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Sample records for humor increases rape

  1. Exposure to Sexist Humor and Rape Proclivity: The Moderator Effect of Aversiveness Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Sanchez, Monica; Duran, Mercedes; Carretero-Dios, Hugo; Megias, Jesus L.; Moya, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the effect of exposure to sexist humor about women on men's self-reported rape proclivity. Earlier studies have shown that exposure to this type of humor increases rape proclivity and that funniness responses to jokes are a key element to consider. However, the role of aversiveness responses has not been…

  2. Risky business: When humor increases and decreases status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitterly, T Bradford; Brooks, Alison Wood; Schweitzer, Maurice E

    2017-03-01

    Across 8 experiments, we demonstrate that humor can influence status, but attempting to use humor is risky. The successful use of humor can increase status in both new and existing relationships, but unsuccessful humor attempts (e.g., inappropriate jokes) can harm status. The relationship between the successful use of humor and status is mediated by perceptions of confidence and competence. The successful use of humor signals confidence and competence, which in turn increases the joke teller's status. Interestingly, telling both appropriate and inappropriate jokes, regardless of the outcome, signals confidence. Although signaling confidence typically increases status and power, telling inappropriate jokes signals low competence and the combined effect of high confidence and low competence harms status. Rather than conceptualizing humor as a frivolous or ancillary behavior, we argue that humor plays a fundamental role in shaping interpersonal perceptions and hierarchies within groups. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Rape (sexual assault) - overview URL of this page: //medlineplus. ...

  4. Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodbury-Fariña, Michel A; Antongiorgi, Joalex L

    2014-12-01

    Humor has not been taken as seriously as it should be. Humor has many positive effects in the daily lives of patients and clinicians need to take advantage of these. Many indices of stress are attenuated and this serves to improve the therapeutic alliance. Freudian, rational emotive therapy, and kleinian views are presented, as well as examples of how to use playful therapy. In addition, advice on how to develop humor is given. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Increased incidence of gang rape in Benin-City, Nigeria: Is this a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increased incidence of gang rape in Benin-City, Nigeria: Is this a forensic epidemic? ... creates so much negative impact on the legal outcome. There is a need to provide a holistic support to the victims and to review Nigerian laws on sexual offences for the good of all. Keywords: Gang-Rape, Sexual violence, Forensic, Ep ...

  6. All Kidding Aside: Humor Increases Learning at Knowledge and Comprehension Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackathorn, Jana; Garczynski, Amy M.; Blankmeyer, Katheryn; Tennial, Rachel D.; Solomon, Erin D.

    2011-01-01

    It has been argued that humor is beneficial in the classroom because it increases social bonding between instructor and student, salience of information, and ultimately recall and retention. The current study sought to add to the literature by empirically testing some assumptions about humor as a pedagogical tool. Specifically, we predicted that…

  7. Increased Aqueous Humor CD4+/CD8+ Lymphocyte Ratio in Sarcoid Uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Namita; Chevour, Priyanka; Mahendradas, Padmamalini; Venkatesh, Anitha; Kawali, Ankush; Shetty, Rohit; Ghosh, Arkasubhra; Sethu, Swaminathan

    2018-02-08

    To determine aqueous humor CD4+/CD8+ T-lymphocyte ratio changes in sarcoid and non-sarcoid uveitis with anterior chamber involvement. The case-control study includes 61 patients with either anterior uveitis, intermediate uveitis with anterior spill, or panuveitis. A total of 21 of them were categorized as sarcoid uveitis and 40 as non-sarcoid uveitis according to diagnostic criteria. CD4+/CD8+ ratio in the aqueous humor was determined using flow cytometry. Significantly higher CD4+/CD8+ ratio in the aqueous humor was observed in patients with sarcoid uveitis (6.3 ± 1.4; mean ± SEM) compared to non-sarcoid uveitis (1.6 ± 0.1; mean ± SEM). Whole blood CD4+/CD8+ ratio was not elevated in subjects with sarcoid and non-sarcoid uveitis. Aqueous humor CD4+/CD8+ ratio >3.5 was observed to be associated with sarcoid uveitis (OR 38, 95% CI 7.0-205.2). Increased aqueous humor CD4+/CD8+ ratio in sarcoid uveitis. Immunophenotyping of localized lymphocytosis in aqueous humor could be utilized as an additional confirmatory marker for ocular sarcoidosis.

  8. Widespread rape does not directly appear to increase the overall HIV prevalence in conflict-affected countries: so now what?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mills Edward

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA is severely affected by HIV/AIDS and conflict. Sexual violence as a weapon of war has been associated with concerns about heightened HIV incidence among women. Widespread rape by combatants has been documented in Burundi, Sierra Leone, Rwanda, Democratic Republic of Congo, Liberia, Sudan and Uganda. To examine the assertion that widespread rape may not directly increase HIV prevalence at the population level, we built a model to determine the potential impact of varying scenarios of widespread rape on HIV prevalence in the above seven African countries. Discussion Our findings show that even in the most extreme situations, where 15% of the female population was raped, where HIV prevalence among assailants was 8 times the country population prevalence, and where the HIV transmission rate was highest at 4 times the average high rate, widespread rape increased the absolute HIV prevalence of these countries by only 0.023%. These projections support the finding that widespread rape in conflict-affected countries in SSA has not incurred a major direct population-level change in HIV prevalence. However, this must not be interpreted to say that widespread rape does not pose serious problems to women's acquisition of HIV on an individual basis or in specific settings. Furthermore, direct and indirect consequences of sexual violence, such as physical and psychosocial trauma, unwanted pregnancies, and stigma and discrimination cannot be understated. Summary The conclusions of this article do not significantly change current practices in the field from an operational perspective. Proper care and treatment must be provided to every survivor of rape regardless of the epidemiological effects of HIV transmission at the population level. Sexual violence must be treated as a protection issue and not solely a reproductive health and psychosocial issue. It is worth publishing data and conclusions that could be

  9. Playing a Videogame with a Sexualized Female Character Increases Adolescents' Rape Myth Acceptance and Tolerance Toward Sexual Harassment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driesmans, Karolien; Vandenbosch, Laura; Eggermont, Steven

    2015-04-01

    Prior research has documented favorable effects of active and educational videogames among adolescents. However, research on potential negative effects of such games is limited. Scholars have called attention to games portraying sexualized female characters. The purpose of the current study was to experimentally investigate the effect of playing a videogame with a sexualized female character on adolescents' acceptance of rape myths and tolerance for sexual harassment. Fifty-seven secondary school pupils, 12-15 years of age, participated in a 2 (gender: boys versus girls)×2 (game character: nonsexualized versus sexualized female) factorial design experiment. Participants played a game for 15 minutes and were randomly assigned to one of the two game characters. Afterward, they completed established scales to assess rape myth acceptance and tolerance for sexual harassment. Analyses of variance showed greater acceptance of rape myths (P=0.039) and greater tolerance of sexual harassment (P=0.046) in adolescents who played with the sexualized woman compared with adolescents in the control condition. We did not find significant differences between boys and girls or any interaction effect between gender and game character. Findings suggest that gameplaying with a sexualized woman may increase adolescents' acceptance of rape myths and tolerance for sexual harassment. These findings highlight attention to the use of sexualized female game characters in (educational and active) videogames that target adolescents.

  10. Humoral Dysregulation Associated with Increased Systemic Inflammation among Injection Heroin Users.

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    Michael S Piepenbrink

    Full Text Available Injection drug use is a growing major public health concern. Injection drug users (IDUs have a higher incidence of co-morbidities including HIV, Hepatitis, and other infections. An effective humoral response is critical for optimal homeostasis and protection from infection; however, the impact of injection heroin use on humoral immunity is poorly understood. We hypothesized that IDUs have altered B cell and antibody profiles.A comprehensive systems biology-based cross-sectional assessment of 130 peripheral blood B cell flow cytometry- and plasma- based features was performed on HIV-/Hepatitis C-, active heroin IDUs who participated in a syringe exchange program (n = 19 and healthy control subjects (n = 19. The IDU group had substantial polydrug use, with 89% reporting cocaine injection within the preceding month. IDUs exhibited a significant, 2-fold increase in total B cells compared to healthy subjects, which was associated with increased activated B cell subsets. Although plasma total IgG titers were similar between groups, IDUs had significantly higher IgG3 and IgG4, suggestive of chronic B cell activation. Total IgM was also increased in IDUs, as well as HIV Envelope-specific IgM, suggestive of increased HIV exposure. IDUs exhibited numerous features suggestive of systemic inflammation, including significantly increased plasma sCD40L, TNF-α, TGF-α, IL-8, and ceramide metabolites. Machine learning multivariate analysis distilled a set of 10 features that classified samples based on group with absolute accuracy.These results demonstrate broad alterations in the steady-state humoral profile of IDUs that are associated with increased systemic inflammation. Such dysregulation may impact the ability of IDUs to generate optimal responses to vaccination and infection, or lead to increased risk for inflammation-related co-morbidities, and should be considered when developing immune-based interventions for this growing population.

  11. THE BENEFITS OF SURFING HUMOR ON INTERNET TO INCREASE ENGLISH COMPETENCE AND CROSS CULTURAL UNDERSTANDING OF STUDENTS IN ENGLISH DEPARTMENT OF UNNES

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    Farah Firgia Lutfi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Surfing humor on internet has got a lot of negative responses although the doers claim that it is fun. This research is focusing on the humor which is using English as the main language. However, previous researches have confirmed that there are witty and social sides of humor. Those two sides are important foundations to learn English further. The present paper aims to spot beneficial effects of self -humor exposure from Internet towards English competence and cross cultural understanding of students in English Department of Semarang State University. The way to ‗get‘ a humor content is divided into two, humor comprehension and humor perception. Humor comprehension has cognitive benefits that increase English competence. Humor appreciation has sociological benefits to increase cross cultural understanding. Thus, we are comparing English ability and social behavior of students with different intensity of self-humor exposure. Data were collected through interview. Students with high intensity and interest to self-humor exposure showed relatively higher English competence and tolerance to different ideas. The explanation will give broader idea of how learning English through humor brings positive values. Further research about the effects of humor in studying English is needed.

  12. Does Encouragement by Others Increase Rape Reporting? Findings from a National Sample of Women

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    Paul, Lisa A.; Zinzow, Heidi M.; McCauley, Jenna L.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Resnick, Heidi S.

    2014-01-01

    Our study explores the role of victims' consultation with others about whether or not to report their rape to police. Three groups were observed within this sample of 435 rape victims from a national telephone household probability sample of women: those who did not consult with anyone about reporting (n = 364), those who consulted with someone and were encouraged to report to police (n = 40), and those who consulted with someone and were not encouraged to report (n = 31). Descriptive analyses indicated that the encouraged group was more likely to report to police than either of the other two groups (which did not differ from each other). Because there were no differences between the two consulting groups on demographic or rape-related variables, they were combined in subsequent analyses. Consulting with others about whether to report, peri-traumatic fear of injury or death, assault perpetration by a stranger, and concerns about contracting a sexually transmitted disease were significant predictors of reporting to police after controlling for other significant predictors in a multivariate regression analysis. Implications of these findings are discussed, including the benefits and consequences of formal rape reporting for victims, and the role that disclosure recipients may have in assisting victims post-rape (e.g., encouragement of reporting, emotional support). PMID:25431519

  13. Rape in Rural Bangladesh

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    Nowsher Ali

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rape is one of the silent brutal sexual offences in Bangladesh. Despite strong laws against it, the evil of rape continues to rise. Increasing trend of the silent cruel sexual offence (rape represents a major psychopath sexual disorder and public health problem and progress of the country. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the pattern of alleged rape victims in a rural district of Bangladesh with the ultimate aim to create public awareness about the brutal crime. Materials and method: This retrospective study was carried out on 330 sexually assailed alleged rape victims’ report forms, who reported at Faridpur Medical College, Bangladesh from 2007 to 2011 for medical examination. Results: Among the study subjects maximum number (70.0% of alleged rape cases were under the age of 20 years. More than two-thirds (64.60% of the assailants were known to the victims, most of the incidents (64.20% occurred in the victims’ houses and nearby places. The study also revealed that minimum number of victims (14.20% reported within 24 hours for medical examination. Almost one fourth of the alleged rape cases were gang rape and no positive finding in favour of sexual intercourse was found in about three fourth (72.40% of cases. Conclusion: Public awareness about rape would be effective to report in due time with preserving the evidence of crime and modern techniques like DNA diagnosis may be of help to detect the assailant.

  14. Rape sentencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ó Cathaoir, Katharina Eva

    This handbook conducts an analysis of the sentences imposed for rape by Irish courts. Part I examines The People (DPP) v. WD [2007] IEHC 310 by outlining the salient points of the decision, in particular the separation of rape sentences into categories of punishments. The mitigating and aggravating...... factors are also laid out. Part II analyses recent sentences for rape since 2007. All reported Court of Criminal Appeal (CCA) cases post The People (DPP) v. WD are included as well as a survey of two years of Irish Times reports (covering the period November 2010 to November 2012)....

  15. Rape Beyond Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Margo

    2017-02-01

    Public health experts agree that sexual violence constitutes a significant public health issue. Yet criminal law dominates rape law almost completely, with public health law playing at best a small supporting role. Recent civil law developments, such as university disciplinary proceedings, similarly fixate on how best to find and penalize perpetrators. As a result, rape law continues to spin its wheels in the same arguments and obstacles. This Article argues that, without broader cultural changes, criminal law faces a double bind: rape laws will either be ineffective or neglect the importance of individual culpability. Public health law provides more promising terrain for rape prevention because it is a strong legal framework that can engage the complex causes of rape, including the social norms that promote sexual aggression. While criminal law can only punish bad behavior, public health interventions can use the more effective prevention strategy of promoting positive behaviors and relationships. They can also address the myriad sexual behaviors and social determinants that increase the risk of rape but are outside the scope of criminal law. Perhaps most importantly, public health law relies on evidence-based interventions and the expertise of public health authorities to ensure that laws and policies are effective. Transforming rape law in this way provides a framework for legal feminism to undertake the unmet challenge of "theorizing yes," that is, moving beyond how to protect women’s right to refuse sex and toward promoting and exploring positive models of sex. Criminal law is simply incapable of meeting this challenge because it concerns only what sex should not be. A public health framework can give the law a richer role in addressing the full spectrum of sexual attitudes and behaviors.

  16. TRANSGENIC PLANTS OF RAPE (BRASSICA NAPUS L. WITH GENE OSMYB4 HAVE INCREASED RESISTANCE TO SALTS OF HEAVY METALS

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    Raldugina G.N.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to study the response of the transgenic spring rape plants (Brassica napus L. var. ‘Westar’ with the rice transfactor-encoding gene Osmyb4 to treatment with salts of heavy metals (HM CuSO4 or ZnSO4 and accumulation in the leaves of biomass, metals, photosynthetic pigments, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant compounds: total phenols, anthocyanins, and antioxidant enzyme activity superoxide dismutase (SOD and guaiacol peroxidase (POX were determined. Vegetatively propagated transgenic plants and wild-type plants were grown on Hoagland-Snyder medium at 24°C, then at the 5-6th leaves-stage, CuSO4 (in concentration 25-150 mM or ZnSO4 (500 - 5000 mM were added to the growth medium, and plants were exposed to the salts for 15 days. Under the action of small concentrations of salts, the results obtained for the transgenic and untransformed plants did not differ, but at high concentrations strong differences between transgenic and untransformed plants were observed. In transgenic plants, accumulation of biomass was greater. Carotene and xanthophyll were destroyed in transgenic plants less than in the untransformed plants. They have accumulated in their leaves more metal, especially Zn, reaching almost to the accumulation of 7 mg per g of dry biomass, bringing these plants to the hyperaccumulation of Zn. In the tissues of transgenic plants exposed to high concentrations of salts, the content of total phenols, anthocyanins, and low molecular weight compounds, that are responsible for protection against ROS, increased significantly. All these results indicate a greater stability of the transgenic plants to the action of heavy metals, as evidenced also by less activity of lipid peroxidases in their tissue: at high salt concentrations, malondialdehyde (MDA accumulated significantly less in transgenic plants than in non-transformed plant tissues. The greater stability of transgenic plants to stressful effect of HM is also evidenced by the

  17. Child rape: facets of a heinous crime.

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    Gangrade, K D; Sooryamoorthy, R; Renjini, D

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the extent of child rape in India, case studies of girl children in legal procedures, rape settings and perpetrators, public morality, and the nature of rape laws in India. It is concluded that there is no safe place for children. Currently, rapists are allowed to go free or are acquitted. Prevention and control of child rape must involve punishment of rapists. It is not appropriate that society ostracize the victim and her family. Victims should not remain silent. National Crime Records Bureau statistics reveal increases in rape during 1986-91. State figures are given for 1986-88. Madhya Pradesh had the highest reported incidence of rape in 1988. In 1993, Madhya Pradesh had a total of 2459 rapes. Nationally, 10,425 women were reported as raped in 1991. 51.7% were 16-30 years old. There were 1099 cases of pedophilia in 1991, which was an increase over 1990. Over 50% of the pedophilia cases were reported in Uttar Pradesh. The record of convictions shows very low figures. 1992 trial results of 276 rape cases indicated that only 46 persons were convicted. Victims suffer from psychological effects of embarrassment, disgust, depression, guilt, and even suicidal tendencies. There is police and prosecution indifference as well as social stigma and social ostracism of the victim and her family. Many cases go unreported. The case studies illustrate the difficulties for the victim of experiencing the rape and the social responses: police harassment, shame and fear, and occasionally public outrage. The case studies illustrate rape in familiar settings, such as schools, family homes, and neighbors and friends' homes; rape by policemen; and rape by political influentials. Most offenders are young, married, and socioeconomically poor. Mass media portrayals fuel the frustrations of poor and lonely men in cities. Rapists exhibit anti-social behavior or psychopathology. Sexual offenses are related to society's moral values.

  18. Estimation and change tendency of rape straw resource in Leshan

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    Guan, Qinlan; Gong, Mingfu

    2018-04-01

    Rape straw in Leshan area are rape stalks, including stems, leaves and pods after removing rapeseed. Leshan area is one of the main rape planting areas in Sichuan Province and rape planting area is large. Each year will produce a lot of rape straw. Based on the analysis of the trend of rapeseed planting area and rapeseed yield from 2008 to 2014, the change trend of rape straw resources in Leshan from 2008 to 2014 was analyzed and the decision-making reference was provided for resource utilization of rape straw. The results showed that the amount of rape straw resources in Leshan was very large, which was more than 100,000 tons per year, which was increasing year by year. By 2014, the amount of rape straw resources in Leshan was close to 200,000 tons.

  19. Exposure to Pornography and Acceptance of Rape Myths.

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    Allen, Mike; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Summarizes the literature examining the association between acceptance of rape myths and exposure to pornography. States that nonexperimental methodology shows that exposure to pornography does not increase rape myth acceptance, while experimental studies show that exposure to pornography increases rape myth acceptance. Concludes that experimental…

  20. Date Rape (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... owe" someone sex, even if you're a couple. Rape is not always violent. If you say " ... date rape" drugs like: rohypnol , called roofies, lunch money, or mind erasers GHB (gamma hydroxybutyric acid), called ...

  1. Psychobiological correlates of rape in female adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bicanic, I.A.E.

    2014-01-01

    A considerable percentage of youth in the Netherlands has been victimized by rape during adolescence. The present research shows that adolescence rape is correlated with high levels of psychological distress, neurobiological dysregulations and increased risk for problems with sexual and pelvic floor

  2. Date rape among undergraduates in southwestern Nigeria federal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The increasing number of date rapes occurring on University campuses and the need to decrease rape supportive attitudes point to the need for continued research on this field. Correlational survey design was adopted to examine the extent to which attitude towards date rape is associated with the respondents' emotional ...

  3. Forensic implications of rape

    OpenAIRE

    Novaković Milan

    2006-01-01

    Introduction. Rape is a sexual act of violence in which physical strength is used. Criminal law imposes strict punishments for such crimes as rape. Psycho-pathologically, rape is among the gravest of crimes, often associated with extremely deviated behavior. This article deals with the forensic aspects of sexual violence in Bosnia and Herzegovina in the period from 2000-2004. We report about sexual assaults, personality of delinquents, motives and consequences of rape. Material and Methods. T...

  4. Male Power and Female Victimization: Towards a Theory of Interracial Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFree, Gary D.

    1982-01-01

    Tests two models of Black offender/White victim (BW) rape, using data from 443 rape cases. Results did not support the normative model which correlates BW rape with increased social interaction between Black men and White women and only partially supported the conflict model that correlates BW rape with increased Black politicization. (Author/AM)

  5. Rape Myths, Rape Scripts, and Common Rape Experiences of College Women: Differences in Perceptions of Women Who Have Been Raped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockett, Jericho M; Saucier, Donald A; Badke, Caitlyn

    2016-03-01

    Rape is prevalent at colleges. Although research suggests commonalities across many college women's rape experiences (e.g., perpetrators using multiple coercive strategies), vignettes used to assess rape perceptions often reflect false beliefs. Two studies varying a perpetrator's coercive tactics examine rape perceptions using vignettes reflecting rape myths, rape scripts, or many college women's common rape experiences. Participants perceive a woman who was raped more positively in vignettes reflecting common rape experiences versus those reflecting rape myths or scripts. Theoretical, educational, and research implications are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Rape avoidance behavior among Slovak women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop, Pavol

    2013-05-28

    Rape has been a recurrent adaptive problem for many species, including humans. Rape is costly to women in terms of disease transmission, partner abandonment, and unwanted pregnancy (among other costs). Therefore, behavioral strategies which allow women to avoid coercive men may have been favored by selection. In line with this evolutionary reasoning, the current research documented that physically stronger women and those in a committed romantic relationship reported more rape avoidance behavior. In addition, virgin women tended to perform more rape avoidance behavior compared with their non-virgin counterparts. Women with high conception risk perceived themselves as physically stronger, which may protect them against a potential rapist. Fear of unwanted pregnancy from rape decreased as age increased, reflecting higher fertility among younger participants. However, older women reported more rape avoidance behavior, which contradicts evolutionary predictions. The results provide some support for evolutionary hypotheses of rape avoidance behavior which suggest that woman's perception of rape is influenced by parental investment and perceived physical condition.

  7. The Realities of Date Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presley, Cara; Watson, Jennifer; Williams, Audrey R.

    This poster presentation addresses the issue of date rape, specifically in the college environment. Highlighted are date rape statistics, demographics, and date rape drugs. Also discussed are date rape warnings and prevention strategies. It is concluded that college and university administrators must place the issue of date rape and acquaintance…

  8. Effects of Classroom Humor Climate and Acceptance of Humor Messages on Adolescents' Expressions of Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Yi-Chen; Lee, Chun-Yang; Wang, Hong-Huei

    2016-01-01

    Background: To adapt to dramatic changes from physical growth, physical development and the increasing demand of significant others, humor has been found to be an effective coping strategy. However, previous studies have found that adolescents start to express their humor styles with aggressive components which causes negative consequences, such…

  9. Flow of Aqueous Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Flow of Aqueous Humor Flow of Aqueous Humor Most, but not all, forms of glaucoma are ... remains normal when some of the fluid (aqueous humor) produced by the eye's ciliary body flows out ...

  10. Receipt of Post-Rape Medical Care in a National Sample of Female Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinzow, Heidi M.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Barr, Simone C.; Danielson, Carla K.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2014-01-01

    Background It is important for rape victims to receive medical care to prevent and treat rape-related diseases and injuries, access forensic exams, and connect to needed resources. Few victims seek care, and factors associated with post-rape medical care–seeking are poorly understood. Purpose The current study examined prevalence and factors associated with post-rape medical care–seeking in a national sample of women who reported a most-recent or only incident of forcible rape, and drug- or alcohol-facilitated/incapacitated rape when they were aged ≥14 years. Methods A national sample of U.S. adult women (N=3001) completed structured telephone interviews in 2006, and data for this study were analyzed in 2011. Logistic regression analyses examined demographic variables, health, rape characteristics, and post-rape concerns in relation to post-rape medical care–seeking among 445 female rape victims. Results A minority of rape victims (21%) sought post-rape medical attention following the incident. In the final multivariate model, correlates of medical care included black race, rape-related injury, concerns about sexually transmitted diseases, pregnancy concerns, and reporting the incident to police. Conclusions Women who experience rapes consistent with stereotypic scenarios, acknowledge the rape, report the rape, and harbor health concerns appear to be more likely to seek post-rape medical services. Education is needed to increase rape acknowledgment, awareness of post-rape services that do not require formal reporting, and recognition of the need to treat rape-related health problems. PMID:22813683

  11. Making humor together: phenomenology and interracial humor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Barber

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains humor through phenomenological concepts and methods. The three major theories of humor: Superiority, Relief, and Incongruity depend on the thwarting of intentional expectations. Since one experiences an incongruity between what is intended and what is actually experienced, the incongruity theory affords the best explanation, but intentionality remains fundamental for all theories. Theorists of humor rightly insist that the enjoyment of humorous incongruity completes the definition of humor, but such enjoyment also depends on a special epoché, usually elicited by the cues of an interlocutor who invites the listener to leap together into the humorous finite province of meaning. In this province, actions and statements, hurtful in everyday life, such as a pie thrown at someone who ducks as the pie hits another, produce laughter. This comic epoché resembles the phenomenological epoché in its distancing from everyday life, and, like the phenomenological epoché, it opens everyday experience to reflection. Although one often experiences and enjoys humor alone, humor is thoroughly intersubjective and more frequently occurs when two persons participate in the humorous epoché together. The opportunities for making humor together are enhanced to the extent the partners differ in their expectations and responses to situations. Those differences, including bodily differences, often result from the complex intersubjective networks, including culture. As in the case of a seemingly solitary activity like reflection, which one learns from others and exercises on one’s own autonomously, one internalizes others’ styles of humor and discovers such internalization through reflection on one’s «because motives». On the basis of these features – intentionality, epoché, and intersubjectivity, the paper concludes by briefly examining an example of interracial humor. Despite the racist character of much interracial humor, the example

  12. The Culture of Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    or a prostitute and it wasn’t really rape because her job implies that she really doesn ’ t care about her body. As a society, we continue to make...FAULKNER, DYSFUNCTIONA.t FAMILY, AND THE OLD SOUTH; RAPE OF CHARLOTTE TEMPLE AND VICTIM-BLAMING; AMERICA, LINEARLY CYCLICAL Circle one: Abstract- Tech...h &Fine Arts/333-7723 lRRESPONSIBILITY d1 2. WILLIAM FAULKNER, DYSFUNCTIONAL FAMILY t) AND TIIE OLD SOUTH .. L 3. RAPE OF CHARLOTTE TEMPLE AND

  13. Evaluation of Effect of Gamma Rays Irradiation for Increasing of Variation in Germination and Agronomic Traits in Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.

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    R. Momeni

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing of genetic diversity is one of primary and basic goals of plant breeding programs. Induction of mutation is a method to increase genetic diversity that can be used in accommodate with selection, recombination and or combination of them in plant breeding. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of different doses of gamma rays (500, 700, 900, 1100 and 1300 Gry on primary growth characters, such as: rate and percentage of germination, the length of rootlet and stemlet in M1 generation, and on agronomic characters such as: plant height, number of lateral branches, number of pods on main and lateral stem, length of pods and weigth of 1000-seed in M2 generation for two varieties of oilseed rape (Brassica napus, PF and Zarfam. Results of lab experiments showed that for both varieties, the germination percentage, the length of rootlet and the length of stemlet were significantly decreased by mutagen in compare with the control. While germination rate was only significantly affected by mutagen in PF. The estimation of "F" showed that there was significant difference between the variance of treatments for the germination rate and germination percentage in PF cultivar and for germination rate and stemlet length in Zarfam cultivar. In fact, increasing of gamma doses causes considerable enhancement in variance of treatment in compare with the control. The maximum relative coefficient of variation was related to 1300 Gry for germination rate of PF. In M2, all traits of study except number of pods on main stem was decreased by different doses of Gamma rays in PF cultivar. In opposition to other traits, Pods on main stem in PF cultivar was increased in different doses of gamma ray in compare with the control. But in Zarfam cultivar, only 1000-seed weight was significantly affected by Gamma rays.

  14. Oilseed rape grain yield productivity increases with hybrid varietal types: a first balance sheet with post registration tests in France and in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinochet Xavier

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 1994 several oilseed rape hybrid types were proposed to farmers. Following registration experiments, Cetiom and different equivalent institutions in European Union have tested them in different post registration national networks. Grain yield productivity increases were demonstrated and a first synthesis could be done to check avantages and difficulties which had occurred. For winter types, Hybrid Composits were widely used, mainly in France and in the United Kingdom. Grain yield increases were important in the South and West part of France where their market shares increased up to 50-80%. Nevertheless, many fecondation problems occurred in several places all over Europe. Reasons of such problems were difficult to identify. Several factors, as cold temperatures, nutritionnal competitions, pollen avaibility may be involved to explain low seed sets. Restored Hybrids made with the NPZ hybridation system were successfully tested widely, and has reached significative market shares during 1999-2000 season. Less experiments were carried out with others hybrid types (Ogu-INRA Restored Hybrids, Mixed Hybrids. Ogu-INRA Restored Hybrids reached the highest grain yield levels but users are waiting for lower glucosinolates seed content hybrids which would come in the next future. Performances comparisons among countries have to be done carefully. Productivity increases with hybrid types could have been over estimated depending of pollinic environments or plot size and possible neighbouring effects. For France, results from field trials networks are coherent with results coming from postal surveys. For spring varieties, Polima restored hybrids and varietal associations have demonstrated a significative advantage compared to classical lines.

  15. Humor: The "Witting" Edge in Business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scriven, Jolene; Hefferin, Linda

    1998-01-01

    Humor contributes to teamwork, creative problem solving, mental flexibility, and risk taking in the workplace. As a classroom tool, it increases student attentiveness and retention of information. (SK)

  16. Rape (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... harm than good. Talking about rape in a safe environment with the help and support of a trained professional is the best way to ensure long-term healing. Working through the pain sooner rather than later can ...

  17. Secondary victims of rape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Dorte Mølgaard; Bak, Rikke; Elklit, Ask

    2012-01-01

    secondary victims, including family members, partners, and friends of male and female rape victims. We found that many respondents found it difficult to support the PV and that their relationship with the PV was often affected by the assault. Furthermore, the sample showed significant levels...... of social support for the respondent, and feeling let down by others. The respondents were generally interested in friend-, family-, and partner-focused interventions, particularly in receiving education about how best to support a rape victim...

  18. Cultures of (Un)happiness: Teaching, Schooling, and Light and Dark Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullough, Robert V., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The author explores humor during a time of increasingly hostile accountability measures directed toward educators. Drawing on incongruity and other theories of humor, he explores both "light" and "dark" humor and some aspects of the educational potential and power of humor. Noting how humor is related to creativity and problem management, the…

  19. Cognitive Distortions, Humor Styles, and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rnic, Katerina; Dozois, David J A; Martin, Rod A

    2016-08-01

    Cognitive distortions are negative biases in thinking that are theorized to represent vulnerability factors for depression and dysphoria. Despite the emphasis placed on cognitive distortions in the context of cognitive behavioural theory and practice, a paucity of research has examined the mechanisms through which they impact depressive symptomatology. Both adaptive and maladaptive styles of humor represent coping strategies that may mediate the relation between cognitive distortions and depressive symptoms. The current study examined the correlations between the frequency and impact of cognitive distortions across both social and achievement-related contexts and types of humor. Cognitive distortions were associated with reduced use of adaptive Affiliative and Self-Enhancing humor styles and increased use of maladaptive Aggressive and Self-Defeating humor. Reduced use of Self-Enhancing humor mediated the relationship between most types of cognitive distortions and depressed mood, indicating that distorted negative thinking may interfere with an individual's ability to adopt a humorous and cheerful outlook on life (i.e., use Self-Enhancing humor) as a way of regulating emotions and coping with stress, thereby resulting in elevated depressive symptoms. Similarly, Self-Defeating humor mediated the association of the social impact of cognitive distortions with depression, such that this humor style may be used as a coping strategy for dealing with distorted thinking that ultimately backfires and results in increased dysphoria.

  20. Building Resilience through Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Debra Vande; Van Brockern, Steve

    1995-01-01

    Research on resilience suggests that a sense of humor helps to stress-proof children in conflict. Reports on a workshop for educators and youth workers convened to explore ways humor is being used to foster positive development and resilience with troubled youth. Describes applications of humor front-line professionals report as useful in their…

  1. If Your Child is Raped

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Know Child Abuse Self-Defense Emergency Contraception Abuse Am I in a Healthy Relationship? Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bullying Date Rape Abusive Relationships How Can I Help a Friend Who Was Raped? Drugs: What to Know Rape View more About Us ...

  2. Effect of chronic radiation on rape genotype formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabry, A.; Hannich, K.; Cerny, J.; Vyvadilova, M.

    1975-01-01

    The F 1 generation of hybrid plants of the Canadian erucic acid-free rape cross-bred with some European winter rape varieties with a high content of erucic acid were chronically irradiated in a gamma-field with doses ranging from 5978 to 329 R er vegetation. In segregating F 2 generations, the irradiation significantly increased the proportion of winter genotypes; a matroclinous influence on the developmental characteristics of plants occurred in irradiated segregating F 2 hybrid populations. As against spring rape, winter rape varieties used as the maternal form during hybridization caused a statistically significant increase in the frequency of winter genotypes. The segregation of half-winter forms in irradiated segregating hybrid populations of the F 2 generation proved the incomplete dominance of the spring habit of oil rape. Chronic irradiation significantly increased erucic-free (0 - 10% of erucic acid) and low-erucic (10 - 20% of erucic acid) genotype frequencies in segregating F 2 generations. Chronic irradiation of the hybrid plants of erucic-free spring rapes and erucic winter rapes with doses ranging from 5978 to 329 R per vegetation, together with the temperature screening of winter forms and with the determination of the fatty acid content, may be considered as an effective method of creating non-erucic and low-erucic winter forms of oil rape. (author)

  3. An acute post-rape intervention to prevent substance use and abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acierno, Ron; Resnick, Heidi S; Flood, Amanda; Holmes, Melisa

    2003-12-01

    The trauma of rape is routinely associated with extreme acute distress. Such peri-event anxiety increases risk of developing psychopathology and substance use or abuse post-rape, with the degree of initial distress positively predicting future problems. Unfortunately, the nature of post-rape forensic evidence collection procedures may exacerbate initial distress, thereby potentiating post-rape negative emotional sequelae. Consequently, substance use may increase in an effort to ameliorate this distress. To address this, a two-part video intervention was developed for use in acute post-rape time frames to (a) minimize anxiety during forensic rape examinations, thereby reducing risk of future emotional problems, and (b) prevent increased post-rape substance use and abuse. Pilot study data with 124 rape victims indicated that the low-cost, easily administered intervention was effective in reducing risk of marijuana abuse at 6 weeks. Nonstatistically significant trends also were evident for reduced marijuana use. Trends were also noted in favor of the intervention in the subgroup of women who were actively using substances pre-rape (among pre-rape alcohol users, 28% viewers vs. 43% nonviewers met criteria for post-rape alcohol abuse; among pre-rape marijuana users, the rates of post-marijuana use were 17% vs. 43%).

  4. Unacknowledged Rape in the Community: Rape Characteristics and Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littleton, Heather; Layh, Marlee; Rudolph, Kelly

    2018-02-01

    Unacknowledged rape, labeling a rape as a nonvictimizing event, remains largely unstudied among non-college women. This study therefore sought to examine differences in assault characteristics, adjustment, and disclosure by rape acknowledgment status among a sample of lower income rape victims (n = 104) recruited from a reproductive health clinic (mean age = 28.8 years). Although unacknowledged rape was infrequent (17.1% of victims), unacknowledged victims reported that the perpetrator used less force and were less likely to have assertively resisted, as compared to acknowledged victims. There were no significant differences in disclosure, depression, and somatic complaints between unacknowledged and acknowledged rape victims. Implications of the findings for understanding rape acknowledgment and postrape adjustment among community women are discussed.

  5. Effects of rape on men: a descriptive analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jayne; Archer, John; Davies, Michelle

    2005-02-01

    Previous studies of the effects of rape on men have focused mainly on clinical populations. This study extended current research by investigating the effects of rape on a non-clinical sample of men recruited from the general population by media advertising. A total of 40 male rape victims were asked to provide details of their assaults, levels of psychological disturbance, long-term effects, and reporting issues. Results revealed that most assaults had been carried out using physical or violent force, in a variety of different circumstances. All of the victims reported some form of psychological disturbance as a result of being raped. Long-term effects included anxiety, depression, increased feelings of anger and vulnerability, loss of self-image, emotional distancing, self-blame, and self-harming behaviors. Findings are discussed in relation to previous research in the area and perceptions of rape.

  6. Unacknowledged Rape: The Influences of Child Sexual Abuse and Personality Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Laura C; Scarpa, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Evidence supports that the majority of young women who experience sexual victimization that meets the legal definition of rape do not label their experiences as rape--this has been termed unacknowledged rape. In a sample of 77 young adult women, the odds of unacknowledged rape significantly increased as a function of less severe child sexual abuse histories and greater levels of dysfunctional personality traits. Potential explanations for these findings as well as clinical implications are discussed. Because of the potential psychological and societal consequences of unacknowledged rape, it is vital that researchers continue to examine this phenomenon.

  7. Respons imun humoral pada pulpitis (Humoral immune response on pulpitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trijoedani Widodo

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Pulpitis is an inflammation process on dental pulp tissue, and usually as the continuous of caries. The microorganism in the caries is a potential immunogenic triggering the immune respons, both humoral and celluler immune responses. The aim of this research is to explain the humoral immune response changes in the dental pulp tissues of pulpitis. This research was done on three group samples: Irreversible pulpitis, Reversible pulpitis and sound teeth as the control group. The result showed that there were three pulpitis immunopathologic patterns: the sound teeth immunopathologic pattern showing a low humoral immune response, in a low level of IgG, IgA and IgM, the reversible pulpitis pattern showing that in a higher humoral immune response, IgG and IgA decreased but IgM increased, the irreversible pulpitis pattern showing that IgG and IgM increased, but it couldn't be repaired although it has highly immunity, and it showed an unusually low level of IgA. This low level of IgA meant that irreversible pulpitis had a low mucosal immunity.

  8. Precursors to rape: pressuring behaviors and rape proclivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strain, Megan L; Hockett, Jericho M; Saucier, Donald A

    2015-01-01

    We developed measures assessing personal and normative attitudes toward two types of behaviors that are symptomatic of rape culture. We conceptualize sexual violence as existing on a continuum and argue that two types of behaviors may be potential antecedents to (and consequences of) sexual violence: attempts to pressure, which mimic the power dynamics of rape in a less aggressive fashion, and benevolent dating behaviors, which are accepted dating scripts in which men initiate action. We examined individuals' acceptance of these behaviors in relation to their attitudes toward rape victims and among men to rape proclivity. This initial work suggests that these constructs and measures may be useful to investigate in future research.

  9. Strategically Funny: Romantic Motives Affect Humor Style in Relationship Initiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa E. DiDonato

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Not all humor is the same, yet little is known about the appeal of specific humor styles in romantic initiation. The current experimental study addresses this gap by investigating how romantic motives (short-term or long-term affect individuals’ anticipated use of, and response to, positive humor and negative humor. Heterosexual participants (n = 224 imagined the pursuit of either a desired short-term or long-term relationship, indicated the extent to which they would produce positive and negative humor, and reported how their own interest would change in response to the imaginary target’s use of positive or negative humor. Results revealed that individuals are strategic in their humor production as a function of relational motives. Individuals produced positive humor in both contexts but limited their use of negative humor when pursuing a long-term relationship. The target’s positive humor increased individuals’ attraction, especially women’s, and although negative humor boosted attraction, it did not boost attraction more for short-term than long-term relationships. Findings extend a trait-indicator model of humor and their implications are discussed in light of other theoretical perspectives.

  10. Strategically Funny: Romantic Motives Affect Humor Style in Relationship Initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiDonato, Theresa E; Jakubiak, Brittany K

    2016-08-01

    Not all humor is the same, yet little is known about the appeal of specific humor styles in romantic initiation. The current experimental study addresses this gap by investigating how romantic motives (short-term or long-term) affect individuals' anticipated use of, and response to, positive humor and negative humor. Heterosexual participants (n = 224) imagined the pursuit of either a desired short-term or long-term relationship, indicated the extent to which they would produce positive and negative humor, and reported how their own interest would change in response to the imaginary target's use of positive or negative humor. Results revealed that individuals are strategic in their humor production as a function of relational motives. Individuals produced positive humor in both contexts but limited their use of negative humor when pursuing a long-term relationship. The target's positive humor increased individuals' attraction, especially women's, and although negative humor boosted attraction, it did not boost attraction more for short-term than long-term relationships. Findings extend a trait-indicator model of humor and their implications are discussed in light of other theoretical perspectives.

  11. Humor styles moderate borderline personality traits and suicide ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Neil A; Helle, Ashley C; Tucker, Raymond P; Lengel, Gregory J; DeShong, Hilary L; Wingate, LaRicka R; Mullins-Sweatt, Stephanie N

    2017-03-01

    The way individuals use humor to interact interpersonally has been associated with general personality, depression, and suicidality. Certain humor styles may moderate the risk for suicide ideation (SI) in individuals who are high in specific risk factors (e.g., thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness). Previous research suggests a relationship between humor styles and borderline personality disorder (BPD) and an increased risk of suicidality and suicide completion in individuals with BPD. Participants (n =176) completed measures of BPD traits, SI, and humor styles. It was hypothesized that BPD traits would be positively correlated with negative humor styles and negatively correlated with positive humor styles, and that humor styles would significantly moderate BPD traits and SI. Results showed that BPD traits were negatively correlated with self-enhancing humor styles and positively correlated with self-defeating humor styles, but that they were not significantly correlated with affiliative or aggressive humor styles. Bootstrapping analyses demonstrated that the affiliative, self-enhancing, and self-defeating humor styles significantly moderated BPD traits and SI, while the aggressive humor style did not. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Correlates of Self-Report of Rape Among Male School Adolescents in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunfowokan, Adesola A; Olagunju, Oluwayemisi E; Olajubu, Aanuoluwapo O; Faremi, Funmilola A; Oloyede, Ajoke S; Sharps, Phyllis W

    2016-02-01

    This study examined male adolescents' self-report of rape of adolescent girls and the socio-demographic variables that correlated with self-report of rape. Descriptive-correlational design was used and the study was conducted in five public senior secondary schools in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Three hundred and thirty-eight male adolescents participated in the study. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Findings from the study revealed the mean age of the adolescent males to be 16 years, with the majority (73%) of them in the middle adolescent stage. Six percent of the adolescent males reported they had raped an adolescent girl in the past. Among the boys who reported rape, 55% reported they had raped their sexual partners, and 55% reported they had perpetrated gang rape. Smoking (p = .0001), alcohol consumption (p = .001), and birth order (p = .006) predicted self-report of rape. The coefficient of birth order showed that odds of self-report of rape by first-born male increases by 6 times compared with other children. Study findings also provided evidence that adolescent males are moving from lone rape to gang rape in intimate partner relationships. Male adolescents are important group to target in rape prevention programs. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. An Experimental Study on the Diesel Engine Performance with Rape Seed Oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Yeong Og

    2002-02-01

    A four cycle diesel engine performance test was performed with four kinds of oils such as rape seed oil, effective micro-organism rape seed oil, activated clay rape seed oil and light oil. The experiment was conducted at full load condition with constant injection time of the engine and the test oil temperature was maintained at 70±2 .deg. C. 1. The torque and the horsepower with rape seed fuel is increased about 10% compare with light seed oil at full load condition of the engine. High viscosity of the rape makes oil films in the combustor which leads to higher compression ratio and explosion. The results of the high viscosity make higher torque of the engine. The brake specific fuel consumption of the rape seed fuel increased 8%∼10% than that of the light oil. This effect could be the difference of heating value between the two kinds of oil. 2. The emission of the smoke gas was decreased 29%, 38% and 52% compare with light oil in rape seed oil, effective micro-organism rape seed oil and activated clay rape respectively due to the low volatility and high viscosity of the soot. The NOx emission with rape seed oil is twice larger than that of the light oil at full load condition. The reason is that the fuel temperature increment effects on the combustor temperature and it makes thermal NOx of the engine. 3. The test engine could be started over 40 .deg. C of the rape seed oil. Engine inspection results shows that the soot adherence amount of the cylinder head piston head is higher in following order; activated clay rape seed oil > effective micro-organism rape seed oil > rape seed oil > light oil

  14. Humor, Philosophy and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morreall, John

    2014-01-01

    This article begins by examining the bad reputation humor traditionally had in philosophy and education. Two of the main charges against humor--that it is hostile and irresponsible--are linked to the Superiority Theory. That theory is critiqued and two other theories of laughter are presented--the Relief Theory and the Incongruity Theory. In the…

  15. An Explanation of the Relationship between Instructor Humor and Student Learning: Instructional Humor Processing Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanzer, Melissa B.; Frymier, Ann B.; Irwin, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes the Instructional Humor Processing Theory (IHPT), a theory that incorporates elements of incongruity-resolution theory, disposition theory, and the elaboration likelihood model (ELM) of persuasion. IHPT is proposed and offered as an explanation for why some types of instructor-generated humor result in increased student…

  16. Rape in South Africa: an invisible part of apartheid's legacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, S

    1994-06-01

    Male dominated power systems in South Africa coupled with a culture of aggression and domination have not allowed for the mainstream emergence of qualities such as trust, compassion, and gentleness, frequently associated with female virtues. Rape under such circumstances is the assertion of male power, and, as expected, the numbers of rape cases and other forms of gender violence have increased. Under an apartheid system, where only the rape of white women was prosecuted, and gender and race issues could diffuse the black struggle, there were difficulties in mobilizing support to end violence against black women. There was social acceptance that rape of black women was part of life. Police statistics on the incidence of rape were notoriously unreliable, because only a small percentage of cases are reported to police, and many women would be ashamed to admit to marital abuse, including rape. In women's groups, it was reported that 1 out of every 4 women had been raped, and raped at early ages, such as 14 years of age. In impoverished communities, there is widespread poverty, injustice, prejudice, alcohol abuse, and other conditions impacting on women. The rapists may be school classmates, or street fighters, or political activists. The sexual initiation of women worldwide and in South Africa frequently is accompanied by coercion. Abduction and forced sex is considered legitimate for young men, who believe that mental health is deleteriously affected by lack of sex. Girls may even be abducted from the classroom, as a way of preventing women's power and control over assets and resources and diminishing the potential threat to gender power relations. School girls who become pregnant are often forced to leave school. Victims of rape may be excluded from family life and forced to seek prostitution as a means of support. Rape is reportedly experienced among older women with bottles, tins, or other devices which inflict injury. Only rape with penal penetration is an

  17. Benefits of humor in reduction of threat-induced anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yovetich, N A; Dale, J A; Hudak, M A

    1990-02-01

    The benefits of humor in reducing anxiety were investigated in a laboratory study, in which subjects were falsely led to believe that they would receive a shock in 12 min. Participants were 53 undergraduate students with either high or low sense of humor as measured by the Situational Humor Response Questionnaire of Martin and Lefcourt (1984). During the anticipatory period, subjects listened to either a humorous tape, a nonhumorous tape, or no tape. Dependent variables were repeated measures of self-reported anxiety, heart rate, and zygomatic facial activity. Anxiety increased over the anticipatory period, as predicted. A significant interaction between condition and time indicated that subjects from the humor condition consistently rated themselves as less anxious and reported less increase in stress as the shock approached. A three-way interaction concentrating on the final 3 min. indicated a tendency for subjects with low sense of humor to have higher heart rates in the no-tape condition than in the humorous or nonhumorous tape conditions. Analysis for zygomatic activity indicated more smiling by subjects with high sense of humor and by subjects in the humor condition. Also, the humorous tape elicited more smiling by subjects with high sense of humor.

  18. Ethanol production from rape straw: Part of an oilseed rape biorefinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvaniti, E

    2010-12-15

    solution was fermented via Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF) assisted by liquefaction step, with Cellubrix L and baker's yeast achieved ethanol yield was 67% based on sugars in raw material (12.5% DM). Optimization of ethanol production from rape straw then focused to enzymatic hydrolysis and benchmarking available commercial enzyme mixtures. It was found that hydrolysis rate increased considerably, if adequate amount of beta-glycosidase is present in enzyme mixture. Best mixture of enzymes was Celluclast 1.5L supplemented by Novozym 188 (5:1 v/v ratio), which in 24 hours it hydrolyzed 77% of pretreated rape straw C6 sugars. In an attempt to produce enzymes from pretreated rape straw, the most promising carbon source was a mixture of cellulose and hemicellulose (81:19 w/w sugars ratio). The produced cellulolytic enzymes in turn hydrolyzed pretreated rape straw by 70% in 24 hours enzyme hydrolysis test. These enzymes were produced after 11 days of fermentation with enzyme yielded 109 FPU/g sugars (pretreated rape straw). Finally, ethanol fermentation was optimized using the selected pretreatment method, and best enzyme mixture. Assessment of optimal fermentation conditions included determination of optimal highest fermenting temperature among three strains; the best pH pattern for maximum ethanol production; and finally assessing potentials of fermentations at increased dry matter. Results have shown that S. cerevisiae has thermotollerance up to 37 deg. C, and that pH was the catalytic factor for the progress of ethanol fermentation as well as contamination by lactic acid bacteria, in both shake flasks and scale up experiments. Highest ethanol yield was 77% achieved with 16% DM at 37 deg. C by an isolate strain from baker' yeast within 120 hours of SSF. (Author)

  19. Ethanol production from rape straw: Part of an oilseed rape biorefinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvaniti, E.

    2010-12-15

    solution was fermented via Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF) assisted by liquefaction step, with Cellubrix L and baker's yeast achieved ethanol yield was 67% based on sugars in raw material (12.5% DM). Optimization of ethanol production from rape straw then focused to enzymatic hydrolysis and benchmarking available commercial enzyme mixtures. It was found that hydrolysis rate increased considerably, if adequate amount of beta-glycosidase is present in enzyme mixture. Best mixture of enzymes was Celluclast 1.5L supplemented by Novozym 188 (5:1 v/v ratio), which in 24 hours it hydrolyzed 77% of pretreated rape straw C6 sugars. In an attempt to produce enzymes from pretreated rape straw, the most promising carbon source was a mixture of cellulose and hemicellulose (81:19 w/w sugars ratio). The produced cellulolytic enzymes in turn hydrolyzed pretreated rape straw by 70% in 24 hours enzyme hydrolysis test. These enzymes were produced after 11 days of fermentation with enzyme yielded 109 FPU/g sugars (pretreated rape straw). Finally, ethanol fermentation was optimized using the selected pretreatment method, and best enzyme mixture. Assessment of optimal fermentation conditions included determination of optimal highest fermenting temperature among three strains; the best pH pattern for maximum ethanol production; and finally assessing potentials of fermentations at increased dry matter. Results have shown that S. cerevisiae has thermotollerance up to 37 deg. C, and that pH was the catalytic factor for the progress of ethanol fermentation as well as contamination by lactic acid bacteria, in both shake flasks and scale up experiments. Highest ethanol yield was 77% achieved with 16% DM at 37 deg. C by an isolate strain from baker' yeast within 120 hours of SSF. (Author)

  20. Rape Myth Consistency and Gender Differences in Perceiving Rape Victims: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockett, Jericho M; Smith, Sara J; Klausing, Cathleen D; Saucier, Donald A

    2016-02-01

    An overview discusses feminist analyses of oppression, attitudes toward rape victims, and previously studied predictors of individuals' attitudes toward rape victims. To better understand such attitudes, this meta-analysis examines the moderating influences of various rape victim, perpetrator, and crime characteristics' rape myth consistency on gender differences in individuals' perceptions of rape victims (i.e., victim responsibility and blame attributions and rape minimizing attitudes). Consistent with feminist theoretical predictions, results indicated that, overall, men perceived rape victims more negatively than women did. However, this sex difference was moderated by the rape myth consistency within the rape vignettes. Implications for research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Attitudes toward Rape and Victims of Rape: A Test of the Feminist Theory in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boakye, Kofi E.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the usefulness of the feminist theory in explaining attitudes toward rape and victims of rape in Ghana. The feminist theory of rape posits, inter alia, that patriarchy and gender inequality are major factors in the aetiology of rape and attitudes toward rape and that underlying patriarchy and gender inequality are gender…

  2. Humor modeling in the interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Cockton, G.; Stock, O.; Korhonen, P.; Dix, A.; Bergman, E.; Bjork, S.; Morkes, J.; Collings, P.; Dey, A.; Draper, S.; Guliksen, J.; Keinonen, T.; Lazar, J.; Lund, A.; Malich, R.; Nakakoji, K.; Nigay, L.; Prates Oliveira, R.; Rieman, J.; Snyder, C.

