WorldWideScience

Sample records for humor homeostasis vasoconstriction

  1. Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Negroni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs form a physiochemical barrier that separates the intestinal lumen from the host’s internal milieu and is critical for electrolyte passage, nutrient absorption, and interaction with commensal microbiota. Moreover, IECs are strongly involved in the intestinal mucosal inflammatory response as well as in mucosal innate and adaptive immune responses. Cell death in the intestinal barrier is finely controlled, since alterations may lead to severe disorders, including inflammatory diseases. The emerging picture indicates that intestinal epithelial cell death is strictly related to the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. This review is focused on previous reports on different forms of cell death in intestinal epithelium.

  2. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saini Monica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndromes (RCVS are a group of disorders that have in common an acute presentation with headache, reversible vasoconstriction of cerebral arteries, with or without neurological signs and symptoms. In contrast to primary central nervous system vasculitis, they have a relatively benign course. We describe here a patient who was diagnosed with RCVS.

  3. Flow of Aqueous Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Flow of Aqueous Humor Flow of Aqueous Humor Most, but not all, forms of glaucoma are ... remains normal when some of the fluid (aqueous humor) produced by the eye's ciliary body flows out ...

  4. Sympathetic vasoconstriction takes an unexpected pannexin detour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schak Nielsen, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Sympathetic vasoconstriction plays an important role in the control of blood pressure and the distribution of blood flow. In this issue of Science Signaling, Billaud et al. show that sympathetic vasoconstriction occurs through a complex scheme involving the activation of large-pore pannexin 1 cha...... abrogates sympathetic vasoconstriction in skeletal muscle. Because pannexin 1 channels are inhibited by nitric oxide, they may function as a switch to turn off adrenergic signaling in skeletal muscle during exercise.......Sympathetic vasoconstriction plays an important role in the control of blood pressure and the distribution of blood flow. In this issue of Science Signaling, Billaud et al. show that sympathetic vasoconstriction occurs through a complex scheme involving the activation of large-pore pannexin 1...... channels and the subsequent release of adenosine triphosphate that promotes contraction in an autocrine and paracrine manner. This elaborate mechanism may function as a point of intercept for other signaling pathways-for example, in relation to the phenomenon "functional sympatholysis," in which exercise...

  5. Humor og sygepleje

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Inger

    1998-01-01

    I artiklen beskrives og reflekteres der over humors betydning som ressource for såvel patienter som sygeplejersker.......I artiklen beskrives og reflekteres der over humors betydning som ressource for såvel patienter som sygeplejersker....

  6. Can Computers Create Humor?

    OpenAIRE

    Ritchie, Graeme; University of Aberdeen

    2009-01-01

    Despite the fact that AI has always been adventurous in trying to elucidate complex aspects of human behaviour, only recently has there been research into computational modelling of humor. One obstacle to progress is the lack of a precise and detailed theory of how humor operates. Nevertheless, since the early 1990s, there have been a number of small programs that create simple verbal humor, and more recently there have been studies of the automatic classification of the humorous status of te...

  7. Decoding Photocopy Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerns, Dan

    Photocopy humor is defined as any facsimile, photocopy, or wire-copy line drawing, iconography, or textual material that was drawn or written for distribution to a larger select audience using the available technology to disperse material intended to be humorous. Professional humor is excluded from this consideration. The content of photocopy…

  8. Humor, Aggression, and Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrick, Ann Louise; And Others

    Although humor is an important phenomenon in human interactions, it has rarely been studied in the elderly. An understanding of responses to humor in aggressive cartoons as a function of advancing age would provide information regarding both the development of humor and the negative (aggressive) emotional experiences of the elderly. This study was…

  9. Endothelium attenuates ethanol induced vasoconstriction of arteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morley, D.; Bove, A.A.; Walter, J. (Temple School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States))

    1990-02-26

    The authors have previously demonstrated that clinically relevant doses of ethanol (ETH) caused significant vasoconstriction of rabbit thoracic aorta. This study examined the role of endothelium in ethanol vasoconstriction. Thoracic aorta was harvested from 3 New Zealand White rabbits after anesthetization with sodium pentobarbital. Twelve aortic 3 mm rings were mounted in organ baths attached to force transducers and recording apparatus. Six of the twelve rings were denuded. Denudation was confirmed by challenge with acetylcholine (10-4 M). Resting tension was set at 10 grams and the rings equilibrated in 37 C Krebs-Heinsleit solution for 2 hours. Then, the response to norepinephrine (NE) was established (10-8 to 10-5 M). After reattaining resting tension, the response to ETH (500-2,500 ug/ml) was recorded. ETH produced significant vasoconstriction in both non-denuded (48{plus minus}7% of NE max) and denuded (58{plus minus}2% of NE max) arteries. Vasoconstriction was significantly higher in the denuded condition. The authors conclude that the predominant ETH action on arteries is based in vascular smooth muscle although endothelium acts to attenuate the ETH induced vasoconstrictor response.

  10. Humor and interpersonal attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murstein, B I; Brust, R G

    1985-12-01

    A humor test composed of cartoons, comic strips, and jokes was administered to 30 college couples (26 single, 4 married) who rated them for humor. Subjects also stated how much they loved and liked their partner, their probability of marrying the partner, and filled out Rubin's Liking and Love Scales. The hypotheses were that similarity of rating of the humorous stimuli would be associated with loving, liking, and predisposition to marry. Hypotheses were confirmed.

  11. Humor in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Howard J

    2003-12-01

    Humor and laughter have been a focus of attention in the popular media and in the medical literature. Despite statements about the health benefits of humor, current research is insufficient to validate such claims. There is support in the literature for the role of humor and laughter in other areas, including patient-physician communication, psychological aspects of patient care, medical education, and as a means of reducing stress in medical professionals.

  12. Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction: physiology and anesthetic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumb, Andrew B; Slinger, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) represents a fundamental difference between the pulmonary and systemic circulations. HPV is active in utero, reducing pulmonary blood flow, and in adults helps to match regional ventilation and perfusion although it has little effect in healthy lungs. Many factors affect HPV including pH or PCO2, cardiac output, and several drugs, including antihypertensives. In patients with lung pathology and any patient having one-lung ventilation, HPV contributes to maintaining oxygenation, so anesthesiologists should be aware of the effects of anesthesia on this protective reflex. Intravenous anesthetic drugs have little effect on HPV, but it is attenuated by inhaled anesthetics, although less so with newer agents. The reflex is biphasic, and once the second phase becomes active after about an hour of hypoxia, this pulmonary vasoconstriction takes hours to reverse when normoxia returns. This has significant clinical implications for repeated periods of one-lung ventilation.

  13. Humor and Giftedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziv, Avner; Gadish, Orit

    1990-01-01

    Two studies investigated humor among a total of 151 gifted adolescents. It was found that (1) in a sociometry of humor test, gifted adolescents received either few or many choices in a bimodal distribution; and (2) gifted adolescent humorists were more extroverted, more creative, and lower in need for social approval than other gifted adolescents.…

  14. Humor, Philosophy and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morreall, John

    2014-01-01

    This article begins by examining the bad reputation humor traditionally had in philosophy and education. Two of the main charges against humor--that it is hostile and irresponsible--are linked to the Superiority Theory. That theory is critiqued and two other theories of laughter are presented--the Relief Theory and the Incongruity Theory. In the…

  15. Humor's healing potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaward, B L

    1992-04-01

    In the past three decades the medical world has begun to take more serious notice of the healing power of humor and the positive emotions associated with it. Humor and laughter are currently being employed by psychotherapists and other care givers as tools to promote and maintain health, as well as intervention and rehabilitation tools for a host of maladies and illnesses related to stress and life-style. Although this empirical medical approach is relatively new, the study of humor has revealed a complex psychological phenomenon. Senses of humor have been categorized in types associated with personality. Humor has many styles and can be found in almost any situation, on any occasion. Theories of humor include the superiority theory, the incongruity theory, the release/relief theory, and the divinity theory. Laughter has many clinical benefits, promoting beneficial physiological changes and an overall sense of well-being. Humor even has long-term effects that strengthen the effectiveness of the immune system. In healthcare, humor therapy can help relieve stress associated with disease and illness. It serves as a diversionary tactic, a therapeutic tool for disorders such as depression, and a coping mechanism. It also is a natural healing component for care givers trying to cope with the stress and personal demands of their occupations.

  16. Humor, Philosophy and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morreall, John

    2014-01-01

    This article begins by examining the bad reputation humor traditionally had in philosophy and education. Two of the main charges against humor--that it is hostile and irresponsible--are linked to the Superiority Theory. That theory is critiqued and two other theories of laughter are presented--the Relief Theory and the Incongruity Theory. In the…

  17. Metonymy And Humor Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凤琴

    2008-01-01

    Study of humor discourse has attracted an increasingly numerousattention since 80's of last century.Traditionally.they approach it mainly from pragmatic aspect.In this paper.I try aflew research perspective,metonymicfunction and scenario concept to study how metonymic link works in theinterpretation of humor asa cognitive and mental process.

  18. Metonymy And Humor Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凤琴

    2008-01-01

    Study of humor discourse has attracted an increasingly numerousattention since 80’s of last century.Traditionally,they approach it mainly from pragmatic aspect.In this paper,I try a new research perspective,metonymic function and scenario concept to study how metonymic link works in the interpretation of humor as a cognitive and mental process.

  19. El humor centenarista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Sánchez

    1963-01-01

    Full Text Available En el número 7 -volumen IV- de julio de 1961, bajo el título de El Humor Parnasiano, fueron publicados cuatro sonetos humorísticos: dos del Maestro Guillermo Valencia y dos de su discípulo Carlos López Narváez.

  20. Levobupivacaine induces vasodilatation, but not vasoconstriction, in rat mesenteric artery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liciane dos Santos MENEZES; Liane Maciel de Almeida SOUZA; Márcio Roberto Viana dos SANTOS; Patrícia Santos Cunha MENDONÇA; Ítalo José Alves MOREIRA; Allan Carlos Araújo de OLIVEIRA

    Abstract Introduction Levobupivacaine (LEVO) can replace analgesia because it exhibits low toxicity and causes minor vasoconstriction, enabling its use in patients in whom vasoconstrictors are contraindicated...

  1. Ropivacaine in peribulbar anesthesia - vasoconstrictive properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govêia, Catia Sousa; Magalhães, Edno

    2010-01-01

    Peribulbar anesthesia can reduce ocular blood flow (OBF) by increasing intraocular pressure (IOP) or due to the action of drugs. Ropivacaine has low toxicity and intrinsic vasoconstrictive properties, yet to be proven on the ocular vasculature. Measurements of ocular pulse amplitude (OPA) allow the indirect evaluation of the OBF. The objective of the present study was to evaluate through the OBF the vasoconstrictive properties of ropivacaine in peribulbar anesthesia. Forty eyes undergoing peribulbar anesthesia with 7 mL of anesthetic solution without vasoconstrictor were randomly divided into two groups: ropivacaine (n = 20) and bupivacaine (n = 20). The IOP, ocular perfusion pressure (OPP), OPA, hemodynamic parameters, and the degree of akinesia before and 5 and 10 minutes after the blockade were evaluated. A dynamic contour tonometer was used to evaluate ocular parameters. Sedation was similar in both groups. A significant variation in hemodynamic parameters and intensity of the motor blockade was not observed between groups. Differences in IOP, OPP, and OPA (p < 0.05) were observed between both groups at 5 and 10 minutes. The variation of IOP at 5 and 10 minutes was -0.88% and -4.54%, respectively with ropivacaine, and 17.61% and 16.56% with bupivacaine. The change in OPP after 5 and 10 minutes was 1.5% and 4.2% with ropivacaine, and -7% and -6% with bupivacaine. Ocular pulse amplitude varied -55.59% and -59.67% with ropivacaine at 5 and 10 minutes, and -34.71% and -28.82% with bupivacaine. Ropivacaine reduced more intensely the ocular pulse amplitude despite little changes in IOP and OPP. The reduction in ocular blood flow caused by ropivacaine can be attributed to its vasoconstrictive effect. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Enhanced hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction in hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guazzi, M D; Alimento, M; Berti, M; Fiorentini, C; Galli, C; Tamborini, G

    1989-02-01

    In this study, we tested the hypothesis that hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction may be enhanced in systemic hypertension. The hypothesis took origin from the following two considerations: alveolar hypoxia constricts the pulmonary vessels by enhancing the Ca2+ penetration across sarcolemma of the smooth muscle cells and systemic high blood pressure is associated with an elevation of tone and reactivity of the lung vessels, which seems to depend on an excessive cytosol free Ca2+ concentration due to alterations in sodium handling and in the Na+-Ca2+ exchange system. These considerations suggest the possibility that the disorders in the biochemistry of smooth muscle contraction in hypertension facilitate the rise of cytosol Ca2+ concentration during alveolar hypoxia, thus resulting in a potentiation of the vasoconstrictor properties of this stimulus. In 43 hypertensive and 17 normotensive men, pulmonary arteriolar resistance has been evaluated during air respiration and after 15 minutes of breathing 17%, 15%, and 12% oxygen in nitrogen. Curves relating changes in pulmonary arteriolar resistance to oxygen breathing contents had similar configuration in the two populations but in hypertension were steeper and significantly shifted to the left, reflecting a lower threshold and an enhanced reactivity. This pattern was not related to differences in severity of the hypoxic stimulus, plasma catecholamine concentration, or hypocapnia and respiratory alkalosis induced by hypoxia and probably was not mediated through alpha-receptor activation. Calcium channel blockade with nifedipine was able to almost abolish both the normotensive and the hypertensive pulmonary vasoconstriction reaction. These findings support the hypothesis that hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction may be enhanced in systemic hypertension.

  3. Humor modeling in the interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Cockton, G.; Stock, O.; Korhonen, P.; Dix, A.; Bergman, E.; Bjork, S.; Morkes, J.; Collings, P.; Dey, A.; Draper, S.; Guliksen, J.; Keinonen, T.; Lazar, J.; Lund, A.; Malich, R.; Nakakoji, K.; Nigay, L.; Prates Oliveira, R.; Rieman, J.; Snyder, C.

    2003-01-01

    Humor is a multi-disciplinary field of research. People have been working on humor in many fields of research, such as psychology, philosophy and linguistics, sociology and literature. Especially in the context of computer science (or Artificial Intelligence) humor research aims at modeling humor in

  4. Humor modeling in the interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, A.; Stock, O.; Dix, A.; Morkes, J.; Cockton, G.; Korhonen, P.; Bergman, E.; Bjork, S.; Collings, P.; Dey, A.; Draper, S.; Guliksen, J.; Keinonen, T.; Lazar, J.; Lund, A.; Malich, R.; Nakakoji, K.; Nigay, L.; Prates Oliveira, R.; Rieman, J.; Snyder, C.

    2003-01-01

    Humor is a multi-disciplinary field of research. People have been working on humor in many fields of research, such as psychology, philosophy and linguistics, sociology and literature. Especially in the context of computer science (or Artificial Intelligence) humor research aims at modeling humor in

  5. Humors in Rip Van Winkle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张铂

    2014-01-01

    Humor is widely employed in Irving’s Rip Van Winkle. There are several kinds of humors in this short story, for exam-ple: irony, satire, farce, mockery, etc. Different humors indicate different attitudes the writer adopts toward his subject matter. This essay aims at grasping the main idea of the story through the analyses of various uses of humor.

  6. The origin of humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, N E

    2002-09-01

    Humor is spread throughout every culture on earth and occupies a large portion of our literature and social interaction. It is so deeply rooted in our culture that it may be a defining characteristic of our species. Yet there has been comparatively little effort to understand its origin. According to the Accepted Theory of Humor all jokes begin with a buildup of tension while an initial paradigm is formed. When the punch line occurs the subject must realign his thinking to accommodate the differences between the initial paradigm and the sudden burst of new information. The Mind Reading Hypothesis extends the accepted theory of humor to include a relationship between the observer and the subject of the humor. The actual source of amusement is the observation of the resolution in the mind of the subject of the collision between old perception and new reality.

  7. Humor and sexual selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Robert

    2003-12-01

    Recently Geoffrey Miller has suggested that humor evolved through sexual selection as a signal of "creativity," which in turn implies youthfulness, intelligence, and adaptive unpredictability. Drawing upon available empirical studies, I argue that the evidence for a link between humor and creativity is weak and ambiguous. I also find only tenuous support for Miller's assumption that the attractiveness of the "sense of humor" is to be found in the wittiness of its possessor, since those who use the phrase often seem to associate it with the affects of relatively mirthless "bonding" laughter. Humor, I conclude, may have evolved as an instrument for achieving broad social adhesiveness and for facilitating the individual's maneuverability within the group, but that it evolved through sexual selection has yet to be convincingly demonstrated.

  8. Political Uses of Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Ronald G.

    1981-01-01

    Introduces a theoretical framework applicable to the political and social uses made of humor. Focuses on the uses individuals make of jokes and joking in relation to the constant interchange involved between institutional stability and social change. (FL)

  9. The Humor in Horror.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kies, Cosette

    1995-01-01

    Discussion of horror fiction for teenagers focuses on the element of humor. Topics include parodies, plots, the element of mystery, cover art, end-of-chapter cliffhangers, and formula books. An annotated list of 10 pertinent titles is included. (LRW)

  10. Pulmonary hypoxic vasoconstriction: how strong? How fast?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, D. W.; Klocke, R. A.; Farhi, L. E.

    1992-01-01

    We have developed a minimally invasive technique for studying regional blood flow in conscious sheep, bypassing the complications of open-chest surgery, flow probes and tracer infusion. We quantitate regional perfusion continuously on the basis of regional clearance of methane (methane is produced in the sheep rumen, enters the circulation and is eliminated nearly completely (greater than 95%) in the lung). Tracheal intubation with a dual-lumen catheter isolates the gas exchange of the right apical lobe (RAL; less than 15% of the lung) from that of the remainder of the lung, which serves as a control (CL). We measure RAL and CL methane elimination by entraining expirates in constant flows, sampled continuously for methane. Results obtained with this technique and from regional oxygen uptake are in excellent agreement. We have found that hypoxic vasoconstriction is far more potent and stable during eucapnic hypoxia than during hypocapnic hypoxia. The time course of the vasoconstriction suggests that many of the data in the literature may have been obtained prior to steady state.

  11. Using Humorous Programs as a Vehicle for Humorous Commercials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Stephen D.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Shows that an increased level of humor in commercials was beneficial to recall and purchase intention; increased humor in the television program was detrimental to recall of products advertised; and gender interacted with program humor levels, such that products were viewed less negatively by men when they were exposed to commercials in a more…

  12. Uses of humor in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimmer, S A; Carroll, J L; Wyatt, G K

    1990-06-01

    Given demonstrated usefulness in facilitating learning, aiding healing, and reducing stress, humor has gained recognition as a clinical tool. This article reviews some uses and potential misuses of humor in psychotherapy and suggests directions for practice and research.

  13. Humor and creativity in psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Martín Camacho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the current article principal theories on humor are analyzed, relating them to different conceptions of creativity. Finally, some indications for the use of humor in psychotherapy are introduced, highlighting their positive and negative aspects. 

  14. Cultural Context and Humor Understanding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐中锋

    2009-01-01

    "Humor" is a very general word, which has been studied by numerous scholars from different points of view, pursuing different goals and using different assumptions. This paper holds that cultural context counts for the production and perception of humor.

  15. Humor in Children's Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Frank; Coles, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Humorous literature for children has been around since Randolph Caldecott first started writing and illustrating picturebooks. In the article, the authors try to understand what makes picturebooks funny and discuss ways to use humor in the classroom. Many examples of humorous picturebooks are cited to provide teachers with resources for their…

  16. Using Humor in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barney, David; Christenson, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Humor can be extremely beneficial in everyday life, whether giving or receiving it. It can be used to lighten the mood, give encouragement, or make corrections. Humor in physical education is no exception. Physical educators can use humor as a teaching tool and to create an environment for students to acquire the knowledge to practice a lifetime…

  17. Humor and embodied conversational agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, A.

    2003-01-01

    This report surveys the role of humor in human-to-human interaction and the possible role of humor in human-computer interaction. The aim is to see whether it is useful for embodied conversational agents to integrate humor capabilities in their internal model of intelligence, emotions and interactio

  18. Using Humor in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barney, David; Christenson, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Humor can be extremely beneficial in everyday life, whether giving or receiving it. It can be used to lighten the mood, give encouragement, or make corrections. Humor in physical education is no exception. Physical educators can use humor as a teaching tool and to create an environment for students to acquire the knowledge to practice a lifetime…

  19. Friendship, Intimacy and Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Mordechai

    2014-01-01

    A review of the literature in philosophy in the past 20 years indicates that relatively little has been written on the connection between friendship, intimacy and humor. This article is intended to begin to address the neglect of this topic among philosophers by focusing on some interesting aspects of the relationship between friendship, intimacy…

  20. Glem ikke at bruge humor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Preben Olund

    2017-01-01

    relationer og nærhed. Det er velkendt. Mindre velkendt er måske at gode relationer begynder med humor. Humorbegrebet kan begribes ud fra fire forskellige perspektiver. Humor bliver sammenlignet med leg, der er en undersøgende og seriøs form for læring mellem fantasi og virkelighed. Humor skaber sociale...... fællesskaber, der er grundlag for læring. Humor udvikler følelser, der er en motiverende faktor i undervisningen. Humor udvikler kognition, der er evnen til at kunne tænke....

  1. Aqueous Humor Dynamics: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Manik; Picciani, Renata G; Lee, Richard K; Bhattacharya, Sanjoy K

    2010-01-01

    Glaucoma is a family of optic neuropathies which cause irreversible but potentially preventable vision loss. Vision loss in most forms of glaucoma is related to elevated IOP with subsequent injury to the optic nerve. Secretion of aqueous humor and regulation of its outflow are physiologically important processes for maintaining IOP in the normal range. Thus, understanding the complex mechanisms that regulate aqueous humor circulation is essential for management of glaucoma. The two main structures related to aqueous humor dynamics are the ciliary body and the trabecular meshwork (TM). Three mechanisms are involved in aqueous humor formation: diffusion, ultrafiltration and active secretion. Active secretion is the major contributor to aqueous humor formation. The aqueous humor flow in humans follows a circadian rhythm, being higher in the morning than at night. The aqueous humor leaves the eye by passive flow via two pathways - the trabecular meshwork and the uveoscleral pathway. In humans, 75% of the resistance to aqueous humor outflow is localized within the TM with the juxtacanalicular portion of the TM being the main site of outflow resistance. Glycosaminoglycan deposition in the TM extracellular matrix (ECM) has been suggested to be responsible for increased outflow resistance at this specific site whereas others have suggested deposition of proteins, such as cochlin, obstruct the aqueous humor outflow through the TM. The uveoscleral outflow pathway is relatively independent of the intraocular pressure and the proportion of aqueous humor exiting the eye via the uveoscleral pathway decreases with age. PMID:21293732

  2. College Students' Perception of Lecturers Using Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamborini, Ron; Zillmann, Dolf

    1981-01-01

    Audio-taped lectures by male or female professors were produced in four versions: no humor; sexual humor; other-disparaging humor; and self-disparaging humor. Male and female students rated lecturers' intelligence and appeal. Intelligence ratings were unaffected by humor variations, but significant lecturer-student sex interactions were found on…

  3. Study on Deep Structure of Humor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫林琼

    2007-01-01

    Humor is the common favorite of people in all walks of life and at all ages. Studying the deep structure of humor, that is, the psychological and cognitive foundation in producing and comprehending humor, is quite practical in helping people first to recognize, understand and appreciate others' humor and then to apply their own humor to their daily communication.

  4. Humor and embodied conversational agents

    OpenAIRE

    Nijholt, A.

    2003-01-01

    This report surveys the role of humor in human-to-human interaction and the possible role of humor in human-computer interaction. The aim is to see whether it is useful for embodied conversational agents to integrate humor capabilities in their internal model of intelligence, emotions and interaction (verbal and nonverbal) capabilities. A current state of the art of research in embodied conversational agents, affective computing and verbal and nonverbal interaction is presented. The report ad...

  5. Humor, helt seriøst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundquist, Lita Sander

    2012-01-01

    Adfærd. Har humor grænser? Dansk humor har i hvert fald. Hvor humor typisk bruges til at glatte ud med, har det ofte den stik modsatte virkning, viser studie.......Adfærd. Har humor grænser? Dansk humor har i hvert fald. Hvor humor typisk bruges til at glatte ud med, har det ofte den stik modsatte virkning, viser studie....

  6. Humor styles and symbolic boundaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, G.

    2009-01-01

    Humor is strongly related to group boundaries. Jokes and other humorous utterances often draw on implicit references and inside knowledge; they tend to refer to sensitive topics which may offend people; and they ideally incite laughter, one of the strongest markers of social solidarity and emotional

  7. A Pragmatic Study of Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibraheem, Sura Dhiaa; Abbas, Nawal Fadhil

    2016-01-01

    Linguistically speaking, the concept of humor, which seems to be vast for people, has specific dimensions by which it is generated including: puns, irony, sarcasm, wittiness, and contrastive utterances in relation to the speakers of those utterances. It is about how the extra linguistics elements dominate the situation and the delivery of humor.…

  8. Humor er en alvorlig sag

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søltoft, Pia

    2016-01-01

    I modsætning til ironi er humor for Kierkegaard fællesskabsgivende – ironikeren hævder sig selv, men humoristen har sympati med den, man ler med. Humor er hos Kierkegaard udtryk for, at humoristen forliger sig med tilværelsen og dens luner, og dermed grænser humoren hos Kierkegaard op til det...

