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Sample records for humoral rejection occurred

  1. Immune response and histology of humoral rejection in kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Molina, Miguel; Ruiz-Esteban, Pedro; Caballero, Abelardo; Burgos, Dolores; Cabello, Mercedes; Leon, Miriam; Fuentes, Laura; Hernandez, Domingo

    2016-01-01

    The adaptive immune response forms the basis of allograft rejection. Its weapons are direct cellular cytotoxicity, identified from the beginning of organ transplantation, and/or antibodies, limited to hyperacute rejection by preformed antibodies and not as an allogenic response. This resulted in allogenic response being thought for decades to have just a cellular origin. But the experimental studies by Gorer demonstrating tissue damage in allografts due to antibodies secreted by B lymphocytes activated against polymorphic molecules were disregarded. The special coexistence of binding and unbinding between antibodies and antigens of the endothelial cell membranes has been the cause of the delay in demonstrating the humoral allogenic response. The endothelium, the target tissue of antibodies, has a high turnover, and antigen-antibody binding is non-covalent. If endothelial cells are attacked by the humoral response, immunoglobulins are rapidly removed from their surface by shedding and/or internalization, as well as degrading the components of the complement system by the action of MCP, DAF and CD59. Thus, the presence of complement proteins in the membrane of endothelial cells is transient. In fact, the acute form of antibody-mediated rejection was not demonstrated until C4d complement fragment deposition was identified, which is the only component that binds covalently to endothelial cells. This review examines the relationship between humoral immune response and the types of acute and chronic histological lesion shown on biopsy of the transplanted organ. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Acute mixed cellular and humoral rejection of renal allograft with leucopenia.

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    Agarwal, D K; Hota, J K; Malhotra, V

    2011-08-01

    Diagnosis and management of acute renal allograft dysfunction often pose challenge to nephrologists during practice. Acute rejection is a major cause of acute graft dysfunction but is rare in patients with leucopenia. Acute rejection can have either humoral or cellular components or sometimes mixed components. Mixed acute cellular and humoral rejection often present as steroid resistant rejection. Here we report a patient with live related renal transplant recipient with acute graft dysfunction with leucopenia who was found to have mixed acute cellular and humoral rejection.

  3. Endothelial activation, lymphangiogenesis, and humoral rejection of kidney transplants.

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    Phillips, Sharon; Kapp, Meghan; Crowe, Deborah; Garces, Jorge; Fogo, Agnes B; Giannico, Giovanna A

    2016-05-01

    Antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR) is implicated in 45% of renal allograft failure and 57% of late allograft dysfunction. Peritubular capillary C4d is a specific but insensitive marker of ABMR. The 2013 Banff Conference ABMR revised criteria included C4d-negative ABMR with evidence of endothelial-antibody interaction. We hypothesized that endothelial activation and lymphangiogenesis are increased with C4d-negative ABMR and correlate with intragraft T-regulatory cells and T-helper 17. Seventy-four renal transplant biopsies were selected to include (a) ABMR with C4d Banff scores ≥2 (n = 35), (b) variable microvascular injury and C4d score 0-1 (n = 24), and (c) variable microvascular injury and C4d score = 0 (n = 15). Controls included normal preimplantation donor kidneys (n = 5). Immunohistochemistry for endothelial activation (P- and E-selectins [SEL]), lymphangiogenesis (D2-40), T-regulatory cells (FOXP3), and T-helper 17 (STAT3) was performed. Microvessel and inflammatory infiltrate density was assessed morphometrically in interstitium and peritubular capillaries. All transplants had significantly higher microvessel and lymph vessel density compared with normal. Increased expression of markers of endothelial activation predicted transplant glomerulopathy (P-SEL, P = .003). Increased P-SEL and D2-40 were associated with longer interval from transplant to biopsy (P = .005). All 3 markers were associated with increased interstitial fibrosis, tubular atrophy, and graft failure (P-SEL, P < .001; E-SEL, P = .0011; D2-40, P = .012). There was no association with the intragraft FOXP3/STAT3 ratio. We conclude that endothelial activation and lymphangiogenesis could represent a late response to injury leading to fibrosis and progression of kidney damage, and are independent of the intragraft FOXP3/STAT3 ratio. Our findings support the therapeutic potential of specifically targeting endothelial activation.

  4. Late Acute Rejection Occuring in Liver Allograft Recipients

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    Eric M Yoshida

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the effect of immunosuppressive reduction on the incidence and consequence of late acute rejection (LAR in liver allograft recipients, mean daily prednisone dose, mean cyclosporine A (CsA trough and nadir levels were retrospectively reviewed for the nearest 12-week period preceding six episodes of LAR in five liver allograft recipients (group 1. Results were compared with those from a cohort of 12 liver allograft recipients who did not develop LAR (group 2. LAR was defined as acute rejection occurring more than 365 days post-transplantation. Median follow-up for both groups was similar (504 days, range 367 to 1050, versus 511 days, range 365 to 666, not significant. Mean trough CsA levels were lower in patients with LAR compared with those without (224±66 ng/mL versus 233±49 ng/mL but the difference was not statistically significant. In contrast, mean daily prednisone dose (2.5±1.6 mg/ day versus 6.5±2.9 mg/day, P=0.007 and CsA nadir values (129±60 ng/mL versus 186±40 ng/mL, P=0.03 were significantly lower in patients who developed LAR compared with those who did not. Five of six episodes (83% of LAR occurred in patients receiving less than 5 mg/day of prednisone, versus a single LAR episode in only one of 12 patients (8% receiving prednisone 5 mg/day or more (P=0.004. In all but one instance, LAR responded to pulse methylprednisolone without discernible affect on long term graft function. The authors conclude that liver allograft recipients remain vulnerable to acute rejection beyond the first post-transplant year; and reduction of immunosuppressive therapy, particularly prednisone, below a critical, albeit low dose, threshold increases the risk of LAR.

  5. Decreased humoral antibody episodes of acute renal allograft rejection in recipients expressing the HLA-DQβ1*0202 allele.

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    Mannam, Venkat K R; Santos, Mark; Lewis, Robert E; Cruse, Julius M

    2012-10-01

    The present investigation was designed to show the effect of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II molecular allelic specificities in the recipient on the induction of humoral antibody rejection, identified by C4d peritubular capillary staining, as well as specific antibody identified by Luminex technology. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules are expressed on dendritic cells, macrophages, and B lymphocytes and they present antigenic peptides to CD4 positive T lymphocytes. Human renal peritubular and glomerular capillaries express class II MHC molecules upon activation. Expression of class II molecules on renal microvascular endothelial cells exposes them to possible interaction with specific circulating antibodies. We hypothesize that HLA-DQβ1*0202 expression in recipients decreases the likelihood of antibody-mediated renal allograft rejection. We found that 80% (=25) of DQ2 positive haplotype recipients failed to induce humoral antibody renal allograft rejection and 20% (n=25) of DQ2 positive haplotype recipients induced humoral antibody renal allograft rejection (p=0.008). By contrast, 48% (n=46) of DQ2 negative haplotype recipients failed to induce a humoral antibody component of renal allograft rejection and 52% (n=46) of DQ2 negative haplotype recipients induced humoral antibody-mediated renal allograft rejection. Our results suggest that recipients who express the DQβ1*0202 allele are less likely to induce a humoral antibody component of acute renal allograft rejection than are those expressing DQ1, DQ3, or DQ4 alleles. DQβ1*0202 allele expression in recipients could possibly be protective against acute humoral allograft rejection and might serve as a future criterion in recipient selection and in appropriate therapy for acute renal rejection episodes.

  6. [Time course of morphological changes in humoral renal allograft rejection in ABO incompatibility between donor and recipient].

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    Morozova, M M; Kozmin, L D; Fedorov, D N; Kaabak, M M; Babenko, N N

    2013-01-01

    One hundred and five biopsy specimens taken in different periods after 34 ABO-incompatible mismatched related kidney transplantations were examined to establish the patterns of humoral activity from the morphological changes and expression of C4d deposits in the peritubular capillaries. Severe reversible forms of acute humoral rejection (AHR) (2 patients) and minimal morphological manifestations (13 patients) were observed in the biopsy specimens taken as long as 2 months later in Group 1 (C4d+). In the early period, the minimal manifestations of AHR did not cause organ dysfunction; but in the late period, 5 of them developed chronic humoral rejection in persistent humoral activity; 4 grafts were removed 531,720, 1019, and 1252 days later. Group 2 (C4d-) (n = 19) showed no graft losses or significant chronic changes; the late minimal manifestations of AHR had no impact on the duration of organ function in 3 recipients. The timely detection of early humoral activity and minimal manifestations of AHR is needed for the measures taken to reduce a risk for late function loss of the grafted organ.

  7. Early plasmapheresis and rituximab for acute humoral rejection after ABO-compatible liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nassim Kamar; Laurence Lavayssière; Fabrice Muscari; Janick Selves; Céline Guilbeau-Frugier; Isabelle Cardeau; Laure Esposito; Olivier Cointault; Marie Béatrice Nogier; Jean Marie Peron; Philippe Otal; Marylise Fort; Lionel Rostaing

    2009-01-01

    Acute humoral rejection (AHR) is uncommon after ABOcompatible liver transplantation. Herein, we report two cases of AHR treated with plasmapheresis and rituximab in two ABO-compatible liver-transplant patients with preformed anti-human leukocyte antigen donor-specific antibodies. Patient 1 experienced a biopsy-proven AHR at day 10 post-transplant. She was treated by steroid pulses, and OKT3. Because of persisting signs of biopsy-proven AHR at day 26, she was treated by plasmapheresis and rituximab. Liver enzyme levels did not improve, and she died on day 41. Patient 2 experienced a biopsy-proven AHR on day 10 post-transplant. She was treated by steroid pulses, plasmapheresis, and rituximab.Liver enzymes returned to within normal range 18 dafter diagnosis. Liver biopsies, at 3 and 9 mo post-transplant,showed complete resolution of AHR. We conclude that plasmapheresis should be started as soon as AHR is diagnosed, and be associated with a B-cell depleting agent. Rituximab may be considered as a first-line therapy.

  8. Case of Acute Graft Failure during Suspected Humoral Rejection with Preserved Ejection Fraction, but Severely Reduced Longitudinal Deformation Detected by 2D-Speckle Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tor Skibsted Clemmensen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This case displays limited utility of left ventricular ejection fraction to detect acute graft failure due to microvascular vasculopathy and suspected humoral rejection. Despite severe and progressive graft failure, clinically and by right heart catheterizations, left ventricular ejection fraction remained unchanged, indicating need of more reliable noninvasive methods for graft function surveillance. Global longitudinal strain relates to clinical heart failure, filling pressure, and cardiac index during suspected humoral rejection and microvascular dysfunction in this HTX patient. We suggest routine monitoring of graft function by global longitudinal strain as supplement to routine left ventricular ejection fraction and diastolic Doppler measurements.

  9. Case of Acute Graft Failure during Suspected Humoral Rejection with Preserved Ejection Fraction, but Severely Reduced Longitudinal Deformation Detected by 2D-Speckle Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Tor Skibsted; Eiskjær, Hans; Kofoed-Nielsen, Pernille B;

    2014-01-01

    remained unchanged, indicating need of more reliable noninvasive methods for graft function surveillance. Global longitudinal strain relates to clinical heart failure, filling pressure, and cardiac index during suspected humoral rejection and microvascular dysfunction in this HTX patient. We suggest...... routine monitoring of graft function by global longitudinal strain as supplement to routine left ventricular ejection fraction and diastolic Doppler measurements....

  10. Characterization of naturally-occurring humoral immunity to AAV in sheep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Tellez

    Full Text Available AAV vectors have shown great promise for clinical gene therapy (GT, but pre-existing human immunity against the AAV capsid often limits transduction. Thus, testing promising AAV-based GT approaches in an animal model with similar pre-existing immunity could better predict clinical outcome. Sheep have long been used for basic biological and preclinical studies. Moreover, we have re-established a line of sheep with severe hemophilia A (HA. Given the impetus to use AAV-based GT to treat hemophilia, we characterized the pre-existing ovine humoral immunity to AAV. ELISA revealed naturally-occurring antibodies to AAV1, AAV2, AAV5, AAV6, AAV8, and AAV9. For AAV2, AAV8, and AAV9 these inhibit transduction in a luciferase-based neutralization assay. Epitope mapping identified peptides that were common to the capsids of all AAV serotypes tested (AAV2, AAV5, AAV8 and AAV9, with each animal harboring antibodies to unique and common capsid epitopes. Mapping using X-ray crystallographic AAV capsid structures demonstrated that these antibodies recognized both surface epitopes and epitopes located within regions of the capsid that are internal or buried in the capsid structure. These results suggest that sheep harbor endogenous AAV, which induces immunity to both intact capsid and to capsid epitopes presented following proteolysis during the course of infection. In conclusion, their clinically relevant physiology and the presence of naturally-occurring antibodies to multiple AAV serotypes collectively make sheep a unique model in which to study GT for HA, and other diseases, and develop strategies to circumvent the clinically important barrier of pre-existing AAV immunity.

  11. [Effect of Yunnan-cobra venom factor in overcoming acute humoral rejection after allograft cardiac transplantation in presensitized recipients: experiment with rats].

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    Li, Rong; Chen, Gang; Guo, Hui; Wang, Da-wei; Xie, Lin; Wang, Shu-sen; Wang, Wan-yu; Xiong, Yu-liang; Chen, Shi

    2006-06-06

    To investigate the effect of Yunnan-cobra venom factor (Y-CVF) in overcoming acute humoral rejection after allograft cardiac transplantation in presensitized recipients. Fifteen Lewis rats received the transplantation of full-thickness skin graft of BN rats three times so as to be presensitized. Fifteen pairs of Lewis rat, as recipients of heart, and BN rat, as heart donors, were randomly divided into 2 groups: experimental group (n = 8), and control group (n = 7). The Lewis rats in the experimental group received heart transplantation of the heart of the BN rat 7 approximately 10 days after the third skin transplantation, and were injected with Y-CVF 80 microg/kg 24 hours before the heart transplantation. The Lewis rat in the control group received only the heart transplantation without Y-CVF injection. Blood samples were collected from all rats before pre-sensitization and 7 days after the third skin transplantation so as to determine the titer of anti-BN rat lymphocyte antibody. 0 and 24 hours, and 6 and 8 days after Y-CVF injection blood samples were collected from the Lewis rats to determine the total complement activity with the complement activity before Y-CVF injection defined as 100%. The survival time of the transplanted heart was observed. After the transplanted hearts stopped to beat, they were resected and underwent HE staining and microscopy. Immunohistochemistry was used to examine the deposition of IgG and complement 3 (C3). The titer of anti-BN rat lymphocyte antibody was 0 before the pre-sensitization, and increased to 1:1028 - 1:2056 7 days after the third skin pre-sensitization. The serum total complement activity of the Lewis rats decreased to 0 twenty-four hours after the Y-CVF injection, recovered to 2.01% - 15.41% 6 days after, and returned to the normal level (89.61% - 109.46%) 8 days after. The mean survival time of the transplanted hearts of the control group was 12.71 +/- 13.94 hours (with a range of 1.5 - 15 hours), significantly

  12. 体液性排斥反应患者移植物组织C4d沉积和浆细胞聚集性浸润初探%A retrospective analysis on the relationship between C4d deposition and infiltration of plasma-cell nodules in liver and renal allografts and their roles in humoral rejection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石炳毅; 许晓光; 蔡明; 宋继勇; 韩永

    2009-01-01

    Objective To detect the deposition of C4d and the infiltration of plasma cells in liver and renal allografts and to study the correlations among C4d deposition, plasma cells infiltration and humoral rejection.Methods Thirty-four liver biopsy specimens from 28 liver transplant patients and 43 tissues from excised renal allografts of rejections were stained with HE and analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Ten excised renal specimens from patients with other diseases rather than rejection and specimens from donor liver explants were collected as negative controls. Renal allograft rejection was classified with Banff 97. The expression of C4d and CD138 were detected and their relationship was analyzed.Results Histopathology showed that acute rejection occurred in 16 liver allografts, chronic humoral rejection in 9 and no rejection in 9. Liver biopsies before transplantation showed no Cd4 positive;9 (56.3%) cases in acute rejection group were detected C4d positive, 5(55.6%) cases in chronic rejection group, and 1(11.1%) case with stenosis of bile duct in no rejection group. Eleven tissue specimens from rejected allografts were detected CD138 positive and 8 were detected both C4d and CD138 positive. Among the 43 renal allografts specimens, 5 had hyperacute rejection, 9 acute rejection, and 29 chronic rejection;19(44.2%) were detected C4d positive, 24(55.8%) CD138 positive, and 10(23.3%) both positive. C4d and CD138 are related by the Spearman analysis in liver and renal allografts (r=0.364, P<0.05;r=0.5051, P<0.01). One case of C4d positive and no CD138 positive were detected in the negative controls.Conclusion C4d and CD138 are correlated, suggesting the plasma nodules infiltration in liver and renal allograft probably participate in humoral rejection through secreting antibodies locally.%目的 检测移植肝及肾组织中浆细胞的浸润和补体C4裂解产物C4d的沉积情况,分析浆细胞浸润、C4d沉积与体液性排斥反应的相关性.方法 25例肝移

  13. [Immune competence of human tissue lymphocytes in contact with loosened hip joint prostheses. On the topic of cellular or humoral rejection reaction as the mechanism of loosening].

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    Peters, K M; Löer, F; Hofstädter, F; Casser, H R

    1991-05-01

    In several investigations rejections were accused of being a possible cause for the loosening of hip endoprostheses. Using immunocytochemical techniques we studied the number and type of lymphocytes in the tissue adjacent to loosened hip endoprostheses. Tissue samples were taken from 18 patients being reoperated for a loosened endoprostheses. Impressive lymphocyte infiltrates were found in 4 of 18 patients (22%). These infiltrates only consisted of T-cells. In the other samples only few lymphocytes were detected belonging to T- and B-lymphocyte population, respectively. In our patients T-cell mediated rejections were of minor importance for the loosening of total hip replacement. B-cell accumulations were detected in none of the samples.

  14. DNA Vaccine Encoding HPV16 Oncogenes E6 and E7 Induces Potent Cell-mediated and Humoral Immunity Which Protects in Tumor Challenge and Drives E7-expressing Skin Graft Rejection.

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    Chandra, Janin; Dutton, Julie L; Li, Bo; Woo, Wai-Ping; Xu, Yan; Tolley, Lynn K; Yong, Michelle; Wells, James W; R Leggatt, Graham; Finlayson, Neil; Frazer, Ian H

    We have previously shown that a novel DNA vaccine technology of codon optimization and the addition of ubiquitin sequences enhanced immunogenicity of a herpes simplex virus 2 polynucleotide vaccine in mice, and induced cell-mediated immunity when administered in humans at relatively low doses of naked DNA. We here show that a new polynucleotide vaccine using the same technology and encoding a fusion protein of the E6 and E7 oncogenes of high-risk human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) is immunogenic in mice. This vaccine induces long-lasting humoral and cell-mediated immunity and protects mice from establishment of HPV16-E7-expressing tumors. In addition, it suppresses growth of readily established tumors and shows enhanced efficacy when combined with immune checkpoint blockade targeted at PD-L1. This vaccine also facilitates rejection of HPV16-E7-expressing skin grafts that demonstrate epidermal hyperplasia with characteristics of cervical and vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia. Clinical studies evaluating the efficacy of this vaccine in patients with HPV16 premalignancies are planned.

  15. DNA Vaccine Encoding HPV16 Oncogenes E6 and E7 Induces Potent Cell-mediated and Humoral Immunity Which Protects in Tumor Challenge and Drives E7-expressing Skin Graft Rejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Janin; Dutton, Julie L.; Li, Bo; Woo, Wai-Ping; Xu, Yan; Tolley, Lynn K.; Yong, Michelle; Wells, James W.; R. Leggatt, Graham; Finlayson, Neil

    2017-01-01

    We have previously shown that a novel DNA vaccine technology of codon optimization and the addition of ubiquitin sequences enhanced immunogenicity of a herpes simplex virus 2 polynucleotide vaccine in mice, and induced cell-mediated immunity when administered in humans at relatively low doses of naked DNA. We here show that a new polynucleotide vaccine using the same technology and encoding a fusion protein of the E6 and E7 oncogenes of high-risk human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) is immunogenic in mice. This vaccine induces long-lasting humoral and cell-mediated immunity and protects mice from establishment of HPV16-E7-expressing tumors. In addition, it suppresses growth of readily established tumors and shows enhanced efficacy when combined with immune checkpoint blockade targeted at PD-L1. This vaccine also facilitates rejection of HPV16-E7-expressing skin grafts that demonstrate epidermal hyperplasia with characteristics of cervical and vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia. Clinical studies evaluating the efficacy of this vaccine in patients with HPV16+ premalignancies are planned. PMID:28166181

  16. Detection of C3d-Binding Donor-Specific Anti-HLA Antibodies at Diagnosis of Humoral Rejection Predicts Renal Graft Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicard, Antoine; Ducreux, Stéphanie; Rabeyrin, Maud; Couzi, Lionel; McGregor, Brigitte; Badet, Lionel; Scoazec, Jean Yves; Bachelet, Thomas; Lepreux, Sébastien; Visentin, Jonathan; Merville, Pierre; Fremeaux-Bacchi, Véronique; Morelon, Emmanuel; Taupin, Jean-Luc; Dubois, Valérie

    2015-01-01

    Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) is a major cause of kidney graft loss, yet assessment of individual risk at diagnosis is impeded by the lack of a reliable prognosis assay. Here, we tested whether the capacity of anti-HLA antibodies to bind complement components allows accurate risk stratification at the time of AMR diagnosis. Among 938 kidney transplant recipients for whom a graft biopsy was performed between 2004 and 2012 at the Lyon University Hospitals, 69 fulfilled the diagnosis criteria for AMR and were enrolled. Sera banked at the time of the biopsy were screened for the presence of donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies (DSAs) and their ability to bind C1q and C3d using flow bead assays. In contrast with C4d graft deposition, the presence of C3d-binding DSA was associated with a higher risk of graft loss (P<0.001). Despite similar trend, the difference did not reach significance with a C1q-binding assay (P=0.06). The prognostic value of a C3d-binding assay was further confirmed in an independent cohort of 39 patients with AMR (P=0.04). Patients with C3d-binding antibodies had worse eGFR and higher DSA mean fluorescence intensity. In a multivariate analysis, only eGFR<30 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (hazard ratio [HR], 3.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.46 to 8.70; P=0.005) and the presence of circulating C3d-binding DSA (HR, 2.80; 95% CI, 1.12 to 6.95; P=0.03) were independent predictors for allograft loss at AMR diagnosis. We conclude that assessment of the C3d-binding capacity of DSA at the time of AMR diagnosis allows for identification of patients at risk for allograft loss. PMID:25125383

  17. The origin of humor.

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    Howe, N E

    2002-09-01

    Humor is spread throughout every culture on earth and occupies a large portion of our literature and social interaction. It is so deeply rooted in our culture that it may be a defining characteristic of our species. Yet there has been comparatively little effort to understand its origin. According to the Accepted Theory of Humor all jokes begin with a buildup of tension while an initial paradigm is formed. When the punch line occurs the subject must realign his thinking to accommodate the differences between the initial paradigm and the sudden burst of new information. The Mind Reading Hypothesis extends the accepted theory of humor to include a relationship between the observer and the subject of the humor. The actual source of amusement is the observation of the resolution in the mind of the subject of the collision between old perception and new reality.

  18. Unusual Naturally Occurring Humoral and Cellular Mutated Epitopes of Hepatitis B Virus in a Chronically Infected Argentine Patient with Anti-HBs Antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuestas, María L.; Mathet, Verónica L.; Ruiz, Vanesa; Minassian, María L.; Rivero, Cintia; Sala, Andrea; Corach, Daniel; Alessio, Analía; Pozzati, Marcia; Frider, Bernardo; Oubiña, José R.

    2006-01-01

    Serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA was extracted from a chronically infected patient with cocirculation of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti-HBs antibodies. Direct PCR and clone-derived sequences of the S and overlapped P genes were obtained. DNA sequences and phylogenetic analysis ascribed this isolate to genotype A (serotype adw2). Five of six HBV DNA clones exhibited point mutations inside and outside the major hydrophilic region, while the sixth clone exhibited a genotype A “wild-type” amino acid sequence. Observed replacements included both humoral and/or cellular (major histocompatibility complex class I [MHC-I] and MHC-II) HBV mutated epitopes, such as S45A, P46H, L49H, C107R, T125A, M133K, I152F, P153T, T161S, G185E, A194T, G202R, and I213L. None of these mutants were individually present within a given clone. The I213L replacement was the only one observed in the five clones carrying nonsynonymous mutations in the S gene. Some of the amino acid substitutions are reportedly known to be responsible for the emergence of immune escape mutants. C107R replacement prevents disulfide bonding, thus disrupting the first loop of the HBsAg. Circulation of some of these mutants may represent a potential risk for the community, since neither current hepatitis B vaccines nor hyperimmune hepatitis B immune globulin are effectively prevent the liver disease thereto associated. Moreover, some of the recorded HBsAg variants may influence the accuracy of the results obtained with currently used diagnostic tests. PMID:16757620

  19. Transplant rejection

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    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000815.htm Transplant rejection To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Transplant rejection is a process in which a transplant ...

  20. [Lymphoid neogenesis and lymphangiogenesis: two newcomers in the pathophysiology of chronic rejection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attuil-Audenis, Valérie; Duthey, Aurélie; Patey, Natacha; Gautreau, Chantal; McGregor, Brigitte; Morelon, Emmanuel; Michel, Jean-Baptiste; Nicoletti, Antonino; Thaunat, Olivier

    2009-04-01

    Chronic rejection is one of the main causes of late allograft failure and no therapy is currently available to prevent efficiently its development. Improving the comprehension of the mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of chronic rejection is a mandatory step to propose innovative therapies that would prolong grafts' survival. Using the rat aortic interposition model of chronic vascular rejection, we have demonstrated that the intragraft inflammatory infiltrate progressively organized itself into a functional ectopic lymphoid tissue (tertiary lymphoid organ) supporting the local synthesis of alloantibody. Thus, during chronic rejection the graft is at the same time the target and the site of elaboration of the humoral allo-immune response. This hypothesis has been confirmed in the clinical setting by the analysis of human grafts (kidneys, hearts and lungs) removed for terminal failure due to chronic rejection. This lymphoid neogenesis process, previously identified in other chronic inflammatory diseases, occurs with a strikingly high frequency in chronically rejected grafts, suggesting that an additional mechanism synergizes to initiate the development of tertiary lymphoid organs during chronic rejection. We propose that the defective lymphatic drainage of chronically rejected organs triggers lymphoid neogenesis and we discuss the complex crosstalk between lymphoid neogenesis and lymphangiogenesis that takes place during chronic rejection.

  1. The Role of Humoral Alloreactivity in Liver Transplantation: Lessons Learned and New Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Y. Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available More than ten years after the initial description of the humoral theory of transplantation by Dr. Paul I. Terasaki, the significance of humoral alloimmunity in liver transplantation has yet to be clearly defined. The liver allograft has an inherent tolerogenic capacity which confers its resistance to cell-mediated as well as antibody-mediated rejection. Nevertheless, the protection against alloimmunity is not complete, and antibody-mediated tissue injury can occur in the liver graft under specific circumstances. In this article the evidence on the clinicopathologic effects of donor-specific alloantibodies in liver transplantation will be examined and interpreted in parallel with lessons learned from renal transplantation. The unique anatomic and immunologic features of the liver will be reviewed to gain new insights into the complex interactions between humoral immune system and the liver allograft.

  2. Flow of Aqueous Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Flow of Aqueous Humor Flow of Aqueous Humor Most, but not all, forms of glaucoma are ... remains normal when some of the fluid (aqueous humor) produced by the eye's ciliary body flows out ...

  3. Rejecting Change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KERRY; BROWN

    2011-01-01

    British voters overwhelmingly reject an alternative voting system The British electorate,in only the second ever national referendum held in their history (the first was on joining the EU,over 35 years ago) rejected alterations to their voting system from the current first-past-the-post system to a form of alternative voting similar to that used

  4. Tolerance and chronic rejection.

    OpenAIRE

    Womer, K. L.; Lee, R S; Madsen, J. C.; Sayegh, M H

    2001-01-01

    The most common cause of chronic allograft loss is an incompletely understood clinicopathological entity called chronic rejection (CR). Recent reports suggest an improvement in long-term renal allograft survival, although it is not clear from these data whether a true reduction of biopsy-proven CR has occurred. Although newer immunosuppressive medications have greatly reduced the incidence of acute rejection (AR) in the early post-transplantation period, the ideal therapy for both AR and CR w...

  5. Humor in Context: Fire Service and Joking Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Larry; Roth, Gene

    2013-01-01

    Although theorizing about humor has occurred for several decades, scant research exists that examines humor in the broad context of human resource development. Humor exists in workplaces and it is historicized in the professional and organizational contexts of workers. This paper explores aspects of a joking culture within the specific work…

  6. Humor og sygepleje

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Inger

    1998-01-01

    I artiklen beskrives og reflekteres der over humors betydning som ressource for såvel patienter som sygeplejersker.......I artiklen beskrives og reflekteres der over humors betydning som ressource for såvel patienter som sygeplejersker....

  7. Instructional scientific humor in the secondary classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wizner, Francine

    This study is an examination of the manner in which educators employ scientific content humor and how that humor is perceived by their students. Content humor is a useful strategy in drawing the attention of students and improving their receptivity toward scientific information. It is also a useful tool in combating the growing distractions of the electronic classroom. Previous studies have found that humor has a positive effect on knowledge, memory, and understanding. However, few studies have been conducted below the undergraduate level and mainly quantitative measures of student recall have been used to measure learning. This study employed multiple data sources to determine how two secondary biology teachers used humor in order to explain scientific concepts and how their students perceived their teachers' use of scientific instructional humor. Evidence of student humor reception was collected from four students in each of the two classes. All of the scientific instructional humor used in the studied classrooms was cognitive in nature, varying among factual, procedural, conceptual, and metacognitive knowledge. Teachers tended to use dialogic forms of humor. Their scientific humor reflected everyday experiences, presented queries, poked fun at authority, and asked students to search out new perspectives and perform thought experiments. Teachers were the primary actors in performing the humorous events. The events were sometimes physical exaggerations of words or drawings, and they occurred for the purpose of establishing rapport or having students make connections between scientific concepts and prior knowledge. Student perceptions were that teachers did employ humor toward instructional objectives that helped their learning. Helping students become critical thinkers is a trademark of science teachers. Science teachers who take the risk of adopting some attributes of comedians may earn the reward of imparting behaviors on their students like critical thinking

  8. Can Computers Create Humor?

    OpenAIRE

    Ritchie, Graeme; University of Aberdeen

    2009-01-01

    Despite the fact that AI has always been adventurous in trying to elucidate complex aspects of human behaviour, only recently has there been research into computational modelling of humor. One obstacle to progress is the lack of a precise and detailed theory of how humor operates. Nevertheless, since the early 1990s, there have been a number of small programs that create simple verbal humor, and more recently there have been studies of the automatic classification of the humorous status of te...

  9. Decoding Photocopy Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerns, Dan

    Photocopy humor is defined as any facsimile, photocopy, or wire-copy line drawing, iconography, or textual material that was drawn or written for distribution to a larger select audience using the available technology to disperse material intended to be humorous. Professional humor is excluded from this consideration. The content of photocopy…

  10. Humor, Aggression, and Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrick, Ann Louise; And Others

    Although humor is an important phenomenon in human interactions, it has rarely been studied in the elderly. An understanding of responses to humor in aggressive cartoons as a function of advancing age would provide information regarding both the development of humor and the negative (aggressive) emotional experiences of the elderly. This study was…

  11. 移植肾组织中C4d沉积、浆细胞聚集性浸润及其与体液性排斥反应的关系%A retrospective study on the deposition of peritubular capillary C4d and infiltration of plasmocytes nodules in renal allograft and their correlations with humoral rejection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许晓光; 石炳毅; 蔡明; 王强; 韩永; 周文强; 许亮; 肖漓

    2008-01-01

    目的 检测因排斥反应而丧失功能的移植肾组织中浆细胞的浸润情况及补体CA裂解产物C4d的沉积情况,分析浆细胞浸润、C4d沉积与体液性排斥反应的相关性.方法 切取40例因排斥反应而丧失功能的移植肾,取其组织,进行HE染色和免疫组织化学染色,依据Banff 97标准对排斥反应进行病理分型,检测肾组织中C4d、CD38和CD138的表达,分析三者之间的相关性.同时以10例非排斥因素导致移植肾功能丧失者为对照.结果 40例排斥反应中,超急性排斥反应5例,急性排斥反应9例,慢性排斥反应26例;40例中,C4d阳性17例(42.5%),CD38阳性25例(62.5%),CD138阳性23例(57.5%);有9例(22.5%)的C4d、CD38和CD138同时阳性,其中超急性排斥反应1例,急性排斥反应3例,慢性排斥反应5例.经Spearman等级相关分析,C4d的沉积与CD38和CD138的表达存在相关性(P<0.05,P<0.01).10例对照者中,C4d和CD38染色阳性各1例,无C4d、CD38和CD138均阳性的病例.结论 CD38和CD138与C4d的沉积存在相关性,提示移植肾中聚集性浸润的浆细胞可能通过局部分泌抗体的方式参与移植肾的体液排斥机制.%Objective To detect the deposition of perituhular capillary C4d and the infiltration of plasmocytes in the excised renal allograft and study the correlations among C4d deposition, plasmocytes infiltration and the humoral rejection. Methods Excised renal allografts from 40 patients were embedded,deparaffined,stained with HE and analyzed by immunohistochemistry (IH). At the same time, 10 excised renal specimens with other diseases were taken as the negative controls. The renal allograft rejection was classified according to the criteria from Banff 97. The expression of CD38 and CD138 was detected,and the relativities among the three markers were evaluated. Results Among the 40 renal allografts specimens,C4d was positive in 17 cases, CD38 positive in 25 cases, CD138 positive in 23 cases,and triple positive in

  12. Humor and interpersonal attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murstein, B I; Brust, R G

    1985-12-01

    A humor test composed of cartoons, comic strips, and jokes was administered to 30 college couples (26 single, 4 married) who rated them for humor. Subjects also stated how much they loved and liked their partner, their probability of marrying the partner, and filled out Rubin's Liking and Love Scales. The hypotheses were that similarity of rating of the humorous stimuli would be associated with loving, liking, and predisposition to marry. Hypotheses were confirmed.

  13. Humor in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Howard J

    2003-12-01

    Humor and laughter have been a focus of attention in the popular media and in the medical literature. Despite statements about the health benefits of humor, current research is insufficient to validate such claims. There is support in the literature for the role of humor and laughter in other areas, including patient-physician communication, psychological aspects of patient care, medical education, and as a means of reducing stress in medical professionals.

  14. How fun are your meetings? How and when humor patterns emerge and impact team performance.

    OpenAIRE

    Lehmann-Willenbrock, N.K.; Allen, J A

    2014-01-01

    Research on humor in organizations has rarely considered the social context in which humor occurs. One such social setting that most of us experience on a daily basis concerns the team context. Building on recent theorizing about the humor–performance link in teams, this study seeks to increase our understanding of the function and effects of humor in team interaction settings. We examined behavioral patterns of humor and laughter in real teams by videotaping and coding humor and laughter dur...

  15. Humor and Giftedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziv, Avner; Gadish, Orit

    1990-01-01

    Two studies investigated humor among a total of 151 gifted adolescents. It was found that (1) in a sociometry of humor test, gifted adolescents received either few or many choices in a bimodal distribution; and (2) gifted adolescent humorists were more extroverted, more creative, and lower in need for social approval than other gifted adolescents.…

  16. Humor, Philosophy and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morreall, John

    2014-01-01

    This article begins by examining the bad reputation humor traditionally had in philosophy and education. Two of the main charges against humor--that it is hostile and irresponsible--are linked to the Superiority Theory. That theory is critiqued and two other theories of laughter are presented--the Relief Theory and the Incongruity Theory. In the…

  17. Humor's healing potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaward, B L

    1992-04-01

    In the past three decades the medical world has begun to take more serious notice of the healing power of humor and the positive emotions associated with it. Humor and laughter are currently being employed by psychotherapists and other care givers as tools to promote and maintain health, as well as intervention and rehabilitation tools for a host of maladies and illnesses related to stress and life-style. Although this empirical medical approach is relatively new, the study of humor has revealed a complex psychological phenomenon. Senses of humor have been categorized in types associated with personality. Humor has many styles and can be found in almost any situation, on any occasion. Theories of humor include the superiority theory, the incongruity theory, the release/relief theory, and the divinity theory. Laughter has many clinical benefits, promoting beneficial physiological changes and an overall sense of well-being. Humor even has long-term effects that strengthen the effectiveness of the immune system. In healthcare, humor therapy can help relieve stress associated with disease and illness. It serves as a diversionary tactic, a therapeutic tool for disorders such as depression, and a coping mechanism. It also is a natural healing component for care givers trying to cope with the stress and personal demands of their occupations.

  18. Humor, Philosophy and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morreall, John

    2014-01-01

    This article begins by examining the bad reputation humor traditionally had in philosophy and education. Two of the main charges against humor--that it is hostile and irresponsible--are linked to the Superiority Theory. That theory is critiqued and two other theories of laughter are presented--the Relief Theory and the Incongruity Theory. In the…

  19. Metonymy And Humor Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凤琴

    2008-01-01

    Study of humor discourse has attracted an increasingly numerousattention since 80's of last century.Traditionally.they approach it mainly from pragmatic aspect.In this paper.I try aflew research perspective,metonymicfunction and scenario concept to study how metonymic link works in theinterpretation of humor asa cognitive and mental process.

  20. Metonymy And Humor Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凤琴

    2008-01-01

    Study of humor discourse has attracted an increasingly numerousattention since 80’s of last century.Traditionally,they approach it mainly from pragmatic aspect.In this paper,I try a new research perspective,metonymic function and scenario concept to study how metonymic link works in the interpretation of humor as a cognitive and mental process.

  1. El humor centenarista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Sánchez

    1963-01-01

    Full Text Available En el número 7 -volumen IV- de julio de 1961, bajo el título de El Humor Parnasiano, fueron publicados cuatro sonetos humorísticos: dos del Maestro Guillermo Valencia y dos de su discípulo Carlos López Narváez.

  2. Humor modeling in the interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Cockton, G.; Stock, O.; Korhonen, P.; Dix, A.; Bergman, E.; Bjork, S.; Morkes, J.; Collings, P.; Dey, A.; Draper, S.; Guliksen, J.; Keinonen, T.; Lazar, J.; Lund, A.; Malich, R.; Nakakoji, K.; Nigay, L.; Prates Oliveira, R.; Rieman, J.; Snyder, C.

    2003-01-01

    Humor is a multi-disciplinary field of research. People have been working on humor in many fields of research, such as psychology, philosophy and linguistics, sociology and literature. Especially in the context of computer science (or Artificial Intelligence) humor research aims at modeling humor in

  3. Humor modeling in the interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, A.; Stock, O.; Dix, A.; Morkes, J.; Cockton, G.; Korhonen, P.; Bergman, E.; Bjork, S.; Collings, P.; Dey, A.; Draper, S.; Guliksen, J.; Keinonen, T.; Lazar, J.; Lund, A.; Malich, R.; Nakakoji, K.; Nigay, L.; Prates Oliveira, R.; Rieman, J.; Snyder, C.

    2003-01-01

    Humor is a multi-disciplinary field of research. People have been working on humor in many fields of research, such as psychology, philosophy and linguistics, sociology and literature. Especially in the context of computer science (or Artificial Intelligence) humor research aims at modeling humor in

  4. Humors in Rip Van Winkle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张铂

    2014-01-01

    Humor is widely employed in Irving’s Rip Van Winkle. There are several kinds of humors in this short story, for exam-ple: irony, satire, farce, mockery, etc. Different humors indicate different attitudes the writer adopts toward his subject matter. This essay aims at grasping the main idea of the story through the analyses of various uses of humor.

  5. Humor and sexual selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Robert

    2003-12-01

    Recently Geoffrey Miller has suggested that humor evolved through sexual selection as a signal of "creativity," which in turn implies youthfulness, intelligence, and adaptive unpredictability. Drawing upon available empirical studies, I argue that the evidence for a link between humor and creativity is weak and ambiguous. I also find only tenuous support for Miller's assumption that the attractiveness of the "sense of humor" is to be found in the wittiness of its possessor, since those who use the phrase often seem to associate it with the affects of relatively mirthless "bonding" laughter. Humor, I conclude, may have evolved as an instrument for achieving broad social adhesiveness and for facilitating the individual's maneuverability within the group, but that it evolved through sexual selection has yet to be convincingly demonstrated.

  6. Political Uses of Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Ronald G.

    1981-01-01

    Introduces a theoretical framework applicable to the political and social uses made of humor. Focuses on the uses individuals make of jokes and joking in relation to the constant interchange involved between institutional stability and social change. (FL)

  7. The Humor in Horror.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kies, Cosette

    1995-01-01

    Discussion of horror fiction for teenagers focuses on the element of humor. Topics include parodies, plots, the element of mystery, cover art, end-of-chapter cliffhangers, and formula books. An annotated list of 10 pertinent titles is included. (LRW)

  8. How fun are your meetings? Investigating the relationship between humor patterns in team interactions and team performance

    OpenAIRE

    Lehmann-Willenbrock, N.K.; Allen, J A

    2014-01-01

    Research on humor in organizations has rarely considered the social context in which humor occurs. One such social setting that most of us experience on a daily basis concerns the team context. Building on recent theorizing about the humor–performance link in teams, this study seeks to increase our understandingof the function and effects of humor in team interaction settings. We examined behavioral patterns of humor and laughter in real teams by videotaping and coding humor and laughter duri...

  9. Using Humorous Programs as a Vehicle for Humorous Commercials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Stephen D.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Shows that an increased level of humor in commercials was beneficial to recall and purchase intention; increased humor in the television program was detrimental to recall of products advertised; and gender interacted with program humor levels, such that products were viewed less negatively by men when they were exposed to commercials in a more…

  10. Uses of humor in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimmer, S A; Carroll, J L; Wyatt, G K

    1990-06-01

    Given demonstrated usefulness in facilitating learning, aiding healing, and reducing stress, humor has gained recognition as a clinical tool. This article reviews some uses and potential misuses of humor in psychotherapy and suggests directions for practice and research.

  11. Humor and creativity in psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Martín Camacho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the current article principal theories on humor are analyzed, relating them to different conceptions of creativity. Finally, some indications for the use of humor in psychotherapy are introduced, highlighting their positive and negative aspects. 

  12. Cultural Context and Humor Understanding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐中锋

    2009-01-01

    "Humor" is a very general word, which has been studied by numerous scholars from different points of view, pursuing different goals and using different assumptions. This paper holds that cultural context counts for the production and perception of humor.

  13. Humor in Children's Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Frank; Coles, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Humorous literature for children has been around since Randolph Caldecott first started writing and illustrating picturebooks. In the article, the authors try to understand what makes picturebooks funny and discuss ways to use humor in the classroom. Many examples of humorous picturebooks are cited to provide teachers with resources for their…

  14. Using Humor in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barney, David; Christenson, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Humor can be extremely beneficial in everyday life, whether giving or receiving it. It can be used to lighten the mood, give encouragement, or make corrections. Humor in physical education is no exception. Physical educators can use humor as a teaching tool and to create an environment for students to acquire the knowledge to practice a lifetime…

  15. Humor and embodied conversational agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, A.

    2003-01-01

    This report surveys the role of humor in human-to-human interaction and the possible role of humor in human-computer interaction. The aim is to see whether it is useful for embodied conversational agents to integrate humor capabilities in their internal model of intelligence, emotions and interactio

  16. Using Humor in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barney, David; Christenson, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Humor can be extremely beneficial in everyday life, whether giving or receiving it. It can be used to lighten the mood, give encouragement, or make corrections. Humor in physical education is no exception. Physical educators can use humor as a teaching tool and to create an environment for students to acquire the knowledge to practice a lifetime…

  17. Humor in print health advertisements: enhanced attention, privileged recognition, and persuasiveness of preventive messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, Nathalie; Brigaud, Emmanuelle

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the effect of humor in one particular type of print advertisement: the preventive health ads for three topics (alcohol, tobacco, obesity). Previous research using commercial ads demonstrated that individuals' attention is spontaneously attracted by humor, leading to a memory advantage for humorous information over nonhumorous information. Two experiments investigated whether the positive effect of humor can occur with preventive health ads. In Experiment 1, participants observed humorous and nonhumorous health ads while their viewing times were recorded. In Experiment 2, to compare humorous and nonhumorous ads, the memory of health messages was assessed through a recognition task and a convincing score was collected. The results confirmed that, compared to nonhumorous health ads, those using humor received prolonged attention, were judged more convincing, and their messages were better recognized. Overall, these findings suggest that humor can be of use in preventive health communication.

  18. Friendship, Intimacy and Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Mordechai

    2014-01-01

    A review of the literature in philosophy in the past 20 years indicates that relatively little has been written on the connection between friendship, intimacy and humor. This article is intended to begin to address the neglect of this topic among philosophers by focusing on some interesting aspects of the relationship between friendship, intimacy…

  19. Renal graft irradiation in acute rejection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilepich, M.V.; Sicard, G.A.; Breaux, S.R.; Etheredge, E.E.; Blum, J.; Anderson, C.B.

    1983-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of graft irradiation in the treatment of acute rejection of renal transplants, a randomized study was conducted from 1978 to 1981. Patients with acute rejection were given standard medical management in the form of intravenous methylprednisolone, and were chosen randomly to receive either graft irradiation (175 rads every other day, to a total of 525 rads) or simulated (sham) irradiation. Eighty-three rejections occurring in 64 grafts were randomized to the protocol. Rejection reversal was recorded in 84.5% of control grafts and 75% of the irradiated grafts. Recurrent rejections were more frequent and graft survival was significantly lower in the irradiated group (22%) than in the control group (54%). Graft irradiation does not appear to be beneficial in the treatment of acute rejection of renal transplants when used in conjunction with high-dose steroids.

  20. Effect of nifedipine on renal transplant rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, M L; Dennis, M J; Beckingham, I J; Smith, S J

    1993-10-01

    The effect of early nifedipine therapy on acute renal allograft rejection was studied in 170 adult cadaveric transplant recipients. Acute rejection occurring in the first 3 months after transplantation was diagnosed by Tru-cut biopsy and the severity of each rejection episode assessed histologically. The incidence of acute rejection was significantly lower in patients treated with nifedipine (29 of 80; 36 per cent) than in controls (52 of 90; 58 per cent) (P nifedipine exerted a significant independent effect on the incidence of early acute rejection. Other factors identified in the multivariate model as influencing rejection were human leucocyte antigen (HLA) matching at the DR locus, blood level of cyclosporin during the first week, HLA matching at the B locus, donor age and donor sex. The 1-year graft survival rate was 88.6 per cent in patients given nifedipine and 63.8 per cent in controls (P nifedipine therapy has a useful role in human renal transplantation.

  1. Race-Based Humor and Peer Group Dynamics in Adolescence: Bystander Intervention and Social Exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Palmer, Sally B; Abrams, Dominic

    2016-09-01

    Adolescents' evaluations of discriminatory race-based humor and their expectations about peer responses to discrimination were investigated in 8th- (Mage  = 13.80) and 10th-grade (Mage  = 16.11) primarily European-American participants (N = 256). Older adolescents judged race-based humor as more acceptable than did younger adolescents and were less likely to expect peer intervention. Participants who rejected discrimination were more likely to reference welfare/rights and prejudice and to anticipate that peers would intervene. Showing awareness of group processes, adolescents who rejected race-based humor believed that peers who intervened would be more likely to be excluded. They also disapproved of exclusion more than did participants who supported race-based humor. Results expose the complexity of situations involving subtle discrimination. Implications for bullying interventions are discussed.

  2. Glem ikke at bruge humor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Preben Olund

    2017-01-01

    relationer og nærhed. Det er velkendt. Mindre velkendt er måske at gode relationer begynder med humor. Humorbegrebet kan begribes ud fra fire forskellige perspektiver. Humor bliver sammenlignet med leg, der er en undersøgende og seriøs form for læring mellem fantasi og virkelighed. Humor skaber sociale...... fællesskaber, der er grundlag for læring. Humor udvikler følelser, der er en motiverende faktor i undervisningen. Humor udvikler kognition, der er evnen til at kunne tænke....

  3. A Study of the Humor in Modern Family from the Perspective of Frame Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾红玲; 沈金婷

    2014-01-01

    Humor, which plays a very important role in people’s lives,has been studied from the perspectives of sociology,psy⁃chology,linguistics,etc.And in the discipline of linguistics,most studies are from the angle of pragmatics,semantics, rhetorics and cognitive linguistics.While rare study on humor are based on frame theory.And category,an indispensable element in frame,plays an essential role in humor analysis.This thesis attempts to analyze the humor in Modern Family from the perspective of frame theo⁃ry and to help readers have a deeper understanding on how humor occurs in conversation.

