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Sample records for humor immigration music

  1. Humor in Father-Daughter Immigration Narratives of Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    This article draws from an ethnography on Mexican immigrant fathers and their children to examine humor in immigration narratives as acts of resistance. The analysis focuses on the devices employed by a father and daughter during their everyday talk and co-narration of an incident with police officers. Findings illustrate how the form and content…

  2. Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodbury-Fariña, Michel A; Antongiorgi, Joalex L

    2014-12-01

    Humor has not been taken as seriously as it should be. Humor has many positive effects in the daily lives of patients and clinicians need to take advantage of these. Many indices of stress are attenuated and this serves to improve the therapeutic alliance. Freudian, rational emotive therapy, and kleinian views are presented, as well as examples of how to use playful therapy. In addition, advice on how to develop humor is given. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Documenting and explaining the common AAB pattern in music and humor: establishing and breaking expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozin, Paul; Rozin, Alexander; Appel, Brian; Wachtel, Charles

    2006-08-01

    The AAB pattern consists of two similar events followed by a third dissimilar event. The prevalence of this pattern in the aesthetic domain may be explained as violation of expectation: A minimum of two iterations is required to establish a repetitive pattern; once established, it is most efficient to promptly violate the expected continuance of the pattern to produce the maximal aesthetic effect. We demonstrate the prevalence of this pattern (in comparison to AB or AAAB) in a representative sample of a variety of musical genres and in a representative sample of repetitive genre of jokes. We also provide experimental evidence that the AAB pattern in jokes is maximally effective in producing a humor response in participants. (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved

  4. Exploring Democracy: Nordic Music Teachers' Approaches to the Development of Immigrant Students' Musical Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsen, Sidsel

    2014-01-01

    In this article, a multi-sited ethnographic study was taken as a point of departure for exploring how Nordic music teachers, who work in multicultural environments, understand the development of their students' musical agency. The study was based on theories developed within general sociology and the sociology of music, as well as in previous…

  5. Music

    OpenAIRE

    Deinert, Herbert

    2010-01-01

    The musical ending [of Goethe's Novelle] recalls the fascination with "music as metaphor", "the power of music", among recent and contemporary poets from Pope and Dryden and Collins to E.T.A. Hoffmann and Kleist and, of course to Goethe himself. Music saves Faust's life on Easter morning at the end of a dreadful night, and we'll encounter a similar role of music in his Trilogie der Leidenschaft which we'll read in this context.

  6. Domestic Dramas: Mexican American Music as an Archive of Immigrant Women's Experiences, 1920s-1950s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Magdalena L.

    2012-01-01

    Mexican women's working and romantic lives were frequent subject matter in early-twentieth-century Mexican American music. Surprisingly, this trend is rendered nearly invisible by the corpus of scholarly work that focuses on the male-centered "heroic corrido," particularly the class and race conflicts represented in that "masculine" genre. This…

  7. Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lech, Marcel Lysgaard

    2017-01-01

    Old Comedy was a musical experience of great variety. Accompanied by the piper, both choruses and actors sang frequently during the performance. Music in Old comedy reflects to some extend the importance of music in Athenian everyday life, but as Greek Comedy evolved and detached it self more...... and more from the everyday topics, music similarly lost part of its importance within the plays themselves....

  8. Flow of Aqueous Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Flow of Aqueous Humor Flow of Aqueous Humor Most, but not all, forms of glaucoma are ... remains normal when some of the fluid (aqueous humor) produced by the eye's ciliary body flows out ...

  9. Making humor together: phenomenology and interracial humor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Barber

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains humor through phenomenological concepts and methods. The three major theories of humor: Superiority, Relief, and Incongruity depend on the thwarting of intentional expectations. Since one experiences an incongruity between what is intended and what is actually experienced, the incongruity theory affords the best explanation, but intentionality remains fundamental for all theories. Theorists of humor rightly insist that the enjoyment of humorous incongruity completes the definition of humor, but such enjoyment also depends on a special epoché, usually elicited by the cues of an interlocutor who invites the listener to leap together into the humorous finite province of meaning. In this province, actions and statements, hurtful in everyday life, such as a pie thrown at someone who ducks as the pie hits another, produce laughter. This comic epoché resembles the phenomenological epoché in its distancing from everyday life, and, like the phenomenological epoché, it opens everyday experience to reflection. Although one often experiences and enjoys humor alone, humor is thoroughly intersubjective and more frequently occurs when two persons participate in the humorous epoché together. The opportunities for making humor together are enhanced to the extent the partners differ in their expectations and responses to situations. Those differences, including bodily differences, often result from the complex intersubjective networks, including culture. As in the case of a seemingly solitary activity like reflection, which one learns from others and exercises on one’s own autonomously, one internalizes others’ styles of humor and discovers such internalization through reflection on one’s «because motives». On the basis of these features – intentionality, epoché, and intersubjectivity, the paper concludes by briefly examining an example of interracial humor. Despite the racist character of much interracial humor, the example

  10. Building Resilience through Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Debra Vande; Van Brockern, Steve

    1995-01-01

    Research on resilience suggests that a sense of humor helps to stress-proof children in conflict. Reports on a workshop for educators and youth workers convened to explore ways humor is being used to foster positive development and resilience with troubled youth. Describes applications of humor front-line professionals report as useful in their…

  11. Humor, Philosophy and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morreall, John

    2014-01-01

    This article begins by examining the bad reputation humor traditionally had in philosophy and education. Two of the main charges against humor--that it is hostile and irresponsible--are linked to the Superiority Theory. That theory is critiqued and two other theories of laughter are presented--the Relief Theory and the Incongruity Theory. In the…

  12. Humor modeling in the interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Cockton, G.; Stock, O.; Korhonen, P.; Dix, A.; Bergman, E.; Bjork, S.; Morkes, J.; Collings, P.; Dey, A.; Draper, S.; Guliksen, J.; Keinonen, T.; Lazar, J.; Lund, A.; Malich, R.; Nakakoji, K.; Nigay, L.; Prates Oliveira, R.; Rieman, J.; Snyder, C.

    2003-01-01

    Humor is a multi-disciplinary field of research. People have been working on humor in many fields of research, such as psychology, philosophy and linguistics, sociology and literature. Especially in the context of computer science (or Artificial Intelligence) humor research aims at modeling humor in

  13. The Humor in Horror.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kies, Cosette

    1995-01-01

    Discussion of horror fiction for teenagers focuses on the element of humor. Topics include parodies, plots, the element of mystery, cover art, end-of-chapter cliffhangers, and formula books. An annotated list of 10 pertinent titles is included. (LRW)

  14. Humor in psychiatric healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saper, B

    1988-01-01

    The oft-quoted aphorism that "laughter is the best medicine" is examined. Specifically, three big drops in the shower of claims regarding the benefits of humor in treating physical and mental disorders are evaluated. First, studies of the effects of mirth and laughter on the physiology of the body reveal both good and bad news. The meager evidence of the salutary effects of positive emotions on the cardiovascular, respiratory, immune and neuroendocrine systems, though apparently supportable on more or less scientific, rational and subjective grounds, needs much better verification from more extensive, replicable, and empirical research. Second, despite numerous claims, in the context of behavioral or psychosomatic medicine, that a joyful, optimistic, or humorous attitude can render a salubrious effect, almost to the extent of preventing illness and curing physical disease, the jury is still out and issuing dire warnings regarding too ready acceptance of this largely anecdotal evidence. Much careful "clinical trial" research needs to be mounted to determine the conditions under which humor works best, if at all. The type of patient, the kind of humor, the type and severity of illness, the psychosocial contexts-all of these factors should be considered. Third, the infusion of humor into psychotherapy is great news for some therapists and awful news for others. A number of more balanced approaches point up the probability that when mirth is incorporated into therapy judiciously, appropriately, and meaningfully it can be of value.

  15. The Relational Humor Inventory: Functions of Humor in Close Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeKoning, E.; Weiss, R. L.

    2002-01-01

    This study describes the development of a self-report measure of functional humor in relationships. People were asked to report on their own and their partner's use of humor in the marriage. The Relational Humor Inventory proved to be a useful instrument for tapping important positive and negative relationship behaviors. (Contains 30 references, 4…

  16. Humor and creativity in psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Martín Camacho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the current article principal theories on humor are analyzed, relating them to different conceptions of creativity. Finally, some indications for the use of humor in psychotherapy are introduced, highlighting their positive and negative aspects. 

  17. Humor in Children's Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Frank; Coles, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Humorous literature for children has been around since Randolph Caldecott first started writing and illustrating picturebooks. In the article, the authors try to understand what makes picturebooks funny and discuss ways to use humor in the classroom. Many examples of humorous picturebooks are cited to provide teachers with resources for their…

  18. Using Humor in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barney, David; Christenson, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Humor can be extremely beneficial in everyday life, whether giving or receiving it. It can be used to lighten the mood, give encouragement, or make corrections. Humor in physical education is no exception. Physical educators can use humor as a teaching tool and to create an environment for students to acquire the knowledge to practice a lifetime…

  19. Humor and Embodied Conversational Agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus

    This report surveys the role of humor in human-to-human interaction and the possible role of humor in human-computer interaction. The aim is to see whether it is useful for embodied conversational agents to integrate humor capabilities in their internal model of intelligence, emotions and

  20. Friendship, Intimacy and Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Mordechai

    2014-01-01

    A review of the literature in philosophy in the past 20 years indicates that relatively little has been written on the connection between friendship, intimacy and humor. This article is intended to begin to address the neglect of this topic among philosophers by focusing on some interesting aspects of the relationship between friendship, intimacy…

  1. Alcohol, tobacco and illicit substances in music videos: a content analysis of prevalence and genre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Enid L; Thau, Helaine M; Hill, Douglas L; Fisher, Deborah A; Grube, Joel W

    2005-07-01

    Content analyses examined mention of alcohol, tobacco, and illicit substances in music videos (n = 359) broadcast in 2001, as well as genre and presence of humor. Findings indicated that references to illicit substances were more prevalent than tobacco in music videos. Humor was 2.5 times as likely to appear in videos containing references to substances than those without substances.

  2. Preface to Computational Humor 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Unknown, [Unknown; Nijholt, Antinus; Nijholt, A.

    2012-01-01

    Like its predecessors in 1996 (University of Twente, the Netherlands) and 2002 (ITC-irst, Trento, Italy), this Third International Workshop on Computational Humor (IWCH 2012) focusses on the possibility to find algorithms that allow understanding and generation of humor. There is the general aim of modeling humor, and if we can do that, it will provide us with lots of information about our cognitive abilities in general, such as reasoning, remembering, understanding situations, and understand...

  3. Laughter and Music Therapy : A Search for Their Happy Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    木村, 博子; キムラ, ヒロコ; Kimura, Hiroko

    2015-01-01

    Laughter or humor is indispensable to our daily lives. Recently the effectiveness of laughter has been recognized in medical and health care settings, especially for its potential for promoting resilience. In spite of its therapeutic power and the long history of combining music with comedy, laughter or humor has not been paid much attention in music therapy. In this article the author looks back at the prior research into laughter in physiology, psychology and social studies and then conside...

  4. Humor, helt seriøst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundquist, Lita Sander

    2012-01-01

    Adfærd. Har humor grænser? Dansk humor har i hvert fald. Hvor humor typisk bruges til at glatte ud med, har det ofte den stik modsatte virkning, viser studie.......Adfærd. Har humor grænser? Dansk humor har i hvert fald. Hvor humor typisk bruges til at glatte ud med, har det ofte den stik modsatte virkning, viser studie....

  5. Humor styles and symbolic boundaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, G.

    2009-01-01

    Humor is strongly related to group boundaries. Jokes and other humorous utterances often draw on implicit references and inside knowledge; they tend to refer to sensitive topics which may offend people; and they ideally incite laughter, one of the strongest markers of social solidarity and emotional

  6. Preface to Computational Humor 2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unknown, [Unknown; Nijholt, Antinus; Nijholt, A.

    2012-01-01

    Like its predecessors in 1996 (University of Twente, the Netherlands) and 2002 (ITC-irst, Trento, Italy), this Third International Workshop on Computational Humor (IWCH 2012) focusses on the possibility to find algorithms that allow understanding and generation of humor. There is the general aim of

  7. Humor er en alvorlig sag

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søltoft, Pia

    2016-01-01

    I modsætning til ironi er humor for Kierkegaard fællesskabsgivende – ironikeren hævder sig selv, men humoristen har sympati med den, man ler med. Humor er hos Kierkegaard udtryk for, at humoristen forliger sig med tilværelsen og dens luner, og dermed grænser humoren hos Kierkegaard op til det...

  8. A Pragmatic Study of Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibraheem, Sura Dhiaa; Abbas, Nawal Fadhil

    2016-01-01

    Linguistically speaking, the concept of humor, which seems to be vast for people, has specific dimensions by which it is generated including: puns, irony, sarcasm, wittiness, and contrastive utterances in relation to the speakers of those utterances. It is about how the extra linguistics elements dominate the situation and the delivery of humor.…

  9. Spass Verstehen, Zur Pragmatik von konversationellem Humor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekmann, Bjørn

    2000-01-01

    Spøg, Humor, Komik, Ironi, Kommunikationsteori, Hermeneutik, Gruppedynamik, Logik, Tekstlingvistik......Spøg, Humor, Komik, Ironi, Kommunikationsteori, Hermeneutik, Gruppedynamik, Logik, Tekstlingvistik...

  10. Effects of Classroom Humor Climate and Acceptance of Humor Messages on Adolescents' Expressions of Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Yi-Chen; Lee, Chun-Yang; Wang, Hong-Huei

    2016-01-01

    Background: To adapt to dramatic changes from physical growth, physical development and the increasing demand of significant others, humor has been found to be an effective coping strategy. However, previous studies have found that adolescents start to express their humor styles with aggressive components which causes negative consequences, such…

  11. Humor and Healing in College Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Barbara J.; Roehrig, James P.; Yang, Peggy H.

    2015-01-01

    Humor is an often neglected but potentially powerful tool in college counseling center interventions. In this article we review potential benefits and hazards of using humor in a college mental health setting along with perspectives on humor's mechanism of action and distinctions between types of humor. Therapist and client-specific…

  12. Respons imun humoral pada pulpitis (Humoral immune response on pulpitis)

    OpenAIRE

    Widodo, Trijoedani

    2005-01-01

    Pulpitis is an inflammation process on dental pulp tissue, and usually as the continuous of caries. The microorganism in the caries is a potential immunogenic triggering the immune respons, both humoral and celluler immune responses. The aim of this research is to explain the humoral immune response changes in the dental pulp tissues of pulpitis. This research was done on three group samples: Irreversible pulpitis, Reversible pulpitis and sound teeth as the control group. The result showed th...

  13. Integrating Classical Music into the Elementary Social Studies Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, Khlare R.

    1997-01-01

    Provides a rationale for using classical music as the basis of interdisciplinary units in elementary social studies. Recommends beginning with a series of humorous pieces to familiarize students with classical music. Includes many examples for utilizing pieces related to geography and history. (MJP)

  14. Music Researchers' Musical Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollner, Clemens; Ginsborg, Jane; Williamon, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing awareness of the importance of reflexivity across various disciplines, which encourages researchers to scrutinize their research perspectives. In order to contextualize and reflect upon research in music, this study explores the musical background, current level of musical engagement and the listening habits of music…

  15. Uma tipologia do discurso de humor (o politico do humor e o humor politico)

    OpenAIRE

    Perotti, Ivane Laurete

    1995-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Comunicação e Expressão Propõe-se uma leitura de textos humorísticos sob a ótica da Análise do Discurso, recortando-se "tipos" de humor e propondo uma leitura das características do humor político. Tematizam-se questões basilares da Análise do Discurso que estruturam teoricamente o trabalho, expondo reflexões sobre o riso e o risível, e os diferentes processos possivelmente causadores do riso. Discute-se a possibili...

  16. Humor in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Cristiano S; Li, Rui; Lawrie, Sarah; Bar-Or, Amit; Clarke, Ann E; Da Costa, Deborah; Banerjee, Devi; Bernatsky, Sasha; Lee, Jennifer L; Pineau, Christian A

    2015-03-01

    Humor has neurophysiological effects influencing the release of cortisol, which may have a direct impact on the immune system. Laughter is associated with a decreased production of inflammatory cytokines both in the general population and in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Our objective was to explore the effects of humor on serum cytokines [particularly interleukin-6 (IL-6)] and cortisol levels in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), after a standard intervention (120 min of visual comedy). We enrolled 58 females with SLE from consecutive patients assessed in the Montreal General Hospital lupus clinic. The subjects who consented to participate were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to the intervention (watching 120 min of comedy) or control group (watching a 120 min documentary). Measurements of cytokine and serum cortisol levels as well as 24-h urine cortisol were taken before, during, and after the interventions. We compared serum cytokine levels and serum and 24-h urine cortisol levels in the humor and control groups and performed regression analyses of these outcomes, adjusting for demographics and the current use of prednisone. There were no significant differences between the control and humor groups in demographics or clinical variables. Baseline serum levels of IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and B-cell activating factor were also similar in both groups. There was no evidence of a humor effect in terms of decreasing cytokine levels, although there was some suggestion of lowered cortisol secretion in the humor group based the 24-h urinary cortisol levels in a subgroup. In contrast to what has been published for RA, we saw no clear effects of humor in altering cytokine levels in SLE, although interesting trends were seen for lower cortisol levels after humor intervention compared with the control group.

  17. To Be or Not To Be Humorous? Cross Cultural Perspectives on Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xiaodong; Jiang, Feng; Lu, Su; Hiranandani, Neelam

    2016-01-01

    Humor seems to manifest differently in Western and Eastern cultures, although little is known about how culture shapes humor perceptions. The authors suggest that Westerners regard humor as a common and positive disposition; the Chinese regard humor as a special disposition particular to humorists, with controversial aspects. In Study 1, Hong Kong participants primed with Western culture evaluate humor more positively than they do when primed with Chinese culture. In Study 2a, Canadians evaluate humor as being more important in comparison with Chinese participants. In Study 2b, Canadians expect ordinary people to possess humor, while Chinese expect specialized comedians to be humorous. The implications and limitations are discussed.

  18. Affective Style, Humor Styles and Happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Ford

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the relationships between dispositional approach and avoidance motives, humor styles, and happiness. In keeping with previous research, approach motives and the two positive humor styles (self-enhancing and affiliative positively correlated with happiness, whereas avoidance motives and the two negative humor styles (self-defeating and aggressive negatively correlated with happiness. Also, we found support for three new hypotheses. First, approach motives correlated positively with self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles. Second, avoidance motives correlated positively with self-defeating humor style, and third, the positive relationship between approach motives and happiness was mediated by self-enhancing humor style.

  19. Cerita Humor Pak Andir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohim Rohim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to describe the meaning of comic tale "Pak Andir" with the perspective of hermeneutics. This study is focused on exploring the main character with the theory of functional models and aktan, developed by Greimas. The source of data is the story of "Pak Andir" from the community of South Bengkulu. From the analysis, it is concluded that the behavior of the husband as the central character has made the wife a victim. The husband’s arrogance in strictly practicing the patriarchal tradition makes the wife have no courage to be herself. The wife’s claim at the end of the story is a positive thing, but it's too late. As a form of appreciation of literary work, the meaning of these stories need to be disseminated to the public, especially the residents in Bengkulu, that the husband and wife’s attitudes ares incorrect and need to be avoided. This study attempts to describe the meaning of comic tale "Pak Andir" with the perspective of hermeneutics. This study is focused on exploring the main character with the theory of functional models and aktan, developed by Greimas. The source of data is the story of "Pak Andir" from the community of South Bengkulu. From the analysis, it is concluded that the behavior of the husband as the central character has made the wife a victim. The husband’s arrogance in strictly practicing the patriarchal tradition makes the wife have no courage to be herself. The wife’s claim at the end of the story is a positive thing, but it's too late. As a form of appreciation of literary work, the meaning of these stories need to be disseminated to the public, especially the residents in Bengkulu, that the husband and wife’s attitudes ares incorrect and need to be avoided Key Words: comic tale; aktan model; functional model; hermeneutic Abstrak: Penelitian ini berusaha mendeskripsikan makna cerita humor “Pak Andir” dengan perspektif hermeneutika. Kajian ini difokuskan untuk mengeksplorasi tokoh utama

  20. Horror movie aspects and experimentation in Michael Jackson’s Thriller music video

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas, Herom; Universidade Municipal de São Caetano do Sul - USCS; Gonçalves, Rafael; Universidade Municipal de São Caetano do Sul - USCS

    2016-01-01

    This article analyzes the use of elements from the horror fi lm genre in the music video Thriller (1982), by Michael Jackson, as experimentation within the field of pop music. Based on the semiotics of culture, grounded on the concepts of cultural text, semiosphere, border and modeling, developed by Iuri Lotman, the analysis identified innovations in the use of horror as humor and, in the music, modeling of creatures, moving among horror, the fantastic and the reality.Keywords: horror, music ...

  1. Humor as a Mental Fitness Indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P. Howrigan

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available To explain the pervasive role of humor in human social interaction and among mating partner preferences, Miller (2000a proposed that intentional humor evolved as an indicator of intelligence. To test this, we looked at the relationships among rater-judged humor, general intelligence, and the Big Five personality traits in a sample of 185 college-age students (115 women, 70 men. General intelligence positively predicted rater-judged humor, independent of the Big Five personality traits. Extraversion also predicted rater-judged humor, although to a lesser extent than general intelligence. General intelligence did not interact with the sex of the participant in predicting rating scores on the humor production tasks. The current study lends support to the prediction that effective humor production acts as an honest indicator of intelligence in humans. In addition, extraversion, and to a lesser extent, openness, may reflect motivational traits that encourage humor production.

  2. Respons imun humoral pada pulpitis (Humoral immune response on pulpitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trijoedani Widodo

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Pulpitis is an inflammation process on dental pulp tissue, and usually as the continuous of caries. The microorganism in the caries is a potential immunogenic triggering the immune respons, both humoral and celluler immune responses. The aim of this research is to explain the humoral immune response changes in the dental pulp tissues of pulpitis. This research was done on three group samples: Irreversible pulpitis, Reversible pulpitis and sound teeth as the control group. The result showed that there were three pulpitis immunopathologic patterns: the sound teeth immunopathologic pattern showing a low humoral immune response, in a low level of IgG, IgA and IgM, the reversible pulpitis pattern showing that in a higher humoral immune response, IgG and IgA decreased but IgM increased, the irreversible pulpitis pattern showing that IgG and IgM increased, but it couldn't be repaired although it has highly immunity, and it showed an unusually low level of IgA. This low level of IgA meant that irreversible pulpitis had a low mucosal immunity.

  3. Immigrant Enhoming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogelman, Tatiana

    the difficulties that integration practitioners encounter in their attempts. I then highlight how the initial necessity of social spaces that are culturally and linguistically familiar to recent immigrants has, in conjunction with other factors, led to the establishment of at times solidified Russian-language...... fieldwork in socio-economically marginalized neighborhoods of eastern Berlin-Marzahn which are a home to a large number of Russian-speaking immigrants of German origin, I examine these projects’ attempts to construct communal social spaces shared by migrants and local residents. I start by noting...

  4. Humor in Autism and Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Viktoria; Fitzgerald, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Research has shown that individuals with autism and Asperger syndrome are impaired in humor appreciation, although anecdotal and parental reports provide some evidence to the contrary. This paper reviews the cognitive and affective processes involved in humor and recent neurological findings. It examines humor expression and understanding in…

  5. Humorous Relations: Attentiveness, Pleasure and Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Cris

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the structures of humor and joke telling that require particular kinds of attentiveness and particular relationships between speaker and audience, or more specifically, between classmates. First, I will analyze the pedagogical and relational preconditions that are necessary for humor to work. If humor is to work well, the…

  6. Linguistic Features of Humor in Academic Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalicky, Stephen; Berger, Cynthia M.; Crossley, Scott A.; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2016-01-01

    A corpus of 313 freshman college essays was analyzed in order to better understand the forms and functions of humor in academic writing. Human ratings of humor and wordplay were statistically aggregated using Factor Analysis to provide an overall "Humor" component score for each essay in the corpus. In addition, the essays were also…

  7. Musical agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlstedt, Palle; McBurney, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The authors, a composer and a computer scientist, discuss their collaborative research on the use of multiagent systems and their applicability to music and musical composition. They describe the development of software and techniques for the composition of generative music.......The authors, a composer and a computer scientist, discuss their collaborative research on the use of multiagent systems and their applicability to music and musical composition. They describe the development of software and techniques for the composition of generative music....

  8. Umbanda, Music and Music Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Gregorio José Pereira de Queiroz

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the use of music in religious rites of Umbanda and the possible correlations among the role played by music in this rite and its role in music therapy process, especially in some of its approaches.

  9. What Is Music Therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Music Therapy Association Home Contact News Help/FAQ Members Only Login About Music Therapy & AMTA What is Music Therapy? Definition and ... is Music Therapy? Print Email Share What is Music Therapy What is Music Therapy? Music Therapy is ...

  10. Humor in intimate relationships Ties among sense of humor, similarity in humor and relationship quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barelds, D.P.H.; Barelds-Dijkstra, P.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined relations between different aspects of humor and relationship quality Participants 114 married or cohabiting heterosexual couples from the general community with a mean relationship length of 22 years completed a number of measures assessing these two themes We expected

  11. The Relationship Between Humor Styles and Forgiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampes, William

    2016-08-01

    Research has shown that a factor in a victim's forgiveness of an offender is the victim's ability to make more positive, or at least less negative, attributions of the offender's behavior and that perspective-taking can be a factor in facilitating that process. Self-enhancing humor has been found to be positively correlated with perspective-taking empathy and aggressive humor found to be negatively correlated with perspective-taking empathy. Therefore it was predicted that self-enhancing humor would be positively correlated with forgiveness and aggressive humor negatively correlated with forgiveness. The Humor Styles Questionnaire, the Absence of Negative and Presence of Positive subscales of the Forgiveness Scale, and the Forgiveness Likelihood Scale were administered to 112 college undergraduates. Self-enhancing humor was significantly and positively correlated with all of the forgiveness measures, aggressive humor and self-defeating humor were significantly and negatively correlated with some of the forgiveness measures and affiliative humor was not significantly correlated with any of the forgiveness measures. The results were interpreted in terms of previous findings for humor styles, perspective-taking empathy, depression, self-esteem and anxiety. Future research involving the extent to which other personality variables, such as perspective-taking empathy, mediate the relationship between self-enhancing humor and forgiveness was suggested.

  12. The Relationship Between Humor Styles and Forgiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Hampes

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown that a factor in a victim’s forgiveness of an offender is the victim’s ability to make more positive, or at least less negative, attributions of the offender’s behavior and that perspective-taking can be a factor in facilitating that process. Self-enhancing humor has been found to be positively correlated with perspective-taking empathy and aggressive humor found to be negatively correlated with perspective-taking empathy. Therefore it was predicted that self-enhancing humor would be positively correlated with forgiveness and aggressive humor negatively correlated with forgiveness. The Humor Styles Questionnaire, the Absence of Negative and Presence of Positive subscales of the Forgiveness Scale, and the Forgiveness Likelihood Scale were administered to 112 college undergraduates. Self-enhancing humor was significantly and positively correlated with all of the forgiveness measures, aggressive humor and self-defeating humor were significantly and negatively correlated with some of the forgiveness measures and affiliative humor was not significantly correlated with any of the forgiveness measures. The results were interpreted in terms of previous findings for humor styles, perspective-taking empathy, depression, self-esteem and anxiety. Future research involving the extent to which other personality variables, such as perspective-taking empathy, mediate the relationship between self-enhancing humor and forgiveness was suggested.

  13. Linguistic Features of Humor in Academic Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Skalicky

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A corpus of 313 freshman college essays was analyzed in order to better understand the forms and functions of humor in academic writing. Human ratings of humor and wordplay were statistically aggregated using Factor Analysis to provide an overall Humor component score for each essay in the corpus. In addition, the essays were also scored for overall writing quality by human raters, which correlated (r = .195 with the humor component score. Correlations between the humor component scores and linguistic features were examined. To investigate the potential for linguistic features to predict the Humor component scores, regression analysis identified four linguistic indices that accounted for approximately 17.5% of the variance in humor scores. These indices were related to text descriptiveness (i.e., more adjective and adverb use, lower cohesion (i.e., less paragraph-to-paragraph similarity, and lexical sophistication (lower word frequency. The findings suggest that humor can be partially predicted by linguistic features in the text. Furthermore, there was a small but significant correlation between the humor and essay quality scores, suggesting a positive relation between humor and writing quality. Keywords: humor, academic writing, text analysis, essay score, human rating

  14. The Dark Side of Humor: DSM-5 Pathological Personality Traits and Humor Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgil Zeigler-Hill

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Basic personality traits (e.g., extraversion have been found to be associated with the humor styles that individuals employ. In the present study, we were interested in determining whether pathological personality traits were also associated with humor styles. We examined the associations between the pathological personality traits captured by the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 (PID-5 and humor styles in a sample of college students (N = 594. Negative affectivity and detachment were negatively associated with the affiliative and self-enhancing humor styles. Antagonism was positively associated with the aggressive humor style but negatively associated with the affiliative humor style. Disinhibition was positively associated with the aggressive humor style, whereas disinhibition and psychoticism were both positively associated with the self-defeating humor style. Discussion focuses on the implications of these findings and how they can expand our understanding of the connections between the darker aspects of personality and humor.

  15. The Dark Side of Humor: DSM-5 Pathological Personality Traits and Humor Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; McCabe, Gillian A; Vrabel, Jennifer K

    2016-08-01

    Basic personality traits (e.g., extraversion) have been found to be associated with the humor styles that individuals employ. In the present study, we were interested in determining whether pathological personality traits were also associated with humor styles. We examined the associations between the pathological personality traits captured by the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 (PID-5) and humor styles in a sample of college students (N = 594). Negative affectivity and detachment were negatively associated with the affiliative and self-enhancing humor styles. Antagonism was positively associated with the aggressive humor style but negatively associated with the affiliative humor style. Disinhibition was positively associated with the aggressive humor style, whereas disinhibition and psychoticism were both positively associated with the self-defeating humor style. Discussion focuses on the implications of these findings and how they can expand our understanding of the connections between the darker aspects of personality and humor.

  16. Personality, Humor Styles and Happiness: Happy People Have Positive Humor Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Ford

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the relationships between four personality traits, humor styles, and happiness. Replicating previous research, happiness was positively correlated with four personality traits: extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism. Further, happiness positively related to self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles; it related negatively to self-defeating and aggressive humor styles. Thus, happy people habitually engage in positive uses of humor and avoid engaging in negative uses of humor in daily life. We also found support for our hypothesis. People high in extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism are happier because they engage in positive humor in daily life.

  17. Personality, Humor Styles and Happiness: Happy People Have Positive Humor Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Thomas E.; Lappi, Shaun K.; Holden, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the relationships between four personality traits, humor styles, and happiness. Replicating previous research, happiness was positively correlated with four personality traits: extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism. Further, happiness positively related to self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles; it related negatively to self-defeating and aggressive humor styles. Thus, happy people habitually engage in positive uses of humor and avoid engaging in negative uses of humor in daily life. We also found support for our hypothesis. People high in extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism are happier because they engage in positive humor in daily life. PMID:27547251

  18. Personality, Humor Styles and Happiness: Happy People Have Positive Humor Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Thomas E; Lappi, Shaun K; Holden, Christopher J

    2016-08-01

    The present study examined the relationships between four personality traits, humor styles, and happiness. Replicating previous research, happiness was positively correlated with four personality traits: extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism. Further, happiness positively related to self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles; it related negatively to self-defeating and aggressive humor styles. Thus, happy people habitually engage in positive uses of humor and avoid engaging in negative uses of humor in daily life. We also found support for our hypothesis. People high in extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism are happier because they engage in positive humor in daily life.

  19. Intuitive Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2009-01-01

    Handbook for people who wish to play or teach freely improvised music and improvisation pieces. With sections on how to start with different types of groups, training of musical awareness, parameters of the musical sound, the history of improvised music and some improvisational pieces....

  20. Germany - an immigration country

    OpenAIRE

    Siebert, Horst

    2003-01-01

    Germany has about the same proportion of foreigners in its population as the United States, it is an immigration country. In a way, Germany has let immigration happen, but it did not really have an explicit immigration policy in the past. Now it has to make up its mind on its immigration policy in the future. The paper looks at the experience with immigration in the past, at the integration of foreigners and at the issues of immigration policy.

  1. Lésbicas sem humor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Don Kullick

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo examina a construção social e cultural de um estereótipo sobre lésbicas, baseado na percepção de que elas não possuem senso de humor. Analisa-se como lésbicas são retratadas por comediantes, programas de TV,  quadrinhos e na literatura, e compara essas representações a outros  estereótipos, como aqueles relacionados a alemães e gays extravagantes. Ao investigar as relações entre masculinidade, feminilidade e falta de humor, demonstra-se que considerar lésbicas como incompatíveis com o riso e a graça significa caracterizá-las como destituídas de humanidade. The article Humorless lesbians examines the social and cultural construction of a lesbian stereotype, based on the perception that they lack sense of humor. It is analyzed how lesbians are portrayed by comedians, TV shows, comic strips, and in literature. These representations are compared to other stereotypes such as those related to Germans and campy gays. By investigating the relations between masculinity, femininity and humorlessness, it is demonstrated that considering lesbians as incompatible with laughter and fun means to depicting them as deprived of humanity.

  2. Computer Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Perry R.

    This chapter covers algorithms, technologies, computer languages, and systems for computer music. Computer music involves the application of computers and other digital/electronic technologies to music composition, performance, theory, history, and the study of perception. The field combines digital signal processing, computational algorithms, computer languages, hardware and software systems, acoustics, psychoacoustics (low-level perception of sounds from the raw acoustic signal), and music cognition (higher-level perception of musical style, form, emotion, etc.).

  3. Opportunistic Music

    OpenAIRE

    Hachet , Martin; Kian , Arash; Berthaut , Florent; Franco , Jean-Sébastien; Desainte-Catherine , Myriam

    2009-01-01

    International audience; While mixed reality has inspired the development of many new musical instruments, few approaches explore the potential of mobile setups. We present a new musical interaction concept, called "opportunistic music". It allows musicians to recreate a hardware musical controller using any objects of their immediate environment. This approach benefits from the physical properties of real objects for controlling music. Our prototype is based on a stereo-vision tracking system...

  4. The Neural Correlates of Humor Creativity

    OpenAIRE

    Amir, Ori; Biederman, Irving

    2016-01-01

    Unlike passive humor appreciation, the neural correlates of real-time humor creation have been unexplored. As a case study for creativity, humor generation uniquely affords a reliable assessment of a creative product’s quality with a clear and relatively rapid beginning and end, rendering it amenable to neuroimaging that has the potential for reflecting individual differences in expertise. Professional and amateur “improv” comedians and controls viewed New Yorker cartoon drawings while being ...

  5. Instructional scientific humor in the secondary classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wizner, Francine

    This study is an examination of the manner in which educators employ scientific content humor and how that humor is perceived by their students. Content humor is a useful strategy in drawing the attention of students and improving their receptivity toward scientific information. It is also a useful tool in combating the growing distractions of the electronic classroom. Previous studies have found that humor has a positive effect on knowledge, memory, and understanding. However, few studies have been conducted below the undergraduate level and mainly quantitative measures of student recall have been used to measure learning. This study employed multiple data sources to determine how two secondary biology teachers used humor in order to explain scientific concepts and how their students perceived their teachers' use of scientific instructional humor. Evidence of student humor reception was collected from four students in each of the two classes. All of the scientific instructional humor used in the studied classrooms was cognitive in nature, varying among factual, procedural, conceptual, and metacognitive knowledge. Teachers tended to use dialogic forms of humor. Their scientific humor reflected everyday experiences, presented queries, poked fun at authority, and asked students to search out new perspectives and perform thought experiments. Teachers were the primary actors in performing the humorous events. The events were sometimes physical exaggerations of words or drawings, and they occurred for the purpose of establishing rapport or having students make connections between scientific concepts and prior knowledge. Student perceptions were that teachers did employ humor toward instructional objectives that helped their learning. Helping students become critical thinkers is a trademark of science teachers. Science teachers who take the risk of adopting some attributes of comedians may earn the reward of imparting behaviors on their students like critical thinking

  6. Effectiveness of humor advertising on advertising success

    OpenAIRE

    S, venkatesh; N, senthilkumar

    2015-01-01

    In global advertising ‘humor’ is the most effective emotion used in advertising compared to other emotional appeals. Advertisers and researchers more interested in Humor in advertising for more than 100 years. But there is no review paper for Impact of humor in advertising till twenty two years of time, in between period there was lot of research outcomes published about humor in advertising. The purpose of this paper to get detailed review about Impact of humor in advertising for 40 years an...

  7. Humor: The "Witting" Edge in Business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scriven, Jolene; Hefferin, Linda

    1998-01-01

    Humor contributes to teamwork, creative problem solving, mental flexibility, and risk taking in the workplace. As a classroom tool, it increases student attentiveness and retention of information. (SK)

  8. Comparative evaluation of aqueous humor viscosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kyshia; Carter, Renee; Tully, Thomas; Negulescu, Ioan; Storey, Eric

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate aqueous humor viscosity in the raptor, dog, cat, and horse, with a primary focus on the barred owl (Strix varia). Twenty-six raptors, ten dogs, three cats, and one horse. Animals were euthanized for reasons unrelated to this study. Immediately, after horizontal and vertical corneal dimensions were measured, and anterior chamber paracentesis was performed to quantify anterior chamber volume and obtain aqueous humor samples for viscosity analysis. Dynamic aqueous humor viscosity was measured using a dynamic shear rheometer (AR 1000 TA Instruments, New Castle, DE, USA) at 20 °C. Statistical analysis included descriptive statistics, unpaired t-tests, and Tukey's test to evaluate the mean ± standard deviation for corneal diameter, anterior chamber volume, and aqueous humor viscosity amongst groups and calculation of Spearman's coefficient for correlation analyses. The mean aqueous humor viscosity in the barred owl was 14.1 centipoise (cP) ± 9, cat 4.4 cP ± 0.2, and dog 2.9 cP ± 1.3. The aqueous humor viscosity for the horse was 1 cP. Of the animals evaluated in this study, the raptor aqueous humor was the most viscous. The aqueous humor of the barred owl is significantly more viscous than the dog (P humor viscosity of the raptor, dog, cat, and horse can be successfully determined using a dynamic shear rheometer. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  9. Cognitive Distortions, Humor Styles, and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rnic, Katerina; Dozois, David J A; Martin, Rod A

    2016-08-01

    Cognitive distortions are negative biases in thinking that are theorized to represent vulnerability factors for depression and dysphoria. Despite the emphasis placed on cognitive distortions in the context of cognitive behavioural theory and practice, a paucity of research has examined the mechanisms through which they impact depressive symptomatology. Both adaptive and maladaptive styles of humor represent coping strategies that may mediate the relation between cognitive distortions and depressive symptoms. The current study examined the correlations between the frequency and impact of cognitive distortions across both social and achievement-related contexts and types of humor. Cognitive distortions were associated with reduced use of adaptive Affiliative and Self-Enhancing humor styles and increased use of maladaptive Aggressive and Self-Defeating humor. Reduced use of Self-Enhancing humor mediated the relationship between most types of cognitive distortions and depressed mood, indicating that distorted negative thinking may interfere with an individual's ability to adopt a humorous and cheerful outlook on life (i.e., use Self-Enhancing humor) as a way of regulating emotions and coping with stress, thereby resulting in elevated depressive symptoms. Similarly, Self-Defeating humor mediated the association of the social impact of cognitive distortions with depression, such that this humor style may be used as a coping strategy for dealing with distorted thinking that ultimately backfires and results in increased dysphoria.