    2003-01-01

    Humor is a multi-disciplinary field of research. People have been working on humor in many fields of research, such as psychology, philosophy and linguistics, sociology and literature. Especially in the context of computer science (or Artificial Intelligence) humor research aims at modeling humor in

  3. Transfer of radioactive cesium from soil to rape plants, rape blossoms and rape honey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molzahn, D.; Klepsch, A.; Assmann-Wertmueller, U.

    1989-01-01

    Due to the test of atomic weapons and the accident in the nuclear power plant at Chernobyl, the vegetation in Germany has been exposed to cesium contamination in the soil. It was to be expected that activity would migrate from soil to plants and to food products. In this work, the transfer of radioactive cesium from soil to rape plants (Brassica napus var. oleifera), rape blossoms and further to rape honey was investigated. By measuring the gamma activity of cesium using germanium detectors with measuring capacity up to 30 h per sample (limit of detection about 0.14 Bq/kg to 0.19 Bq/kg), we determined a mean transfer factor f cs = 0,116 ± 0,080 for the system soil-rape plant, f cs = 0.065 + 0.075 for the system soil-rape blossom and F!S = 0.098 + 0.044 for the system soil-rape honey (plants and honey wet mass, soil dry mass) (Table IV). Additionally, for the transfer of cesium from rape plants to rape honey, a factor of f cs = 2.04 ± 7.23 (both wet mass) was determined. Due to some environmental circumstances, which can hardly ever be taken into account, the results obtained sometimes differ considerably. Nevertheless, the mean transfer factors are within the range of values found in literature (Table V) [de

  4. [Rape by 2 assaillants and gang rape in Montreal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamontagne, Y; Boyer, R; Lamontagne, C; Giroux, J

    1984-11-01

    A survey was conducted in 230 cases of rape and rape attempts heard in the Judicial District of Montreal between January 1975 and May 1978. Data were compiled from the 30 assaults including two or more assaillants. Results show that in cases of rape committed by two men the aggressors are older than gang rapists, meet the victim mainly in her flat or in a bar, and rape her in her own home, in a car or a hotel. In these cases, voyeurism seems to be an important factor since, most of the time, rape is committed by only one of the two aggressors. On the other hand, gang rapists are younger, meet the victim in public places, on the street or when she is hitch-hiking and attack her in one of the aggressors' house, in public places or on the street. Exhibitionism seems more present in this group of rapists. For both groups the victims are mainly single, younger than the aggressors and have diverse occupations. Finally, regarding the legal outcome half of the subjects were liberated or acquitted in both groups. Rape committed by two men had never been studied or compared with gang rape up until now. Results of this survey show dynamic and demographic differences between these two groups of sexual delinquents.

  5. ASD and PTSD in Rape Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elklit, Ask; Christiansen, Dorte M.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, a number of studies have investigated the prediction of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) through the presence of acute stress disorder (ASD). The predictive power of ASD on PTSD was examined in a population of 148 female rape victims who visited a center for rape victims shortly after the rape or attempted rape. The PTSD…

  6. An empirical investigation of campus demographics and reported rapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiersma-Mosley, Jacquelyn D; Jozkowski, Kristen N; Martinez, Taylor

    2017-10-01

    Rape on college campuses continues to be a pervasive public health issue with approximately 11% of women experiencing rape while in college. As such, it is important to examine factors unique to college campuses that influence the occurrences of rape. Using data from 1,423 four-year universities (public and private with at least 1,000 students) from the Office of Education and the Clery Act (2014), we examined institutional risk factors, such as tuition, liquor violations, Greek-life, athletic programs, institution type (public vs. private), and geographical location. Public institutions with higher tuition, more liquor violations, and greater numbers of fraternity men and athletes were more likely to report rape on their campuses. Findings suggest that there are university-level characteristics which may increase certain campuses propensity toward violence against women.

  7. The Humor in Horror.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kies, Cosette

    1995-01-01

    Discussion of horror fiction for teenagers focuses on the element of humor. Topics include parodies, plots, the element of mystery, cover art, end-of-chapter cliffhangers, and formula books. An annotated list of 10 pertinent titles is included. (LRW)

  8. Mathematics and Humor: John Allen Paulos and the Numeracy Crusade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul H. Grawe

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available John Allen Paulos at minimum gave the Numeracy movement a name through his book Innumeracy: Mathematical Illiteracy and Its Consequences. What may not be so obvious was Paulos’ strong interest in the relationship between mathematics and mathematicians on the one hand and humor and stand-up-comedian joke structures on the other. Innumeracy itself could be seen as a typically mathematical Gotcha joke on American culture generally. In this perspective, a Minnesotan acculturated to Minnesota-Nice Humor of Self-Immolation Proclivities (SImP looks at the more raw-boned, take-no-prisoners humor style Paulos outlined in Mathematics and Humor and implemented in Innumeracy. Despite the difference in humor styles, there is much to applaud in Paulos’ analysis of the relationship between certain types of humor and professional interests of mathematicians in Mathematics and Humor. Much humor relies on the sense of incongruity which Paulos’ claims to be central to all humor and key to mathematical reductio ad absurdum. Mathematics is rightfully famous for a sense of combinatorial playfulness in its most elegant proofs, as humor often relies on clashing combinations of word play. And a great range of mathematical lore is best understood within a concept of a sudden drop from one sense of certainty to another (essentially a Gotcha on the audience. Innumeracy repeatedly exemplifies Gotchas on the great unwashed and unmathematical majority. Extensive empirical evidence over the last quarter century allows us to synthesize these Paulos observations into the idea that inculcated mathematical humor has strong propensities to complex Intellectual, Advocate, and Crusader humor forms. However, the Paulos humors do not include the Sympathetic Pain humor form, the inclusion of which may increase teaching effectiveness.

  9. The Neural Correlates of Humor Creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Ori; Biederman, Irving

    2016-01-01

    Unlike passive humor appreciation, the neural correlates of real-time humor creation have been unexplored. As a case study for creativity, humor generation uniquely affords a reliable assessment of a creative product's quality with a clear and relatively rapid beginning and end, rendering it amenable to neuroimaging that has the potential for reflecting individual differences in expertise. Professional and amateur "improv" comedians and controls viewed New Yorker cartoon drawings while being scanned. For each drawing, they were instructed to generate either a humorous or a mundane caption. Greater comedic experience was associated with decreased activation in the striatum and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), but increased activation in temporal association regions (TMP). Less experienced comedians manifested greater activation of mPFC, reflecting their deliberate search through TMP association space. Professionals, by contrast, tend to reap the fruits of their spontaneous associations with reduced reliance on top-down guided search.

  10. The Neural Correlates of Humor Creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ori Amir

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Unlike passive humor appreciation, the neural correlates of real-time humor creation have been unexplored. As a case study for creativity, humor generation uniquely affords a reliable assessment of a creative product’s quality with a clear and relatively rapid beginning and end, rendering it amenable to neuroimaging that has the potential for reflecting individual differences in expertise. Professional and amateur improv comedians and controls viewed New Yorker cartoon drawings while being scanned. For each drawing, they were instructed to generate either a humorous or a mundane caption. Greater comedic experience was associated with decreased activation in the striatum and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC, but increased activation in temporal association regions (TMP. Less experienced comedians manifested greater activation of mPFC, reflecting their deliberate search through TMP association space. Professionals, by contrast, tend to reap the fruits of their spontaneous associations with reduced reliance on top-down guided search.

  11. The Neural Correlates of Humor Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Ori; Biederman, Irving

    2016-01-01

    Unlike passive humor appreciation, the neural correlates of real-time humor creation have been unexplored. As a case study for creativity, humor generation uniquely affords a reliable assessment of a creative product’s quality with a clear and relatively rapid beginning and end, rendering it amenable to neuroimaging that has the potential for reflecting individual differences in expertise. Professional and amateur “improv” comedians and controls viewed New Yorker cartoon drawings while being scanned. For each drawing, they were instructed to generate either a humorous or a mundane caption. Greater comedic experience was associated with decreased activation in the striatum and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), but increased activation in temporal association regions (TMP). Less experienced comedians manifested greater activation of mPFC, reflecting their deliberate search through TMP association space. Professionals, by contrast, tend to reap the fruits of their spontaneous associations with reduced reliance on top-down guided search. PMID:27932965

  12. Reflections on researching rape resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, Sarah E

    2014-03-01

    This article provides a retrospective account of my experience embarking on research about women's resistance to rape, including reflections on personal and professional experiences related to studying this topic. I discuss factors inspiring my interest, including pioneering feminist rape researchers, my experience as a woman living with the reality and fear of rape, and influential mentors who facilitated my career development as a scholar in graduate school and beyond. I weave this narrative together with my thoughts about how the study of resistance relates to other important issues in the field of sexual assault including alcohol, recovery, and prevention.

  13. An empirical study of rape in the context of multiple murder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLisi, Matt

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, multiple homicide offending has received increased research attention from criminologists; however, there is mixed evidence about the role of rape toward the perpetration of multiple murder. Drawing on criminal career data from a nonprobability sample of 618 confined male homicide offenders selected from eight U.S. states, the current study examines the role of rape as a predictor of multiple homicide offending. Bivariate analyses indicated a significant association between rape and murder charges. Multivariate path regression models indicated that rape had a significant and robust association with multiple murder. This relationship withstood the confounding effects of kidnapping, prior prison confinement, and prior murder, rape, and kidnapping. These results provide evidence that rape potentially serves as a gateway to multiple murder for some serious offenders. Suggestions for future research are proffered.

  14. Gender equality and women's absolute status: a test of the feminist models of rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Kimberly; Vieraitis, Lynne M; Britto, Sarah

    2006-04-01

    Feminist theory predicts both a positive and negative relationship between gender equality and rape rates. Although liberal and radical feminist theory predicts that gender equality should ameliorate rape victimization, radical feminist theorists have argued that gender equality may increase rape in the form of male backlash. Alternatively, Marxist criminologists focus on women's absolute socioeconomic status rather than gender equality as a predictor of rape rates, whereas socialist feminists combine both radical and Marxist perspectives. This study uses factor analysis to overcome multicollinearity limitations of past studies while exploring the relationship between women's absolute and relative socioeconomic status on rape rates in major U.S. cities using 2000 census data. The findings indicate support for both the Marxist and radical feminist explanations of rape but no support for the ameliorative hypothesis. These findings support a more inclusive socialist feminist theory that takes both Marxist and radical feminist hypotheses into account.

  15. Who Benefits From Humor-Based Positive Psychology Interventions? The Moderating Effects of Personality Traits and Sense of Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellenzohn, Sara; Proyer, René T; Ruch, Willibald

    2018-01-01

    The evidence for the effectiveness of humor-based positive psychology interventions (PPIs; i.e., interventions aimed at enhancing happiness and lowering depressive symptoms) is steadily increasing. However, little is known about who benefits most from them. We aim at narrowing this gap by examining whether personality traits and sense of humor moderate the long-term effects of humor-based interventions on happiness and depressive symptoms. We conducted two placebo-controlled online-intervention studies testing for moderation effects. In Study 1 ( N = 104) we tested for moderation effects of basic personality traits (i.e., psychoticism, extraversion, and neuroticism) in the three funny things intervention, a humor-based PPI. In Study 2 ( N = 632) we tested for moderation effects of the sense of humor in five different humor-based interventions. Happiness and depressive symptoms were assessed before and after the intervention, as well as after 1, 3, and 6 months. In Study 2, we assessed sense of humor before and 1 month after the intervention to investigate if changes in sense of humor go along with changes in happiness and depressive symptoms. We found moderating effects only for extraversion. Extraverts benefitted more from the three funny things intervention than introverts. For neuroticism and psychoticism no moderation effects were found. For sense of humor, no moderating effects were found for the effectiveness of the five humor-based interventions tested in Study 2. However, changes in sense of humor from pretest to the 1-month follow-up predicted changes in happiness and depressive symptoms. Taking a closer look, the playful attitude- and sense of humor-subscales predicted changes in happiness and depression for up to 6 months. Overall, moderating effects for personality (i.e., extraversion) were found, but none for sense of humor at baseline. However, increases in sense of humor during and after the intervention were associated with the interventions

  16. The impact of sexual enhancement alcohol expectancies and risky behavior on alcohol-involved rape among college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messman-Moore, Terri L; Ward, Rose Marie; DeNardi, Kathleen A

    2013-04-01

    A structural equation model examined sexual enhancement alcohol expectancies, heavy episodic drinking (HED), and risky sexual behavior as correlates of alcohol-involved rape in a sample of 353 college women. Prevalence of alcohol-involved rape was 15.6%. Sexual enhancement alcohol expectancies were indirectly associated with alcohol-involved rape via increased levels of HED, greater likelihood of sex while intoxicated, and number of sex partners. All forms of risky behavior were associated with alcohol-involved rape although HED had the strongest relationship. Findings suggest continued focus on women's positive alcohol expectancies and HED as risk factors for alcohol-involved rape. Implications for intervention will be discussed.

  17. Religiousness and Rape Myth Acceptance: Risk and Protective Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensz, Samantha; Jankowski, Peter J

    2017-03-01

    This study addressed the lack of research simultaneously examining multiple dimensions of religiousness when predicting rape myth acceptance, and extended prior findings of a mediating role for right-wing authoritarianism (i.e., uncritical submission to authority and aggressive attitude toward those who do not conform to social norms) in the association between religiousness and prejudice. The sample consisted of 99 undergraduate and graduate students ( M age = 31.87 years, 66.7% female, 80.82% White, and 93% Christian affiliated) from a religiously affiliated university in the Midwest United States. As hypothesized, dimensions of religiousness exhibited differential associations with rape myth acceptance. Religious motivation characterized by openness and exploration (i.e., quest religiousness) was a significant negative predictor of rape myth acceptance, directly, and indirectly through right-wing authoritarianism. In contrast, rigid adherence to religious beliefs, assumed to be "right" and absolutely true (i.e., religious fundamentalism), and extrinsically motivated religiousness each exhibited a positive association with rape myth acceptance through right-wing authoritarianism. In addition, internally motivated religiousness and religious fundamentalism each moderated the nonlinear effect for quest predicting rape myth acceptance. Findings suggest that uncritical religious and secular submission to external authorities or uncommitted and nonexploring religiousness may have increased the extent to which persons adhered to rape myths, whereas religious exploration was protective. Practical implications center on the need for socioculturally relevant prevention and intervention efforts with religious identifying college students.

  18. Predicting Rape Victim Empathy Based on Rape Victimization and Acknowledgment Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Suzanne L

    2016-06-01

    Two studies examined rape victim empathy based on personal rape victimization and acknowledgment labeling. Female undergraduates (Study 1, n = 267; Study 2, n = 381) from a Northeast U.S. midsize public university completed the Rape-Victim Empathy Scale and Sexual Experiences Survey. As predicted, both studies found that acknowledged "rape" victims reported greater empathy than unacknowledged victims and nonvictims. Unexpectedly, these latter two groups did not differ. Study 1 also found that acknowledged "rape" victims reported greater empathy than victims who acknowledged being "sexually victimized." Findings suggest that being raped and acknowledging "rape" together may facilitate rape victim empathy. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. WOMEN ANTI-RAPE BELT

    OpenAIRE

    Sainath B Gadhe; Ganesh Chinchansure; Amar Kumar; Mritunjay Ojha

    2015-01-01

    Rape is fourth most common and frequently happening crime against women in India. Among metro cities, has more number of rape cases and compare to developed countries like Latin America developing countries like India has less number of such incidences, where very good security facilities are provided by government and ratio of education is higher. So it proves that illiteracy or security is not major reason behind such assaults but the unawareness about self-protection and inefficient self-p...

  20. Humor in psychiatric healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saper, B

    1988-01-01

    The oft-quoted aphorism that "laughter is the best medicine" is examined. Specifically, three big drops in the shower of claims regarding the benefits of humor in treating physical and mental disorders are evaluated. First, studies of the effects of mirth and laughter on the physiology of the body reveal both good and bad news. The meager evidence of the salutary effects of positive emotions on the cardiovascular, respiratory, immune and neuroendocrine systems, though apparently supportable on more or less scientific, rational and subjective grounds, needs much better verification from more extensive, replicable, and empirical research. Second, despite numerous claims, in the context of behavioral or psychosomatic medicine, that a joyful, optimistic, or humorous attitude can render a salubrious effect, almost to the extent of preventing illness and curing physical disease, the jury is still out and issuing dire warnings regarding too ready acceptance of this largely anecdotal evidence. Much careful "clinical trial" research needs to be mounted to determine the conditions under which humor works best, if at all. The type of patient, the kind of humor, the type and severity of illness, the psychosocial contexts-all of these factors should be considered. Third, the infusion of humor into psychotherapy is great news for some therapists and awful news for others. A number of more balanced approaches point up the probability that when mirth is incorporated into therapy judiciously, appropriately, and meaningfully it can be of value.

  1. The cultural context of nondisclosure of alcohol-involved acquaintance rape among Asian American college women: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Kelly H; Nguyen, Hong V; Andrasik, Michele P; George, William H

    2015-01-01

    With high college enrollment and increasing alcohol use, Asian American (AA) college women may be at particular risk for experiencing alcohol-involved acquaintance rape. Although AA women have expressed the weakest intentions to report rape when compared to other ethnic groups, cultural factors influencing these intentions remain unexamined. Guided by grounded theory, 17 self-identified AA college women were interviewed about how the average AA college woman would respond to an alcohol-involved acquaintance rape. Despite awareness of benefits of disclosing rape, participants emphasized that nondisclosure would be the normative response. Three themes emerged from participants: institutional, sociocultural, and psychological contexts of nondisclosure. At an institutional level, nondisclosure referenced mental health and police services, which included Asian stereotypes and mistrust of police. Within a sociocultural context, rape nondisclosure focused on negative consequences on relationships with parents and, to a lesser extent, on friendships. Emotional avoidance and not labeling an acquaintance rape as rape were psychological strategies for rape nondisclosure. Participant's conceptualizations of mental and physical health concerns, specifically post-rape concerns, were framed within sociocultural/macrostructural contexts and may not match that of the more individualistic U.S. mainstream conceptualizations of health. Culturally sensitive rape education may be more effective in increasing rape prevention and support.

  2. A systemic increase in the recombination frequency upon local infection of Arabidopsis thaliana plants with oilseed rape mosaic virus depends on plant age, the initial inoculum concentration and the time for virus replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youli eYao

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the past, we showed that local infection of tobacco leaves with either Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV or Oilseed rape mosaic virus (ORMV resulted in a systemic increase in the homologous recombination frequency (HRF. Later on, we showed that a similar phenomenon occurs in Arabidopsis thaliana plants infected with ORMV. Here, we tested whether the time of removing the infected leaves as well as viral titer have any effect on the degree of changes in HRF in systemic tissues. An increase in HRF in systemic non-infected tissues was more pronounced when the infected leaves were detached from the infected plants at 60-96 hours post infection, rather than at earlier time. Next, we found that exposure to higher concentrations of inoculum was much more efficient in triggering an increase in HRF than exposure to lower concentrations. Finally, we showed that older plants exhibited a higher increase in HRF than younger plants. We found that an increase in genome instability in systemic tissues of locally infected plants depends on plant age, the concentration of initial inoculums and the time of viral replication.

  3. The Relational Humor Inventory: Functions of Humor in Close Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeKoning, E.; Weiss, R. L.

    2002-01-01

    This study describes the development of a self-report measure of functional humor in relationships. People were asked to report on their own and their partner's use of humor in the marriage. The Relational Humor Inventory proved to be a useful instrument for tapping important positive and negative relationship behaviors. (Contains 30 references, 4…

  4. ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVE ON MARITAL RAPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Endriyo Susila

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Marital rape has become a controversial issue in many countries including Indonesia. For the majority of the Indonesian people, it is impossible for rape to take place inside the marriage institution, however some other peoples believe that it possibly occurs. Since it is considered as a kind of rape anyway, those who agree with that concept, insist on the government of Indonesia to qualify marital rape as an offence. This is sounded usually by the human rights activists, especially the feminists. This research is aimed to elaborate the legal position of what so-call marital rape in Islam. As a country whose population is majority Muslim, it can be understood that the development of the Indonesian law is influenced by the Islamic values. This research provide an important reference to deal with the issue of the criminalization of marital rape in Indonesia.Since the research focuses more on the study of legal materials from various sources, it is qualified as a normative legal research. To support the collection of data, interview upon the competent legal experts has also been exercised. The standard of qualification of the legal experts involving in the interview are those who are interested in Islamic Law, especially Islamic Family law as well as Islamic Criminal Law.    Based on the research finding, it is found that the type of the relationship between husband and wife as suggested in Islamic teaching naturaly prevents the what so-call marital rape to occur. It is difficult to imagine the existence of marital rape inside the Muslim familes, since the husband is bound with the obligation to treat her wife well (mu’asyarah bil ma’ruf. In sexual matter, the doctrine of mu’asyarah bil ma’ruf can be applied by respecting the need and the willingness of the wife in sexual matter. Meaning to say, the husband is obliged to fulfill his wife sexual desire in one side, and in the other side he is not allowed to force her wife for sex when she

  5. Humor as a Communication Strategy in Provider-Patient Communication in a Chronic Care Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöpf, Andrea C; Martin, Gillian S; Keating, Mary A

    2017-02-01

    Humor is a potential communication strategy to accomplish various and potentially conflicting consultation goals. We investigated humor use and its reception in diabetes consultations by analyzing how and why humor emerges and its impact on the interaction. We did this by using an interactional sociolinguistics approach. We recorded 50 consultations in an Irish diabetes setting. Analysis of the humor events drew on framework analysis and on concepts from Conversation Analysis and pragmatics. The study also comprised interviews using tape-assisted recall. We identified 10 humor functions and two umbrella functions. A key finding is that most humor is relationship-protecting humor initiated by patients, that is, they voice serious messages and deal with emotional issues through humor. Our findings imply that patients' and providers' awareness of indirect communication strategies needs to be increased. We also recommend that researchers employ varied methods to adequately capture the interactive nature of humor.

  6. Humor and creativity in psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Martín Camacho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the current article principal theories on humor are analyzed, relating them to different conceptions of creativity. Finally, some indications for the use of humor in psychotherapy are introduced, highlighting their positive and negative aspects. 

  7. Humor in Children's Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Frank; Coles, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Humorous literature for children has been around since Randolph Caldecott first started writing and illustrating picturebooks. In the article, the authors try to understand what makes picturebooks funny and discuss ways to use humor in the classroom. Many examples of humorous picturebooks are cited to provide teachers with resources for their…

  8. Using Humor in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barney, David; Christenson, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Humor can be extremely beneficial in everyday life, whether giving or receiving it. It can be used to lighten the mood, give encouragement, or make corrections. Humor in physical education is no exception. Physical educators can use humor as a teaching tool and to create an environment for students to acquire the knowledge to practice a lifetime…

  9. Humor and Embodied Conversational Agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus

    This report surveys the role of humor in human-to-human interaction and the possible role of humor in human-computer interaction. The aim is to see whether it is useful for embodied conversational agents to integrate humor capabilities in their internal model of intelligence, emotions and

  10. Friendship, Intimacy and Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Mordechai

    2014-01-01

    A review of the literature in philosophy in the past 20 years indicates that relatively little has been written on the connection between friendship, intimacy and humor. This article is intended to begin to address the neglect of this topic among philosophers by focusing on some interesting aspects of the relationship between friendship, intimacy…

  11. Rape myth acceptance impacts the reporting of rape to the police: a study of incarcerated women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Nicole M; Lynch, Shannon M; Fritch, April M; Wong, Maria M

    2013-09-01

    We examined the association between rape myth acceptance (RMA) and reporting rapes to the police. Situational characteristics of the rape (e.g., stranger attack, injury) are known predictors of reporting, but no existing studies have examined the association between beliefs about rape and reporting. In addition, most studies of RMA do not assess victimization history. Incarcerated women experience high rates of sexual assaults prior to incarceration. We recruited 74 rape survivors from a northwestern state prison. Results suggest that women who endorsed higher levels of RMA were less likely to report their rapes to police; however, participants endorsed few rape myths.

  12. Effectiveness of humor training among adolescents with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ching-Lin; Liu, Ya-Ru; Kuo, Ching-Chih; Chen, Hsueh-Chih; Chang, Yu-Lin

    2016-12-30

    Humor training has been applied to educational and clinical cases and has been found to be effective, but humor training for individuals with autism is relatively rare. The present study proposed a humor-knowledge and humor-skill training workshop to enhance the humor comprehension and appreciation of individuals with autism and examined the effects of the training. Participants were 20 adolescents with autism and average intelligence (above 70 in WAIS-III). They were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. Both questionnaire of joke comprehension and appreciation and a humor style questionnaire were used as instruments. The results supported the effectiveness of the 15-h training. The comprehension and appreciation of nonsense humor were significantly increased in the experimental group in comparison with the control group, although the incongruity-resolution jokes remained difficult to comprehend. The tendency to use affiliative humor was greater among individuals with autism in the experimental group, suggesting that the appreciation of humor can be learned. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Expression of cytokines in aqueous humor from fungal keratitis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingnan; Liang, Qingfeng; Liu, Yang; Pan, Zhiqiang; Baudouin, Christophe; Labbé, Antoine; Lu, Qingxian

    2018-04-19

    Although a series of reports on corneal fungal infection have been published, studies on pathogenic mechanisms and inflammation-associated cytokines remain limited. In this study, aqueous humor samples from fungal keratitis patients were collected to examine cytokine patterns and cellular profile for the pathogenesis of fungal keratitis. The aqueous humor samples were collected from ten patients with advanced stage fungal keratitis. Eight aqueous humor samples from patients with keratoconus or corneal dystrophy were taken as control. Approximately 100 μl to 300 μl of aqueous humor in each case were obtained for examination. The aqueous humor samples were centrifuged and the cells were stained and examined under optical microscope. Bacterial and fungal cultures were performed on the aqueous humor and corneal buttons of all patients. Cytokines related to inflammation including IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α, and IFN-γ were examined using multiplex bead-based Luminex liquid protein array systems. Fungus infection was confirmed in these ten patients by smear stains and/or fungal cultures. Bacterial and fungal cultures revealed negative results in all aqueous humor specimens. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes were the predominant infiltrating cells in the aqueous humor of fungal keratitis. At the advanced stages of fungal keratitis, the levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and IFN-γ in the aqueous humor were significantly increased when compared with control (phumor was associated with fungal keratitis.

  14. Law enforcement officers' perception of rape and rape victims: a multimethod study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennicke, Annelise; Anderson, Delaney; Oehme, Karen; Kennedy, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    In a study to assess law enforcement officers' perceptions of rape and rape victims, researchers asked 149 law enforcement officers to respond to surveys which included a definition of rape measure, an unfounded rape claims measure, and the Rape Myth Acceptance Scale-Revised (RMA-R) measure. Although most officers scored low on the RMA-R--indicating that they did not adhere to myths about rape--most officers also responded with incomplete definitions of rape and inaccurate estimates of the number of false rape claims. Multivariate analyses indicated that officers' open-ended responses did not predict their scores on the RMA-R scale. It is argued that the RMA-R alone does not accurately measure officers' understanding of rape. Officers need ongoing training on the legal elements of the crime, the necessity of sensitivity with victims, and research-based statistics on the prevalence of rape.

  15. The impact of rape acknowledgment on survivor outcomes: The moderating effects of rape myth acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Laura C; Newins, Amie R; White, Susan W

    2017-11-13

    Little is known about how rape acknowledgment relates to posttrauma functioning; recent research suggests the effect may depend on additional factors. In the current study, the moderating effect of rape myth acceptance (RMA) on the relationships between rape acknowledgment and mental health outcomes was examined. A sample of 181 female rape survivors recruited from a university completed an online survey assessing RMA, rape acknowledgment, depression symptoms, and alcohol use. Generally, the results supported that RMA moderated the influence of rape acknowledgment on depression symptoms and average quantity per drinking episode, but not frequency of alcohol use. The findings demonstrated that when individuals endorsed high levels of RMA, acknowledged rape survivors reported worse outcomes than unacknowledged rape survivors. Among individuals low on RMA, unacknowledged rape survivors reported worse outcomes than acknowledged rape survivors. It is recommended that clinicians recognize the role of survivor beliefs, such as RMA, in the relationship between labeling sexual assault experiences and mental health consequences. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Rape and Women's Sexual Health in Nigeria: The Stark Realities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Historically, women have always been subjugated and oppressed by men in most cultures in Nigeria. This situation is due to the inequality in gender relations between men and women. Rape has always been with mankind throughout the world. However, in recent times, the incidence of rape has increased in Nigeria.

  17. Effects of NaCl treatment on the antioxidant enzymes of oilseed rape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of NaCl treatment on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in leaves of oilseed rape seedlings (Brassica napus L.) were studied. The results showed that the relative water content from leaves of oilseed rape seedlings was gradually decreased and the electronic conductivity was increased during 0 - 24 h under 200 ...

  18. Acquaintance Rape Workshops: Their Effectiveness in Changing the Attitudes of First Year College Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle, James P.

    2009-01-01

    The statistics on acquaintance rape and sexual assault against women are a clear indication that this is a problem that needs to be confronted. An increasing number of articles address the problems that rape survivors face and examine methods mental health professionals can use to assist survivors in dealing with these problems. Articles that…

  19. Evaluation of Yield and Yield Components of Oilseed Rape in the Wheat-Oilseed Rape Strip Intercropping Influenced by Chemical and Biological Fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Amirmardfar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of wheat (Triticum aestivum and oilseed rape (Brassica napus strip intercropping on yield components, seed and biological yields of oilseed rape, field experiments were carried out as factorial based on randomized complete block design with three replications at Research Farm of Tabriz University, Tabriz, Iran during 2010-2012 cropping seasons. The first factor consisted of four types of wheat and oilseed rape cropping system, sole crop of oilseed rape (A1,: strip intercropping with 8:3 (A2, 12:4 (A3 and 16:5 (A4 of wheat and oilseed rape rows, respectively and the other factor consisted of two fertilizer levels, B1: 100% chemical fertilizers (urea and triple superphosphate and B2: 50% chemical fertilizers + biofertilizers (Nitrazhin and Barvar2. The results showed that strip intercropping of wheat- oilseed rape resulted in significant increase in yield components, seed yield per occupied unit area and biological yield per occupied unit area of oilseed rape as compared with mono-cropping. The number of silique per plant in intercropping systems was significantly higher than that of mono-cropping. The highest seed yield was obtained in the 16:5 rows of wheat-oilseed rape with 343.76 g.m-2 and the lowest mean was observed in mono-cropping of oilseed rape with 260.21 g.m-2. Biological yield per occupied unit area and seed yield per intercropped unit area in B1 were significantly greater than that of B2, but this treatment had no significant effect on the other traits. Because, B1 and B2 had no significant difference in seed yield per occupied unit area and due to the importance of reduction in chemical fertilizers consumption and food and environmental health care, strip intercropping of wheat-oilseed rape under 50% chemical fertilizers + biofertilizers can be recommended as a suitable cultural method.

  20. Male Rape Victim and Perpetrator Blaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleath, Emma; Bull, Ray

    2010-01-01

    One of four possible vignettes manipulated by (a) level of rape myth contained within them (low vs. high) and (b) type of rape (stranger vs. acquaintance) was presented to participants followed by scales measuring victim blame, perpetrator blame, belief in a just world, sex-role egalitarian beliefs, and male rape myth acceptance. Victim blaming…

  1. Rape as a fuel crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gylling Nielsen, C.; Sandager, A.M.; Nielsen, V.; Oestergaard, C.; Poulsen, E.P.; Vaarlid, T.

    1993-01-01

    The European Community has decided to limit the production of excess amounts of corn so that 15% of an agricultural area should lie fallow. Rape can be cultivated on setaside areas and converted to the biofuel rape seed oil methyl ester (ROME). The aim was to discover whether ROME as a fuel pollutes less than diesel oil. The combustion of ROME and light diesel was investigated and compared and the economics of there respective life cycles were considered with emphasis on their pollutive properties. It was concluded that in urban areas the use of ROME produces emissions that are more dangerous to health than those emitted by diesel oil. In addition the use of artificial fertilizers and pesticides which are necessary for the cultivation of rape constitute a further load on the environmental pollutive load. (AHJ) (44 refs.)

  2. Rape myth acceptance and rape acknowledgment: The mediating role of sexual refusal assertiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newins, Amie R; Wilson, Laura C; White, Susan W

    2018-05-01

    Unacknowledged rape, defined as when an individual experiences an event that meets a legal or empirical definition of rape but the individual does not label it as such, is prevalent. Research examining predictors of rape acknowledgment is needed. Sexual assertiveness may be an important variable to consider, as an individual's typical behavior during sexual situations may influence rape acknowledgment. To assess the indirect effect of rape myth acceptance on rape acknowledgment through sexual refusal assertiveness, an online survey of 181 female rape survivors was conducted. The indirect effects of two types of rape myths (He didn't mean to and Rape is a deviant event) were significant and positive. Specifically, acceptance of these two rape myths was negatively related to sexual refusal assertiveness, which was negatively associated with likelihood of rape acknowledgment. The results of this study indicate that sexual refusal assertiveness is associated with lower likelihood of rape acknowledgment among rape survivors. As a result, it appears that, under certain circumstances, women high in rape myth acceptance may be more likely to acknowledge rape when it results in decreased sexual refusal assertiveness. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Anomalous hypothalamic responses to humor in cataplexy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan L Reiss

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Cataplexy is observed in a subset of patients with narcolepsy and affects approximately 1 in 2,000 persons. Cataplexy is most often triggered by strong emotions such as laughter, which can result in transient, yet debilitating, muscle atonia. The objective of this study was to examine the neural systems underlying humor processing in individuals with cataplexy.While undergoing functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI, we showed ten narcolepsy-cataplexy patients and ten healthy controls humorous cartoons. In addition, we examined the brain activity of one subject while in a full-blown cataplectic attack. Behavioral results showed that participants with cataplexy rated significantly fewer humorous cartoons as funny compared to controls. Concurrent fMRI showed that patients, when compared to controls and in the absence of overt cataplexy symptoms, showed pronounced activity in the emotional network including the ventral striatum and hypothalamus while viewing humorous versus non-humorous cartoons. Increased activity was also observed in the right inferior frontal gyri--a core component of the inhibitory circuitry. In comparison, the one subject who experienced a cataplectic attack showed dramatic reductions in hypothalamic activity.These findings suggest an overdrive of the emotional circuitry and possible compensatory suppression by cortical inhibitory regions in cataplexy. Moreover, during cataplectic attacks, the hypothalamus is characterized by a marked decrease in activity similar to that observed during sleep. One possible explanation for these findings is an initial overdrive and compensatory shutdown of the hypothalamus resulting in full cataplectic symptoms.

  4. Effect of cadmium on plants of oilseed rape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesko, M.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the influence of some production parameters of hydroponically grown plants of new Czech species of oilseed rape Opponent by cadmium and determine the amount of cadmium accumulated in plant organs. Studying the effect of cadmium on plants of new Czech species of oilseed rape Opponent confirmed that application of metal reduced the length and also fresh and dry weight of plant organs, while the inhibitory effect of Cd with increasing concentration of metal in solution increased. Plant roots responded to toxic effect of Cd more responsive. As a result of Cd applications occurred a significant decrease of content of assimilation pigments (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoids) in plant leaves. Species of rape Opponent is a significant Cd battery, and for these plants is characterized by a high rate of translocation of this metal into the shoots.

  5. The relationship of thought suppression and recent rape to disordered eating in emerging adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Brittany; Fischer, Sarah; Stojek, Monika; Becker, Kendra

    2014-02-01

    This study utilizes a prospective design to examine the interaction of recent rape/attempted rape with individual differences in thought suppression on increases in disordered eating symptoms during late adolescence/emerging adulthood. Thought suppression is the attempt to suppress unwanted thoughts. We propose that emerging adult women who have experienced recent rape/attempted rape and tend to use thought suppression as a coping mechanism are at risk for increases in disordered eating. 319 women completed the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire, the Sexual Experiences Survey, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and the White Bear Thought Suppression Inventory in their first month of college and three months later. The experience of recent rape/attempted rape in the three months prior to the assessment accounted for unique variance in disordered eating at Time 2. Levels of thought suppression assessed at Time 1 significantly moderated the influence of recent rape/attempted rape on disordered eating at Time 2. Copyright © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Women's attitudes toward forcible rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolor, A

    1978-01-01

    This study assessed the attitudes of women with diverse backgrounds toward possible responses to an attempted sexual assault and also ascertained their beliefs about how society should handle a convicted rapist. Additionally, the role which the personality dimensions of assertiveness and internal-external expectamcy play in shaping attitudes toward rape was investigated. Seventy-seven women and 25 men were administered the Rathus Assertiveness Schedule, the Rotter I-E Scale, and a Rape Inventory. Women relied on a narrow range of options to deal with a rapist's attack, depending mostly on less active modes. They advocated humane approaches be taken with convicted rapists. Personality played only a minor role.

  7. Cultural and legal accounts of rape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Villanueva, Concepción

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The present paper attempts to show how rape is represented in a variety of historical and contemporary discourses. Examples of rapes in Greek mythology, in the Bible, in medieval iconography, in literature, and in scientific theories, are compared and contrasted. Analysis suggests that such discourses tend to make sexual aggression (and specifically the rape of women legitimate, be it by minimizing the harm done; by normalizing and naturalizing sexual violence; or by aesthetisizing rape as art. Finally, the paper argues that putting modern legal accounts of rape into their historical perspective brings into sharper focus the persistence of ancient myths and discourses

  8. Localization of pain and self-reported rape in a female community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Helena K; Ciccone, Donald S; Raphael, Karen G

    2006-01-01

    Studies suggest that rape increases risk of medically unexplained pain in women. At present it is not clear whether rape is associated with pain at specific locations or at multiple locations. In this study we tested the hypothesis that rape was associated with a preferential increase in risk of pelvic pain that was not explained by pain at other sites. We relied on an existing community study that oversampled women with fibromyalgia and major depression. Localization was assessed by asking about pain at four sites: pelvic region; jaw/face; headache; and lower back. Three groups were identified using a structured telephone interview: Abuse Only (sexual/physical abuse excluding rape); Rape+Abuse (rape in addition to other sexual/physical abuse); and No Abuse. Compared with the No Abuse group, the Rape+Abuse group was eight times more likely to have pelvic pain and 3.7 times more likely to have jaw/face pain after we controlled for the effect of widespread pain. Rape was not associated with lower back pain or headache. The Abuse Only group did not show a preferential increase in risk of pain at any of the four locations that were assessed. After controlling for pain at other locations, we found that the Rape + Abuse group was 10 times more likely to report pelvic pain than the No Abuse group (Prape was uniquely associated with pelvic pain. Future efforts to account for pain in the aftermath of rape must specify a mechanism that can simultaneously cause widespread pain as well as increase risk of localized pain.

  9. Impact of Humor Advertising in Radio and Print Advertising - A Review

    OpenAIRE

    S, venkatesh; N, senthilkumar

    2015-01-01

    The use of humour in advertising is the effective way of communication in any emotion to sell the products. Humor increase attention and attract more consumers so it became an effective advertising in any medium of advertising. Researchers and Advertisers more interested towards humor advertising more than century, but no review paper regarding impact of humor in radio and print advertising are published. Aim of this paper to get detailed review on impact of humor in radio and print advertisi...

  10. Wet oxidation pretreatment of rape straw for ethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvaniti, Efthalia; Bjerre, Anne Belinda; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2012-01-01

    Rape straw can be used for production of second generation bioethanol. In this paper we optimized the pretreatment of rape straw for this purpose using Wet oxidation (WO). The effect of reaction temperature, reaction time, and oxygen gas pressure was investigated for maximum ethanol yield via...... Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF). To reduce the water use and increase the energy efficiency in WO pretreatment features like recycling liquid (filtrate), presoaking of rape straw in water or recycled filtrate before WO, skip washing pretreated solids (filter cake) after WO, or use of whole...... gas produced higher ethanol yields and cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin recoveries, than 15 min WO treatment at 195 °C. Also, recycling filtrate and use of higher oxygen gas pressure reduced recovery of materials. The use of filtrate could be inhibitory for the yeast, but also reduced lactic acid...

  11. Use of sewage sludge - nitrogen availability and heavy metal uptake into rape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerzabek, M. H.; Lombi, E.; Herger, P.

    1998-07-01

    The results of a three years experiment with large pots in the field evaluating the effects of sewage sludge (sterilised by γ-irradiation or not sterilised) on rape growth, heavy metal-and N-uptake, using the 15 N-dilution technique, are presented. Mobile fractions of Cd, Cu and Zn increased significantly in the substrate due to sewage sludge treatments. However heavy metal transfer into rape plants did not respond clearly. Rape growth was clearly enhanced in the first and third year due to sewage sludge applications. The average N-utilization by rape from sewage sludge in a three years period decreased from 7.4 % (first year), 1.8 % (second year) to 1.1 % (third year), resulting in an overall utilization of 10.3 % of sewage sludge - N t by rape plants. Irradiation of sewage sludge did not result in any significant effect on the investigated parameters. (author)

  12. What is a typical rape? Effects of victim and participant gender in female and male rape perception

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Irina

    2007-01-01

    The study had three research aims: (1) to examine the current perception of female rape. Given recent changes in public awareness of female rape, it was predicted that respondents would conceptualise a typical female rape as an acquaintance rape rather than as the stranger rape stereotype; (2) to examine whether these perceptions differ according to respondents’ gender; (3) to examine the ‘cultural lag’ theory of male rape where it was hypothesised that if the public perception of male rape l...

  13. The Psychological Impact of Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resick, Patricia A.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews the literature on the psychological impact of rape on adult female victims, and explores typical patterns of recovery, types of symptoms, and variables affecting recovery. Explores moderating and preassault variables, within-assault variables such as acquaintance status and level of violence, and postassault variables such as social…

  14. Negligent Rape and Reasonable Beliefs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg

    2008-01-01

    practice such defences are often acknowledged if the belief is reasonable by some general standard, even when this standard does not pertain to the rules currently governing the practice of intercourse in Denmark. As a result it has often been argued that the notion of negligent rape should be introduced...

  15. Use of chronic irradiation in formation of new rape genotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabry, A.; Zukalova, H.; Cerny, J.; Folk, A.

    1980-01-01

    Chronic irradiation of hybrid plants of F 1 generation obtained by crossing the Canadian rape without erucic acid with European winter varieties containg this acid, doubled the frequency of winter genotypes and increased significantly the frequency of required recombinations of winter character and absence of erucic acid in F 2 -M 2 . Genotypes with a more favourable ratio between linoleic and linolenic acids were obtained in the irradiated F 2 -M 2 population. The obtained radio-induced mutants are used for the production of new varieties of winter rape without erucic acid at the Slapy Breeding Station. (author)

  16. The Internet as Spectator Disclosure: Consent, Community, and Responsibility in Patricia Lockwood’s Viral Poem “Rape Joke”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Lanphier

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In “Rape as Spectator Sport and Creepshot Entertainment: Social Media and the Valorization of Lack of Consent,” the American philosopher Kelly Oliver provides a compelling and chilling analysis of the use and impact of social media by perpetrators of or bystanders to sexual assault. Patricia Lockwood’s 2013 long-form narrative poem, “Rape Joke,” which was published online and went viral on social media, offers a complement to Oliver’s analysis by presenting an Internet account of sexual assault from the survivor’s perspective. “Rape Joke,” through its content and form, raises questions to which we must philosophically and socially respond. These include both the importance of first-person narratives for social and philosophical engagements with trauma as well as the use of humor to constitute moral community and shape moral accountability.

  17. Radiation-use efficiency in summer rape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, M.J.; Stewart, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    The radiation-use efficiency (RUE) is a parameter that represents a crop canopy's ability to convert intercepted solar energy to dry matter. The RUE is used in simulation models and can vary with crop type and environment. The objective was to examine the effects of varying row width and seeding rate on the amount of intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (IPAR) and the RUE in summer rape (Brassica napus L.). 'Westar' summer rape was seeded at rates of 1.5, 3.0, 6.0, and 12.0 kg ha-1 in rows spaced 15 or 30 cm apart. Plant sampling was done at key growth stages, and the leaf and pod areas and total plant dry weights were determined. After flowering, plants intercepted more PAR when grown in 15-cm-wide rows than 30-cm-wide rows. For both row widths, as seeding rate increased from 1.5 to 12.0 kg ha-1, IPAR increased. The RUE was greater for plants grown in 15-cm-wide rows than for those grown in 30-cm rows; however, RUE decreased with increasing seeding rate. The mean RUE value was 2.83 g MJ-1 PAR. When the pod area was added to the leaf area, the IPAR increased and the RUE decreased

  18. Preface to Computational Humor 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Unknown, [Unknown; Nijholt, Antinus; Nijholt, A.

    2012-01-01

    Like its predecessors in 1996 (University of Twente, the Netherlands) and 2002 (ITC-irst, Trento, Italy), this Third International Workshop on Computational Humor (IWCH 2012) focusses on the possibility to find algorithms that allow understanding and generation of humor. There is the general aim of modeling humor, and if we can do that, it will provide us with lots of information about our cognitive abilities in general, such as reasoning, remembering, understanding situations, and understand...

  19. Interpreting Rape: Differences Among Professionals and Non-Professional Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Lawrence G.

    Physicians and rape crisis counselors may play important roles in assisting a rape victim; their beliefs and perceptions about rape may influence their treatment of the victim. Physicians (N=10) and volunteer rape counselors (N=44) completed questionnaires focused on demographic characteristics, their experiences with rape victims, and personal…

  20. Industrially processed oilseed rape in the production of table eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Angelovičová

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of feed mixtures with varying proportions of rape cakes to the weight of table eggs, its components, thickness and strength of egg shell. The eggs were from the final laying hybrid ISA Brown reared in the enriched cage system under experimental conditions. An age of laying hens was from 48 to 54 weeks. Egg weight and its components were measured on scales type KERN 440-35N, with an accuracy of 0.01 g and a maximum weight of 400 g. Egg white weight was calculated. The thickness and strength of the egg shell were measured from the dried samples at 55 °C. From each egg shell were cut 3 pcs of samples in the equatorial plane, one sample from the blunt end and one sample from the sharp end. Egg shell thickness was measured by test instrument SOME, type 60/0.01mm with a range of 0 - 10 mm. Egg shell strength was measured according to test instrument Instron with the small body, having a diameter 4.48 mm to exert pressure on the egg shell. The obtained data were assessed in the program system SAS, version 8.2. Based on the results observed in egg weight of our experiment we can conclude that in the group with share 5% of rape cakes was non-statistically significant (p >0.05 decreased egg weight compared to the control group. Egg weight was reduced in the group with share 10% of rape cakes, which confirmed a statistically significant difference compared to egg weight of control group (p ˂0.05. The differences among experimental groups with share 5% and 10% of rape cakes in feed mixture and as well as to control group were not statistically significant (p >0.05 in weight of egg yolk, egg white, egg shell and egg shell strength. Egg shell thickness was no statistically significant (p >0.05 increased in experimental group with share 5% of rape cakes and decreased in experimental group with share 10% of rape cakes versus control group. Increase of egg shell thickness in experimental group with

  1. Bioconversion of rape straw into a nutritionally enriched substrate by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work aims to select biological treatments and conditions for the bioconversion of rape straw by the mixed-strain fermentation of Ganoderma lucidum and yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida tropicalis and Candida utilis), into an enriched substrate with increased crude protein and digestibility. Orthogonal ...

  2. Event characteristics and socio-demographic features of rape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: On account of increasing awareness of the need for Post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) and availability of requisite drugs, victims of rape are now presenting at health facilities including ours to access PEP for HIV. This study set to document the socio-demographic features of these victims and the event ...

  3. Changes in oil composition after chronic irradiation of winter and spring zero-erucic rape hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabry, A.; Cerny, J.

    1980-01-01

    Hybrid plants of the F1 generation of erucic-free spring Canadian rape and some winter rape cultivars containing erucic acid were irradiated in a gamma field with doses ranging between 5973 and 329 R during vegetation. Chronic irradiation increased significantly the frequency of zero- or low-erucic genotypes in the segregating F2 generation. Chronic irradiation disturbed the correlations between the contents of the studied fatty acids in the hybrid F1, F2 and F3 progenies. Lines of zero- and low-erucic winter rapes with a reduced content of linolenic acid and increased content of linoleic acid were obtained by selection. (author)

  4. Humor, helt seriøst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundquist, Lita Sander

    2012-01-01

    Adfærd. Har humor grænser? Dansk humor har i hvert fald. Hvor humor typisk bruges til at glatte ud med, har det ofte den stik modsatte virkning, viser studie.......Adfærd. Har humor grænser? Dansk humor har i hvert fald. Hvor humor typisk bruges til at glatte ud med, har det ofte den stik modsatte virkning, viser studie....

  5. Correlates of reasons for not reporting rape to police: results from a national telephone household probability sample of women with forcible or drug-or-alcohol facilitated/incapacitated rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Amy M; Zinzow, Heidi M; Resnick, Heidi S; Kilpatrick, Dean G

    2013-02-01

    Rape tactics, rape incident characteristics, and mental health problems (lifetime depression, PTSD, and substance abuse) were investigated as correlates of eight different reasons for not reporting a rape to police among women who had experienced but did not report a rape to police (n = 441) within a national telephone household probability sample. Rape tactics (nonmutually exclusive) included drug or alcohol-facilitated or incapacitated rape (DAFR/IR; n = 119) and forcible rape (FR; n = 376). Principal Components Analysis (PCA) was conducted to extract a dominant set of patterns among the eight reasons for not reporting, and to reduce the set of dependent variables. PCA results indicated three unique factors: Not Wanting Others to Know, Nonacknowledgment of Rape, and Criminal Justice Concerns. Hierarchical regression analyses showed DAFR/IR and FR were both positively and significantly associated with Criminal Justice Concerns, whereas DAFR/IR, but not FR, was associated with Nonacknowledgment as a reason for not reporting to police. Neither DAFR/IR nor FR emerged as significant predictors of Others Knowing after controlling for fear of death or injury at the time of the incident. Correlations among variables showed that the Criminal Justice Concerns factor was positively related to lifetime depression and PTSD and the Nonacknowledgement factor was negatively related to lifetime PTSD. Findings suggest prevention programs should educate women about the definition of rape, which may include incapacitation due to alcohol or drugs, to increase acknowledgement and decrease barriers to police reporting.

  6. Humor styles and symbolic boundaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, G.

    2009-01-01

    Humor is strongly related to group boundaries. Jokes and other humorous utterances often draw on implicit references and inside knowledge; they tend to refer to sensitive topics which may offend people; and they ideally incite laughter, one of the strongest markers of social solidarity and emotional

  7. Preface to Computational Humor 2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unknown, [Unknown; Nijholt, Antinus; Nijholt, A.

    2012-01-01

    Like its predecessors in 1996 (University of Twente, the Netherlands) and 2002 (ITC-irst, Trento, Italy), this Third International Workshop on Computational Humor (IWCH 2012) focusses on the possibility to find algorithms that allow understanding and generation of humor. There is the general aim of

  8. Humor er en alvorlig sag

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søltoft, Pia

    2016-01-01

    I modsætning til ironi er humor for Kierkegaard fællesskabsgivende – ironikeren hævder sig selv, men humoristen har sympati med den, man ler med. Humor er hos Kierkegaard udtryk for, at humoristen forliger sig med tilværelsen og dens luner, og dermed grænser humoren hos Kierkegaard op til det...

  9. A Pragmatic Study of Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibraheem, Sura Dhiaa; Abbas, Nawal Fadhil

    2016-01-01

    Linguistically speaking, the concept of humor, which seems to be vast for people, has specific dimensions by which it is generated including: puns, irony, sarcasm, wittiness, and contrastive utterances in relation to the speakers of those utterances. It is about how the extra linguistics elements dominate the situation and the delivery of humor.…

  10. War rape, natality and genocide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Robin May

    2011-01-01

    Feminist philosophy can make an important contribution to the field of genocide studies, and issues relating to gender and war are gaining new attention. In this article I trace legal and philosophical analyses of sexual violence against women in war. I analyze the strengths and limitations of the concept of social death—introduced into this field by Claudia Card—for understanding the genocidal features of war rape, and draw on the work of Hannah Arendt to understand the central harm of genocide as an assault on natality. The threat to natality posed by the harms of rape, forced pregnancy and forced maternity lie in the potential expulsion from the public world of certain groups—including women who are victims, members of the 'enemy' group, and children born of forced birth.

  11. Spass Verstehen, Zur Pragmatik von konversationellem Humor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekmann, Bjørn

    2000-01-01

    Spøg, Humor, Komik, Ironi, Kommunikationsteori, Hermeneutik, Gruppedynamik, Logik, Tekstlingvistik......Spøg, Humor, Komik, Ironi, Kommunikationsteori, Hermeneutik, Gruppedynamik, Logik, Tekstlingvistik...

  12. Spousal rape: A challenge for pastoral counsellors

    OpenAIRE

    James A. Glanville; Yolanda Dreyer

    2013-01-01

    This article reflects on the criticism regarding the pastoral counsellor’s dealings with spousal rape victims. It argues that counsellors should be sensitive not to be biased, either personally or theologically, and should have an understanding of the biopsychosocial (biological, psychological and social) impact of spousal rape, such as rape-related post-traumatic stress and other related illnesses such as depression, victimisation and stigmatisation. The pastoral counsellors should be awar...