  4. Aqueous Humor Dynamics: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Manik; Picciani, Renata G; Lee, Richard K; Bhattacharya, Sanjoy K

    2010-01-01

    Glaucoma is a family of optic neuropathies which cause irreversible but potentially preventable vision loss. Vision loss in most forms of glaucoma is related to elevated IOP with subsequent injury to the optic nerve. Secretion of aqueous humor and regulation of its outflow are physiologically important processes for maintaining IOP in the normal range. Thus, understanding the complex mechanisms that regulate aqueous humor circulation is essential for management of glaucoma. The two main structures related to aqueous humor dynamics are the ciliary body and the trabecular meshwork (TM). Three mechanisms are involved in aqueous humor formation: diffusion, ultrafiltration and active secretion. Active secretion is the major contributor to aqueous humor formation. The aqueous humor flow in humans follows a circadian rhythm, being higher in the morning than at night. The aqueous humor leaves the eye by passive flow via two pathways - the trabecular meshwork and the uveoscleral pathway. In humans, 75% of the resistance to aqueous humor outflow is localized within the TM with the juxtacanalicular portion of the TM being the main site of outflow resistance. Glycosaminoglycan deposition in the TM extracellular matrix (ECM) has been suggested to be responsible for increased outflow resistance at this specific site whereas others have suggested deposition of proteins, such as cochlin, obstruct the aqueous humor outflow through the TM. The uveoscleral outflow pathway is relatively independent of the intraocular pressure and the proportion of aqueous humor exiting the eye via the uveoscleral pathway decreases with age. PMID:21293732

  5. Humoral immunity in Hansen's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldenise Cossermelli-Messina

    Full Text Available For many years immune response in leprosy has been studied. Since 1960 several reports dealing with humoral immunity have been described in the literature. Different autoantibody rates occur in leprosy. There is an increase in the prevalence of autoantibodies in elderly patients with long standing disease, in lepromatous leprosy and in those with reactional states. The diferences in rates among various studies are attributed to different methods and variations among patient samples concerning age, gender, polar forms, therapy and other elements. The prevalence of numerous antibodies, immune complexes, cryoglobulins and complement levels have been studied by many authors. This also highlights the importance of the more recent reviews of anti-Mycobacterium leprae glycolipid antibodies such as the anti-phenolic glycolipid-I antibodies in which titers are variable and depend on genetic factors.

  6. College Students' Perception of Lecturers Using Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamborini, Ron; Zillmann, Dolf

    1981-01-01

    Audio-taped lectures by male or female professors were produced in four versions: no humor; sexual humor; other-disparaging humor; and self-disparaging humor. Male and female students rated lecturers' intelligence and appeal. Intelligence ratings were unaffected by humor variations, but significant lecturer-student sex interactions were found on…

  7. Study on Deep Structure of Humor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫林琼

    2007-01-01

    Humor is the common favorite of people in all walks of life and at all ages. Studying the deep structure of humor, that is, the psychological and cognitive foundation in producing and comprehending humor, is quite practical in helping people first to recognize, understand and appreciate others' humor and then to apply their own humor to their daily communication.

  8. Humor and embodied conversational agents

    OpenAIRE

    Nijholt, A.

    2003-01-01

    This report surveys the role of humor in human-to-human interaction and the possible role of humor in human-computer interaction. The aim is to see whether it is useful for embodied conversational agents to integrate humor capabilities in their internal model of intelligence, emotions and interaction (verbal and nonverbal) capabilities. A current state of the art of research in embodied conversational agents, affective computing and verbal and nonverbal interaction is presented. The report ad...

  9. Humor, helt seriøst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundquist, Lita Sander

    2012-01-01

    Adfærd. Har humor grænser? Dansk humor har i hvert fald. Hvor humor typisk bruges til at glatte ud med, har det ofte den stik modsatte virkning, viser studie.......Adfærd. Har humor grænser? Dansk humor har i hvert fald. Hvor humor typisk bruges til at glatte ud med, har det ofte den stik modsatte virkning, viser studie....

  10. Humor styles and symbolic boundaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, G.

    2009-01-01

    Humor is strongly related to group boundaries. Jokes and other humorous utterances often draw on implicit references and inside knowledge; they tend to refer to sensitive topics which may offend people; and they ideally incite laughter, one of the strongest markers of social solidarity and emotional

  11. A Pragmatic Study of Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibraheem, Sura Dhiaa; Abbas, Nawal Fadhil

    2016-01-01

    Linguistically speaking, the concept of humor, which seems to be vast for people, has specific dimensions by which it is generated including: puns, irony, sarcasm, wittiness, and contrastive utterances in relation to the speakers of those utterances. It is about how the extra linguistics elements dominate the situation and the delivery of humor.…

  12. Humor er en alvorlig sag

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søltoft, Pia

    2016-01-01

    I modsætning til ironi er humor for Kierkegaard fællesskabsgivende – ironikeren hævder sig selv, men humoristen har sympati med den, man ler med. Humor er hos Kierkegaard udtryk for, at humoristen forliger sig med tilværelsen og dens luner, og dermed grænser humoren hos Kierkegaard op til det...

  13. Humor styles and symbolic boundaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, G.

    2009-01-01

    Humor is strongly related to group boundaries. Jokes and other humorous utterances often draw on implicit references and inside knowledge; they tend to refer to sensitive topics which may offend people; and they ideally incite laughter, one of the strongest markers of social solidarity and emotional

  14. Spass Verstehen, Zur Pragmatik von konversationellem Humor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekmann, Bjørn

    2000-01-01

    Spøg, Humor, Komik, Ironi, Kommunikationsteori, Hermeneutik, Gruppedynamik, Logik, Tekstlingvistik......Spøg, Humor, Komik, Ironi, Kommunikationsteori, Hermeneutik, Gruppedynamik, Logik, Tekstlingvistik...

  15. Aqueous humor changes after experimental filtering surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radius, R L; Herschler, J; Claflin, A; Fiorentino, G

    1980-02-01

    We studied aqueous humor of rhesus and owl monkeys for its effect on the growth of subconjunctival fibroblasts in tissue culture. Aqueous humor samples obtained before glaucoma surgery inhibited the initiation of growth of fibroblasts. However, postoperative aqueous humor samples supported growth of fibroblasts. The change in aqueous humor physiology lasted for up to two months after glaucoma surgery. Our study indicated that possibly material added to the postoperative aqueous humor inactivates an inhibitor normally present in primary aqueous humor. An alternative explanation would be that primary aqueous humor, in contrast to secondary aqueous humor, lacks sufficient nutrient material to support fibroblast growth in tissue culture.

  16. Monitoring of Acute Rejection after Orthotopic Heart Tranplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng chun ying; Huang ke li; Luo bin; Wen ding guo

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To study the monitoring of rejection after orthotopic heart thansplantation.Methods From 1998 to 2005, 10 othotopic heart thansplans were performed, and acute rejection was monitored by endomyocardial biopsy as well as by clinical features, ECG, ultrasonocardiography and blood serum determination of Tropin I, and by the combination of these methods, we analysed the monitoring of acute rejection after the heart transplantation. Results With the combination of clinical features, ECG, ultrasonocardiography and blood serum test, 5 occurences of acute rejection were judged in the postoperative course, which were comfirmed by endomyocardial biopsy to be 2 acute rejections in Ⅰ b degree, 3 acute rejections in Ⅲ a degree. Endomyocardial biopsy were routinely performed 21 times postoperatively in which there were 1 acute rejection in Ⅰ a degree and 5 acute rejections in Ⅰ b degree. Conclusions Acute rejection is an important factor influencing the postoperative course of heart transplantation, so it is imperative to have an intime, effective and planned monitoring procedure for acute rejection. Endomyocardial biopsy is a sensitive and reliable method in diagnosis of acute rejection, but it is invasive and probable for some complications. The noninvasive method such as clinical features, ECG,ultrasonocardiography and blood serum test can be used as additive means in the diagnosis of acute rejection.Endomyocardial biopsy should be combined with some noninvasive methods in monitoring acute rejection after the heart transplantation.

  17. Effects of Classroom Humor Climate and Acceptance of Humor Messages on Adolescents' Expressions of Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Yi-Chen; Lee, Chun-Yang; Wang, Hong-Huei

    2016-01-01

    Background: To adapt to dramatic changes from physical growth, physical development and the increasing demand of significant others, humor has been found to be an effective coping strategy. However, previous studies have found that adolescents start to express their humor styles with aggressive components which causes negative consequences, such…

  18. Effects of Classroom Humor Climate and Acceptance of Humor Messages on Adolescents' Expressions of Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Yi-Chen; Lee, Chun-Yang; Wang, Hong-Huei

    2016-01-01

    Background: To adapt to dramatic changes from physical growth, physical development and the increasing demand of significant others, humor has been found to be an effective coping strategy. However, previous studies have found that adolescents start to express their humor styles with aggressive components which causes negative consequences, such…

  19. A Pragmatic Study of Humor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sura Dhiaa Ibraheem

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Linguistically speaking, the concept of humor, which seems to be vast for people, has specific dimensions by which it is generated including: puns, irony, sarcasm, wittiness, and contrastive utterances in relation to the speakers of those utterances. It is about how the extra linguistics elements dominate the situation and the delivery of humor. The researchers of the present paper intend to show how the selected literary extract can be subjected to a linguistic pragmatic analysis and then be explained by applying the incongruity theory of humor by Kant (1790 in order to show the ways or the mechanisms that lead to the flouting, infringing and the violation of Gricean maxims can consequently lead to the creation of humor. Despite the fact that the present paper is qualitative in nature, some tables are provided by the researchers in order to reach into a better, deeper and more understandable analysis. Investigating the ways Gricean maxims are flouted, infringed and violated to create humor, and showing how the imperfect use of language sometimes create unintentional humor are the researchers’ aims of this paper. Keywords: pragmatics, humor, implicature, Gricean maxims, Measure for Measure

  20. Humor and Healing in College Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Barbara J.; Roehrig, James P.; Yang, Peggy H.

    2015-01-01

    Humor is an often neglected but potentially powerful tool in college counseling center interventions. In this article we review potential benefits and hazards of using humor in a college mental health setting along with perspectives on humor's mechanism of action and distinctions between types of humor. Therapist and client-specific…

  1. Humor and Healing in College Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Barbara J.; Roehrig, James P.; Yang, Peggy H.

    2015-01-01

    Humor is an often neglected but potentially powerful tool in college counseling center interventions. In this article we review potential benefits and hazards of using humor in a college mental health setting along with perspectives on humor's mechanism of action and distinctions between types of humor. Therapist and client-specific…

  2. The mechanisms of rejection in solid organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzi, Emanuele; Colpo, Anna; De Silvestro, Giustina

    2017-08-01

    Organ transplantation represents the preferred treatment option for many patients in terminal organ failure. The half-life of transplanted organs, however, is still far from being satisfactory with the vast majority of the organs failing within the first two decades following transplantation. At this stage, it has become apparent that rejection (prevalently mediated by humoral events) remains the primary cause of graft loss after the first year. In this light, studies are underway to better comprehend the immune events underlying graft rejection and novel immunosuppressive strategies are being explored. In this context, therapeutic apheresis techniques, that include therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE), immunoadsorption (IA) and extracorporeal photochemotherapy (ECP), represent an important adjunct in the current immunosuppressive armamentarium. This article briefly reviews our current understanding of the immune process underlying rejection of a solid organ transplant and describes the principal areas of application of therapeutic apheresis techniques in transplantation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. The acceptability of humor between palliative care patients and health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, Julia; Dance, Derry; Pare, Daniel

    2014-04-01

    Humor frequently occurs in palliative care environments; however, the acceptability of humor, particularly between patients and health care providers has not been previously examined. To explore the importance and acceptability of humor to participants who are patients in a palliative care context, the study determines if demographics are correlated with the degree of acceptability, and examines the acceptance of humor by patients with advanced illness when interacting with nurses or physicians. One hundred participants admitted to a palliative care unit or residential hospice were surveyed. Basic demographic data were collected, as well as responses on a five-point Likert scale to a variety of questions regarding the participants' attitudes about humor before and after their illness and the acceptability of humor in a palliative setting. Participants were also given the opportunity to comment freely on the topic of humor and the palliative experience. A large majority of participants valued humor highly both prior to (77%) and during (76%) their illness experience. Despite this valuation, the frequency of laughter in their daily lives diminished significantly as patients' illness progressed. Most participants remembered laughing with a nurse (87%) and a doctor (67%) in the week prior to the survey, and found humor with their doctors (75%) and nurses appropriate (88%). The vast majority of participants found humorous interactions with their health care providers acceptable and appropriate, and this may indicate a opportunity for enhanced and more effective end-of-life care in the future.

  4. Pragmatic Analysis on Verbal Humor in Friends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳

    2009-01-01

    As a nature of humanity, humor is a way of communication peculiar to human beings. Verbal humor is a cate-gory of humor which is used to express humorist ideas through language, and siteom as a unique comedy performance is an important carrier of humor. This paper applies some basic pragnmtic theories, such as Cooperative Principles (CP) and Relevance Theory(RT), to analyze the verbal humor in American popular situational comedy Friends, aiming to explore the generation mechanism of English humor. And then a better understanding and appreciation of English humor for English learners can be achieved.

  5. Relation between humor and empathic concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampes, W P

    2001-02-01

    A series of studies have shown that humor is associated with close interpersonal relationships and effective in reducing stress, which in turn enhances empathy. Therefore, it was hypothesized that humor and empathic concern would be positively correlated. The Empathic Concern subscale of the Empathy Questionnaire, the Coping Humor Scale, the Multidimensional Sense of Humor Scale, and the Situational Humor Response Questionnaire were given to 124 subjects. Scores on the Empathic Concern subscale were significantly correlated with those on each of the humor scales. Types of humor may be an important variable in the relationship between empathic concern and humor. Both humor and empathic concern are associated for people with emotional intelligence who use these to interact effectively with other individuals. As such, it was suggested that exploration would yield a relation between humor and emotional self-awareness, which is also associated with emotional intelligence.

  6. Penetration of topically administered prednisolone acetate into the human aqueous humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibowitz, H M; Berrospi, A R; Kupferman, A; Restropo, G V; Galvis, V; Alvarez, J A

    1977-03-01

    A single standardized drop of 1.0% prednisolone acetate labeled with tritiated thymidine was administered topically to one eye of 58 patients shortly before elective cataract extraction. An aqueous humor sample was aspirated at varying intervals and its corticosteroid content was determined. Peak drug concentration in aqueous humor was 1.13 mug/ml, which occurred 30 to 45 minutes after instillation of the medication. Substantial quantitites of corticosteroid were found in the aqueous humor five minutes after drug administration. The area under the drug concentration in aqueous humor-vs-time curve (a measure of the drug's bioavailability in aqueous humor) was 88 mug min/ml, and its half-life in human aqueous humor was 28 minutes. None of these values were significantly different from the comparable values in rabbit eyes.

  7. Humor in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Cristiano S; Li, Rui; Lawrie, Sarah; Bar-Or, Amit; Clarke, Ann E; Da Costa, Deborah; Banerjee, Devi; Bernatsky, Sasha; Lee, Jennifer L; Pineau, Christian A

    2015-03-01

    Humor has neurophysiological effects influencing the release of cortisol, which may have a direct impact on the immune system. Laughter is associated with a decreased production of inflammatory cytokines both in the general population and in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Our objective was to explore the effects of humor on serum cytokines [particularly interleukin-6 (IL-6)] and cortisol levels in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), after a standard intervention (120 min of visual comedy). We enrolled 58 females with SLE from consecutive patients assessed in the Montreal General Hospital lupus clinic. The subjects who consented to participate were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to the intervention (watching 120 min of comedy) or control group (watching a 120 min documentary). Measurements of cytokine and serum cortisol levels as well as 24-h urine cortisol were taken before, during, and after the interventions. We compared serum cytokine levels and serum and 24-h urine cortisol levels in the humor and control groups and performed regression analyses of these outcomes, adjusting for demographics and the current use of prednisone. There were no significant differences between the control and humor groups in demographics or clinical variables. Baseline serum levels of IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and B-cell activating factor were also similar in both groups. There was no evidence of a humor effect in terms of decreasing cytokine levels, although there was some suggestion of lowered cortisol secretion in the humor group based the 24-h urinary cortisol levels in a subgroup. In contrast to what has been published for RA, we saw no clear effects of humor in altering cytokine levels in SLE, although interesting trends were seen for lower cortisol levels after humor intervention compared with the control group.

  8. How fun are your meetings? How and when humor patterns emerge and impact team performance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehmann-Willenbrock, N.K.; Allen, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Research on humor in organizations has rarely considered the social context in which humor occurs. One such social setting that most of us experience on a daily basis concerns the team context. Building on recent theorizing about the humor–performance link in teams, this study seeks to increase our

  9. Refinement of humoral immune monitoring in kidney transplantation: the role of "hidden" alloreactive memory B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque, Sergi; Lúcia, Marc; Bestard, Oriol

    2017-10-01

    The advent of novel sensitive assays assessing circulating anti-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies has allowed recognizing humoral alloimmunity as the main immune-mediated mechanism responsible for allograft rejection and graft loss in kidney transplantation. However, current immune-monitoring techniques, exclusively focusing on circulating anti-HLA antibodies, may underestimate the magnitude of humoral immune response as they exclude the memory B-cell (mBC) pool. Different biological compartments are involved in the intricate mechanisms triggering humoral alloimmune responses even in absence of detectable circulating alloantibodies. Recent studies in animal models as well as in clinical kidney transplantation have shown the key role of this B-cell subset triggering allograft rejection, thus emphasizing the value of recognizing antidonor mBC both as a biomarker of allosensitization and as therapeutic targets. Therefore, considerable efforts are being made among the transplant research community to better understand the role, hierarchy, and impact of mBC in the context of organ transplantation. In this review article, we provide a deep insight into the biology of mBC as well as main evidence of their role orchestrating allograft rejection. Also, we provide a thorough description of main immune-monitoring tools aiming at tracking mBC and a rational for their potential use to refine current humoral immune-risk assessment in kidney transplantation. © 2017 Steunstichting ESOT.

  10. Multivisceral transplantation in pigs: a clinicopathological analysis of tissue rejection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuoka,Shintaro

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we established the surgical procedure and postoperative care of multivisceral transplantation (MVTX in pigs, and examined the functional changes and rejection pattern of transplanted organs in MVTX. Twenty-two MVTXs were performed without immunosuppression, and nine cases (41% that survived for 5 days or more after MVTX were used for evaluation. Rejection in grafts including the liver, pancreas, and gastrointestinal tract were assessed histopathologically. On day 5 after transplantation, the duodenum and small bowel already showed signs of mild rejection. On the other hand, in the liver, pancreas and stomach, rejection occurred later and was still mild on day 16. Hepatic rejection in MVTX appeared to occur later than in simple liver transplantation (LTX. These results showed that the susceptibility to rejection of individual visceral organs varies.

  11. To Be or Not To Be Humorous? Cross Cultural Perspectives on Humor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Yue

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Humor seems to manifest differently in Western and Eastern cultures, although little is known about how culture shapes humor perceptions. The authors suggest that Westerners regard humor as a common and positive disposition; the Chinese regard humor as a special disposition particular to humorists, with controversial aspects. In Study 1, Hong Kong participants primed with Western culture evaluate humor more positively than they do when primed with Chinese culture. In Study 2a, Canadians evaluate humor as being more important in comparison with Chinese participants. In Study 2b, Canadians expect ordinary people to possess humor, while Chinese expect specialized comedians to be humorous. The implications and limitations are discussed.

  12. To Be or Not To Be Humorous? Cross Cultural Perspectives on Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xiaodong; Jiang, Feng; Lu, Su; Hiranandani, Neelam

    2016-01-01

    Humor seems to manifest differently in Western and Eastern cultures, although little is known about how culture shapes humor perceptions. The authors suggest that Westerners regard humor as a common and positive disposition; the Chinese regard humor as a special disposition particular to humorists, with controversial aspects. In Study 1, Hong Kong participants primed with Western culture evaluate humor more positively than they do when primed with Chinese culture. In Study 2a, Canadians evaluate humor as being more important in comparison with Chinese participants. In Study 2b, Canadians expect ordinary people to possess humor, while Chinese expect specialized comedians to be humorous. The implications and limitations are discussed.

  13. To Be or Not To Be Humorous? Cross Cultural Perspectives on Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xiaodong; Jiang, Feng; Lu, Su; Hiranandani, Neelam

    2016-01-01

    Humor seems to manifest differently in Western and Eastern cultures, although little is known about how culture shapes humor perceptions. The authors suggest that Westerners regard humor as a common and positive disposition; the Chinese regard humor as a special disposition particular to humorists, with controversial aspects. In Study 1, Hong Kong participants primed with Western culture evaluate humor more positively than they do when primed with Chinese culture. In Study 2a, Canadians evaluate humor as being more important in comparison with Chinese participants. In Study 2b, Canadians expect ordinary people to possess humor, while Chinese expect specialized comedians to be humorous. The implications and limitations are discussed. PMID:27757091

  14. Affective Style, Humor Styles and Happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Ford

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the relationships between dispositional approach and avoidance motives, humor styles, and happiness. In keeping with previous research, approach motives and the two positive humor styles (self-enhancing and affiliative positively correlated with happiness, whereas avoidance motives and the two negative humor styles (self-defeating and aggressive negatively correlated with happiness. Also, we found support for three new hypotheses. First, approach motives correlated positively with self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles. Second, avoidance motives correlated positively with self-defeating humor style, and third, the positive relationship between approach motives and happiness was mediated by self-enhancing humor style.

  15. Various Means of Achieving Humor in English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温晓棠

    2014-01-01

    Humor can be found everywhere in our daily life. It shows one's wisdom and confidence, which reflects a person's character, mind and cultivation. While it makes people laugh, it enlightens and instruct people. As we all know, English humor is a manifestation of the western literature. However, people in non-English speaking countries cannot completely understand English humor because of the differences of different cultures. The present paper starts from the analysis of English humor, trying to find out some ways of achieving humor so as to better our understanding and appreciation of English humor.

  16. El humor es algo serio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Guiralt Gomar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Reseña del libro colectivo El humor frente al poder. Prensa humorística, cultura política y poderes fácticos en España (1927-1987, editado por Enrique Bordería Ortiz, Francesc-Andreu Martínez Gallego y Josep Lluís Gómez Mompart y publicado en 2015 por Biblioteca Nueva, dentro de su “Colección Historia”. El volumen, resultado del Grupo de Investigación en Comunicación Humorística y Satírica (GRICOHUSA, consiste en una compilación de trabajos científicos y de gran rigor académico acerca de la prensa humorística y satírica española durante las dos transiciones políticas de la historia contemporánea de España. Así, en él se analizan en profundidad semanarios y rotativos fundamentales del periodismo de humor español, tales como La Traca, Gutiérrez, La Codorniz, El Jueves y El Papus, entre muchos otros.

  17. Race-Based Humor and Peer Group Dynamics in Adolescence:Bystander Intervention and Social Exclusion

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents’ evaluations of discriminatory race-based humor and their expectations about peer responses to\\ud discrimination were investigated in 8th- (Mage = 13.80) and 10th-grade (Mage = 16.11) primarily European-\\ud American participants (N = 256). Older adolescents judged race-based humor as more acceptable than did\\ud younger adolescents and were less likely to expect peer intervention. Participants who rejected discrimination\\ud were more likely to reference welfare/rights and prejudice...

  18. Antibody-Mediated Rejection: An Evolving Entity in Heart Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Chih

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR is gaining increasing recognition as a major complication after heart transplantation, posing a significant risk for allograft failure, cardiac allograft vasculopathy, and poor survival. AMR results from activation of the humoral immune arm and the production of donor-specific antibodies (DSA that bind to the cardiac allograft causing myocardial injury predominantly through complement activation. The diagnosis of AMR has evolved from a clinical diagnosis involving allograft dysfunction and the presence of DSA to a primarily pathologic diagnosis based on histopathology and immunopathology. Treatment for AMR is multifaceted, targeting inhibition of the humoral immune system at different levels with emerging agents including proteasome and complement inhibitors showing particular promise. While there have been significant advances in our current understanding of the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of AMR, further research is required to determine optimal diagnostic tools, therapeutic agents, and timing of treatment.

  19. Multiprocessor scheduling with rejection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartal, Y. [Tel-Aviv Univ. (Israel); Leonardi, S.; Marchetti-Spaccamela, A. [Universita di Roma (Italy); Sgall, J. [Mathematical Inst., Zitna (Czechoslovakia)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    We consider a version of multiprocessor scheduling with the special feature that jobs may be rejected for a certain penalty. An instance of the problem is given by m identical parallel machines and a set of n jobs, each job characterized by a processing time and a penalty. In the on-line version the jobs arrive one by one and we have to schedule or reject a job before we have any information about future jobs. The objective is to minimize the makespan of the schedule for accepted jobs plus the sum of the penalties of rejected jobs. The main result is a 1 + {phi} {approx} 2.618 competitive algorithm for the on-line version of the problem, where 0 is the golden ratio. A matching lower bound shows that this is the best possible algorithm working for all m. For fixed m we give improved bounds, in particular for m = 2 we give an optimal {phi} {approx} 1.618 competitive algorithm. For the off-line problem we present a fully polynomial approximation scheme for fixed m and an approximation algorithm which runs in time O(n log n) for arbitrary m and guarantees 2 - 1/m approximation ratio.

  20. Cooperative Principle and English Humorous Utterance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐芳

    2010-01-01

    <正>Humorous utterances,especially those in the form of conversation in life,have distinctive pragmatic features.There is a close relationship between humor and pragmatics,which can be found in various books on pragmatics.In those books,humorous utterances function as examples for pragmatic analysis.Effective humorous languages often reflect one or several pragmatic features.This paper specifically introduces one of the important theories of pragmatics:cooperative principle,by which the paper analyzes the humorous utterance and explores the relationship between pragmatic rules and humorous utterance.The purpose is to make people know humorous utterance is a matter of pragmatics. The reality of the humor especially depends on implication of the language and the context.

  1. Humor as a Mental Fitness Indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P. Howrigan

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available To explain the pervasive role of humor in human social interaction and among mating partner preferences, Miller (2000a proposed that intentional humor evolved as an indicator of intelligence. To test this, we looked at the relationships among rater-judged humor, general intelligence, and the Big Five personality traits in a sample of 185 college-age students (115 women, 70 men. General intelligence positively predicted rater-judged humor, independent of the Big Five personality traits. Extraversion also predicted rater-judged humor, although to a lesser extent than general intelligence. General intelligence did not interact with the sex of the participant in predicting rating scores on the humor production tasks. The current study lends support to the prediction that effective humor production acts as an honest indicator of intelligence in humans. In addition, extraversion, and to a lesser extent, openness, may reflect motivational traits that encourage humor production.

  2. Neural correlates of humor detection and appreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Joseph M; Wig, Gagan S; Adams, Reginald B; Janata, Petr; Kelley, William M

    2004-03-01

    Humor is a uniquely human quality whose neural substrates remain enigmatic. The present report combined dynamic, real-life content and event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to dissociate humor detection ("getting the joke") from humor appreciation (the affective experience of mirth). During scanning, subjects viewed full-length episodes of the television sitcoms Seinfeld or The Simpsons. Brain activity time-locked to humor detection moments revealed increases in left inferior frontal and posterior temporal cortices, whereas brain activity time-locked to moments of humor appreciation revealed increases in bilateral regions of insular cortex and the amygdala. These findings provide evidence that humor depends critically upon extant neural systems important for resolving incongruities (humor detection) and for the expression of affect (humor appreciation).

  3. Respons imun humoral pada pulpitis (Humoral immune response on pulpitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trijoedani Widodo

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Pulpitis is an inflammation process on dental pulp tissue, and usually as the continuous of caries. The microorganism in the caries is a potential immunogenic triggering the immune respons, both humoral and celluler immune responses. The aim of this research is to explain the humoral immune response changes in the dental pulp tissues of pulpitis. This research was done on three group samples: Irreversible pulpitis, Reversible pulpitis and sound teeth as the control group. The result showed that there were three pulpitis immunopathologic patterns: the sound teeth immunopathologic pattern showing a low humoral immune response, in a low level of IgG, IgA and IgM, the reversible pulpitis pattern showing that in a higher humoral immune response, IgG and IgA decreased but IgM increased, the irreversible pulpitis pattern showing that IgG and IgM increased, but it couldn't be repaired although it has highly immunity, and it showed an unusually low level of IgA. This low level of IgA meant that irreversible pulpitis had a low mucosal immunity.

  4. Black humor in O.Henry's novels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯静楠

    2013-01-01

      Black humor is a kind of literary style rose in American and O .Henry's novels used it to express the satire to society and show the sympathy to the lower class .The most typical works contain black humor two are The Cop and the Anthem and The Gift of the Magi.By using black humor, he created his unique endings .This article is trying to analysis the use of black humor in his novels and the effect.

  5. Humor as a Mental Fitness Indicator

    OpenAIRE

    Howrigan, Daniel P.; Kevin B. MacDonald

    2008-01-01

    To explain the pervasive role of humor in human social interaction and among mating partner preferences, Miller (2000a) proposed that intentional humor evolved as an indicator of intelligence. To test this, we looked at the relationships among rater-judged humor, general intelligence, and the Big Five personality traits in a sample of 185 college-age students (115 women, 70 men). General intelligence positively predicted rater-judged humor, independent of the Big Five personality traits. Extr...

  6. Linguistic Features of Humor in Academic Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalicky, Stephen; Berger, Cynthia M.; Crossley, Scott A.; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2016-01-01

    A corpus of 313 freshman college essays was analyzed in order to better understand the forms and functions of humor in academic writing. Human ratings of humor and wordplay were statistically aggregated using Factor Analysis to provide an overall "Humor" component score for each essay in the corpus. In addition, the essays were also…

  7. Modeling rejection immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Andrea De

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transplantation is often the only way to treat a number of diseases leading to organ failure. To overcome rejection towards the transplanted organ (graft, immunosuppression therapies are used, which have considerable side-effects and expose patients to opportunistic infections. The development of a model to complement the physician’s experience in specifying therapeutic regimens is therefore desirable. The present work proposes an Ordinary Differential Equations model accounting for immune cell proliferation in response to the sudden entry of graft antigens, through different activation mechanisms. The model considers the effect of a single immunosuppressive medication (e.g. cyclosporine, subject to first-order linear kinetics and acting by modifying, in a saturable concentration-dependent fashion, the proliferation coefficient. The latter has been determined experimentally. All other model parameter values have been set so as to reproduce reported state variable time-courses, and to maintain consistency with one another and with the experimentally derived proliferation coefficient. Results The proposed model substantially simplifies the chain of events potentially leading to organ rejection. It is however able to simulate quantitatively the time course of graft-related antigen and competent immunoreactive cell populations, showing the long-term alternative outcomes of rejection, tolerance or tolerance at a reduced functional tissue mass. In particular, the model shows that it may be difficult to attain tolerance at full tissue mass with acceptably low doses of a single immunosuppressant, in accord with clinical experience. Conclusions The introduced model is mathematically consistent with known physiology and can reproduce variations in immune status and allograft survival after transplantation. The model can be adapted to represent different therapeutic schemes and may offer useful indications for the optimization of

  8. Modeling rejection immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gaetano, Andrea; Matone, Alice; Agnes, Annamaria; Palumbo, Pasquale; Ria, Francesco; Magalini, Sabina

    2012-05-20

    Transplantation is often the only way to treat a number of diseases leading to organ failure. To overcome rejection towards the transplanted organ (graft), immunosuppression therapies are used, which have considerable side-effects and expose patients to opportunistic infections. The development of a model to complement the physician's experience in specifying therapeutic regimens is therefore desirable. The present work proposes an Ordinary Differential Equations model accounting for immune cell proliferation in response to the sudden entry of graft antigens, through different activation mechanisms. The model considers the effect of a single immunosuppressive medication (e.g. cyclosporine), subject to first-order linear kinetics and acting by modifying, in a saturable concentration-dependent fashion, the proliferation coefficient. The latter has been determined experimentally. All other model parameter values have been set so as to reproduce reported state variable time-courses, and to maintain consistency with one another and with the experimentally derived proliferation coefficient. The proposed model substantially simplifies the chain of events potentially leading to organ rejection. It is however able to simulate quantitatively the time course of graft-related antigen and competent immunoreactive cell populations, showing the long-term alternative outcomes of rejection, tolerance or tolerance at a reduced functional tissue mass. In particular, the model shows that it may be difficult to attain tolerance at full tissue mass with acceptably low doses of a single immunosuppressant, in accord with clinical experience. The introduced model is mathematically consistent with known physiology and can reproduce variations in immune status and allograft survival after transplantation. The model can be adapted to represent different therapeutic schemes and may offer useful indications for the optimization of therapy protocols in the transplanted patient.

  9. Heat rejection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gregory C.; Tokarz, Richard D.; Parry, Jr., Harvey L.; Braun, Daniel J.

    1980-01-01

    A cooling system for rejecting waste heat consists of a cooling tower incorporating a plurality of coolant tubes provided with cooling fins and each having a plurality of cooling channels therein, means for directing a heat exchange fluid from the power plant through less than the total number of cooling channels to cool the heat exchange fluid under normal ambient temperature conditions, means for directing water through the remaining cooling channels whenever the ambient temperature rises above the temperature at which dry cooling of the heat exchange fluid is sufficient and means for cooling the water.

  10. How fun are your meetings? Investigating the relationship between humor patterns in team interactions and team performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann-Willenbrock, Nale; Allen, Joseph A

    2014-11-01

    Research on humor in organizations has rarely considered the social context in which humor occurs. One such social setting that most of us experience on a daily basis concerns the team context. Building on recent theorizing about the humor-performance link in teams, this study seeks to increase our understanding of the function and effects of humor in team interaction settings. We examined behavioral patterns of humor and laughter in real teams by videotaping and coding humor and laughter during 54 regular organizational team meetings. Performance ratings were obtained immediately following the team meetings as well as at a later time point from the teams' supervisors. At the behavioral unit level within the team interaction process, lag sequential analysis identified humor and laughter patterns occurring above chance (e.g., a joke followed by laughter, followed by another joke). Moreover, humor patterns triggered positive socioemotional communication, procedural structure, and new solutions. At the team level, humor patterns (but not humor or laughter alone) positively related to team performance, both immediately and 2 years later. Team-level job insecurity climate was identified as a boundary condition: In low job insecurity climate conditions, humor patterns were positively related to performance, whereas in high job insecurity climate conditions, humor patterns did not relate to team performance. The role of job insecurity as a boundary condition persisted at both time points. These findings underscore the importance of studying team interactions for understanding the role of humor in organizations and considering team-level boundary conditions over time. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. A personal perspective: 100-year history of the humoral theory of transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terasaki, Paul I

    2012-04-27

    The humoral theory states that antibodies cause the rejection of allografts. From 1917 to 1929, extensive efforts were made to produce antibodies against tumors. It was finally realized that the antibodies were produced against the transplant antigens present on transplantable tumors, not against the tumor-specific antigens. To get around this problem, inbred mouse strains were developed, leading to identification of the transplant antigens determined by the H-2 locus of mice. The antibodies were hemagglutinating and cytotoxic antibodies. The analogous human leukocyte antigen system was established by analysis of lymphocytotoxic alloantibodies that were made by pregnant women, directed against mismatched antigens of the fetus. The human leukocyte antigen antibodies were then found to cause hyperacute rejection, acute rejection, and chronic rejection of kidneys. Antibodies appeared in almost all patients after rejection of kidneys. With Luminex single antigen bead technology, donor-specific antibodies could be identified before rise in serum creatinine and graft failure. Antibodies were shown to be predictive of subsequent graft failure in kidney, heart, and lung transplants: patients without antibodies had superior 4-year graft survival compared with those who did have antibodies. New evidence that antibodies are also associated with chronic failure has appeared for liver and islet transplants. Four studies have now shown that removal or reduction of antibodies result in higher graft survival. If removal of antibodies prevents chronic graft failure, final validation of the humoral theory can be achieved.

  12. Humor in intimate relationships Ties among sense of humor, similarity in humor and relationship quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barelds, D.P.H.; Barelds-Dijkstra, P.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined relations between different aspects of humor and relationship quality Participants 114 married or cohabiting heterosexual couples from the general community with a mean relationship length of 22 years completed a number of measures assessing these two themes We expected

  13. Humor in intimate relationships Ties among sense of humor, similarity in humor and relationship quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barelds, Dick P. H.; Barelds-Dijkstra, Pieternel

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined relations between different aspects of humor and relationship quality Participants 114 married or cohabiting heterosexual couples from the general community with a mean relationship length of 22 years completed a number of measures assessing these two themes We expected di

  14. Humor in intimate relationships Ties among sense of humor, similarity in humor and relationship quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barelds, D.P.H.; Barelds-Dijkstra, P.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined relations between different aspects of humor and relationship quality Participants 114 married or cohabiting heterosexual couples from the general community with a mean relationship length of 22 years completed a number of measures assessing these two themes We expected di

  15. The Relationship Between Humor Styles and Forgiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampes, William

    2016-01-01

    Research has shown that a factor in a victim’s forgiveness of an offender is the victim’s ability to make more positive, or at least less negative, attributions of the offender’s behavior and that perspective-taking can be a factor in facilitating that process. Self-enhancing humor has been found to be positively correlated with perspective-taking empathy and aggressive humor found to be negatively correlated with perspective-taking empathy. Therefore it was predicted that self-enhancing humor would be positively correlated with forgiveness and aggressive humor negatively correlated with forgiveness. The Humor Styles Questionnaire, the Absence of Negative and Presence of Positive subscales of the Forgiveness Scale, and the Forgiveness Likelihood Scale were administered to 112 college undergraduates. Self-enhancing humor was significantly and positively correlated with all of the forgiveness measures, aggressive humor and self-defeating humor were significantly and negatively correlated with some of the forgiveness measures and affiliative humor was not significantly correlated with any of the forgiveness measures. The results were interpreted in terms of previous findings for humor styles, perspective-taking empathy, depression, self-esteem and anxiety. Future research involving the extent to which other personality variables, such as perspective-taking empathy, mediate the relationship between self-enhancing humor and forgiveness was suggested. PMID:27547252

  16. The Relationship Between Humor Styles and Forgiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Hampes

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown that a factor in a victim’s forgiveness of an offender is the victim’s ability to make more positive, or at least less negative, attributions of the offender’s behavior and that perspective-taking can be a factor in facilitating that process. Self-enhancing humor has been found to be positively correlated with perspective-taking empathy and aggressive humor found to be negatively correlated with perspective-taking empathy. Therefore it was predicted that self-enhancing humor would be positively correlated with forgiveness and aggressive humor negatively correlated with forgiveness. The Humor Styles Questionnaire, the Absence of Negative and Presence of Positive subscales of the Forgiveness Scale, and the Forgiveness Likelihood Scale were administered to 112 college undergraduates. Self-enhancing humor was significantly and positively correlated with all of the forgiveness measures, aggressive humor and self-defeating humor were significantly and negatively correlated with some of the forgiveness measures and affiliative humor was not significantly correlated with any of the forgiveness measures. The results were interpreted in terms of previous findings for humor styles, perspective-taking empathy, depression, self-esteem and anxiety. Future research involving the extent to which other personality variables, such as perspective-taking empathy, mediate the relationship between self-enhancing humor and forgiveness was suggested.

  17. Linguistic Features of Humor in Academic Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Skalicky

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A corpus of 313 freshman college essays was analyzed in order to better understand the forms and functions of humor in academic writing. Human ratings of humor and wordplay were statistically aggregated using Factor Analysis to provide an overall Humor component score for each essay in the corpus. In addition, the essays were also scored for overall writing quality by human raters, which correlated (r = .195 with the humor component score. Correlations between the humor component scores and linguistic features were examined. To investigate the potential for linguistic features to predict the Humor component scores, regression analysis identified four linguistic indices that accounted for approximately 17.5% of the variance in humor scores. These indices were related to text descriptiveness (i.e., more adjective and adverb use, lower cohesion (i.e., less paragraph-to-paragraph similarity, and lexical sophistication (lower word frequency. The findings suggest that humor can be partially predicted by linguistic features in the text. Furthermore, there was a small but significant correlation between the humor and essay quality scores, suggesting a positive relation between humor and writing quality.Keywords: humor, academic writing, text analysis, essay score, human rating

  18. The Dark Side of Humor: DSM-5 Pathological Personality Traits and Humor Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgil Zeigler-Hill

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Basic personality traits (e.g., extraversion have been found to be associated with the humor styles that individuals employ. In the present study, we were interested in determining whether pathological personality traits were also associated with humor styles. We examined the associations between the pathological personality traits captured by the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 (PID-5 and humor styles in a sample of college students (N = 594. Negative affectivity and detachment were negatively associated with the affiliative and self-enhancing humor styles. Antagonism was positively associated with the aggressive humor style but negatively associated with the affiliative humor style. Disinhibition was positively associated with the aggressive humor style, whereas disinhibition and psychoticism were both positively associated with the self-defeating humor style. Discussion focuses on the implications of these findings and how they can expand our understanding of the connections between the darker aspects of personality and humor.

  19. English Humor Derived from the Violation of Cooperative Principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    逯凌虹

    2009-01-01

    Humor is a wisdom, which reflects a person's character, mind and educational level. Humor can be revealed in many ways, yet mainly by means oflanguage. Starting from the analysis of the language of English humor, this paper studies the ways of English humor, especially the English humor on the violation of Cooperative Principle. By analyzing the relationship of English humor and the Cooperative Principle, this paper aims at bettering our understanding and comprehension of the Cooperative Principle and English humor.

  20. Personality, Humor Styles and Happiness: Happy People Have Positive Humor Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Thomas E; Lappi, Shaun K; Holden, Christopher J

    2016-08-01

    The present study examined the relationships between four personality traits, humor styles, and happiness. Replicating previous research, happiness was positively correlated with four personality traits: extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism. Further, happiness positively related to self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles; it related negatively to self-defeating and aggressive humor styles. Thus, happy people habitually engage in positive uses of humor and avoid engaging in negative uses of humor in daily life. We also found support for our hypothesis. People high in extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism are happier because they engage in positive humor in daily life.

  1. Personality, Humor Styles and Happiness: Happy People Have Positive Humor Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Ford

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the relationships between four personality traits, humor styles, and happiness. Replicating previous research, happiness was positively correlated with four personality traits: extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism. Further, happiness positively related to self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles; it related negatively to self-defeating and aggressive humor styles. Thus, happy people habitually engage in positive uses of humor and avoid engaging in negative uses of humor in daily life. We also found support for our hypothesis. People high in extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism are happier because they engage in positive humor in daily life.

  2. Personality, Humor Styles and Happiness: Happy People Have Positive Humor Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Thomas E.; Lappi, Shaun K.; Holden, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the relationships between four personality traits, humor styles, and happiness. Replicating previous research, happiness was positively correlated with four personality traits: extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism. Further, happiness positively related to self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles; it related negatively to self-defeating and aggressive humor styles. Thus, happy people habitually engage in positive uses of humor and avoid engaging in negative uses of humor in daily life. We also found support for our hypothesis. People high in extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism are happier because they engage in positive humor in daily life. PMID:27547251

  3. Handling Rejection as Failure: Aspiring Writers Getting the Rejection Slip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Fürst

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Included in the definition of being an aspiring person is the risk of failure. Aspiring fiction writers are no exception. This article shows that the role of aspiring fiction writer involves managing three issues: the hope of being published, rejection by a publisher, and the perception of the rejection as a failure. Drawing on 47 interviews with fiction writers who have attempted to become first-time writers, the analysis shows that aspiring writers' responses to rejection are related to accepting and dismissing responsibility for having failed and admitting or dismissing the rejection as a perceived failure. Based on these findings, the article presents procedures associated with four main approaches to dealing with failure: conceding, excusing, justifying, and refusing. This conceptual framework for understanding failure contributes to a theoretical understanding of evaluation and valuation processes and their consequences and to empirical studies of rejection as career failure; it also systematizes and extends Goffmans work on cooling out strategies.

  4. How fun are your meetings? Investigating the relationship between humor patterns in team interactions and team performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehmann-Willenbrock, N.K.; Allen, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Research on humor in organizations has rarely considered the social context in which humor occurs. One such social setting that most of us experience on a daily basis concerns the team context. Building on recent theorizing about the humor–performance link in teams, this study seeks to increase our

  5. How fun are your meetings? Investigating the relationship between humor patterns in team interactions and team performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehmann-Willenbrock, N.K.; Allen, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Research on humor in organizations has rarely considered the social context in which humor occurs. One such social setting that most of us experience on a daily basis concerns the team context. Building on recent theorizing about the humor–performance link in teams, this study seeks to increase our

  6. Strategi Penciptaan Humor dengan Pemanfaatan Aspek-aspek Kebahasaan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rohmadi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Humor is universal. Nobody never gets involved with humor. It's the difference lies in its frequency and its target. One person may have a high sense of humor whereas another may have a low sense of humor. In fact every person needs humor in many communication activities. Though humor is only word game, people cannot avoid it. However, humor does not always cause the people to laugh. The creation of humor discourse can make use of articles, pictures, and sounds. Humor consumers assess humor variously. Sometimes people can feel happy when they hear humor; but sometimes they can feel infuriated, hateful, insinuated, or even aggrieved. This is caused by immeasurable humor context in each communication. It depends on the target that the humor creator wants.

  7. Humor styles, self-esteem, and subjective happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xiao Dong; Liu, Katy Wing-Yin; Jiang, Feng; Hiranandani, Neelam Arjan

    2014-10-01

    Summary.-This study examined how humor styles could mediate the effect of self-esteem on subjective happiness. 227 Hong Kong undergraduate students completed the Humor Styles Questionnaire, the Roxsenberg Self-esteem Scale, and the Subjective Happiness Scale. Results showed adaptive humor styles (affiliative humor and self-enhancing humor) significantly predicted self-esteem and subjective happiness and mediated the relationship between self-esteem and subjective happiness. Maladaptive humor styles (aggressive humor and self-defeating humor) did not strongly predict self-esteem or subjective happiness. The mediation effects of humor styles found in the present research provided useful suggestions for future studies.

  8. Controllability measures for disturbance rejection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigurd Skogestad

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available Some plants have better "built-in" disturbance rejection capabilities than others, that is, their dynamic resilience (controllability with respect to disturbance rejection is better. In the paper we consider controller independent disturbance measures for six classes of problems:

  9. Effects of Humor Production, Humor Receptivity, and Physical Attractiveness on Partner Desirability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tornquist, Michelle; Chiappe, Dan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined women’s and men’s preferences for humor production and humor receptivity in long-term and short-term relationships, and how these factors interact with physical attractiveness to influence desirability...

  10. Humor: Aggression, Defence, and Conservatism: Group Characteristics and Differential Humor Appreciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askenasy, George H.

    1976-01-01

    A broad sample of adult male and female subjects was administered an humor appreciation inventory (54 jokes, 9 categories). The major finding was that humor appreciation scores are remarkably similar regardless of background characteristics. (Author/SBP)

  11. Radionuclide diagnosis of allograft rejection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, E.A.

    1982-10-01

    Interaction with one or more anatomical and physiopathological characteristics of the rejecting renal allograft is suggested by those radioagents utilized specifically for the diagnosis of allograft rejection. Rejection, the most common cause of declining allograft function, is frequently mimicked clinically or masked by other immediate or long term post transplant complications. Understanding of the anatomical pathological features and kinetics of rejection and their modification by immunosuppressive maintenance and therapy are important for the proper clinical utilization of these radioagents. Furthermore, in selecting these radionuclides, one has to consider the comparative availability, preparatory and procedural simplicity, acquisition and display techniques and the possibility of timely report. The clinical utilities of radiofibrinogen, /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid and /sup 67/Ga in the diagnosis of allograft rejection have been evaluated to a variable extent in the past. The potential usefulness of the recently developed preparations of /sup 111/In labeled autologous leukocytes and platelets are presently under investigation.

  12. Developing a typology of humor in audiovisual media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijzen, M.A.; Valkenburg, P.M.

    2004-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to develop and investigate a typology of humor in audiovisual media. We identified 41 humor techniques, drawing on Berger's (1976, 1993) typology of humor in narratives, audience research on humor preferences, and an inductive analysis of humorous commercials. We

  13. Developing a typology of humor in audiovisual media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijzen, M.A.; Valkenburg, P.M.

    2004-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to develop and investigate a typology of humor in audiovisual media. We identified 41 humor techniques, drawing on Berger's (1976, 1993) typology of humor in narratives, audience research on humor preferences, and an inductive analysis of humorous commercials. We analy

  14. Sexual Selection and Humor in Courtship

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    This investigation examines a sexual selection-based argument regarding humor’s role in courtship (i.e., humor production signals intelligence/creativity). Lens model (n =100) analyses suggest that humor production on Facebook profiles were self-reported and perceived to be associated with extroversion, not intelligence. Study 2 (n = 289) found that extroversion was associated humor production, but high school and college grade point average and American College Test (ACT) scores were not. In...