  9. Humor styles and symbolic boundaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, G.

    2009-01-01

    Humor is strongly related to group boundaries. Jokes and other humorous utterances often draw on implicit references and inside knowledge; they tend to refer to sensitive topics which may offend people; and they ideally incite laughter, one of the strongest markers of social solidarity and emotional

  10. Spass Verstehen, Zur Pragmatik von konversationellem Humor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekmann, Bjørn

    2000-01-01

    Spøg, Humor, Komik, Ironi, Kommunikationsteori, Hermeneutik, Gruppedynamik, Logik, Tekstlingvistik......Spøg, Humor, Komik, Ironi, Kommunikationsteori, Hermeneutik, Gruppedynamik, Logik, Tekstlingvistik...

  11. Aqueous humor changes after experimental filtering surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radius, R L; Herschler, J; Claflin, A; Fiorentino, G

    1980-02-01

    We studied aqueous humor of rhesus and owl monkeys for its effect on the growth of subconjunctival fibroblasts in tissue culture. Aqueous humor samples obtained before glaucoma surgery inhibited the initiation of growth of fibroblasts. However, postoperative aqueous humor samples supported growth of fibroblasts. The change in aqueous humor physiology lasted for up to two months after glaucoma surgery. Our study indicated that possibly material added to the postoperative aqueous humor inactivates an inhibitor normally present in primary aqueous humor. An alternative explanation would be that primary aqueous humor, in contrast to secondary aqueous humor, lacks sufficient nutrient material to support fibroblast growth in tissue culture.

  12. Effects of Classroom Humor Climate and Acceptance of Humor Messages on Adolescents' Expressions of Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Yi-Chen; Lee, Chun-Yang; Wang, Hong-Huei

    2016-01-01

    Background: To adapt to dramatic changes from physical growth, physical development and the increasing demand of significant others, humor has been found to be an effective coping strategy. However, previous studies have found that adolescents start to express their humor styles with aggressive components which causes negative consequences, such…

  13. Effects of Classroom Humor Climate and Acceptance of Humor Messages on Adolescents' Expressions of Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Yi-Chen; Lee, Chun-Yang; Wang, Hong-Huei

    2016-01-01

    Background: To adapt to dramatic changes from physical growth, physical development and the increasing demand of significant others, humor has been found to be an effective coping strategy. However, previous studies have found that adolescents start to express their humor styles with aggressive components which causes negative consequences, such…

  14. A Pragmatic Study of Humor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sura Dhiaa Ibraheem

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Linguistically speaking, the concept of humor, which seems to be vast for people, has specific dimensions by which it is generated including: puns, irony, sarcasm, wittiness, and contrastive utterances in relation to the speakers of those utterances. It is about how the extra linguistics elements dominate the situation and the delivery of humor. The researchers of the present paper intend to show how the selected literary extract can be subjected to a linguistic pragmatic analysis and then be explained by applying the incongruity theory of humor by Kant (1790 in order to show the ways or the mechanisms that lead to the flouting, infringing and the violation of Gricean maxims can consequently lead to the creation of humor. Despite the fact that the present paper is qualitative in nature, some tables are provided by the researchers in order to reach into a better, deeper and more understandable analysis. Investigating the ways Gricean maxims are flouted, infringed and violated to create humor, and showing how the imperfect use of language sometimes create unintentional humor are the researchers’ aims of this paper. Keywords: pragmatics, humor, implicature, Gricean maxims, Measure for Measure

  15. Humor and Healing in College Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Barbara J.; Roehrig, James P.; Yang, Peggy H.

    2015-01-01

    Humor is an often neglected but potentially powerful tool in college counseling center interventions. In this article we review potential benefits and hazards of using humor in a college mental health setting along with perspectives on humor's mechanism of action and distinctions between types of humor. Therapist and client-specific…

  16. Humor and Healing in College Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Barbara J.; Roehrig, James P.; Yang, Peggy H.

    2015-01-01

    Humor is an often neglected but potentially powerful tool in college counseling center interventions. In this article we review potential benefits and hazards of using humor in a college mental health setting along with perspectives on humor's mechanism of action and distinctions between types of humor. Therapist and client-specific…

  17. Pragmatic Analysis on Verbal Humor in Friends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳

    2009-01-01

    As a nature of humanity, humor is a way of communication peculiar to human beings. Verbal humor is a cate-gory of humor which is used to express humorist ideas through language, and siteom as a unique comedy performance is an important carrier of humor. This paper applies some basic pragnmtic theories, such as Cooperative Principles (CP) and Relevance Theory(RT), to analyze the verbal humor in American popular situational comedy Friends, aiming to explore the generation mechanism of English humor. And then a better understanding and appreciation of English humor for English learners can be achieved.

  18. Relation between humor and empathic concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampes, W P

    2001-02-01

    A series of studies have shown that humor is associated with close interpersonal relationships and effective in reducing stress, which in turn enhances empathy. Therefore, it was hypothesized that humor and empathic concern would be positively correlated. The Empathic Concern subscale of the Empathy Questionnaire, the Coping Humor Scale, the Multidimensional Sense of Humor Scale, and the Situational Humor Response Questionnaire were given to 124 subjects. Scores on the Empathic Concern subscale were significantly correlated with those on each of the humor scales. Types of humor may be an important variable in the relationship between empathic concern and humor. Both humor and empathic concern are associated for people with emotional intelligence who use these to interact effectively with other individuals. As such, it was suggested that exploration would yield a relation between humor and emotional self-awareness, which is also associated with emotional intelligence.

  19. Humor in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Cristiano S; Li, Rui; Lawrie, Sarah; Bar-Or, Amit; Clarke, Ann E; Da Costa, Deborah; Banerjee, Devi; Bernatsky, Sasha; Lee, Jennifer L; Pineau, Christian A

    2015-03-01

    Humor has neurophysiological effects influencing the release of cortisol, which may have a direct impact on the immune system. Laughter is associated with a decreased production of inflammatory cytokines both in the general population and in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Our objective was to explore the effects of humor on serum cytokines [particularly interleukin-6 (IL-6)] and cortisol levels in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), after a standard intervention (120 min of visual comedy). We enrolled 58 females with SLE from consecutive patients assessed in the Montreal General Hospital lupus clinic. The subjects who consented to participate were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to the intervention (watching 120 min of comedy) or control group (watching a 120 min documentary). Measurements of cytokine and serum cortisol levels as well as 24-h urine cortisol were taken before, during, and after the interventions. We compared serum cytokine levels and serum and 24-h urine cortisol levels in the humor and control groups and performed regression analyses of these outcomes, adjusting for demographics and the current use of prednisone. There were no significant differences between the control and humor groups in demographics or clinical variables. Baseline serum levels of IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and B-cell activating factor were also similar in both groups. There was no evidence of a humor effect in terms of decreasing cytokine levels, although there was some suggestion of lowered cortisol secretion in the humor group based the 24-h urinary cortisol levels in a subgroup. In contrast to what has been published for RA, we saw no clear effects of humor in altering cytokine levels in SLE, although interesting trends were seen for lower cortisol levels after humor intervention compared with the control group.

  20. Variations in alveolar partial pressure for carbon dioxide and oxygen have additive not synergistic acute effects on human pulmonary vasoconstriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin P P Croft

    Full Text Available The human pulmonary vasculature constricts in response to hypercapnia and hypoxia, with important consequences for homeostasis and adaptation. One function of these responses is to direct blood flow away from poorly-ventilated regions of the lung. In humans it is not known whether the stimuli of hypercapnia and hypoxia constrict the pulmonary blood vessels independently of each other or whether they act synergistically, such that the combination of hypercapnia and hypoxia is more effective than the sum of the responses to each stimulus on its own. We independently controlled the alveolar partial pressures of carbon dioxide (Paco 2 and oxygen (Pao 2 to examine their possible interaction on human pulmonary vasoconstriction. Nine volunteers each experienced sixteen possible combinations of four levels of Paco 2 (+6, +1, -4 and -9 mmHg, relative to baseline with four levels of Pao 2 (175, 100, 75 and 50 mmHg. During each of these sixteen protocols Doppler echocardiography was used to evaluate cardiac output and systolic tricuspid pressure gradient, an index of pulmonary vasoconstriction. The degree of constriction varied linearly with both Paco 2 and the calculated haemoglobin oxygen desaturation (1-So2. Mixed effects modelling delivered coefficients defining the interdependence of cardiac output, systolic tricuspid pressure gradient, ventilation, Paco 2 and So2. No interaction was observed in the effects on pulmonary vasoconstriction of carbon dioxide and oxygen (p>0.64. Direct effects of the alveolar gases on systolic tricuspid pressure gradient greatly exceeded indirect effects arising from concurrent changes in cardiac output.

  1. Lung mast cells and hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction in cats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, L.F.; Tucker, A.; Munroe, M.L.; Reeves, J.T.

    1978-01-01

    An attempt was made to reduce or eliminate lung mast cells in order to determine the involvement of mast cells in hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. Anesthetized cats were exposed to acute hypoxia (10% O/sub 2/) 20 to 24 h after no pretreatment, after total lung irradiation (3,000 r), after intravenous nitrogen mustard, or after combined lung irradiation and nitrogen mustard. None of the treatments reduced total or perivascular lung mast cell density, or reduced the pulmonary vasoconstrictor response to hypoxia. However, an inverse relationship between lung mast cell density and the pulmonary pressor response to hypoxia was observed. These results suggest that the presence of more lung mast cells may oppose hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction.

  2. A pediatric case of reversible segmental cerebral vasoconstriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirton, Adam; Diggle, John; Hu, William; Wirrell, Elaine

    2006-05-01

    Reversible segmental cerebral vasoconstriction (RSCV) is a recognizable clinical and radiographic syndrome consisting of thunderclap headache with or without focal neurological symptoms combined with reversible segmental vasoconstriction of proximal cerebral blood vessels. We report a case of reversible segmental cerebral vasoconstriction in a child. A healthy 13-year-old boy experienced the sudden onset of a severe, diffuse headache upon surfacing from a deep dive in a swimming pool. Severity was maximal at the onset and improved over several hours. The same headache recurred three times over the next four days and a low baseline headache persisted throughout. Vomiting occurred once and mild photo/osmophobia were reported but throbbing, aura, or autonomic symptoms were absent. Focal neurological signs or symptoms were absent and he denied previous history of headaches, medications, drugs, or trauma. Two normal CT scans were performed within hours of separate headaches. Cerebrospinal fluid study on day 5 was bloody with no xanthochromia. MRI/MRA/MRV of the brain and vasculitic work-up were normal. Cerebral angiography on day 6 demonstrated smooth narrowing of multiple proximal cerebral vessels including supraclinoid internal carotid artery (ICA), M1, and A1 on the right and M1 on the left. By ten days, the patient's headaches had resolved and repeat angiography was normal. RSCV should be considered in a child with thunderclap headache.

  3. To Be or Not To Be Humorous? Cross Cultural Perspectives on Humor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Yue

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Humor seems to manifest differently in Western and Eastern cultures, although little is known about how culture shapes humor perceptions. The authors suggest that Westerners regard humor as a common and positive disposition; the Chinese regard humor as a special disposition particular to humorists, with controversial aspects. In Study 1, Hong Kong participants primed with Western culture evaluate humor more positively than they do when primed with Chinese culture. In Study 2a, Canadians evaluate humor as being more important in comparison with Chinese participants. In Study 2b, Canadians expect ordinary people to possess humor, while Chinese expect specialized comedians to be humorous. The implications and limitations are discussed.

  4. To Be or Not To Be Humorous? Cross Cultural Perspectives on Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xiaodong; Jiang, Feng; Lu, Su; Hiranandani, Neelam

    2016-01-01

    Humor seems to manifest differently in Western and Eastern cultures, although little is known about how culture shapes humor perceptions. The authors suggest that Westerners regard humor as a common and positive disposition; the Chinese regard humor as a special disposition particular to humorists, with controversial aspects. In Study 1, Hong Kong participants primed with Western culture evaluate humor more positively than they do when primed with Chinese culture. In Study 2a, Canadians evaluate humor as being more important in comparison with Chinese participants. In Study 2b, Canadians expect ordinary people to possess humor, while Chinese expect specialized comedians to be humorous. The implications and limitations are discussed.

  5. To Be or Not To Be Humorous? Cross Cultural Perspectives on Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xiaodong; Jiang, Feng; Lu, Su; Hiranandani, Neelam

    2016-01-01

    Humor seems to manifest differently in Western and Eastern cultures, although little is known about how culture shapes humor perceptions. The authors suggest that Westerners regard humor as a common and positive disposition; the Chinese regard humor as a special disposition particular to humorists, with controversial aspects. In Study 1, Hong Kong participants primed with Western culture evaluate humor more positively than they do when primed with Chinese culture. In Study 2a, Canadians evaluate humor as being more important in comparison with Chinese participants. In Study 2b, Canadians expect ordinary people to possess humor, while Chinese expect specialized comedians to be humorous. The implications and limitations are discussed. PMID:27757091

  6. Affective Style, Humor Styles and Happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Ford

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the relationships between dispositional approach and avoidance motives, humor styles, and happiness. In keeping with previous research, approach motives and the two positive humor styles (self-enhancing and affiliative positively correlated with happiness, whereas avoidance motives and the two negative humor styles (self-defeating and aggressive negatively correlated with happiness. Also, we found support for three new hypotheses. First, approach motives correlated positively with self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles. Second, avoidance motives correlated positively with self-defeating humor style, and third, the positive relationship between approach motives and happiness was mediated by self-enhancing humor style.

  7. Various Means of Achieving Humor in English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温晓棠

    2014-01-01

    Humor can be found everywhere in our daily life. It shows one's wisdom and confidence, which reflects a person's character, mind and cultivation. While it makes people laugh, it enlightens and instruct people. As we all know, English humor is a manifestation of the western literature. However, people in non-English speaking countries cannot completely understand English humor because of the differences of different cultures. The present paper starts from the analysis of English humor, trying to find out some ways of achieving humor so as to better our understanding and appreciation of English humor.

  8. El humor es algo serio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Guiralt Gomar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Reseña del libro colectivo El humor frente al poder. Prensa humorística, cultura política y poderes fácticos en España (1927-1987, editado por Enrique Bordería Ortiz, Francesc-Andreu Martínez Gallego y Josep Lluís Gómez Mompart y publicado en 2015 por Biblioteca Nueva, dentro de su “Colección Historia”. El volumen, resultado del Grupo de Investigación en Comunicación Humorística y Satírica (GRICOHUSA, consiste en una compilación de trabajos científicos y de gran rigor académico acerca de la prensa humorística y satírica española durante las dos transiciones políticas de la historia contemporánea de España. Así, en él se analizan en profundidad semanarios y rotativos fundamentales del periodismo de humor español, tales como La Traca, Gutiérrez, La Codorniz, El Jueves y El Papus, entre muchos otros.

  9. Cooperative Principle and English Humorous Utterance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐芳

    2010-01-01

    <正>Humorous utterances,especially those in the form of conversation in life,have distinctive pragmatic features.There is a close relationship between humor and pragmatics,which can be found in various books on pragmatics.In those books,humorous utterances function as examples for pragmatic analysis.Effective humorous languages often reflect one or several pragmatic features.This paper specifically introduces one of the important theories of pragmatics:cooperative principle,by which the paper analyzes the humorous utterance and explores the relationship between pragmatic rules and humorous utterance.The purpose is to make people know humorous utterance is a matter of pragmatics. The reality of the humor especially depends on implication of the language and the context.

  10. Humor as a Mental Fitness Indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P. Howrigan

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available To explain the pervasive role of humor in human social interaction and among mating partner preferences, Miller (2000a proposed that intentional humor evolved as an indicator of intelligence. To test this, we looked at the relationships among rater-judged humor, general intelligence, and the Big Five personality traits in a sample of 185 college-age students (115 women, 70 men. General intelligence positively predicted rater-judged humor, independent of the Big Five personality traits. Extraversion also predicted rater-judged humor, although to a lesser extent than general intelligence. General intelligence did not interact with the sex of the participant in predicting rating scores on the humor production tasks. The current study lends support to the prediction that effective humor production acts as an honest indicator of intelligence in humans. In addition, extraversion, and to a lesser extent, openness, may reflect motivational traits that encourage humor production.

  11. Neural correlates of humor detection and appreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Joseph M; Wig, Gagan S; Adams, Reginald B; Janata, Petr; Kelley, William M

    2004-03-01

    Humor is a uniquely human quality whose neural substrates remain enigmatic. The present report combined dynamic, real-life content and event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to dissociate humor detection ("getting the joke") from humor appreciation (the affective experience of mirth). During scanning, subjects viewed full-length episodes of the television sitcoms Seinfeld or The Simpsons. Brain activity time-locked to humor detection moments revealed increases in left inferior frontal and posterior temporal cortices, whereas brain activity time-locked to moments of humor appreciation revealed increases in bilateral regions of insular cortex and the amygdala. These findings provide evidence that humor depends critically upon extant neural systems important for resolving incongruities (humor detection) and for the expression of affect (humor appreciation).

  12. Respons imun humoral pada pulpitis (Humoral immune response on pulpitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trijoedani Widodo

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Pulpitis is an inflammation process on dental pulp tissue, and usually as the continuous of caries. The microorganism in the caries is a potential immunogenic triggering the immune respons, both humoral and celluler immune responses. The aim of this research is to explain the humoral immune response changes in the dental pulp tissues of pulpitis. This research was done on three group samples: Irreversible pulpitis, Reversible pulpitis and sound teeth as the control group. The result showed that there were three pulpitis immunopathologic patterns: the sound teeth immunopathologic pattern showing a low humoral immune response, in a low level of IgG, IgA and IgM, the reversible pulpitis pattern showing that in a higher humoral immune response, IgG and IgA decreased but IgM increased, the irreversible pulpitis pattern showing that IgG and IgM increased, but it couldn't be repaired although it has highly immunity, and it showed an unusually low level of IgA. This low level of IgA meant that irreversible pulpitis had a low mucosal immunity.

  13. Black humor in O.Henry's novels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯静楠

    2013-01-01

      Black humor is a kind of literary style rose in American and O .Henry's novels used it to express the satire to society and show the sympathy to the lower class .The most typical works contain black humor two are The Cop and the Anthem and The Gift of the Magi.By using black humor, he created his unique endings .This article is trying to analysis the use of black humor in his novels and the effect.

  14. Humor as a Mental Fitness Indicator

    OpenAIRE

    Howrigan, Daniel P.; Kevin B. MacDonald

    2008-01-01

    To explain the pervasive role of humor in human social interaction and among mating partner preferences, Miller (2000a) proposed that intentional humor evolved as an indicator of intelligence. To test this, we looked at the relationships among rater-judged humor, general intelligence, and the Big Five personality traits in a sample of 185 college-age students (115 women, 70 men). General intelligence positively predicted rater-judged humor, independent of the Big Five personality traits. Extr...

  15. Linguistic Features of Humor in Academic Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalicky, Stephen; Berger, Cynthia M.; Crossley, Scott A.; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2016-01-01

    A corpus of 313 freshman college essays was analyzed in order to better understand the forms and functions of humor in academic writing. Human ratings of humor and wordplay were statistically aggregated using Factor Analysis to provide an overall "Humor" component score for each essay in the corpus. In addition, the essays were also…

  16. Understanding Hypoxic Drive and the Release of Hypoxic Vasoconstriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inkrott, Jon C

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the hypoxic drive and release of hypoxic vasoconstriction in the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease population can be somewhat confusing and misunderstood. Furthermore, the hypoxic drive theory is one in which there really is no scientific evidence to support and yet continues to prosper in every aspect of care in regard to the chronic lung patient, from prehospital all the way to intensive care unit and home care therapy. This subject review will hopefully enhance some understanding of what exactly goes on with these patients and the importance of providing oxygen when it is desperately needed.

  17. Effects of sevoflurane on hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction in anaesthetized piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerbaul, F; Bellezza, M; Guidon, C; Roussel, L; Imbert, M; Carpentier, J P; Auffray, J P

    2000-09-01

    In vitro, halogenated agents reduce the pulmonary vasoconstrictor response to alveolar hypoxia in isolated perfused lungs. However, studies in intact animals have been less convincing. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of sevoflurane on hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) in anaesthetized piglets using the pressure/cardiac index relationship (P/Q). Ten large white piglets were anaesthetized and mechanically ventilated, alternately in hyperoxia (FIO2 = 0.4) and hypoxia (FIO2 = 0.12). Multipoint plots of pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) or differences between PAP and left atrial pressure (LAP) against Q were generated by gradual inflation of a balloon introduced into the inferior vena cava. P/Q relationships were established in hyperoxia and hypoxia at baseline, and then with sevoflurane. In hypoxia, pressure gradients (PAP-LAP) increased at every level of Q, thus demonstrating active pulmonary vasoconstriction. Sevoflurane at 1 MAC did not affect these P/Q relationships in hyperoxia or hypoxia as compared with baseline. Sevoflurane at a clinically relevant concentration (1 MAC) has no significant effect on HPV in anaesthetized piglets.

  18. Chemoreceptor stimulation interferes with regional hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapleau, M W; Wilson, L B; Gregory, T J; Levitzky, M G

    1988-02-01

    Hypoxemia interferes with the diversion of blood flow away from hypoxic regions of the lung, possibly through activation of the arterial chemoreceptor reflex. The purpose of this study was to determine if selective stimulation of carotid chemoreceptors reduces the diversion of flow (hypoxic vasoconstriction) when normal systemic oxygen levels are present. Chloralose anesthetized dogs were paralyzed and each lung was separately ventilated via a dual-lumen endobronchial tube. Left pulmonary artery (QL) and main pulmonary artery (QT) blood flows were measured with electromagnetic flow probes. Chemoreceptors were stimulated by perfusion of the carotid sinuses with hypoxic, hypercapnic blood. QL/QT averaged 46 +/- 4, 29 +/- 2, and 36 +/- 4% during bilateral O2 ventilation (control), left lung N2 ventilation, and left lung N2 plus chemoreceptor stimulation in dogs treated with the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor meclofenamate. After vagotomy, QL/QT averaged 45 +/- 4, 27 +/- 3, and 28 +/- 2% during the same conditions. QL/QT decreased significantly from control (P less than 0.05) during left lung N2 alone but did not decrease during left lung N2 plus chemoreceptor stimulation in dogs with intact vagi. In contrast, QL/QT decreased significantly both before and during chemoreceptor stimulation in vagotomized dogs. The same responses were observed in dogs not treated with meclofenamate. These results indicate that selective stimulation of arterial chemoreceptors can interfere with regional hypoxic vasoconstriction and suggest that the vagus nerves may mediate this effect.

  19. Humor in intimate relationships Ties among sense of humor, similarity in humor and relationship quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barelds, D.P.H.; Barelds-Dijkstra, P.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined relations between different aspects of humor and relationship quality Participants 114 married or cohabiting heterosexual couples from the general community with a mean relationship length of 22 years completed a number of measures assessing these two themes We expected

  20. Humor in intimate relationships Ties among sense of humor, similarity in humor and relationship quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barelds, Dick P. H.; Barelds-Dijkstra, Pieternel

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined relations between different aspects of humor and relationship quality Participants 114 married or cohabiting heterosexual couples from the general community with a mean relationship length of 22 years completed a number of measures assessing these two themes We expected di

  1. Humor in intimate relationships Ties among sense of humor, similarity in humor and relationship quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barelds, D.P.H.; Barelds-Dijkstra, P.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined relations between different aspects of humor and relationship quality Participants 114 married or cohabiting heterosexual couples from the general community with a mean relationship length of 22 years completed a number of measures assessing these two themes We expected di

  2. The Relationship Between Humor Styles and Forgiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampes, William

    2016-01-01

    Research has shown that a factor in a victim’s forgiveness of an offender is the victim’s ability to make more positive, or at least less negative, attributions of the offender’s behavior and that perspective-taking can be a factor in facilitating that process. Self-enhancing humor has been found to be positively correlated with perspective-taking empathy and aggressive humor found to be negatively correlated with perspective-taking empathy. Therefore it was predicted that self-enhancing humor would be positively correlated with forgiveness and aggressive humor negatively correlated with forgiveness. The Humor Styles Questionnaire, the Absence of Negative and Presence of Positive subscales of the Forgiveness Scale, and the Forgiveness Likelihood Scale were administered to 112 college undergraduates. Self-enhancing humor was significantly and positively correlated with all of the forgiveness measures, aggressive humor and self-defeating humor were significantly and negatively correlated with some of the forgiveness measures and affiliative humor was not significantly correlated with any of the forgiveness measures. The results were interpreted in terms of previous findings for humor styles, perspective-taking empathy, depression, self-esteem and anxiety. Future research involving the extent to which other personality variables, such as perspective-taking empathy, mediate the relationship between self-enhancing humor and forgiveness was suggested. PMID:27547252

  3. The Relationship Between Humor Styles and Forgiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Hampes

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown that a factor in a victim’s forgiveness of an offender is the victim’s ability to make more positive, or at least less negative, attributions of the offender’s behavior and that perspective-taking can be a factor in facilitating that process. Self-enhancing humor has been found to be positively correlated with perspective-taking empathy and aggressive humor found to be negatively correlated with perspective-taking empathy. Therefore it was predicted that self-enhancing humor would be positively correlated with forgiveness and aggressive humor negatively correlated with forgiveness. The Humor Styles Questionnaire, the Absence of Negative and Presence of Positive subscales of the Forgiveness Scale, and the Forgiveness Likelihood Scale were administered to 112 college undergraduates. Self-enhancing humor was significantly and positively correlated with all of the forgiveness measures, aggressive humor and self-defeating humor were significantly and negatively correlated with some of the forgiveness measures and affiliative humor was not significantly correlated with any of the forgiveness measures. The results were interpreted in terms of previous findings for humor styles, perspective-taking empathy, depression, self-esteem and anxiety. Future research involving the extent to which other personality variables, such as perspective-taking empathy, mediate the relationship between self-enhancing humor and forgiveness was suggested.

