one significant difference: frustrated students who viewed the humorous videotape had lower scores than those viewing the neutral one.

  17. Bimatoprost Effects on Aqueous Humor Dynamics in Monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David F. Woodward

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of bimatoprost on aqueous humor dynamics were quantified in monkey eyes. Uveoscleral outflow was measured by the anterior chamber perfusion method, using FITC-dextran. Total outflow facility was determined by the two-level constant pressure method. Aqueous flow was measured with a scanning ocular fluorophotometer. Uveoscleral outflow was 0.96±0.19 L min−1 in vehicle-treated eyes and 1.37±0.27 L min−1 (=6; <.05 in eyes that received bimatoprost 0.01% b.i.d. × 5 days. Bimatoprost had no effect on total outflow facility, which was 0.42±0.05 L min−1 at baseline and 0.42±0.04 L min−1 after bimatoprost treatment. Bimatoprost had no significant effect on aqueous humor flow. This study demonstrates that bimatoprost increases uveoscleral outflow but not total outflow facility or aqueous humor flow, indicating that it lowers intraocular pressure in ocular normotensive monkeys by a mechanism that exclusively involves uveoscleral outflow.

  18. A systematic review of humoral immune responses against tumor antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuschenbach, Miriam; von Knebel Doeberitz, Magnus; Wentzensen, Nicolas

    2009-10-01

    This review summarizes studies on humoral immune responses against tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) with a focus on antibody frequencies and the potential diagnostic, prognostic, and etiologic relevance of antibodies against TAAs. We performed a systematic literature search in Medline and identified 3,619 articles on humoral immune responses and TAAs. In 145 studies, meeting the inclusion criteria, humoral immune responses in cancer patients have been analyzed against over 100 different TAAs. The most frequently analyzed antigens were p53, MUC1, NY-ESO-1, c-myc, survivin, p62, cyclin B1, and Her2/neu. Antibodies against these TAAs were detected in 0-69% (median 14%) of analyzed tumor patients. Antibody frequencies were generally very low in healthy individuals, with the exception of few TAAs, especially MUC1. For several TAAs, including p53, Her2/neu, and NY-ESO-1, higher antibody frequencies were reported when tumors expressed the respective TAA. Antibodies against MUC1 were associated with a favorable prognosis while antibodies against p53 were associated with poor disease outcome. These data suggest different functional roles of endogenous antibodies against TAAs. Although data on prediagnostic antibody levels are scarce and antibody frequencies for most TAAs are at levels precluding use in diagnostic assays for cancer early detection, there is some promising data on achieving higher sensitivity for cancer detection using panels of TAAs.

  19. Investigating vision in schizophrenia through responses to humorous stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Tschacher

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The visual environment of humans contains abundant ambiguity and fragmentary information. Therefore, an early step of vision must disambiguate the incessant stream of information. Humorous stimuli produce a situation that is strikingly analogous to this process: Funniness is associated with the incongruity contained in a joke, pun, or cartoon. Like in vision in general, appreciating a visual pun as funny necessitates disambiguation of incongruous information. Therefore, perceived funniness of visual puns was implemented to study visual perception in a sample of 36 schizophrenia patients and 56 healthy control participants. We found that both visual incongruity and Theory of Mind (ToM content of the puns were associated with increased experienced funniness. This was significantly less so in participants with schizophrenia, consistent with the gestalt hypothesis of schizophrenia, which would predict compromised perceptual organization in patients. The association of incongruity with funniness was not mediated by known predictors of humor appreciation, such as affective state, depression, or extraversion. Patients with higher excitement symptoms and, at a trend level, reduced cognitive symptoms, reported lower funniness experiences. An open question remained whether patients showed this deficiency of visual incongruity detection independent of their ToM deficiency. Humorous stimuli may be viewed as a convenient method to study perceptual processes, but also fundamental questions of higher-level cognition.

  20. Structure-based stabilization of HIV-1 gp120 enhances humoral immune responses to the induced co-receptor binding site.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barna Dey

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 exterior envelope glycoprotein, gp120, possesses conserved binding sites for interaction with the primary virus receptor, CD4, and also for the co-receptor, generally CCR5. Although gp120 is a major target for virus-specific neutralizing antibodies, the gp120 variable elements and its malleable nature contribute to evasion of effective host-neutralizing antibodies. To understand the conformational character and immunogenicity of the gp120 receptor binding sites as potential vaccine targets, we introduced structure-based modifications to stabilize gp120 core proteins (deleted of the gp120 major variable regions into the conformation recognized by both receptors. Thermodynamic analysis of the re-engineered core with selected ligands revealed significant stabilization of the receptor-binding regions. Stabilization of the co-receptor-binding region was associated with a marked increase in on-rate of ligand binding to this site as determined by surface plasmon resonance. Rabbit immunization studies showed that the conformational stabilization of core proteins, along with increased ligand affinity, was associated with strikingly enhanced humoral immune responses against the co-receptor-binding site. These results demonstrate that structure-based approaches can be exploited to stabilize a conformational site in a large functional protein to enhance immunogenic responses specific for that region.

  1. Selenium supplementation restores innate and humoral immune responses in footrot-affected sheep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean A Hall

    Full Text Available Dietary selenium (Se alters whole-blood Se concentrations in sheep, dependent upon Se source and dosage administered, but little is known about effects on immune function. We used footrot (FR as a disease model to test the effects of supranutritional Se supplementation on immune function. To determine the effect of Se-source (organic Se-yeast, inorganic Na-selenite or Na-selenate and Se-dosage (1, 3, 5 times FDA-permitted level on FR severity, 120 ewes with and 120 ewes without FR were drenched weekly for 62 weeks with different Se sources and dosages (30 ewes/treatment group. Innate immunity was evaluated after 62 weeks of supplementation by measuring neutrophil bacterial killing ability. Adaptive immune function was evaluated by immunizing sheep with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH. The antibody titer and delayed-type hypersensitivity skin test to KLH were used to assess humoral immunity and cell-mediated immunity, respectively. At baseline, FR-affected ewes had lower whole-blood and serum-Se concentrations; this difference was not observed after Se supplementation. Se supplementation increased neutrophil bacterial killing percentages in FR-affected sheep to percentages observed in supplemented and non-supplemented healthy sheep. Similarly, Se supplementation increased KLH antibody titers in FR-affected sheep to titers observed in healthy sheep. FR-affected sheep demonstrated suppressed cell-mediated immunity at 24 hours after intradermal KLH challenge, although there was no improvement with Se supplementation. We did not consistently prevent nor improve recovery from FR over the 62 week Se-treatment period. In conclusion, Se supplementation does not prevent FR, but does restore innate and humoral immune functions negatively affected by FR.