  10. Music Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trondalen, Gro; Bonde, Lars Ole

    2012-01-01

    music therapy orientations/models (Guided Imagery and Music, Nordoff-Robbins, Psychoanalytic, Cognitive-behavioral etc), their theoretical foundations and their practical approaches to health and wellbeing or ‘health musicking’. The relational context – the interplay of (expressive as well as receptive......Music therapy (MT) is most commonly defined as an intervention where “the therapist helps the client to promote health, using music experiences and the relationships developing through them” (Bruscia 1998). Also other definitions of MT agree that a therapeutic relationship is important for a music...... intervention to be considered MT. Other interventions that “use music for health-related goals, but in ways that do not qualify as music therapy” (Gold 2009), may be described as music medicine, or simply as music listening. In this text we elaborate on an overview chapter covering some of the different major...

  11. Humor in leader-follower relationships : Humor styles, similarity and relationship quality.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisse, Barbara; Rietzschel, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The present study focuses on how humor may affect the quality of the relationship between leader and follower (LMX). More specifically, we examined the impact of follower self-reported humor style and leader self-reported humor style on the extent to which followers perceived their relationship with

  12. The New Asian Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Morrison G.; Hirschman, Charles

    In the early 1960s, Asian immigration to the United States was severely limited. The passage of the Immigration Act of 1965 expanded Asian immigration and ended a policy of racial discrimination and exclusion. Currently, over one third of the total immigrant population to the United States is from Asia, particularly China, Japan, Korea, the…

  13. Music publishing

    OpenAIRE

    Simões, Alberto; Almeida, J. J.

    2003-01-01

    Current music publishing in the Internet is mainly concerned with sound publishing. We claim that music publishing is not only to make sound available but also to define relations between a set of music objects like music scores, guitar chords, lyrics and their meta-data. We want an easy way to publish music in the Internet, to make high quality paper booklets and even to create Audio CD's. In this document we present a workbench for music publishing based on open formats, using open-source t...

  14. The First Joke: Exploring the Evolutionary Origins of Humor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Polimeni

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Humor is a complex cognitive function which often leads to laughter. Contemporary humor theorists have begun to formulate hypotheses outlining the possible innate cognitive structures underlying humor. Humor's conspicuous presence in the behavioral repertoire of humankind invites adaptive explanations. This article explores the possible adaptive features of humor and ponders its evolutionary path through hominid history. Current humor theories and previous evolutionary ideas on humor are reviewed. In addition, scientific fields germane to the evolutionary study of humor are examined: animal models, genetics, children's humor, humor in pathological conditions, neurobiology, humor in traditional societies and cognitive archeology. Candidate selection pressures and associated evolutionary mechanisms are considered. The authors conclude that several evolutionary-related topics such as the origins of language, cognition underlying spiritual feelings, hominid group size, and primate teasing could have special relevance to the origins of humor.

  15. Music Warehouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deliege, Francois; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2006-01-01

    Music Information Retrieval has received increasing attention from both the industrial and the research communities in recent years. Many audio extraction techniques providing content-based music information have been developed, sparking the need for intelligent storage and retrieval facilities. ...

  16. American Learners' Comprehension of Russian Textual Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shardakova, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, second language (L2) humor has attracted scholarly attention as both a means and a goal of L2 development. Much of this research, however, has focused on oral communication, whereas virtually no studies address humor as an aspect of reading comprehension. This exploratory study combines these two areas of inquiry, examining…

  17. Humor: A Therapeutic Intervention for Child Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Rachelle G.; Parr, Gerald; Bradley, Loretta J.; Berry, Jeremy J.

    2009-01-01

    Counselors utilize many strategies, techniques, and tools when building a therapeutic alliance or addressing children's issues. Due to the serious nature of discussing problems or perhaps because of the fear of seeming insensitive, counselors often overlook humor as a means to enhance therapy. Whether deliberate or spontaneous, humor can add…

  18. Sociolinguistics features of humor in american linguoculture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article we study the characteristics of the language of representation and perception of American humour, its linguistic and cultural features in humorous texts of American comics from the American linguistic culture. The material for research is the humorous texts and fragments of the performances of American ...

  19. Effects of Humor Production, Humor Receptivity, and Physical Attractiveness on Partner Desirability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Tornquist

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examined women’s and men’s preferences for humor production and humor receptivity in long-term and short-term relationships, and how these factors interact with physical attractiveness to influence desirability. Undergraduates viewed photographs of the opposite sex individuals who were high or low in physical attractiveness, along with vignettes varying in humor production and receptivity. Participants rated physical attractiveness and desirability for long-term and short-term relationships. The main findings were that individuals desired partners who were high in humor production and receptivity, though the effects were particularly pronounced for women judging long-term relationships. Moreover, humor production was more important than receptivity for women’s ratings of male desirability. Notably, we also found that ratings of physical attractiveness were influenced by the humor conditions. These results are discussed in terms of the fitness indicator, interest indicator, and encryption hypotheses of the evolutionary functions of humor.

  20. Music & Wellbeing

    OpenAIRE

    Garrido, Gemma; Camps, Laia; Herrera, Isabel Herrera; Guillamat, Roser; Vallés, Vicenç; Sanz, Maite; Martínez, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Scientific literature suggests that music may serve as therapeutic function among populations with different illnesses or disorders. Functional neuroimaging studies that incorporate music activity or music method shown an increase activation in several brain areas, with widespread bilateral hemodynamic responses in occipital lobe, bilateral cerebellum, temporal lobe, in the right lateral prefrontal cortex as well hemodynamic responses in the left middle frontal gyrus.Music activ...

  1. Music Teachers' Everyday Conceptions of Musicality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandstrom, Sture

    1999-01-01

    Investigates music teachers' everyday conceptions of musicality through (1) a pilot study involving music teachers in higher education and (2) interviews with teachers in music teacher education and in compulsory school. Finds in the pilot the categories of musical achievement, musical experience, and musical communication, while the interviews…

  2. Experiences with treating immigrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandhu, Sima; Bjerre, Neele V; Dauvrin, Marie

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: While there has been systematic research on the experiences of immigrant patients in mental health services within certain European countries, little research has explored the experiences of mental health professionals in the delivery of services to immigrants across Europe. This study...... sought to explore professionals' experiences of delivering care to immigrants in districts densely populated with immigrants across Europe. METHODS: Forty-eight semi-structured interviews were conducted with mental health care professionals working in 16 European countries. Professionals in each country...... were recruited from three areas with the highest proportion of immigrants. For the purpose of this study, immigrants were defined as first-generation immigrants born outside the country of current residence, including regular immigrants, irregular immigrants, asylum seekers, refugees and victims...

  3. Humor and creative life styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, J

    2001-01-01

    This paper is based upon the writings of William James in the late 19th century, and Alfred Adler and Sigmund Freud in the 20th, enriched by the contributions of later personality and role theorists. The self is defined as the unique organization of each person; a style is the self in action. Different life styles and their components are expressed in different situations. I posit that humor and positive thinking, combined with meaning and purpose, are vital components of all constructive life styles. The knowledge of life styles cuts through diagnostic labels to reveal our universal humanity. It can be fruitfully applied to patients and nonpatients alike and, I found, for the self-understanding of therapist. The clinical application of life styles is illustrated through numerous vignettes.

  4. Por un humor ético

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Paramo Valero

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Ética del humor es una obra original, abundantemente documentada, de contenido científico y filosófico, que aborda un problema de gran importancia en los actuales estudios de éticas aplicadas. La ética del humor es una nueva ética aplicada que pretende comprender el fenómeno del humor a la luz de sus implicaciones éticas. Como señala el autor, Juan Carlos Siurana, reputado experto en el ámbito de la filosofía práctica, el interés por el humor es un interés por la ética. En la obra no presenta una nueva teoría filosófica del humor –las cuales se han venido sucediendo, al menos, desde los Diálogos de Platón–, sino una nueva teoría ética, que toma al humor como objeto principal de análisis. Por tanto, la finalidad es realizar una aportación dentro del ámbito de la ética. Para ello se nutre de distintos estudios psicológicos, biológicos, fisiológicos y neurológicos sobre el humor, así como de clásicas obras de filosofía que han abordado esta cuestión.

  5. Burnout and Humor Usage among Community College Nursing Faculty Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Laura A.

    2000-01-01

    Assesses the correlation of burnout among community college nursing faculty members and their use of humor to mediate academic stress related to burnout. Differences in burnout between high versus low humor usage respondents showed a higher sense of personal accomplishment with high humor usage. Of those with low humor usage, workload was related…

  6. Towards Humor Modelling and Facilitation in Smart Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Gu Ji, Y.; Choi, S.

    We know about word play, verbal jokes, and about humor that appears spontaneously in conversations. This humor is studied in computational linguistics, together with issues such as verbal incongruities, ambiguities, irony and sarcasm. These appearances of humor are also part of computational humor

  7. Designed and Accidental Humor in the Smart Digital Wild

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Anton; Ruiz Miyares, L.

    Humor can be designed and canned, for example as it appears in videogames, sitcoms or amusement parks. We often have humor professionals that have responsibility for this inclusion of humor. Humor can be designed for a particular occasion, for example in an April prank. However, in real life we

  8. Sense of humor at work: assessment and associations with health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doosje, S.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation is about health-related sense of humor measurement and associations between a sense of humor and health. Two sense of humor measures were developed, the QOHC and the HCL. The QOHC measures four humorous coping styles, aimed at acquiring positive affective states: antecedent-focused

  9. Exploring the Relationship between Humor and Aesthetic Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Mordechai

    2012-01-01

    The connection between humor and aesthetic experience has already been recognized by several thinkers and aesthetic educators. For instance, humor theorist John Morreall writes that "humor is best understood as itself a kind of aesthetic experience, equal in value at least to any other kind of aesthetic experience." For Morreall, both humor and…

  10. LOL Teacher! Using Humor to Enhance Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrell, Shelly

    2015-01-01

    Laughing with students can help them connect on a deeper level with the teacher and the learning. This article offers the following four strategies to incorporate humor into teaching: (1) Integrate humorous bits to boost engagement; (2) Choose humorous materials; (3) Create interest with humorous web tools and apps; and (4) Teach with silly…

  11. Music Therapy: A Career in Music Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    About Music Therapy & Music Therapy Training M usic therapy is a healthcare profession that uses music to help individuals of all ages improve physical, cognitive, emotional, and social functioning. Music therapists work with children and adults with developmental ...

  12. Computational Humor 2012 : extended abstacts of the (3rd international) Workshop on computational Humor

    OpenAIRE

    Nijholt, Antinus; Unknown, [Unknown

    2012-01-01

    Like its predecessors in 1996 (University of Twente, the Netherlands) and 2002 (ITC-irst, Trento, Italy), this Third International Workshop on Computational Humor (IWCH 2012) focusses on the possibility to find algorithms that allow understanding and generation of humor. There is the general aim of modeling humor, and if we can do that, it will provide us with lots of information about our cognitive abilities in general, such as reasoning, remembering, understanding situations, and understand...

  13. Effects of Humor Production, Humor Receptivity, and Physical Attractiveness on Partner Desirability

    OpenAIRE

    Michelle Tornquist; Dan Chiappe

    2015-01-01

    This study examined women’s and men’s preferences for humor production and humor receptivity in long-term and short-term relationships, and how these factors interact with physical attractiveness to influence desirability. Undergraduates viewed photographs of the opposite sex individuals who were high or low in physical attractiveness, along with vignettes varying in humor production and receptivity. Participants rated physical attractiveness and desirability for long-term and short-term rela...

  14. Attitudes towards immigration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Munch, Jakob Roland; Skaksen, Jan Rose

    2008-01-01

    Using the European Social Survey 2002/3, we develop a new test of whether economic self-interest influences people's attitudes towards immigration, exploiting that people have widely different perceptions of the consequences of immigration......Using the European Social Survey 2002/3, we develop a new test of whether economic self-interest influences people's attitudes towards immigration, exploiting that people have widely different perceptions of the consequences of immigration...

  15. Crime and immigration

    OpenAIRE

    Brian Bell

    2014-01-01

    Immigration is one of the most important policy debates in Western countries. However, one aspect of the debate is often mischaracterized by accusations that higher levels of immigration lead to higher levels of crime. The evidence, based on empirical studies of many countries, indicates that there is no simple link between immigration and crime. Crucially, the evidence points to substantial differences in the impact on property crime, depending on the labor market opportunities of immigrant ...

  16. What drives immigration amnesties?

    OpenAIRE

    Casarico, Alessandra; Facchini, Giovanni; Frattini, Tommaso

    2012-01-01

    We develop a general model of legal and illegal immigration to understand the basic tradeoffs faced by a government in the decision to implement an immigration amnesty in the presence of a selective immigration policy. We show that two channels play an important role: an amnesty is more likely the more restricted are the occupational opportunities of undocumented immigrants and the less redistributive is the welfare state. Empirical evidence based on a novel panel dataset of legalizations car...

  17. The Serious Business of Humor : A qualitative study of humor as a management tool

    OpenAIRE

    N Schönfeldt, Sara; Miznikova, Jelena

    2010-01-01

    This research was initiated due to the novelty of the topic. Humor is a common phenomenon in the daily interaction of many people; however this study is particularly interested in humor as used by managers. As a preconception to the study it was assumed that appropriately used humor results in benefits for a leader, thus we wish to explore how managers in Swedish organizations reason about if and how humor can be used as a management tool. For this purpose we employed qualitative research wit...

  18. The Neural Correlates of Humor Creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Ori; Biederman, Irving

    2016-01-01

    Unlike passive humor appreciation, the neural correlates of real-time humor creation have been unexplored. As a case study for creativity, humor generation uniquely affords a reliable assessment of a creative product's quality with a clear and relatively rapid beginning and end, rendering it amenable to neuroimaging that has the potential for reflecting individual differences in expertise. Professional and amateur "improv" comedians and controls viewed New Yorker cartoon drawings while being scanned. For each drawing, they were instructed to generate either a humorous or a mundane caption. Greater comedic experience was associated with decreased activation in the striatum and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), but increased activation in temporal association regions (TMP). Less experienced comedians manifested greater activation of mPFC, reflecting their deliberate search through TMP association space. Professionals, by contrast, tend to reap the fruits of their spontaneous associations with reduced reliance on top-down guided search.

  19. The Neural Correlates of Humor Creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ori Amir

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Unlike passive humor appreciation, the neural correlates of real-time humor creation have been unexplored. As a case study for creativity, humor generation uniquely affords a reliable assessment of a creative product’s quality with a clear and relatively rapid beginning and end, rendering it amenable to neuroimaging that has the potential for reflecting individual differences in expertise. Professional and amateur improv comedians and controls viewed New Yorker cartoon drawings while being scanned. For each drawing, they were instructed to generate either a humorous or a mundane caption. Greater comedic experience was associated with decreased activation in the striatum and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC, but increased activation in temporal association regions (TMP. Less experienced comedians manifested greater activation of mPFC, reflecting their deliberate search through TMP association space. Professionals, by contrast, tend to reap the fruits of their spontaneous associations with reduced reliance on top-down guided search.

  20. El humor en los servicios hospitalarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguinaga Benítez Óscar William

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available

    El humor es un fenómeno demasiado complejo para ser explicado fácilmente, sin embargo la risa, es una de las formas más admirables del comportamiento humano. El humor forma parte de nuestra vida cotidiana y todos tenemos de él, ya desde nuestra más tierna infancia un conocimiento intuitivo. Muchos saben que el humor mejora las relaciones humanas, puede favorecer una cierta distensión y facilita el bienestar de todos los miembros de una empresa, dirigentes, empleados y obreros. Muchos esperan encontrar en él la forma de resolver los conflictos y de reducir la agresividad. Allí donde se encuentren hombres, existe el humor, comprenderlo mejor y utilizarlo más libremente y en el momento oportuno, puede ayudarnos a hacer nuestra vida más agradable.

  1. The Neural Correlates of Humor Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Ori; Biederman, Irving

    2016-01-01

    Unlike passive humor appreciation, the neural correlates of real-time humor creation have been unexplored. As a case study for creativity, humor generation uniquely affords a reliable assessment of a creative product’s quality with a clear and relatively rapid beginning and end, rendering it amenable to neuroimaging that has the potential for reflecting individual differences in expertise. Professional and amateur “improv” comedians and controls viewed New Yorker cartoon drawings while being scanned. For each drawing, they were instructed to generate either a humorous or a mundane caption. Greater comedic experience was associated with decreased activation in the striatum and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), but increased activation in temporal association regions (TMP). Less experienced comedians manifested greater activation of mPFC, reflecting their deliberate search through TMP association space. Professionals, by contrast, tend to reap the fruits of their spontaneous associations with reduced reliance on top-down guided search. PMID:27932965

  2. Music Therapy and Music Therapy Research. Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Inge Nygaard

    2002-01-01

    This response to Keynote by Prof. Even Ruud (N)"Music Education and Music Therapy seeks to define these two areas with specific focus on tools and methods for analysis of music as these methods are developed in music therapy. This includes that the music therapist, the music and the client create...

  3. The Humorous Function of English Euphemism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎清亚

    2017-01-01

    As a universal linguistic phenomenon in human society, euphemism is widely used in all social classes and fields. It is an important means to coordinate interpersonal relationship. This research discusses some fundamental knowledge of euphemism. It aims to analyze the humorous function of English euphemism in social interaction, advertisement and expressing professions. Through the analysis of the humorous function of English euphemism, it helps people to reduce mistake, improve the effect of communication and enhance mutual understanding.

  4. Music Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søderberg, Ene Alicia; Odgaard, Rasmus Emil; Bitsch, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the possibility of breaking the barrier between deaf and hearing people when it comes to the subject of making music. Suggestions on how deaf and hearing people can collaborate in creating music together, are presented. The conducted research will focus on deaf people...... with a general interest in music as well as hearing musicians as target groups. Through reviewing different related research areas, it is found that visualization of sound along with a haptic feedback can help deaf people interpret and interact with music. With this in mind, three variations of a collaborative...

  5. Neuropsychology of humor: an introduction. Part II. Humor and the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derouesné, Christian

    2016-09-01

    Impairment of the perception or comprehension of humor is observed in patients with focal brain lesions in both hemispheres, but mainly in the right frontal lobe. Studies by functional magnetic resonance imaging in healthy subjects show that humor is associated with activation of two main neural systems in both hemispheres. The detection and resolution of incongruity, cognitive groundings of humor, are associated with activation of the medial prefrontal and temporoparietal cortex, and the humor appreciation with activation of the orbito-frontal and insular cortex, amygdala and the brain reward system. However, activation of these areas is not humor-specific and can be observed in various cognitive or emotional processes. Event-related potential studies confirm the involvement of both hemispheres in humor processing, and suggest that left prefrontal area is associated with joke comprehension and right prefrontal area with the resolution stage. Humor thus appears to be a complex and dynamic functional process involving, on one hand, two specialized but not specific neural systems linked to humor apprehension and appreciation, and, on the other hand, multiple interconnected functional brain networks including neural patterns underlying the moral framework and belief system, acquired by conditioning or imitation during the cognitive development and social interactions of the individual, and more distributed systems associated with the analysis of the current context of humor occurrence. Disturbances of the sense of humor could then result from focal brain alterations localized in one or two of the specialized areas underlying the comprehension or appreciation of humor, or from perturbations of the network interconnectivity in non-focal brain disorders such as Alzheimer's disease or schizophrenia.

  6. Immigration and income inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deding, Mette; Hussain, Azhar; Jakobsen, Vibeke

    2010-01-01

    During the last two decades most Western countries have experienced increased net immigration as well as increased income inequality. This article analyzes the effects on income inequality of an increased number of immigrants in Denmark and Germany for the 20- year period 1984-2003 and how...... the impact of the increased number of immigrants differs between the two countries. We find higher inequality for immigrants than natives in Denmark but vice versa for Germany. Over the period 1984-2003, this particular inequality gap has narrowed in both countries. At the same time, the contribution...... of immigrants to overall inequality has increased, primarily caused by increased between-group inequality. The share of immigrants in the population is more important for the change in overall inequality in Denmark than in Germany, while the opposite is the case for inequality among immigrants....

  7. Computational Humor 2012 : extended abstacts of the (3rd international) Workshop on computational Humor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Unknown, [Unknown

    2012-01-01

    Like its predecessors in 1996 (University of Twente, the Netherlands) and 2002 (ITC-irst, Trento, Italy), this Third International Workshop on Computational Humor (IWCH 2012) focusses on the possibility to find algorithms that allow understanding and generation of humor. There is the general aim of

  8. An Explanation of the Relationship between Instructor Humor and Student Learning: Instructional Humor Processing Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanzer, Melissa B.; Frymier, Ann B.; Irwin, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes the Instructional Humor Processing Theory (IHPT), a theory that incorporates elements of incongruity-resolution theory, disposition theory, and the elaboration likelihood model (ELM) of persuasion. IHPT is proposed and offered as an explanation for why some types of instructor-generated humor result in increased student…

  9. Humor in the Classroom: The Effects of Integrated Humor on Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolkan, San; Griffin, Darrin J.; Goodboy, Alan K.

    2018-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the impact of integrated humor on direct measures of students' ability to retain and transfer information from educational lessons. In two experiments, participants were randomly exposed to either a lesson with humorous examples or standard examples and were subsequently asked to take tests on the material. Data…

  10. Investigating the Effect of Humor Communication Skills Training on Pro-Social and Anti-Social Humor Styles, Cognitive Learning, Self-Efficacy, Motivation, and Humor Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, Lori E.

    2013-01-01

    Humor is an important aspect of interpersonal interactions as it is linked to the development and maintenance of relationships (Merolla, 2006). The purpose of this dissertation was to test the effect of a humor communication skills training program on the ability to minimize anti-social humor (i.e., aggressive, self-defeating) and enhance…

  11. Sense of Humor, Stable Affect, and Psychological Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnie Cann

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A good sense of humor has been implicated as a quality that could contribute to psychological well-being. The mechanisms through which sense of humor might operate include helping to reappraise threats, serving as a character strength, or facilitating happiness. The current research attempts to integrate these possibilities by examining whether a good sense of humor might operate globally by helping to maintain a more stable positive affect. Stable positive affect has been shown to facilitate more effective problem solving and to build resilience. However, not all humor is adaptive humor, so we also examine the roles that different styles of humor use might play. Individual differences in humor styles were used to predict stable levels of affect. Then, in a longitudinal design, humor styles and stable affect were used to predict subsequent resilience and psychological health. The results indicated that stable affect was related to resilience and psychological well-being, and that a sense of humor that involves self-enhancing humor, humor based on maintaining a humorous perspective about one’s experiences, was positively related to stable positive affect, negatively related to stable negative affect, and was mediated through stable affect in influencing resilience, well-being and distress. Thus, while a good sense of humor can lead to greater resilience and better psychological health, the current results, focusing on stable affect, find only self-enhancing humor provides reliable benefits.

  12. Ghost Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    Geolocative AR concert for Arts Festival of North Norway (Festspillene i Nord-Norge), Harstad, Norge. In cooperation with The Norwegian Academy of Music, Oslo.......Geolocative AR concert for Arts Festival of North Norway (Festspillene i Nord-Norge), Harstad, Norge. In cooperation with The Norwegian Academy of Music, Oslo....

  13. Caribbean Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Kris

    1991-01-01

    The Caribbean is a rich breeding ground for African-derived music. A synopsis is given of the music of the following countries and styles: (1) Jamaica; (2) Trinidad and Tobago; (3) Calypso; (4) steel pan; (5) Haiti; (6) Dominican Republic; (7) Cuba; (8) Puerto Rico; and (9) other islands. (SLD)

  14. Visualizing Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overby, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    Music has always been an important aspect of teenage life, but with the portability of the newest technological devices, it is harder and harder to separate students from their musical influences. In this article, the author describes a lesson wherein she incorporated their love of song into an engaging art project. In this lesson, she had…

  15. Self-Deprecating Humor Versus Other-Deprecating Humor in Health Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    LEE, JI YOUNG; SLATER, MICHAEL D.; TCHERNEV, JOHN

    2016-01-01

    Humor is sometimes employed in health messages. However, little is known about contingencies under which different types of humor may or may not be effective. This experiment crossed humorous vs. non-humorous and self- vs. other-deprecating messages about binge drinking, and tested how differences in personal investment in alcohol use moderates the effects of such messages on college binge drinkers. Results showed significant three-way interaction effects on subjective norms and behavioral intentions largely consistent with hypotheses. Assessment of significant differences in the interactions indicated that for binge drinkers who weren’t high in personal investment in alcohol use, other-deprecating humor tended to reduce their perceived subjective norms about the acceptability of binge drinking behavior and their behavioral intentions. The effect of the experimental manipulation on subjective norms among these binge drinkers was shown to mediate the effect on intentions to binge drink in the future. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:26020507

  16. Tuvan music and World Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim V. Chaposhnikov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The essay presents the author’s observations about the ingression of Tuvan music into the World Music – a niche of world musical culture covering ethnical music traditions. The author has witnessed the rise of interest to traditional musical culture of Tuva and Russia as well as globalization of Tuvan music. He is endeavoring to interpret these changes and reveal their affect on traditional music and xöömei. In the late Soviet period, traditional music in Tuva, like in many republics of the Union, has been as if put on hold. During the Perestroika and national revival processes, traditionalism became of high demand. Symposia and festivals started off in Tuva where amateur participants took the same stage with professionals. Special honor was paid to old masters of xöömei. Scholars started engaging in  discussions about the origins and a role of xöömei and its genres. Хöömei attracted a good deal of market interest from outside Russia. In the late 1980s American scientist and producer T. Levin made first field records of xöömei to be released on a disk. Ethnographic ensemble “Tuva” was established. Later, members of “Tuva” started their own musical bands. Musical programs were compiled as an ethnographic variety show – a principle that the public has been seeking for both in Tuva and abroad. Disks were realeased and artists started active touring in foreign countries. Boosting interest in World Music was marked with hallmark attention to the phenomenon of throat-singing and overtone music, and further evolution of Tuvan music has since been tightly linked to Western musical market. The author traces the peculiarities of such bands as “Huun Huur Tu”, “Yat-Kha”, etc. and remarks that the value of Tuvan music is not only in star performers shining on the Western skies, but in the rise of a stable community of people inspired by Tuvan music and culture, and seeking new ways of aesthetic and spiritual perception of

  17. Musical appreciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Maria del Consuelo

    2002-11-01

    Pre-school listening to music is the principal way that leads to the appreciation of music that later facilitates knowledge and pleasure in the history of music. At the prescholastic age it is a very important aspect of education, and reasons and suggestions will be given. The activities must be brief, the teachers of music can at the most develop the activity every five minutes, leaving time for rest or expansion. Another suitable way to bring the child to music is through stories, which please all children; let them go to an unreal and fantastic world and listen to a story or an exciting adventure. The story then, should be brief, simple, with action, with familiar characters, but with some mystery; some repetitive element; and an ending both surprising and happy. It is preferable to include small folkloric tales from the universal repertoire, with works of simple and clear structure.

  18. Music Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanfi, Ilan

    2012-01-01

    may cause detrimental long-term effects. Three studies have examined the effect of music therapy procedural support (MTPS) under needle procedures. Consequently, this study aims at examining the effects of MTPS in an RCT. Moreover, the study addresses clinical aspects of the applied MT intervention...... and provides research-based clinical tools. Methods 41 children (1 to 10 years) were enrolled and underwent a single PIVA procedure. The children were randomly assigned to either an MT or a comparable control group receiving PIVA. In addition, the music therapy (MT) group received individualised MTPS (i.......e. music alternate engagement) before, during, and after PIVA. The intervention was performed by a trained music therapist and comprised preferred songs, improvised songs/music, and instrument playing. The study was carried out in accordance with the rules in force regarding research ethics and clinical MT...

  19. Humor: a pedagogical tool to promote learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabeli, M

    2008-09-01

    It has become critical that learners are exposed to varied methods of teaching and assessment that will promote critical thinking of learners. Humor creates a relaxed atmosphere where learning can be enhanced and appreciated. When learners are relaxed, thinking becomes eminent. Authoritative and tense environment hinders thinking. This paper seeks to explore the perceptions of nurse teacher learners regarding the use of humor as a pedagogical tool to promote learning. A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual research design was employed (Burns & Grove, 2001:61; Mouton, 1996:103). 130 naive sketches were collected from nurse teacher learners who volunteered to take part in the study (Giorgi in_Omery, 1983:52) Follow up interviews were conducted to verify the findings. A qualitative, open-coding method of content analysis was done Tesch (in Creswell, 1994:155). Measures to ensure trustworthiness of the study were taken in accordance with the protocol of (Lincoln & Guba, 1985:290-326). The findings of the study will assist the nurse educators to create a positive, affective, psychological and social learning environment through the use of humor in a positive manner. Nurse educators will appreciate the fact that integration of humor to the learning content will promote the learners' critical thinking and emotional intelligence. Negative humor has a negative impact on learning. Learner nurses who become critical thinkers will be able to be analytical and solve problems amicably in practice.

  20. Adult Playfulness, Humor Styles, and Subjective Happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xiao D; Leung, Chun-Lok; Hiranandani, Neelam A

    2016-12-01

    Playfulness has been referred to as a disposition that involves reframing a situation to amuse others and to make the situation more stimulating and enjoyable. It may serve to shift one's perspective when dealing with environmental threats. Despite all the benefits of playfulness towards psychological well-being, it remains a largely understudied subject in psychology, particularly in Chinese societies. Hence, this study examined the association between adult playfulness, humor styles, and subjective happiness among a sample of 166 university students in Hong Kong and 159 students in Guangzhou, who completed a self-administered questionnaire, including the Short Measure for Adult Playfulness, the Chinese Humor Styles Questionnaire, and the Subjective Happiness Scale. Results showed that adult playfulness was positively correlated with affiliative humor, self-enhancing humor, and subjective happiness in both Hong Kong and Guangzhou samples. By its implication, highly playful Chinese students preferred using affiliative and self-enhancing humor to amuse themselves and others. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Anomalous hypothalamic responses to humor in cataplexy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan L Reiss

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Cataplexy is observed in a subset of patients with narcolepsy and affects approximately 1 in 2,000 persons. Cataplexy is most often triggered by strong emotions such as laughter, which can result in transient, yet debilitating, muscle atonia. The objective of this study was to examine the neural systems underlying humor processing in individuals with cataplexy.While undergoing functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI, we showed ten narcolepsy-cataplexy patients and ten healthy controls humorous cartoons. In addition, we examined the brain activity of one subject while in a full-blown cataplectic attack. Behavioral results showed that participants with cataplexy rated significantly fewer humorous cartoons as funny compared to controls. Concurrent fMRI showed that patients, when compared to controls and in the absence of overt cataplexy symptoms, showed pronounced activity in the emotional network including the ventral striatum and hypothalamus while viewing humorous versus non-humorous cartoons. Increased activity was also observed in the right inferior frontal gyri--a core component of the inhibitory circuitry. In comparison, the one subject who experienced a cataplectic attack showed dramatic reductions in hypothalamic activity.These findings suggest an overdrive of the emotional circuitry and possible compensatory suppression by cortical inhibitory regions in cataplexy. Moreover, during cataplectic attacks, the hypothalamus is characterized by a marked decrease in activity similar to that observed during sleep. One possible explanation for these findings is an initial overdrive and compensatory shutdown of the hypothalamus resulting in full cataplectic symptoms.

  2. Humor as Wisdom for Reframing Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Uk

    2018-04-01

    Human beings inevitably experience anxiety but attempt to avoid facing it through various forms of self-deception. This avoidance can lead to pathological symptoms. Young and middle-aged adults may be especially susceptible to suffering from anxiety because they are often single-mindedly pursuing means of achieving security. For these and others who fail to embrace life with warm enthusiasm, humor can serve to alleviate stress. This article views humor as a characteristic disposition of older adults-their humor signifying a sense of integrity and wisdom that often accompanies the aging process. Humor binds together feelings of despair and joy and contributes to a faithful reframing of faith and life. This article proposes that individuals acquire humor by perceiving the world as if on a journey to an exotic new place, seeing with new eyes even the most mundane of everyday objects and events. This capacity to perceive beauty in the ordinary world reflects a wisdom of older adults potentially available even to the young.

  3. Comprehensive Immigration Reform: Becoming Americans - U.S. Immigrant Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Rumbaut, RG

    2007-01-01

    Hearing on 'Comprehensive Immigration Reform: Becoming Americans - US Immigrant Integration,' Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship, Refugees, Border Security, and International Law of the Committee on the Judiciary, House of Representatives, Serial No. 110-27. May 16, 2007. Abstract: In this statement to a House Hearing on comprehensive immigration reform focusing on immigrant integration, English and foreign language competencies, preferences and use among immigrants and thei...

  4. [Positive aspects of old ages - humor of seniors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mareš, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    This survey study has five parts. In the first part two conceptual approaches to humor are characterized. One considers "the comic" to be an umbrella concept, and humor is only one of its rather positive forms. The other comes out from the umbrella concept "humor", and distinguishes between various forms of humor including the negative ones. Three main theories of humor are presented: theory of superiority, theory of incongruity, and a relief theory. The second part introduces humor in the elderly and draws the attention to the fact that we know relatively little about humor in old age because most research has been carried out in children, adolescents or adults in productive age. The third part of the study describes the process of diagnostics of humor in the elderly. For example, within the qualitative methods, in-depth interviews with seniors or analyses of their diary entries are used. Within quantitative methods, questionnaires are used, and this study presents the survey of seven most frequent ones applied in the studies of humor in the elderly. In the context of mixed methods, understanding of humor in young and seniors, or understanding of humor in relatively healthy seniors and seniors after stroke are compared. The fourth part of the study presents the Gelkopfs model on relationship between humor, treatment and cure of patients. The fifth part of the study demonstrates the options how to use humor to improve the mental state of the elderly (by means of individual or group interventions).

  5. [Humor in Medicine - The Art of Leaping Over the Shadows].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Barbara

    2017-12-01

    Humor and laughter are integral parts of human life and communication - and so of course they occur in medical contacts.Humor is defined as a personality based cognitive emotional style of processing situations, characterized by the ability to find positive aspects even in negative situations, and the ability to communicate this point of view to others and to cheer them up. Humor can support healing processes and coping with illness. Humor and jokes reduce anxiety and stress (for patients and doctors). Humorous people have a more realistic, flexible and less fearful behaviour. Humor helps to overcome negative experience. Humor can help the patient to gain new views towards the disease and a healthy distance towards occurring symptoms. Humor improves the relationship between patient and doctor. But beware: jokes can also be used to express fears, aggression or shame. Therefore it is worthwhile to listen carefully to what patients want to express. Humor reduces the risk of burnout. In contact with patients, it is important to give their humor room, to use it and respond to it, more than making jokes. Humor can be trained. Humor training and creation of a humorous atmosphere in health care facilities should also be supported by health insurance funds, institutions' sponsors and public authorities. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Mecanismos de humor verbal en Twitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Simarro Vázquez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The present article aims to characterize samples of verbal humor published on the social network Twitter. To do so, an analysis of 81 humorous texts published under the hashtag #otegi during 1 March 2016, on which date Arnaldo Otegi was released from prison after six years, was carried out. A pragmatic study of the tweets was performed, opting for the General Theory of Verbal Humor as a basis. The examination conducted reveals that the manner of presentation of opposing scripts, the logical mechanisms availed of to resolve this kind of incongruity, the special narrative strategies selected and the linguistic choices made are determined at all times by the circumstances in which the texts are presented and the upper limit constraint of 140 characters per Twitter publication.

  7. Immigrant entrepreneurship in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Vinogradov, Evgueni

    2008-01-01

    Doctoral thesis (Ph.D.) – Bodø Graduate School of Business, 2008 The purpose of this doctoral thesis is to add to the knowledge about immigrant entrepreneurship in Norway and to test the existing theories relating to immigrant entrepreneurship. In this work, an immigrant entrepreneur is defined as a business owner born outside Norway with both parents born abroad who is involved into the activities characterised by economic innovation, organisation creation, and profit-seeking in the marke...

  8. Prejudice and Immigration

    OpenAIRE

    Paolo E Giordani; Michele Ruta

    2008-01-01

    We study immigration policy in a small open receiving economy under self-selection of migrants. We show that immigration policy choice affects and is affected by the migratory decisions of skilled and unskilled foreign workers. From this interaction multiple equilibria may arise, which are driven by the natives' expectations on the migrants' size and skill composition (and, hence, on the welfare effects of immigration). In particular, pessimistic (optimistic) beliefs induce a country to impos...