  15. The Cooperative Principle and English Humor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李澜

    2007-01-01

    English jokes are humorous and implicit. They can set people laughing, and at the same time they can also set people thinking. However, people in non-English speaking countries cannot completely understand English humor because of the differences between different cultures. This paper tries to explain the causes of English humor in terms of cooperative principles of conversation. Examples are given to illustrate each cause.

  16. Urine immunocytology as a noninvasive diagnostic tool for acute kidney rejection: a single center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihovilović, Karlo; Kardum-Skelin, Ika; Ljubanović, Danica; Sabljar-Matovinović, Mirjana; Vidas, Zeljko; Knotek, Mladen

    2010-03-01

    Renal biopsy is a gold standard for establishing diagnosis of acute rejection of the renal allograft. However, being invasive, renal biopsy has potential significant complications and contraindications. Therefore, possibility to noninvasively diagnose acute rejection would improve follow-up of kidney transplant patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate urine immunocytology for T cells as a method for noninvasive identification of patients with acute renal allograft rejection in comparison to renal biopsy. In this prospective study a cohort of 56 kidney, or kidney-pancreas transplant recipients was included. Patients either received their transplant at the University Hospital "Merkur", or have been followed at the "Merkur" Hospital. Patients were subject to either protocol or indication kidney biopsy (a total of 70 biopsies), with simultaneous urine immunocytology (determination of CD3-positive cells in the urine sediment). Acute rejection was diagnosed in 24 biopsies. 23 episodes were T-cell mediated (6 grade IA, 5 grade IB, 1 grade IIA, 1 grade III and 10 borderline), while in 1 case acute humoral rejection was diagnosed. 46 biopsies did not demonstrate acute rejection. CD3-positive cells were found in 21% of cases with acute rejection and in 13% of cases without rejection (n.s.). A finding of CD3-positive cells in urine had a sensitivity of 21% and specificity of 87% for acute rejection (including borderline), with positive predictive value of 45% and negative predictive value of 68%. Although tubulitis is a hallmark of acute T cell-mediated rejection, detection of T cells in urine sediment was insufficiently sensitive and insufficiently specific for diagnosing acute rejection in our cohort of kidney transplant recipients.

  17. Comparative evaluation of aqueous humor viscosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kyshia; Carter, Renee; Tully, Thomas; Negulescu, Ioan; Storey, Eric

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate aqueous humor viscosity in the raptor, dog, cat, and horse, with a primary focus on the barred owl (Strix varia). Twenty-six raptors, ten dogs, three cats, and one horse. Animals were euthanized for reasons unrelated to this study. Immediately, after horizontal and vertical corneal dimensions were measured, and anterior chamber paracentesis was performed to quantify anterior chamber volume and obtain aqueous humor samples for viscosity analysis. Dynamic aqueous humor viscosity was measured using a dynamic shear rheometer (AR 1000 TA Instruments, New Castle, DE, USA) at 20 °C. Statistical analysis included descriptive statistics, unpaired t-tests, and Tukey's test to evaluate the mean ± standard deviation for corneal diameter, anterior chamber volume, and aqueous humor viscosity amongst groups and calculation of Spearman's coefficient for correlation analyses. The mean aqueous humor viscosity in the barred owl was 14.1 centipoise (cP) ± 9, cat 4.4 cP ± 0.2, and dog 2.9 cP ± 1.3. The aqueous humor viscosity for the horse was 1 cP. Of the animals evaluated in this study, the raptor aqueous humor was the most viscous. The aqueous humor of the barred owl is significantly more viscous than the dog (P humor viscosity of the raptor, dog, cat, and horse can be successfully determined using a dynamic shear rheometer. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  18. Effectiveness of humor advertising on advertising success

    OpenAIRE

    S, venkatesh; N, senthilkumar

    2015-01-01

    In global advertising ‘humor’ is the most effective emotion used in advertising compared to other emotional appeals. Advertisers and researchers more interested in Humor in advertising for more than 100 years. But there is no review paper for Impact of humor in advertising till twenty two years of time, in between period there was lot of research outcomes published about humor in advertising. The purpose of this paper to get detailed review about Impact of humor in advertising for 40 years an...

  19. Cognitive Distortions, Humor Styles, and Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Rnic

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive distortions are negative biases in thinking that are theorized to represent vulnerability factors for depression and dysphoria. Despite the emphasis placed on cognitive distortions in the context of cognitive behavioural theory and practice, a paucity of research has examined the mechanisms through which they impact depressive symptomatology. Both adaptive and maladaptive styles of humor represent coping strategies that may mediate the relation between cognitive distortions and depressive symptoms. The current study examined the correlations between the frequency and impact of cognitive distortions across both social and achievement-related contexts and types of humor. Cognitive distortions were associated with reduced use of adaptive Affiliative and Self-Enhancing humor styles and increased use of maladaptive Aggressive and Self-Defeating humor. Reduced use of Self-Enhancing humor mediated the relationship between most types of cognitive distortions and depressed mood, indicating that distorted negative thinking may interfere with an individual’s ability to adopt a humorous and cheerful outlook on life (i.e., use Self-Enhancing humor as a way of regulating emotions and coping with stress, thereby resulting in elevated depressive symptoms. Similarly, Self-Defeating humor mediated the association of the social impact of cognitive distortions with depression, such that this humor style may be used as a coping strategy for dealing with distorted thinking that ultimately backfires and results in increased dysphoria.

  20. Cognitive Distortions, Humor Styles, and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rnic, Katerina; Dozois, David J. A.; Martin, Rod A.

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive distortions are negative biases in thinking that are theorized to represent vulnerability factors for depression and dysphoria. Despite the emphasis placed on cognitive distortions in the context of cognitive behavioural theory and practice, a paucity of research has examined the mechanisms through which they impact depressive symptomatology. Both adaptive and maladaptive styles of humor represent coping strategies that may mediate the relation between cognitive distortions and depressive symptoms. The current study examined the correlations between the frequency and impact of cognitive distortions across both social and achievement-related contexts and types of humor. Cognitive distortions were associated with reduced use of adaptive Affiliative and Self-Enhancing humor styles and increased use of maladaptive Aggressive and Self-Defeating humor. Reduced use of Self-Enhancing humor mediated the relationship between most types of cognitive distortions and depressed mood, indicating that distorted negative thinking may interfere with an individual’s ability to adopt a humorous and cheerful outlook on life (i.e., use Self-Enhancing humor) as a way of regulating emotions and coping with stress, thereby resulting in elevated depressive symptoms. Similarly, Self-Defeating humor mediated the association of the social impact of cognitive distortions with depression, such that this humor style may be used as a coping strategy for dealing with distorted thinking that ultimately backfires and results in increased dysphoria. PMID:27547253

  1. Humor: The "Witting" Edge in Business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scriven, Jolene; Hefferin, Linda

    1998-01-01

    Humor contributes to teamwork, creative problem solving, mental flexibility, and risk taking in the workplace. As a classroom tool, it increases student attentiveness and retention of information. (SK)

  2. Humor in leader-follower relationships : Humor styles, similarity and relationship quality.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisse, Barbara; Rietzschel, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The present study focuses on how humor may affect the quality of the relationship between leader and follower (LMX). More specifically, we examined the impact of follower self-reported humor style and leader self-reported humor style on the extent to which followers perceived their relationship with

  3. Humor in leader-follower relationships : Humor styles, similarity and relationship quality.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisse, Barbara; Rietzschel, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The present study focuses on how humor may affect the quality of the relationship between leader and follower (LMX). More specifically, we examined the impact of follower self-reported humor style and leader self-reported humor style on the extent to which followers perceived their relationship with

  4. The role of the amygdala in incongruity resolution: the case of humor comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Tagiru; Matsui, Tomoko; Utsumi, Akira; Yamazaki, Mika; Makita, Kai; Harada, Tokiko; Tanabe, Hiroki C; Sadato, Norihiro

    2017-08-21

    A dominant theory of humor comprehension suggests that people understand humor by first perceiving some incongruity in an expression and then resolving it. This is called "the incongruity-resolution theory." Experimental studies have investigated the neural basis of humor comprehension, and multiple neural substrates have been proposed; however, the specific substrate for incongruity resolution is still unknown. The reason may be that the resolution phase, despite its importance in humor comprehension, has not been successfully distinguished from the perception phase because both phases occur almost simultaneously. To reveal the substrate, we conducted a functional magnetic resonance study using 51 healthy participants. We used a humor-producing frame of "Given A, I'd say B, because C" so as to focus on the resolution phase independently by suspending humor processing just after the perception phase. This frame allowed us to separate the two phases. Based on our results, incongruity resolution evoked positive emotion and activated the left amygdala, which is known to be related to positive emotion. On the basis of these findings, we argue that the amygdala plays an important role in humor comprehension, considering its functional role in emotional evaluation, particularly the relevance detection for incoming stimuli.

  5. Current perspectives on antibody-mediated rejection after lung transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witt CA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Chad A Witt, Ramsey R Hachem Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO, USA Abstract: The role of donor-specific antibodies (DSA to human leukocyte antigens and the burden of antibody-mediated rejection (AMR in lung transplantation remain enigmatic. Over the past several years, evidence has been emerging that humoral immunity plays an important role in the development of both acute and chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD. Multiple case reports and case series have identified lung allograft recipients with clinical findings consistent with acute AMR. However, there is currently no widely accepted definition for AMR in lung transplantation, and this has been a significant barrier to furthering our understanding of this form of rejection. Nonetheless, the development of DSA after transplantation has consistently been identified as an independent risk factor for persistent and high-grade acute cellular rejection and CLAD. This has raised the possibility that chronic AMR may be a distinct phenotype of CLAD although evidence supporting this paradigm is still lacking. Additionally, antibodies to lung-restricted self-antigens (collagen V and K-α 1 tubulin have been associated with primary graft dysfunction early and the development of CLAD late after transplantation, and emerging evidence underscores significant interactions between autoimmunity and alloimmunity after transplantation. There is currently an active International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation working group that is developing an operational definition for AMR in lung transplantation. This will be critical to improve our understanding of this form of rejection and conduct clinical trials to identify optimal treatment strategies. This review will summarize the literature on DSA and AMR in lung transplantation and discuss the impact of antibodies to self-antigens on lung

  6. THE ROLE OF SPECKLE-TRACKING ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY TECHNIQUE AT THE STAGE OF SUBCLINICAL HEART TRANSPLANT REJECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Stavenchuk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To identify new predictors of heart transplant rejection by using speckle-tracking echocardiography technique. Materials and methods. 117 recipients were included into research. The follow-up period in S.V. Ochapovsky Region Clinical Hospital No 1 was from March 2010 to April 2015. The groups were allocated based on results of the retrospective analysis of biopsies: group 1 (n = 68, recipients without signs of cellular and humoral rejection (AMR0 ACR0; group 2 (n = 28, recipients with ACR1; group 3 (n = 16, patients with ACR2; group 4 (n = 5, patients with chronic rejection. The analysis of the results was carried out with endomyocardial biopsy, coronary angiography, transthoracic echocardiography (TTE, tissue Doppler imaging, speckle-tracking echocardiography. Results. Early complications include infections and rejection of heart transplant. Cellular rejection is diagnosed in 70% of cases, humoral rejection in 30% of cases. The disease of coronary arteries is a kind of late complications. It was diagnosed in 13.7%. Fraction rejection sensitivity was 63%, specificity was 97% in recipients with ACR1 while carrying out TTE for the purpose of identification of early diagnostic criterion of rejection; recipients with ACR2 had 75% and 96%, respectively. While carrying out PW sensitivity and specificity Е/А in recipients with ACR1 were 83% and 53%, respectively; recipients with ACR2 had 85% and 52%, respectively. While carrying out PW-TDI sensitivity and specificity Е in recipients with ACR1 were 83% and 58%, respectively; recipients with ACR2 had 88% and 60%, respectively. The assessment of myocardial deformation of the left ventricle is as follows: global peak systolic strain in recipients without rejection (GLPS LV – (–17.54 ± 3.71%, р = 0.0012; recipients with (ACR1, AMR1 had GLPS LV (–10.52 ± 1.8%, p = 0.0012; recipients with ACR2 had (–6.44 ± 1.8%, p = 0.002; recipients with chronic rejection had (–9.43 ± 1.8%, p = 0

  7. Chronic Kidney Isograft and Allograft Rejection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严群; 张鹏; 杨传永

    2002-01-01

    Summary: In this study antigen-independent factor in the pathogenesis of chronic rejection of organ transplants was examined. Kidney isografts and allografts were transplanted orthotopically into bilaterally nephroectomized rat recipients and studied functionally, morphologically and immunohistologically, at serial intervals up to 52 weeks after transplantation. Allograft recipients developed progressive proteinuria after 12 weeks, with gradual renal failure ultimately leading to death. At the same time, morphological changes, including progressive arteriosclerosis and glomerulosclerosis, tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis, developed. Immunohistologically, macrophages infiltrated glomeruli during this period and cytokines became unregulated. Our resuits showed that antigen-independent functional and morphological changes occurred in long-term kidney isografts and mimicked those appearing much earlier in allografts that reject chronically.Initial injury and extent of functioning renal mass is suggested to be important factor for such late changes.

  8. Humor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谈华军

    2005-01-01

    As I drove into a car park, I noticed that a utility truck with a dog sitting behind the wheel was rolling towards a female pedestrian. She seemed oblivious. So I hit my horn to get her attention, she looked up just in time to jump out of the truck's path, and the vehicle bumped harmlessly into the herb and stopped.

  9. Using Psychophysiological Measures to Examine the Temporal Profile of Verbal Humor Elicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiacconi, Chris M; Owen, Adrian M

    2015-01-01

    Despite its pervasiveness in popular culture, there remains much to be learned about the psychological and physiological processes that underlie our experience of humor. In the present study, we examined the temporal profile of verbal humor elicitation using psychophysiological measures of heart rate (HR) and facial electromyography (EMG). Consistent with recent prior research on cardiovascular changes to perceived humor, we found that HR acceleration was greater for jokes relative to non-jokes, and was positively related to the level of perceived humor elicited by these jokes. In addition, activity recorded from the zygomaticus major muscle that controls smiling was found to be greater for jokes relative to non-jokes. To link these physiological changes to the psychological processes that govern humor comprehension, we took the initial inflection point of the zygomatic EMG response as a marker for the onset of humor comprehension, and used this marker to probe the pattern of cardiovascular activity at this time-point. We estimated the onset of the humor response to occur during the initial HR deceleration phase, and found that jokes relative to non-jokes elicited a decreased HR response at this time-point. This result questions the previously forwarded notion that the psychological "moment of insight" that signals the start of the humor response is always associated with heightened cardiovascular activity. This discrepancy is discussed in relation to possible differences in the cognitive processes required to comprehend different forms of humor. At a broader level, our results also demonstrate the advantages of combining different psychophysiological measures to examine psychological phenomena, and illustrate how one such measure can constrain the interpretation of others.

  10. The Role of Humor in Language Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓艳

    2013-01-01

    Humor plays an important role in many spheres and aspects of human life. The study is intended to analyze the feasibil-ity of utilizing humor as a communicative strategy as well as a tool to create a positive teaching environment for language teach-ing in class.

  11. "That Hurts!": Humor and Sadomasochism in "Lolita."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bick, Ilsa J.

    1994-01-01

    States that humor is dependent on individual perspective, and that the subject matter of "Lolita" (1962), which concerns child abuse and molestation, is difficult to treat with humor. Argues that despite its subject, "Lolita" continues to be funny. Concludes that viewers know the subject matter is not funny, but while watching, viewers do not…

  12. A Study on Intertextuality in Verbal Humor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周燕

    2015-01-01

    This paper talks about how intertextuality and its concerned theories can be well applied to the study of humor.Through analysis of specific samples,the paper finds parody,verbal irony and text allusions are effective intertextual means to produce and understand verbal humor.

  13. American Learners' Comprehension of Russian Textual Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shardakova, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, second language (L2) humor has attracted scholarly attention as both a means and a goal of L2 development. Much of this research, however, has focused on oral communication, whereas virtually no studies address humor as an aspect of reading comprehension. This exploratory study combines these two areas of inquiry, examining…

  14. Humor: A Therapeutic Intervention for Child Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Rachelle G.; Parr, Gerald; Bradley, Loretta J.; Berry, Jeremy J.

    2009-01-01

    Counselors utilize many strategies, techniques, and tools when building a therapeutic alliance or addressing children's issues. Due to the serious nature of discussing problems or perhaps because of the fear of seeming insensitive, counselors often overlook humor as a means to enhance therapy. Whether deliberate or spontaneous, humor can add…

  15. Confessions from a Guy Who Teaches Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Gene L.

    2008-01-01

    Humor is an intriguing topic that exists in the contexts of adult education and human resource development. This paper describes my experiences at developing and facilitating a graduate course on humor and adult learning. Researchers and scholarly practitioners in adult education and human resource development are encouraged to build their…

  16. "That Hurts!": Humor and Sadomasochism in "Lolita."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bick, Ilsa J.

    1994-01-01

    States that humor is dependent on individual perspective, and that the subject matter of "Lolita" (1962), which concerns child abuse and molestation, is difficult to treat with humor. Argues that despite its subject, "Lolita" continues to be funny. Concludes that viewers know the subject matter is not funny, but while watching,…

  17. "That Hurts!": Humor and Sadomasochism in "Lolita."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bick, Ilsa J.

    1994-01-01

    States that humor is dependent on individual perspective, and that the subject matter of "Lolita" (1962), which concerns child abuse and molestation, is difficult to treat with humor. Argues that despite its subject, "Lolita" continues to be funny. Concludes that viewers know the subject matter is not funny, but while watching,…

  18. Variable Heat Rejection (VHR) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop advanced technologies to enable a variable heat rejection Thermal Control System (TCS) capable of operating through a wide range of thermal environments...

  19. Membrane rejection of nitrogen compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Lueptow, R. M.

    2001-01-01

    Rejection characteristics of nitrogen compounds were examined for reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, and low-pressure reverse osmosis membranes. The rejection of nitrogen compounds is explained by integrating experimental results with calculations using the extended Nernst-Planck model coupled with a steric hindrance model. The molecular weight and chemical structure of nitrogen compounds appear to be less important in determining rejection than electrostatic properties. The rejection is greatest when the Donnan potential exceeds 0.05 V or when the ratio of the solute radius to the pore radius is greater than 0.8. The transport of solute in the pore is dominated by diffusion, although convective transport is significant for organic nitrogen compounds. Electromigration contributes negligibly to the overall solute transport in the membrane. Urea, a small organic compound, has lower rejection than ionic compounds such as ammonium, nitrate, and nitrite, indicating the critical role of electrostatic interaction in rejection. This suggests that better treatment efficiency for organic nitrogen compounds can be obtained after ammonification of urea.

  20. Humor and creative life styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, J

    2001-01-01

    This paper is based upon the writings of William James in the late 19th century, and Alfred Adler and Sigmund Freud in the 20th, enriched by the contributions of later personality and role theorists. The self is defined as the unique organization of each person; a style is the self in action. Different life styles and their components are expressed in different situations. I posit that humor and positive thinking, combined with meaning and purpose, are vital components of all constructive life styles. The knowledge of life styles cuts through diagnostic labels to reveal our universal humanity. It can be fruitfully applied to patients and nonpatients alike and, I found, for the self-understanding of therapist. The clinical application of life styles is illustrated through numerous vignettes.

  1. El humor es cosa seria

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    La capacidad de goce, trabajo y sobre todo el humor constituyen un criterio importante en la evaluación psicodiagnóstica, a pesar de ser a menudo, un aspecto excluido de los informes. Una razón de dicha exclusión podría ser el hecho de no contribuir por sí mismo a incluir al sujeto evaluado en una categoría psicopatológica. Otra razón que se suma a la anterior, es que el “ sentido del humor” que surge durante el transcurso de un proceso psicodiagnóstico exige de parte del que lo administra un...

  2. Hypervigilance to Rejecting Stimuli in Rejection Sensitive Individuals: Behavioral and Neurocognitive Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Katherine B; Gerson, Sarah A; Vanderwert, Ross E; Cannon, Erin N; Fox, Nathan A

    2015-10-01

    Individuals who are high in rejection sensitivity are vigilant toward social cues that signal rejection, and they exhibit attention biases towards information that confirms expectations of rejection. Little is known, however, about the neural correlates of rejection sensitivity. The present study examined whether rejection sensitivity is associated with individuals' neural responses to rejection-relevant information. Female participants, classified as high or average in rejection sensitivity, completed a modified dot-probe task in which a neutral face was paired with either another neutral face or a gaze-averted ("rejecting") face while EEG was collected and ERP components were computed. Behavioral results indicated that average rejection sensitive participants showed an attention bias away from rejecting faces, while high rejection sensitive participants were equally vigilant to neutral and rejecting faces. High rejection sensitivity was associated with ERP components signaling elevated attention and arousal to faces. These findings suggest that rejection sensitivity shapes behavioral and neurocognitive responses to faces.

  3. Por un humor ético

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Paramo Valero

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Ética del humor es una obra original, abundantemente documentada, de contenido científico y filosófico, que aborda un problema de gran importancia en los actuales estudios de éticas aplicadas. La ética del humor es una nueva ética aplicada que pretende comprender el fenómeno del humor a la luz de sus implicaciones éticas. Como señala el autor, Juan Carlos Siurana, reputado experto en el ámbito de la filosofía práctica, el interés por el humor es un interés por la ética. En la obra no presenta una nueva teoría filosófica del humor –las cuales se han venido sucediendo, al menos, desde los Diálogos de Platón–, sino una nueva teoría ética, que toma al humor como objeto principal de análisis. Por tanto, la finalidad es realizar una aportación dentro del ámbito de la ética. Para ello se nutre de distintos estudios psicológicos, biológicos, fisiológicos y neurológicos sobre el humor, así como de clásicas obras de filosofía que han abordado esta cuestión.

  4. [Immunosuppressive treatment after kidney transplant: the frontier of chronic antibody-mediated rejection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biancone, Luigi; Lavacca, Antonio; Beltramo, Silvia; Ariaudo, Claudia; Gallo, Ester; Segoloni, Giuseppe Paolo

    2012-01-01

    The recognition of antibody-mediated rejection as an important factor in the reduction of long-term renal graft survival represents a new challenge to the immunosuppressive strategies of recent years, which have been quite successful in reducing the acute rejection rates as well as the side effects of pharmacological immunosuppression. The search for an effective treatment of chronic anti-donor antibody disease has been pursued mostly through limited single-center experiences and therefore in a dispersed fashion, without leading to the definition of a consolidated approach. The most frequently used pharmacological approaches stem from the experience of antibody-mediated acute rejection. In this review we will critically analyze the results reported so far of various intervention strategies and we will discuss future pharmacological novelties targeting the humoral immune response.

  5. Clinical and pathological analysis of acute rejection following orthotopic liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Yi; WANG Guo-dong; HE Xiao-shun; LI Jun-liang; ZHU Xiao-feng; HU Rui-de

    2009-01-01

    Background Acute rejection is one of the most important factors for prognosis following liver transplantation. With the use of potent immunosuppressants, acute rejection does not always present typical manifestations. Moreover, other complications often occur concomitantly after liver transplantation, which makes early diagnosis of acute rejection more difficult. Acute rejection is best diagnosed by liver biopsy. Differentiation of clinical manifestations and pathological features plays an important role in achieving individualized immunosuppressive treatment and prolonging long term survival of patients given orthotopic liver transplants.Methods From January 2004 to December 2006, 516 orthotopic liver transplantations were performed at the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University. For patients who suffered acute rejection, clinical manifestations, histopathological features, diagnosis and anti-rejection treatment were summarized and analyzed. Results In 86 cases (16.7%), of the 516 recipients, 106 episodes of acute rejection occurred, which included 9 with histopathological borderline changes, 36 Banff Ⅰ rejections, 48 Banff Ⅱ and 13 Banff Ⅲ. Among these, 36 were cured by adjusting the dose of immunosuppressant and 65 were reversed by methylprednisolone pulse treatment. Five were methylprednisolone resistant, 3 of whom were given OKT3 treatment and 2 underwent liver retransplantation. Conclusions Due to potent immunosuppressive agents, acute rejection following an orthotopic liver transplantation lacks typical clinical manifestations and pathological features. Acute rejection is best diagnosed by liver biopsy. Designing rational individualized immunosuppressive regimen based on clinical and pathological features of acute rejection plays an important role in prolonging long term survival of patients.

  6. Towards Humor Modelling and Facilitation in Smart Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Gu Ji, Y.; Choi, S.

    We know about word play, verbal jokes, and about humor that appears spontaneously in conversations. This humor is studied in computational linguistics, together with issues such as verbal incongruities, ambiguities, irony and sarcasm. These appearances of humor are also part of computational humor

  7. Exploring the Relationship between Humor and Aesthetic Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Mordechai

    2012-01-01

    The connection between humor and aesthetic experience has already been recognized by several thinkers and aesthetic educators. For instance, humor theorist John Morreall writes that "humor is best understood as itself a kind of aesthetic experience, equal in value at least to any other kind of aesthetic experience." For Morreall, both humor and…

  8. LOL Teacher! Using Humor to Enhance Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrell, Shelly

    2015-01-01

    Laughing with students can help them connect on a deeper level with the teacher and the learning. This article offers the following four strategies to incorporate humor into teaching: (1) Integrate humorous bits to boost engagement; (2) Choose humorous materials; (3) Create interest with humorous web tools and apps; and (4) Teach with silly…

  9. Towards Humor Modelling and Facilitation in Smart Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Anton; Gu Ji, Y.; Choi, S.

    2014-01-01

    We know about word play, verbal jokes, and about humor that appears spontaneously in conversations. This humor is studied in computational linguistics, together with issues such as verbal incongruities, ambiguities, irony and sarcasm. These appearances of humor are also part of computational humor s

  10. Burnout and Humor Usage among Community College Nursing Faculty Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Laura A.

    2000-01-01

    Assesses the correlation of burnout among community college nursing faculty members and their use of humor to mediate academic stress related to burnout. Differences in burnout between high versus low humor usage respondents showed a higher sense of personal accomplishment with high humor usage. Of those with low humor usage, workload was related…

  11. Differences in Humor Styles between China and America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玮

    2014-01-01

    Humor, as a relaxing topic, is a very complicate thing in the intercultural communication. The famous professor of psychology at the University of Western Ontario, Rod A. Martin who focuses his study on functions of humor and laughter proposes four humor styles. In this essay, I use four dimensions referred by Hofstede to analyze the preferred humor styles in China and America.

  12. Designed and Accidental Humor in the Smart Digital Wild

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Anton; Ruiz Miyares, L.

    2017-01-01

    Humor can be designed and canned, for example as it appears in videogames, sitcoms or amusement parks. We often have humor professionals that have responsibility for this inclusion of humor. Humor can be designed for a particular occasion, for example in an April prank. However, in real life we ofte

  13. Exploring the Relationship between Humor and Aesthetic Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Mordechai

    2012-01-01

    The connection between humor and aesthetic experience has already been recognized by several thinkers and aesthetic educators. For instance, humor theorist John Morreall writes that "humor is best understood as itself a kind of aesthetic experience, equal in value at least to any other kind of aesthetic experience." For Morreall, both humor and…

  14. LOL Teacher! Using Humor to Enhance Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrell, Shelly

    2015-01-01

    Laughing with students can help them connect on a deeper level with the teacher and the learning. This article offers the following four strategies to incorporate humor into teaching: (1) Integrate humorous bits to boost engagement; (2) Choose humorous materials; (3) Create interest with humorous web tools and apps; and (4) Teach with silly…

  15. Humor and Laughter May Influence Health IV. Humor and Immune Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Payne Bennett

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the final article in a four part series reviewing the influence of humor and laughter on physiological and psychological well-being. This final article reviews the evidence for the effect of sense of humor, exposure to a humor stimulus and laughter on various immune system components, with a focus on the effects of laughter on natural killer cell cytotoxicity.

  16. El humor en los servicios hospitalarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguinaga Benítez Óscar William

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available

    El humor es un fenómeno demasiado complejo para ser explicado fácilmente, sin embargo la risa, es una de las formas más admirables del comportamiento humano. El humor forma parte de nuestra vida cotidiana y todos tenemos de él, ya desde nuestra más tierna infancia un conocimiento intuitivo. Muchos saben que el humor mejora las relaciones humanas, puede favorecer una cierta distensión y facilita el bienestar de todos los miembros de una empresa, dirigentes, empleados y obreros. Muchos esperan encontrar en él la forma de resolver los conflictos y de reducir la agresividad. Allí donde se encuentren hombres, existe el humor, comprenderlo mejor y utilizarlo más libremente y en el momento oportuno, puede ayudarnos a hacer nuestra vida más agradable.

  17. Sexual Selection and Humor in Courtship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey A. Hall

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This investigation examines a sexual selection-based argument regarding humor’s role in courtship (i.e., humor production signals intelligence/creativity. Lens model (n =100 analyses suggest that humor production on Facebook profiles were self-reported and perceived to be associated with extroversion, not intelligence. Study 2 (n = 289 found that extroversion was associated humor production, but high school and college grade point average and American College Test (ACT scores were not. In Study 3, pairs of opposite-sex strangers (n = 102 interacted for 10–12 min. Males’ humor production and females’ responsive laughter were both associated with females’ dating interest. Both partners’ dating interest was associated with simultaneous laughter. Without support for the sexual selection argument, three alternative explanations of humor’s role in courtship are discussed.

  18. Laughter and humor therapy in dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Paul N; Parsons, Trisha; Ben-Moshe, Ros; Weinberg, Melissa; Neal, Merv; Gilbert, Karen; Rawson, Helen; Ockerby, Cherene; Finlay, Paul; Hutchinson, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Laughter and humor therapy have been used in health care to achieve physiological and psychological health-related benefits. The application of these therapies to the dialysis context remains unclear. This paper reviews the evidence related to laughter and humor therapy as a medical therapy relevant to the dialysis patient population. Studies from other groups such as children, the elderly, and persons with mental health, cancer, and other chronic conditions are included to inform potential applications of laughter therapy to the dialysis population. Therapeutic interventions could range from humorous videos, stories, laughter clowns through to raucous simulated laughter and Laughter Yoga. The effect of laughter and humor on depression, anxiety, pain, immunity, fatigue, sleep quality, respiratory function and blood glucose may have applications to the dialysis context and require further research.

  19. Circulating Humorous Antitobacco Videos on Social Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moon J; Chen, Fannin

    2017-03-01

    We investigated whether exposure to same humorous antitobacco videos via different types of social media platforms and contexts (health vs. humor) influences individual's health risk perceptions, attitudes, and behavioral intents. An experiment with a 2 (social media types: YouTube and Facebook) × 2 (message contexts: health-focused and humor-focused contexts) factorial design was conducted. It was found that those who watched the humorous antitobacco videos on Facebook in the health-context exhibited a higher level of risk perception of smoking, less positive attitude toward smokers, and a higher level of intention to avoid smoking in the future than the participants who viewed the same videos on YouTube in the health-context or on Facebook in the humor-context. These findings provide useful practical guidelines in using social media for health communication/promotion. Humorous health promotion messages are best circulated on social networking sites such as Facebook accompanied by others' support for the given health topic (i.e., in health-contexts). Practical/theoretical implications and limitations of the study were further discussed in this article.

  20. Neuropsychology of humor: an introduction. Part II. Humor and the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derouesné, Christian

    2016-09-01

    Impairment of the perception or comprehension of humor is observed in patients with focal brain lesions in both hemispheres, but mainly in the right frontal lobe. Studies by functional magnetic resonance imaging in healthy subjects show that humor is associated with activation of two main neural systems in both hemispheres. The detection and resolution of incongruity, cognitive groundings of humor, are associated with activation of the medial prefrontal and temporoparietal cortex, and the humor appreciation with activation of the orbito-frontal and insular cortex, amygdala and the brain reward system. However, activation of these areas is not humor-specific and can be observed in various cognitive or emotional processes. Event-related potential studies confirm the involvement of both hemispheres in humor processing, and suggest that left prefrontal area is associated with joke comprehension and right prefrontal area with the resolution stage. Humor thus appears to be a complex and dynamic functional process involving, on one hand, two specialized but not specific neural systems linked to humor apprehension and appreciation, and, on the other hand, multiple interconnected functional brain networks including neural patterns underlying the moral framework and belief system, acquired by conditioning or imitation during the cognitive development and social interactions of the individual, and more distributed systems associated with the analysis of the current context of humor occurrence. Disturbances of the sense of humor could then result from focal brain alterations localized in one or two of the specialized areas underlying the comprehension or appreciation of humor, or from perturbations of the network interconnectivity in non-focal brain disorders such as Alzheimer's disease or schizophrenia.

  1. An Explanation of the Relationship between Instructor Humor and Student Learning: Instructional Humor Processing Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanzer, Melissa B.; Frymier, Ann B.; Irwin, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes the Instructional Humor Processing Theory (IHPT), a theory that incorporates elements of incongruity-resolution theory, disposition theory, and the elaboration likelihood model (ELM) of persuasion. IHPT is proposed and offered as an explanation for why some types of instructor-generated humor result in increased student…

  2. Computational Humor 2012 : extended abstacts of the (3rd international) Workshop on computational Humor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Unknown, [Unknown

    2012-01-01

    Like its predecessors in 1996 (University of Twente, the Netherlands) and 2002 (ITC-irst, Trento, Italy), this Third International Workshop on Computational Humor (IWCH 2012) focusses on the possibility to find algorithms that allow understanding and generation of humor. There is the general aim of

  3. Investigating the Effect of Humor Communication Skills Training on Pro-Social and Anti-Social Humor Styles, Cognitive Learning, Self-Efficacy, Motivation, and Humor Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, Lori E.

    2013-01-01

    Humor is an important aspect of interpersonal interactions as it is linked to the development and maintenance of relationships (Merolla, 2006). The purpose of this dissertation was to test the effect of a humor communication skills training program on the ability to minimize anti-social humor (i.e., aggressive, self-defeating) and enhance…

  4. Investigating the Effect of Humor Communication Skills Training on Pro-Social and Anti-Social Humor Styles, Cognitive Learning, Self-Efficacy, Motivation, and Humor Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, Lori E.

    2013-01-01

    Humor is an important aspect of interpersonal interactions as it is linked to the development and maintenance of relationships (Merolla, 2006). The purpose of this dissertation was to test the effect of a humor communication skills training program on the ability to minimize anti-social humor (i.e., aggressive, self-defeating) and enhance…

  5. Sense of Humor, Stable Affect, and Psychological Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnie Cann

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A good sense of humor has been implicated as a quality that could contribute to psychological well-being. The mechanisms through which sense of humor might operate include helping to reappraise threats, serving as a character strength, or facilitating happiness. The current research attempts to integrate these possibilities by examining whether a good sense of humor might operate globally by helping to maintain a more stable positive affect. Stable positive affect has been shown to facilitate more effective problem solving and to build resilience. However, not all humor is adaptive humor, so we also examine the roles that different styles of humor use might play. Individual differences in humor styles were used to predict stable levels of affect. Then, in a longitudinal design, humor styles and stable affect were used to predict subsequent resilience and psychological health. The results indicated that stable affect was related to resilience and psychological well-being, and that a sense of humor that involves self-enhancing humor, humor based on maintaining a humorous perspective about one’s experiences, was positively related to stable positive affect, negatively related to stable negative affect, and was mediated through stable affect in influencing resilience, well-being and distress. Thus, while a good sense of humor can lead to greater resilience and better psychological health, the current results, focusing on stable affect, find only self-enhancing humor provides reliable benefits.

  6. Identity and Stereotypes: Humor Manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Repšienė

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The traditional understanding of humor as being tolerant, full of non-aggressive life curiosities, funny situations, mocking national or human vices, and related to an optimistic and contemplative attitude towards reality, has changed its main supportive points: the optimistic view of reality has been altered into a pessimistic and destructive one, forbearing ridicule has turned into severe offence, strangeness into stupidity, funny situations into futile misunderstanding. Everything is regarded as a dramatic possibility to survive or an endless situational tragedy where the most strict evaluation criteria, censorship, and dogmatism are empowered, meaning that, in the current times of widely propagated tolerance and overwhelming comprehension, it is extremely dangerous to offend somebody with an innocent joke or light mockery, to evoke an urge to contradict or negate when ideological aspirations are beyond “decency” limits. One of the most advocated rules in the Lithuanian press is: “Joke carefully with foreign nationals” from an interview with Barry Tomelin, London “International house” consultant and teaching director, the author of the book “World’s Business Cultures: And How to Unlock Them” (with Michael Nicks. Identity is to be saved and nourished as the highest sanctity but its formation, meaningfulness and spread are not always attuned to the official approach.Our life is full of stereotypes and our neighboring countries are not to be excluded – we have a preconceived notion of them. Using the national stereotype term we characterize relatively stable generalized opinions, in an open or hidden form, containing one or another assessment of a nation.Our attitude towards neighbors is revealed in nicknames given to them – non-official ethnonyms usually bearing a negative connotation. Some monikers have already lasted for centuries while others have been coined during the last decades. Anecdotes with the most popular

  7. Chronic Renal Transplant Rejection and Possible Anti-Proliferative Drug Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Adnan Bashir; Usman, Muhammad

    2015-11-06

    The global prevalence of renal transplants is increasing with time, and renal transplantation is the only definite treatment for end-stage renal disease. We have limited the acute and late acute rejection of kidney allografts, but the long-term survival of renal tissues still remains a difficult and unanswered question as most of the renal transplants undergo failure within a decade of their transplantation. Among various histopathological changes that signify chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN), tubular atrophy, fibrous thickening of the arteries, fibrosis of the kidney interstitium, and glomerulosclerosis are the most important. Moreover, these structural changes are followed by a decline in the kidney function as well. The underlying mechanism that triggers the long-term rejection of renal transplants involves both humoral and cell-mediated immunity. T cells, with their related cytokines, cause tissue damage. In addition, CD 20+ B cells and their antibodies play an important role in the long-term graft rejection. Other risk factors that predispose a recipient to long-term graft rejection include HLA-mismatching, acute episodes of graft rejection, mismatch in donor-recipient age, and smoking. The purpose of this review article is the analyze current literature and find different anti-proliferative agents that can suppress the immune system and can thus contribute to the long-term survival of renal transplants. The findings of this review paper can be helpful in understanding the long-term survival of renal transplants and various ways to improve it.

  8. Humor: a pedagogical tool to promote learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabeli, M

    2008-09-01

    It has become critical that learners are exposed to varied methods of teaching and assessment that will promote critical thinking of learners. Humor creates a relaxed atmosphere where learning can be enhanced and appreciated. When learners are relaxed, thinking becomes eminent. Authoritative and tense environment hinders thinking. This paper seeks to explore the perceptions of nurse teacher learners regarding the use of humor as a pedagogical tool to promote learning. A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual research design was employed (Burns & Grove, 2001:61; Mouton, 1996:103). 130 naive sketches were collected from nurse teacher learners who volunteered to take part in the study (Giorgi in_Omery, 1983:52) Follow up interviews were conducted to verify the findings. A qualitative, open-coding method of content analysis was done Tesch (in Creswell, 1994:155). Measures to ensure trustworthiness of the study were taken in accordance with the protocol of (Lincoln & Guba, 1985:290-326). The findings of the study will assist the nurse educators to create a positive, affective, psychological and social learning environment through the use of humor in a positive manner. Nurse educators will appreciate the fact that integration of humor to the learning content will promote the learners' critical thinking and emotional intelligence. Negative humor has a negative impact on learning. Learner nurses who become critical thinkers will be able to be analytical and solve problems amicably in practice.

  9. Adult Playfulness, Humor Styles, and Subjective Happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xiao D; Leung, Chun-Lok; Hiranandani, Neelam A

    2016-12-01

    Playfulness has been referred to as a disposition that involves reframing a situation to amuse others and to make the situation more stimulating and enjoyable. It may serve to shift one's perspective when dealing with environmental threats. Despite all the benefits of playfulness towards psychological well-being, it remains a largely understudied subject in psychology, particularly in Chinese societies. Hence, this study examined the association between adult playfulness, humor styles, and subjective happiness among a sample of 166 university students in Hong Kong and 159 students in Guangzhou, who completed a self-administered questionnaire, including the Short Measure for Adult Playfulness, the Chinese Humor Styles Questionnaire, and the Subjective Happiness Scale. Results showed that adult playfulness was positively correlated with affiliative humor, self-enhancing humor, and subjective happiness in both Hong Kong and Guangzhou samples. By its implication, highly playful Chinese students preferred using affiliative and self-enhancing humor to amuse themselves and others. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. El humor como herramienta para lograr aprendizajes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Torres de Sánchez

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Una tendencia mundial se ha originado: el uso del humor como herramienta para lograr aprendizajes y mejorar el ambiente donde la persona se encuentre. En el área educativa hay pruebas que demuestran su utilidad y que efectivamente origina cambios positivos, medidos en las evaluaciones, tanto en los estudiantes como en participantes de sesiones de facilitación. El objetivo del experimento realizado fue: Determinar el comportamiento a través de la calificaciones en la primera prueba, del efecto del uso del humor en el dictado de clases utilizando diferentes herramientas como: chistes, anécdotas, analogías en los contenidos. A través de un estudio experimental con un grupo de control realizado en dos aulas de clases con 35 alumnos cada uno, al grupo experimental se le aplicó diferentes recursos humorísticos como herramientas de aprendizaje. Se analizaron las calificaciones en la primera prueba a través de porcentajes de aprobados y aplazados, observándose que el grupo experimental arrojó los mayores porcentajes de aprobados. Tales resultados confirman que el humor como herramienta, si induce a un desempeño excelente en alumnos, lo que lleva a implementar acciones de adiestramiento para los facilitadores, así como el surgimiento de investigaciones más profundas sobre el uso del humor en la educación.

  11. Uremic escape of renal allograft rejection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Schilfgaarde, R. (Rijksuniversiteit Leiden (Netherlands). Academisch Ziekenhuis); van Breda Vriesman, P.J.C. (Rijksuniversiteit Limburg Maastricht (Netherlands). Dept. of Immunopathology)

    1981-10-01

    It is demonstrated in rats that, in the presence of early postoperative severe but transient uremia, the survival of first set Brown-Norway (BN) renal allografts in Lewis (LEW) recipients is at least three times prolonged when compared to non-uremic controls. This phenomenon is called 'uremic escape of renal allograft rejection'. By means of lethal X-irradiation of donors of BN kidneys transplanted into transiently uremic and non-uremic LEW recipients, the presence of passenger lymphocyte immunocompetence is demonstrated to be obilgatory for this phenomenon to occur. As a result of mobile passenger lymphocyte immunocompetence, a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction is elicited in the spleens of LEW recipients of BN kidneys which amplifies the host response. The splenomegaly observed in LEW recipients of BN kidneys is caused not only by this GVH reaction, which is shown to be exquisitely sensitive to even mild uremia. It is also contributed to by a proliferative response of the host against the graft (which latter response is equated with an in vivo equivalent of a unilateral mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR)), since the reduction in spleen weights caused by abrogation of mobile passenger lymphocyte immunocompetence brought about by lethal donor X-irradiation is increased significantly by early postoperative severe but transient uremia. It is concluded that in uremic escape of renal allograft rejection both reactions are suppressed by uremia during the early post-operative period.

  12. 7 CFR 58.136 - Rejected milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rejected milk. 58.136 Section 58.136 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Milk § 58.136 Rejected milk. A plant shall reject specific milk from a producer if the milk fails to...

  13. Peer Group Rejection and Children's Outgroup Prejudice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesdale, Drew; Durkin, Kevin; Maass, Anne; Kiesner, Jeff; Griffiths, Judith; Daly, Josh; McKenzie, David

    2010-01-01

    Two simulation studies examined the effect of peer group rejection on 7 and 9 year old children's outgroup prejudice. In Study 1, children (n = 88) pretended that they were accepted or rejected by their assigned group, prior to competing with a lower status outgroup. Results indicated that rejected versus accepted children showed increased…

  14. [Positive aspects of old ages - humor of seniors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mareš, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    This survey study has five parts. In the first part two conceptual approaches to humor are characterized. One considers "the comic" to be an umbrella concept, and humor is only one of its rather positive forms. The other comes out from the umbrella concept "humor", and distinguishes between various forms of humor including the negative ones. Three main theories of humor are presented: theory of superiority, theory of incongruity, and a relief theory. The second part introduces humor in the elderly and draws the attention to the fact that we know relatively little about humor in old age because most research has been carried out in children, adolescents or adults in productive age. The third part of the study describes the process of diagnostics of humor in the elderly. For example, within the qualitative methods, in-depth interviews with seniors or analyses of their diary entries are used. Within quantitative methods, questionnaires are used, and this study presents the survey of seven most frequent ones applied in the studies of humor in the elderly. In the context of mixed methods, understanding of humor in young and seniors, or understanding of humor in relatively healthy seniors and seniors after stroke are compared. The fourth part of the study presents the Gelkopfs model on relationship between humor, treatment and cure of patients. The fifth part of the study demonstrates the options how to use humor to improve the mental state of the elderly (by means of individual or group interventions).

  15. Ciliary Blood Flow and Aqueous Humor Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, J.W.; Hollingsworth, M.; Rao, R.; Chen, M.; Reitsamer, H.A.

    2010-01-01

    Aqueous humor production is a metabolically active process sustained by the delivery of oxygen and nutrients and removal of metabolic waste by the ciliary circulation. This article describes our investigations into the relationship between ciliary blood flow and aqueous humor production. The results presented indicate that there is a dynamic relationship between ciliary blood flow and aqueous humor production, with production being blood flow independent above a critical level of perfusion, and blood flow dependent below it. The results also show that the plateau portion of the relationship shifts up or down depending on the level of secretory stimulation or inhibition, and that oxygen is one critical factor provided by ciliary blood flow. Also presented is a theoretical model of ocular hydrodynamics incorporating these new findings. PMID:20801226

  16. Mecanismos de humor verbal en Twitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Simarro Vázquez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The present article aims to characterize samples of verbal humor published on the social network Twitter. To do so, an analysis of 81 humorous texts published under the hashtag #otegi during 1 March 2016, on which date Arnaldo Otegi was released from prison after six years, was carried out. A pragmatic study of the tweets was performed, opting for the General Theory of Verbal Humor as a basis. The examination conducted reveals that the manner of presentation of opposing scripts, the logical mechanisms availed of to resolve this kind of incongruity, the special narrative strategies selected and the linguistic choices made are determined at all times by the circumstances in which the texts are presented and the upper limit constraint of 140 characters per Twitter publication.

  17. The value of humor in psycotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Chazenbalk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The main point of this work is to show how humor—when is used properly- has a positive effect on the patient ant the therapist’s self improving their alliance, supervision and team meetings. It’s also good for profesionals to include humor, recreation and rest in their job routines, because these ingredients let them be more effective in psychoterapy. The vast majority of psychological theories agree on its importance. The Cognitive Psychology believes that humor helps the patient evaluate reality in a different way, stops disfunctional thoughts, lets the expression of negative emotions and finds more adaptative patterns. 

  18. Humor in the classroom using faculty skits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Cheryl Mixon; Noviello, Sheri Reynolds

    2012-01-01

    The infusion of humor in the classroom through faculty-developed skits is a teaching-learning strategy that engages nursing students in the learning process. Gardner's Multiple Intelligence Theory for Adult Learners provides the framework for the use of humor as a strategy in higher education. Three exemplars are presented with a description of the specific strategy, an objective for each strategy, and the effect of the strategy on student engagement in nursing education. In the exemplars, the authors provide "ready to use" ideas with some "pearls of wisdom" for other faculty interested in developing similar learning activities.

  19. [The Use of Humor in Psychotherapy: a View].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaloult, Guillaume; Blondeau, Claude

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this article is to expose different aspects of the use of humor in therapy. We hope that it will stimulate reflection and guide the clinician toward appropriate use of humorous interventions. Historical highlights of the topic will be presented. Then a practical definition of therapeutic humor and the main theories about humor will be reviewed. We will also discuss the probable mechanisms of action explaining the efficacy of humor in psychotherapy, as well as potential risks and benefits of its use. We will try to determine different factors influencing the patient's receptivity to humor. Subsequently, a classification of humor will be proposed, followed by a description of selected types of humor often used in therapy, with clinical cases as examples.

  20. Humor in romantic contexts: do men participate and women evaluate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbur, Christopher J; Campbell, Lorne

    2011-07-01

    Several lines of research illustrate that humor plays a pivotal role in relationship initiation. The current article applies sexual selection theory to argue that humor production is a fitness indicator, allowing men to transmit information tacitly about their underlying qualities. And whereas prior research has emphasized women's appreciation of humor as a signal of interest, the focus here is on how women evaluate prospective suitors' humorous offerings. Two studies, including an ecologically valid study of online dating advertisements, provided evidence for men's production and women's evaluation of humor in romantic contexts. A third study revealed that women's evaluations of potential mates' humor are predictive of their romantic interest. Moreover, this article shows that preferences for and perceptions of humor are associated with preferences for and perceptions of intelligence and warmth, consistent with the argument that one function of humor is as a fitness indicator that provides information about underlying mate quality.