  2. Penetration of topically administered prednisolone acetate into the human aqueous humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibowitz, H M; Berrospi, A R; Kupferman, A; Restropo, G V; Galvis, V; Alvarez, J A

    1977-03-01

    A single standardized drop of 1.0% prednisolone acetate labeled with tritiated thymidine was administered topically to one eye of 58 patients shortly before elective cataract extraction. An aqueous humor sample was aspirated at varying intervals and its corticosteroid content was determined. Peak drug concentration in aqueous humor was 1.13 mug/ml, which occurred 30 to 45 minutes after instillation of the medication. Substantial quantitites of corticosteroid were found in the aqueous humor five minutes after drug administration. The area under the drug concentration in aqueous humor-vs-time curve (a measure of the drug's bioavailability in aqueous humor) was 88 mug min/ml, and its half-life in human aqueous humor was 28 minutes. None of these values were significantly different from the comparable values in rabbit eyes.

  3. Sense of humor, childhood cancer stressors, and outcomes of psychosocial adjustment, immune function, and infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Jacqueline S; Hockenberry, Marilyn; Gregory, Richard L

    2003-01-01

    The diagnosis, treatment, and side effects of childhood cancer have been described as extremely stressful experiences in the life of a child. Anecdotally, children report that a sense of humor helps them cope with the daily experiences of living with cancer; however, no research has examined sense of humor and childhood cancer stressors. This study investigated the effect of sense of humor on the relationship between cancer stressors and children's psychosocial adjustment to cancer, immune function, and infection using Lazarus and Folkman's theory of stress, appraisal, and coping. A direct relationship was observed between sense of humor and psychosocial adjustment to cancer, such that children with a high sense of humor had greater psychological adjustment, regardless of the amount of cancer stressors. A moderating effect was observed for incidence of infection. As childhood cancer stressors increase, children with high coping humor scores reported fewer incidences of infection than low scorers.

  4. Analysis of Humor in Zhao Benshan’s Comic Sketch from Relevance Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丹

    2012-01-01

      Humor is a pervasive human phenomenon. It is observable in many spheres and aspects of life in various human interactions. Humor plays an important role in our social life. Relevance Theory provides a new perspective on the analysis of humor interpretation. From a relevance-theoretic point of view, humor interpretation is a cognitive process in which the addressee is willing to sacrifice more cognitive effort to access the more covert interpretation in pursuit of the extra ef ect—amusement brought about by comic sketch. The conclusion is made in the end in which the Relevance Theory works as it plays such an important role in analyzing humor production that helps us understand and appreciate Zhao’s humor better.

  5. Humor in the eye tracker: attention capture and distraction from context cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strick, Madelijn; Holland, Rob W; Van Baaren, Rick; Van Knippenberg, Ad

    2010-01-01

    The humor effect refers to a robust finding in memory research that humorous information is easily recalled, at the expense of recall of nonhumorous information that was encoded in close temporal proximity. Previous research suggests that memory retrieval processes underlie this effect. That is, free recall is biased toward humorous information, which interferes with the retrieval of nonhumorous information. The present research tested an additional explanation that has not been specifically addressed before: Humor receives enhanced attention during information encoding, which decreases attention for context information. Participants observed humorous, nonhumorous positive, and nonhumorous neutral texts paired with novel consumer brands, while their eye movements were recorded using eye-tracker technology. The results confirmed that humor receives prolonged attention relative to both positive and neutral nonhumorous information. This enhanced attention correlated with impaired brand recognition.

  6. Frontal brain asymmetry and transient cardiovascular responses to the perception of humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papousek, Ilona; Schulter, Günter; Weiss, Elisabeth M; Samson, Andrea C; Freudenthaler, H Harald; Lackner, Helmut K

    2013-04-01

    The study examined the relationship of individual differences in prefrontal brain asymmetry, measured by the EEG in resting conditions, to the individual's responsivity in the context of humor (n=42). Several weeks after the EEG recording, immediate cardiovascular responses to the perception of humor and behavioral indicators of humor processing were obtained in an experimental paradigm involving non-verbal cartoons. Relatively greater resting activity in the left than right prefrontal cortex, particularly at the ventrolateral positions, was associated with faster detection of humor, a more pronounced cardiac response to the perception of humor (heart rate and cardiac output), and more accessible internal positive affective states (indicated by faster reports of amusement levels). The study confirms and extends findings of the relevance of prefrontal brain asymmetry to affective responsivity, contributing evidence in the domain of positive affect and humor, and demonstrating relationships to the immediate cardiovascular response pattern to an emotional event.

  7. Analysis on Humor of Situation Comedy My Own Swordsman by Politeness Principles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴敏

    2013-01-01

    Humor, as a linguistic phenomenon, appeals more and more attention from linguist, psychologist, sociologist, and the scholars of other disciplines. This paper, takes the humorous language of My Own Swordsman as research material, which contain⁃ing the depiction of trivial daily life, the meaning of life. Then, the author analyzed these data and discussed its features of humor from Pragmatic view by Leech and Levinson’s politeness principle.

  8. Analysis of Black Humor in the Movie Forrest Gump From Rhetorical Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱梅红; 刘立红

    2009-01-01

    The humorous effect is well presented throughout the American movie Forrest Gump by using kinds of rhetoric methods.This paper mainly focuses on the black humor in the movie from rhetorical perspective.It analyzes the application of certain rhetoric methods such as sarcasm,irony,simile,and hyperbole in the movie;and it also illustrates how the effect of black humor is achieved by giving a great number of examples.

  9. Virtuous laughter: we should teach medical learners the art of humor

    OpenAIRE

    Simon J Oczkowski

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing recognition of the stress and burnout suffered by critical care workers. Physicians have a responsibility to teach learners the skills required not only to treat patients, but to cope with the demands of a stressful profession. Humor has been neglected as a strategy to help learners develop into virtuous and resilient physicians. Humor can be used to reduce stress, address fears, and to create effective health care teams. However, there are forms of humor which can be hurt...