  4. Linguistic Features of Humor in Academic Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Skalicky

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A corpus of 313 freshman college essays was analyzed in order to better understand the forms and functions of humor in academic writing. Human ratings of humor and wordplay were statistically aggregated using Factor Analysis to provide an overall Humor component score for each essay in the corpus. In addition, the essays were also scored for overall writing quality by human raters, which correlated (r = .195 with the humor component score. Correlations between the humor component scores and linguistic features were examined. To investigate the potential for linguistic features to predict the Humor component scores, regression analysis identified four linguistic indices that accounted for approximately 17.5% of the variance in humor scores. These indices were related to text descriptiveness (i.e., more adjective and adverb use, lower cohesion (i.e., less paragraph-to-paragraph similarity, and lexical sophistication (lower word frequency. The findings suggest that humor can be partially predicted by linguistic features in the text. Furthermore, there was a small but significant correlation between the humor and essay quality scores, suggesting a positive relation between humor and writing quality.Keywords: humor, academic writing, text analysis, essay score, human rating

  5. Vasoconstriction in horses caused by endophyte-infected tall fescue seed is detected with Doppler ultrasonography

    Science.gov (United States)

    The hypotheses that endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum)-infected tall fescue (TF) seed causes vasoconstriction in horses in vivo and that ground seed would cause more pronounced vasoconstriction than whole seed were tested. Ten horses each received 1 of 3 treatments: endophyte-free ground (E–G; n ...

  6. Low density lipoprotein induces upregulation of vasoconstrictive endothelin type B receptor expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Cang-Bao; Zheng, Jian-Pu; Zhang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Vasoconstrictive endothelin type B (ET(B)) receptors promote vasospasm and ischemic cerebro- and cardiovascular diseases. The present study was designed to examine if low density lipoprotein (LDL) induces upregulation of vasoconstrictive ET(B) receptor expression and if extracellular signal...

  7. An often unrecognized cause of thunderclap headache : reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, K; Teune, L K; ter Laan, M; Uyttenboogaart, M; Vroomen, P C; De Keyser, J; Luijckx, G J

    2008-01-01

    Thunderclap headache (TCH) can have several causes of which subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is most common and well known. A rare cause of TCH is the reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) which is characterized by a reversible segmental vasoconstriction of the intracranial vessels. We d

  8. The Dark Side of Humor: DSM-5 Pathological Personality Traits and Humor Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgil Zeigler-Hill

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Basic personality traits (e.g., extraversion have been found to be associated with the humor styles that individuals employ. In the present study, we were interested in determining whether pathological personality traits were also associated with humor styles. We examined the associations between the pathological personality traits captured by the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 (PID-5 and humor styles in a sample of college students (N = 594. Negative affectivity and detachment were negatively associated with the affiliative and self-enhancing humor styles. Antagonism was positively associated with the aggressive humor style but negatively associated with the affiliative humor style. Disinhibition was positively associated with the aggressive humor style, whereas disinhibition and psychoticism were both positively associated with the self-defeating humor style. Discussion focuses on the implications of these findings and how they can expand our understanding of the connections between the darker aspects of personality and humor.

  9. English Humor Derived from the Violation of Cooperative Principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    逯凌虹

    2009-01-01

    Humor is a wisdom, which reflects a person's character, mind and educational level. Humor can be revealed in many ways, yet mainly by means oflanguage. Starting from the analysis of the language of English humor, this paper studies the ways of English humor, especially the English humor on the violation of Cooperative Principle. By analyzing the relationship of English humor and the Cooperative Principle, this paper aims at bettering our understanding and comprehension of the Cooperative Principle and English humor.

  10. Personality, Humor Styles and Happiness: Happy People Have Positive Humor Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Thomas E; Lappi, Shaun K; Holden, Christopher J

    2016-08-01

    The present study examined the relationships between four personality traits, humor styles, and happiness. Replicating previous research, happiness was positively correlated with four personality traits: extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism. Further, happiness positively related to self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles; it related negatively to self-defeating and aggressive humor styles. Thus, happy people habitually engage in positive uses of humor and avoid engaging in negative uses of humor in daily life. We also found support for our hypothesis. People high in extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism are happier because they engage in positive humor in daily life.

  11. Personality, Humor Styles and Happiness: Happy People Have Positive Humor Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Ford

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the relationships between four personality traits, humor styles, and happiness. Replicating previous research, happiness was positively correlated with four personality traits: extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism. Further, happiness positively related to self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles; it related negatively to self-defeating and aggressive humor styles. Thus, happy people habitually engage in positive uses of humor and avoid engaging in negative uses of humor in daily life. We also found support for our hypothesis. People high in extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism are happier because they engage in positive humor in daily life.

  12. Personality, Humor Styles and Happiness: Happy People Have Positive Humor Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Thomas E.; Lappi, Shaun K.; Holden, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the relationships between four personality traits, humor styles, and happiness. Replicating previous research, happiness was positively correlated with four personality traits: extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism. Further, happiness positively related to self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles; it related negatively to self-defeating and aggressive humor styles. Thus, happy people habitually engage in positive uses of humor and avoid engaging in negative uses of humor in daily life. We also found support for our hypothesis. People high in extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism are happier because they engage in positive humor in daily life. PMID:27547251

  13. Strategi Penciptaan Humor dengan Pemanfaatan Aspek-aspek Kebahasaan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rohmadi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Humor is universal. Nobody never gets involved with humor. It's the difference lies in its frequency and its target. One person may have a high sense of humor whereas another may have a low sense of humor. In fact every person needs humor in many communication activities. Though humor is only word game, people cannot avoid it. However, humor does not always cause the people to laugh. The creation of humor discourse can make use of articles, pictures, and sounds. Humor consumers assess humor variously. Sometimes people can feel happy when they hear humor; but sometimes they can feel infuriated, hateful, insinuated, or even aggrieved. This is caused by immeasurable humor context in each communication. It depends on the target that the humor creator wants.

  14. ACL deficiency impairs the vasoconstrictive efficacy of neuropeptide Y and phenylephrine in articular tissues: a laser speckle perfusion imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Daniel; Forrester, Kevin; Leonard, Catherine; Salo, Paul; Bray, Robert C

    2005-01-01

    Sympathetic-derived neuropeptide Y (NPY) helps regulate inflammatory responses in injury and disease, is a vasoconstrictor, and stimulates angiogenesis. Rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is a common clinical presentation that results in tissue inflammation, hyperemia, and angiogenesis in the intact medial collateral ligament (MCL). This study is the first to examine the vasoregulatory role of NPY in ACL-deficient knee joints by using the newly developed technique of laser speckle perfusion imaging (LSPI). MCL blood flow was measured in two groups of adult rabbits: unoperated control (n = 6), and 6-wk ACL transected (n = 5). Under anesthesia, the MCL was surgically exposed and tissue blood flow was imaged at high resolution using LSPI. NPY was applied to the MCL vasculature in topical boluses of 100 mul (dose range 10(-14) to 10(-9) mol), and the alpha-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine was applied in doses of 10(-14), 10(-10), and 10(-7) mol. In control rabbits, topical administration of NPY or phenylephrine produced dose-dependent vasopressor responses (maximal effect at 10(-9) mol NPY and 10(-7) mol phenylephrine). In ACL-transected knees, there was little or no vasoconstrictive response to NPY at any dose. The response to phenylephrine was significantly reduced compared with control ligaments. Possible causes of the reduced vasoconstrictive response to NPY in the MCL after 6 wk of ACL deficiency include development of tolerance to the peptide due to a prolonged increase in sympathetic nerve activity or change in the distribution or functionality of the NPY Y(1) receptors. Chronic ACL deficiency leads to profound and protracted hyperemia in associated articular tissues. Abrogation of a vasoconstrictor response to both NPY and phenylephrine in the MCL indicates that ACL deficiency induces major changes in the vascular physiological homeostasis.

  15. Humor styles, self-esteem, and subjective happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xiao Dong; Liu, Katy Wing-Yin; Jiang, Feng; Hiranandani, Neelam Arjan

    2014-10-01

    Summary.-This study examined how humor styles could mediate the effect of self-esteem on subjective happiness. 227 Hong Kong undergraduate students completed the Humor Styles Questionnaire, the Roxsenberg Self-esteem Scale, and the Subjective Happiness Scale. Results showed adaptive humor styles (affiliative humor and self-enhancing humor) significantly predicted self-esteem and subjective happiness and mediated the relationship between self-esteem and subjective happiness. Maladaptive humor styles (aggressive humor and self-defeating humor) did not strongly predict self-esteem or subjective happiness. The mediation effects of humor styles found in the present research provided useful suggestions for future studies.

  16. Effects of Humor Production, Humor Receptivity, and Physical Attractiveness on Partner Desirability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tornquist, Michelle; Chiappe, Dan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined women’s and men’s preferences for humor production and humor receptivity in long-term and short-term relationships, and how these factors interact with physical attractiveness to influence desirability...

  17. Humor: Aggression, Defence, and Conservatism: Group Characteristics and Differential Humor Appreciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askenasy, George H.

    1976-01-01

    A broad sample of adult male and female subjects was administered an humor appreciation inventory (54 jokes, 9 categories). The major finding was that humor appreciation scores are remarkably similar regardless of background characteristics. (Author/SBP)

  18. Developing a typology of humor in audiovisual media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijzen, M.A.; Valkenburg, P.M.

    2004-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to develop and investigate a typology of humor in audiovisual media. We identified 41 humor techniques, drawing on Berger's (1976, 1993) typology of humor in narratives, audience research on humor preferences, and an inductive analysis of humorous commercials. We

  19. Developing a typology of humor in audiovisual media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijzen, M.A.; Valkenburg, P.M.

    2004-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to develop and investigate a typology of humor in audiovisual media. We identified 41 humor techniques, drawing on Berger's (1976, 1993) typology of humor in narratives, audience research on humor preferences, and an inductive analysis of humorous commercials. We analy

  20. Sexual Selection and Humor in Courtship

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    This investigation examines a sexual selection-based argument regarding humor’s role in courtship (i.e., humor production signals intelligence/creativity). Lens model (n =100) analyses suggest that humor production on Facebook profiles were self-reported and perceived to be associated with extroversion, not intelligence. Study 2 (n = 289) found that extroversion was associated humor production, but high school and college grade point average and American College Test (ACT) scores were not. In...

  1. The Cooperative Principle and English Humor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李澜

    2007-01-01

    English jokes are humorous and implicit. They can set people laughing, and at the same time they can also set people thinking. However, people in non-English speaking countries cannot completely understand English humor because of the differences between different cultures. This paper tries to explain the causes of English humor in terms of cooperative principles of conversation. Examples are given to illustrate each cause.

  2. Copper Induces Vasorelaxation and Antagonizes Noradrenaline -Induced Vasoconstriction in Rat Mesenteric Artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chun Wang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Copper is an essential trace element for normal cellular function and contributes to critical physiological or pathological processes. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of copper on vascular tone of rat mesenteric artery and compare the effects of copper on noradrenaline (NA and high K+ induced vasoconstriction. Methods: The rat mesenteric arteries were isolated and the vessel tone was measured by using multi wire myograph system in vitro. Blood pressure of carotid artery in rabbits was measured by using physiological data acquisition and analysis system in vivo. Results: Copper dose-dependently blunted NA-induced vasoconstriction of rat mesenteric artery. Copper-induced vasorelaxation was inhibited when the vessels were pretreated with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME. Copper did not blunt high K+-induced vasoconstriction. Copper preincubation inhibited NA-evoked vasoconstriction and the inhibition was not affected by the presence of L-NAME. Copper preincubation showed no effect on high K+-evoked vasoconstriction. Copper chelator diethyldithiocarbamate trihydrate (DTC antagonized the vasoactivity induced by copper in rat mesenteric artery. In vivo experiments showed that copper injection (iv significantly decreased blood pressure of rabbits and NA or DTC injection (iv did not rescue the copper-induced hypotension and animal death. Conclusion: Copper blunted NA but not high K+-induced vasoconstriction of rat mesenteric artery. The acute effect of copper on NA-induced vasoconstriction was depended on nitric oxide (NO, but the effect of copper pretreatment on NA-induced vasoconstriction was independed on NO, suggesting that copper affected NA-induced vasoconstriction by two distinct mechanisms.

  3. Comparative evaluation of aqueous humor viscosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kyshia; Carter, Renee; Tully, Thomas; Negulescu, Ioan; Storey, Eric

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate aqueous humor viscosity in the raptor, dog, cat, and horse, with a primary focus on the barred owl (Strix varia). Twenty-six raptors, ten dogs, three cats, and one horse. Animals were euthanized for reasons unrelated to this study. Immediately, after horizontal and vertical corneal dimensions were measured, and anterior chamber paracentesis was performed to quantify anterior chamber volume and obtain aqueous humor samples for viscosity analysis. Dynamic aqueous humor viscosity was measured using a dynamic shear rheometer (AR 1000 TA Instruments, New Castle, DE, USA) at 20 °C. Statistical analysis included descriptive statistics, unpaired t-tests, and Tukey's test to evaluate the mean ± standard deviation for corneal diameter, anterior chamber volume, and aqueous humor viscosity amongst groups and calculation of Spearman's coefficient for correlation analyses. The mean aqueous humor viscosity in the barred owl was 14.1 centipoise (cP) ± 9, cat 4.4 cP ± 0.2, and dog 2.9 cP ± 1.3. The aqueous humor viscosity for the horse was 1 cP. Of the animals evaluated in this study, the raptor aqueous humor was the most viscous. The aqueous humor of the barred owl is significantly more viscous than the dog (P humor viscosity of the raptor, dog, cat, and horse can be successfully determined using a dynamic shear rheometer. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  4. Instructional scientific humor in the secondary classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wizner, Francine

    This study is an examination of the manner in which educators employ scientific content humor and how that humor is perceived by their students. Content humor is a useful strategy in drawing the attention of students and improving their receptivity toward scientific information. It is also a useful tool in combating the growing distractions of the electronic classroom. Previous studies have found that humor has a positive effect on knowledge, memory, and understanding. However, few studies have been conducted below the undergraduate level and mainly quantitative measures of student recall have been used to measure learning. This study employed multiple data sources to determine how two secondary biology teachers used humor in order to explain scientific concepts and how their students perceived their teachers' use of scientific instructional humor. Evidence of student humor reception was collected from four students in each of the two classes. All of the scientific instructional humor used in the studied classrooms was cognitive in nature, varying among factual, procedural, conceptual, and metacognitive knowledge. Teachers tended to use dialogic forms of humor. Their scientific humor reflected everyday experiences, presented queries, poked fun at authority, and asked students to search out new perspectives and perform thought experiments. Teachers were the primary actors in performing the humorous events. The events were sometimes physical exaggerations of words or drawings, and they occurred for the purpose of establishing rapport or having students make connections between scientific concepts and prior knowledge. Student perceptions were that teachers did employ humor toward instructional objectives that helped their learning. Helping students become critical thinkers is a trademark of science teachers. Science teachers who take the risk of adopting some attributes of comedians may earn the reward of imparting behaviors on their students like critical thinking

  5. Effectiveness of humor advertising on advertising success

    OpenAIRE

    S, venkatesh; N, senthilkumar

    2015-01-01

    In global advertising ‘humor’ is the most effective emotion used in advertising compared to other emotional appeals. Advertisers and researchers more interested in Humor in advertising for more than 100 years. But there is no review paper for Impact of humor in advertising till twenty two years of time, in between period there was lot of research outcomes published about humor in advertising. The purpose of this paper to get detailed review about Impact of humor in advertising for 40 years an...

  6. Cognitive Distortions, Humor Styles, and Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Rnic

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive distortions are negative biases in thinking that are theorized to represent vulnerability factors for depression and dysphoria. Despite the emphasis placed on cognitive distortions in the context of cognitive behavioural theory and practice, a paucity of research has examined the mechanisms through which they impact depressive symptomatology. Both adaptive and maladaptive styles of humor represent coping strategies that may mediate the relation between cognitive distortions and depressive symptoms. The current study examined the correlations between the frequency and impact of cognitive distortions across both social and achievement-related contexts and types of humor. Cognitive distortions were associated with reduced use of adaptive Affiliative and Self-Enhancing humor styles and increased use of maladaptive Aggressive and Self-Defeating humor. Reduced use of Self-Enhancing humor mediated the relationship between most types of cognitive distortions and depressed mood, indicating that distorted negative thinking may interfere with an individual’s ability to adopt a humorous and cheerful outlook on life (i.e., use Self-Enhancing humor as a way of regulating emotions and coping with stress, thereby resulting in elevated depressive symptoms. Similarly, Self-Defeating humor mediated the association of the social impact of cognitive distortions with depression, such that this humor style may be used as a coping strategy for dealing with distorted thinking that ultimately backfires and results in increased dysphoria.

  7. Cognitive Distortions, Humor Styles, and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rnic, Katerina; Dozois, David J. A.; Martin, Rod A.

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive distortions are negative biases in thinking that are theorized to represent vulnerability factors for depression and dysphoria. Despite the emphasis placed on cognitive distortions in the context of cognitive behavioural theory and practice, a paucity of research has examined the mechanisms through which they impact depressive symptomatology. Both adaptive and maladaptive styles of humor represent coping strategies that may mediate the relation between cognitive distortions and depressive symptoms. The current study examined the correlations between the frequency and impact of cognitive distortions across both social and achievement-related contexts and types of humor. Cognitive distortions were associated with reduced use of adaptive Affiliative and Self-Enhancing humor styles and increased use of maladaptive Aggressive and Self-Defeating humor. Reduced use of Self-Enhancing humor mediated the relationship between most types of cognitive distortions and depressed mood, indicating that distorted negative thinking may interfere with an individual’s ability to adopt a humorous and cheerful outlook on life (i.e., use Self-Enhancing humor) as a way of regulating emotions and coping with stress, thereby resulting in elevated depressive symptoms. Similarly, Self-Defeating humor mediated the association of the social impact of cognitive distortions with depression, such that this humor style may be used as a coping strategy for dealing with distorted thinking that ultimately backfires and results in increased dysphoria. PMID:27547253

  8. Humor: The "Witting" Edge in Business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scriven, Jolene; Hefferin, Linda

    1998-01-01

    Humor contributes to teamwork, creative problem solving, mental flexibility, and risk taking in the workplace. As a classroom tool, it increases student attentiveness and retention of information. (SK)

  9. Humor in leader-follower relationships : Humor styles, similarity and relationship quality.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisse, Barbara; Rietzschel, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The present study focuses on how humor may affect the quality of the relationship between leader and follower (LMX). More specifically, we examined the impact of follower self-reported humor style and leader self-reported humor style on the extent to which followers perceived their relationship with

  10. Humor in leader-follower relationships : Humor styles, similarity and relationship quality.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisse, Barbara; Rietzschel, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The present study focuses on how humor may affect the quality of the relationship between leader and follower (LMX). More specifically, we examined the impact of follower self-reported humor style and leader self-reported humor style on the extent to which followers perceived their relationship with

  11. Humor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谈华军

    2005-01-01

    As I drove into a car park, I noticed that a utility truck with a dog sitting behind the wheel was rolling towards a female pedestrian. She seemed oblivious. So I hit my horn to get her attention, she looked up just in time to jump out of the truck's path, and the vehicle bumped harmlessly into the herb and stopped.

  12. Increased Hepato-Splanchnic Vasoconstriction in Diabetics during Regular Hemodialysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Ribitsch

    Full Text Available Ultrafiltration (UF of excess fluid activates numerous compensatory mechanisms during hemodialysis (HD. The increase of both total peripheral and splanchnic vascular resistance is considered essential in maintaining hemodynamic stability. The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent of UF-induced changes in hepato-splanchnic blood flow and resistance in a group of maintenance HD patients during regular dialysis.Hepato-splanchnic flow resistance index (RI and hepato-splanchnic perfusion index (QI were measured in 12 chronic HD patients using a modified, non-invasive Indocyaningreen (ICG dilution method. During a midweek dialysis session we determined RI, QI, ICG disappearance rate (kICG, plasma volume (Vp, hematocrit (Hct, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP and heart rate (HR at four times in hourly intervals (t1 to t4. Dialysis settings were standardized and all patient studies were done in duplicate.In the whole study group mean UF volume was 1.86 ± 0.46 L, Vp dropped from 3.65 ± 0.77L at t1 to 3.40 ± 0.78L at t4, and all patients remained hemodynamically stable. In all patients RI significantly increased from 12.40 ± 4.21 mmHg∙s∙m2/mL at t1 to 14.94 ± 6.36 mmHg∙s∙m2/mL at t4 while QI significantly decreased from 0.61 ± 0.22 at t1 to 0.52 ± 0.20 L/min/m2 at t4, indicating active vasoconstriction. In diabetic subjects, however, RI was significantly larger than in non-diabetics at all time points. QI was lower in diabetic subjects.In chronic HD-patients hepato-splanchnic blood flow substantially decreases during moderate UF as a result of an active splanchnic vasoconstriction. Our data indicate that diabetic HD-patients are particularly prone to splanchnic ischemia and might therefore have an increased risk for bacterial translocation, endotoxemia and systemic inflammation.

  13. The Role of Humor in Language Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓艳

    2013-01-01

    Humor plays an important role in many spheres and aspects of human life. The study is intended to analyze the feasibil-ity of utilizing humor as a communicative strategy as well as a tool to create a positive teaching environment for language teach-ing in class.

  14. "That Hurts!": Humor and Sadomasochism in "Lolita."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bick, Ilsa J.

    1994-01-01

    States that humor is dependent on individual perspective, and that the subject matter of "Lolita" (1962), which concerns child abuse and molestation, is difficult to treat with humor. Argues that despite its subject, "Lolita" continues to be funny. Concludes that viewers know the subject matter is not funny, but while watching, viewers do not…

  15. A Study on Intertextuality in Verbal Humor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周燕

    2015-01-01

    This paper talks about how intertextuality and its concerned theories can be well applied to the study of humor.Through analysis of specific samples,the paper finds parody,verbal irony and text allusions are effective intertextual means to produce and understand verbal humor.

  16. American Learners' Comprehension of Russian Textual Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shardakova, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, second language (L2) humor has attracted scholarly attention as both a means and a goal of L2 development. Much of this research, however, has focused on oral communication, whereas virtually no studies address humor as an aspect of reading comprehension. This exploratory study combines these two areas of inquiry, examining…

  17. Humor: A Therapeutic Intervention for Child Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Rachelle G.; Parr, Gerald; Bradley, Loretta J.; Berry, Jeremy J.

    2009-01-01

    Counselors utilize many strategies, techniques, and tools when building a therapeutic alliance or addressing children's issues. Due to the serious nature of discussing problems or perhaps because of the fear of seeming insensitive, counselors often overlook humor as a means to enhance therapy. Whether deliberate or spontaneous, humor can add…

  18. Confessions from a Guy Who Teaches Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Gene L.

    2008-01-01

    Humor is an intriguing topic that exists in the contexts of adult education and human resource development. This paper describes my experiences at developing and facilitating a graduate course on humor and adult learning. Researchers and scholarly practitioners in adult education and human resource development are encouraged to build their…

  19. "That Hurts!": Humor and Sadomasochism in "Lolita."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bick, Ilsa J.

    1994-01-01

    States that humor is dependent on individual perspective, and that the subject matter of "Lolita" (1962), which concerns child abuse and molestation, is difficult to treat with humor. Argues that despite its subject, "Lolita" continues to be funny. Concludes that viewers know the subject matter is not funny, but while watching,…

  20. "That Hurts!": Humor and Sadomasochism in "Lolita."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bick, Ilsa J.

    1994-01-01

    States that humor is dependent on individual perspective, and that the subject matter of "Lolita" (1962), which concerns child abuse and molestation, is difficult to treat with humor. Argues that despite its subject, "Lolita" continues to be funny. Concludes that viewers know the subject matter is not funny, but while watching,…

  1. Is there any association between cerebral vasoconstriction/vasodilatation and microdialysis Lactate to Pyruvate ratio increase?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgari, Shadnaz; Vespa, Paul; Hu, Xiao

    2013-08-01

    Although abnormally high Lactate/Pyruvate ratio (LPR) could indicate cerebral ischemia for brain injury patients, there is a debate on what is primary factor responsible for LPR increase. A data analysis experiment is taken to test whether any association between cerebral vasodilatation/vasoconstriction and LPR increase exists. We studied 4,316 microdialysis data samples collected in an average interval of 1.3 h from 30 severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients. The LPR increase episodes were automatically identified using a moving time-window of 5 samples. A novel pulse morphological template matching (PMTM) algorithm was applied to the intracranial pressure (ICP) data of the corresponding patients to assess the occurrence of cerebral vasodilatation and vasoconstriction during the identified LPR increase episodes. Several analyses were performed to evaluate the association between cerebral vasoconstriction/vasodilatation and LPR increase. Results revealed that although more than half of the LPR increase episodes are not associated with any detected cerebral vasoconstriction/vasodilatation, when a vaso-change happens in association of LPR increase, it is more likely that this vaso-change is in the form of vasoconstriction rather than vasodilatation. Also for few subjects with dominant number of vasoconstriction episodes, a causality relationship between vasoconstriction and LPR increase were observed (vasoconstriction precedes LPR increase). Using continuous intracranial pressure monitoring and our pulse morphological template matching (PMTM) algorithm could be potentially helpful in teasing out whether culprit cerebral vascular changes precede metabolic crisis for traumatic brain injury patients and hence guiding the management of this condition.

  2. Acute Headache at Emergency Department: Reversible Cerebral Vasoconstriction Syndrome Complicated by Subarachnoid Haemorrhage and Cerebral Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yger

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome is becoming widely accepted as a rare cause of both ischemic and haemorrhagic stroke and should be evocated in case of thunderclap headaches associated with stroke. We present the case of a patient with ischemic stroke associated with cortical subarachnoid haemorrhage (cSAH and reversible diffuse arteries narrowing, leading to the diagnosis of reversible vasoconstriction syndrome. Case Report. A 48-year-old woman came to the emergency department because of an unusual thunderclap headache. The computed tomography of the brain completed by CT-angiography was unremarkable. Eleven days later, she was readmitted because of a left hemianopsia. One day after her admission, she developed a sudden left hemiparesis. The brain MRI showed ischemic lesions in the right frontal and occipital lobe and diffuse cSAH. The angiography showed vasoconstriction of the right anterior cerebral artery and stenosis of both middle cerebral arteries. Nimodipine treatment was initiated and vasoconstriction completely regressed on day 16 after the first headache. Conclusion. Our case shows a severe reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome where both haemorrhagic and ischemic complications were present at the same time. The history we reported shows that reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome is still underrecognized, in particular in general emergency departments.