  1. Risky business: When humor increases and decreases status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitterly, T Bradford; Brooks, Alison Wood; Schweitzer, Maurice E

    2017-03-01

    Across 8 experiments, we demonstrate that humor can influence status, but attempting to use humor is risky. The successful use of humor can increase status in both new and existing relationships, but unsuccessful humor attempts (e.g., inappropriate jokes) can harm status. The relationship between the successful use of humor and status is mediated by perceptions of confidence and competence. The successful use of humor signals confidence and competence, which in turn increases the joke teller's status. Interestingly, telling both appropriate and inappropriate jokes, regardless of the outcome, signals confidence. Although signaling confidence typically increases status and power, telling inappropriate jokes signals low competence and the combined effect of high confidence and low competence harms status. Rather than conceptualizing humor as a frivolous or ancillary behavior, we argue that humor plays a fundamental role in shaping interpersonal perceptions and hierarchies within groups. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Support vector machines with a reject option

    CERN Document Server

    Wegkamp, Marten; 10.3150/10-BEJ320

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies $\\ell_1$ regularization with high-dimensional features for support vector machines with a built-in reject option (meaning that the decision of classifying an observation can be withheld at a cost lower than that of misclassification). The procedure can be conveniently implemented as a linear program and computed using standard software. We prove that the minimizer of the penalized population risk favors sparse solutions and show that the behavior of the empirical risk minimizer mimics that of the population risk minimizer. We also introduce a notion of classification complexity and prove that our minimizers adapt to the unknown complexity. Using a novel oracle inequality for the excess risk, we identify situations where fast rates of convergence occur.

  3. Analysis on the Translation Strategies in English humor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王乐

    2015-01-01

    1.Definition and connotation of humor The English word"humor"came from Latin originally which was used to refer to"wet"and"fluid"After a series of evolution,it finally evolved into the word used in daily life in the16th century.Then it was used to describe a kind of people who are humorous,funny and clever.Humor is a cultural phenomenon based on language.There are

  4. Semantic Perspective:Verbal Humor in Chinese Cross Talk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Shao-li

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to study the verbal humor in Guo Degang’s cross talk from semantic perspective. The focus is to illus-trate the generating process and the mechanism of verbal humor. Three aspects of semantics which produce humorous effect, morpheme absorption, ambiguity, and script opposition will be discussed. Finally, it is found out that script opposition can take place of morpheme absorption, ambiguity to explain how humor is caused fundamentally.

  5. Humor and Laughter may Influence Health. I. History and Background

    OpenAIRE

    Mary Payne Bennett; Lengacher, Cecile A.

    2006-01-01

    Articles in both the lay and professional literature have extolled the virtues of humor, many giving the impression that the health benefits of humor are well documented by the scientific and medical community. The concept that humor or laughter can be therapeutic goes back to biblical times and this belief has received varying levels of support from the scientific community at different points in its history. Current research indicates that using humor is well accepted by the public and is...

  6. Truly Funny: Humor, Irony, and Satire as Moral Criticism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadlez, E. M.

    2011-01-01

    The occasional role of humor as a vehicle for moral criticism is investigated. I begin by distinguishing between this particular role and the other kinds of ways in which humor and amusement might be regarded through a moral lens, consider historical approaches to humor that corroborate the kind of role for it on which my investigation focuses,…

  7. Factors Affecting the Humorous Language Style of Mark Twin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙秀丽

    2014-01-01

    As we all know, Mark Twain is an expert in handling humor.The formation of his language style has close connection with three aspects. Local literature influences Mark Twain very much. Western humor is another influential element. And his per-sonal experience is also contributed to his humorous language style.

  8. Assessing Students' Perceptions of Inappropriate and Appropriate Teacher Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frymier, Ann Bainbridge; Wanzer, Melissa Bekelja; Wojtaszczyk, Ann M.

    2008-01-01

    This study replicated and extended a preliminary typology of appropriate and inappropriate teacher humor and advanced three explanations for differences in interpretations of teacher humor. Students were more likely to view teacher humor as inappropriate when it was perceived as offensive and when it demeaned students as a group or individually.…

  9. Humor styles moderate borderline personality traits and suicide ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Neil A; Helle, Ashley C; Tucker, Raymond P; Lengel, Gregory J; DeShong, Hilary L; Wingate, LaRicka R; Mullins-Sweatt, Stephanie N

    2017-03-01

    The way individuals use humor to interact interpersonally has been associated with general personality, depression, and suicidality. Certain humor styles may moderate the risk for suicide ideation (SI) in individuals who are high in specific risk factors (e.g., thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness). Previous research suggests a relationship between humor styles and borderline personality disorder (BPD) and an increased risk of suicidality and suicide completion in individuals with BPD. Participants (n =176) completed measures of BPD traits, SI, and humor styles. It was hypothesized that BPD traits would be positively correlated with negative humor styles and negatively correlated with positive humor styles, and that humor styles would significantly moderate BPD traits and SI. Results showed that BPD traits were negatively correlated with self-enhancing humor styles and positively correlated with self-defeating humor styles, but that they were not significantly correlated with affiliative or aggressive humor styles. Bootstrapping analyses demonstrated that the affiliative, self-enhancing, and self-defeating humor styles significantly moderated BPD traits and SI, while the aggressive humor style did not. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Higher Education Lecturing and Humor: From Perspectives to Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri, Fuzhan; Mafakheri, Fereshteh

    2015-01-01

    This article will review the issues surrounding the use of humor as an informal teaching method in higher education lecturing. The impact and usefulness of humor, from both a teacher's and a student's perspective, will be investigated. The aim is to classify the challenges and limitations of using humor in classrooms and to investigate and…

  11. Truly Funny: Humor, Irony, and Satire as Moral Criticism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadlez, E. M.

    2011-01-01

    The occasional role of humor as a vehicle for moral criticism is investigated. I begin by distinguishing between this particular role and the other kinds of ways in which humor and amusement might be regarded through a moral lens, consider historical approaches to humor that corroborate the kind of role for it on which my investigation focuses,…

  12. Humor Styles and Leadership Styles: Community College Presidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrica, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between leadership styles (transformational, transactional, laissez-faire) and humor styles (affiliative, self-enhancing, aggressive, self-defeating) of community college presidents. Research has shown that humor and leadership styles are related and that humor may enhance interpersonal…

  13. Strategically Funny: Romantic Motives Affect Humor Style in Relationship Initiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa E. DiDonato

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Not all humor is the same, yet little is known about the appeal of specific humor styles in romantic initiation. The current experimental study addresses this gap by investigating how romantic motives (short-term or long-term affect individuals’ anticipated use of, and response to, positive humor and negative humor. Heterosexual participants (n = 224 imagined the pursuit of either a desired short-term or long-term relationship, indicated the extent to which they would produce positive and negative humor, and reported how their own interest would change in response to the imaginary target’s use of positive or negative humor. Results revealed that individuals are strategic in their humor production as a function of relational motives. Individuals produced positive humor in both contexts but limited their use of negative humor when pursuing a long-term relationship. The target’s positive humor increased individuals’ attraction, especially women’s, and although negative humor boosted attraction, it did not boost attraction more for short-term than long-term relationships. Findings extend a trait-indicator model of humor and their implications are discussed in light of other theoretical perspectives.

  14. A Study of Linguistic Humor Translation of British Sitcoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟瑾

    2015-01-01

    The translatability of humor is gradually accepted and linguistic humor based on specific features in the phonology, morphology or syntax of particular languages is considered to be the most difficult to translate. This paper is to study the linguistic humor translation of British sitcoms in the light of Skopos theory and explore practical ways of E-C translation of linguistic hu⁃mor.

  15. Teaching French Language and Culture by Means of Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berwald, Jean-Pierre

    1992-01-01

    Humor can enliven classes, establish and maintain rapport, create ambiance for learning, and enhance student acquisition and retention. Ways to use humor in the classroom are presented, including clearly verbal approaches, visual aid techniques (magazines, cartoons, ads, etc.), and the humor of stand-up comedians. (12 references) (LB)

  16. The Influence of Humorous Atmosphere on Divergent Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziv, Avner

    1983-01-01

    In one experiment, 78 adolescents were shown humorous film clips and required to write captions for cartoons. A creativity test was administered. In a second study, the experimental group completed the Torrance Creativity Test with humorous responses. In both studies, a humorous atmosphere was found to significantly increase creativity scores.…

  17. Humor Styles and Leadership Styles: Community College Presidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrica, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between leadership styles (transformational, transactional, laissez-faire) and humor styles (affiliative, self-enhancing, aggressive, self-defeating) of community college presidents. Research has shown that humor and leadership styles are related and that humor may enhance interpersonal…

  18. Encyclopedia of 20th-Century American Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Alleen Pace; Nilsen, Don L. F.

    This reference encyclopedia contains information on both the historical and contemporary aspects of humor and comedy in the United States. Arranged in an A-to-Z format, the encyclopedia is a collection of article-length essays that examine humor from many perspectives, from defining terms; to providing information on humor writers, comedians, and…

  19. Mark Twain and American Humor [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000

    In this three-part lesson, students examine structure and characterization in the short story and consider the significance of humor through a study of Mark Twain's "The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County." In Part I, through skits and storytelling, students first examine the structure of Twain's story and the role he creates for his…

  20. Comic Relief: Engaging Students through Humor Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Bruce A.

    2009-01-01

    In this time of high-stakes tests and school accountability, English classrooms have been pushed to become increasingly serious places. Combining NCLB pressures with desires to use literature to do important cultural work--such as fighting ethnic, gender, and social-class discrimination--virtually bans humor from the classroom. This is unfortunate…

  1. Humor in the Films of Alfred Hitchcock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Glenn D.

    Although usually considered the "master of suspense," Alfred Hitchcock relished working humor into his films, frequently juxtaposing it against scenes of utter gruesomeness. This placement of comic elements--comic relief--in an otherwise serious murder mystery or suspense thriller became a Hitchcock trademark early in his career.…

  2. Humor: A pedagogical tool to promote learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Chabeli

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available It has become critical that learners are exposed to varied methods of teaching and assessment that will promote critical thinking of learners. Humor creates a relaxed atmosphere where learning can be enhanced and appreciated. When learners are relaxed, thinking becomes eminent. Authoritative and tense environment hinders thinking.

  3. Vaccination to gain humoral immune memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkander, Jana; Hojyo, Shintaro; Tokoyoda, Koji

    2016-12-01

    The concept of immune memory forms the biological basis for vaccination programs. Despite advancements in the field of immune memory and vaccination, most current vaccines are evaluated by magnitude of antigen-specific antibody titers in serum or mucosa after vaccination. It has been shown, however, that antibody-mediated humoral immune memory is established regardless of the magnitude and duration of immune reactions, suggesting that assessment of vaccine efficacy should be performed for several years after vaccination. This long-term investigation is disadvantageous for prevalent and pandemic infections. Long-lived memory plasma cells and memory helper T cells which contribute to humoral immune memory are generated in the bone marrow after migration of memory cell precursors through bloodstream. Thus, it may be a novel evaluation strategy to assess the precursors of memory cells in the blood in the early phase of the immune reaction(s). We here review recent advances on the generation and maintenance of immune memory cells involved in humoral immunity and introduce a current concept of direct and short-term assessment of humoral immune memory formation upon vaccination as a correlate of protection.

  4. The Role of Humor in Children's Sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogh, Suzanne L.

    A total of 40 children in the three primary grades were studied to determine if they would donate more to a worthy cause after having been exposed to a humorous situation, in contrast to exposure to a serious one. The children who had heard a serious story about sharing donated slightly more to help Ethiopian refugees than did children who had…

  5. Economics with a Sense of Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Diane

    1985-01-01

    In this humorous dialogue that can be read and acted out as a play in high school economics classes, Karl Marx, a spokesman for communism, and Adam Smith, the father of capitalism, debate (1) whether an economy should produce designer jeans and (2) who should own McDonald's restaurant. (RM)

  6. T cells and the humoral immune system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.B. van Muiswinkel (Willem)

    1975-01-01

    textabstractLymphoid cells and macrophages play an important role in the development and rnaintance of humoral and cellular immunity in mammals. The lymphoid cells in the peripheral lymphoid organs are divided into two major classes: (1) thymus-derived lymphocytes or T cells and (2) bursa-equivalent

  7. T cells and the humoral immune system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.B. van Muiswinkel (Willem)

    1975-01-01

    textabstractLymphoid cells and macrophages play an important role in the development and rnaintance of humoral and cellular immunity in mammals. The lymphoid cells in the peripheral lymphoid organs are divided into two major classes: (1) thymus-derived lymphocytes or T cells and (2) bursa-equivalent

  8. Dialogic Grounds of Humor in Mathnavi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ar Mohammadi Kalesar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available “Dialogue”, in Bakhtin’s thought, is a term which has a methodological nature. This term shows a method for facing cases which are not hegemonic. Dialogue, therefore, is in opposition to the hegemony of monophonic forces. The origins of the dialogical aspects of humor, laugh and carnival are in very character. In this article, we want to investigate the bases that make the dialogical carnival and form the humorous elements. In the first section, we illustrate the subversion of the superior voice as a semantic and formal structural method in Mathnavi. In the second section, the reflection of this method in formation of humor in the stories of Mathnavi has been investigated. In these stories, presence of the superior voice in the public space and its dialogue with the suppressed voices makes a space steeped in the elements of carnival and laugh. It can be said that the humors in Mathnavi are not the techniques for embellishing the text but the affects of the transcendental method of Mathnavi for interpreting the world.

  9. Computers that smile: Humor in the interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, A.; Blythe, M.

    2002-01-01

    It is certainly not the case that wen we consider research on the role of human characteristics in the user interface of computers that no attention has been paid to the role of humor. However, when we compare efforts in this area with efforts and experiments that attempt to demonstrate the positive

  10. Anomalous hypothalamic responses to humor in cataplexy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan L Reiss

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cataplexy is observed in a subset of patients with narcolepsy and affects approximately 1 in 2,000 persons. Cataplexy is most often triggered by strong emotions such as laughter, which can result in transient, yet debilitating, muscle atonia. The objective of this study was to examine the neural systems underlying humor processing in individuals with cataplexy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: While undergoing functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI, we showed ten narcolepsy-cataplexy patients and ten healthy controls humorous cartoons. In addition, we examined the brain activity of one subject while in a full-blown cataplectic attack. Behavioral results showed that participants with cataplexy rated significantly fewer humorous cartoons as funny compared to controls. Concurrent fMRI showed that patients, when compared to controls and in the absence of overt cataplexy symptoms, showed pronounced activity in the emotional network including the ventral striatum and hypothalamus while viewing humorous versus non-humorous cartoons. Increased activity was also observed in the right inferior frontal gyri--a core component of the inhibitory circuitry. In comparison, the one subject who experienced a cataplectic attack showed dramatic reductions in hypothalamic activity. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest an overdrive of the emotional circuitry and possible compensatory suppression by cortical inhibitory regions in cataplexy. Moreover, during cataplectic attacks, the hypothalamus is characterized by a marked decrease in activity similar to that observed during sleep. One possible explanation for these findings is an initial overdrive and compensatory shutdown of the hypothalamus resulting in full cataplectic symptoms.

  11. Humor and laughter may influence health. I. History and background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Mary Payne; Lengacher, Cecile A

    2006-03-01

    Articles in both the lay and professional literature have extolled the virtues of humor, many giving the impression that the health benefits of humor are well documented by the scientific and medical community. The concept that humor or laughter can be therapeutic goes back to biblical times and this belief has received varying levels of support from the scientific community at different points in its history. Current research indicates that using humor is well accepted by the public and is frequently used as a coping mechanism. However, the scientific evidence of the benefits of using humor on various health related outcomes still leaves many questions unanswered.

  12. Humor and Laughter may Influence Health. I. History and Background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Payne Bennett

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Articles in both the lay and professional literature have extolled the virtues of humor, many giving the impression that the health benefits of humor are well documented by the scientific and medical community. The concept that humor or laughter can be therapeutic goes back to biblical times and this belief has received varying levels of support from the scientific community at different points in its history. Current research indicates that using humor is well accepted by the public and is frequently used as a coping mechanism. However, the scientific evidence of the benefits of using humor on various health related outcomes still leaves many questions unanswered.

  13. On the Humor Translation in Subtitling of American Sitcom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石杨

    2014-01-01

    The subtitling translation in American sitcom is of great significance which helps Chinese audiences to understand pro-grams. Humor element is an essential part of the sitcom. However, the loss of humor is very common in subtitling translation, so the vivid and accurate translation for humor in sitcoms has become a challenge for the translators. This thesis analyzes the defini-tion of humor and the main features of subtitling translation, and then discusses several examples of humor loss in the subtitling translation of Friends to put forward corresponding strategies.

  14. The Characteristics of Acute Rejection after Limb Allotransplantation in Rats-An Experimental Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康皓; 洪光祥; 王发斌; 陈振兵; 黄启顺; 翁雨雄

    2003-01-01

    To study the characteristics of acute rejection after limb allotransplantation, 29 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 2 groups, with 15 rats in control group and 14 rats in experimental group. Each rat in control group underwent limb replantation. Each rat in experimental group received limb transplantation from Wistar rat. No immnosuppressive drugs were used after operation. The circulation of the transplanted limb, time and signs of rejection, histopathological changes in the tissues of the limb graft when rejected and survival time of limb grafts were evaluated. In the control group, no signs of rejection were observed, the circulation of each replanted limb was normal, it could survive for a longer time. The experimental group showed clinical signs of rejection (sub dermal edema and erythema) after a mean time of 3. 36±1.15 days, and the mean survival time of the allografts was only 7±0.78 days. Histopathological examination showed most violent rejection reaction in skin. It is concluded that with Wistar-to-SD limb transplantation without use of immunosuppression, rejection of the grafts would occur after a mean time of 3.36 ±1.15days; the earliest signs of rejection were edema and erythema of the skin, skin being the most representative component of limb graft rejection.

  15. Film reject analysis and image quality in diagnostic Radiology Department of a Teaching hospital in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Owusu-Banahene

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Patients usually undergo repeated X-ray examinations after their initial X-ray radiographs are rejected due to poor image quality. This subjects the patients to an excess radiation exposure and extra cost and necessitates the need to investigate the causes of reject. The use of reject analysis as part of the overall quality assurance programs in clinical radiography and radiology services is vital in the evaluation of image quality of a well-established practice. It is shown that, in spite of good quality control maintained by the Radiology Department of a Teaching hospital in Ghana, reject analysis performed on a number of radiographic films developed indicated 14.1% reject rate against 85.9% accepted films. The highest reject rate was 57.1 ± 0.7% which occurs in cervical spine and the lowest was7.7 ± 0.5% for lumbar spine. The major factors contributing to film rejection were found to be over exposure and patient positioning in cervical spine examinations. The most frequent examination was chest X-ray which accounts for about 42.2% of the total examinations. The results show low reject rates by considering the factors for radiographic rejection analysis in relation to both equipment functionality and film development in the facility.

  16. Renal allograft rejection: sonography and scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, A.; Cohen, W.N.

    1980-07-01

    A total of 30 renal allograft patients who had sonographic B scanning and radionuclide studies of the transplant was studied as to whether: (1) the allograft rejection was associated with any consistent and reliable sonographic features and (2) the sonograms complemented the radionuclide studies. Focal areas of decreased parenchymal echogenicity were the most striking and consistent sonographic finding in chymal echogenicity were the most striking and consistens sonographic finding in allograft rejection. This was observed in most of the patients exhibiting moderate or severe rejection, but was frequently absent with mild rejection. Areas of decreased parenchymal echogenicity were not seen during episodes of acute tubular necrosis. Therefore, sonography showing zones of decreased parenchymal echogenicity was complementary to radionuclide studies in the diagnosis of allograft rejection versus acute tubular necrosis. Corticomedullary demarcation was difficult to interpret because of technical variables, and was inconsistently related to rejection in this series.

  17. Humor style similarity and difference in friendship dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Simon C; Fox, Claire L; Jones, Siân E

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the concurrent and prospective (fall to spring) associations between four different humor styles to assess the degree to which stable friendships are characterized by similarity, and to assess whether best friends' humor styles influence each other's later use of humor. Participants were aged 11-13 years, with 87 stable, reciprocal best friend dyads. Self-report assessments of humor styles were completed on both occasions. Results indicated that there was no initial similarity in dyads' levels of humor. However, dyads' use of humor that enhances interpersonal relationships (Affiliative humor) became positively correlated by spring. Additionally, young people's use of this humor style was positively associated with their best friend's later use of the same. No such effects were present for humor which was aggressive, denigrating toward the self, or used to enhance the self. These results have clear implications for theories of humor style development, highlighting an important role for Affiliative humor within stable friendship dyads. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of humor on interpersonal attraction and mate selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Elizabeth; Shevlin, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined whether different levels of sense of humor would influence respondents' ratings about a potentially desirable partner. The authors used vignettes to predict that the targets who possessed a good sense of humor would receive significantly higher ratings in measures of attractiveness and suitability as a long-term partner than would those who possessed an average or no sense of humor. In an experimental design--with gender and humor as independent variables and level of attractiveness and suitability as a long-term partner as dependent variables--the authors analyzed the data using a multivariate analysis of variance. Results show that the targets with a good sense of humor received significantly higher ratings of attractiveness and suitability than did those with an average or no sense of humor. Furthermore, male participants rated female targets as significantly more attractive than female participants rated male targets. The authors found no significant interaction between gender and humor.

  19. The Analysis of Lin Yutang’s Humor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓琴

    2014-01-01

    Lin Yutang is called the master humorist in China. He advocates humor and spiritual literature in his maga-zine Lun Yu (Analects) which attracts essays and readership. His informal but polished style in both Chinese and English makes him one of the most influential writers of his generation, and his compilations and translations of classic Chinese texts into English are bestsellers in the West. Humor is a distinctive feature in his works. In his book, he uses humor as he sees appropriate, and through humor he criticizes social realities, depicts characters and introduces original expressions, etc. His humor can be related to some aspects in his life. In this paper, I will briefly analysis Lin's sense of humor and how Lin' applies humor in his works.

  20. Differentiating what is humorous from what is not.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Caleb; McGraw, A Peter

    2016-03-01

    After 2.5 millennia of philosophical deliberation and psychological experimentation, most scholars have concluded that humor arises from incongruity. We highlight 2 limitations of incongruity theories of humor. First, incongruity is not consistently defined. The literature describes incongruity in at least 4 ways: surprise, juxtaposition, atypicality, and a violation. Second, regardless of definition, incongruity alone does not adequately differentiate humorous from nonhumorous experiences. We suggest revising incongruity theory by proposing that humor arises from a benign violation: something that threatens a person's well-being, identity, or normative belief structure but that simultaneously seems okay. Six studies, which use entertainment, consumer products, and social interaction as stimuli, reveal that the benign violation hypothesis better differentiates humorous from nonhumorous experiences than common conceptualizations of incongruity. A benign violation conceptualization of humor improves accuracy by reducing the likelihood that joyous, amazing, and tragic situations are inaccurately predicted to be humorous. (PsycINFO Database Record

  1. An Iterative Rejection Sampling Method

    CERN Document Server

    Sherstnev, A

    2008-01-01

    In the note we consider an iterative generalisation of the rejection sampling method. In high energy physics, this sampling is frequently used for event generation, i.e. preparation of phase space points distributed according to a matrix element squared $|M|^2$ for a scattering process. In many realistic cases $|M|^2$ is a complicated multi-dimensional function, so, the standard von Neumann procedure has quite low efficiency, even if an error reducing technique, like VEGAS, is applied. As a result of that, many of the $|M|^2$ calculations go to ``waste''. The considered iterative modification of the procedure can extract more ``unweighted'' events, i.e. distributed according to $|M|^2$. In several simple examples we show practical benefits of the technique and obtain more events than the standard von Neumann method, without any extra calculations of $|M|^2$.

  2. Fractional active disturbance rejection control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dazi; Ding, Pan; Gao, Zhiqiang

    2016-05-01

    A fractional active disturbance rejection control (FADRC) scheme is proposed to improve the performance of commensurate linear fractional order systems (FOS) and the robust analysis shows that the controller is also applicable to incommensurate linear FOS control. In FADRC, the traditional extended states observer (ESO) is generalized to a fractional order extended states observer (FESO) by using the fractional calculus, and the tracking differentiator plus nonlinear state error feedback are replaced by a fractional proportional-derivative controller. To simplify controller tuning, the linear bandwidth-parameterization method has been adopted. The impacts of the observer bandwidth ωo and controller bandwidth ωc on system performance are then analyzed. Finally, the FADRC stability and frequency-domain characteristics for linear single-input single-output FOS are analyzed. Simulation results by FADRC and ADRC on typical FOS are compared to demonstrate the superiority and effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  3. Extended Active Disturbance Rejection Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhiqiang (Inventor); Tian, Gang (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Multiple designs, systems, methods and processes for controlling a system or plant using an extended active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) based controller are presented. The extended ADRC controller accepts sensor information from the plant. The sensor information is used in conjunction with an extended state observer in combination with a predictor that estimates and predicts the current state of the plant and a co-joined estimate of the system disturbances and system dynamics. The extended state observer estimates and predictions are used in conjunction with a control law that generates an input to the system based in part on the extended state observer estimates and predictions as well as a desired trajectory for the plant to follow.

  4. Therapeutic strategies for xenograft rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, S S

    2001-01-01

    The increasing demand for transplantable organs over the past several decades has stimulated the idea of using animal organs in lieu of cadaveric organs in clinical transplantation. Pigs are now considered to be the most suitable source of organs for transplantation because of their abundant availability, their appropriate size, their relatively short gestation period, and the recent development in the technology to genetically manipulate them. In the past few years, some of the seemingly complex immunologic responses in pig-to-primate transplantation have been elucidated. This progress has allowed us to focus our efforts on devising specific therapeutic strategies to overcome or prevent some of the responses that contribute to rejection of the xenograft. In this article, we review the various approaches that might allow clinical xenotransplantation to come to fruition.

  5. [Tubulointerstitial rejection of renal allografts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malušková, Jana; Honsová, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Tubulo-intersticial rejection represents T-cell mediated rejection of kidney allografts with the morphology of immune-mediated interstitial nephritis. Diagnosis is dependent on the histopathological evaluation of a graft biopsy sample. The key morphological features are interstitial inflammatory infiltrate and damage to tubular epithelial cell which in severe cases can result in the ruptures of the tubular basement membranes. The differential diagnosis of tubulo-interstitial rejection includes acute interstitial nephritis and viral inflammatory kidney diseases, mainly polyomavirus nephropathy.

  6. LATE RENAL GRAFT REJECTION: PATHOLOGY AND PROGNOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.S. Stolyarevich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rejection has always been one of the most important cause of late renal graft dysfunction. Aim of the study was to analyze the prevalence of different clinico-pathological variants of rejection that cause late graft dysfunction, and evaluate their impact on long-term outcome. Materials and methods. This is a retrospective study that analyzed 294 needle core biopsy specimens from 265 renal transplant recipients with late (48,8 ± 46,1 months after transplantation allograft dysfunction caused by late acute rejection (LAR, n = 193 or chronic rejection (CR, n = 78 or both (n = 23. C4d staining was performed by immunofl uorescence (IF on frozen sections using a standard protocol. Results. Peritubular capillary C4d deposition was identifi ed in 36% samples with acute rejection and in 62% cases of chronic rejection (including 67% cases of transplant glomerulopathy, and 50% – of isolated chronic vasculopathy. 5-year graft survival for LAR vs CR vs their combination was 47, 13 and 25%, respectively. The outcome of C4d– LAR was (p < 0,01 better than of C4d+ acute rejection: at 60 months graft survival for diffuse C4d+ vs C4d− was 33% vs 53%, respectively. In cases of chronic rejection C4d+ vs C4d– it was not statistically signifi cant (34% vs 36%. Conclusion. In long-term allograft biopsy C4d positivity is more haracteristic for chronic rejection than for acute rejection. Only diffuse C4d staining affects the outcome. C4d– positivity is associated with worse allograft survival in cases of late acute rejection, but not in cases of chronic rejection

  7. Mathematics and Humor: John Allen Paulos and the Numeracy Crusade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul H. Grawe

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available John Allen Paulos at minimum gave the Numeracy movement a name through his book Innumeracy: Mathematical Illiteracy and Its Consequences. What may not be so obvious was Paulos’ strong interest in the relationship between mathematics and mathematicians on the one hand and humor and stand-up-comedian joke structures on the other. Innumeracy itself could be seen as a typically mathematical Gotcha joke on American culture generally. In this perspective, a Minnesotan acculturated to Minnesota-Nice Humor of Self-Immolation Proclivities (SImP looks at the more raw-boned, take-no-prisoners humor style Paulos outlined in Mathematics and Humor and implemented in Innumeracy. Despite the difference in humor styles, there is much to applaud in Paulos’ analysis of the relationship between certain types of humor and professional interests of mathematicians in Mathematics and Humor. Much humor relies on the sense of incongruity which Paulos’ claims to be central to all humor and key to mathematical reductio ad absurdum. Mathematics is rightfully famous for a sense of combinatorial playfulness in its most elegant proofs, as humor often relies on clashing combinations of word play. And a great range of mathematical lore is best understood within a concept of a sudden drop from one sense of certainty to another (essentially a Gotcha on the audience. Innumeracy repeatedly exemplifies Gotchas on the great unwashed and unmathematical majority. Extensive empirical evidence over the last quarter century allows us to synthesize these Paulos observations into the idea that inculcated mathematical humor has strong propensities to complex Intellectual, Advocate, and Crusader humor forms. However, the Paulos humors do not include the Sympathetic Pain humor form, the inclusion of which may increase teaching effectiveness.

  8. The Effect of Context (Humorous vs. Non-humorous on Vocabulary Acquisition and Retention of Iranian EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Ghaffari

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available For almost four decades, ESL/EFL scholars have been trying to find which learning type, contextualized vs. decontextualized, leads to better vocabulary acquisition and retention. In an attempt to solve this problem, this study tried to examine the possible effectiveness of using humorous context on vocabulary acquisition and retention. Another issue that was undertaken in the present study was comparing the efficiency of contextualized and decontextualized vocabulary learning and retention. For this purpose, 58 Iranian EFL learners were categorized into 3 groups: a humorous, b non-humorous, and c decontextualized. The findings were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey post hoc test. As the results revealed, the participants in decontextualized group outperformed the participants in both humorous and non-humorous groups. However, it should be noted that the performance of humorous group was significantly better than the performance of non-humorous group.

  9. Vaccination to gain humoral immune memory

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkander, Jana; Hojyo, Shintaro; Tokoyoda, Koji

    2016-01-01

    The concept of immune memory forms the biological basis for vaccination programs. Despite advancements in the field of immune memory and vaccination, most current vaccines are evaluated by magnitude of antigen-specific antibody titers in serum or mucosa after vaccination. It has been shown, however, that antibody-mediated humoral immune memory is established regardless of the magnitude and duration of immune reactions, suggesting that assessment of vaccine efficacy should be performed for sev...

  10. Sentido del humor en el adulto mayor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina M. Labarca R.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available El humor es un fenómeno poco estudiado dentro del contexto de la psicología, menos aún, en el adulto mayor, grupo etario que se encuentra en constante crecimiento dentro de nuestro país.En tal sentido, la investigación, guiada por los planteamientos de Carbelo (2007 y DAnello (2010, denominada sentido del humor en el adulto mayor, tuvo por objetivo, determinar el significado que tiene este fenómeno para el adulto mayor. Para ello, se realizó un estudio de corte cualitativo,donde se utilizó la Entrevista en Profundidad como método de recolección de la información. Los informantes fueron 4 adultos mayores (2 hombres y 2 mujeres con edades comprendidas entre 60 y 73 años de edad, los cuales fueron seleccionados como una muestra de propósito. Para el análisis, se utilizó la Teoría Fundamentada, concluyéndose que para el adulto mayor, cuando el sentido del humor se convierte en parte de la personalidad, es un factor protector de la salud, da sentido de pertenencia y cambia positivamente el ambiente, trayendo como consecuencia una mejor calidad de vida, siendo esto último el principal significante que surgió del análisis de la información. Igualmente, se determinó que el sentido del humor es una construcción social que se va elaborando a lo largo de la vida y que se afianza en esta etapa vital.

  11. Humoral Immune Response in Tuberculous Pleuritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabha C.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculous pleuritis is a good human model to understand the local and protective immune response against tuberculosis, due to the self-limitedness of the disease. Although the cellular immune response has been well characterised in tuberculous pleurisy, much less is known about the humoral immune response operating at the site of infection. To understand the humoral immune response, B cells were enumerated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC and pleural fluid mononuclear cells (PFMC of tuberculous (TP and non-tuberculous pleuritis patients (NTP. The levels of IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies for PPD, culture filtrate (CF and sonicate antigens (Son Ag were assessed in plasma (BL and pleural fluid (PF and a western blot was carried out with the CF antigen. The percentage of CD19+B-cells was similar in PBMC and PFMC of TP patients but was significantly lower in PFMCs of NTP patients. The IgG levels for PPD and CF antigens were higher in PF of TP than NTP patients. The antigen recognition patterns did not differ in plasma and pleural fluid of the same patient in both groups pointing out the passive diffusion of the plasma to the pleura. The antigens 25, 31, 33, 70, 110, 124 and 132 kDa were recognized exclusively by the TP patients. Thus our study showed that the local humoral response in TP did not differ from the systemic response. However, the humoral response differed in TP patients when compared to NTP patients.

  12. Can the use of humor in psychotherapy be taught?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Lisa; Gabbard, Glen O

    2014-02-01

    Despite an abundance of literature detailing the potential benefits of the use of humor in therapy, humor is rarely taught to psychiatric residents as a method of therapeutic intervention. This communication attempts to explain how current understanding of attachment theory and neuroscience may assist psychiatric faculty and supervisors in their teaching of humorous therapeutic interventions. This article reviews and synthesizes the extant literature on the use of humor, as well as recent work in neuroscience, attachment theory, and mentalization. Humor can be conceptualized as an instance of implicit relational knowing and may thus contribute significantly to the therapeutic action of psychotherapy as a subcategory of "moments of meeting" between therapist and patient. However, training residents to use humor in psychotherapy requires more individualized attention in supervision and classroom seminars. Factors such as individual proclivities for humorous repartee, mentalizing capacity, and an authentic interest in adding humor to the session may be necessary to incorporate spontaneous humor into one's technique. New findings from the areas of attachment theory, neuroscience, and right-hemisphere learning are providing potential opportunities for sophisticated teaching of the use of humor in psychotherapy.

  13. The use of humor in the care of psychiatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrysodimitra Galatou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Humor is defined as a state of good spirit, exhibited with a smile or laughter, as a response to external stimuli. It constitutes a special form of human communication as well as a form of social conduct. The word «humor» appears for the first time in Hippocrates' writings. Psychology considers humor as one of the most powerful weapons against depression and disappointment. In psychiatric therapeutics humor serves many purposes, thereby acting as a supplement, not a substitute to treatment received. Purpose: of this article is to highlight the positive effects of humor in humans, health professionals and patient. Material and method: An extensive literature search databases such as Medline, Pub Med, Wikipedia, Cinahl, Medscape, with key words: humor, psychiatric patient, care, humor scales Results: Humor is an interpersonal process which facilitates and promotes expression and exchange of views; however it requires prudence, cautiousness and respect to patients' personality and sensitive issues. Humor is not innate, it is acquired and it can be learning and taught. Conclusion: The correct use of humor in therapeutic practice, contributes to the development of a therapeutic relationship between patient and healthcare professional as well as a sense of trust between them.

  14. Unconventional aqueous humor outflow: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark; McLaren, Jay W; Overby, Darryl R

    2017-05-01

    Aqueous humor flows out of the eye primarily through the conventional outflow pathway that includes the trabecular meshwork and Schlemm's canal. However, a fraction of aqueous humor passes through an alternative or 'unconventional' route that includes the ciliary muscle, supraciliary and suprachoroidal spaces. From there, unconventional outflow may drain through two pathways: a uveoscleral pathway where aqueous drains across the sclera to be resorbed by orbital vessels, and a uveovortex pathway where aqueous humor enters the choroid to drain through the vortex veins. We review the anatomy, physiology and pharmacology of these pathways. We also discuss methods to determine unconventional outflow rate, including direct techniques that use radioactive or fluorescent tracers recovered from tissues in the unconventional pathway and indirect methods that estimate unconventional outflow based on total outflow over a range of pressures. Indirect methods are subject to a number of assumptions and generally give poor agreement with tracer measurements. We review the variety of animal models that have been used to study conventional and unconventional outflow. The mouse appears to be a promising model because it captures several aspects of conventional and unconventional outflow dynamics common to humans, although questions remain regarding the magnitude of unconventional outflow in mice. Finally, we review future directions. There is a clear need to develop improved methods for measuring unconventional outflow in both animals and humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The evolution of humor from male aggression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuster S

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sam ShusterNewcastle University, Newcastle Upon Type, NE1 7RU, UKAbstract: The response to seeing a man riding a unicycle was reported to be consistently related to the viewer's sex and stage of physical development. To see if this observation was universal, observations of responses were collected from 23 male and 9 female unicyclists aged 15–69 years, with 2–40 years cycling experience across four continents. With two exceptions among men, the findings were the same as those originally reported: children showed interest and curiosity, young girls showed little interest, while adult women showed a kindly, concerned, praising response. By contrast, boys showed physical aggression, which became more verbal, merging in the later teens to the snide, aggressive, stereotyped humorous response shown by adult males, which became less frequent in elderly men. The universality of the response across different individuals, environments, and dates of observation suggests an endogenous mechanism, and the association with masculine development relates this to androgen. The theoretical consequences are discussed. It is concluded that humor develops from aggression in males and is evolutionarily related to sexual selection.Keywords: humor evolution, male aggressive behavior

  16. Not all rejections are alike; competence and warmth as a fundamental distinction in social rejection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Celik, P.; Lammers, J.; Beest, I. van; Bekker, M.H.J.; Vonk, R.

    2013-01-01

    Social rejection can lead to a variety of emotions. Two studies show that specific emotional reactions to social rejection can be understood by relying on the fundamental distinction between competence and warmth. Rejection that is perceived to be due to incompetence leads to anger, whereas

  17. An adaptive algorithm for noise rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelace, D E; Knoebel, S B

    1978-01-01

    An adaptive algorithm for the rejection of noise artifact in 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiographic recordings is described. The algorithm is based on increased amplitude distortion or increased frequency of fluctuations associated with an episode of noise artifact. The results of application of the noise rejection algorithm on a high noise population of test tapes are discussed.

  18. Renal allograft rejection. Unusual scintigraphic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desai, A.G.; Park, C.H.

    1986-11-01

    During sequential renal imagining for evaluation of clinically suspected rejection, focal areas of functioning renal tissue were seen in two cases of renal transplant in the midst of severe and irreversible renal allograft rejection. A probable explanation for this histopathologically confirmed and previously unreported finding is discussed.

  19. The immortality of humoral immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgueta, Raul; de Vries, Victor C; Noelle, Randolph J

    2010-07-01

    Decades of high-titered antibody are sustained due to the persistence of memory B cells and long-lived plasma cells (PCs). The differentiation of each of these subsets is antigen- and T-cell driven and is dependent on signals acquired and integrated during the germinal center response. Inherent in the primary immune response must be the delivery of signals to B cells to create these populations, which have virtual immortality. Differences in biology and chemotactic behavior disperse memory B cells and long-lived PCs to a spectrum of anatomic sites. Each subset must rely on survival factors that can support their longevity. This review focuses on the generation of each of these subsets, their survival, and renewal, which must occur to sustain serological memory. In this context, we discuss the role of antigen, bystander inflammation, and cellular niches. The contribution of BAFF (B-cell activating factor belonging to the tumor necrosis factor family) and APRIL (a proliferation-inducing ligand) to the persistence of memory B cells and PCs are also detailed. Insights that have been provided over the past few years in the regulation of long-lived B-cell responses will have profound impact on vaccine development, the treatment of pre-sensitized patients for organ transplantation, and therapeutic interventions in both antibody- and T-cell-mediated autoimmunity.

  20. Humor as an adjunct to occupational therapy interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooper, V O

    1984-01-01

    Although humor and laughter have been a natural part of human life in all cultures as far back as recorded history can determine, the conscious use of humor as a therapeutic technique is comparatively recent. This article suggests that health specialists have been slow to adopt the ideas of some of the better known researchers and writers in the field due to professional and cultural attitudes toward humor as a "frivolous" subject. As more information on the positive benefits of humor and laughter is being disseminated in books and workshops, previous myths regarding humor are being dispelled and attitudes are changing. A brief history of the state of the art over the past decade is included along with a few ideas from seminars and workshops on the use of humor as a planned activity in health and educational settings.

  1. Humor Style and Motor Skills: Understanding Vulnerability to Bullying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Plenty

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the role of humor style and motor skills in vulnerability to bullying. 729 adults responded to the Humor Style Questionnaire (HSQ and items retrospectively addressing their motor skills and bullying experiences during childhood. Consistent with recent research, poorer motor skills were associated with a greater extent of having been bullied. An association between stronger motor skills and affiliative humor was found, lending support to a shared biological basis theory underlying social and motor competency processes. Most importantly, being bullied was associated with higher self-defeating humor and lower affiliative humor. This supports earlier theoretical work by Klein and Kuiper (2006 and highlights the role that humor styles play in social interactions that can promote positive peer acceptance and wellbeing.

  2. Humor and older adults: what makes them laugh?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Barbara G; Prazak, Mark

    2006-09-01

    Laughter, the physical response to perceived humor, has demonstrated positive effects on physical and psychological well-being. Studies that focus on effects of humor on health and well-being of older adults are scarce. No studies were found that examine what older adults find humorous. The purpose of this descriptive study was to explore the humor stimulus in a population of older adults. One hundred thirty (130) hospital auxiliary personnel aged 50 and older were asked the question What makes you laugh? Content analysis of responses revealed nine themes in two major categories, which were (a) people or animals and (b) situations or events. Children represented the largest category of people (30%), and telling jokes represented the largest category of situations or events (51%). Humor can be used by nurses as an effective therapeutic tool when caring for older adults if appropriate sources of humor are identified and applied.

  3. Immunosuppressive therapy mitigates immunological rejection of human embryonic stem cell xenografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swijnenburg, Rutger-Jan; Schrepfer, Sonja; Govaert, Johannes A; Cao, Feng; Ransohoff, Katie; Sheikh, Ahmad Y; Haddad, Munif; Connolly, Andrew J; Davis, Mark M; Robbins, Robert C; Wu, Joseph C

    2008-09-02

    Given their self-renewing and pluripotent capabilities, human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are well poised as a cellular source for tissue regeneration therapy. However, the host immune response against transplanted hESCs is not well characterized. In fact, controversy remains as to whether hESCs have immune-privileged properties. To address this issue, we used in vivo bioluminescent imaging to track the fate of transplanted hESCs stably transduced with a double-fusion reporter gene consisting of firefly luciferase and enhanced GFP. We show that survival after transplant is significantly limited in immunocompetent as opposed to immunodeficient mice. Repeated transplantation of hESCs into immunocompetent hosts results in accelerated hESC death, suggesting an adaptive donor-specific immune response. Our data demonstrate that transplanted hESCs trigger robust cellular and humoral immune responses, resulting in intragraft infiltration of inflammatory cells and subsequent hESC rejection. Moreover, we have found CD4(+) T cells to be an important modulator of hESC immune-mediated rejection. Finally, we show that immunosuppressive drug regimens can mitigate the anti-hESC immune response and that a regimen of combined tacrolimus and sirolimus therapies significantly prolongs survival of hESCs for up to 28 days. Taken together, these data suggest that hESCs are immunogenic, trigger both cellular and humoral-mediated pathways, and, as a result, are rapidly rejected in xenogeneic hosts. This process can be mitigated by a combined immunosuppressive regimen as assessed by molecular imaging approaches.

  4. Cultures of (Un)happiness: Teaching, Schooling, and Light and Dark Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullough, Robert V., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The author explores humor during a time of increasingly hostile accountability measures directed toward educators. Drawing on incongruity and other theories of humor, he explores both "light" and "dark" humor and some aspects of the educational potential and power of humor. Noting how humor is related to creativity and problem management, the…

  5. Humor recognition and appreciation deficits in early psychosis

    OpenAIRE

    吳愷晴; Ng, Hoi-ching, Iris

    2013-01-01

    Humor recognition and appreciation are important aspects to enhance psychological well-being and enrich social relationships and interactions. The present study hypothesized that first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients with adult onset in the Chinese society have deficits in humor recognition and appreciation compared with healthy controls. It also predicted FEP patients with a diminished ability in recalling humorous stimuli. Moreover, this study sought to explore the potential associations o...

  6. Humor: Power Conveying Social Structures Inside Forensic Mental Health Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildberg, Frederik A; Paaske, Kristian J; Rasmussen, Vivian L; Nissen, Ricko D; Bradley, Stephen K; Hounsgaard, Lise

    2016-01-01

    According to research literature, humor inside the staff-patient interaction seems to be significant in the area of forensic mental healthcare. However, existing literature on the subject is limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the characteristics of the use humor by forensic mental health staff members in interactions with forensic mental health inpatients. The study included 32 forensic mental health staff members, used 307 hours of participant observations, 48 informal interviews, and seven formal semistructured interviews. Outcomes identify four themes concerning the conveyance of power to, from, and between forensic mental health staff and patients as they interact: (a) "the informal use: the human-to-human approach," characterized by an informal use of humor and without any reference to mental health issues; (b) the "formal use of humor: the staff-patient approach," characterized as formal with a view on the patient as mentally ill, unable to understand humor, and with the aim of using humor to prevent conflicts or negative behavior; (c) "protest against requested care: the human-patient approach," characterized by the use of humor as a protest against requested care; and the use of (d) "inadequacy humor: the staff-human approach," characterized by the use of inadequacy-humor referring to, for example, patients' physical features. Recommendations and clinical implications are discussed.

  7. Humor as a Complementary Therapy: A Narrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raziyeh Ghafouri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research on the subject of laughter commenced on the 20th century. In recent decades researcher demonstrated that humor and laughter has positive impact on physical body same as psychological aspect. This study was conduct for integrate knowledge about humor as complementary therapy through the narrative review. Evidence Acquisition: The keywords humor, laughter, joking and humor therapy and humor sense were used. Data was collected from PUBMED, Ovid, ProQuest, Science Direct electronic databases. Literatures that were published in English or Persian between 1970- 2015 that were addressed humor were included. 181 literatures were collected. Based on the in clouding criteria 52 articles were included for review and finally 33 articles were selected after critical reviewing. Results: Humor reduces acute and chronic pain, decrease stress hormone and depression, boost self-esteem, increased encephalin and endorphins, decreased blood pressure through increasing nitric oxide, decreasing catecholamine and regulating vascular wall function, increased cardiac output, improve pulmonary ventilation and prevent diabetic nephropathy. Conclusion: Humor could be helpful for patient and it improve quality of life but it needed more research especially meta-analysis. We must don’t forget that lough with others not to each other's. Implications of key findings: Humor gives patients the opportunity to forget about their anxiety and pain, if only for a brief period of time.

  8. Trait humor and longevity: do comics have the last laugh?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotton, J

    1992-01-01

    Four sets of biographical data were analyzed in order to test the hypothesis that the ability to generate humor is associated with longevity. Although steps were taken to ensure that tests had high levels of statistical power, analyses provided very little support for the idea that individuals with a well-developed sense of humor live longer than serious writers and other entertainers. In addition, a subsidiary analysis revealed that those in the business of entertaining others died at an earlier age than those in other lines of endeavor. These findings suggest that researchers should turn their attention from trait humor to the effects of humorous material.

  9. Effectiveness of humor training among adolescents with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ching-Lin; Liu, Ya-Ru; Kuo, Ching-Chih; Chen, Hsueh-Chih; Chang, Yu-Lin

    2016-12-30

    Humor training has been applied to educational and clinical cases and has been found to be effective, but humor training for individuals with autism is relatively rare. The present study proposed a humor-knowledge and humor-skill training workshop to enhance the humor comprehension and appreciation of individuals with autism and examined the effects of the training. Participants were 20 adolescents with autism and average intelligence (above 70 in WAIS-III). They were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. Both questionnaire of joke comprehension and appreciation and a humor style questionnaire were used as instruments. The results supported the effectiveness of the 15-h training. The comprehension and appreciation of nonsense humor were significantly increased in the experimental group in comparison with the control group, although the incongruity-resolution jokes remained difficult to comprehend. The tendency to use affiliative humor was greater among individuals with autism in the experimental group, suggesting that the appreciation of humor can be learned.

  10. Analysis on the Mechanism Whereby Humor is Produced

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周先军

    2014-01-01

    Humor, a distinctive linguistic phenomenon, plays an important role in the language culture. In addition, humor has become a topic in linguistics. As the most important principles in pragmatics, the CP has provided a theoretical tool for analyzing humor, which is the product of the speaker’s intentional or unintentional violation of certain maxim of the Cooperative Principle. Participants should understand the literal meaning of an utterance firstly, and then, by relating the utterance to the specific context and certain background information, they come to realize the violation of the CP and appreciate the humor.