  13. Annual dynamics of wild bee densities: attractiveness and productivity effects of oilseed rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedinger, Verena; Mitesser, Oliver; Hovestadt, Thomas; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Holzschuh, Andrea

    2015-05-01

    Mass-flowering crops may affect long-term population dynamics, but effects on pollinators have never been studied across several years. We monitored wild bees in oilseed rape fields in 16 landscapes in Germany in two consecutive years. Effects on bee densities of landscape oilseed rape cover in the years of monitoring and in the previous years were evaluated with landscape data from three consecutive years. We fit empirical data to a mechanistic model to provide estimates for oilseed rape attractiveness and its effect on bee productivity in comparison to the rest of the landscape, and we evaluated consequences for pollinator densities in consecutive years. Our results show that high oilseed rape cover in the previous year enhances current densities of wild bees (except for bumble bees). Moreover, we show a strong attractiveness of and dilution on (i.e., decreasing bee densities with increasing landscape oilseed rape cover) oilseed rape for bees during flowering in the current year, modifying the effect of the previous year's oilseed rape cover in the case of wild bees (excluding Bombus). As long as other factors such as nesting sites or natural enemies do not limit bee reproduction, our findings suggest long-term positive effects of mass-flowering crops on bee populations, at least for non-Bombus generalists, which possibly help to maintain crop pollination services even when crop area increases. Similar effects are conceivable for other organisms providing ecosystem services in annual crops and should be considered in future studies.

  14. The Geography of Rape: Rape Victims in Urban and Rural Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Louise Hjort

    Little is known from research about barriers to seeking and receiving help following domestic violence, rape, attempted rape, and sexual assault in Denmark. This study examined possible regional differences in reporting rape and sexual assault in urban and rural communities in a large region...

  15. Characterization of heavy metal-resistant endophytic bacteria from rape (Brassica napus) roots and their potential in promoting the growth and lead accumulation of rape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng Xiafang; Xia Juanjuan; Jiang Chunyu; He Linyan; Qian Meng

    2008-01-01

    Two lead (Pb)-resistant endophytic bacteria were isolated from rape roots grown in heavy metal-contaminated soils and characterized. A pot experiment was conducted for investigating the capability of the two isolates to promote the growth and Pb uptake of rape from Pb-amended soil. The two isolates were identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens G10 and Microbacterium sp. G16 based on the 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. Strains G10 and G16 exhibited different multiple heavy metal and antibiotic resistance characteristics and increased water-soluble Pb in solution and in Pb-added soil. Root elongation assays demonstrated increases in root elongation of inoculated rape seedlings compared to the control plants. Strain G16 produced indole acetic acid, siderophores and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase. Increases in biomass production and total Pb uptake in the bacteria-inoculated plants were obtained compared to the control. The two strains could colonize the root interior and rhizosphere soil of rape after root inoculation. - Heavy metal-resistant endophytic bacteria from rape have the potential of promoting the growth and lead uptake of rape

  16. Rape: psychopathology, theory and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, Theresa A; Collie, Rachael M; Ward, Tony; Thakker, Jo

    2008-07-01

    Whether treatment programs are effective at rehabilitating rapists is yet to be determined empirically. From a scientist-practitioner perspective, treatment should be based on an empirical understanding of rape and rapists, and evidence-based knowledge of treatment outcome with rapists. In this paper we comprehensively review the characteristics of rapists, etiological features implicated in the commission of rape, and relevant treatment outcome research. We pay particular attention to contemporary knowledge about the core vulnerabilities and features required to understand and treat rapists effectively, and, where possible, highlight similarities and differences between rapists, child molesters and non-sexual violent offenders. We use an epistemological framework to (a) critique the various etiological accounts of rape available and (b) help guide professionals' use of such knowledge in both treatment design and evaluation. Gaps in the understanding of rapists' characteristics and etiological features are highlighted, as are discrepancies between current knowledge and treatment approaches. We conclude by highlighting areas for future research and practice innovation.

  17. Remote Estimation of Vegetation Fraction and Yield in Oilseed Rape with Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Y.; Fang, S.; Liu, K.; Gong, Y.

    2017-12-01

    This study developed an approach for remote estimation of Vegetation Fraction (VF) and yield in oilseed rape, which is a crop species with conspicuous flowers during reproduction. Canopy reflectance in green, red, red edge and NIR bands was obtained by a camera system mounted on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) when oilseed rape was in the vegetative growth and flowering stage. The relationship of several widely-used Vegetation Indices (VI) vs. VF was tested and found to be different in different phenology stages. At the same VF when oilseed rape was flowering, canopy reflectance increased in all bands, and the tested VI decreased. Therefore, two algorithms to estimate VF were calibrated respectively, one for samples during vegetative growth and the other for samples during flowering stage. During the flowering season, we also explored the potential of using canopy reflectance or VIs to estimate Flower Fraction (FF) in oilseed rape. Based on FF estimates, rape yield can be estimated using canopy reflectance data. Our model was validated in oilseed rape planted under different nitrogen fertilization applications and in different phenology stages. The results showed that it was able to predict VF and FF accurately in oilseed rape with estimation error below 6% and predict yield with estimation error below 20%.

  18. Ecological audit of rape seed oil or rape methyl ester as a substitute for diesel fuel (ecological audit rape seed oil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, A.; Glante, F.; Schlueter, C.; Golz, C.; Noeh, I.; Reinhard, G.; Hoepfner, U.; Satorius, R.; Benndorf, R.; Bluemel, H.; Schaerer, B.; Rodt, S.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this study is to answer the following central question: Is the environmental pollution burden resulting from the cultivation of rape and the use of rape seed oil or rape methyl ester to be rated less severe than that of the manufacture and use of diesel fuel, and should, therefore, farmland be used in Germany to grow rape for rape seed oil or rape methyl ester production as a substitute for diesel fuel? Firstly, the extent is investigated to which rape seed oil or rape methyl ester can contribute to cuts in emissions of climate-relevant trace gases as compared to diesel fuel from crude oil. Secondly, the environmental impact and hazards associated with the cultivation, transport and manufacture of rape seed oil or rape methyl ester (again as compared to diesel fuel) are investigated. The data analysed relate to the entire life cycle. (orig./UWA) [de

  19. Sexuality, substance use, and susceptibility to victimization: risk for rape and sexual coercion in a prospective study of college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messman-Moore, Terri L; Coates, Aubrey A; Gaffey, Kathryn J; Johnson, Carrie F

    2008-12-01

    An 8-month prospective study examined behavioral, personality, and psychological variables thought to increase vulnerability for college women's experience of rape and verbal sexual coercion. Participants were 276 college women who completed self-report surveys. During 1 academic year, 9.5% of women were raped and 11.7% reported verbal sexual coercion. Elevated levels of sexual concerns, dysfunctional sexual behavior, and impaired self-reference were associated with both verbal sexual coercion and rape. Alcohol and marijuana use increased risk only for rape, whereas self-criticism and depression increased risk only for verbal coercion. Findings suggest that multiple aspects of sexuality, such as shame regarding sexuality and using sex to meet nonsexual needs, may increase risk for both types of sexual victimization. Results support conclusions that rape and verbal sexual coercion have both shared and unique risk factors. Implications for future research and intervention programs are discussed.

  20. "Everyone's a Comedian." No Really, They Are: Using Humor in the Online and Traditional Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Victoria D.; Wortley, Amy

    2017-01-01

    The effects of the incorporation of instructor humor in both the traditional and online classroom settings was examined. Students react to instructor humor in positive ways that demonstrate both increased engagement with the material and increased information recall following the use of instructor humor in lecture. Challenges of instructor and…

  1. Induction by chromium ions of chitinases and polyamines in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and rape (Brassica napus L. ssp. oleifera)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, S.; Hauschild, M.Z.; Rasmussen, U.

    1992-01-01

    Barley and rape seedlings were grown in hydroponic culture with increasing concentrations of CrO3 (Cr(VI)) or CrCl3 (Cr(III)). The chitinase activity and the concentrations of putrescine, spennidine and spermine were determined in the third leaf of barley seed-lings and in the second leaf of rape...

  2. Plasticity of seed weight compensates reductions in seed number of oilseed rape in response to shading at flowering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Labra Fernandez, Marcelo; Struik, Paul C.; Evers, Jochem B.; Calderini, Daniel F.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the response of the number of seeds and seed weight to the availability of assimilates is crucial for designing breeding strategies aimed to increase seed and oil yield in oilseed rape. This study aims to answer the questions: i) do seed number and seed weight in oilseed rape differ

  3. Religious Affiliation, Religiosity, Gender, and Rape Myth Acceptance: Feminist Theory and Rape Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Michael D; Sligar, Kylie B; Wang, Chiachih D C

    2018-04-01

    Rape myths are false beliefs about rape, rape victims, and rapists, often prejudicial and stereotypical. Guided by feminist theory and available empirical research, this study aimed to examine the influences of gender, religious affiliation, and religiosity on rape myth acceptance of U.S. emerging adults. A sample of 653 university students aged 18 to 30 years were recruited from a large public university in the southern United States to complete the research questionnaires. Results indicated that individuals who identified as Roman Catholic or Protestant endorsed higher levels of rape myth acceptance than their atheist or agnostic counterparts. Men were found more likely to ascribe to rape myths than their female counterparts. Religiosity was positively associated with rape myth acceptance, even after controlling the effect of conservative political ideology. No significant interaction was found between gender and religious affiliation or gender and religiosity. Limitations, future research directions, and implications of the findings are discussed from the perspective of feminist theory.

  4. Components of a Rice-Oilseed Rape Production System Augmented with Trichoderma sp. Tri-1 Control Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on Oilseed Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaojia; Roberts, Daniel P; Xie, Lihua; Maul, Jude E; Yu, Changbing; Li, Yinshui; Zhang, Yinbo; Qin, Lu; Liao, Xing

    2015-10-01

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causes serious yield losses on many crops throughout the world. A multicomponent treatment that consisted of the residual rice straw remaining after rice harvest and Trichoderma sp. Tri-1 (Tri-1) formulated with the oilseed rape seedcake fertilizer was used in field soil infested with S. sclerotiorum. This treatment resulted in oilseed rape seed yield that was significantly greater than the nontreated control or when the fungicide carbendizem was used in the presence of this pathogen in field trials. Yield data suggested that the rice straw, oilseed rape seedcake, and Tri-1 components of this treatment all contributed incrementally. Similar treatment results were obtained regarding reduction in disease incidence. Slight improvements in yield and disease incidence were detected when this multicomponent treatment was combined with a fungicide spray. Inhibition of sclerotial germination by this multicomponent treatment trended greater than the nontreated control at 90, 120, and 150 days in field studies but was not significantly different from this control. This multicomponent treatment resulted in increased yield relative to the nontreated control in the absence of pathogen in a greenhouse pot study, while the straw alone and the straw plus oilseed rape seedcake treatments did not; suggesting that Tri-1 was capable of promoting growth. Experiments reported here indicate that a treatment containing components of a rice-oilseed rape production system augmented with Tri-1 can control S. sclerotiorum on oilseed rape, be used in integrated strategies containing fungicide sprays for control of this pathogen, and promote plant growth.

  5. Rape embryogenesis. III. Embryo development in time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Tykarska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It was found that the growth curve of the rape embryo axis is of triple sigmoid type. Embryo growth occurs in 3 phases corresponding to 3 different periods of development. Phase I includes growth of the apical cell up to it's division into two layers of octants. Phase II comprises the increase of the spherical proembryo to the change of its symmetry from radial to bilateral. Phase III includes, growth of the embryo from the heart stage up to the end of embryogenesis. In each phase the relative growth rate increases drastically and then diminishes. The differences in growth intensity during the same phase are several-fold. The growth intensity maximum of the embryo axis occurs in phase II. The phasic growth intensity maxima occur: in phase I during apical cell elongation, :before its division, and in phases II and III in the periods of cell division ;growth in globular and torpedo-shaped -shaped embryos.

  6. Humor and Healing in College Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Barbara J.; Roehrig, James P.; Yang, Peggy H.

    2015-01-01

    Humor is an often neglected but potentially powerful tool in college counseling center interventions. In this article we review potential benefits and hazards of using humor in a college mental health setting along with perspectives on humor's mechanism of action and distinctions between types of humor. Therapist and client-specific…

  7. Respons imun humoral pada pulpitis (Humoral immune response on pulpitis)

    OpenAIRE

    Widodo, Trijoedani

    2005-01-01

    Pulpitis is an inflammation process on dental pulp tissue, and usually as the continuous of caries. The microorganism in the caries is a potential immunogenic triggering the immune respons, both humoral and celluler immune responses. The aim of this research is to explain the humoral immune response changes in the dental pulp tissues of pulpitis. This research was done on three group samples: Irreversible pulpitis, Reversible pulpitis and sound teeth as the control group. The result showed th...

  8. Fear of rape from behind prison walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shermer, Lauren O'Neill; Sudo, Heather

    2017-06-12

    Purpose The Prison Rape Elimination Act has brought significant attention to the issue of sexual victimization within correctional institutions. While the actual risk of sexual victimization remains low, the perception of rape among inmates is high. Given how one's fear can translate into behavior, understanding how institutions impact the culture surrounding prison rape highlights areas for reducing violence within prisons. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach This study includes secondary analysis of a quantitative database created from semi-structured interviews with 564 high security, general population inmates. Using fear of rape as the outcome of interest, bivariate and logistic regression analyses are used to comment on the impact of individual and facility level characteristics on this outcome. Findings In general, the results from this study suggest that the greatest risk factors for fearing rape while in prison are being male, having a mental health issue, and hearing about rape within the institution. From these specific findings a few general lessons can be learned with the hope that practitioners can translate these lessons into policy initiatives in order to combat fear of rape among our inmate population. Originality/value This paper aims to fill a gap in the research on how the facility contributes to the fear of rape within prison. The end goal is to inform policy makers so that suggestions can be made to combat this problem and prevent further misconduct within these facilities.

  9. Determinants of nectar production in oilseed rape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enkegaard, Annie; Kryger, Per; Boelt, Birte

    2016-01-01

    in the beginning of a year (January–March) leading to the setting of more flowers. On the other hand, the decrease in the number of open oilseed rape flowers during the flowering period seems to be governed exclusively by inherent characteristics of oilseed rape. A late flowering in 2013 was associated...

  10. ASD and PTSD in Rape Victims

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, Ask; Christiansen, Dorte M

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, a number of studies have investigated the prediction of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) through the presence of acute stress disorder (ASD). The predictive power of ASD on PTSD was examined in a population of 148 female rape victims who visited a center for rape victims...... shortly after the rape or attempted rape. The PTSD diagnosis based solely on the three core symptom clusters was best identified by a subclinical ASD diagnosis based on all ASD criteria except dissociation. However, a full PTSD diagnosis including the A2 and F criteria was best identified by classifying...... on ASD severity and sexual problems following the rape accounted for only 28% of the PTSD severity variance. In conclusion, the ASD diagnosis is not an optimal method for identifying those most at risk for PTSD. It remains to be seen whether a better way can be found....

  11. Dietary peppermint (Mentha piperita) extracts promote growth performance and increase the main humoral immune parameters (both at mucosal and systemic level) of Caspian brown trout (Salmo trutta caspius Kessler, 1877).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adel, Milad; Safari, Reza; Pourgholam, Reza; Zorriehzahra, Jalil; Esteban, Maria Ángeles

    2015-11-01

    The effects of dietary administration of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) on Caspian brown trout fish (Salmo trutta caspius) were studied. Fish were divided into 4 groups before being fed diets supplemented with 0% (control), 1%, 2% and 3% of peppermint extracts for 8 weeks. Dose-dependent increases in growth, immune (both in skin mucus and blood serum) and hematological parameters (number of white cells, hematocrit and hemoglobin content), as well as in amylase activity and in the number of lactic acid bacteria on intestine were recorded in fish fed supplemented diets compared to control fish. However, the dietary peppermint supplements have different effects on the number of blood leucocytes depending on the leukocyte cell type. While no significant differences were observed in the number of blood monocytes and eosinophils, the number of lymphocytes was decreased, respectively, on fish fed peppermint enriched diets, respect to the values found in control fish. Furthermore, dietary peppermint supplements have no significant effect on blood biochemical parameters, enzymatic activities of liver determined in serum and total viable aerobic bacterial count on intestine of Caspian brown trout. Present results support that dietary administration of peppermint promotes growth performance and increases the main humoral immune parameters (both at mucosal and systemic level) and the number of the endogenous lactic acid bacteria of Caspian brown trout. This study underlying several positive effects of dietary administration of peppermint to farmed fish. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Uma tipologia do discurso de humor (o politico do humor e o humor politico)

    OpenAIRE

    Perotti, Ivane Laurete

    1995-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Comunicação e Expressão Propõe-se uma leitura de textos humorísticos sob a ótica da Análise do Discurso, recortando-se "tipos" de humor e propondo uma leitura das características do humor político. Tematizam-se questões basilares da Análise do Discurso que estruturam teoricamente o trabalho, expondo reflexões sobre o riso e o risível, e os diferentes processos possivelmente causadores do riso. Discute-se a possibili...

  13. Risk factors for rape, physical assault, and posttraumatic stress disorder in women: examination of differential multivariate relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acierno, R; Resnick, H; Kilpatrick, D G; Saunders, B; Best, C L

    1999-01-01

    The National Women's Study, a 2-year, three-wave longitudinal investigation, employed a national probability sample of 3,006 adult women to: (a) identify separate risk factors for rape and physical assault, and (b) identify separate risk factors associated with post-rape posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and post-physical assault PTSD. This investigation differed from previous studies in that it prospectively examined risk factors at the multivariate, as opposed to univariate level. Overall, past victimization, young age, and a diagnosis of active PTSD increased women's risk of being raped. By contrast, past victimization, minority ethnic status, active depression, and drug use were associated with increased risk of being physically assaulted. Risk factors for PTSD following rape included a history of depression, alcohol abuse, or experienced injury during the rape. However, risk factors for PTSD following physical assault included only a history of depression and lower education.

  14. Traumatic Dissociation as a Predictor of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in South African Female Rape Survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Nöthling, Jani; Lammers, Kees; Martin, Lindi; Seedat, Soraya

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Women survivors of rape are at an increased risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Traumatic dissociation has been identified as a precursor of PTSD. This study assessed the predictive potential of traumatic dissociation in PTSD and depression development. The study followed a longitudinal, prospective design. Ninety-seven female rape survivors were recruited from 2 clinics in Cape Town, South Africa. Clinical interviews and symptom status assessments of the participants were...

  15. Humor Styles and the Intolerance of Uncertainty Model of Generalized Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A. Kuiper

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Past research suggests that sense of humor may play a role in anxiety. The present study builds upon this work by exploring how individual differences in various humor styles, such as affiliative, self-enhancing, and self-defeating humor, may fit within a contemporary research model of anxiety. In this model, intolerance of uncertainty is a fundamental personality characteristic that heightens excessive worry, thus increasing anxiety. We further propose that greater intolerance of uncertainty may also suppress the use of adaptive humor (affiliate and self-enhancing, and foster the increased use of maladaptive self-defeating humor. Initial correlational analyses provide empirical support for these proposals. In addition, we found that excessive worry and affiliative humor both served as significant mediators. In particular, heightened intolerance of uncertainty lead to both excessive worry and a reduction in affiliative humor use, which, in turn, increased anxiety. We also explored potential humor mediating effects for each of the individual worry content domains in this model. These analyses confirmed the importance of affiliative humor as a mediator for worry pertaining to a wide range of content domains (e.g., relationships, lack of confidence, the future and work. These findings were then discussed in terms of a combined model that considers how humor styles may impact the social sharing of positive and negative emotions.

  16. Longitudinal Associations Between Humor Styles and Psychosocial Adjustment in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Claire Louise; Hunter, Simon Christopher; Jones, Siân Emily

    2016-08-01

    This study assessed the concurrent and prospective associations between psychosocial adjustment and four humor styles, two of which are adaptive (affiliative, self-enhancing) and two maladaptive (aggressive, self-defeating). Participants were 1,234 adolescents (52% female) aged 11-13 years, drawn from six secondary schools in England. Self-reports of psychosocial adjustment (loneliness, depressive symptomatology, and self-esteem) and humor styles were collected at two time points (fall and summer). In cross-lagged panel analyses, self-defeating humor was associated with an increase in both depressive symptoms and loneliness, and with a decrease in self-esteem. In addition, depressive symptoms predicted an increase in the use of self-defeating humor over time, indicating that these may represent a problematic spiral of thoughts and behaviors. Self-esteem was associated with an increase in the use of affiliative humor over the school year but not vice-versa. These results inform our understanding of the ways in which humor is associated with psychosocial adjustment in adolescence.

  17. Longitudinal Associations Between Humor Styles and Psychosocial Adjustment in Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Louise Fox

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the concurrent and prospective associations between psychosocial adjustment and four humor styles, two of which are adaptive (affiliative, self-enhancing and two maladaptive (aggressive, self-defeating. Participants were 1,234 adolescents (52% female aged 11-13 years, drawn from six secondary schools in England. Self-reports of psychosocial adjustment (loneliness, depressive symptomatology, and self-esteem and humor styles were collected at two time points (fall and summer. In cross-lagged panel analyses, self-defeating humor was associated with an increase in both depressive symptoms and loneliness, and with a decrease in self-esteem. In addition, depressive symptoms predicted an increase in the use of self-defeating humor over time, indicating that these may represent a problematic spiral of thoughts and behaviors. Self-esteem was associated with an increase in the use of affiliative humor over the school year but not vice-versa. These results inform our understanding of the ways in which humor is associated with psychosocial adjustment in adolescence.

  18. Humor in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Cristiano S; Li, Rui; Lawrie, Sarah; Bar-Or, Amit; Clarke, Ann E; Da Costa, Deborah; Banerjee, Devi; Bernatsky, Sasha; Lee, Jennifer L; Pineau, Christian A

    2015-03-01

    Humor has neurophysiological effects influencing the release of cortisol, which may have a direct impact on the immune system. Laughter is associated with a decreased production of inflammatory cytokines both in the general population and in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Our objective was to explore the effects of humor on serum cytokines [particularly interleukin-6 (IL-6)] and cortisol levels in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), after a standard intervention (120 min of visual comedy). We enrolled 58 females with SLE from consecutive patients assessed in the Montreal General Hospital lupus clinic. The subjects who consented to participate were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to the intervention (watching 120 min of comedy) or control group (watching a 120 min documentary). Measurements of cytokine and serum cortisol levels as well as 24-h urine cortisol were taken before, during, and after the interventions. We compared serum cytokine levels and serum and 24-h urine cortisol levels in the humor and control groups and performed regression analyses of these outcomes, adjusting for demographics and the current use of prednisone. There were no significant differences between the control and humor groups in demographics or clinical variables. Baseline serum levels of IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and B-cell activating factor were also similar in both groups. There was no evidence of a humor effect in terms of decreasing cytokine levels, although there was some suggestion of lowered cortisol secretion in the humor group based the 24-h urinary cortisol levels in a subgroup. In contrast to what has been published for RA, we saw no clear effects of humor in altering cytokine levels in SLE, although interesting trends were seen for lower cortisol levels after humor intervention compared with the control group.

  19. Detecting the True Nature of Allegations of Rape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Zutter, André; Horselenberg, Robert; van Koppen, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    A study was conducted to test whether it is possible to build a model to distinguish true and false allegations of rape based on the theory of fabricated rape. The theory is based on the principle that a false complainant of rape has not been raped and has to fabricate a story while the story of a

  20. The role of rape tactics in risk for posttraumatic stress disorder and major depression: results from a national sample of college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinzow, Heidi M; Resnick, Heidi S; McCauley, Jenna L; Amstadter, Ananda B; Ruggiero, Kenneth J; Kilpatrick, Dean G

    2010-08-01

    College women are at high risk for substance-involved rape. However, most studies have focused on forcible rape and have not differentiated these tactics from tactics that involve drug or alcohol intoxication. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of lifetime exposure to forcible rape (FR), incapacitated rape (IR), and drug-alcohol facilitated rape (DAFR) tactics on risk for PTSD and depression. A secondary purpose was to examine the role of different incident characteristics, including relationship to the perpetrator, fear, injury, force, memory, and acknowledgement. A national sample of 2,000 college women completed structured telephone interviews assessing demographics, psychiatric diagnoses, and rape experiences. Multivariate logistic regression analyses including demographic variables, multiple rape history, and rape tactics indicated that all three tactics were associated with increased risk for PTSD and depression. Correlational analyses revealed that rape tactics differed in relation to incident characteristics. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that only physical injury was positively associated with depression and no characteristics were related to PTSD. The strong association between IR/DAFR and psychiatric diagnoses suggests that the definition of rape experiences be expanded to include substance-involved tactics. Differing incident characteristics imply that IR/DAFR experiences are associated with different pathways to psychiatric symptoms in comparison to FR experiences. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Investigating the Self-Protective Potential of Immobility in Victims of Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Heer, Brooke A; Jones, Lynn C

    2017-04-01

    Using a nationwide sample of reported rape cases collected by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI; 389 victims; 89% stranger rapes), this study investigates assumptions about self-protective behaviors for rape victims. Past research on victim resistance strategies often specifies active resistance as self-protective, inadvertently underestimating the potential for biologically based reactions, such as tonic immobility, to be self-protective as well. Results confirm that rape victims who were verbally and physically immobile during the attack were less likely to be injured and have force used against them. In addition, victims who were verbally immobile suffered a less severe attack. The results indicate that immobility may protect the victim from increased injury, force, and severity of the attack. Implications for the legal and public definition of consent are discussed.

  2. Judgments toward male and transgendered victims in a depicted stranger rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Michelle; Hudson, Jenefer

    2011-01-01

    There has been an increasing amount of research interest into perceptions of male rape in recent years. However, no research has assessed how people react when a transgendered person is raped. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of transgendered status and sexuality on victim blame and perceived severity in a depicted rape scenario. The sexuality of the victim was manipulated to include a heterosexual, homosexual, cross-dresser, female-to-male transsexual, and male-to-female transsexual. It was predicted that the heterosexual victims would be judged the most positively and that heterosexual male participants would make the most anti-victim judgments. One hundred thirty-three lesbian, gay male, and heterosexual members of the general population read a scenario depicting a rape and then completed a questionnaire measuring victim blame and perceived severity of the assault. Results conformed to the predictions. Results are discussed in relation to traditional gender roles and homophobia.

  3. Effect of spraying rape with Nd on N, P, K, Ca and Nd uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Y.Z.; Zhou, X.B.; Maalim, M.O.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: When 20 mg/L,100 mg/L Nd(NO 3 ) 3 were applied at rape seedling stage, the uptake of N, P, K by rape was significantly increased. The main characters of economic importance in rape were also improved, such as dry weight, root length, pod number and 1000-seed weight. Yields of rape seeds were 110.77% and 122.50% of control, respectively. The contents of Nd, Ca in plant and soluble Nd in the soil were also analysed. It was found that Nd could be absorbed from leaves and transported to the top as well as the roots. The uptake of Nd from soil was inhibited by Nd absorption from leaves. Nd might replace Ca partly

  4. Experimental sepsis impairs humoral memory in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Pötschke

    Full Text Available Patients with sepsis are often immune suppressed, and experimental mouse models of sepsis also display this feature. However, acute sepsis in mice is also characterized by a generalized B cell activation and plasma cell differentiation, resulting in a marked increase in serum antibody concentration. Its effects on humoral memory are not clearly defined. We measured the effects of experimental sepsis on long-term immunological memory for a defined antigen: we induced colon ascendens stent peritonitis (CASP 8 weeks after 2 rounds of immunization with ovalbumin. Four weeks later, the antigen-specific bone marrow plasma cell count had doubled in immunized non-septic animals, but remained unchanged in immunized septic animals. Sepsis also caused a decrease in antigen-specific serum antibody concentration. We conclude that sepsis weakens humoral memory by impeding the antigen-specific plasma cell pool's development, which is not complete 8 weeks after secondary immunization.

  5. Humor, laughter, learning, and health! A brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Brandon M; Lujan, Heidi L; Thipparthi, Raghavendar R; DiCarlo, Stephen E

    2017-09-01

    Human emotions, such as anxiety, depression, fear, joy, and laughter, profoundly affect psychological and physiological processes. These emotions form a set of basic, evolved functions that are shared by all humans. Laughter is part of a universal language of basic emotions that all humans recognize. Health care providers and educators may utilize the power of laughter to improve health and enhance teaching and learning. This is an important consideration because teaching is not just about content: it is also about forming relationships and strengthening human connections. In this context, when used effectively, humor is documented to build relationships and enhance performance. Specifically, humor improves student performance by attracting and sustaining attention, reducing anxiety, enhancing participation, and increasing motivation. Moreover, humor stimulates multiple physiological systems that decrease levels of stress hormones, such as cortisol and epinephrine, and increase the activation of the mesolimbic dopaminergic reward system. To achieve these benefits, it is important to use humor that is relevant to the course content and not disparaging toward others. Self-effacing humor illustrates to students that the teacher is comfortable making mistakes and sharing these experiences with the classroom. In this brief review, we discuss the history and relationship between humor, laughing, learning, and health with an emphasis on the powerful, universal language of laughter. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Present and future instances of virtual rape in light of three categories of legal philosophical theories on rape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strikwerda, Litska

    2015-01-01

    This paper is about the question of whether or not virtual rape should be considered a crime under current law. A virtual rape is the rape of an avatar (a person’s virtual representation) in a virtual world. In the future, possibilities for virtual rape of a person him- or herself will arise in

  7. Understanding Attribution of Blame in Cases of Rape: An Analysis of Participant Gender, Type of Rape and Perceived Similarity to the Victim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubb, Amy Rose; Harrower, Julie

    2009-01-01

    This study examined a variety of factors that may influence attributions towards rape victims. A total of 156 participants completed a questionnaire, which included a measure of attitudes towards rape victims and a vignette depicting one of three rape scenarios (a stranger rape, date rape and seduction rape). Participants rated the extent to which…

  8. Spousal rape: A challenge for pastoral counsellors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Glanville

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects on the criticism regarding the pastoral counsellor’s dealings with spousal rape victims. It argues that counsellors should be sensitive not to be biased, either personally or theologically, and should have an understanding of the biopsychosocial (biological, psychological and social impact of spousal rape, such as rape-related post-traumatic stress and other related illnesses such as depression, victimisation and stigmatisation. The pastoral counsellors should be aware of the legal and medical ramifications of spousal rape and have knowledge of the correct referral resources and procedures (trusted professionals, shelters and support structures. They should be self-aware and understand the effect that gender or previous traumatic personal experiences may have on their reactions. The article consists of the following sections: the phenomenon ‘rape’; acquaintance rape; spousal rape; post-traumatic stress; post-traumatic stress disorder; rape trauma syndrome; cognitive behavioural therapy; spirituality; doctrinal matters; social system of patriarchy; a pastoral counselling model; self-care.

  9. Spousal rape: A challenge for pastoral counsellors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Glanville

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects on the criticism regarding the pastoral counsellor’s dealings with spousal rape victims. It argues that counsellors should be sensitive not to be biased, either personally or theologically, and should have an understanding of the biopsychosocial (biological, psychological and social impact of spousal rape, such as rape-related post-traumatic stress and other related illnesses such as depression, victimisation and stigmatisation. The pastoral counsellors should be aware of the legal and medical ramifications of spousal rape and have knowledge of the correct referral resources and procedures (trusted professionals, shelters and support structures. They should be self-aware and understand the effect that gender or previous traumatic personal experiences may have on their reactions. The article consists of the following sections: the phenomenon ‘rape’; acquaintance rape; spousal rape; post-traumatic stress; post-traumatic stress disorder; rape trauma syndrome; cognitive behavioural therapy; spirituality; doctrinal matters; social system of patriarchy; a pastoral counselling model; self-care.

  10. Three Decades Investigating Humor and Laughter: An Interview With Professor Rod Martin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Rod; Kuiper, Nicholas A

    2016-08-01

    Since the start of the 21st century, the investigation of various psychological aspects of humor and laughter has become an increasingly prominent topic of research. This growth can be attributed, in no small part, to the pioneering and creative work on humor and laughter conducted by Professor Rod Martin. Dr. Martin's research interests in humor and laughter began in the early 1980s and continued throughout his 32 year long career as a professor of clinical psychology at the University of Western Ontario. During this time, Dr. Martin published numerous scholarly articles, chapters, and books on psychological aspects of humor and laughter. Professor Martin has just retired in July 2016, and in the present interview he recounts a number of research highlights of his illustrious career. Dr. Martin's earliest influential work, conducted while he was still in graduate school, stemmed from an individual difference perspective that focused on the beneficial effects of sense of humor on psychological well-being. This research focus remained evident in many of Professor Martin's subsequent investigations, but became increasingly refined as he developed several measures of different components of sense of humor, including both adaptive and maladaptive humor styles. In this interview, Dr. Martin describes the conceptualization, development and use of the Humor Styles Questionnaire, along with suggestions for future research and development. In doing so, he also discusses the three main components of humor (i.e., cognitive, emotional and interpersonal), as well as the distinctions and similarities between humor and laughter. Further highlights of this interview include Professor Martin's comments on such diverse issues as the genetic versus environmental loadings for sense of humor, the multifaceted nature of the construct of humor, and the possible limitations of teaching individuals to use humor in a beneficial manner to cope with stress and enhance their social and

  11. To Be or Not To Be Humorous? Cross Cultural Perspectives on Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xiaodong; Jiang, Feng; Lu, Su; Hiranandani, Neelam

    2016-01-01

    Humor seems to manifest differently in Western and Eastern cultures, although little is known about how culture shapes humor perceptions. The authors suggest that Westerners regard humor as a common and positive disposition; the Chinese regard humor as a special disposition particular to humorists, with controversial aspects. In Study 1, Hong Kong participants primed with Western culture evaluate humor more positively than they do when primed with Chinese culture. In Study 2a, Canadians evaluate humor as being more important in comparison with Chinese participants. In Study 2b, Canadians expect ordinary people to possess humor, while Chinese expect specialized comedians to be humorous. The implications and limitations are discussed.

  12. Increased stocking density causes changes in expression of selected stress- and immune-related genes, humoral innate immune parameters and stress responses of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarahmadi, Peyman; Miandare, Hamed Kolangi; Fayaz, Sahel; Caipang, Christopher Marlowe A

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of various stocking densities on the health status (stress and immune responses) of rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss). Juvenile rainbow trout were acclimated, placed in circular tanks under stocking densities of 10, 40 and 80 kg m(-3) and reared for 30 days. The relative expression of genes involved in stress and immunity such as HSP70, LyzII, TNF-1α, IL-1β, IL-8 and IFN-γ1 in the head kidney was determined. Serum cortisol, ACTH, total antioxidant capacity, osmolality and lactate were measured after 30 days of culture at different stocking densities (D1:10 kg m(-3), D2: 40 kg m(-3) and D3: 80 kg m(-3)) as indices of stress responses. In addition, the effects of stocking densities on serum complement, bactericidal activity, agglutinating antibody titers, serum IgM, anti-protease activity, serum total protein and alkaline phosphatase of the fish were measured. HSP70 gene expression was significantly density-dependent upregulated in D2 and D3 densities compared to D1 (P < 0.05). Also, there was significant downregulation in expression of LyzII, TNF-1α, IL-1β, IL-8 and IFN-γ1 in fish reared at density of either D2 or D3 (P < 0.05). In terms of stress responses, serum ACTH, cortisol and lactate level showed significant density-dependent increase (P < 0.05) while serum osmolality and total antioxidant capacity showed significant decline (P < 0.05) in fish reared at higher densities (D2 and D3) compared to fish reared at lower density (D1) (P < 0.05). Concordant with the expression of the immune-related genes, the serum complement and bactericidal activity as well as specific antibody titer against Aeromonas hydrophila, IgM and anti-protease activity decreased along with elevation of stocking density from D1 to D3 (P < 0.05). However, different stocking densities had no significant effect on serum total protein level and alkaline phosphatase activity. These results suggested that elevation of stocking

  13. Electrophoretic studies on rape seed proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudry, M.A.; Starr, A.; Bibi, N.

    1992-07-01

    Electrophoresis is a technique which separates biological molecules on the basis of charge and mass properties. The technique is used for separation, purification, characterization and identification of molecules/ compounds. Two major objectives for applications of electrophoresis have been studied in this report i.e. characterization of rape seed proteins and enzymes and identification of rape seed cultivars by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Gamma irradiation is being successfully used to create genetic variability and germination which brought about definite changes in the rape seed proteins reflected in different bands. These differences could be used to study variability in crop plants. (A.B.)

  14. Affective Style, Humor Styles and Happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Ford

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the relationships between dispositional approach and avoidance motives, humor styles, and happiness. In keeping with previous research, approach motives and the two positive humor styles (self-enhancing and affiliative positively correlated with happiness, whereas avoidance motives and the two negative humor styles (self-defeating and aggressive negatively correlated with happiness. Also, we found support for three new hypotheses. First, approach motives correlated positively with self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles. Second, avoidance motives correlated positively with self-defeating humor style, and third, the positive relationship between approach motives and happiness was mediated by self-enhancing humor style.

  15. Pornography and rape: theory and practice? Evidence from crime data in four countries where pornography is easily available.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutchinsky, B

    1991-01-01

    We have looked at the empirical evidence of the well-known feminist dictum: "pornography is the theory--rape is the practice" (Morgan, 1980). While earlier research, notably that generated by the U.S. Commission on Obscenity and Pornography (1970) had found no evidence of a causal link between pornography and rape, a new generation of behavioral scientists have, for more than a decade, made considerable effort to prove such a connection, especially as far as "aggressive pornography" is concerned. The first part of the article examines and discusses the findings of this new research. A number of laboratory experiments have been conducted, much akin to the types of experiments developed by researchers of the effects of nonsexual media violence. As in the latter, a certain degree of increased "aggressiveness" has been found under certain circumstances, but to extrapolate from such laboratory effects to the commission of rape in real life is dubious. Studies of rapists' and nonrapists' immediate sexual reactions to presentations of pornography showed generally greater arousal to non-violent scenes, and no difference can be found in this regard between convicted rapists, nonsexual criminals and noncriminal males. In the second part of the paper an attempt was made to study the necessary precondition for a substantial causal relationship between the availability of pornography, including aggressive pornography, and rape--namely, that obviously increased availability of such material was followed by an increase in cases of reported rape. The development of rape and attempted rape during the period 1964-1984 was studied in four countries: the U.S.A., Denmark, Sweden and West Germany. In all four countries there is clear and undisputed evidence that during this period the availability of various forms of pictorial pornography including violent/dominant varieties (in the form of picture magazines, and films/videos used at home or shown in arcades or cinemas) has developed

  16. Radiocaesium activity in rape oil and in rape cake after a wet deposition event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaiko, Y.; Rappe-George, M.; Bengtsson, S. [Department of Soil and Environment (Sweden)

    2014-07-01

    After a release of radionuclides in agricultural areas there can be concerns on the levels of radionuclides in food products produced. The uptake of radionuclides via the above ground plant parts is a very important transport route into the food chain for humans as caesium is relatively mobile inside plants. In the production of rape oil the use of a processing factor (Pf) is used to estimate the activity concentration of radioactivity in the final oil product based on the activity concentration in rape seeds. The processing factor has been estimated to be 0.004 for caesium in rape oil by IAEA, and is based on a limited numbers of studies (1). In this project we analysed the activity concentration of radiocaesium ({sup 134}Cs) in rape oil and in rape cake from rape seeds contaminated after a wet deposition event with {sup 134}Cs. With the information of activity concentration of {sup 134}Cs in rape oil and in rape cake, we calculated the Pf-value and confirm or suggest new enhanced Pf-value. We analysed the activity concentration of {sup 134}Cs in rape oil and in rape cake from spring oilseed rape seeds (Brassica napus L.) that had been contaminated experimentally by wet deposited {sup 134}Cs in an earlier experiment by Bengtsson et al. (2013). The estimation of activity concentration of {sup 134}Cs in rape oil and in rape cake was achieved by performing extraction of the oil (and other extractable compounds) from the seeds based on the Randall extraction method (Randall, 1974) using petroleum ether as extraction chemical. The extracted oil and the rape cake samples were weighed and the activity concentration was measured with High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors. Pf-values were calculated by dividing the measured activity concentration in rape oil after extraction by the activity concentration in oilseed rape seeds before extraction. Results from the present study will be presented at the international conference on radioecology and environmental radioactivity

  17. Date and acquaintance rape. Development and validation of a set of scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, J F; Devellis, B M; Devellis, R F

    1997-02-01

    Increasing recognition of the prevalence of date/acquaintance rape (DAR) in the US, especially among college women, has led to an understanding that the techniques needed to fend off attacks from friends and acquaintances differ from those used to prevent rape by strangers. This study developed and tested the reliability and validity of the following DAR constructs: perceived vulnerability (underestimation of vulnerability discourages adequate self-protection), self-efficacy, relational priority (neglecting self-interest to save a relationship), rape myth acceptance (subscribing to myths about rape allows women to avoid facing their own vulnerability), and commitment to self-defense. These constructs were also correlated with scales measuring masculinity, self-esteem, and degree of belief in a "just world." Data were gathered to test these constructs via a questionnaire administered to 800 female undergraduate dormitory residents (47% response rate). Analysis of the data allowed refinement of 50 items into 25 items that constitute reliable scales of perceived vulnerability, self-efficacy, and self-determination and a marginally reliable scale of victim-blaming (rape myth). Support was found for 5/6 predicted correlates between DAR scales and 3/5 hypothesized correlations between DAR scales and convergent/discrimination validity scales. Research into this rape prevention tool will continue.

  18. Predictors of delayed disclosure of rape in female adolescents and young adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicanic, Iva A. E.; Hehenkamp, Lieve M.; van de Putte, Elise M.; van Wijk, Arjen J.; de Jongh, Ad

    2015-01-01

    Background Delayed disclosure of rape has been associated with impaired mental health; it is, therefore, important to understand which factors are associated with disclosure latency. The purpose of this study was to compare various demographics, post-rape characteristics, and psychological functioning of early and delayed disclosers (i.e., more than 1-week post-rape) among rape victims, and to determine predictors for delayed disclosure. Methods Data were collected using a structured interview and validated questionnaires in a sample of 323 help-seeking female adolescents and young adults (12–25 years), who were victimized by rape, but had no reported prior chronic child sexual abuse. Results In 59% of the cases, disclosure occurred within 1 week. Delayed disclosers were less likely to use medical services and to report to the police than early disclosers. No significant differences were found between delayed and early disclosers in psychological functioning and time to seek professional help. The combination of age category 12–17 years [odds ratio (OR) 2.05, confidence intervals (CI) 1.13–3.73], penetration (OR 2.36, CI 1.25–4.46), and closeness to assailant (OR 2.64, CI 1.52–4.60) contributed significantly to the prediction of delayed disclosure. Conclusion The results point to the need of targeted interventions that specifically encourage rape victims to disclose early, thereby increasing options for access to health and police services. PMID:25967381

  19. Predictors of delayed disclosure of rape in female adolescents and young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iva A. E. Bicanic

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Delayed disclosure of rape has been associated with impaired mental health; it is, therefore, important to understand which factors are associated with disclosure latency. The purpose of this study was to compare various demographics, post-rape characteristics, and psychological functioning of early and delayed disclosers (i.e., more than 1-week post-rape among rape victims, and to determine predictors for delayed disclosure. Methods: Data were collected using a structured interview and validated questionnaires in a sample of 323 help-seeking female adolescents and young adults (12–25 years, who were victimized by rape, but had no reported prior chronic child sexual abuse. Results: In 59% of the cases, disclosure occurred within 1 week. Delayed disclosers were less likely to use medical services and to report to the police than early disclosers. No significant differences were found between delayed and early disclosers in psychological functioning and time to seek professional help. The combination of age category 12–17 years [odds ratio (OR 2.05, confidence intervals (CI 1.13–3.73], penetration (OR 2.36, CI 1.25–4.46, and closeness to assailant (OR 2.64, CI 1.52–4.60 contributed significantly to the prediction of delayed disclosure. Conclusion: The results point to the need of targeted interventions that specifically encourage rape victims to disclose early, thereby increasing options for access to health and police services.

  20. Cerita Humor Pak Andir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohim Rohim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to describe the meaning of comic tale "Pak Andir" with the perspective of hermeneutics. This study is focused on exploring the main character with the theory of functional models and aktan, developed by Greimas. The source of data is the story of "Pak Andir" from the community of South Bengkulu. From the analysis, it is concluded that the behavior of the husband as the central character has made the wife a victim. The husband’s arrogance in strictly practicing the patriarchal tradition makes the wife have no courage to be herself. The wife’s claim at the end of the story is a positive thing, but it's too late. As a form of appreciation of literary work, the meaning of these stories need to be disseminated to the public, especially the residents in Bengkulu, that the husband and wife’s attitudes ares incorrect and need to be avoided. This study attempts to describe the meaning of comic tale "Pak Andir" with the perspective of hermeneutics. This study is focused on exploring the main character with the theory of functional models and aktan, developed by Greimas. The source of data is the story of "Pak Andir" from the community of South Bengkulu. From the analysis, it is concluded that the behavior of the husband as the central character has made the wife a victim. The husband’s arrogance in strictly practicing the patriarchal tradition makes the wife have no courage to be herself. The wife’s claim at the end of the story is a positive thing, but it's too late. As a form of appreciation of literary work, the meaning of these stories need to be disseminated to the public, especially the residents in Bengkulu, that the husband and wife’s attitudes ares incorrect and need to be avoided Key Words: comic tale; aktan model; functional model; hermeneutic Abstrak: Penelitian ini berusaha mendeskripsikan makna cerita humor “Pak Andir” dengan perspektif hermeneutika. Kajian ini difokuskan untuk mengeksplorasi tokoh utama

  1. Wet oxidation pretreatment of rape straw for ethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvaniti, Efthalia; Bjerre, Anne Belinda; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2012-01-01

    Rape straw can be used for production of second generation bioethanol. In this paper we optimized the pretreatment of rape straw for this purpose using Wet oxidation (WO). The effect of reaction temperature, reaction time, and oxygen gas pressure was investigated for maximum ethanol yield via Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF). To reduce the water use and increase the energy efficiency in WO pretreatment features like recycling liquid (filtrate), presoaking of rape straw in water or recycled filtrate before WO, skip washing pretreated solids (filter cake) after WO, or use of whole slurry (Filter cake + filtrate) in SSF were also tested. Except ethanol yields, pretreatment methods were evaluated based on achieved glucose yields, amount of water used, recovery of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The highest ethanol yield obtained was 67% after fermenting the whole slurry produced by WO at 205 °C for 3 min with 12 bar of oxygen gas pressure and featured with presoaking in water. At these conditions after pre-treatment, cellulose and hemicellulose was recovered quantitatively (100%) together with 86% of the lignin. WO treatments of 2–3 min at 205–210 °C with 12 bar of oxygen gas produced higher ethanol yields and cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin recoveries, than 15 min WO treatment at 195 °C. Also, recycling filtrate and use of higher oxygen gas pressure reduced recovery of materials. The use of filtrate could be inhibitory for the yeast, but also reduced lactic acid formation in SSF. -- Highlights: ► Wet Oxidation pretreatment on rape straw for sugar and ethanol production. ► Variables were reaction time, temperature, and oxygen gas pressure. ► Also, other configurations for increase of water and energy efficiency. ► Short Wet oxidation pretreatment (2–3 min) produced highest ethanol yield. ► After these pretreatment conditions recovery of lignin in solids was 86%.

  2. Demography and findings of reported rape cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quader, M M; Rahman, M H; Kamal, M; Ahmed, A U; Saha, S K

    2010-01-01

    Six hundred and ninety nine cases of alleged rape were studied by the authors during the period from 2007-2008 at the Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh. Of these cases, 122 had positive findings of recent sexual intercourse; 250 cases had the positive findings of habituated sexual intercourse, and 327 cases had no findings of sexual intercourse but they complained of forcible sexual intercourse and found no sign of sexual intercourse. Most of the alleged victims of rape were nulliparous 87.12% and parous was only 12.87%. 430 (61.51%) cases of reported victims who were students of schools and colleges were not considered as rape cases considering their victim's history of love affairs, leaving home secretly with their lovers, living with them for many days. Gang rape was not so common (4.29% of raped cases) in our study. Age groups, their occupations, living areas, time of arrival for medico-legal examination have been studied. Most of the cases were students (61.51%). A few numbers of victims were subjected to gang rape. Examination and reporting the cases have been discussed.

  3. Humor as a Mental Fitness Indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P. Howrigan

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available To explain the pervasive role of humor in human social interaction and among mating partner preferences, Miller (2000a proposed that intentional humor evolved as an indicator of intelligence. To test this, we looked at the relationships among rater-judged humor, general intelligence, and the Big Five personality traits in a sample of 185 college-age students (115 women, 70 men. General intelligence positively predicted rater-judged humor, independent of the Big Five personality traits. Extraversion also predicted rater-judged humor, although to a lesser extent than general intelligence. General intelligence did not interact with the sex of the participant in predicting rating scores on the humor production tasks. The current study lends support to the prediction that effective humor production acts as an honest indicator of intelligence in humans. In addition, extraversion, and to a lesser extent, openness, may reflect motivational traits that encourage humor production.

  4. Aggregate-level lead exposure, gun violence, homicide, and rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutwell, Brian B; Nelson, Erik J; Qian, Zhengmin; Vaughn, Michael G; Wright, John P; Beaver, Kevin M; Barnes, J C; Petkovsek, Melissa; Lewis, Roger; Schootman, Mario; Rosenfeld, Richard

    2017-01-01

    An increasing body of research has linked the geographic distribution of lead with various indicators of criminal and antisocial behavior. The current study, using data from an ongoing project related to lead exposure in St. Louis City, MO, analyzed the association between aggregate blood lead levels and specific indicators violent crime within the city. Ecological study. St. Louis, Missouri. Blood lead levels. Official reports of violent crimes were categorized as 1) crimes involving a firearm (yes/no), 2) assault crimes (with or without a firearm), 3) robbery crimes (with or without a firearm), 4) homicides and 5) rape. With the exception of rape, aggregate blood-lead levels were statistically significant predictors of violent crime at the census tract level. The risk ratios for each of the outcome measures were as follows: firearm crimes 1.03 (1.03-1.04), assault crimes 1.03 (1.02-1.03), robbery crimes 1.03 (1.02-1.04), homicide 1.03 (1.01, 1.04), and rape 1.01 (0.99-1.03). Extending prior research in St. Louis, results suggest that aggregated lead exposure at the census tract level predicted crime outcomes, even after accounting for important sociological variables. Moving forward, a more developed understanding of aggregate level crime may necessitate a shift toward studying the synergy between sociological and biological risk factors such as lead exposure.