  3. Vasoconstriction Potency Induced by Aminoamide Local Anesthetics Correlates with Lipid Solubility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Jin Sung

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aminoamide local anesthetics induce vasoconstriction in vivo and in vitro. The goals of this in vitro study were to investigate the potency of local anesthetic-induced vasoconstriction and to identify the physicochemical property (octanol/buffer partition coefficient, pKa, molecular weight, or potency of local anesthetics that determines their potency in inducing isolated rat aortic ring contraction. Cumulative concentration-response curves to local anesthetics (levobupivacaine, ropivacaine, lidocaine, and mepivacaine were obtained from isolated rat aorta. Regression analyses were performed to determine the relationship between the reported physicochemical properties of local anesthetics and the local anesthetic concentration that produced 50% (ED50 of the local anesthetic-induced maximum vasoconstriction. We determined the order of potency (ED50 of vasoconstriction among local anesthetics to be levobupivacaine > ropivacaine > lidocaine > mepivacaine. The relative importance of the independent variables that affect the vasoconstriction potency is octanol/buffer partition coefficient > potency > pKa > molecular weight. The ED50 in endothelium-denuded aorta negatively correlated with the octanol/buffer partition coefficient of local anesthetics (r2=0.9563; P<0.001. The potency of the vasoconstriction in the endothelium-denuded aorta induced by local anesthetics is determined primarily by lipid solubility and, in part, by other physicochemical properties including potency and pKa.

  4. Chemoreceptor stimulation and hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction in conscious dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitzky, M G

    1979-07-01

    Dogs with electromagnetic flow probes implanted on their left (QL) and main (QT) pulmonary arteries, catheters in their left atria and external jugular veins, and chronic tracheostomies were trained to accept Carlens dual-lumen endotracheal tubes into their tracheostomies, thus allowing separate ventilation of the two lungs. Swan-Ganz catheters were inserted through the jugular vein catheters. Pneumotachographs measured air flow to each lung. During bilateral ventilation with room air or O2, QL was about 36% of QT. When the left lung was ventilated with N2 while the right remained on O2, PAO2 was above 90 mmHg and QL fell to about 25% of QT. When the left lung was ventilated with N2 and the right with room air, PAO2 fell below 40 mm Hg and QL increased to control levels. This increase in perfusion of the hypoxic lung during systemic hypoxemia was not seen in dogs after surgical deafferentation of the systemic arterial chemoreceptors, indicating that stimulation of the arterial chemoreceptors may interfere with the hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction.

  5. Regional hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction in dogs with asymptomatic dirofilariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapleau, M W; Fish, R E; Levitzky, M G

    1985-06-01

    The pulmonary hemodynamic response to unilateral alveolar hypoxia was investigated in pentobarbital-anesthetized dogs with mild heartworm (HW) disease and in dogs free of HW (HWF). Left lung nitrogen ventilation in HWF dogs resulted in a decrease in the fraction of the cardiac output (QT) perfusing the left lung (QL) from 0.37 +/- 0.03 (SEM) to 0.20 +/- 0.02 (P less than 0.01). In contrast, dogs with mild HW disease did not develop a significant decrease in QL/QT which decreased from 0.38 +/- 0.02 to 0.33 +/- 0.02. This attenuated pulmonary vascular response to regional alveolar hypoxia in dogs with HW disease was associated with a normal pulmonary arterial pressure (14.8 +/- 1.5 mm of Hg) that was not different from that seen in HWF dogs (15.8 +/- 1.7 mm of Hg). These results indicate that mild HW disease interferes with the ability of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction to redistribute pulmonary blood flow away from hypoxic regions of the lung.

  6. Phosphate homeostasis and disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manghat, P; Sodi, R; Swaminathan, R

    2014-11-01

    Recent studies of inherited disorders of phosphate metabolism have shed new light on the understanding of phosphate metabolism. Phosphate has important functions in the body and several mechanisms have evolved to regulate phosphate balance including vitamin D, parathyroid hormone and phosphatonins such as fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23). Disorders of phosphate homeostasis leading to hypo- and hyperphosphataemia are common and have clinical and biochemical consequences. Notably, recent studies have linked hyperphosphataemia with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. This review outlines the recent advances in the understanding of phosphate homeostasis and describes the causes, investigation and management of hypo- and hyperphosphataemia.

  7. Humoral immunity in Hansen's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldenise Cossermelli-Messina

    Full Text Available For many years immune response in leprosy has been studied. Since 1960 several reports dealing with humoral immunity have been described in the literature. Different autoantibody rates occur in leprosy. There is an increase in the prevalence of autoantibodies in elderly patients with long standing disease, in lepromatous leprosy and in those with reactional states. The diferences in rates among various studies are attributed to different methods and variations among patient samples concerning age, gender, polar forms, therapy and other elements. The prevalence of numerous antibodies, immune complexes, cryoglobulins and complement levels have been studied by many authors. This also highlights the importance of the more recent reviews of anti-Mycobacterium leprae glycolipid antibodies such as the anti-phenolic glycolipid-I antibodies in which titers are variable and depend on genetic factors.

  8. Humor and creative life styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, J

    2001-01-01

    This paper is based upon the writings of William James in the late 19th century, and Alfred Adler and Sigmund Freud in the 20th, enriched by the contributions of later personality and role theorists. The self is defined as the unique organization of each person; a style is the self in action. Different life styles and their components are expressed in different situations. I posit that humor and positive thinking, combined with meaning and purpose, are vital components of all constructive life styles. The knowledge of life styles cuts through diagnostic labels to reveal our universal humanity. It can be fruitfully applied to patients and nonpatients alike and, I found, for the self-understanding of therapist. The clinical application of life styles is illustrated through numerous vignettes.

  9. El humor es cosa seria

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    La capacidad de goce, trabajo y sobre todo el humor constituyen un criterio importante en la evaluación psicodiagnóstica, a pesar de ser a menudo, un aspecto excluido de los informes. Una razón de dicha exclusión podría ser el hecho de no contribuir por sí mismo a incluir al sujeto evaluado en una categoría psicopatológica. Otra razón que se suma a la anterior, es que el “ sentido del humor” que surge durante el transcurso de un proceso psicodiagnóstico exige de parte del que lo administra un...

  10. Por un humor ético

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Paramo Valero

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Ética del humor es una obra original, abundantemente documentada, de contenido científico y filosófico, que aborda un problema de gran importancia en los actuales estudios de éticas aplicadas. La ética del humor es una nueva ética aplicada que pretende comprender el fenómeno del humor a la luz de sus implicaciones éticas. Como señala el autor, Juan Carlos Siurana, reputado experto en el ámbito de la filosofía práctica, el interés por el humor es un interés por la ética. En la obra no presenta una nueva teoría filosófica del humor –las cuales se han venido sucediendo, al menos, desde los Diálogos de Platón–, sino una nueva teoría ética, que toma al humor como objeto principal de análisis. Por tanto, la finalidad es realizar una aportación dentro del ámbito de la ética. Para ello se nutre de distintos estudios psicológicos, biológicos, fisiológicos y neurológicos sobre el humor, así como de clásicas obras de filosofía que han abordado esta cuestión.

  11. Levobupivacaine induces vasodilatation, but not vasoconstriction, in rat mesenteric artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liciane dos Santos MENEZES

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Levobupivacaine (LEVO can replace analgesia because it exhibits low toxicity and causes minor vasoconstriction, enabling its use in patients in whom vasoconstrictors are contraindicated. Objective We aimed to evaluate the effects of LEVO in isolated rat superior mesenteric artery by using the vascular reactivity technique and compare its effect to that of lidocaine. Material and method Arterial rings were obtained from the mesenteric artery of male Wistar rats and kept in organ baths. For recording isometric contractions, each ring was suspended by cotton threads from a force transducer, which was connected to a data acquisition system. Result Both lidocaine and LEVO did not show a vasoconstrictor effect on the basal tone of the arterial rings with functional endothelium. However, when the rings were pre-contracted with phenylephrine, both drugs were able to induce concentration-dependent vasodilatation. The vasodilator effect induced by LEVO did not change after removal of the endothelium, or with the addition of tetraethylammonium (1 mM, a non-selective K+ channel blocker. In the rings without functional endothelium, which were pre-contracted with depolarizing Tyrode’s solution (KCl 80 mM, LEVO-induced vasodilatation was not significantly different from that observed in the rings pre-contracted with phenylephrine. Moreover, it did not show a significant additional vasodilator effect compared to the maximal vasodilator effect of nifedipine. Conclusion This study demonstrated that LEVO produces a vasodilator effect in the rat superior mesenteric artery in an endothelium-independent manner. This effect seems to be mediated via Ca2+ channel blockade in the vascular smooth muscle cells.

  12. Rapid inhibition of vasoconstriction in renal afferent arterioles by aldosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhrenholt, T R; Schjerning, J; Hansen, P B; Nørregaard, R; Jensen, B L; Sorensen, G L; Skøtt, O

    2003-12-12

    Aldosterone has been suggested to elicit vessel contraction via a nongenomic mechanism. We tested this proposal in microdissected, perfused rabbit renal afferent arterioles. Aldosterone had no effect on internal diameter in concentrations from 10(-10) to 10(-5) mol/L, but aldosterone abolished the ability of 100 mmol/L KCl to induce vascular contraction. The inhibitory effect of aldosterone was observed from 1 pmol/L. The inhibitory effect was significant after 5 minutes and maximal after 20 minutes and was fully reversible. Actinomycin D (10(-6) mol/L) prolonged the effect of aldosterone. The effect was abolished by the mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist spironolactone (10(-7) mol/L) but not by the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist mifepristone (10(-6) mol/L). The K+-mediated increase of intracellular calcium concentration in afferent arterioles was not affected by aldosterone. Mineralocorticoid receptor was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry in rat renal vasculature and rabbit endothelial cells. Inhibition of phosphatidylinositol (PI)-3 kinase with LY 294002 (3x10(-6) mol/L) restored sensitivity to K+ in the presence of aldosterone, and afferent arterioles were immunopositive for PI-3 kinase subunit p110alpha. Inhibition of NO formation by L-NAME (10(-4) mol/L) or inhibition of soluble guanylyl cyclase with 1H-(1,2,4)Oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxaline-1-one restored K+-induced vasoreactivity in the presence of aldosterone. Similar to aldosterone, the NO donor sodium nitroprusside inhibited K+-induced vascular contraction. Geldanamycin (10(-6) mol/L), an inhibitor of heat shock protein 90, abolished aldosterone-induced vasorelaxation. We conclude that aldosterone inhibits depolarization-induced vasoconstriction in renal afferent arterioles by a rapid nongenomic mechanism that is initiated by mineralocorticoid receptor activation and involves PI-3 kinase, protein kinase B, and heat shock protein 90-mediated

  13. Chemoreflex blunting of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction is vagally mediated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, L B; Levitzky, M G

    1989-02-01

    We investigated the role of the autonomic nervous system in the arterial chemoreceptor attenuation of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) using anesthetized dogs. Total pulmonary blood flow (Qt) and left pulmonary blood flow (Ql) were determined using electromagnetic flow probes. Carotid body chemoreceptors were perfused using blood pumped from an extracorporeal circuit containing an oxygenator. Four groups were used: 1) prevagotomy (control), 2) bilateral vagotomy, 3) post-atropine, and 4) post-propranolol. Left lung hypoxia decreased Ql/Qt from 42.9 +/- 2.9 to 28.1 +/- 3.0%, from 41.1 +/- 5.3 to 26.7 +/- 4.2%, from 38.6 +/- 1.3 to 22.2 +/- 2.4%, and from 48.2 +/- 4.2 to 28.5 +/- 3.7% in the four groups, respectively. Chemoreceptor stimulation during unilateral hypoxia increased Ql/Qt from 28.1 +/- 3.0 to 39.1 +/- 4.9% and from 28.5 +/- 3.7 to 40.6 +/- 3.7% in the control and propranolol groups. However, chemoreceptor stimulation had no effect on Ql/Qt during left lung hypoxia after vagotomy or atropine, as Ql/Qt went from 26.7 +/- 4.2 to 29.3 +/- 5.2% and from 22.2 +/- 2.4 to 24.1 +/- 1.5% in groups 2 and 3, respectively. Because chemoreceptor stimulation did not affect HPV in groups 2 and 3, we conclude that the chemoreceptor attenuation of HPV is mediated by the parasympathetic nervous system.

  14. Using skin temperature gradients or skin heat flux measurements to determine thresholds of vasoconstriction and vasodilatation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, James R; Tipton, Michael J

    2002-11-01

    Forearm-fingertip skin temperature differentials (T(sk-diff)) are used to indicate vasomotor tone, vasoconstriction defined as having occurred when T(sk-diff)> or =4 degrees C (Sessler et al. 1987, 1988a, b). This study was conducted to determine whether T(sk-diff) or finger pad heat flux (HF) can be used to predict when vasoconstriction and vasodilatation occur. Seven subjects (one female) sat in water at [mean (SD)] 40.7 (0.8) degrees C until their core temperature (T(c)) increased by 1 degrees C, ensuring vasodilatation. The water was then cooled [at a rate of 0.6 (0.1) degrees C x min(-1)] until T(c) fell to 0.5 degrees C below pretesting values, causing vasoconstriction. Subjects were then rewarmed in water [41.2 (1.0) degrees C]. Skin blood flow (SkBF) was measured using laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) on the left second finger pad [immersed in water at 10.4 (1.4) degrees C as part of another experiment], and infrared plethysmography on the third finger pad of both hands. T(sk-diff) and HF were measured on the right upper limb, which remained in air. When vasodilated, the subjects had a stable T(sk-diff) and HF. During cooling, rapid-onset vasoconstriction occurred coincidental with large gradient changes in HF and T(sk-diff) (inflection points). In two subjects the original vasoconstriction definition (T(sk-diff)> or =4 degrees C) was not attained, in the other five this was achieved 31-51 min after vasoconstriction. During rewarming, the T(sk-diff) and HF inflection points less accurately reflected the onset of vasodilatation, although with one exception they were within 5 min of the LDF changes. We conclude that T(sk-diff) and HF inflection points predict vasoconstriction accurately, and better than T(sk-diff)> or =4 degrees C.

  15. Towards Humor Modelling and Facilitation in Smart Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Gu Ji, Y.; Choi, S.

    We know about word play, verbal jokes, and about humor that appears spontaneously in conversations. This humor is studied in computational linguistics, together with issues such as verbal incongruities, ambiguities, irony and sarcasm. These appearances of humor are also part of computational humor

  16. Exploring the Relationship between Humor and Aesthetic Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Mordechai

    2012-01-01

    The connection between humor and aesthetic experience has already been recognized by several thinkers and aesthetic educators. For instance, humor theorist John Morreall writes that "humor is best understood as itself a kind of aesthetic experience, equal in value at least to any other kind of aesthetic experience." For Morreall, both humor and…

  17. LOL Teacher! Using Humor to Enhance Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrell, Shelly

    2015-01-01

    Laughing with students can help them connect on a deeper level with the teacher and the learning. This article offers the following four strategies to incorporate humor into teaching: (1) Integrate humorous bits to boost engagement; (2) Choose humorous materials; (3) Create interest with humorous web tools and apps; and (4) Teach with silly…

  18. Towards Humor Modelling and Facilitation in Smart Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Anton; Gu Ji, Y.; Choi, S.

    2014-01-01

    We know about word play, verbal jokes, and about humor that appears spontaneously in conversations. This humor is studied in computational linguistics, together with issues such as verbal incongruities, ambiguities, irony and sarcasm. These appearances of humor are also part of computational humor s

  19. Burnout and Humor Usage among Community College Nursing Faculty Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Laura A.

    2000-01-01

    Assesses the correlation of burnout among community college nursing faculty members and their use of humor to mediate academic stress related to burnout. Differences in burnout between high versus low humor usage respondents showed a higher sense of personal accomplishment with high humor usage. Of those with low humor usage, workload was related…

  20. Differences in Humor Styles between China and America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玮

    2014-01-01

    Humor, as a relaxing topic, is a very complicate thing in the intercultural communication. The famous professor of psychology at the University of Western Ontario, Rod A. Martin who focuses his study on functions of humor and laughter proposes four humor styles. In this essay, I use four dimensions referred by Hofstede to analyze the preferred humor styles in China and America.

  1. Designed and Accidental Humor in the Smart Digital Wild

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Anton; Ruiz Miyares, L.

    2017-01-01

    Humor can be designed and canned, for example as it appears in videogames, sitcoms or amusement parks. We often have humor professionals that have responsibility for this inclusion of humor. Humor can be designed for a particular occasion, for example in an April prank. However, in real life we ofte

  2. Exploring the Relationship between Humor and Aesthetic Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Mordechai

    2012-01-01

    The connection between humor and aesthetic experience has already been recognized by several thinkers and aesthetic educators. For instance, humor theorist John Morreall writes that "humor is best understood as itself a kind of aesthetic experience, equal in value at least to any other kind of aesthetic experience." For Morreall, both humor and…

  3. LOL Teacher! Using Humor to Enhance Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrell, Shelly

    2015-01-01

    Laughing with students can help them connect on a deeper level with the teacher and the learning. This article offers the following four strategies to incorporate humor into teaching: (1) Integrate humorous bits to boost engagement; (2) Choose humorous materials; (3) Create interest with humorous web tools and apps; and (4) Teach with silly…

  4. Humor and Laughter May Influence Health IV. Humor and Immune Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Payne Bennett

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the final article in a four part series reviewing the influence of humor and laughter on physiological and psychological well-being. This final article reviews the evidence for the effect of sense of humor, exposure to a humor stimulus and laughter on various immune system components, with a focus on the effects of laughter on natural killer cell cytotoxicity.

  5. El humor en los servicios hospitalarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguinaga Benítez Óscar William

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available

    El humor es un fenómeno demasiado complejo para ser explicado fácilmente, sin embargo la risa, es una de las formas más admirables del comportamiento humano. El humor forma parte de nuestra vida cotidiana y todos tenemos de él, ya desde nuestra más tierna infancia un conocimiento intuitivo. Muchos saben que el humor mejora las relaciones humanas, puede favorecer una cierta distensión y facilita el bienestar de todos los miembros de una empresa, dirigentes, empleados y obreros. Muchos esperan encontrar en él la forma de resolver los conflictos y de reducir la agresividad. Allí donde se encuentren hombres, existe el humor, comprenderlo mejor y utilizarlo más libremente y en el momento oportuno, puede ayudarnos a hacer nuestra vida más agradable.

  6. Sexual Selection and Humor in Courtship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey A. Hall

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This investigation examines a sexual selection-based argument regarding humor’s role in courtship (i.e., humor production signals intelligence/creativity. Lens model (n =100 analyses suggest that humor production on Facebook profiles were self-reported and perceived to be associated with extroversion, not intelligence. Study 2 (n = 289 found that extroversion was associated humor production, but high school and college grade point average and American College Test (ACT scores were not. In Study 3, pairs of opposite-sex strangers (n = 102 interacted for 10–12 min. Males’ humor production and females’ responsive laughter were both associated with females’ dating interest. Both partners’ dating interest was associated with simultaneous laughter. Without support for the sexual selection argument, three alternative explanations of humor’s role in courtship are discussed.

  7. Laughter and humor therapy in dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Paul N; Parsons, Trisha; Ben-Moshe, Ros; Weinberg, Melissa; Neal, Merv; Gilbert, Karen; Rawson, Helen; Ockerby, Cherene; Finlay, Paul; Hutchinson, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Laughter and humor therapy have been used in health care to achieve physiological and psychological health-related benefits. The application of these therapies to the dialysis context remains unclear. This paper reviews the evidence related to laughter and humor therapy as a medical therapy relevant to the dialysis patient population. Studies from other groups such as children, the elderly, and persons with mental health, cancer, and other chronic conditions are included to inform potential applications of laughter therapy to the dialysis population. Therapeutic interventions could range from humorous videos, stories, laughter clowns through to raucous simulated laughter and Laughter Yoga. The effect of laughter and humor on depression, anxiety, pain, immunity, fatigue, sleep quality, respiratory function and blood glucose may have applications to the dialysis context and require further research.

  8. H2S induces vasoconstriction of rat cerebral arteries via cAMP/adenylyl cyclase pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sen; Ping, Na-Na; Cao, Lei; Mi, Yan-Ni; Cao, Yong-Xiao

    2015-12-15

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), traditionally known for its toxic effects, is now involved in regulating vascular tone. Here we investigated the vasoconstrictive effect of H2S on cerebral artery and the underlying mechanism. Sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), a donor of H2S, concentration-dependently induced vasoconstriction on basilar artery, which was enhanced in the presence of isoprenaline, a β-adrenoceptor agonist or forskolin, an adenylyl cyclase activator. Administration of NaHS attenuated the vasorelaxant effects of isoprenaline or forskolin. Meanwhile, the NaHS-induced vasoconstriction was diminished in the presence of 8B-cAMP, an analog of cAMP, but was not affected by Bay K-8644, a selective L-type Ca(2+) channel agonist. These results could be explained by the revised effects of NaHS on isoprenaline-induced cAMP elevation and forskolin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity. Additionally, NaHS-induced vasoconstriction was enhanced by removing the endothelium or in the presence of L-NAME, an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. L-NAME only partially attenuated the effect of NaHS which was given together with forskolin on the pre-contracted artery. In conclusion, H2S induces vasoconstriction of cerebral artery via, at least in part, cAMP/adenylyl cyclase pathway.

  9. TSLP and Immune Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shino Hanabuchi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In an immune system, dendritic cells (DCs are professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs as well as powerful sensors of danger signals. When DCs receive signals from infection and tissue stress, they immediately activate and instruct the initiation of appropriate immune responses to T cells. However, it has remained unclear how the tissue microenvironment in a steady state shapes the function of DCs. Recent many works on thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP, an epithelial cell-derived cytokine that has the strong ability to activate DCs, provide evidence that TSLP mediates crosstalk between epithelial cells and DCs, involving in DC-mediated immune homeostasis. Here, we review recent progress made on how TSLP expressed within the thymus and peripheral lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues regulates DC-mediated T-cell development in the thymus and T-cell homeostasis in the periphery.

  10. Circulating Humorous Antitobacco Videos on Social Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moon J; Chen, Fannin

    2017-03-01

    We investigated whether exposure to same humorous antitobacco videos via different types of social media platforms and contexts (health vs. humor) influences individual's health risk perceptions, attitudes, and behavioral intents. An experiment with a 2 (social media types: YouTube and Facebook) × 2 (message contexts: health-focused and humor-focused contexts) factorial design was conducted. It was found that those who watched the humorous antitobacco videos on Facebook in the health-context exhibited a higher level of risk perception of smoking, less positive attitude toward smokers, and a higher level of intention to avoid smoking in the future than the participants who viewed the same videos on YouTube in the health-context or on Facebook in the humor-context. These findings provide useful practical guidelines in using social media for health communication/promotion. Humorous health promotion messages are best circulated on social networking sites such as Facebook accompanied by others' support for the given health topic (i.e., in health-contexts). Practical/theoretical implications and limitations of the study were further discussed in this article.

  11. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakkar, Mahesh M; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used "over the counter" sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to unravel the mechanism of alcohol-induced sleep disruptions. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models. We performed microdialysis, immunohistochemical, pharmacological, sleep deprivation and lesion studies which suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol's action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern of alcohol consumption and disrupts sleep, we examined the effects of binge drinking on sleep-wakefulness. Our results suggest that disrupted sleep homeostasis may be the primary cause of sleep disruption observed following binge drinking. Finally, we have also shown that sleep disruptions observed during acute withdrawal, are caused due to impaired

  12. Neuropsychology of humor: an introduction. Part II. Humor and the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derouesné, Christian

    2016-09-01

    Impairment of the perception or comprehension of humor is observed in patients with focal brain lesions in both hemispheres, but mainly in the right frontal lobe. Studies by functional magnetic resonance imaging in healthy subjects show that humor is associated with activation of two main neural systems in both hemispheres. The detection and resolution of incongruity, cognitive groundings of humor, are associated with activation of the medial prefrontal and temporoparietal cortex, and the humor appreciation with activation of the orbito-frontal and insular cortex, amygdala and the brain reward system. However, activation of these areas is not humor-specific and can be observed in various cognitive or emotional processes. Event-related potential studies confirm the involvement of both hemispheres in humor processing, and suggest that left prefrontal area is associated with joke comprehension and right prefrontal area with the resolution stage. Humor thus appears to be a complex and dynamic functional process involving, on one hand, two specialized but not specific neural systems linked to humor apprehension and appreciation, and, on the other hand, multiple interconnected functional brain networks including neural patterns underlying the moral framework and belief system, acquired by conditioning or imitation during the cognitive development and social interactions of the individual, and more distributed systems associated with the analysis of the current context of humor occurrence. Disturbances of the sense of humor could then result from focal brain alterations localized in one or two of the specialized areas underlying the comprehension or appreciation of humor, or from perturbations of the network interconnectivity in non-focal brain disorders such as Alzheimer's disease or schizophrenia.