  9. Humor comprehension and appreciation: an FMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolo, Angela; Benuzzi, Francesca; Nocetti, Luca; Baraldi, Patrizia; Nichelli, Paolo

    2006-11-01

    Humor is a unique ability in human beings. Suls [A two-stage model for the appreciation of jokes and cartoons. In P. E. Goldstein & J. H. McGhee (Eds.), The psychology of humour. Theoretical perspectives and empirical issues. New York: Academic Press, 1972, pp. 81-100] proposed a two-stage model of humor: detection and resolution of incongruity. Incongruity is generated when a prediction is not confirmed in the final part of a story. To comprehend humor, it is necessary to revisit the story, transforming an incongruous situation into a funny, congruous one. Patient and neuroimaging studies carried out until now lead to different outcomes. In particular, patient studies found that right brain-lesion patients have difficulties in humor comprehension, whereas neuroimaging studies suggested a major involvement of the left hemisphere in both humor detection and comprehension. To prevent activation of the left hemisphere due to language processing, we devised a nonverbal task comprising cartoon pairs. Our findings demonstrate activation of both the left and the right hemispheres when comparing funny versus nonfunny cartoons. In particular, we found activation of the right inferior frontal gyrus (BA 47), the left superior temporal gyrus (BA 38), the left middle temporal gyrus (BA 21), and the left cerebellum. These areas were also activated in a nonverbal task exploring attribution of intention [Brunet, E., Sarfati, Y., Hardy-Bayle, M. C., & Decety, J. A PET investigation of the attribution of intentions with a nonverbal task. Neuroimage, 11, 157-166, 2000]. We hypothesize that the resolution of incongruity might occur through a process of intention attribution. We also asked subjects to rate the funniness of each cartoon pair. A parametric analysis showed that the left amygdala was activated in relation to subjective amusement. We hypothesize that the amygdala plays a key role in giving humor an emotional dimension.

  10. The integration of immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    Bauböck, Rainer

    1995-01-01

    from the Table of Contents: Migration and integration - Basic concepts and definitions; Immigration and Integration policies; The legal framework for integration; Dimension of social integration; Cultural integration; Conclusions;

  11. The value of humor in psycotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Chazenbalk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The main point of this work is to show how humor—when is used properly- has a positive effect on the patient ant the therapist’s self improving their alliance, supervision and team meetings. It’s also good for profesionals to include humor, recreation and rest in their job routines, because these ingredients let them be more effective in psychoterapy. The vast majority of psychological theories agree on its importance. The Cognitive Psychology believes that humor helps the patient evaluate reality in a different way, stops disfunctional thoughts, lets the expression of negative emotions and finds more adaptative patterns. 

  12. Humor and Competence in School-aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masten, Ann S.

    1986-01-01

    Measures humor appreciation (including mirth, subjective ratings, and response sets), comprehension, and production in children between the ages of 10 and 14. Relates humor to several areas of competence manifested at school. (HOD)

  13. [The Use of Humor in Psychotherapy: a View].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaloult, Guillaume; Blondeau, Claude

    The goal of this article is to expose different aspects of the use of humor in therapy. We hope that it will stimulate reflection and guide the clinician toward appropriate use of humorous interventions. Historical highlights of the topic will be presented. Then a practical definition of therapeutic humor and the main theories about humor will be reviewed. We will also discuss the probable mechanisms of action explaining the efficacy of humor in psychotherapy, as well as potential risks and benefits of its use. We will try to determine different factors influencing the patient's receptivity to humor. Subsequently, a classification of humor will be proposed, followed by a description of selected types of humor often used in therapy, with clinical cases as examples.

  14. Risky business: When humor increases and decreases status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitterly, T Bradford; Brooks, Alison Wood; Schweitzer, Maurice E

    2017-03-01

    Across 8 experiments, we demonstrate that humor can influence status, but attempting to use humor is risky. The successful use of humor can increase status in both new and existing relationships, but unsuccessful humor attempts (e.g., inappropriate jokes) can harm status. The relationship between the successful use of humor and status is mediated by perceptions of confidence and competence. The successful use of humor signals confidence and competence, which in turn increases the joke teller's status. Interestingly, telling both appropriate and inappropriate jokes, regardless of the outcome, signals confidence. Although signaling confidence typically increases status and power, telling inappropriate jokes signals low competence and the combined effect of high confidence and low competence harms status. Rather than conceptualizing humor as a frivolous or ancillary behavior, we argue that humor plays a fundamental role in shaping interpersonal perceptions and hierarchies within groups. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Angustia y humor en Papelucho de Marcela Paz

    OpenAIRE

    Edgardo

    2015-01-01

    Los estudios clásicos sobre el humor identifican una interrelación estrecha entre humor y angustia. En la serie narrativa Papelucho, esta interacción es constante en la trama de las distintas novelas. Este trabajo describe la interacción entre humor y angustia que se da en la obra y reflexiona sobre su sentido. Se concluye que la serie propone el humor como estrategia para enfrentar los hechos angustiantes ineludibles en la vida.

  16. "A Nigger Joke":Black Humor in Toni Morrison's Sula

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐宗诗

    2016-01-01

    #%With irony at its core, black humor is a weapon for the powerless to fight against those in power. In Sula, Morrison ex-ploits irony to reveal the oppression that racism and sexism impose upon the black people. This paper mainly intends to explore the black humor in Sula from verbal humor, ridiculous events and distorted characters, and analyze the function of black humor.

  17. Music engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Brice, Richard

    2001-01-01

    Music Engineering is a hands-on guide to the practical aspects of electric and electronic music. It is both a compelling read and an essential reference guide for anyone using, choosing, designing or studying the technology of modern music. The technology and underpinning science are introduced through the real life demands of playing and recording, and illustrated with references to well known classic recordings to show how a particular effect is obtained thanks to the ingenuity of the engineer as well as the musician. In addition, an accompanying companion website containing over 50 specially chosen tracks for download, provides practical demonstrations of the effects and techniques described in the book. Written by a music enthusiast and electronic engineer, this book covers the electronics and physics of the subject as well as the more subjective aspects. The second edition includes an updated Digital section including MPEG3 and fact sheets at the end of each chapter to summarise the key electronics and s...

  18. Music therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    alternate with clear and lucid mental states. These states are important as it is here that it is possible to meet the person’s psychosocial needs. Ketil Normann’s conceps of periods of lucidity are presented and connected to clinical music therapy practice and how it is possible to use music in order...... as a consequence of person-centred care. Umeå University Medical Dissertations. New Series. Ridder, H.M. (2005). Music therapy as a way to enhance lucidity in persons with dementia in advanced stages. In: Esch, A.; Frohne-Hagemann, I.; Laqua, M.; Schirmer, H.; Seitz, E. (Eds.) Jahrbuch Musicktherapie. Forschung...... und Entwicklung Music Therapy Annual. Research and Development. 2005 (1), pp. 25-40. Reichert Verlag Wiesbaden....

  19. Music and communication in music psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Cross, Ian Ralph

    2014-01-01

    There is a general consensus that music is both universal and communicative, and musical dialogue is a key element in much music-therapeutic practice. However, the idea that music is a communicative medium has, to date, received little attention within the cognitive sciences, and the limited amount of research that addresses how and what music communicates has resulted in findings that appear to be of limited relevance to music therapy. This paper will draw on ethnomusicological evidence and ...

  20. Strategically Funny: Romantic Motives Affect Humor Style in Relationship Initiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa E. DiDonato

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Not all humor is the same, yet little is known about the appeal of specific humor styles in romantic initiation. The current experimental study addresses this gap by investigating how romantic motives (short-term or long-term affect individuals’ anticipated use of, and response to, positive humor and negative humor. Heterosexual participants (n = 224 imagined the pursuit of either a desired short-term or long-term relationship, indicated the extent to which they would produce positive and negative humor, and reported how their own interest would change in response to the imaginary target’s use of positive or negative humor. Results revealed that individuals are strategic in their humor production as a function of relational motives. Individuals produced positive humor in both contexts but limited their use of negative humor when pursuing a long-term relationship. The target’s positive humor increased individuals’ attraction, especially women’s, and although negative humor boosted attraction, it did not boost attraction more for short-term than long-term relationships. Findings extend a trait-indicator model of humor and their implications are discussed in light of other theoretical perspectives.

  1. Strategically Funny: Romantic Motives Affect Humor Style in Relationship Initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiDonato, Theresa E; Jakubiak, Brittany K

    2016-08-01

    Not all humor is the same, yet little is known about the appeal of specific humor styles in romantic initiation. The current experimental study addresses this gap by investigating how romantic motives (short-term or long-term) affect individuals' anticipated use of, and response to, positive humor and negative humor. Heterosexual participants (n = 224) imagined the pursuit of either a desired short-term or long-term relationship, indicated the extent to which they would produce positive and negative humor, and reported how their own interest would change in response to the imaginary target's use of positive or negative humor. Results revealed that individuals are strategic in their humor production as a function of relational motives. Individuals produced positive humor in both contexts but limited their use of negative humor when pursuing a long-term relationship. The target's positive humor increased individuals' attraction, especially women's, and although negative humor boosted attraction, it did not boost attraction more for short-term than long-term relationships. Findings extend a trait-indicator model of humor and their implications are discussed in light of other theoretical perspectives.

  2. Humor in Human-Computer Interaction : A Short Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Anton; Niculescu, Andreea; Valitutti, Alessandro; Banchs, Rafael E.; Joshi, Anirudha; Balkrishan, Devanuj K.; Dalvi, Girish; Winckler, Marco

    2017-01-01

    This paper is a short survey on humor in human-computer interaction. It describes how humor is designed and interacted with in social media, virtual agents, social robots and smart environments. Benefits and future use of humor in interactions with artificial entities are discussed based on

  3. Humor and Anxiety: Effects on Class Test Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Michael A. R.; Mahoney, Peggy

    1981-01-01

    Measures of anxiety and achievement were obtained on a sample of undergraduate students. Highly anxious students had lower achievement on humorous tests. Students with low anxiety had higher achievement on humorous tests. Results indicate that humor is not a positive factor in reducing high anxiety associated with academic evaluations. (Author)

  4. Humor styles moderate borderline personality traits and suicide ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Neil A; Helle, Ashley C; Tucker, Raymond P; Lengel, Gregory J; DeShong, Hilary L; Wingate, LaRicka R; Mullins-Sweatt, Stephanie N

    2017-03-01

    The way individuals use humor to interact interpersonally has been associated with general personality, depression, and suicidality. Certain humor styles may moderate the risk for suicide ideation (SI) in individuals who are high in specific risk factors (e.g., thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness). Previous research suggests a relationship between humor styles and borderline personality disorder (BPD) and an increased risk of suicidality and suicide completion in individuals with BPD. Participants (n =176) completed measures of BPD traits, SI, and humor styles. It was hypothesized that BPD traits would be positively correlated with negative humor styles and negatively correlated with positive humor styles, and that humor styles would significantly moderate BPD traits and SI. Results showed that BPD traits were negatively correlated with self-enhancing humor styles and positively correlated with self-defeating humor styles, but that they were not significantly correlated with affiliative or aggressive humor styles. Bootstrapping analyses demonstrated that the affiliative, self-enhancing, and self-defeating humor styles significantly moderated BPD traits and SI, while the aggressive humor style did not. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Appreciation of humor is decreased among patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, Avner; Posen, Jennie; Giladi, Nir; Manor, Yael; Mayanz, Connie; Mirelman, Anat; Gurevich, Tanya

    2012-02-01

    To test whether appreciation of humor might be a non-motor function affected by Parkinson's disease (PD). Thirty-nine PD patients and 38 healthy controls participated in this study. Appreciation of humor and effect of the presentation method utilized were assessed. Sense of humor was evaluated by the sense of humor questionnaire (SHQ-6). Humor appreciation was tested using three methods of presentation: videos, audio sketches and pictorial cartoons, each portraying both obvious and non-obvious humor content. Depression, anxiety, cognition, disease severity and quality of life were measured by standardized questionnaires and correlated with humor outcomes. Patients with PD rated humor content lower than controls on every method of presentation as well as on the SHQ-6 (p = 0.004). The greatest between-group difference was noted when the material was presented visually via pictorial cartoons (p < 0.0001). In addition, obvious humor content was rated higher than non-obvious content by the PD group in all three presentation methods (p < 0.05). The degree of depression and anxiety did not influence these results. Patients with PD have a decreased sense of humor compared to healthy controls. Utilizing audio methods of presentation and humor in an obvious mode appears to be the preferred approach for eliciting responses to humor in a PD population. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Humor Assessment and Interventions in Palliative Care: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M. Linge-Dahl

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The central goal of palliative care is to optimize the quality of life of patients suffering from life-limiting illnesses, which includes psychosocial and spiritual wellbeing. Research has demonstrated positive correlations between humor and laughter with life satisfaction and other aspects of wellbeing, and physiological symptoms can be improved by humorous stimuli.Objectives: The aim of this review is to evaluate humor interventions and assessments that have been applied in palliative care and to derive implications for future research.Methods: A systematic review of four databases identified 13 included studies. Criteria for inclusion were peer-reviewed English-language studies on humor interventions or assessments in a palliative care context.Results: Two studies on humor interventions and 11 studies on humor assessment were included in the systematic review. Most of these studies were about the patients' perspective on humor in palliative care. Findings showed that humor had a positive effect on patients, their relatives, and professional caregivers. Humor was widely perceived as appropriate and seen as beneficial to care in all studies.Conclusions: Even though humor interventions seem to be potentially useful in palliative care, descriptions evaluating their use are scarce. Overall, research on humor assessment and interventions in palliative care has remained limited in terms of quantity and quality. More research activities are needed to build a solid empirical foundation for implementing humor and laughter as part of regular palliative care activities.

  7. Truly Funny: Humor, Irony, and Satire as Moral Criticism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadlez, E. M.

    2011-01-01

    The occasional role of humor as a vehicle for moral criticism is investigated. I begin by distinguishing between this particular role and the other kinds of ways in which humor and amusement might be regarded through a moral lens, consider historical approaches to humor that corroborate the kind of role for it on which my investigation focuses,…

  8. Humor Styles and Leadership Styles: Community College Presidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrica, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between leadership styles (transformational, transactional, laissez-faire) and humor styles (affiliative, self-enhancing, aggressive, self-defeating) of community college presidents. Research has shown that humor and leadership styles are related and that humor may enhance interpersonal…

  9. Higher Education Lecturing and Humor: From Perspectives to Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri, Fuzhan; Mafakheri, Fereshteh

    2015-01-01

    This article will review the issues surrounding the use of humor as an informal teaching method in higher education lecturing. The impact and usefulness of humor, from both a teacher's and a student's perspective, will be investigated. The aim is to classify the challenges and limitations of using humor in classrooms and to investigate and…

  10. Humor in Context: Fire Service and Joking Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Larry; Roth, Gene

    2013-01-01

    Although theorizing about humor has occurred for several decades, scant research exists that examines humor in the broad context of human resource development. Humor exists in workplaces and it is historicized in the professional and organizational contexts of workers. This paper explores aspects of a joking culture within the specific work…

  11. Med humor som våben – sproglig humor som bindeled mellem kognition og emotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Raab

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The attempt to establish a coherence between the cognitive description of language and thought and the neurobiological description of the human brain is often limited by lacking knowledge concerning the interplay between cognition and emotion – both necessary elements in understanding the way the brain works. Verbal humor is a convenient research object in this regard, as it consists (primarily in cognitive mechanisms, eliciting an emotional response – laughter. In this article, a review of the history of humor research is compared to a selection of studies (lesion-studies, ERP and fMRI on the relationship between humor, language and the brain, as an attempt to show how a broadly based theory of humor can help us to understand the relationship between cognition and emotion.

  12. Med humor som våben – sproglig humor som bindeled mellem kognition og emotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Raab

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The attempt to establish a coherence between the cognitive description of language and thought and the neurobiological description of the human brain is often limited by lacking knowledge concerning the interplay between cognition and emotion – both necessary elements in understanding the way the brain works. Verbal humor is a convenient research object in this regard, as it consists (primarily in cognitive mechanisms, eliciting an emotional response – laughter. In this article, a review of the history of humor research is compared to a selection of studies (lesion-studies, ERP and fMRI on the relationship between humor, language and the brain, as an attempt to show how a broadly based theory of humor can help us to understand the relationship between cognition and emotion.

  13. Economics with a Sense of Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Diane

    1985-01-01

    In this humorous dialogue that can be read and acted out as a play in high school economics classes, Karl Marx, a spokesman for communism, and Adam Smith, the father of capitalism, debate (1) whether an economy should produce designer jeans and (2) who should own McDonald's restaurant. (RM)

  14. Prosodic Markers of Saliency in Humorous Narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Lucy; Corduas, Marcella; Eisterhold, Jodi; Seifried, Brenna; Eggleston, Alyson; Attardo, Salvatore

    2009-01-01

    Much of what we think we know about the performance of humor relies on our intuitions about prosody (e.g., "it's all about timing"); however, this has never been empirically tested. Thus, the central question addressed in this article is whether speakers mark punch lines in jokes prosodically and, if so, how. To answer this question,…

  15. Humor Climate of the Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Ahmet

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the opinions primary school administrators and teachers on humor climates in primary schools. The study was modeled as a convergent parallel design, one of the mixed methods. The data gathered from 253 administrator questionnaires, and 651 teacher questionnaires was evaluated for the quantitative part of the…

  16. Very Good Medicine: Indigenous Humor and Laughter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mala, Cynthia Lindquist

    2016-01-01

    Humor is not only instinctive and a basic human need, but it also is very good medicine. Laughter boosts the immune system, lowers blood pressure, reduces stress hormones, and is linked to healthy functioning organs. [This article was written with Mylo Redwater Smith.

  17. Humor as Camouflage of Televised Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, W. James; Warren, Ron

    1998-01-01

    Contributes to research on schema theory and media effects by examining how violence is portrayed in comedy programs. Finds a high rate of violence (especially verbal forms) on comedy programs; and the combination of humor, minor acts of violence, and program context tend to trivialize its presence. Suggests that viewers' schema for comedy uses…

  18. Immigration: Coming to America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    To say that immigration is currently a controversial issue would be an understatement. The media is rife with misinformation and does a very poor job of making the critical distinction between legal and illegal immigration. Because of this, it is vitally important that libraries provide students with clear and unbiased material on the topic. In…

  19. Workplace Concentration of Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Fredrik; García-Pérez, Mónica; Haltiwanger, John; McCue, Kristin; Sanders, Seth

    2014-01-01

    Casual observation suggests that in most U.S. urban labor markets, immigrants have more immigrant coworkers than native-born workers do. While seeming obvious, this excess tendency to work together has not been precisely measured, nor have its sources been quantified. Using matched employer–employee data from the U.S. Census Bureau Longitudinal Employer-Household Dynamics (LEHD) database on a set of metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) with substantial immigrant populations, we find that, on average, 37% of an immigrant’s coworkers are themselves immigrants; in contrast, only 14% of a native-born worker’s coworkers are immigrants. We decompose this difference into the probability of working with compatriots versus with immigrants from other source countries. Using human capital, employer, and location characteristics, we narrow the mechanisms that might explain immigrant concentration. We find that industry, language, and residential segregation collectively explain almost all the excess tendency to work with immigrants from other source countries, but they have limited power to explain work with compatriots. This large unexplained compatriot component suggests an important role for unmeasured country-specific factors, such as social networks. PMID:25425452

  20. On the move: Analyzing immigration determinants and immigrant outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falcke, S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/372640060

    2017-01-01

    Given the increased number of immigrants worldwide, the determinants of immigration and the social and economic integration of immigrants into the countries of destination are of particular importance. The contributions of this dissertation address the determinants of immigration by looking at the

  1. Age at Immigration and Educational Attainment of Young Immigrants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ours, J.C.; Veenman, J.M.C.

    2005-01-01

    For immigrants who arrive in a country at a young age it is easier to assimilate than for teenagers.This paper investigates up to what immigration age the educational attainment of young immigrants in the Netherlands is similar to the educational attainment of secondgeneration immigrants, who were

  2. Attitudes towards Immigration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinesen, Peter Thisted; Klemmensen, Robert; Nørgaard, Asbjørn Sonne

    2016-01-01

    This article examines if deep-seated psychological differences add to the explanation of attitudes toward immigration. We explore whether the Big Five personality traits matter for immigration attitudes beyond the traditional situational factors of economic and cultural threat and analyze how...... individuals with different personalities react when confronted with the same situational triggers. Using a Danish survey experiment, we show that different personality traits have different effects on opposition toward immigration. We find that Openness has an unconditional effect on attitudes toward...... high on Conscientiousness are more sensitive to the skill level of immigrants. The results imply that personality is important for attitudes toward immigration, and in the conclusion, we further discuss how the observed conditional and unconditional effects of personality make sense theoretically....

  3. Holdninger til Immigration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Roland Munch, Jakob; Schroll, Sanne

    2006-01-01

    Denne artikel belyser holdninger til immigration blandt borgere i Danmark og de øvrige EU-15 lande - herunder holdningerne til immigration, der følger af den seneste EU-udvidelse. Det analyseres, hvilke faktorer der ligger til frund for disse holdninger, samt i hvilken udstrækning danskere afviger...... fra EU-gennemsnittet. Den typiske dansker er lidt mere skeptisk overfor immigration end andre europæere. Danskerne afskiller sig desuden ved, at forholdsvis få forbinder øget immigration med negative konsekvenser for arbejdsmarkedet, men forholdsvis mange forbinder det med højere omkostninger...... for velfærdsstaten. Når der tages hensyn til opfattelserne af de økonomiske konsekvenser af immigration, kommer Danmark til at fremstå som et væsentligt mere immigrationsskeptisk land, end hvad der kommer til udtryk i de ukorrigerede holdninger....

  4. Holdninger til immigration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Munch, Jakob Roland; Schroll, Sanne

    Denne artikel belyser holdninger til immigration blandt borgere i Danmark og de øvrige EU-15 lande - herunder holdningerne til immigration, der følger af den seneste EU-udvidelse. Det analyseres, hvilke faktorer der ligger til frund for disse holdninger, samt i hvilken udstrækning danskere afviger...... fra EU-gennemsnittet. Den typiske dansker er lidt mere skeptisk overfor immigration end andre europæere. Danskerne afskiller sig desuden ved, at forholdsvis få forbinder øget immigration med negative konsekvenser for arbejdsmarkedet, men forholdsvis mange forbinder det med højere omkostninger...... for velfærdsstaten. Når der tages hensyn til opfattelserne af de økonomiske konsekvenser af immigration, kommer Danmark til at fremstå som et væsentligt mere immigrationsskeptisk land, end hvad der kommer til udtryk i de ukorrigerede holdninger...

  5. [French immigration policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, P

    1994-01-01

    From the late nineteenth century through 1974, France permitted immigration to furnish workers and to compensate for the low level of fertility. Intense immigration from North Africa, the economic crisis of the 1970s, and other factors led to policy changes in 1974. French immigration policy since 1974 has fluctuated between guaranteeing foreigners equal rights regardless of their religion, race, culture, or national origin, and attempting to differentiate among immigrants depending on their degree of assimilability to French culture. From 1974 to 1988, France had five different policies regarding whether to permit new immigration and what to do about illegal immigrants. In July 1984, the four major political parties unanimously supported a measure in Parliament that definitively guaranteed the stay in France of legal immigrants, whose assimilation thus assumed priority. Aid for return to the homeland was no longer to be widely offered, and immigration of unskilled workers was to be terminated except for those originating in European Community countries. Major changes of government in 1988 and 1993 affected only the modalities of applying these principles. The number of immigrants has fluctuated since 1974. Unskilled workers, the only category whose entrance was specifically controlled by the 1984 measures, have declined from 174,000 in 1970 to 25,000 in the early 1990s. The number of requests for political asylum declined from 60,000 in 1989 to 27,000 in 1993, and in 1991, 15,467 persons were granted refugee status. The number of immigrants of all types permitted to remain in France declined from 250,000 or 3000 per year in the early 1970s to around 110,000 at present. Although the decline is significant, it appears insufficient to the government in power since 1993. Although migratory flows are often explained as the product of imbalance in the labor market or in demographic growth, the French experience suggests that government policies, both in the sending and

  6. Humor and Laughter may Influence Health. I. History and Background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Payne Bennett

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Articles in both the lay and professional literature have extolled the virtues of humor, many giving the impression that the health benefits of humor are well documented by the scientific and medical community. The concept that humor or laughter can be therapeutic goes back to biblical times and this belief has received varying levels of support from the scientific community at different points in its history. Current research indicates that using humor is well accepted by the public and is frequently used as a coping mechanism. However, the scientific evidence of the benefits of using humor on various health related outcomes still leaves many questions unanswered.

  7. Voting over Selective Immigration Policies with Immigration Aversion

    OpenAIRE

    Giuseppe Russo

    2011-01-01

    The claim that "skilled immigration is welcome" is often associated to the increasing adoption of selective immigration policies. I study the voting over differentiated immigration policies in a two-country, three-factor general equilibrium model where there exist skilled and unskilled workers, migration decisions are endogenous, enforcing immigration restriction is costly, and natives dislike unskilled immigration. According to my findings, decisions over border closure are made to protect t...

  8. The Human Face of Immigration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Maureen

    2011-01-01

    In the past, nativists opposed immigration, period. The sharp distinction between "legal" and "illegal" immigrants emerged fairly recently, according to immigration historian David Reimers, a professor of history at New York University. "Basically, by the mid-90s 'legal' immigration was no longer an issue," he says.…

  9. Empower Educators to Teach Immigration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Sara; Kugler, Eileen Gale; Tesh, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decades, U.S. immigration has changed significantly, yet the way we teach about immigration in schools has changed little. The American Immigration Council has developed a two-year program on Long Island, an area experiencing an increase of new arrivals and anti-immigrant sentiment. The program empowers teachers with the knowledge to…

  10. Latino Immigration, Education, and Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Rosa M.

    2012-01-01

    Immigration is often framed as a problem, yet it is also a time of remarkable opportunity. While immigrants come to the United States from all over the world, the author focuses on the unique and urgent issues related to Latino immigration. Immigrant Latinos have changed the face of America and U.S. schools. Approximately one in five K-12 students…

  11. Benefits of humor in reduction of threat-induced anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yovetich, N A; Dale, J A; Hudak, M A

    1990-02-01

    The benefits of humor in reducing anxiety were investigated in a laboratory study, in which subjects were falsely led to believe that they would receive a shock in 12 min. Participants were 53 undergraduate students with either high or low sense of humor as measured by the Situational Humor Response Questionnaire of Martin and Lefcourt (1984). During the anticipatory period, subjects listened to either a humorous tape, a nonhumorous tape, or no tape. Dependent variables were repeated measures of self-reported anxiety, heart rate, and zygomatic facial activity. Anxiety increased over the anticipatory period, as predicted. A significant interaction between condition and time indicated that subjects from the humor condition consistently rated themselves as less anxious and reported less increase in stress as the shock approached. A three-way interaction concentrating on the final 3 min. indicated a tendency for subjects with low sense of humor to have higher heart rates in the no-tape condition than in the humorous or nonhumorous tape conditions. Analysis for zygomatic activity indicated more smiling by subjects with high sense of humor and by subjects in the humor condition. Also, the humorous tape elicited more smiling by subjects with high sense of humor.

  12. Humor style similarity and difference in friendship dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Simon C; Fox, Claire L; Jones, Siân E

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the concurrent and prospective (fall to spring) associations between four different humor styles to assess the degree to which stable friendships are characterized by similarity, and to assess whether best friends' humor styles influence each other's later use of humor. Participants were aged 11-13 years, with 87 stable, reciprocal best friend dyads. Self-report assessments of humor styles were completed on both occasions. Results indicated that there was no initial similarity in dyads' levels of humor. However, dyads' use of humor that enhances interpersonal relationships (Affiliative humor) became positively correlated by spring. Additionally, young people's use of this humor style was positively associated with their best friend's later use of the same. No such effects were present for humor which was aggressive, denigrating toward the self, or used to enhance the self. These results have clear implications for theories of humor style development, highlighting an important role for Affiliative humor within stable friendship dyads. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Exploring the Academic and Psychosocial Impact of El Sistema-Inspired Music Programs within Two Low Socio-Economic Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Margaret S.; McPherson, Gary E.; Faulkner, Robert; Davidson, Jane W.; Barrett, Margaret S.

    2016-01-01

    We sought to understand the potential for positive non-musical outcomes for economically and socially disadvantaged primary school students who are involved in instrumental music learning programs. Two schools with students experiencing generational poverty, current or first-generation immigrant or refugee status who were running El-Sistema…

  14. Overeducation among immigrants in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson Joona, Pernilla; Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Wadensjo, Eskil

    2014-01-01

    The utilization and reward of the human capital of immigrants in the labor market of the host country has been studied extensively. Using Swedish register data from 2001–2008, we extend the immigrant educational mismatch literature by analyzing incidence, wage effects and state dependence...... in overeducation among natives and immigrants. In line with previous research we find a higher incidence and a lower return to overeducation among immigrants indicating that immigrants lose more from being overeducated. We find a high degree of state dependence in overeducation both among natives and immigrants......, but considerably higher among immigrants....

  15. Music, memory and emotion

    OpenAIRE

    J?ncke, Lutz

    2008-01-01

    Because emotions enhance memory processes and music evokes strong emotions, music could be involved in forming memories, either about pieces of music or about episodes and information associated with particular music. A recent study in BMC Neuroscience has given new insights into the role of emotion in musical memory. Music has a prominent role in the everyday life of many people. Whether it is for recreation, distraction or mood enhancement, a lot of people listen to music from early in t...

  16. Human Computer Music Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Dannenberg, Roger B.

    2012-01-01

    Human Computer Music Performance (HCMP) is the study of music performance by live human performers and real-time computer-based performers. One goal of HCMP is to create a highly autonomous artificial performer that can fill the role of a human, especially in a popular music setting. This will require advances in automated music listening and understanding, new representations for music, techniques for music synchronization, real-time human-computer communication, music generation, sound synt...

  17. Mathematics and Humor: John Allen Paulos and the Numeracy Crusade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul H. Grawe

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available John Allen Paulos at minimum gave the Numeracy movement a name through his book Innumeracy: Mathematical Illiteracy and Its Consequences. What may not be so obvious was Paulos’ strong interest in the relationship between mathematics and mathematicians on the one hand and humor and stand-up-comedian joke structures on the other. Innumeracy itself could be seen as a typically mathematical Gotcha joke on American culture generally. In this perspective, a Minnesotan acculturated to Minnesota-Nice Humor of Self-Immolation Proclivities (SImP looks at the more raw-boned, take-no-prisoners humor style Paulos outlined in Mathematics and Humor and implemented in Innumeracy. Despite the difference in humor styles, there is much to applaud in Paulos’ analysis of the relationship between certain types of humor and professional interests of mathematicians in Mathematics and Humor. Much humor relies on the sense of incongruity which Paulos’ claims to be central to all humor and key to mathematical reductio ad absurdum. Mathematics is rightfully famous for a sense of combinatorial playfulness in its most elegant proofs, as humor often relies on clashing combinations of word play. And a great range of mathematical lore is best understood within a concept of a sudden drop from one sense of certainty to another (essentially a Gotcha on the audience. Innumeracy repeatedly exemplifies Gotchas on the great unwashed and unmathematical majority. Extensive empirical evidence over the last quarter century allows us to synthesize these Paulos observations into the idea that inculcated mathematical humor has strong propensities to complex Intellectual, Advocate, and Crusader humor forms. However, the Paulos humors do not include the Sympathetic Pain humor form, the inclusion of which may increase teaching effectiveness.

  18. Immigration And Self-Selection

    OpenAIRE

    George J. Borjas

    1988-01-01

    Self-selection plays a dominant role in determining the size and composition of immigrant flows. The United States competes with other potential host countries in the "immigration market". Host countries vary in their "offers" of economic opportunities and also differ in the way they ration entry through their immigration policies. Potential immigrants compare the various opportunities and are non-randomly sorted by the immigration market among the various host countries. This paper presents ...

  19. Toward immigration reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franken, Mark

    2005-01-01

    For the most part, immigrants in the United States do not have access to the very safety-net benefits supported by their taxes, nor to essential due-process rights, simply because they are not citizens or legal residents. Contemporary demographics of immigration and post-9/11 security concerns have colored our traditional hospitality as a nation of immigrants and made life more difficult for immigrants. The Catholic Church has a rich history of scriptural and social teaching that addresses the question of immigration. Stories of forced migration in the Pentateuch led to commandments regarding strangers and the responsibility to be welcoming. In the New Testament, we see that the Holy Family themselves were refugees. The Gospel of St. Matthew tells us that we will be judged by the way we respond to migrants and others in need. In Exsul Familia, Pope Pius XII reaffirms the commitment of the church to care for pilgrims, aliens, exiles, and migrants. In Ecclesia in America, Pope John Paul II states that the ultimate solution to illegal immigration is the elimination of global underdevelopment and that, in the meantime, the human rights of all migrants must be respected. In 2003, the bishops of Mexico and the United States jointly issued the pastoral letter Strangers No Longer: Together on the Journey of Hope. In this letter, the bishops say that U.S. immigration policy should protect the human rights and dignity of immigrants and asylum seekers. The bishops also offer a number of proposed public policy responses toward that end. To advance the principles contained in Strangers No Longer, the bishops have decided to mount a national campaign designed to unite and mobilize a growing network of Catholic organizations and individuals, as well as others of good faith. In addition, the campaign will seek to dispel myths and misperceptions about immigrants.

  20. Music Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Music Club

    2011-01-01

    MUSIC ON THE LAWN 2011 As part of the Fete de la Musique 2011, the CERN MusiClub is organizing Music on the Lawn, an informal concert for Club musicians/bands. The event will take place from 14h00 to 20h00 on Saturday 25th June on the terrace of restaurant no 1. This year 8 MusiClub bands will be performing… WOT Home Cookin’ Picture Flame DANGLERZ The Nearlies RISE A Drop of Red The Groovy Gang So put the date in your diaries and spend a sunny afternoon listening to some great live music (and unlike Paleo and Montreux it’s FREE!!!!) For more information on the CERN MusiClub see http://muzipod.free.fr/  

  1. The Effect of Context (Humorous vs. Non-humorous on Vocabulary Acquisition and Retention of Iranian EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Ghaffari

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available For almost four decades, ESL/EFL scholars have been trying to find which learning type, contextualized vs. decontextualized, leads to better vocabulary acquisition and retention. In an attempt to solve this problem, this study tried to examine the possible effectiveness of using humorous context on vocabulary acquisition and retention. Another issue that was undertaken in the present study was comparing the efficiency of contextualized and decontextualized vocabulary learning and retention. For this purpose, 58 Iranian EFL learners were categorized into 3 groups: a humorous, b non-humorous, and c decontextualized. The findings were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey post hoc test. As the results revealed, the participants in decontextualized group outperformed the participants in both humorous and non-humorous groups. However, it should be noted that the performance of humorous group was significantly better than the performance of non-humorous group.

  2. "A Day Without Immigrants"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiskanen, Benita

    2009-01-01

    Abstract This article considers the debates surrounding the "Day Without Immigrants" protests organized in major U.S. cities on 1 May 2006, prompted by H.R. 4437, the Border Protection, Anti-Terrorism, and Illegal Immigration Control Act of 2005, from the multiple perspectives of scholars, pundits...... that the rhetoric used in these discourses pitted various class-based ethnoracial groups against each other not so much to tackle the proposed immigration bill but, rather, to comment on the ramifications of an increasingly multiracial United States. Udgivelsesdato: 01 December 2009...

  3. Immigration and income inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deding, Mette; Jakobsen, Vibeke; Azhar, Hussain

    Four income inequality measures (Gini-coefficient, 90/10-decile ratio, and two generalized entropy indices) are applied to analyse immigrants’ income position relative to natives in a comparative perspective. Administrative data is used for Denmark, while survey data is used for Germany. We find...... higher inequality among immigrants than natives in Denmark, but vice versa for Germany. Over the period 1984-2003, this inequality gap has narrowed in both countries. At the same time, the contribution of immigrants to overall inequality has increased systematically, primarily caused by the increased...... share of immigrants in the population....

  4. The Identity and the Dilemma of the Malay Music-Culture of the Urang Pulo Islanders of the Banyak Archipelago, Sumatra: An Ethnographic, Socio-Historical and Music-Analytical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Palawi, Ari

    2017-01-01

    This thesis investigates the music-cultural identity and conservational dilemma of the hitherto un-researched music-culture of the Islanders (Urang Pulo) of the Banyak Archipelago in Aceh-Singkil Regency off the west coast of Aceh, Indonesia. The Islanders’ dominant concept of identity is coloured by their dominant sikambang music, dance and legend, history of cultural contact with west-coastal Sumatran Malay and offshore island area, Niasan and Simeulue immigration to th...

  5. Obesity and Regional Immigrant Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Scott D; Carbert, Nicole S

    2017-11-24

    Canada has an increasingly large immigrant population. Areas of higher immigrant density, may relate to immigrants' health through reduced acculturation to Western foods, greater access to cultural foods, and/or promotion of salubrious values/practices. It is unclear, however, whether an association exists between Canada-wide regional immigrant density and obesity among immigrants. Thus, we examined whether regional immigrant density was related to obesity, among immigrants. Adult immigrant respondents (n = 15,595) to a national population-level health survey were merged with region-level immigrant density data. Multi-level logistic regression was used to model the odds of obesity associated with increased immigrant density. The prevalence of obesity among the analytic sample was 16%. Increasing regional immigrant density was associated with lower odds of obesity among minority immigrants and long-term white immigrants. Immigrant density at the region-level in Canada may be an important contextual factor to consider when examining obesity among immigrants.

  6. Style in Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannenberg, Roger B.

    Because music is not objectively descriptive or representational, the subjective qualities of music seem to be most important. Style is one of the most salient qualities of music, and in fact most descriptions of music refer to some aspect of musical style. Style in music can refer to historical periods, composers, performers, sonic texture, emotion, and genre. In recent years, many aspects of music style have been studied from the standpoint of automation: How can musical style be recognized and synthesized? An introduction to musical style describes ways in which style is characterized by composers and music theorists. Examples are then given where musical style is the focal point for computer models of music analysis and music generation.

  7. Experimental sepsis impairs humoral memory in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Pötschke

    Full Text Available Patients with sepsis are often immune suppressed, and experimental mouse models of sepsis also display this feature. However, acute sepsis in mice is also characterized by a generalized B cell activation and plasma cell differentiation, resulting in a marked increase in serum antibody concentration. Its effects on humoral memory are not clearly defined. We measured the effects of experimental sepsis on long-term immunological memory for a defined antigen: we induced colon ascendens stent peritonitis (CASP 8 weeks after 2 rounds of immunization with ovalbumin. Four weeks later, the antigen-specific bone marrow plasma cell count had doubled in immunized non-septic animals, but remained unchanged in immunized septic animals. Sepsis also caused a decrease in antigen-specific serum antibody concentration. We conclude that sepsis weakens humoral memory by impeding the antigen-specific plasma cell pool's development, which is not complete 8 weeks after secondary immunization.