  5. Investigation of telomere length and psychological stress in rape victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malan, Stefanie; Hemmings, Sian; Kidd, Martin; Martin, Lindi; Seedat, Soraya

    2011-12-21

    Women are at an increased risk of depression and other mental health problems following rape. Various etiological factors for depression, including predisposing genetic factors, have been identified. Telomeres are repetitive nucleoprotein structures located at chromosomal ends that protect them from premature degradation. Telomeres reduce in length with each cell division, resulting in cellular senescence and apoptosis. Relative quantification of telomeric repeats using qPCR was performed to investigate whether shorter relative leukocyte telomere length (LTL) in a cohort of 64 rape victims was associated with resilience, the development of rape trauma-related major depressive disorder (MDD) or the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after 3 months. Out of the 64 participants, 23 participants were diagnosed with MDD at baseline and 31 after 3 months. Nine participants were diagnosed with PTSD (MDD and PTSD specifically related to the trauma). No significant associations were observed between relative LTL and resilience or the development of MDD at either baseline or after 3 months in this cohort. However, a marginally significant association was evident between relative LTL and PTSD status. The significant association between relative LTL and PTSD suggests that shorter relative LTL might have acted as a predisposing factor in the development of PTSD after a severely traumatic event. The results of this study indicate that telomere shortening may be an important marker of PTSD risk, with implications for early intervention and timely treatment, and as such warrant replication in a larger cohort. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. A longitudinal study of the aftermath of rape among rural South African women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Gail E; Davhana-Maselesele, Mashudu; Zhang, Muyu; Wong, Lauren H; Nicholson, Fiona; Sarkissian, Alissa Der; Makhado, Lufuno; Myers, Hector F

    2017-05-01

    Sexual assaults against women are a global health crisis, with alarmingly high rates in South Africa. However, we know very little about the circumstances and the aftermath of these experiences. Further, there is limited information about how factors specific to the rape (e.g., fighting back) versus those that are specific to the individual-and potentially modifiable-influence mental health outcomes. This study examined how situational characteristics of rape as well as individual and situational factors confer risk for symptoms of depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and dysfunctional sexual behavior at 12-month follow-up. Two hundred nine (N = 209) South African women were recruited from rural rape clinics in the Limpopo Province (LP) and North West Province (NWP) of South Africa. Interviews were conducted at baseline (within 6 months of the rape incident) and at 6 and 12 months by trained staff at the clinics in English or the women's native languages. Women were interviewed after services were provided in a private room. One hundred thirty-two (n = 132) women were lost to follow-up at 12 months, resulting in 77 women with interview data for all time points. Undermining by the survivor's social support system and an increased belief in myths about rape were associated with increased dysfunctional sexual practices and symptoms of depression. These findings demonstrate the need for interventions that address the most pervasive effects of rape over time. These behaviors can increase risks for revictimization and reduce psychological well-being in the aftermath of rape. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Humor in Autism and Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Viktoria; Fitzgerald, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Research has shown that individuals with autism and Asperger syndrome are impaired in humor appreciation, although anecdotal and parental reports provide some evidence to the contrary. This paper reviews the cognitive and affective processes involved in humor and recent neurological findings. It examines humor expression and understanding in…

  8. Humorous Relations: Attentiveness, Pleasure and Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Cris

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the structures of humor and joke telling that require particular kinds of attentiveness and particular relationships between speaker and audience, or more specifically, between classmates. First, I will analyze the pedagogical and relational preconditions that are necessary for humor to work. If humor is to work well, the…

  9. Linguistic Features of Humor in Academic Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalicky, Stephen; Berger, Cynthia M.; Crossley, Scott A.; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2016-01-01

    A corpus of 313 freshman college essays was analyzed in order to better understand the forms and functions of humor in academic writing. Human ratings of humor and wordplay were statistically aggregated using Factor Analysis to provide an overall "Humor" component score for each essay in the corpus. In addition, the essays were also…

  10. Ethanol production from rape straw: Part of an oilseed rape biorefinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvaniti, Efthalia

    The aim of this study was 1) present an oilseed rape whole crop biorefinery; 2) to investigate the best available experimental conditions for production of cellulosic ethanol from rape straw, and included the processes of thermo-chemical pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and C6 fermentation......, and 3) to couple cellulosic ethanol production to production of cellulolytic enzymes that are needed for cellulosic ethanol production, inside a rape straw biorefinery. For the first is based less on available experiments, and more on literature review. The second and third study conclusions were drawn...... rapeseed biodiesel plant of Europe to an oilseed rape whole-crop biorefinery by 2020 is envisioned and discussed. The description and discussion of this biorefinery is based partly on literature review, and partly on own experimental data, especially on pretreatment of rape straw, and production...

  11. Exploring rape myths, gendered norms, group processing, and the social context of rape among college women: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Michelle E; Covan, Eleanor Krassen; Swan, Suzanne C; Billings, Deborah L

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this research is to explore the negotiation strategies of college women as they interpret ambiguous rape scenarios. In focus groups, 1st- and 4th-year college women were presented with a series of three vignettes depicting incidents that meet the legal criteria for rape yet are ambiguous due to the presence of cultural rape myths, contexts involving alcohol consumption, varying degrees of consent, and a known perpetrator. These contexts are critical in understanding how college women define rape. Key findings indicated many of these college women utilized rape myths and norms within their peer groups to interpret rape scenarios.

  12. Humor in intimate relationships Ties among sense of humor, similarity in humor and relationship quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barelds, D.P.H.; Barelds-Dijkstra, P.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined relations between different aspects of humor and relationship quality Participants 114 married or cohabiting heterosexual couples from the general community with a mean relationship length of 22 years completed a number of measures assessing these two themes We expected

  13. The Relationship Between Humor Styles and Forgiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampes, William

    2016-08-01

    Research has shown that a factor in a victim's forgiveness of an offender is the victim's ability to make more positive, or at least less negative, attributions of the offender's behavior and that perspective-taking can be a factor in facilitating that process. Self-enhancing humor has been found to be positively correlated with perspective-taking empathy and aggressive humor found to be negatively correlated with perspective-taking empathy. Therefore it was predicted that self-enhancing humor would be positively correlated with forgiveness and aggressive humor negatively correlated with forgiveness. The Humor Styles Questionnaire, the Absence of Negative and Presence of Positive subscales of the Forgiveness Scale, and the Forgiveness Likelihood Scale were administered to 112 college undergraduates. Self-enhancing humor was significantly and positively correlated with all of the forgiveness measures, aggressive humor and self-defeating humor were significantly and negatively correlated with some of the forgiveness measures and affiliative humor was not significantly correlated with any of the forgiveness measures. The results were interpreted in terms of previous findings for humor styles, perspective-taking empathy, depression, self-esteem and anxiety. Future research involving the extent to which other personality variables, such as perspective-taking empathy, mediate the relationship between self-enhancing humor and forgiveness was suggested.

  14. The Relationship Between Humor Styles and Forgiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Hampes

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown that a factor in a victim’s forgiveness of an offender is the victim’s ability to make more positive, or at least less negative, attributions of the offender’s behavior and that perspective-taking can be a factor in facilitating that process. Self-enhancing humor has been found to be positively correlated with perspective-taking empathy and aggressive humor found to be negatively correlated with perspective-taking empathy. Therefore it was predicted that self-enhancing humor would be positively correlated with forgiveness and aggressive humor negatively correlated with forgiveness. The Humor Styles Questionnaire, the Absence of Negative and Presence of Positive subscales of the Forgiveness Scale, and the Forgiveness Likelihood Scale were administered to 112 college undergraduates. Self-enhancing humor was significantly and positively correlated with all of the forgiveness measures, aggressive humor and self-defeating humor were significantly and negatively correlated with some of the forgiveness measures and affiliative humor was not significantly correlated with any of the forgiveness measures. The results were interpreted in terms of previous findings for humor styles, perspective-taking empathy, depression, self-esteem and anxiety. Future research involving the extent to which other personality variables, such as perspective-taking empathy, mediate the relationship between self-enhancing humor and forgiveness was suggested.

  15. Linguistic Features of Humor in Academic Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Skalicky

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A corpus of 313 freshman college essays was analyzed in order to better understand the forms and functions of humor in academic writing. Human ratings of humor and wordplay were statistically aggregated using Factor Analysis to provide an overall Humor component score for each essay in the corpus. In addition, the essays were also scored for overall writing quality by human raters, which correlated (r = .195 with the humor component score. Correlations between the humor component scores and linguistic features were examined. To investigate the potential for linguistic features to predict the Humor component scores, regression analysis identified four linguistic indices that accounted for approximately 17.5% of the variance in humor scores. These indices were related to text descriptiveness (i.e., more adjective and adverb use, lower cohesion (i.e., less paragraph-to-paragraph similarity, and lexical sophistication (lower word frequency. The findings suggest that humor can be partially predicted by linguistic features in the text. Furthermore, there was a small but significant correlation between the humor and essay quality scores, suggesting a positive relation between humor and writing quality. Keywords: humor, academic writing, text analysis, essay score, human rating

  16. La Violacion Sexual--The Reality of Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Chris; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The Hispanic rape victim often finds herself in a situation where discussing a rape may jeopardize not only her self esteem but her residency status, job and familial relations. Small wonder she prefers to remain silent. (Author/NQ)

  17. Sildenafil Stimulates Aqueous Humor Turnover in Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Lawrence J.; Zamudio, Aldo C.; Candia, Oscar A.

    2013-01-01

    Sildenafil citrate increases ocular blood flow and accelerates the rate of anterior chamber refilling after paracentesis. The latter effect could have resulted from a reduction in outflow facility or from an increase in aqueous humor (AH) production. In this study, we used scanning ocular fluorophotometry to examine the effects of sildenafil on AH turnover, and thus, AH production in eyes of live normal rabbits. For this, the rate of aqueous humor flow (AHF) was quantified with a commercially available fluorophotometer that measured the rate of fluorescein clearance from the anterior segment, which predominantly occurs via the trabecular meshwork. After ≈ 2 hrs of control scans to determine the baseline rate of AHF, the rabbits were fed 33 mg of sildenafil and allowed ≈ 45 min for the drug to enter the systemic circulation. Thereafter, fluorescence scans were retaken for an additional 90–120 min. Sildenafil ingestion increased AHF by about 36%, from 2.31 μL/min to 3.14 μL/min (PViagra, Revatio), stimulates AHF in rabbits. Our results seem consistent with reports indicating that the drug dilates intraocular arteries and augments intraocular vascular flow. These physiological responses to the agent apparently led to increased fluid entry into the anterior chamber. As such, the drug might have utility in patients with ocular hypotony resulting from insufficient AH formation. PMID:23562660

  18. The Dark Side of Humor: DSM-5 Pathological Personality Traits and Humor Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgil Zeigler-Hill

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Basic personality traits (e.g., extraversion have been found to be associated with the humor styles that individuals employ. In the present study, we were interested in determining whether pathological personality traits were also associated with humor styles. We examined the associations between the pathological personality traits captured by the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 (PID-5 and humor styles in a sample of college students (N = 594. Negative affectivity and detachment were negatively associated with the affiliative and self-enhancing humor styles. Antagonism was positively associated with the aggressive humor style but negatively associated with the affiliative humor style. Disinhibition was positively associated with the aggressive humor style, whereas disinhibition and psychoticism were both positively associated with the self-defeating humor style. Discussion focuses on the implications of these findings and how they can expand our understanding of the connections between the darker aspects of personality and humor.

  19. The Dark Side of Humor: DSM-5 Pathological Personality Traits and Humor Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; McCabe, Gillian A; Vrabel, Jennifer K

    2016-08-01

    Basic personality traits (e.g., extraversion) have been found to be associated with the humor styles that individuals employ. In the present study, we were interested in determining whether pathological personality traits were also associated with humor styles. We examined the associations between the pathological personality traits captured by the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 (PID-5) and humor styles in a sample of college students (N = 594). Negative affectivity and detachment were negatively associated with the affiliative and self-enhancing humor styles. Antagonism was positively associated with the aggressive humor style but negatively associated with the affiliative humor style. Disinhibition was positively associated with the aggressive humor style, whereas disinhibition and psychoticism were both positively associated with the self-defeating humor style. Discussion focuses on the implications of these findings and how they can expand our understanding of the connections between the darker aspects of personality and humor.

  20. Management and Profile of Rape Victims attending the Karl Bremer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Setting: The study was conducted at the rape centre at the Karl Bremer Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa. To describe the frequency of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in rape victims, all consecutive patients who presented to the rape centre over the one-year period from 1 April 2006 to 31 March 2007 were included ...

  1. Rape Myth Acceptance, Sexual Trauma History, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baugher, Shannon N.; Elhai, Jon D.; Monroe, James R.; Gray, Matt J.

    2010-01-01

    The prediction of false rape-related beliefs (rape myth acceptance [RMA]) was examined using the Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance Scale (Payne, Lonsway, & Fitzgerald, 1999) among a nonclinical sample of 258 male and female college students. Predictor variables included measures of attitudes toward women, gender role identity (GRI), sexual trauma…

  2. 77 FR 30871 - Implementing the Prison Rape Elimination Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ...--Implementing the Prison Rape Elimination Act Proclamation 8823--Armed Forces Day, 2012 #0; #0; #0; Presidential... Prison Rape Elimination Act Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies Sexual... Rape Elimination Act of 2003 (PREA) was enacted with bipartisan support and established a ``zero...

  3. Reporting Rape in a National Sample of College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate B.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Amstadter, Ananda B.; McCauley, Jenna L.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Studies indicate that a small percentage of rapes are reported to law enforcement officials. Research also suggests that rapes perpetrated by a stranger are more likely to be reported and that rapes involving drugs and/or alcohol are less likely to be reported. College women represent a unique and understudied population with regard to…

  4. An Updated Measure for Assessing Subtle Rape Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Sarah; Farmer, G. Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    Social workers responsible for developing rape prevention programs on college campuses must have valid evaluation instruments. This article presents the challenges encountered by the authors when they attempted to keep rape myth measures relevant to student populations by updating the language to reflect the subtleties involved with rape myths.…

  5. 42 CFR 50.306 - Rape and incest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rape and incest. 50.306 Section 50.306 Public... § 50.306 Rape and incest. Federal financial participation is available in expenditures for medical procedures performed upon a victim of rape or incest if the program or project has received signed...

  6. Debriefing effectiveness following exposure to pornographic rape depictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamuth, Neil; Check, James

    1984-02-01

    Data are presented concerning the ethics of exposing undergraduate students to pornographic rape portrayals followed by a debriefing designed to dispel a number of rape myths. One hundred fifty males and females were randomly assigned to read pornographic stories. Some of these depicted a rape, whereas others depicted mutually consenting intercourse. Afterwards, those exposed to the rape version were given a debriefing which included statements concerning the true horror of rape and the existence of rape myths. About 10 days later, a "Public Survey" ostensibly conducted by a local committee of citizens was given to subjects in their classes. A postexperimental questionnaire confirmed that participants were not aware that this survey was related to the earlier phase of the research. As part of the survey, subjects were presented with actual newspaper articles about which their opinions were solicited. One of these articles, the dependent measure of the study, concerned rape. Subjects indicated their reactions to this article and their opinions about the general causes of rape. The results indicated that those exposed to the rape depictions followed by a "rape debriefing" were less accepting of certain rape myths than subjects exposed to mutually consenting intercourse depictions. Implications of the data for future research in this area are discussed both in terms of work focusing on the potential antisocial impact of violent pornography and of research specifically designed to identify the conditions most likely to change acceptance of rape myths.

  7. Reconsidering language teaching through a focus on humor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Bell

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Formal language education is often predicated on a series of modernist fictions that greatly simplify the nature of language and the process of communication. Acts of linguistic creativity involving humor and language play are frequently either ignored or considered deviant. In this paper, we contribute to ongoing efforts to re-conceptualize language education in ways that make use of more robust (and less modernist theories of language and communication. We revisit calls for more pedagogical focus on humor and language play and illustrate how more attention to these types of language might help us to move away from some of the classroom fictions that currently constrain teachers and learners alike. Specifically, we present recent conceptions of language and of communication, and discuss how, in light of these, humor and language play can be used to increase learners’ metalinguistic awareness and expand their communicative/interpretive repertoires.

  8. Does Sense of the Humor Make Sense in the Classroom?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy Antonio González-Ynfante

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the importance of humor as a teaching strategy in the classroom, considering the usual lack of motivation and boredom. To analyze whether the “happy teaching and happy learning” may increase effectiveness in the teaching-learning process, the author will discuss how, despite the many benefits it may bring, humor is not used in the classroom due to prejudices and fears. The idea is not for teachers to play the role of a comedian or a clown, but to intervene and get closer to the group with a teaching, didactic purpose through humor. Plato (1992 thought about this; he used to say that sometimes a joke may help, where seriousness put up resistance.

  9. Resisting rape: the effects of victim self-protection on rape completion and injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tark, Jongyeon; Kleck, Gary

    2014-03-01

    The impact of victim resistance on rape completion and injury was examined utilizing a large probability sample of sexual assault incidents, derived from the National Crime Victimization Survey (1992-2002), and taking into account whether harm to the victim followed or preceded self-protection (SP) actions. Additional injuries besides rape, particularly serious injuries, following victim resistance are rare. Results indicate that most SP actions, both forceful and nonforceful, reduce the risk of rape completion, and do not significantly affect the risk of additional injury.

  10. The Psychology of the Politics of Rape: Political Ideology, Moral Foundations, and Attitudes Toward Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Michael D; Hilz, Emily N

    2018-04-01

    Previous research has found that conservatives and liberals emphasize different moral foundations. The purpose of these two studies was to investigate whether moral foundations mediate the relationship between political ideology and attitudes toward rape among U.S. college students. In Study 1, moral foundations fully mediated the relationship between political ideology and rape myth acceptance. Study 2 generally replicated the results of Study 1, with binding foundations demonstrating the most consistent mediating effects. These results suggest that individual differences in moral decision-making may explain the relationship between political ideology and attitudes toward rape.

  11. Personality, Humor Styles and Happiness: Happy People Have Positive Humor Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Ford

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the relationships between four personality traits, humor styles, and happiness. Replicating previous research, happiness was positively correlated with four personality traits: extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism. Further, happiness positively related to self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles; it related negatively to self-defeating and aggressive humor styles. Thus, happy people habitually engage in positive uses of humor and avoid engaging in negative uses of humor in daily life. We also found support for our hypothesis. People high in extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism are happier because they engage in positive humor in daily life.

  12. Personality, Humor Styles and Happiness: Happy People Have Positive Humor Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Thomas E.; Lappi, Shaun K.; Holden, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the relationships between four personality traits, humor styles, and happiness. Replicating previous research, happiness was positively correlated with four personality traits: extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism. Further, happiness positively related to self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles; it related negatively to self-defeating and aggressive humor styles. Thus, happy people habitually engage in positive uses of humor and avoid engaging in negative uses of humor in daily life. We also found support for our hypothesis. People high in extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism are happier because they engage in positive humor in daily life. PMID:27547251

  13. Personality, Humor Styles and Happiness: Happy People Have Positive Humor Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Thomas E; Lappi, Shaun K; Holden, Christopher J

    2016-08-01

    The present study examined the relationships between four personality traits, humor styles, and happiness. Replicating previous research, happiness was positively correlated with four personality traits: extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism. Further, happiness positively related to self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles; it related negatively to self-defeating and aggressive humor styles. Thus, happy people habitually engage in positive uses of humor and avoid engaging in negative uses of humor in daily life. We also found support for our hypothesis. People high in extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism are happier because they engage in positive humor in daily life.

  14. Lésbicas sem humor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Don Kullick

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo examina a construção social e cultural de um estereótipo sobre lésbicas, baseado na percepção de que elas não possuem senso de humor. Analisa-se como lésbicas são retratadas por comediantes, programas de TV,  quadrinhos e na literatura, e compara essas representações a outros  estereótipos, como aqueles relacionados a alemães e gays extravagantes. Ao investigar as relações entre masculinidade, feminilidade e falta de humor, demonstra-se que considerar lésbicas como incompatíveis com o riso e a graça significa caracterizá-las como destituídas de humanidade. The article Humorless lesbians examines the social and cultural construction of a lesbian stereotype, based on the perception that they lack sense of humor. It is analyzed how lesbians are portrayed by comedians, TV shows, comic strips, and in literature. These representations are compared to other stereotypes such as those related to Germans and campy gays. By investigating the relations between masculinity, femininity and humorlessness, it is demonstrated that considering lesbians as incompatible with laughter and fun means to depicting them as deprived of humanity.

  15. Awareness of a rape crisis center and knowledge about sexual violence among high school adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sara H; Stark, Amrita K; O'Riordan, Mary Ann; Lazebnik, Rina

    2015-02-01

    This study examined awareness among adolescents of a local rape crisis center as well as their knowledge about sexual violence. The Cleveland Rape Crisis Center (CRCC) conducts sexual violence prevention programs for high school students. A written, anonymous survey was distributed to students prior to the start of the program. Students were asked if they had heard of the CRCC; knowledge about sexual violence was assessed with a series of 7 statements (rape myths) that participants identified as true or false. Surveys were reviewed retrospectively. Analyses were carried out for individual questions and frequencies compared using chi-square analysis. A total of 1633 surveys were collected; 1118 (68.5%) participants were female and 514 (31.5%) were male; ages ranged from 12 to 19 years. Respondents described themselves as being of European descent (45.9%), African descent (26.2%), or mixed race (17.7%). Just over half (863, 52.9%) of survey respondents had heard of the CRCC. Over half (950, 58.2%) of participants answered 5 or more questions correctly (range of correct answers 0 to 7). In general, more participants who were aware of the CRCC were able to identify statements about rape correctly (P rape. Females were consistently more likely to get an answer correct, as were participants of European descent. Awareness of the CRCC was associated with increased knowledge about sexual violence. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. "Nobody Told Me It Was Rape": A Parent's Guide for Talking with Teenagers about Acquaintance Rape and Sexual Exploitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Caren; Fay, Jennifer

    This book was written to help parents talk to their adolescent children about acquaintance rape and sexual exploitation. It may also be useful to family life educators presenting units on rape and sexual exploitation. Acquaintance rape and sexual exploitation are explained in the first section. The second section discusses talking with teenagers…

  17. Rape, War, and the Socialization of Masculinity: Why Our Refusal to Give up War Ensures that Rape Cannot Be Eradicated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurbriggen, Eileen L.

    2010-01-01

    Rape is endemic during war, suggesting that there may be important conceptual links between the two. A theoretical model is presented positing that rape and war are correlated because traditional (hegemonic) masculinity underlies, and is a cause of, both. An analysis of the literatures on masculinity, rape perpetration, and military socialization…

  18. Examining the Relationship between Male Rape Myth Acceptance, Female Rape Myth Acceptance, Victim Blame, Homophobia, Gender Roles, and Ambivalent Sexism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Michelle; Gilston, Jennifer; Rogers, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between male rape myth acceptance, female rape myth acceptance, attitudes toward gay men, a series of gender role and sexism measures, victim blame and assault severity were investigated. It was predicted that men would display more negative, stereotypical attitudes than women and that male rape myth endorsement would be related…

  19. Perceptions of, and Assistance Provided to, a Hypothetical Rape Victim: Differences between Rape Disclosure Recipients and Nonrecipients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Lisa A.; Kehn, Andre; Gray, Matt J.; Salapska-Gelleri, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Undergraduate rape disclosure recipients' and nonrecipients' sociodemographic and life experience variables, attitudes towards rape, and responses to a hypothetical rape disclosure were compared to determine differences between them. Participants: One hundred ninety-two undergraduates at 3 universities participated in this online survey…

  20. The Effectiveness of Two Types of Rape Prevention Programs in Changing the Rape-Supportive Attitudes of College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Linda A.; Stoelb, Matthew P.; Duggan, Peter; Hieger, Brad; Kling, Kathleen H.; Payne, June P.

    1998-01-01

    The effectiveness of two rape-prevention programs in changing college students' rape-supportive attitudes was investigated. (N=215) Conditions included an interactive mock talk show and a structured video intervention. Both interventions were effective, but attitudes were found to rebound over time. Implications for future rape-prevention…

  1. Uptake of soil-, foliar-and pod-applied nitrogen and phosphorus by rape (Brassica napus L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qinzheng; Xi Haifu; Lang Xianhua

    1992-01-01

    Uptake of soil-applied and foliar-and pod applied N, P by rape was studied by using 32 P and 15 N labelled fertilizer under pot culture condition. Application of phosphorus fertilizer to purplish clayey paddy soil which was poor in available P had influence on utilization of basal-dressed NH 4 HCO 3 by rape and subsequently on its growth and seed yield. Utilization rate of applied N in whole plant and seeds were 3.66 and 5.13 fold respectively as compared with control when 187.5 kg/ha of superphosphate were applied and increased with increasing application of superphosphate (187.5-562.5 kg/ha). Application of P fertilizer not only increased uptake of N but also promoted transportation of N from vegetative organs to seeds. Rape plant uptook 69.09% of foliar-and pod-applied N in form of 2% solution of urea after flowering and transported the N to seeds in greater proportion than that of soil-applied N. In the same period, 60% of foliar- and pod-applied P in form of 0.2% KH 2 PO 4 was absorbed by rape plant, most of which was in leaves. Uptake of N and P by rape increased 17.89% and 27.78% respectively when urea and phosphate was applied together compared with using urea and phosphate alone. Uptake of basal-dressed P by rape plant was 6% at early growing stage

  2. NMR metabolomics of ripened and developing oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and turnip rape (Brassica rapa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortesniemi, Maaria; Vuorinen, Anssi L; Sinkkonen, Jari; Yang, Baoru; Rajala, Ari; Kallio, Heikki

    2015-04-01

    The oilseeds of the commercially important oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and turnip rape (Brassica rapa) were investigated with (1)H NMR metabolomics. The compositions of ripened (cultivated in field trials) and developing seeds (cultivated in controlled conditions) were compared in multivariate models using principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). Differences in the major lipids and the minor metabolites between the two species were found. A higher content of polyunsaturated fatty acids and sucrose were observed in turnip rape, while the overall oil content and sinapine levels were higher in oilseed rape. The genotype traits were negligible compared to the effect of the growing site and concomitant conditions on the oilseed metabolome. This study demonstrates the applicability of NMR-based analysis in determining the species, geographical origin, developmental stage, and quality of oilseed Brassicas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Humor Appreciation Involves Parametric and Synchronized Activity in the Medial Prefrontal Cortex and Hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iidaka, Tetsuya

    2017-12-01

    Humor perception is a ubiquitous phenomenon in human societies. In theories of humor perception, three factors, non-seriousness, social context, and incongruity, have been implicated in humor. In another theory, however, elaboration and reinterpretation of contexts are considered to play a role in eliciting humor. Although the neural correlates of humor appreciation have been investigated using neuroimaging methods, only a few studies have conducted such experiments under natural conditions. In the present study, two functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments, using a comedy movie as a stimulus, were conducted to investigate the neural correlates of humor under natural conditions. The subjects' brain activity was measured while watching and enjoying a movie. In experiment 1, a parametric analysis showed that the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and hippocampus/amygdala had a positive relationship with the subjective rating of funniness. In experiment 2, intersubject correlation was analyzed to investigate synchronized activity across all participants. Signal synchronization that paralleled increased funniness ratings was observed in the MPFC and hippocampus. Thus, it appears that both parametric and synchronized activity in the MPFC and hippocampus are important during humor appreciation. The present study has revealed the brain regions that are predominantly involved in humor sensation under natural condition. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Virtuous laughter: we should teach medical learners the art of humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oczkowski, Simon

    2015-05-11

    There is increasing recognition of the stress and burnout suffered by critical care workers. Physicians have a responsibility to teach learners the skills required not only to treat patients, but to cope with the demands of a stressful profession. Humor has been neglected as a strategy to help learners develop into virtuous and resilient physicians. Humor can be used to reduce stress, address fears, and to create effective health care teams. However, there are forms of humor which can be hurtful or discriminatory. In order to maximize the benefits of humor and to reduce its harms, we need to teach and model the effective and virtuous use of humor in the intensive care unit.

  5. Traumatic dissociation as a predictor of posttraumatic stress disorder in South African female rape survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nöthling, Jani; Lammers, Kees; Martin, Lindi; Seedat, Soraya

    2015-04-01

    Women survivors of rape are at an increased risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Traumatic dissociation has been identified as a precursor of PTSD. This study assessed the predictive potential of traumatic dissociation in PTSD and depression development.The study followed a longitudinal, prospective design. Ninety-seven female rape survivors were recruited from 2 clinics in Cape Town, South Africa. Clinical interviews and symptom status assessments of the participants were completed to measure dissociation, childhood traumas, resilience, depression, and PTSD.Traumatic dissociation was a significant predictor of PTSD and depression. The linear combination of prior dissociation, current dissociation, and resilience significantly explained 20.7% of the variance in PTSD. Dissociation mediated the relationship between resilience and PTSD.As traumatic dissociation significantly predicts PTSD, its early identification and management may reduce the risk of developing PTSD. Interventions focused on promoting resilience may also be successful in reducing the risk of dissociation following rape.

  6. Traumatic Dissociation as a Predictor of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in South African Female Rape Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nöthling, Jani; Lammers, Kees; Martin, Lindi; Seedat, Soraya

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Women survivors of rape are at an increased risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Traumatic dissociation has been identified as a precursor of PTSD. This study assessed the predictive potential of traumatic dissociation in PTSD and depression development. The study followed a longitudinal, prospective design. Ninety-seven female rape survivors were recruited from 2 clinics in Cape Town, South Africa. Clinical interviews and symptom status assessments of the participants were completed to measure dissociation, childhood traumas, resilience, depression, and PTSD. Traumatic dissociation was a significant predictor of PTSD and depression. The linear combination of prior dissociation, current dissociation, and resilience significantly explained 20.7% of the variance in PTSD. Dissociation mediated the relationship between resilience and PTSD. As traumatic dissociation significantly predicts PTSD, its early identification and management may reduce the risk of developing PTSD. Interventions focused on promoting resilience may also be successful in reducing the risk of dissociation following rape. PMID:25906104

  7. Studies on nitrogen uptake and utilization by rape (Brassica napus L.) under different sowing dates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Qixin; Nie Guangming

    1992-01-01

    The nitrogen uptake and utilization by low erucic acid variety, Zhong You Di Gai No.2, of rape (Brassica napus L.) under different sowing dates were studied. Total N uptake, the percentage N derived from the fertilizer, the rate of utilization of nitrogenous fertilizer, the production efficiency of N-fertilizer (seed yield g/gN derived by rape plant from the fertilizer), total P uptake and the production efficiency of phosphorus (seed yield g/gP derived by rape plant from fertilizer and soil) were all significantly higher at early sowing than that at later sowing within the range of normal sowing dates. Therefore, the biomass yield, the seed yield and oil content all increased significantly at early sowing treatment, but erucic acid content showed no significant difference

  8. Quality of durable cookies enriched with rape bee pollen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Solgajová

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to enrich durable cookies with different additions of rape (Brassica napus var. napus bee pollen to increase nutritional properties of cookie samples and to improve technological and sensorial properties as well. Bee pollen is an important raw material due to its nutritional and functional properties. Cookie samples were prepared by substituting wheat flour with rape bee pollen in the amount of 16 % (1 g of bee pollen per cookie and 32 % (2 g of bee pollen per cookie using bee pollen from two localities Lenártovce and Nové Zámky. In baked samples beside sensory properties also chemical parameters and technological parameters of cookies were evaluated. It was found out that with the gradual addition of rape bee pollen the amount of ash content increased and the highest ash content was analysed in variants II and IV (0.71 and 0.77 % using 32 % addition of rape bee pollen. In terms of reducing sugars, addition of bee pollen caused that the content of reducing sugars in the products increased slightly. The highest reducing sugar content was determined in variant II. (24.59 %. On the other hand amount of crude protein the most considerably raised by addition of 2 g of pollen per cookie. The highest content of crude protein was analysed in variants II and IV (8.72 and 9.00 %. From the results of a linear models in which the dependent variables were the ash, crude protein and moisture it was determined the significant effect (p <0.05 only of the pollen addition. In the case of the model with the dependent variable reducing sugars it was found out significant effect (p<0.0001 of pollen addition and locality and their interactions. With the gradual addition of bee pollen values of technological parameters such as diameter and weight of cookies increased and thickness of products decreased. Based on sensory scores using a 9-point Hedonic scale the best sensorial acceptability (7.4 was found in variant I (1 g of bee

  9. The Neural Correlates of Humor Creativity

    OpenAIRE

    Amir, Ori; Biederman, Irving

    2016-01-01

    Unlike passive humor appreciation, the neural correlates of real-time humor creation have been unexplored. As a case study for creativity, humor generation uniquely affords a reliable assessment of a creative product’s quality with a clear and relatively rapid beginning and end, rendering it amenable to neuroimaging that has the potential for reflecting individual differences in expertise. Professional and amateur “improv” comedians and controls viewed New Yorker cartoon drawings while being ...

  10. Instructional scientific humor in the secondary classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wizner, Francine

    This study is an examination of the manner in which educators employ scientific content humor and how that humor is perceived by their students. Content humor is a useful strategy in drawing the attention of students and improving their receptivity toward scientific information. It is also a useful tool in combating the growing distractions of the electronic classroom. Previous studies have found that humor has a positive effect on knowledge, memory, and understanding. However, few studies have been conducted below the undergraduate level and mainly quantitative measures of student recall have been used to measure learning. This study employed multiple data sources to determine how two secondary biology teachers used humor in order to explain scientific concepts and how their students perceived their teachers' use of scientific instructional humor. Evidence of student humor reception was collected from four students in each of the two classes. All of the scientific instructional humor used in the studied classrooms was cognitive in nature, varying among factual, procedural, conceptual, and metacognitive knowledge. Teachers tended to use dialogic forms of humor. Their scientific humor reflected everyday experiences, presented queries, poked fun at authority, and asked students to search out new perspectives and perform thought experiments. Teachers were the primary actors in performing the humorous events. The events were sometimes physical exaggerations of words or drawings, and they occurred for the purpose of establishing rapport or having students make connections between scientific concepts and prior knowledge. Student perceptions were that teachers did employ humor toward instructional objectives that helped their learning. Helping students become critical thinkers is a trademark of science teachers. Science teachers who take the risk of adopting some attributes of comedians may earn the reward of imparting behaviors on their students like critical thinking

  11. Effectiveness of humor advertising on advertising success

    OpenAIRE

    S, venkatesh; N, senthilkumar

    2015-01-01

    In global advertising ‘humor’ is the most effective emotion used in advertising compared to other emotional appeals. Advertisers and researchers more interested in Humor in advertising for more than 100 years. But there is no review paper for Impact of humor in advertising till twenty two years of time, in between period there was lot of research outcomes published about humor in advertising. The purpose of this paper to get detailed review about Impact of humor in advertising for 40 years an...

  12. Comparative evaluation of aqueous humor viscosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kyshia; Carter, Renee; Tully, Thomas; Negulescu, Ioan; Storey, Eric

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate aqueous humor viscosity in the raptor, dog, cat, and horse, with a primary focus on the barred owl (Strix varia). Twenty-six raptors, ten dogs, three cats, and one horse. Animals were euthanized for reasons unrelated to this study. Immediately, after horizontal and vertical corneal dimensions were measured, and anterior chamber paracentesis was performed to quantify anterior chamber volume and obtain aqueous humor samples for viscosity analysis. Dynamic aqueous humor viscosity was measured using a dynamic shear rheometer (AR 1000 TA Instruments, New Castle, DE, USA) at 20 °C. Statistical analysis included descriptive statistics, unpaired t-tests, and Tukey's test to evaluate the mean ± standard deviation for corneal diameter, anterior chamber volume, and aqueous humor viscosity amongst groups and calculation of Spearman's coefficient for correlation analyses. The mean aqueous humor viscosity in the barred owl was 14.1 centipoise (cP) ± 9, cat 4.4 cP ± 0.2, and dog 2.9 cP ± 1.3. The aqueous humor viscosity for the horse was 1 cP. Of the animals evaluated in this study, the raptor aqueous humor was the most viscous. The aqueous humor of the barred owl is significantly more viscous than the dog (P humor viscosity of the raptor, dog, cat, and horse can be successfully determined using a dynamic shear rheometer. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  13. Rape Within the Hispanic Family Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinones-Sierra, Sylvia

    Because problems such as rape are often viewed as personal concerns of "la familia" there is great tendency on the part of Hispanics to accept this crime as something that must be resolved without intervention from the police, the hospitals or the courts. Seldom will much needed therapy and auxillary type services be sought due to the extreme…

  14. Reader responses to literary depictions of rape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Koopman (Emy); M. Hilscher (Michelle); G.C. Cupchik (Gerald)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis study explored reader responses to different literary depictions of rape. Four literary excerpts were used and divided as aesthetic versus nonaesthetic (style) and allusive versus explicit (detail). The general question was how readers would react to literary fragments depicting

  15. Ethical challenges when reading aesthetic rape scenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Koopman (Emy)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBoth the issue of the ethics of representation and the issue of the ethics of reading are particularly important when it comes to representations of suffering and violence. This chapter addresses the ethics of representing and the ethics of reading rape, with a focus on the latter.

  16. Assessing the impact of mass rape on the incidence of HIV in conflict-affected countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supervie, Virginie; Halima, Yasmin; Blower, Sally

    2010-11-27

    To quantify the potential impact of mass rape on HIV incidence in seven conflict-afflicted countries (CACs), with severe HIV epidemics, in sub-Saharan Africa. Uncertainty analysis of a risk equation model. A mathematical model was used to evaluate the potential impact of mass rape on increasing HIV incidence in women and girls in Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Somalia, southern Sudan and Uganda. The model was parameterized with data from UNAIDS/WHO and the US Census Bureau's International Database. Incidence data from UNAIDS/WHO were used for calibration. Mass rape could cause approximately five HIV infections per 100,000 females per year in the DRC, Sudan, Somalia and Sierra Leone, double the number in Burundi and Rwanda, and quadruple the number in Uganda. The number of females infected per year due to mass rape is likely to be relatively low in Somalia and Sierra Leone at 127 [median (interquartile range [IQR] 55-254)] and 156 [median (IQR 69-305)], respectively. Numbers could be high in the DRC and Uganda: 1120 [median (IQR 527-2360)] and 2172 [median (IQR 1031-4668)], respectively. In Burundi, Rwanda and Sudan, the numbers are likely to be intermediate. Under extreme conditions, 10,000 women and girls could be infected per year in the DRC and 20 000 women and girls could be infected per year in Uganda. Mass rape could increase annual incidence by approximately 7% [median (IQR 3-15)]. Interventions and treatment targeted to rape survivors during armed conflicts could reduce HIV incidence. Support should be provided both on the basis of human rights and public health.

  17. Humor in leader-follower relationships : Humor styles, similarity and relationship quality.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisse, Barbara; Rietzschel, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The present study focuses on how humor may affect the quality of the relationship between leader and follower (LMX). More specifically, we examined the impact of follower self-reported humor style and leader self-reported humor style on the extent to which followers perceived their relationship with

  18. Contact with Counter-Stereotypical Women Predicts Less Sexism, Less Rape Myth Acceptance, Less Intention to Rape (in Men) and Less Projected Enjoyment of Rape (in Women).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taschler, Miriam; West, Keon

    2017-01-01

    Intergroup contact-(positive) interactions with people from different social groups-is a widely researched and strongly supported prejudice-reducing mechanism shown to reduce prejudice against a wide variety of outgroups. However, no known previous research has investigated whether intergroup contact can also reduce sexism against women. Sexism has an array of negative outcomes. One of the most detrimental and violent ones is rape, which is both justified and downplayed by rape myth acceptance. We hypothesised that more frequent, higher quality contact with counter-stereotypical women would predict lower levels of sexism and thus less rape myth acceptance (in men) and less sexualised projected responses to rape (in women). Two studies using online surveys with community samples supported these hypotheses. In Study 1, 170 male participants who experienced more positive contact with counter-stereotypical women reported less intention to rape. Similarly, in Study 2, 280 female participants who experienced more positive contact with counter-stereotypical women reported less projected sexual arousal at the thought of being raped. Thus, the present research is the first known to show that contact could be a potential tool to combat sexism, rape myth acceptance, intentions to rape in men, and sexualisation of rape by women.

  19. Am I the Only One This Supervisor is Laughing at? Effects of Aggressive Humor on Employee Strain and Addictive Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Huo, Y; Lam, W; Chen, Z

    2012-01-01

    Prior literature on humor primarily documents its positive effects on employees’ attitudes and behaviors, though increasing research on aggressive humor suggests some conflicting viewpoints. This article proposes a model based on social comparison and attribution theories to examine the influence of supervisors’ aggressive humor on employees’ strain and addictive behaviors. The tests of the research model entailed a two-wave study with 243 frontline employees from four manufacturing companies...

  20. Stop Blaming the Victim: A Meta-Analysis on Rape Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Eliana; Gadalla, Tahany M.

    2010-01-01

    Although male rape is being reported more often than before, the majority of rape victims continue to be women. Rape myths--false beliefs used mainly to shift the blame of rape from perpetrators to victims--are also prevalent in today's society and in many ways contribute toward the pervasiveness of rape. Despite this, there has been limited…

  1. The First Joke: Exploring the Evolutionary Origins of Humor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Polimeni

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Humor is a complex cognitive function which often leads to laughter. Contemporary humor theorists have begun to formulate hypotheses outlining the possible innate cognitive structures underlying humor. Humor's conspicuous presence in the behavioral repertoire of humankind invites adaptive explanations. This article explores the possible adaptive features of humor and ponders its evolutionary path through hominid history. Current humor theories and previous evolutionary ideas on humor are reviewed. In addition, scientific fields germane to the evolutionary study of humor are examined: animal models, genetics, children's humor, humor in pathological conditions, neurobiology, humor in traditional societies and cognitive archeology. Candidate selection pressures and associated evolutionary mechanisms are considered. The authors conclude that several evolutionary-related topics such as the origins of language, cognition underlying spiritual feelings, hominid group size, and primate teasing could have special relevance to the origins of humor.

  2. Remote Estimation of Vegetation Fraction and Flower Fraction in Oilseed Rape with Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenghui Fang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study developed an approach for remote estimation of Vegetation Fraction (VF and Flower Fraction (FF in oilseed rape, which is a crop species with conspicuous flowers during reproduction. Canopy reflectance in green, red, red edge and NIR bands was obtained by a camera system mounted on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV when oilseed rape was in the vegetative growth and flowering stage. The relationship of several widely-used Vegetation Indices (VI vs. VF was tested and found to be different in different phenology stages. At the same VF when oilseed rape was flowering, canopy reflectance increased in all bands, and the tested VI decreased. Therefore, two algorithms to estimate VF were calibrated respectively, one for samples during vegetative growth and the other for samples during flowering stage. The results showed that the Visible Atmospherically Resistant Index (VARIgreen worked most accurately for estimating VF in flower-free samples with an Root Mean Square Error (RMSE of 3.56%, while the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI2 was the best in flower-containing samples with an RMSE of 5.65%. Based on reflectance in green and NIR bands, a technique was developed to identify whether a sample contained flowers and then to choose automatically the appropriate algorithm for its VF estimation. During the flowering season, we also explored the potential of using canopy reflectance or VIs to estimate FF in oilseed rape. No significant correlation was observed between VI and FF when soil was visible in the sensor’s field of view. Reflectance at 550 nm worked well for FF estimation with coefficient of determination (R2 above 0.6. Our model was validated in oilseed rape planted under different nitrogen fertilization applications and in different phenology stages. The results showed that it was able to predict VF and FF accurately in oilseed rape with RMSE below 6%.

  3. Large-scale monitoring of effects of clothianidin-dressed oilseed rape seeds on pollinating insects in Northern Germany: effects on honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolke, Daniel; Fuchs, Stefan; Grünewald, Bernd; Gao, Zhenglei; Blenau, Wolfgang

    2016-11-01

    Possible effects of clothianidin seed-treated oilseed rape on honey bee colonies were investigated in a large-scale monitoring project in Northern Germany, where oilseed rape usually comprises 25-33 % of the arable land. For both reference and test sites, six study locations were selected and eight honey bee hives were placed at each location. At each site, three locations were directly adjacent to oilseed rape fields and three locations were situated 400 m away from the nearest oilseed rape field. Thus, 96 hives were exposed to fully flowering oilseed rape crops. Colony sizes and weights, the amount of honey harvested, and infection with parasites and diseases were monitored between April and September 2014. The percentage of oilseed rape pollen was determined in pollen and honey samples. After oilseed rape flowering, the hives were transferred to an extensive isolated area for post-exposure monitoring. Total numbers of adult bees and brood cells showed seasonal fluctuations, and there were no significant differences between the sites. The honey, which was extracted at the end of the exposure phase, contained 62.0-83.5 % oilseed rape pollen. Varroa destructor infestation was low during most of the course of the study but increased at the end of the study due to flumethrin resistance in the mite populations. In summary, honey bee colonies foraging in clothianidin seed-treated oilseed rape did not show any detrimental symptoms as compared to colonies foraging in clothianidin-free oilseed rape. Development of colony strength, brood success as well as honey yield and pathogen infection were not significantly affected by clothianidin seed-treatment during this study.

  4. Meta-Analysis of the Prevalence of Unacknowledged Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Laura C; Miller, Katherine E

    2016-04-01

    Many sexual violence survivors do not label their experiences as rape but instead use more benign labels, such as "bad sex" or "miscommunication." A meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the mean prevalence of unacknowledged rape and to inform our understanding of methodological factors that influence the detection of this phenomenon. Studies were identified using PsycINFO, PubMED, and PILOTS and were required to report the percentage of unacknowledged rape that had occurred since the age of 14 among female survivors. Moderator variables included mean participant age, recruitment source, rape definition, and unacknowledged rape definition. Twenty-eight studies (30 independent samples) containing 5,917 female rape survivors met the inclusion criteria. Based on a random effects model, the overall weighted mean percentage of unacknowledged rape was 60.4% (95% confidence interval [55.0%, 65.6%]). There was a large amount of heterogeneity, Q(29) = 445.11, p rape survivors do not acknowledge that they have been raped. The results suggest that screening tools should use behaviorally descriptive items about sexual contact, rather than using terms such as "rape." © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Male Peer Support to Hostile Sexist Attitudes Influences Rape Proclivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, Mercedes; Megías, Jesús L; Moya, Miguel

    2018-07-01

    Sexual assault affects a large proportion of women in the world. Although most rapes are committed by one man, the act itself may be influenced by many (e.g., the peer group). Hostile sexism (HS) has repeatedly been associated with men's rape proclivity, but the influence exerted by the HS of the peer group on rape proclivity has not been investigated. In this study, we explored the impact of perceived male peer support to HS on participants' rape proclivity. A sample of Spanish undergraduate students from a university in the south of Spain ( N = 134) completed the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory. Immediately afterwards, they received feedback on the supposed sexist responses of a peer group (high vs. low in HS); we kept the benevolent sexism (BS) of the peer group at medium levels. Next, we assessed participants' rape proclivity using acquaintance rape scenarios. Results showed an interaction between participants' own levels of HS and information about the HS of the peer group. Men high in HS reported higher rape proclivity in the high-HS peer-group condition than in the low-HS peer-group condition. By contrast, information on the peer group did not affect self-reported rape proclivity of men low in HS. Results also corroborated the relationship between participants' levels of HS and rape proclivity, and expanded the literature by revealing an unexpected influence of participants' BS on rape proclivity.

  6. Criminalizing rape within marriage: perspectives of Ghanaian university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adinkrah, Mensah

    2011-09-01

    Forcing sexual intercourse on an unwilling marital partner, or marital rape, is not a crime in many societies around the world, because of a marital exemption rule that prohibits the prosecution of husbands who rape their wives. Concurrently, marital rape is one of the least studied phenomena in sexual violence research. This is particularly true for societies in the non-Western world. The current study examined the general attitudes of a sample of university students in Ghana, a West African country, toward marital rape. Respondents were also asked whether an ongoing legislative effort to criminalize marital rape in the country was warranted. The results indicated strong opposition toward criminalization. The results also indicated no marked differences between male and female respondents in attitudes toward marital rape and the need for a legislative response to the phenomenon. Patriarchal ideologies such as wifely submission to the husband and an implicit duty to provide sex in marriage provided some of the justifications furnished for why marital rape should remain noncriminalized. Advocates of criminalization mentioned the social, physical, and psychological effects of rape and how the enactment of marital rape legislation and the imposition of severe criminal sanctions would help prevent the incidence of marital rape and other forms of violence against women in the society.

  7. Aqueous humor ferritin in hereditary hyperferritinemia cataract syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzhofer, Markus; Schroedl, Falk; Trost, Andrea; Kaser-Eichberger, Alexandra; Wiedemann, Helmut; Strohmaier, Clemens; Hohensinn, Melchior; Strasser, Michael; Muckenthaler, Martina U; Grabner, Guenther; Aigner, Elmar; Reitsamer, Herbert A

    2015-04-01

    Hereditary hyperferritinemia cataract syndrome (HHCS) is a rare autosomal dominant hereditary disease, characterized by hyperferritinemia but with absence of body iron excess and early onset of bilateral cataracts. Although 5- to 20-fold increased serum ferritin concentrations have been reported in HHCS patients, data of ferritin levels in aqueous humor have not been obtained. We therefore aimed to investigate the ferritin levels in aqueous humor and serum and further present histological and ultrastructural data of the lens. During cataract extraction and intraocular lens implantation, aqueous humor and lens aspirate of a 37-year-old HHCS patient were obtained from both eyes. Ferritin levels in serum and aqueous humor were quantitatively analyzed via immunoassays in the HHCS patient and healthy control subjects (n = 6). Lens aspirate in HHCS was analyzed histologically and at the ultrastructural level. Further, genetic mutation screening by polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing in blood was performed. Serum ferritin levels in the control group were 142.2 ± 38.7 μg/L, whereas in the HHCS patient, this parameter was excessively increased (1086 μg/L). Analysis of ferritin in aqueous humor revealed 6.4 ± 3.8 μg/L in normal control subjects and 146.3 μg/L (OD) and 160.4 μg/L (OS) in the HHCS patient. DNA analysis detected a C>A mutation on position +18, a T>G mutation on position +22, a T>C mutation on position +24, and a T>G polymorphism on position +26 in the iron-responsive element of the light-chain ferritin (L-ferritin) gene. In the HHCS patient, a 23-fold (OD) to 25-fold (OS) increased aqueous humor ferritin level was detected. Therefore, the formation of bilateral cataract in HHCS is most likely a result of elevated aqueous humor ferritin. In addition, a novel mutation in this rare disease in the iron-responsive element of L-ferritin gene is reported.

  8. American Learners' Comprehension of Russian Textual Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shardakova, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, second language (L2) humor has attracted scholarly attention as both a means and a goal of L2 development. Much of this research, however, has focused on oral communication, whereas virtually no studies address humor as an aspect of reading comprehension. This exploratory study combines these two areas of inquiry, examining…

  9. Humor: A Therapeutic Intervention for Child Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Rachelle G.; Parr, Gerald; Bradley, Loretta J.; Berry, Jeremy J.

    2009-01-01

    Counselors utilize many strategies, techniques, and tools when building a therapeutic alliance or addressing children's issues. Due to the serious nature of discussing problems or perhaps because of the fear of seeming insensitive, counselors often overlook humor as a means to enhance therapy. Whether deliberate or spontaneous, humor can add…

  10. Sociolinguistics features of humor in american linguoculture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article we study the characteristics of the language of representation and perception of American humour, its linguistic and cultural features in humorous texts of American comics from the American linguistic culture. The material for research is the humorous texts and fragments of the performances of American ...

  11. Rape myth acceptance and judgments of vulnerability to sexual assault: An internet experiment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohner, G.; Danner, U.; Siebler, F.; Samson, G.B.

    2002-01-01

    Processing strategies in risk assessment were studied in an Internet experiment. Women (N = 399) who were either low or high in rape myth acceptance (RMA) were asked to recall either two or six behaviors that either increase or decrease the risk of being sexually assaulted. Later they judged their

  12. Antioxidant status of dog aqueous humor after extracapsular lens extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barros P.S.M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We determined the antioxidant status of the aqueous humor after extracapsular lens extraction in 14 mongrel dogs weighing about 10 kg. The animals were examined by slit lamp biomicroscopy, applanation tonometry and indirect ophthalmoscopy. One eye was submitted to conventional extracapsular lens extraction and the other was used as control. Samples of aqueous humor were obtained by anterior chamber paracentesis before and at days 1, 2, 3, 7 and 15 after surgery. Total antioxidant status was determined as the capacity of aqueous humor to inhibit free radical generation by 2,2-azobis(2-amidopropane chlorine. Ascorbic acid concentration was measured by HPLC with UV detection. Protein content was determined with the biuret reagent. Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA followed by the Tukey-Kramer test. Protein concentration increased from 0.61 to 22 mg/ml 24 h after surgery. These levels were maintained and returned to normal at day 7. Total antioxidant capacity was reduced from 50 to about 30 min until day 3 and at day 7 it was equal to control. Ascorbic acid levels were reduced from 252 to about 110 µM and then returned to control values at day 15. Considering the importance of ascorbic acid concentration in aqueous humor for the maintenance of the antioxidant status of the anterior segment of the eye, the decrease of antioxidant defenses suggests that the surgical procedures promote an oxidative stress condition in the eye.

  13. Effects of Humor Production, Humor Receptivity, and Physical Attractiveness on Partner Desirability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Tornquist

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examined women’s and men’s preferences for humor production and humor receptivity in long-term and short-term relationships, and how these factors interact with physical attractiveness to influence desirability. Undergraduates viewed photographs of the opposite sex individuals who were high or low in physical attractiveness, along with vignettes varying in humor production and receptivity. Participants rated physical attractiveness and desirability for long-term and short-term relationships. The main findings were that individuals desired partners who were high in humor production and receptivity, though the effects were particularly pronounced for women judging long-term relationships. Moreover, humor production was more important than receptivity for women’s ratings of male desirability. Notably, we also found that ratings of physical attractiveness were influenced by the humor conditions. These results are discussed in terms of the fitness indicator, interest indicator, and encryption hypotheses of the evolutionary functions of humor.

  14. Dealing with rape in a new political landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Baroness Vivien

    2012-01-01

    Rape is controversial and constructing rape policy is complicated. Most victims, men and women, are raped by someone they know. The court case usually hangs on whether or not the complainant consented to the act. The defence feels free to portray the complainant in a negative light making the trial an ordeal. Some complainants decide it is one ordeal too many and withdraw from the process. Sustained criticism of the handling of rape cases over many years led to substantial improvements, with specially trained police officers, prosecutors and judges, and more defendants being convicted. Yet providing justice to rape victims requires more than an effective criminal justice response. It also requires recognition that victims are entitled to the support of the state. They should be treated with respect regardless of whether the case goes to trial or not. The rate of convictions for rape is not the only, or even the most important measure of a good policy.