  11. A Study of the Translation of Humor in English Movies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丹丹

    2016-01-01

    What is believed to be the most important thing in translating English movie subtitle is the transmission of humorous effects. Humor is the development result of language and culture, and it is human's wisdom. Based on Vermeer's Skopostheorie theory of functionalist approaches, the thesis suggests that the instrumental translation strategy based on the source text analysis can be used for the translation of humor discourses. The translator can translate humorous languages by way of literal translation, annotation, combination of literal translation and free translation.

  12. Non-invasive diagnosis of acute heart- or lung-transplant rejection using radiolabeled annexin V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blankenberg, F.G. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Strauss, H.W. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Nuclear Medicine Div.

    1999-05-01

    Background. Apoptosis is a ubiquitous set of cellular processes by which superfluous or unwanted cells are eliminated in the body without harming adjacent healthy tissues. When apoptosis is inappropriate (too little or too much), a variety of human diseases can occur, including acute heart or lung transplant rejection. Objective. Our group has developed a new radiopharmaceutical, radiolabeled annexin V, which can image apoptosis. Results and conclusion. Here we briefly review the biomolecular basis of apoptosis and its role in acute rejection. We also describe the possible use of radiolabeled annexin V to screen children noninvasively for acute rejection following organ transplantation. (orig.) With 6 figs., 53 refs.

  13. Self-esteem instability and humor styles: does the stability of self-esteem influence how people use humor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Jessica; Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Arnau, Randolph C

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine whether self-esteem instability moderated the association between self-esteem level and the use of humor. This was accomplished by examining the associations that humor styles had with self-esteem level and self-esteem instability among 499 undergraduates. The results of the present study show that self-esteem instability moderated the association between self-esteem level and humor styles such that individuals with stable high self-esteem reported the highest levels of affiliative humor as well as the lowest levels of aggressive and self-defeating humor. These results suggest that individuals with stable and unstable forms of self-esteem employ different styles of humor.

  14. Hippocrates' humoral pathology in nowaday's reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujalkova, M; Straka, S; Jureckova, A

    2001-01-01

    Ancient medicine integrated three components: experience (empirical observation), religion/magic and speculations of natural philosophers. The Greek medicine out-achieved medicine of other ancient nations in starting to investigate the true causes of health and diseases and thus laying foundations for the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment. Hippocrates, the most famous physician of the ancient times, made a synthesis of existing philosophical opinions from the point of view of a physician. His 58 writings were preserved in the collection "Corpus Hippocraticum". The most relevant writing in it--"Peri fyseos anthropu" (On the nature of man)--is ascribed to Hippocrates' son-in-law Polybos to whom we are grateful for the ancient humoral-pathological theory. In explaining human organism and its processes the author integrated ancient teachings on 4 basic humors (humoral theory), elements and qualities with observations of manifestations of health and disease. Normal condition (health) was defined as balance between the body fluids (eukrasia) and external environment. If this balance is disturbed, the result is dyskrasia, i.e. disease studied by pathology. According to Hippocrates disease causes can be understood only through empirical study. A man has a power to overcome disease, but to achieve it the right diet is necessary to keep harmony in body fluids of an organism. The role of a physician was just to support the nature. "Prognosis", another writing included in "Corpus Hippocraticum", reflects Hippocrates' understanding of prognosis as a necessary development of diagnosis based on past knowledge (anamnesis) and present observation. Ideas of Hippocrates and his medical school are still valuable and inspiring especially for today's very sophisticated medicine--concept of fighting diseases by natural means: maintaining healthy lifestyle and harmony within the organism, or an effort for perfect understanding of human creature and for humanization of medicine. (Fig. 3

  15. Parasite-specific antibody profile in the aqueous humor of rabbits with ocular toxocariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Takashi; Ohta, Nobuo

    2010-06-01

    Human ocular toxocariasis is diagnosed using ophthalmologic and immunologic examinations. Many researchers have suggested that intraocular parasite-specific antibody levels are indicative of ocular toxocariasis, but little is known about the time course of the changes in these levels. We therefore investigated the anti-Toxocara canis antibody profile in the aqueous humor in an animal model of ocular toxocariasis. We intravitreally injected T. canis larvae into the right eye of 4 rabbits; 2 rabbits were orally administered T. canis eggs. We collected serum, aqueous humor, and tear samples weekly and determined the serum and aqueous humor levels of anti-T. canis immunoglobulin (Ig)G, IgA, IgM, and IgE antibodies and the tear IgG antibody level by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The severity of vitreous opacity and the aqueous humor IgG levels (measured using optical density [OD]) changed concordantly in the larvae-injected eyes; the OD exceeded 0.1 from 2-4 weeks after infection and remained elevated during active intraocular inflammation. However, the aqueous humor IgG levels were also elevated in 6 out of 8 eyes without intraocular larvae in both groups, and were low in 1 eye with live intravitreal larvae. In contrast, the serum IgG and IgM levels and the tear IgG levels increased in all rabbits, regardless of the presence of intraocular inflammation. Vitreous opacity occurred in all intravitreally infected eyes, but significant histopathological evidence of retinal damage was not detected. Thus, besides the presence of intraocular larvae, some other factors in the host may be required for the development of retinal lesions.

  16. Reactions to Discrimination, Stigmatization, Ostracism, and Other Forms of Interpersonal Rejection: A Multimotive Model

    OpenAIRE

    Richman, Laura Smart; Leary, Mark R.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a new model that provides a framework for understanding people’s reactions to threats to social acceptance and belonging as they occur in the context of diverse phenomena such as rejection, discrimination, ostracism, betrayal, and stigmatization. People’s immediate reactions are quite similar across different forms of rejection in terms of negative affect and lowered self-esteem. However, following these immediate responses, people’s reactions are influenced by construa...

  17. Thanatochemistry: Study of vitreous humor potassium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilesh Keshav Tumram

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study has been carried out to determine the death interval from the biochemical parameter of vitreous potassium. In 308 medicolegal cases vitreous humor was taken and analyzed for potassium with known time of death. There was a linear rise in potassium concentration with increasing death interval. Regression equation was calculated for the same. The study indicates that potassium levels in vitreous for determining death interval are useful and can afford a good method of determining the death interval along with other traditional methods. Also the previously established formulae for estimating death interval from vitreous potassium were also studied.

  18. The value of urine cytologic examination findings in the diagnosis of the acute renal allograft rejection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatomirović Željka

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Acute rejection of allograft is one of the most serious complications of renal transplantation that requires fast and precise diagnostic approach. In this paper our experience in cytologic urinalysis as a diagnostic method of the acute renal allograft rejection was reviewed. Methods. The study group included 20 of 56 patients with transplanted kidneys who were assumed for the acute allograft rejection according to allograft dysfunction and/or urine cytology findings. Histological findings confirmed allograft rejection in 4 patients. Urine sediment obtained in cytocentrifuge was air-dried and stained with May-Grunwald-Giemsa. Acute allograft rejection was suspected if in 10 fields under high magnification 15 or more lymphocytes with renal tubular cells were found. Results. Acute transplant rejection occured in 32.1% patients. In 15 patients clinical findings of the acute renal allograft rejection corresponded with cytological and histological findings (in the cases in which it was performed. Three patients with clinical signs of the acute allograft rejection were without cytological confirmation, and in 2 patients cytological findings pointed to the acute rejection, but allograft dysfunction was of different etiology (acute tubular necrosis, cyclosporine nephrotoxicity. In patients with clinical, cytological and histological findings of the acute allograft rejection urine finding consisted of 58% lymphocytes, 34% neutrophilic leucocytes and 8% monocytes/macrophages on the average. The accuracy of cytologic urinalysis related to clinical and histological finding was 75%. Conclusion. Urine cytology as the reliable noninvasive, fast and simple method is appropriate as the a first diagnostic line of renal allograft dysfunction, as well as for monitoring of the graft function.

  19. MicroRNAs as non-invasive biomarkers of heart transplant rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong Van Huyen, Jean-Paul; Tible, Marion; Gay, Arnaud; Guillemain, Romain; Aubert, Olivier; Varnous, Shaida; Iserin, Franck; Rouvier, Philippe; François, Arnaud; Vernerey, Dewi; Loyer, Xavier; Leprince, Pascal; Empana, Jean-Philippe; Bruneval, Patrick; Loupy, Alexandre; Jouven, Xavier

    2014-12-01

    Rejection is one of the major causes of late cardiac allograft failure and at present can only be diagnosed by invasive endomyocardial biopsies. We sought to determine whether microRNA profiling could serve as a non-invasive biomarker of cardiac allograft rejection. We included 113 heart transplant recipients from four referral French institutions (test cohort, n = 60, validation cohort, n = 53). In the test cohort, we compared patients with acute biopsy-proven allograft rejection (n = 30) to matched control patients without rejection (n = 30), by assessing microRNAs expression in the heart allograft tissue and patients concomitant serum using RNA extraction and qPCR analysis. Fourteen miRNAs were selected on the basis of their implication in allograft rejection, endothelial activation, and inflammation and tissue specificity. We identified seven miRNAs that were differentially expressed between normal and rejecting heart allografts: miR-10a, miR-21, miR-31, miR-92a, miR-142-3p miR-155, and miR-451 (P < 0.0001 for all comparisons). Four out of seven miRNAs also showed differential serological expression (miR-10a, miR-31, miR-92a, and miR-155) with strong correlation with their tissular expression. The receiver-operating characteristic analysis showed that these four circulating miRNAs strongly discriminated patients with allograft rejection from patients without rejection: miR-10a (AUC = 0.975), miR-31 (AUC = 0.932), miR-92a (AUC = 0.989), and miR-155 (AUC = 0.998, P < 0.0001 for all comparisons). We confirmed in the external validation set that these four miRNAs highly discriminated patients with rejection from those without. The discrimination capability of the four miRNAs remained significant when stratified by rejection diagnosis (T-cell-mediated rejection or antibody-mediated rejection) and time post-transplant. This study demonstrates that a differential expression of miRNA occurs in rejecting allograft patients, not only at the tissue level but also in the

  20. Complement Interception Across Humoral Incompatibility in Solid Organ Transplantation: A Clinical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biglarnia, Ali-Reza; Ekdahl, Kristina N; Nilsson, Bo

    2015-01-01

    The humoral barrier in transplant biology is the result of preformed donor-specific antibodies (DSAs), directed either against human leukocyte antigens (HLA) or non-HLA antigens such as blood group (ABO) molecules. The term "sensitization" applies to patients carrying these antibodies. Transplantation is widely accepted as a life-saving opportunity for patients with terminal end-organ disease. However, in sensitized patients, transplant outcome is hampered by antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) as a consequence of DSA exposure. Furthermore, sensitized patients have limited access to "matched" organs from the both living and deceased donor pool.Considering the crucial role of the complement system in the pathophysiology of AMR and the availability of complement intervention therapeutics, there is a growing interest in complement-targeting strategies. This review highlights the emerging importance of monitoring and modulation of the complement system in the context of enabling transplantation across humoral incompatibility in sensitized recipients with preformed anti-HLA or natural anti-ABO antibodies. It also discusses the significance of the complement system in the induction of accommodation and further emphasizes current and future perspectives of novel complement therapeutics.

  1. Graft rejection episodes after Descemet stripping with endothelial keratoplasty: part two: the statistical analysis of probability and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, M O; Jordan, C S; Moore, G; Price, F W

    2009-03-01

    To investigate risk factors and probability of initial immunological graft rejection episodes after Descemet stripping with endothelial keratoplasty (DSEK). Outcomes of 598 DSEK cases from a single tertiary referral centre were reviewed. Risk factors and probability of rejection were assessed by multivariate Cox proportional hazards modelling. Rejection episodes occurred in 54 eyes of 48 patients. Estimated probability of a rejection episode was 7.6% by 1 year and 12% by 2 years after grafting. Relative risk of rejection was five times higher for African-American patients compared with Caucasians (p = 0.0002). Eyes with pre-existing glaucoma (9%) or steroid-responsive ocular hypertension (27%) had twice the relative risk of rejection (p = 0.045) compared with eyes that did not have those problems. Patient age, sex and corneal diagnosis did not significantly influence rejection risk. Risk of rejection was not increased when fellow eyes were grafted within 1 year of the first eye (p = 0.62). Pre-existing glaucoma or steroid-responsive ocular hypertension and race were the two factors that independently influenced relative risk of rejection after DSEK. Rejection risk was not increased if the fellow eye was grafted within the prior year with DSEK.

  2. Antibodies directed against antigens on the endothelium of peritubular capillaries in patients with rejecting renal allografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, L C; van Es, L A; van Rood, J J; van Leeuwen, A; de la Rivière, G B; de Graeff, J

    1979-03-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the humoral immune response against endothelial antigens of the donor kidney in human renal allograft recipients. Sera from 61 transplant recipients who received 62 grafts were studied for the presence of circulating endothelial antibodies (CEAb) using an indirect immunofluorescence technique with a pretransplant biopsy of the graft as a substrate. IgG antibodies directed against the endothelium of peritubular capillaries were found in the sera of 6 of the 10 patients with graft rejection within 7 weeks after transplantation, whereas these antibodies were not found in the absence of rejection (P less than 0.001). Immunofluorescence studies of post-transplant biopsies showed IgG along the endothelium of peritubular capillaries only in the grafts of patients with CEAb. Eluates from these grafts contained IgG antibodies that bound to the endothelium of the donor as shown by the indirect immunofluorescence technique. Absorption of endothelial antibody (EAb)-positive sera with human platelets or Wistar strain rat erythrocytes showed that the EAb were not directed against serologically defined HLA antigens or against heterophile antigens on rat erythrocytes. We conclude from this study that the presence of antibodies directed against endothelial antigens is associated with poor graft prognosis and that these antibodies may be responsible for the rejection process.

  3. Humor processing in children: influence of temperament, age and IQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrticka, Pascal; Black, Jessica M; Neely, Michelle; Walter Shelly, Elizabeth; Reiss, Allan L

    2013-11-01

    Emerging evidence from fMRI studies suggests that humor processing is a specific social cognitive-affective human function that comprises two stages. The first stage (cognitive humor component) involves the detection and resolution of incongruity, and is associated with activity in temporo-occipito-parietal brain areas. The second stage (emotional humor component) comprises positive feelings related to mirth/reward, and is linked with reward-related activity in mesocorticolimbic circuits. In healthy adults, humor processing was shown to be moderated by temperament traits like intro-/extraversion, neuroticism, or social anxiety, representing risk factors for psychopathology. However, comparable data from early developmental stages is crucially lacking. Here, we report for the first time data from 22 children (ages 6 to 13) revealing an influence of temperament on humor processing. Specifically, we assessed the effects of Emotionality, Shyness, and Sociability, which are analogous to neuroticism, behavioral inhibition/fear and extraversion in adults. We found Emotionality to be positively, but Shyness negatively associated with brain activity linked with both cognitive and emotional humor components. In addition, Shyness and Sociability were positively related to activity in the periaqueductal gray region during humor processing. These findings are of potential clinical relevance regarding the early detection of childhood psychopathology. Previous data on humor processing in both adults and children furthermore suggest that intelligence (IQ) supports incongruity detection and resolution, whereas mirth and associated brain activity diminishes with increasing age. Here, we found that increasing age and IQ were linked with stronger activity to humor in brain areas implicated in the cognitive component of humor. Such data suggest that humor processing undergoes developmental changes and is moderated by higher IQ scores, both factors likely improving incongruity detection

  4. Humor en línea. Línea del humor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dra. Mirta Clara Echevarría

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available La autora indaga el humor propuesto por el diario ‘InterVoz’ (Córdoba, Argentina. El medio publica el "típico humor cordobés". Historietas, chistes y relatos representan la vida urbana cotidiana, confluencia de lo popular y lo masivo, a través de la inclusión de usos lingüísticos, costumbres, personajes típicos y personajes públicos, sobre todo políticos. Estos textos, en algunos casos, reproducen lo publicado en papel; sin embargo, son manifestaciones diferentes. En este discurso emergente, estudia las condiciones de producción, circulación y consumo desde varias vertientes. Subraya la autora la relación del humor con el resto del diario por: la fuerte relación intertextual con la información y el diseño hipertextual. Destaca tópicas y retórica del humor como parte de una política discursiva centrada en lo regional, con el objeto de construir un discurso identitario de clara apelación a "los cordobeses en el mundo". El humor de ‘InterVoz’ (el diario en su totalidad, en el marco de la globalización, se manifiesta como una otra voz, sin llegar a establecerse como contradiscurso. Este periódico –como tantos en la red– subraya las marcas de lo local para permanecer en lo global.

  5. Self-compassion and rejection sensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    Hakan Saricam, Enes Ergun, Halis Sakiz

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships between self-compassion and rejection sensitivity. Design: Self-compassion and are current concepts in social psychology and positive psychology. Preliminary evidence suggests that self-compassion is related to cognitive based social personality traits such as extraversion, social connectedness, self-determination, and feeling interpersonally connected to others. Also, rejection sensitivity is very important factor for inte...

  6. Structural Decoupling and Disturbance Rejection in a Distillation Column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahar, Mehrdad; Jantzen, Jan; Commault, C.

    1996-01-01

    Introduction, distillation column model, input-output decoupling, disturbance rejection, concluding remarks, references.......Introduction, distillation column model, input-output decoupling, disturbance rejection, concluding remarks, references....

  7. Effects of Humor on Teacher Stress, Affect, and Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Jacqueline Dena

    2013-01-01

    Teachers are at high risk for stress, negative emotion, and job dissatisfaction, which has been linked with health problems and early attrition. Humor has been found to relieve various forms of stress. However, there is a gap in the literature regarding humor effects on teacher stress and its related consequences. The purpose of this quantitative,…

  8. Did You Hear the One about...? Humor in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Jim

    2006-01-01

    Used properly, humor can be a valuable educational tool. It also helps middle school students cope with many of the personal issues that arise and focus on school, and helps teachers connect with their students. From silly costumes to movie music, this article describes how some teachers and administrators incorporate humor into their daily school…

  9. An Empirical Foundation for a Taxonomy of Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froman, Richard L., Jr.

    The reliability of a taxonomy of humor was tested in two studies. The first study involved rater identification of nine categories for humorous incidents excerpted from television comedy programs (wordplay, exaggeration/understatement, contrast, audience knowledge, aggression, emotion, taboo, pratfall/slapstick, and repetition). The second study,…

  10. Examining Teachers' Motivation Level According to School Principals' Humor Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recepoglu, Ergun; Kilinc, Ali Cagatay; Cepni, Osman

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the motivation level of teachers according to school principals' humor styles. The humor styles survey and job motivation scale were used to gather data from 305 randomly selected teachers employed in primary schools in Karabuk. Results indicated that 141 of the teachers claimed school principal had…

  11. Does humor moderate the effects of experimentally-induced stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, M G; Stone, A A

    1996-06-01

    This study attempted to determine whether humor production moderates mood and physiological responses to stress of subjects high and low in trait humor. Forty subjects who were high and 40 subjects who were low in trait humor were selected. Half of each group was randomly assigned to one of two conditions. In one condition they generated a humorous monologue and in the other condition they generated a serious monologue to a silent stressful film. Heart rate, skin conductance level, and skin temperature were taken continuously for the fifteen minutes before, during, and fifteen minutes after the film. Pre- and post-stress mood and tension ratings were also recorded. Analyses of covariance were conducted with baseline mood and tension as covariates. Compared to the production of a serious narrative, humor production led to lower negative affect, lower tension, and reduced psychophysiological reactivity for both high and low trait-humor groups. These results suggest that humor production may be an effective coping strategy, even for individuals who do not typically use humor to cope with stress.

  12. The Humor Continuum: From Text to Smart Environments (Keynote Paper)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus

    Humor is important in our daily life, whether our activities are at home, at work, or in public spaces, for example during sports or other recreational and entertainment activities. Until now, computational humor, the research area that investigates rules and algorithms to understand and to generate

  13. Examining Teachers' Motivation Level According to School Principals' Humor Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recepoglu, Ergun; Kilinc, Ali Cagatay; Cepni, Osman

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the motivation level of teachers according to school principals' humor styles. The humor styles survey and job motivation scale were used to gather data from 305 randomly selected teachers employed in primary schools in Karabuk. Results indicated that 141 of the teachers claimed school principal had…

  14. Pastoral Perspectives of Humor's Use in Ministry Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jonathan W.

    2012-01-01

    Results from a qualitative component of a mixed-methods research design are reported regarding the use of humor in pastoral ministry. Thirteen Southern Baptist (SB) pastors were interviewed, from a total of 37 exemplars identified in the quantitative component of the study, regarding their perspectives toward humor in ministry. Results overall…

  15. Effects of Humor on Teacher Stress, Affect, and Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Jacqueline Dena

    2013-01-01

    Teachers are at high risk for stress, negative emotion, and job dissatisfaction, which has been linked with health problems and early attrition. Humor has been found to relieve various forms of stress. However, there is a gap in the literature regarding humor effects on teacher stress and its related consequences. The purpose of this quantitative,…

  16. Stimulus Characteristics Affect Humor Processing in Individuals with Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Andrea C.; Hegenloh, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The present paper aims to investigate whether individuals with Asperger syndrome (AS) show global humor processing deficits or whether humor comprehension and appreciation depends on stimulus characteristics. Non-verbal visual puns, semantic and Theory of Mind cartoons were rated on comprehension, funniness and the punchlines were explained. AS…

  17. Multilingual Manipulation and Humor in "I Love Lucy"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschen, Bryan

    2013-01-01

    "I Love Lucy" is considered to have been one of the most humorous television programs in the United States as early as the 1950s. This paper explores the use of language by the protagonists, Lucy and Ricky Ricardo, in order to understand the source of the program's humor. Linguistic analysis of the Ricardos' speech is applied,…

  18. Subversion or Socialization? Humor and Carnival in Morris Gleitzman's Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Kathryn

    2004-01-01

    Like their counterparts elsewhere, Australian children favour humorous novels; comedic writers consistently dominate the preteen and early teen fiction market in Australia. Regardless of its popularity, however, in comparison to more serious writing, humorous literature has received little critical attention. Of the studies aimed at this area,…

  19. Welcome to HELL : Humor in English Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncay, Hidayet

    2007-01-01

    Humor means understanding not only the language and words but their use, meaning, subtle nuances, the underlying culture, implications and unwritten messages. Humor does not often travel well from one culture to another, as each society has a somewhat different concept of what is funny (Dobson, 1987). In Foreign Language Learning (FLL), the…

  20. Embodied Agents: A New Impetus to Humor Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, A.; Stock, O.; Strapparava, C.; Nijholt, A.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we survey the role of humor in human-to-human interaction with the aim to see whether it is useful for embodied conversational agents to integrate humor capabilities in their internal model of intelligence, emotions and interaction (verbal and nonverbal) capabilities. For that reason w

  1. Conversational Agents and the Construction of Humorous Acts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Anton; Nishida, Toyoaki

    2007-01-01

    In this chapter we discuss the generation of humorous acts by embodied agents. It is observed that in future interfaces that are meant to allow natural interaction, embodied agents can play useful roles. Humor plays an important role in human-human interaction and therefore it is useful to investiga

  2. An Analysis of Black Humor in the Movie The Simpsons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵筱婧

    2016-01-01

    Black humor is widely applied in literature, drama, and film. This paper, through analyzing the theme, plot, and stereotypes of The Simpsons, aims to make a research of black humor and its application in this movie in order to facilitate the understanding of the movie and present its significance on modern society.

  3. Humor: What Can It Do for Tertiary Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Mehmet

    2004-01-01

    Given the important role of the affective variables in the process of learning, this paper examines ways of overcoming negative effects (i.e. anxiety, boredom) of the contextual factors. Exemplifying the uses of humor through context-specific, purpose-driven jokes, it maintains that humor can be utilized to produce a resourceful, encouraging and…

  4. The humor continuum: from text to smart environments (keynote paper)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Anton

    2015-01-01

    Humor is important in our daily life, whether our activities are at home, at work, or in public spaces, for example during sports or other recreational and entertainment activities. Until now, computational humor, the research area that investigates rules and algorithms to understand and to generate

  5. A Computational Model of Linguistic Humor in Puns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Justine T.; Levy, Roger; Goodman, Noah D.

    2016-01-01

    Humor plays an essential role in human interactions. Precisely what makes something funny, however, remains elusive. While research on natural language understanding has made significant advancements in recent years, there has been little direct integration of humor research with computational models of language understanding. In this paper, we…

  6. Subversion or Socialization? Humor and Carnival in Morris Gleitzman's Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Kathryn

    2004-01-01

    Like their counterparts elsewhere, Australian children favour humorous novels; comedic writers consistently dominate the preteen and early teen fiction market in Australia. Regardless of its popularity, however, in comparison to more serious writing, humorous literature has received little critical attention. Of the studies aimed at this area,…

  7. Humor: What Can It Do for Tertiary Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Mehmet

    2004-01-01

    Given the important role of the affective variables in the process of learning, this paper examines ways of overcoming negative effects (i.e. anxiety, boredom) of the contextual factors. Exemplifying the uses of humor through context-specific, purpose-driven jokes, it maintains that humor can be utilized to produce a resourceful, encouraging and…

  8. Humorous Stimuli and Depression: An Examination of Beck's Premise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scogin, Forrest R.; Merbaum, Michael

    1983-01-01

    Studied the relationship between depression and humor in 85 college students who took the Beck Depression Inventory and then rated 10 cartoons. Results showed no difference between mildly depressed and nondepressed subjects. However, some trends were noted on a mood scale related to immediate feelings and humor preference. (Author/JAC)

  9. Pelanggaran Prinsip Kooperatif dalam Wacana Humor di Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Sihombing, Marintan

    2010-01-01

    Penelitian ini menganalisis pelanggaran prinsip kooperatif dalam wacana humor di internet. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menjelaskan bagaimana proses terjadinya pelanggaran prinsip kooperatif dan mendeskripsikan faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi terjadinya pelanggaran prinsip kooperatif wacana humor di internet. Teori yang digunakan adalah implikatur percakapan, pertuturan atau tindak bahasa, konteks situasi. Pengumpulan data digunakan dengan metode simak, yaitu penyimakan terhadap penggunaan b...

  10. Application of Relevance Translation Theory in Humor Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵秀丽

    2013-01-01

    This thesis,aiming to investigate the process of English-Chinese translation of humor from the perspective of RT theory(relevance translation theory),endeavors to apply its principles and methods to the re-construction of humor in the target language.

  11. Laugh yourself to sleep: memory consolidation for humorous information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Alexis M; Payne, Jessica D

    2014-05-01

    There is extensive evidence that emotional information is better remembered than neutral information across long delays, especially if the delay interval contains an opportunity for sleep. However, as prior studies have focused on memory for negative stimuli, it is unclear whether positive memories benefit from time and sleep as well. To investigate the consolidation of positive memories, the current study examined differences in memory for humorous and non-humorous cartoons. While prior evidence demonstrates that humorous information is preferentially remembered relative to non-humorous information over brief delays, it is unknown whether this benefit lasts across longer delay intervals or whether sleep is important for lasting humor memories to form. Thus, we tested memory for 27 cartoons across 12-h delay periods containing either sleep or wakefulness. Results indicate that humor's enhancing effect on recall memory is robust across a 12-h delay and that a period of sleep facilitates this effect over wakefulness when cartoons are novel to participants and ranked based on subjective emotional ratings. Further, in accordance with previous studies that reveal diminished emotional reactivity to stimuli following sleep, in a supplemental experiment, we found that sleep reduced subjective ratings of humor, arousal, and positivity of humorous cartoons. These findings provide preliminary evidence that sleep's impact on negative emotional memory consolidation and emotional reactivity can be extended to positive stimuli as well.

  12. Playing with expectations: a contextual view of humor development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Airenti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the developmental literature it has been advanced that young children would not understand the specificity of nonliteral communicative acts. In this article I shall focus on young children’s ability to produce and understand different forms of humor. I shall explore children’s acquisition of the communicative contexts that constitute the background enabling them to perform humorous interactions before being able to analyze them in the terms allowed by a full fledged ToM. I consider that different forms of humor share a number of basic features and that we can draw a continuum from simple forms to sophisticated ones. In particular I shall focus on teasing, a form of humor already present in preverbal infants but also considered as a typical feature of irony. I shall argue that all forms of humor can be described in the terms of a kind of interaction that I propose to call playing with expectations.

  13. CLASSICAL CONDITIONING OF THREE KINDS OF HUMOR IN PUBLICITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAROLINA M. CIFUENTES

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of humor in advertisement published in Colombia were investigated in regards to brands,advertisement, purchase intention, recall and recognition.A simultaneous Classical Conditioning procedure was carried out, using Incongruous, Hostile and Allusivehumor associated to three brands. The procedure was applied to 30 university students. Results revealedthat the three kinds of humor work as unconditioning stimulus, generating positive attitudes towardsadvertisement and brand. Humor influences the purchase intention and recognition, but not the remembranceof brand when compared to neutral advertisement. Incongrous and Hostile Humor generate recognitionand positive attitude towards advertisement and brand. Allusions have a greater effect on purchaseintention than the other ones. Results corroborate the effectiveness of humor as an advertisement tool.

  14. Humor intervention program for children with chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, In Ok

    2015-11-01

    This study developed and implemented a humor intervention program for school-aged children with chronic diseases. Thirty-three children with atopic dermatitis and type 1 diabetes were divided into experimental and control groups. The experimental group included 17 children while the control group included 16 children. The experimental group participated in 6 weekly sessions of a 60-minute humor intervention. The subject and type of humorous material was collected from a survey of parents and children. Outcome measures assessed pre- and post-intervention included stress, behavior profile scores, and resilience. There was a significant decrease in behavior problems and increase in resiliency in experimental group compared to control group. There was no difference in stress cortisol measures between the groups. This study was the first to examine a humor intervention for children with chronic diseases in South Korea and offers practical implications for humor interventions in pediatric nursing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Humor, laughter, and physical health: methodological issues and research findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, R A

    2001-07-01

    All published research examining effects of humor and laughter on physical health is reviewed. Potential causal mechanisms and methodological issues are discussed. Laboratory experiments have shown some effects of exposure to comedy on several components of immunity, although the findings are inconsistent and most of the studies have methodological problems. There is also some evidence of analgesic effects of exposure to comedy, although similar findings are obtained with negative emotions. Few significant correlations have been found between trait measures of humor and immunity, pain tolerance, or self-reported illness symptoms. There is also little evidence of stress-moderating effects of humor on physical health variables and no evidence of increased longevity with greater humor. More rigorous and theoretically informed research is needed before firm conclusions can be drawn about possible health benefits of humor and laughter.

  16. Co-operative Principle of Conversation and Humor in English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付岚

    2012-01-01

    Language humor is a usual phenomenon in human communication. It is an interdisciplinary subject connected with a wide range of learning. Up to now, a great deal of research has been done from the viewpoint of psychology and sociology. In the field of linguistics, some explorations have already been made in regard to its semantic and rhetorical aspects, but due attention has not been paid to it in pragmatics in that in everyday verbal communication, humorous utterances are easy to enjoy but hard to define. Apart from its capability of laughter-making, language humor is more often than not, produced to implicitly perform some communicative functions, not achievable by explicit expressions. This the - sis, based on the fruitful studies of humor, attempts to investigate the mechanisms of English humor from the perspective of a new theory 一 Co- operative Principle.

  17. Exploiting Reject Option in Classification for Social Discrimination Control

    KAUST Repository

    Kamiran, Faisal

    2017-09-29

    Social discrimination is said to occur when an unfavorable decision for an individual is influenced by her membership to certain protected groups such as females and minority ethnic groups. Such discriminatory decisions often exist in historical data. Despite recent works in discrimination-aware data mining, there remains the need for robust, yet easily usable, methods for discrimination control. In this paper, we utilize reject option in classification, a general decision theoretic framework for handling instances whose labels are uncertain, for modeling and controlling discriminatory decisions. Specifically, this framework permits a formal treatment of the intuition that instances close to the decision boundary are more likely to be discriminated in a dataset. Based on this framework, we present three different solutions for discrimination-aware classification. The first solution invokes probabilistic rejection in single or multiple probabilistic classifiers while the second solution relies upon ensemble rejection in classifier ensembles. The third solution integrates one of the first two solutions with situation testing which is a procedure commonly used in the court of law. All solutions are easy to use and provide strong justifications for the decisions. We evaluate our solutions extensively on four real-world datasets and compare their performances with previously proposed discrimination-aware classifiers. The results demonstrate the superiority of our solutions in terms of both performance and flexibility of applicability. In particular, our solutions are effective at removing illegal discrimination from the predictions.

  18. Late-onset acute rejection after living donor liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nobuhisa Akamatsu; Yasuhiko Sugawara; Sumihito Tamura; Junichi Keneko; Yuichi Matsui; Kiyoshi Hasegawa; Masatoshi Makuuchi

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the incidence and risk factors of late-onset acute rejection (LAR) and to clarify the effectiveness of our immunosuppressive regime consisting of life-long administration of tacrolimus and steroids.METHODS: Adult living donor liver transplantation recipients (n = 204) who survived more than 6 mo after living donor liver transplantation were enrolled.Immunosuppression was achieved using tacrolimus and methylprednisolone. When adverse effects of tacrolimus were detected, the patient was switched to cyclosporine. Six months after transplantation,tacrolimus or cyclosporine was carefully maintained at a therapeutic level. The methylprednisolone dosage was maintained at 0.05 mg/kg per day by oral administration.Acute rejections that occurred more than 6 mo after the operation were defined as late-onset. The median followup period was 34 mo.RESULTS: LAR was observed in 15 cases (7%) and no chronic rejection was observed. The incidence of hyperlipidemia, chronic renal failure, new-onset posttransplantation diabetes, and deep fungal infection were 13%, 2%, 24%, and 17%, respectively. Conversion from tacrolimus to cyclosporine was required in 38 patients (19%). Multivariate analysis revealed that a cyclosporinebased regimen was significantly associated with LAR.CONCLUSION: Both LAR and drug-induced adverse events happen at a low incidence, supporting the safety and efficacy of the present immunosuppression regimen for living donor liver transplantation.

  19. Antibody mediated rejection during transplant kidney biopsy%移植肾穿刺病理组织中抗体介导的排斥反应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩永; 郭晖; 黄海燕; 许晓光; 蔡明; 石炳毅

    2011-01-01

    背景:体液性排斥以激素耐受和难治性为其显著的特点,常常发生在免疫高敏的受者身上.目的:对肾功能不全移植肾进行常规穿刺病理活检,根据病理诊断观察抗体介导性排斥反应的治疗效果,分析移植肾穿刺病理活检的安全性.方法:选取肾移植后有移植肾穿刺活检指征的患者84 例,在B 超引导下应用BARD(美国)活检穿刺针行移植肾穿刺活检,活检组织行常规苏木精-伊红染色,组织化学染色,同时常规行C4d 免疫组织化学染色,依据Banff'05 标准进行病理分型,根据病理状态明确诊断进行相应的临床治疗,观察治疗效果.结果与结论:84 例患者除1 例由于组织少难以诊断,其余病理诊断移植肾超急性排斥反应1 例,急性抗体介导性排斥反应5 例,慢性抗体介导性排斥反应2 例,C4d 免疫组织化学染色阳性16 例.经过治疗8 例抗体介导性排斥反应患者中4 例移植肾功能得以恢复,3 例未恢复,1 例移植肾失功,移植肾切除.患者无不良反应发生.结果表明移植肾穿刺病理活检对移植肾无不良影响.%BACKGROUND: Acute humoral rejection, characterized as hormone resistance and refractory feature, often occurs in immune hypersensitivity recipients.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect on antibody-mediated rejection during transplant kidney biopsy and to analyze the safety of transplant kidney biopsy.METHODS: Eighty-four patients underwent transplant kidney biopsy following renal transplantation. The biopsy was performed using B-ultrasound guided BARD puncture. Hematoxylin-eosin staining, histochemical staining and C4d immunohistochemical staining were performed. All biopsies were systematically diagnosed and evaluated according to the Banf 2005 schema.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Except for 1 case which was difficult to diagnose because of few tissues, there were 1 case of hyperacute rejection, 5 of acute antibody mediated rejection, 2 of chronic antibody

  20. The fate of triaged and rejected manuscripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoccali, Carmine; Amodeo, Daniela; Argiles, Angel; Arici, Mustafa; D'arrigo, Graziella; Evenepoel, Pieter; Fliser, Danilo; Fox, Jonathan; Gesualdo, Loreto; Jadoul, Michel; Ketteler, Markus; Malyszko, Jolanta; Massy, Ziad; Mayer, Gert; Ortiz, Alberto; Sever, Mehmet; Vanholder, Raymond; Vinck, Caroline; Wanner, Christopher; Więcek, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    In 2011, Nephrology Dialysis and Transplantation (NDT) established a more restrictive selection process for manuscripts submitted to the journal, reducing the acceptance rate from 25% (2008–2009) to currently about 12–15%. To achieve this goal, we decided to score the priority of manuscripts submitted to NDT and to reject more papers at triage than in the past. This new scoring system allows a rapid decision for the authors without external review. However, the risk of such a restrictive policy may be that the journal might fail to capture important studies that are eventually published in higher-ranked journals. To look into this problem, we analysed random samples of papers (∼10%) rejected by NDT in 2012. Of the papers rejected at triage and those rejected after regular peer review, 59 and 61%, respectively, were accepted in other journals. A detailed analysis of these papers showed that only 4 out of 104 and 7 out of 93 of the triaged and rejected papers, respectively, were published in journals with an impact factor higher than that of NDT. Furthermore, for all these papers, independent assessors confirmed the evaluation made by the original reviewers. The number of citations of these papers was similar to that typically obtained by publications in the corresponding journals. Even though the analyses seem reassuring, previous observations made by leading journals warn that the risk of ‘big misses’, resulting from selective editorial policies, remains a real possibility. We will therefore continue to maintain a high degree of alertness and will periodically track the history of manuscripts rejected by NDT, particularly papers that are rejected at triage by our journal. PMID:26597920

  1. Perturbations in the Urinary Exosome in Transplant Rejection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigdel, Tara K.; NG, Yolanda; Lee, Sangho; Nicora, Carrie D.; Qian, Weijun; Smith, Richard D.; Camp, David G.; Sarwal, Minnie M.

    2015-01-05

    Background: Urine exosomes, vesicles exocytosed into urine by all renal epithelial cell types, occur under normal physiologic and disease states. Exosome contents may mirror disease-specific proteome perturbations in kidney injury. Analysis methodologies for the exosomal fraction of the urinary proteome were developed and for comparing the urinary exosomal fraction versus unfractionated proteome for biomarker discovery. Methods: Urine exosomes were isolated by centrifugal filtration from mid-stream, second morning void, urine samples collected from kidney transplant recipients with and without biopsy matched acute rejection. The proteomes of unfractionated whole urine (Uw) and urine exosomes (Uexo) underwent mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomics analysis. The proteome data were analyzed for significant differential protein abundances in acute rejection (AR). Results: Identifications of 1018 and 349 proteins, Uw and Uexo fractions, respectively, demonstrated a 279 protein overlap between the two urinary compartments with 25%(70) of overlapping proteins unique to Uexoand represented membrane bound proteins (p=9.31e-7). Of 349 urine exosomal proteins identified in transplant patients 220 were not previously identified in the normal urine exosomal fraction. Uexo proteins (11), functioning in the inflammatory / stress response, were more abundant in patients with biopsy-confirmed acute rejection, 3 of which were exclusive to Uexo. Uexo AR-specific biomarkers (8) were also detected in Uw, but since they were observed at significantly lower abundances in Uw, they were not significant for AR in Uw. Conclusions: A rapid urinary exosome isolation method and quantitative measurement of enriched Uexo proteins was applied. Urine proteins specific to the exosomal fraction were detected either in unfractionated urine (at low abundances) or by Uexo fraction analysis. Perturbed proteins in the exosomal compartment of urine collected from kidney transplant patients were

  2. Transfusion-induced bone marrow transplant rejection due to minor histocompatibility antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Seema R; Zimring, James C

    2013-10-01

    Traditionally, alloimmunization to transfused blood products has focused exclusively on recipient antibodies recognizing donor alloantigens present on the cell surface. Accordingly, the immunologic sequelae of alloimmunization have been antibody mediated effects (ie, hemolytic transfusion reactions, platelet refractoriness, anti-HLA and anti-HNA effects, etc). However, in addition to the above sequelae, there is also a correlation between the number of antecedent transfusions in humans and the rate of bone marrow transplant (BMT) rejection-under reduced intensity conditioning with HLA-matched or HLA-identical marrow. Bone marrow transplant of this nature is the only existing cure for a series of nonmalignant hematologic diseases (eg, sickle cell disease, thalassemias, etc); however, rejection remains a clinical problem. It has been hypothesized that transfusion induces subsequent BMT rejection through immunization. Studies in animal models have observed the same effect and have demonstrated that transfusion-induced BMT rejection can occur in response to alloimmunization. However, unlike traditional antibody responses, sensitization in this case results in cellular immune effects, involving populations such as T cell or natural killer cells. In this case, rejection occurs in the absence of alloantibodies and would not be detected by existing immune-hematologic methods. We review human and animal studies in light of the hypothesis that, for distinct clinical populations, enhanced rejection of BMT may be an unappreciated adverse consequence of transfusion, which current blood bank methodologies are unable to detect. © 2013.

  3. Laughing at the Looking Glass: Does Humor Style Serve as an Interpersonal Signal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgil Zeigler-Hill

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The provision of information appears to be an important feature of humor. The present studies examined whether humor serves as an interpersonal signal such that an individual's style of humor is associated with how the individual is perceived by others. Method: We examined this issue across two studies. In Study 1, undergraduate participants (257 targets were rated more positively by their friends and family members (1194 perceivers when they possessed more benign humor styles. In Study 2, 1190 community participants rated the romantic desirability of targets ostensibly possessing different humor styles. Results: Across both studies, our results were consistent with the possibility that humor serves as a signal. More specifically, individuals with benign humor styles (affiliative and self-enhancing humor styles were evaluated more positively than those targets with injurious humor styles (aggressive and self-defeating humor styles. Conclusion: These findings are discussed in terms of the role that humor may play in interpersonal perception and relationships.

  4. Hipercalcemia humoral secundaria a carcinoma mixto de endometrio Humoral hypercalcemia in mixed endometrial carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Pinal-Fernández

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available La hipercalcemia secundaria a enfermedad neoplásica es una entidad frecuente causada en la mayor parte de los casos por secreción ectópica de PTHrp. A pesar de esto hay ciertos tumores, como los carcinomas uterinos, en donde este tipo de manifestación paraneoplásica está muy poco descrita. Presentamos un caso de hipercalcemia humoral en un carcinoma mixto de endometrio.Hypercalcemia secondary to neoplastic disease is a frequent entity caused in the majority of cases by ectopic secretions of PTHrP. Despite this there are certain tumours, such as uterine carcinomas, in which this type of paraneoplastic manifestation has been described very little. We present a case of humoral hypercalcemia in a mixed endometrial carcinoma.

  5. Science For The Public: Collaboration and Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wargo, Richard

    2013-04-01

    The transformation of all things media and information into a dynamic environment of user access has created what seems infinite possibilities to inform the public in many different ways - as well as seemingly infinite possibilities to confuse. This talk will describe a rather non-conventional collaboration between two different creative cultures and its significance to maintaining scientific accuracy and devising strategies important to audience engagement - among them, humor. While focusing on the award-winning effort ``When Things Get Small'' created by University of California Television producer R. Wargo in collaboration with condensed matter physicist I.K. Schuller and actor Adam J. Smith, with both NSF and private support, the case study provides insight into a model and modes which can be used successfully by other scientists to engage the public in what they do.

  6. Delayed xenograft rejection of pig-to-baboon cardiac transplants after cobra venom factor therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, T; Taniguchi, S; Neethling, F A; Rose, A G; Hancock, W W; Ye, Y; Niekrasz, M; Kosanke, S; Wright, L J; White, D J; Cooper, D K

    1997-11-15

    This study sought to (i) investigate the efficacy of cobra venom factor (CVF) in preventing hyperacute rejection (HAR) after pig-to-baboon heart transplantation, (ii) examine the effect of additional splenectomy (Spx) and pharmacologic immunosuppression (IS), and (iii) study delayed graft rejection when HAR is avoided by complement depletion. Eleven recipient baboons received heterotopic pig heart transplants. Three received either no therapy or IS (cyclosporine + methylprednisolone +/- cyclophosphamide +/- methotrexate) at clinically well-tolerated doses, with graft survival for only 40, 32, and 15 min, respectively. Two received CVF+/-Spx, which extended survival to 5 and 6 days, respectively. Six underwent Spx + CVF therapy + IS; graft survival was 3 hr (technical complication), 6 days (death from sepsis), 10, 12, and 22 days (vascular rejection), and <25 days (euthanized for viral pneumonia with a functioning graft that showed histopathologic features of vascular rejection). Dense deposition of IgM and, to a lesser extent, IgG and IgA were seen on the endothelial cells within 1 hr of transplantation, but only trace levels of complement deposition were present in CVF-treated recipients. Within approximately 5-12 days, cardiac xenografts showed progressive infiltration by mononuclear cells, consisting primarily of activated macrophages producing tumor necrosis factor-alpha and small numbers of natural killer cells; T and B cells were absent. We conclude that (i) CVF prevents HAR, (ii) the addition of Spx + IS delays rejection, but (iii) the early deposition of antibody leads to progressive graft injury, resulting in (iv) delayed vascular rejection. Our findings indicate that the features of delayed xenograft rejection described in small animal models also occur in the pig-to-baboon model, and that rejection may occur in a complement-independent manner from the effects of antibody and/or host macrophages.

  7. mTOR Promotes Antiviral Humoral Immunity by Differentially Regulating CD4 Helper T Cell and B Cell Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lilin; Lee, Junghwa; Xu, Lifan; Mohammed, Ata-Ur-Rasheed; Li, Weiyan; Hale, J Scott; Tan, Wendy G; Wu, Tuoqi; Davis, Carl W; Ahmed, Rafi; Araki, Koichi

    2017-02-15

    -specific cellular immunity in certain circumstances. However, whether and how mTOR regulates humoral immunity are not well understood. Here we found that rapamycin treatment predominantly inhibited GC B cell responses during viral infection and that this led to biased helper CD4 T cell differentiation as well as impaired antibody responses. These findings suggest that inhibition of B cell responses by rapamycin may play an important role in regulation of allograft-specific antibody responses to prevent organ rejection in transplant recipients. Our results also show that consideration of antibody responses is required in cases where rapamycin is used to stimulate vaccine-induced immunity. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  8. The role of verbal humor in second language education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ziyaeemehr

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Instructor humor serves a wide range of functions in educational contexts. This paper reports on a study that investigated the functions of instructors' humorous verbalizations in academic classrooms at a university where English is used as a second language. Data were collected through audio-recordings and classroom observations. The results of an inductive analysis led to the development of three major categories, namely “foregrounding form”, “reinforcing meaning” and “highlighting cultural dissimilarities”. These categories represented the strategies that served as instructional functions of humor in the context of L2 (second language education. Findings indicate that using verbal humor in L2 classrooms offers opportunities to facilitate access to L2 linguistic and cultural knowledge resources that are embedded in humorous exchanges. Additionally, the findings suggest that L2 instructors must have specific (socio linguistic and sociocultural humor competence to use humor to engage learners and communicate finer aspects of the L2. The implications of the findings are explored within the context of second language learning and teaching.

  9. Laughter, Humor and Pain Perception in Children: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Stuber

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Although there are many clinical programs designed to bring humor into pediatric hospitals, there has been very little research with children or adolescents concerning the specific utility of humor for children undergoing stressful or painful procedures. Rx Laughter™, a non-profit organization interested in the use of humor for healing, collaborated with UCLA to collect preliminary data on a sample of 18 children aged 7–16 years. Participants watched humorous video-tapes before, during and after a standardized pain task that involved placing a hand in cold water. Pain appraisal (ratings of pain severity and pain tolerance (submersion time were recorded and examined in relation to humor indicators (number of laughs/smiles during each video and child ratings of how funny the video was. Whereas humor indicators were not significantly associated with pain appraisal or tolerance, the group demonstrated significantly greater pain tolerance while viewing funny videos than when viewing the videos immediately before or after the cold-water task. The results suggest that humorous distraction is useful to help children and adolescents tolerate painful procedures. Further study is indicated to explore the specific mechanism of this benefit.

  10. Outlier Rejecting Multirate Model for State Estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Wavelet transform was introduced to detect and eliminate outliers in time-frequency domain. The outlier rejection and multirate information extraction were initially incorporated by wavelet transform, a new outlier rejecting multirate model for state estimation was proposed. The model is applied to state estimation with interacting multiple model, as the outlier is eliminated and more reasonable multirate information is extracted, the estimation accuracy is greatly enhanced. The simulation results prove that the new model is robust to outliers and the estimation performance is significantly improved.

  11. Danish Humor in Cross-Cultural Professional Settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundquist, Lita Sander

    2014-01-01

    , with no limits or taboos. These characteristics of Danish humor are analyzed here using two different theoretical frameworks: linguistics – where an explanation is found in certain type-specific features of the Danish language, namely the dialogical particles typical of the Nordic languages in general...... welfare state. Work relationships in Denmark are based on a horizontal, flat structure with low power distance, a structure for which management researchers actually recommend the use of humor, irony and self-irony. Finally, the specificities of Danish humor are linked to a low degree of gelotophobia...