  8. Music, memory and emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäncke, Lutz

    2008-01-01

    Because emotions enhance memory processes and music evokes strong emotions, music could be involved in forming memories, either about pieces of music or about episodes and information associated with particular music. A recent study in BMC Neuroscience has given new insights into the role of emotion in musical memory. PMID:18710596

  9. We "Are" Musical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Graham F.

    2005-01-01

    The challenge for music education is to nurture and develop each individual's basic musicality. Assuming normal neurological functioning and development, we are all musical. Our musical development begins pre-birth, with musical behaviours in one form or another being evident across the lifespan. Nevertheless, early enculturation can both foster…

  10. Music, memory and emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäncke, Lutz

    2008-08-08

    Because emotions enhance memory processes and music evokes strong emotions, music could be involved in forming memories, either about pieces of music or about episodes and information associated with particular music. A recent study in BMC Neuroscience has given new insights into the role of emotion in musical memory.

  11. Educating the Music User

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mark C.

    2016-01-01

    To better serve students' evolving needs in music, music educators must connect classroom learning with how students use and interact with music in their daily lives. One way to accomplish this is by approaching classrooms with the music user in mind, which can open new possibilities for meaningful music making and remove students from the…

  12. Can the use of humor in psychotherapy be taught?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Lisa; Gabbard, Glen O

    2014-02-01

    Despite an abundance of literature detailing the potential benefits of the use of humor in therapy, humor is rarely taught to psychiatric residents as a method of therapeutic intervention. This communication attempts to explain how current understanding of attachment theory and neuroscience may assist psychiatric faculty and supervisors in their teaching of humorous therapeutic interventions. This article reviews and synthesizes the extant literature on the use of humor, as well as recent work in neuroscience, attachment theory, and mentalization. Humor can be conceptualized as an instance of implicit relational knowing and may thus contribute significantly to the therapeutic action of psychotherapy as a subcategory of "moments of meeting" between therapist and patient. However, training residents to use humor in psychotherapy requires more individualized attention in supervision and classroom seminars. Factors such as individual proclivities for humorous repartee, mentalizing capacity, and an authentic interest in adding humor to the session may be necessary to incorporate spontaneous humor into one's technique. New findings from the areas of attachment theory, neuroscience, and right-hemisphere learning are providing potential opportunities for sophisticated teaching of the use of humor in psychotherapy.

  13. Humor During Clinical Practice: Analysis of Recorded Clinical Encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Kari A; Singh Ospina, Naykky; Rodriguez-Gutierrez, Rene; Castaneda-Guarderas, Ana; Gionfriddo, Michael R; Branda, Megan; Montori, Victor

    2018-01-01

    Little is known about humor's use in clinical encounters, despite its many potential benefits. We aimed to describe humor during clinical encounters. We analyzed 112 recorded clinical encounters. Two reviewers working independently identified instances of humor, as well as information surrounding the logistics of its use. Of the 112 encounters, 66 (59%) contained 131 instances of humor. Humor was similarly frequent in primary care (36/61, 59%) and in specialty care (30/51, 59%), was more common in gender-concordant interactions (43/63, 68%), and was most common during counseling (81/112, 62%). Patients and clinicians introduced humor similarly (63 vs 66 instances). Typically, humor was about the patient's medical condition (40/131, 31%). Humor is used commonly during counseling to discuss the patient's medical condition and to relate to general life events bringing warmth to the medical encounter. The timing and topic of humor and its use by all parties suggests humor plays a role in the social connection between patients and physicians and allows easier discussion of difficult topics. Further research is necessary to establish its impact on clinicians, patients, and outcomes. © Copyright 2018 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  14. Helping Immigrants Become Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Flynn

    2001-01-01

    Describes Newcomers Entering Teaching, a program designed by the Portland (Maine) Public Schools to prepare recent immigrants and refugees to enter local university's 9-month teacher-certification program. (PKP)

  15. Liberal nationalism on immigration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2009-01-01

    Liberal nationalists such as David Miller and Will Kymlicka have claimed that liberal principles have implausible implications with regard to the issue of immigration. They hold that nationality should play a normative role in this regard, and that this is necessary in order to justify restrictions...... on immigration. The present chapter discusses the envisaged role for considerations of nationality with regard to admission and residence, and examines the actual implications of arguments advanced by liberal nationalists as to why nationality should play this role. It is argued that the connection between...... nationality and immigration on liberal nationalist premises is not as straightforward as one might expect, and that the addition of considerations of nationality to liberal principles makes no practical difference with regard to reasons for restricting immigration or criteria of selection among applicants...

  16. Libertarianism and Immigration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Virginia Todea

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I investigate the libertarian account of immigration. In the first section I distinguish between right-libertarianism and left-libertarianism. In the second section I analyze the arguments focused on immigration from the perspective of self-ownership focused on Nozick’s case and Steiner’s analogy. In the third section I discuss the conflict between the collective consent on the issue of immigration and the individuals’ decision. The conclusion sets the libertarian framework as being flawed in its argumentation on the issue of immigration because it fails to provide strong arguments about the fact that the individuals are free to choose to open or close the borders.

  17. Immigrants and Native Workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Mette; Peri, Giovanni

    Using a database that includes the universe of individuals and establishments in Denmark over the period 1991-2008 we analyze the effect of a large inflow of non-European (EU) immigrants on Danish workers. We first identify a sharp and sustained supply-driven increase in the inflow of non......-EU immigrants in Denmark, beginning in 1995 and driven by a sequence of international events such as the Bosnian, Somalian and Iraqi crises. We then look at the response of occupational complexity, job upgrading and downgrading, wage and employment of natives in the short and long run. We find...... that the increased supply of non-EU low skilled immigrants pushed native workers to pursue more complex occupations. This reallocation happened mainly through movement across firms. Immigration increased mobility of natives across firms and across municipalities but it did not increase their probability...

  18. Immigrant Child Poverty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galloway, Taryn Ann; Gustafsson, Björn; Pedersen, Peder J.

    2015-01-01

    Immigrant and native child poverty in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden 1993–2001 is studied using large sets of panel data. While native children face yearly poverty risks of less than 10 percent in all three countries and for all years studied the increasing proportion of immigrant children...... with an origin in middle- and low-income countries have poverty risks that vary from 38 up to as much as 58 percent. At the end of the observation period, one third of the poor children in Norway and as high as about a half in Denmark and in Sweden are of immigrant origin. The strong overrepresentation...... of immigrant children from low- and middle-income countries when measured in yearly data is also found when applying a longer accounting period for poverty measurement. We find that child poverty rates are generally high shortly after arrival to the new country and typically decrease with years since...

  19. The evolution of humor from male aggression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuster S

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sam ShusterNewcastle University, Newcastle Upon Type, NE1 7RU, UKAbstract: The response to seeing a man riding a unicycle was reported to be consistently related to the viewer's sex and stage of physical development. To see if this observation was universal, observations of responses were collected from 23 male and 9 female unicyclists aged 15–69 years, with 2–40 years cycling experience across four continents. With two exceptions among men, the findings were the same as those originally reported: children showed interest and curiosity, young girls showed little interest, while adult women showed a kindly, concerned, praising response. By contrast, boys showed physical aggression, which became more verbal, merging in the later teens to the snide, aggressive, stereotyped humorous response shown by adult males, which became less frequent in elderly men. The universality of the response across different individuals, environments, and dates of observation suggests an endogenous mechanism, and the association with masculine development relates this to androgen. The theoretical consequences are discussed. It is concluded that humor develops from aggression in males and is evolutionarily related to sexual selection.Keywords: humor evolution, male aggressive behavior

  20. The Ethics of Immigration

    OpenAIRE

    Matt S. Whitt

    2014-01-01

    Joseph H. Carens. The Ethics of Immigration(Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013). 384 pages. ISBN 9780199933839. US$35 (Hardback).When philosophers and political theorists turn their attention to migration, they often prioritize general normative commitments, giving only secondary concern to whether these commitments are reflected in policy. As a result, pressing issues affecting the status, rights, and life-chances of immigrants can get lost in abstract debates over the right of states to ...

  1. Italians and Foreign Immigration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado Bonifazi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Opinion surveys on attitudes towards immigration are becoming more and more important, owing to the increasing role of political debate on migration issues in Western European countries. CNR has conducted four surveys on this topic, collecting data on the evolution of Italians attitudes towards migration issues. In fact, the ? rst survey was conducted in the second half of the eighties, when foreign immigration was in its early stages. The last survey took place in 2002, when immigration was already well established in Italy. The article focuses on three main issues: the global impact of immigration on Italian society, the immigrants role in the labour market, and immigration policy. In general, the results of the last survey con? rm a trend that appeared already in 1997, of more balanced and realistic opinion that were less of a response to circumstances perceived as special emergencies. Highly educated people, teachers and students continue to be the most open and receptive groups, whereas the less favourably inclined and more worried continue to be old people, those with less education, the unemployed, housewives, and retirees.

  2. Who Benefits From Humor-Based Positive Psychology Interventions? The Moderating Effects of Personality Traits and Sense of Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellenzohn, Sara; Proyer, René T; Ruch, Willibald

    2018-01-01

    The evidence for the effectiveness of humor-based positive psychology interventions (PPIs; i.e., interventions aimed at enhancing happiness and lowering depressive symptoms) is steadily increasing. However, little is known about who benefits most from them. We aim at narrowing this gap by examining whether personality traits and sense of humor moderate the long-term effects of humor-based interventions on happiness and depressive symptoms. We conducted two placebo-controlled online-intervention studies testing for moderation effects. In Study 1 ( N = 104) we tested for moderation effects of basic personality traits (i.e., psychoticism, extraversion, and neuroticism) in the three funny things intervention, a humor-based PPI. In Study 2 ( N = 632) we tested for moderation effects of the sense of humor in five different humor-based interventions. Happiness and depressive symptoms were assessed before and after the intervention, as well as after 1, 3, and 6 months. In Study 2, we assessed sense of humor before and 1 month after the intervention to investigate if changes in sense of humor go along with changes in happiness and depressive symptoms. We found moderating effects only for extraversion. Extraverts benefitted more from the three funny things intervention than introverts. For neuroticism and psychoticism no moderation effects were found. For sense of humor, no moderating effects were found for the effectiveness of the five humor-based interventions tested in Study 2. However, changes in sense of humor from pretest to the 1-month follow-up predicted changes in happiness and depressive symptoms. Taking a closer look, the playful attitude- and sense of humor-subscales predicted changes in happiness and depression for up to 6 months. Overall, moderating effects for personality (i.e., extraversion) were found, but none for sense of humor at baseline. However, increases in sense of humor during and after the intervention were associated with the interventions

  3. How musical are music video game players?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasinski, Amanda C; Hannon, Erin E; Snyder, Joel S

    2016-10-01

    Numerous studies have shown that formal musical training is associated with sensory, motor, and cognitive advantages in individuals of various ages. However, the nature of the observed differences between musicians and nonmusicians is poorly understood, and little is known about the listening skills of individuals who engage in alternative types of everyday musical activities. Here, we show that people who have frequently played music video games outperform nonmusicians controls on a battery of music perception tests. These findings reveal that enhanced musical aptitude can be found among individuals who play music video games, raising the possibility that music video games could potentially enhance music perception skills in individuals across a broad spectrum of society who are otherwise unable to invest the time and/or money required to learn a musical instrument.

  4. American Music Therapy Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Music Therapy Association Home Contact News Help/FAQ Members Only Login Quick Links Facts About Music Therapy Qualifications ... with AMTA Sponsor AMTA Events Social Networking Support Music Therapy When you shop at AmazonSmile, Amazon will ...

  5. Labor Market Discrimination: Vietnamese Immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linus Yamane

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vietnamese and East European immigrants face similar obstacles in the U.S. labor market. This provides for an interesting test of racial discrimination in the labor market. Does it make any difference if an immigrant is Asian or White? When Vietnamese immigrants are compared to East European immigrants, Vietnamese men earn 7-9% less than comparable East European men, with more discrimination among the less educated, and in the larger Vietnamese population centers like California. Vietnamese women earn as much as comparable East European women. Vietnamese immigrants, male and female, are much less likely to hold managerial and supervisory positions than comparable East European immigrants.

  6. Labor Market Discrimination: Vietnamese Immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linus Yamane

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vietnamese and East European immigrants face similar obstacles in the US labor market. This provides for an interesting test of racial discrimination in the labor market. Does it make any difference if an immigrant is Asian or White? When Vietnamese immigrants are compared to East European immigrants, Vietnamese men earn 7-9% less than comparable East European men, with more discrimination among the less educated, and in the larger Vietnamese population centers like California. Vietnamese women earn as much as comparable East European women. Vietnamese immigrants, male and female, are much less likely to hold managerial and supervisory positions than comparable East European immigrants.

  7. Changes to the Aqueous Humor Proteome during Glaucoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Andrea Kaeslin

    Full Text Available To investigate the aqueous humor proteome in patients with glaucoma and a control group.Aqueous humor was obtained from five human donors diagnosed with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG and five age- and sex-matched controls undergoing cataract surgery. Quantitative proteome analysis of the aqueous humor by hyper reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (HRM-MS based on SWATH technology was performed.Expression levels of 87 proteins were found to be different between glaucomatous and control aqueous humor. Of the 87 proteins, 34 were significantly upregulated, whereas 53 proteins were downregulated in the aqueous humor from glaucoma patients compared to controls. Differentially expressed proteins were found to be involved in cholesterol-related, inflammatory, metabolic, antioxidant as well as proteolysis-related processes.Glaucoma leads to profound changes to the aqueous humor proteome consistent with an altered metabolic state, an inflammatory response and impaired antioxidant defense.

  8. Humor Style and Motor Skills: Understanding Vulnerability to Bullying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Plenty

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the role of humor style and motor skills in vulnerability to bullying. 729 adults responded to the Humor Style Questionnaire (HSQ and items retrospectively addressing their motor skills and bullying experiences during childhood. Consistent with recent research, poorer motor skills were associated with a greater extent of having been bullied. An association between stronger motor skills and affiliative humor was found, lending support to a shared biological basis theory underlying social and motor competency processes. Most importantly, being bullied was associated with higher self-defeating humor and lower affiliative humor. This supports earlier theoretical work by Klein and Kuiper (2006 and highlights the role that humor styles play in social interactions that can promote positive peer acceptance and wellbeing.

  9. Changes to the Aqueous Humor Proteome during Glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaeslin, Martha Andrea; Killer, Hanspeter Ezriel; Fuhrer, Cyril Adrian; Zeleny, Nauke; Huber, Andreas Robert; Neutzner, Albert

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the aqueous humor proteome in patients with glaucoma and a control group. Aqueous humor was obtained from five human donors diagnosed with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) and five age- and sex-matched controls undergoing cataract surgery. Quantitative proteome analysis of the aqueous humor by hyper reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (HRM-MS) based on SWATH technology was performed. Expression levels of 87 proteins were found to be different between glaucomatous and control aqueous humor. Of the 87 proteins, 34 were significantly upregulated, whereas 53 proteins were downregulated in the aqueous humor from glaucoma patients compared to controls. Differentially expressed proteins were found to be involved in cholesterol-related, inflammatory, metabolic, antioxidant as well as proteolysis-related processes. Glaucoma leads to profound changes to the aqueous humor proteome consistent with an altered metabolic state, an inflammatory response and impaired antioxidant defense.

  10. Investigating the Effect of Humor Therapy on Chronic Pain in the Elderly Living in Nursing Homes in Mashhad, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohre behrouz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of chronic pains in the elderly residing in nursing homes is high, which can bring about social isolation, depression, incidence of disabilities, as well as increased costs. Given the risks, medication therapy is not used for the elderly, and non-pharmaceutical methods, such as humor therapy as one of the complementary medicine techniques using thought distraction, have been advocated. Aim: This study aimed to determine the effect of humor therapy on pain intensity in the elderly living in nursing homes in Mashhad, Iran. Method: This two-group, randomized, controlled clinical trial was conducted on two groups of intervention (28 individuals and control (27 individuals at two similar nursing homes in Mashhad, Iran, 2016. Humor therapy was performed during six 60-minute sessions (once per week using humorous methods such as video clip displays, games, music plays, as well as telling funny jokes. Then, pain intensity was measured via the Modified German Version of the Brief Pain Inventory before the study and after the 3rd and 6th sessions of humor therapy. Finally, the data was analyzed using Mann-Whitney U test in SPSS, version 22. Results: The mean ages of the participants in the control and intervention groups were 73.9±4.3 and 73.9±5.8 years, respectively. The results of the Mann-Whitney U test also showed that pain intensity before the study in both groups was homogenous (P=0.15. Moreover, the mean scores of the highest, lowest, and moderate pain intensity after the 3rd (P

  11. Cultures of (Un)happiness: Teaching, Schooling, and Light and Dark Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullough, Robert V., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The author explores humor during a time of increasingly hostile accountability measures directed toward educators. Drawing on incongruity and other theories of humor, he explores both "light" and "dark" humor and some aspects of the educational potential and power of humor. Noting how humor is related to creativity and problem management, the…

  12. Music therapy in kindergarten

    OpenAIRE

    Šírová, Michaela

    2017-01-01

    This work deals with the subject of music therapy in a special kindergarten for the children with combined disabilities. In the theoretical part it clarifies the concept and principle of music therapy and characterizes the types of disabilities that occur at researched clients. As a research method were used observation and interviews with three music therapists from the institution. KEYWORDS Music therapy, preschool education, special pedagogy, group music therapy,individual music therapy, p...

  13. Symmetry in music

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrero, O F, E-mail: o.f.herrero@hotmail.co [Conservatorio Superior de Musica ' Eduardo Martinez Torner' Corrada del Obispo s/n 33003 - Oviedo - Asturias (Spain)

    2010-06-01

    Music and Physics are very close because of the symmetry that appears in music. A periodic wave is what music really is, and there is a field of Physics devoted to waves researching. The different musical scales are the base of all kind of music. This article tries to show how this musical scales are made, how the consonance is the base of many of them and how symmetric they are.

  14. Symmetry in music

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrero, O F

    2010-01-01

    Music and Physics are very close because of the symmetry that appears in music. A periodic wave is what music really is, and there is a field of Physics devoted to waves researching. The different musical scales are the base of all kind of music. This article tries to show how this musical scales are made, how the consonance is the base of many of them and how symmetric they are.

  15. Ageing and the humoral immune response in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blankwater, M.J.

    1978-01-01

    The study presented in this thesis is concerned with changes in the humoral immune system as a function of age in different inbred mouse strains. Their capacity to develop humoral immune responses to experimentally given thymus-dependent and thymus-independent antigens under various conditions is compared. Furthermore, experiments employing thymus transplantation and thymic humoral factors which are directed at the restoration of the diminished T cell functions in old age are reported. (Auth.)

  16. Music and Music Intervention for Therapeutic Purposes in Patients with Ventilator Support; Gamelan Music Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Suhartini Suhartini

    2011-01-01

    Background: Gamelan music is one of folk music for Javanese people. Several research studies testing the effects of music were conducted in Western countries. The music studies for therapeutic purposes used classical music commonly. Even in Indonesia, some researchers may use that music for therapeutic purposes. This concern article explains the perspective music and music intervention as therapeutic purposes, view with Javanese classical music.Objectives: To explore the evidence of music and...

  17. Angustia y humor en Papelucho de Marcela Paz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgardo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Los estudios clásicos sobre el humor identifican una interrelación estrecha entre humor y angustia. En la serie narrativa Papelucho, esta interacción es constante en la trama de las distintas novelas. Este trabajo describe la interacción entre humor y angustia que se da en la obra y reflexiona sobre su sentido. Se concluye que la serie propone el humor como estrategia para enfrentar los hechos angustiantes ineludibles en la vida.

  18. Humor and laughter in patients with cerebellar degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, B; Propson, B; Göricke, S; Jacobi, H; Wild, B; Timmann, D

    2012-06-01

    Humor is a complex behavior which includes cognitive, affective and motor responses. Based on observations of affective changes in patients with cerebellar lesions, the cerebellum may support cerebral and brainstem areas involved in understanding and appreciation of humorous stimuli and expression of laughter. The aim of the present study was to examine if humor appreciation, perception of humorous stimuli, and the succeeding facial reaction differ between patients with cerebellar degeneration and healthy controls. Twenty-three adults with pure cerebellar degeneration were compared with 23 age-, gender-, and education-matched healthy control subjects. No significant difference in humor appreciation and perception of humorous stimuli could be found between groups using the 3 Witz-Dimensionen Test, a validated test asking for funniness and aversiveness of jokes and cartoons. Furthermore, while observing jokes, humorous cartoons, and video sketches, facial expressions of subjects were videotaped and afterwards analysed using the Facial Action Coding System. Using depression as a covariate, the number, and to a lesser degree, the duration of facial expressions during laughter were reduced in cerebellar patients compared to healthy controls. In sum, appreciation of humor appears to be largely preserved in patients with chronic cerebellar degeneration. Cerebellar circuits may contribute to the expression of laughter. Findings add to the literature that non-motor disorders in patients with chronic cerebellar disease are generally mild, but do not exclude that more marked disorders may show up in acute cerebellar disease and/or in more specific tests of humor appreciation.

  19. Trait humor and longevity: do comics have the last laugh?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotton, J

    1992-01-01

    Four sets of biographical data were analyzed in order to test the hypothesis that the ability to generate humor is associated with longevity. Although steps were taken to ensure that tests had high levels of statistical power, analyses provided very little support for the idea that individuals with a well-developed sense of humor live longer than serious writers and other entertainers. In addition, a subsidiary analysis revealed that those in the business of entertaining others died at an earlier age than those in other lines of endeavor. These findings suggest that researchers should turn their attention from trait humor to the effects of humorous material.

  20. Effectiveness of humor training among adolescents with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ching-Lin; Liu, Ya-Ru; Kuo, Ching-Chih; Chen, Hsueh-Chih; Chang, Yu-Lin

    2016-12-30

    Humor training has been applied to educational and clinical cases and has been found to be effective, but humor training for individuals with autism is relatively rare. The present study proposed a humor-knowledge and humor-skill training workshop to enhance the humor comprehension and appreciation of individuals with autism and examined the effects of the training. Participants were 20 adolescents with autism and average intelligence (above 70 in WAIS-III). They were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. Both questionnaire of joke comprehension and appreciation and a humor style questionnaire were used as instruments. The results supported the effectiveness of the 15-h training. The comprehension and appreciation of nonsense humor were significantly increased in the experimental group in comparison with the control group, although the incongruity-resolution jokes remained difficult to comprehend. The tendency to use affiliative humor was greater among individuals with autism in the experimental group, suggesting that the appreciation of humor can be learned. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Expression of cytokines in aqueous humor from fungal keratitis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingnan; Liang, Qingfeng; Liu, Yang; Pan, Zhiqiang; Baudouin, Christophe; Labbé, Antoine; Lu, Qingxian

    2018-04-19

    Although a series of reports on corneal fungal infection have been published, studies on pathogenic mechanisms and inflammation-associated cytokines remain limited. In this study, aqueous humor samples from fungal keratitis patients were collected to examine cytokine patterns and cellular profile for the pathogenesis of fungal keratitis. The aqueous humor samples were collected from ten patients with advanced stage fungal keratitis. Eight aqueous humor samples from patients with keratoconus or corneal dystrophy were taken as control. Approximately 100 μl to 300 μl of aqueous humor in each case were obtained for examination. The aqueous humor samples were centrifuged and the cells were stained and examined under optical microscope. Bacterial and fungal cultures were performed on the aqueous humor and corneal buttons of all patients. Cytokines related to inflammation including IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α, and IFN-γ were examined using multiplex bead-based Luminex liquid protein array systems. Fungus infection was confirmed in these ten patients by smear stains and/or fungal cultures. Bacterial and fungal cultures revealed negative results in all aqueous humor specimens. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes were the predominant infiltrating cells in the aqueous humor of fungal keratitis. At the advanced stages of fungal keratitis, the levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and IFN-γ in the aqueous humor were significantly increased when compared with control (phumor was associated with fungal keratitis.

  2. Humor: Power Conveying Social Structures Inside Forensic Mental Health Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildberg, Frederik A; Paaske, Kristian J; Rasmussen, Vivian L; Nissen, Ricko D; Bradley, Stephen K; Hounsgaard, Lise

    2016-01-01

    According to research literature, humor inside the staff-patient interaction seems to be significant in the area of forensic mental healthcare. However, existing literature on the subject is limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the characteristics of the use humor by forensic mental health staff members in interactions with forensic mental health inpatients. The study included 32 forensic mental health staff members, used 307 hours of participant observations, 48 informal interviews, and seven formal semistructured interviews. Outcomes identify four themes concerning the conveyance of power to, from, and between forensic mental health staff and patients as they interact: (a) "the informal use: the human-to-human approach," characterized by an informal use of humor and without any reference to mental health issues; (b) the "formal use of humor: the staff-patient approach," characterized as formal with a view on the patient as mentally ill, unable to understand humor, and with the aim of using humor to prevent conflicts or negative behavior; (c) "protest against requested care: the human-patient approach," characterized by the use of humor as a protest against requested care; and the use of (d) "inadequacy humor: the staff-human approach," characterized by the use of inadequacy-humor referring to, for example, patients' physical features. Recommendations and clinical implications are discussed.

  3. LAUGHTER AFTER TEARS: SITTING FOR AMERICAN HUMORS IN INDONESIAN SOFAS (Subtitling Humors of a Tv Serial Friends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusti Nyoman Ayu Sukerti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The study reported in this paper aims to analyze the possible strategies used in the subtitling of the first five episodes (season 1 of Friends to render the episodes’ humorous dialogues. It examines the subtitler’s strategies in preserving both the semantic and humorous genes of laughter intended by the original humor. The analysis takes into account the internal and external structures of humors both in the target and source language. Choosing a subtitling strategy involves a decisionmaking process where the internal and external factors come into play and, therefore, rendering humors in a contextually bound medium, such as subtitling, does not necessarily work in the TL environment in a consistent manner. The inconsistency highlights the fact that humors, even those considered universal, are not digested in the same manner across cultures.

  4. Communicative Musicality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Ulla

    2010-01-01

    university, Stephen Malloch listened to tapes of mothers and their babies ‘chatting’ with each other, recorded by Trevarthen in the 70’s. One of the first tapes was the vocal interaction of Laura and her mother. “As I listened, intrigued by the fluid give and take of the communication, and the lilting speech...... of the mother as she chatted with her baby, I began to tap my foot. I am, by training, a musician, so I was very used to automatically feeling the beat as I listened to musical sounds.… I replaced the tape, and again, I could sense a distinct rhythmicity and melodious give and take to the gentle prompting...... therapy as purely protomusic. But with Malloch & Trevarthen’s focus on musicality as the innate human abilities that make music production and appreciation possible, this discussion can easily move on. These and many other essential discussions await us – thanks to this comprehensive – and demanding...

  5. Hippocrates' humoral pathology in nowaday's reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujalkova, M; Straka, S; Jureckova, A

    2001-01-01

    Ancient medicine integrated three components: experience (empirical observation), religion/magic and speculations of natural philosophers. The Greek medicine out-achieved medicine of other ancient nations in starting to investigate the true causes of health and diseases and thus laying foundations for the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment. Hippocrates, the most famous physician of the ancient times, made a synthesis of existing philosophical opinions from the point of view of a physician. His 58 writings were preserved in the collection "Corpus Hippocraticum". The most relevant writing in it--"Peri fyseos anthropu" (On the nature of man)--is ascribed to Hippocrates' son-in-law Polybos to whom we are grateful for the ancient humoral-pathological theory. In explaining human organism and its processes the author integrated ancient teachings on 4 basic humors (humoral theory), elements and qualities with observations of manifestations of health and disease. Normal condition (health) was defined as balance between the body fluids (eukrasia) and external environment. If this balance is disturbed, the result is dyskrasia, i.e. disease studied by pathology. According to Hippocrates disease causes can be understood only through empirical study. A man has a power to overcome disease, but to achieve it the right diet is necessary to keep harmony in body fluids of an organism. The role of a physician was just to support the nature. "Prognosis", another writing included in "Corpus Hippocraticum", reflects Hippocrates' understanding of prognosis as a necessary development of diagnosis based on past knowledge (anamnesis) and present observation. Ideas of Hippocrates and his medical school are still valuable and inspiring especially for today's very sophisticated medicine--concept of fighting diseases by natural means: maintaining healthy lifestyle and harmony within the organism, or an effort for perfect understanding of human creature and for humanization of medicine. (Fig. 3

  6. Psychometric Comparisons of Benevolent and Corrective Humor across 22 Countries: The Virtue Gap in Humor Goes International.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heintz, Sonja; Ruch, Willibald; Platt, Tracey; Pang, Dandan; Carretero-Dios, Hugo; Dionigi, Alberto; Argüello Gutiérrez, Catalina; Brdar, Ingrid; Brzozowska, Dorota; Chen, Hsueh-Chih; Chłopicki, Władysław; Collins, Matthew; Ďurka, Róbert; Yahfoufi, Najwa Y El; Quiroga-Garza, Angélica; Isler, Robert B; Mendiburo-Seguel, Andrés; Ramis, TamilSelvan; Saglam, Betül; Shcherbakova, Olga V; Singh, Kamlesh; Stokenberga, Ieva; Wong, Peter S O; Torres-Marín, Jorge

    2018-01-01

    Recently, two forms of virtue-related humor, benevolent and corrective, have been introduced. Benevolent humor treats human weaknesses and wrongdoings benevolently, while corrective humor aims at correcting and bettering them. Twelve marker items for benevolent and corrective humor (the BenCor) were developed, and it was demonstrated that they fill the gap between humor as temperament and virtue. The present study investigates responses to the BenCor from 25 samples in 22 countries (overall N = 7,226). The psychometric properties of the BenCor were found to be sufficient in most of the samples, including internal consistency, unidimensionality, and factorial validity. Importantly, benevolent and corrective humor were clearly established as two positively related, yet distinct dimensions of virtue-related humor. Metric measurement invariance was supported across the 25 samples, and scalar invariance was supported across six age groups (from 18 to 50+ years) and across gender. Comparisons of samples within and between four countries (Malaysia, Switzerland, Turkey, and the UK) showed that the item profiles were more similar within than between countries, though some evidence for regional differences was also found. This study thus supported, for the first time, the suitability of the 12 marker items of benevolent and corrective humor in different countries, enabling a cumulative cross-cultural research and eventually applications of humor aiming at the good.

  7. Psychometric Comparisons of Benevolent and Corrective Humor across 22 Countries: The Virtue Gap in Humor Goes International

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Heintz

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently, two forms of virtue-related humor, benevolent and corrective, have been introduced. Benevolent humor treats human weaknesses and wrongdoings benevolently, while corrective humor aims at correcting and bettering them. Twelve marker items for benevolent and corrective humor (the BenCor were developed, and it was demonstrated that they fill the gap between humor as temperament and virtue. The present study investigates responses to the BenCor from 25 samples in 22 countries (overall N = 7,226. The psychometric properties of the BenCor were found to be sufficient in most of the samples, including internal consistency, unidimensionality, and factorial validity. Importantly, benevolent and corrective humor were clearly established as two positively related, yet distinct dimensions of virtue-related humor. Metric measurement invariance was supported across the 25 samples, and scalar invariance was supported across six age groups (from 18 to 50+ years and across gender. Comparisons of samples within and between four countries (Malaysia, Switzerland, Turkey, and the UK showed that the item profiles were more similar within than between countries, though some evidence for regional differences was also found. This study thus supported, for the first time, the suitability of the 12 marker items of benevolent and corrective humor in different countries, enabling a cumulative cross-cultural research and eventually applications of humor aiming at the good.

  8. Immigration and Swiss House Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Kathrin Degen; Andreas M. Fischer

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the behavior of Swiss house prices to immigration flows for 85 districts from 2001 to 2006. The results show that the nexus between immigration and house prices holds even in an environment of low house price inflation, nationwide rent control, and modest immigration flows. An immigration inflow equal to 1% of an area's population is coincident with an increase in prices for single-family homes of about 2.7%: a result consistent with previous studies. The overall immigrati...

  9. Immigration in American Economic History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramitzky, Ran; Boustan, Leah

    2016-01-01

    The United States has long been perceived as a land of opportunity for immigrants. Yet, both in the past and today, US natives have expressed concern that immigrants fail to integrate into US society and lower wages for existing workers. This paper reviews the literatures on historical and contemporary migrant flows, yielding new insights on migrant selection, assimilation of immigrants into US economy and society, and the effect of immigration on the labor market. PMID:29398723

  10. Musics, Cultures and Meanings: Music as Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Cross

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This commentary explores interpretations of concepts that lie at the focus of Richard Widdess's paper—"music", and "culture"—with the aim of specifying frameworks within which issues of musical meaning can fruitfully be addressed.

  11. Music as word: Film music - superlibretto?

    OpenAIRE

    Ćirić Marija

    2013-01-01

    The aim of his paper is to prove that film music can be understood as authentic narrative force: film music as word / discourse and its superlibretto status. Superlibretto is the status of music in a film which is constructing its own (aural) reality and is narrating, speaking its own text which creates a wholesome film meaning. The existence of superlibretto is substantiated by fundamental theoretic concepts of film music and practically proven by analyses...

  12. Humor en línea. Línea del humor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dra. Mirta Clara Echevarría

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available La autora indaga el humor propuesto por el diario ‘InterVoz’ (Córdoba, Argentina. El medio publica el "típico humor cordobés". Historietas, chistes y relatos representan la vida urbana cotidiana, confluencia de lo popular y lo masivo, a través de la inclusión de usos lingüísticos, costumbres, personajes típicos y personajes públicos, sobre todo políticos. Estos textos, en algunos casos, reproducen lo publicado en papel; sin embargo, son manifestaciones diferentes. En este discurso emergente, estudia las condiciones de producción, circulación y consumo desde varias vertientes. Subraya la autora la relación del humor con el resto del diario por: la fuerte relación intertextual con la información y el diseño hipertextual. Destaca tópicas y retórica del humor como parte de una política discursiva centrada en lo regional, con el objeto de construir un discurso identitario de clara apelación a "los cordobeses en el mundo". El humor de ‘InterVoz’ (el diario en su totalidad, en el marco de la globalización, se manifiesta como una otra voz, sin llegar a establecerse como contradiscurso. Este periódico –como tantos en la red– subraya las marcas de lo local para permanecer en lo global.

  13. Attitudes Towards Immigration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Munch, Jakob Roland; Schroll, Sanne

    In this paper, we re-examine the role of economic self-interest in shaping people’s attitudes towards immigration, using data from the European Social Survey 2002/2003. Compared to the existing literature, there are two main contributions of the present paper. First, we develop a more powerful test...... of the hypothesis that a positive relationship between education and attitudes towards immigration reflects economic self-interest in the labour market. Second, we develop an alternative and more direct test of whether economic self-interest matters for people’s attitudes towards immigration. We find that while...... the "original" relationship between education and attitudes found in the literature is unlikely to reflect economic self-interest, there is considerable evidence of economic self-interest when using the more direct test...

  14. Attitudes Towards Immigration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Roland Munch, Jakob; Schroll, Sanne

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we re-examine the role of economic self-interest in shaping people's attitudes towards immigration, using data from the European Social Survey 2002/2003. Compared to the existing literature, there are two main contributions of the present paper. First, we develop a more powerful test...... of the hypothesis that a positive relationship between education and attitudes towards immigration reflects economic self-interest in the labour market. Second, we develop an alternativeand more direct test of whether economic self-interest mattersfor people's attitudes towards immigration. We find that whilethe...... "original" relationship between education and attitudes found in the literature is unlikely to reflect economic self-interest, there is considerable evidence of economic self-interest when using the more directtest....

  15. Music Making, Transcendence, Flow, and Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Rhoda

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between flow, transcendent music making experiences, transcendent religious experiences, and music education. As a teacher-researcher, I studied my graduate students' autobiographical accounts of their experiences making music. Across these narrative writings produced over the past four years, a pattern…

  16. European immigration a sourcebook

    CERN Document Server

    Triandafyllidou, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Fully updated and containing chapters on the new EU member states and the attempt to form a common EU migration policy, this new edition of European Immigration: A Sourcebook provides a comprehensive overview of the trends and developments in migration in all EU countries. With chapters following a common structure to facilitate direct international comparisons, it not only examines the internal affairs of each member state, but also explores both migratory trends within the EU itself and the implications for European immigration of wider global events, including the Arab Spring and the world financial crisis.

  17. Conceptions of Musical Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallam, Susan; Papageorgi, Ioulia

    2016-01-01

    Music can be understood in many ways. This has important implications for music education. The research reported here explored how groups of people conceptualise musical understanding and what they believe supports its acquisition. In this study 463 participants completed two statements: "Musical understanding is" and "You learn to…

  18. Music You Can See

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Shannon Sweny

    2012-01-01

    Children of all ages love painting to music. Aside from discovering the natural correlation between music and art, the author's students learned about Mozart's life and work in music class. In this article, students discover the influence that music can have on their art. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  19. Music and Health Promotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lars Ole

    Thematic analysis of 13 personal narratives on the meaning of music in the life of 13 contributing authors to the book "Musical Life Stories"......Thematic analysis of 13 personal narratives on the meaning of music in the life of 13 contributing authors to the book "Musical Life Stories"...

  20. Music Listening Is Creative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratus, John

    2017-01-01

    Active music listening is a creative activity in that the listener constructs a uniquely personal musical experience. Most approaches to teaching music listening emphasize a conceptual approach in which students learn to identify various characteristics of musical sound. Unfortunately, this type of listening is rarely done outside of schools. This…

  1. Supporting Music Teacher Mentors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaffini, Erin Dineen

    2015-01-01

    While much discussion and research is focused on the importance of music teacher mentors for preservice teachers and novice in-service music educators, little discussion has been devoted to the topic of how we, as members of the music education profession, can support the role of music teacher mentors. This article explores some of the benefits…

  2. Montessori and Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Elise Braun

    1999-01-01

    Discusses principles of Montessori music education, examining the fundamental characteristics of childhood and the role that music plays in development. Explores the inner satisfaction that comes from experiencing movement with music through compositions and folk music. Emphasizes the Montessori practices of meeting sensorimotor needs of children…

  3. The evolution of humor from male aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuster, Sam

    2012-01-01

    The response to seeing a man riding a unicycle was reported to be consistently related to the viewer's sex and stage of physical development. To see if this observation was universal, observations of responses were collected from 23 male and 9 female unicyclists aged 15-69 years, with 2-40 years cycling experience across four continents. With two exceptions among men, the findings were the same as those originally reported: children showed interest and curiosity, young girls showed little interest, while adult women showed a kindly, concerned, praising response. By contrast, boys showed physical aggression, which became more verbal, merging in the later teens to the snide, aggressive, stereotyped humorous response shown by adult males, which became less frequent in elderly men. The universality of the response across different individuals, environments, and dates of observation suggests an endogenous mechanism, and the association with masculine development relates this to androgen. The theoretical consequences are discussed. It is concluded that humor develops from aggression in males and is evolutionarily related to sexual selection.