  15. Economic benefit analysis of cultivating Pleurotus ostreatus with rape straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Qinlan; Gong, Mingfu; Tang, Mei

    2018-04-01

    The cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus with rape straw not only can save the cultivation cost of P. ostreatus, but also can reuse the resources and protect the environment. By adding different proportion of rape straw to the cultivation material of P. ostreatus, the reasonable amount of rape straw was selected and the economic benefit of P. ostreatus cultivated with the optimum amount of rape straw was analyzed. The results showed that adding 10% to 40% rape straw to the cultivation material of P. ostreatus did not affect the yield and biological conversion rate of P. ostreatus, and the ratio of production and investment of the amount of rape straw in the range of 10% to 50% was higher than of cottonseed husk alone as the main material of the formula.

  16. Police officers' collaboration with rape victim advocates: barriers and facilitators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Karen; Seffrin, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Secondary victimization may occur when rape victims make police reports. This can compromise the quality of official statements and jeopardize criminal cases. Rape reporters receive better treatment by police officers when advocates are involved and best practice police work includes such collaboration. Studies of advocates have described tension, role confusion, and poor communication with police officers. Many variables, including rape myth acceptance (RMA) and training on sexual assault dynamics, may affect officers' collaboration with advocates. There were 429 police officers who responded to a survey measuring their victim interviewing skill, formal training about rape, years on the job, number of victims known personally, number of recent rape cases, RMA, and collaboration with advocates. Results suggest that officers' interviewing skill, years on the job, and specific training are related to collaboration with victim advocates on rape cases. Professional, rather than personal, variables were most predictive of collaboration. Implications for officer selection and training are explored.

  17. The incidence and experience of rape among chemically dependent women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teets, J M

    1997-01-01

    This descriptive study investigated the incidence and experience of rape among chemically dependent women. Sixty women in a residential treatment facility were interviewed about sexual trauma they had experienced in their lives. In this sample 73% had been raped, and 45% had been raped more than once. The stories of rape were classified in five categories: rape while in the context of using, when too high to resist, while prostituting, by a significant other, and by a family member. Some 35% of the rapist described were friends of the women with whom they were using drugs. Only 20% of the rapes were reported to the police. Clinical implications for treatment of addicted women who are also survivors of violence is discussed.

  18. Is Reporting of Rape on the Rise? A Comparison of Women with Reported versus Unreported Rape Experiences in the National Women's Study-Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate B.; Resnick, Heidi S.; McCauley, Jenna L.; Amstadter, Ananda B.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.

    2011-01-01

    Rape affects one in seven women nationwide. Historically, most rape victims do not report rape to law enforcement. Research is needed to identify barriers to reporting and correlates of reporting to guide policy recommendations that address such barriers. We investigated the prevalence of reporting rape among a national sample of women (N = 3,001)…

  19. Communicating/Muting Date Rape: A Co-Cultural Theoretical Analysis of Communication Factors Related to Rape Culture on a College Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Ann; Mattern, Jody L.; Herakova, Liliana L.; Kahl, David H., Jr.; Tobola, Cloy; Bornsen, Susan E.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that college campuses foster a rape culture in which date rape (most commonly, rape of women) is an accepted part of campus activity (Buchwald, Fletcher, & Roth, 1993; Sanday, 2007). In focus groups at a Midwestern university, researchers asked students about rape as they experienced it or knew about it on campus. The…

  20. Rape: Is it a lifestyle or behavioral problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamdar, Zeel N.; Kosambiya, Jayendrakumar K.; Chawada, Bansari L.; Verma, Mamtarani; Kadia, Abhinav

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: In India, girl is raped every 20 min. The majority of reports reveals youth is vulnerable group for rape victimization. A set of prejudicial, stereotyped, or false beliefs about rape, rape victims, and rapist exist in the community. Aims/Objectives: To study the attitude and myths toward rape among college going students of Surat City. Materials and Methods: College students of various streams were participated in the study based on attitude toward rape scale (21 items) and updated Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance Scale (22 items). A total of 332 participants from three different colleges of the city took part in the survey. Data analysis was done with the SPSS version 19. Results: Among the responders, 61.75% were female. Mean age of participants was 20.22 ± 1.27 years. Almost two-third (73%) of female participants and 42% of the male participants disagreed with the myth that “When a woman says ‘no’ she really means ‘yes’.” Around 30% of the participants were uncertain about the myth that “A woman cannot be raped by someone she previously knew or had sex with.” While almost 35% of participants believed that “Most rapes are carried out by strangers.” Strong sexual desire of guys, drunkenness, and girl's clothes were reported to be factors that provoke rape by 50%, 40%, and 33% of respondents, respectively, around 95% of female and 92% of male participants think that 7-year imprisonment for rape is not enough. Conclusions: Rape myths are found to be highly prevalent among youth and higher among males. PMID:28529364

  1. Utility of angiotensin-converting enzyme activity in aqueous humor in the diagnosis of ocular sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihailovic-Vucinic, Violeta; Popevic, Ljubica; Popevic, Spasoje; Stjepanovic, Mihailo; Aleksic, Andjelka; Stanojevic-Paovic, Anka

    2017-10-01

    Many studies include elevated activity of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) in serum in sarcoidosis and in ocular sarcoidosis as well, but there are only a few analyzing ACE activities in aqueous humor. The aim of this study is to illuminate the diagnostic value of ACE in aqueous humor in patients with ocular sarcoidosis. We analyzed twenty patients with ocular sarcoidosis and 18 patients with nonocular involvement. All patients have biopsy-positive sarcoidosis of the lungs and/or mediastinal lymph nodes. Blood samples for ACE serum levels were obtained from all patients. Aqueous humor samples were taken by paracentesis with a 25-gauge needle in local anesthesia. With appropriate statistical tests, we compared ACE activity in serum and aqueous humor in patients with and without ocular sarcoidosis. The majority of our patients with ocular sarcoidosis were female (12/20), also in the group with systemic sarcoidosis and without ocular involvement (12/6). Mean age of the whole analyzed group of sarcoidosis patients was 45 ± 6 years. There is no statistically significant difference in ACE activity in serum between two groups of patients (with and without ocular sarcoidosis). There is statistically significant difference in ACE activity in aqueous humor among patients with ocular and nonocular sarcoidosis. ACE activity in aqueous humor is significantly higher in patients with ocular sarcoidosis. Increased ACE activity in aqueous humor can point to a diagnosis of ocular sarcoidosis, without the need for ocular biopsy.

  2. Energy rape seed - Non-food alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sipilae, K.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the project is to evaluate possibilities to use agrobiomass for several energy end use sectors. The reference is common European approach where ethanol and rape seed oil is produced for transportation sector. The production costs are approximately 3 - 4 times higher compared to non taxed refinery price of gasoline and diesel fuel. This is also the case for energy crops compared to peat and coal. For Finnish conditions several other options are studied including technical and economical assessments. Solid fuels in form of energy crops like reed canary grass, salix-SRF and straw are evaluated as a feed to multifuel fluid bed boilers and as a futuristic scenario also for flashpyrolysis oil production. Rape seed oil is tested by Neste Oy as a biocomponent in heating oil and as a biocomponent in diesel fuel in engines by VTT. According to present results about 10 - 20 % rape seed oil can be mixed unprocessed to heating oils. Agrofibre production is studied in a laboratory phase with two advanced cooking methods to produce a high value product as a fraction of a biorefinery. The aim of the project is to identify possible research and development paths for future activities. With present prices no agrobiomass is today economically competitive with other fuels. (author)

  3. Introducing the Date and Acquaintance Rape Avoidance Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resendez, Josephine R; Hughes, Jamie S

    2016-01-01

    We present the Date and Acquaintance Rape Avoidance Scale (DARAS). The DARAS is a measure of a woman's behaviors used to avoid date and acquaintance rape. Three factor structures were possible. The DARAS may have measured several factors related to alcohol and drug use, self-defense, and date behaviors; 2 factors related to behaviors to avoid acquaintance versus date rape; or a single factor that represented general vigilance. The data revealed a highly reliable, 63 item single factor that was correlated with stranger rape avoidance, rejection of rape myths, hostile sexist beliefs about men, and benevolent sexist beliefs about women. The creation of the DARAS adds to the growing body of research on rape avoidance. The DARAS is key to understanding the behaviors women employ to avoid date rape. Rather than placing the responsibility for rape on the victim, the DARAS was developed as a theoretical and applied tool that can be used to improve theory and construct rape education and prevention programs.

  4. Humor and creative life styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, J

    2001-01-01

    This paper is based upon the writings of William James in the late 19th century, and Alfred Adler and Sigmund Freud in the 20th, enriched by the contributions of later personality and role theorists. The self is defined as the unique organization of each person; a style is the self in action. Different life styles and their components are expressed in different situations. I posit that humor and positive thinking, combined with meaning and purpose, are vital components of all constructive life styles. The knowledge of life styles cuts through diagnostic labels to reveal our universal humanity. It can be fruitfully applied to patients and nonpatients alike and, I found, for the self-understanding of therapist. The clinical application of life styles is illustrated through numerous vignettes.

  5. Por un humor ético

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Paramo Valero

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Ética del humor es una obra original, abundantemente documentada, de contenido científico y filosófico, que aborda un problema de gran importancia en los actuales estudios de éticas aplicadas. La ética del humor es una nueva ética aplicada que pretende comprender el fenómeno del humor a la luz de sus implicaciones éticas. Como señala el autor, Juan Carlos Siurana, reputado experto en el ámbito de la filosofía práctica, el interés por el humor es un interés por la ética. En la obra no presenta una nueva teoría filosófica del humor –las cuales se han venido sucediendo, al menos, desde los Diálogos de Platón–, sino una nueva teoría ética, que toma al humor como objeto principal de análisis. Por tanto, la finalidad es realizar una aportación dentro del ámbito de la ética. Para ello se nutre de distintos estudios psicológicos, biológicos, fisiológicos y neurológicos sobre el humor, así como de clásicas obras de filosofía que han abordado esta cuestión.

  6. The influence of humor styles in coping strategies in Entre Ríos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Roberto Lillo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the last years there has been a growing interest in the study of the resources that people use from face to a problem. The interest in the study of the characteristics related to the humor has gone in increase, especially for the influence of the development of a new concept in psychology that derives in the call positive psychology (Seligman and Csikszentmihalyi, 2000; Zinder and McCullog 2000, in Martin, Puhlik-Doris, Larsen, Gray, Weir, 2003 which is centered in adaptive strengths such as optimism, faith, courage, as well as humor (Martin 2003, quoted in Martin et al., 2003. Sense of humor has been considered as an unidimensional construct (Omar, 1995 and the consequencies has been some errors in the assesment, as a result of a problem of validity. The present study seeks to introduce certain aspects that have not been considered in the past, so much the potential beneficial effects, as the deleterious forms of the sense of humor as for the psychological well-being. Four dimensions of the sense of humor were assesed (Martin, Puhlik-Doris, Larsen, Gray, Weir, 2003, version Lillo, 2006 relating to the uses or functions in everyday life and the ways of people cope (Fridenberg and Lewis, 1991, version Richaud de Minzi. 2003. They were also significant relationships among styles of humor and ways of coping that could explain the importance of the construct sense of humor, as an important resource to be used. Although it is necessary to highlight that it is not sought to embrace all the components of the sense of humor, but rather it is focused in the interpersonal functions and intrapsíquicas that adolescents use in daily life. These functions are considered most relevant to the well-being. Measuring these aspects of the humor, it is expected that they can explain a greater proportion of the variance as for the ways of people cope. 

  7. A family study of chronic post-traumatic stress disorder following rape trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, J R; Tupler, L A; Wilson, W H; Connor, K M

    1998-01-01

    There is evidence that familial factors serve as determinants of risk for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), especially familial anxiety. This study investigates the relationship between chronic PTSD and family psychiatric morbidity. The sample was drawn from 81 female rape survivors with or without lifetime PTSD, 31 major depressive disorder controls, 20 anxiety disorder controls and 39 healthy controls. First-degree family members were directly interviewed (n = 285) and diagnoses assigned of major depressive, anxiety and alcohol or substance use disorder. Information was also available by family history for 639 relatives. In the directly interviewed sample, no consistently increased morbidity risk was observed for anxiety, PTSD, or alcohol/substance abuse in the rape survivor groups, but there was an increase in depression relative to the anxiety in healthy control groups. When comorbid depression in rape survivor probands was taken into account post hoc, an increased risk for depression was noted in family members of PTSD probands with depression, but not in relatives of PTSD probands without lifetime depression. Among rape survivor probands with non-comorbid PTSD, rates by history of familial anxiety and depression were negligible. In a logistic regression analysis, individual vulnerability to depression served as an independent predictor of chronic PTSD, along with specific trauma-related variables. In the family history group, results were consistent with those obtained from the directly interviewed group. Our findings clearly support the view that PTSD following rape is associated with familial vulnerability to major depression, which may thus serve as a risk factor for developing PTSD. The exact nature of this predisposition calls for further inquiry and there is a need to expand this study to include other PTSD populations. PTSD may on occasion represent a form of depression which is induced and/or modified neurobiologically and phenomenologically by

  8. Recent Genetic Gains in Nitrogen Use Efficiency in Oilseed Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Andreas; Pfeifer, Mara; Frisch, Matthias; Wittkop, Benjamin; Snowdon, Rod J.

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen is essential for plant growth, and N fertilization allows farmers to obtain high yields and produce sufficient agricultural commodities. On the other hand, nitrogen losses potentially cause adverse effects to ecosystems and to human health. Increasing nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) is vital to solve the conflict between productivity, to secure the demand of a growing world population, and the protection of the environment. To ensure this, genetic improvement is considered to be a paramount aspect toward ecofriendly crop production. Winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) is the second most important oilseed crop in the world and is cultivated in many regions across the temperate zones. To our knowledge, this study reports the most comprehensive field-based data generated to date for an empirical evaluation of genetic improvement in winter oilseed rape varieties under two divergent nitrogen fertilization levels (NFLs). A collection of 30 elite varieties registered between 1989 and 2014, including hybrids and open pollinated varieties, was tested in a 2-year experiment in 10 environments across Germany for changes in seed yield and seed quality traits. Furthermore, NUE was calculated. We observed a highly significant genetics-driven increase in seed yield per-se and, thus, increased NUE at both NFLs. On average, seed yield from modern open-pollinated varieties and modern hybrids was higher than from old open-pollinated varieties and old hybrids. The annual yield progress across all tested varieties was ~35 kg ha−1 year−1 at low nitrogen and 45 kg ha−1 year−1 under high nitrogen fertilization. Furthermore, in modern varieties an increased oil concentration and decreased protein concentration was observed. Despite, the significant effects of nitrogen fertilization, a surprisingly low average seed yield gap of 180 kg N ha−1 was noted between high and low nitrogen fertilization. Due to contrary effects of N fertilization on seed yield per-se and seed

  9. Oilseed rape genotypes response to boron toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Jasna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Response of 16 oilseed rape genotypes to B (boron toxicity was analyzed by comparing the results of two experiments conducted in a glasshouse. In Experiment 1 plants were grown in standard nutrient solutions with 10 µMB (control and 1000 µM B. Relative root and shoot growth varied from 20-120% and 31-117%, respectively. Variation in B concentration in shoots was also wide (206.5-441.7 µg B g-1 DW as well as total B uptake by plant (62.3-281.2 µg B g1. Four selected genotypes were grown in Experiment 2 in pots filled with high B soil (8 kg ha-1 B; B8. Shoot growth was not affected by B8 treatment, while root and shoot B concentration was significantly increased compared to control. Genotypes Panther and Pronto which performed low relative root and shoot growth and high B accumulation in plants in Experiment 1, had good growth in B8 treatment. In Experiment 2 genotype NS-L-7 had significantly lower B concentration in shots under treatment B8, but also very high B accumulation in Experiment 1. In addition, cluster analyses classified genotypes in three groups according to traits contrasting in their significance for analyzing response to B toxicity. The first group included four varieties based on their shared characteristics that have small value for the relative growth of roots and shoots and large values of B concentration in shoot. In the second largest group were connected ten genotypes that are heterogeneous in traits and do not stand out on any characteristic. Genotypes NS-L-7 and Navajo were separated in the third group because they had big relative growth of root and shoot, but also a high concentration of B in the shoot, and high total B uptake. Results showed that none of tested genotypes could not be recommended for breeding process to tolerance for B toxicity. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI 173028

  10. Burnout and Humor Usage among Community College Nursing Faculty Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Laura A.

    2000-01-01

    Assesses the correlation of burnout among community college nursing faculty members and their use of humor to mediate academic stress related to burnout. Differences in burnout between high versus low humor usage respondents showed a higher sense of personal accomplishment with high humor usage. Of those with low humor usage, workload was related…

  11. Towards Humor Modelling and Facilitation in Smart Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Gu Ji, Y.; Choi, S.

    We know about word play, verbal jokes, and about humor that appears spontaneously in conversations. This humor is studied in computational linguistics, together with issues such as verbal incongruities, ambiguities, irony and sarcasm. These appearances of humor are also part of computational humor

  12. Designed and Accidental Humor in the Smart Digital Wild

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Anton; Ruiz Miyares, L.

    Humor can be designed and canned, for example as it appears in videogames, sitcoms or amusement parks. We often have humor professionals that have responsibility for this inclusion of humor. Humor can be designed for a particular occasion, for example in an April prank. However, in real life we

  13. Sense of humor at work: assessment and associations with health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doosje, S.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation is about health-related sense of humor measurement and associations between a sense of humor and health. Two sense of humor measures were developed, the QOHC and the HCL. The QOHC measures four humorous coping styles, aimed at acquiring positive affective states: antecedent-focused

  14. Exploring the Relationship between Humor and Aesthetic Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Mordechai

    2012-01-01

    The connection between humor and aesthetic experience has already been recognized by several thinkers and aesthetic educators. For instance, humor theorist John Morreall writes that "humor is best understood as itself a kind of aesthetic experience, equal in value at least to any other kind of aesthetic experience." For Morreall, both humor and…

  15. LOL Teacher! Using Humor to Enhance Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrell, Shelly

    2015-01-01

    Laughing with students can help them connect on a deeper level with the teacher and the learning. This article offers the following four strategies to incorporate humor into teaching: (1) Integrate humorous bits to boost engagement; (2) Choose humorous materials; (3) Create interest with humorous web tools and apps; and (4) Teach with silly…

  16. The alpha and gamma crystallin content in aqueous humor of eyes with clear lenses and with cataracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandberg, H.O.; Closs, O.

    1979-01-01

    Specific radioimmunoassays were used to measure the concentration of α- and γ-crystallins in human aqueous humor. It was demonstrated that these crystallins are normally present in aqueous humor from healthy eyes. The crystallin concentration did not seem to increase with age. The normal upper limit for the α-crystallin concentration was found to be 10 ng/ml and for the γ-crystallin concentration 60 ng/ml. In the aqueous humor of eyes with cortical cataract the concentration of both crystallins was increased. With nuclear cataracts the α-crystallin concentration was increased while the γ-crystallin concentration was decreased. Experiments in rabbits showed that the crystallins in the aqueous humor left the anterior chamber at the same rate as the aqueous bulk flow. The demonstration of lens crystallins in the aqueous humor is compatible with the hypothesis that they leak from the lens. (author)

  17. Computational Humor 2012 : extended abstacts of the (3rd international) Workshop on computational Humor

    OpenAIRE

    Nijholt, Antinus; Unknown, [Unknown

    2012-01-01

    Like its predecessors in 1996 (University of Twente, the Netherlands) and 2002 (ITC-irst, Trento, Italy), this Third International Workshop on Computational Humor (IWCH 2012) focusses on the possibility to find algorithms that allow understanding and generation of humor. There is the general aim of modeling humor, and if we can do that, it will provide us with lots of information about our cognitive abilities in general, such as reasoning, remembering, understanding situations, and understand...

  18. Effects of Humor Production, Humor Receptivity, and Physical Attractiveness on Partner Desirability

    OpenAIRE

    Michelle Tornquist; Dan Chiappe

    2015-01-01

    This study examined women’s and men’s preferences for humor production and humor receptivity in long-term and short-term relationships, and how these factors interact with physical attractiveness to influence desirability. Undergraduates viewed photographs of the opposite sex individuals who were high or low in physical attractiveness, along with vignettes varying in humor production and receptivity. Participants rated physical attractiveness and desirability for long-term and short-term rela...

  19. Uptake, translocation, and distribution of root-applied [C ring-U-14C]-ZJ0273 in plants of oilseed rape and rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zheng; Han Ailiang; Zhang Yanfei; Li Juying; Wang Yue; Wang Haiyan; Ye Qingfu; Lu Long

    2009-01-01

    ZJ0273, propyl 4-(2-(4, 6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-yloxy) benzylamino) benzoate, is a novel ALS-inhibited herbicide development for pre-and post-emergence weed control in field of oilseed rape. The comparative uptake, translocation and distribution of root-applied [C ring-U- 14 C] ZJ0273 in the plants of susceptible rice and tolerant oilseed rape were investigated under laboratory conditions. The results showed that the uptake of [C ring-U- 14 C]-ZJ0273 in both rice (Oryza sativa L.) and oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) increased with time. Larger percentage of the applied ZJ0273 was uptaken by rice than oilseed rape at any sampling time. At 384 hours after treatment, the uptake of [C ring-U- 14 C]-ZJ0273 reached 24.1% of the applied amount in rice, while only 4.1% of the applied in oilseed rape. The majority of the absorbed ZJ0273 remained in the root of the tested plants, which indicated the weak mobility of ZJ0273 and/or its metabolites in both the plants of susceptible rice and tolerant oilseed rape. The radioactivity per unit of dry weight in the roots and leaves of rice was 9.470 Bq/mg and 0.910 Bq/mg, respectively, which was significantly higher than that in oilseed rape (3.870 Bq/mg and 0.390 Bq/mg). Therefore, the difference in the total uptake of ZJ0273 and the accumulation of ZJ0273 and/or its metabolites perunit of dry weight between rice and oilseed rape, which revealed in this study, might be one of the reasons for the different susceptibility of rice and oilseed rape on ZJ0273. (authors)

  20. The Serious Business of Humor : A qualitative study of humor as a management tool

    OpenAIRE

    N Schönfeldt, Sara; Miznikova, Jelena

    2010-01-01

    This research was initiated due to the novelty of the topic. Humor is a common phenomenon in the daily interaction of many people; however this study is particularly interested in humor as used by managers. As a preconception to the study it was assumed that appropriately used humor results in benefits for a leader, thus we wish to explore how managers in Swedish organizations reason about if and how humor can be used as a management tool. For this purpose we employed qualitative research wit...

  1. El humor en los servicios hospitalarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguinaga Benítez Óscar William

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available

    El humor es un fenómeno demasiado complejo para ser explicado fácilmente, sin embargo la risa, es una de las formas más admirables del comportamiento humano. El humor forma parte de nuestra vida cotidiana y todos tenemos de él, ya desde nuestra más tierna infancia un conocimiento intuitivo. Muchos saben que el humor mejora las relaciones humanas, puede favorecer una cierta distensión y facilita el bienestar de todos los miembros de una empresa, dirigentes, empleados y obreros. Muchos esperan encontrar en él la forma de resolver los conflictos y de reducir la agresividad. Allí donde se encuentren hombres, existe el humor, comprenderlo mejor y utilizarlo más libremente y en el momento oportuno, puede ayudarnos a hacer nuestra vida más agradable.

  2. Silent Survivors: Rape Myth Acceptance in Incarcerated Women's Narratives of Disclosure and Reporting of Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Nicole M.; Lynch, Shannon M.; Fritch, April M.; McArthur, Lyn N.; Smith, Shilo L.

    2011-01-01

    Prior research suggests that rape victims who do not disclose or report to the police give reasons including self-blame and fear of judgment; however, this research has not been conducted with incarcerated women. Female offenders are a unique population because they experience high rates of sexual assault prior to incarceration. This study…

  3. The Humorous Function of English Euphemism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎清亚

    2017-01-01

    As a universal linguistic phenomenon in human society, euphemism is widely used in all social classes and fields. It is an important means to coordinate interpersonal relationship. This research discusses some fundamental knowledge of euphemism. It aims to analyze the humorous function of English euphemism in social interaction, advertisement and expressing professions. Through the analysis of the humorous function of English euphemism, it helps people to reduce mistake, improve the effect of communication and enhance mutual understanding.

  4. A Protection Motivation Theory application to date rape education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shweta; Orwat, John; Grossman, Susan

    2011-12-01

    Date rape risk communication is a key component of education-based Date Rape Prevention Programs, common across colleges. In such programs, risk assessment in date rape is approached cautiously in order to avoid a tone of "victim blaming." Since it is important in the assessment of any risk to understand the surrounding social context of the risky situation and the individual's unique relationship with that social context, this study examines Protection Motivation Theory as it applies to handling the risk of date rape without victim blaming. The paper links individual personality and social contexts with risk communication. The study sample comprised 367 undergraduate women enrolled in a large Southern Public University. The study examines the relationships between dating activity, social competency, and type of information provided with the dependents variables of date rape related protection behavior (intent), belief, and knowledge. A factorial multiple analysis of covariance analysis found that the dependent variables had a significant relationship with aspects of social competency and dating activity. The exposure to varying information about date rape was not significantly related to the dependent variables of date rape-related protection behavior (intent), belief, and knowledge. The identification of social competency and dating activity status as protective factors in this study makes a significant contribution to the practice and research efforts in date rape education.

  5. Rape Myth Beliefs and Bystander Attitudes among Incoming College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The bystander approach to rape prevention is gaining popularity on college campuses, although research is limited. This study explored bystander attitudes and their relationship with rape myths in a sample of college students. Participants: Surveys from 2,338 incoming undergraduate students at a large, northeastern university were…

  6. Rape Survivors' Agency within the Legal and Medical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeson, Megan R.; Campbell, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Many rape survivors seek help from the legal and medical systems post-assault. Previous studies have examined how social system personnel treat survivors, but less attention has been paid to how survivors attempt to shape their interactions with these systems. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine rape survivors' agency--the active…

  7. Rape Prevention with College Men: Evaluating Risk Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Kari A.; George, William H.

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of a theoretically based rape prevention intervention with college men who were at high or low risk to perpetrate sexually coercive behavior. Participants (N = 146) are randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. Outcomes include rape myth acceptance, victim empathy, attraction to sexual…

  8. Multiple Perpetrator Rape: Naming an Offence and Initial Research Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Miranda Angel Helena; Kelly, Liz

    2009-01-01

    Multiple perpetrator rape presents a significant problem nationally and internationally. However, previous research is limited and findings are often contradictory. The details of 101 rape allegations recorded in a six-month period in a large police force in England were analysed. Findings are presented about case classification, victim and…

  9. "Spreading the Love" and Using Performances to Prevent Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Aurora

    2013-01-01

    While rape is ordinarily considered an invariable reality, Sharon Marcus argues that it is instead a cultural script, which casts women as victims and men as perpetrators. In imagining rape as a script, it may seem pertinent to suggest that the arts and performance have a role in its prevention. Performances can provide a forum to publicly reflect…

  10. A REVIEW OF LITERATURE: RAPE AND COMMUNICATION MEDIA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    social change in the community; a positive change, from social vices such as rape, stealing ... Language cannot be separated from social life, and is logically connected to it. ..... This form of rape is incest, and is committed by the child's parents or close relatives, such as .... Emotional numbness or irritability. Flashbacks.

  11. 107 SPOUSAL RAPE IN A GLOBALIZED WORLD Abstract Sexual

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    5 Some have wondered why a married woman will cry foul and ... for the retention of spousal rape exemption among others is the fact that establishing rape within marriage is usually an uphill task, it is believed that such allegations can .... between unmarried persons is unlawful; it is noted that this act do not carry with it any ...

  12. Rape, sex partnership, and substance use consequences in women veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Brenda M; Mengeling, Michelle; Torner, James; Sadler, Anne G

    2011-06-01

    The association of rape history and sexual partnership with alcohol and drug use consequences in women veterans is unknown. Midwestern women veterans (N = 1,004) completed a retrospective telephone interview assessing demographics, rape history, substance abuse and dependence, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). One third met lifetime criteria for substance use disorder (SUD), half reported lifetime completed rape, a third childhood rape, one quarter in-military rape, 11% sex with women. Lifetime SUD was higher for women with rape history (64% vs. 44%). Women with women as sex partners had significantly higher rates of all measures of rape, and also lifetime substance use disorder. Postmilitary rape, sex partnership, and current depression were significantly associated with lifetime SUD in multivariate models (odds ratio = 2.3, 3.6, 2.1, respectively). Many women veterans have a high need for comprehensive mental health services. Published 2011. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  13. Resources for Developing Acquaintance Rape Prevention Programs for Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle, James P.; Nies, Charles T.

    1994-01-01

    Provides an annotated bibliography of videos and printed materials that may be used as educational tools in rape prevention programs. Focuses on sources that are aimed directly at men. Also outlines the use of consultants or lecturers as one of many resources in the construction and implementation of rape prevention programs. (KW)

  14. Factors Associated With Follow-Up Attendance Among Rape Victims Seen in Acute Medical Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darnell, Doyanne; Peterson, Roselyn; Berliner, Lucy; Stewart, Terri; Russo, Joan; Whiteside, Lauren; Zatzick, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Rape is associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and related comorbidities. Most victims do not obtain treatment for these conditions. Acute care medical settings are well positioned to link patients to services; however, difficulty engaging victims and low attendance at provided follow-up appointments is well documented. Identifying factors associated with follow-up can inform engagement and linkage strategies. Administrative, patient self-report, and provider observational data from Harborview Medical Center were combined for the analysis. Using logistic regression, we examined factors associated with follow-up health service utilization after seeking services for rape in the emergency department. Of the 521 diverse female (n = 476) and male (n = 45) rape victims, 28% attended the recommended medical/counseling follow-up appointment. In the final (adjusted) logistic regression model, having a developmental or other disability (OR = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.21-0.77), having a current mental illness (OR = 0.25, 95% CI = 0.13-0.49), and being assaulted in public (OR = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.28-0.87) were uniquely associated with reduced odds of attending the follow-up. Having a prior mental health condition (OR = 3.02, 95% CI = 1.86-4.91), a completed Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner's (SANE) examination (OR = 2.97, 95% CI = 1.84-4.81), and social support available to help cope with the assault (OR = 3.54, 95% CI = 1.76-7.11) were associated with an increased odds of attending the follow-up. Findings point to relevant characteristics ascertained at the acute care medical visit for rape that may be used to identify victims less likely to obtain posttraumatic medical and mental health services. Efforts to improve service linkage for these patients is warranted and may require alternative service delivery models that engage rape survivors and support posttraumatic recovery.

  15. Evaluation of an intervention to change attitudes toward date rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanier, C A; Elliott, M N; Martin, D W; Kapadia, A

    1998-01-01

    The prevalence of date rape among college students is a major concern. Although much research has been done on risk factors for date rape, few researchers have specifically described interventions for the various stages of developing a date-rape prevention program. Previous programs have often relied on educational videos that feature a "typical" date-rape scenario, a format that some researchers suggest may have a negative effect on the way people engage in aggressive sexual behavior. A less violent theatrical production based on social learning theory and risk-factor reduction that resulted in a significant improvement in attitudes related to date rape among both male and female students at an elite Texas university is described.

  16. Suspects in criminal investigations of rape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinković Darko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigations of sexual assaults mostly focus on victims and their credibility, which may cause lack of firm evidence in relation to suspects. Given the fact that the criminal offence of rape is characterised by a high incidence of false reports and accusations, frequently indicating specific persons as the perpetrators, certain caution is necessary in the investigation in order to avoid false accusations and/or convictions. As regards the personality of the rapist and motives for committing a forcible sexual act, certain types or rather certain categories of perpetrators can be distinguished, although it should be noted that a large number of rapists do not belong to one category only, but rather combine characteristics of several different types. During a criminal investigation it is of vital importance to differentiate between a rape as a surprise attack and a rape as abuse of trust, as they are compatible with the nature of the suspect's defence. The suspect shall be subjected to a forensic examination in the course of the investigation in order to find traces which prove vaginal, anal or oral penetration, coerced sexual intercourse and identity of the rapist. While conducting an interrogation of a suspected rapist, a crime investigating officer shall use either factual or emotional approach to his interviewee, depending on his psychological and motivational characteristics. In this regard, the factual approach is believed to be more efficient with anger rapists and sadistic rapists, whereas the compassionate approach gives good results with the gentlemen-rapists and partly with the power asserting rapists.

  17. Neuropsychology of humor: an introduction. Part II. Humor and the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derouesné, Christian

    2016-09-01

    Impairment of the perception or comprehension of humor is observed in patients with focal brain lesions in both hemispheres, but mainly in the right frontal lobe. Studies by functional magnetic resonance imaging in healthy subjects show that humor is associated with activation of two main neural systems in both hemispheres. The detection and resolution of incongruity, cognitive groundings of humor, are associated with activation of the medial prefrontal and temporoparietal cortex, and the humor appreciation with activation of the orbito-frontal and insular cortex, amygdala and the brain reward system. However, activation of these areas is not humor-specific and can be observed in various cognitive or emotional processes. Event-related potential studies confirm the involvement of both hemispheres in humor processing, and suggest that left prefrontal area is associated with joke comprehension and right prefrontal area with the resolution stage. Humor thus appears to be a complex and dynamic functional process involving, on one hand, two specialized but not specific neural systems linked to humor apprehension and appreciation, and, on the other hand, multiple interconnected functional brain networks including neural patterns underlying the moral framework and belief system, acquired by conditioning or imitation during the cognitive development and social interactions of the individual, and more distributed systems associated with the analysis of the current context of humor occurrence. Disturbances of the sense of humor could then result from focal brain alterations localized in one or two of the specialized areas underlying the comprehension or appreciation of humor, or from perturbations of the network interconnectivity in non-focal brain disorders such as Alzheimer's disease or schizophrenia.

  18. Giving birth with rape in one's past: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorsen, Lotta; Nerum, Hilde; Oian, Pål; Sørlie, Tore

    2013-09-01

    Rape is one of the most traumatizing violations a woman can be subjected to, and leads to extensive health problems, predominantly psychological ones. A large proportion of women develop a form of posttraumatic stress termed Rape Trauma Syndrome. A previous study by our research group has shown that women with a history of rape far more often had an operative delivery in their first birth and those who gave birth vaginally had second stages twice as long as women with no history of sexual assault. The aim of this study is to examine and illuminate how women previously subjected to rape experience giving birth for the first time and their advice on the kind of birth care they regard as good for women with a history of rape. A semi-structured interview with 10 women, who had been exposed to rape before their first childbirth. Data on the birth experience were analyzed by qualitative content analysis. The main theme was "being back in the rape" with two categories: "reactivation of the rape during labor," with subcategories "struggle," "surrender," and "escape" and "re-traumatization after birth," with the subcategories "objectified," "dirtied," and "alienated body." A rape trauma can be reactivated during the first childbirth regardless of mode of delivery. After birth, the women found themselves re-traumatized with the feeling of being dirtied, alienated, and reduced to just a body that another body is to come out of. Birth attendants should acknowledge that the common measures and procedures used during normal birth or cesarean section can contribute to a reactivation of the rape trauma. © 2013, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. "You Owe Me": Effects of Date Cost, Who Pays, Participant Gender, and Rape Myth Beliefs on Perceptions of Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basow, Susan A.; Minieri, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    Sexual social exchange theory was applied to perceptions of a date rape by manipulating the cost of the date and who paid in vignettes presented to 188 U.S. college students, who then rated the characters' sexual expectations, blame, responsibility, and rape justifiability. Findings from this between-participant design partially supported…

  20. Hormones and Pod Development in Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus) 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bouille, Pierre; Sotta, Bruno; Miginiac, Emile; Merrien, André

    1989-01-01

    The endogenous levels of several plant growth substances (indole acetic acid, IAA; abscisic acid, ABA; zeatin, Z; zeatin riboside, [9R]Z; isopentenyladenine, iP; and isopentenyladenosine, [9R]iP were measured during pod development of field grown oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L. var oleifera cv Bienvenu) with high performance liquid chromatography and immunoenzymic (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA) techniques. Results show that pod development is characterized by high levels of Z and [9R]Z in 3 day old fruits and of IAA on the fourth day. During pod maturation, initially a significant increase of IAA and cytokinins was observed, followed by a progressive rise of ABA levels and a concomitant decline of IAA and cytokinin (except iP) levels. The relationship between hormone levels and development, especially pod number, seed number per pod, and seed weight determination, will be discussed. PMID:16666891

  1. Rape and Child Sexual Abuse: What Beliefs Persist about Motives, Perpetrators, and Survivors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Hannah; O'Higgins, Madeleine; Garavan, Rebecca; Conroy, Ronan

    2011-01-01

    Rape myths are prejudicial and stereotyped beliefs about rape which persist in society. They may have a significant impact on those affected by rape as well as the performance of legal and public participants in the justice system. Rape myths may differ over time and within different societies and cultural settings. Awareness of contemporary and…

  2. Computational Humor 2012 : extended abstacts of the (3rd international) Workshop on computational Humor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Unknown, [Unknown

    2012-01-01

    Like its predecessors in 1996 (University of Twente, the Netherlands) and 2002 (ITC-irst, Trento, Italy), this Third International Workshop on Computational Humor (IWCH 2012) focusses on the possibility to find algorithms that allow understanding and generation of humor. There is the general aim of

  3. Humor in the Classroom: The Effects of Integrated Humor on Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolkan, San; Griffin, Darrin J.; Goodboy, Alan K.

    2018-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the impact of integrated humor on direct measures of students' ability to retain and transfer information from educational lessons. In two experiments, participants were randomly exposed to either a lesson with humorous examples or standard examples and were subsequently asked to take tests on the material. Data…

  4. Investigating the Effect of Humor Communication Skills Training on Pro-Social and Anti-Social Humor Styles, Cognitive Learning, Self-Efficacy, Motivation, and Humor Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, Lori E.

    2013-01-01

    Humor is an important aspect of interpersonal interactions as it is linked to the development and maintenance of relationships (Merolla, 2006). The purpose of this dissertation was to test the effect of a humor communication skills training program on the ability to minimize anti-social humor (i.e., aggressive, self-defeating) and enhance…

  5. Sense of Humor, Stable Affect, and Psychological Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnie Cann

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A good sense of humor has been implicated as a quality that could contribute to psychological well-being. The mechanisms through which sense of humor might operate include helping to reappraise threats, serving as a character strength, or facilitating happiness. The current research attempts to integrate these possibilities by examining whether a good sense of humor might operate globally by helping to maintain a more stable positive affect. Stable positive affect has been shown to facilitate more effective problem solving and to build resilience. However, not all humor is adaptive humor, so we also examine the roles that different styles of humor use might play. Individual differences in humor styles were used to predict stable levels of affect. Then, in a longitudinal design, humor styles and stable affect were used to predict subsequent resilience and psychological health. The results indicated that stable affect was related to resilience and psychological well-being, and that a sense of humor that involves self-enhancing humor, humor based on maintaining a humorous perspective about one’s experiences, was positively related to stable positive affect, negatively related to stable negative affect, and was mediated through stable affect in influencing resilience, well-being and distress. Thus, while a good sense of humor can lead to greater resilience and better psychological health, the current results, focusing on stable affect, find only self-enhancing humor provides reliable benefits.

  6. Self-Deprecating Humor Versus Other-Deprecating Humor in Health Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    LEE, JI YOUNG; SLATER, MICHAEL D.; TCHERNEV, JOHN

    2016-01-01

    Humor is sometimes employed in health messages. However, little is known about contingencies under which different types of humor may or may not be effective. This experiment crossed humorous vs. non-humorous and self- vs. other-deprecating messages about binge drinking, and tested how differences in personal investment in alcohol use moderates the effects of such messages on college binge drinkers. Results showed significant three-way interaction effects on subjective norms and behavioral intentions largely consistent with hypotheses. Assessment of significant differences in the interactions indicated that for binge drinkers who weren’t high in personal investment in alcohol use, other-deprecating humor tended to reduce their perceived subjective norms about the acceptability of binge drinking behavior and their behavioral intentions. The effect of the experimental manipulation on subjective norms among these binge drinkers was shown to mediate the effect on intentions to binge drink in the future. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:26020507

  7. Humor, laughter, and the cerebellum: insights from patients with acute cerebellar stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, B; Andrzejewski, K; Göricke, S; Wondzinski, E; Siebler, M; Wild, B; Timmann, D

    2013-12-01

    Extent of cerebellar involvement in cognition and emotion is still a topic of ongoing research. In particular, the cerebellar role in humor processing and control of laughter is not well known. A hypermetric dysregulation of affective behavior has been assumed in cerebellar damage. Thus, we aimed at investigating humor comprehension and appreciation as well as the expression of laughter in 21 patients in the acute or subacute state after stroke restricted to the cerebellum, and in the same number of matched healthy control subjects. Patients with acute and subacute cerebellar damage showed preserved comprehension and appreciation of humor using a validated humor test evaluating comprehension, funniness and aversiveness of cartoons ("3WD Humor Test"). Additionally, there was no difference when compared to healthy controls in the number and intensity of facial reactions and laughter while observing jokes, humorous cartoons, or video sketches measured by the Facial Action Coding System. However, as depression scores were significantly increased in patients with cerebellar stroke, a concealing effect of accompanying depression cannot be excluded. Current findings add to descriptions in the literature that cognitive or affective disorders in patients with lesions restricted to the cerebellum, even in the acute state after damage, are frequently mild and might only be present in more sensitive or specific tests.

  8. Investigating vision in schizophrenia through responses to humorous stimuli

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    Wolfgang Tschacher

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The visual environment of humans contains abundant ambiguity and fragmentary information. Therefore, an early step of vision must disambiguate the incessant stream of information. Humorous stimuli produce a situation that is strikingly analogous to this process: Funniness is associated with the incongruity contained in a joke, pun, or cartoon. Like in vision in general, appreciating a visual pun as funny necessitates disambiguation of incongruous information. Therefore, perceived funniness of visual puns was implemented to study visual perception in a sample of 36 schizophrenia patients and 56 healthy control participants. We found that both visual incongruity and Theory of Mind (ToM content of the puns were associated with increased experienced funniness. This was significantly less so in participants with schizophrenia, consistent with the gestalt hypothesis of schizophrenia, which would predict compromised perceptual organization in patients. The association of incongruity with funniness was not mediated by known predictors of humor appreciation, such as affective state, depression, or extraversion. Patients with higher excitement symptoms and, at a trend level, reduced cognitive symptoms, reported lower funniness experiences. An open question remained whether patients showed this deficiency of visual incongruity detection independent of their ToM deficiency. Humorous stimuli may be viewed as a convenient method to study perceptual processes, but also fundamental questions of higher-level cognition.

  9. Bimatoprost Effects on Aqueous Humor Dynamics in Monkeys

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    David F. Woodward

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of bimatoprost on aqueous humor dynamics were quantified in monkey eyes. Uveoscleral outflow was measured by the anterior chamber perfusion method, using FITC-dextran. Total outflow facility was determined by the two-level constant pressure method. Aqueous flow was measured with a scanning ocular fluorophotometer. Uveoscleral outflow was 0.96±0.19 L min−1 in vehicle-treated eyes and 1.37±0.27 L min−1 (=6; <.05 in eyes that received bimatoprost 0.01% b.i.d. × 5 days. Bimatoprost had no effect on total outflow facility, which was 0.42±0.05 L min−1 at baseline and 0.42±0.04 L min−1 after bimatoprost treatment. Bimatoprost had no significant effect on aqueous humor flow. This study demonstrates that bimatoprost increases uveoscleral outflow but not total outflow facility or aqueous humor flow, indicating that it lowers intraocular pressure in ocular normotensive monkeys by a mechanism that exclusively involves uveoscleral outflow.

  10. Sexual Assault Perpetrators’ Justifications for Their Actions: Relationships to Rape Supportive Attitudes, Incident Characteristics, and Future Perpetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Rhiana; Abbey, Antonia; Pierce, Jennifer; Pegram, Sheri E.; Woerner, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Perpetrators use rape supportive attitudes and sexual assault incident characteristics to justify forcing sex on their victims. Perpetrators who can justify their behaviors are at increased risk for future perpetration. This study examined the relationships between rape supportive attitudes, sexual assault incident characteristics, and the post-assault justifications of 183 men sampled from the community who self-reported committing at least one act of sexual aggression. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that rape supportive attitudes, expectations for having sex, misperceptions of sexual intent, victims’ alcohol consumption, attempts to be alone with her, and the number of consensual sexual activities prior to the unwanted sex were significant predictors of perpetrators’ post-assault use of justifications. Greater use of justifications was a significant predictor of sexual aggression over a 1-year follow-up interval. These findings demonstrate the need for further research exploring when and why perpetrators use post-assault justifications and whether they are amenable to change. PMID:26056162

  11. Forced sex, rape and sexual exploitation: attitudes and experiences of high school students in South Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulumeoderhwa, Maroyi; Harris, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on fieldwork carried out in 2011 with the aim of investigating the attitudes and reported behaviour of Congolese high school students concerning sexual relationships. A total of 56 boys and girls aged 16-20 from two urban and two rural high schools in South Kivu Province took part in focus groups, and 40 of these were subsequently interviewed individually. The majority of boys felt that they were entitled to sex from their girlfriends and that if persuasion was unsuccessful, the use of force was legitimate; this, in their minds, did not constitute rape. Girls, on the other hand, were clear that such forced sex was rape. However it may be understood, rape was perceived as having increased in recent years and was explained by weak legal systems, pornography and provocative dressing by girls. Boys were angry at the competition from older, often married, men who were able to provide monetary and other incentives to the girls.

  12. Humor: a pedagogical tool to promote learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabeli, M

    2008-09-01

    It has become critical that learners are exposed to varied methods of teaching and assessment that will promote critical thinking of learners. Humor creates a relaxed atmosphere where learning can be enhanced and appreciated. When learners are relaxed, thinking becomes eminent. Authoritative and tense environment hinders thinking. This paper seeks to explore the perceptions of nurse teacher learners regarding the use of humor as a pedagogical tool to promote learning. A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual research design was employed (Burns & Grove, 2001:61; Mouton, 1996:103). 130 naive sketches were collected from nurse teacher learners who volunteered to take part in the study (Giorgi in_Omery, 1983:52) Follow up interviews were conducted to verify the findings. A qualitative, open-coding method of content analysis was done Tesch (in Creswell, 1994:155). Measures to ensure trustworthiness of the study were taken in accordance with the protocol of (Lincoln & Guba, 1985:290-326). The findings of the study will assist the nurse educators to create a positive, affective, psychological and social learning environment through the use of humor in a positive manner. Nurse educators will appreciate the fact that integration of humor to the learning content will promote the learners' critical thinking and emotional intelligence. Negative humor has a negative impact on learning. Learner nurses who become critical thinkers will be able to be analytical and solve problems amicably in practice.

  13. Adult Playfulness, Humor Styles, and Subjective Happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xiao D; Leung, Chun-Lok; Hiranandani, Neelam A

    2016-12-01

    Playfulness has been referred to as a disposition that involves reframing a situation to amuse others and to make the situation more stimulating and enjoyable. It may serve to shift one's perspective when dealing with environmental threats. Despite all the benefits of playfulness towards psychological well-being, it remains a largely understudied subject in psychology, particularly in Chinese societies. Hence, this study examined the association between adult playfulness, humor styles, and subjective happiness among a sample of 166 university students in Hong Kong and 159 students in Guangzhou, who completed a self-administered questionnaire, including the Short Measure for Adult Playfulness, the Chinese Humor Styles Questionnaire, and the Subjective Happiness Scale. Results showed that adult playfulness was positively correlated with affiliative humor, self-enhancing humor, and subjective happiness in both Hong Kong and Guangzhou samples. By its implication, highly playful Chinese students preferred using affiliative and self-enhancing humor to amuse themselves and others. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Humor as Wisdom for Reframing Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Uk

    2018-04-01

    Human beings inevitably experience anxiety but attempt to avoid facing it through various forms of self-deception. This avoidance can lead to pathological symptoms. Young and middle-aged adults may be especially susceptible to suffering from anxiety because they are often single-mindedly pursuing means of achieving security. For these and others who fail to embrace life with warm enthusiasm, humor can serve to alleviate stress. This article views humor as a characteristic disposition of older adults-their humor signifying a sense of integrity and wisdom that often accompanies the aging process. Humor binds together feelings of despair and joy and contributes to a faithful reframing of faith and life. This article proposes that individuals acquire humor by perceiving the world as if on a journey to an exotic new place, seeing with new eyes even the most mundane of everyday objects and events. This capacity to perceive beauty in the ordinary world reflects a wisdom of older adults potentially available even to the young.

  15. Effects of Field Conditions on Emergence of Oilseed Rape Seed lots Grown in Khorasan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Yanegh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Nineteen irrigated farms of canola from six cities of Khorasan selected to assess the seedling emergence one month after sowing in 2009. Soil texture of each farm determined using the Hydrometer method. The results showed that weather conditions of sowing areas had no significant effect on emergence of oilseed rape. With increasing the temperature (within the range of 19.5 to 21.5 ˚C emergence percentage was not increased significantly. Rainfall also caused no significant effect on seedling emergence. The percentage of emergence in machine-sowing and hand-sowing were 38.4% and 28%, respectively. Soils with loam silt, silt clay loam and loam texture had emergence of 27.2%, 31.2% and 47% respectively. It seems soil texture plays a great roll on the emergence of oilseed rape with epigeal seedlings.

  16. Feasibility of a Humor Training to Promote Humor and Decrease Stress in a Subclinical Sample: A Single-Arm Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nektaria Tagalidou

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the feasibility of a humor training for a subclinical sample suffering from increased stress, depressiveness, or anxiety. Based on diagnostic interviews, 35 people were invited to participate in a 7-week humor training. Evaluation measures were filled in prior training, after training, and at a 1-month follow-up including humor related outcomes (coping humor and cheerfulness and mental health-related outcomes (perceived stress, depressiveness, anxiety, and well-being. Outcomes were analyzed using repeated-measures ANOVAs. Within-group comparisons of intention-to-treat analysis showed main effects of time with large effect sizes on all outcomes. Post hoc tests showed medium to large effect sizes on all outcomes from pre to post and results remained stable until follow-up. Satisfaction with the training was high, attrition rate low (17.1%, and participants would highly recommend the training. Summarizing the results, the pilot study showed promising effects for people suffering from subclinical symptoms. All outcomes were positively influenced and showed stability over time. Humor trainings could be integrated more into mental health care as an innovative program to reduce stress whilst promoting also positive emotions. However, as this study was a single-arm pilot study, further research (including also randomized controlled trials is still needed to evaluate the effects more profoundly.

  17. Gender-Blind Sexism and Rape Myth Acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Laurie Cooper; Lilley, Terry Glenn; Pinter, Kelly

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore whether gender-blind sexism, as an extension of Bonilla-Silva's racialized social system theory, is an appropriate theoretical framework for understanding the creation and continued prevalence of rape myth acceptance. Specifically, we hypothesize that individuals who hold attitudes consistent with the frames of gender-blind sexism are more likely to accept common rape myths. Data for this article come from an online survey administered to the entire undergraduate student body at a large Midwestern institution (N = 1,401). Regression analysis showed strong support for the effects of gender-blind sexism on rape myth acceptance. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Meat and bone meal as nitrogen and phosphorus supplier to cereals and oilseed rape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Nogalska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of meat and bone meal (MBM on cultivation of winter triticale, winter oilseed rape, winter wheat and maize. The average annual yields and protein yield achieved in crop rotation were studied. The field trials were carried out in north-eastern Poland in 2006–2010. The factor was dose of MBM: 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 t ha-1 year-1 or 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 and 5.0 t ha-1 every other year. The four-year experiment has proven that MBM is a valuable nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer in cultivation of cereals and oilseed rape. By amendment of the tested meal into the soil it produced crop yield and protein yield similar to that achieved by mineral fertilization. However, the crude fat yield of rape was significantly higher under the influence of all the MBM doses. The yield-stimulating effect of MBM did not depend on the frequency of its application; therefore it is more convenient to apply it once every two years. Increasing MBM from 1.5 to 2.5 t ha-1 did not significantly increase any of the four crop yields, therefore for soils that had satisfactory nutrients content, 1 or 1.5 t ha-1 MBM is enough and increasing MBM will only increase economic burden for farmers and environmental risks.