  10. A Study on Humor in 2 Broke Girls from the Perspective of Violation of Cooperative Principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林韬杰; 林跃

    2015-01-01

    One of the reasons why human language is by nature distinct from animal language lies in that human language can pro-duce language arts, one of which is humor. Employing the American sitcom 2 Broke Girls as the context and Grice's Cooperative Principle (CP) as the theoretical framework, this paper conducts a qualitative research of humor with some extracts of conversation from the sitcom, in an attempt to verify the hypothesis whether violation of the CP may lead to production of humor. The finding of the research justifies the particular hypothesis that there exists causal relationship between violation of the CP and production of humor.

  11. Sex differences in preferences for humor: a replication, modification, and extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hone, Liana S E; Hurwitz, William; Lieberman, Debra

    2015-02-10

    Evolutionary-minded scientists have proposed that humor is a sexually selected trait in men that signals mate quality. Indeed, women tend to prefer men who make them laugh and men tend to prefer women who laugh at their jokes. However, it is unclear how robust this pattern is. Here we report a replication of one of the first studies (Bressler, Martin, and Balshine, 2006) to examine the sex differences in preferences for humor receptivity versus humor production. We replicate Bressler et al.'s (2006) findings that men prefer women who are receptive to their humor whereas women prefer men who produce humor. These findings held even after we modified Bressler et al.'s questionnaire for better conceptual validity. Furthermore, using a separate measure designed to assess trade-offs, we found that men viewed humor receptivity as a necessity and humor production as a luxury when they were asked to create an ideal long-term partner. For women, it was just the opposite. These results bolster the claim that sexual selection has shaped sex differences regarding preferences for a prospective mate's sense of humor and that what one means by "sense of humor" can vary.

  12. The use of humor in forensic mental health staff-patient interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildberg, Frederik A; Bradley, Stephen K; Paaske, Kristian J; Hounsgaard, Lise

    2014-01-01

    Humor utilized in the practice of forensic mental health nursing might seem somehow inappropriate, given the serious circumstances surrounding most forensic mental health patients. However, some recent research has pointed to the use of humor as an important component in staff interactions with forensic mental health patients. This study reviews the existing international forensic mental health research literature on humor to investigate (a) what characterizes forensic mental health staff-patient use of humor and (b) what significance humor holds within the forensic mental health setting. The search was conducted in June 2013. Scopus, CINAHL, PubMed, and PsychINFO were searched using keywords relevant to the study. Articles were categorized using a literature matrix and analyzed using thematic analysis. Twelve research articles were reviewed and included in the analysis. Three themes were identified: (a) "humor as staff skill," showing that staff found humor to be important as an interpersonal ability; (b) "humor as a relational tool" with the purpose of establishing and maintaining staff-patient interactions; and (c) "the impact of humor on patients," describing impacts on conflicts, dimensions of health, and motivation. The results of the analysis are however limited because of the dearth of published articles on the subject.

  13. Does humor in radio advertising affect recognition of novel product brand names?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, E M; Lippman, L G

    2001-04-01

    The authors proposed that item selection during shopping is based on brand name recognition rather than recall. College students rated advertisements and news stories of a simulated radio program for level of amusement (orienting activity) before participating in a surprise recognition test. Humor level of the advertisements was varied systematically, and content was controlled. According to signal detection analysis, humor did not affect the strength of recognition memory for brand names (nonsense units). However, brand names and product types were significantly more likely to be associated when appearing in humorous advertisements than in nonhumorous advertisements. The results are compared with prior findings concerning humor and recall.

  14. Application of Pragmatic Theories on Humorous Language in Advertisement and their Translations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈亚媛; 周玉梅

    2012-01-01

    This paper will analyze the humorous language in advertisement and their English to Chinese and Chinese to English translations from the pragmatic perspective.Some pragmatic theories including the Relevance Theory,the Cooperative Principle,and the Speech Acts will be introduced to discuss how the humor effects and how to translate it efficiently,i.e.,achieving the equivalent effect in the context.The aim of the paper is to comprehend the humor and to analyze how to translate the humorous language in advertisements fromthe perspective ofpragmatics.

  15. Influenza B virus-specific CD8+ T-lymphocytes strongly cross-react with viruses of the opposing influenza B lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Sandt, Carolien E; Dou, YingYing; Vogelzang-van Trierum, Stella E; Westgeest, Kim B; Pronk, Mark R; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Fouchier, Ron A M; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F; Hillaire, Marine L B

    2015-08-01

    Influenza B viruses fall in two antigenically distinct lineages (B/Victoria/2/1987 and B/Yamagata/16/1988 lineage) that co-circulate with influenza A viruses of the H3N2 and H1N1 subtypes during seasonal epidemics. Infections with influenza B viruses contribute considerably to morbidity and mortality in the human population. Influenza B virus neutralizing antibodies, elicited by natural infections or vaccination, poorly cross-react with viruses of the opposing influenza B lineage. Therefore, there is an increased interest in identifying other correlates of protection which could aid the development of broadly protective vaccines. blast analysis revealed high sequence identity of all viral proteins. With two online epitope prediction algorithms, putative conserved epitopes relevant for study subjects used in the present study were predicted. The cross-reactivity of influenza B virus-specific polyclonal CD8+ cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) populations obtained from HLA-typed healthy study subjects, with intra-lineage drift variants and viruses of the opposing lineage, was determined by assessing their in vitro IFN-γ response and lytic activity. Here, we show for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, that CTLs directed to viruses of the B/Victoria/2/1987 lineage cross-react with viruses of the B/Yamagata/16/1988 lineage and vice versa.

  16. Peste des petits ruminants virus-like particles induce both complete virus-specific antibodies and virus neutralizing antibodies in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fuxiao; Wu, Xiaodong; Zou, Yanli; Li, Lin; Wang, Zhiliang

    2015-03-01

    Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV), an etiological agent of peste des petits ruminants (PPR), is classified into the genus Morbillivirus in the family Paramyxoviridae. In a previous study, a recombinant baculovirus has been constructed to co-express the PPRV matrix (M), haemagglutinin (H) and nucleocapsid (N) proteins in insect cells, causing budding of PPR virus-like particles (VLPs) from insect cell membranes by viewing of ultrathin section with a transmission electron microscope. In this follow-up study, these PPR VLPs were purified by sucrose density gradient centrifugation for immunizing mice twice. Three weeks post-primary immunization and 2 weeks post-secondary immunization, all serum samples were obtained and subsequently subjected to indirect ELISA detection on complete virus-specific antibodies. In addition, all serum samples, which were collected 2 weeks post-secondary immunization, were used for virus neutralization test on PPRV neutralizing antibodies. The results showed that the purified PPR VLPs induced both types of antibodies mentioned above in mice, indicating a given potential of VLP-based vaccine candidate against PPR. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Inter-laboratory evaluation of the performance parameters of a Lateral Flow Test device for the detection of Bluetongue virus-specific antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanon, Jean-Baptiste; Vandenberge, Valerie; Deruelle, Matthias; De Leeuw, Ilse; De Clercq, Kris; Van Borm, Steven; Koenen, Frank; Liu, Lihong; Hoffmann, Bernd; Batten, Carrie Anne; Zientara, Stéphan; Breard, Emmanuel; Van der Stede, Yves