  4. Sildenafil Stimulates Aqueous Humor Turnover in Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Lawrence J.; Zamudio, Aldo C.; Candia, Oscar A.

    2013-01-01

    Sildenafil citrate increases ocular blood flow and accelerates the rate of anterior chamber refilling after paracentesis. The latter effect could have resulted from a reduction in outflow facility or from an increase in aqueous humor (AH) production. In this study, we used scanning ocular fluorophotometry to examine the effects of sildenafil on AH turnover, and thus, AH production in eyes of live normal rabbits. For this, the rate of aqueous humor flow (AHF) was quantified with a commercially available fluorophotometer that measured the rate of fluorescein clearance from the anterior segment, which predominantly occurs via the trabecular meshwork. After ≈ 2 hrs of control scans to determine the baseline rate of AHF, the rabbits were fed 33 mg of sildenafil and allowed ≈ 45 min for the drug to enter the systemic circulation. Thereafter, fluorescence scans were retaken for an additional 90–120 min. Sildenafil ingestion increased AHF by about 36%, from 2.31 μL/min to 3.14 μL/min (PViagra, Revatio), stimulates AHF in rabbits. Our results seem consistent with reports indicating that the drug dilates intraocular arteries and augments intraocular vascular flow. These physiological responses to the agent apparently led to increased fluid entry into the anterior chamber. As such, the drug might have utility in patients with ocular hypotony resulting from insufficient AH formation. PMID:23562660

  5. The Humor Continuum: From Text to Smart Environments (Keynote Paper)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus

    Humor is important in our daily life, whether our activities are at home, at work, or in public spaces, for example during sports or other recreational and entertainment activities. Until now, computational humor, the research area that investigates rules and algorithms to understand and to generate

  6. Humoral and cellular immune responses to modified hepatitis B ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These findings indicate that the vaccine induced both a humoral and cellular ... Keywords: Hepatitis B virus, Plasmid DNA, Vaccine, Spleen cytokines, Humoral and cellular immune responses ... produced in mice. ... were performed and HBsAg specific IgM and IgG ..... and protection elicited against Plasmodium berghei.

  7. Stand Up Comics: Instructional Humor and Student Engagment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortley, Amy; Dotson, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the use of instructional humor in higher education settings and makes connections between the levels of student achievement in academics and the influence of appropriate instructional humor. The work of prominent researchers such as Wanzer, Frymier, and Irwin (2010), and Segrist & Hupp (2015), who postulate that…

  8. Examining Teachers' Motivation Level According to School Principals' Humor Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recepoglu, Ergun; Kilinc, Ali Cagatay; Cepni, Osman

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the motivation level of teachers according to school principals' humor styles. The humor styles survey and job motivation scale were used to gather data from 305 randomly selected teachers employed in primary schools in Karabuk. Results indicated that 141 of the teachers claimed school principal had…

  9. Pastoral Perspectives of Humor's Use in Ministry Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jonathan W.

    2012-01-01

    Results from a qualitative component of a mixed-methods research design are reported regarding the use of humor in pastoral ministry. Thirteen Southern Baptist (SB) pastors were interviewed, from a total of 37 exemplars identified in the quantitative component of the study, regarding their perspectives toward humor in ministry. Results overall…

  10. Effects of Humor on Teacher Stress, Affect, and Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Jacqueline Dena

    2013-01-01

    Teachers are at high risk for stress, negative emotion, and job dissatisfaction, which has been linked with health problems and early attrition. Humor has been found to relieve various forms of stress. However, there is a gap in the literature regarding humor effects on teacher stress and its related consequences. The purpose of this quantitative,…

  11. A Computational Model of Linguistic Humor in Puns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Justine T.; Levy, Roger; Goodman, Noah D.

    2016-01-01

    Humor plays an essential role in human interactions. Precisely what makes something funny, however, remains elusive. While research on natural language understanding has made significant advancements in recent years, there has been little direct integration of humor research with computational models of language understanding. In this paper, we…

  12. Stimulus Characteristics Affect Humor Processing in Individuals with Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Andrea C.; Hegenloh, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The present paper aims to investigate whether individuals with Asperger syndrome (AS) show global humor processing deficits or whether humor comprehension and appreciation depends on stimulus characteristics. Non-verbal visual puns, semantic and Theory of Mind cartoons were rated on comprehension, funniness and the punchlines were explained. AS…

  13. Multilingual Manipulation and Humor in "I Love Lucy"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschen, Bryan

    2013-01-01

    "I Love Lucy" is considered to have been one of the most humorous television programs in the United States as early as the 1950s. This paper explores the use of language by the protagonists, Lucy and Ricky Ricardo, in order to understand the source of the program's humor. Linguistic analysis of the Ricardos' speech is applied,…

  14. Persian music meets West

    OpenAIRE

    Ardalan, Afshin

    2012-01-01

    I have based my bachelor Thesis on the presentation of a completely different musical world, compared with the western musical world, which is Persian Music. As a Persian, I started to study music as a Persian Setar player; then I followed my musical experience through western classical music by playing classical guitar. As an ambition I have always thought about how to express Persian music in an understandable way for that of non-Persians. In this thesis I began with a short history of Pers...

  15. Music retrieval in ICOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finsterle, Lutz; Fischer, Stephan; Rimac, Ivica; Steinmetz, Ralf

    1999-08-01

    In this paper we describe music retrieval in ICOR, a project of Darmstadt TU. It is the goal of ICOR to find new interfaces to support applications of music video and music CDs. Although the project consists of audio and video analysis we concentrate on a description of the audio algorithms in this paper. We describe our MPEG-7 like data structure to store meta information for music pieces and explain which algorithms we use to analyze the content of music pieces automatically. We currently use an applause detection to distinguish live music from studio recordings, a genre classifier to distinguish pieces with beats form classical music, and a singer recognition.

  16. Employers’ Openness to Labour Immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asta Mikalauskiene

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the elucidation of the concept of migration and theories describing the process of migration, determines the issue of openness to immigration and presents its theoretical explanation.. The analysis of the empirical studies conducted in Lithuania assessing the openness of employers to labour immigrants was performed including the analysis of immigration trends in this country. The factors determining the attitudes towards immigration and immigrants are presented being divided into the main groups of economic and social-cultural factors.

  17. The role of music in music education research : reflections on musical experience

    OpenAIRE

    Varkøy, Øivind

    2009-01-01

    First in this article the role of theories of musicology in music education research is considered. Second, the case in point is examined where the focus of music education research is brought bo bear directly on music education, to wit music. By concentrating on music in music education research, the focus remains firmly on musical experience as a basis of reflection in music education research. The author has chosen to focus in particular on a specific kind of musical experience - more p...

  18. Music therapy improvisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Kuzma

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the technique of music therapy – music therapy improvisation is introduced. In this form of music therapy the improvising partners share meaning through the improvisation: the improvisation is not an end in itself: it portrays meaning that is personal, complex and can be shared with the partner. The therapeutic work, then, is meeting and matching the client's music in order to give the client an experience of "being known", being responded through sounds and being able to express things and communicate meaningfully. Rather than the client playing music, the therapy is about developing the engagement through sustained, joint improvisations. In music therapy, music and emotion share fundamental features: one may represent the other, i.e., we hear the music not as music but as dynamic emotional states. The concept of dynamic structure explains why music makes therapeutic sense.

  19. Playing with expectations: a contextual view of humor development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Airenti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the developmental literature it has been advanced that young children would not understand the specificity of nonliteral communicative acts. In this article I shall focus on young children’s ability to produce and understand different forms of humor. I shall explore children’s acquisition of the communicative contexts that constitute the background enabling them to perform humorous interactions before being able to analyze them in the terms allowed by a full fledged ToM. I consider that different forms of humor share a number of basic features and that we can draw a continuum from simple forms to sophisticated ones. In particular I shall focus on teasing, a form of humor already present in preverbal infants but also considered as a typical feature of irony. I shall argue that all forms of humor can be described in the terms of a kind of interaction that I propose to call playing with expectations.

  20. CLASSICAL CONDITIONING OF THREE KINDS OF HUMOR IN PUBLICITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAROLINA M. CIFUENTES

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of humor in advertisement published in Colombia were investigated in regards to brands,advertisement, purchase intention, recall and recognition.A simultaneous Classical Conditioning procedure was carried out, using Incongruous, Hostile and Allusivehumor associated to three brands. The procedure was applied to 30 university students. Results revealedthat the three kinds of humor work as unconditioning stimulus, generating positive attitudes towardsadvertisement and brand. Humor influences the purchase intention and recognition, but not the remembranceof brand when compared to neutral advertisement. Incongrous and Hostile Humor generate recognitionand positive attitude towards advertisement and brand. Allusions have a greater effect on purchaseintention than the other ones. Results corroborate the effectiveness of humor as an advertisement tool.

  1. Playing with Expectations: A Contextual View of Humor Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airenti, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    In the developmental literature, the idea has been proposed that young children do not understand the specificity of non-literal communicative acts. In this article, I focus on young children’s ability to produce and understand different forms of humor. I explore the acquisition of the communicative contexts that enable children to engage in humorous interactions before they possess the capacity to analyze them in the terms afforded by a full-fledged theory of mind. I suggest that different forms of humor share several basic features and that we can construct a continuum from simple to sophisticated forms. In particular, I focus on teasing, a form of humor already present in preverbal infants that is also considered a typical feature of irony. I argue that all forms of humor can be regarded as a type of interaction that I propose to call “playing with expectations.” PMID:27703438

  2. The Italian Music Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Barbarito Luca; Ardizzone Antonella

    2010-01-01

    The Music Industry is a complex system in which many different actors interact. In this system there are suppliers of musical instruments, music schools, authors, singers, the phonographic industry, live events organizations and also the suppliers of those electronic devices necessary to listen to the music. This paper tries to analyze the size of those segments, their changes, and which are the key nodes in this system. Also the way we listen to music has changed a lot in this last 10 years,...

  3. Innovation In Music

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The music industry is a fast moving field with new technology and methodological advances combining to catalyse innovations all the time. 'Innovation in Music 2013' was an international conference exploring this topic, held in December 2013 in York, Uk. The event covered specific and cross-disciplinary aspects of the music industry including music creation, technology, production and business, sound engineering, mastering, post production and sound design, games music and cross-disciplinary t...

  4. Music and the Mind: Music's Healing Powers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroilyn S. Ticker

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Music makes you smarter: or at least that is what the "experts" are saying. CDs are sold of Mozart's Sonatas for babies, and parents are urged to give their children music lessons in the belief that music does something to our brains which in turn makes us more intelligent. But is this really true? Does music really affect the brain in the powerful way that scientists are suggesting, or is it hearsay? In this paper I investigate the effects of music on our brain's plasticity and cognition by looking at several different experimental studies. Specifically I will address how music affects brain plasticity, emotion, physical health and linguistic processing, and how these effects in turn make music a beneficial tool for therapy, particularly in patients with Traumatic-Brain Injury (TBI and Autism-Spectrum Disorder.

  5. Immigrants' location preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil

    This paper exploits a spatial dispersal policy for refugee immigrants to estimate the importance of local and regional factors for refugees' location preferences. The main results of a mixed proportional hazard competing risks model are that placed refugees react to high regional unemployment...

  6. Encounters with immigrant customers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Anna; Espersen, Sacha; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig

    2013-01-01

    were not sufficiently assessed at the counter (n = 55, 65%), and that their latest encounter with an immigrant customer was less satisfactory than a similar encounter with an ethnic Danish customer (n = 48, 57%) (significantly more pharmacists than assistants: odds ratio, OR, 3.19; 95% confidence...

  7. Wealth & Immigration in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, Johannes Kabderian; Wolffsen, Poul; Mortensen, Mia

    2014-01-01

    Applying newly developed methods this paper quantifies human capital in Denmark and analyzes highly qualified immigration as a potential source of wealth generation. In order to quantify human capital, we use the methodology of Lettau and Ludvigson (2001, 2004), Zhang (2006) and Dreyer et al. (2013...

  8. Academic Mobility and Immigration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Karine

    2005-01-01

    In the late 1990s, sustained economic growth in most Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries and the development of the information economy led to a considerable increase in migration of highly skilled individuals, especially in science and technology. Some OECD countries relaxed their immigration policies to attract…

  9. Immigration policy index

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vikhrov, Dmytro

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 1 (2017), s. 3-46 ISSN 0967-0750 Institutional support: Progres-Q24 Keywords : immigration policy * visa * differences-in-differences estimation Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Applied Economics , Econometrics Impact factor: 0.479, year: 2016

  10. Gay Immigrants and Grindr

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shield, Andrew DJ

    2018-01-01

    In this (open-access) essay, I assess the idea that Grindr and related apps render urban gay spaces obsolete, and offer three counter-arguments based on my research with immigrants and tourists who use Grindr. In short: newcomers who use Grindr might actually bring new life to queer urban spaces...

  11. Music Education and Music Therapy. Introduction to Plenary Session 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lars Ole

    2002-01-01

    Chairman's introduction to plenary session on the relationship between music therapy and music pedagogics......Chairman's introduction to plenary session on the relationship between music therapy and music pedagogics...

  12. Immigrants in the Working Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Vlachadi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Immigration constitutes an all time and multi-dimensional social phenomenon. There are quite a few people that in every time period seek a new place of residence and employment, in order to be able to survive or get a better life. The causes which lead to immigration are various and the immigration itself affects not only the immigrants but also the countries of departure and arrival. The immigration phenomenon has occupied and continues to occupy the majority of countries, among which is Greece which has been one of the new host countries for immigrants. The moving of the population presents when the social and economic environment in which an individual lives and moves, does not provide him with the capability to fulfill his pursuits and satisfy his ambitions. The most frequent reason of immigration nowadays is the economic factor and the objective of the individual that immigrates is finding work. In the present project we will study unemployment and employment in the host countries and more specifically in Greece. In Greece during the last years there appears to be an intense influx of immigrants converting it from a departure country to a host country for immigrants. What happens with the working conditions and insurance, how does immigration affect the unemployment of the permanent population, in what kind of jobs are immigrants occupied and do age and sex play a role in finding work? These are some of the questions we are called to answer through this project. The project not only will deal with how immigration affects the working market but also the economy in general (Cholezas and Tsakloglou, 2008. The research part of the project is based on the Greek and European Statistics Service. The statistical data are presented in the form of charts and diagrams. The data actually concern the legal immigrants in the area of Greece and countries of the E.U. (Vgenopoulos, 1988.

  13. Immigrant Capital and Entrepreneurial Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malavika Sundararajan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The main objective of this study is to define and operationalize the concept of immigrant capital, a key factor that differentiates immigrant from host country entrepreneurs in how they recognize and start new ventures. Research Design & Methods: A detailed analysis of contemporary immigrant entrepreneurship and opportunity recognition literature was carried out. Using grounded theory, we synthesized the outcomes from the analysis of eight Canadian and U.S. case studies of successful immigrant entrepreneurs with the key findings from the literature to define and develop a model of immigrant capital. Findings: Based on our grounded theory development process we show that the concept of immigrant capital as a distillate of human, cultural, economic and social capital that goes beyond expected opportunity recognition (OR drivers like prior knowledge and prior experience to differentiate and enhance the immigrant entrepreneur’s ability to recognize business opportunities compared to host country entrepreneurs. We found immigrant capital to be a consequence of being boundary spanners in host and home country networks. Implications & Recommendations: Understanding a unique resource like immigrant capital, will help immigrant as well as host country entrepreneurs further develop their opportunity recognition ability by bridging gaps and fulfilling the needs for both, immigrant and host country consumers. Contribution & Value Added: The main contribution is the theoretical development, identification and definition of the immigrant capital model and propositions that will articulate the factors that lead to the conceptualization and operationalization of immigrant capital. Furthermore, the immigrant capital model can serve host country entrepreneurs to develop cross-cultural networks and jump-start entrepreneurial activities in their home countries as well as learn how to expand their operations into global markets.

  14. Evaluating current trends in psychiatric music therapy: a descriptive analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Michael J

    2007-01-01

    , improvisation, songwriting, lyric analysis, and music and movement to address consumer objectives. Participants indicated they used therapeutic verbal skills and techniques such as humor, redirection, reinforcement, empathy, and affirmation in their clinical practice. Additionally, the results of this survey were compared to the psychiatric portion of a music therapy descriptive study published in 1979. Similarities and differences are discussed.

  15. Laughing at the Looking Glass: Does Humor Style Serve as an Interpersonal Signal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgil Zeigler-Hill

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The provision of information appears to be an important feature of humor. The present studies examined whether humor serves as an interpersonal signal such that an individual's style of humor is associated with how the individual is perceived by others. Method: We examined this issue across two studies. In Study 1, undergraduate participants (257 targets were rated more positively by their friends and family members (1194 perceivers when they possessed more benign humor styles. In Study 2, 1190 community participants rated the romantic desirability of targets ostensibly possessing different humor styles. Results: Across both studies, our results were consistent with the possibility that humor serves as a signal. More specifically, individuals with benign humor styles (affiliative and self-enhancing humor styles were evaluated more positively than those targets with injurious humor styles (aggressive and self-defeating humor styles. Conclusion: These findings are discussed in terms of the role that humor may play in interpersonal perception and relationships.

  16. Chaotic Music Generation System Using Music Conductor Gesture

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Shuai; Maeda, Yoichiro; Takahashi, Yasutake

    2013-01-01

    In the research of interactive music generation, we propose a music generation method, that the computer generates the music, under the recognition of human music conductor's gestures.In this research, the generated music is tuned by the recognized gestures for the parameters of the network of chaotic elements in real time. The music conductor's hand motions are detected by Microsoft Kinect in this system. Music theories are embedded in the algorithm, as a result, the generated music will be ...

  17. Music Conductor Gesture Recognized Interactive Music Generation System

    OpenAIRE

    CHEN, Shuai; MAEDA, Yoichiro; TAKAHASHI, Yasutake

    2012-01-01

    In the research of interactive music generation, we propose a music generation method, that the computer generates the music automatically, and then the music will be arranged under the human music conductor's gestures, before it outputs to us. In this research, the generated music is processed from chaotic sound, which is generated from the network of chaotic elements in realtime. The music conductor's hand motions are detected by Microsoft Kinect in this system. Music theories are embedded ...

  18. EyeMusic: Making Music with the Eyes

    OpenAIRE

    Hornof, Anthony J.; Sato, Linda

    2004-01-01

    Though musical performers routinely use eye movements to communicate with each other during musical performances, very few performers or composers have used eye tracking devices to direct musical compositions and performances. EyeMusic is a system that uses eye movements as an input to electronic music compositions. The eye movements can directly control the music, or the music can respond to the eyes moving around a visual scene. EyeMusic is implemented so that any composer using established...

  19. MUSIC CLUB

    CERN Document Server

    MUSIC CLUB

    2010-01-01

    FESTIVAL HARDRONIC The CERN MusiClub is proud to announce that the 21st edition of the famous CERN Hardronic Festival will take place on   Friday 16th July from 17h30 and Saturday 17th July from 16h00   on the terrace beside restaurant N°3 on the CERN Prevessin site. The Festival will feature music by your favourite bands and artists from the Club. Food and drink will be on sale and there will be stuff for kids (organized by http://www.adventureart.org/) including face-painting and a bouncy castle. Entrance is free and the event is open to Club Members, CERN staff and Visitors, all those working on the CERN site, plus families and friends. For more information, either send an e-mail mailto:music.club@cern.ch or see http://musiclub.cern.ch/ The CERN MusiClub would like to thank the CERN Staff Association and the CERN Management for their continued support. Without this support this event could not take place.

  20. Engaging Musical Practices: A Sourcebook for Middle School General Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Suzanne L., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Middle school general music may be a student's last encounter with school music. A practical book with accessible pedagogical resources on middle school general music is needed for methods courses and music practitioners' use. The book "Engaging Musical Practices: A Sourcebook for Middle School General Music" presents numerous ways to engage…

  1. 8 CFR 1003.10 - Immigration judges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1003.10 Section 1003.10 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL PROVISIONS EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Office of the Chief Immigration Judge § 1003.10 Immigration judges...

  2. 22 CFR 42.33 - Diversity immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Diversity immigrants. 42.33 Section 42.33 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS VISAS: DOCUMENTATION OF IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Immigrants Subject to Numerical Limitations § 42.33 Diversity immigrants. (a...

  3. Monitoring dynamics of aqueous humor in glaucoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyborny, P.; Hornova, J.

    1985-01-01

    Aqueous humor dynamics was observed in patients treated for glaucoma. Aqueous flow was measured using the radionuclide method of contact application of 22 NaCl and the detection of gamma radiation with external detectors. The sample of 184 eyes was divided into three groups: open-angle glaucoma with therapy, open-angle glaucoma without therapy and angle-closure glaucoma 47 eyes were used as controls. Changes were observed in 22 Na outflow half-time in dependence on the duration of the disease, therapy, intraocular pressUre and changes in the perimeter. The new technique has been fully proven in practice, is a contribution to the diagnosis of glaucoma and an indicator of the compensation of the disease. (author)

  4. Science For The Public: Collaboration and Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wargo, Richard

    2013-04-01

    The transformation of all things media and information into a dynamic environment of user access has created what seems infinite possibilities to inform the public in many different ways - as well as seemingly infinite possibilities to confuse. This talk will describe a rather non-conventional collaboration between two different creative cultures and its significance to maintaining scientific accuracy and devising strategies important to audience engagement - among them, humor. While focusing on the award-winning effort ``When Things Get Small'' created by University of California Television producer R. Wargo in collaboration with condensed matter physicist I.K. Schuller and actor Adam J. Smith, with both NSF and private support, the case study provides insight into a model and modes which can be used successfully by other scientists to engage the public in what they do.

  5. [Humor at Work Questionnaire - Polish adaptation of Humor Climate Questionnaire (HCQ)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stańczak, Aleksander; Drabek, Marcin

    2018-03-09

    The aim of the paper is to present the Polish adaptation of the Humor Climate Questionnaire (HCQ), designed to measure humor as organizational climate feature. The authors employed back-translation and independent judges method to choose the best version of the translated items. The psychometric properties of HCQ were estimated on the basis of 2 samples: the basic group of employees (N = 217) and the group of employees who had completed the survey twice (N = 55). The results of statistical analyses proved that HCQ is a reliable tool. Explorative Factor Analysis supported the 4-factor structure of the original method's theoretical model. The validity of the subscales is high, Cronbach's α varied from 0.8 to 0.9. The directions and values of intercorrelations between subscales were similar to those of the English version. The Humor Climate Questionnaire is a relatively time-stable tool (r = 0.44-0.74). Polish adaptation is reliable and applicable for cross-sectional studies. The obtained results are comparable to the characteristics of the original version. However, the results of factor analysis show that the data do not fully fit the theoretical model. Med Pr 2018;69(2):143-152. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  6. Portrayal of Immigrants in Newsmagazines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Goldberger

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes how United States newsmagazines represented immigrants in the aftermath of September 11th terrorist attacks. Methodologically, the paper uses the frame analysis from a social constructivist standpoint, identifying the four functions of frame, as defined by Entman. Three months prior to the attacks, newsmagazines framed immigrants as “needed” and, in most cases, they portrayed them positively. In the period after the attacks, the frame shifted and newsmagazines started representing immigrants as “feared”, potential harborers of terrorists, and so on. Before the attacks, illegal immigrants were represented as the greatest immigration problem. After the attacks, the attention of newsmagazines shifted to legal immigrants with terrorist intentions. The results suggest that the issue of immigrants and immigration policy in the media collided with the threat of terrorism as a foreign policy issue. Thus, it became a security issue that influenced the representation of immigrants. In newsmagazines’ portrayal of immigrants, political features became more prominent than economic ones.

  7. Humor drawings evoked temporal and spectral EEG processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Hsien-Chu; Chuang, Shang-Wen

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The study aimed to explore the humor processing elicited through the manipulation of artistic drawings. Using the Comprehension–Elaboration Theory of humor as the main research background, the experiment manipulated the head portraits of celebrities based on the independent variables of facial deformation (large/small) and addition of affective features (positive/negative). A 64-channel electroencephalography was recorded in 30 participants while viewing the incongruous drawings of celebrities. The electroencephalography temporal and spectral responses were measured during the three stages of humor which included incongruity detection, incongruity comprehension and elaboration of humor. Analysis of event-related potentials indicated that for humorous vs non-humorous drawings, facial deformation and the addition of affective features significantly affected the degree of humor elicited, specifically: large > small deformation; negative > positive affective features. The N170, N270, N400, N600-800 and N900-1200 components showed significant differences, particularly in the right prefrontal and frontal regions. Analysis of event-related spectral perturbation showed significant differences in the theta band evoked in the anterior cingulate cortex, parietal region and posterior cingulate cortex; and in the alpha and beta bands in the motor areas. These regions are involved in emotional processing, memory retrieval, and laughter and feelings of amusement induced by elaboration of the situation. PMID:28402573

  8. Laughter, Humor and Pain Perception in Children: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Stuber

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Although there are many clinical programs designed to bring humor into pediatric hospitals, there has been very little research with children or adolescents concerning the specific utility of humor for children undergoing stressful or painful procedures. Rx Laughter™, a non-profit organization interested in the use of humor for healing, collaborated with UCLA to collect preliminary data on a sample of 18 children aged 7–16 years. Participants watched humorous video-tapes before, during and after a standardized pain task that involved placing a hand in cold water. Pain appraisal (ratings of pain severity and pain tolerance (submersion time were recorded and examined in relation to humor indicators (number of laughs/smiles during each video and child ratings of how funny the video was. Whereas humor indicators were not significantly associated with pain appraisal or tolerance, the group demonstrated significantly greater pain tolerance while viewing funny videos than when viewing the videos immediately before or after the cold-water task. The results suggest that humorous distraction is useful to help children and adolescents tolerate painful procedures. Further study is indicated to explore the specific mechanism of this benefit.

  9. Children’s Understanding of Self-Focused Humor Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Lucy Amelia; Fox, Claire Louise

    2016-01-01

    It has been proposed that four main styles of humor exist, two which are thought to be adaptive (affiliative, self-enhancing) and two which are thought to be maladaptive (aggressive, self-defeating). Whilst the existence of these four humor styles has been supported in older children, it is suggested that for younger children, self-enhancing and self-defeating humor may develop at a later point. To investigate this further, the current research involved five semi-structured paired interviews with children aged eight to eleven years to explore the use and understanding of self-enhancing and self-defeating humor in this age group. Findings indicated that use of both self-enhancing and self-defeating humor were apparent in some children, but not all. It therefore seems appropriate that attempts to investigate humor in this age group should aim to include all four styles of humor. The current research also demonstrated the value of paired interviews when carrying out this sort of research with children. PMID:27547258

  10. Children's Understanding of Self-Focused Humor Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Lucy Amelia; Fox, Claire Louise

    2016-08-01

    It has been proposed that four main styles of humor exist, two which are thought to be adaptive (affiliative, self-enhancing) and two which are thought to be maladaptive (aggressive, self-defeating). Whilst the existence of these four humor styles has been supported in older children, it is suggested that for younger children, self-enhancing and self-defeating humor may develop at a later point. To investigate this further, the current research involved five semi-structured paired interviews with children aged eight to eleven years to explore the use and understanding of self-enhancing and self-defeating humor in this age group. Findings indicated that use of both self-enhancing and self-defeating humor were apparent in some children, but not all. It therefore seems appropriate that attempts to investigate humor in this age group should aim to include all four styles of humor. The current research also demonstrated the value of paired interviews when carrying out this sort of research with children.

  11. Humor drawings evoked temporal and spectral EEG processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Regina W Y; Kuo, Hsien-Chu; Chuang, Shang-Wen

    2017-08-01

    The study aimed to explore the humor processing elicited through the manipulation of artistic drawings. Using the Comprehension-Elaboration Theory of humor as the main research background, the experiment manipulated the head portraits of celebrities based on the independent variables of facial deformation (large/small) and addition of affective features (positive/negative). A 64-channel electroencephalography was recorded in 30 participants while viewing the incongruous drawings of celebrities. The electroencephalography temporal and spectral responses were measured during the three stages of humor which included incongruity detection, incongruity comprehension and elaboration of humor. Analysis of event-related potentials indicated that for humorous vs non-humorous drawings, facial deformation and the addition of affective features significantly affected the degree of humor elicited, specifically: large > small deformation; negative > positive affective features. The N170, N270, N400, N600-800 and N900-1200 components showed significant differences, particularly in the right prefrontal and frontal regions. Analysis of event-related spectral perturbation showed significant differences in the theta band evoked in the anterior cingulate cortex, parietal region and posterior cingulate cortex; and in the alpha and beta bands in the motor areas. These regions are involved in emotional processing, memory retrieval, and laughter and feelings of amusement induced by elaboration of the situation. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  12. Nigerian Music Review: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. Nigerian Music Review is aimed at the scholarly review of the developments in various musical practices in Nigeria. It considers well researched articles in any of the following areas: Musicology, Ethnomusicology, African Music, Music Education, Performance, Composition, Music Technology, Music ...

  13. Musical Markov Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volchenkov, Dima; Dawin, Jean René

    A system for using dice to compose music randomly is known as the musical dice game. The discrete time MIDI models of 804 pieces of classical music written by 29 composers have been encoded into the transition matrices and studied by Markov chains. Contrary to human languages, entropy dominates over redundancy, in the musical dice games based on the compositions of classical music. The maximum complexity is achieved on the blocks consisting of just a few notes (8 notes, for the musical dice games generated over Bach's compositions). First passage times to notes can be used to resolve tonality and feature a composer.

  14. Measurement approaches to the sense of humor: Introduction and overview

    OpenAIRE

    Ruch, Willibald

    1996-01-01

    There has been a renaissance of research interest in the "sense of humor" in recent years, partly äs an attempt to define the concept but more strenuously to provide Instruments for its measurement. A quick count of recent publications shows an average of two to three new sense of humor- instruments per year — or one every four to six months. This intensity of research is unparalleled in the history of humor research and contrasts sharply with 25 years ago when the renewal of interest in hum...

  15. Arma del contrapoder: Humor político y medios

    OpenAIRE

    César Ulloa Tapia

    2008-01-01

    El humor político en los medios de comunicación tiene enorme acogida en las audiencias ya que logra lo que pueden editoriales, análisis académicos y demás espacios de opinión. Es la mejor manera de denunciar, advertir, sancionar e incluso develar lo que hace o deja de hacer el poder político. El humor político está considerado como contrapoder. El periodismo que usa el humor es eficaz, tanto en el mensaje como en su efecto, pues describe las situaciones y recurre a comparaciones y símiles....

  16. Humor in the teaching of writing: A microethnographic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian F. Hempelmann

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the content of a critical thinking and writing course, along with similar courses derived from it, designed around the topic of humor and culminating in a microethnographic investigation of humor in students’ lives. The aims of the paper are threefold: to offer a general rationale for using humor in the writing classroom; to illustrate different types of potentials and dangers of such an approach; and to suggest extensions of the findings to the second-language writing classroom. The paper offers texts, writing prompts, and activities for instructors teaching classes that focus on the writing process in a first or second language.

  17. The Views of Turkish Teachers on the Use of Humor in Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Yasin

    2016-01-01

    Humor is the type of expression and writing representing the humorous aspect of life by adorning with jokes and wit. The main objective of humor is to criticize, ironize, and correct the flaws and hideousness in life. Humor develops the sensitivity, the empathizing ability and social facts' multidimensional perception of individuals. Humor…

  18. Those Who Laugh Are Defenseless: How Humor Breaks Resistance to Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strick, Madelijn; Holland, Rob W.; van Baaren, Rick B.; van Knippenberg, Ad

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments illustrate that humor in advertisements prevents the development of negative brand associations due to resistance. Previous research on humor in advertising suggested that humor can counter negative responses during ad processing, but less is known about the effect of humor on the development of negative brand associations in…

  19. Exploratory Theoretical Tests of the Instructor Humor-Student Learning Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolkan, San; Goodboy, Alan K.

    2015-01-01

    Instructors' use of humor is generally a positive influence on student outcomes. However, examinations of humor have found that specific types of messages may not impact, or may even reverse, its positive effect. Instructional humor processing theory (IHPT) has been used to explain how humor impacts student learning. The current study sought to…

  20. Differential effects of self-esteem and interpersonal competence on humor styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCosker, Bernadette; Moran, Carmen C

    2012-01-01

    Background In contrast with an early implicit “facilitative hypothesis” of humor, a revised specificity hypothesis predicts that the benefits of humor depend on the specific style of humor used. Information on predictors of these humor styles in turn enhances the ability to predict the effect on well-being. Methods We examined the relationships between interpersonal competence, self-esteem, and different styles of humor, while also examining the contributions of age and gender. Participants (n = 201) aged 18–63 years completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory, the Interpersonal Competence Questionnaire, and the Humor Styles Questionnaire, and gave demographic information. Results High self-esteem was associated with higher use of affiliative, aggressive, and self-enhancing humor styles, but lower use of self-defeating humor. High interpersonal competence predicted greater use of affiliative humor, whereas low interpersonal competence predicted greater use of aggressive humor. Further analyses showed that initiation competence predicted affiliative humor (positively) but both initiation competence (positively) and conflict management competence (negatively) predicted aggressive humor. Conclusion The findings that both self-esteem and initiation competence contribute to use of aggressive humor add to knowledge of who is likely to use this potentially harmful humor style. We conclude that a readiness to initiate humorous interactions is not on its own a general and positive attribute contributing to “good” humor. PMID:23180973

  1. Intolerance toward immigrants in Switzerland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freitag, Markus; Rapp, Carolin

    2013-01-01

    Intolerance toward immigrants has recently reached noticeable highs in Switzerland. Referring to the conflict theory, the perception of a specific group as a threat tends to lead to intolerance toward that group. The expectation of a negative relationship between threat and tolerance is neverthel......Intolerance toward immigrants has recently reached noticeable highs in Switzerland. Referring to the conflict theory, the perception of a specific group as a threat tends to lead to intolerance toward that group. The expectation of a negative relationship between threat and tolerance...... that Swiss who view rising immigration to mean a loss of economic privileges and an erosion of Swiss cultural values are less tolerant toward immigrants. Moreover, our results indicate that contact with immigrants may moderate this effect. However, not all group settings are able to reduce the perceived...... threats in a similar way, and not all sorts of social contact are able to foster tolerance toward immigrants....

  2. Popular Music Genres, Music Producers, and Song Creation in the General Music Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colquhoun, Shane

    2018-01-01

    In secondary general music classes, music educators have the opportunity to bridge the gap between the music students' experiences in school and the music they engage with outside of school. According to Williams, nontraditional music students have musical lives outside of school but choose not to participate in traditional ensembles. In this…

  3. Immigrants in the Sexual Revolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shield, Andrew DJ

    newspapers, foreign worker organizations’ archives, and interviews, this book shows that immigrants in the Netherlands and Denmark held a variety of viewpoints about European gender and sexual cultures. Some immigrants felt solidarity with, and even participated in, European social movements that changed...... norms and laws in favor of women’s equality, gay and lesbian rights, and sexual liberation. These histories challenge today’s politicians and journalists who strategically link immigration to sexual conservatism, misogyny, and homophobia....

  4. Immigrant Capital and Entrepreneurial Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Malavika Sundararajan; Binod Sundararajan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The main objective of this study is to define and operationalize the concept of immigrant capital, a key factor that differentiates immigrant from host country entrepreneurs in how they recognize and start new ventures. Research Design & Methods: A detailed analysis of contemporary immigrant entrepreneurship and opportunity recognition literature was carried out. Using grounded theory, we synthesized the outcomes from the analysis of eight Canadian and U.S. case studies of successf...

  5. Ethnic pluralism, immigration and entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Mickiewicz, T; Hart, M; Nyakudya, FW; Theodorakopoulos, N

    2017-01-01

    We consider the effects of immigration and ethnicity on entrepreneurship, distinguishing between the individual traits and the environmental characteristics. We look beyond the resource-opportunity framework and occupational choice: culture and values matter. Yet, instead of assigning the latter to specific ethnic features, we relate them to both immigration, and to the social environment defined by the share of immigrants, and by ethnic diversity. Empirical evidence we provide is based on Gl...

  6. Loud music listening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrescu, Nicolae

    2008-07-01

    Over the past four decades, there has been increasing interest in the effects of music listening on hearing. The purpose of this paper is to review published studies that detail the noise levels, the potential effects (e.g. noise-induced hearing loss), and the perceptions of those affected by music exposure in occupational and non-occupational settings. The review employed Medline, PubMed, PsychINFO, and the World Wide Web to find relevant studies in the scientific literature. Considered in this review are 43 studies concerning the currently most significant occupational sources of high-intensity music: rock and pop music playing and employment at music venues, as well as the most significant sources of non-occupational high-intensity music: concerts, dicotheques (clubs), and personal music players. Although all of the activities listed above have the potential for hearing damage, the most serious threat to hearing comes from prolonged exposures to amplified live music (concerts). The review concludes that more research is needed to clarify the hearing loss risks of music exposure from personal music players and that current scientific literature clearly recognizes an unmet hearing health need for more education regarding the risks of loud music exposure and the benefits of wearing hearing protection, for more hearing protection use by those at risk, and for more regulations limiting music intensity levels at music entertainment venues.

  7. [Tuberculosis and immigration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Coronas, Joaquín; Rogado-González, M Cruz; Lozano-Serrano, Ana Belén; Cabezas-Fernández, M Teresa

    2016-04-01

    The incidence of tuberculosis worldwide is declining. However, in Western countries this decline is slower due to the impact of immigration. Tuberculosis in the immigrant population is related to health status in the country of origin and with overcrowding and poverty conditions in the host country. Immigrants with tuberculosis are younger, have a higher prevalence of extrapulmonary forms, greater proportion of drug resistance and higher treatment default rates than those of natives. New molecular techniques not only reduce diagnostic delay time but also allow the rapid identification of resistances and improve knowledge of transmission patterns. It is necessary to implement measures to improve treatment compliance in this population group like facilitating access to health card, the use of fixed-dose combination drugs, the participation of cultural mediators and community health workers and gratuity of drugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  8. [Immigration to Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picouet, M; Pellegrino, A; Papail, J

    1986-11-01

    Immigration to Venezuela is examined using census data with the focus on the period 1971-1981. A brief overview of trends since the beginning of the twentieth century is first presented. The analysis indicates that "immigration to Venezuela is clearly of a short-term nature. Flows follow job opportunities and adjust to the labour market and to the financial capacity of the exchange market. The large increase of migratory movements to Venezuela in the 1970's is characterized by a diversification of their places of origin and by a greater instability. To a large extent, the migrants are illegal, especially those coming from Colombia and the Caribbean islands. Because of the crisis of the early 1980's, which is now worsened by the down trend of both oil prices and the U.S. dollar, Venezuela has become less attractive to immigrants, particularly from neighbouring countries." The authors observe that migrants in Venezuela are not well integrated and may depart, disrupting the labor supply in certain technical and specialized occupations (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA) excerpt

  9. Music as word: Film music - superlibretto?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirić Marija

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of his paper is to prove that film music can be understood as authentic narrative force: film music as word / discourse and its superlibretto status. Superlibretto is the status of music in a film which is constructing its own (aural reality and is narrating, speaking its own text which creates a wholesome film meaning. The existence of superlibretto is substantiated by fundamental theoretic concepts of film music and practically proven by analyses of examples taken from the opus of Serbian film composer Zoran Simjanović.