  19. Effects of strontium stress on antioxidant characteristics of oilseed rape seedling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ao Jia; Tang Yunlai; Chen Mei; An Bing; Wang Dan; Tao Yang

    2010-01-01

    Seedlings of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) were treated with different concentration of Sr 2+ (0, 10, 20, 40 mmol/L SrCl 2 ) for 0, 7, 14, 21 days under quartz sand and Hoagland solution culture, and the antioxidant characteristics and Sr 2+ accumulation of seedling were investigated. Rape seedlings showed high accumulation capacity for strontium, especial the leaves. But the accumulation capacity declined with the increasing of Sr 2+ concentration. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) increased with the increasing of Sr 2+ concentration and then declined with the extention of the stress time. The activity of catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) declined with the increasing of the Sr 2+ accumulation capacity. This study showed that oilseed rape had a very high strontium-tolerant and strontium-uptake capacity, and leaf was the organ that accumulates most of strontium. The accumulation capacity and activity of CAT, POD exhibited a significantly-negative correlation. (authors)

  20. [Positive aspects of old ages - humor of seniors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mareš, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    This survey study has five parts. In the first part two conceptual approaches to humor are characterized. One considers "the comic" to be an umbrella concept, and humor is only one of its rather positive forms. The other comes out from the umbrella concept "humor", and distinguishes between various forms of humor including the negative ones. Three main theories of humor are presented: theory of superiority, theory of incongruity, and a relief theory. The second part introduces humor in the elderly and draws the attention to the fact that we know relatively little about humor in old age because most research has been carried out in children, adolescents or adults in productive age. The third part of the study describes the process of diagnostics of humor in the elderly. For example, within the qualitative methods, in-depth interviews with seniors or analyses of their diary entries are used. Within quantitative methods, questionnaires are used, and this study presents the survey of seven most frequent ones applied in the studies of humor in the elderly. In the context of mixed methods, understanding of humor in young and seniors, or understanding of humor in relatively healthy seniors and seniors after stroke are compared. The fourth part of the study presents the Gelkopfs model on relationship between humor, treatment and cure of patients. The fifth part of the study demonstrates the options how to use humor to improve the mental state of the elderly (by means of individual or group interventions).

  1. [Humor in Medicine - The Art of Leaping Over the Shadows].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Barbara

    2017-12-01

    Humor and laughter are integral parts of human life and communication - and so of course they occur in medical contacts.Humor is defined as a personality based cognitive emotional style of processing situations, characterized by the ability to find positive aspects even in negative situations, and the ability to communicate this point of view to others and to cheer them up. Humor can support healing processes and coping with illness. Humor and jokes reduce anxiety and stress (for patients and doctors). Humorous people have a more realistic, flexible and less fearful behaviour. Humor helps to overcome negative experience. Humor can help the patient to gain new views towards the disease and a healthy distance towards occurring symptoms. Humor improves the relationship between patient and doctor. But beware: jokes can also be used to express fears, aggression or shame. Therefore it is worthwhile to listen carefully to what patients want to express. Humor reduces the risk of burnout. In contact with patients, it is important to give their humor room, to use it and respond to it, more than making jokes. Humor can be trained. Humor training and creation of a humorous atmosphere in health care facilities should also be supported by health insurance funds, institutions' sponsors and public authorities. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Transfer of thallium from rape seed to rape oil is negligible and oil is fit for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loula, Martin; Kaňa, Antonín; Vosmanská, Magda; Koplík, Richard; Mestek, Oto

    2016-01-01

    Rape and other Brassicaceae family plants can accumulate appreciable amounts of thallium from the soil. Because some species of this family are common crops utilised as food for direct consumption or raw materials for food production, thallium can enter the food chain. A useful method for thallium determination is inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The limit of detection (0.2 pg ml(-1) Tl or 0.02 ng g(-1) Tl, taking in the account dilution during sample decomposition) found in the current study was very low, and the method can be used for ultra-trace analysis. Possible transfer of thallium from rape seed to the rape oil was investigated in two ways. The balance of thallium in rape seed meal (content 140-200 ng g(-1) Tl) and defatted rape seed meal indicated that thallium did not pass into the oil (p thallium in six kinds of edible rape seed oil and three kinds of margarines showed that the amount of thallium in rape seed oil is negligible.

  3. Mecanismos de humor verbal en Twitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Simarro Vázquez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The present article aims to characterize samples of verbal humor published on the social network Twitter. To do so, an analysis of 81 humorous texts published under the hashtag #otegi during 1 March 2016, on which date Arnaldo Otegi was released from prison after six years, was carried out. A pragmatic study of the tweets was performed, opting for the General Theory of Verbal Humor as a basis. The examination conducted reveals that the manner of presentation of opposing scripts, the logical mechanisms availed of to resolve this kind of incongruity, the special narrative strategies selected and the linguistic choices made are determined at all times by the circumstances in which the texts are presented and the upper limit constraint of 140 characters per Twitter publication.

  4. Humor comprehension and appreciation: an FMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolo, Angela; Benuzzi, Francesca; Nocetti, Luca; Baraldi, Patrizia; Nichelli, Paolo

    2006-11-01

    Humor is a unique ability in human beings. Suls [A two-stage model for the appreciation of jokes and cartoons. In P. E. Goldstein & J. H. McGhee (Eds.), The psychology of humour. Theoretical perspectives and empirical issues. New York: Academic Press, 1972, pp. 81-100] proposed a two-stage model of humor: detection and resolution of incongruity. Incongruity is generated when a prediction is not confirmed in the final part of a story. To comprehend humor, it is necessary to revisit the story, transforming an incongruous situation into a funny, congruous one. Patient and neuroimaging studies carried out until now lead to different outcomes. In particular, patient studies found that right brain-lesion patients have difficulties in humor comprehension, whereas neuroimaging studies suggested a major involvement of the left hemisphere in both humor detection and comprehension. To prevent activation of the left hemisphere due to language processing, we devised a nonverbal task comprising cartoon pairs. Our findings demonstrate activation of both the left and the right hemispheres when comparing funny versus nonfunny cartoons. In particular, we found activation of the right inferior frontal gyrus (BA 47), the left superior temporal gyrus (BA 38), the left middle temporal gyrus (BA 21), and the left cerebellum. These areas were also activated in a nonverbal task exploring attribution of intention [Brunet, E., Sarfati, Y., Hardy-Bayle, M. C., & Decety, J. A PET investigation of the attribution of intentions with a nonverbal task. Neuroimage, 11, 157-166, 2000]. We hypothesize that the resolution of incongruity might occur through a process of intention attribution. We also asked subjects to rate the funniness of each cartoon pair. A parametric analysis showed that the left amygdala was activated in relation to subjective amusement. We hypothesize that the amygdala plays a key role in giving humor an emotional dimension.

  5. The effect of phytohormones on the 133Cs and 88Sr accumulation in oilseed rape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Mengluo; Xu Changhe; Li Xinlei; Wang Dan

    2011-01-01

    The effect of uptake and distribution of 133 Cs and 88 Sr in the common plant-India mustard (Brassica napus L.) by exogenous phytohormones (Gibberelin-A 3 GA 3 , Salicylates, SA, 3-indole acetic acid, IAA) treatments were studied by using hydroponic experiment. The results shown as follows: the biomass of above-ground and that of roots of oilseed rape were obviously higher than that of contrary (non-hormone), and the accumulation of 133 Cs and 88 Sr increased as well, under the three phytohormones treatments. The distribution sequence of 133 Cs and 88 Sr in oilseed rape was roots>above-grounds, and the contents was 1 3 3 Cs> 88 Sr. The accumulation ability of phytohormones was GA>SA>IAA, the accumulation of 133 Cs or 88 Sr increased with the phytohormone concentration. The treatment of mid-level of Gibberelin-A 3 (500 mg/L) and Salicylates acid (500 μmol/L) increased the biomass, enrichment and the translocation factors under the low concentration of 133 Cs and 88 Sr stress (1 mmol/L). Therefore, the phyto-extraction efficiency was enhanced in oilseed rape by using exogenous phytohormones. (authors)

  6. The value of humor in psycotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Chazenbalk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The main point of this work is to show how humor—when is used properly- has a positive effect on the patient ant the therapist’s self improving their alliance, supervision and team meetings. It’s also good for profesionals to include humor, recreation and rest in their job routines, because these ingredients let them be more effective in psychoterapy. The vast majority of psychological theories agree on its importance. The Cognitive Psychology believes that humor helps the patient evaluate reality in a different way, stops disfunctional thoughts, lets the expression of negative emotions and finds more adaptative patterns. 

  7. Humor and Competence in School-aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masten, Ann S.

    1986-01-01

    Measures humor appreciation (including mirth, subjective ratings, and response sets), comprehension, and production in children between the ages of 10 and 14. Relates humor to several areas of competence manifested at school. (HOD)

  8. [The Use of Humor in Psychotherapy: a View].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaloult, Guillaume; Blondeau, Claude

    The goal of this article is to expose different aspects of the use of humor in therapy. We hope that it will stimulate reflection and guide the clinician toward appropriate use of humorous interventions. Historical highlights of the topic will be presented. Then a practical definition of therapeutic humor and the main theories about humor will be reviewed. We will also discuss the probable mechanisms of action explaining the efficacy of humor in psychotherapy, as well as potential risks and benefits of its use. We will try to determine different factors influencing the patient's receptivity to humor. Subsequently, a classification of humor will be proposed, followed by a description of selected types of humor often used in therapy, with clinical cases as examples.

  9. Rape embryogenesis I. The proembryo development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Tykarska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of the proembryo of rape Brassica napus L. from the zygote to the young embryo proper is described. A number of regularities were found in the direction, succession, and distribution of segmental and differentiating divisions of the proembryo. The direction of the divisions seems to foe determined by the direction of growth and the shape of the cells. The termyoung embryo proper is proposed to denote the globular embryo which already possesses separate plerome and periblem mother-cells and mother-cells of the iec layer and of clumella. The body of the embryo proper is derived from the apical cell ca which arose from the first division of the zygote and from the hypophysis - the only suspensor cell which closes the spheroid of the embryo. The development of the Brassica napus L. proembryo follows the sub-archetype Capsella bursa-pastoris in the IV megarchetype of Soueges.

  10. Ozone dose-response relationships for spring oilseed rape and broccoli

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bock, Maarten; Op de Beeck, Maarten; De Temmerman, Ludwig; Guisez, Yves; Ceulemans, Reinhart; Vandermeiren, Karine

    2011-03-01

    Tropospheric ozone is an important air pollutant with known detrimental effects for several crops. Ozone effects on seed yield, oil percentage, oil yield and 1000 seed weight were examined for spring oilseed rape ( Brassica napus cv. Ability). For broccoli ( Brassica oleracea L. cv. Italica cv. Monaco) the effects on fresh marketable weight and total dry weight were studied. Current ozone levels were compared with an increase of 20 and 40 ppb during 8 h per day, over the entire growing season. Oilseed rape seed yield was negatively correlated with ozone dose indices calculated from emergence until harvest. This resulted in an R2 of 0.24 and 0.26 ( p broccoli the applied ozone doses had no effect on yield.

  11. Angustia y humor en Papelucho de Marcela Paz

    OpenAIRE

    Edgardo

    2015-01-01

    Los estudios clásicos sobre el humor identifican una interrelación estrecha entre humor y angustia. En la serie narrativa Papelucho, esta interacción es constante en la trama de las distintas novelas. Este trabajo describe la interacción entre humor y angustia que se da en la obra y reflexiona sobre su sentido. Se concluye que la serie propone el humor como estrategia para enfrentar los hechos angustiantes ineludibles en la vida.

  12. "A Nigger Joke":Black Humor in Toni Morrison's Sula

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐宗诗

    2016-01-01

    #%With irony at its core, black humor is a weapon for the powerless to fight against those in power. In Sula, Morrison ex-ploits irony to reveal the oppression that racism and sexism impose upon the black people. This paper mainly intends to explore the black humor in Sula from verbal humor, ridiculous events and distorted characters, and analyze the function of black humor.

  13. Schema Effects of Rape Myth Acceptance on Judgments of Guilt and Blame in Rape Cases: The Role of Perceived Entitlement to Judge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyssel, Friederike; Bohner, Gerd

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments (N = 330) examined conditions that facilitate biasing effects of rape myth acceptance (RMA) on judgments of blame in rape cases. In both experiments, participants read a short vignette depicting a rape case. In Experiment 1, the amount of case-irrelevant information about defendant and plaintiff was varied. As predicted, high-RMA…

  14. Bioenergy for farms - turnip rape oil, biodiesel and biogas

    OpenAIRE

    Kuisma, Miia

    2006-01-01

    One research and one development project concerning production and processing technique of organic turnip rape is going on in Finland in 2006-2008. The development project concerns also biogas production from biomass.

  15. A model for predicting depression in victims of rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regehr, C; Regehr, G; Bradford, J

    1998-01-01

    This article proposes a model for understanding the factors contributing to long-standing depression in women who have been raped. A path analysis of data obtained from 71 women who had been raped revealed that women with generalized beliefs that they could not control events in their lives were more likely to attribute responsibility for their rape to permanent intrapsychic factors and were more likely to be depressed. Women who perceived that they had higher levels of internal control tended to have higher levels of education, were more likely to be employed, and were less likely to be depressed more than one year after having been raped. Childhood sexual abuse was not associated with internal control or attributions of causality or depression in this analysis. Implications for the determination of prognosis and treatment recommendations in civil litigation assessments are discussed.

  16. 161 ETHICAL PROBLEMS OF RAPE AS A SOCIAL CANKERWORM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    violence that involves intercourse without consent or against someone being willing ... Rape is a global problem with women and children being mostly vulnerable .... allows their wards to spend too much time watching television where sex is ...

  17. Evolution of Rape Myths and Sexual Assaults in Newspaper Coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Wen Tsai

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an analysis of the coverage of three newspapers of rape in the daily Press in Taiwan. The idea that rape is a sexual rather than an aggressive act encourages people not to take it seriously as a crime-an attitude frequently revealed in comments by defense attorneys and newspaper. The authors’ investigated that the female victim who did not know most of her attackers will be portrayed as helpless and not responsible for her victimization. The newspapers sustained and reinforced the myths that a woman who is having consensual sex cannot be raped, and if so, she is held culpable and perceived as “asking for it.” A content analysis of newspapers’ headlines and coverage between 2002 and 2013 showed that more than 50% endorsed a rape myth.

  18. Page | 131 RISING CASES OF RAPE OFFENCES IN NIGERIA: NEW ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    Key words: Rape, Rising Cases, New Measures, Penetration, Criminal Justice System, Tripod. 1. Introduction ... International Law and Jurisprudence, Faculty of Law, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka. .... 10 Sexual Offences Act 2003 of the UK.

  19. Genotypic variation of rape in phosphorus uptake from sparingly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-02-14

    Feb 14, 2012 ... that exudation of organic acids by rape roots are probably involved in P ... Plant materials and seedling growth ..... Diversity in root architecture and ... froms, element distribution, and release of organic substances. Plant.

  20. Vitreous Humor Changes Expression of Iron-Handling Proteins in Lens Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goralska, Malgorzata; Fleisher, Lloyd N.; McGahan, M. Christine

    2017-01-01

    Purpose In humans, vitrectomy is associated with development of nuclear cataracts. Iron catalyzes free radical formation causing oxidative damage, which is implicated in cataract formation. This study was designed to determine if vitreous humor, which can initiate differentiation of lens epithelial cells, would have an effect on iron-handling proteins. Methods Cultured canine lens epithelial cells were treated with collected canine vitreous humor. Lysates of treated and control cells were separated by SDS-PAGE. Ferritin H- and L-chains, transferrin receptor 1, and aquaporin 0 were immunodetected and quantitated with specific antibodies. Morphologic changes in treated cells were assessed. Results Treatment of lens epithelial cells with a 33% (vol/vol) solution of vitreous humor changed the morphology of lens cells and induced expression of aquaporin 0, a marker of fiber cell differentiation that was undetectable in control cells. Treatment did not modify the size of iron-handling proteins but significantly increased content of ferritin from 2.9- to 8.8-fold over control and decreased levels of transferrin receptor by 37% to 59%. Conclusions Vitreous humor may significantly limit iron uptake by transferrin/transferrin receptor pathway, and by increasing ferritin levels could profoundly increase the iron-storage capacity of ferritin in lens cells. Vitreous humor may play a significant protective role against iron-catalyzed oxidative damage of lens epithelial cells and therefore in the formation of cataracts. PMID:28245299

  1. Rape phosphatide concentrate in the technologies of surfactants production by the Actinobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Koretska

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Due to the fact that the production of microbial surfactants is limited by the low yield of end products and high cost of processes, the actual task is to optimize and reduce the cost of the technology of biosurfactants synthesis. One of the solutions of this problem is to use the industrial wastes, including rape phosphatide concentrate (PC. Materials and methods. Hexadecane and rape phosphatide concentrate (2% were used as a carbon source in a nutrient medium for the cultivation of bacteria. Lipids were extracted from a cell mass and supernatant by the mixture of chloroform-methanol 2:1. The qualitative analysis of metabolites was performed by a thin layer chromatography. Results and discussion. The peculiarities of synthesis of biosurfactants by strains G. rubripertincta UCM Aс-122 and R. erythropolis Au-1 during the growth on the nutrient media with rape phosphatide concentrate as a carbon source was studied. Quantity of biomass was 9.4 – 10.1 g/l, exopoly mers –8.9-9.5 g/l and the content of cellbound trehalose lipids was 1.37 – 2.26 g/l; whereas the content of exogenous trehalose lipids –metabolites of R. erythropolis Au-1 was 2.95 g/l. It was found that the addition of trehalose lipids (0.01 g/l to the nutrient medium caused the increase of biomass on 14.6 –17.0 % and cell-bound lipids on 13.9 –15.5 %. Conclusions. Rape phosphatide concentrate is economically viable carbon source in the technologies of surfactant production by Actinobacteria. Its use promotes an increasing of exogenous surfactants strain R. erythropolisAu-1 in 3-fold compared with cultivation on nutrient medium with hexadecane. Trehalose lipids show a stimulating effect on growth and synthesis of biosurfactants by strains of G. rubripertincta UCM Ac-122 and R. erythropolisAu-1.

  2. Impacts of adding different components of wood vinegar on rape (Brassica napus L.) seed germiantion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Xue; Liu, Xia; Zhang, Qian

    2018-03-01

    In recent years, wood vinegar has been widely used in the agricultural production. It can be used as the soil amendment, antibacterial agent and organic fertilizer. This study investigated the effect of wood vinegar on rape (Brassica napus L.) seed germination. The results in this study showed that 1% (v/v) wood vinegar had the greatest inhibition effect on the seed germination of rape (Brassica napus L.). The wood vinegar (WV) and the distilled wood vinegar at 98 - 130 °C (D2) significantly inhibited seed germination by 100%, compared to the control treatment. However, the distilled wood vinegar (D1) had significantly increased the shoot length and root length by 58.4% and 31.7%, respectively. These positive effects could be attributed to the improved soil fertility, increased nutrient supply, and further stimulated plant growth. Overall, the D1 could be a promising soil amendment to promote plants growth and enhance crop yields. Effect of adding different components of distilled wood vinegar on the seed germination of rape

  3. Changes in seed weight in response to different sources: sink ratio in oilseed rape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco M Iglesias

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Little knowledge exists about the degree of source, sink and source: sink limitations on mean seed weight in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.. The objective of this work was to analyze the nature and magnitude on seed weight response to assimilate availability during the effective seed-filling period in oilseed rape. Three Argentinean varieties, Eclipse, Impulse, and Master, were grown under field conditions, and at the beginning of the effective seed filling period, a broad range of source: sink manipulation combinations were produced. Source manipulations consisted of two incoming radiation (R level reductions: 0% (Rn and ~50% (Rs combined with three different sources: sink treatments were applied: C, control; PR, ~50% pod removal, and D, 100% defoliation. Rs significantly reduced yield (15% and MSW (12% with respect to Rn, without significant effects on the rest of the sub yield components. Source:sink manipulation treatments significantly affected all yield components. PR diminished yield by 29%, reducing ca. 40% seeds pl-1 by reductions pods pl-1 (41% with respect to Rn, whereas PR increased MSW by 19%, counterbalancing the reduction in seeds pl-1 and thereby in yield. When considering different seed positions along the main raceme, Rs reduced MSW by 12% independently of seed positions onto the raceme. On the contrary, PR increased MSW in average 17% with respect to C. Results reported here suggest that oilseed rape has source: sink co-limitation during the effective seed filling period, which is apparently higher than wheat and lower than maize.

  4. Uptake of 3HHO and 32P by roots of wheat and rape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bole, J.B.

    1977-01-01

    Direct measurements were made of 3 HHO and 32 P taken up from labelled soil by roots of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and rape (Brassica campestris L.). Single roots were encased in labelled soil for 3 days, and the amount of 3 HHO and 32 P retained in the shoots was determined. Plants were grown to five stages of maturity in growth boxes under controlled conditions. Roots were labelled at up to four depths (to 90 cm) depending on the rooting depth at each stage of maturity. Uptake of 3 HHP per unit length of root increased as the plant age increased, while uptake of 32 P decreased to below detection levels by 45 days after germination. Larger amounts of both nutrients were translocated to and retained in the shoots from surface roots than from roots located deeper in the soil although the soil was uniform in temperature, bulk density, and composition through the growth boxes. Wheat roots were more efficient than rape roots in absorbing 3 HHO; however, rape roots took up larger amounts of 32 P per unit length of root. Neither native nor added P located more than 30 cm deep is of much importance to these annual crops, since uptake is minimal and the main demand for this nutrient occurs at early growth stages when the root system is restricted to the surface layers

  5. An Empirical Exploration Into the Measurement of Rape Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicole L; Johnson, Dawn M

    2017-09-01

    Feminist scholars have long argued the presence of a "rape culture" within the United States; however, limited efforts have been made to quantify this construct. A model of rape culture was first proposed in 1980 and expanded in the 1990s in an effort to quantify rape myth acceptance. This model posits that five underlying components make up a rape culture: traditional gender roles, sexism, adversarial sexual beliefs, hostility toward women, and acceptance of violence. Although these components are proposed as cultural phenomenon and thus distinct from individually held beliefs, they have been exclusively explored on an individual level. Thus, to promote exploration of this phenomenon beyond individually held beliefs, the authors adapted a series of well-established measures to assess the perceived peer support of the constructs proposed to underlie rape culture and assess initial reliability and validity in a sample of 314 college students. Following determination of reliability and validity of these adapted measures, a hierarchical confirmatory factor analysis was run to examine the proposed model of rape culture. Results of this study highlight the uniqueness between individual and cultural factors as several items did not translate from an individual (i.e., personal endorsement) to a cultural level (i.e., perceived peer support) and were subsequently removed from the proposed final measurements. Furthermore, initial support for the aforementioned model of rape culture was identified. These findings are crucial given that limited conclusions may be drawn about the existence and in turn eradication of rape culture without an agreed upon definition and source of measurement.

  6. PTSD of rape after IS ("Islamic State") captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizilhan, Jan Ilhan

    2018-03-10

    Research into the psychological consequences of rape on women in war and warlike situations is limited. The aims of this study were (a) to describe the prevalence and the nature of PTSD symptoms among Yazidi women reporting rape during IS captivity, (b) to describe comorbidity of other psychological disorders, and (c) to examine the risk factors associated with posttraumatic stress disorder.The study included 296 Yazidi women survivors of rape and has been conducted in Germany since January 2016 as part of a special-quota project in the German region of Baden-Wuerttemberg, designed to support the women and children who have escaped after being held hostage by IS.The survivors were recruited into a retrospective, cross-sectional study. Interviews in Germany were done through trained personnel to evaluate the mental health status of raped women.All the investigated women had been raped many times during IS captivity. About 82% of the women were also physically tortured. Of the sample, 67% suffered from somatoform disorder, 53% suffered from depression, 39% from anxiety, and 28% from dissociation. The prevalence of PTSD in those with rape events of more than 20 times was 57% (95% CI = 35.1-65.9%), less than 20 times was 41% (95%, CI = 28.7-4.8% and less than 10 times 39% [95% CI = 28.2-41.8%], respectively.The IS captivity and wartime rapes had deep immediate and long-term consequences on the mental health of women survivors. The high prevalence of PTSD emphasizes the need for culturally sensitive diagnostic and therapeutic services to address the intermediate and long-term consequences of wartime rape.

  7. Factors related to the reporting of childhood rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, R F; Resnick, H S; Saunders, B E; Kilpatrick, D G; Best, C

    1999-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether there would be differences in reported versus unreported cases of childhood rape on incident characteristics including life threat, physical injury, identity of the perpetrator, frequency of assault(s), and rates of posttraumatic stress disorder or major depression. In a telephone interview, a national probability sample of 4,008 (weighted) adult women was screened for a history of completed rape in childhood. Respondents were also assessed for DSM-III-R diagnoses of major depressive episode and/or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Three hundred forty-one (8.5%) of these women were victims of at least one rape prior to the age of 18, for a total of 437 completed rapes. Of these 437 rape incidents, 52 (11.9%) were reported to the police or other authorities. Significant differences were obtained between reported versus nonreported cases on incident characteristics, including life threat, physical injury, identity of the perpetrator. Reported cases were more likely to involve life threat and/or physical injury, and were more likely to have been committed by a stranger than nonreported cases. No significant differences between reported and nonreported cases were found concerning whether the rape involved a single incident versus series of events, or rates of PTSD or major depression. Findings suggest that different characteristics are associated with reported versus unreported cases of childhood rape. Since few cases of childhood rape are actually reported to the authorities, it appears that we may be missing valuable information. Implications for research and clinical intervention are discussed.

  8. Humor in Human-Computer Interaction : A Short Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Anton; Niculescu, Andreea; Valitutti, Alessandro; Banchs, Rafael E.; Joshi, Anirudha; Balkrishan, Devanuj K.; Dalvi, Girish; Winckler, Marco

    2017-01-01

    This paper is a short survey on humor in human-computer interaction. It describes how humor is designed and interacted with in social media, virtual agents, social robots and smart environments. Benefits and future use of humor in interactions with artificial entities are discussed based on

  9. Humor and Anxiety: Effects on Class Test Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Michael A. R.; Mahoney, Peggy

    1981-01-01

    Measures of anxiety and achievement were obtained on a sample of undergraduate students. Highly anxious students had lower achievement on humorous tests. Students with low anxiety had higher achievement on humorous tests. Results indicate that humor is not a positive factor in reducing high anxiety associated with academic evaluations. (Author)

  10. Appreciation of humor is decreased among patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, Avner; Posen, Jennie; Giladi, Nir; Manor, Yael; Mayanz, Connie; Mirelman, Anat; Gurevich, Tanya

    2012-02-01

    To test whether appreciation of humor might be a non-motor function affected by Parkinson's disease (PD). Thirty-nine PD patients and 38 healthy controls participated in this study. Appreciation of humor and effect of the presentation method utilized were assessed. Sense of humor was evaluated by the sense of humor questionnaire (SHQ-6). Humor appreciation was tested using three methods of presentation: videos, audio sketches and pictorial cartoons, each portraying both obvious and non-obvious humor content. Depression, anxiety, cognition, disease severity and quality of life were measured by standardized questionnaires and correlated with humor outcomes. Patients with PD rated humor content lower than controls on every method of presentation as well as on the SHQ-6 (p = 0.004). The greatest between-group difference was noted when the material was presented visually via pictorial cartoons (p < 0.0001). In addition, obvious humor content was rated higher than non-obvious content by the PD group in all three presentation methods (p < 0.05). The degree of depression and anxiety did not influence these results. Patients with PD have a decreased sense of humor compared to healthy controls. Utilizing audio methods of presentation and humor in an obvious mode appears to be the preferred approach for eliciting responses to humor in a PD population. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Humor Assessment and Interventions in Palliative Care: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M. Linge-Dahl

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The central goal of palliative care is to optimize the quality of life of patients suffering from life-limiting illnesses, which includes psychosocial and spiritual wellbeing. Research has demonstrated positive correlations between humor and laughter with life satisfaction and other aspects of wellbeing, and physiological symptoms can be improved by humorous stimuli.Objectives: The aim of this review is to evaluate humor interventions and assessments that have been applied in palliative care and to derive implications for future research.Methods: A systematic review of four databases identified 13 included studies. Criteria for inclusion were peer-reviewed English-language studies on humor interventions or assessments in a palliative care context.Results: Two studies on humor interventions and 11 studies on humor assessment were included in the systematic review. Most of these studies were about the patients' perspective on humor in palliative care. Findings showed that humor had a positive effect on patients, their relatives, and professional caregivers. Humor was widely perceived as appropriate and seen as beneficial to care in all studies.Conclusions: Even though humor interventions seem to be potentially useful in palliative care, descriptions evaluating their use are scarce. Overall, research on humor assessment and interventions in palliative care has remained limited in terms of quantity and quality. More research activities are needed to build a solid empirical foundation for implementing humor and laughter as part of regular palliative care activities.

  12. Truly Funny: Humor, Irony, and Satire as Moral Criticism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadlez, E. M.

    2011-01-01

    The occasional role of humor as a vehicle for moral criticism is investigated. I begin by distinguishing between this particular role and the other kinds of ways in which humor and amusement might be regarded through a moral lens, consider historical approaches to humor that corroborate the kind of role for it on which my investigation focuses,…

  13. Humor Styles and Leadership Styles: Community College Presidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrica, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between leadership styles (transformational, transactional, laissez-faire) and humor styles (affiliative, self-enhancing, aggressive, self-defeating) of community college presidents. Research has shown that humor and leadership styles are related and that humor may enhance interpersonal…

  14. Higher Education Lecturing and Humor: From Perspectives to Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri, Fuzhan; Mafakheri, Fereshteh

    2015-01-01

    This article will review the issues surrounding the use of humor as an informal teaching method in higher education lecturing. The impact and usefulness of humor, from both a teacher's and a student's perspective, will be investigated. The aim is to classify the challenges and limitations of using humor in classrooms and to investigate and…

  15. Humor in Context: Fire Service and Joking Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Larry; Roth, Gene

    2013-01-01

    Although theorizing about humor has occurred for several decades, scant research exists that examines humor in the broad context of human resource development. Humor exists in workplaces and it is historicized in the professional and organizational contexts of workers. This paper explores aspects of a joking culture within the specific work…

  16. Cannabis e humor Cannabis and mood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Faria Sanches

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as relações entre o uso agudo e crônico de cannabis e alterações do humor. MÉTODO: Os artigos foram selecionados por meio de busca eletrônica no indexador PubMed. Capítulos de livros e as listas de referências dos artigos selecionados também foram revisados. RESULTADOS: Observam-se elevados índices de comorbidade entre abuso/dependência de cannabis e transtornos afetivos em estudos transversais e em amostras clínicas. Estudos longitudinais indicam que, em longo prazo, o uso mais intenso de cannabis está relacionado com um risco maior de desenvolvimento de doença bipolar e, talvez, depressão maior em indivíduos inicialmente sem quadros afetivos; porém, os mesmos não encontraram maior risco de uso de cannabis entre aqueles com mania ou depressão sem esta comorbidade. Outra importante observação é que o uso de substâncias psicoativas em bipolares pode estar associado a uma série de características negativas, como dificuldade na recuperação dos sintomas afetivos, maior número de internações, piora na adesão ao tratamento, risco aumentado de suicídio, agressividade e a uma pobre resposta ao lítio. Tratamentos psicossociais e farmacológicos são indicados para o manejo da comorbidade entre cannabis e transtornos afetivos. CONCLUSÃO: As relações entre o uso de cannabis e alterações do humor são observadas tanto epidemiologicamente quanto nos contextos clínicos.OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the relationship between acute and chronic use of cannabis and mood changes. METHOD: Articles were selected by electronic search in PubMed. Chapters in books and reference lists of selected articles were also reviewed. As the research did not involve humans, there was no evaluation by a Research Ethics Committee. RESULTS: High rates of comorbidity between use/abuse/dependence of cannabis and affective disorders in longitudinal studies and in clinical samples were observed. Longitudinal studies indicate that, in long

  17. Women's erotic rape fantasies: an evaluation of theory and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critelli, Joseph W; Bivona, Jenny M

    2008-01-01

    This article is the first systematic review of the research literature on women's rape fantasies. Current research indicates that between 31% and 57% of women have fantasies in which they are forced into sex against their will, and for 9% to 17% of women these are a frequent or favorite fantasy experience. Erotic rape fantasies are paradoxical: they do not appear to make sense. Why would a person have an erotic and pleasurable fantasy about an event that, in real life, would be abhorrent and traumatic? In this article, the major theories of women's rape fantasies are evaluated both rationally and empirically. These theories explain rape fantasies in terms of masochism, sexual blame avoidance, openness to sexuality, sexual desirability, male rape culture, biological predisposition to surrender, sympathetic physiological activation, and adversary transformation. This article evaluates theory and research, makes provisional judgments as to which theories appear to be most viable, and begins the task of theoretical integration to arrive at a more complete and internally consistent explanation for why many women engage in erotic rape fantasies. Methodological critiques and programs for future research are presented throughout.

  18. Med humor som våben – sproglig humor som bindeled mellem kognition og emotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Raab

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The attempt to establish a coherence between the cognitive description of language and thought and the neurobiological description of the human brain is often limited by lacking knowledge concerning the interplay between cognition and emotion – both necessary elements in understanding the way the brain works. Verbal humor is a convenient research object in this regard, as it consists (primarily in cognitive mechanisms, eliciting an emotional response – laughter. In this article, a review of the history of humor research is compared to a selection of studies (lesion-studies, ERP and fMRI on the relationship between humor, language and the brain, as an attempt to show how a broadly based theory of humor can help us to understand the relationship between cognition and emotion.

  19. Med humor som våben – sproglig humor som bindeled mellem kognition og emotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Raab

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The attempt to establish a coherence between the cognitive description of language and thought and the neurobiological description of the human brain is often limited by lacking knowledge concerning the interplay between cognition and emotion – both necessary elements in understanding the way the brain works. Verbal humor is a convenient research object in this regard, as it consists (primarily in cognitive mechanisms, eliciting an emotional response – laughter. In this article, a review of the history of humor research is compared to a selection of studies (lesion-studies, ERP and fMRI on the relationship between humor, language and the brain, as an attempt to show how a broadly based theory of humor can help us to understand the relationship between cognition and emotion.

  20. An acidic microenvironment sets the humoral pattern recognition molecule PTX3 in a tissue repair mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doni, Andrea; Musso, Tiziana; Morone, Diego; Bastone, Antonio; Zambelli, Vanessa; Sironi, Marina; Castagnoli, Carlotta; Cambieri, Irene; Stravalaci, Matteo; Pasqualini, Fabio; Laface, Ilaria; Valentino, Sonia; Tartari, Silvia; Ponzetta, Andrea; Maina, Virginia; Barbieri, Silvia S.; Tremoli, Elena; Catapano, Alberico L.; Norata, Giuseppe D.; Bottazzi, Barbara; Garlanda, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is a fluid-phase pattern recognition molecule and a key component of the humoral arm of innate immunity. In four different models of tissue damage in mice, PTX3 deficiency was associated with increased fibrin deposition and persistence, and thicker clots, followed by increased collagen deposition, when compared with controls. Ptx3-deficient macrophages showed defective pericellular fibrinolysis in vitro. PTX3-bound fibrinogen/fibrin and plasminogen at acidic pH and increased plasmin-mediated fibrinolysis. The second exon-encoded N-terminal domain of PTX3 recapitulated the activity of the intact molecule. Thus, a prototypic component of humoral innate immunity, PTX3, plays a nonredundant role in the orchestration of tissue repair and remodeling. Tissue acidification resulting from metabolic adaptation during tissue repair sets PTX3 in a tissue remodeling and repair mode, suggesting that matrix and microbial recognition are common, ancestral features of the humoral arm of innate immunity. PMID:25964372

  1. ¿El sentido del humor, tiene sentido en el aula? / Does Sense of the Humor Make Sense in the Classroom?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy Antonio González Ynfante

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Recibido 09 de junio de 2011 • Aceptado 24 de octubre de 2011 • Corregido 27 de setiembre de 2011 Resumen. El presente ensayo tiene como finalidad reflexionar sobre la importancia del humor pedagógico como estrategia de enseñanza aprendizaje en el aula; esto, tomando en cuenta la problemática de desmotivación y aburrimiento que sucede normalmente en la clase. Para plantear si “el enseñar contento y el aprender con alegría” pueden aumentar la eficacia en el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje, se abordará cómo, a pesar de las múltiples ventajas que puede aportar el humor en las aulas, se omite su empleo por la existencia de ciertos prejuicios y temores. La idea no es que los docentes hagan el papel de comediantes o payasos, sino la de mediar y acercar la clase de manera pedagógica y didáctica a través del uso del humor, y sobre esto reflexionaba Platón (1992, cuando planteaba que muchas veces ayudaba una broma, en donde la seriedad oponía resistencia. Abstract. This paper studies the importance of humor as a teaching strategy in the classroom, considering the usual lack of motivation and boredom. To analyze whether the “happy teaching and happy learning” may increase effectiveness in the teaching-learning process, the author will discuss how, despite the many benefits it may bring, humor is not used in the classroom due to prejudices and fears. The idea is not for teachers to play the role of a comedian or a clown, but to intervene and get closer to the group with a teaching, didactic purpose through humor. Plato (1992 thought about this; he used to say that sometimes a joke may help, where seriousness put up resistance.

  2. Economics with a Sense of Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Diane

    1985-01-01

    In this humorous dialogue that can be read and acted out as a play in high school economics classes, Karl Marx, a spokesman for communism, and Adam Smith, the father of capitalism, debate (1) whether an economy should produce designer jeans and (2) who should own McDonald's restaurant. (RM)

  3. Prosodic Markers of Saliency in Humorous Narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Lucy; Corduas, Marcella; Eisterhold, Jodi; Seifried, Brenna; Eggleston, Alyson; Attardo, Salvatore

    2009-01-01

    Much of what we think we know about the performance of humor relies on our intuitions about prosody (e.g., "it's all about timing"); however, this has never been empirically tested. Thus, the central question addressed in this article is whether speakers mark punch lines in jokes prosodically and, if so, how. To answer this question,…

  4. Humor Climate of the Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Ahmet

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the opinions primary school administrators and teachers on humor climates in primary schools. The study was modeled as a convergent parallel design, one of the mixed methods. The data gathered from 253 administrator questionnaires, and 651 teacher questionnaires was evaluated for the quantitative part of the…

  5. Very Good Medicine: Indigenous Humor and Laughter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mala, Cynthia Lindquist

    2016-01-01

    Humor is not only instinctive and a basic human need, but it also is very good medicine. Laughter boosts the immune system, lowers blood pressure, reduces stress hormones, and is linked to healthy functioning organs. [This article was written with Mylo Redwater Smith.

  6. Humor as Camouflage of Televised Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, W. James; Warren, Ron

    1998-01-01

    Contributes to research on schema theory and media effects by examining how violence is portrayed in comedy programs. Finds a high rate of violence (especially verbal forms) on comedy programs; and the combination of humor, minor acts of violence, and program context tend to trivialize its presence. Suggests that viewers' schema for comedy uses…

  7. Effects of a-adrenergic agonist and laser trabeculoplasty on plasmoid aqueous humor of glaucomatous rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine the protection of blood aqueous barrier by the apraclonidine drops, which is an adrenergic receptor agonist that reduces each of the aqueous humor protein production and the intraocular pressure in glaucomatous rabbits eye before and after treatment with apraclonidine and diode laser trabeculoplasty (DLT).The rabbits were classified into four groups in addition to a normal one. Group (I) was treated with apraclonidine only twice daily, group (II) with apraclonidine before DLT, group (III) with apraclonidine after laser and group (IV) was treated with apraclonidine before and after laser. The aqueous humor was withdrawn from the anterior chamber of the normal and glaucomatous rabbits eye immediately after treatment (direct effect) and one week after treatment for the plasmoid (delayed effect). The intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured then the protein contents and the changes in the molecular structures of aqueous humor proteins were detected using gel column chromatography and electrophoretic mobility. Apraclonidine eye drops led to decrease in IOP and prevented its rise after DLT. The degree of permeability of the barrier was deduced by the amount of protein in the plasmoid aqueous humor after DLT. In normal rabbits, the total protein was increased in the plasmoid aqueous humor. In the four treated groups, the total protein was decreased. The most pronounced decrease was in the group that treated with apraclonidine before and after laser. The change in total protein content was accompanied with change in its molecular weight and electrophoretic mobility. From the obtained results, it could be concluded that the withdrawing of the aqueous humor from the anterior chamber of the eye in appreciable amount leads to reformation of new aqueous humor (plasmoid) with elevated protein concentration. Moreover, the treatment with apraclonidine before DLT completely protected the blood aqueous barrier from disruption caused by laser and

  8. Levels of aqueous humor trace elements in patients with open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohberger, Bettina; Chaudhri, M Anwar; Michalke, Bernhard; Lucio, Marianna; Nowomiejska, Katarzyna; Schlötzer-Schrehardt, Ursula; Grieb, Pawel; Rejdak, Robert; Jünemann, Anselm G M

    2018-01-01

    Trace elements might play a role in the complex multifactorial pathogenesis of open-angle glaucoma. The aim of this study was to analyze concentrations of trace elements in aqueous humor samples of patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and pseudoexfoliation glaucoma (PEXG). Thirty-three aqueous humor samples were obtained from patients undergoing cataract surgery: 12 patients with POAG (age 65.3±10.50, female 8, male 4), 10 patients with PEXG (age 65.9±11.27, female 6, male 4) and 11 patients without glaucoma (age 69.5±13.70, female 7, male 4) serving as controls. Aqueous humor levels of cadmium, iron, manganese, cobalt, copper and zinc were measured by Flow-Injection-Inductively-Coupled-Plasma-Mass-Spectrometry (FI-ICP-MS). From the statistical evaluation, we observed that patients with POAG had significantly higher aqueous humor levels of zinc (p=0.006) compared to controls. Increased aqueous humor levels of zinc were also observed in patients with PEXG in relation to control (p=0.0006). For iron we observed a significantly reduction in PEXG compared to control (p=0.002) and a significant difference between POAG and PEXG (p=0.0091). No significant differences were observed in aqueous humor levels of manganese, cobalt, copper, cadmium between glaucoma and control patients. No differences were seen for iron (POAG vs. controls). Analysis of trace element ratios was added. Significant differences in aqueous humor levels of zinc and iron between glaucoma and control patients support the hypothesis that these trace elements are involved in the pathogenesis of open-angle glaucoma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. The Influences of Humorous Advertising on Brand Popularity and Advertising Effects in the Tourism Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Yu Chang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available With a diversity of promotional channels and ever-increasing numbers of participants, the tourism industry in Taiwan faces keen competition. Along with the direct cross-strait flights policy, groups like Eastern Multimedia Group, Tsann Kuen Enterprise Company Limited and Want Want China Times Group have founded travel agencies for the purpose of increasing their market share in the tourism industry. Therefore, the formulation of marketing strategies has become a critical issue for all travel agencies that wish to ensure their prominence in the market. The frequent use of humorous materials and appeals has been the main tendency in advertising. However, no consistent conclusions regarding the actual effects of humorous advertising have been determined. The subjects of the current study were users of the Lion Travel website. Online questionnaires were sent to and collected from random respondents. One hundred questionnaires were delivered, and 512 valid questionnaires were collected. Each collected questionnaire represented a valid sample. The study generated the following five results: (1 humorous advertisements may partially influence brand awareness; (2 humorous elements may partially influence advertising effects; (3 brand awareness has significant positive effects on the advertising attitude of advertising effects; (4 brand awareness has significant positive effects on the brand attitude of advertising effects; (5 brand awareness has significant positive effects on the purchasing intention of advertising effects. Eventually, it is anticipated that the results of this study can serve as a reference and provide suggestions for humorous advertising strategies in the tourism industry.

  10. Growth and Yield Stimulation of Winter Oilseed Rape (Brasssica Napus L. by Mg-Titanit Fertiliser

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    Kováčik Peter

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effort to achieve higher yields at the required qualitative level has led to the intensive studying the problems of the rational usage of the titanium containing fertilisers by the agricultural research in the course the previous thirty years. Therefore, the objective of the experiment was to evaluate the impact of two doses of Mg-Titanit (0.2 l/ha and 0.4 l/ha on the formation of the aboveground and underground phytomass, also on the total chlorophyll in leaves, on the titanium and nitrogen content in the seeds and straw, on the quantity and quality of winter rape yield. The doses were applied two or three times on the leaves of winter rape (BBCH 50-52, BBCH 59, BBCH 66-67. The experiment was realized on the Haplic Chernozem (48°42´ N, 17°70´ E - Western Slovakia during two farming years (2009/2010 and 2010/2011. The results showed that all three applications of Mg-Titanit in both doses stimulated the formation of aboveground and underground phytomass of winter rape. The highest growth of phytomass was detected after the second application. The application of Mg-Titanit in the growth phases BBCH 50-52 and BBCH 59 increased the contents of both chlorophylls (a and b, where the growth of chlorophyll b content was more considerable than the growth of chlorophyll a content. The third spraying by Mg-Titanit decreased the content of the total chlorophyll. The application of Mg-Titanit had the positive impact on the yield of seeds, straw and fat content in the winter oilseed rape seeds.

  11. Effects of Gamma Irradiation on Quality Characteristic and Microbiological Safety of Rape (Brassica napus) Pollen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyoung-Hee; Jeong, Su-Ji; Kim, Dam; Yook, Hong-Sun; Kim, Kwang-Hun

    2013-01-01

    This study is carried out to sanitize rape (Brassica napus) pollen by gamma irradiation. Rape pollens were treated with 0, 5, 10 and 15 kGy gamma irradiations, and then analyzed for the following: general composition, microbial population, reducing sugar, Hunter color values, TBARS (2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) values, and VBN (volatile basic nitrogen). Mold and coliform bacteria were not detected in the samples irradiated at 5 kGy or more. Yeasts and total aerobic bacteria were not detected in the samples irradiated at 10 kGy or more (102 CFU/g). Moisture, ash, crude protein, crude fat, carbohydrate, reducing sugar and the contents of volatile basic nitrogen in the irradiated pollen did not show any significant changes by irradiation. Hunter color values, L, a and b values were decreased with increment of irradiation dose. TBARS values were increased with an increment of irradiation dose. In conclusion, gamma irradiation at 5 kGy was considered to be an effective treatment to control for mycotoxin producing fungi in rape pollen to minimize changes of general composition and physicochemical properties. Further studies should be investigated to reduce the detrimental effects induced by irradiation

  12. Hemicellulose-derived sugars solubilisation of rape straw. Cofermentation of pentoses and hexoses by Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López-Linares, J.C.; Cara-Corpas, C.; Ruiz-Ramos, E.; Moya-Vilar, M.; Castro-Galiano, E.; Romero-Pulido, I.

    2015-07-01

    Bioconversion of hemicellulose sugars is essential for increasing fuel ethanol yields from lignocellulosic biomass. We report for the first time with rape straw, bioethanol production from hemicellulose sugars. Rape straw was pretreated at mild conditions with sulfuric acid to solubilize the hemicellulose fraction. This pretreatment allows obtaining a prehydrolysate, consisting basically in a solution of monomeric hemicellulosic sugars, with low inhibitor concentrations. The remaining water insoluble solid constitutes a cellulose-enriched, free of extractives material. The influence of temperature (120ºC and 130ºC), acid concentration (2-4% w/v) and pretreatment time (30-180 min) on hemicellulose-derived sugars solubilisation was evaluated. The highest hemicellulosic sugars recovery, 72.3%, was achieved at 130ºC with 2% sulfuric acid and 60 min. At these conditions, a concentrated sugars solution, 52.4 g/L, was obtained after three acid consecutive contacts, with 67% xylose and acetic acid concentration above 4.5 g/L. After a detoxification step by activated charcoal or ion-exchange resin, prehydrolysate was fermented by ethanologenic Escherichia coli. An alcoholic solution of 25 g/L and 86% of theoretical ethanol yield was attained after 144 h when the prehydrolysate was detoxified by ion-exchange resin. The results obtained in the present work show sulfuric acid pretreatment under mild conditions and E. coli as an interesting process to exploit hemicellulosic sugars in rape straw. (Author)

  13. Identifying risk factors for PTSD in women seeking medical help after rape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Tiihonen Möller

    Full Text Available Rape has been found to be the trauma most commonly associated with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD among women. It is therefore important to be able to identify those women at greatest risk of developing PTSD. The aims of the present study were to analyze the PTSD prevalence six months after sexual assaults and identify the major risk factors for developing PTSD.Participants were 317 female victims of rape who sought help at the Emergency Clinic for Raped Women at Stockholm South Hospital, Sweden. Baseline assessments of mental health were carried out and followed up after six months.Thirty-nine percent of the women had developed PTSD at the six month assessment, and 47% suffered from moderate or severe depression. The major risk factors for PTSD were having been sexually assaulted by more than one person, suffering from acute stress disorder (ASD shortly after the assault, having been exposed to several acts during the assault, having been injured, having co-morbid depression, and having a history of more than two earlier traumas. Further, ASD on its own was found to be a poor predictor of PTSD because of the substantial ceiling effect after sexual assaults.Development of PTSD is common in the aftermath of sexual assaults. Increased risk of developing PTSD is caused by a combination of victim vulnerability and the extent of the dramatic nature of the current assault. By identifying those women at greatest risk of developing PTSD appropriate therapeutic resources can be directed.

  14. Identifying risk factors for PTSD in women seeking medical help after rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiihonen Möller, Anna; Bäckström, Torbjörn; Söndergaard, Hans Peter; Helström, Lotti

    2014-01-01

    Rape has been found to be the trauma most commonly associated with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) among women. It is therefore important to be able to identify those women at greatest risk of developing PTSD. The aims of the present study were to analyze the PTSD prevalence six months after sexual assaults and identify the major risk factors for developing PTSD. Participants were 317 female victims of rape who sought help at the Emergency Clinic for Raped Women at Stockholm South Hospital, Sweden. Baseline assessments of mental health were carried out and followed up after six months. Thirty-nine percent of the women had developed PTSD at the six month assessment, and 47% suffered from moderate or severe depression. The major risk factors for PTSD were having been sexually assaulted by more than one person, suffering from acute stress disorder (ASD) shortly after the assault, having been exposed to several acts during the assault, having been injured, having co-morbid depression, and having a history of more than two earlier traumas. Further, ASD on its own was found to be a poor predictor of PTSD because of the substantial ceiling effect after sexual assaults. Development of PTSD is common in the aftermath of sexual assaults. Increased risk of developing PTSD is caused by a combination of victim vulnerability and the extent of the dramatic nature of the current assault. By identifying those women at greatest risk of developing PTSD appropriate therapeutic resources can be directed.

  15. Hemicellulose-derived sugars solubilisation of rape straw. Cofermentation of pentoses and hexoses by Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Lopez-Linares

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bioconversion of hemicellulose sugars is essential for increasing fuel ethanol yields from lignocellulosic biomass. We report for the first time with rape straw, bioethanol production from hemicellulose sugars. Rape straw was pretreated at mild conditions with sulfuric acid to solubilize the hemicellulose fraction. This pretreatment allows obtaining a prehydrolysate, consisting basically in a solution of monomeric hemicellulosic sugars, with low inhibitor concentrations. The remaining water insoluble solid constitutes a cellulose-enriched, free of extractives material. The influence of temperature (120ºC and 130ºC, acid concentration (2-4% w/v and pretreatment time (30-180 min on hemicellulose-derived sugars solubilisation was evaluated. The highest hemicellulosic sugars recovery, 72.3%, was achieved at 130ºC with 2% sulfuric acid and 60 min. At these conditions, a concentrated sugars solution, 52.4 g/L, was obtained after three acid consecutive contacts, with 67% xylose and acetic acid concentration above 4.5 g/L. After a detoxification step by activated charcoal or ion-exchange resin, prehydrolysate was fermented by ethanologenic Escherichia coli. An alcoholic solution of 25 g/L and 86% of theoretical ethanol yield was attained after 144 h when the prehydrolysate was detoxified by ion-exchange resin. The results obtained in the present work show sulfuric acid pretreatment under mild conditions and E. coli as an interesting process to exploit hemicellulosic sugars in rape straw.

  16. Ethanol production from rape straw by a two-stage pretreatment under mild conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Inmaculada; López-Linares, Juan C; Delgado, Yaimé; Cara, Cristóbal; Castro, Eulogio

    2015-08-01

    The growing interest on rape oil as raw material for biodiesel production has resulted in an increasing availability of rape straw, an agricultural residue that is an attractive renewable source for the production of second-generation bioethanol. Pretreatment is one of the key steps in such a conversion process. In this work, a sequential two-stage pretreatment with dilute sulfuric acid (130 °C, 60 min, 2% w/v H2SO4) followed by H2O2 (1-5% w/v) in alkaline medium (NaOH) at low temperature (60, 90 °C) and at different pretreatment times (30-90 min) was investigated. The first-acid stage allows the solubilisation of hemicellulose fraction into fermentable sugars. The second-alkaline peroxide stage allows the delignification of the solid material whilst the cellulose remaining in rape straw turned highly digestible by cellulases. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation with 15% (w/v) delignified substrate at 90 °C, 5% H2O2 for 60 min, led to a maximum ethanol production of 53 g/L and a yield of 85% of the theoretical.