  13. An Explanation of the Relationship between Instructor Humor and Student Learning: Instructional Humor Processing Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanzer, Melissa B.; Frymier, Ann B.; Irwin, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes the Instructional Humor Processing Theory (IHPT), a theory that incorporates elements of incongruity-resolution theory, disposition theory, and the elaboration likelihood model (ELM) of persuasion. IHPT is proposed and offered as an explanation for why some types of instructor-generated humor result in increased student…

  14. Computational Humor 2012 : extended abstacts of the (3rd international) Workshop on computational Humor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Unknown, [Unknown

    2012-01-01

    Like its predecessors in 1996 (University of Twente, the Netherlands) and 2002 (ITC-irst, Trento, Italy), this Third International Workshop on Computational Humor (IWCH 2012) focusses on the possibility to find algorithms that allow understanding and generation of humor. There is the general aim of

  15. Investigating the Effect of Humor Communication Skills Training on Pro-Social and Anti-Social Humor Styles, Cognitive Learning, Self-Efficacy, Motivation, and Humor Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, Lori E.

    2013-01-01

    Humor is an important aspect of interpersonal interactions as it is linked to the development and maintenance of relationships (Merolla, 2006). The purpose of this dissertation was to test the effect of a humor communication skills training program on the ability to minimize anti-social humor (i.e., aggressive, self-defeating) and enhance…

  16. Investigating the Effect of Humor Communication Skills Training on Pro-Social and Anti-Social Humor Styles, Cognitive Learning, Self-Efficacy, Motivation, and Humor Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, Lori E.

    2013-01-01

    Humor is an important aspect of interpersonal interactions as it is linked to the development and maintenance of relationships (Merolla, 2006). The purpose of this dissertation was to test the effect of a humor communication skills training program on the ability to minimize anti-social humor (i.e., aggressive, self-defeating) and enhance…

  17. Sense of Humor, Stable Affect, and Psychological Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnie Cann

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A good sense of humor has been implicated as a quality that could contribute to psychological well-being. The mechanisms through which sense of humor might operate include helping to reappraise threats, serving as a character strength, or facilitating happiness. The current research attempts to integrate these possibilities by examining whether a good sense of humor might operate globally by helping to maintain a more stable positive affect. Stable positive affect has been shown to facilitate more effective problem solving and to build resilience. However, not all humor is adaptive humor, so we also examine the roles that different styles of humor use might play. Individual differences in humor styles were used to predict stable levels of affect. Then, in a longitudinal design, humor styles and stable affect were used to predict subsequent resilience and psychological health. The results indicated that stable affect was related to resilience and psychological well-being, and that a sense of humor that involves self-enhancing humor, humor based on maintaining a humorous perspective about one’s experiences, was positively related to stable positive affect, negatively related to stable negative affect, and was mediated through stable affect in influencing resilience, well-being and distress. Thus, while a good sense of humor can lead to greater resilience and better psychological health, the current results, focusing on stable affect, find only self-enhancing humor provides reliable benefits.

  18. Identity and Stereotypes: Humor Manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Repšienė

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The traditional understanding of humor as being tolerant, full of non-aggressive life curiosities, funny situations, mocking national or human vices, and related to an optimistic and contemplative attitude towards reality, has changed its main supportive points: the optimistic view of reality has been altered into a pessimistic and destructive one, forbearing ridicule has turned into severe offence, strangeness into stupidity, funny situations into futile misunderstanding. Everything is regarded as a dramatic possibility to survive or an endless situational tragedy where the most strict evaluation criteria, censorship, and dogmatism are empowered, meaning that, in the current times of widely propagated tolerance and overwhelming comprehension, it is extremely dangerous to offend somebody with an innocent joke or light mockery, to evoke an urge to contradict or negate when ideological aspirations are beyond “decency” limits. One of the most advocated rules in the Lithuanian press is: “Joke carefully with foreign nationals” from an interview with Barry Tomelin, London “International house” consultant and teaching director, the author of the book “World’s Business Cultures: And How to Unlock Them” (with Michael Nicks. Identity is to be saved and nourished as the highest sanctity but its formation, meaningfulness and spread are not always attuned to the official approach.Our life is full of stereotypes and our neighboring countries are not to be excluded – we have a preconceived notion of them. Using the national stereotype term we characterize relatively stable generalized opinions, in an open or hidden form, containing one or another assessment of a nation.Our attitude towards neighbors is revealed in nicknames given to them – non-official ethnonyms usually bearing a negative connotation. Some monikers have already lasted for centuries while others have been coined during the last decades. Anecdotes with the most popular

  19. Humor: a pedagogical tool to promote learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabeli, M

    2008-09-01

    It has become critical that learners are exposed to varied methods of teaching and assessment that will promote critical thinking of learners. Humor creates a relaxed atmosphere where learning can be enhanced and appreciated. When learners are relaxed, thinking becomes eminent. Authoritative and tense environment hinders thinking. This paper seeks to explore the perceptions of nurse teacher learners regarding the use of humor as a pedagogical tool to promote learning. A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual research design was employed (Burns & Grove, 2001:61; Mouton, 1996:103). 130 naive sketches were collected from nurse teacher learners who volunteered to take part in the study (Giorgi in_Omery, 1983:52) Follow up interviews were conducted to verify the findings. A qualitative, open-coding method of content analysis was done Tesch (in Creswell, 1994:155). Measures to ensure trustworthiness of the study were taken in accordance with the protocol of (Lincoln & Guba, 1985:290-326). The findings of the study will assist the nurse educators to create a positive, affective, psychological and social learning environment through the use of humor in a positive manner. Nurse educators will appreciate the fact that integration of humor to the learning content will promote the learners' critical thinking and emotional intelligence. Negative humor has a negative impact on learning. Learner nurses who become critical thinkers will be able to be analytical and solve problems amicably in practice.

  20. Adult Playfulness, Humor Styles, and Subjective Happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xiao D; Leung, Chun-Lok; Hiranandani, Neelam A

    2016-12-01

    Playfulness has been referred to as a disposition that involves reframing a situation to amuse others and to make the situation more stimulating and enjoyable. It may serve to shift one's perspective when dealing with environmental threats. Despite all the benefits of playfulness towards psychological well-being, it remains a largely understudied subject in psychology, particularly in Chinese societies. Hence, this study examined the association between adult playfulness, humor styles, and subjective happiness among a sample of 166 university students in Hong Kong and 159 students in Guangzhou, who completed a self-administered questionnaire, including the Short Measure for Adult Playfulness, the Chinese Humor Styles Questionnaire, and the Subjective Happiness Scale. Results showed that adult playfulness was positively correlated with affiliative humor, self-enhancing humor, and subjective happiness in both Hong Kong and Guangzhou samples. By its implication, highly playful Chinese students preferred using affiliative and self-enhancing humor to amuse themselves and others. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. El humor como herramienta para lograr aprendizajes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Torres de Sánchez

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Una tendencia mundial se ha originado: el uso del humor como herramienta para lograr aprendizajes y mejorar el ambiente donde la persona se encuentre. En el área educativa hay pruebas que demuestran su utilidad y que efectivamente origina cambios positivos, medidos en las evaluaciones, tanto en los estudiantes como en participantes de sesiones de facilitación. El objetivo del experimento realizado fue: Determinar el comportamiento a través de la calificaciones en la primera prueba, del efecto del uso del humor en el dictado de clases utilizando diferentes herramientas como: chistes, anécdotas, analogías en los contenidos. A través de un estudio experimental con un grupo de control realizado en dos aulas de clases con 35 alumnos cada uno, al grupo experimental se le aplicó diferentes recursos humorísticos como herramientas de aprendizaje. Se analizaron las calificaciones en la primera prueba a través de porcentajes de aprobados y aplazados, observándose que el grupo experimental arrojó los mayores porcentajes de aprobados. Tales resultados confirman que el humor como herramienta, si induce a un desempeño excelente en alumnos, lo que lleva a implementar acciones de adiestramiento para los facilitadores, así como el surgimiento de investigaciones más profundas sobre el uso del humor en la educación.

  2. Homeostasis in anorexia nervosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per eSodersten

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Brainstem and hypothalamic orexigenic/anorexigenic networks are thought to maintain body weight homeostasis in response to hormonal and metabolic feedback from peripheral sites. This approach has not been successful in managing over- and underweight patients. It is suggested that concept of homeostasis has been misinterpreted; rather than exerting control, the brain permits eating in proportion to the amount of physical activity necessary to obtain food. In support, animal experiments have shown that while a hypothalamic orexigen excites eating when food is abundant, it inhibits eating and stimulates foraging when food is in short supply. As the physical price of food approaches zero, eating and body weight increase without constraints. Conversely, in anorexia nervosa body weight is homeostatically regulated, the high level of physical activity in anorexia is displaced hoarding for food that keeps body weight constantly low. A treatment based on this point of view, providing patients with computerized mealtime support to re-establish normal eating behavior, has brought 75% of patients with eating disorders into remission, reduced the rate of relapse to 10%, and eliminated mortality.

  3. Acid-Base Homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, L Lee; Nakhoul, Nazih; Hering-Smith, Kathleen S

    2015-12-07

    Acid-base homeostasis and pH regulation are critical for both normal physiology and cell metabolism and function. The importance of this regulation is evidenced by a variety of physiologic derangements that occur when plasma pH is either high or low. The kidneys have the predominant role in regulating the systemic bicarbonate concentration and hence, the metabolic component of acid-base balance. This function of the kidneys has two components: reabsorption of virtually all of the filtered HCO3(-) and production of new bicarbonate to replace that consumed by normal or pathologic acids. This production or generation of new HCO3(-) is done by net acid excretion. Under normal conditions, approximately one-third to one-half of net acid excretion by the kidneys is in the form of titratable acid. The other one-half to two-thirds is the excretion of ammonium. The capacity to excrete ammonium under conditions of acid loads is quantitatively much greater than the capacity to increase titratable acid. Multiple, often redundant pathways and processes exist to regulate these renal functions. Derangements in acid-base homeostasis, however, are common in clinical medicine and can often be related to the systems involved in acid-base transport in the kidneys.

  4. Ageing and water homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, David; Jordan, Jens; Jacob, Giris; Ketch, Terry; Shannon, John R.; Biaggioni, Italo

    2002-01-01

    This review outlines current knowledge concerning fluid intake and volume homeostasis in ageing. The physiology of vasopressin is summarized. Studies have been carried out to determine orthostatic changes in plasma volume and to assess the effect of water ingestion in normal subjects, elderly subjects, and patients with dysautonomias. About 14% of plasma volume shifts out of the vasculature within 30 minutes of upright posture. Oral ingestion of water raises blood pressure in individuals with impaired autonomic reflexes and is an important source of noise in blood pressure trials in the elderly. On the average, oral ingestion of 16 ounces (473ml) of water raises blood pressure 11 mmHg in elderly normal subjects. In patients with autonomic impairment, such as multiple system atrophy, strikingly exaggerated pressor effects of water have been seen with blood pressure elevations greater than 75 mmHg not at all uncommon. Ingestion of water is a major determinant of blood pressure in the elderly population. Volume homeostasis is importantly affected by posture and large changes in plasma volume may occur within 30 minutes when upright posture is assumed.

  5. [Positive aspects of old ages - humor of seniors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mareš, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    This survey study has five parts. In the first part two conceptual approaches to humor are characterized. One considers "the comic" to be an umbrella concept, and humor is only one of its rather positive forms. The other comes out from the umbrella concept "humor", and distinguishes between various forms of humor including the negative ones. Three main theories of humor are presented: theory of superiority, theory of incongruity, and a relief theory. The second part introduces humor in the elderly and draws the attention to the fact that we know relatively little about humor in old age because most research has been carried out in children, adolescents or adults in productive age. The third part of the study describes the process of diagnostics of humor in the elderly. For example, within the qualitative methods, in-depth interviews with seniors or analyses of their diary entries are used. Within quantitative methods, questionnaires are used, and this study presents the survey of seven most frequent ones applied in the studies of humor in the elderly. In the context of mixed methods, understanding of humor in young and seniors, or understanding of humor in relatively healthy seniors and seniors after stroke are compared. The fourth part of the study presents the Gelkopfs model on relationship between humor, treatment and cure of patients. The fifth part of the study demonstrates the options how to use humor to improve the mental state of the elderly (by means of individual or group interventions).

  6. Ciliary Blood Flow and Aqueous Humor Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, J.W.; Hollingsworth, M.; Rao, R.; Chen, M.; Reitsamer, H.A.

    2010-01-01

    Aqueous humor production is a metabolically active process sustained by the delivery of oxygen and nutrients and removal of metabolic waste by the ciliary circulation. This article describes our investigations into the relationship between ciliary blood flow and aqueous humor production. The results presented indicate that there is a dynamic relationship between ciliary blood flow and aqueous humor production, with production being blood flow independent above a critical level of perfusion, and blood flow dependent below it. The results also show that the plateau portion of the relationship shifts up or down depending on the level of secretory stimulation or inhibition, and that oxygen is one critical factor provided by ciliary blood flow. Also presented is a theoretical model of ocular hydrodynamics incorporating these new findings. PMID:20801226

  7. Mecanismos de humor verbal en Twitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Simarro Vázquez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The present article aims to characterize samples of verbal humor published on the social network Twitter. To do so, an analysis of 81 humorous texts published under the hashtag #otegi during 1 March 2016, on which date Arnaldo Otegi was released from prison after six years, was carried out. A pragmatic study of the tweets was performed, opting for the General Theory of Verbal Humor as a basis. The examination conducted reveals that the manner of presentation of opposing scripts, the logical mechanisms availed of to resolve this kind of incongruity, the special narrative strategies selected and the linguistic choices made are determined at all times by the circumstances in which the texts are presented and the upper limit constraint of 140 characters per Twitter publication.

  8. Relationship between ocular surface temperature and peripheral vasoconstriction in healthy subjects: A thermographic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matteoli, Sara; Vannetti, Federica; Finocchio, Lucia

    2014-01-01

    vasoconstriction might be detected by measuring the ocular surface temperature. The ocular surface temperature was evaluated in a group of 38 healthy young subjects (28 males and 10 females; mean age: 25.4 6 4.1 years) by infrared thermography. For each subject, the experimental procedure consisted of two...

  9. Endovascular Electrodes for Electrical Stimulation of Blood Vessels for Vasoconstriction - a Finite Element Simulation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kezurer, Noa; Farah, Nairouz; Mandel, Yossi

    2016-08-01

    Hemorrhagic shock accounts for 30-40 percent of trauma mortality, as bleeding may sometimes be hard to control. Application of short electrical pulses on blood vessels was recently shown to elicit robust vasoconstriction and reduction of blood loss following vascular injury. In this study we present a novel approach for vasoconstriction based on endovascular application of electrical pulses for situations where access to the vessel is limited. In addition to ease of access, we hypothesize that this novel approach will result in a localized and efficient vasoconstriction. Using computer modeling (COMSOL Multiphysics, Electric Currents Module), we studied the effect of endovascular pulsed electrical treatment on abdominal aorta of pigs, and compared the efficiency of different electrodes configurations on the electric field amplitude, homogeneity and locality when applied on a blood vessel wall. Results reveal that the optimal configuration is the endovascular approach where four electrodes are used, spaced 13 mm apart. Furthermore, computer based temperature investigations (bio-heat model, COMSOL Multiphysics) show that the maximum expected temperature rise is of 1.2 degrees; highlighting the safety of the four endovascular electrodes configuration. These results can aid in planning the application of endovascular pulsed electrical treatment as an efficient and safe vasoconstriction approach.

  10. Endovascular Electrodes for Electrical Stimulation of Blood Vessels for Vasoconstriction - a Finite Element Simulation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kezurer, Noa; Farah, Nairouz; Mandel, Yossi

    2016-08-18

    Hemorrhagic shock accounts for 30-40 percent of trauma mortality, as bleeding may sometimes be hard to control. Application of short electrical pulses on blood vessels was recently shown to elicit robust vasoconstriction and reduction of blood loss following vascular injury. In this study we present a novel approach for vasoconstriction based on endovascular application of electrical pulses for situations where access to the vessel is limited. In addition to ease of access, we hypothesize that this novel approach will result in a localized and efficient vasoconstriction. Using computer modeling (COMSOL Multiphysics, Electric Currents Module), we studied the effect of endovascular pulsed electrical treatment on abdominal aorta of pigs, and compared the efficiency of different electrodes configurations on the electric field amplitude, homogeneity and locality when applied on a blood vessel wall. Results reveal that the optimal configuration is the endovascular approach where four electrodes are used, spaced 13 mm apart. Furthermore, computer based temperature investigations (bio-heat model, COMSOL Multiphysics) show that the maximum expected temperature rise is of 1.2 degrees; highlighting the safety of the four endovascular electrodes configuration. These results can aid in planning the application of endovascular pulsed electrical treatment as an efficient and safe vasoconstriction approach.

  11. ACE INHIBITION ATTENUATES SYMPATHETIC CORONARY VASOCONSTRICTION IN PATIENTS WITH CORONARY-ARTERY DISEASE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PERONDI, R; SAINO, A; TIO, RA; POMIDOSSI, G; GREGORINI, L; ALESSIO, P; MORGANTI, A; ZANCHETTI, A; MANCIA, G

    1992-01-01

    Background. In humans, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition attenuates the vasoconstriction induced by sympathetic stimulation in a number of peripheral districts. Whether this is also the case in the coronary circulation is unknown, however. Methods and Results. In nine normotensive patie

  12. Angiotensin II modulates conducted vasoconstriction to norepinephrine and local electrical stimulation in rat mesenteric arterioles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, F; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1999-01-01

    M) or a local depolarizing current was continuously applied onto mesenteric arterioles using micropipettes. Local and conducted vasoconstriction was measured using videomicroscopy. Conducted responses were measured 200-1000 microns upstream from the application site. RESULTS: Systemic infusion of ANG II (4 ng...

  13. Muscle metaboreflex-induced coronary vasoconstriction limits ventricular contractility during dynamic exercise in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutsos, Matthew; Sala-Mercado, Javier A; Ichinose, Masashi; Li, Zhenhua; Dawe, Elizabeth J; O'Leary, Donal S

    2013-04-01

    Muscle metaboreflex activation (MMA) during dynamic exercise increases cardiac work and myocardial O2 demand via increases in heart rate, ventricular contractility, and afterload. This increase in cardiac work should lead to metabolic coronary vasodilation; however, no change in coronary vascular conductance occurs. This indicates that the MMA-induced increase in sympathetic activity to the heart, which raises heart rate, ventricular contractility, and cardiac output, also elicits coronary vasoconstriction. In heart failure, cardiac output does not increase with MMA presumably due to impaired ability to improve left ventricular contractility. In this setting actual coronary vasoconstriction is observed. We tested whether this coronary vasoconstriction could explain, in part, the reduced ability to increase cardiac performance during MMA. In conscious, chronically instrumented dogs before and after pacing-induced heart failure, MMA responses during mild exercise were observed before and after α1-adrenergic blockade (prazosin 20-50 μg/kg). During MMA, the increases in coronary vascular conductance, coronary blood flow, maximal rate of left ventricular pressure change, and cardiac output were significantly greater after α1-adrenergic blockade. We conclude that in subjects with heart failure, coronary vasoconstriction during MMA limits the ability to increase left ventricular contractility.

  14. The value of humor in psycotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Chazenbalk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The main point of this work is to show how humor—when is used properly- has a positive effect on the patient ant the therapist’s self improving their alliance, supervision and team meetings. It’s also good for profesionals to include humor, recreation and rest in their job routines, because these ingredients let them be more effective in psychoterapy. The vast majority of psychological theories agree on its importance. The Cognitive Psychology believes that humor helps the patient evaluate reality in a different way, stops disfunctional thoughts, lets the expression of negative emotions and finds more adaptative patterns. 

  15. Humor in the classroom using faculty skits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Cheryl Mixon; Noviello, Sheri Reynolds

    2012-01-01

    The infusion of humor in the classroom through faculty-developed skits is a teaching-learning strategy that engages nursing students in the learning process. Gardner's Multiple Intelligence Theory for Adult Learners provides the framework for the use of humor as a strategy in higher education. Three exemplars are presented with a description of the specific strategy, an objective for each strategy, and the effect of the strategy on student engagement in nursing education. In the exemplars, the authors provide "ready to use" ideas with some "pearls of wisdom" for other faculty interested in developing similar learning activities.

  16. [The Use of Humor in Psychotherapy: a View].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaloult, Guillaume; Blondeau, Claude

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this article is to expose different aspects of the use of humor in therapy. We hope that it will stimulate reflection and guide the clinician toward appropriate use of humorous interventions. Historical highlights of the topic will be presented. Then a practical definition of therapeutic humor and the main theories about humor will be reviewed. We will also discuss the probable mechanisms of action explaining the efficacy of humor in psychotherapy, as well as potential risks and benefits of its use. We will try to determine different factors influencing the patient's receptivity to humor. Subsequently, a classification of humor will be proposed, followed by a description of selected types of humor often used in therapy, with clinical cases as examples.

  17. Humor in romantic contexts: do men participate and women evaluate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbur, Christopher J; Campbell, Lorne

    2011-07-01

    Several lines of research illustrate that humor plays a pivotal role in relationship initiation. The current article applies sexual selection theory to argue that humor production is a fitness indicator, allowing men to transmit information tacitly about their underlying qualities. And whereas prior research has emphasized women's appreciation of humor as a signal of interest, the focus here is on how women evaluate prospective suitors' humorous offerings. Two studies, including an ecologically valid study of online dating advertisements, provided evidence for men's production and women's evaluation of humor in romantic contexts. A third study revealed that women's evaluations of potential mates' humor are predictive of their romantic interest. Moreover, this article shows that preferences for and perceptions of humor are associated with preferences for and perceptions of intelligence and warmth, consistent with the argument that one function of humor is as a fitness indicator that provides information about underlying mate quality.

  18. Risky business: When humor increases and decreases status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitterly, T Bradford; Brooks, Alison Wood; Schweitzer, Maurice E

    2017-03-01

    Across 8 experiments, we demonstrate that humor can influence status, but attempting to use humor is risky. The successful use of humor can increase status in both new and existing relationships, but unsuccessful humor attempts (e.g., inappropriate jokes) can harm status. The relationship between the successful use of humor and status is mediated by perceptions of confidence and competence. The successful use of humor signals confidence and competence, which in turn increases the joke teller's status. Interestingly, telling both appropriate and inappropriate jokes, regardless of the outcome, signals confidence. Although signaling confidence typically increases status and power, telling inappropriate jokes signals low competence and the combined effect of high confidence and low competence harms status. Rather than conceptualizing humor as a frivolous or ancillary behavior, we argue that humor plays a fundamental role in shaping interpersonal perceptions and hierarchies within groups. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Intradermal administration of ATP does not mitigate tyramine-stimulated vasoconstriction in human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingo, Jonathan E.; Brothers, R. Matthew; Coso, Juan Del

    2010-01-01

    Cutaneous vasodilation associated with whole-body heat stress occurs via withdrawal of adrenergic vasoconstriction and engagement of cholinergic “active” vasodilation, the latter of which attenuates cutaneous vasoconstrictor responsiveness. However, the precise neurotransmitter(s) responsible for this sympatholytic-like effect remain unknown. In skeletal muscle, ATP inhibits adrenergically mediated vasoconstriction. ATP also may be responsible for attenuating cutaneous vasoconstriction since it is coreleased from cholinergic neurons. The effect of ATP on cutaneous vasoconstrictor responsiveness, however, has not been investigated. Accordingly, this study tested the hypothesis that ATP inhibits adrenergically mediated cutaneous vasoconstriction. To accomplish this objective, four microdialysis probes were inserted in dorsal forearm skin of 11 healthy individuals (mean ± SD; 35 ± 11 years). Local temperature at each site was clamped at 34°C throughout the protocol. Skin blood flow was indexed by laser-Doppler flowmetry and was used to calculate cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC; laser-Doppler-derived flux/mean arterial pressure), which was normalized to peak CVC achieved with sodium nitroprusside infusion combined with local skin heating to ∼42°C. Two membranes were perfused with 30 mM ATP, while the other two membranes were flow matched via administration of 2.8 mM adenosine to serve as control sites. After achieving stable baselines, 1×10−4 M tyramine was administered at all sites, while ATP and adenosine continued to be infused at their respective sites. ATP and adenosine infusion increased CVC from baseline by 35 ± 26% CVCpeak units and by 36 ± 15% CVCpeak units, respectively (P = 0.75). Tyramine decreased CVC similarly (by about one-third) at all sites (P < 0.001 for main effect and P = 0.32 for interaction). These findings indicate that unlike in skeletal muscle, ATP does not attenuate tyramine-stimulated vasoconstriction in human skin. PMID

  20. Pretreatment with Antioxidants Augments the Acute Arterial Vasoconstriction Caused by Diesel Exhaust Inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sack, Cora S; Jansen, Karen L; Cosselman, Kristen E; Trenga, Carol A; Stapleton, Pat L; Allen, Jason; Peretz, Alon; Olives, Casey; Kaufman, Joel D

    2016-05-01

    Diesel exhaust inhalation, which is the model traffic-related air pollutant exposure, is associated with vascular dysfunction. To determine whether healthy subjects exposed to diesel exhaust exhibit acute vasoconstriction and whether this effect could be modified by the use of antioxidants or by common variants in the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AGTR1) and other candidate genes. In a genotype-stratified, double-blind, four-way crossover study, 21 healthy adult subjects were exposed at rest in a randomized, balanced order to diesel exhaust (200 μg/m(3) particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm [PM2.5]) and filtered air, and to pretreatment with antioxidants (N-acetylcysteine and ascorbate) and placebo. Before and after each exposure, brachial artery diameter (BAd) was assessed using ultrasound. Changes in BAd were compared across pretreatment and exposure sessions. Gene-exposure interactions were evaluated in the AGTR1 A1166C polymorphism, on which recruitment was stratified, and other candidate genes, including TRPV1 and GSTM1. Compared with filtered air, exposure to diesel exhaust resulted in a significant reduction in BAd (mean, -0.09 mm, 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.01 to -0.17; P = 0.03). Pretreatment with antioxidants augmented diesel exhaust-related vasoconstriction with a mean change in BAd of -0.18 mm (95% CI, -0.28 to -0.07 mm; P = 0.001). Diesel exhaust-related vasoconstriction was primarily observed in the variant alleles of AGTR1 and TRPV1. No association was found between diesel exhaust inhalation and flow-mediated dilation. We confirmed that short-term exposure to diesel exhaust in healthy subjects is associated with acute vasoconstriction in a conductance artery and found suggestive evidence of involvement of nociception and renin-angiotensin systems in this effect. Pretreatment with an antioxidant regimen increased vasoconstriction.