  10. Music and language: musical alexia and agraphia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brust, J C

    1980-06-01

    Two aphasic right-handed professional musicians with left hemispheric lesions had disturbed musical function, especially musical alexia and agraphia. In Case 1 aphasia was of transcortical sensory type, with severe agraphia and decreased comprehension of written words, although she could match them with pictures. Except for reading and writing, musical ability was normal; she could sing in five languages. Musical alexia and agraphia affected pitch symbols more than rhythm. Case 2 had conduction aphasia and severe expressive amusia, especially for rhythm. Although his language alexia and agraphia were milder than Case 1's, his musical alexia and agraphia were more severe, affecting rhythm as much as pitch. In neither patient were those aspects of musical notation either closest to verbal language or most dependent upon temporal (sequential) processing maximally impaired. These cases are consistent with the literature in suggesting that the presence or absence of aphasia or of right or left hemispheric damage fails to predict the presence, type, or severity of amusia, including musical alexia and agraphia. The popular notion that receptive amusia follows lesions of the language-dominant temporal lobe, whereas expressive amusia follows non-dominant frontal lobe damage, is an over-simplification, as is the view that increasing musical sophistication causes a shift of musical processing from the right hemisphere to the left.

  11. Taste differentiation and hierarchization within popular culture: the case of salsa music

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bachmayer, T.; Wilterdink, N.; van Venrooij, A.

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates taste preferences for one popular music genre: salsa. It is based on in-depth interviews with 40 Latin American immigrants in Switzerland and the Netherlands. Eight recorded pieces of salsa that represent different salsa styles were played and respondents’ spontaneous

  12. The Self-Employment Experience of Immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    George J. Borjas

    1986-01-01

    Self-employment is an important aspect of the immigrant experience in the labor market. Self-employment rates for immigrants exceed 15 percent for some national groups. This paper addresses three related questions on the self-employment experience of immigrants. First, how do self-employment rates of immigrants compare to those of native-born men? Second, is there an "assimilation" effect on the self-employment propensity of immigrants? Finally, are the more recent waves of immigrants facing ...

  13. Immigrant language barriers and house prices

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Andreas M.

    2011-01-01

    Are language skills important in explaining the nexus between house prices and immigrant inflows? The language barrier hypothesis says immigrants from a non common language country value amenities more than immigrants from common language countries.> ; In turn, immigrants from non common language countries are less price sensitive to house price changes than immigrants from a common language country. Tests of the language barrier hypothesis with Swiss house prices show that an immigration inf...

  14. Immigration Enforcement Actions - Annual Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Each year, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) undertakes immigration enforcement actions involving hundreds of thousands of foreign nationals. These actions...

  15. From Multiculturalism to Immigration Shock

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Lauter

    2009-01-01

    Immigration is a tense political topic in virtually every Western country, and in many others as well. In fact, immigration is an international issue: 3 percent of the world's population, 191,000,000 people, now live in countries other than those in which they were born. This paper discusses why immigration is so fraught, the relation of the crisis over immigration to the growing fracture of the Western world's economy, as well as to terrorism like September 11 and the train bombings...

  16. CODING LOGICAL MECHANISM AND STEREOTYPING IN GENDER CYBER HUMORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truly Almendo Pasaribu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Gender-related humors have their own way of being funny; and this research aims to find out how and why they are funny. For this purpose, both researchers have collected 50 gender cyber humors and analyzed them, first, to decode how their logical mechanism relates to specific linguistic features, and secondly, to uncover how gender stereotyping contributes to the comical effects. The twisting of logic and linguistic ambiguity is analyzed formally using Attardos (2001 General Theory of Verbal Humor (GTVH and supported by gender studies. The findings reveal that the logical mechanism consists of elements of incongruities, and gender stereotyping presents negative stereotypical images. The analysis further shows that some gender stereotypical images ridicule traditional roles of man and woman while others make fun of non-traditional representations. This shift from women only to both men and women as targets of gender humors has been an impact of effective feminist movements.

  17. Universalidad y variabilidad cultural de la risa y el humor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Jáuregui

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available La risa es un fenómeno aparentemente universal, pero el humor que la provoca muestra una variabilidad casi infinita. Este artículo trata de distinguir entre los aspectos universales de la risa y los que son culturalmente variables. Define la risa como una emoción básica del ser humano, provocada por un estímulo cognitivo que depende de definiciones sociales de la situación, lo cual explica al menos en parte su aparente heterogeneidad. Otros aspectos que también pueden variar son las normas y costumbres relativas a la expresión de la risa y del humor, los géneros humorísticos, las instituciones del humor y las definiciones culturales de la risa misma.

  18. MUSIC RADIO-JOURNALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubovtceva Ludmila I.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is based on years of practical experience, the author highlights the main radio genres in which music correspondent, music reviewer, music commentator, and music leading and a disc jockey work. Theoretical principles of their creative activities are analyzed in common journalistic genres, such as interview, reportage, talk show, live broadcast, radiofilm, as well as specialized genres like concert on demand and music competition. Journalist’ speech is seen as a logical element, the incoming with music in art-structural relationships. However, it does not become the predominant sound layer and aims to harmonious correlation or local penetration into music opus. In addition, important links in music journalism are defined the auxiliary "offscreen" editor's job and keeping the original sound archive. The author cites a number of own work examples on the air.

  19. Music, Meaning and Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Widdess

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper situates musical meaning in culture, addressing music as social symbol and as ongoing process of meaning creation. Three examples of non- Western musical practice are used to illustrate the embedding of musical meaning in cultural context. The performance of an Australian Aboriginal song is shown to exemplify the interdependence of song style and social structure as a matrix for the emergence of cultural meanings; an example of North Indian performance is adduced to demonstrate the multi-layered nature of meaning as embodied in musical performance; and an example of collective festival performance from Nepal illustrates ways in which the structure of musical performance can mirror local cultural forms. Each of the three examples lends weight to the idea that music's meanings are often non-linguistic and reflect foundational schemas that are specific to the cultures from the musics are drawn.

  20. Musical Students’ Concert Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr S. Plokhotnyuk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available . The article presents detailed analysis of performance training of future teachers of music at higher educational establishments and offers ways to overcome the problem of musical students’ concert practice organization.

  1. Music, Mathematics and Bach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Western music allows the idea of 'modulation' from one key to another. ... 'tonic' in Indian music the tonic 'sa' is played throughout by the tanpura, and ... rules and greater freedom. A fugue ..... theorem and artificial intelligence but an excellent.

  2. Regional distribution of phospholipids in porcine vitreous humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnepf, Abigail; Yappert, Marta Cecilia; Borchman, Douglas

    2017-07-01

    This project explores the regional phospholipid distribution in porcine vitreous humor, retina, and lens. Matrix-assisted laser desorption mass spectrometry has been used previously to image lipids, proteins, and other metabolites in retinas and lenses. However, the regional composition of phospholipids in vitreous humors is not known. To address this issue, we have applied this mass spectral method to explore the regional phospholipid distribution in porcine vitreous humor both ex-situ and in-vitro. To establish the possible source(s) of phospholipids in the vitreous humor, compositional studies of the lens and retina were also pursued. Due to the overall low levels of phospholipids in vitreous humor, it was necessary to optimize the experimental approaches for ex-situ and in-vitro studies. The sensitivity observed in the spectra of methanol extracts from the lens and retina was higher than that for methanol:chloroform extracts, but the compositional trends were the same. A fourfold improvement in sensitivity was observed in the analysis of vitreous humor extracts obtained with the Bligh and Dyer protocol relative to the other two extraction methods. For ex-situ studies, the 'stamp method' with para-nitroaniline as the matrix was chosen. Throughout the vitreous humor, phosphatidylcholines were the most abundant phospholipids. In-vitro results showed higher relative levels of phospholipids compared to the 'stamp' method. However, more details in the regional phospholipid distribution were provided by the ex-situ approach. Both in-vitro and ex-situ results indicated higher levels of phospholipids in the posterior vitreous region, followed by the anterior and central regions. The posterior region contained more unsaturated species whereas more saturated phospholipids were detected in the anterior region. The observed trends suggest that the phospholipids detected in the posterior vitreous humor migrate from the retina and associated vasculature while those present in

  3. LISTENING TO MUSIC AND MUSIC PREFERENCES IN EARLY ADOLESCENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Ercegovac, Ina Reić; Dobrota, Snježana; Surić, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Music plays an important role in the life of adolescents. Dealing with music represents a very important free-time activity during adolescence, while by listening to music or performing music adolescents can satisfy a range of needs, both personal and those of social nature. Therefore, this paper presents the results of research on musical taste and listening to music habits in early adolescence. We hypothesized that students generally like listening to music and that they mostly prefer do...

  4. VIOLENCE DRESSED IN HUMOR: COMEDIC VIOLENCE IN ADVERTISING

    OpenAIRE

    Camelia Gradinaru

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the concepts of humor and violence and their complex relationships contextualised in the advertising domain. Thus, the main theories of humor and the most important elements from media violence paradigms are critically pointed out. The effects of comedic violence in advertising may be positive (great involvement with the ad message, retention of brand information, higher pass-along probability), and also negative (offending the audience, desensitization, damaging the r...

  5. Humor adds the creative touch to CQI teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzer, J W

    1994-07-01

    The health care industry is looking to continuous quality improvement as a process to both improve patient care and promote cost effectiveness. Interdisciplinary teams are learning to work together and to use data-driven problem solving. Humor adds a creative and welcome touch to the process that makes it easier and more fun to work in teams. The team leader or facilitator who uses humor along the journey sanctions the risk-taking behavior that accompanies creative solutions to tough problems.

  6. Affective Music Information Retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ju-Chiang; Yang, Yi-Hsuan; Wang, Hsin-Min

    2015-01-01

    Much of the appeal of music lies in its power to convey emotions/moods and to evoke them in listeners. In consequence, the past decade witnessed a growing interest in modeling emotions from musical signals in the music information retrieval (MIR) community. In this article, we present a novel generative approach to music emotion modeling, with a specific focus on the valence-arousal (VA) dimension model of emotion. The presented generative model, called \\emph{acoustic emotion Gaussians} (AEG)...

  7. Music and memory

    OpenAIRE

    Haefliger, Anna Berenika

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Music and its different forms of use seem to benefit people in a number of ways. Research has suggested that extensive musical practice and musical listening enhances mental functioning in healthy adults and patients with neurodegenerative disease. Yet, the findings presented have not yet examined the effects both musical training and stimuli enhancement have on episodic memory recognition. 20 musicians and 20 non-musicians took part in an episodic memory task which evaluated m...

  8. Psychiatry and music

    OpenAIRE

    Nizamie, Shamsul Haque; Tikka, Sai Krishna

    2014-01-01

    Vocal and/or instrumental sounds combined in such a way as to produce beauty of form, harmony and expression of emotion is music. Brain, mind and music are remarkably related to each other and music has got a strong impact on psychiatry. With the advent of music therapy, as an efficient form of alternative therapy in treating major psychiatric conditions, this impact has been further strengthened. In this review, we deliberate upon the historical aspects of the relationship between psychiatry...

  9. Embodied Music Listening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lars Ole

    2017-01-01

    The chapter presents the receptive music therapy model "Guided Imagery of Music (GIM)" as an embodied way of music listening with documented effects on a number of physiological and psychological symptoms and problems. Relaxation, guiding and (classical) music stimulates and supports the work......, underlying theories, selected research/evidence and illustrative clinical vignettes. Based on a study of cancer survivors’ GIM therapy, grounded theories of the therapeutic process and music’s role in the process are presented and discussed....

  10. Humor appreciation of captionless cartoons in obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background It seems that the core neural regions and cognitive processes implicated in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) pathophysiology may overlap with those involved in humor appreciation. However, to date, there have been no studies that have explored humor appreciation in OCD. The purpose of the present work was to investigate humor appreciation in a group of patients with OCD. Methods We examined 25 patients with OCD and 25 healthy controls, matched by age, education, and gender. We administered Penn's Humor Appreciation Test (PHAT), a computerized test comprising captionless cartoons by Mordillo. Each set of stimuli consisted of two almost identical drawings, one of which was funny due to the alteration of a detail in the cartoon, whereas the other was not funny. Severity of psychopathology was evaluated with the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS). Results No significant effect for group, gender or group × gender interaction was found on the PHAT scores. In OCD patients, humor appreciation was not significantly associated with age of onset, duration of illness, and obsessions, but correlated significantly with compulsions. Conclusions Humor appreciation, based on captionless cartoons in OCD, does not seem to be deficient compared to healthy subjects but may be related to illness characteristics. PMID:22103926

  11. Humor, laughter, learning, and health! A brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Brandon M; Lujan, Heidi L; Thipparthi, Raghavendar R; DiCarlo, Stephen E

    2017-09-01

    Human emotions, such as anxiety, depression, fear, joy, and laughter, profoundly affect psychological and physiological processes. These emotions form a set of basic, evolved functions that are shared by all humans. Laughter is part of a universal language of basic emotions that all humans recognize. Health care providers and educators may utilize the power of laughter to improve health and enhance teaching and learning. This is an important consideration because teaching is not just about content: it is also about forming relationships and strengthening human connections. In this context, when used effectively, humor is documented to build relationships and enhance performance. Specifically, humor improves student performance by attracting and sustaining attention, reducing anxiety, enhancing participation, and increasing motivation. Moreover, humor stimulates multiple physiological systems that decrease levels of stress hormones, such as cortisol and epinephrine, and increase the activation of the mesolimbic dopaminergic reward system. To achieve these benefits, it is important to use humor that is relevant to the course content and not disparaging toward others. Self-effacing humor illustrates to students that the teacher is comfortable making mistakes and sharing these experiences with the classroom. In this brief review, we discuss the history and relationship between humor, laughing, learning, and health with an emphasis on the powerful, universal language of laughter. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Longitudinal Associations Between Humor Styles and Psychosocial Adjustment in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Claire Louise; Hunter, Simon Christopher; Jones, Siân Emily

    2016-08-01

    This study assessed the concurrent and prospective associations between psychosocial adjustment and four humor styles, two of which are adaptive (affiliative, self-enhancing) and two maladaptive (aggressive, self-defeating). Participants were 1,234 adolescents (52% female) aged 11-13 years, drawn from six secondary schools in England. Self-reports of psychosocial adjustment (loneliness, depressive symptomatology, and self-esteem) and humor styles were collected at two time points (fall and summer). In cross-lagged panel analyses, self-defeating humor was associated with an increase in both depressive symptoms and loneliness, and with a decrease in self-esteem. In addition, depressive symptoms predicted an increase in the use of self-defeating humor over time, indicating that these may represent a problematic spiral of thoughts and behaviors. Self-esteem was associated with an increase in the use of affiliative humor over the school year but not vice-versa. These results inform our understanding of the ways in which humor is associated with psychosocial adjustment in adolescence.

  13. Longitudinal Associations Between Humor Styles and Psychosocial Adjustment in Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Louise Fox

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the concurrent and prospective associations between psychosocial adjustment and four humor styles, two of which are adaptive (affiliative, self-enhancing and two maladaptive (aggressive, self-defeating. Participants were 1,234 adolescents (52% female aged 11-13 years, drawn from six secondary schools in England. Self-reports of psychosocial adjustment (loneliness, depressive symptomatology, and self-esteem and humor styles were collected at two time points (fall and summer. In cross-lagged panel analyses, self-defeating humor was associated with an increase in both depressive symptoms and loneliness, and with a decrease in self-esteem. In addition, depressive symptoms predicted an increase in the use of self-defeating humor over time, indicating that these may represent a problematic spiral of thoughts and behaviors. Self-esteem was associated with an increase in the use of affiliative humor over the school year but not vice-versa. These results inform our understanding of the ways in which humor is associated with psychosocial adjustment in adolescence.

  14. Community Music in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Gillian

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a historical perspective to the development of community music in Australia. Finding political support in Australia's progressive arts policies of the late 1970s, community music is discussed as embracing the principles of access and equity and supporting the development of musical skills in the context of social change and…

  15. Constructivism in Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shively, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Over the past twenty years, constructivism, as a theory of learning, has taken on an increasingly important role in music education. Efforts to shift music education toward a more constructivist practice have significant implications for policymaking at all levels of music education. In this article, I seek to recalibrate our thinking about what…

  16. Pop Music's Middle Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Peter

    1979-01-01

    Surveys important music styles that preceded the emergence of rock and roll in the 1950s. Included are swing, bebop, rhythm and blues, country-western, gospel, and urban folk music. Lists of selected readings and recordings are appended. Part of a theme issue on popular music. (Editor/SJL)

  17. Concept Analysis: Music Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrock, Carolyn J; Bekhet, Abir K

    2016-01-01

    Down through the ages, music has been universally valued for its therapeutic properties based on the psychological and physiological responses in humans. However, the underlying mechanisms of the psychological and physiological responses to music have been poorly identified and defined. Without clarification, a concept can be misused, thereby diminishing its importance for application to nursing research and practice. The purpose of this article was for the clarification of the concept of music therapy based on Walker and Avant's concept analysis strategy. A review of recent nursing and health-related literature covering the years 2007-2014 was performed on the concepts of music, music therapy, preferred music, and individualized music. As a result of the search, the attributes, antecedents, and consequences of music therapy were identified, defined, and used to develop a conceptual model of music therapy. The conceptual model of music therapy provides direction for developing music interventions for nursing research and practice to be tested in various settings to improve various patient outcomes. Based on Walker and Avant's concept analysis strategy, model and contrary cases are included. Implications for future nursing research and practice to use the psychological and physiological responses to music therapy are discussed.

  18. [Music therapy and depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Assche, E; De Backer, J; Vermote, R

    2015-01-01

    Music therapy is a predominantly non-verbal psychotherapy based on music improvisation, embedded in a therapeutic relationship. This is the reason why music therapy is also used to treat depression. To examine the efficacy of music therapy and to report on the results of recent research into the value of music therapy as a treatment for depression. We reviewed the literature on recent research into music therapy and depression, reporting on the methods used and the results achieved, and we assessed the current position of music therapy for depression in the context of evidence-based scientific research. A wide variety of research methods was used to investigate the effects of using music therapy as a psychotherapy. Most studies focused usually on the added value that music therapy brings to the standard form of psychiatric treatment, when administered with or without psychopharmacological support. Music therapy produced particularly significant and favourable results when used to treat patients with depression. Current research into music therapy and depression points to a significant and persistent reduction in patients' symptoms and to improvements in their quality of life. However, further research is needed with regard to the best methods of illustrating the effects of music therapy.

  19. Investigating Music Information Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissenberger, Lynnsey K.

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation, titled "Investigating Music Information Objects," is a study of the nature, description, representations, and ideas related to music information objects (MIOs). This research study investigates how music practitioners from various traditions describe and conceptualize MIOs, using a theoretical framework to classify…

  20. Learning Science Using Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolinski, Keith

    2011-01-01

    For thousands of years, people have used music to transfer information and narrate stories. The musical structure, consisting of words set to melodies in rhythmic patterns, made the content easier to remember. Researchers have investigated the long- and short-term effects of song on memory and found that music aided in the recall of information.…

  1. Saving Malta's music memory

    OpenAIRE

    Sant, Toni

    2013-01-01

    Maltese music is being lost. Along with it Malta loses its culture, way of life, and memories. Dr Toni Sant is trying to change this trend through the Malta Music Memory Project (M3P) http://www.um.edu.mt/think/saving-maltas-music-memory-2/

  2. This Too Is Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upitis, Rena

    This book focuses on music as a subject relating to all other disciplines. "On the Teaching of Music," the first of 12 chapters, sets the theoretical and philosophical basis for a child-centered, subject-integrated teaching approach through autobiographical narrative. Chapter 2, "A Music Playground," advocates the presentation of materials and…

  3. World Music Ensemble: Kulintang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beegle, Amy C.

    2012-01-01

    As instrumental world music ensembles such as steel pan, mariachi, gamelan and West African drums are becoming more the norm than the exception in North American school music programs, there are other world music ensembles just starting to gain popularity in particular parts of the United States. The kulintang ensemble, a drum and gong ensemble…

  4. Make a Little Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pica, Rae

    2009-01-01

    Music is vital to the development of language and listening skills. Both music and language arts consist of symbols and ideas; when the two content areas are used in combination, abstract concepts become more concrete. This article provides information that shows the role of music in helping children meet early learning standards, including those…

  5. Selling digital music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tvede, Mich

    This paper considers the market for digital music. We claim that the combination of the MP3 format and peer-to-peer networks has made music non-excludable and this feature is essential for the understanding of the economics of the music market. We study optimal business models for selling non...

  6. Popular music from Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otte, Andreas Roed

    a sense of place in popular music. The second probes different strategies for co-branding popular music and Greenland. The third is concerned with music consumption patterns among Greenlandic youth. And the fourth article engages with an alternative form of nationalism found within the Nuuk underground...

  7. Pediatric Music Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathom-Radocy, Wanda B.

    This book on music therapy includes relevant medical, psychological, and developmental information to help service providers, particularly music therapists, and parents to understand children with disabilities. The first two chapters describe the process of assessment and delineation of goals in music therapy that leads to the design of the music…

  8. Nigerian Music Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Music Reveiw. ... Nigerian Music Review is aimed at the scholarly review of the developments in various musical practices in Nigeria. It considers well ... Performance practice and functions of local wine and beer parlor songs in rural Yoruba Communities in Ogbomoso · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  9. MUSIC OF ANTIQUITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JENNIFER; LIM

    1998-01-01

    BEAUTIFUL music is flowing out from the fingertips of a dozen old men. They hail from the remote snowcapped Yulong mountain of Lijiang, located in southwestern China’s Yunnan Province. The music that they play has a history of more than one thousand years. Performed in traditional costume with antique-looking musical instruments, the thoroughly original concert of ancient

  10. Music Education for All

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Jonathan

    2018-01-01

    This article argues that a systematic, developmental and comprehensive music education should be at the heart of every child's formal education within the state education system. The benefits of a music education are briefly explored before a presentation of recent research data that demonstrates a decline in music education as a result of poorly…

  11. AP Music Theory Applied

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spieker, Matthew H.

    2016-01-01

    Some American high schools include Advanced Placement (AP) Music Theory within their course offerings. Students who pass the AP exam can receive college credit either as a music or humanities credit. An AP class, however, offers music students more than future college credit; it ultimately improves musicianship skills and promotes deeper…

  12. The humor after of the humor: concepts around Pablo Holberg´s Eden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Turnes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of 21st century comics production in Argentina have experienced the emergence of new methods of publication, promotion and circulation consisting of a series of devices whose complex relationship has redefined the authorial figureas well as a new reading audience. The passage from the Internet and digital formats to the book has established itself as post-industrial strategy in the context of the reconstitution of a diverse comics field, where the national tradition of humor serves as example of the mentioned changes

  13. Humor styles and personality: A meta-analysis of the relation between humor styles and the Big Five personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendiburo-Seguel, Andrés; Páez, Darío; Martínez-Sánchez, Francisco

    2015-06-01

    This research summarizes the knowledge generated in social psychology and positive psychology about the relationship between humor styles, personality and wellbeing. Specifically, a meta-analysis was performed with the results of 15 studies on humor styles measured by the Humor Styles Questionnaire (Martin, Puhlik-Doris, Larsen, Gray & Weir, 2003) in correlation with the personality traits measured by the Big Five Personality model (measured with different scales). Following the steps presented by Rosenthal (1991) for meta-analysis in the case of correlational research, we calculated the total mean r as an indicator of effect size. Results show that affiliative humor has a strong and homogeneous relation to neuroticism and extraversion. The homogeneity and heterogeneity found between variables and possible explanations are discussed in the conclusion. © 2015 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Whole vitreous humor dissection for vitreodynamic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murali, Karthik; Kashani, Amir H; Humayun, Mark S

    2015-05-24

    The authors propose an effective technique to isolate whole, intact vitreous core and cortex from post mortem enucleated porcine eyes. While previous studies have shown the results of such dissections, the detailed steps have not been described, precluding researchers outside the field from replicating their methods. Other studies harvest vitreous either through aspiration, which does not maintain the vitreous structure anatomy, or through partial dissection, which only isolates the vitreous core. The proposed method isolates the whole vitreous body, with the vitreous core and cortex intact, while maintaining vitreous anatomy and structural integrity. In this method, a full thickness scleral flap in an enucleated porcine eye is first created and through this, the choroid tissue can be separated from the sclera. The scleral flap is then expanded and the choroid is completely separated from the sclera. Finally the choroid-retina tissue is peeled off the vitreous to leave an isolated intact vitreous body. The proposed vitreous dissection technique can be used to study physical properties of the vitreous humor. In particular, this method has significance for experimental studies involving drug delivery, vitreo-retinal oxygen transport, and intraocular convection.

  15. Eosinophils: important players in humoral immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berek, C

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophils perform numerous tasks. They are involved in inflammatory reactions associated with innate immune defence against parasitic infections and are also involved in pathological processes in response to allergens. Recently, however, it has become clear that eosinophils also play crucial non-inflammatory roles in the generation and maintenance of adaptive immune responses. Eosinophils, being a major source of the plasma cell survival factor APRIL (activation and proliferation-induced ligand), are essential not only for the long-term survival of plasma cells in the bone marrow, but also for the maintenance of these cells in the lamina propria which underlies the gut epithelium. At steady state under non-inflammatory conditions eosinophils are resident cells of the gastrointestinal tract, although only few are present in the major organized lymphoid tissue of the gut - the Peyer's patches (PP). Surprisingly, however, lack of eosinophils abolishes efficient class-switching of B cells to immunoglobulin (Ig)A in the germinal centres of PP. Thus, eosinophils are required to generate and to maintain mucosal IgA plasma cells, and as a consequence their absence leads to a marked reduction of IgA both in serum and in the gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT). Eosinophils thus have an essential part in long-term humoral immune protection, as they are crucial for the longevity of antibody-producing plasma cells in the bone marrow and, in addition, for gut immune homeostasis. © 2015 British Society for Immunology.

  16. Convective transport resistance in the vitreous humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penkova, Anita; Sadhal, Satwindar; Ratanakijsuntorn, Komsan; Moats, Rex; Tang, Yang; Hughes, Patrick; Robinson, Michael; Lee, Susan

    2012-11-01

    It has been established by MRI visualization experiments that the convection of nanoparticles and large molecules with high rate of water flow in the vitreous humor will experience resistance, depending on the respective permeabilities of the injected solute. A set of experiments conducted with Gd-DTPA (Magnevist, Bayer AG, Leverkusen, Germany) and 30 nm gadolinium-based particles (Gado CELLTrackTM, Biopal, Worcester, MA) as MRI contrast agents showed that the degree of convective transport in this Darcy-type porous medium varies between the two solutes. These experiments consisted of injecting a mixture of the two (a 30 μl solution of 2% Magnevist and 1% nanoparticles) at the middle of the vitreous of an ex vivo whole bovine eye and subjecting the vitreous to water flow rate of 100 μl/min. The water (0.9% saline solution) was injected at the top of the eye, and was allowed to drain through small slits cut at the bottom of the eyeball. After 50 minutes of pumping, MRI images showed that the water flow carried the Gd-DTPA farther than the nanoparticles, even though the two solutes, being mixed, were subjected to the same convective flow conditions. We find that the convected solute lags the water flow, depending on the solute permeability. The usual convection term needs to be adjusted to allow for the filtration effect on the larger particles in the form (1- σ) u . ∇ c with important implications for the modeling of such systems.

  17. Musical competence of preschool teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Grdešič, Irena

    2012-01-01

    My diploma deals with musical competencies of preschool teachers. Music education includes many different activities: singing various songs, playing different instruments, listening to music, being creative while listening to music and creating the music itself. It is of utmost importance that kindergarten teachers are capable of mediating music to the children and are able to incorporate it into the every day of their kindergarten activities. Music helps calm children down, it relaxes them, ...

  18. Theoretical Models of Interpersonal Communication and Second Language Acquisition of Immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona FER

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Communication is the act of sharing information and it generally involves the use of oral or written symbols and, in other circumstances, it covers different types of nonverbal symbols such as body language, painting, music, crafts, sculpture or gestures. Building effective communication skills and relationships is often challenging, being the medium for group interactions, public relations and family. This study explores the interpersonal relationships of immigrants and it properly is a current topic because immigration to the European Union states has rapidly increased and immigrant groups are more diverse than ever before. The purpose is to analyze the immigrants attitudes, experiences but also expectations of their interpersonal communication and relationships and the way they expand and maintain them, and also to understand how interpersonal communication affects the immigrants adaptation to the new environment. The main rule of mutual respect is the basis for success in communication and relationships, as well as accepting and understanding cultural differences and the new language without judging them. Cultural differences are often easily identified and therefore, easy to adapt to, but others are considerably more difficult. In this respect, I considered as opportune to bring into question and compare important theories provided and investigated by specialists in interpersonal communication. They offer a clear overview and examination of understanding the immigrants participation to the process of interpersonal communication in the host country.

  19. On music Therapy : Music and Healing

    OpenAIRE

    栗林, 文雄

    1996-01-01

    The theory of sound as energy is based on the relationship between music and positive humanfeelings. It was discussed the music therapy is effective in the care and cure of elderly with behavioral disorderssuch as senile dementia, and in patients in palliative medicine wards with cancer and in patientswith various kinds of mental disorders such as schizophrenia. alcohol. drug addiction and so on.

  20. The German Version of the Humor Styles Questionnaire: Psychometric Properties and Overlap With Other Styles of Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruch, Willibald; Heintz, Sonja

    2016-08-01

    The Humor Styles Questionnaire (HSQ; Martin et al., 2003) is one of the most frequently used questionnaires in humor research and has been adapted to several languages. The HSQ measures four humor styles (affiliative, self-enhancing, aggressive, and self-defeating), which should be adaptive or potentially maladaptive to psychosocial well-being. The present study analyzes the internal consistency, factorial validity, and factorial invariance of the HSQ on the basis of several German-speaking samples combined (total N = 1,101). Separate analyses were conducted for gender (male/female), age groups (16-24, 25-35, >36 years old), and countries (Germany/Switzerland). Internal consistencies were good for the overall sample and the demographic subgroups (.80-.89), with lower values obtained for the aggressive scale (.66-.73). Principal components and confirmatory factor analyses mostly supported the four-factor structure of the HSQ. Weak factorial invariance was found across gender and age groups, while strong factorial invariance was supported across countries. Two subsamples also provided self-ratings on ten styles of humorous conduct (n = 344) and of eight comic styles (n = 285). The four HSQ scales showed small to large correlations to the styles of humorous conduct (-.54 to .65) and small to medium correlations to the comic styles (-.27 to .42). The HSQ shared on average 27.5-35.0% of the variance with the styles of humorous conduct and 13.0-15.0% of the variance with the comic styles. Thus-despite similar labels-these styles of humorous conduct and comic styles differed from the HSQ humor styles.

  1. Immigration and Religion in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Lisbet

    2009-01-01

    An overview over legal framework for immigration into Denmark, special clauses on religion as a parameter for residence permit and asylum in churches......An overview over legal framework for immigration into Denmark, special clauses on religion as a parameter for residence permit and asylum in churches...

  2. Immigrant Education: A Fact Sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Steven R.

    This report provides information on immigrant education in the United States in the areas of funding, participation, population, services, and allocation method. Additionally, it explores reauthorization issues confronting the Emergency Immigrant Education Act for fiscal year 1994. The report shows that: (1) there has been a steady decrease in…

  3. Identity Transformation of Korean Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Saekyung; Gaa, John; Swank, Paul; Liberman, Dov

    Immigration is one of the most significant changes which can occur in one's lifetime. Immigrants struggle with their foreign environment and renewed crises; they suffer from "uprootedness" and "missed embeddedness" and have difficulty integrating their identity roles. Erikson's psychosocial development theory and Marcia's…

  4. Music therapy and music medicine for children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yinger, Olivia Swedberg; Gooding, Lori

    2014-07-01

    This article summarizes the research on music therapy and music medicine for children and adolescents with diagnoses commonly treated by psychiatrists. Music therapy and music medicine are defined, effects of music on the brain are described, and music therapy research in psychiatric treatment is discussed. Music therapy research with specific child/adolescent populations is summarized, including disorders usually diagnosed in childhood, substance abuse, mood/anxiety disorders, and eating disorders. Clinical implications are listed, including suggestions for health care professionals seeking to use music medicine techniques. Strengths and weaknesses of music therapy treatment are discussed, as well as areas for future research. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Assyrian Music and Iconography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Maria Paim Pozzer

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The sources about music in ancient Mesopotamia are numerous, there are hundreds of cuneiform tablets in Sumerian and Akkadian language, and also iconic representations of material culture have been rescued by archeology. The texts of varied nature show myths, staves and musical theories, displaying speci?c vocabulary about the act of musical performance, on musicians and musical instruments. In these documents, the rich iconography of war among the Assyrians is also revealing of musical practice, including in military contexts. There is evidence of foreign musicians within the Assyrian royal courts in the cuneiform tablets, in the stone

  6. Music Therapy for Seniors

    OpenAIRE

    SLUNEČKOVÁ, Petra

    2014-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with the use of music therapy in the lives of seniors. The target of this thesis is to map the possibilities of using music therapy ways with seniors and to recommend a suitable music therapy resources on the basis of the research and evaluation of obtained dates. The theoretical part describes the term "the music therapy", e.g. concept, definition, types and forms, the development of music therapy, the history, methods and techniques. This age group is defined in t...

  7. Virtual Reality Musical Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serafin, Stefania; Erkut, Cumhur; Kojs, Juraj

    2016-01-01

    The rapid development and availability of low-cost technologies have created a wide interest in virtual reality. In the field of computer music, the term “virtual musical instruments” has been used for a long time to describe software simulations, extensions of existing musical instruments......, and ways to control them with new interfaces for musical expression. Virtual reality musical instruments (VRMIs) that include a simulated visual component delivered via a head-mounted display or other forms of immersive visualization have not yet received much attention. In this article, we present a field...

  8. Music and movement

    OpenAIRE

    Nasev, Lence

    2012-01-01

    Rhythm is one of the fundamental elements without which music would not exist. In plays with singing, a child learns to synchronize its movements with the rhythm of music from a very early age. The skill of movement plays a major role in the learning of music and thus deserves an important place in the school curriculum. In this paper, an overview is made of the most important music pedagogues who introduced movement, and at the same time perceived its importance in learning musical conte...

  9. Music as design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh

    2012-01-01

    The incorporation of the sounds of the surrounding world in music is today a familiar phenomenon on the electronic music and audio art scenes, and to some extent also in contemporary music. It is rarer for a contemporary audio or visual artist to use music as the form-giving element for a semi......-realistic event or narrative. In a way the phenomenon can be compared to Puccini's operas, or to the ground-breaking dance performances for which the choreographer Pina Bauch became famous, where musicalization produced stylizations fo everyday events. Familiar, readable events were reinforced and relocated...

  10. Library Resources in Special Areas of Music: Film Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, H. Stephen

    Intended as an orientation for music librarians unfamiliar with the film music field, this presentation addresses the most common film music questions received from library patrons, including queries about composers, soundtrack albums, the subject of the music, and scores, and describes the basic film music reference sources to consult for…

  11. Music Teachers and Music Therapists: Helping Children Together.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Allyson

    2003-01-01

    Provides background information on music therapy. Discusses how music therapy works in the public school setting and offers advice to music teachers. Explores music therapy and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, addressing the benefits of having access to music therapists. (CMK)

  12. From the Functions of Music to Music Preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Thomas; Sedlmeier, Peter

    2009-01-01

    To date, not much is known about how the functions of music relate to music preference. This article examines the basic hypothesis that the strength of preference for a given kind of music depends on the degree to which that kind of music serves the needs of the listener; that is, how well the respective functions of music are fulfilled. Study 1,…

  13. From Multiculturalism to Immigration Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Lauter

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Immigration is a tense political topic in virtually every Western country, and in many others as well. In fact, immigration is an international issue: 3 percent of the world's population, 191,000,000 people, now live in countries other than those in which they were born. This paper discusses why immigration is so fraught, the relation of the crisis over immigration to the growing fracture of the Western world's economy, as well as to terrorism like September 11 and the train bombings in Madrid, Mumbai, and London, and how these factors—growing economic disparity, immigration, and terrorism—have altered one of the basic cultural phenomena of the United States in the last three decades, namely, what we call multiculturalism.

  14. From Multiculturalism to Immigration Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Lauter

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Immigration is a tense political topic in virtually every Western country, and in many others as well. In fact, immigration is an international issue: 3 percent of the world's population, 191,000,000 people, now live in countries other than those in which they were born. This paper discusses why immigration is so fraught, the relation of the crisis over immigration to the growing fracture of the Western world's economy, as well as to terrorism like September 11 and the train bombings in Madrid, Mumbai, and London, and how these factors—growing economic disparity, immigration, and terrorism—have altered one of the basic cultural phenomena of the United States in the last three decades, namely, what we call multiculturalism.

  15. Music season coming soon

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin in collaboration with Julio Rosenfeld

    2012-01-01

    On 16 June, CERN’s music season will open with Music on the Lawn. The event is the CERN Music Club’s contribution to the Fete de la Musique and will take place on the terrace of Restaurant 1 from 2 p.m. to 8 p.m. The Hardronic Festival, CERN’s long-running rock festival, will be held on the evenings of 20 and 21 July in Prévessin, on the terrace behind Restaurant 3. If you would like to help with the organisation, please contact the Music Club by e-mail: music.club@cern.ch.   The Canettes Blues Band during the 2011 Hardronic Festival. (© Christoph Balle, 2010). Summer is coming, and along with it comes the music season. CERN will be hosting its two annual rock music concerts: Music on the Lawn and the Hardronic Festival. The two events are organised by the CERN Music Club, which has been sharing the enjoyment of good music with its numerous fans for many years. “Music on the Lawn was originally created so that the members of the Mus...