  12. Tipos de humor en la publicidad impresa en Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina María Cifuentes

    2005-01-01

    Una de las herramientas frecuentemente utilizadas por los publicistas para persuadir es el humor. De ahí el creciente interés por estudiar su influencia en el procesamiento, actitudes y comportamiento de los individuos. Se realizó una revisión de investigaciones sobre humor publicitario y sus efectos en la persuasión, atención, comprensión, actitudes y memoria, así como estudios sobre humor y factores culturales, de audiencia, medios masivos y tipos de producto. Se pre...

  13. Political humor as a confrontational tool against the syrian regime

    OpenAIRE

    Camps-Febrer, Blanca

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this working paper is to analyze the inclusion of political humor into the set of actions used by opponents to the Syrian regime during the first year of a state-wide uprising in 2011. The research ar-gues that although political humor has traditionally been seen mainly as a concealed voice against dominant elites, it can nevertheless take a confrontational stance and challenge a regime. In this paper we assess the role of political humor in challenging the legitimacy of the Syrian...

  14. Humor in the teaching of writing: A microethnographic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian F. Hempelmann

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the content of a critical thinking and writing course, along with similar courses derived from it, designed around the topic of humor and culminating in a microethnographic investigation of humor in students’ lives. The aims of the paper are threefold: to offer a general rationale for using humor in the writing classroom; to illustrate different types of potentials and dangers of such an approach; and to suggest extensions of the findings to the second-language writing classroom. The paper offers texts, writing prompts, and activities for instructors teaching classes that focus on the writing process in a first or second language.

  15. Differential effects of self-esteem and interpersonal competence on humor styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCosker, Bernadette; Moran, Carmen C

    2012-01-01

    Background In contrast with an early implicit “facilitative hypothesis” of humor, a revised specificity hypothesis predicts that the benefits of humor depend on the specific style of humor used. Information on predictors of these humor styles in turn enhances the ability to predict the effect on well-being. Methods We examined the relationships between interpersonal competence, self-esteem, and different styles of humor, while also examining the contributions of age and gender. Participants (n = 201) aged 18–63 years completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory, the Interpersonal Competence Questionnaire, and the Humor Styles Questionnaire, and gave demographic information. Results High self-esteem was associated with higher use of affiliative, aggressive, and self-enhancing humor styles, but lower use of self-defeating humor. High interpersonal competence predicted greater use of affiliative humor, whereas low interpersonal competence predicted greater use of aggressive humor. Further analyses showed that initiation competence predicted affiliative humor (positively) but both initiation competence (positively) and conflict management competence (negatively) predicted aggressive humor. Conclusion The findings that both self-esteem and initiation competence contribute to use of aggressive humor add to knowledge of who is likely to use this potentially harmful humor style. We conclude that a readiness to initiate humorous interactions is not on its own a general and positive attribute contributing to “good” humor. PMID:23180973

  16. Those Who Laugh Are Defenseless: How Humor Breaks Resistance to Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strick, Madelijn; Holland, Rob W.; van Baaren, Rick B.; van Knippenberg, Ad

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments illustrate that humor in advertisements prevents the development of negative brand associations due to resistance. Previous research on humor in advertising suggested that humor can counter negative responses during ad processing, but less is known about the effect of humor on the development of negative brand associations in…

  17. Exploratory Theoretical Tests of the Instructor Humor-Student Learning Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolkan, San; Goodboy, Alan K.

    2015-01-01

    Instructors' use of humor is generally a positive influence on student outcomes. However, examinations of humor have found that specific types of messages may not impact, or may even reverse, its positive effect. Instructional humor processing theory (IHPT) has been used to explain how humor impacts student learning. The current study sought to…

  18. Those Who Laugh Are Defenseless: How Humor Breaks Resistance to Influence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strick, M.A.; Holland, R.W.; Baaren, R.B. van; Knippenberg, A.F.M. van

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments illustrate that humor in advertisements prevents the development of negative brand associations due to resistance. Previous research on humor in advertising suggested that humor can counter negative responses during ad processing, but less is known about the effect of humor on the

  19. The puzzle of joking: Disentangling the cognitive and affective components of humorous distraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strick, M.A.; Holland, R.W.; Baaren, R.B. van; Knippenberg, A.F.M. van

    2010-01-01

    Studies in cognitive psychology, marketing, and education indicate that humor distracts attention from non-humorous information presented at the same time. Two experiments investigated why humor distracts attention. The two basic components of humor comprise (1) incongruency resolution, which poses

  20. Those Who Laugh Are Defenseless: How Humor Breaks Resistance to Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strick, Madelijn; Holland, Rob W.; van Baaren, Rick B.; van Knippenberg, Ad

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments illustrate that humor in advertisements prevents the development of negative brand associations due to resistance. Previous research on humor in advertising suggested that humor can counter negative responses during ad processing, but less is known about the effect of humor on the development of negative brand associations in…

  1. Those Who Laugh Are Defenseless: How Humor Breaks Resistance to Influence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strick, M.A.; Holland, R.W.; Baaren, R.B. van; Knippenberg, A.F.M. van

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments illustrate that humor in advertisements prevents the development of negative brand associations due to resistance. Previous research on humor in advertising suggested that humor can counter negative responses during ad processing, but less is known about the effect of humor on the

  2. Neutrophil recruitment to lymph nodes limits local humoral response to Staphylococcus aureus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Kamenyeva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophils form the first line of host defense against bacterial pathogens. They are rapidly mobilized to sites of infection where they help marshal host defenses and remove bacteria by phagocytosis. While splenic neutrophils promote marginal zone B cell antibody production in response to administered T cell independent antigens, whether neutrophils shape humoral immunity in other lymphoid organs is controversial. Here we investigate the neutrophil influx following the local injection of Staphylococcus aureus adjacent to the inguinal lymph node and determine neutrophil impact on the lymph node humoral response. Using intravital microscopy we show that local immunization or infection recruits neutrophils from the blood to lymph nodes in waves. The second wave occurs temporally with neutrophils mobilized from the bone marrow. Within lymph nodes neutrophils infiltrate the medulla and interfollicular areas, but avoid crossing follicle borders. In vivo neutrophils form transient and long-lived interactions with B cells and plasma cells, and their depletion augments production of antigen-specific IgG and IgM in the lymph node. In vitro activated neutrophils establish synapse- and nanotube-like interactions with B cells and reduce B cell IgM production in a TGF-β1 dependent manner. Our data reveal that neutrophils mobilized from the bone marrow in response to a local bacterial challenge dampen the early humoral response in the lymph node.

  3. Humoral hypercalcaemia of malignancy: metabolic and histomorphometric studies during surgical management of the primary tumour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralston, S H; Boyce, B F; Cowan, R A; Gardner, M D; Dryburgh, F J; Boyle, I T

    1986-03-01

    Several aspects of calcium metabolism were studied in five patients during the surgical exploration of malignant tumours associated with humorally-mediated hypercalcaemia. Before operation in all patients the renal tubular threshold for calcium reabsorption was raised and the threshold for renal tubular phosphate reabsorption depressed. On removal of the primary tumour in three cases, serum calcium returned to normal, renal calcium threshold fell, renal phosphate threshold rose, but urinary hydroxyproline excretion did not change. In two patients where the tumour proved inoperable, serum calcium remained elevated and no changes in renal calcium threshold or phosphate threshold occurred. Histomorphometry carried out on biopsy specimens from four patients showed normal bone resorption in three, and slightly increased resorption in one, without depression of osteoblastic bone formation. It is suggested that hypercalcaemia in these patients resulted mainly from an alteration in renal calcium threshold caused by a humoral substance released by tumour cells. Correction of hypercalcaemia on removal of the primary tumour was achieved rapidly and could be explained principally by a reduction in renal calcium threshold with increased loss of calcium into the urine. These data contrast with those of many previous studies which have emphasised the predominant role of accelerated osteoclastic bone resorption as the principal cause of hypercalcaemia in malignancy and suggest that a renal effect of the putative humoral agent may predominate in some cases.

  4. Humoral and Cellular Immunity Changed after Traumatic Brain Injury in Human Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia-Wei; Li, Jin-Ping; Song, Ying-Lun; Zhao, Qi-Huang

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that there is a disproportionally higher risk of infection following traumatic brain injury (TBI). This predisposition to infection may be driven by a poorly understood, brain-specific response in the immune system after TBI. However, there is a lack of studies that have fully characterized TBI patients to understand the relationship between TBI and peripheral immune function. In the present study, markers for humoral immunity and cellular immunity were measured for up to 2 weeks in the peripheral blood of 37 patients with TBI in order to elucidate the time course and the type of the peripheral immune response following TBI. 12 relatively healthy individuals without TBI and other neurological diseases were enrolled into the control group. Our data indicated that TBI could induce significant changes in humoral immunity characterized by a decrease in IgG and IgM levels and an increase in the complements C3 and C4 levels in comparison with the control group. Moreover, compared with the control group, a significant reduction in peripheral blood CD3(+) and CD3(+)CD4(+) lymphocyte counts occurred early (days 1-3) following the onset of trauma. These results provide evidence that TBI is associated with substantial changes in humoral immunity and cellular immunity, which may explain the high incidence of infection encountered in these patients. © 2017 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  5. Antimyosin imaging in cardiac transplant rejection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, L.L.; Cannon, P.J. (Department of Medicine, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York (United States))

    1991-09-01

    Fab fragments of antibodies specific for cardiac myosin have been labeled with indium-111 and injected intravenously into animals and into patients with heart transplants. The antibodies, developed by Khaw, Haber, and co-workers, localize in cardiac myocytes that have been damaged irreversibly by ischemia, myocarditis, or the rejection process. After clearance of the labeled antibody from the cardiac blood pool, planar imaging or single photon emission computed tomography is performed. Scintigrams reveal the uptake of the labeled antimyosin in areas of myocardium undergoing transplant rejection. In animal studies, the degree of antimyosin uptake appears to correlate significantly with the degree of rejection assessed at necropsy. In patients, the correlation between scans and pathologic findings from endomyocardial biopsy is not as good, possibly because of sampling error in the endomyocardial biopsy technique. The scan results at 1 year correlate with either late complications (positive) or benign course (negative). Current limitations of the method include slow blood clearance, long half-life of indium-111, and hepatic uptake. Overcoming these limitations represents a direction for current research. It is possible that from these efforts a noninvasive approach to the diagnosis and evaluation of cardiac transplantation may evolve that will decrease the number of endomyocardial biopsies required to evaluate rejection. This would be particularly useful in infants and children. 31 references.

  6. Partial interference subspace rejection in CDMA systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Affes, Sofiene; Mewelstein, Paul

    2001-01-01

    Previously presented interference subspace rejection (ISR) proposed a family of new efficient multiuser detectors for CDMA. We reconsider in this paper the modes of ISR using decision feedback (DF). DF modes share similarities with parallel interference cancellation (PIC) but attempt to cancel...

  7. Music genre recognition with risk and rejection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Bob L.

    2013-01-01

    We explore risk and rejection for music genre recognition (MGR) within the minimum risk framework of Bayesian classification. In this way, we attempt to give an MGR system knowledge that some misclassifications are worse than others, and that deferring classification to an expert may be a better...

  8. Ultrastructural basis of acute renal allograft rejection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V.D. Vuzevski (Vojislav)

    1976-01-01

    textabstractAn attempt was made: I. to demonstrate the evolution and the time of onset of the ultrastructural morphological changes in the renal parenchyma and blood vessels, as well as the ultrastructural feature of the interstitial cellular infiltration in acute rejection of kidney allografts; 2.

  9. Waste heat rejection from geothermal power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, R.C.

    1978-12-01

    This study of waste heat rejection from geothermal power stations is concerned only with the heat rejected from the power cycle. The heat contained in reinjected or otherwise discharged geothermal fluids is not included with the waste heat considered here. The heat contained in the underflow from the flashtanks in such systems is not considered as part of the heat rejected from the power cycle. By following this definition of the waste heat to be rejected, various methods of waste heat dissipation are discussed without regard for the particular arrangement to obtain heat from the geothermal source. Recent conceptual design studies made for 50-MW(e) geothermal power stations at Heber and Niland, California, are of particular interst. The former uses a flashed-steam system and the latter a binary cycle that uses isopentane. In last-quarter 1976 dollars, the total estimated capital costs were about $750/kW and production costs about 50 mills/kWhr. If wet/dry towers were used to conserve 50% of the water evaporation at Heber, production costs would be about 65 mills/kWhr.

  10. Double Ramp Loss Based Reject Option Classifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-22

    Cao et al. (Eds.): PAKDD 2015, Part I, LNAI 9077, pp. 151–163, 2015. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-18038-0 12 152 N. Manwani et al. ρ is the parameter...A.: kernlab - an S4 package for kernel methods in R. Journal of Statistical Software 11(9), 1–20 ( 2004 ) Double Ramp Loss Based Reject Option

  11. Local graft irradiation in renal transplant rejection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, Masashi; Kataoka, Masaaki; Itoh, Hisao (Ehime Univ., Matsuyama (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1990-04-01

    From 1977 to 1988, of 142 renal transplantations, seven recipients (4.9%) received local graft irradiation following rejective reaction refractory to antirejection medical managements. Concurrent with the administration of pulsed high dose methylprednisolone and other antirejection medical managements, the graft was irradiated with a total dose of 6.0 Gy-150 cGy per fraction every other day at the midplane of the graft using two opposing portals of 4MX Linac. The fields were defined by palpation and echography. All patients had improvements in serum creatinine on the 10th day after beginning the irradiation. Four patients with peripheral lymphocytosis during the irradiation combined with pulsed high dose methylprednisolone improved in renal functions. On the other hand, out of 3 patients with lymphcytopenic changes, in two the transplanted graft was removed due to deteriorations, and the other patient is currently suffering from chronic rejection. Local graft irradiation can be useful in maintaining a rejective graft and reversing its functions in some patients whose rejective reaction failed to respond to the antirejection medical managements. (author).

  12. Development of enhanced sulfur rejection processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.; Adel, G.T.; Richardson, P.E.

    1996-03-01

    Research at Virginia Tech led to the development of two complementary concepts for improving the removal of inorganic sulfur from many eastern U.S. coals. These concepts are referred to as Electrochemically Enhanced Sulfur Rejection (EESR) and Polymer Enhanced Sulfur Rejection (PESR) processes. The EESR process uses electrochemical techniques to suppress the formation of hydrophobic oxidation products believed to be responsible for the floatability of coal pyrite. The PESR process uses polymeric reagents that react with pyrite and convert floatable middlings, i.e., composite particles composed of pyrite with coal inclusions, into hydrophilic particles. These new pyritic-sulfur rejection processes do not require significant modifications to existing coal preparation facilities, thereby enhancing their adoptability by the coal industry. It is believed that these processes can be used simultaneously to maximize the rejection of both well-liberated pyrite and composite coal-pyrite particles. The project was initiated on October 1, 1992 and all technical work has been completed. This report is based on the research carried out under Tasks 2-7 described in the project proposal. These tasks include Characterization, Electrochemical Studies, In Situ Monitoring of Reagent Adsorption on Pyrite, Bench Scale Testing of the EESR Process, Bench Scale Testing of the PESR Process, and Modeling and Simulation.

  13. Hyperlipidemia Promotes Anti-Donor Th17 Responses That Accelerate Allograft Rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, J; Bagley, J; Iacomini, J

    2015-09-01

    Hyperlipidemia occurs in 95% of organ transplant recipients, however its effect on organ allograft rejection has not been investigated. We found that induction of hyperlipidemia in mice caused a significant acceleration of rejection of cardiac allografts. Accelerated rejection was associated with an aggressive T cell infiltrate that mediated significant tissue damage as well as increased serum levels of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-2, IL-6, and IL-17. Hyperlipidemic mice had an increased number of Th17 cells in their periphery and rejecting allografts from hyperlipidemic mice contained significant numbers of IL-17 producing T cells that were not detectable in transplants harvested from controls. Neutralization or genetic ablation of IL-17 prolonged survival of cardiac allografts transplanted into hyperlipidemic recipients, suggesting that IL-17 production promotes accelerated rejection. Analysis of alloreactive T cell frequencies directly ex vivo in naïve mice revealed that the frequency of donor reactive IL-17 producing cells in hyperlipidemic was increased prior to antigen exposure, suggesting that hyperlipidemia was sufficient to alter T cell alloreactivity and promote anti-donor Th17 responses on first exposure to antigen. Together, our data suggest that hyperlipidemia alters rejection by altering the types of T cell subsets that respond to donor antigen by promoting Th17 biased anti-donor reactivity.

  14. Early peri-operative hyperglycaemia and renal allograft rejection in patients without diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russ Graeme R

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with diabetes have an increased risk for allograft rejection, possibly related to peri-operative hyperglycaemia. Hyperglycaemia is also common following transplantation in patients without diabetes. We hypothesise that exposure of allograft tissue to hyperglycaemia could influence the risk for rejection in any patient with high sugars. To investigate the relationship of peri-operative glucose control to acute rejection in renal transplant patients without diabetes, all patients receiving their first cadaveric graft in a single center were surveyed and patients without diabetes receiving cyclosporin-based immunosuppression were reviewed (n = 230. Records of the plasma blood glucose concentration following surgery and transplant variables pertaining to allograft rejection were obtained. All variables suggestive of association were entered into multivariate logistic regression analysis, their significance analysed and modeled. Results Hyperglycaemia (>8.0 mmol/L occurs in over 73% of non-diabetic patients following surgery. Glycaemic control immediately following renal transplantation independently predicted acute rejection (Odds ratio=1.08. 42% of patients with a glucose Conclusion Hyperglycaemia is associated with an increased risk for allograft rejection. This is consistent with similar findings in patients with diabetes. We hypothesise a causal link concordant with epidemiological and in vitro evidence and propose further clinical research.

  15. Graft irradiation in the treatment of acute rejection of renal transplants: a randomized study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilepich, M.V.; Anderson, C.B.; Etheredge, E.E.; Sicard, G.A.; Melzer, J.S.; Blum, J.

    1982-05-01

    A randomized study of graft irradiation in the treatment of acute rejection of renal transplants was conducted from 1978 to 1981. Patients developing clinical signs of an acute graft rejection received customary antirejection treatment in the form of intravenous administration of high-dose (1 gm per day) of methylprednisolone. They were at the same time randomized to either receive therapeutic irradiation (175 rad every other day to a total of 525 rad) or sham irradiation. Neither the patient nor the Transplant Service surgeons knew at any time whether the radiation treatment had been given. Eighty-three rejection episodes occurring in 64 grafts were entered into the study. Acute rejection was reversed in 84.5% of grafts in the control and 75% in the treated group. The incidence of recurrent rejection was higher in the treated group (66 vs. 46%) and graft survival was lower (22% vs. 54%). The study failed to demonstrate a beneficial effect of graft irradiation in the treatment of acute renal allograft rejection, when used in conjunction with high dose steriods.

  16. CODING LOGICAL MECHANISM AND STEREOTYPING IN GENDER CYBER HUMORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truly Almendo Pasaribu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Gender-related humors have their own way of being funny; and this research aims to find out how and why they are funny. For this purpose, both researchers have collected 50 gender cyber humors and analyzed them, first, to decode how their logical mechanism relates to specific linguistic features, and secondly, to uncover how gender stereotyping contributes to the comical effects. The twisting of logic and linguistic ambiguity is analyzed formally using Attardos (2001 General Theory of Verbal Humor (GTVH and supported by gender studies. The findings reveal that the logical mechanism consists of elements of incongruities, and gender stereotyping presents negative stereotypical images. The analysis further shows that some gender stereotypical images ridicule traditional roles of man and woman while others make fun of non-traditional representations. This shift from women only to both men and women as targets of gender humors has been an impact of effective feminist movements.

  17. Universalidad y variabilidad cultural de la risa y el humor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Jáuregui

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available La risa es un fenómeno aparentemente universal, pero el humor que la provoca muestra una variabilidad casi infinita. Este artículo trata de distinguir entre los aspectos universales de la risa y los que son culturalmente variables. Define la risa como una emoción básica del ser humano, provocada por un estímulo cognitivo que depende de definiciones sociales de la situación, lo cual explica al menos en parte su aparente heterogeneidad. Otros aspectos que también pueden variar son las normas y costumbres relativas a la expresión de la risa y del humor, los géneros humorísticos, las instituciones del humor y las definiciones culturales de la risa misma.

  18. La capacidad retorica del humor grafico: la columna grafica

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lemos-Alonso, Haizea

    2012-01-01

    .... En este estudio se plantea un exhaustivo analisis retorico del humor grafico que permita no solo definir su capacidad argumentativa, sino ubicar dicho producto dentro de los estudios tradicionales...

  19. Regional distribution of phospholipids in porcine vitreous humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnepf, Abigail; Yappert, Marta Cecilia; Borchman, Douglas

    2017-07-01

    This project explores the regional phospholipid distribution in porcine vitreous humor, retina, and lens. Matrix-assisted laser desorption mass spectrometry has been used previously to image lipids, proteins, and other metabolites in retinas and lenses. However, the regional composition of phospholipids in vitreous humors is not known. To address this issue, we have applied this mass spectral method to explore the regional phospholipid distribution in porcine vitreous humor both ex-situ and in-vitro. To establish the possible source(s) of phospholipids in the vitreous humor, compositional studies of the lens and retina were also pursued. Due to the overall low levels of phospholipids in vitreous humor, it was necessary to optimize the experimental approaches for ex-situ and in-vitro studies. The sensitivity observed in the spectra of methanol extracts from the lens and retina was higher than that for methanol:chloroform extracts, but the compositional trends were the same. A fourfold improvement in sensitivity was observed in the analysis of vitreous humor extracts obtained with the Bligh and Dyer protocol relative to the other two extraction methods. For ex-situ studies, the 'stamp method' with para-nitroaniline as the matrix was chosen. Throughout the vitreous humor, phosphatidylcholines were the most abundant phospholipids. In-vitro results showed higher relative levels of phospholipids compared to the 'stamp' method. However, more details in the regional phospholipid distribution were provided by the ex-situ approach. Both in-vitro and ex-situ results indicated higher levels of phospholipids in the posterior vitreous region, followed by the anterior and central regions. The posterior region contained more unsaturated species whereas more saturated phospholipids were detected in the anterior region. The observed trends suggest that the phospholipids detected in the posterior vitreous humor migrate from the retina and associated vasculature while those present in

  20. Gastric cancer progression associated with local humoral immune responses

    OpenAIRE

    Yolanda, López-Vidal; Sergio, Ponce-de-León; Hugo, Esquivel-Solís; Isabel, Amieva-Fernández Rosa; Rafael, Barreto-Zúñiga; Aldo, Torre-Delgadillo; Gonzalo, Castillo-Rojas

    2015-01-01

    Background Although the association between H. pylori and gastric cancer has been well described, the alterations studies are scarce in the humoral immune response in specific anatomical areas of stomach and during the stages of gastric cancer. The aim in this study was to determine the influence of humoral immune responses against H. pylori infection on gastric carcinoma. Methods We selected 16 gastric cancer cases and approximately one matched control per case at the National Institute of M...

  1. The Experience of Failed Humor: Implications for Interpersonal Affect Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Michele; Emich, Kyle J

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate failed interpersonal affect regulation through the lens of humor. We investigated individual differences that influenced people's affective and cognitive responses to failed humor and their willingness to persist in the interpersonal regulation of positive affect after a failed attempt. Using well-established autobiographical narrative methods and surveys, we collected data at two time points. All participants (n = 127) received identical surveys at time 1. At time 2, they were randomly assigned to complete a narrative about either successful or failed humor as well as a second survey. Using moderated regression analyses and SEM, we found significant differences between our failed and successful humor conditions. Specifically, individual differences, including gender, affective perspective taking, and humor self-efficacy, were associated with negative reactions to failed humor and the willingness of individuals to persist in the interpersonal regulation of positive affect. Moreover, affective perspective taking moderated the effect of gender in both the failed and successful humor conditions. Our results suggest that failed humor is no laughing matter. Understanding individuals' willingness to continue in attempts to regulate the affect of others contributes to the comprehension of an understudied phenomenon that has implications for interpersonal behavior in organizations such as helping, group decision making, and intragroup conflict. Studies of interpersonal affect regulation often focus on people's ability to successfully regulate others' emotions. In contrast, this is the first quantitative study to explore factors that influence individual's willingness to persist in interpersonal affect regulation after failure, and to investigate how individual differences influence the personal outcomes associated with failed attempts.

  2. Conversational Agents and the Construction of Humorous Acts

    OpenAIRE

    Nijholt, Anton; Nishida, Toyoaki

    2007-01-01

    In this chapter we discuss the generation of humorous acts by embodied agents. It is observed that in future interfaces that are meant to allow natural interaction, embodied agents can play useful roles. Humor plays an important role in human-human interaction and therefore it is useful to investigate how it should become part of the internal modeling of an embodied agent, along with intelligence and emotion modeling. Employment of embodied agents will also give rise to expectations concernin...

  3. Embodied Agents: A New Impetus to Humor Research

    OpenAIRE

    Stock, O.; Strapparava, C.; Nijholt, A.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we survey the role of humor in human-to-human interaction with the aim to see whether it is useful for embodied conversational agents to integrate humor capabilities in their internal model of intelligence, emotions and interaction (verbal and nonverbal) capabilities. For that reason we shortly survey the current state of the art of research in embodied conversational agents, affective computing and verbal and nonverbal interaction. We adhere to the ‘Computers Are Social Actors’...

  4. Humorous Names in the Light of Incongruity Theory

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The article addresses the humorous function of proper names in the light of incongruity theory. It aims at proving that, although names are often defined as pragmatically “transparent,” they may possess some humorous value due to semantic and pragmatic shifts resulting from the disturbance of ordinary patterns of proper names identification and interpretation. After a brief introduction, the author discusses different variants of incongruity theory as resented in the works by Victor Raskin an...

  5. Longitudinal Associations Between Humor Styles and Psychosocial Adjustment in Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Louise Fox

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the concurrent and prospective associations between psychosocial adjustment and four humor styles, two of which are adaptive (affiliative, self-enhancing and two maladaptive (aggressive, self-defeating. Participants were 1,234 adolescents (52% female aged 11-13 years, drawn from six secondary schools in England. Self-reports of psychosocial adjustment (loneliness, depressive symptomatology, and self-esteem and humor styles were collected at two time points (fall and summer. In cross-lagged panel analyses, self-defeating humor was associated with an increase in both depressive symptoms and loneliness, and with a decrease in self-esteem. In addition, depressive symptoms predicted an increase in the use of self-defeating humor over time, indicating that these may represent a problematic spiral of thoughts and behaviors. Self-esteem was associated with an increase in the use of affiliative humor over the school year but not vice-versa. These results inform our understanding of the ways in which humor is associated with psychosocial adjustment in adolescence.

  6. Humor, laughter, learning, and health! A brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Brandon M; Lujan, Heidi L; Thipparthi, Raghavendar R; DiCarlo, Stephen E

    2017-09-01

    Human emotions, such as anxiety, depression, fear, joy, and laughter, profoundly affect psychological and physiological processes. These emotions form a set of basic, evolved functions that are shared by all humans. Laughter is part of a universal language of basic emotions that all humans recognize. Health care providers and educators may utilize the power of laughter to improve health and enhance teaching and learning. This is an important consideration because teaching is not just about content: it is also about forming relationships and strengthening human connections. In this context, when used effectively, humor is documented to build relationships and enhance performance. Specifically, humor improves student performance by attracting and sustaining attention, reducing anxiety, enhancing participation, and increasing motivation. Moreover, humor stimulates multiple physiological systems that decrease levels of stress hormones, such as cortisol and epinephrine, and increase the activation of the mesolimbic dopaminergic reward system. To achieve these benefits, it is important to use humor that is relevant to the course content and not disparaging toward others. Self-effacing humor illustrates to students that the teacher is comfortable making mistakes and sharing these experiences with the classroom. In this brief review, we discuss the history and relationship between humor, laughing, learning, and health with an emphasis on the powerful, universal language of laughter. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Hipercalcemia humoral secundaria a carcinoma mixto de endometrio Humoral hypercalcemia in mixed endometrial carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    I. Pinal-Fernández

    2010-01-01

    La hipercalcemia secundaria a enfermedad neoplásica es una entidad frecuente causada en la mayor parte de los casos por secreción ectópica de PTHrp. A pesar de esto hay ciertos tumores, como los carcinomas uterinos, en donde este tipo de manifestación paraneoplásica está muy poco descrita. Presentamos un caso de hipercalcemia humoral en un carcinoma mixto de endometrio.Hypercalcemia secondary to neoplastic disease is a frequent entity caused in the majority of cases by ectopic secretions of P...

  8. The humor after of the humor: concepts around Pablo Holberg´s Eden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Turnes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of 21st century comics production in Argentina have experienced the emergence of new methods of publication, promotion and circulation consisting of a series of devices whose complex relationship has redefined the authorial figureas well as a new reading audience. The passage from the Internet and digital formats to the book has established itself as post-industrial strategy in the context of the reconstitution of a diverse comics field, where the national tradition of humor serves as example of the mentioned changes

  9. Mycophenolate mofetil: safety and efficacy in the prophylaxis of acute kidney transplantation rejection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranav Dalal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Pranav Dalal1, Monica Grafals2, Darshika Chhabra2, Lorenzo Gallon21Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai Hospital, Chicago, USA; 2Northwestern University–Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, USAAbstract: Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF, a prodrug of mycophenolic acid (MPA, is an inhibitor of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH. It preferentially inhibits denovo pathway of guanosine nucleotide synthesis in T and B-lymphocytes and prevents their proliferation, thereby suppresses both cell mediated and humoral immune responses. Clinical trials in kidney transplant recipients have shown the efficacy of MMF in reducing the incidence and severity of acute rejection episodes. It also improves long term graft function as well as graft and patient survival in kidney transplant recipients. MMF is useful as a component of toxicity sparing regimens to reduce or avoid exposure of steroids or calcineurin inhibitor (CNI. Enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium (EC-MPS can be used as an alternative immunosuppressive agent in kidney transplant recipients with efficacy and safety profile similar to MMF.Keywords: mycophenolate mofetil, kidney transplantation, acute rejection, toxicity sparing

  10. Humor styles and personality: A meta-analysis of the relation between humor styles and the Big Five personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendiburo-Seguel, Andrés; Páez, Darío; Martínez-Sánchez, Francisco

    2015-06-01

    This research summarizes the knowledge generated in social psychology and positive psychology about the relationship between humor styles, personality and wellbeing. Specifically, a meta-analysis was performed with the results of 15 studies on humor styles measured by the Humor Styles Questionnaire (Martin, Puhlik-Doris, Larsen, Gray & Weir, 2003) in correlation with the personality traits measured by the Big Five Personality model (measured with different scales). Following the steps presented by Rosenthal (1991) for meta-analysis in the case of correlational research, we calculated the total mean r as an indicator of effect size. Results show that affiliative humor has a strong and homogeneous relation to neuroticism and extraversion. The homogeneity and heterogeneity found between variables and possible explanations are discussed in the conclusion.

  11. Humorous "Era" stories from the Arilje region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Desanka P.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses humorous stories collected in the village of Brekovo near Arilje; the stories were created in the first half of the 20th century and noted down by Momčilo Jovanović, a villager from Brekovo. Later on, in the 1980's, the stories were passed down to the author of this paper. These narrations are mostly short stories and anecdotes; in a very realistic fashion, the stories depict life and culture of the Dinaric race from old Vlah - Zlatibor cultural area, namely, the type of person also known as "Era", well-known for its wittiness, smartness and wisdom. Based on the analysis of seven Era-stories, the author identified the social and cultural values highlighted in the stories (such as attitudes toward authorities intergenerational relationship, status of women, power relations between townsmen and peasants, propensity toward justice and truth. In summary, the stories document the mutual influence between traditional culture and the Era personality in this particular rural region; therefore, they could contribute to studies on character traits of the inhabitants in a given area of western Serbia.

  12. Convective transport resistance in the vitreous humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penkova, Anita; Sadhal, Satwindar; Ratanakijsuntorn, Komsan; Moats, Rex; Tang, Yang; Hughes, Patrick; Robinson, Michael; Lee, Susan

    2012-11-01

    It has been established by MRI visualization experiments that the convection of nanoparticles and large molecules with high rate of water flow in the vitreous humor will experience resistance, depending on the respective permeabilities of the injected solute. A set of experiments conducted with Gd-DTPA (Magnevist, Bayer AG, Leverkusen, Germany) and 30 nm gadolinium-based particles (Gado CELLTrackTM, Biopal, Worcester, MA) as MRI contrast agents showed that the degree of convective transport in this Darcy-type porous medium varies between the two solutes. These experiments consisted of injecting a mixture of the two (a 30 μl solution of 2% Magnevist and 1% nanoparticles) at the middle of the vitreous of an ex vivo whole bovine eye and subjecting the vitreous to water flow rate of 100 μl/min. The water (0.9% saline solution) was injected at the top of the eye, and was allowed to drain through small slits cut at the bottom of the eyeball. After 50 minutes of pumping, MRI images showed that the water flow carried the Gd-DTPA farther than the nanoparticles, even though the two solutes, being mixed, were subjected to the same convective flow conditions. We find that the convected solute lags the water flow, depending on the solute permeability. The usual convection term needs to be adjusted to allow for the filtration effect on the larger particles in the form (1- σ) u . ∇ c with important implications for the modeling of such systems.

  13. Whole vitreous humor dissection for vitreodynamic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murali, Karthik; Kashani, Amir H; Humayun, Mark S

    2015-05-24

    The authors propose an effective technique to isolate whole, intact vitreous core and cortex from post mortem enucleated porcine eyes. While previous studies have shown the results of such dissections, the detailed steps have not been described, precluding researchers outside the field from replicating their methods. Other studies harvest vitreous either through aspiration, which does not maintain the vitreous structure anatomy, or through partial dissection, which only isolates the vitreous core. The proposed method isolates the whole vitreous body, with the vitreous core and cortex intact, while maintaining vitreous anatomy and structural integrity. In this method, a full thickness scleral flap in an enucleated porcine eye is first created and through this, the choroid tissue can be separated from the sclera. The scleral flap is then expanded and the choroid is completely separated from the sclera. Finally the choroid-retina tissue is peeled off the vitreous to leave an isolated intact vitreous body. The proposed vitreous dissection technique can be used to study physical properties of the vitreous humor. In particular, this method has significance for experimental studies involving drug delivery, vitreo-retinal oxygen transport, and intraocular convection.

  14. Intrathecal Humoral Immunity to Encephalitic RNA Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia C. Bergmann

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The nervous system is the target for acute encephalitic viral infections, as well as a reservoir for persisting viruses. Intrathecal antibody (Ab synthesis is well documented in humans afflicted by infections associated with neurological complications, as well as the demyelinating disease, multiple sclerosis. This review focuses on the origin, recruitment, maintenance, and biological relevance of Ab-secreting cells (ASC found in the central nervous system (CNS following experimental neurotropic RNA virus infections. We will summarize evidence for a highly dynamic, evolving humoral response characterized by temporal alterations in B cell subsets, proliferation, and differentiation. Overall local Ab plays a beneficial role via complement-independent control of virus replication, although cross or self-reactive Ab to CNS antigens may contribute to immune-mediated pathogenesis during some infections. Importantly, protective Ab exert anti-viral activity not only by direct neutralization, but also by binding to cell surface-expressed viral glycoproteins. Ab engagement of viral glycoproteins blocks budding and mediates intracellular signaling leading to restored homeostatic and innate functions. The sustained Ab production by local ASC, as well as chemokines and cytokines associated with ASC recruitment and retention, are highlighted as critical components of immune control.

  15. Humoral pattern recognition and the complement system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degn, S E; Thiel, S

    2013-08-01

    In the context of immunity, pattern recognition is the art of discriminating friend from foe and innocuous from noxious. The basis of discrimination is the existence of evolutionarily conserved patterns on microorganisms, which are intrinsic to these microorganisms and necessary for their function and existence. Such immutable or slowly evolving patterns are ideal handles for recognition and have been targeted by early cellular immune defence mechanisms such as Toll-like receptors, NOD-like receptors, RIG-I-like receptors, C-type lectin receptors and by humoral defence mechanisms such as the complement system. Complement is a proteolytic cascade system comprising around 35 different soluble and membrane-bound proteins. It constitutes a central part of the innate immune system, mediating several major innate effector functions and modulating adaptive immune responses. The complement cascade proceeds via controlled, limited proteolysis and conformational changes of constituent proteins through three activation pathways: the classical pathway, the alternative pathway and the lectin pathway, which converge in common effector functions. Here, we review the nature of the pattern recognition molecules involved in complement activation, as well as their close relatives with no or unknown capacity for activating complement. We proceed to examine the composition of the pattern recognition complexes involved in complement activation, focusing on those of the lectin pathway, and arrive at a new model for their mechanism of operation, supported by recently emerging evidence.

  16. To Accept or Reject? The Impact of Adolescent Rejection Sensitivity on Early Adult Romantic Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafen, Christopher A; Spilker, Ann; Chango, Joanna; Marston, Emily S; Allen, Joseph P

    2014-03-01

    Successfully navigating entry into romantic relationships is a key task in adolescence, which sensitivity to rejection can make difficult to accomplish. This study uses multi-informant data from a community sample of 180 adolescents assessed repeatedly from age 16 to 22. Individuals with elevated levels of rejection sensitivity at age 16 were less likely to have a romantic partner at age 22, reported more anxiety and avoidance when they did have relationships, and were observed to be more negative in their interactions with romantic partners. In addition, females whose rejection sensitivity increased during late adolescence were more likely to adopt a submissive pattern within adult romantic relationships, further suggesting a pattern in which rejection sensitivity forecasts difficulties.

  17. FEATURES OF PLASMAPHERESIS IN THE TREATMENT OF GRAFT REJECTION AFTER KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Vatazin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The development of immunological confl ict in the form of host-versus-graft reaction has always been main problem in transplantation. The worst case is the development of humoral rejection with the presence of circulating immune complexes and antibodies. There are several methods for quick removal of antibodies; among those are traditional plasmapheresis (PA and double fi ltration plasmapheresis (DFPF. In this paper we present our experience with these two methods and give a comparative evaluation of the effectiveness in the treatment of acute humoral rejection in renal allograft. Aim: to compare the effectiveness of traditional and double fi ltration plasmapheresis while processing different volumes of plasma in the treatment of host-versus-graft disease after kidney transplantation.Methods. The study included 58 patients after kidney transplantation. All patients had increased activity of humoral immunity, which was confi rmed by immunofl uorescence with luminescence C4d complement component. In 26 patients we performed DFPF, in 32 patients – traditional PA. We divided the DFPF patients into 4 subgroups depending on the amount of processed plasma: > 50% (5 patients, 50–100% (8 patients, 100–150% (7 patients, 150–200% (6 patients of circulating plasma volume. We also divided PA patients into four subgroups depending on the volume of plasma removed: >50% (8 patients, 50–70% (12 patients, 70–90% (7 patients, 90–110% (5 patients of the volume of circulating plasma. We monitored the immune status with markers of humoral immunity activation IgM, IgG before and after each of the procedures.Results. Each procedure of traditional PA and DFPF was accompanied by a marked decrease in blood concentrations of IgM and IgG antibodies. Their level decreased by an average of 30–55% of the original. However, some patients in both groups showed an increase in the concentration of these immunoglobulins in 1–2 days

  18. Study on the CE/EC Humorous Utterances Translation under the Skopos Theory%Study on the CE/EC Humorous Utterances Translation under the Skopos Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛昆

    2012-01-01

    This thesis takes the Skopos Theory which is the core of German functionalism as the breakthrough point. According to the general classification of humorous utterance, this thesis divides it into situational humor and language humor. This thesis aims to analyze the application of the Skopos Theory in the two classifications of humorous utterances translation from the two perspectives which are conformity and conflict between the source-te~tfunction and the target-text function.

  19. The German Version of the Humor Styles Questionnaire: Psychometric Properties and Overlap With Other Styles of Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruch, Willibald; Heintz, Sonja

    2016-08-01

    The Humor Styles Questionnaire (HSQ; Martin et al., 2003) is one of the most frequently used questionnaires in humor research and has been adapted to several languages. The HSQ measures four humor styles (affiliative, self-enhancing, aggressive, and self-defeating), which should be adaptive or potentially maladaptive to psychosocial well-being. The present study analyzes the internal consistency, factorial validity, and factorial invariance of the HSQ on the basis of several German-speaking samples combined (total N = 1,101). Separate analyses were conducted for gender (male/female), age groups (16-24, 25-35, >36 years old), and countries (Germany/Switzerland). Internal consistencies were good for the overall sample and the demographic subgroups (.80-.89), with lower values obtained for the aggressive scale (.66-.73). Principal components and confirmatory factor analyses mostly supported the four-factor structure of the HSQ. Weak factorial invariance was found across gender and age groups, while strong factorial invariance was supported across countries. Two subsamples also provided self-ratings on ten styles of humorous conduct (n = 344) and of eight comic styles (n = 285). The four HSQ scales showed small to large correlations to the styles of humorous conduct (-.54 to .65) and small to medium correlations to the comic styles (-.27 to .42). The HSQ shared on average 27.5-35.0% of the variance with the styles of humorous conduct and 13.0-15.0% of the variance with the comic styles. Thus-despite similar labels-these styles of humorous conduct and comic styles differed from the HSQ humor styles.

  20. Rejection sensitivity moderates the impact of rejection on self-concept clarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayduk, Ozlem; Gyurak, Anett; Luerssen, Anna

    2009-11-01

    Self-concept clarity (SCC) refers to the extent to which self-knowledge is clearly and confidently defined, internally consistent, and temporally stable. Research shows that SCC can be undermined by failures in valued goal domains. Because preventing rejection is an important self-relevant goal for people high in rejection sensitivity (RS), it is hypothesized here that failures to attain this goal would cause them to experience diminished SCC. Study 1, an experimental study, showed that high-RS people's SCC was undermined following rejection but not following an aversive experience unrelated to rejection. Study 2, a daily diary study of couples in relationships, used occurrence of partner conflicts to operationalize rejection. Replicating the findings in Study 1, having a conflict on any given diary day predicted a greater reduction in the SCC of high- compared to low-RS people on the following day. The implications for understanding the conditions under which rejection negatively affects the self-concept are discussed.

  1. A reflection of grace: the place of humor in the theology of Flannery O'Connor A reflection of grace: the place of humor in the theology of Flannery O'Connor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John N. Sommerville Jr

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Carter Martin has written that the "most troublesome critical problem" for those who read the stories of Flannery O'Connor is the "justification of the laughter which her work most assuredly does arouse"(5. This dilemma involves, among other things, the question of where humor fits in the world of "mystery", in the eternal and Christian context where, O'Connor emphasizes, her stories inevitably occur. Such a question is not easy to answer. Carter Martin has written that the "most troublesome critical problem" for those who read the stories of Flannery O'Connor is the "justification of the laughter which her work most assuredly does arouse"(5. This dilemma involves, among other things, the question of where humor fits in the world of "mystery", in the eternal and Christian context where, O'Connor emphasizes, her stories inevitably occur. Such a question is not easy to answer.

  2. Reactions to Discrimination, Stigmatization, Ostracism, and Other Forms of Interpersonal Rejection: A Multimotive Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Laura Smart; Leary, Mark R.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a new model that provides a framework for understanding people's reactions to threats to social acceptance and belonging as they occur in the context of diverse phenomena such as rejection, discrimination, ostracism, betrayal, and stigmatization. People's immediate reactions are quite similar across different forms of…

  3. RESPIRATORY VIRAL-INFECTIONS AGGRAVATE AIRWAY DAMAGE CAUSED BY CHRONIC REJECTION IN RAT LUNG ALLOGRAFTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WINTER, JB; GOUW, ASH; GROEN, M; WILDEVUUR, C; PROP, J

    1994-01-01

    Airway damage resulting in bronchiolitis obliterans occurs frequently in patients after heart-lung and lung transplantation. Generally, chronic rejection is assumed to be the most important cause of bronchiolitis obliterans. However, viral infections might also be potential causes of airway damage a

  4. A new rejection of moral expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    There seem to be two clearly-defined camps in the debate over the problem of moral expertise. On the one hand are the "Professionals", who reject the possibility entirely, usually because of the intractable diversity of ethical beliefs. On the other hand are the "Ethicists", who criticise the Professionals for merely stipulating science as the most appropriate paradigm for discussions of expertise. While the subject matter and methodology of good ethical thinking is certainly different from that of good clinical thinking, they argue, this is no reason for rejecting the possibility of a distinctive kind of expertise in ethics, usually based on the idea of good justification. I want to argue that both are incorrect, partly because of the reasons given by one group against the other, but more importantly because both neglect what is most distinctive about ethics: that it is personal in a very specific way, without collapsing into relativism.

  5. Interference Rejection Techniques in DSSS Communication System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONGXiangyang; HUGuangrui

    2003-01-01

    It is known that the narrowband interfer-ence rejection capability of a direct sequence (DS) spread spectrum (SS) system can be enhanced considerably by an interference rejection algorithm prior to correlating it with the pseudo noise (PN) sequence. For narrowband gaussian noise (NGN), the techniques in common use are transver-sal filter. It models SS signal and NGN as stationary, then utilizes temporal correlation difference between SS signal and NBL however, SS signal and NGN are cyclostation-ary (CS). CS signal has correlation in frequency domain called spectrum correlation, which can not be employed by transversal filter. In this article, SS signal and NBIare modeled as CS and FRESH filter is adopted to exploit the correlation both in time domain and frequency domain.Computer simulation shows that FRESH filter can improve the system performance considerably compared with con-ventional transversal filter.

  6. Internal Model Based Active Disturbance Rejection Control

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Jinwen; Wang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    The basic active disturbance rejection control (BADRC) algorithm with only one order higher extended state observer (ESO) proves to be robust to both internal and external disturbances. An advantage of BADRC is that in many applications it can achieve high disturbance attenuation level without requiring a detailed model of the plant or disturbance. However, this can be regarded as a disadvantage when the disturbance characteristic is known since the BADRC algorithm cannot exploit such informa...

  7. Humor as a Communication Strategy in Provider-Patient Communication in a Chronic Care Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöpf, Andrea C; Martin, Gillian S; Keating, Mary A

    2017-02-01

    Humor is a potential communication strategy to accomplish various and potentially conflicting consultation goals. We investigated humor use and its reception in diabetes consultations by analyzing how and why humor emerges and its impact on the interaction. We did this by using an interactional sociolinguistics approach. We recorded 50 consultations in an Irish diabetes setting. Analysis of the humor events drew on framework analysis and on concepts from Conversation Analysis and pragmatics. The study also comprised interviews using tape-assisted recall. We identified 10 humor functions and two umbrella functions. A key finding is that most humor is relationship-protecting humor initiated by patients, that is, they voice serious messages and deal with emotional issues through humor. Our findings imply that patients' and providers' awareness of indirect communication strategies needs to be increased. We also recommend that researchers employ varied methods to adequately capture the interactive nature of humor.

  8. The Use of Humor in Forensic Mental Health Staff-Patient Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, Lise; Alkier Gildberg, Frederik; Bradley, S. K.;

    2014-01-01

    Humor utilized in the practice of forensic mental health nursing might seem somehow inappropriate, given the serious circumstances surrounding most forensic mental health patients. However, some recent research has pointed to the use of humor as an important component in staff interactions...... with forensic mental health patients. This study reviews the existing international forensic mental health research literature on humor to investigate (a) what characterizes forensic mental health staff-patient use of humor and (b) what significance humor holds within the forensic mental health setting...... identified: (a) "humor as staff skill," showing that staff found humor to be important as an interpersonal ability; (b) "humor as a relational tool" with the purpose of establishing and maintaining staff-patient interactions; and (c) "the impact of humor on patients," describing impacts on conflicts...

  9. Heterosexual Rejection and Mate Choice: A Sociometer Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Liu, Shen; Li, Yue; Ruan, Lu-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies about the effects of social rejection on individuals' social behaviors have produced mixed results and tend to study mating behaviors from a static point of view. However, mate selection in essence is a dynamic process, and therefore sociometer theory opens up a new perspective for studying mating and its underlying practices. Based on this theory and using self-perceived mate value in the relationship between heterosexual rejection and mate choice as a mediating role, this current study examined the effects of heterosexual rejection on mate choice in two experiments. Results showed that heterosexual rejection significantly reduced self-perceived mate value, expectation, and behavioral tendencies, while heterosexual acceptance indistinctively increased these measures. Self-perceived mate value did not serve as a mediator in the relationship between heterosexual rejection and mate expectation, but it mediated the relationship between heterosexual rejection and mating behavior tendencies toward potential objects. Moreover, individuals evaded both rejection and irrelevant people when suffering from rejection.