    2016-02-01

    Bluetongue (BT) is a viral vector-borne disease affecting domestic and wild ruminants worldwide. In this study, a commercial rapid immuno-chromatographic method or Lateral Flow Test (LFT) device, for the detection of BT virus-specific antibodies in animal serum, was evaluated in an international inter-laboratory proficiency test. The evaluation was done with sera samples of variable background (ruminant species, serotype, field samples, experimental infections, vaccinated animals). The diagnostic sensitivity was 100% (95% C.I. [90.5-100]) and the diagnostic specificity was 95.2% (95% C.I. [76.2-99.9]). The repeatability (accordance) and reproducibility (concordance) were 100% for seropositive samples but were lower for two of the seronegative samples (45% and 89% respectively). The analytical sensitivity, evaluated by testing positive sera at increasing dilutions was better for the BT LFT compared to some commercial ELISAs. Seroconversion of an infected sheep was detected at 4 days post infection. Analytical specificity was impaired by cross-reactions observed with some of the samples seropositive for Epizootic Haemorrhagic Disease Virus (EHDV). The agreement (Cohen's kappa) between the LFT and a commercial BT competitive ELISA was 0.79 (95% CI [0.62-0.95]). Based on these results, it can be concluded that the BT LFT device is a rapid and sensitive first-line serological test that can be used in the field, especially in areas endemic for the disease where there is a lack of diagnostic facilities.

  18. T-cell Depleted Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplants As A Platform For Adoptive Therapy With Leukemia Selective Or Virus-Specific T-cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Richard J.; Koehne, Gunther; Hasan, Aisha N; Doubrovina, Ekaterina; Prockop, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplants adequately depleted of T-cells can reduce or prevent acute and chronic GVHD in both HLA matched and haplotype disparate hosts, without post-transplant prophylaxis with immunosuppressive drugs. Recent trials indicate that high doses of CD34+ progenitors from G-CSF mobilized peripheral blood leukocytes isolated and T-cell depleted by immunoadsorption to paramagnetic beads, when administered after myeloablative conditioning with TBI and chemotherapy or chemotherapy alone can secure consistent engraftment and abrogate GVHD in patients with acute leukemia without incurring an increased risk of a recurrent leukemia. Early clinical trials also indicate that high doses of in vitro generated leukemia reactive donor T-cells can be adoptively transferred and can induce remissions of leukemia relapse without GVHD. Similarly, virus-specific T-cells generated from the transplant donor or an HLA partially matched third party, have induced remissions of Rituxan-refractory EBV lymphomas and can clear CMV disease or viremia persisting despite antiviral therapy in a high proportion of cases. Analyses of treatment responses and failures illustrate both the advantages and limitations of donor or banked, third party derived T-cells, but underscore the potential of adoptive T-cell therapy in the absence of ongoing immunosuppression. PMID:26039207

  19. [Detection of leptospira by culture of vitreous humor and detection of antibodies against leptospira in vitreous humor and serum of 225 horses with equine recurrent uveitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorrego-Keiter, Elisa; Tóth, József; Dikker, Lieke; Sielhorst, Jutta; Schusser, Gerald Fritz

    2016-01-01

    In the ongoing discussion regarding the aetiopathogenesis of equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) it was the aim of the present study to elucidate the relationship of leptospira infection and ERU. In a population of 225 horses leptospira were examined in vitreous humor by culture and leptospira antibody were detected in vitreous humor and serum samples. Preoperative serum samples were collected from 221/225 ERU patients of different age, gender and breed. Undiluted vitreous humor was aseptically taken from 198/225 patients that underwent pars plana vitrectomy at the beginning of surgery and from 27/225 patients' eyeball after enucleation: Serum and vitreous humor were tested for specific leptospiral antibodies by microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Furthermore, vitreous humor was examined by culture. 20 patients which were euthanized due to a live-threatening disease other than ERU served as a control group. A total of 127/221 (57.5%) horses had serum antibodies (≥ 1:100). Most frequently antibodies against L. interrogans serovar Grippotyphosa were detected (79/127), followed by L. interrogans serovar lcterohaemorrhagiae (34/127) and L. interrogans serovar Bratislava (29/127). Only 79/225 horses (35.1%) had leptospiral antibodies in vitreous humor, in which L. interrogans serovar Grippotyphosa (67/79) was identified most frequently followed by L. interrogans serovar Pomona (18/79) and L. interrogans serovar lcterohaemorrhagiae (8/79) which was identified as single or multiple reaction. Isolation of leptospira from vitreous humor was positive in 34/212 horses (16%). 10/20 control horses had a positive antibody titer against leptospira in serum and 2/20 horses in vitreous humor, whereas there was no leptospira detected in culture. The result of 84% negative cultures from vitreous humor of 212 ERU patients is decisive for the diagnosis and therapy of ERU.

  20. Differences in time of virus appearance in the blood and virus-specific immune responses in intravenous and intrarectal primary SIVmac251 infection of rhesus macaques; a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Washington Parks Robyn

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV-I can be transmitted by intravenous inoculation of contaminated blood or blood product or sexually through mucosal surfaces. Here we performed a pilot study in the SIVmac251 macaque model to address whether the route of viral entry influences the kinetics of the appearance and the size of virus-specific immune in different tissue compartments. Methods For this purpose, of 2 genetically defined Mamu-A*01-positive macaques, 1 was exposed intravenously and the other intrarectally to the same SIVmac251 viral stock and virus-specific CD8+ T-cells were measured within the first 12 days of infection in the blood and at day 12 in several tissues following euthanasia. Results Virus-specific CD8+ T-cell responses to Gag, Env, and particularly Tat appeared earlier in the blood of the animal exposed by the mucosal route than in the animal exposed intravenously. The magnitude of these virus-specific responses was consistently higher in the systemic tissues and GALT of the macaque exposed by the intravenous route, suggesting a higher viral burden in the tissues as reflected by the faster appearance of virus in plasma. Differences in the ability of the virus-specific CD8+ T-cells to respond in vitro to specific peptide stimulation were also observed and the greatest proliferative ability was found in the GALT of the animal infected by the intrarectal route. Conclusions These data may suggest that the natural mucosal barrier may delay viral spreading. The consequences of this observation, if confirmed in studies with a larger number of animals, may have implications in vaccine development.