  16. The Music Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2006-01-01

    http://www.njmt.no/bookreview_2006071.html "The music effect is not about a particular composer, musical style, geographic location, language, or performance group. It is, at once, about all of these" (p. 249). This book is written by two people with very different educational backgrounds. Dr...... into music physiology. We have already seen them working together in 2001 in Berger’s book Music Therapy, Sensory Integration and the Autistic Child published by Jessica Kingsley, and this time their collaboration results in a book that is about the attributes of scientific reality (physics) as embedded....... Schneck is a fellow of the American Institute for Medical and Biological Engineering and Dorita S. Berger, MA, is a Board Certified music therapist. They have in common that both play music and perform professionally, and together they integrate various theories from scientific reality and music aesthetic...

  17. Nation and Classical Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Benedikte

    The last book Anthony D. Smith wrote before he died, and which will be published in Spring 2017, has the title Nation and Classical Music. Smith had for a long time been intrigued by the intimate relationship between the nation and classical music. At the most manifest level it involves...... them into their compositions thus challenging the romantic musical style searching for an authentic national musical expression. Against the backdrop of the extensive research carried out by Anthony Smith into the relationship between the nation and classical music, the present paper seeks to add...... cultural centers. In doing this, the paper seeks to unfold how composers channeled musical inspiration embedded in cultural environments that cut across national boundaries into national musical traditions thus catering to specific national audiences. The paper is written as a tribute to a great mentor...

  18. Selling digital music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tvede, Mich

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers the market for digital music. We claim that the combination of the MP3 format and peer-to-peer networks has made music non-excludable and this feature is essential for the understanding of the economics of the music market. We study optimal business models for selling non-exc......, the music industry should concentrate on alternative ways of creating profit such as selling access to listeners, concerts, merchandise, ringtones etc.......This paper considers the market for digital music. We claim that the combination of the MP3 format and peer-to-peer networks has made music non-excludable and this feature is essential for the understanding of the economics of the music market. We study optimal business models for selling non...

  19. Computational Music Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book provides an in-depth introduction and overview of current research in computational music analysis. Its seventeen chapters, written by leading researchers, collectively represent the diversity as well as the technical and philosophical sophistication of the work being done today...... on well-established theories in music theory and analysis, such as Forte's pitch-class set theory, Schenkerian analysis, the methods of semiotic analysis developed by Ruwet and Nattiez, and Lerdahl and Jackendoff's Generative Theory of Tonal Music. The book is divided into six parts, covering...... music analysis, the book provides an invaluable resource for researchers, teachers and students in music theory and analysis, computer science, music information retrieval and related disciplines. It also provides a state-of-the-art reference for practitioners in the music technology industry....

  20. Aesthetic responses to music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Istok, Eva; Brattico, Elvira; Jacobsen, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    We explored the content and structure of the cognitive, knowledge-based concept underlying aesthetic responses to music. To this aim, we asked 290 Finnish students to verbally associate the aesthetic value of music and to write down a list of appropriate adjectives within a given time limit....... No music was presented during the task. In addition, information about participants' musical background was collected. A variety of analysis techniques was used to determine the key results of our study. The adjective "beautiful" proved to be the core item of the concept under question. Interestingly......, the adjective "touching" was often listed together with "beautiful". In addition, we found music-specific vocabulary as well as adjectives related to emotions and mood states indicating that affective processes are an essential part of aesthetic responses to music. Differences between music experts and laymen...

  1. Humor as a Communication Strategy in Provider-Patient Communication in a Chronic Care Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöpf, Andrea C; Martin, Gillian S; Keating, Mary A

    2017-02-01

    Humor is a potential communication strategy to accomplish various and potentially conflicting consultation goals. We investigated humor use and its reception in diabetes consultations by analyzing how and why humor emerges and its impact on the interaction. We did this by using an interactional sociolinguistics approach. We recorded 50 consultations in an Irish diabetes setting. Analysis of the humor events drew on framework analysis and on concepts from Conversation Analysis and pragmatics. The study also comprised interviews using tape-assisted recall. We identified 10 humor functions and two umbrella functions. A key finding is that most humor is relationship-protecting humor initiated by patients, that is, they voice serious messages and deal with emotional issues through humor. Our findings imply that patients' and providers' awareness of indirect communication strategies needs to be increased. We also recommend that researchers employ varied methods to adequately capture the interactive nature of humor.

  2. Religious and secular volunteering: A comparison between immigrants and non-immigrants in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carabain, C.L.; Bekkers, R.H.F.P.

    2011-01-01

    Using new survey data from the Netherlands, we find that non-immigrants are more likely to volunteer for secular organisations than guest worker immigrants and postcolonial citizen immigrants. In contrast, non-immigrants are less likely to engage in religious volunteering than both immigrant groups.

  3. 78 FR 32989 - Visas: Documentation of Immigrants under the Immigration and Nationality Act, as Amended

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ... Immigrants under the Immigration and Nationality Act, as Amended AGENCY: Department of State. ACTION: Final... aliens who seek immigrant visas and does not affect any small entities, as defined in 5 U.S.C. 601(6). C... with the following change: PART 42--VISAS: DOCUMENTATION OF IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND...

  4. Undocumented immigration status and diabetes care among Mexican immigrants in two immigration "sanctuary" areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iten, A Elizabeth; Jacobs, Elizabeth A; Lahiff, Maureen; Fernández, Alicia

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between immigration status and the patient experience of health care, diabetes self-management, and clinical outcomes among Mexican immigrants with diabetes receiving health care in two immigration sanctuary cities. We used data from the Immigration, Culture and Health Care study, a cross-sectional survey and medical record study of low-income patients with diabetes recruited from public hospitals and community clinics in the San Francisco Bay Area and Chicago. Undocumented Mexican, documented Mexican immigrants, and US-born Mexican-Americans' health care experiences, diabetes self-management, and clinical outcomes were compared using multivariate linear and logistic regressions. We found no significant differences in reports of physician communication, or in measures of diabetes management between undocumented and documented immigrants. All three groups had similar clinical outcomes in glycemic, systolic blood pressure, and lipid control. These results indicate that, at least in some settings, undocumented Mexican immigrants with diabetes can achieve similar clinical outcomes and report similar health care experiences as documented immigrants and US-born Mexican-Americans.

  5. Cannabis e humor Cannabis and mood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Faria Sanches

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as relações entre o uso agudo e crônico de cannabis e alterações do humor. MÉTODO: Os artigos foram selecionados por meio de busca eletrônica no indexador PubMed. Capítulos de livros e as listas de referências dos artigos selecionados também foram revisados. RESULTADOS: Observam-se elevados índices de comorbidade entre abuso/dependência de cannabis e transtornos afetivos em estudos transversais e em amostras clínicas. Estudos longitudinais indicam que, em longo prazo, o uso mais intenso de cannabis está relacionado com um risco maior de desenvolvimento de doença bipolar e, talvez, depressão maior em indivíduos inicialmente sem quadros afetivos; porém, os mesmos não encontraram maior risco de uso de cannabis entre aqueles com mania ou depressão sem esta comorbidade. Outra importante observação é que o uso de substâncias psicoativas em bipolares pode estar associado a uma série de características negativas, como dificuldade na recuperação dos sintomas afetivos, maior número de internações, piora na adesão ao tratamento, risco aumentado de suicídio, agressividade e a uma pobre resposta ao lítio. Tratamentos psicossociais e farmacológicos são indicados para o manejo da comorbidade entre cannabis e transtornos afetivos. CONCLUSÃO: As relações entre o uso de cannabis e alterações do humor são observadas tanto epidemiologicamente quanto nos contextos clínicos.OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the relationship between acute and chronic use of cannabis and mood changes. METHOD: Articles were selected by electronic search in PubMed. Chapters in books and reference lists of selected articles were also reviewed. As the research did not involve humans, there was no evaluation by a Research Ethics Committee. RESULTS: High rates of comorbidity between use/abuse/dependence of cannabis and affective disorders in longitudinal studies and in clinical samples were observed. Longitudinal studies indicate that, in long

  6. Music holographic physiotherapy by laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Changhuan

    1996-09-01

    Based on the relationship between music and nature, the paper compares laser and light with music sound on the principles of synergetics, describes music physically and objectively, and proposes a music holographic therapy by laser. Maybe it will have certain effects on mechanism study and clinical practice of the music therapy.

  7. Film Music. Factfile No. 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsas, Diana, Ed.; And Others

    Organizations listed here with descriptive information include film music clubs and music guilds and associations. These are followed by a representative list of schools offering film music and/or film sound courses. Sources are listed for soundtrack recordings, sound effects/production music, films on film music, and oral history programs. The…

  8. Music and Movement. Beginnings Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Cindy; Moore, Thomas; Carlton, Elizabeth B.; Kranowitz, Carol Stock

    2000-01-01

    Four articles address music and movement in early childhood education: (1) "For the Love of Music--and Children"(Cindy Smith); (2) "Music: The Great Connector" (Thomas Moore); (3) "Learning through Music: The Support of Brain Research" (Elizabeth B. Carlton); and (4) "Music and Movement Bring Together Children of…

  9. [Humoral response markers in GCK MODY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skała-Zamorowska, Eliza; Deja, Grażyna; Borowiec, Maciej; Fendler, Wojciech; Małachowska, Beata; Kamińska, Halla; Wyka, Krystyna; Młynarski, Wojciech; Jarosz-Chobot, Przemysława

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of antibodies to pancreatic islets in monogenic diabetes remains unknown and the incidence estimation is difficult as the occurrence of autoantibodies in patient is one of the well-known exclusion criteria for further genetic diagnostics. They has been found not only among patients with type 1 diabetes, but also in other types of diabetes: Type 2 diabetes, Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults (LADA) (16) and monogenic diabetes (MD). Immunological characteristic of GCK MODY patients. The study group included families of 27 adolescent patients with GCK MODY (39 parents and 19 siblings) monitored in the Department of Pediatrics, Endocrinology and Diabetes and in the Diabetes Clinic of John Paul II Upper Silesian Child Health Centre in Katowice in the years 2007-2012. All patients and family members with GCK MODY underwent a blood sample drawing for immunological (classic humoral response markers: ICA, GAD, IA-2, IAA) and biochemical diagnostics. Pediatric, diabetes and family medical history was collected from the subjects and parents. Immunological diagnostics was performed in all patients except 1 (96.3%). Immunological diagnostics included 17 (89.5%) parents and 7 (87.5%) siblings with diagnosed GCK MODY. 8 (30.8%) adolescent patients with GCK MODY, 3 subjects (17.64%) among parents (with GCK MODY), as well as 2 subjects (28.57%) among siblings (with GCK MODY) showed a positive antibodies screen. The results of our study in children with GCK MODY and their family members suggest that the occurrence of classic antibodies directed against pancreatic islets antigens is fairly common in patients with GCK MODY. Despite various observations and many legitimate discussions, it is difficult to clarify the pathogenesis of the occurrence of autoantibodies in monogenic diabetes. © Polish Society for Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology.

  10. 8 CFR 1240.1 - Immigration judges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1240.1 Section 1240.1 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION... Immigration judges. (a) Authority. (1) In any removal proceeding pursuant to section 240 of the Act, the...

  11. 8 CFR 1240.41 - Immigration judges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1240.41 Section 1240.41 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION..., 1997) § 1240.41 Immigration judges. (a) Authority. In any proceeding conducted under this part the...

  12. The Changing Face of Immigration Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Christopher

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on laws that influence U.S. immigration, such as the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act (1996), the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (1996), the Anti-Terrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act (1996), and the Legal Immigration and Family Equity Act (2000). Includes discussion…

  13. The U.S. immigration crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, G P; Lutton, W

    1985-01-01

    A review of the factors affecting immigration to the United States is presented. The authors develop the argument that present levels of immigration, particularly illegal immigration, are detrimental to U.S. interests, and that current global population trends will make this situation progressively worse. Stricter controls on immigration are considered.

  14. Crime and immigration: evidence from large immigrant waves

    OpenAIRE

    Brian Bell; Stephen Machin; Francesco Fasani

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between immigration and crime in a setting where large migration flows offer an opportunity to carefully appraise whether the populist view that immigrants cause crime is borne out by rigorous evidence. We consider possible crime effects from two large waves of immigration that recently occurred in the UK. The first of these was the late 1990s/early 2000s wave of asylum seekers, and the second the large inflow of workers from EU accession countries that to...

  15. The making of an immigrant niche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldinger, R

    1994-01-01

    "This article speaks to the conceptual and methodological issues in research on the making of an immigrant niche through a case study of immigrant professionals in New York City government." The author argues that "the growth of this immigrant niche resulted from changes in the relative supply of native workers and in the structure of employment, which opened the bureaucracy to immigrants and reduced native/immigrant competition. These shifts opened hiring portals; given the advantages of network hiring for workers and managers, and an immigrant propensity for government employment, network recruitment led to a rapid buildup in immigrant ranks." excerpt

  16. Nonlinearities and synchronization in musical acoustics and music psychology

    CERN Document Server

    Bader, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    Nonlinearities are a crucial and founding principle in nearly all musical systems, may they be musical instruments, timbre or rhythm perception and production, or neural networks of music perception. This volume gives an overview about present and past research in these fields. In Musical Acoustics, on the one hand the nonlinearities in musical instruments often produce the musically interesting features. On the other, musical instruments are nonlinear by nature, and tone production is the result of synchronization and self-organization within the instruments. Furthermore, as nearly all musical instruments are driven by impulses an Impulse Pattern Formulation (IPF) is suggested, an iterative framework holding for all musical instruments. It appears that this framework is able to reproduce the complex and perceptionally most salient initial transients of musical instruments. In Music Psychology, nonlinearities are present in all areas of musical features, like pitch, timbre, or rhythm perception. In terms of r...

  17. The Music Industry Conference Guide for Music Educators. A Supplement to the Music Educators Journal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Music Educators Journal, 1988

    1988-01-01

    This supplement is a comprehensive guide to the music industry designed for music teachers. Included are tips for contacting music businesses and suggestions on ordering music, robes, instruments, computer software, and other supplies. Includes an annotated directory of Music Industry Conference members. (JDH)

  18. Preservice Music Teachers' Attitudes toward Popular Music in the Music Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, D. Gregory; Gooding, Lori F.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine preservice music educators' attitudes toward popular music in the music classroom. On a survey instrument designed by the investigators, participants ("N" = 82) rated (a) the effectiveness of popular music in addressing the National Standards for Music Education, (b) the appropriateness of popular…

  19. Flomoxef sodium and levofloxacin concentrations in aqueous humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuki, Nobuhisa; Watanabe, Yoichiro; Miyamoto, Mariko; Iijima, Yasuhito; Takiyama, Naoaki; Ito, Yoshiki; Ito, Norihiko; Nishida, Tomomi; Iwata, Shinko; Endo, Yoko; Ito, Daizo

    2005-01-01

    We intravenously administered flomoxef sodium (FMOX) 120 minutes before cataract surgery, topically administered levofloxacin (LVFX) into the eyes four times at 30-minute intervals before surgery, and measured the aqueous humor concentrations of these agents to investigate their penetration into the aqueous humor and their efficacy in the prevention of postoperative endophthalmitis. Sixty-eight patients who underwent cataract surgery at the Department of Ophthalmology, Yokohama City University School of Medicine, or its affiliate, Kanazawa Hospital, Yokohama, were enrolled in this study. They received one or both of the following: 1.0 g FMOX via a 20-minute intravenous drip and LVFX ophthalmic solution applied four times at 30-minute intervals, both beginning two hours before the operation. Aqueous humor was aspirated from the anterior chamber and assayed for FMOX and LVFX concentrations using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The mean intraoperative FMOX and LVFX concentrations in the patients' aqueous humor were 1.21 +/- 0.63 microg/ml and 0.69 +/- 0.47 microg/ml, respectively. These concentrations sufficiently exceeded the MIC90 values against Staphylococcus epidermidis, S. aureus, and Propionibacterium acnes. The FMOX and LVFX concentrations in the aqueous humor sampling were adequate to kill bacteria in vitro. These drugs may have efficacy in the prevention of postoperative endophthalmitis in patients undergoing cataract surgery.

  20. [Preoperatively administered flomoxef sodium concentration in aqueous humor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Mariko; Watanabe, Yoichiro; Mizuki, Nobuhisa

    2007-04-01

    We intravenously administered flomoxef sodium (FMOX) 0.5-3.5 hours before cataract surgery and measured the concentration of the agent in the aqueous humor to investigate its penetration into the aqueous humor and its efficacy in the prevention of postoperative endophthalmitis. 56 patients who underwent cataract surgery were enrolled in this study. They received 1 g FMOX via a 20-minute intravenous drip beginning 0.5-3.5 hours before the operation. Aqueous humor was aspirated from the anterior chamber and assayed for FMOX concentration using high-performance liquid chromatography. The mean intraoperative FMOX concentrations in the patients' aqueous humor were 0.79 +/- 0.24 microg/ml (administered 3.5 hours before surgery)--1.47 0.79 microg/ml (administered 1.5 hours before surgery). These concentrations administered 0.5-3.0 hours before surgery sufficiently exceeded the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) 90 values against Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus and Propionibacterium acnes, but did not achieve the MIC90 values against Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The FMOX concentrations in the aqueous humor sampling were adequate to kill bacteria in vitro. This drug may be efficacious in the prevention of postoperative endophthalmitis in patients undergoing cataract surgery.

  1. Does Humor Explain Why Relationally Aggressive Adolescents Are Popular?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, Julie C.; Etkin, Rebecca G.

    2013-01-01

    The association between relational aggression and popularity during early adolescence is well established. Yet, little is known about why, exactly, relationally aggressive young adolescents are able to achieve and maintain high popular status among peers. The present study investigated the mediating role of humor in the association between relational aggression and popularity during early adolescence. Also considered was whether the association between relational aggression and humor varies according to adolescents’ gender and their friends’ levels of relational aggression. Participants were 265 sixth-grade students (48% female; 41% racial/ethnic minority; Mage = 12.04 years) who completed peer nomination and friendship measures in their classrooms at two time points (Wave 1: February; Wave 2: May). The results indicated that Wave 1 relational aggression was related to Wave 1 and 2 popularity indirectly through Wave 1 humor, after accounting for the effects of Wave 1 physical aggression, ethnicity, and gender. Additional analyses showed that relational aggression and humor were related significantly only for boys and for young adolescents with highly relationally aggressive friends. The results support the need for further research on humor and aggression during early adolescence and other mechanisms by which relationally aggressive youth achieve high popular status. PMID:24136377

  2. Laughter, Humor, and Cancer: Delicate Moments and Poignant Interactional Circumstances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Wayne A; Prickett, Erin

    2017-07-01

    Conversation analysis is employed to examine transcribed excerpts drawn from a subsample of 75 naturally occurring and video recorded interviews between cancer patients and 30 doctors. Close examination is provided of how cancer patients initiate, and doctors respond, to laughter and humor during oncology interviews. Interactions demonstrate that communication about the disease "cancer" shares qualities similar to other medical areas (e.g., primary care): the tendency for patients to initiate laughter or humor to address troubling and challenging circumstances; and that during moments when patients address personal matters, doctors are not invited and do not reciprocate with shared laughter and humor. Prominent in talk about cancer are various precarious circumstances, awkward and delicate moments mirroring the lived experiences of cancer patients (e.g., when patients attempt to minimize fears, justify that they are well when threatened with sickness, claim normality in the midst of chronic conditions, and take stances that weight loss and gain are not problematic). These examples provide a compelling case that routine cancer care involves many poignant situations managed through laughter and humor. Implications are raised for how quality care might be improved through grounded understandings of laughter, humor, and cancer.

  3. Musicality Development Among Primary School Pupils in Music Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Vilde, Ilze

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Research goal. To explore the structure of musicality, to examine components that characterize musicality among primary school pupils and the pedagogic logic of its development during music lessons in primary school. As a result of the theoretical study, characterizing components and criteria of musicality among primary school pupils were researched and described and the description of musicality was broadened. The created model for music studies for facilitating the developme...

  4. Is the New Immigration Really So Bad?

    OpenAIRE

    Card, David Edward

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews the recent evidence on U.S. immigration, focusing on two key questions: (1) Does immigration reduce the labor market opportunities of less-skilled natives? (2) Have immigrants who arrived after the 1965 Immigration Reform Act successfully assimilated? Looking across major cities, differential immigrant inflows are strongly correlated with the relative supply of high school dropouts. Nevertheless, data from the 2000 Census shows that relative wages of native dropouts are unc...

  5. Immigrant Workers and Farm Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Munch, Jakob R.; Seidelin, Claus Aastrup

    2013-01-01

    for Danish farms in 1980–2008 to analyze the micro-level relationship between these two developments. Farms employing immigrants tend to be both larger than and no less productive than other farms. Furthermore, an increased use of immigrants is associated with an improvement in job creation and revenue......In many developed countries, the agricultural sector has experienced a significant inflow of immigrants. At the same time, agriculture is still in a process of structural transformation, resulting in fewer but larger and presumably more efficient farms. We exploit matched employer-employee data...

  6. Is memory for music special?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulkind, Matthew D

    2009-07-01

    Although psychologists since Hermann Ebbinghaus have studied memory, research in this area has focused on visual and verbal stimuli with little attention paid to music. This bias is surprising because of the ubiquity of music in human cultures across history as well as current cultural beliefs that memory for music is "special." This paper examines the question of whether memory for music is special by addressing two related questions: First, do cultural beliefs about the mnemonic power of music stand up to empirical test? Second, can theories designed to explain memory for non-musical stimuli be applied to musical stimuli? A review of the literature suggests that music is special in some circumstances but not others and that some theories designed to explain cognitive processing of linguistic stimuli apply reasonably well to musical stimuli. Thus, although the question of whether memory for music is special remains open, the unique structure of musical stimuli strongly suggests that memory for music is indeed special.

  7. Pain, music creativity and music therapy in palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, C C

    1996-01-01

    An analysis of the music therapy literature yields numerous reports to support the role of music in the alleviation of pain in palliative care. Four theoretical perspectives that support why many patients report reduced pain sensation after music therapy include: the psychological relationship between music and pain; the psychophysiological theory; spinal mechanisms involved in pain modulation; and the role of endorphins. Considerations significant to the use of music in pain relief include how music, used inappropriately, can aggravate pain sensation. Case studies, which include the use of creative music therapy techniques, point to the efficacy of music therapy in alleviating the pain experiences of both palliative care patients and their significant others.

  8. Differential effects of self-esteem and interpersonal competence on humor styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCosker B

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Bernadette McCosker, Carmen C MoranSchool of Psychology, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, NSW, AustraliaBackground: In contrast with an early implicit “facilitative hypothesis” of humor, a revised specificity hypothesis predicts that the benefits of humor depend on the specific style of humor used. Information on predictors of these humor styles in turn enhances the ability to predict the effect on well-being.Methods: We examined the relationships between interpersonal competence, self-esteem, and different styles of humor, while also examining the contributions of age and gender. Participants (n = 201 aged 18–63 years completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory, the Interpersonal Competence Questionnaire, and the Humor Styles Questionnaire, and gave demographic information.Results: High self-esteem was associated with higher use of affiliative, aggressive, and self-enhancing humor styles, but lower use of self-defeating humor. High interpersonal competence predicted greater use of affiliative humor, whereas low interpersonal competence predicted greater use of aggressive humor. Further analyses showed that initiation competence predicted affiliative humor (positively but both initiation competence (positively and conflict management competence (negatively predicted aggressive humor.Conclusion: The findings that both self-esteem and initiation competence contribute to use of aggressive humor add to knowledge of who is likely to use this potentially harmful humor style. We conclude that a readiness to initiate humorous interactions is not on its own a general and positive attribute contributing to “good” humor.Keywords: self-esteem, interpersonal competence, humor styles, differential effects

  9. Immigrants' language skills: the immigrant experience in a longitudinal survey

    OpenAIRE

    Barry CHISWICK; Yew LEE; Paul W. MILLER

    2003-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the determinants of English language proficiency among immigrants. It presents a model based on economic incentives, exposure, and efficiency in language acquisition, which it tests using the Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Australia. Probit and bivariate probit analyses are employed. The hypotheses are supported by the data. The bivariate probit analysis across waves indicates a "regression to the mean" in the unobserved components of English language profic...

  10. Tangible music composer for children

    OpenAIRE

    Francesconi, Juan Ignacio; Larrea, Martín Leonardo; Manresa-Yee, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Music education should start from an early age. Theories of child development and learning emphasize the importance of manipulating physical objects. Music learning and teaching has traditionally been carried out mainly by visual and auditory activities. With this in mind, we combine music learning with tangible interfaces to stimulate senses toward music in children over six years old. We present a token+constraint tangible interface for children to learn musical skills such as musical notes...

  11. Reconsidering language teaching through a focus on humor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Bell

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Formal language education is often predicated on a series of modernist fictions that greatly simplify the nature of language and the process of communication. Acts of linguistic creativity involving humor and language play are frequently either ignored or considered deviant. In this paper, we contribute to ongoing efforts to re-conceptualize language education in ways that make use of more robust (and less modernist theories of language and communication. We revisit calls for more pedagogical focus on humor and language play and illustrate how more attention to these types of language might help us to move away from some of the classroom fictions that currently constrain teachers and learners alike. Specifically, we present recent conceptions of language and of communication, and discuss how, in light of these, humor and language play can be used to increase learners’ metalinguistic awareness and expand their communicative/interpretive repertoires.

  12. Using humor in systematic desensitization to reduce fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventis, W L; Higbee, G; Murdock, S A

    2001-04-01

    Effectiveness of systematic desensitization for fear reduction, using humorous hierarchy scenes without relaxation, was tested. Participants were 40 students highly fearful of spiders. Using a 24-item behavioral approach test with an American tarantula, participants were matched on fear level and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups: (a) systematic desensitization, (b) humor desensitization, and (c) untreated controls. Each participant was seen for 6 sessions, including pretest and posttest. Analyses of covariance of posttest scores revealed that the 2 treatment groups showed greater reduction in fear than the controls on 3 measures but did not differ from each other. Therefore, humor in systematic desensitization reduced fear as effectively as more traditional desensitization. This finding may have therapeutic applications; however, it may also be applicable in advertising to desensitize fear of a dangerous product, such as cigarettes.

  13. Does Sense of the Humor Make Sense in the Classroom?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy Antonio González-Ynfante

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the importance of humor as a teaching strategy in the classroom, considering the usual lack of motivation and boredom. To analyze whether the “happy teaching and happy learning” may increase effectiveness in the teaching-learning process, the author will discuss how, despite the many benefits it may bring, humor is not used in the classroom due to prejudices and fears. The idea is not for teachers to play the role of a comedian or a clown, but to intervene and get closer to the group with a teaching, didactic purpose through humor. Plato (1992 thought about this; he used to say that sometimes a joke may help, where seriousness put up resistance.

  14. The Use of Humor in Serious Mental Illness: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Gelkopf

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is now a relatively good understanding of the broad range of direct and indirect effects of humor and laughter on perceptions, attitudes, judgments and emotions, which can potentially benefit the physical and psychological state. This article presents a review and discussion of the use of humor and laughter in treating people with serious mental illness, distinguishing between clinical papers on individual and group psychotherapy, and empirical research reports describing humor and laughter interventions. In spite of the exponential growth of the field over the last 30 years, I conclude that empirical studies are still lacking, the studies that do exist have major methodological shortcomings, and the field is in dire need of further investigation.

  15. VIOLENCE DRESSED IN HUMOR: COMEDIC VIOLENCE IN ADVERTISING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia Gradinaru

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the concepts of humor and violence and their complex relationships contextualised in the advertising domain. Thus, the main theories of humor and the most important elements from media violence paradigms are critically pointed out. The effects of comedic violence in advertising may be positive (great involvement with the ad message, retention of brand information, higher pass-along probability, and also negative (offending the audience, desensitization, damaging the reputation and the brand equity. A lot of factors change the perception of comedic violent ads (gender, social norm beliefs etc., so that a multidimensional analysis of consumer perceptions is needed if we want to draw a more accurate picture of this phenomenon. The analysis of the specific ad that I developed in the second part of this paper showed clearly the interplay between perceived humor and perceived violence and also the relevance of the cultural background in its interpretation.

  16. Attitudes toward unauthorized immigrants, authorized immigrants, and refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Kate E; Marx, David M

    2013-07-01

    Rates of human migration are steadily rising and have resulted in significant sociopolitical debates over how to best respond to increasing cultural diversity and changing migration patterns. Research on prejudicial attitudes toward immigrants has focused on the attitudes and beliefs that individuals in the receiving country hold about immigrants. The current study enhances this literature by examining how young adults view authorized and unauthorized immigrants and refugees. Using a between-groups design of 191 undergraduates, we found that participants consistently reported more prejudicial attitudes, greater perceived realistic threats, and greater intergroup anxiety when responding to questions about unauthorized compared with authorized immigrants. Additionally, there were differences in attitudes depending on participants' generational status, with older-generation participants reporting greater perceived realistic and symbolic threat, prejudice, and anxiety than newer-generation students. In some instances, these effects were moderated by participant race/ethnicity and whether they were evaluating authorized or unauthorized immigrants. Lastly, perceived realistic threat, symbolic threat, and intergroup anxiety were significant predictors of prejudicial attitudes. Overall, participants reported positive attitudes toward refugees and resettlement programs in the United States. These findings have implications for future research and interventions focused on immigration and prejudice toward migrant groups. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Materiality for Musical Expressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindell, Rikard; Tahiroğlu, Koray; Riis, Morten S.

    2016-01-01

    Nordic universities. Electronic music instrument makers participated in providing the course. In eleven days the students designed and built interfaces for musical expressions , composed a piece, and performed at the Norberg electronic music festival. The students explored the relationship between......We organised an elven day intense course in materiality for musical expressions to explore underlying principles of New Interfaces for Musical Expression (NIME) in higher education. We grounded the course in different aspects of ma-teriality and gathered interdisciplinary student teams from three...... technology and possible musical expression with a strong connection to culture and place. The emphasis on performance provided closure and motivated teams to move forward in their design and artistic processes. On the basis of the course we discuss an interdisciplinary NIME course syllabus, and we infer...

  18. Music therapy in dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McDermott, Orii; Crellin, Nadia; Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2013-01-01

    Objective Recent reviews on music therapy for people with dementia have been limited to attempting to evaluate whether it is effective, but there is a need for a critical assessment of the literature to provide insight into the possible mechanisms of actions of music therapy. This systematic review......, five studies investigated hormonal and physiological changes, and five studies focused on social and relational aspects of music therapy. The musical interventions in the studies were diverse, but singing featured as an important medium for change. Conclusions Evidence for short-term improvement...... in mood and reduction in behavioural disturbance was consistent, but there were no high-quality longitudinal studies that demonstrated long-term benefits of music therapy. Future music therapy studies need to define a theoretical model, include better-focused outcome measures, and discuss how the findings...

  19. Principles of musical acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Hartmann, William M

    2013-01-01

    Principles of Musical Acoustics focuses on the basic principles in the science and technology of music. Musical examples and specific musical instruments demonstrate the principles. The book begins with a study of vibrations and waves, in that order. These topics constitute the basic physical properties of sound, one of two pillars supporting the science of musical acoustics. The second pillar is the human element, the physiological and psychological aspects of acoustical science. The perceptual topics include loudness, pitch, tone color, and localization of sound. With these two pillars in place, it is possible to go in a variety of directions. The book treats in turn, the topics of room acoustics, audio both analog and digital, broadcasting, and speech. It ends with chapters on the traditional musical instruments, organized by family. The mathematical level of this book assumes that the reader is familiar with elementary algebra. Trigonometric functions, logarithms and powers also appear in the book, but co...

  20. What makes us like music?

    OpenAIRE

    Schäfer, Thomas; Sedlmeier, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Why do we like the music we like and why do different people like different kinds of music? Existing models try to explain music preference as an interplay of musical features, the characteristics of the listener, and the listening context. Hereby, they refer to short-term preference decisions for a given piece of music rather than to the question why we listen to music at all and why we select a particular musical style. In this paper, it is hypothesized that the motivation for music listeni...

  1. Musical ensembles in Ancient Mesapotamia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krispijn, T.J.H.; Dumbrill, R.; Finkel, I.

    2010-01-01

    Identification of musical instruments from ancient Mesopotamia by comparing musical ensembles attested in Sumerian and Akkadian texts with depicted ensembles. Lexicographical contributions to the Sumerian and Akkadian lexicon.

  2. 'Rhythmic Music' in Danish Music Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peder Kaj

    In Danish state schools from elementary to upper secondary school music is part of curricula at all levels. It is widely accepted that both individuals and culture benefit from art subjects, creative activities etc. This type of motivation was sufficient support for maintaining music as a subject...... and to avoid what was associated with jazz, especially by its opponents. This paper aims at taking stock of the situation in Danish music education during the last decade and at specifying the situation of ‘rhythmic music’ within this context....... at all levels of the educational system from around 1960 to around 2000. This tradition dates back to the 1920s, when the first Social Democratic government in Danish history (1924-26), with Nina Bang as minister of education (probably the first female minister worldwide), in the field of music made...... genre of music, and in Denmark this interest manifested itself in attempts to integrate jazz in the musical education of the youth. A unique genre, the so-called ‘jazz oratorios’, was created by the composer Bernhard Christensen (1906-2004) and the librettist Sven Møller Kristensen (1909- 91...

  3. Evaluating music emotion recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Bob L.

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental problem with nearly all work in music genre recognition (MGR)is that evaluation lacks validity with respect to the principal goals of MGR. This problem also occurs in the evaluation of music emotion recognition (MER). Standard approaches to evaluation, though easy to implement, do...... not reliably differentiate between recognizing genre or emotion from music, or by virtue of confounding factors in signals (e.g., equalization). We demonstrate such problems for evaluating an MER system, and conclude with recommendations....

  4. Nigerian Art Music

    OpenAIRE

    Omojola, Bode; Omibiyi-Obidike, Mosunmola

    2013-01-01

    ART MUSIC IN NIGERIA is the most comprehensive book on the works of modem Nigerian composers who have been influenced by European classical music. Relying on over 500 scores, archival materials and interviews with many Nigerian composers, the author traces the historical developments of this new idiom in Nigeria and provides a critical and detailed analysis of certain works. Written in a refreshing and lucid style and amply illustrated with music examples, the book represents a milestone in m...

  5. Music: Specialized to Integrate?

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Estêvão Andrade; Joydeep Bhattacharya

    2015-01-01

    In her paper Schaefer (2014) provides a relevant amount of behavioral and neuroimaging evidence within and outside the realm of music favoring the notion that predictive processing plays a prominent role in the coupling of perception, cognition and action, and further, that imagery and active perception are closely associated with each other. Central to this review is that research into music imagery is exceptionally suitable and informative since prediction has a prominent role in music proc...

  6. Lenguaje musical o solfeo

    OpenAIRE

    Esteve-Faubel, José-María; Espinosa Zaragoza, Juan Antonio; Molina Valero, Miguel Ángel; Botella Quirant, María Teresa

    2008-01-01

    En esta sesión se estudiará el origen del lenguaje musical y sus aportaciones a la educación musical. Objetivos del tema. Lenguaje Musical o Solfeo. Su definición. Elementos esenciales y su origen histórico. Signos musicales. Materias que comprenden la altura del sonido. La Clave. Clases de clave. Necesidad del uso de las claves.

  7. Mathematics Achievement by Immigrant Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary G. Huang

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, I examined academic achievement of immigrant children in the United States, Canada, England, Australia, and New Zealand. Analyzing data from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS, I gauged the performance gaps relating to the generation of immigration and the home language background. I found immigrant children's math and science achievement to be lower than the others only in England, the U.S., and Canada. Non-English language background was found in each country to relate to poor math and science learning and this disadvantage was stronger among native-born children—presumably children of indigenous groups—than among immigrant children. I also examined the school variation in math performance gaps, using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM to each country's data. The patterns in which language- and generation-related math achievement gaps varied between schools are different in the five countries.

  8. [Neuropsychology of humor: an introduction Part 1. Psychological data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derouesné, Christian

    2016-03-01

    Humor is, from a psychological point of view, a complex process involving cognitive, affective, interspersonal and social elements in a interpersonal context. Its cognitive core is based on the perception of incongruity between two related inconsistent or contradictory mental representations. The total or partial resolution of incongruity in a playful frame is associated with a specific positive emotion, which characteristics and intensity are determined by the structure of the humoristic stimulus more than its content, and the personal and social contexts. Main theories of humor are reviewed as well as its development, its cognitive and affective correlates, and the influence of genre, age and personality.

  9. A Spoonful of Humor Makes the Math Go Down.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penland, C.

    2017-12-01

    As a mature science, geophysics often employs abstract mathematical ideas in the development of methods to query the physical system. Since abstract mathematics is not usually part of the traditional meteorological education, it is sometimes necessary to communicate these ideas in a manner that not only explains but also demystifies them. Humor is an ideal tool for allowing an audience to develop a degree of comfort with unfamiliar concepts. I will give several examples where abstract ideas are made concrete in the context of stochastic climate modeling by use of humorous presentations.

  10. Humor in print health advertisements: enhanced attention, privileged recognition, and persuasiveness of preventive messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, Nathalie; Brigaud, Emmanuelle

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the effect of humor in one particular type of print advertisement: the preventive health ads for three topics (alcohol, tobacco, obesity). Previous research using commercial ads demonstrated that individuals' attention is spontaneously attracted by humor, leading to a memory advantage for humorous information over nonhumorous information. Two experiments investigated whether the positive effect of humor can occur with preventive health ads. In Experiment 1, participants observed humorous and nonhumorous health ads while their viewing times were recorded. In Experiment 2, to compare humorous and nonhumorous ads, the memory of health messages was assessed through a recognition task and a convincing score was collected. The results confirmed that, compared to nonhumorous health ads, those using humor received prolonged attention, were judged more convincing, and their messages were better recognized. Overall, these findings suggest that humor can be of use in preventive health communication.

  11. Using the Pecha Kucha Speech to Analyze and Train Humor Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waisanen, Don

    2018-01-01

    Courses: Public speaking; communication courses requiring speeches. Objective: Students will learn how to apply humor principles to speeches through a slideshow method supportive of this goal, and to become more discerning about the possibilities and pitfalls of humorous communication.