  17. Analysis of yield and plant traits of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. cultivated in temperate region in light of the possibilities of sowing in arid areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Zając

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This work is a review of selected literature on the species of Brassica with the greatest economic significance. Oilseed rape (Brassica napus ssp. oleifera currently ranks third worldwide among oilseed crops used for oil production and is the most important in the temperate zone. The manifold uses of rape include not only human consumption of oil, but also the use of post-extraction meal to feed livestock as well as industrial applications as a source of bioenergy or cellulose. The improvement in the economic position of rape among crop plants is also due to the doubling of its yield between 1970 and 2009; the average annual increase in seed yield worldwide was 27 kg ha−1 yr−1. The yield level in Europe exceeds the average yields achieved in the world, particularly in Asia. Recently, the cultivation of oilseed rape was started on a relatively large acreage in Iran where the yield amounted 2.1 t ha−1, exceeding the yields of China and India. In Poland, the acreage of oilseed rape cultivation between 1965 and 2013 increased 3–4 times, and during this period the annual increase in seed yield was 29 kg ha−1 yr−1. Under the field conditions of the temperate climate zone, winter oilseed rape yield is mainly determined by agro-climatic conditions during the growing period, the level of nitrogen fertilization, and the production potential of varieties, which is currently highest in hybrids. There is a noticeable tendency of hybrids towards formation of more siliques by individual oilseed plants. Different production categories of plants appear in a rape crop. Semi-dwarf varieties of winter rapeseed are distinguished by greater silique density, particularly on the main shoot. Moreover, these hybrids are characterized by faster growth of the root system, which enables them to take up nitrogen from the soil more efficiently.

  18. Metacognitive aspects of rape myths: subjective strength of rape myth acceptance moderates its effects on information processing and behavioral intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Süssenbach, Philipp; Eyssel, Friederike; Bohner, Gerd

    2013-07-01

    The authors present a metacognitive approach to influences of rape myth acceptance (RMA) on the processing of rape-related information and rape proclivity. In Study 1, participants (N = 264) completed an RMA scale and subsequently reported the subjective strength (e.g., importance, certainty) of their RMA. Then they read about a rape case, viewed a photograph of the alleged crime scene, and rated the defendant's guilt on several items. Depending on condition, the photograph contained either RMA-applicable stimuli (e.g., alcoholic beverages) or neutral stimuli. Higher RMA predicted lower ratings of defendant guilt especially when applicable stimuli were present and RMA was strong. Study 2 (N = 85) showed that RMA-related attitude strength also moderated the effect of RMA on self-reported rape proclivity. Results of both studies indicate that the subjective strength of rape-related beliefs may be reliably assessed and serves as an important moderator of effects of RMA. The implications of these findings for prevention programs as well as future directions for research are discussed.

  19. Humor and Laughter may Influence Health. I. History and Background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Payne Bennett

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Articles in both the lay and professional literature have extolled the virtues of humor, many giving the impression that the health benefits of humor are well documented by the scientific and medical community. The concept that humor or laughter can be therapeutic goes back to biblical times and this belief has received varying levels of support from the scientific community at different points in its history. Current research indicates that using humor is well accepted by the public and is frequently used as a coping mechanism. However, the scientific evidence of the benefits of using humor on various health related outcomes still leaves many questions unanswered.

  20. Humor style similarity and difference in friendship dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Simon C; Fox, Claire L; Jones, Siân E

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the concurrent and prospective (fall to spring) associations between four different humor styles to assess the degree to which stable friendships are characterized by similarity, and to assess whether best friends' humor styles influence each other's later use of humor. Participants were aged 11-13 years, with 87 stable, reciprocal best friend dyads. Self-report assessments of humor styles were completed on both occasions. Results indicated that there was no initial similarity in dyads' levels of humor. However, dyads' use of humor that enhances interpersonal relationships (Affiliative humor) became positively correlated by spring. Additionally, young people's use of this humor style was positively associated with their best friend's later use of the same. No such effects were present for humor which was aggressive, denigrating toward the self, or used to enhance the self. These results have clear implications for theories of humor style development, highlighting an important role for Affiliative humor within stable friendship dyads. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Mutation breeding of rape by using proton ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eun, J. S.; Chang, Y. S.; Han, S. G.; Choi, S. R.; Kim, J. S.

    2006-04-01

    This experiment was carried out by irradiation the proton ion beam and gamma-ray at level 100 to 2,000 Gy on dry seeds of 3 varieties, 'Naehan', 'Hanla' and 'Tammi' to increase the cultivation area and develope for biodiesel in rape (Brassica napus) and checked the radiosensitivity test including germination rate, emergence rate and chromosome aberration and the occurrence of morphological mutant in M1 generation. The germination rate and emergence rate were 98∼100% because they had no relation with radiation source, dosage and variety. There was no significance in survival rate up to 1,000 Gy dosage after sowing of 7 days and remarkably reduced from 39.5 to 69.6% at 1,500 to 2,000 Gy dosage. The length and area of cotyledon, and hypocotyl length were highly reduced with significance by increasing dosage of proton ion and gamma-irradiation in all 3 varieties and showed the sensitive responses on 'Naehan', 'Hanla' and 'Tammi' in order. By the way, there was a radiation hormesis in 'Tammi' by increasing the length and area of cotyledon in the proton ion treatment at 100∼200 Gy dosage compared to the control (no treatment). With the same effect, it had the similar results in the fresh weight of above-aerial parts in 3∼4 weeks after sowing

  2. Rape Crime, Law and Victim’s Right an Analysis from Indian Penal System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sindhu VIJAYA KUMAR

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available God endowed man and women with same sense of emotion, passion, pain and pleasure, yet both differ from each other. Her gentle tenderness and tolerance make her different from her fellow partner. Indeed women are given place of pride in almost all the religion. Her importance, rights and privileges are recognized by almost all religious scripture. Even then she is subjected to several socialprejudices. Causing carnal catastrophe is one of the most demeaning devices adopted to subjugate women. Today the greater challenging before her is to protect her dignity chastity and virginity.Women are sexually exploited in almost all sphere of life. This crime has neither face of its own nor any territorial boundary but with the fact that women are to greater extent its victim, the degree of thiscrime and the victims’ status aftermath the crime differ. In India the incident of rape seems to be less when compared with the foreign country. Numerically, among all crime rape is relatively in frequentphenomenon (0.3 % of total crime in India but among the crime against the women the rape constitute the highest percentage. Case study reveals that there has been a strong increase in offenceof rape in past decade. There has been almost 2,487 rape cases reported between 1971 to 1978, which had increased to 4,621 cases in the same year. According to the official statistic produce by theNational Human right commission Delhi in the year 1991, one woman is molested every 26 minute. These are statistic reported cases, which if include unreported cases the matter would have been ofevery second rather than minute. In response to this government of India approached Law commission with a request to suggest substantive and procedural reformation of criminal law. In spite of amendment made to the criminal law in 1983, the legal system could hardy control the crime, perhaps there is a necessity of awaking calls from the victims’ side on one hand and rapid

  3. Geographical Clusters of Rape in the United States: 2000-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Raid; Nabors, Nicole S.; Nelson, Arlene M.; Saqlain, Murshid; Kulldorff, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background While rape is a very serious crime and public health problem, no spatial mapping has been attempted for rape on the national scale. This paper addresses the three research questions: (1) Are reported rape cases randomly distributed across the USA, after being adjusted for population density and age, or are there geographical clusters of reported rape cases? (2) Are the geographical clusters of reported rapes still present after adjusting for differences in poverty levels? (3) Are there geographical clusters where the proportion of reported rape cases that lead to an arrest is exceptionally low or exceptionally high? Methods We studied the geographical variation of reported rape events (2003-2012) and rape arrests (2000-2012) in the 48 contiguous states of the USA. The disease Surveillance software SaTScan™ with its spatial scan statistic is used to evaluate the spatial variation in rapes. The spatial scan statistic has been widely used as a geographical surveillance tool for diseases, and we used it to identify geographical areas with clusters of reported rape and clusters of arrest rates for rape. Results The spatial scan statistic was used to identify geographical areas with exceptionally high rates of reported rape. The analyses were adjusted for age, and in secondary analyses, for both age and poverty level. We also identified geographical areas with either a low or a high proportion of reported rapes leading to an arrest. Conclusions We have identified geographical areas with exceptionally high (low) rates of reported rape. The geographical problem areas identified are prime candidates for more intensive preventive counseling and criminal prosecution efforts by public health, social service, and law enforcement agencies Geographical clusters of high rates of reported rape are prime areas in need of expanded implementation of preventive measures, such as changing attitudes in our society toward rape crimes, in addition to having the criminal

  4. Elevated lipocalin-2 level in aqueous humor of patients with central retinal vein occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koban, Yaran; Sahin, Seda; Boy, Fatih; Kara, Fatih

    2018-03-23

    To assess the concentrations of lipocalin-2 (LCN2) in the serum and the aqueous humor of patients with central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). The concentrations of LCN2 in the serum and aqueous humor of 16 cataract patients and 16 patients with CRVO with macular edema were compared. Collection of aqueous samples was conducted in the operating theater under sterile conditions and just prior to intravitreal ranibizumab injection or cataract surgery. LCN2 levels in serum and aqueous humor samples were measured using a commercial kit (human lipocalin-2/NGAL PicoKine ELISA Kit, MyBioSource Inc., USA; Catalog No: MBS175829) based on standard sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technology. The concentrations of LCN2 in the aqueous humors of the CRVO group were higher than those of the control group (p = 0.021). There was no significant difference in serum LCN2 level between the two groups (p = 0.463). Concentrations of LCN2 in aqueous humor are increased in CRVO. LCN2 may be part of a pro-catabolic phenotype, and it may play an important role in the dreaded complications of CRVO, such as macular edema, macular ischemia, and neovascularization, which lead to blindness.

  5. Who Helps the Helpers? Social Support for Rape Crisis Advocates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston-Kolnik, Jaclyn D; Odahl-Ruan, Charlynn A; Greeson, Megan R

    2017-08-01

    Secondary exposure to trauma may have negative effects on rape victim advocates' well-being. Self-care can help to mitigate these negative effects on advocates' well-being, and prior research suggests that social support is an especially important aspect of advocates' self-care. However, there is a lack of research on how rape crisis advocates access and receive social support in relationship to their advocacy work. Therefore, semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted with 15 rape crisis advocates who volunteered for a rape crisis center in Chicago to understand how they accessed social support from informal and formal support providers, and when they did receive support, what was helpful versus unhelpful. Data were analyzed using thematic content analysis. Results revealed that many advocates were able to seek out and receive positive instrumental and emotional social support that nurtured them and their work. However, advocates also experienced a variety of barriers to obtaining positive support from informal support providers, including fear of burdening providers and a reluctance or lack of preparedness of their support providers to speak about the issue. Advocates emphasized the need for rape crisis centers to provide resources for their informal social support systems in order to encourage helpful responses. In addition, advocates praised the rape crisis center for its built-in formal support structures, but also encouraged the organization to seek broader representation of persons from minority backgrounds among their advocates and mentors. Implications and future directions for research and rape crisis centers are also discussed. The present study highlights the importance of social support systems for advocates and potential barriers that may be addressed to reduce service provider burnout and vicarious trauma.

  6. Date rape among Cypriot female college students: an explorative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouta, Christiana; Tolma, Eleni L; Pavlou, Susana Elisa

    2013-09-01

    This study examined the prevalence and reporting of date rape among female college students (aged 18-24) in Cyprus and assessed the students' attitudes and awareness regarding date rape. In addition, the study examined how date rape is perceived among representatives of related private and governmental organizations in Cyprus. This is part of a larger multi-country study. This paper will focus only on the results pertaining to Cyprus. The study was coordinated by the Mediterranean Institute of Gender Studies. This study used quantitative and qualitative methods. In total, 476 female college students responded to an anonymous questionnaire, two focus group discussions were carried out, and five key-informant interviews with relevant institutional representatives were conducted. The results of the study indicated that unwanted sexual experiences and sexual violence, including date rape, do exist among young Cypriot women. Specifically, 1.3% of the research participants reported experiencing an attempted rape by their date, and 1.9 % of the study participants reported being raped on a date. Often this was caused by their boyfriend, friend or sexual partner (54.2%). The results of the qualitative study showed that young female Cypriots agreed that many women give in to psychological pressure because they feel guilty about letting the other person down or because they 'didn't satisfy him' or fear they might lose him. Despite the explorative nature of the study, it is significant as research on date rape in Cyprus is almost non-existent. The authors anticipate that the results of the study will be useful to other researchers and policy-makers involved in this area of research.

  7. Media coverage of violence against women in India: a systematic study of a high profile rape case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Mark; Mostofian, Fargol; Jetly, Rajeev; Puthukudy, Nazar; Madden, Kim; Bhandari, Mohit

    2015-01-22

    On December 16, 2012 a 23 year old female was gang-raped on a bus in Delhi. We systematically reviewed professional online media sources used to inform the timing, breadth of coverage, opinions and consistency in the depiction of events surrounding the gang-rape. We searched two news databases (LexisNexis Academic and Factivia) and individual newspapers for English-language published media reports covering the gang-rape. Two reviewers screened the media reports and extracted data regarding the time, location and content of each report. Results were summarized qualitatively. We identified 534 published media reports. Of these, 351 met our eligibility criteria. Based on a time chart, the total number of reports published increased steadily through December, but plateaued to a steady rate of articles per day by the first week of January. Content analysis revealed significant discrepancies between various media reports. From the 57 articles which discussed opinions about the victim, 56% applauded her bravery, 40% discussed outrage over the events and 11% discussed cases of victim-blaming. The global media response of the December 16th gang-rape in India resulted in highly inconsistent depiction of the events. These findings suggest that although the spread of information through media is fast, it has major limitations.

  8. The Effect of Context (Humorous vs. Non-humorous on Vocabulary Acquisition and Retention of Iranian EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Ghaffari

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available For almost four decades, ESL/EFL scholars have been trying to find which learning type, contextualized vs. decontextualized, leads to better vocabulary acquisition and retention. In an attempt to solve this problem, this study tried to examine the possible effectiveness of using humorous context on vocabulary acquisition and retention. Another issue that was undertaken in the present study was comparing the efficiency of contextualized and decontextualized vocabulary learning and retention. For this purpose, 58 Iranian EFL learners were categorized into 3 groups: a humorous, b non-humorous, and c decontextualized. The findings were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey post hoc test. As the results revealed, the participants in decontextualized group outperformed the participants in both humorous and non-humorous groups. However, it should be noted that the performance of humorous group was significantly better than the performance of non-humorous group.

  9. Radiation and nitrogen use at the leaf and canopy level by wheat and oilseed rape during the critical period for grain number definition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreccer, M.F.; Schapendonk, H.C.M.; Oijen, M. van; Pot, C.S.; Rabbinge, R.

    2000-01-01

    During the critical period for grain number definition, the amount of biomass produced per unit absorbed radiation is more sensitive to nitrogen (N) supply in oilseed rape than in wheat, and reaches a higher value at high N. This response was investigated by combining experimental and modelling work. Oilseed rape and wheat were grown at three levels of N supply, combined with two levels of plant density at high N supply. Canopy photosynthesis and daytime radiation use efficiency (RUE A ) were calculated with a model based on observed N-dependent leaf photosynthesis and observed canopy vertical distribution of light and leaf N. In oilseed rape, RUE A was higher than in wheat and, in contrast to wheat, the sensitivity to canopy leaf N content increased from the start to the end of the critical period. These results were partly explained by the higher leaf photosynthesis in oilseed rape vs wheat. In addition, oilseed rape leaves were increasingly shaded by the inflorescence. Thus, RUE A increased because more leaves were operating at non-saturating light levels. In both species, the vertical distribution of leaf N was close to that optimising canopy photosynthesis. The results are discussed in relation to possibilities for improvement of N productivity in these crops. (author)

  10. The unique associations between rape acknowledgment and the DSM-5 PTSD symptom clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Laura C; Scarpa, Angela

    2017-11-01

    It is well documented in the sexual assault literature that more than half of rape survivors do not label their experience as rape. This is called unacknowledged rape. Although this phenomenon is common and undoubtedly has huge implications for psychotherapy, the impact of acknowledgment status on psychological adjustment is unclear. The present study aimed to delineate the unique impact of rape acknowledgment on psychopathology by examining PTSD symptoms at the cluster level. To examine this, 178 female college students who reported rape completed an online survey, including an assessment of PTSD symptoms in the past month. The results suggested that, after accounting for several covariates, acknowledged rape survivors reported significantly greater levels of intrusion and avoidance symptoms compared to unacknowledged rape survivors. The findings suggest that examining PTSD symptoms at the cluster level may provide more insight into the process of recovery following rape and therefore may better inform treatment decisions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Rape and Sexual Assault Victimization Among College-Age Females, 1995-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Statistics DECEMBER 2014 Special Report NCJ 2484 71 Rape and Sexual Assault Victimization Among College-Age Females, 1995–2013 Sofi ... 18 to 24 had the highest rate of rape and sexual assault victimizations compared to females in ...

  12. Fluorescein angiography and changes in aqueous humor protein after argon laser photomydriasis in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denffer, H. v.; Erhardt, W.; Neiss, A.

    1979-01-01

    In brown-eyed and blue-eyed rabbits, irises treated with argon laser photomydriasis (ALP) were studied by using fluorescein angiography and by evaluating the aqueous humor protein concentration. The following results were obtained. Immediately after ALP, a breakdown of the blood-aqueous barrier is demonstrated by a marked influx of fluorescein into the ciliary processes and into the anterior and posterior chambers. The dye flow into the aqueous humor decreases to normal values within 3 days. There is no fluorescein leakage from laser impacts themselves. Peripupillary capillary loops are permanently occluded, but in a few cases, recanalization occurs. Neovascularization did not occur during 56 days of observation. ALP initially leads to a six- to eightfold increase in normal aqueous humor protein concentration, which returns to normal values within 3 days. (orig./AJ) 891 AJ/orig.- 892 MKO [de

  13. Serial changes of humor comprehension for four-frame comic Manga: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaka, Mariko; Yaoi, Ken; Minamoto, Takehiro; Osaka, Naoyuki

    2014-07-25

    Serial changes of humor comprehension evoked by a well organized four-frame comic Manga were investigated by fMRI in each step of humor comprehension. The neural substrates underlying the amusing effects in response to funny and mixed order manga were compared. In accordance with the time course of the four frames, fMRI activations changed serially. Beginning with the second frame (development scene), activation of the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) was observed, followed by activations in the temporal and frontal areas during viewing of the third frame (turn scene). For the fourth frame (punch line), strong increased activations were confirmed in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and cerebellum. Interestingly, distinguishable activation differences in the cerebellum between funny and non-funny conditions were also found for the fourth frame. These findings suggest that humor comprehension evokes activation that initiates in the TPJ and expands to the MPFC and cerebellum at the convergence level.

  14. Oculo-peritoneal shunt: draining aqueous humor to the peritoneum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maldonado-Junyent

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, there were estimated to be approximately 60.5 million people with glaucoma. This number is expected to increase to 79.6 million by 2020. In 2010, there were 8.4 million people with bilateral blindness caused by glaucoma, and this number is expected in increase to 11.2 million by 2020. Filtering implants are special devices that have been developed to reduce intraocular pressure in patients with refractory glaucoma. The success rate of these implants is relatively low, and they continue to fail over time. To avoid failure caused by the formation of scar tissue around the implants, attempts have been made to drain the aqueous humor to various sites, including the venous system, lacrimal sac, sinuses, and conjunctival fornix. Recently, a system to shunt aqueous humor from the anterior chamber to the peritoneum has been developed. The surgical technique involved in this system is a modification of the technique currently used by neurosurgeons for the treatment of hydrocephalus. We present the first case operated using this technique.

  15. Heat-resistant mechanism of transgenic rape by 45Ca isotope tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Falun; Yang Yuanyou; Liu Ning; Liao Jiali; Yang Jijun; Tang Jun; Liu Zhibin; Yang Yi

    2012-01-01

    The Ca 2+ uptake differences of the rape with heat-resistant gene and the general rape were investigated by 45 Ca isotope tracer. The results showed that the rape with heat-resistant gene can strengthen the regulation of calcium absorption. The calcium regulation ability of the heat-resistant genes may be able to play in the rape aspect of the mechanism of resistance. (authors)

  16. Depresión (humor deprimido en los mayores residentes en la comunidad Depression (depressed humor among the elderly residents in the community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª. Gorete Reis

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Los mayores están sujetos a riesgos acrecentados por el poco compromiso con la vida, el aislamiento, la precariedad de recursos y la enfermedad, entre otros. Hoy, la depresión es considerada la perturbación mental con mayor crecimiento, repercutiendo en los cambios en el estilo de vida y en la salud. Nos cuestionamos sobre el estado de humor deprimido de los mayores que viven en la comunidad. El objetivo es evaluar la depresión e identificar los factores relacionados con ella. Estudio descriptivo correlacional. Conclusión: Hay un número elevado de personas con humor deprimido. Ser mujer y estar enferma revela relaciones con la depresión, así como tener limitaciones para ejecutar las actividades.Old people are submit to risk factors that increase from life disengagement; loneliness, decrease in income and in resources and also from diseases, among others. Today depression is considered a mental disturb in a growing process which affects life style and health. That's why we questioned old people living in community, about depressed humor. The aim of this study is to evaluate depression's level nd associate factors. It's a descriptive, correlate study. Conclusions: There are a great number of people with depressed humor and, be woman, have diseabilities are factors relate to depression.

  17. Can the use of humor in psychotherapy be taught?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Lisa; Gabbard, Glen O

    2014-02-01

    Despite an abundance of literature detailing the potential benefits of the use of humor in therapy, humor is rarely taught to psychiatric residents as a method of therapeutic intervention. This communication attempts to explain how current understanding of attachment theory and neuroscience may assist psychiatric faculty and supervisors in their teaching of humorous therapeutic interventions. This article reviews and synthesizes the extant literature on the use of humor, as well as recent work in neuroscience, attachment theory, and mentalization. Humor can be conceptualized as an instance of implicit relational knowing and may thus contribute significantly to the therapeutic action of psychotherapy as a subcategory of "moments of meeting" between therapist and patient. However, training residents to use humor in psychotherapy requires more individualized attention in supervision and classroom seminars. Factors such as individual proclivities for humorous repartee, mentalizing capacity, and an authentic interest in adding humor to the session may be necessary to incorporate spontaneous humor into one's technique. New findings from the areas of attachment theory, neuroscience, and right-hemisphere learning are providing potential opportunities for sophisticated teaching of the use of humor in psychotherapy.

  18. Humor During Clinical Practice: Analysis of Recorded Clinical Encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Kari A; Singh Ospina, Naykky; Rodriguez-Gutierrez, Rene; Castaneda-Guarderas, Ana; Gionfriddo, Michael R; Branda, Megan; Montori, Victor

    2018-01-01

    Little is known about humor's use in clinical encounters, despite its many potential benefits. We aimed to describe humor during clinical encounters. We analyzed 112 recorded clinical encounters. Two reviewers working independently identified instances of humor, as well as information surrounding the logistics of its use. Of the 112 encounters, 66 (59%) contained 131 instances of humor. Humor was similarly frequent in primary care (36/61, 59%) and in specialty care (30/51, 59%), was more common in gender-concordant interactions (43/63, 68%), and was most common during counseling (81/112, 62%). Patients and clinicians introduced humor similarly (63 vs 66 instances). Typically, humor was about the patient's medical condition (40/131, 31%). Humor is used commonly during counseling to discuss the patient's medical condition and to relate to general life events bringing warmth to the medical encounter. The timing and topic of humor and its use by all parties suggests humor plays a role in the social connection between patients and physicians and allows easier discussion of difficult topics. Further research is necessary to establish its impact on clinicians, patients, and outcomes. © Copyright 2018 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  19. The evolution of humor from male aggression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuster S

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sam ShusterNewcastle University, Newcastle Upon Type, NE1 7RU, UKAbstract: The response to seeing a man riding a unicycle was reported to be consistently related to the viewer's sex and stage of physical development. To see if this observation was universal, observations of responses were collected from 23 male and 9 female unicyclists aged 15–69 years, with 2–40 years cycling experience across four continents. With two exceptions among men, the findings were the same as those originally reported: children showed interest and curiosity, young girls showed little interest, while adult women showed a kindly, concerned, praising response. By contrast, boys showed physical aggression, which became more verbal, merging in the later teens to the snide, aggressive, stereotyped humorous response shown by adult males, which became less frequent in elderly men. The universality of the response across different individuals, environments, and dates of observation suggests an endogenous mechanism, and the association with masculine development relates this to androgen. The theoretical consequences are discussed. It is concluded that humor develops from aggression in males and is evolutionarily related to sexual selection.Keywords: humor evolution, male aggressive behavior

  20. Combustion characterization of rape seed meal and suggestions for optimal use in combustion appliances; Foerbraenningskarakterisering av rapsmjoel och foerslag till optimalt nyttjande i olika foerbraenningsanlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Gunnar; Hedman, Henry; Oehman, Marcus; Bostroem, Dan; Pettersson, Esbjoern; Pommer, Linda; Lindstroem, Erica; Backman, Rainer; Oehman, Rikard

    2007-12-15

    pellet burner, were roughly doubled with fuels containing rape seed meal compared to bark. In the powder burner tests, particle emissions increased with a factor 17 with rape seed meal compared to wood powder. The emitted particles were mainly found in the fine (< 1 mum) mode during grate and powder combustion. During fluidized bed combustion the total particulate matter consisted both of a coarse (>1 mum) and a fine mode fraction. The particles from grate combustion of bark contain mostly K, S, Na and Cl apart from oxygen and carbon. When rape seed meal is present, Cl and Na concentrations decrease considerably and the main contents of the particles are K and S (and O and C). The results from the X-ray Diffraction Spectroscopy (XRD) analyses showed the presence of crystalline K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and KCl. The fine particles (<1 mum) from powder combustion contain mainly K, P and S. The only identified crystalline phase was K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, suggesting that most phosphorus was in the amorphous phase, i.d. most probably molten. The deposit formation on a cooled probe was studied during the fluidized bed and powder combustion experiments. The fine particles deposited during fluidised bed combustion contained K, Cl and S. When bark was combusted in the fluidised bed, the coarse fraction contained Ca and Si, when rape seed meal in different mixes was combusted this changed to P, K, Ca and Mg. The deposits formed during combustion of rape seed meal in the powder burner were mainly made up of phosphates (Ca-, Mg/K-, Ca/Mg-phosphates) and MgO. Sintered material (slag) from grate combustion of bark contained mainly Si, Ca, K and Al, probably as silicates. Adding rape seed meal tended to increase P, Ca and Mg while Si and Ca content tended to decrease. Through XRD a number o crystalline phases in the sintered material and the rest of the bottom ashes could be identified. NO emissions from the combustions tests increased two to four times with rape seed meal compared to typical wood

  1. From Survivor to Thriver: A Pilot Study of an Online Program for Rape Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littleton, Heather; Buck, Katherine; Rosman, Lindsey; Grills-Taquechel, Amie

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 15% to 20% of women have been victims of rape and close to a third report current rape-related PTSD or clinically significant depression or anxiety. Unfortunately, very few distressed rape victims seek formal help. This suggests a need to develop alternative ways to assist the many distressed victims of sexual violence. Online…

  2. 78 FR 77495 - Hearings of the Review Panel on Prison Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... Review Panel on Prison Rape AGENCY: Office of Justice Programs, Justice. ACTION: Notice of Hearing. SUMMARY: The Office of Justice Programs (OJP) announces that the Review Panel on Prison Rape (Panel) will... and lowest incidence of rape, respectively, based on anonymous surveys by the BJS of inmates and youth...

  3. Sexual Assault Nurse Examiners' Perceptions of Their Relationship with Doctors, Rape Victim Advocates, Police, and Prosecutors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Shana L.

    2012-01-01

    In response to the negative and inefficient treatment of rape victims by emergency room personnel, the first Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) programs began in the late 1970s. While SANEs, doctors, rape victim advocates, police officers and prosecutors work together to ensure the most comprehensive and sensitive care of rape victims, they all…

  4. 76 FR 20711 - Hearings of the Review Panel on Prison Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... Review Panel on Prison Rape AGENCY: Office of Justice Programs, Justice. ACTION: Notice of hearing. SUMMARY: The Office of Justice Programs (OJP) announces that the Review Panel on Prison Rape (Panel) will... characteristics of prisons with the highest and lowest incidence of rape, respectively, based on an anonymous...

  5. Perceptions of Rape and Attitudes toward Women in a Sample of Lebanese Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebeiz, Maria J.; Harb, Charles

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated values, ambivalent sexism, religiosity, religious differences, gender, and attitudes toward rape victims as predictors of rape myths in a sample of Lebanese students (N = 300). Values of self-transcendence and conservation, gender, hostile sexism, and attitudes toward rape victims emerged as significant predictors of rape…

  6. 75 FR 27000 - Hearings of the Review Panel on Prison Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-13

    ... Review Panel on Prison Rape AGENCY: Office of Justice Programs, Justice. ACTION: Notice of hearing. SUMMARY: The Office of Justice Programs (OJP) announces that the Review Panel on Prison Rape (Panel) will... characteristics of juvenile facilities with the highest and lowest incidence of rape, respectively, based on an...

  7. Understanding Rape Survivors' Decisions Not to Seek Help from Formal Social Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Debra; Greeson, Megan; Campbell, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    Few rape survivors seek help from formal social systems after their assault. The purpose of this study was to examine factors that prevent survivors from seeking help from the legal, medical, and mental health systems and rape crisis centers. In this study, 29 female rape survivors who did not seek any postassault formal help were interviewed…

  8. A Socioecological Model of Rape Survivors' Decisions to Aid in Case Prosecution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Mary C.; Christopher, F. Scott

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to identify factors underlying rape survivors' post-assault prosecution decisions by testing a decision model that included the complex relations between the multiple social ecological systems within which rape survivors are embedded. We coded 440 police rape cases for characteristics of the assault and characteristics…

  9. Reading presence and absence in Fax from Sarajevo’s rape narrative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    in ‘t Veld, L. (Laurike)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractIn Joe Kubert’s Fax from Sarajevo, the chapter ‘The Rape Camp’ deals with the mass rape of women by Serb troops during the Bosnian War. Kubert’s rape narrative displays a tension between presence and absence that is analysed on different (extra)textual levels. Formally, the two

  10. Mycobiota of rape seeds in Romania. I. Identification of mycobiota associated with rape seeds from different areas of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana-Eugenia Şesan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum of fungal diversity associated with rape seeds belonging to 33 cultivars (Alaska, Astrada, Astrid, Atlantic, Betty, Champlein, Chayenne, Dexter, Digger, Elvis, Eurowest, Finesse, Herkules, Hydromel, Hydromel-MA, Ladoga, anitoba, Masa Rom, Milena, Mohican, Montego, Nectar, Ontario, Orkan, Perla (4 lots, Remy, Robust, Rodeo, Saphir, Tiger, Tiger CBC Lot ROM06-121-110, Triangle, Valesca, Vectra and 2 hybrids (H-90-20-83, H-90-21-83 has been established by samples’ macroscopical and microscopical analizying, during 2006-2008, for the first time in Romania. The Ulster method on malt-agar and PDA culture media has been used, evaluating the percentage of fungal taxons present on/in rape seeds. The most important pathogenic fungi identified were: Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib. de Bary, Botrytis cinerea Pers., Rhizoctonia solani Kühn, Alternaria brassicae (Berk. Sacc., A. brassicicola (Schwein. Wiltshire and Fusarium spp. Also, a large quantities of some saprophytic fungi, as Alternaria, Cladosporium, Aspergillus, Penicillium, Rhizopus have been recorded. These ones have been affected the health condition of rape seeds, suppressing their germination and other vital phenomena. Among potential antagonistic fungi the following genera have been isolated: Chaetomium (0-4%, Trichoderma (0-10%, Aspergillus (0-14%, Penicillium (0-100%. Some correlations and comparisons have been established between fungal diversity, their provenience, cultivars, culture media (Malt-Agar/MA, Potato-Dextrose-Agar/PDA used. It has been evaluated the behaviour of rape cultivars and hybrids towards the main rape seed pathogens.

  11. Hydroprocesssing of light gas oil - rape oil mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walendziewski, Jerzy; Stolarski, Marek; Luzny, Rafal; Klimek, Bartlomiej [Faculty of Chemistry, Wroclaw University of Technology, ul. Gdanska 7/9, 50-310 Wroclaw (Poland)

    2009-05-15

    Two series of experiments of hydroprocessing of light gas oil - rape oil mixtures were carried out. The reactor feed was composed of raw material: first series - 10 wt.% rape oil and 90 wt.% of diesel oil; second series - 20 wt.% rape oil and 80 wt.% of diesel oil. Hydroprocessing of both mixtures was performed with the same parameter sets, temperature (320, 350 and 380 C), hydrogen pressure 3 and 5 MPa, LHSV = 2 h{sup -} {sup 1} and hydrogen feed ratio of 500 Nm{sup 3}/m{sup 3}. It was stated that within limited range it is possible to control vegetable oil hydrogenolysis in the presence of light gas oil fraction (diesel oil boiling range) through the proper selection of the process parameters. Hydrogenolysis of ester bonds and hydrogenation of olefinic bonds in vegetable oils are the main reactions in the process. Basic physicochemical properties of the obtained hydroprocessed products are presented. (author)

  12. Potential environmental impacts associated with large-scale herbicide-tolerant GM oilseed rape crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fellous Marc

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The Biomolecular Engineering Commission considers that the knowledge acquired in the last three years has provided significant information in reply to the points raised in its review dated 16 February 2001. The Commission has studied the potential environmental impacts associated with large-scale herbicidetolerantGMoilseed rape crops, making a distinction between direct and indirect impacts. Direct impacts stem from the intrinsic properties of herbicide-tolerant GM oilseed rape crops whereas indirect impacts result from practices associated with the farming of these crops. The Commission considers that, in the absence of the use of the herbicide in question in and outside of farmed land, there is no direct environmental risk (development of invasive crops per se associated with the presence of a herbicide-tolerance gene in oilseed rape (or related species. Nevertheless, since the interest of these tolerant crops lies in the use of the herbicide in question, indirect effects, to varying extents, have been identified and must be taken into account: the use of the herbicide in question, applied to agricultural fields containing the herbicide-tolerant crop could lead to an increase in oilseed rape volunteer populations in crop rotations; the selective pressure exerted by non-specific herbicides (to which the crops have been rendered tolerant may be very high in cases of continuous and uncontrolled use of these herbicides, and may result in the persistence of rare events such as the reproduction of fertile interspecies hybrids; the change to the range of herbicides used should be conveyed by more effective weed control and, like any change in farming practices, induce indirect effects on the agri-ecosystem, particularly in terms of changes to weeds and the associated animal life. Accordingly, the Biomolecular Engineering Commission recommends a global approach in terms of the large-scale farming of herbicide-tolerant crops that: accounts for the

  13. Lifetime Economic Burden of Rape Among U.S. Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Cora; DeGue, Sarah; Florence, Curtis; Lokey, Colby N

    2017-06-01

    This study estimated the per-victim U.S. lifetime cost of rape. Data from previous studies was combined with current administrative data and 2011 U.S. National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey data in a mathematical model. Rape was defined as any lifetime completed or attempted forced penetration or alcohol- or drug-facilitated penetration, measured among adults not currently institutionalized. Costs included attributable impaired health, lost productivity, and criminal justice costs from the societal perspective. Average age at first rape was assumed to be 18 years. Future costs were discounted by 3%. The main outcome measures were the average per-victim (female and male) and total population discounted lifetime cost of rape. Secondary outcome measures were marginal outcome probabilities among victims (e.g., suicide attempt) and perpetrators (e.g., incarceration) and associated costs. Analysis was conducted in 2016. The estimated lifetime cost of rape was $122,461 per victim, or a population economic burden of nearly $3.1 trillion (2014 U.S. dollars) over victims' lifetimes, based on data indicating >25 million U.S. adults have been raped. This estimate included $1.2 trillion (39% of total) in medical costs; $1.6 trillion (52%) in lost work productivity among victims and perpetrators; $234 billion (8%) in criminal justice activities; and $36 billion (1%) in other costs, including victim property loss or damage. Government sources pay an estimated $1 trillion (32%) of the lifetime economic burden. Preventing sexual violence could avoid substantial costs for victims, perpetrators, healthcare payers, employers, and government payers. These findings can inform evaluations of interventions to reduce sexual violence. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Changes to the Aqueous Humor Proteome during Glaucoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Andrea Kaeslin

    Full Text Available To investigate the aqueous humor proteome in patients with glaucoma and a control group.Aqueous humor was obtained from five human donors diagnosed with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG and five age- and sex-matched controls undergoing cataract surgery. Quantitative proteome analysis of the aqueous humor by hyper reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (HRM-MS based on SWATH technology was performed.Expression levels of 87 proteins were found to be different between glaucomatous and control aqueous humor. Of the 87 proteins, 34 were significantly upregulated, whereas 53 proteins were downregulated in the aqueous humor from glaucoma patients compared to controls. Differentially expressed proteins were found to be involved in cholesterol-related, inflammatory, metabolic, antioxidant as well as proteolysis-related processes.Glaucoma leads to profound changes to the aqueous humor proteome consistent with an altered metabolic state, an inflammatory response and impaired antioxidant defense.

  15. Humor Style and Motor Skills: Understanding Vulnerability to Bullying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Plenty

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the role of humor style and motor skills in vulnerability to bullying. 729 adults responded to the Humor Style Questionnaire (HSQ and items retrospectively addressing their motor skills and bullying experiences during childhood. Consistent with recent research, poorer motor skills were associated with a greater extent of having been bullied. An association between stronger motor skills and affiliative humor was found, lending support to a shared biological basis theory underlying social and motor competency processes. Most importantly, being bullied was associated with higher self-defeating humor and lower affiliative humor. This supports earlier theoretical work by Klein and Kuiper (2006 and highlights the role that humor styles play in social interactions that can promote positive peer acceptance and wellbeing.

  16. Changes to the Aqueous Humor Proteome during Glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaeslin, Martha Andrea; Killer, Hanspeter Ezriel; Fuhrer, Cyril Adrian; Zeleny, Nauke; Huber, Andreas Robert; Neutzner, Albert

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the aqueous humor proteome in patients with glaucoma and a control group. Aqueous humor was obtained from five human donors diagnosed with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) and five age- and sex-matched controls undergoing cataract surgery. Quantitative proteome analysis of the aqueous humor by hyper reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (HRM-MS) based on SWATH technology was performed. Expression levels of 87 proteins were found to be different between glaucomatous and control aqueous humor. Of the 87 proteins, 34 were significantly upregulated, whereas 53 proteins were downregulated in the aqueous humor from glaucoma patients compared to controls. Differentially expressed proteins were found to be involved in cholesterol-related, inflammatory, metabolic, antioxidant as well as proteolysis-related processes. Glaucoma leads to profound changes to the aqueous humor proteome consistent with an altered metabolic state, an inflammatory response and impaired antioxidant defense.

  17. Humor Scholarship and TESOL: Applying Findings and Establishing a Research Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Nancy D.

    2011-01-01

    Research in the areas of second language (L2) pragmatics and of conversational humor has increased in recent decades, resulting in a strong base of knowledge from which applied linguists can draw information for teaching purposes and undertake future research. Yet, whereas empirical findings in L2 pragmatics are beginning to find their way into…

  18. Humors Effect on Short-term Memory in Healthy and Diabetic Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bains, Gurinder Singh; Berk, Lee S; Lohman, Everett; Daher, Noha; Petrofsky, Jerrold; Schwab, Ernie; Deshpande, Pooja

    2015-01-01

    increased by 12.6%, 16.7%, and 8.3%, respectively (P = .321). For levels of salivary cortisol, the research team found significant and borderline decreases for the humor group between baseline and (1) post-RAVLT1 (P = .047), (2) postvideo (P = .046), and (3) post-RAVLT2 (P = .062). The diabetic group showed significant decreases between baseline and (1) post-RAVLT1 (P = .047), (2) postvideo (P = .025), and (3) post-RAVLT2 (P = .034). The study found no significant changes for the control group. The research findings supported potential clinical and rehabilitative benefits for humor that can be applied to whole-person wellness programs for older adults. The cognitive components-learning ability and delayed recall-become more challenging as individuals age and are essential to older adults for providing a high quality of life: mind, body, and spirit. Because older adults can experience age-related memory deficits, complementary, enjoyable, and beneficial humor therapies should be implemented for them.

  19. Cadmium stress alters the redox reaction and hormone balance in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hui; Filardo, Fiona; Hu, Xiaotao; Zhao, Xiaomin; Fu, DongHui

    2016-02-01

    In order to understand the physiological response of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) leaves to cadmium (Cd) stress and exploit the physiological mechanisms involved in Cd tolerance, macro-mineral and chlorophyll concentrations, reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, activities of enzymatic antioxidants, nonenzymatic compounds metabolism, endogenous hormonal changes, and balance in leaves of oilseed rape exposed to 0, 100, or 200 μM CdSO4 were investigated. The results showed that under Cd exposure, Cd concentrations in the leaves continually increased while macro-minerals and chlorophyll concentrations decreased significantly. Meanwhile, with increased Cd stress, superoxide anion (O2(• -)) production rate and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentrations in the leaves increased significantly, which caused malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation and oxidative stress. For scavenging excess accumulated ROS and alleviating oxidative injury in the leaves, the activity of enzymatic antioxidants, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT), was increased significantly at certain stress levels. However, with increased Cd stress, the antioxidant enzyme activities all showed a trend towards reduction. The nonenzymatic antioxidative compounds, such as proline and total soluble sugars, accumulated continuously with increased Cd stress to play a long-term role in scavenging ROS. In addition, ABA levels also increased continuously with Cd stress while ZR decreased and the ABA/ZR ratio increased, which might also be providing a protective role against Cd toxicity.

  20. Sexual rape in children and adolescents: a medical emergency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Piña Corina Araceli

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Sexual rape is defined as vaginal, anal or oral sex with violent and forceful penetration of the penis or of any other object. Patients who have been raped are a medical emergency which requires immediate attention, if possible, within 24 to 72 hours, since there is the risk of sustaining external and internal injuries and of acquiring a sexually transmitted infection (STI. Detection and Centers for Disease Control (CDC have reported that the maximum effective- ness of HIV prophylaxis is obtained when given within the first 24 to 72 hours post exposure.

  1. Ageing and the humoral immune response in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blankwater, M.J.

    1978-01-01

    The study presented in this thesis is concerned with changes in the humoral immune system as a function of age in different inbred mouse strains. Their capacity to develop humoral immune responses to experimentally given thymus-dependent and thymus-independent antigens under various conditions is compared. Furthermore, experiments employing thymus transplantation and thymic humoral factors which are directed at the restoration of the diminished T cell functions in old age are reported. (Auth.)

  2. Ozone effects on yield quality of spring oilseed rape and broccoli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandermeiren, Karine; De Bock, Maarten; Horemans, Nele; Guisez, Yves; Ceulemans, Reinhart; De Temmerman, Ludwig

    2012-02-01

    The impact of elevated tropospheric ozone (O 3) on the quality of spring oilseed rape ( Brassica napus cv Ability) and broccoli ( Brassica oleracea L. cv Italic cv Monaco) was assessed during a three year Open - Top Chamber (OTC) experiment. Current ambient O 3 levels were compared to an increase of 20 and 40 ppb during 8 h per day over the entire growing season. The qualitative responses were expressed as a function of the accumulated hourly O 3 concentrations over a threshold of 40 ppb (AOT40) and the phytotoxic O 3 dose above a threshold of 6 nmol s -1 m -2 projected leaf area (POD 6). Our results provide clear evidence that O 3 has an influence on the qualitative attributes of the harvested products of these Brassica species. The responses were comparable whether they were expressed as a function of the accumulated O 3 concentrations or of the modelled O 3 uptake. The protein concentration of oilseed rape seeds and broccoli heads was significantly increased in response to O 3. There was also a shift in the fatty acid composition of the vegetable oil derived from seeds of oilseed rape. Oleic acid (18:1) declined significantly ( p broccoli an important shift occurred from indolic to aliphatic GSLs although the total GSL concentration was not changed. The increase in the aliphatic/indolic GSL ratio ( p broccoli were not influenced by O 3; glutathione (GSH) was slightly increased in response to a higher O 3 uptake ( p < 0.05). The consequences of these changes with regard to food and feed quality and human health are discussed.

  3. Attitude May Be Everything, But Is Everything an Attitude? Cognitive Distortions May Not Be Evaluations of Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Kevin L; Hermann, Chantal A; White, Kristen; Pettersen, Cathrine; Bumby, Kurt

    2018-02-01

    Cognitive distortions are often referred to as attitudes toward rape in theory, research, and clinical practice pertaining to sexual aggression. In the social-psychological literature, however, attitudes are typically defined as evaluations; thus, in this context, attitudes toward rape are considered evaluations of rape (e.g., rape is negative vs. positive). The purpose of the current study was to explore whether a widely used measure of cognitive distortions (RAPE Scale; Bumby, 1996) assesses evaluation of rape, and, if not, whether evaluation of rape and the cognitions assessed by the RAPE Scale are independently associated with sexually aggressive behavior. Participants (660 male undergraduate students) completed the RAPE Scale as well as measures of evaluation of rape and sexually aggressive behavior. An exploratory factor analysis revealed that the RAPE Scale items formed a correlated but distinct factor from the Evaluation of Rape Scale items. Regression analyses indicated that the Evaluation of Rape Scale and the RAPE Scale had small to moderate independent associations with self-report measures of sexually aggressive behavior. Our results suggest that evaluation of rape may be distinct from cognitive distortions regarding rape, and both evaluation and cognitive distortions may be relevant for understanding sexual violence.

  4. Angustia y humor en Papelucho de Marcela Paz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgardo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Los estudios clásicos sobre el humor identifican una interrelación estrecha entre humor y angustia. En la serie narrativa Papelucho, esta interacción es constante en la trama de las distintas novelas. Este trabajo describe la interacción entre humor y angustia que se da en la obra y reflexiona sobre su sentido. Se concluye que la serie propone el humor como estrategia para enfrentar los hechos angustiantes ineludibles en la vida.

  5. Humor and laughter in patients with cerebellar degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, B; Propson, B; Göricke, S; Jacobi, H; Wild, B; Timmann, D

    2012-06-01

    Humor is a complex behavior which includes cognitive, affective and motor responses. Based on observations of affective changes in patients with cerebellar lesions, the cerebellum may support cerebral and brainstem areas involved in understanding and appreciation of humorous stimuli and expression of laughter. The aim of the present study was to examine if humor appreciation, perception of humorous stimuli, and the succeeding facial reaction differ between patients with cerebellar degeneration and healthy controls. Twenty-three adults with pure cerebellar degeneration were compared with 23 age-, gender-, and education-matched healthy control subjects. No significant difference in humor appreciation and perception of humorous stimuli could be found between groups using the 3 Witz-Dimensionen Test, a validated test asking for funniness and aversiveness of jokes and cartoons. Furthermore, while observing jokes, humorous cartoons, and video sketches, facial expressions of subjects were videotaped and afterwards analysed using the Facial Action Coding System. Using depression as a covariate, the number, and to a lesser degree, the duration of facial expressions during laughter were reduced in cerebellar patients compared to healthy controls. In sum, appreciation of humor appears to be largely preserved in patients with chronic cerebellar degeneration. Cerebellar circuits may contribute to the expression of laughter. Findings add to the literature that non-motor disorders in patients with chronic cerebellar disease are generally mild, but do not exclude that more marked disorders may show up in acute cerebellar disease and/or in more specific tests of humor appreciation.

  6. Trait humor and longevity: do comics have the last laugh?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotton, J

    1992-01-01

    Four sets of biographical data were analyzed in order to test the hypothesis that the ability to generate humor is associated with longevity. Although steps were taken to ensure that tests had high levels of statistical power, analyses provided very little support for the idea that individuals with a well-developed sense of humor live longer than serious writers and other entertainers. In addition, a subsidiary analysis revealed that those in the business of entertaining others died at an earlier age than those in other lines of endeavor. These findings suggest that researchers should turn their attention from trait humor to the effects of humorous material.

  7. Humor: Power Conveying Social Structures Inside Forensic Mental Health Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildberg, Frederik A; Paaske, Kristian J; Rasmussen, Vivian L; Nissen, Ricko D; Bradley, Stephen K; Hounsgaard, Lise

    2016-01-01

    According to research literature, humor inside the staff-patient interaction seems to be significant in the area of forensic mental healthcare. However, existing literature on the subject is limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the characteristics of the use humor by forensic mental health staff members in interactions with forensic mental health inpatients. The study included 32 forensic mental health staff members, used 307 hours of participant observations, 48 informal interviews, and seven formal semistructured interviews. Outcomes identify four themes concerning the conveyance of power to, from, and between forensic mental health staff and patients as they interact: (a) "the informal use: the human-to-human approach," characterized by an informal use of humor and without any reference to mental health issues; (b) the "formal use of humor: the staff-patient approach," characterized as formal with a view on the patient as mentally ill, unable to understand humor, and with the aim of using humor to prevent conflicts or negative behavior; (c) "protest against requested care: the human-patient approach," characterized by the use of humor as a protest against requested care; and the use of (d) "inadequacy humor: the staff-human approach," characterized by the use of inadequacy-humor referring to, for example, patients' physical features. Recommendations and clinical implications are discussed.

  8. Rape: the journey from victim to survivor: a critical literature survey

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    M.A. The prevalence of rape in the world and particularly in South Africa, calls for the understanding of the factors involved in rape. In particular, it is necessary to understand rape in terms of the victim, not just in terms of the prevalence, causes and social consequences of rape. The victim’s experience of rape is complicated and takes place over a journey that progresses from the assault, through her responses and psychological and social reactions to her recovery from the trauma. I...

  9. LAUGHTER AFTER TEARS: SITTING FOR AMERICAN HUMORS IN INDONESIAN SOFAS (Subtitling Humors of a Tv Serial Friends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusti Nyoman Ayu Sukerti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The study reported in this paper aims to analyze the possible strategies used in the subtitling of the first five episodes (season 1 of Friends to render the episodes’ humorous dialogues. It examines the subtitler’s strategies in preserving both the semantic and humorous genes of laughter intended by the original humor. The analysis takes into account the internal and external structures of humors both in the target and source language. Choosing a subtitling strategy involves a decisionmaking process where the internal and external factors come into play and, therefore, rendering humors in a contextually bound medium, such as subtitling, does not necessarily work in the TL environment in a consistent manner. The inconsistency highlights the fact that humors, even those considered universal, are not digested in the same manner across cultures.

  10. Visualising Shattered Lives: Potentiality in Representations of Rape Victimisation in Contemporary Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hei-Lei Cheng

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how cinematic representations of rape can challenge the silence which surrounds the issue of rape and sexual violence in Japan. A textual analysis of two contemporary fictional Japanese films, DV: Domestic Violence [2005] and The Ravine of Goodbye [2013], was performed to illustrate how filmmakers can use narrative and cinematographic techniques to influence the viewer to reflect upon their attitudes to rape and rape victims. By examining how these two films depict rape and rape recovery, this article argues that there is discursive potential inherent within cinema to shape our imaginations and ideals about the world. But while the filmmaker can construct rape representations that encourage reflection, how the viewer decides to engage with the film has bearing on whether this potential for reflection is realised.

  11. Labeling Sexual Victimization Experiences: The Role of Sexism, Rape Myth Acceptance, and Tolerance for Sexual Harassment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMaire, Kelly L; Oswald, Debra L; Russell, Brenda L

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether attitudinal variables, such as benevolent and hostile sexism toward men and women, female rape myth acceptance, and tolerance of sexual harassment are related to women labeling their sexual assault experiences as rape. In a sample of 276 female college students, 71 (25.7%) reported at least one experience that met the operational definition of rape, although only 46.5% of those women labeled the experience "rape." Benevolent sexism, tolerance of sexual harassment, and rape myth acceptance, but not hostile sexism, significantly predicted labeling of previous sexual assault experiences by the victims. Specifically, those with more benevolent sexist attitudes toward both men and women, greater rape myth acceptance, and more tolerant attitudes of sexual harassment were less likely to label their past sexual assault experience as rape. The results are discussed for their clinical and theoretical implications.

  12. Hippocrates' humoral pathology in nowaday's reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujalkova, M; Straka, S; Jureckova, A

    2001-01-01

    Ancient medicine integrated three components: experience (empirical observation), religion/magic and speculations of natural philosophers. The Greek medicine out-achieved medicine of other ancient nations in starting to investigate the true causes of health and diseases and thus laying foundations for the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment. Hippocrates, the most famous physician of the ancient times, made a synthesis of existing philosophical opinions from the point of view of a physician. His 58 writings were preserved in the collection "Corpus Hippocraticum". The most relevant writing in it--"Peri fyseos anthropu" (On the nature of man)--is ascribed to Hippocrates' son-in-law Polybos to whom we are grateful for the ancient humoral-pathological theory. In explaining human organism and its processes the author integrated ancient teachings on 4 basic humors (humoral theory), elements and qualities with observations of manifestations of health and disease. Normal condition (health) was defined as balance between the body fluids (eukrasia) and external environment. If this balance is disturbed, the result is dyskrasia, i.e. disease studied by pathology. According to Hippocrates disease causes can be understood only through empirical study. A man has a power to overcome disease, but to achieve it the right diet is necessary to keep harmony in body fluids of an organism. The role of a physician was just to support the nature. "Prognosis", another writing included in "Corpus Hippocraticum", reflects Hippocrates' understanding of prognosis as a necessary development of diagnosis based on past knowledge (anamnesis) and present observation. Ideas of Hippocrates and his medical school are still valuable and inspiring especially for today's very sophisticated medicine--concept of fighting diseases by natural means: maintaining healthy lifestyle and harmony within the organism, or an effort for perfect understanding of human creature and for humanization of medicine. (Fig. 3

  13. Potential bioetanol and biogas production using lignocellulosic biomass from winter rye, oilseed rape and faba bean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Anneli; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    ) faba bean straw (Viciafaba L.). Their composition with regard to cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, extractives and ash was evaluated, as well as their potential as raw materials for ethanol and biogas production. The materials were pretreated by wet oxidation using parameters previously found...... to be optimal for pretreatment of corn stover (195 degrees C, 15 min, 2 g l(-1) Na2CO3 and 12 bar oxygen). It was shown that pretreatment was necessary for ethanol production from all raw materials and gave increased biogas yield from winter rye straw. Neither biogas productivity nor yield from oilseed rape...