  1. Pain emotion and homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panerai, Alberto E

    2011-05-01

    Pain has always been considered as part of a defensive strategy, whose specific role is to signal an immediate, active danger. This definition partially fits acute pain, but certainly not chronic pain, that is maintained also in the absence of an active noxa or danger and that nowadays is considered a disease by itself. Moreover, acute pain is not only an automatic alerting system, but its severity and characteristics can change depending on the surrounding environment. The affective, emotional components of pain have been and are the object of extensive attention and research by psychologists, philosophers, physiologists and also pharmacologists. Pain itself can be considered to share the same genesis as emotions and as a specific emotion in contributing to the maintenance of the homeostasis of each unique subject. Interestingly, this role of pain reaches its maximal development in the human; some even argue that it is specific for the human primate.

  2. Regulation of cholesterol homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wulp, Mariëtte Y M; Verkade, Henkjan J; Groen, Albert K

    2013-04-10

    Hypercholesterolemia is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. It is caused by a disturbed balance between cholesterol secretion into the blood versus uptake. The pathways involved are regulated via a complex interplay of enzymes, transport proteins, transcription factors and non-coding RNA's. The last two decades insight into underlying mechanisms has increased vastly but there are still a lot of unknowns, particularly regarding intracellular cholesterol transport. After decades of concentration on the liver, in recent years the intestine has come into focus as an important control point in cholesterol homeostasis. This review will discuss current knowledge of cholesterol physiology, with emphasis on cholesterol absorption, cholesterol synthesis and fecal excretion, and new (possible) therapeutic options for hypercholesterolemia.

  3. Critical role of peripheral vasoconstriction in fatal brain hyperthermia induced by MDMA (Ecstasy) under conditions that mimic human drug use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyatkin, Eugene A; Kim, Albert H; Wakabayashi, Ken T; Baumann, Michael H; Shaham, Yavin

    2014-06-04

    MDMA (Ecstasy) is an illicit drug used by young adults at hot, crowed "rave" parties, yet the data on potential health hazards of its abuse remain controversial. Here, we examined the effect of MDMA on temperature homeostasis in male rats under standard laboratory conditions and under conditions that simulate drug use in humans. We chronically implanted thermocouple microsensors in the nucleus accumbens (a brain reward area), temporal muscle, and facial skin to measure temperature continuously from freely moving rats. While focusing on brain hyperthermia, temperature monitoring from the two peripheral locations allowed us to evaluate the physiological mechanisms (i.e., intracerebral heat production and heat loss via skin surfaces) that underlie MDMA-induced brain temperature responses. Our data confirm previous reports on high individual variability and relatively weak brain hyperthermic effects of MDMA under standard control conditions (quiet rest, 22-23°C), but demonstrate dramatic enhancements of drug-induced brain hyperthermia during social interaction (exposure to male conspecific) and in warm environments (29°C). Importantly, we identified peripheral vasoconstriction as a critical mechanism underlying the activity- and state-dependent potentiation of MDMA-induced brain hyperthermia. Through this mechanism, which prevents proper heat dissipation to the external environment, MDMA at a moderate nontoxic dose (9 mg/kg or ~1/5 of LD50 in rats) can cause fatal hyperthermia under environmental conditions commonly encountered by humans. Our results demonstrate that doses of MDMA that are nontoxic under cool, quiet conditions can become highly dangerous under conditions that mimic recreational use of MDMA at rave parties or other hot, crowded venues.

  4. Analysis on the Translation Strategies in English humor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王乐

    2015-01-01

    1.Definition and connotation of humor The English word"humor"came from Latin originally which was used to refer to"wet"and"fluid"After a series of evolution,it finally evolved into the word used in daily life in the16th century.Then it was used to describe a kind of people who are humorous,funny and clever.Humor is a cultural phenomenon based on language.There are

  5. Semantic Perspective:Verbal Humor in Chinese Cross Talk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Shao-li

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to study the verbal humor in Guo Degang’s cross talk from semantic perspective. The focus is to illus-trate the generating process and the mechanism of verbal humor. Three aspects of semantics which produce humorous effect, morpheme absorption, ambiguity, and script opposition will be discussed. Finally, it is found out that script opposition can take place of morpheme absorption, ambiguity to explain how humor is caused fundamentally.

  6. Humor and Laughter may Influence Health. I. History and Background

    OpenAIRE

    Mary Payne Bennett; Lengacher, Cecile A.

    2006-01-01

    Articles in both the lay and professional literature have extolled the virtues of humor, many giving the impression that the health benefits of humor are well documented by the scientific and medical community. The concept that humor or laughter can be therapeutic goes back to biblical times and this belief has received varying levels of support from the scientific community at different points in its history. Current research indicates that using humor is well accepted by the public and is...

  7. Truly Funny: Humor, Irony, and Satire as Moral Criticism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadlez, E. M.

    2011-01-01

    The occasional role of humor as a vehicle for moral criticism is investigated. I begin by distinguishing between this particular role and the other kinds of ways in which humor and amusement might be regarded through a moral lens, consider historical approaches to humor that corroborate the kind of role for it on which my investigation focuses,…

  8. Factors Affecting the Humorous Language Style of Mark Twin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙秀丽

    2014-01-01

    As we all know, Mark Twain is an expert in handling humor.The formation of his language style has close connection with three aspects. Local literature influences Mark Twain very much. Western humor is another influential element. And his per-sonal experience is also contributed to his humorous language style.

  9. Assessing Students' Perceptions of Inappropriate and Appropriate Teacher Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frymier, Ann Bainbridge; Wanzer, Melissa Bekelja; Wojtaszczyk, Ann M.

    2008-01-01

    This study replicated and extended a preliminary typology of appropriate and inappropriate teacher humor and advanced three explanations for differences in interpretations of teacher humor. Students were more likely to view teacher humor as inappropriate when it was perceived as offensive and when it demeaned students as a group or individually.…

  10. Humor styles moderate borderline personality traits and suicide ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Neil A; Helle, Ashley C; Tucker, Raymond P; Lengel, Gregory J; DeShong, Hilary L; Wingate, LaRicka R; Mullins-Sweatt, Stephanie N

    2017-03-01

    The way individuals use humor to interact interpersonally has been associated with general personality, depression, and suicidality. Certain humor styles may moderate the risk for suicide ideation (SI) in individuals who are high in specific risk factors (e.g., thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness). Previous research suggests a relationship between humor styles and borderline personality disorder (BPD) and an increased risk of suicidality and suicide completion in individuals with BPD. Participants (n =176) completed measures of BPD traits, SI, and humor styles. It was hypothesized that BPD traits would be positively correlated with negative humor styles and negatively correlated with positive humor styles, and that humor styles would significantly moderate BPD traits and SI. Results showed that BPD traits were negatively correlated with self-enhancing humor styles and positively correlated with self-defeating humor styles, but that they were not significantly correlated with affiliative or aggressive humor styles. Bootstrapping analyses demonstrated that the affiliative, self-enhancing, and self-defeating humor styles significantly moderated BPD traits and SI, while the aggressive humor style did not. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Higher Education Lecturing and Humor: From Perspectives to Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri, Fuzhan; Mafakheri, Fereshteh

    2015-01-01

    This article will review the issues surrounding the use of humor as an informal teaching method in higher education lecturing. The impact and usefulness of humor, from both a teacher's and a student's perspective, will be investigated. The aim is to classify the challenges and limitations of using humor in classrooms and to investigate and…

  12. Truly Funny: Humor, Irony, and Satire as Moral Criticism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadlez, E. M.

    2011-01-01

    The occasional role of humor as a vehicle for moral criticism is investigated. I begin by distinguishing between this particular role and the other kinds of ways in which humor and amusement might be regarded through a moral lens, consider historical approaches to humor that corroborate the kind of role for it on which my investigation focuses,…

  13. Humor Styles and Leadership Styles: Community College Presidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrica, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between leadership styles (transformational, transactional, laissez-faire) and humor styles (affiliative, self-enhancing, aggressive, self-defeating) of community college presidents. Research has shown that humor and leadership styles are related and that humor may enhance interpersonal…

  14. Strategically Funny: Romantic Motives Affect Humor Style in Relationship Initiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa E. DiDonato

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Not all humor is the same, yet little is known about the appeal of specific humor styles in romantic initiation. The current experimental study addresses this gap by investigating how romantic motives (short-term or long-term affect individuals’ anticipated use of, and response to, positive humor and negative humor. Heterosexual participants (n = 224 imagined the pursuit of either a desired short-term or long-term relationship, indicated the extent to which they would produce positive and negative humor, and reported how their own interest would change in response to the imaginary target’s use of positive or negative humor. Results revealed that individuals are strategic in their humor production as a function of relational motives. Individuals produced positive humor in both contexts but limited their use of negative humor when pursuing a long-term relationship. The target’s positive humor increased individuals’ attraction, especially women’s, and although negative humor boosted attraction, it did not boost attraction more for short-term than long-term relationships. Findings extend a trait-indicator model of humor and their implications are discussed in light of other theoretical perspectives.

  15. A Study of Linguistic Humor Translation of British Sitcoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟瑾

    2015-01-01

    The translatability of humor is gradually accepted and linguistic humor based on specific features in the phonology, morphology or syntax of particular languages is considered to be the most difficult to translate. This paper is to study the linguistic humor translation of British sitcoms in the light of Skopos theory and explore practical ways of E-C translation of linguistic hu⁃mor.

  16. Teaching French Language and Culture by Means of Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berwald, Jean-Pierre

    1992-01-01

    Humor can enliven classes, establish and maintain rapport, create ambiance for learning, and enhance student acquisition and retention. Ways to use humor in the classroom are presented, including clearly verbal approaches, visual aid techniques (magazines, cartoons, ads, etc.), and the humor of stand-up comedians. (12 references) (LB)

  17. The Influence of Humorous Atmosphere on Divergent Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziv, Avner

    1983-01-01

    In one experiment, 78 adolescents were shown humorous film clips and required to write captions for cartoons. A creativity test was administered. In a second study, the experimental group completed the Torrance Creativity Test with humorous responses. In both studies, a humorous atmosphere was found to significantly increase creativity scores.…

  18. Humor in Context: Fire Service and Joking Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Larry; Roth, Gene

    2013-01-01

    Although theorizing about humor has occurred for several decades, scant research exists that examines humor in the broad context of human resource development. Humor exists in workplaces and it is historicized in the professional and organizational contexts of workers. This paper explores aspects of a joking culture within the specific work…

  19. Humor Styles and Leadership Styles: Community College Presidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrica, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between leadership styles (transformational, transactional, laissez-faire) and humor styles (affiliative, self-enhancing, aggressive, self-defeating) of community college presidents. Research has shown that humor and leadership styles are related and that humor may enhance interpersonal…

  20. Encyclopedia of 20th-Century American Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Alleen Pace; Nilsen, Don L. F.

    This reference encyclopedia contains information on both the historical and contemporary aspects of humor and comedy in the United States. Arranged in an A-to-Z format, the encyclopedia is a collection of article-length essays that examine humor from many perspectives, from defining terms; to providing information on humor writers, comedians, and…

  1. LC-MS-Based Metabolic Fingerprinting of Aqueous Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmuchowska, Diana Anna; Krasnicki, Pawel; Wojnar, Malgorzata; Skowronska, Aleksandra; Mariak, Zofia

    2017-01-01

    Aqueous humor (AH) is a transparent fluid which fills the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye. It supplies nutrients and removes metabolic waste from avascular tissues in the eye. Proper homeostasis of AH is required to maintain adequate intraocular pressure as well as optical and refractive properties of the eye. Application of metabolomics to study human AH may improve knowledge about the molecular mechanisms of eye diseases. Until now, global analysis of metabolites in AH has been mainly performed using NMR. Among the analytical platforms used in metabolomics, LC-MS allows for the highest metabolome coverage. The aim of this study was to develop a method for extraction and analysis of AH metabolites by LC-QTOF-MS. Different protocols for AH preparation were tested. The best results were obtained when one volume of AH was mixed with one volume of methanol : ethanol (1 : 1). In the final method, 2 µL of extracted sample was analyzed by LC-QTOF-MS. The method allowed for reproducible measurement of over 1000 metabolic features. Almost 250 metabolites were identified in AH and assigned to 47 metabolic pathways. This method is suitable to study the potential role of amino acids, lipids, oxidative stress, or microbial metabolites in development of ocular diseases.

  2. A Physiologist's View of Homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modell, Harold; Cliff, William; Michael, Joel; McFarland, Jenny; Wenderoth, Mary Pat; Wright, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Homeostasis is a core concept necessary for understanding the many regulatory mechanisms in physiology. Claude Bernard originally proposed the concept of the constancy of the "milieu interieur," but his discussion was rather abstract. Walter Cannon introduced the term "homeostasis" and expanded Bernard's notion of…

  3. Mark Twain and American Humor [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000

    In this three-part lesson, students examine structure and characterization in the short story and consider the significance of humor through a study of Mark Twain's "The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County." In Part I, through skits and storytelling, students first examine the structure of Twain's story and the role he creates for his…

  4. Comic Relief: Engaging Students through Humor Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Bruce A.

    2009-01-01

    In this time of high-stakes tests and school accountability, English classrooms have been pushed to become increasingly serious places. Combining NCLB pressures with desires to use literature to do important cultural work--such as fighting ethnic, gender, and social-class discrimination--virtually bans humor from the classroom. This is unfortunate…

  5. Humor in the Films of Alfred Hitchcock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Glenn D.

    Although usually considered the "master of suspense," Alfred Hitchcock relished working humor into his films, frequently juxtaposing it against scenes of utter gruesomeness. This placement of comic elements--comic relief--in an otherwise serious murder mystery or suspense thriller became a Hitchcock trademark early in his career.…

  6. Humor: A pedagogical tool to promote learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Chabeli

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available It has become critical that learners are exposed to varied methods of teaching and assessment that will promote critical thinking of learners. Humor creates a relaxed atmosphere where learning can be enhanced and appreciated. When learners are relaxed, thinking becomes eminent. Authoritative and tense environment hinders thinking.

  7. Vaccination to gain humoral immune memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkander, Jana; Hojyo, Shintaro; Tokoyoda, Koji

    2016-12-01

    The concept of immune memory forms the biological basis for vaccination programs. Despite advancements in the field of immune memory and vaccination, most current vaccines are evaluated by magnitude of antigen-specific antibody titers in serum or mucosa after vaccination. It has been shown, however, that antibody-mediated humoral immune memory is established regardless of the magnitude and duration of immune reactions, suggesting that assessment of vaccine efficacy should be performed for several years after vaccination. This long-term investigation is disadvantageous for prevalent and pandemic infections. Long-lived memory plasma cells and memory helper T cells which contribute to humoral immune memory are generated in the bone marrow after migration of memory cell precursors through bloodstream. Thus, it may be a novel evaluation strategy to assess the precursors of memory cells in the blood in the early phase of the immune reaction(s). We here review recent advances on the generation and maintenance of immune memory cells involved in humoral immunity and introduce a current concept of direct and short-term assessment of humoral immune memory formation upon vaccination as a correlate of protection.

  8. The Role of Humor in Children's Sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogh, Suzanne L.

    A total of 40 children in the three primary grades were studied to determine if they would donate more to a worthy cause after having been exposed to a humorous situation, in contrast to exposure to a serious one. The children who had heard a serious story about sharing donated slightly more to help Ethiopian refugees than did children who had…

  9. Economics with a Sense of Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Diane

    1985-01-01

    In this humorous dialogue that can be read and acted out as a play in high school economics classes, Karl Marx, a spokesman for communism, and Adam Smith, the father of capitalism, debate (1) whether an economy should produce designer jeans and (2) who should own McDonald's restaurant. (RM)

  10. T cells and the humoral immune system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.B. van Muiswinkel (Willem)

    1975-01-01

    textabstractLymphoid cells and macrophages play an important role in the development and rnaintance of humoral and cellular immunity in mammals. The lymphoid cells in the peripheral lymphoid organs are divided into two major classes: (1) thymus-derived lymphocytes or T cells and (2) bursa-equivalent

  11. T cells and the humoral immune system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.B. van Muiswinkel (Willem)

    1975-01-01

    textabstractLymphoid cells and macrophages play an important role in the development and rnaintance of humoral and cellular immunity in mammals. The lymphoid cells in the peripheral lymphoid organs are divided into two major classes: (1) thymus-derived lymphocytes or T cells and (2) bursa-equivalent

  12. Dialogic Grounds of Humor in Mathnavi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ar Mohammadi Kalesar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available “Dialogue”, in Bakhtin’s thought, is a term which has a methodological nature. This term shows a method for facing cases which are not hegemonic. Dialogue, therefore, is in opposition to the hegemony of monophonic forces. The origins of the dialogical aspects of humor, laugh and carnival are in very character. In this article, we want to investigate the bases that make the dialogical carnival and form the humorous elements. In the first section, we illustrate the subversion of the superior voice as a semantic and formal structural method in Mathnavi. In the second section, the reflection of this method in formation of humor in the stories of Mathnavi has been investigated. In these stories, presence of the superior voice in the public space and its dialogue with the suppressed voices makes a space steeped in the elements of carnival and laugh. It can be said that the humors in Mathnavi are not the techniques for embellishing the text but the affects of the transcendental method of Mathnavi for interpreting the world.

  13. Computers that smile: Humor in the interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, A.; Blythe, M.

    2002-01-01

    It is certainly not the case that wen we consider research on the role of human characteristics in the user interface of computers that no attention has been paid to the role of humor. However, when we compare efforts in this area with efforts and experiments that attempt to demonstrate the positive

  14. Anomalous hypothalamic responses to humor in cataplexy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan L Reiss

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cataplexy is observed in a subset of patients with narcolepsy and affects approximately 1 in 2,000 persons. Cataplexy is most often triggered by strong emotions such as laughter, which can result in transient, yet debilitating, muscle atonia. The objective of this study was to examine the neural systems underlying humor processing in individuals with cataplexy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: While undergoing functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI, we showed ten narcolepsy-cataplexy patients and ten healthy controls humorous cartoons. In addition, we examined the brain activity of one subject while in a full-blown cataplectic attack. Behavioral results showed that participants with cataplexy rated significantly fewer humorous cartoons as funny compared to controls. Concurrent fMRI showed that patients, when compared to controls and in the absence of overt cataplexy symptoms, showed pronounced activity in the emotional network including the ventral striatum and hypothalamus while viewing humorous versus non-humorous cartoons. Increased activity was also observed in the right inferior frontal gyri--a core component of the inhibitory circuitry. In comparison, the one subject who experienced a cataplectic attack showed dramatic reductions in hypothalamic activity. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest an overdrive of the emotional circuitry and possible compensatory suppression by cortical inhibitory regions in cataplexy. Moreover, during cataplectic attacks, the hypothalamus is characterized by a marked decrease in activity similar to that observed during sleep. One possible explanation for these findings is an initial overdrive and compensatory shutdown of the hypothalamus resulting in full cataplectic symptoms.

  15. Humor and laughter may influence health. I. History and background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Mary Payne; Lengacher, Cecile A

    2006-03-01

    Articles in both the lay and professional literature have extolled the virtues of humor, many giving the impression that the health benefits of humor are well documented by the scientific and medical community. The concept that humor or laughter can be therapeutic goes back to biblical times and this belief has received varying levels of support from the scientific community at different points in its history. Current research indicates that using humor is well accepted by the public and is frequently used as a coping mechanism. However, the scientific evidence of the benefits of using humor on various health related outcomes still leaves many questions unanswered.

  16. Humor and Laughter may Influence Health. I. History and Background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Payne Bennett

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Articles in both the lay and professional literature have extolled the virtues of humor, many giving the impression that the health benefits of humor are well documented by the scientific and medical community. The concept that humor or laughter can be therapeutic goes back to biblical times and this belief has received varying levels of support from the scientific community at different points in its history. Current research indicates that using humor is well accepted by the public and is frequently used as a coping mechanism. However, the scientific evidence of the benefits of using humor on various health related outcomes still leaves many questions unanswered.

  17. On the Humor Translation in Subtitling of American Sitcom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石杨

    2014-01-01

    The subtitling translation in American sitcom is of great significance which helps Chinese audiences to understand pro-grams. Humor element is an essential part of the sitcom. However, the loss of humor is very common in subtitling translation, so the vivid and accurate translation for humor in sitcoms has become a challenge for the translators. This thesis analyzes the defini-tion of humor and the main features of subtitling translation, and then discusses several examples of humor loss in the subtitling translation of Friends to put forward corresponding strategies.

  18. of Energy Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sex differences exist in the complex regulation of energy homeostasis that utilizes central and peripheral systems. It is widely accepted that sex steroids, especially estrogens, are important physiological and pathological components in this sex-specific regulation. Estrogens exert their biological functions via estrogen receptors (ERs. ERα, a classic nuclear receptor, contributes to metabolic regulation and sexual behavior more than other ER subtypes. Physiological and molecular studies have identified multiple ERα-rich nuclei in the hypothalamus of the central nervous system (CNS as sites of actions that mediate effects of estrogens. Much of our understanding of ERα regulation has been obtained using transgenic models such as ERα global or nuclei-specific knockout mice. A fundamental question concerning how ERα is regulated in wild-type animals, including humans, in response to alterations in steroid hormone levels, due to experimental manipulation (i.e., castration and hormone replacement or physiological stages (i.e., puberty, pregnancy, and menopause, lacks consistent answers. This review discusses how different sex hormones affect ERα expression in the hypothalamus. This information will contribute to the knowledge of estrogen action in the CNS, further our understanding of discrepancies in correlation of altered sex hormone levels with metabolic disturbances when comparing both sexes, and improve health issues in postmenopausal women.

  19. Humor style similarity and difference in friendship dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Simon C; Fox, Claire L; Jones, Siân E

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the concurrent and prospective (fall to spring) associations between four different humor styles to assess the degree to which stable friendships are characterized by similarity, and to assess whether best friends' humor styles influence each other's later use of humor. Participants were aged 11-13 years, with 87 stable, reciprocal best friend dyads. Self-report assessments of humor styles were completed on both occasions. Results indicated that there was no initial similarity in dyads' levels of humor. However, dyads' use of humor that enhances interpersonal relationships (Affiliative humor) became positively correlated by spring. Additionally, young people's use of this humor style was positively associated with their best friend's later use of the same. No such effects were present for humor which was aggressive, denigrating toward the self, or used to enhance the self. These results have clear implications for theories of humor style development, highlighting an important role for Affiliative humor within stable friendship dyads. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of humor on interpersonal attraction and mate selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Elizabeth; Shevlin, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined whether different levels of sense of humor would influence respondents' ratings about a potentially desirable partner. The authors used vignettes to predict that the targets who possessed a good sense of humor would receive significantly higher ratings in measures of attractiveness and suitability as a long-term partner than would those who possessed an average or no sense of humor. In an experimental design--with gender and humor as independent variables and level of attractiveness and suitability as a long-term partner as dependent variables--the authors analyzed the data using a multivariate analysis of variance. Results show that the targets with a good sense of humor received significantly higher ratings of attractiveness and suitability than did those with an average or no sense of humor. Furthermore, male participants rated female targets as significantly more attractive than female participants rated male targets. The authors found no significant interaction between gender and humor.

  1. The Analysis of Lin Yutang’s Humor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓琴

    2014-01-01

    Lin Yutang is called the master humorist in China. He advocates humor and spiritual literature in his maga-zine Lun Yu (Analects) which attracts essays and readership. His informal but polished style in both Chinese and English makes him one of the most influential writers of his generation, and his compilations and translations of classic Chinese texts into English are bestsellers in the West. Humor is a distinctive feature in his works. In his book, he uses humor as he sees appropriate, and through humor he criticizes social realities, depicts characters and introduces original expressions, etc. His humor can be related to some aspects in his life. In this paper, I will briefly analysis Lin's sense of humor and how Lin' applies humor in his works.

  2. Differentiating what is humorous from what is not.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Caleb; McGraw, A Peter

    2016-03-01

    After 2.5 millennia of philosophical deliberation and psychological experimentation, most scholars have concluded that humor arises from incongruity. We highlight 2 limitations of incongruity theories of humor. First, incongruity is not consistently defined. The literature describes incongruity in at least 4 ways: surprise, juxtaposition, atypicality, and a violation. Second, regardless of definition, incongruity alone does not adequately differentiate humorous from nonhumorous experiences. We suggest revising incongruity theory by proposing that humor arises from a benign violation: something that threatens a person's well-being, identity, or normative belief structure but that simultaneously seems okay. Six studies, which use entertainment, consumer products, and social interaction as stimuli, reveal that the benign violation hypothesis better differentiates humorous from nonhumorous experiences than common conceptualizations of incongruity. A benign violation conceptualization of humor improves accuracy by reducing the likelihood that joyous, amazing, and tragic situations are inaccurately predicted to be humorous. (PsycINFO Database Record

  3. Mathematics and Humor: John Allen Paulos and the Numeracy Crusade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul H. Grawe

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available John Allen Paulos at minimum gave the Numeracy movement a name through his book Innumeracy: Mathematical Illiteracy and Its Consequences. What may not be so obvious was Paulos’ strong interest in the relationship between mathematics and mathematicians on the one hand and humor and stand-up-comedian joke structures on the other. Innumeracy itself could be seen as a typically mathematical Gotcha joke on American culture generally. In this perspective, a Minnesotan acculturated to Minnesota-Nice Humor of Self-Immolation Proclivities (SImP looks at the more raw-boned, take-no-prisoners humor style Paulos outlined in Mathematics and Humor and implemented in Innumeracy. Despite the difference in humor styles, there is much to applaud in Paulos’ analysis of the relationship between certain types of humor and professional interests of mathematicians in Mathematics and Humor. Much humor relies on the sense of incongruity which Paulos’ claims to be central to all humor and key to mathematical reductio ad absurdum. Mathematics is rightfully famous for a sense of combinatorial playfulness in its most elegant proofs, as humor often relies on clashing combinations of word play. And a great range of mathematical lore is best understood within a concept of a sudden drop from one sense of certainty to another (essentially a Gotcha on the audience. Innumeracy repeatedly exemplifies Gotchas on the great unwashed and unmathematical majority. Extensive empirical evidence over the last quarter century allows us to synthesize these Paulos observations into the idea that inculcated mathematical humor has strong propensities to complex Intellectual, Advocate, and Crusader humor forms. However, the Paulos humors do not include the Sympathetic Pain humor form, the inclusion of which may increase teaching effectiveness.