  1. Virus-specific CD8⁺ T-cells detected in PBMC from horses vaccinated against African horse sickness virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretorius, Alri; Van Kleef, Mirinda; Van Wyngaardt, Wouter; Heath, Jeanette

    2012-03-15

    African horsesickness (AHS) is an infectious but noncontagious viral disease affecting all species of Equidae. The recall immune response of AHSV naïve horses immunised with an attenuated African horsesickness virus serotype 4 (AHSV4) was characterised using immune assays including ELISPOT, real-time PCR (qPCR) and flow cytometry. The recall immune response detected in PBMC isolated from three inoculated horses showed an upregulation of circulating B lymphocytes that correlated with elevated IL-4 mRNA expression indicative of humoral immunity, but reduced frequency of CD4⁺ cells. In addition to the expected antibody response, an increase in CD8⁺ cells was also detected. Although these CD8⁺ cells may be CTL, the role of these cells in immunity against AHSV still has to be determined.

  2. Shrimp humoral responses against pathogens: antimicrobial peptides and melanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassanakajon, Anchalee; Rimphanitchayakit, Vichien; Visetnan, Suwattana; Amparyup, Piti; Somboonwiwat, Kunlaya; Charoensapsri, Walaiporn; Tang, Sureerat

    2017-05-10

    Diseases have caused tremendous economic losses and become the major problem threatening the sustainable development of shrimp aquaculture. The knowledge of host defense mechanisms against invading pathogens is essential for the implementation of efficient strategies to prevent disease outbreaks. Like other invertebrates, shrimp rely on the innate immune system to defend themselves against a range of microbes by recognizing and destroying them through cellular and humoral immune responses. Detection of microbial pathogens triggers the signal transduction pathways including the NF-κB signaling, Toll and Imd pathways, resulting in the activation of genes involved in host defense responses. In this review, we update the discovery of components of the Toll and Imd pathways in shrimp and their participation in the regulation of shrimp antimicrobial peptide (AMP) synthesis. We also focus on a recent progress on the two most powerful and the best-studied shrimp humoral responses: AMPs and melanization. Shrimp AMPs are mainly cationic peptides with sequence diversity which endues them the broad range of activities against microorganisms. Melanization, regulated by the prophenoloxidase activating cascade, also plays a crucial role in killing and sequestration of invading pathogens. The progress and emerging research on mechanisms and functional characterization of components of these two indispensable humoral responses in shrimp immunity are summarized and discussed. Interestingly, the pattern recognition protein (PRP) crosstalk is evidenced between the proPO activating cascade and the AMP synthesis pathways in shrimp, which enables the innate immune system to build up efficient immune responses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Norovirus P particle efficiently elicits innate, humoral and cellular immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Fang

    Full Text Available Norovirus (NoV P domain complexes, the 24 mer P particles and the P dimers, induced effective humoral immunity, but their role in the cellular immune responses remained unclear. We reported here a study on cellular immune responses of the two P domain complexes in comparison with the virus-like particle (VLP of a GII.4 NoV (VA387 in mice. The P domain complexes induced significant central memory CD4(+ T cell phenotypes (CD4(+ CD44(+ CD62L(+ CCR7(+ and activated polyclonal CD4(+ T cells as shown by production of Interleukin (IL-2, Interferon (IFN-γ, and Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF-α. Most importantly, VA387-specific CD4(+ T cell epitope induced a production of IFN-γ, indicating an antigen-specific CD4(+ T cell response in P domain complex-immunized mice. Furthermore, P domain complexes efficiently induced bone marrow-derived dendritic cell (BMDC maturation, evidenced by up-regulation of co-stimulatory and MHC class II molecules, as well as production of IL-12 and IL-1β. Finally, P domain complex-induced mature dendritic cells (DCs elicited proliferation of specific CD4(+ T cells targeting VA387 P domain. Overall, we conclude that the NoV P domain complexes are efficiently presented by DCs to elicit not only humoral but also cellular immune responses against NoVs. Since the P particle is highly effective for both humoral and cellular immune responses and easily produced in Escherichia coli (E. coli, it is a good choice of vaccine against NoVs and a vaccine platform against other diseases.

  4. La investigación en tomo al humor verbal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Llera, José Antonio

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The author of this article suggests a diachronic approach to the humorous mode and criticizes any essentialist theory that defines the concept as a closed category. Every kind of humour within the whole spectrum, i.e. satire and irony, should be looked at following semantic and pragmatic principles, not forgetting the influence of classical rhetoric. As regards the recent history of Spanish humour, the contributions of the most important authors of the so-called «otra generación del 27» shall be analyzed by considering the reasons for their ostracism and for the lack of a present high quality generation of authors able to take over their literary tradition.El autor de este artículo propone un acercamiento diacrónico a la modalidad humorística, y crítica cualquier aproximación de carácter esencialista que trate de fijar el concepto como una categoría cerrada. Cada una de las especies del espectro humorístico —la sátira y la ironía, por ejemplo— debieran abordarse desde una óptica que combine la semántica con la pragmática, sin olvidar el concurso de la antigua retórica. En cuanto a la historia más reciente del humorismo hispano, se valoran los autores más representativos de la llamada «otra generación del 27», reflexionando sobre la causa de su postergación y sobre la ausencia en la actualidad de un relevo de verdadera calidad literaria.

  5. Humor: alguns mecanismos lingüísticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia Maria Carcagnolo Gil

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Quer-se pôr em evidência algumas possibilidades que a língua oferece para a produção do humor. Uma das principais características do texto-piada é a sua estruturação, marcada pela oposição entre os elementos antecedente x conseqüente, oposição essa que se resolve por meio de um mediador, cujas bases distribuem-se pelos níveis fonético-fonológico, morfossintático e semântico.

  6. Universalidad y variabilidad cultural de la risa y el humor

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Jáuregui

    2008-01-01

    La risa es un fenómeno aparentemente universal, pero el humor que la provoca muestra una variabilidad casi infinita. Este artículo trata de distinguir entre los aspectos universales de la risa y los que son culturalmente variables. Define la risa como una emoción básica del ser humano, provocada por un estímulo cognitivo que depende de definiciones sociales de la situación, lo cual explica al menos en parte su aparente heterogeneidad. Otros aspectos que también pueden variar son las no...