  12. Using Humor in Treatment of Substance Use Disorders: Worthy of Further Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canha, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Throughout the literature, humor has demonstrated positive effects on memory and learning, as well as physiological and psychological well being. Research has described improvements in communication and trust through the use of humor in the nurse-patient relationship. The utilization of humor with certain populations, including those with anxiety disorders, cancer patients and mood disorders has also been widely described in the literature but little research has been conducted with humor use in patients' recovery from substance use disorders. This population might benefit from the thoughtful applications of humor to promote laughter and mirth as well as learning recovery principles. A review of the humor theories, theoretical processes and humor styles are discussed for their use in individuals with substance use disorders, in particularly for early recovery engagement in 12 step programs and other recover support social networks. The application of humor in efforts to support recovery with substance use disorder patients is worth investigating further.

  13. Relationship of Humor Sense with Quality of Life in Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    z Nikmanesh

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: In refer to role of Sense of humor in quality of life in cancer patients, it is suggested that necessary interventions be applied by using humor for promoting quality of life in cancer patients.

  14. Music and Public Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lars Ole; Juel, Knud; Ekholm, Ola

    2016-01-01

    Background: ‘Music and public health’ is a new field of study. Few scientific studies with small samples have documented health implications of musical participation. Research questions in this epidemiological study were: 1) Is there an association between self-rated health and active use of musi......: 57%. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate associations between musical background/activities and health-related indicators. Discussion: The study documents that a majority of informants use music to regulate physical and psychological states......Background: ‘Music and public health’ is a new field of study. Few scientific studies with small samples have documented health implications of musical participation. Research questions in this epidemiological study were: 1) Is there an association between self-rated health and active use of music...... in daily life? 2) What associations can be observed between musical background, uses and understanding of music as a health factor, and self-reported health? Method: Data came from the Danish Health and Morbidity Survey 2013, based on a simple random sample of 25.000 adult Danes (16+ years). Response rate...

  15. Amusia and musical functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alossa, Nicoletta; Castelli, Lorys

    2009-01-01

    Music, as language, is a universal and specific trait to humans; it is a complex ability with characteristics that are unique compared to other cognitive abilities. Nevertheless, several issues are still open to debate, such as, for example, whether music is a faculty that is independent from the rest of the cognitive system, and whether musical skills are mediated by a single mechanism or by a combination of processes that are independent from one another. Moreover, the anatomical correlations of music have yet to be clarified. The goal of this review is to illustrate the current condition of the neuropsychology of music and to describe different approaches to the study of the musical functions. Hereby, we will describe the neuropsychological findings, suggesting that music is a special function carried out by different and dedicated processes that are probably subserved by different anatomical regions of the brain. Moreover, we will review the evidence obtained by working with brain-damaged patients suffering from music agnosia, a selective impairment in music recognition. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Feminist music therapy pedagogy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahna, Nicole; Swantes, Melody

    2011-01-01

    This study surveyed 188 music therapy educators regarding their views and use of feminist pedagogy and feminist music therapy. The purpose of this study was two-fold: (a) to determine how many music therapy educators used feminist pedagogy and (b) to determine if there was a relationship between......) participatory learning, (b) validation of personal experience/development of confidence, (c) political/social activism, and (d) critical thinking/ open-mindedness. The results revealed that 46% (n = 32) of participants identified as feminist music therapists and 67% (n = 46) of participants identified as using...

  17. Evaluating musical instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, D. Murray

    2014-01-01

    Scientific measurements of sound generation and radiation by musical instruments are surprisingly hard to correlate with the subtle and complex judgments of instrumental quality made by expert musicians

  18. [Music and Glaucoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plange, N

    2017-02-01

    Music may have multiple influences on the human organism. A possible therapeutic effect for patients with glaucoma has been postulated, aside from the known impact of music on the cardiovascular system, psychogenic effects and a short-term improvement in mental performance (Mozart effect). The higher level of mental stress in patients with glaucoma and type-A personality behaviour may be related to higher intraocular pressure in patients with glaucoma. Relaxing music may have a positive impact in these patients, related to a reduction in intraocular pressure or its fluctuations. However, only limited data exist on the effects of music on intraocular pressure. No clinical studies have yet been performed to investigate the effect of music or music therapy on glaucoma progression. The music of Mozart may influence visual field examinations, possibly due to a positive short term effect on mental performance. This factor needs to be addressed in studies dealing with the effect of music in glaucoma. The relevance of intraocular pressure increases in professional wind instrument players is controversial. An increased level of care might be advisable in patients with advanced glaucoma. The influences of music on humans, altered personality profiles in patients with glaucoma and the studies showing some effect of stress on intraocular pressure stress the relevance of psychological support for glaucoma patients, who are confronted with a disease with a high longterm risk of blindness. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Immigrant Women and Partner Violence

    OpenAIRE

    KUUSELA, HANNA

    2011-01-01

    Violence against women is a global problem, which can be recognized in every society and culture. Both in Canada and Finland the research about violence against immigrant women has begun quite recently and therefore, there is still a lot we do not know about this phenomenon and thus a demand for research. Immigrant women face unique circumstances and are in a vulnerable position of being abused. They are not a homogeneous group, on the contrary, they have individual life experiences but they ...

  20. Immigrant Entrepreneurs, Diasporas and Exports

    OpenAIRE

    Bratti, Massimiliano; De Benedictis, Luca; Santoni, Gianluca

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we highlight a new complementary channel to the business and social network effect à la Rauch (2001) through which immigrants generate increased export flows from the regions in which they settle to their countries of origin: they can become entrepreneurs. Using very small-scale (NUTS-3) administrative data on immigrants’ location in Italy, the local presence of immigrant entrepreneurs (i.e. firms owned by foreign-born entrepreneurs) in the manufacturing sector, and on trade ...

  1. Immigration, Wages, and Compositional Amenities

    OpenAIRE

    David Card; Christian Dustmann; Ian Preston

    2009-01-01

    Economists are often puzzled by the stronger public opposition to immigration than trade, since the two policies have symmetric effects on wages. Unlike trade, however, immigration changes the composition of the local population, imposing potential externalities on natives. While previous studies have focused on fiscal spillovers, a broader class of externalities arise because people value the "compositional amenities" associated with the characteristics of their neighbors and co-workers. In ...

  2. Chinese Immigrant Wealth: Heterogeneity in Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agius Vallejo, Jody; Aronson, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Chinese immigrants are a diverse and growing group whose members provide a unique opportunity to examine within-immigrant group differences in adaptation. In this paper, we move beyond thinking of national-origin groups as homogenous and study variation among Chinese immigrants in wealth ownership, a critical indicator of adaptation that attracts relatively little attention in the immigration literature. We develop an analytical approach that considers national origin, tenure in the U.S., and age to examine heterogeneity in economic adaptation among the immigrant generation. Our results show that variations among Chinese immigrants explain within-group differences in net worth, asset ownership, and debt. These differences also account for important variation between Chinese immigrants, natives, and other immigrant groups and provide important, new insight into the processes that lead to immigrant adaptation and long-term class stability. PMID:27977737

  3. Chinese Immigrant Wealth: Heterogeneity in Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keister, Lisa A; Agius Vallejo, Jody; Aronson, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Chinese immigrants are a diverse and growing group whose members provide a unique opportunity to examine within-immigrant group differences in adaptation. In this paper, we move beyond thinking of national-origin groups as homogenous and study variation among Chinese immigrants in wealth ownership, a critical indicator of adaptation that attracts relatively little attention in the immigration literature. We develop an analytical approach that considers national origin, tenure in the U.S., and age to examine heterogeneity in economic adaptation among the immigrant generation. Our results show that variations among Chinese immigrants explain within-group differences in net worth, asset ownership, and debt. These differences also account for important variation between Chinese immigrants, natives, and other immigrant groups and provide important, new insight into the processes that lead to immigrant adaptation and long-term class stability.

  4. Chinese Immigrant Wealth: Heterogeneity in Adaptation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A Keister

    Full Text Available Chinese immigrants are a diverse and growing group whose members provide a unique opportunity to examine within-immigrant group differences in adaptation. In this paper, we move beyond thinking of national-origin groups as homogenous and study variation among Chinese immigrants in wealth ownership, a critical indicator of adaptation that attracts relatively little attention in the immigration literature. We develop an analytical approach that considers national origin, tenure in the U.S., and age to examine heterogeneity in economic adaptation among the immigrant generation. Our results show that variations among Chinese immigrants explain within-group differences in net worth, asset ownership, and debt. These differences also account for important variation between Chinese immigrants, natives, and other immigrant groups and provide important, new insight into the processes that lead to immigrant adaptation and long-term class stability.

  5. Impact of Humor Advertising in Radio and Print Advertising - A Review

    OpenAIRE

    S, venkatesh; N, senthilkumar

    2015-01-01

    The use of humour in advertising is the effective way of communication in any emotion to sell the products. Humor increase attention and attract more consumers so it became an effective advertising in any medium of advertising. Researchers and Advertisers more interested towards humor advertising more than century, but no review paper regarding impact of humor in radio and print advertising are published. Aim of this paper to get detailed review on impact of humor in radio and print advertisi...

  6. THE USES OF HUMOR IN SOCIAL WORK PRACTICE: ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL WORKERS’ EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielė Vaitulionytė

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses how humor could enrich social work practice and guideline social workers. Social work field is not that traditionally relates with humor. While social work scholars argue that social work field is full of contradictions and humor is relevant tool to express those contradictions and paradoxes. In micro level practice Gitterman (2003 suggests humor could be a creative tool that “must be used differently based on client background, level of functioning, and specific situation”. Article presents results of qualitative study. The analysis of social workers’ professional experiences is based on social constructionism perspective with the aim to explain how humor is used in everyday practice and how use of purposive humor could be helpful in social work intervention. Episodic interviews with six social workers working in intercultural social work field were conducted. Transcripts of interviews were analyzed through conceptualization, developing story and maximizing aims of the study. Anonymity and confidentiality was considered. The results of analysis demonstrate that humor is unique experience in the sociocultural context. Discursive categories explain the purpose of humor for practice, circumstances and conditions for using that determine how the use of humor could contribute to the success of a social worker-client interaction. Using humor is considered as professional competence, which suggests that “having a good sense of humor” and appropriate use of humor with ability to demonstrate empathy and honesty in social worker-client interaction is an important part of social worker competence. Humor as a professional competence contained understanding of the humorous taboo. During analysis were explored how using humor and cultural stories of clients create mezzo level strategies for professional social work practice. Keywords: humor in social work practice, social work process, humor taboo.

  7. Pragmatics Analysis In Humorous Text In Reader’s Digest Magazine

    OpenAIRE

    Agustina, Sri

    2011-01-01

    Skripsi yang berjudul Pragmatic Analysis in Humorous Text in Reader’s Digest Magazine, menganalisis konteks dari humor yang berbentuk dialog dan bagaimana humor tersebut diinterpretasikan; yang terdapat di dalam teks humor di dalam majalah Reader’s Digest edisi Agustus, September, Oktober, November dan Desember 2010. Analisis ini menggunakan teori Yule tahun 1996 yang mengatakan bahwa beberapa fokus kajian pragmatik adalah mengkaji makna penutur di dalam konteks tertentu dan bagaimana konteks...

  8. Music and Music Intervention for Therapeutic Purposes in Patients with Ventilator Support; Gamelan Music Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhartini Suhartini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gamelan music is one of folk music for Javanese people. Several research studies testing the effects of music were conducted in Western countries. The music studies for therapeutic purposes used classical music commonly. Even in Indonesia, some researchers may use that music for therapeutic purposes. This concern article explains the perspective music and music intervention as therapeutic purposes, view with Javanese classical music.Objectives: To explore the evidence of music and music intervention for therapeutic purposes and to describe the perspective of gamelan music used in nursing interventionMethods: Using five bibliography databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, Science Direct, Interscience, and Proquest were searched from 1999-2010 for original clinical reports or reviews that evaluated the use of complementary therapy for therapeutic intervention in patients with ventilator support. The term of complementary therapy, anxiety, and pain were used in a comprehensive search of electronic databases. Articles were screened and excluded based on the title and abstract information.Results: Music brings about helpful changes in the emotional and physical health of patients, and has the ability to provide an altered state of physical arousal and subsequent mood improvement by processing a progression of musical notes of varying tone, rhythm, and instrumentation for a pleasing effect.Conclusion: Music can be used for therapeutic purposes, for instance to reduce anxiety, to decrease pain sensation, and some effects of psychological impact. Include, the gamelan music can be offer for patients for Javanese people in Indonesia.Key words: Music, music intervention, therapeutic purposes

  9. Learning to Laugh at Ourselves: Humor, Self-Transcendence, and the Cultivation of Moral Virtues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Mordechai

    2010-01-01

    In this essay Mordechai Gordon begins to address the neglect of humor among philosophers of education by focusing on some interesting connections between humor, self-transcendence, and the development of moral virtues. More specifically, he explores the kind of humor that makes fun of oneself and how it can affect educational encounters. Gordon…

  10. Hope, Laughter, and Humor in Residents and Staff at an Assisted Living Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westburg, Nancy G.

    2003-01-01

    Assesses and compares hope levels and laughter and humor experiences of 24 elderly residents and 21 staff at an assisted living facility. Residents and staff reported numerous benefits from humor and laughing, but differences arose between the two groups about the source and frequency of humor and laughter. Implications for mental health…

  11. The Relationship between Instructor Humor Orientation and Students' Report on Second Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziyaeemehr, Ali; Kumar, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    Humor is an integral component of any language and therefore has an impact on the way languages are acquired/learned. Numerous studies have investigated the role of instructor humor in teaching/learning processes; however, there is little empirical research on the relationship between instructor humor and learning of a second language. This paper…

  12. The Attitudes of University Faculty toward Humor as a Pedagogical Tool: Can We Take a Joke?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huss, John; Eastep, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    Faculty members in a College of Education responded to a mixed methods questionnaire regarding their attitudes toward the use of humor as a pedagogical tool. Quantitative data and coding of open response questions revealed that instructors overall considered humor to be an integral part of their teaching plan and that humor relaxes students,…

  13. Statistics? You Must Be Joking: The Application and Evaluation of Humor when Teaching Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, David L.; Hood, Michelle; Neumann, Michelle M.

    2009-01-01

    Humor has been promoted as a teaching tool that enhances student engagement and learning. The present report traces the pathway from research to practice by reflecting upon various ways to incorporate humor into the face-to-face teaching of statistics. The use of humor in an introductory university statistics course was evaluated via interviews…

  14. Humor in Literature about Children with Disability: What Are We Seeing in Literature?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrail, Ewa; Rieger, Alicja

    2014-01-01

    This article explores instances of humor in literature as it relates to children with disabilities and offers ways to help children and adolescents build an authentic understanding of disability and disability humor. The prevalent message in the books reviewed is that children with disability not only appreciate humor but also can produce various…

  15. Was That Levity or Livor Mortis? Crime Scene Investigators' Perspectives on Humor and Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivona, Brian D.

    2012-01-01

    Humor is common and purposeful in most work settings. Although researchers have examined humor and joking behavior in various work settings, minimal research has been done on humor applications in the field of crime scene investigation. The crime scene investigator encounters death, trauma, and tragedy in a more intimate manner than any other…

  16. The Use of Humor as a Teaching Strategy in Nursing Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukehart, Dennis E.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to determine the use of humor as a teaching strategy among a sample of nurse educators employed by community colleges and universities in Northern and Central California nursing programs. The study also identified the types of humor used, how humor is used in the classroom, and nurse educators' perceptions of…

  17. Use and Non-Use of Humor in Academic ESL Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziyaeemehr, Ali; Kumar, Vijay; Abdullah, Mohd S. Faiz

    2011-01-01

    A substantial body of research emphasizes the importance of humor in teaching/learning processes; however, research on the reasons for non-use of humor in academic contexts has enjoyed scant attention. Addressing this gap, this study examines the reasons for instructors' humor avoidance taking into account student perceived benefits of using humor…

  18. Shakespeare's Philosophy of Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A. Sulka

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Shakespeare is one of the most widely read figures in literature, but his use of music is not usually touched on in literary discussions of his works. In this paper, I discuss how Shakespeare portrays music within the context of his plays, through both dialogue and songs performed within each work. In Shakespeare’s time, Boethius’s philosophy of the Music of the Spheres was still highly popular. This was the idea that the arrangement of the cosmos mirrored musical proportions. As a result, every aspect of the universe was believed to be highly ordered, and this idea is prominent throughout Shakespeare’s works, from "Hamlet" to "A Midsummer Night’s Dream." To make this clear to the reader, I discuss dialogue symmetry weaved throughout "The Merchant of Venice," clear allusions to the music of the spheres in "Pericles," and the use of music as a signifier of the strange and mysterious – from madness to love – in numerous works, always relating these topics back to the philosophy of the music of the spheres. In order to compile this information and make it clear, I researched the philosophy of music during Shakespeare’s era. I also researched how he uses music thematically to emphasize different characters’ struggles as well as plot details. After examining his plays as well as the other sources available on the subject, it is clear that Shakespeare was highly influenced by the philosophical and practical ideas regarding music of his time, specifically the theory of the music of the spheres.

  19. Different paths: gender, immigration and political participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones-correa, M

    1998-01-01

    "Building on arguments made by Grasmuck and Pessar (1991), Hardy-Fanta (1993), and Hondagneu-Sotelo (1994), among others, this article makes the case for a gendered understanding of immigrant political socialization. Looking at recent Latin American immigrants to New York City, the article argues that immigrant Latino men are more likely to favor continuity in patterns of socialization and organization, and immigrant Latinas are more likely to favor change. This finding helps bridge theoretical and empirical literatures in immigration studies, applying the logic of gender-differentiated decisionmaking to the area of immigrant political socialization and behavior." excerpt

  20. Immigration Ethnic Diversity and Political Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmon, Nikolaj Arpe

    2017-01-01

    I study the impact of immigration and increasing ethnic diversity on political outcomes in immigrant-receiving countries, focusing on immigration and election outcomes in Danish municipalities 1981-2001. A rich set of control variables isolates ethnic diversity effects from those of other immigrant...... characteristics and a novel IV strategy based on historical housing stock data addresses issues of endogenous location choices of immigrants. Increases in local ethnic diversity lead to right-ward shifts in election outcomes by shifting electoral support away from traditional "big government" left-wing parties...... and towards anti-immigrant nationalist parties in particular. These effects appear in both local and national elections....

  1. Labour Market Interactions Between Legal and Illegal Immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    Epstein, Gil S

    2000-01-01

    This paper looks at the situation of legal immigrants who employ illegal immigrants to provide them with various services. This enables the legal immigrants to allocate more time to other work, thereby increasing their earnings. Illegal immigrants employed by legal immigrants may specialize in certain professions and may themselves employ other illegal immigrants. An economy is evolving whose sole purpose is the provision of services by illegal immigrants for legal immigrants.

  2. Labor Market Interactions Between Legal and Illegal Immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    Epstein, Gil S.

    2000-01-01

    This paper looks at the situation of legal immigrants who employ illegal immigrants to provide them with various services. This enables the legal immigrants to allocate more time to other work, thereby increasing their earnings. Illegal immigrants employed by legal immigrants may specialize in certain professions and may themselves employ other illegal immigrants. An economy is evolving whose sole purpose is the provision of services by illegal immigrants for legal immigrants.

  3. Bach and Rock in the Music Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponick, F. S.

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on the use of popular music in music education, addressing issues such as defining popular music, approaches for using popular music in the classroom, and whether the National Standards for Music Education can be attained using popular music. Lists resources for teaching popular music. (CMK)

  4. Music or Musics? An Important Matter at Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goble, J. Scott

    2015-01-01

    Philosophers of music education presently find themselves suspended between modernism's universalist convictions and post-modernism's cultural relativist insights. In "Music Matters: A New Philosophy of Music Education" (1995), David Elliott challenged longstanding conceptions of "music education as aesthetic education" to…

  5. Music Links--A Music Ensemble Outreach Programme for Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Sylvia

    2011-01-01

    Professional music communities have realized that if they do not promote their art forms among the youth of today, the future of their music may be in question. Many local ethnic music groups have recognized the need to make the first move and go out to the audiences of the future and bring their brand of music to these audiences. Their task is to…

  6. Music playlist recommendation based on user heartbeat and music preference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, H.; Hu, J.; Rauterberg, G.W.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new user heartbeat and preference aware music recommendation system. The system can not only recommend a music playlist based on the user’s music preference but also the music playlist is generated based on the user’s heartbeat. If the user’s heartbeat is higher than the

  7. Infants' Attention to Synthesised Baby Music and Original Acoustic Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkow, Carla H.; Costa-Giomi, Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    The distinct music genre known as baby music is based on the premise that infants benefit from music "re-orchestrated for their little ears" ("Baby Einstein Takealong Tunes". (2012). Retrieved December 11, 2012, from http://www.babyeinstein.com/en/products/product_explorer/theme/music/62350/Takealong_Tunes.html). We completed a…

  8. The Music Industry Council Guide for Music Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Music Educators Journal, 1976

    1976-01-01

    The Music Industry Council serves as a liaison between the music educators of the United States and the manufacturing and publishing firms that supply the materials and equipment used in music education. Here are specific suggestions for the guidance of music educators in the business contacts essential to their teaching programs. (Editor/RK)

  9. Positive Musical Experiences in Education: Music as a Social Praxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabedo-Mas, Alberto; Díaz-Gómez, Maravillas

    2013-01-01

    This research explores the possibilities of music education in relation to improved interpersonal and social relationships. The paper focuses mainly on music teachers in primary and secondary schools in Spain. It aims to collect, analyse and provide arguments to defend a musical education that integrates musical diversity and facilitates the…

  10. Deploying music characteristics for an affective music player

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zwaag, Marjolein D.; Westerink, Joyce H.D.M.; van den Broek, Egon; Cohn, Jeffrey; Nijholt, Antinus; Pantic, Maja

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes work toward an affective music player (AMP), which is able to direct affect to a goal state by selecting music. Repeatedly, music has been shown to modulate affect; however, precise guidelines for the use of music characteristics in an AMP have not been defined. To explore

  11. Teaching Popular Music: Investigating Music Educators' Perceptions and Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, D. Gregory

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate in-service music teachers' perceptions of popular music in the classroom and to examine their own preparation to teach popular music. A sample of music teachers, drawn from two regional chapters of the American Orff-Schulwerk Association, completed a researcher-designed survey instrument. Results…

  12. Satire in Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Stefanija

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article surveys the scope of satire and suggests its range. It is divided into six sections. The introductory comment (The semantics of music briefly outlines the fact that music has always been a part of communicative endeavors. The historical background of the semantic issues in music is described (Historical surmises, which is necessary to define satire in music as a specific genre combining features from different musical forms. The third section discusses six areas as the most common contexts of musical satire: 1 satirical music theater works, such as the opera Il Girello by Jacopo Melani, the famous Coff ee Cantata (Schweigt Still, plaudert nicht, BWV 211 by Johann Sebastian Bach, Der Schulmeister by Georg Philipp Telemann, The Beggar’s Opera by John Gay, and so on; 2 musical genres associated with satire, either a within vocal-instrumental music; for instance, opera buffa, Singspiel, operetta, cabaret, vaudeville, and so on, or b in instrumental pieces, such as capriccios, grotesques, scherzos, burlesques, and so on; 3 individual features or compositional parts related to satire; for example, in a vocal music, the Satiro in Orfeo by Luigi Rossi, the range of the Orlando character in eighteenth-century opera, who “may be satire, a fool or hero, but never all together” (Harris, 1986, 106, the satirical antihero Matěj Brouček in Leoš Janáček’s work, and also Lady Macbeth, and in b instrumental music, such as the sermon of St. Anthony in Gustav Mahler’s Second Symphony, his marches, and “low-brow tunes,” a number of episodes in Dmitri Shostakovich’s works, and so on; 4 works variously related to criticism, such as the work of Eric Satie, Kurt Weill, Luigi Nono, Maurizio Kagel, and Vinko Globokar, as well as Fran Milčinski (a.k.a. Ježek, Laibach, or Bob Dylan; 5 music journalism, from Johann Beer and Louis-Abel Beffroy de Reigny and his popular pieces de circonstance, to nineteenth-century music journalism, George

  13. Danish Humor in Cross-Cultural Professional Settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundquist, Lita Sander

    2014-01-01

    , with no limits or taboos. These characteristics of Danish humor are analyzed here using two different theoretical frameworks: linguistics – where an explanation is found in certain type-specific features of the Danish language, namely the dialogical particles typical of the Nordic languages in general...

  14. The Muhammad cartoon controversy and the globalization of humor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, G.

    2008-01-01

    At the 2006 conference of the International Society for Humor Studies (Danish University of Education, Copenhagen), several panels addressed issues raised by the Muhammad cartoon story. Among these, a colloquium organized by Paul Lewis and decorously titled "Transnational Ridicule and Response"

  15. Oestrogen levels and humoral immune parameters in Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: Endocrine and immune interactions mediate breast cancer which is currently incurable. This study attempts at elucidating mechanisms by which breast cancer progresses by determining the levels of oestradiol and humoral immune parameters at different stages of breast cancer compared with women without ...

  16. Humorous Names in the Light of Incongruity Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Rutkowski

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses the humorous function of proper names in the light of incongruity theory. It aims at proving that, although names are often defined as pragmatically “transparent,” they may possess some humorous value due to semantic and pragmatic shifts resulting from the disturbance of ordinary patterns of proper names identification and interpretation. After a brief introduction, the author discusses different variants of incongruity theory as resented in the works by Victor Raskin and Thomas C. Veatch as well as their possible application to the study of humorous names. The second part of the paper provides an analysis of the humorous effects of proper names which includes anthroponyms, toponyms, trade names, football team names and names in literature. The first section of this part concentrates on names in which humour is unintentional and seems to be induced by the context, while the second section focuses on names which are intentionally humourous, i.e. supposed to amuse from the moment of their creation. The author argues that the incongruity theory can provide a useful framework for the study of the different mechanisms responsible of the semantic shifts which determine the variation of pragmatic values of proper names.

  17. Humor and the Emeritus Professor: An Interview with Gene Roth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivona, Brian

    2015-01-01

    This essay is a compilation of several conversations with Dr. Gene Roth, Distinguished Teaching Professor Emeritus at Northern Illinois University. Dr. Roth is past President of the Academy of Human Resource Development, and although he is well known for his efforts in bringing humor into the field of HRD, he is not the same Gene Roth that played…

  18. Towards environments that have a sense of humor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Reidsma, Dennis; Choi, Insook; Bargar, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Humans have humorous conversations and interactions. Nowadays our real life existence is integrated with our life in social media, videogames, mixed reality and physical environments that sense our activities and that can adapt appearance and properties due to our activities. There are other

  19. Does CMC Promote Language Play? Exploring Humor in Two Modalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandergriff, Ilona; Fuchs, Carolin

    2009-01-01

    In view of the growing body of research on humor and language play in computer-mediated communication (CMC) which--more than any other medium--has been associated with goofing off, joking, and other nonserious communication, this paper compares spontaneous foreign language play (L2 play) in text-only synchronous computer-mediated versus…

  20. Resiliency and the Ability to Detect Cartoon Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killlon, Jessica B.; Torres, Aurora

    2017-01-01

    The Connor Davidson Resilience Scale was developed to measure resiliency, an individual's ability to positively adapt to stressful or adverse situations. Resilient individuals have close and secure relationships, have a strong sense of purpose, know when to turn to others for help, and find humor in situations. The focus of this study was on the…

  1. Humor in Advertisements Enhances Product Liking by Mere Association

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strick, M.A.; Baaren, R.B. van; Holland, R.W.; Knippenberg, A.F.M. van

    2011-01-01

    This reprinted article originally appeared in the Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 2009 (Mar), Vol 15(1), 35-45. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2009-03685-005). Humor in advertising is known to enhance product liking, but this attitude change is often

  2. Humor in Advertisements Enhances Product Liking by Mere Association

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strick, M.A.; Baaren, R.B. van; Holland, R.W.; Knippenberg, A.F.M. van

    2009-01-01

    Humor in advertising is known to enhance product liking, but this attitude change is often considered nonpredictive of product choice. Previous research relied exclusively on explicit self-report measures to assess attitudes and purchase intentions. The present research shows that unobtrusive

  3. Antioxidant status of dog aqueous humor after extracapsular lens extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barros P.S.M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We determined the antioxidant status of the aqueous humor after extracapsular lens extraction in 14 mongrel dogs weighing about 10 kg. The animals were examined by slit lamp biomicroscopy, applanation tonometry and indirect ophthalmoscopy. One eye was submitted to conventional extracapsular lens extraction and the other was used as control. Samples of aqueous humor were obtained by anterior chamber paracentesis before and at days 1, 2, 3, 7 and 15 after surgery. Total antioxidant status was determined as the capacity of aqueous humor to inhibit free radical generation by 2,2-azobis(2-amidopropane chlorine. Ascorbic acid concentration was measured by HPLC with UV detection. Protein content was determined with the biuret reagent. Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA followed by the Tukey-Kramer test. Protein concentration increased from 0.61 to 22 mg/ml 24 h after surgery. These levels were maintained and returned to normal at day 7. Total antioxidant capacity was reduced from 50 to about 30 min until day 3 and at day 7 it was equal to control. Ascorbic acid levels were reduced from 252 to about 110 µM and then returned to control values at day 15. Considering the importance of ascorbic acid concentration in aqueous humor for the maintenance of the antioxidant status of the anterior segment of the eye, the decrease of antioxidant defenses suggests that the surgical procedures promote an oxidative stress condition in the eye.

  4. Mexican Proverbs: The Philosophy, Wisdom and Humor of a People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Octavio A.

    Careful reading of proverbs can aid an individual to develop self-awareness by providing insights into what one cultural group considers desirable human behavior. Respect for the elderly can be taught to the young through the study of proverbs. Through their proverbs, the Mexicans reveal their friendliness, love of animals, sense of humor, and…

  5. Targeting the humoral immune system of patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teng, Yoe Kie Onno

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to unravel the role of the humoral immune system in rheumatoid arthritis patients by employing new immunosuppressive strategies, i.e. specific B-cell depletion with Rituximab and non-specific lymfoablative treatment with high dose chemotherapy and hematopoeietic stem cell

  6. Topic theory and Brazilian musicality: Considerations on rhetoricity in music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acácio T. C. Piedade

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an application of the topic theory to the analyses of Brazilian music. It starts with a reflection on the concepts of musicality, friction of musicalities in Brazilian jazz, and the fusion of musicalities that emerges from the invention of tradition. The discussion follows with the question of the adaptability of topic theory to national musics. Then, some musical examples are used in order to present some of the universes of topics of Brazilian music. In this article I argue that the concept of rhetoricity brings good results to the study of musical signification, and that the theory of topics is useful for other contexts than classical music, being an interesting route to the investigation of sociocultural connections in musicalities.

  7. Aqueous humor tyrosinase activity is indicative of iris melanocyte toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahanty, Sarmistha; Kawali, Ankush A; Dakappa, Shruthi Shirur; Mahendradas, Padmamalini; Kurian, Mathew; Kharbanda, Varun; Shetty, Rohit; Setty, Subba Rao Gangi

    2017-09-01

    Antibiotics such as fluoroquinolones (FQLs) are commonly used to treat ocular infections but are also known to cause dermal melanocyte toxicity. The release of dispersed pigments from the iris into the aqueous humor has been considered a possible ocular side effect of the systemic administration of FQLs such as Moxifloxacin, and this condition is known as bilateral acute iris transillumination (BAIT). Bilateral acute depigmentation of iris (BADI) is a similar condition, with iris pigment released into the aqueous, but it has not been reported as a side effect of FQL. Iris pigments are synthesized by the melanogenic enzyme tyrosinase (TYR) and can be detected but not quantified by using slit-lamp biomicroscopy. The correlation between dispersed pigments in the aqueous and the extent of melanocyte toxicity due to topical antibiotics in vivo is not well studied. Here, we aimed to study the effect of topical FQLs on iris tissue, the pigment release in the aqueous humor and the development of clinically evident iris atrophic changes. We evaluated this process by measuring the activity of TYR in the aqueous humor of 82 healthy eyes undergoing cataract surgery following topical application of FQLs such as Moxifloxacin (27 eyes, preservative-free) or Ciprofloxacin (29 eyes, with preservative) or the application of non-FQL Tobramycin (26 eyes, with preservative) as a control. In addition, the patients were questioned and examined for ocular side effects in pre- and post-operative periods. Our data showed a significantly higher mean TYR activity in the aqueous humor of Ciprofloxacin-treated eyes compared to Moxifloxacin- (preservative free, p iris melanocytes. However, the reduced TYR activity in the aqueous of Moxifloxacin-treated eyes was possibly due to the presence of a higher drug concentration, which inhibits TYR activity. Consistently, immunoblotting analysis of the aqueous humor from both Ciprofloxacin- and Moxifloxacin-treated eyes showed the presence of soluble

  8. Aqueous humor ferritin in hereditary hyperferritinemia cataract syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzhofer, Markus; Schroedl, Falk; Trost, Andrea; Kaser-Eichberger, Alexandra; Wiedemann, Helmut; Strohmaier, Clemens; Hohensinn, Melchior; Strasser, Michael; Muckenthaler, Martina U; Grabner, Guenther; Aigner, Elmar; Reitsamer, Herbert A

    2015-04-01

    Hereditary hyperferritinemia cataract syndrome (HHCS) is a rare autosomal dominant hereditary disease, characterized by hyperferritinemia but with absence of body iron excess and early onset of bilateral cataracts. Although 5- to 20-fold increased serum ferritin concentrations have been reported in HHCS patients, data of ferritin levels in aqueous humor have not been obtained. We therefore aimed to investigate the ferritin levels in aqueous humor and serum and further present histological and ultrastructural data of the lens. During cataract extraction and intraocular lens implantation, aqueous humor and lens aspirate of a 37-year-old HHCS patient were obtained from both eyes. Ferritin levels in serum and aqueous humor were quantitatively analyzed via immunoassays in the HHCS patient and healthy control subjects (n = 6). Lens aspirate in HHCS was analyzed histologically and at the ultrastructural level. Further, genetic mutation screening by polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing in blood was performed. Serum ferritin levels in the control group were 142.2 ± 38.7 μg/L, whereas in the HHCS patient, this parameter was excessively increased (1086 μg/L). Analysis of ferritin in aqueous humor revealed 6.4 ± 3.8 μg/L in normal control subjects and 146.3 μg/L (OD) and 160.4 μg/L (OS) in the HHCS patient. DNA analysis detected a C>A mutation on position +18, a T>G mutation on position +22, a T>C mutation on position +24, and a T>G polymorphism on position +26 in the iron-responsive element of the light-chain ferritin (L-ferritin) gene. In the HHCS patient, a 23-fold (OD) to 25-fold (OS) increased aqueous humor ferritin level was detected. Therefore, the formation of bilateral cataract in HHCS is most likely a result of elevated aqueous humor ferritin. In addition, a novel mutation in this rare disease in the iron-responsive element of L-ferritin gene is reported.

  9. Asian Immigration: The View from the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    Examines contemporary Asian immigration to the United States from a U.S. perspective. Analyzes immigration policies and data on recent immigration from Asia. Discusses impacts concerning the United States and the immigrants themselves and speculates on future immigration. The composition of Asian immigration might change, and the number might…

  10. The Brain on Music

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    effects of music training on auditory .... dala but is distributed over a network of regions that also in- clude the ... In addition to the emotional impact of music on the brain, these ... social cognition, contact, copathy, and social cohesion in a group.

  11. Music in the hospital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pyykönen, Krista

    2017-01-01

    Meaningful Music in Health Care (MiMiC) is een bijzonder samenwerkingsproject van een chirurgisch onderzoeksteam van het UMCG-ziekenhuis en het Lectoraat Lifelong Learning in Music van het Prins Claus Conservatorium. De Finse violiste Krista Pyykönen maakt als violiste én in het kader van haar

  12. Music Hath Charms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Dana

    1988-01-01

    The article describes a program which introduced classical music to 18 students in a residential treatment program for adolescents with a history of substance abuse. Use as background music progressed to students requesting tape copies for personal use and group attendance at a symphony rehearsal and concert. (DB)

  13. The Music Festival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Johannes

    For the youth the music festivals are spaces for practical learning of the strength of networking, based on art, communication and contacting. Being part of the music gives the participants a possibility to be part of the place, the feeling and the art, with massive effects on their identity...

  14. European Music Year 1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexanderson, Thomas; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Articles concerning music are included in this newsletter dedicated to cultural venture to be jointly carried out by the Council of Europe and the European communities. Many events will mark Music Year 1985, including concerts, dance performances, operas, publications, recordings, festivals, exhibitions, competitions, and conferences on musical…

  15. Learning through Music Festivals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsen, Sidsel

    2009-01-01

    This article explores one particular music festival, the Festspel i Pite Alvdal, as a source of musical learning. It is grounded in the empirical data of a case study that was gathered through observation, a survey, in-depth interviews, documentation and archival records. The theoretical framework was taken from modernity theory, and the study's…

  16. Shaker Oats: Fortifying Musicality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semmes, Laurie R.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how an experiment in a class she taught called Minority Musics of North America developed into a surprisingly successful and flexible teaching tool known as "Shaker Oats," created to encourage the concepts of ensemble and community. Most music educators in the United States today are familiar with…

  17. Transcribing for Greater Musicality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinz, Bob

    1995-01-01

    States that transcribing is notating the performance of a musical composition or improvisation as the music is grasped aurally. Maintains that transcribing is effective for high school and college students who want to understand jazz techniques. Includes eight suggestions for teaching transcribing. (CFR)

  18. Soaking in the Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhoff, Howard M.

    2009-01-01

    Scientists admit that they do not understand yet how infants acquire their abilities and love of music. What they do know, however, is that much of the brain development in the first six years of a child's life is devoted to the learning and retaining of music and language. It appears that children have an open window, which allows them to…

  19. Adolescent Culture and Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Neil

    1996-01-01

    Discusses adolescent anxieties, rebelliousness, and media preferences in the 1990s, especially Hip Hop, and relates today's trends to past trends, from Sinatra to Break Dancing. Suggests classroom activities using music and music videos: analyzing fans; providing biographies, discographies, lyrics; writing reviews of albums and videos; studying…

  20. Remote Music Tuition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Duffy; D. Williams; I. Kegel; T. Stevens; A.J. Jansen (Jack); P.S. Cesar Garcia (Pablo Santiago); P. Healey

    2012-01-01

    htmlabstractIt is common to learn to play an orchestral musical instrument through one-to-one lessons with an experienced tutor. For musicians who choose to study performance at an undergraduate level and beyond, their tutor is an important part of their professional musical development. For many