  4. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome is a rare cause of stroke after carotid endarterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causey, Marlin Wayne; Amans, Matthew R; Han, Sukgu; Higashida, Randall T; Conte, Michael

    2016-12-01

    Neurologic events after carotid endarterectomy (CEA) require prompt diagnosis and management to avoid potentially catastrophic sequelae. This report describes a 69-year-old gentleman who underwent a left CEA for a high-grade asymptomatic carotid stenosis with concomitant contralateral carotid occlusion. He had transient and crescendo neurologic events in the first 3 postoperative weeks that culminated in right hand weakness and paresthesia, despite dual antiplatelet therapy, maximal anticoagulation, and undergoing stenting of the endarterectomy site. Neurologic events recurred despite these measures and subsequent angiography showed reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome that was successfully managed without further events. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome is an unusual but important cause of neurologic events after CEA that requires aggressive and directed medical therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Cortical subarachnoid hemorrhage associated with reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome after elective triplet cesarean delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano, Beatrice; Del Sette, Massimo; Roccatagliata, Luca; Gandolfo, Carlo; Primavera, Alberto

    2011-06-01

    Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndromes (RCVS) comprise a group of disorders characterized by prolonged, but reversible vasoconstriction of the cerebral arteries, usually associated with acute-onset, severe, recurrent headaches, with or without additional neurological signs and symptoms. Various complications of this condition have been observed, such as cortical subarachnoid hemorrhages (cSAH), intracerebral hemorrhages, reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy, ischaemic strokes and transient ischaemic attacks. It is important to include RCVS in thunderclap headache differential diagnosis and among non-aneurismatic subarachnoid hemorrhage causes. In the past years, thanks to the major diffusion of new diagnostic tools such as magnetic resonance, computed tomography and digital subtraction angiography, RCVS have been demonstrated to be more frequent than previously thought. We report an illustrative case of a woman affected by a small cSAH, associated to RCVS, after elective triplet cesarean delivery. To our knowledge, this is the first case of cSAH associated to RCVS after a triplet pregnancy.

  6. Why Homeodynamics, Not Homeostasis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lloyd

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Ideas of homeostasis derive from the concept of the organism as an open system. These ideas can be traced back to Heraclitus. Hopkins, Bernard, Hill, Cannon, Weiner and von Bertalanffy developed further the mechanistic basis of turnover of biological components, and Schoenheimer and Rittenberg were pioneers of experimental approaches to the problems of measuring pool sizes and dynamic fluxes. From the second half of the twentieth century, a biophysical theory mainly founded on self-organisation and Dynamic Systems Theory allowed us to approach the quantitative and qualitative analysis of the organised complexity that characterises living systems. This combination of theoretical framework and more refined experimental techniques revealed that feedback control of steady states is a mode of operation that, although providing stability, is only one of many modes and may be the exception rather than the rule. The concept of homeodynamics that we introduce here offers a radically new and all-embracing concept that departs from the classical homeostatic idea that emphasises the stability of the internal milieu toward perturbation. Indeed, biological systems are homeody- namic because of their ability to dynamically self-organise at bifurcation points of their behaviour where they lose stability. Consequently, they exhibit diverse behaviour; in addition to monotonic stationary states, living systems display complex behaviour with all its emergent characteristics, i.e., bistable switches, thresholds, waves, gradients, mutual entrainment, and periodic as well as chaotic behaviour, as evidenced in cellular phenomena such as dynamic (supramolecular organisation and flux coordination. These processes may proceed on different spatial scales, as well as across time scales, from the very rapid processes within and between molecules in membranes to the slow time scales of evolutionary change. It is dynamic organisation under homeodynamic conditions that make

  7. Activation of histamine H3 receptors in human nasal mucosa inhibits sympathetic vasoconstriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varty, LoriAnn M; Gustafson, Eric; Laverty, Maureen; Hey, John A

    2004-01-19

    The peripheral histamine H3 receptor is a presynaptic heterologous receptor located on postganglionic sympathetic nerve fibers innervating sympathetic effector systems such as blood vessels and the heart. An extensive body of evidence shows that activation of the histamine H3 receptor attenuates sympathetic tone by presynaptic inhibition of noradrenaline release. It is proposed that this sympathoinhibitory action, in vivo, leads to reduced vasoconstriction, thereby eliciting a vasodilatory effect. In humans, the peripheral histamine H3 receptor has also been shown to exert a sympathoinhibitory function on specific peripheral autonomic effector systems. For example, human saphenous vein and heart possess functional presynaptic histamine H3 receptors on the sympathetic nerve terminals that upon activation decrease the sympathetic tone to these respective organs. The present studies were conducted to define the role of histamine H3 receptors on neurogenic sympathetic vasoconstrictor responses in human nasal turbinate mucosa. Contractility studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of histamine H3 receptor activation on sympathetic vasoconstriction in surgically isolated human nasal turbinate mucosa. We found that the histamine H3 receptor agonist, (R)-alpha-methylhistamine (30 and 300 nM), inhibited electrical field stimulation-induced (neurogenic) sympathetic vasoconstriction in a concentration-dependent fashion. Pretreatment with the selective histamine H3 receptor antagonist, clobenpropit (100 nM), blocked the sympathoinhibitory effect of (R)-alpha-methylhistamine on the neurogenic sympathetic vasoconstriction. In addition, analysis of Taqman mRNA expression studies showed a specific, high level of distribution of the histamine H3 receptor localized in the human nasal mucosa. Taken together, these studies indicate that histamine H3 receptors modulate vascular contractile responses in human nasal mucosa most likely by inhibiting noradrenaline release from

  8. Vasoconstrictive Responses by the Carotid and Auricular Arteries in goats to Ergot Alkaloid Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glen Eris Aiken

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A fungal endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum infects most plants of ‘Kentucky 31’ tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum and produces ergot alkaloids that cause persistent constriction of the vascular system in grazing livestock. Consequently, animals undergoing this toxicosis cannot regulate core body temperature and are vulnerable to heat and cold stresses. An experiment was conducted to determine if the caudal and auricular arteries in goats (Capra aegagrus hircus vasoconstrict in response to ergot alkaloids. Seven, rumen fistulated goats were fed ad libitum orchardgrass (Dactylis glomeratia hay and ruminally infused with endophtye-free seed (E- for a 7-day adjustment period. Two periods followed with E- and endophyte-infected (E+ seed being randomly assigned to the 2 goat groups in period 1 and then switching treatments between groups in period 2. Infused E+ and E- seed were in equal proportions to the hay such that concentrations of ergovaline and ergovalanine were 0.80 µg per g dry matter for the E+ treatment. Cross-sections of both arteries were imaged using Doppler ultrasonography on days 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12 in period 1 and on days 0, 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, and 9 in period 2. Differences from average baseline areas were used to determine presence or absence of alkaloid-induced vasoconstriction. Carotid arteries initiated constriction on imaging day 2 in both periods, and auricular arteries initiated constriction on imaging day 2 in period 1 and on day 6 in period 2. Luminal areas of the carotid arteries in E+ goats were 46% less than baseline areas in both periods after vasoconstriction occurred, whereas auricular arteries in E+ goats were 52% less than baseline areas in period 1 and 38% in period 2. Both arteries in E+ goats in period 1 relaxed relative to baseline areas by imaging day 2 after they were switched to the E- treatment. Results indicated that goats can vasoconstrict when exposed to ergot alkaloids that could disrupt their

  9. Cold-induced vasoconstriction may persist long after cooling ends: an evaluation of multiple cryotherapy units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshnevis, Sepideh; Craik, Natalie K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Localized cooling is widely used in treating soft tissue injuries by modulating swelling, pain, and inflammation. One of the primary outcomes of localized cooling is vasoconstriction within the underlying skin. It is thought that in some instances, cryotherapy may be causative of tissue necrosis and neuropathy via cold-induced ischaemia leading to nonfreezing cold injury (NFCI). The purpose of this study is to quantify the magnitude and persistence of vasoconstriction associated with cryotherapy. Methods Data are presented from testing with four different FDA approved cryotherapy devices. Blood perfusion and skin temperature were measured at multiple anatomical sites during baseline, active cooling, and passive rewarming periods. Results Local cutaneous blood perfusion was depressed in response to cooling the skin surface with all devices, including the DonJoy (DJO, p = 2.6 × 10−8), Polar Care 300 (PC300, p = 1.1 × 10−3), Polar Care 500 Lite (PC500L, p = 0.010), and DeRoyal T505 (DR505, p = 0.016). During the rewarming period, parasitic heat gain from the underlying tissues and the environment resulted in increased temperatures of the skin and pad for all devices, but blood perfusion did not change significantly, DJO (n.s.), PC300 (n.s.), PC500L (n.s.), and DR505 (n.s.). Conclusions The results demonstrate that cryotherapy can create a deep state of vasoconstriction in the local area of treatment. In the absence of independent stimulation, the condition of reduced blood flow persists long after cooling is stopped and local temperatures have rewarmed towards the normal range, indicating that the maintenance of vasoconstriction is not directly dependent on the continuing existence of a cold state. The depressed blood flow may dispose tissue to NFCI. PMID:24562697

  10. Pro-inflammatory and vasoconstricting prostanoid PGF2α causes no headache in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonova, Maria; Wienecke, Troels; Olesen, Jes;

    2011-01-01

    During two decades of migraine provocation studies with naturally occurring signalling molecules, vasodilators such as prostaglandin E(2), prostaglandin I(2) (prostacyclin) and prostaglandin D(2) were shown to be able to induce headache in man. To elucidate the role of inflammation and vasodilata...... and vasodilatation in the generation of headache, we investigated whether the pro-inflammatory and vasoconstricting prostanoid prostaglandin F(2α) (PGF(2α)) would cause headache in a human model of headache....

  11. Vasoconstrictive Responses by the Carotid and Auricular Arteries in goats to Ergot Alkaloid Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, Glen; Flythe, Michael

    2014-11-01

    A fungal endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) infects most plants of ‘Kentucky 31’ tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) and produces ergot alkaloids that cause persistent constriction of the vascular system in grazing livestock. Consequently, animals undergoing this toxicosis cannot regulate core body temperature and are vulnerable to heat and cold stresses. An experiment was conducted to determine if the caudal and auricular arteries in goats (Capra aegagrus hircus) vasoconstrict in response to ergot alkaloids. Seven, rumen fistulated goats were fed ad libitum orchardgrass (Dactylis glomeratia) hay and ruminally infused with endophtye-free seed (E-) for a 7-day adjustment period. Two periods followed with E- and endophyte-infected (E+) seed being randomly assigned to the 2 goat groups in period 1 and then switching treatments between groups in period 2. Infused E+ and E- seed were in equal proportions to the hay such that concentrations of ergovaline and ergovalanine were 0.80 µg per g dry matter for the E+ treatment. Cross-sections of both arteries were imaged using Doppler ultrasonography on days 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12 in period 1 and on days 0, 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, and 9 in period 2. Differences from average baseline areas were used to determine presence or absence of alkaloid-induced vasoconstriction. Carotid arteries initiated constriction on imaging day 2 in both periods, and auricular arteries initiated constriction on imaging day 2 in period 1 and on day 6 in period 2. Luminal areas of the carotid arteries in E+ goats were 46% less than baseline areas in both periods after vasoconstriction occurred, whereas auricular arteries in E+ goats were 52% less than baseline areas in period 1 and 38% in period 2. Both arteries in E+ goats in period 1 relaxed relative to baseline areas by imaging day 2 after they were switched to the E- treatment. Results indicated that goats can vasoconstrict when exposed to ergot alkaloids that could disrupt their thermoregulation.

  12. The Effect of Context (Humorous vs. Non-humorous on Vocabulary Acquisition and Retention of Iranian EFL Learners

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    Mohsen Ghaffari

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available For almost four decades, ESL/EFL scholars have been trying to find which learning type, contextualized vs. decontextualized, leads to better vocabulary acquisition and retention. In an attempt to solve this problem, this study tried to examine the possible effectiveness of using humorous context on vocabulary acquisition and retention. Another issue that was undertaken in the present study was comparing the efficiency of contextualized and decontextualized vocabulary learning and retention. For this purpose, 58 Iranian EFL learners were categorized into 3 groups: a humorous, b non-humorous, and c decontextualized. The findings were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey post hoc test. As the results revealed, the participants in decontextualized group outperformed the participants in both humorous and non-humorous groups. However, it should be noted that the performance of humorous group was significantly better than the performance of non-humorous group.

  13. Posterior reversible encephalopathy and cerebral vasoconstriction in a patient with hemolytic uremic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Rajkumar; Davis, Cresha; Altinok, Deniz; Serajee, Fatema J

    2014-05-01

    We report a patient with hemolytic uremic syndrome who presented with radiological manifestations suggestive of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome and reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome. A 13-year-old girl presented with fever and bloody diarrhea and progressed to develop hemolytic uremic syndrome. She subsequently developed encephalopathy, aphasia, and right-sided weakness. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed presence of vasogenic edema in the left frontal lobe, in addition to T2 and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery changes in white matter bilaterally, compatible with posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome. Magnetic resonance angiography showed beading of the cerebral vessels. Neurological deficits reversed 8 days after symptom onset, with resolution of the beading pattern on follow-up magnetic resonance angiography after 3 weeks, suggesting reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome. Both posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome and reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome may represent manifestations of similar underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms. Recognition of the co-existence of these processes in patients with hemolytic uremic syndrome may aid in judicious management of these patients and avoidance of inappropriate therapeutic interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Endosomolytic Nano-Polyplex Platform Technology for Cytosolic Peptide Delivery To Inhibit Pathological Vasoconstriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Brian C; Hocking, Kyle M; Kilchrist, Kameron V; Wise, Eric S; Brophy, Colleen M; Duvall, Craig L

    2015-06-23

    A platform technology has been developed and tested for delivery of intracellular-acting peptides through electrostatically complexed nanoparticles, or nano-polyplexes, formulated from an anionic endosomolytic polymer and cationic therapeutic peptides. This delivery platform has been initially tested and optimized for delivery of two unique vasoactive peptides, a phosphomimetic of heat shock protein 20 and an inhibitor of MAPKAP kinase II, to prevent pathological vasoconstriction (i.e., vasospasm) in human vascular tissue. These peptides inhibit vasoconstriction and promote vasorelaxation by modulating actin dynamics in vascular smooth muscle cells. Formulating these peptides into nano-polyplexes significantly enhances peptide uptake and retention, facilitates cytosolic delivery through a pH-dependent endosomal escape mechanism, and enhances peptide bioactivity in vitro as measured by inhibition of F-actin stress fiber formation. In comparison to treatment with the free peptides, which were endowed with cell-penetrating sequences, the nano-polyplexes significantly increased vasorelaxation, inhibited vasoconstriction, and decreased F-actin formation in the human saphenous vein ex vivo. These results suggest that these formulations have significant potential for treatment of conditions such as cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage. Furthermore, because many therapeutic peptides include cationic cell-penetrating segments, this simple and modular platform technology may have broad applicability as a cost-effective approach for enhancing the efficacy of cytosolically active peptides.

  15. Effect of whole body heat stress on peripheral vasoconstriction during leg dependency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, R. Matthew; Wingo, Jonathan E.; Hubing, Kimberly A.; Del Coso, Juan

    2009-01-01

    The venoarteriolar response (VAR) increases vascular resistance upon increases in venous transmural pressure in cutaneous, subcutaneous, and muscle vascular beds. During orthostasis, it has been proposed that up to 45% of the increase in systemic vascular tone is due to VAR-related local mechanism(s). The objective of this project was to test the hypothesis that heat stress attenuates VAR-mediated cutaneous and whole leg vasoconstriction. During normothermic conditions, measurements of cutaneous blood flow (laser-Doppler flowmetry) and femoral artery blood flow (Doppler ultrasound) were obtained from both legs during supine and leg-dependent conditions. These measurements were repeated following a whole body heat stress (increase in internal temperature of 1.4 ± 0.2°C). Before leg dependency, cutaneous (CVC) and femoral vascular conductances (FVC) were significantly elevated in both legs during heat stress relative to normothermia (P < 0.001). During leg dependency the absolute decrease in CVC was attenuated during heat stress (P < 0.01) while the absolute decrease in FVC was unaffected (P = 0.90). When CVC and FVC data were analyzed as a relative change from their respective baseline values, heat stress significantly attenuated the magnitude of vasoconstriction due to leg dependency in the cutaneous and femoral circulations (P < 0.001 for both variables). These data suggest that an attenuated local vasoconstriction, evoked via the venoarteriolar response, may contribute to reduced blood pressure control and thus reduced orthostatic tolerance that occurs in heat-stressed individuals. PMID:19815719

  16. The effect of ketanserin on post-anaesthetic vasoconstriction and shivering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalda, M A; Gomar, C; Luis, M

    1985-09-01

    Two homogeneous groups of 20 healthy women submitted to elective gynaecological surgery, who presented after anaesthesia with peripheral vasoconstriction and shivering, were included in a randomized, double-blind study. The first group received 10 mg ketanserin, a new pure antagonist of serotoninergic S2 receptors. The second group received 10 ml saline as placebo. Blood pressure, heart rate, pulse wave amplitude, and rectal and cutaneous temperatures were measured before and 5, 15 and 30 min after treatment. Vasoconstriction, shivering and discomfort were classified as intense, moderate or absent at these times. Venous and arterial blood gases were determined before and 15 min after treatment. Blood pressure and heart rate decreased slightly after ketanserin administration and this decrease was statistically significant. Increases in rectal temperature were similar in both groups. Peripheral temperature, measured in the big toe, significantly decreased in the placebo group but did not change after ketanserin. Vasoconstriction, shivering, discomfort and pulse wave amplitude improved significantly following ketanserin. We conclude that ketanserin may be effective in treating this post-operative complication, the possible mechanism being the vasodilatation it causes; a central serotoninergic blockade could also be implied.

  17. Delayed cerebral ischemia associated with reversible cerebral vasoconstriction in a patient with Moyamoya disease with intraventricular hemorrhage: Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Go; Kubota, Yuichi; Okada, Yoshikazu

    2015-06-01

    We describe a case of cerebral infarctions caused by transient vasoconstrictions in the posterior circulation 2 weeks after intraventricular hemorrhage without subarachnoid hemorrhage in a 35-year-old patient with Moyamoya disease. To our knowledge, this is the first case report where diffuse segmental vasoconstrictions of the basilar and posterior cerebral arteries were recognized after intraventricular hemorrhage in Moyamoya disease. The patient complained of severe and acute-onset headache 14 days after the intraventricular hemorrhage, which had a different character and severity from the one she complained of at the onset of intraventricular hemorrhage. Finally, headache disappeared within 1 month and vasoconstriction resolved in 2 months. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome was under consideration for the etiology of her condition because of the "thunderclap" characteristics of the headache and the delayed timing of occurrence of the vasoconstriction. This case report informs and alerts neurologists, neurosurgeons and neuroradiologists who observe and treat patients with Moyamoya disease that vasoconstriction in the posterior circulation may occur after intraventricular hemorrhage in these patients.

  18. Inter-organ metabolic communication involved in energy homeostasis: potential therapeutic targets for obesity and metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Tetsuya; Oka, Yoshitomo; Katagiri, Hideki

    2008-01-01

    The global rate of obesity is rising alarmingly, exerting a major adverse impact on human health by increasing the prevalences of disorders, such as diabetes, hypertension and heart disease. To maintain systemic energy homeostasis, metabolic information must be communicated among organs/tissues. Obesity-related disorders can be thought of as resulting from dysregulation of this vital inter-tissue communication. Remarkable advances in obesity research during this decade have shown humoral factors manufactured and secreted by adipose tissue (adipocytokines) to be of great importance. In addition to these humoral factors, such as nutrients (glucose, fatty acids and amino acids) and hormones (insulin, adipocytokines and so on), the functional significance of the autonomic nervous system has recently attracted research attention. Autonomic nerves are essential components of the endogenous system for maintaining energy homeostasis, making them potential therapeutic targets for obesity-related disorders. This review focuses on the therapeutic possibilities of targeting inter-organ communication systems.

  19. Vaccination to gain humoral immune memory

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkander, Jana; Hojyo, Shintaro; Tokoyoda, Koji

    2016-01-01

    The concept of immune memory forms the biological basis for vaccination programs. Despite advancements in the field of immune memory and vaccination, most current vaccines are evaluated by magnitude of antigen-specific antibody titers in serum or mucosa after vaccination. It has been shown, however, that antibody-mediated humoral immune memory is established regardless of the magnitude and duration of immune reactions, suggesting that assessment of vaccine efficacy should be performed for sev...

  20. Sentido del humor en el adulto mayor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina M. Labarca R.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available El humor es un fenómeno poco estudiado dentro del contexto de la psicología, menos aún, en el adulto mayor, grupo etario que se encuentra en constante crecimiento dentro de nuestro país.En tal sentido, la investigación, guiada por los planteamientos de Carbelo (2007 y DAnello (2010, denominada sentido del humor en el adulto mayor, tuvo por objetivo, determinar el significado que tiene este fenómeno para el adulto mayor. Para ello, se realizó un estudio de corte cualitativo,donde se utilizó la Entrevista en Profundidad como método de recolección de la información. Los informantes fueron 4 adultos mayores (2 hombres y 2 mujeres con edades comprendidas entre 60 y 73 años de edad, los cuales fueron seleccionados como una muestra de propósito. Para el análisis, se utilizó la Teoría Fundamentada, concluyéndose que para el adulto mayor, cuando el sentido del humor se convierte en parte de la personalidad, es un factor protector de la salud, da sentido de pertenencia y cambia positivamente el ambiente, trayendo como consecuencia una mejor calidad de vida, siendo esto último el principal significante que surgió del análisis de la información. Igualmente, se determinó que el sentido del humor es una construcción social que se va elaborando a lo largo de la vida y que se afianza en esta etapa vital.

  1. Humoral Immune Response in Tuberculous Pleuritis

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    Prabha C.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculous pleuritis is a good human model to understand the local and protective immune response against tuberculosis, due to the self-limitedness of the disease. Although the cellular immune response has been well characterised in tuberculous pleurisy, much less is known about the humoral immune response operating at the site of infection. To understand the humoral immune response, B cells were enumerated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC and pleural fluid mononuclear cells (PFMC of tuberculous (TP and non-tuberculous pleuritis patients (NTP. The levels of IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies for PPD, culture filtrate (CF and sonicate antigens (Son Ag were assessed in plasma (BL and pleural fluid (PF and a western blot was carried out with the CF antigen. The percentage of CD19+B-cells was similar in PBMC and PFMC of TP patients but was significantly lower in PFMCs of NTP patients. The IgG levels for PPD and CF antigens were higher in PF of TP than NTP patients. The antigen recognition patterns did not differ in plasma and pleural fluid of the same patient in both groups pointing out the passive diffusion of the plasma to the pleura. The antigens 25, 31, 33, 70, 110, 124 and 132 kDa were recognized exclusively by the TP patients. Thus our study showed that the local humoral response in TP did not differ from the systemic response. However, the humoral response differed in TP patients when compared to NTP patients.

  2. Can the use of humor in psychotherapy be taught?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Lisa; Gabbard, Glen O

    2014-02-01

    Despite an abundance of literature detailing the potential benefits of the use of humor in therapy, humor is rarely taught to psychiatric residents as a method of therapeutic intervention. This communication attempts to explain how current understanding of attachment theory and neuroscience may assist psychiatric faculty and supervisors in their teaching of humorous therapeutic interventions. This article reviews and synthesizes the extant literature on the use of humor, as well as recent work in neuroscience, attachment theory, and mentalization. Humor can be conceptualized as an instance of implicit relational knowing and may thus contribute significantly to the therapeutic action of psychotherapy as a subcategory of "moments of meeting" between therapist and patient. However, training residents to use humor in psychotherapy requires more individualized attention in supervision and classroom seminars. Factors such as individual proclivities for humorous repartee, mentalizing capacity, and an authentic interest in adding humor to the session may be necessary to incorporate spontaneous humor into one's technique. New findings from the areas of attachment theory, neuroscience, and right-hemisphere learning are providing potential opportunities for sophisticated teaching of the use of humor in psychotherapy.

  3. The use of humor in the care of psychiatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrysodimitra Galatou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Humor is defined as a state of good spirit, exhibited with a smile or laughter, as a response to external stimuli. It constitutes a special form of human communication as well as a form of social conduct. The word «humor» appears for the first time in Hippocrates' writings. Psychology considers humor as one of the most powerful weapons against depression and disappointment. In psychiatric therapeutics humor serves many purposes, thereby acting as a supplement, not a substitute to treatment received. Purpose: of this article is to highlight the positive effects of humor in humans, health professionals and patient. Material and method: An extensive literature search databases such as Medline, Pub Med, Wikipedia, Cinahl, Medscape, with key words: humor, psychiatric patient, care, humor scales Results: Humor is an interpersonal process which facilitates and promotes expression and exchange of views; however it requires prudence, cautiousness and respect to patients' personality and sensitive issues. Humor is not innate, it is acquired and it can be learning and taught. Conclusion: The correct use of humor in therapeutic practice, contributes to the development of a therapeutic relationship between patient and healthcare professional as well as a sense of trust between them.