  7. Joy, happiness, and humor in dementia care: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, Marianne; Hanssen, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    People with advanced dementia can still enjoy life. Even if their language is impaired and they live in the moment, it should still be possible for them to live a life of pleasure and joy. A pilot study was conducted to learn more about these individuals' experiences, but because of the decline in their access to language, it was necessary to have others speak on their behalf. Analysis of findings was based on a hermeneutic approach inspired by Ricoeur (1981). Central findings were that all the interviewees emphasized humor and interacting with other people as a source of happiness.

  8. Oculo-peritoneal shunt: draining aqueous humor to the peritoneum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maldonado-Junyent

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, there were estimated to be approximately 60.5 million people with glaucoma. This number is expected to increase to 79.6 million by 2020. In 2010, there were 8.4 million people with bilateral blindness caused by glaucoma, and this number is expected in increase to 11.2 million by 2020. Filtering implants are special devices that have been developed to reduce intraocular pressure in patients with refractory glaucoma. The success rate of these implants is relatively low, and they continue to fail over time. To avoid failure caused by the formation of scar tissue around the implants, attempts have been made to drain the aqueous humor to various sites, including the venous system, lacrimal sac, sinuses, and conjunctival fornix. Recently, a system to shunt aqueous humor from the anterior chamber to the peritoneum has been developed. The surgical technique involved in this system is a modification of the technique currently used by neurosurgeons for the treatment of hydrocephalus. We present the first case operated using this technique.

  9. HIV Specific Humoral Immune Response in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bongertz V

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Efforts to characterize HIV-1 polymorphism and anti-HIV immune response are being made in areas where anti-HIV/AIDS vaccines are to be employed. Anti-HIV-1 humoral immune response is being studied in infected individuals resident in Rio de Janeiro, in distinct cohorts involving recent seroconvertors, pregnant women or intravenous drug users (IDU. Comparative analyses of specificity of antibody response towards epitopes important for anti-HIV-1 immune response indicate quantitative differences between cohorts, with an exceptionally strong response in IDUs and weakest response in pregnant women. However, a comparative analysis between pregnant women cohorts from Rio de Janeiro and Rio Grande do Sul indicated an even lower response (with exception of the anti-V3-C clade peptide recognition for the southern cohort. Studies analysing the immune function of the humoral response indicate a quite elevated occurrence of antibodies capable of neutralizing heterologous primary HIV-1 isolates from Rio de Janeiro. Attempts to correlate seroreactivity with HIV-1 neutralization with respect to HIV-1 polymorphism were not very successfull: while the Brazilian B clade B" variant could be recognized by binding assays, no significant distinction of HIV-1 clades/variants was observed in viral neutralization assays.

  10. Oculo-peritoneal shunt: draining aqueous humor to the peritoneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado-Junyent, Ana; Maldonado-Bas, Arturo; Gonzalez, Andrea; Pueyrredón, Francisco; Maldonado-Junyent, María; Maldonado-Junyent, Arturo; Rodriguez, Diego; Bulacio, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    In 2010, there were estimated to be approximately 60.5 million people with glaucoma. This number is expected to increase to 79.6 million by 2020. In 2010, there were 8.4 million people with bilateral blindness caused by glaucoma, and this number is expected in increase to 11.2 million by 2020. Filtering implants are special devices that have been developed to reduce intraocular pressure in patients with refractory glaucoma. The success rate of these implants is relatively low, and they continue to fail over time. To avoid failure caused by the formation of scar tissue around the implants, attempts have been made to drain the aqueous humor to various sites, including the venous system, lacrimal sac, sinuses, and conjunctival fornix. Recently, a system to shunt aqueous humor from the anterior chamber to the peritoneum has been developed. The surgical technique involved in this system is a modification of the technique currently used by neurosurgeons for the treatment of hydrocephalus. We present the first case operated using this technique.

  11. How fun are your meetings? How and when humor patterns emerge and impact team performance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehmann-Willenbrock, N.K.; Allen, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Research on humor in organizations has rarely considered the social context in which humor occurs. One such social setting that most of us experience on a daily basis concerns the team context. Building on recent theorizing about the humor–performance link in teams, this study seeks to increase our

  12. The rise and decline of character: humoral psychology in ancient and early modern medical theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.

    2009-01-01

    Humoralism, the view that the human body is composed of a limited number of elementary fluids, is one of the most characteristic aspects of ancient medicine. The psychological dimension of humoral theory in the ancient world has thus far received a relatively small amount of scholarly attention.

  13. On the Anti-slavery Theme and Great Humor in Pudd'nhead Wilson

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢争艳

    2015-01-01

    Pudd'nhead Wilson is an excellent novel of Mark Twain.Mark Twain fully uses his great humor to deeply criticize and satirize the darkness of the society in Pudd'nhead Wilson.This paper mainly makes an exploration on Twain's anti-slavery theme and marvelous humor in the novel.

  14. A Review of Humor for Computer Games: Play, Laugh and More

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dormann, Claire; Biddle, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Computer games are now becoming ways to communicate, teach, and influence attitudes and behavior. In this article, we address the role of humor in computer games, especially in support of serious purposes. We begin with a review of the main theories of humor, including superiority, incongruity, and relief. These theories and their…

  15. Entextualized Humor in the Formation of Scientist Identities among U.S. Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucholtz, Mary; Skapoulli, Elena; Barnwell, Brendan; Lee, Jung-Eun Janie

    2011-01-01

    Studies of the socialization of novices into scientific cultures typically emphasize official knowledge-making activities. However, scientific socialization is also accomplished informally through humor. As entextualized humor, formulaic jokes enable U.S. undergraduate students in science to claim scientist identities both through a displayed…

  16. Humor Appreciation Involves Parametric and Synchronized Activity in the Medial Prefrontal Cortex and Hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iidaka, Tetsuya