  10. Vitreous humor rheology after Nd:YAG laser photo disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelkawi, Salwa A; Abdel-Salam, Ahmed M; Ghoniem, Dina F; Ghaly, Sally K

    2014-03-01

    This work aimed to consider the hazardous side effect of eye floaters treatment with Q-switched Nd:YAG laser on the protein and viscoelastic properties of the vitreous humor, and evaluate the protective role of vitamin C against laser photo disruption. Five groups of New Zealand rabbits were divided as follows: control group for (n = 3) without any treatment, the second group (n = 9) treated with Q-switched Nd:YAG laser energy of 5 mJ × 100 pulse delivered to the anterior, middle, and posterior vitreous, respectively (n = 3 for each). The third group (n = 9) received a daily dose of 25 mg/kg body weight vitamin C for 2 weeks, and then treated with laser as the previous group. The fourth group (n = 9) treated with 10 mJ 9 50 pulse delivered to the anterior, middle, and posterior vitreous, respectively (n = 3 rabbits each). The fifth group (n = 9) received a daily dose of 25 mg/kg body weight vitamin C for 2 weeks, and then treated with laser as the previous group. After 2 weeks of laser treatment, the protein content, refractive index (RI), and the rheological properties of vitreous humor, such as consistency, shear stress, and viscosity, were determined. The results showed that, the anterior vitreous group exposed to of 5 mJ × 100 pulse and/or supplemented with vitamin C, showed no obvious change. Furthermore, all other treated groups especially for mid-vitreous and posterior vitreous humor showed increase in the protein content, RI and the viscosity of vitreous humor. The flow index remained below unity indicating the non-Newtonian behavior of the vitreous humor. Application of Q-switched Nd:YAG laser should be restricted to the anterior vitreous humor to prevent the deleterious effect of laser on the gel state of the vitreous humor.

  11. Scheduling Simple Linear Deteriorating Jobs with Rejection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Zou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problems of scheduling deteriorating jobs with release dates on a single machine (parallel machines and jobs can be rejected by paying penalties. The processing time of a job is a simple linear increasing function of its starting time. For a single machine model, the objective is to minimize the maximum lateness of the accepted jobs plus the total penalty of the rejected jobs. We show that the problem is NP-hard in the strong sense and presents a fully polynomial time approximation scheme to solve it when all jobs have agreeable release dates and due dates. For parallel-machine model, the objective is to minimize the maximum delivery completion time of the accepted jobs plus the total penalty of the rejected jobs. When the jobs have identical release dates, we first propose a fully polynomial time approximation scheme to solve it. Then, we present a heuristic algorithm for the case where all jobs have to be accepted and evaluate its efficiency by computational experiments.

  12. Active disturbance rejection controller for chemical reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Both, Roxana; Dulf, Eva H.; Muresan, Cristina I., E-mail: roxana.both@aut.utcluj.ro [Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, 400114 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2015-03-10

    In the petrochemical industry, the synthesis of 2 ethyl-hexanol-oxo-alcohols (plasticizers alcohol) is of high importance, being achieved through hydrogenation of 2 ethyl-hexenal inside catalytic trickle bed three-phase reactors. For this type of processes the use of advanced control strategies is suitable due to their nonlinear behavior and extreme sensitivity to load changes and other disturbances. Due to the complexity of the mathematical model an approach was to use a simple linear model of the process in combination with an advanced control algorithm which takes into account the model uncertainties, the disturbances and command signal limitations like robust control. However the resulting controller is complex, involving cost effective hardware. This paper proposes a simple integer-order control scheme using a linear model of the process, based on active disturbance rejection method. By treating the model dynamics as a common disturbance and actively rejecting it, active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) can achieve the desired response. Simulation results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  13. Cannabis e humor Cannabis and mood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Faria Sanches

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as relações entre o uso agudo e crônico de cannabis e alterações do humor. MÉTODO: Os artigos foram selecionados por meio de busca eletrônica no indexador PubMed. Capítulos de livros e as listas de referências dos artigos selecionados também foram revisados. RESULTADOS: Observam-se elevados índices de comorbidade entre abuso/dependência de cannabis e transtornos afetivos em estudos transversais e em amostras clínicas. Estudos longitudinais indicam que, em longo prazo, o uso mais intenso de cannabis está relacionado com um risco maior de desenvolvimento de doença bipolar e, talvez, depressão maior em indivíduos inicialmente sem quadros afetivos; porém, os mesmos não encontraram maior risco de uso de cannabis entre aqueles com mania ou depressão sem esta comorbidade. Outra importante observação é que o uso de substâncias psicoativas em bipolares pode estar associado a uma série de características negativas, como dificuldade na recuperação dos sintomas afetivos, maior número de internações, piora na adesão ao tratamento, risco aumentado de suicídio, agressividade e a uma pobre resposta ao lítio. Tratamentos psicossociais e farmacológicos são indicados para o manejo da comorbidade entre cannabis e transtornos afetivos. CONCLUSÃO: As relações entre o uso de cannabis e alterações do humor são observadas tanto epidemiologicamente quanto nos contextos clínicos.OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the relationship between acute and chronic use of cannabis and mood changes. METHOD: Articles were selected by electronic search in PubMed. Chapters in books and reference lists of selected articles were also reviewed. As the research did not involve humans, there was no evaluation by a Research Ethics Committee. RESULTS: High rates of comorbidity between use/abuse/dependence of cannabis and affective disorders in longitudinal studies and in clinical samples were observed. Longitudinal studies indicate that, in long

  14. Antibody-Mediated Rejection: Pathogenesis, Prevention, Treatment, and Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia R. Blume

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR is a major cause of late kidney transplant failure. It is important to have an understanding of human-leukocyte antigen (HLA typing including well-designed studies to determine anti-MHC-class-I-related chain A (MICA and antibody rejection pathogenesis. This can allow for more specific diagnosis and treatment which may improve long-term graft function. HLA-specific antibody detection prior to transplantation allows one to help determine the risk for AMR while detection of DSA along with a biopsy confirms it. It is now appreciated that biopsy for AMR does not have to include diffuse C4d, but does require a closer look at peritubular capillary microvasculature. Although plasmapheresis (PP is effective in removing alloantibodies (DSAs from the circulation, rebound synthesis of alloantibodies can occur. Splenectomy is used in desensitization protocols for ABO incompatible transplants as well as being found to treat AMR refractory to conventional treatment. Also used are agents targeted for plasma cells, B cells, and the complement cascade which are bortezomib rituximab and eculizumab, respectively.

  15. THE DIAGNOSIS OF LIVER ALLOGRAFT ACUTE REJECTION IN LIVER BIOPSIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Shkalova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We performed histological examination of 80 liver allograft biopsies, the diagnosis of acute rejection was proved in 34 cases. Histological changes in liver biopsies in different grades of acute rejection were estimated according to Banff classification 1995, 1997 and were compared with current literature data. The article deals with the question of morphological value of grading acute rejection on early and late, also we analyze changes in treat- ment tactics after morphological verification of liver allograft acute rejection

  16. When Is Peer Rejection Justifiable? Children's Understanding across Two Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yoonjung; Killen, Melanie

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated how Korean (N = 397) and U.S. (N = 333) children and adolescents (10 and 13 years of age) evaluated personality (aggression, shyness) and group (gender, nationality) characteristics as a basis for peer rejection in three contexts (friendship rejection, group exclusion, victimization). Overall, peer rejection based on…

  17. Parental Acceptance-Rejection Theory and the Phylogenetic Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohner, Ronald P.

    Guided by specific theoretical and methodological points of view--the phylogenetic perspective and the universalistic approach respectively--this paper reports on a worldwide study of the antecedents and effects of parental acceptance and rejection. Parental acceptance-rejection theory postulates that rejected children throughout our species share…

  18. A Study of Humor in Lost in Thailand from the Perspective of Presupposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洁

    2014-01-01

    Humor study enjoys a long history with a variety of theories and methods. Among them, the pragmatic approach is a relatively new and vigorous perspective. Scholars have adopted the cooperative principle and relevance theory to explain humor. However, as to studying humor from the perspective of pragmatic presupposition, very few researches have been done in this regard. Such being the case, this paper will use presupposition as a tool to analyze humor in Lost in Thailand which is a sensational comedy in China. By analyzing cases from this film, the paper aims to explore how presupposition functions in the production of humorous effect, and to provide some new insights into humor study.

  19. An Analysis of Verbal Humor in American Sitcom The Big Bang Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴珍; 芮艳芳

    2015-01-01

    Humor plays an indispensable part in human communication. This thesis is a tentative analysis of verbal humor under-standing within the framework of Relevance Theory. This paper, using The Big Bang Theory as a corpus, analyzes the humor gener-ated in the cognitive process of searching for relevance. According to the Relevance Theory, the understanding of humor is a pro-cess in which the hearer finds"relevance"in what seems"irrelevant". The author hopes that this analysis can help more people un-derstand and appreciate the humor in The Big Bang Theory. And meanwhile their personal sense of humor can also be improved.

  20. Role of interferon-γ and cytotoxic T lymphocytes in intraocular tumor rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligocki, Ann J; Brown, Joseph R; Niederkorn, Jerry Y

    2016-05-01

    The eye is normally an immunosuppressive environment. This condition is better known as immune privilege and protects the eye from immune-mediated inflammation of tissues that cannot regenerate. However, immune privilege creates a dilemma for the eye when intraocular neoplasms arise. In some cases, immune privilege is suspended, resulting in the immune rejection of intraocular tumors. This study employed a mouse model in which interferon-γ-dependent intraocular tumor rejection occurs. We tested the hypothesis that this rejection requires interferon-γ for the generation and functional capacity of cytotoxic T lymphocyte-mediated rejection of intraocular tumors. Tumors grew progressively in the eyes of interferon-γ knockout mice, even though the mice generated tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses in the periphery. However, interferon-γ knockout mice rejected tumors that were introduced into extraocular sites. Subcutaneous tumor immunization before intraocular challenge led to tumor rejection and preservation of the eye in wild-type mice. By contrast, tumors grew progressively in the eyes of interferon-γ knockout mice despite their ability to generate peripheral tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes as well as the capacity of CD8(+) T cells to enter the eye as shown by the presence of CD8 and perforin message and CD3(+)CD8(+) leukocytes within the tumor-bearing eye. We found that cytotoxic T lymphocytes generated in wild-type mice and adoptively transferred into interferon-γ knockout mice mediated the rejection of intraocular tumors in interferon-γ knockout hosts. The results indicate that interferon-γ is critical for the initial priming and differentiation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes residing in the periphery to produce the most effect antitumor function within the eye.

  1. Does Humor Explain Why Relationally Aggressive Adolescents Are Popular?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, Julie C.; Etkin, Rebecca G.

    2013-01-01

    The association between relational aggression and popularity during early adolescence is well established. Yet, little is known about why, exactly, relationally aggressive young adolescents are able to achieve and maintain high popular status among peers. The present study investigated the mediating role of humor in the association between relational aggression and popularity during early adolescence. Also considered was whether the association between relational aggression and humor varies according to adolescents’ gender and their friends’ levels of relational aggression. Participants were 265 sixth-grade students (48% female; 41% racial/ethnic minority; Mage = 12.04 years) who completed peer nomination and friendship measures in their classrooms at two time points (Wave 1: February; Wave 2: May). The results indicated that Wave 1 relational aggression was related to Wave 1 and 2 popularity indirectly through Wave 1 humor, after accounting for the effects of Wave 1 physical aggression, ethnicity, and gender. Additional analyses showed that relational aggression and humor were related significantly only for boys and for young adolescents with highly relationally aggressive friends. The results support the need for further research on humor and aggression during early adolescence and other mechanisms by which relationally aggressive youth achieve high popular status. PMID:24136377

  2. Response efficacy: the key to minimizing rejection and maximizing acceptance of emotion-based anti-speeding messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, I M; Watson, B; White, K M

    2010-03-01

    This study sought to improve understanding of the persuasive process of emotion-based appeals not only in relation to negative, fear-based appeals but also for appeals based upon positive emotions. In particular, the study investigated whether response efficacy, as a cognitive construct, mediated outcome measures of message effectiveness in terms of both acceptance and rejection of negative and positive emotion-based messages. Licensed drivers (N=406) participated via the completion of an on-line survey. Within the survey, participants received either a negative (fear-based) appeal or one of the two possible positive appeals (pride or humor-based). Overall, the study's findings confirmed the importance of emotional and cognitive components of persuasive health messages and identified response efficacy as a key cognitive construct influencing the effectiveness of not only fear-based messages but also positive emotion-based messages. Interestingly, however, the results suggested that response efficacy's influence on message effectiveness may differ for positive and negative emotion-based appeals such that significant indirect (and mediational) effects were found with both acceptance and rejection of the positive appeals yet only with rejection of the fear-based appeal. As such, the study's findings provide an important extension to extant literature and may inform future advertising message design.

  3. Design Consideration of SAW/BAW Band Reject Filters Embedded in Impedance Converter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yulin; Bao, Jingfu; Tang, Gongbin; Zhang, Qiaozhen; Omori, Tatsuya; Hashimoto, Ken-Ya

    2017-09-01

    This paper discusses design of surface acoustic wave/bulk acoustic wave (SAW/BAW)-based band reject filters composed of the impedance converters, where capacitive elements are replaced with SAW/BAW resonators. First, basic properties of the unit cell are studied. It is shown how basic properties of a unit cell change with the design. It is also shown that when two notches caused by the resonators are placed in proximity, two synergy effects occur: 1) an extra matching point appears on one side of the transition band. This makes the insertion loss at the point smaller and the transition band steeper and 2) the dip level becomes deeper, and the total rejection level improves. Then, two resonators are fabricated, measured, and combined with inductors in circuit simulator to demonstrate functionality of the basic cell design. Finally, the wide rejection band filter is designed by cascading multistages, and effectiveness of the device configurations is demonstrated.

  4. REDUCING THE REJECTION RATE OF ENGINES MANUFACTURING DUE TO INJECTION TIMING VARIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrs. P.SIVASHANKARI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The white paper is on HINO 6 cylinder engine and the aim is to reduce the rejection rate of engines during testing due to the problems occur in valve timing and injection timing. The concept of Six Sigma is mainly practiced as a design to eliminate the production defects by improving the process of manufacturing. In the observation, the injection timing mark (spill mark is not perfectly done and also the imperfection in flywheel marking machine locator pin increases engine rejection. The aim is to eliminate the engines getting rejected during engine test due to problems arising in the injection timing and valve timing. As there are a lot of problems arising in the test bed where the engine is tested, few of which are related to injection timing and valve timing. These problems mainly arise due to changes in the valve and injection timing variation.

  5. Methodology for determination of two new sensory thresholds: Compromised acceptance threshold and rejection threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima Filho, Tarcísio; Minim, Valéria Paula Rodrigues; Silva, Rita de Cássia Dos Santos Navarro da; Della Lucia, Suzana Maria; Minim, Luis Antônio

    2015-10-01

    The existing methodologies for determining thresholds generate unreliable estimates of the point at which the intensity of a stimulus begins to compromise acceptance or result in sensory rejection of a product. Thus, a new methodology was proposed for determination of two new sensory thresholds: the compromised acceptance threshold (CAT) and the rejection threshold (RT). In this new methodology, increasing or decreasing series of stimulus intensity are measured together with a standard stimulus (control sample) by means of acceptance tests. In the present study, the CAT and RT were determined for sucrose concentrations in grape nectar, demonstrating that when reducing the sucrose concentration of grape nectar form 9.00% (w/v) to 6.87% there begins to occur impairment of product acceptance (CAT), and when reducing the sucrose concentration from 9.00% to 3.83% there begins to occur sensory rejection (RT) of the product. When compared to existing threshold determination methodologies, the proposed methodology permitted for calculating, with greater reliability, the points at which compromise of acceptance (CAT) and sensory rejection (RT) of the product begin to occur. In addition to the case study presented, the proposed methodology has a wide range of applications in science and in the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Aminoaciduria as a marker of acute renal transplant rejection--a patient study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, N A; Moscarello, M A; Goldberg, D M; Ish-Shalom, N; Arbus, G S

    1991-04-01

    Over 12 months, urine samples were systematically collected from 40 children who underwent renal transplantation for the treatment of end-stage renal disease. Sequential determinations of the excretion of individual amino acids relative to that of creatinine were carried out on 15 subjects. Nine of these (including three who sustained episodes of acute rejection) retained a native kidney in-situ, while in six patients (including three who underwent an episode of acute rejection) both native kidneys had been removed. In both subgroups, the amino acid/creatinine ratios of early morning urine samples were higher shortly before clinical manifestations of acute rejection became evident than in patients who, following renal transplantation, had stable kidney function, chronic graft rejection, or acute tubular necrosis, with one exception: a patient with one native kidney in-situ in whom acute tubular necrosis developed immediately after transplantation. The amino acids showing the greatest increase included Thr, Ser, Gly, and Ala. These values fell dramatically immediately prior to the clinical episode of acute rejection, with Thr, Ala, and Phe showing the most consistent changes. These alterations in urinary amino acid excretion occurred several days before changes in urinary protein excretion or the serum concentrations of urea and creatinine, and may have a role to play in the monitoring of renal transplant recipients.

  7. Doppler spectrum analysis to diagnose rejection during posttransplant acute renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkus, J W; Hoitsma, A J; van Asten, W N; Koene, R A; Skotnicki, S H

    1994-09-15

    During posttransplant acute renal failure (ARF), the diagnosis of allograft rejection constitutes a major problem. We evaluated the value of Doppler ultrasonography in identifying grafts at risk of rejection during ARF. In 184 recipients of a renal allograft, Doppler examinations were performed on the first and fifth postoperative day. Doppler spectra were quantitatively analyzed with a user-written computer program. Doppler findings were not used in clinical decision making. ARF was defined as a diuresis cadaveric grafts (n = 123), while living related donor grafts (n = 20) showed a lower RI (0.55 +/- 0.07; P 4 days (n = 24), RI was not significantly different (0.63 +/- 0.07 vs. 0.68 +/- 0.15; NS). However, the acceleration time of the systolic deflection of the spectrum waveform (Tmax) was shorter in grafts with ARF > 4 days (86 +/- 47 msec vs. 128 +/- 39 msec; P 4 days (n = 24) showed a Tmax or = 90 msec, only 2 rejections occurred (negative predictive value, 13/15 = 87%). For the RI (> 0.85), positive predictive value was 4/5 = 80% and negative predictive value (RI identification of patients at risk for rejection and in the timing of allograft biopsy during ARF. Persistently short Tmax values on the fifth day after transplantation perform better in identifying grafts at risk of rejection than high RI values.

  8. Mycophenolate Mofetil with Low Dose CsA for Chronic Rejection in Primary Cadaveric Renal Recipients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical efficacy of mycophenolate mofetil(MMF) with low dose CsA for chronic rejection in primary cadaveric renal recipients. Methods A total of 8 renal recipients who were clinically diagnosed as chronic rejection were given triimmunosuppressive agents: MMF 1.5~2.0 g/d+ CsA 2 to 3 mg/kg*d-1 and pred 10 mg/d.Results Blood creatinine reduced to normal level and urine protein disappeared in five cases, blood creatinine and urine protein decreased obviously in two cases, and kidney function deteriorated in another patient 4 to 9 weeks after this strategy. No acute rejection episodes or liver damage occurred among these patients during treatment. White blood cells reduced in one case, but it improved after therapy. Conclusion  MMF combined with low dose CsA can bring a considerable efficacy in reversing chronic rejection of renal recipients. This immunosuppressive strategy may be a useful routine in the treatment of chronic rejection.

  9. The Natural History of Biopsy-Negative Rejection after Heart Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoyi Tang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The most recent International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation (ISHLT biopsy scale classifies cellular and antibody-mediated rejections. However, there are cases with acute decline in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF ≤ 45% but no evidence of rejection on biopsy. Characteristics and treatment response of this biopsy negative rejection (BNR have yet to be elucidated. Methods. Between 2002 and 2012, we found 12 cases of BNR in 11 heart transplant patients as previously defined. One of the 11 patients was treated a second time for BNR. Characteristics and response to treatment were noted. Results. 12 cases (of 11 patients were reviewed and 11 occurred during the first year after transplant. 8 cases without heart failure symptoms were treated with an oral corticosteroids bolus and taper or intravenous immunoglobulin. Four cases with heart failure symptoms were treated with thymoglobulin, intravenous immunoglobulin, and intravenous methylprednisolone followed by an oral corticosteroids bolus and taper. Overall, 7 cases resulted in return to normal left ventricular function within a mean of 14 ± 10 days from the initial biopsy. Conclusion. BNR includes cardiac dysfunction and can be a severe form of rejection. Characteristics of these cases of rejection are described with most cases responding to appropriate therapy.

  10. Efficacy of mycofenolate mofetil for steroid-resistant acute rejection after living donor liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nobuhisa Akamatsu; Yasuhiko Sugawara; Sumihito Tamura; Yuichi Matsui; Junichi Kaneko; Masatoshi Makuuchi

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To discuss the use of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) as an immunosuppressant in steroid resistant rejection after liver transplantation. METHODS: The clinical records of 260 adult patients who underwent living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) were reviewed. Tacrolimus and methylprednisolone were used for primary immunosuppression. Acute rejection was first treated with steroids. When steroid resistance occurred, the patient was treated with a combination of steroids and MMF. Anti-T-cell monoclonal antibody was administered to patients who were not responsive to steroids in combination with MMF.RESULTS: A total of 90 (35%) patients developed acute rejection. The median interval time from transplantation to the first episode was 15 d. Fifty-four patients were steroid resistant. Forty-four patients were treated with MMF and the remaining 10 required anti-T-cell monoclonal antibody treatment. Progression to chronic rejection was observed in one patient. Bone marrow suppression and gastrointestinal symptoms were the most common side effects associated with MMF use. There was no significant increase in opportunistic infections. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate that MMF is a potent and safe immunosuppressive agent for rescue therapy in patients with acute rejection after LDLT.

  11. Differential effects of self-esteem and interpersonal competence on humor styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCosker B

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Bernadette McCosker, Carmen C MoranSchool of Psychology, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, NSW, AustraliaBackground: In contrast with an early implicit “facilitative hypothesis” of humor, a revised specificity hypothesis predicts that the benefits of humor depend on the specific style of humor used. Information on predictors of these humor styles in turn enhances the ability to predict the effect on well-being.Methods: We examined the relationships between interpersonal competence, self-esteem, and different styles of humor, while also examining the contributions of age and gender. Participants (n = 201 aged 18–63 years completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory, the Interpersonal Competence Questionnaire, and the Humor Styles Questionnaire, and gave demographic information.Results: High self-esteem was associated with higher use of affiliative, aggressive, and self-enhancing humor styles, but lower use of self-defeating humor. High interpersonal competence predicted greater use of affiliative humor, whereas low interpersonal competence predicted greater use of aggressive humor. Further analyses showed that initiation competence predicted affiliative humor (positively but both initiation competence (positively and conflict management competence (negatively predicted aggressive humor.Conclusion: The findings that both self-esteem and initiation competence contribute to use of aggressive humor add to knowledge of who is likely to use this potentially harmful humor style. We conclude that a readiness to initiate humorous interactions is not on its own a general and positive attribute contributing to “good” humor.Keywords: self-esteem, interpersonal competence, humor styles, differential effects

  12. Repair grinding -- An alternative to ultrasonic rejection for oilfield tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanley, R.K. (NDE Information Consultants, Houston, TX (United States))

    1994-10-01

    The price of scrap steel rose from $95 to $140/ton in 1993, making tubular production costs higher and making internal repair grinding of oil field tubes with minor internal surface breaking imperfections an extremely cost effective method for placing potentially reject tubulars back into service. Such imperfections often occur and are presently sized by the shear wave ultrasonic amplitude method. This article is written to illustrate how effective repair grinding can be in producing prime material within the API specifications 5CT, specification for Casing and Tubing; 5D, Specification for Drill Pipe; and 5L, Line Pipe. Ninety percent of high grade and 50--60% of midgrade materials can be saved by this method.

  13. The Use of Humor in Serious Mental Illness: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Gelkopf

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is now a relatively good understanding of the broad range of direct and indirect effects of humor and laughter on perceptions, attitudes, judgments and emotions, which can potentially benefit the physical and psychological state. This article presents a review and discussion of the use of humor and laughter in treating people with serious mental illness, distinguishing between clinical papers on individual and group psychotherapy, and empirical research reports describing humor and laughter interventions. In spite of the exponential growth of the field over the last 30 years, I conclude that empirical studies are still lacking, the studies that do exist have major methodological shortcomings, and the field is in dire need of further investigation.

  14. The Use of Humor in Serious Mental Illness: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelkopf, Marc

    2011-01-01

    There is now a relatively good understanding of the broad range of direct and indirect effects of humor and laughter on perceptions, attitudes, judgments and emotions, which can potentially benefit the physical and psychological state. This article presents a review and discussion of the use of humor and laughter in treating people with serious mental illness, distinguishing between clinical papers on individual and group psychotherapy, and empirical research reports describing humor and laughter interventions. In spite of the exponential growth of the field over the last 30 years, I conclude that empirical studies are still lacking, the studies that do exist have major methodological shortcomings, and the field is in dire need of further investigation. PMID:19687190

  15. Using humor in systematic desensitization to reduce fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventis, W L; Higbee, G; Murdock, S A

    2001-04-01

    Effectiveness of systematic desensitization for fear reduction, using humorous hierarchy scenes without relaxation, was tested. Participants were 40 students highly fearful of spiders. Using a 24-item behavioral approach test with an American tarantula, participants were matched on fear level and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups: (a) systematic desensitization, (b) humor desensitization, and (c) untreated controls. Each participant was seen for 6 sessions, including pretest and posttest. Analyses of covariance of posttest scores revealed that the 2 treatment groups showed greater reduction in fear than the controls on 3 measures but did not differ from each other. Therefore, humor in systematic desensitization reduced fear as effectively as more traditional desensitization. This finding may have therapeutic applications; however, it may also be applicable in advertising to desensitize fear of a dangerous product, such as cigarettes.

  16. Was that really funny? The politics of humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, M M

    1995-07-01

    Everybody loves a comic--or do they? A Human Resources Department picked up a pattern when several departing employees, all excellent performers, said they liked their jobs but felt "excluded" from the camaraderie. One said he'd found the humor "barbed." Another said she's never seen anything funny in jokes that seemed to convulse everyone else. The past five years have been so gloomy, economically speaking, that, in many hospitals and health care organizations, laughter is a mega-event. But lately I've been listening to what employees joke about and watching how their humor affects others. Physician executives need to be alert to some kinds of humor that are weapons used by employees against other employees, their managers, and the company generally.

  17. VIOLENCE DRESSED IN HUMOR: COMEDIC VIOLENCE IN ADVERTISING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia Gradinaru

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the concepts of humor and violence and their complex relationships contextualised in the advertising domain. Thus, the main theories of humor and the most important elements from media violence paradigms are critically pointed out. The effects of comedic violence in advertising may be positive (great involvement with the ad message, retention of brand information, higher pass-along probability, and also negative (offending the audience, desensitization, damaging the reputation and the brand equity. A lot of factors change the perception of comedic violent ads (gender, social norm beliefs etc., so that a multidimensional analysis of consumer perceptions is needed if we want to draw a more accurate picture of this phenomenon. The analysis of the specific ad that I developed in the second part of this paper showed clearly the interplay between perceived humor and perceived violence and also the relevance of the cultural background in its interpretation.

  18. Analysis on the Humor and Irony in Pride and Prejudice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓越

    2016-01-01

    Pride and Prejudice, published in 1813, is the most influential work of British female writer Jane Austen (1775-1817). By analyzing Jane Austen's representative novel, Pride and Prejudice, we are convinced by the excellent humor and irony used in it. Irony in Pride and Prejudice is mainly embodied in Austen's verbal irony, situational irony and dramatic irony. Under the perspective of stylistics, this paper analyzes dialogues, descriptive and commentary language and the arrangement of the whole plots of Austen's Pride and Prejudice to show how the different tones of humor and irony are reflected in the novel. This paper also focuses on the significance in portraying the characteristics of the roles and theme performance of humor and irony used in Pride and Prejudice, which help us to appreciate the satire literature.

  19. Reconsidering language teaching through a focus on humor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Bell

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Formal language education is often predicated on a series of modernist fictions that greatly simplify the nature of language and the process of communication. Acts of linguistic creativity involving humor and language play are frequently either ignored or considered deviant. In this paper, we contribute to ongoing efforts to re-conceptualize language education in ways that make use of more robust (and less modernist theories of language and communication. We revisit calls for more pedagogical focus on humor and language play and illustrate how more attention to these types of language might help us to move away from some of the classroom fictions that currently constrain teachers and learners alike. Specifically, we present recent conceptions of language and of communication, and discuss how, in light of these, humor and language play can be used to increase learners’ metalinguistic awareness and expand their communicative/interpretive repertoires.

  20. Validation of the Humor Style Questionnaire with university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Cassaretto B.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study validates the Humor Style Questionnaire in a group of 315 university students of both genders from Lima, Peru, with an average age of 19,7. The Humor Style Questionnaire (HSQ by Martin, Puhlik-Doris, Larsen, Gray & Weir (2003, the Psychological Well-Being Scale (BIEPS-A by Casullo (2002 and the Hope Scale by Herth (1991 were used. After the neutralization of four items, results show reliability coefficients between 0,64 to 0,78 and a factorial structure confirming the existence of four factors (42,94% of the total variance.Results show positive associations between psychological well-being and hope with affiliation and self-enhancing styles, and negative associations between aggression and self-defeating humor. Results support the convergence validity and the construct of the scale.

  1. Erotismo, sexualidad y humor en las danzas del altiplano boliviano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveline Sigl

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo analiza la importancia del erotismo, la sexualidad y el humor en las danzas del altiplano boliviano. Demuestra que estos elementos performativos no solo están fuertemente interconectados, sino también íntimamente ligados a la sacralidad andina. La primera parte del texto está dedicada a los componentes humorísticos y lúdicos del enamoramiento mediante la danza, postulando que humor y alegría forman parte del “erotismo andino”. Mientras tanto, la segunda parte estudia el “transformismo ritual andino”, que consiste en presentaciones dancísticas sumamente jocosas y fuertemente sexuadas a cargo de hombres hetero y homosexuales disfrazados de mujer.

  2. Dispositional mindfulness and rejection sensitivity: The critical role of nonjudgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Jessica R; Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory A; Smart, Laura M

    2016-04-01

    The pain of rejection is a crucial component of normal social functioning; however, heightened sensitivity to rejection can be impairing in numerous ways. Mindfulness-based interventions have been effective with several populations characterized by elevated sensitivity to rejection; however, the relationship between mindfulness and rejection sensitivity has been largely unstudied. The present study examines associations between rejection sensitivity and multiple dimensions of dispositional mindfulness, with the hypothesis that a nonjudgmental orientation to inner experiences would be both associated with decreased rejection sensitivity and attenuate the impact of sensitivity to rejection on general negative affect. A cross-sectional sample of undergraduates (n = 451) completed self-report measures of rejection sensitivity, dispositional mindfulness, and trait-level negative affect. Significant zero-order correlations and independent effects were observed between most facets of dispositional mindfulness and rejection sensitivity, with nonjudging demonstrating the largest effects. As predicted, rejection sensitivity was associated with negative affectivity for people low in nonjudging (β = .27, t = 5.12, p < .001) but not for people high in nonjudging (β = .06, t = .99, p = .324). These findings provide preliminary support for mindfulness, specifically the nonjudging dimension, as a protective factor against rejection sensitivity and its effects on affect.

  3. Using Compton scattering for random coincidence rejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolstein, M.; Chmeissani, M.

    2016-12-01

    The Voxel Imaging PET (VIP) project presents a new approach for the design of nuclear medicine imaging devices by using highly segmented pixel CdTe sensors. CdTe detectors can achieve an energy resolution of ≈ 1% FWHM at 511 keV and can be easily segmented into submillimeter sized voxels for optimal spatial resolution. These features help in rejecting a large part of the scattered events from the PET coincidence sample in order to obtain high quality images. Another contribution to the background are random events, i.e., hits caused by two independent gammas without a common origin. Given that 60% of 511 keV photons undergo Compton scattering in CdTe (i.e. 84% of all coincidence events have at least one Compton scattering gamma), we present a simulation study on the possibility to use the Compton scattering information of at least one of the coincident gammas within the detector to reject random coincidences. The idea uses the fact that if a gamma undergoes Compton scattering in the detector, it will cause two hits in the pixel detectors. The first hit corresponds to the Compton scattering process. The second hit shall correspond to the photoelectric absorption of the remaining energy of the gamma. With the energy deposition of the first hit, one can calculate the Compton scattering angle. By measuring the hit location of the coincident gamma, we can construct the geometric angle, under the assumption that both gammas come from the same origin. Using the difference between the Compton scattering angle and the geometric angle, random events can be rejected.

  4. Why Goethe rejected Newton's theory of light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treisman, M

    1996-01-01

    Observations that he himself had made persuaded Goethe to reject Newton's theory of light and to put forward an alternative theory of the colour phenomena seen with a prism. Duck has argued that Goethe's attack on Newton's theory rested on valid experimental observations that appeared to present a difficulty for Newton's theory but to support his own views on colour. Duck has also proposed that these observations may be accounted for as an instance of the Bezold-Brücke phenomenon. It is argued here that this explanation is invalid and that two other features of colour processing can explain Goethe's observations.

  5. Confidence and rejection in automatic speech recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colton, Larry Don

    Automatic speech recognition (ASR) is performed imperfectly by computers. For some designated part (e.g., word or phrase) of the ASR output, rejection is deciding (yes or no) whether it is correct, and confidence is the probability (0.0 to 1.0) of it being correct. This thesis presents new methods of rejecting errors and estimating confidence for telephone speech. These are also called word or utterance verification and can be used in wordspotting or voice-response systems. Open-set or out-of-vocabulary situations are a primary focus. Language models are not considered. In vocabulary-dependent rejection all words in the target vocabulary are known in advance and a strategy can be developed for confirming each word. A word-specific artificial neural network (ANN) is shown to discriminate well, and scores from such ANNs are shown on a closed-set recognition task to reorder the N-best hypothesis list (N=3) for improved recognition performance. Segment-based duration and perceptual linear prediction (PLP) features are shown to perform well for such ANNs. The majority of the thesis concerns vocabulary- and task-independent confidence and rejection based on phonetic word models. These can be computed for words even when no training examples of those words have been seen. New techniques are developed using phoneme ranks instead of probabilities in each frame. These are shown to perform as well as the best other methods examined despite the data reduction involved. Certain new weighted averaging schemes are studied but found to give no performance benefit. Hierarchical averaging is shown to improve performance significantly: frame scores combine to make segment (phoneme state) scores, which combine to make phoneme scores, which combine to make word scores. Use of intermediate syllable scores is shown to not affect performance. Normalizing frame scores by an average of the top probabilities in each frame is shown to improve performance significantly. Perplexity of the wrong

  6. USA: California rejects mandatory GMO labelling

    OpenAIRE

    PAULL, JOHN

    2012-01-01

    Buying organic remains the best strategy for US consumers to avoid eating GM food. The voters of California have rejected the proposal to label GMO food. The proposition was narrowly lost, 47% to 53% (4,326,770 ‘Yes’ votes vs. 4,884,961 ‘No’ votes). Proposition 47 was supported by the organic sector but opposed by a coalition of GMO companies and US multinational food companies. Californians were invited to vote into law ‘The California Right to Know Genetically Engineered Food Act’. Section ...

  7. Solar Rejection Filter for Large Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmati, Hamid; Lesh, James

    2009-01-01

    To reject solar radiation photons at the front aperture for large telescopes, a mosaic of large transmission mode filters is placed in front of the telescope or at the aperture of the dome. Filtering options for effective rejection of sunlight include a smaller filter down-path near the focus of the telescope, and a large-diameter filter located in the front of the main aperture. Two types of large filters are viable: reflectance mode and transmittance mode. In the case of reflectance mode, a dielectric coating on a suitable substrate (e.g. a low-thermal-expansion glass) is arranged to reflect only a single, narrow wavelength and to efficiently transmit all other wavelengths. These coatings are commonly referred to as notch filter. In this case, the large mirror located in front of the telescope aperture reflects the received (signal and background) light into the telescope. In the case of transmittance mode, a dielectric coating on a suitable substrate (glass, sapphire, clear plastic, membrane, and the like) is arranged to transmit only a single wavelength and to reject all other wavelengths (visible and near IR) of light. The substrate of the large filter will determine its mass. At first glance, a large optical filter with a diameter of up to 10 m, located in front of the main aperture, would require a significant thickness to avoid sagging. However, a segmented filter supported by a structurally rugged grid can support smaller filters. The obscuration introduced by the grid is minimal because the total area can be made insignificant. This configuration can be detrimental to a diffraction- limited telescope due to diffraction effects at the edges of each sub-panel. However, no discernable degradation would result for a 20 diffraction-limit telescope (a photon bucket). Even the small amount of sagging in each subpanel should have minimal effect in the performance of a non-diffraction limited telescope because the part has no appreciable optical power. If the

  8. Antibody-Mediated Rejection: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garces, Jorge Carlos; Giusti, Sixto; Staffeld-Coit, Catherine; Bohorquez, Humberto; Cohen, Ari J.; Loss, George E.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Chronic antibody injury is a serious threat to allograft outcomes and is therefore the center of active research. In the continuum of allograft rejection, the development of antibodies plays a critical role. In recent years, an increased recognition of molecular and histologic changes has provided a better understanding of antibody-mediated rejection (AMR), as well as potential therapeutic interventions. However, several pathways are still unknown, which accounts for the lack of efficacy of some of the currently available agents that are used to treat rejection. Methods: We review the current diagnostic criteria for AMR; AMR paradigms; and desensitization, treatment, and prevention strategies. Results: Chronic antibody-mediated endothelial injury results in transplant glomerulopathy, manifested as glomerular basement membrane duplication, double contouring, or splitting. Clinical manifestations of AMR include proteinuria and a rise in serum creatinine. Current strategies for the treatment of AMR include antibody depletion with plasmapheresis (PLEX), immunoadsorption (IA), immunomodulation with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), and T cell– or B cell–depleting agents. Some treatment benefits have been found in using PLEX and IA, and some small nonrandomized trials have identified some benefits in using rituximab and the proteasome inhibitor-based therapy bortezomib. More recent histologic follow-ups of patients treated with bortezomib have not shown significant benefits in terms of allograft outcomes. Furthermore, no specific treatment approaches have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. Other agents used for more difficult rejections include bortezomib and eculizumab (an anti-C5 monoclonal antibody). Conclusion: AMR is a fascinating field with ample opportunities for research and progress in the future. Despite the use of advanced techniques for the detection of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) or non-HLA donor-specific antibodies

  9. Mechanisms of Alloimmunization and Subsequent Bone Marrow Transplantation Rejection Induced by Platelet Transfusion in a Murine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Seema R; Smith, Nicole H; Kapp, Linda; Zimring, James C

    2015-01-01

    For many non-malignant hematological disorders, HLA-matched bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is curative. However, due to lack of neoplasia, the toxicity of stringent conditioning regimens is difficult to justify, and reduced-intensity conditioning is used. Unfortunately, current reduced-intensity regimens have high rates of BMT rejection. We have recently reported in a murine model that mHAs on transfused platelet products induce subsequent BMT rejection. Most non-malignant hematological disorders require transfusion support prior to BMT and the rate of BMT rejection in humans correlates to the number of transfusions given. Herein, we perform a mechanistic analysis of platelet transfusion induced BMT rejection and report that unlike exposure to alloantigens during transplantation, platelet transfusion primes alloimmunity but does not stimulate full effector function. Subsequent BMT is itself an additional and distinct immunizing event, which does not induce rejection without antecedent priming from transfusion. Both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells are required for priming during platelet transfusion, but only CD8+ T cells are required for BMT rejection. In neither case are antibodies required for rejection to occur. PMID:22300526

  10. Validation of the Humor Style Questionnaire with university students

    OpenAIRE

    Mónica Cassaretto B.; Patricia Martínez U.

    2009-01-01

    This study validates the Humor Style Questionnaire in a group of 315 university students of both genders from Lima, Peru, with an average age of 19,7. The Humor Style Questionnaire (HSQ) by Martin, Puhlik-Doris, Larsen, Gray & Weir (2003), the Psychological Well-Being Scale (BIEPS-A) by Casullo (2002) and the Hope Scale by Herth (1991) were used. After the neutralization of four items, results show reliability coefficients between 0,64 to 0,78 and a factorial structure confirming the exis...

  11. Humor e Shoah: O trem da vida, de Radu Mihaileanu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyslei Nascimento

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Um vilarejo da Ucrânia, na Europa Oriental, no ano de 1941, é o cenário do filme O trem da vida, do diretor romeno Radu Mihaileanu. O roteiro, ao se afastar de dados históricos e de uma configuração realista da Shoah, configura-­se como uma fábula. Não é fácil fazer humor, muito menos, sobre a catástrofe. O humor presente no filme de Mihaileanu é reflexivo, expondo, com leveza, as fraturas do discurso.

  12. [Neuropsychology of humor: an introduction Part 1. Psychological data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derouesné, Christian

    2016-03-01

    Humor is, from a psychological point of view, a complex process involving cognitive, affective, interspersonal and social elements in a interpersonal context. Its cognitive core is based on the perception of incongruity between two related inconsistent or contradictory mental representations. The total or partial resolution of incongruity in a playful frame is associated with a specific positive emotion, which characteristics and intensity are determined by the structure of the humoristic stimulus more than its content, and the personal and social contexts. Main theories of humor are reviewed as well as its development, its cognitive and affective correlates, and the influence of genre, age and personality.

  13. Using Humor in Treatment of Substance Use Disorders: Worthy of Further Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canha, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Throughout the literature, humor has demonstrated positive effects on memory and learning, as well as physiological and psychological well being. Research has described improvements in communication and trust through the use of humor in the nurse-patient relationship. The utilization of humor with certain populations, including those with anxiety disorders, cancer patients and mood disorders has also been widely described in the literature but little research has been conducted with humor use in patients' recovery from substance use disorders. This population might benefit from the thoughtful applications of humor to promote laughter and mirth as well as learning recovery principles. A review of the humor theories, theoretical processes and humor styles are discussed for their use in individuals with substance use disorders, in particularly for early recovery engagement in 12 step programs and other recover support social networks. The application of humor in efforts to support recovery with substance use disorder patients is worth investigating further.

  14. Analysis of Humor in The Big Bang Theory Based on the Conversational Relevance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Yang

    2014-01-01

    Humor is the life buoy in waves of life. Pragmatics and humor are closely linked. Relevance is one of the important topics of Pragmatics. This paper takes the lines from The Big Bang Theory as a case study and analyzes the humorous effect from the perspective of Principle of Relevance and Conversational Relevance, hoping to help people deepen the appreciation and un⁃derstanding of humor.

  15. Why We Laugh and What Makes Us Laugh: The Enigma of Humor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Asa Berger

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Humor (and related concerns such as the nature of comedy and of laughter is an enigmatic subject that has perplexed our greatest thinkers from Aristotle’s time to the present. There are four competing theories that explain humor, each of which argues that all humor is based on: superiority, incongruity, cognitive problems in processing humor and psychoanalytic perspectives (such as masked aggression.

  16. The aqueous humor outflow pathways in glaucoma: A unifying concept of disease mechanisms and causative treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunger, Barbara M; Fuchshofer, Rudolf; Tamm, Ernst R

    2015-09-01

    Intraocular pressure (IOP) is the critical risk factor for glaucoma, a neurodegenerative disease and frequent cause of blindness worldwide. As of today, all effective strategies to treat glaucoma aim at lowering IOP. IOP is generated and maintained via the aqueous humor circulation system in the anterior eye. Aqueous humor is secreted by the ciliary processes and exits the eye through the trabecular meshwork (TM) or the uveoscleral outflow pathways. The TM outflow pathways provide resistance to aqueous humor outflow and IOP builds up in response to it. In the normal eye, the resistance is localized in the inner wall region, which comprises the juxtacanalicular connective tissue (JCT) and the inner wall endothelium of Schlemm's canal (SC). Outflow resistance in the inner wall region is lowered through the contraction of the ciliary muscle or the relaxation of contractile myofibroblasts in the posterior part of the TM and the adjacent scleral spur. Patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), the most frequent form of glaucoma, typically suffer from an abnormally high outflow resistance of the inner wall region. There is increasing evidence that the increase in TM outflow resistance in POAG is the result of a characteristic change in the biological properties of the resident cells in the JCT, which increasingly acquire the phenotype of contractile myofibroblasts. This scenario strengthens simultaneously both their actin cytoskeleton and their directly associated extracellular matrix fibrils, leads to overall stiffening of the tissue, and is modulated by transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)/connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) signaling. Essentially comparable changes appear to occur in SC endothelial cells in glaucoma. Causative therapy concepts targeting the aqueous outflow pathways in glaucoma should aim at interfering with this process either by attenuating TM or SC stiffness, and/or by modulating TGF-β/CTGF signaling.

  17. A possible role for humoral immunity in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Carolyn F; Rowe, Dominic B; Mizuno, Yoshikuni; Mori, Hideo; Halliday, Glenda M

    2005-11-01

    The pathogenesis of idiopathic Parkinson's disease is unknown, but nigral degeneration and depigmentation are associated with microglial inflammation and anti-inflammatory medications appear to protect against the disease. The possibility that humoral immunity may play a role in initiating or regulating the inflammation has been suggested by experimental studies triggering dopamine cell death using a variety of transfer strategies and the observation of CD8+ T lymphocytes and complement in the nigra in Parkinson's disease. We analysed the association between degeneration and humoral immune markers in brain tissue of patients with idiopathic (n = 13) or genetic (n = 2 with alpha-synuclein and n = 1 with parkin mutations) Parkinson's disease and controls without neurological disease (n = 12) to determine the humoral immune involvement in Parkinson's disease. Formalin-fixed tissue samples from the substantia nigra and primary visual cortex for comparison were stained for alpha-synuclein, major histocompatibility complex II (HLA), immunoglobulin M (IgM), immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgG subclasses 1-4 and IgG receptors FcgammaR I-III. Antigen retrieval and both single immunoperoxidase and double immunofluorescence procedures were employed to determine the cell types involved and their pattern and semiquantitative densities. Significant dopamine neuron loss occurred in all patients with Parkinson's disease, negatively correlating with disease duration (r = -0.76, P = 0.002). Although all patients had increased inflammatory HLA immunopositive microglia, the degree of inflammation was similar throughout the disease (r = 0.08, P = 0.82). All patients with Parkinson's disease had IgG binding on dopamine neurons but not IgM binding. Lewy bodies were strongly immunolabelled with IgG. A mean 30 +/- 12% of dopamine nigral neurons were immunoreactive for IgG in Parkinson's disease with the proportion of IgG immunopositive neurons negatively correlating with the degree of cell loss in

  18. The heartbrake of social rejection: heart rate deceleration in response to unexpected peer rejection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunther Moor, B.; Crone, E.A.; van der Molen, M.W.

    2010-01-01

    Social relationships are vitally important in human life. Social rejection in particular has been conceptualized as a potent social cue resulting in feelings of hurt. Our study investigated the psychophysiological manifestation of hurt feelings by examining the beat-by-beat heart rate response

  19. The role of CD8+ T cells during allograft rejection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bueno V.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Organ transplantation can be considered as replacement therapy for patients with end-stage organ failure. The percent of one-year allograft survival has increased due, among other factors, to a better understanding of the rejection process and new immunosuppressive drugs. Immunosuppressive therapy used in transplantation prevents activation and proliferation of alloreactive T lymphocytes, although not fully preventing chronic rejection. Recognition by recipient T cells of alloantigens expressed by donor tissues initiates immune destruction of allogeneic transplants. However, there is controversy concerning the relative contribution of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells to allograft rejection. Some animal models indicate that there is an absolute requirement for CD4+ T cells in allogeneic rejection, whereas in others CD4-depleted mice reject certain types of allografts. Moreover, there is evidence that CD8+ T cells are more resistant to immunotherapy and tolerance induction protocols. An intense focal infiltration of mainly CD8+CTLA4+ T lymphocytes during kidney rejection has been described in patients. This suggests that CD8+ T cells could escape from immunosuppression and participate in the rejection process. Our group is primarily interested in the immune mechanisms involved in allograft rejection. Thus, we believe that a better understanding of the role of CD8+ T cells in allograft rejection could indicate new targets for immunotherapy in transplantation. Therefore, the objective of the present review was to focus on the role of the CD8+ T cell population in the rejection of allogeneic tissue.

  20. Was That Levity or Livor Mortis? Crime Scene Investigators' Perspectives on Humor and Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivona, Brian D.