  14. Degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls in the rhizosphere of rape, Brassica napus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javorská, Hana; Tlustos, Pavel; Kaliszová, Regina

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the rhizosphere effect of rape plants on polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) dissipation in soils spiked with seven indicator congeners. Depletion of PCB in the rhizosphere was significantly higher in the soil with lower organic matter content. While in the Chernozem soil, 87% of PCB related to bulk soil were found in the 1st mm from roots, only 62%-69% were found in the Fluvisol soil with no significant influence of increased initial PCB concentration. Further from the roots, the concentration of lower chlorinated congeners decreased, which indicates their greater biodegradation in comparison with more chlorinated ones.

  15. Psychometric Comparisons of Benevolent and Corrective Humor across 22 Countries: The Virtue Gap in Humor Goes International.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heintz, Sonja; Ruch, Willibald; Platt, Tracey; Pang, Dandan; Carretero-Dios, Hugo; Dionigi, Alberto; Argüello Gutiérrez, Catalina; Brdar, Ingrid; Brzozowska, Dorota; Chen, Hsueh-Chih; Chłopicki, Władysław; Collins, Matthew; Ďurka, Róbert; Yahfoufi, Najwa Y El; Quiroga-Garza, Angélica; Isler, Robert B; Mendiburo-Seguel, Andrés; Ramis, TamilSelvan; Saglam, Betül; Shcherbakova, Olga V; Singh, Kamlesh; Stokenberga, Ieva; Wong, Peter S O; Torres-Marín, Jorge

    2018-01-01

    Recently, two forms of virtue-related humor, benevolent and corrective, have been introduced. Benevolent humor treats human weaknesses and wrongdoings benevolently, while corrective humor aims at correcting and bettering them. Twelve marker items for benevolent and corrective humor (the BenCor) were developed, and it was demonstrated that they fill the gap between humor as temperament and virtue. The present study investigates responses to the BenCor from 25 samples in 22 countries (overall N = 7,226). The psychometric properties of the BenCor were found to be sufficient in most of the samples, including internal consistency, unidimensionality, and factorial validity. Importantly, benevolent and corrective humor were clearly established as two positively related, yet distinct dimensions of virtue-related humor. Metric measurement invariance was supported across the 25 samples, and scalar invariance was supported across six age groups (from 18 to 50+ years) and across gender. Comparisons of samples within and between four countries (Malaysia, Switzerland, Turkey, and the UK) showed that the item profiles were more similar within than between countries, though some evidence for regional differences was also found. This study thus supported, for the first time, the suitability of the 12 marker items of benevolent and corrective humor in different countries, enabling a cumulative cross-cultural research and eventually applications of humor aiming at the good.

  16. Psychometric Comparisons of Benevolent and Corrective Humor across 22 Countries: The Virtue Gap in Humor Goes International

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Heintz

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently, two forms of virtue-related humor, benevolent and corrective, have been introduced. Benevolent humor treats human weaknesses and wrongdoings benevolently, while corrective humor aims at correcting and bettering them. Twelve marker items for benevolent and corrective humor (the BenCor were developed, and it was demonstrated that they fill the gap between humor as temperament and virtue. The present study investigates responses to the BenCor from 25 samples in 22 countries (overall N = 7,226. The psychometric properties of the BenCor were found to be sufficient in most of the samples, including internal consistency, unidimensionality, and factorial validity. Importantly, benevolent and corrective humor were clearly established as two positively related, yet distinct dimensions of virtue-related humor. Metric measurement invariance was supported across the 25 samples, and scalar invariance was supported across six age groups (from 18 to 50+ years and across gender. Comparisons of samples within and between four countries (Malaysia, Switzerland, Turkey, and the UK showed that the item profiles were more similar within than between countries, though some evidence for regional differences was also found. This study thus supported, for the first time, the suitability of the 12 marker items of benevolent and corrective humor in different countries, enabling a cumulative cross-cultural research and eventually applications of humor aiming at the good.

  17. The effect of water and salt stresses on the phosphorus content and acid phosphatase activity in oilseed rape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Flasiński

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oilseed rape plants responded to water and salt stresses (-0.5 MPa, PEG 6000 and NaCI by reduction of the fresh and dry weights of shoots and roots. When PEG was used, the ratio of dry weights of roots:shoots surpassed that of controls. The leaf protein content increased considerably. The phosphorus content decreased only in the roots, most significantly after three days of stress. Immediately after the stresses were induced, an increase in the acid phosphatase (AP activity was noted. Water and salt stresses caused four- and two-fold increases in AP activity in leaves, respectively. Changes in the enzyme activity were negligible in stems and roots. There are nine forms of AP in young leaves of oilseed rape. In the stressed plants, from No. 5 revealed lower activity and forms Nos 8 and 9, higher activities than in the control. The increase in AP activity was directly accompanied by the decrease in the water potential of the tissues. Oilseed rape is considerably less sensitive to salt stress than to water stress, which is manifested as the lower inhibition of plant growth and also by a smaller increase in acid phosphatase activity.

  18. The right to protection from sexual assault: the Indian anti-rape campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangoli, G

    1996-11-01

    This article reveals a viewpoint that emphasizes some dilemmas among Indian feminist practice, women's sexuality in legal terms, and case law in India. The Indian Women's Movement (IWM) was successful in 1983 in adding a legal amendment on rape and child abuse. The case that mobilized women to change the law occurred in 1980 when a court acquitted two policemen who were charged with raping and molesting a 16-year-old tribal girl. The Bombay High Court overturned the judgement and convicted both policemen. The case was appealed, and the policemen successfully argued that rape did not occur because the girl did not protest and was sexually experienced anyway. In 1980 the Forum Against Rape was formed to mobilize public support and to lobby the State for reform of the law on rape. The campaign focused on custodial rape and political repression, rape as civil rights issue, and rape as a women's issue. There was a distancing between the victim, who occupied a lower caste and class position, and her defenders in the women's groups. The campaign appealed to both the appropriate judgement of the State and the denial that the State was an effective vehicle for change. The campaign did not directly address incest and marital rape or domestic violence within families. The legislature debated the issue of legal change during 1982. The debate revealed deep divisions about sexuality and women's status. It was argued that chaste women were not rape victims, and unchaste women were of a socially inferior caste and class. It was argued that there should be a ban on child marriage rather than spousal rape laws. Child rape is a legal issue only when the perpetrator is outside the family. Rape was discussed as an act of lust and not violence. In 1992, a woman promoting an end to child marriage was raped and the men were acquitted. It was argued that the law was out-of-date and in need of revision.

  19. Psychological Techniques In Helping Rape Victims | Ayinde | Edo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Counselling psychology is concerned with assisting people who have personal, social, educational and vocational problems to better understand themselves and solve their problems. Rape is seen as a problem that militates against the psychological well being of victims, because of the devastating aftermath of the incident ...

  20. Does DNA methylation pattern mark generative development in winter rape?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Filek, M.; Janiak, A.; Szarejko, I.; Grabczynska, J.; Macháčková, Ivana; Krekule, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 61, 5-6 (2006), s. 387-396 ISSN 0939-5075 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600040612 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : DNA methylation * rape * vernalization Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.720, year: 2006

  1. Evaluative effects of negative emotionality constructs on rape and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In everyday life, human beings are confronted with numerous psychological problems. These psychological problems are numerous and vital that at times they claim human life. One of such psychological problems is the one being face by victims of rape and sexual harassment in which many individual may be hesitant to ...

  2. Rape and Adultery in Ancient Greek and Yoruba Societies | Olasope ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Athens and other ancient cultures, a woman, whatever her status and whatever her age or social class, was, in law, a perpetual minor. Throughout her life, she was in the legal control of a guardian who represented her in law. Rape, as unlawful carnal knowledge of a woman, warranted a capital charge in the ...

  3. The relationshp between rape experience and post-traumatic stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to find out the relationship between rape experience and of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder among victims. One hundred and thirty-two female participants made up of seventy-two from Nasarawa State University and sixty from the general public in Keffi town of Nasarawa State participated in the ...

  4. [Medicolegal considerations about rape as a reason to decriminalize abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Wilhelm, Leonardo; Moreno, Leonardo; Carnevali, Raúl

    2016-06-01

    The Chilean senate is discussing a proposal to decriminalize abortion in 3 causals. One of these is when the pregnancy occurs as a result of a rape. To be legally able to perform the abortion in this circumstance, a health care team must confirm the occurrence of the facts constituting the offence. Regardless of the patient’s will, the accusation will be reported to the justice. In our view, in its current status the proposed rule does not consider certain medicolegal and procedural topics. Those flaws may determine in certain scenarios critical problems, such as: a) a wrongful conviction as a consequence of a false allegation of rape; (b) some pregnant due to a rape will not have access to the abortion procedure; (c) some accusations of rape will not be accredited nor criminally sanctioned. Employing a fictional case, we illustrate how those scenarios can actually be seen in practice. We also emphasize the difficulties and limitations that the health care team will encounter if the project is approved under the current conditions. Finally, we encourage the professional societies implicated in the theme to contribute in the legislatorial debate. Therefore, we give a set of proposals aimed to improve the bill before it may be enacted as a law.

  5. Perceptions Matter: Case Studies of Policing Statutory Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandakai, Tina L.; Ding, Kele; Broomfield, Tyree S.; Iverson, Susan V.

    2013-01-01

    The legal parameters regarding adult-child sexual intimacy varies across states. In many states, rules regarding the definition of "child" and age-of-consent laws seem to perpetuate lax and ambivalent responses to adult- child sex. To explore the criminal response to adult-child sex, particularly statutory rape, seven active male and…

  6. Application of rape pod sealants to reduce adverse environmental impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauša, Laimis; Steponavičius, Dainius; Jotautienė, Eglė; Kemzūraitė, Aurelija; Zaleckas, Ernestas

    2018-04-01

    Rape (Brassica napus L.) is a major global oilseed crop characterized by its high potential as an alimentary oil and in biodiesel production. The two most popular pod sealants (PS) used to reduce rape pod shattering are products in the pinolene range (di-1-p-menthene) and latex polymer products. Reports on the effective preservation of seed yield by these products are fairly contradictory. With this in mind, an experimental PS (PS4) that contained the active agents acrylic and trisiloxane was developed. Comparative experimental trials of the developed PS4 and three other PS (PS1, PS2 and PS3) containing active agents that are generally used for sealant production were conducted. The studies showed that the static and dynamic surface tension of PS4 was the lowest at the same concentration (2.0 g kg -1 ), consequently demonstrating the lowest spray drift. The chemical substances from PS had not penetrated the rape seeds in any of the PSs. The results indicate that treatment with PS4 exerts a beneficial effect in reducing rape seed yield loss (68-104 kg ha -1 in 2014 and 194-305 kg ha -1 in 2015) compared to other investigated PS. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Why Rape Survivors Participate in the Criminal Justice System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Debra; Campbell, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    After a rape, survivors may seek help from multiple community organizations including the criminal justice system (CJS). Research has found that few survivors report their assaults to the police and of those who do report, many withdraw their participation during the investigation. However, relatively little is known about the factors that lead…

  8. Biological control of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (oilseed rape isolate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-06-27

    Jun 27, 2011 ... Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib) De Bary, the causal agent of stem rot of oilseed rape, is one of the most important phytopathogens. In order to find appropriate biocontrol agents, antagonistic and especially chitinolytical activities of 110 soil actinomycetes were examined. Among assayed isolates,.

  9. Responding to the rape of Indonesian Chinese women and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-01

    In May 1998, 168 women and girls were gang-raped during the Jakarta riots. In response, the Humanity Volunteer Team, a nongovernmental organization, set up a Violence Against Women Division. This group is composed of 400 people from diverse backgrounds and ethnic groups who undergo training and then volunteer their services to provide psychological and physical support to the affected victims and their families and to investigate the crimes. The volunteers have adopted a holistic approach and work with the cooperation of private hospitals. They accomplish their work in a climate of fear because it is considered subversive simply to bring this issue to light. Rape survivors and their families, as well as medical staff and volunteers, have been intimidated to the point that many rape survivors have traveled abroad to seek treatment. Long-term prevention strategies should include 1) a state apology to rape survivors and their communities, 2) an independent investigation to expose the perpetrators, and 3) the protection of the civil rights of the minority Chinese in Indonesia.

  10. Victims of Rape: Repeated Assessment of Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkeson, Beverly M.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Investigated depressive symptoms in rape victims (N=115) for one year following their assaults. Depressive symptoms were higher in victims than in controls. By four months postrape, depressive symptoms in the victim group had diminished, and the victims were no longer significantly different from the nonvictim control group. (Author)

  11. Maps of Woe Narratives of Rape in Early Modern England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Pallotti

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available By considering a selection of texts, both fictional and non-fictional, this study ad- dresses different representations of rape in early modern English culture. Its aim is to highlight the interconnections between aspects of culture and the creative exchange, the confrontation and mutual assimilation between ‘high’ and ‘low’ cultural forms.

  12. Medico-legal documentation of rape or sexual assault: are ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L Fouché

    Results: A response rate of 59.3% was achieved. ... on how to manage alleged rape or sexual assault cases, only 11.4% of the participants had hands-on exposure to an ..... atrocious crimes, constituting a huge human rights violation and.

  13. Knowledge and Perceptions of Date Rape among Female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    A semi-structured questionnaire which included a 6-point knowledge scale and a 21-points ... psychological harm or suffering to women; it .... Lack of self confidence. 6 .... One factor that promotes date rape is the belief that a man should go.

  14. Understanding the innermost nature of genocidal rape: A community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of societal norms, values, rules and taboos making sense of normality in sexual intercourse, the refusal of any link with the victim recalling togetherness, and the dismissal of humanity characterized by a total lack of guilt. Key words: genocidal rape, normality, togetherness, humanity, community-based approach, Rwanda ...

  15. Bioconversion of rape straw into a nutritionally enriched substrate by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-06-22

    Jun 22, 2011 ... rape straw substrate and the secretion of ligninolytic enzyme system including laccase (Lac), manganese ... results are mostly fields burning or natural degradation. The former ... Microbial conversion, especially fungal bio- conversion ... out at 27°C in plastic bags containing 200 g of lignocellulosic substrate ...

  16. Biological control of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (oilseed rape isolate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib) De Bary, the causal agent of stem rot of oilseed rape, is one of the most important phytopathogens. In order to find appropriate biocontrol agents, antagonistic and especially chitinolytical activities of 110 soil actinomycetes were examined. Among assayed isolates, Streptomyces sp. isolate 422 ...

  17. Humor en línea. Línea del humor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dra. Mirta Clara Echevarría

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available La autora indaga el humor propuesto por el diario ‘InterVoz’ (Córdoba, Argentina. El medio publica el "típico humor cordobés". Historietas, chistes y relatos representan la vida urbana cotidiana, confluencia de lo popular y lo masivo, a través de la inclusión de usos lingüísticos, costumbres, personajes típicos y personajes públicos, sobre todo políticos. Estos textos, en algunos casos, reproducen lo publicado en papel; sin embargo, son manifestaciones diferentes. En este discurso emergente, estudia las condiciones de producción, circulación y consumo desde varias vertientes. Subraya la autora la relación del humor con el resto del diario por: la fuerte relación intertextual con la información y el diseño hipertextual. Destaca tópicas y retórica del humor como parte de una política discursiva centrada en lo regional, con el objeto de construir un discurso identitario de clara apelación a "los cordobeses en el mundo". El humor de ‘InterVoz’ (el diario en su totalidad, en el marco de la globalización, se manifiesta como una otra voz, sin llegar a establecerse como contradiscurso. Este periódico –como tantos en la red– subraya las marcas de lo local para permanecer en lo global.

  18. Response of winter rape (Brassica napus L. ssp. oleifera Metzg., Sinsk to foliar fertilization and different seeding rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezary A. Kwiatkowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment in growing winter rape was carried out during the period 2009-2011 in a family farm (owned by Mr. M. Bednarczyk located in Jaroszewice (Lublin region, on podzolic soil. Plant biometric features as well as yield and seed qualitative parameters (oil, protein and glucosinolate content were evaluated depending on the following rates of soil NPK fertilizers and on foliar fertilization (autumn spraying with the fertilizer solution: 100% and 75% of NPK as well as urea + nickel chelate + MgSO4H2O; 100% and 75% of NPK as well as urea + Plonvit R + MgSO4H2O. Plots without foliar fertilization (only 100% of NPK were the control treatment. The other experimental factor was the seeding rate (2.5 kg×ha-1 – 30 cm row spacing; 4 kg×ha-1 – 18 cm row spacing. Foliar spraying was done once in the autumn in the second decade of October. Tillage as well as mechanical and chemical control of agricultural pests in the plantation were typical for this plant species and consistent with the recommendations for winter rape protection. A hypothesis was made that the application of foliar fertilizers would have a beneficial effect on winter rape productivity, at the same time maintaining the high quality of raw material. It was also assumed that a reduction in the seeding rate of winter oilseed rape would result in reduced plant lodging and an increased number of siliques per plant; as a consequence, seed and oil productivity would be at a level not lower than that obtained at the higher seeding rate. The present study has proved that foliar fertilization of winter oilseed rape in the autumn period contributes to improved plant winter hardiness and increased productivity. The application of foliar fertilizers also enables the rates of basic mineral NPK fertilizers to be reduced by 25% without detriment to seed yield. Foliar fertilizers have been found to have a weaker effect on changing the chemical composition of rapeseed. The study has shown that

  19. The evolution of humor from male aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuster, Sam

    2012-01-01

    The response to seeing a man riding a unicycle was reported to be consistently related to the viewer's sex and stage of physical development. To see if this observation was universal, observations of responses were collected from 23 male and 9 female unicyclists aged 15-69 years, with 2-40 years cycling experience across four continents. With two exceptions among men, the findings were the same as those originally reported: children showed interest and curiosity, young girls showed little interest, while adult women showed a kindly, concerned, praising response. By contrast, boys showed physical aggression, which became more verbal, merging in the later teens to the snide, aggressive, stereotyped humorous response shown by adult males, which became less frequent in elderly men. The universality of the response across different individuals, environments, and dates of observation suggests an endogenous mechanism, and the association with masculine development relates this to androgen. The theoretical consequences are discussed. It is concluded that humor develops from aggression in males and is evolutionarily related to sexual selection.

  20. The Humor Continuum: From Text to Smart Environments (Keynote Paper)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus

    Humor is important in our daily life, whether our activities are at home, at work, or in public spaces, for example during sports or other recreational and entertainment activities. Until now, computational humor, the research area that investigates rules and algorithms to understand and to generate

  1. Humoral and cellular immune responses to modified hepatitis B ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These findings indicate that the vaccine induced both a humoral and cellular ... Keywords: Hepatitis B virus, Plasmid DNA, Vaccine, Spleen cytokines, Humoral and cellular immune responses ... produced in mice. ... were performed and HBsAg specific IgM and IgG ..... and protection elicited against Plasmodium berghei.

  2. Stand Up Comics: Instructional Humor and Student Engagment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortley, Amy; Dotson, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the use of instructional humor in higher education settings and makes connections between the levels of student achievement in academics and the influence of appropriate instructional humor. The work of prominent researchers such as Wanzer, Frymier, and Irwin (2010), and Segrist & Hupp (2015), who postulate that…

  3. Examining Teachers' Motivation Level According to School Principals' Humor Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recepoglu, Ergun; Kilinc, Ali Cagatay; Cepni, Osman

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the motivation level of teachers according to school principals' humor styles. The humor styles survey and job motivation scale were used to gather data from 305 randomly selected teachers employed in primary schools in Karabuk. Results indicated that 141 of the teachers claimed school principal had…

  4. Pastoral Perspectives of Humor's Use in Ministry Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jonathan W.

    2012-01-01

    Results from a qualitative component of a mixed-methods research design are reported regarding the use of humor in pastoral ministry. Thirteen Southern Baptist (SB) pastors were interviewed, from a total of 37 exemplars identified in the quantitative component of the study, regarding their perspectives toward humor in ministry. Results overall…

  5. Effects of Humor on Teacher Stress, Affect, and Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Jacqueline Dena

    2013-01-01

    Teachers are at high risk for stress, negative emotion, and job dissatisfaction, which has been linked with health problems and early attrition. Humor has been found to relieve various forms of stress. However, there is a gap in the literature regarding humor effects on teacher stress and its related consequences. The purpose of this quantitative,…

  6. A Computational Model of Linguistic Humor in Puns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Justine T.; Levy, Roger; Goodman, Noah D.

    2016-01-01

    Humor plays an essential role in human interactions. Precisely what makes something funny, however, remains elusive. While research on natural language understanding has made significant advancements in recent years, there has been little direct integration of humor research with computational models of language understanding. In this paper, we…

  7. Stimulus Characteristics Affect Humor Processing in Individuals with Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Andrea C.; Hegenloh, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The present paper aims to investigate whether individuals with Asperger syndrome (AS) show global humor processing deficits or whether humor comprehension and appreciation depends on stimulus characteristics. Non-verbal visual puns, semantic and Theory of Mind cartoons were rated on comprehension, funniness and the punchlines were explained. AS…

  8. Multilingual Manipulation and Humor in "I Love Lucy"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschen, Bryan

    2013-01-01

    "I Love Lucy" is considered to have been one of the most humorous television programs in the United States as early as the 1950s. This paper explores the use of language by the protagonists, Lucy and Ricky Ricardo, in order to understand the source of the program's humor. Linguistic analysis of the Ricardos' speech is applied,…

  9. Playing with expectations: a contextual view of humor development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Airenti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the developmental literature it has been advanced that young children would not understand the specificity of nonliteral communicative acts. In this article I shall focus on young children’s ability to produce and understand different forms of humor. I shall explore children’s acquisition of the communicative contexts that constitute the background enabling them to perform humorous interactions before being able to analyze them in the terms allowed by a full fledged ToM. I consider that different forms of humor share a number of basic features and that we can draw a continuum from simple forms to sophisticated ones. In particular I shall focus on teasing, a form of humor already present in preverbal infants but also considered as a typical feature of irony. I shall argue that all forms of humor can be described in the terms of a kind of interaction that I propose to call playing with expectations.

  10. CLASSICAL CONDITIONING OF THREE KINDS OF HUMOR IN PUBLICITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAROLINA M. CIFUENTES

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of humor in advertisement published in Colombia were investigated in regards to brands,advertisement, purchase intention, recall and recognition.A simultaneous Classical Conditioning procedure was carried out, using Incongruous, Hostile and Allusivehumor associated to three brands. The procedure was applied to 30 university students. Results revealedthat the three kinds of humor work as unconditioning stimulus, generating positive attitudes towardsadvertisement and brand. Humor influences the purchase intention and recognition, but not the remembranceof brand when compared to neutral advertisement. Incongrous and Hostile Humor generate recognitionand positive attitude towards advertisement and brand. Allusions have a greater effect on purchaseintention than the other ones. Results corroborate the effectiveness of humor as an advertisement tool.

  11. Playing with Expectations: A Contextual View of Humor Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airenti, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    In the developmental literature, the idea has been proposed that young children do not understand the specificity of non-literal communicative acts. In this article, I focus on young children’s ability to produce and understand different forms of humor. I explore the acquisition of the communicative contexts that enable children to engage in humorous interactions before they possess the capacity to analyze them in the terms afforded by a full-fledged theory of mind. I suggest that different forms of humor share several basic features and that we can construct a continuum from simple to sophisticated forms. In particular, I focus on teasing, a form of humor already present in preverbal infants that is also considered a typical feature of irony. I argue that all forms of humor can be regarded as a type of interaction that I propose to call “playing with expectations.” PMID:27703438

  12. Effects of salt stress on phosphorus uptake by european rape sheiaralle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guihua; Zhang Jianfeng; Wei Dongpu; Yang Juncheng; Mei Yong

    2007-01-01

    The effects of different salinity on phosphorus uptake by European rape Sheiaralle were studied under hydroponics and sand culture conditions. The results showed that above ground uptake of instant P increased with the salinity increased, the uptake of 32 P by roots firstly decreased and then increased with the increase salinity. Instant P uptake by Brassica napus was lower under different salinity treatment than in non-saline condition (P - , but the biomass yield decreased much faster than P uptake, so P relatively condensed, and uptake of P by Brassica napus increased as the salinity (including non-saline treatment) was increased (P<0.05). Fresh weight of Brassica napus decreased significantly with the salinity increased (P<0.05). (authors)

  13. Misogyny, Acculturation, and Ethnic Identity: Relation to Rape-Supportive Attitudes in Asian American College Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Kelly H.; Stephens, Kari A.; Lindgren, Kristen P.; George, William H.

    2013-01-01

    Asian Americans have been understudied with respect to sexuality and rape and its contributory factors. Some attitudinal research has shown that Asian American college males tend to hold more rape-supportive beliefs than their White counterparts. Generally, this research treats ethnicity as a proxy for culture rather than examining specific facets of culture per se. The current study incorporated measures of misogynistic beliefs, acculturation, and ethnic identity to investigate these ethnic differences in rape-supportive attitudes. White (n = 222) and Asian American (n = 155) college men read an acquaintance rape vignette and evaluated it on four judgments: how much they blamed the perpetrator and the victim, how credible they viewed the victim’s refusal, and to what degree they defined the event as rape. Consistent with previous research, Asian American men made more rape-supportive judgments than Whites. This relationship was partially mediated by misogynistic beliefs for all judgments except the extent to which they defined the vignette as rape. Among Asian Americans, acculturation was negatively associated with all four rape vignette judgments above and beyond generational status, and ethnic identity was positively associated with two of the four judgments above and beyond acculturation and generational status. These findings suggest that cultural constructs are relevant to understanding rape-supportive attitudes among Asian American men, and may be useful for promoting culturally enhanced theoretical models of rape and sexual assault prevention efforts, as well as a deeper understanding of cultural influences on sexuality. PMID:21290256

  14. Risk factors for PTSD and depression in female survivors of rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mgoqi-Mbalo, Nolwandle; Zhang, Muyu; Ntuli, Sam

    2017-05-01

    To investigate association of the sociodemographic factors, characteristics of rape and social support to the development of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder at 6 months after the rape. A cross-sectional survey with female survivors of rape was carried out in 3 provinces of South Africa 6 months after the rape. One hundred female survivors s of sexual assault were interviewed. More than half (53%) were from Limpopo, 25% from Western Cape, and 22% from KwaZulu-Natal (KZN). 87% reported high levels of PTSD and 51% moderate to severe depression post rape. The major risk factors for PTSD and depression were the unmarried survivors of rape and those living in KZN. The female survivors of rape in KZN province were 7 times more likely to experience symptoms of depression compared to other provinces, while married/cohabiting female rape survivors were 6 times less likely to report symptoms of depression compared to the unmarried female rape survivors. These findings add support to existing literature on PTSD and depression as common mental health consequence of rape and also provide evidence that survivors' socio- demographics-marital status, employment status-are significant contributors to the development of symptoms of depression and PTSD after rape. The results have research and clinical practice relevance for ensuring that PTSD and trauma treatment focuses on an in-depth understanding of the various aspects of the sociodemographic factors and rape characteristics that contribute to survivors' mental state and how these compound stress and depression symptoms over time post rape victimization. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Rape genotypic differences in P uptake and utilization from phosphate rocks in an Andisol of Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montenegro, A.; Zapata, F.

    2002-01-01

    A main constraint to agricultural productivity in the southern regions of Chile is the low available soil P exacerbated by the high P sorption capacity of the predominant Andisols. Therefore, substantial amounts of P fertilizers must be applied to obtain optimum growth and crop yields. One cost-effective strategy followed to supply P to crops grown in these soils is the direct application of the local Bahia Inglesa PR source. However, a more sustainable strategy would be to combine the use of the local PR with the crop species and cultivars that are able to grow in these acid soils and can utilize efficiently PR. Rape is reported to be very efficient in utilising P from PR sources due to its capacity to exude organic acids to the rhizosphere. Therefore, the present study was conducted to evaluate the ability of five rape cultivars grown in an Andisol of southern Chile in utilising P from two PR sources (Bahia Inglesa and Bayovar) and triple superphosphate, a water-soluble P fertilizer. It was found that rape was able to absorb significant amounts of P from the PR sources and much less from the TSP and soil P. Both Bahia Inglesa and Bayovar PRs were found to be as effective as TSP for the rape genotypes in the Andisol Pemehue. The use of the 32 P isotope technique enabled to assess the ability of the genotypes tested to utilize P from the different P fertilizers applied. The genotypes G2 and G3 showed increased P acquisition from the PR than the genotype G5. Combined utilization of P efficient genotypes and direct application of the Bahia Inglesa PR seems to be a promising technology for attaining sustainable agricultural productivity in the Andisols of Chile. Further field trials for validating these findings at the level of cropping systems are needed. This agronomic testing should be accompanied by in-depth studies to assess the relative importance of the morphological and physiological traits determining a higher P efficiency. (author)

  16. The effects of gamma irradiation on morphological, cytological and biochemical characters of double-low rape (Brassica napus L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Huajun; He Yuanhui; Chen Xuifang

    1992-01-01

    The dormant seeds of three varieties of double-low rape were treated with 0, 80, 100, 120, 140 and 160 krad of γ-ray. The dose-effect curves of survival rate, yield, length of pod, rate of bearing pods and oil content in rapeseed fit the equation: y = Exp (-Ax-Bx 2 ). The dose-effect curves of field germination rate, seed bearing rate, number of seeds per pod and chromosome aberration rate fit the equation: y = A + Bx. The dose-effect curve of morphological malformation rate fit the equation: y = Ae Bx . The contents of erucic acid, linolenic acid, glucosinolates and protein in rapeseed changed irregularly with the increase of doses of gamma irradiation. Close correlation were found among the effects of irradiation on morphological, cytological and biochemical characters. The radiosensitivities of rape varieties were apparently different

  17. Laughing at the Looking Glass: Does Humor Style Serve as an Interpersonal Signal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgil Zeigler-Hill

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The provision of information appears to be an important feature of humor. The present studies examined whether humor serves as an interpersonal signal such that an individual's style of humor is associated with how the individual is perceived by others. Method: We examined this issue across two studies. In Study 1, undergraduate participants (257 targets were rated more positively by their friends and family members (1194 perceivers when they possessed more benign humor styles. In Study 2, 1190 community participants rated the romantic desirability of targets ostensibly possessing different humor styles. Results: Across both studies, our results were consistent with the possibility that humor serves as a signal. More specifically, individuals with benign humor styles (affiliative and self-enhancing humor styles were evaluated more positively than those targets with injurious humor styles (aggressive and self-defeating humor styles. Conclusion: These findings are discussed in terms of the role that humor may play in interpersonal perception and relationships.

  18. Aqueous humor enhances the proliferation of rat retinal precursor cells in culture, and this effect is partially reproduced by ascorbic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Jing; Klassen, Henry; Pries, Mette

    2006-01-01

    19 Sprague-Dawley rats and cultured in the presence or absence of aqueous humor from healthy pigs along with a medium consisting of Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium:Ham's F-12 medium, N2 supplement, and epidermal growth factor. Proliferation was quantified by [(3)H]thymidine incorporation under...... different treatment conditions, and any associated morphological changes were noted. Potential active components of porcine aqueous humor were partially characterized by gel filtration chromatography, and the effect on RPC proliferation was determined. Results showed that adding 20% aqueous humor increased...

  19. State residence restrictions and forcible rape rates: a multistate quasi-experimental analysis of UCR data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socia, Kelly M

    2015-04-01

    This study examines whether the presence of state residence restrictions resulted in changes in statewide rates of forcible rape. It builds on the limited geographic coverage of prior studies by including state-level Uniform Crime Report (UCR) data across 19 years for 49 states and the District of Columbia. It uses a quasi-experimental research method based on a longitudinal fixed-effects panel model design, which can help control for relatively static differences between states. Results indicate that when a state residence restriction was present, regardless of how it was measured, rates of UCR forcible rape were higher in the state than when the policy was not present. This suggests that residence restrictions, at least at the state level, are not useful as an overall crime prevention measure, but may be useful for increasing detection or reporting levels of such crimes. However, results also suggest that the size of the increase varied by whether the policy only applied to offenders with child victims or also included those with adult victims. Implications for research and policy are discussed. © The Author(s) 2013.

  20. Serum and Aqueous Humor Levels of Fetuin-A in Pseudoexfoliation Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Nilay; Takmaz, Tamer; Ozel Turkcu, Ummuhani; Ergin, Merve; Altinkaynak, Hasan; Bilgihan, Ayse

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate serum and aqueous humor levels of fetuin-A in patients with pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PEXS) in comparison with those of age- and sex-matched healthy subjects. This prospective study included 25 patients with PEXS and 25 control subjects who were undergoing cataract surgery without any systemic or ocular disease. Aqueous humor and serum fetuin-A levels were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. The mean age of the PEXS group (14 males, 11 females, n = 25) was 57.7 ± 6.9 years, and the control group (13 males, 12 females, n = 25) was 58.1 ± 5.7 years. There was no difference between the groups in terms of age (p = 0.77) and sex (p = 0.83). The mean serum fetuin-A level of the PEXS group did not differ from that of the control group (p = 0.53). The mean aqueous humor level of the PEXS group was significantly higher than that of the control group (p = 0.032). There were no significant correlations between aqueous humor and serum fetuin-A levels among patients with PEXS and control group (p > 0.05). Increased levels of fetuin-A in aqueous humor of patients with PEXS may show the local effect of fetuin-A on the anterior segment. With considering the wide range of possible biological functions of fetuin-A in the pathogenesis of PEXS, further studies are needed to clarify the clinical relevance of these findings.

  1. Effect of ceruloplasmin on some cellular and humoral immunity indices in irradiated animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berdyins'kikh, N.K.; Savtsova, Z.D.; Yindik, V.M.

    1993-01-01

    The ceruloplasmin (CD) in animals being permanently under combined external and internal low-intensity ionizing irradiation is shown to increase the level of cellular immunity reactions, including antiviral ones, and of natural resistance reactions, to decrease probability of derangement of biosynthetic processes during the development of immune response, and to increase resistance of animals to influenza infection. The influence of C P on humoral antiviral immunity was not observed

  2. Monitoring dynamics of aqueous humor in glaucoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyborny, P.; Hornova, J.

    1985-01-01

    Aqueous humor dynamics was observed in patients treated for glaucoma. Aqueous flow was measured using the radionuclide method of contact application of 22 NaCl and the detection of gamma radiation with external detectors. The sample of 184 eyes was divided into three groups: open-angle glaucoma with therapy, open-angle glaucoma without therapy and angle-closure glaucoma 47 eyes were used as controls. Changes were observed in 22 Na outflow half-time in dependence on the duration of the disease, therapy, intraocular pressUre and changes in the perimeter. The new technique has been fully proven in practice, is a contribution to the diagnosis of glaucoma and an indicator of the compensation of the disease. (author)

  3. Science For The Public: Collaboration and Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wargo, Richard

    2013-04-01

    The transformation of all things media and information into a dynamic environment of user access has created what seems infinite possibilities to inform the public in many different ways - as well as seemingly infinite possibilities to confuse. This talk will describe a rather non-conventional collaboration between two different creative cultures and its significance to maintaining scientific accuracy and devising strategies important to audience engagement - among them, humor. While focusing on the award-winning effort ``When Things Get Small'' created by University of California Television producer R. Wargo in collaboration with condensed matter physicist I.K. Schuller and actor Adam J. Smith, with both NSF and private support, the case study provides insight into a model and modes which can be used successfully by other scientists to engage the public in what they do.

  4. [Humor at Work Questionnaire - Polish adaptation of Humor Climate Questionnaire (HCQ)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stańczak, Aleksander; Drabek, Marcin

    2018-03-09

    The aim of the paper is to present the Polish adaptation of the Humor Climate Questionnaire (HCQ), designed to measure humor as organizational climate feature. The authors employed back-translation and independent judges method to choose the best version of the translated items. The psychometric properties of HCQ were estimated on the basis of 2 samples: the basic group of employees (N = 217) and the group of employees who had completed the survey twice (N = 55). The results of statistical analyses proved that HCQ is a reliable tool. Explorative Factor Analysis supported the 4-factor structure of the original method's theoretical model. The validity of the subscales is high, Cronbach's α varied from 0.8 to 0.9. The directions and values of intercorrelations between subscales were similar to those of the English version. The Humor Climate Questionnaire is a relatively time-stable tool (r = 0.44-0.74). Polish adaptation is reliable and applicable for cross-sectional studies. The obtained results are comparable to the characteristics of the original version. However, the results of factor analysis show that the data do not fully fit the theoretical model. Med Pr 2018;69(2):143-152. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  5. Humor drawings evoked temporal and spectral EEG processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Hsien-Chu; Chuang, Shang-Wen

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The study aimed to explore the humor processing elicited through the manipulation of artistic drawings. Using the Comprehension–Elaboration Theory of humor as the main research background, the experiment manipulated the head portraits of celebrities based on the independent variables of facial deformation (large/small) and addition of affective features (positive/negative). A 64-channel electroencephalography was recorded in 30 participants while viewing the incongruous drawings of celebrities. The electroencephalography temporal and spectral responses were measured during the three stages of humor which included incongruity detection, incongruity comprehension and elaboration of humor. Analysis of event-related potentials indicated that for humorous vs non-humorous drawings, facial deformation and the addition of affective features significantly affected the degree of humor elicited, specifically: large > small deformation; negative > positive affective features. The N170, N270, N400, N600-800 and N900-1200 components showed significant differences, particularly in the right prefrontal and frontal regions. Analysis of event-related spectral perturbation showed significant differences in the theta band evoked in the anterior cingulate cortex, parietal region and posterior cingulate cortex; and in the alpha and beta bands in the motor areas. These regions are involved in emotional processing, memory retrieval, and laughter and feelings of amusement induced by elaboration of the situation. PMID:28402573

  6. Laughter, Humor and Pain Perception in Children: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Stuber

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Although there are many clinical programs designed to bring humor into pediatric hospitals, there has been very little research with children or adolescents concerning the specific utility of humor for children undergoing stressful or painful procedures. Rx Laughter™, a non-profit organization interested in the use of humor for healing, collaborated with UCLA to collect preliminary data on a sample of 18 children aged 7–16 years. Participants watched humorous video-tapes before, during and after a standardized pain task that involved placing a hand in cold water. Pain appraisal (ratings of pain severity and pain tolerance (submersion time were recorded and examined in relation to humor indicators (number of laughs/smiles during each video and child ratings of how funny the video was. Whereas humor indicators were not significantly associated with pain appraisal or tolerance, the group demonstrated significantly greater pain tolerance while viewing funny videos than when viewing the videos immediately before or after the cold-water task. The results suggest that humorous distraction is useful to help children and adolescents tolerate painful procedures. Further study is indicated to explore the specific mechanism of this benefit.

  7. Children’s Understanding of Self-Focused Humor Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Lucy Amelia; Fox, Claire Louise

    2016-01-01

    It has been proposed that four main styles of humor exist, two which are thought to be adaptive (affiliative, self-enhancing) and two which are thought to be maladaptive (aggressive, self-defeating). Whilst the existence of these four humor styles has been supported in older children, it is suggested that for younger children, self-enhancing and self-defeating humor may develop at a later point. To investigate this further, the current research involved five semi-structured paired interviews with children aged eight to eleven years to explore the use and understanding of self-enhancing and self-defeating humor in this age group. Findings indicated that use of both self-enhancing and self-defeating humor were apparent in some children, but not all. It therefore seems appropriate that attempts to investigate humor in this age group should aim to include all four styles of humor. The current research also demonstrated the value of paired interviews when carrying out this sort of research with children. PMID:27547258

  8. Children's Understanding of Self-Focused Humor Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Lucy Amelia; Fox, Claire Louise

    2016-08-01

    It has been proposed that four main styles of humor exist, two which are thought to be adaptive (affiliative, self-enhancing) and two which are thought to be maladaptive (aggressive, self-defeating). Whilst the existence of these four humor styles has been supported in older children, it is suggested that for younger children, self-enhancing and self-defeating humor may develop at a later point. To investigate this further, the current research involved five semi-structured paired interviews with children aged eight to eleven years to explore the use and understanding of self-enhancing and self-defeating humor in this age group. Findings indicated that use of both self-enhancing and self-defeating humor were apparent in some children, but not all. It therefore seems appropriate that attempts to investigate humor in this age group should aim to include all four styles of humor. The current research also demonstrated the value of paired interviews when carrying out this sort of research with children.

  9. Humor drawings evoked temporal and spectral EEG processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Regina W Y; Kuo, Hsien-Chu; Chuang, Shang-Wen

    2017-08-01

    The study aimed to explore the humor processing elicited through the manipulation of artistic drawings. Using the Comprehension-Elaboration Theory of humor as the main research background, the experiment manipulated the head portraits of celebrities based on the independent variables of facial deformation (large/small) and addition of affective features (positive/negative). A 64-channel electroencephalography was recorded in 30 participants while viewing the incongruous drawings of celebrities. The electroencephalography temporal and spectral responses were measured during the three stages of humor which included incongruity detection, incongruity comprehension and elaboration of humor. Analysis of event-related potentials indicated that for humorous vs non-humorous drawings, facial deformation and the addition of affective features significantly affected the degree of humor elicited, specifically: large > small deformation; negative > positive affective features. The N170, N270, N400, N600-800 and N900-1200 components showed significant differences, particularly in the right prefrontal and frontal regions. Analysis of event-related spectral perturbation showed significant differences in the theta band evoked in the anterior cingulate cortex, parietal region and posterior cingulate cortex; and in the alpha and beta bands in the motor areas. These regions are involved in emotional processing, memory retrieval, and laughter and feelings of amusement induced by elaboration of the situation. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  10. Battles on women's bodies: war, rape and traumatisation in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenholm, J E; Olsson, P; Ahlberg, B M

    2011-01-01

    Rape has been used as a weapon in the conflict in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) in unprecedented ways. Research into the phenomenon of war-rape is limited, particularly in this context. The aim of this study was to explore perceptions of local leaders in eastern DRC concerning rape and raped women in the war context. Local leaders were chosen for their ability to both reflect and influence their constituencies. Interviews were conducted with 10 local leaders and transcripts subjected to qualitative content analysis. The study suggests that mass raping and the methods of perpetration created a chaos effectively destroying communities and the entire society and that humanitarian aid was often inappropriate. Furthermore, an exclusive focus on raped women missed the extent of traumatisation entire communities suffered. More significantly, the lack of political will, corruption, greed and inappropriate aid creates a tangled web serving to intensify the war. This complexity has implications for humanitarian interventions including public health.

  11. Rape myth acceptance in men who completed the prostitution offender program of British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Carolin; Kennedy, M Alexis; Gorzalka, Boris B

    2009-06-01

    In an effort to characterize the attitudes and characteristics of men who solicit sex, this study investigated rape myth acceptance as assessed by a modification of Burt's Rape Myth Acceptance Scale. The participants were all men who took part in the Prostitution Offender Program of British Columbia after being arrested for attempting to solicit sex from an undercover police officer. Relationships between endorsement of rape myths, other attitudes, sexual behavior, and demographic variables were examined. Results reveal that age, education, use of pornography, ideal frequency of intercourse, and believing that purchasing sex is a problem are all negatively correlated with rape myth acceptance. Positive correlations were found between rape myth acceptance and sexual conservatism, sexual violence/coercion, and social desirability. Results are discussed in terms of the association between rape myth acceptance and the violence frequently perpetrated against those working in the sex trade.

  12. Restoring rape survivors: justice, advocacy, and a call to action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss, Mary P

    2006-11-01

    Rape results in mental and physical health, social, and legal consequences. For the latter, restorative justice-based programs might augment community response, but they generate controversy among advocates and policy makers. This article identifies survivors' needs and existing community responses to them. Survivors feel their legal needs are most poorly met due to justice system problems that can be summarized as attrition, retraumatization, and disparate treatment across gender, class, and ethnic lines. Empirical data support each problem and the conclusion that present justice options are inadequate. The article concludes by identifying common ground in advocacy and restorative justice goals and calls for a holistic approach to the needs of rape survivors that includes advocating for expanded justice alternatives. A call to action is issued to implement restorative alternatives to expand survivor choice and offender accountability. Conventional and restorative justice are often viewed as mutually exclusive whereas the author argues they are complementary.

  13. Albumin-binding of diclofenac and the effect of a site II inhibitor in the aqueous humor of cataract patients with the instillation of diclofenac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaki, Takashi; Ozaki, Mineo; Takamura, Norito; Ogata, Kenji; Tokunaga, Jin; Setoguchi, Nao; Arimori, Kazuhiko

    2014-05-01

    Diclofenac instillation has been used widely in cataract surgery to prevent postoperative inflammation. Since diclofenac binds strongly to albumin in the circulation, it does not have a sufficient effect on patients in whom diclofenac binds strongly to albumin in the aqueous humor. A decrease in diclofenac binding and an increase in free diclofenac levels are necessary in these patients. The binding of diclofenac to albumin was investigated in the aqueous humor. In a diclofenac binding assay with albumin in the aqueous humor of individual patients, diclofenac was extracted from aliquots of the aqueous humor, and its total levels were measured using ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC). Free diclofenac levels were measured using ultrafiltration and UHPLC. The albumin-binding fraction of diclofenac was 0.8 or higher in the aqueous humor of some patients. Ibuprofen significantly inhibited diclofenac binding to site II of albumin in mimic aqueous humor, but not in pooled aqueous humor. This difference may have been due to the weak binding of diclofenac to site II in the pooled aqueous humor. Flurbiprofen was used instead of diclofenac. Flurbiprofen has been shown to bind more strongly than diclofenac to the same site of albumin. Thus, the inhibitory effect of ibuprofen on the binding of flurbiprofen to albumin was investigated in pooled aqueous humor. The results indicated that ibuprofen significantly inhibited the flurbiprofen binding. An effective diclofenac administration method may be established for clinical application by the instillation of an appropriate inhibitor of binding to the albumin site II. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Reading Playboy for the articles: the graying of rape myths in black and white text, 1953 to 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettrey, Heather Hensman

    2013-08-01

    This longitudinal investigation analyzes the manner in which rape myths are conveyed through textual material published in Playboy. Results indicate that Playboy (a) portrays rape as a gender-neutral issue, ignoring patriarchal roots of sexual violence against women, and (b) promulgates ambiguous discourse, which is equally likely to endorse and refute rape myths. Interestingly, readers' contributions are most often the source of refutations of rape myths. Overall, findings suggest that little progress has been made over time in deconstructing rape myths promulgated to men, as this particular men's publication has consistently painted a gray picture in which refutations have remained unsuccessful in disempowering rape myths.

  15. From Survivor to Thriver: A Pilot Study of an Online Program for Rape Victims

    OpenAIRE

    Littleton, Heather; Buck, Katherine; Rosman, Lindsey; Grills-Taquechel, Amie

    2011-01-01

    Approximately 15% to 20% of women have been victims of rape and close to a third report current rape-related PTSD or clinically significant depression or anxiety. Unfortunately, very few distressed rape victims seek formal help. This suggests a need to develop alternative ways to assist the many distressed victims of sexual violence. Online treatment programs represent a potentially important alternative strategy for reaching such individuals. The current paper describes a pilot evaluation of...

  16. Identifying risk factors for PTSD in women seeking medical help after rape

    OpenAIRE

    Möller, Anna Tiihonen; Bäckström, Torbjörn; Söndergaard, Hans Peter; Helström, Lotti

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Rape has been found to be the trauma most commonly associated with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) among women. It is therefore important to be able to identify those women at greatest risk of developing PTSD. The aims of the present study were to analyze the PTSD prevalence six months after sexual assaults and identify the major risk factors for developing PTSD. Methods: Participants were 317 female victims of rape who sought help at the Emergency Clinic for Raped Women at S...

  17. Individual-and Setting-Level Correlates of Secondary Traumatic Stress in Rape Crisis Center Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworkin, Emily R; Sorell, Nicole R; Allen, Nicole E

    2016-02-01

    Secondary traumatic stress (STS) is an issue of significant concern among providers who work with survivors of sexual assault. Although STS has been studied in relation to individual-level characteristics of a variety of types of trauma responders, less research has focused specifically on rape crisis centers as environments that might convey risk or protection from STS, and no research to knowledge has modeled setting-level variation in correlates of STS. The current study uses a sample of 164 staff members representing 40 rape crisis centers across a single Midwestern state to investigate the staff member-and agency-level correlates of STS. Results suggest that correlates exist at both levels of analysis. Younger age and greater severity of sexual assault history were statistically significant individual-level predictors of increased STS. Greater frequency of supervision was more strongly related to secondary stress for non-advocates than for advocates. At the setting level, lower levels of supervision and higher client loads agency-wide accounted for unique variance in staff members' STS. These findings suggest that characteristics of both providers and their settings are important to consider when understanding their STS. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Sexual Assault Perpetrators' Justifications for Their Actions: Relationships to Rape Supportive Attitudes, Incident Characteristics, and Future Perpetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Rhiana; Abbey, Antonia; Pierce, Jennifer; Pegram, Sheri E; Woerner, Jacqueline

    2015-08-01

    Perpetrators use rape supportive attitudes and sexual assault incident characteristics to justify forcing sex on their victims. Perpetrators who can justify their behaviors are at increased risk for future perpetration. This study examined the relationships between rape supportive attitudes, sexual assault incident characteristics, and the post-assault justifications of 183 men sampled from the community who self-reported committing at least one act of sexual aggression. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that rape supportive attitudes, expectations for having sex, misperceptions of sexual intent, victims' alcohol consumption, attempts to be alone with her, and the number of consensual sexual activities prior to the unwanted sex were significant predictors of perpetrators' post-assault use of justifications. Greater use of justifications was a significant predictor of sexual aggression over a 1-year follow-up interval. These findings demonstrate the need for further research exploring when and why perpetrators use post-assault justifications and whether they are amenable to change. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Effects of exposure to winter oilseed rape grown from thiamethoxam-treated seed on the red mason bee Osmia bicornis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddle, Natalie; Elston, Charlotte; Klein, Olaf; Hamberger, Anja; Thompson, Helen

    2018-04-01

    There has been increasing interest in the effects of neonicotinoid insecticides on wild bees. In solitary bee species the direct link between each individual female and reproductive success offers the opportunity to evaluate effects on individuals. The present study investigated effects of exposure to winter oilseed rape grown from thiamethoxam-treated seed on reproductive behavior and output of solitary red mason bees (Osmia bicornis) released in 6 pairs of fields over a 2-yr period and confined to tunnels in a single year. After adjustment to the number of females released, there was significantly lower production of cells and cocoons/female in tunnels than in open field conditions. This difference may be because of the lack of alternative forage within the tunnels. Under open field conditions, palynology of the pollen provisions within the nests demonstrated a maximum average of 31% oilseed rape pollen at any site, with Quercus (oak) contributing up to 86% of the pollen. There were no significant effects from exposure to oilseed rape grown from thiamethoxam-treated seed from nest establishment through cell production to emergence under tunnel or field conditions. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;37:1071-1083. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  20. The Intergenerational Legacy of Genocidal Rape: The Realities and Perspectives of Children Born of the Rwandan Genocide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denov, Myriam; Woolner, Leah; Bahati, Jules Pacifique; Nsuki, Paulin; Shyaka, Obed

    2017-05-01

    Brutal acts of sexual violence were documented on a mass scale during the 1994 Rwandan genocide. While existing scholarship on sexual violence has significantly increased our understanding of the challenges confronting survivors, gaps in knowledge remain regarding the lived experiences of children born of genocidal rape. This study sought to explore the realities and perspectives of children born of genocidal rape, and the existing opportunities and challenges they experienced in postgenocide Rwanda. Interviews and focus groups were conducted with 60 participants born of genocidal rape in Rwanda. Findings highlight the key challenges that these youth face in the postgenocide context, including struggles with identity and belonging, ambivalence in the mother-child relationship, and a desire to learn of their biological origins and heritage. The findings suggest that children born of conflict-related sexual violence face a distinct set of challenges and needs that have yet to be formally addressed. Our findings highlight the need for the development of programs, policies, and services specific for this important, yet overlooked group of young people affected by armed conflict.