    2016-10-18

    Humor perception is a ubiquitous phenomenon in human societies. In theories of humor perception, three factors, non-seriousness, social context, and incongruity, have been implicated in humor. In another theory, however, elaboration and reinterpretation of contexts are considered to play a role in eliciting humor. Although the neural correlates of humor appreciation have been investigated using neuroimaging methods, only a few studies have conducted such experiments under natural conditions. In the present study, two functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments, using a comedy movie as a stimulus, were conducted to investigate the neural correlates of humor under natural conditions. The subjects' brain activity was measured while watching and enjoying a movie. In experiment 1, a parametric analysis showed that the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and hippocampus/amygdala had a positive relationship with the subjective rating of funniness. In experiment 2, intersubject correlation was analyzed to investigate synchronized activity across all participants. Signal synchronization that paralleled increased funniness ratings was observed in the MPFC and hippocampus. Thus, it appears that both parametric and synchronized activity in the MPFC and hippocampus are important during humor appreciation. The present study has revealed the brain regions that are predominantly involved in humor sensation under natural condition. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. The Role of Humor in Learning Physics: A Study of Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Maria

    2017-01-01

    We all know that they do it, but what do students laugh "about" when learning science together? Although research has shown that students do use humor when they learn science, the role of humor in science education has received little attention. In this study, undergraduate students' laughter during collaborative work in physics has been…

  18. Teacher Leaders' Perceptions of the Use of Humor in the High School Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosiczky, Bonnie

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate teacher leaders' perceptions of the use of humor in the high school classroom. For the purposes of this qualitative research the case study method was used. The question of what makes teachers successful with their use of humor in the classroom has been divided into four categories: climate,…

  19. Humor Use Moderates the Relation of Stressful Life Events With Psychological Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Heidi L; Russek, Leslie N; Dillon, Melissa M

    2017-06-01

    Three studies examined humor and adjustment to stressful events. In Study 1, patients with fibromyalgia syndrome ( N = 22) reported on mental and physical adjustment, social interaction, and reappraisal of their illness. Dispositional humor was associated with reduced distress and fewer physical symptoms. Study 2 ( N = 109) examined undergraduates' reports of stressful events. Dispositional, self-enhancing, affiliative, and self-defeating humor showed direct effects on distress, which were mediated by social interaction and reappraisal. Moreover, dispositional and aggressive humor showed stress-buffering effects. Study 3 ( N = 105) examined undergraduates' adjustment to the September 11, 2001, attacks at 1 and 3 months postattack. At T1, affiliative humor showed a stress-buffering effect on distress. Social interaction mediated the relation of self-enhancing humor with reduced T1 distress, and mediated relations of aggressive and self-defeating humor with greater distress. Relations of T1 dispositional and self-defeating humor to changes in T2 distress were mediated by reappraisal.

  20. Mirth and Murder: Crime Scene Investigation as a Work Context for Examining Humor Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Gene L.; Vivona, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Within work settings, humor is used by workers for a wide variety of purposes. This study examines humor applications of a specific type of worker in a unique work context: crime scene investigation. Crime scene investigators examine death and its details. Members of crime scene units observe death much more frequently than other police officers…

  1. "Last Professor Standing!": Powerpoint Enables All Faculty to Use Humor in Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Ronald A.

    2014-01-01

    There are two major global educational trends that have changed the form and execution of humor in the classroom and in professional conferences: (1) the burgeoning instructional technology, especially PowerPoint, which can provide a vehicle for several forms of low risk humor anyone can present; and (2) the diversity of classroom demographics,…

  2. Humor Styles and Their Relationship to Well-Being among the Gifted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Pieternel; Barelds, Dick; Ronner, Sieuwke; Nauta, Arnolda

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the extent to which a sample of 202 gifted individuals (members of Mensa) engaged in four humor styles and the extent to which these humor styles were related to their well-being. These results were compared to a comparative population sample (n = 265). Results showed that gifted individuals most often used positive…

  3. All Kidding Aside: Humor Increases Learning at Knowledge and Comprehension Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackathorn, Jana; Garczynski, Amy M.; Blankmeyer, Katheryn; Tennial, Rachel D.; Solomon, Erin D.

    2011-01-01

    It has been argued that humor is beneficial in the classroom because it increases social bonding between instructor and student, salience of information, and ultimately recall and retention. The current study sought to add to the literature by empirically testing some assumptions about humor as a pedagogical tool. Specifically, we predicted that…

  4. Spanish Teachers' Sense of Humor and Student Performance on the National Spanish Exams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Peter B.

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that second/foreign language teachers' sense of humor is directly related to many outcomes for teachers and their students. This research investigates the relationship between the perceived sense of humor of in-service Spanish teachers' (n?=?102) and their students' (n?=?5,419) score on the National Spanish Exams…

  5. The Potency of Humor and Instructional Self-Efficacy on Art Teacher Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-Palmer, Teri

    2010-01-01

    This quantitative study was sparked by a keen interest in art teachers who practice humor in challenging school environments. Stressors unique to art education can cause teachers to lose heart in such a way that their ability to perform is compromised. To teach effectively, teachers must maintain resilience to cope with stress. Pedagogical humor,…

  6. Exposure to Sexist Humor and Rape Proclivity: The Moderator Effect of Aversiveness Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Sanchez, Monica; Duran, Mercedes; Carretero-Dios, Hugo; Megias, Jesus L.; Moya, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the effect of exposure to sexist humor about women on men's self-reported rape proclivity. Earlier studies have shown that exposure to this type of humor increases rape proclivity and that funniness responses to jokes are a key element to consider. However, the role of aversiveness responses has not been…

  7. Humor in High School and the Role of Teacher Leaders in School Public Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosiczky, Bonnie; Mullen, Carol A.

    2013-01-01

    How can public schools improve public relations strategies, particularly in communications between teachers and students? The purposes of this study were to investigate teacher leaders' perceptions of the use of humor in the high school classroom and discover how humor might bridge instruction to student learning and strengthen teacher-student…

  8. Humor Ability Reveals Intelligence, Predicts Mating Success, and Is Higher in Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greengross, Gil; Miller, Geoffrey

    2011-01-01

    A good sense of humor is sexually attractive, perhaps because it reveals intelligence, creativity, and other "good genes" or "good parent" traits. If so, intelligence should predict humor production ability, which in turn should predict mating success. In this study, 400 university students (200 men and 200 women) completed…

  9. INFLUENCE OF METHOD OF QUESTIONING UPON CHILDREN'S RESPONSES TO HUMOROUS SITUATIONS IN LITERATURE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MONSON, DIANNE L.