    2012-01-01

    Humor is common and purposeful in most work settings. Although researchers have examined humor and joking behavior in various work settings, minimal research has been done on humor applications in the field of crime scene investigation. The crime scene investigator encounters death, trauma, and tragedy in a more intimate manner than any other…

  1. The Use of Humor as a Teaching Strategy in Nursing Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukehart, Dennis E.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to determine the use of humor as a teaching strategy among a sample of nurse educators employed by community colleges and universities in Northern and Central California nursing programs. The study also identified the types of humor used, how humor is used in the classroom, and nurse educators' perceptions of…

  2. Humor in Literature about Children with Disability: What Are We Seeing in Literature?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrail, Ewa; Rieger, Alicja

    2014-01-01

    This article explores instances of humor in literature as it relates to children with disabilities and offers ways to help children and adolescents build an authentic understanding of disability and disability humor. The prevalent message in the books reviewed is that children with disability not only appreciate humor but also can produce various…

  3. Learning to Laugh at Ourselves: Humor, Self-Transcendence, and the Cultivation of Moral Virtues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Mordechai

    2010-01-01

    In this essay Mordechai Gordon begins to address the neglect of humor among philosophers of education by focusing on some interesting connections between humor, self-transcendence, and the development of moral virtues. More specifically, he explores the kind of humor that makes fun of oneself and how it can affect educational encounters. Gordon…

  4. Was That Levity or Livor Mortis? Crime Scene Investigators' Perspectives on Humor and Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivona, Brian D.

    2012-01-01

    Humor is common and purposeful in most work settings. Although researchers have examined humor and joking behavior in various work settings, minimal research has been done on humor applications in the field of crime scene investigation. The crime scene investigator encounters death, trauma, and tragedy in a more intimate manner than any other…

  5. Use and Non-Use of Humor in Academic ESL Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziyaeemehr, Ali; Kumar, Vijay; Abdullah, Mohd S. Faiz

    2011-01-01

    A substantial body of research emphasizes the importance of humor in teaching/learning processes; however, research on the reasons for non-use of humor in academic contexts has enjoyed scant attention. Addressing this gap, this study examines the reasons for instructors' humor avoidance taking into account student perceived benefits of using humor…

  6. Statistics? You Must Be Joking: The Application and Evaluation of Humor when Teaching Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, David L.; Hood, Michelle; Neumann, Michelle M.

    2009-01-01

    Humor has been promoted as a teaching tool that enhances student engagement and learning. The present report traces the pathway from research to practice by reflecting upon various ways to incorporate humor into the face-to-face teaching of statistics. The use of humor in an introductory university statistics course was evaluated via interviews…

  7. "I May Be Crackin', But Um Fackin": Racial Humor in "The Watsons Go To Birmingham--1963"

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNair, Jonda C.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the utilization of racial humor in Christopher Paul Curtis' novel, "The Watsons Go To Birmingham--1963." The theoretical perspectives that inform the analysis include critical race theory and humor theory. The results of the analysis reveal that the use of humor in this book is influenced to a significant degree by race and…

  8. A Study of Dicken’s Humor Weiting——With Incongruity Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李如红

    2008-01-01

    Many scholars have shown great interest in Dickens’ humor writing.On the basis of the scholars’ studies,this thesis will make an analysis on the humor in his works that arise as reaction to what we perceive "incongruous".The thesis will apply the incongruity theory to Dickens’ humor writing.

  9. Hope, Laughter, and Humor in Residents and Staff at an Assisted Living Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westburg, Nancy G.

    2003-01-01

    Assesses and compares hope levels and laughter and humor experiences of 24 elderly residents and 21 staff at an assisted living facility. Residents and staff reported numerous benefits from humor and laughing, but differences arose between the two groups about the source and frequency of humor and laughter. Implications for mental health…

  10. The Effects of Professor Humor on College Students' Attention and Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantooth, James D.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this present study was to investigate the effect of instructor humor on college students' levels of engagement and retention of material. A convenience sample of junior- and senior-level students enrolled in four separate courses within the College of Education were exposed to two different lectures--one humorous, one non-humorous.…

  11. The Relationship between Instructor Humor Orientation and Students' Report on Second Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziyaeemehr, Ali; Kumar, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    Humor is an integral component of any language and therefore has an impact on the way languages are acquired/learned. Numerous studies have investigated the role of instructor humor in teaching/learning processes; however, there is little empirical research on the relationship between instructor humor and learning of a second language. This paper…

  12. Perception of aggressive humor in relation to gelotophobia, gelotophilia, and katagelasticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea C. Samson

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates humor appreciation of aggressive cartoons in relation to gelotophobia, gelotophilia, and katagelasticism. These traits were described to have a peculiar relation to laughter-related phenomena, in particular to disparagement humor. 185 participants rated highly aggressive and non-aggressive humorous stimuli for funniness and aversiveness and their scores on the gelotophobia, gelotophilia and katagelasticism scales were measured. The cartoons were controlled for their structural basis, i.e., incongruity-resolution and nonsense humor, as these two types of humor strongly influence the appreciation of humorous stimuli. The results revealed that high scores on gelotophobia lead to higher aversion to aggressive humor, whereas high scores on katagelasticism lead to more enjoyment of aggressive humor with less aversion. Gelotophobia and katagelasticism lead to sensitivity to aggression in humor, which fits the overt behavior of reacting sensitively towards laughter (gelotophobia and enjoying to laugh at others (katagelasticism. Gelotophilia did not predict reactions to either aggressive or non-aggressive humor but did predict more amusement in general: High scorers on gelotophilia seem to be relaxed towards any form of humor, even if it has an aggressive note. This study confirms the three dimensions to have peculiar responses to aggressive types of humor and opens up several questions to be explored in future research.

  13. Learning to Laugh at Ourselves: Humor, Self-Transcendence, and the Cultivation of Moral Virtues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Mordechai

    2010-01-01

    In this essay Mordechai Gordon begins to address the neglect of humor among philosophers of education by focusing on some interesting connections between humor, self-transcendence, and the development of moral virtues. More specifically, he explores the kind of humor that makes fun of oneself and how it can affect educational encounters. Gordon…

  14. Targeting the humoral immune system of patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teng, Yoe Kie Onno

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to unravel the role of the humoral immune system in rheumatoid arthritis patients by employing new immunosuppressive strategies, i.e. specific B-cell depletion with Rituximab and non-specific lymfoablative treatment with high dose chemotherapy and hematopoeietic stem cell

  15. Humor and the Emeritus Professor: An Interview with Gene Roth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivona, Brian

    2015-01-01

    This essay is a compilation of several conversations with Dr. Gene Roth, Distinguished Teaching Professor Emeritus at Northern Illinois University. Dr. Roth is past President of the Academy of Human Resource Development, and although he is well known for his efforts in bringing humor into the field of HRD, he is not the same Gene Roth that played…

  16. Humor in Father-Daughter Immigration Narratives of Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    This article draws from an ethnography on Mexican immigrant fathers and their children to examine humor in immigration narratives as acts of resistance. The analysis focuses on the devices employed by a father and daughter during their everyday talk and co-narration of an incident with police officers. Findings illustrate how the form and content…

  17. The Muhammad cartoon controversy and the globalization of humor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Kuipers

    2008-01-01

    At the 2006 conference of the International Society for Humor Studies (Danish University of Education, Copenhagen), several panels addressed issues raised by the Muhammad cartoon story. Among these, a colloquium organized by Paul Lewis and decorously titled "Transnational Ridicule and Response" focu

  18. Antioxidant status of dog aqueous humor after extracapsular lens extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barros P.S.M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We determined the antioxidant status of the aqueous humor after extracapsular lens extraction in 14 mongrel dogs weighing about 10 kg. The animals were examined by slit lamp biomicroscopy, applanation tonometry and indirect ophthalmoscopy. One eye was submitted to conventional extracapsular lens extraction and the other was used as control. Samples of aqueous humor were obtained by anterior chamber paracentesis before and at days 1, 2, 3, 7 and 15 after surgery. Total antioxidant status was determined as the capacity of aqueous humor to inhibit free radical generation by 2,2-azobis(2-amidopropane chlorine. Ascorbic acid concentration was measured by HPLC with UV detection. Protein content was determined with the biuret reagent. Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA followed by the Tukey-Kramer test. Protein concentration increased from 0.61 to 22 mg/ml 24 h after surgery. These levels were maintained and returned to normal at day 7. Total antioxidant capacity was reduced from 50 to about 30 min until day 3 and at day 7 it was equal to control. Ascorbic acid levels were reduced from 252 to about 110 µM and then returned to control values at day 15. Considering the importance of ascorbic acid concentration in aqueous humor for the maintenance of the antioxidant status of the anterior segment of the eye, the decrease of antioxidant defenses suggests that the surgical procedures promote an oxidative stress condition in the eye.

  19. "The Truth Is Funny": A Study of Jesse Stuart's Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Wade

    This study of works of Jesse Stuart treats in some depth the setting and background for the humor in his writings, his reverence for the eastern Kentucky hill country, and the various ways he uses materials from his own life and observations as subject matter for his fictional world. After establishing Stuart's kinship with earlier frontier…

  20. Humor in Father-Daughter Immigration Narratives of Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    This article draws from an ethnography on Mexican immigrant fathers and their children to examine humor in immigration narratives as acts of resistance. The analysis focuses on the devices employed by a father and daughter during their everyday talk and co-narration of an incident with police officers. Findings illustrate how the form and content…

  1. Using Humorous Sitcom Clips in Teaching Federal Income Taxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecil, H. Wayne

    2014-01-01

    This article shares the motivation, process, and outcomes of using humorous scenes from television comedies to teach the real world of tax practice. The article advances the literature by reviewing the use of video clips in a previously unexplored discipline, discussing the process of identifying and selecting appropriate clips, and introducing…

  2. Humor As a Weapon in Virginia Woolf's "Orlando."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Robin

    Virginia Woolf's "Orlando" is an excellent example of mock biography to use in literature classes concerned with analyzing literary genres. Woolf used humor to undermine some conventions of the genre of biography and to reform biography into a shape adequate to express the life of Vita Sackville-West. An ordinary biography most likely…

  3. Humor and the Emeritus Professor: An Interview with Gene Roth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivona, Brian

    2015-01-01

    This essay is a compilation of several conversations with Dr. Gene Roth, Distinguished Teaching Professor Emeritus at Northern Illinois University. Dr. Roth is past President of the Academy of Human Resource Development, and although he is well known for his efforts in bringing humor into the field of HRD, he is not the same Gene Roth that played…

  4. Laugh and Learn: Using Humor to Teach Tragedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggieri, Colleen A.

    1999-01-01

    Describes how one high school English teacher used humor when teaching Shakespearean tragedy. Describes how this improved students' attitudes and appreciation of the tragedies, helped them appreciate literature devices in the plays, and helped them review prior to their exam. (SR)

  5. Humorous Names in the Light of Incongruity Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Rutkowski

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses the humorous function of proper names in the light of incongruity theory. It aims at proving that, although names are often defined as pragmatically “transparent,” they may possess some humorous value due to semantic and pragmatic shifts resulting from the disturbance of ordinary patterns of proper names identification and interpretation. After a brief introduction, the author discusses different variants of incongruity theory as resented in the works by Victor Raskin and Thomas C. Veatch as well as their possible application to the study of humorous names. The second part of the paper provides an analysis of the humorous effects of proper names which includes anthroponyms, toponyms, trade names, football team names and names in literature. The first section of this part concentrates on names in which humour is unintentional and seems to be induced by the context, while the second section focuses on names which are intentionally humourous, i.e. supposed to amuse from the moment of their creation. The author argues that the incongruity theory can provide a useful framework for the study of the different mechanisms responsible of the semantic shifts which determine the variation of pragmatic values of proper names.

  6. Towards environments that have a sense of humor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Reidsma, Dennis; Choi, Insook; Bargar, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Humans have humorous conversations and interactions. Nowadays our real life existence is integrated with our life in social media, videogames, mixed reality and physical environments that sense our activities and that can adapt appearance and properties due to our activities. There are other

  7. Aqueous humor ferritin in hereditary hyperferritinemia cataract syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzhofer, Markus; Schroedl, Falk; Trost, Andrea; Kaser-Eichberger, Alexandra; Wiedemann, Helmut; Strohmaier, Clemens; Hohensinn, Melchior; Strasser, Michael; Muckenthaler, Martina U; Grabner, Guenther; Aigner, Elmar; Reitsamer, Herbert A

    2015-04-01

    Hereditary hyperferritinemia cataract syndrome (HHCS) is a rare autosomal dominant hereditary disease, characterized by hyperferritinemia but with absence of body iron excess and early onset of bilateral cataracts. Although 5- to 20-fold increased serum ferritin concentrations have been reported in HHCS patients, data of ferritin levels in aqueous humor have not been obtained. We therefore aimed to investigate the ferritin levels in aqueous humor and serum and further present histological and ultrastructural data of the lens. During cataract extraction and intraocular lens implantation, aqueous humor and lens aspirate of a 37-year-old HHCS patient were obtained from both eyes. Ferritin levels in serum and aqueous humor were quantitatively analyzed via immunoassays in the HHCS patient and healthy control subjects (n = 6). Lens aspirate in HHCS was analyzed histologically and at the ultrastructural level. Further, genetic mutation screening by polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing in blood was performed. Serum ferritin levels in the control group were 142.2 ± 38.7 μg/L, whereas in the HHCS patient, this parameter was excessively increased (1086 μg/L). Analysis of ferritin in aqueous humor revealed 6.4 ± 3.8 μg/L in normal control subjects and 146.3 μg/L (OD) and 160.4 μg/L (OS) in the HHCS patient. DNA analysis detected a C>A mutation on position +18, a T>G mutation on position +22, a T>C mutation on position +24, and a T>G polymorphism on position +26 in the iron-responsive element of the light-chain ferritin (L-ferritin) gene. In the HHCS patient, a 23-fold (OD) to 25-fold (OS) increased aqueous humor ferritin level was detected. Therefore, the formation of bilateral cataract in HHCS is most likely a result of elevated aqueous humor ferritin. In addition, a novel mutation in this rare disease in the iron-responsive element of L-ferritin gene is reported.

  8. Aqueous humor tyrosinase activity is indicative of iris melanocyte toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahanty, Sarmistha; Kawali, Ankush A; Dakappa, Shruthi Shirur; Mahendradas, Padmamalini; Kurian, Mathew; Kharbanda, Varun; Shetty, Rohit; Setty, Subba Rao Gangi

    2017-09-01

    Antibiotics such as fluoroquinolones (FQLs) are commonly used to treat ocular infections but are also known to cause dermal melanocyte toxicity. The release of dispersed pigments from the iris into the aqueous humor has been considered a possible ocular side effect of the systemic administration of FQLs such as Moxifloxacin, and this condition is known as bilateral acute iris transillumination (BAIT). Bilateral acute depigmentation of iris (BADI) is a similar condition, with iris pigment released into the aqueous, but it has not been reported as a side effect of FQL. Iris pigments are synthesized by the melanogenic enzyme tyrosinase (TYR) and can be detected but not quantified by using slit-lamp biomicroscopy. The correlation between dispersed pigments in the aqueous and the extent of melanocyte toxicity due to topical antibiotics in vivo is not well studied. Here, we aimed to study the effect of topical FQLs on iris tissue, the pigment release in the aqueous humor and the development of clinically evident iris atrophic changes. We evaluated this process by measuring the activity of TYR in the aqueous humor of 82 healthy eyes undergoing cataract surgery following topical application of FQLs such as Moxifloxacin (27 eyes, preservative-free) or Ciprofloxacin (29 eyes, with preservative) or the application of non-FQL Tobramycin (26 eyes, with preservative) as a control. In addition, the patients were questioned and examined for ocular side effects in pre- and post-operative periods. Our data showed a significantly higher mean TYR activity in the aqueous humor of Ciprofloxacin-treated eyes compared to Moxifloxacin- (preservative free, p humor from both Ciprofloxacin- and Moxifloxacin-treated eyes showed the presence of soluble TYR enzyme, thus reflecting its toxicity to iris melanocytes and corresponding to its activity in the aqueous humor. Intriguingly, none of these patients developed any clinically appreciable ocular side effects characteristic of BAIT or BADI

  9. Late Failing Heart Allografts: Pathology of Cardiac Allograft Vasculopathy and Association With Antibody-Mediated Rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loupy, A; Toquet, C; Rouvier, P; Beuscart, T; Bories, M C; Varnous, S; Guillemain, R; Pattier, S; Suberbielle, C; Leprince, P; Lefaucheur, C; Jouven, X; Bruneval, P; Duong Van Huyen, J P

    2016-01-01

    In heart transplantation, there is a lack of robust evidence of the specific causes of late allograft failure. We hypothesized that a substantial fraction of failing heart allografts may be associated with antibody-mediated injury and immune-mediated coronary arteriosclerosis. We included all patients undergoing a retransplantation for late terminal heart allograft failure in three referral centers. We performed an integrative strategy of heart allograft phenotyping by assessing the heart vascular tree including histopathology and immunohistochemistry together with circulating donor-specific antibodies. The main analysis included 40 explanted heart allografts patients and 402 endomyocardial biopsies performed before allograft loss. Overall, antibody-mediated rejection was observed in 19 (47.5%) failing heart allografts including 16 patients (40%) in whom unrecognized previous episodes of subclinical antibody-mediated rejection occurred 4.5 ± 3.5 years before allograft loss. Explanted allografts with evidence of antibody-mediated rejection demonstrated higher endothelitis and microvascular inflammation scores (0.89 ± 0.26 and 2.25 ± 0.28, respectively) compared with explanted allografts without antibody-mediated rejection (0.42 ± 0.11 and 0.36 ± 0.09, p = 0.046 and p < 0.0001, respectively). Antibody-mediated injury was observed in 62.1% of failing allografts with pure coronary arteriosclerosis and mixed (arteriosclerosis and atherosclerosis) pattern, while it was not observed in patients with pure coronary atherosclerosis (p = 0.0076). We demonstrate that antibody-mediated rejection is operating in a substantial fraction of failing heart allografts and is associated with severe coronary arteriosclerosis. Unrecognized subclinical antibody-mediated rejection episodes may be observed years before allograft failure.

  10. Role of tacrolimus prolonged release in the prevention of allograft rejection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Abrams

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Peter Abrams, Abhinav Humar, Henkie P TanDepartment of Surgery, Thomas E Starzl Transplantation Institute, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pennsylvania, USAAbstract: Successful management of the solid-organ transplant recipient begins with prevention of rejection and achieving a balance between insufficient and excessive immunosuppression. Standard tacrolimus therapy for prevention of solid-organ transplant rejection consists of 2 divided doses per day. In an effort to simplify tacrolimus dosing to once daily, a new formulation (tacrolimus prolonged release [PR] was chosen for its combination of a similar extent of bioavailability and a substantially reduced rate of clearance. Several clinical conversion studies have now been completed using PR to clarify its pharmacokinetics, efficacy at prevention of allograft rejection, and safety profiles in solid-organ transplant patients. A cohort of 67 stable kidney transplant recipients was converted from standard tacrolimus to PR in an open-label, multicenter study in the United States and Canada. A second open-label, multicenter study was performed in liver transplant recipients with stable graft function on standard tacrolimus therapy converted to PR. A third conversion study was performed as an open-label study at 5 centers in the United States in stable pediatric liver transplant recipients. As medication noncompliance can significantly contribute to the incidence of graft rejection and graft loss in transplant recipients, a potentially significant advance in the transplant community’s ongoing mission to optimize prevention of rejection occurred with the development of a once-daily tacrolimus PR. The results of these preliminary studies suggest that select solid-organ transplant recipients converted to PR can be safely maintained using the same monitoring and patient care techniques historically used for standard tacrolimus therapy.Keywords: immunosuppression, tacrolimus allograft

  11. Rejection Thresholds in Chocolate Milk: Evidence for Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Meriel L.; Ziegler, Gregory R.; Hayes, John E.

    2012-01-01

    Bitterness is generally considered a negative attribute in food, yet many individuals enjoy some bitterness in products like coffee or chocolate. In chocolate, bitterness arises from naturally occurring alkaloids and phenolics found in cacao. Fermentation and roasting help develop typical chocolate flavor and reduce the intense bitterness of raw cacao by modifying these bitter compounds. As it becomes increasingly common to fortify chocolate with `raw' cacao to increase the amount of healthful phytonutrients, it is important to identify the point at which the concentration of bitter compounds becomes objectionable, even to those who enjoy some bitterness. Classical threshold methods focus on the presence or absence of a sensation rather than acceptability or hedonics. A new alternative, the rejection threshold, was recently described in the literature. Here, we sought to quantify and compare differences in Rejection Thresholds (RjT) and Detection Thresholds (DT) in chocolate milk spiked with a food safe bitterant (sucrose octaacetate). In experiment 1, a series of paired preference tests was used to estimate the RjT for bitterness in chocolate milk. In a new group of participants (experiment 2), we determined the RjT and DT using the forced choice ascending method of limits. In both studies, participants were segmented on the basis of self-declared preference for milk or dark solid chocolate. Based on sigmoid fits of the indifference-preference function, the RjT was ~2.3 times higher for those preferring dark chocolate than the RjT for those preferring milk chocolate in both experiments. In contrast, the DT for both groups was functionally identical, suggesting that differential effects of bitterness on liking of chocolate products are not based on the ability to detect bitterness in these products. PMID:22754143

  12. Prevention trumps treatment of antibody-mediated transplant rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knechtle, Stuart J; Kwun, Jean; Iwakoshi, Neal

    2010-04-01

    Belying the spectacular success of solid organ transplantation and improvements in immunosuppressive therapy is the reality that long-term graft survival rates remain relatively unchanged, in large part due to chronic and insidious alloantibody-mediated graft injury. Half of heart transplant recipients develop chronic rejection within 10 years - a daunting statistic, particularly for young patients expecting to achieve longevity by enduring the rigors of a transplant. The current immunosuppressive pharmacopeia is relatively ineffective in preventing late alloantibody-associated chronic rejection. In this issue of the JCI, Kelishadi et al. report that preemptive deletion of B cells prior to heart transplantation in cynomolgus monkeys, in addition to conventional posttransplant immunosuppressive therapy with cyclosporine, markedly attenuated not only acute graft rejection but also alloantibody elaboration and chronic graft rejection. The success of this preemptive strike implies a central role for B cells in graft rejection, and this approach may help to delay or prevent chronic rejection after solid organ transplantation.

  13. The relations between secrecy, rejection sensitivity and autonomy-connectedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wismeijer, Andreas A J; Van Assen, Marcel A L M; Bekker, Marrie H J

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of two attachment-related variables on secrecy: rejection sensitivity and autonomy-connectedness. We hypothesized that rejection sensitivity is positively associated with secrecy, and autonomy-connectedness negatively with rejection sensitivity and secrecy. These hypotheses were generally corroborated in a sample of 303 university students. Moreover, we found that autonomy-connectedness at least partly explained the association between rejection sensitivity and secrecy. Self-awareness was negatively related to secrecy, suggesting that being aware of what one needs and thinks and being able to realize one's needs in social interactions reduce the tendency to keep secrets. In addition, interesting gender effects were found suggesting that men have a higher tendency to have secrets than women after controlling for the effects of autonomy-connectedness and rejection sensitivity. Our findings deepen the insight into possible reasons behind established associations between rejection sensitivity and secrecy, and may have clinical implications.

  14. The rejection-rage contingency in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenson, Kathy R; Downey, Geraldine; Rafaeli, Eshkol; Coifman, Karin G; Paquin, Nina Leventhal

    2011-08-01

    Though long-standing clinical observation reflected in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.) suggests that the rage characteristic of borderline personality disorder (BPD) often appears in response to perceived rejection, the role of perceived rejection in triggering rage in BPD has never been empirically tested. Extending basic personality research on rejection sensitivity to a clinical sample, a priming-pronunciation experiment and a 21-day experience-sampling diary examined the contingent relationship between perceived rejection and rage in participants diagnosed with BPD compared with healthy controls. Despite the differences in these 2 assessment methods, the indices of rejection-contingent rage that they both produced were elevated in the BPD group and were strongly interrelated. They provide corroborating evidence that reactions to perceived rejection significantly explain the rage seen in BPD. © 2011 American Psychological Association

  15. Myasis occuring in a neonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obasa, Temitope O.; Sowunmi, Funmilola Olusola

    2012-01-01

    Myasis is the infestation of skin by larvae or maggots of a variety of flies. It is a condition that occurs more commonly in adults who are living and/or have visited tropical countries. It rarely occurs in neonates, and even when seen, only few larvae are extracted. This case report describes myasis occurring in an 11-day-old female who had 47 larvae in her skin. PMID:23355934

  16. Myasis occuring in a neonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temitope O. Obasa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Myasis is the infestation of skin by larvae or maggots of a variety of flies. It is a condition that occurs more commonly in adults who are living and/or have visited tropical countries. It rarely occurs in neonates, and even when seen, only few larvae are extracted. This case report describes myasis occurring in an 11-day-old female who had 47 larvae in her skin.

  17. Linear quadratic output tracking and disturbance rejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi-Ghartemani, Masoud; Khajehoddin, S. Ali; Jain, Praveen; Bakhshai, Alireza

    2011-08-01

    This article introduces the problem of linear quadratic tracking (LQT) where the objective is to design a closed-loop control scheme such that the output signal of the system optimally tracks a given reference signal and rejects a given disturbance. Different performance indices that have been used to address the tracking problem are discussed and an appropriate new form is introduced. It is shown that a solution to the proposed optimality index exists under very mild conditions of stabilisability and detectability of the plant state-space equations. The solution is formulated based on converting the LQT problem to a standard linear quadratic regulation problem. The method is applied to two examples, a first-order plant and a third-order plant, and their simulation results are presented and discussed.

  18. Lymphangiogenesis Occurring in Transplanted Corneas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LING Shiqi; XIAO Qing; HU Yanhua

    2006-01-01

    To study corneal lymphangiogenesis after corneal transplantation, corneal allogenic transplantation models were established in rats. 8 female Wister rats were used as donors, and 16 Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were used as recipients and 2 SD served as controls. Corneal lymphangiogenesis and hemangiogenesis was examined by electron microscopy 1 and 2 weeks after corneal penetrating transplantation, and the expression of lymphatic vessel endothelial receptor (LYVE-1) was examined 1, 3, 7, 14 days after the transplantation respectively. In addition, 19 allograft failed human corneas were examined by 5'-nase-alkaline phosphatase (5'-NA-ALP) doubleenzyme-histochemistry staining to detect corneal lymphangiogenesis and hemangiogenesis. By immunohistochemistry for LYVE-1, it was found that blown lymphatics were localized in the stroma 3days after the corneal transplantation. With electron microscopy, new lymphatic vessels and blood vessels were found 1 and 2 weeks after the corneal transplantation. By 5'-NA-ALP enzyme-histochemistry, corneal hemangiogenesis was found in all allograft failed huma n corneas and 5 of 19(26.3%) cases had developed corneal lymphangiogenesis. It is concluded that corneal lymphangiogenesis is present after corneal transplantation, which may play an important role in allograft rejection.

  19. Towards a new structural model of the sense of humor: preliminary findings

    OpenAIRE

    N.D.van

    2012-01-01

    In this article some formal, content-related and procedural considerations towards the sense of humor are articulated and the analysis of both everyday humor behavior and of comic styles leads to the initial proposal of a four factor- model of humor (4FMH). This model is tested in a new dataset and it is also examined whether two forms of comic styles (benevolent humor and moral mockery) do fit in. The model seems to be robust but further studies on the structure of the sense of humor as a pe...

  20. Cytomegalovirus and chronic allograft rejection in liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang-Hui Gao; Shu-Sen Zheng

    2004-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) remains one of the most frequent viral infections and the most common cause of death after liver transplantation (LT). Chronic allograft liver rejection remains the major obstacle to long-term allograft survival and CMV infection is one of the suggested risk factors for chronic allograft rejection. The precise relationship between cytomegalovirus and chronic rejection remains uncertain.This review addresses the morbidity of cytomegalovirus infection and the risk factors associated with it, the relationship between cytomegalovirus and chronic allograft liver rejection and the potential mechanisms of it.

  1. Rejection Sensitivity, Jealousy, and the Relationship to Interpersonal Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Anna M; Russell, Gemma

    2016-01-21

    The development and maintenance of interpersonal relationships lead individuals to risk rejection in the pursuit of acceptance. Some individuals are predisposed to experience a hypersensitivity to rejection that is hypothesized to be related to jealous and aggressive reactions within interpersonal relationships. The current study used convenience sampling to recruit 247 young adults to evaluate the relationship between rejection sensitivity, jealousy, and aggression. A mediation model was used to test three hypotheses: Higher scores of rejection sensitivity would be positively correlated to higher scores of aggression (Hypothesis 1); higher scores of rejection sensitivity would be positively correlated to higher scores of jealousy (Hypothesis 2); jealousy would mediate the relationship between rejection sensitivity and aggression (Hypothesis 3). Study results suggest a tendency for individuals with high rejection sensitivity to experience higher levels of jealousy, and subsequently have a greater propensity for aggression, than individuals with low rejection sensitivity. Future research that substantiates a link between hypersensitivity to rejection, jealousy, and aggression may provide an avenue for prevention, education, or intervention in reducing aggression within interpersonal relationships.

  2. Graft rejection after hematopoietic cell transplantation with nonmyeloablative conditioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masmas, T.N.; Petersen, S.L.; Madsen, H.O.;

    2008-01-01

    -dose fludarabine and total body irradiation (TBI). The association of pretransplantation risk factors with rejection and the effect of chimerism and graft-versus-host disease on rejection were analyzed. Overall survival (OS) and progression free survival (PFS) were compared between patients with and without...... rejection. Retransplantation was performed with increased TBI conditioning for all patients, and with increased mycophenolate mofetil doses for recipients with HLA-identical sibling donors. No known pretransplantation risk factors were confirmed in this study. Rejection episodes were unevenly distributed...

  3. Maternal antibody transfer can lead to suppression of humoral immunity in developing zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Loren; Grindstaff, Jennifer L

    2014-01-01

    Maternally transferred antibodies have been documented in a wide range of taxa and are thought to adaptively provide protection against parasites and pathogens while the offspring immune system is developing. In most birds, transfer occurs when females deposit immunoglobulin Y into the egg yolk, and it is proportional to the amount in the female's plasma. Maternal antibodies can provide short-term passive protection as well as specific and nonspecific immunological priming, but high levels of maternal antibody can result in suppression of the offspring's humoral immune response. We injected adult female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) with one of two antigens (lipopolysaccharide [LPS] or keyhole limpet hemocyanin [KLH]) or a control and then injected offspring with LPS, KLH, or a control on days 5 and 28 posthatch to examine the impact of maternally transferred antibodies on the ontogeny of the offspring's humoral immune system. We found that offspring of females exposed to KLH had elevated levels of KLH-reactive antibody over the first 17-28 days posthatch but reduced KLH-specific antibody production between days 28 and 36. We also found that offspring exposed to either LPS or KLH exhibited reduced total antibody levels, compared to offspring that received a control injection. These results indicate that high levels of maternal antibodies or antigen exposure during development can have negative repercussions on short-term antibody production and may have long-term fitness repercussions for the offspring.

  4. Infusion of nonmyeloablative bone marrow alleviates acute rejection reaction in liver allotransplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Hai-yang; HUANG Dong-sheng; JIA Chang-ku; ZHENG Shu-sen

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect and implication of nonmyeloablative donor specific bone marrow (DSBM) infusion on the immunoreaction of liver allotransplantation. Methods: Orthotopic liver transplantation model was used in this study. Groups were set as follows: Group Ⅰ, syngeneic control (Wistar-to-Wistar); Group Ⅱ, acute rejection (SD-to-Wistar); Group Ⅲ, acute rejection treated with cyclosporine A (CsA) by intramuscular injection (SD-to-Wistar+CsA); Group Ⅳ, bone marrow infusion at 7 d pretransplantation followed by short-term CsA treatment (SD-to-Wistar+DSBM); Another group of short-term CsA treatment preoperatively without bone marrow infusion was also set as control. General characteristics and survival time were observed.Histological grades of rejection were determined by pathological examination. IL-2 and IFN-γ level in peripheral blood and donor liver were detected respectively by Enzyme-Linked Immuno-Sorbent Assay (ELISA) and Western blot. Chimerism of donor cells was measured by PCR for a male-specific marker (Y-chromosome-specific sequence, Sry). Results: No signs of rejection were found in Group Ⅰ. Acute rejection occurred in both Group Ⅱ and the short-term CsA treated group. All the recipients died at (9~15)d posttransplantation with a median survival time of (10.7±0.5) d and (11.2±2.4) d, respectively. Only mild rejection could be seen in Group Ⅲ. In Group Ⅳ, 4 out of 6 recipients had long-term survival (>100 d), the histological grade of rejection was significantly lower than that of Group Ⅱ, so did the expression level of IL-2 and IFN-γ in both peripheral blood and grafted liver.Y-chromosome-specific sequence (Sry) of male SD rats could be detected in the bone marrow, spleen and thymus of female recipients at 15 d after bone marrow infusion. Conclusion: Mild preconditioning nonmyeloablative donor specific bone marrow infusion can enhance chimerism formation in recipients, alleviate the rejection of liver allotransplantation

  5. Ridiculed death and the dead: Black humor on the epitaphs and epigrams of the ancient Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Lađa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Theories about black humor usually regard that it as a contemporary phenomenon and a culmination of the literary modernism and beginning of post-modernism. My intent in this paper is to refute the thesis that the black humor is a modern invention. I am going to prove its existence still in Greek antiquity, quoting and analyzing humorous epitaphs and black humor epigrams. Putting in relation black humor with the joy and humor in religious (fertility and funeral rituals, I am also going to set a question about the attitude to death and life inherent for this kind of humor, arguing that its origin should be searched in the folk tradition.

  6. Humor styles and loneliness: a study among Hong Kong and Hangzhou undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xiao Dong; Wong, Ashley Yuen Man; Hiranandani, Neelam Arjan

    2014-08-01

    This study examined the relationship between humor styles and loneliness among a sample of Hong Kong and Mainland Chinese. A total of 159 Hong Kong undergraduates and 178 Hangzhou undergraduates were recruited to complete a survey composed of the Humor Styles Questionnaire and the Emotional and Social Loneliness Scales. Multiple regression analyses showed that self-defeating humor explained significant variance in both social and emotional loneliness for Hong Kong students, but only in social loneliness for Hangzhou students. Hong Kong students scored significantly higher on aggressive humor and self-defeating humor, and scored significantly lower on affiliative humor and self-enhancing humor than did their counterparts in Hangzhou. This could be attributed to the greater influence of Confucianism in Mainland China than in Hong Kong.

  7. Rumination, Suicidal Ideation, and the Mediating Effect of Self-Defeating Humor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond P. Tucker

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Research has demonstrated that a self-defeating humor style is related to indicators of psychopathology and interpersonal dysfunction, including depression, anxiety, loneliness, thwarted belongingness, and perceived burdensomeness. The current study continued this investigation by examining how self-defeating humor is related to suicidal ideation and a ruminative response style. Analyses indicated that a self-defeating humor style was positively associated to rumination, brooding, reflection, and suicidal ideation. Results of bootstrapping analyses indicated that self-defeating humor mediated the relationship between rumination and suicidal ideation. This same effect was seen for both brooding and reflection individually. Results indicate that self-defeating humor may serve as an interpersonal means of ruminating as this humor style involves consistent focus on perceived flaws and weaknesses. The assessment of this humor style may provide additional information about the maintenance of suicidal thinking.

  8. On Untranslatability of Humor in Mark Twain's Novels and Compensating Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹小路

    2016-01-01

    Mark Twain was a well-known 19th-century American author and a reputed critical realist. His novels are excellent for combining humor with irony, which reveal his criticism of kinds of miserable reality in American society. His humor is not just for humorous effect, but has serious and profound social connotations. So when readers of the target language are reading his novels, their understanding of the deep purpose and connotations would be influenced by the quality of translation of those humors. Therefore, translators must own language competence and sufficient knowledge about the cultural background, for humor is a typical example of untranslatability. This paper makes an analysis of the two types of untranslatability: the cultural untranslatability and the linguistic and takes translation of humor in Mark Twain's novels as examples to analyze the untranslatability of humor in literature and gives suggestions of compensating strategy.

  9. [The effect of humor in the workplace on mental/physical health and self-evaluation of job performance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Junichi; Fuji, Kei

    2016-04-01

    In this study we aimed to examine the contents of humor in the Japanese workplace and to understand the effects of humor on mental/physical health and self-evaluation of job performance. Japanese workers (N = 436) responded to questionnaires addressing workplace humor, feelings about workplace, workplace communication, mental/physical health, and perceived job performance. An exploratory factor analysis indicated that there are five types of workplace humor: norm-violating humor, experience-sharing humor workplace-enjoying humor, people-recalling humor, and outside-mocking humor. A covariance structural analysis showed that norm-violating humor and workplace-enjoying humor decreased mental and physical health by promoting both negative feelings in the workplace and self-disclosure about the negative side of work. Results also revealed that experience-sharing humor, people-recalling humor, and outside-mocking humor had a positive effect on the self-evaluation of job performance as well as mental and physical health, by promoting both positive feelings and mutual communication in the workplace. Results suggest that humor in the workplace has various influences on workers depending on the type of workplace humor.

  10. Experimentally Manipulating Items Informs on the (Limited) Construct and Criterion Validity of the Humor Styles Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruch, Willibald; Heintz, Sonja

    2017-01-01

    How strongly does humor (i.e., the construct-relevant content) in the Humor Styles Questionnaire (HSQ; Martin et al., 2003) determine the responses to this measure (i.e., construct validity)? Also, how much does humor influence the relationships of the four HSQ scales, namely affiliative, self-enhancing, aggressive, and self-defeating, with personality traits and subjective well-being (i.e., criterion validity)? The present paper answers these two questions by experimentally manipulating the 32 items of the HSQ to only (or mostly) contain humor (i.e., construct-relevant content) or to substitute the humor content with non-humorous alternatives (i.e., only assessing construct-irrelevant context). Study 1 (N = 187) showed that the HSQ affiliative scale was mainly determined by humor, self-enhancing and aggressive were determined by both humor and non-humorous context, and self-defeating was primarily determined by the context. This suggests that humor is not the primary source of the variance in three of the HQS scales, thereby limiting their construct validity. Study 2 (N = 261) showed that the relationships of the HSQ scales to the Big Five personality traits and subjective well-being (positive affect, negative affect, and life satisfaction) were consistently reduced (personality) or vanished (subjective well-being) when the non-humorous contexts in the HSQ items were controlled for. For the HSQ self-defeating scale, the pattern of relationships to personality was also altered, supporting an positive rather than a negative view of the humor in this humor style. The present findings thus call for a reevaluation of the role that humor plays in the HSQ (construct validity) and in the relationships to personality and well-being (criterion validity).

  11. Decoding Humor Experiences from Brain Activity of People Viewing Comedy Movies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawahata, Yasuhito; Komine, Kazuteru; Morita, Toshiya; Hiruma, Nobuyuki

    2013-01-01

    Humans naturally have a sense of humor. Experiencing humor not only encourages social interactions, but also produces positive physiological effects on the human body, such as lowering blood pressure. Recent neuro-imaging studies have shown evidence for distinct mental state changes at work in people experiencing humor. However, the temporal characteristics of these changes remain elusive. In this paper, we objectively measured humor-related mental states from single-trial functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data obtained while subjects viewed comedy TV programs. Measured fMRI data were labeled on the basis of the lag before or after the viewer’s perception of humor (humor onset) determined by the viewer-reported humor experiences during the fMRI scans. We trained multiple binary classifiers, or decoders, to distinguish between fMRI data obtained at each lag from ones obtained during a neutral state in which subjects were not experiencing humor. As a result, in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the right temporal area, the decoders showed significant classification accuracies even at two seconds ahead of the humor onsets. Furthermore, given a time series of fMRI data obtained during movie viewing, we found that the decoders with significant performance were also able to predict the upcoming humor events on a volume-by-volume basis. Taking into account the hemodynamic delay, our results suggest that the upcoming humor events are encoded in specific brain areas up to about five seconds before the awareness of experiencing humor. Our results provide evidence that there exists a mental state lasting for a few seconds before actual humor perception, as if a viewer is expecting the future humorous events. PMID:24324656

  12. Decoding humor experiences from brain activity of people viewing comedy movies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhito Sawahata

    Full Text Available Humans naturally have a sense of humor. Experiencing humor not only encourages social interactions, but also produces positive physiological effects on the human body, such as lowering blood pressure. Recent neuro-imaging studies have shown evidence for distinct mental state changes at work in people experiencing humor. However, the temporal characteristics of these changes remain elusive. In this paper, we objectively measured humor-related mental states from single-trial functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data obtained while subjects viewed comedy TV programs. Measured fMRI data were labeled on the basis of the lag before or after the viewer's perception of humor (humor onset determined by the viewer-reported humor experiences during the fMRI scans. We trained multiple binary classifiers, or decoders, to distinguish between fMRI data obtained at each lag from ones obtained during a neutral state in which subjects were not experiencing humor. As a result, in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the right temporal area, the decoders showed significant classification accuracies even at two seconds ahead of the humor onsets. Furthermore, given a time series of fMRI data obtained during movie viewing, we found that the decoders with significant performance were also able to predict the upcoming humor events on a volume-by-volume basis. Taking into account the hemodynamic delay, our results suggest that the upcoming humor events are encoded in specific brain areas up to about five seconds before the awareness of experiencing humor. Our results provide evidence that there exists a mental state lasting for a few seconds before actual humor perception, as if a viewer is expecting the future humorous events.

  13. Corneal allograft rejection: Risk factors, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dua Harminder

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in corneal graft technology, including donor tissue retrieval, storage and surgical techniques, have greatly improved the clinical outcome of corneal grafts. Despite these advances, immune mediated corneal graft rejection remains the single most important cause of corneal graft failure. Several host factors have been identified as conferring a "high risk" status to the host. These include: more than two quadrant vascularisation, with associated lymphatics, which augment the afferent and efferent arc of the immune response; herpes simplex keratitis; uveitis; silicone oil keratopathy; previous failed (rejected grafts; "hot eyes"; young recipient age; and multiple surgical procedures at the time of grafting. Large grafts, by virtue of being closer to the host limbus, with its complement of vessels and antigen-presenting Langerhans cells, also are more susceptible to rejection. The diagnosis of graft rejection is entirely clinical and in its early stages the clinical signs could be subtle. Graft rejection is largely mediated by the major histocompatibility antigens, minor antigens and perhaps blood group ABO antigens and some cornea-specific antigens. Just as rejection is mediated by active immune mediated events, the lack of rejection (tolerance is also sustained by active immune regulatory mechanisms. The anterior chamber associated immune deviation (ACAID and probably, conjunctiva associated lymphoid tissue (CALT induced mucosal tolerance, besides others, play an important role. Although graft rejection can lead to graft failure, most rejections can be readily controlled if appropriate management is commenced at the proper time. Topical steroids are the mainstay of graft rejection management. In the high-risk situations however, systemic steroids, and other immunosuppressive drugs such as cyclosporin and tacrolimus (FK506 are of proven benefit, both for treatment and prevention of rejection.

  14. Rejection of normal and neoplastic hemopoietic cells by lethally irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afifi, M.S.H.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of rejection of normal and neoplastic hemopoietic cells by lethally irradiated mice, in part by investigating the hypothesis that two or more cell types are involved in recognition and rejection of hemopoietic cells. Interferon (IFN) was used as a tool for investigating such mechanisms. IFN alpha/beta stimulated the rejection of normal hemopoietic marrow cell grafts in Fl hybrid and in allogeneic host mice but did not affect the growth of cells in syngeneic mice. IFN alpha/beta was effective in hosts pretreated with silica but not in hosts pretreated with cyclophosphamide (Cy) or with anti-asialoGMI serum. Rabbit anti-IFN alpha/beta, but not anti-IFN gamma, serum inhibited genetic resistance to bone marrow cells. These results indicated that IFN alpha/beta was acting indirectly during the rejection of normal hemopoietic cells. It is proposed that four events occur in succession: a host cell recognizes the hemopoietic histocompatibility (Hh) antigens expressed on the surface of incompatible stem cells; this recognition leads to secretion of IFN; IFN activates natural killer (NK) cells; NK cells lyse donor stem cells. Silica interrupts one or both of the first two events. i.e., recognition and/or interrupts one or both of the first two events, i.e. recognition and/or IGN secretion.

  15. Diagnosing rejection in renal transplants: a comparison of molecular- and histopathology-based approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, J; Einecke, G; Mengel, M; Sis, B; Kayser, N; Kaplan, B; Halloran, P F

    2009-08-01

    The transcriptome has considerable potential for improving biopsy diagnoses. However, to realize this potential the relationship between the molecular phenotype of disease and histopathology must be established. We assessed 186 consecutive clinically indicated kidney transplant biopsies using microarrays, and built a classifier to distinguish rejection from nonrejection using predictive analysis of microarrays (PAM). Most genes selected by PAM were interferon-gamma-inducible or cytotoxic T-cell associated, for example, CXCL9, CXCL11, GBP1 and INDO. We then compared the PAM diagnoses to those from histopathology, which are based on the Banff diagnostic criteria. Disagreement occurred in approximately 20% of diagnoses, principally because of idiosyncratic limitations in the histopathology scoring system. The problematic diagnosis of 'borderline rejection' was resolved by PAM into two distinct classes, rejection and nonrejection. The diagnostic discrepancies between Banff and PAM in these cases were largely due to the Banff system's requirement for a tubulitis threshold in defining rejection. By examining the discrepancies between gene expression and histopathology, we provide external validation of the main features of the histopathology diagnostic criteria (the Banff consensus system), recommend improvements and outline a pathway for introducing molecular measurements.

  16. Is Laughing at the Expense of Victims and Offenders a Red Flag? Humor and Secondary Traumatic Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craun, Sarah W; Bourke, Michael L

    2015-01-01

    Those who work with human trauma often use humor to handle job stressors. Research has demonstrated that lighthearted humor is related to lower secondary traumatic stress scores, while gallows humor has the inverse relationship. This work explores how three types of humor relate to secondary traumatic stress: (a) humor at the expense of victims, (b) humor at the expense of offenders, and (c) humor containing sexual innuendo. Internet crimes against children taskforce personnel completed questionnaires about secondary traumatic stress and coping techniques. Humor at the expense of victims was rarely used, but when it was, it was indicative of higher secondary traumatic stress. There were no relationships between secondary traumatic stress and the use of humor at the expense of offenders or humor containing sexual innuendo.

  17. Evening types among german university students score higher on sense of humor after controlling for big five personality factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randler, Christoph

    2008-10-01

    Humor research has focused on relationships between humor and various personality traits. As personality and morningness-eveningness, as well as personality and humor, are related based on genetics and neurobehavioral function, one might also expect a relationship between humor and chronotype. 197 students responded to the Composite Scale of Morningness as a measure of chronotype, the Sense of Humor Questionnaire and a 10-item version of the Big Five Inventory. Individuals scoring as evening types reported a greater sense of humor than morning individuals, with higher morningness scores. In a stepwise linear regression, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Openness, and Chronotype each accounted for a significant amount of variance in sense of Humor scores. That is, the relationship between scores on Sense of Humor and evening orientation was significant after controlling for personality dimensions. Eveningness was related to sense of Humor scores in women but not in men. Social but not cognitive humor was predicted by eveningness.

  18. Prevalence and characteristics of foal rejection in Arabian mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarbe-Díaz, S V; Houpt, K A; Kusunose, R

    1998-09-01

    Separate surveys of Thoroughbred, Paint, and Arabian mare owners revealed a higher than expected rate of foal rejection in Arabian mares. A behavioural history form was submitted by owners of foal rejecting and nonrejecting Arabian mares, and maternal behaviour and management practices compared. Four generation pedigrees of rejecting and nonrejecting Arabian mares were also examined. Foal rejecting mares were more likely to avoid, threaten, squeal at, chase, bite, and kick their foals post partum than nonrejecting mares. Nonrejecting mares were more likely to lick, nicker and defend their foals post partum than rejecting mares. No statistically significant relationship was found between foal rejection and the type of breeding method (natural vs. artificial insemination), the presence of people at birth, the presence of nearby horses at birth, or assistance of the first nursing bout. The presence at least once of 1 of 2 related sires was statistically higher in the pedigrees of rejecting vs. nonrejecting mares. Inherited and learned or environmental factors are likely to affect the expression of foal rejection behaviour.

  19. 48 CFR 14.404-2 - Rejection of individual bids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rejection of individual... of individual bids. (a) Any bid that fails to conform to the essential requirements of the invitation... total price of the bid, but the prices for individual line items as well. (g) Any bid may be rejected...

  20. Heterosexual Rejection and Mate Choice: A Sociometer Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin eZHANG

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies about the effects of social rejection on individuals’ social behaviors have produced mixed results and tend to study mating behaviors from a static point of view. However, mate selection in essence is a dynamic process, and therefore sociometer theory opens up a new perspective for studying mating and its underlying practices. Based on this theory and using self-perceived mate value in the relationship between heterosexual rejection and mate choice as a mediating role, this current study examined the effects of heterosexual rejection on mate choice in two experiments. Results showed that heterosexual rejection significantly reduced self-perceived mate value, expectation, and behavioral tendencies, while heterosexual acceptance indistinctively increased these measures. Self-perceived mate value did not serve as a mediator in the relationship between heterosexual rejection and mate expectation, but it mediated the relationship between heterosexual rejection and mating behavior tendencies towards potential objects. Moreover, individuals evaded both rejection and irrelevant people when suffering from rejection.