    TO INVESTIGATE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF METHODS OF ELICITING CHILDREN'S RESPONSES TO HUMOR IN LITERATURE AND TO DETERMINE HOW THESE RESPONSES ARE AFFECTED BY SEX, SOCIOECONOMIC LEVEL, INTELLIGENCE, AND READING ABILITY, 365 FIFTH GRADERS WERE ASKED TO READ EXCERPTS CONTAINING ELEMENTS OF FIVE TYPES OF HUMOR. UNSTRUCTURED QUESTIONNAIRES REQUIRING…

  10. An Analysis of Verbal Humor in Friends from the Perspective of Coopera-tive Principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雷宏

    2014-01-01

    Friends is a classical situation comedy in America in which humorous dialogues abound. With the theoretical frame-work of Cooperative Principle, this thesis extracts typical dialogues in American situation comedy Friends as data and discusses the characters’violation of maxims of Cooperative Principle together with the derived humorous effect.

  11. The Role of Humor in Learning Physics: a Study of Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Maria

    2016-02-01

    We all know that they do it, but what do students laugh about when learning science together? Although research has shown that students do use humor when they learn science, the role of humor in science education has received little attention. In this study, undergraduate students' laughter during collaborative work in physics has been investigated. In order to do this, a framework inspired by conversation analysis has been used. Empirical data was drawn from two video-recorded sessions in which first-year engineering students solved physics problems together. The analysis revealed that the students' use of humor was almost exclusively related to physics. Five themes identified summarize the role of humor in the group discussions: Something is obvious, Something is difficult, Something said might be wrong, Something is absurd, and Something said is not within informal norms. This study shows that humor may contribute not only to a good working atmosphere and thereby to the students' learning but also how humor interrelates with both disciplinary culture of physics and its epistemology. The students do not only create and re-create humor that facilitates their social interactions, but through humor they constitute local norms of science and engage with the disciplinary discourse.

  12. What Role Does Humor in the Higher Education Classroom Play in Student-Perceived Instructor Effectiveness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halula, Stephen Paul

    2013-01-01

    Everyone has had college instructors who they thought were excellent and those who were not. In pondering what attributes might have made the difference between these groups, the idea of "humor" came to mind, setting the researcher on course to study the research question "What role does humor in the higher education classroom play…

  13. Marte es divertido! Sobre humor, apreciación y emociones en niños

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leonor Ruiz Gurrillo

    2015-01-01

    ... que los niños disfrutan de las historias divertidas, humorísticas y fantásticas. Sin embargo, la apreciación del humor ha sido escasamente investigada desde una perspectiva productiva. Nuestro corpus está...

  14. Comprehension of humor in children with nonverbal learning disabilities, reading disabilities, and without learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Glass, Kimberly

    2008-12-01

    The normal development of humor in children has been well documented with a predictable course that is tied to social, cognitive, and linguistic development in children. This study explored humor comprehension in children with nonverbal learning disabilities (NVLD). Children with NVLD were compared with children with reading disabilities and a comparison group of children with no learning disabilities to assess their comprehension of humor. The humor test was composed of a joke and cartoon section. No group differences in humor comprehension were found when the NVLD group was defined as having visual-spatial and visual reasoning deficits. However, when the NVLD group was divided into children with and without social perceptual difficulties as defined by a direct measure of social comprehension, significant group differences were found in the levels of humor comprehension. These results support the association of humor comprehension with social perception and lend tentative support to the hypothesis that children with NVLD may not be a homogenous group. Future study directions include further exploration into the nature of the association between humor comprehension and social perception as well as closer examination of the heterogeneity of NVLD.

  15. Good humor, bad taste: a sociology of the joke. - 2nd, revised ed.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, G.M.M.

    2015-01-01

    This is an updated edition of Good Humor, Bad Taste: A Sociology of the Joke, published in 2006. Using a combination of interview materials, survey data, and historical materials, it explores the relationship between humor and gender, age, social class, and national differences in the Netherlands an

  16. Mirth and Murder: Crime Scene Investigation as a Work Context for Examining Humor Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Gene L.; Vivona, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Within work settings, humor is used by workers for a wide variety of purposes. This study examines humor applications of a specific type of worker in a unique work context: crime scene investigation. Crime scene investigators examine death and its details. Members of crime scene units observe death much more frequently than other police officers…

  17. STRATEGI PRAGMATIK BAHASA HUMOR DALAM ACARA “MARIO TEGUH GOLDEN WAYS” DI METRO TV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enie Hendrajati

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Speech humor in MTGW program is assumed as a "good practice" of pragmatic strategy to entertain, inspire and motivate audience. The focus and objective of this study is to get a description of the pragmatic strategy of harmonizing word choice, sentence, and humorous language in MTGW program. How pragmatic strategies have implications for the use of words, sentences, and language styles so that the audience feel entertained and laughed. This research uses desciptive qualitative approach. Data in the form of humorous languages is collected by listening and recording. The method of analysis is padan and agih. The word data, sentence, and style of the humorous language are linked and compared to other words, sentences, and language styles in terms of humorous sense between sentences produced and comparator sentences. As a result, the pragmatic strategy MT uses in the MTGW program on Metro TV is to harmonize between lingual units of words, sentences, and language styles with humor and courtesy. MT uses a locusive and illocusive strategy with humorous tones and politeness in choosing, organizing and producing every word, sentence, and style of humor. Through the choice of words, sentences, and language style, the MT uses pragmatic strategies in conveying his message as a motivator and the perlocutionary effect is that the audience becomes interested or entertained.

  18. Humor Ability Reveals Intelligence, Predicts Mating Success, and Is Higher in Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greengross, Gil; Miller, Geoffrey

    2011-01-01

    A good sense of humor is sexually attractive, perhaps because it reveals intelligence, creativity, and other "good genes" or "good parent" traits. If so, intelligence should predict humor production ability, which in turn should predict mating success. In this study, 400 university students (200 men and 200 women) completed…

  19. A Review of Humor in Educational Settings: Four Decades of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banas, John A.; Dunbar, Norah; Rodriguez, Dariela; Liu, Shr-Jie

    2011-01-01

    The primary goal of this project is to provide a summary of extant research regarding humor in the classroom, with an emphasis on identifying and explaining inconsistencies in research findings and offering new directions for future studies in this area. First, the definitions, functions, and main theories of humor are reviewed. Next, the paper…

  20. Humor in High School and the Role of Teacher Leaders in School Public Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosiczky, Bonnie; Mullen, Carol A.

    2013-01-01

    How can public schools improve public relations strategies, particularly in communications between teachers and students? The purposes of this study were to investigate teacher leaders' perceptions of the use of humor in the high school classroom and discover how humor might bridge instruction to student learning and strengthen teacher-student…