  4. Unconventional aqueous humor outflow: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark; McLaren, Jay W; Overby, Darryl R

    2017-05-01

    Aqueous humor flows out of the eye primarily through the conventional outflow pathway that includes the trabecular meshwork and Schlemm's canal. However, a fraction of aqueous humor passes through an alternative or 'unconventional' route that includes the ciliary muscle, supraciliary and suprachoroidal spaces. From there, unconventional outflow may drain through two pathways: a uveoscleral pathway where aqueous drains across the sclera to be resorbed by orbital vessels, and a uveovortex pathway where aqueous humor enters the choroid to drain through the vortex veins. We review the anatomy, physiology and pharmacology of these pathways. We also discuss methods to determine unconventional outflow rate, including direct techniques that use radioactive or fluorescent tracers recovered from tissues in the unconventional pathway and indirect methods that estimate unconventional outflow based on total outflow over a range of pressures. Indirect methods are subject to a number of assumptions and generally give poor agreement with tracer measurements. We review the variety of animal models that have been used to study conventional and unconventional outflow. The mouse appears to be a promising model because it captures several aspects of conventional and unconventional outflow dynamics common to humans, although questions remain regarding the magnitude of unconventional outflow in mice. Finally, we review future directions. There is a clear need to develop improved methods for measuring unconventional outflow in both animals and humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The evolution of humor from male aggression

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    Shuster S

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sam ShusterNewcastle University, Newcastle Upon Type, NE1 7RU, UKAbstract: The response to seeing a man riding a unicycle was reported to be consistently related to the viewer's sex and stage of physical development. To see if this observation was universal, observations of responses were collected from 23 male and 9 female unicyclists aged 15–69 years, with 2–40 years cycling experience across four continents. With two exceptions among men, the findings were the same as those originally reported: children showed interest and curiosity, young girls showed little interest, while adult women showed a kindly, concerned, praising response. By contrast, boys showed physical aggression, which became more verbal, merging in the later teens to the snide, aggressive, stereotyped humorous response shown by adult males, which became less frequent in elderly men. The universality of the response across different individuals, environments, and dates of observation suggests an endogenous mechanism, and the association with masculine development relates this to androgen. The theoretical consequences are discussed. It is concluded that humor develops from aggression in males and is evolutionarily related to sexual selection.Keywords: humor evolution, male aggressive behavior

  6. Mitigation of Ergot Vasoconstriction by Clover Isoflavones in Goats (Capra hircus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, Glen E; Flythe, Michael D; Kagan, Isabelle A; Ji, Huihua; Bush, Lowell P

    2016-01-01

    Ergot alkaloids produced by a fungal endophyte (Epichloë coenophiala; formerly Neotyphodium coenophialum) that infects tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) can induce persistent constriction of the vasculature in ruminants, hindering their capability to thermo-regulate core body temperature. There is evidence that isoflavones produced by legumes can relax the vasculature, which suggests that they could relieve ergot alkaloid-induced vasoconstriction and mitigate the vulnerability to severe heat stress in ruminants that graze tall fescue. To test if isoflavones can relieve alkaloid-induced vasoconstriction, two pen experiments were conducted with rumen-fistulated goats (Capra hircus) to determine with ultrasonograpy if isoflavones can (1) promote vascular compliance by countering alkaloid-induced vasoconstriction and (2) relieve already imposed alkaloid-induced vasoconstriction. Goats were fed ad libitum chopped orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata)-timothy (Phleum pratense) hay prior to conducting the experiments. Measures of carotid and interosseous luminal areas were obtained pre- (baseline) and post-ruminal infusions in both experiments with goats being fed the hay, and for blood flow rate in the carotid artery in Experiment 2. Responses to infusion treatments were evaluated as proportionate differences from baseline measures. Peak systolic velocity, pulsatility index, and heart rate were measured on the last day on treatment (DOT) in Experiment 1, and on all imaging sessions during Experiment 2. For Experiment 1, rumens were infused with ground toxic fescue seed and isoflavones in Phase A and with only the toxic seed in Phase B. The infusion treatments were switched between phases in Experiment 2, which employed a fescue seed extract having an ergot alkaloid composition equivalent to that of the ground seed used in Experiment 1. During Experiment 1, luminal areas of carotid and interosseous arteries in Phase A did not deviate (P > 0.1) from baselines over 1, 2, 3

  7. Pretreatment with Antioxidants Augments the Acute Arterial Vasoconstriction Caused by Diesel Exhaust Inhalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Karen L.; Cosselman, Kristen E.; Trenga, Carol A.; Stapleton, Pat L.; Allen, Jason; Peretz, Alon; Olives, Casey

    2016-01-01

    Rationale: Diesel exhaust inhalation, which is the model traffic-related air pollutant exposure, is associated with vascular dysfunction. Objectives: To determine whether healthy subjects exposed to diesel exhaust exhibit acute vasoconstriction and whether this effect could be modified by the use of antioxidants or by common variants in the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AGTR1) and other candidate genes. Methods: In a genotype-stratified, double-blind, four-way crossover study, 21 healthy adult subjects were exposed at rest in a randomized, balanced order to diesel exhaust (200 μg/m3 particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm [PM2.5]) and filtered air, and to pretreatment with antioxidants (N-acetylcysteine and ascorbate) and placebo. Before and after each exposure, brachial artery diameter (BAd) was assessed using ultrasound. Changes in BAd were compared across pretreatment and exposure sessions. Gene–exposure interactions were evaluated in the AGTR1 A1166C polymorphism, on which recruitment was stratified, and other candidate genes, including TRPV1 and GSTM1. Measurements and Main Results: Compared with filtered air, exposure to diesel exhaust resulted in a significant reduction in BAd (mean, −0.09 mm, 95% confidence interval [CI], −0.01 to −0.17; P = 0.03). Pretreatment with antioxidants augmented diesel exhaust–related vasoconstriction with a mean change in BAd of −0.18 mm (95% CI, −0.28 to −0.07 mm; P = 0.001). Diesel exhaust–related vasoconstriction was primarily observed in the variant alleles of AGTR1 and TRPV1. No association was found between diesel exhaust inhalation and flow-mediated dilation. Conclusions: We confirmed that short-term exposure to diesel exhaust in healthy subjects is associated with acute vasoconstriction in a conductance artery and found suggestive evidence of involvement of nociception and renin–angiotensin systems in this effect. Pretreatment with an antioxidant regimen increased

  8. Humor as an adjunct to occupational therapy interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooper, V O

    1984-01-01

    Although humor and laughter have been a natural part of human life in all cultures as far back as recorded history can determine, the conscious use of humor as a therapeutic technique is comparatively recent. This article suggests that health specialists have been slow to adopt the ideas of some of the better known researchers and writers in the field due to professional and cultural attitudes toward humor as a "frivolous" subject. As more information on the positive benefits of humor and laughter is being disseminated in books and workshops, previous myths regarding humor are being dispelled and attitudes are changing. A brief history of the state of the art over the past decade is included along with a few ideas from seminars and workshops on the use of humor as a planned activity in health and educational settings.

  9. Humor Style and Motor Skills: Understanding Vulnerability to Bullying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Plenty

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the role of humor style and motor skills in vulnerability to bullying. 729 adults responded to the Humor Style Questionnaire (HSQ and items retrospectively addressing their motor skills and bullying experiences during childhood. Consistent with recent research, poorer motor skills were associated with a greater extent of having been bullied. An association between stronger motor skills and affiliative humor was found, lending support to a shared biological basis theory underlying social and motor competency processes. Most importantly, being bullied was associated with higher self-defeating humor and lower affiliative humor. This supports earlier theoretical work by Klein and Kuiper (2006 and highlights the role that humor styles play in social interactions that can promote positive peer acceptance and wellbeing.

  10. Humor and older adults: what makes them laugh?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Barbara G; Prazak, Mark

    2006-09-01

    Laughter, the physical response to perceived humor, has demonstrated positive effects on physical and psychological well-being. Studies that focus on effects of humor on health and well-being of older adults are scarce. No studies were found that examine what older adults find humorous. The purpose of this descriptive study was to explore the humor stimulus in a population of older adults. One hundred thirty (130) hospital auxiliary personnel aged 50 and older were asked the question What makes you laugh? Content analysis of responses revealed nine themes in two major categories, which were (a) people or animals and (b) situations or events. Children represented the largest category of people (30%), and telling jokes represented the largest category of situations or events (51%). Humor can be used by nurses as an effective therapeutic tool when caring for older adults if appropriate sources of humor are identified and applied.

  11. Brain iron homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, Torben

    2002-11-01

    Iron is essential for virtually all types of cells and organisms. The significance of the iron for brain function is reflected by the presence of receptors for transferrin on brain capillary endothelial cells. The transport of iron into the brain from the circulation is regulated so that the extraction of iron by brain capillary endothelial cells is low in iron-replete conditions and the reverse when the iron need of the brain is high as in conditions with iron deficiency and during development of the brain. Whereas there is good agreement that iron is taken up by means of receptor-mediated uptake of iron-transferrin at the brain barriers, there are contradictory views on how iron is transported further on from the brain barriers and into the brain extracellular space. The prevailing hypothesis for transport of iron across the BBB suggests a mechanism that involves detachment of iron from transferrin within barrier cells followed by recycling of apo-transferrin to blood plasma and release of iron as non-transferrin-bound iron into the brain interstitium from where the iron is taken up by neurons and glial cells. Another hypothesis claims that iron-transferrin is transported into the brain by means of transcytosis through the BBB. This thesis deals with the topic "brain iron homeostasis" defined as the attempts to maintain constant concentrations of iron in the brain internal environment via regulation of iron transport through brain barriers, cellular iron uptake by neurons and glia, and export of iron from brain to blood. The first part deals with transport of iron-transferrin complexes from blood to brain either by transport across the brain barriers or by uptake and retrograde axonal transport in motor neurons projecting beyond the blood-brain barrier. The transport of iron and transport into the brain was examined using radiolabeled iron-transferrin. Intravenous injection of [59Fe-125]transferrin led to an almost two-fold higher accumulation of 59Fe than of

  12. Cultures of (Un)happiness: Teaching, Schooling, and Light and Dark Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullough, Robert V., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The author explores humor during a time of increasingly hostile accountability measures directed toward educators. Drawing on incongruity and other theories of humor, he explores both "light" and "dark" humor and some aspects of the educational potential and power of humor. Noting how humor is related to creativity and problem management, the…

  13. Humor recognition and appreciation deficits in early psychosis

    OpenAIRE

    吳愷晴; Ng, Hoi-ching, Iris

    2013-01-01

    Humor recognition and appreciation are important aspects to enhance psychological well-being and enrich social relationships and interactions. The present study hypothesized that first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients with adult onset in the Chinese society have deficits in humor recognition and appreciation compared with healthy controls. It also predicted FEP patients with a diminished ability in recalling humorous stimuli. Moreover, this study sought to explore the potential associations o...

  14. Calcium Homeostasis in ageing neurons

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    Vassiliki eNikoletopoulou

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The nervous system becomes increasingly vulnerable to insults and prone to dysfunction during ageing. Age-related decline of neuronal function is manifested by the late onset of many neurodegenerative disorders, as well as by reduced signalling and processing capacity of individual neuron populations. Recent findings indicate that impairment of Ca2+ homeostasis underlies the increased susceptibility of neurons to damage, associated with the ageing process. However, the impact of ageing on Ca2+ homeostasis in neurons remains largely unknown. Here, we survey the molecular mechanisms that mediate neuronal Ca2+ homeostasis and discuss the impact of ageing on their efficacy. To address the question of how ageing impinges on Ca2+ homeostasis, we consider potential nodes through which mechanisms regulating Ca2+ levels interface with molecular pathways known to influence the process of ageing and senescent decline. Delineation of this crosstalk would facilitate the development of interventions aiming to fortify neurons against age-associated functional deterioration and death by augmenting Ca2+ homeostasis.

  15. Humor: Power Conveying Social Structures Inside Forensic Mental Health Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildberg, Frederik A; Paaske, Kristian J; Rasmussen, Vivian L; Nissen, Ricko D; Bradley, Stephen K; Hounsgaard, Lise

    2016-01-01

    According to research literature, humor inside the staff-patient interaction seems to be significant in the area of forensic mental healthcare. However, existing literature on the subject is limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the characteristics of the use humor by forensic mental health staff members in interactions with forensic mental health inpatients. The study included 32 forensic mental health staff members, used 307 hours of participant observations, 48 informal interviews, and seven formal semistructured interviews. Outcomes identify four themes concerning the conveyance of power to, from, and between forensic mental health staff and patients as they interact: (a) "the informal use: the human-to-human approach," characterized by an informal use of humor and without any reference to mental health issues; (b) the "formal use of humor: the staff-patient approach," characterized as formal with a view on the patient as mentally ill, unable to understand humor, and with the aim of using humor to prevent conflicts or negative behavior; (c) "protest against requested care: the human-patient approach," characterized by the use of humor as a protest against requested care; and the use of (d) "inadequacy humor: the staff-human approach," characterized by the use of inadequacy-humor referring to, for example, patients' physical features. Recommendations and clinical implications are discussed.

  16. Humor as a Complementary Therapy: A Narrative Review

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    Raziyeh Ghafouri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research on the subject of laughter commenced on the 20th century. In recent decades researcher demonstrated that humor and laughter has positive impact on physical body same as psychological aspect. This study was conduct for integrate knowledge about humor as complementary therapy through the narrative review. Evidence Acquisition: The keywords humor, laughter, joking and humor therapy and humor sense were used. Data was collected from PUBMED, Ovid, ProQuest, Science Direct electronic databases. Literatures that were published in English or Persian between 1970- 2015 that were addressed humor were included. 181 literatures were collected. Based on the in clouding criteria 52 articles were included for review and finally 33 articles were selected after critical reviewing. Results: Humor reduces acute and chronic pain, decrease stress hormone and depression, boost self-esteem, increased encephalin and endorphins, decreased blood pressure through increasing nitric oxide, decreasing catecholamine and regulating vascular wall function, increased cardiac output, improve pulmonary ventilation and prevent diabetic nephropathy. Conclusion: Humor could be helpful for patient and it improve quality of life but it needed more research especially meta-analysis. We must don’t forget that lough with others not to each other's. Implications of key findings: Humor gives patients the opportunity to forget about their anxiety and pain, if only for a brief period of time.

  17. Trait humor and longevity: do comics have the last laugh?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotton, J

    1992-01-01

    Four sets of biographical data were analyzed in order to test the hypothesis that the ability to generate humor is associated with longevity. Although steps were taken to ensure that tests had high levels of statistical power, analyses provided very little support for the idea that individuals with a well-developed sense of humor live longer than serious writers and other entertainers. In addition, a subsidiary analysis revealed that those in the business of entertaining others died at an earlier age than those in other lines of endeavor. These findings suggest that researchers should turn their attention from trait humor to the effects of humorous material.

  18. Effectiveness of humor training among adolescents with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ching-Lin; Liu, Ya-Ru; Kuo, Ching-Chih; Chen, Hsueh-Chih; Chang, Yu-Lin

    2016-12-30

    Humor training has been applied to educational and clinical cases and has been found to be effective, but humor training for individuals with autism is relatively rare. The present study proposed a humor-knowledge and humor-skill training workshop to enhance the humor comprehension and appreciation of individuals with autism and examined the effects of the training. Participants were 20 adolescents with autism and average intelligence (above 70 in WAIS-III). They were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. Both questionnaire of joke comprehension and appreciation and a humor style questionnaire were used as instruments. The results supported the effectiveness of the 15-h training. The comprehension and appreciation of nonsense humor were significantly increased in the experimental group in comparison with the control group, although the incongruity-resolution jokes remained difficult to comprehend. The tendency to use affiliative humor was greater among individuals with autism in the experimental group, suggesting that the appreciation of humor can be learned.

  19. Analysis on the Mechanism Whereby Humor is Produced

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周先军

    2014-01-01

    Humor, a distinctive linguistic phenomenon, plays an important role in the language culture. In addition, humor has become a topic in linguistics. As the most important principles in pragmatics, the CP has provided a theoretical tool for analyzing humor, which is the product of the speaker’s intentional or unintentional violation of certain maxim of the Cooperative Principle. Participants should understand the literal meaning of an utterance firstly, and then, by relating the utterance to the specific context and certain background information, they come to realize the violation of the CP and appreciate the humor.

  20. A Study of the Translation of Humor in English Movies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丹丹

    2016-01-01

    What is believed to be the most important thing in translating English movie subtitle is the transmission of humorous effects. Humor is the development result of language and culture, and it is human's wisdom. Based on Vermeer's Skopostheorie theory of functionalist approaches, the thesis suggests that the instrumental translation strategy based on the source text analysis can be used for the translation of humor discourses. The translator can translate humorous languages by way of literal translation, annotation, combination of literal translation and free translation.

  1. Self-esteem instability and humor styles: does the stability of self-esteem influence how people use humor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Jessica; Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Arnau, Randolph C

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine whether self-esteem instability moderated the association between self-esteem level and the use of humor. This was accomplished by examining the associations that humor styles had with self-esteem level and self-esteem instability among 499 undergraduates. The results of the present study show that self-esteem instability moderated the association between self-esteem level and humor styles such that individuals with stable high self-esteem reported the highest levels of affiliative humor as well as the lowest levels of aggressive and self-defeating humor. These results suggest that individuals with stable and unstable forms of self-esteem employ different styles of humor.

  2. Hippocrates' humoral pathology in nowaday's reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujalkova, M; Straka, S; Jureckova, A

    2001-01-01

    Ancient medicine integrated three components: experience (empirical observation), religion/magic and speculations of natural philosophers. The Greek medicine out-achieved medicine of other ancient nations in starting to investigate the true causes of health and diseases and thus laying foundations for the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment. Hippocrates, the most famous physician of the ancient times, made a synthesis of existing philosophical opinions from the point of view of a physician. His 58 writings were preserved in the collection "Corpus Hippocraticum". The most relevant writing in it--"Peri fyseos anthropu" (On the nature of man)--is ascribed to Hippocrates' son-in-law Polybos to whom we are grateful for the ancient humoral-pathological theory. In explaining human organism and its processes the author integrated ancient teachings on 4 basic humors (humoral theory), elements and qualities with observations of manifestations of health and disease. Normal condition (health) was defined as balance between the body fluids (eukrasia) and external environment. If this balance is disturbed, the result is dyskrasia, i.e. disease studied by pathology. According to Hippocrates disease causes can be understood only through empirical study. A man has a power to overcome disease, but to achieve it the right diet is necessary to keep harmony in body fluids of an organism. The role of a physician was just to support the nature. "Prognosis", another writing included in "Corpus Hippocraticum", reflects Hippocrates' understanding of prognosis as a necessary development of diagnosis based on past knowledge (anamnesis) and present observation. Ideas of Hippocrates and his medical school are still valuable and inspiring especially for today's very sophisticated medicine--concept of fighting diseases by natural means: maintaining healthy lifestyle and harmony within the organism, or an effort for perfect understanding of human creature and for humanization of medicine. (Fig. 3

  3. Homeostasis of T Cell Diversity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vinay S. Mahajan; Ilya B. Leskov; Jianzhu Chen

    2005-01-01

    T cell homeostasis commonly refers to the maintenance of relatively stable T cell numbers in the peripheral lymphoid organs. Among the large numbers of T cells in the periphery, T cells exhibit structural diversity, I.e., the expression of a diverse repertoire of T cell receptors (TCRs), and functional diversity, I.e., the presence of T cells at na(I)ve, effector, and memory developmental stages. Although the homeostasis of T cell numbers has been extensively studied, investigation of the mechanisms underlying the maintenance of structural and functional diversity of T cells is still at an early stage. The fundamental feature throughout T cell development is the interaction between the TCR and either self or foreign peptides in association with MHC molecules. In this review, we present evidence showing that homeostasis of T cell number and diversity is mediated through competition for limiting resources.The number of T cells is maintained through competition for limiting cytokines, whereas the diversity of T cells is maintained by competition for self-peptide-MHC complexes. In other words, diversity of the self-peptide repertoire limits the structural (TCR) diversity of a T cell population. We speculate that cognate low affinity self-peptides,acting as weak agonists and antagonists, regulate the homeostasis of T cell diversity whereas non-cognate or null peptides which are extremely abundant for any given TCR, may contribute to the homeostasis of T cell number by providing survival signals. Moreover, self-peptides and cytokines may form specialized niches for the regulation of T cell homeostasis.

  4. Homeostasis of T Cell Diversity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VinayS.Mahajan; IlyaB.Leskov; JianzhuChen

    2005-01-01

    T cell homeostasis commonly refers to the maintenance of relatively stable T cell numbers in the peripheral lymphoid organs. Among the large numbers of T cells in the periphery, T cells exhibit structural diversity, i.e., the expression of a diverse repertoire of T cell receptors (TCRs), and functional diversity, i.e., the presence of T cells at naive, effector, and memory developmental stages. Although the homeostasis of T cell numbers has been extensively studied, investigation of the mechanisms underlying the maintenance of structural and functional diversity of T cells is still at an early stage. The fundamental feature throughout T cell development is the interaction between the TCR and either self or foreign peptides in association with MHC molecules. In this review, we present evidence showing that homeostasis of T cell number and diversity is mediated through competition for limiting resources. The number of T cells is maintained through competition for limiting cytokines, whereas the diversity of T cells is maintained by competition for self-peptide-MHC complexes. In other words, diversity of the self-peptide repertoire limits the structural (TCR) diversity of a T cell population. We speculate that cognate low affinity self-peptides, acting as weak agonists and antagonists, regulate the homeostasis of T cell diversity whereas non-cognate or null peptides which are extremely abundant for any given TCR, may contribute to the homeostasis of T cell number by providing survival signals. Moreover, self-peptides and cytokines may form specialized niches for the regulation of T cell homeostasis. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2005;2(1): 1-10.

  5. Thanatochemistry: Study of vitreous humor potassium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilesh Keshav Tumram

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study has been carried out to determine the death interval from the biochemical parameter of vitreous potassium. In 308 medicolegal cases vitreous humor was taken and analyzed for potassium with known time of death. There was a linear rise in potassium concentration with increasing death interval. Regression equation was calculated for the same. The study indicates that potassium levels in vitreous for determining death interval are useful and can afford a good method of determining the death interval along with other traditional methods. Also the previously established formulae for estimating death interval from vitreous potassium were also studied.

  6. Disorders of erythrocyte volume homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glogowska, E; Gallagher, P G

    2015-05-01

    Inherited disorders of erythrocyte volume homeostasis are a heterogeneous group of rare disorders with phenotypes ranging from dehydrated to overhydrated erythrocytes. Clinical, laboratory, physiologic, and genetic heterogeneities characterize this group of disorders. A series of recent reports have provided novel insights into our understanding of the genetic bases underlying some of these disorders of red cell volume regulation. This report reviews this progress in understanding determinants that influence erythrocyte hydration and how they have yielded a better understanding of the pathways that influence cellular water and solute homeostasis.

  7. Forearm vasoconstriction during dynamic leg exercise in patients with chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, J J; Dryburgh, L G; Thomson, H L; Moore, T D; Wright, K N; Muehle, G W; Fitzpatrick, L E; Frenneaux, M P

    1998-01-01

    Previous studies assessing vascular responses in nonexercising beds during exercise in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) have yielded varying results. We proposed that the clinical and hemodynamic severity of heart failure may explain some of the variation. We reasoned that diastolic ventricular interaction (DVI), by limiting the ability of such patients to increase left ventricular (LV) volume and stroke volume during exercise, would attenuate baroreflex activation, resulting in increased sympathetic activation and hence exaggerated vasoconstriction. We hypothesized therefore that vasoconstriction in nonexercising beds would be exaggerated in patients with symptomatic and hemodynamically severe heart failure, particularly if associated with DVI. We measured forearm vascular resistance (FVR) during semierect cycle exercise in 22 CHF patients and 23 control subjects. DVI was assessed by measuring changes in ventricular volumes (radionuclide ventriculography) during volume unloading (-30 mm Hg lower-body negative pressure) in the heart failure patients and was inferred when LV end-diastolic volume paradoxically increased. Patients with symptoms of heart failure developed larger increases in FVR during exercise than did asymptomatic patients. There were significant correlations between the change in FVR during peak exercise and the resting mean pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance. CHF patients with DVI developed exaggerated increases in FVR (median [25th to 75th percentile]) compared with the remaining patients during low-workload exercise (138 [66 to 171] vs 6.4 [-4.3 to 28] units, P = 0.002) and during peak exercise (160 [90 to 384] vs 61 [-7.4 to 75] units, P < 0.02). Vasoconstriction in nonexercising beds is exaggerated in CHF patients with clinically and hemodynamically severe heart failure, particularly if associated with DVI. This may explain some of the reported variation in the degree of sympathetic activation that occurs

  8. Intravenous phentolamine abolishes coronary vasoconstriction in response to mild central hypovolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhaohui; Muller, Matthew D; Sinoway, Lawrence I; Leuenberger, Urs A

    2014-01-15

    Animal studies indicate alpha-adrenergic coronary vasoconstriction helps maintain left ventricular function during physiological stress. Whether this process occurs in humans is unknown. In the current study, we used transthoracic Doppler echocardiography to test the effect of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) on coronary blood flow velocity (CBV, left anterior descending coronary artery) and myocardial function in eight young healthy subjects before and after systemic infusion of phentolamine, a nonselective alpha blocker. Heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) were monitored on a beat-by-beat basis. Peak diastolic CBV and myocardial systolic and diastolic tissue velocities (Sm and Em), were quantified at baseline, and at -5 mmHg, -10 mmHg, and -15 mmHg LBNP. Coronary vascular resistance index (CVRI) was calculated as the quotient of diastolic BP and CBV. Phentolamine reduced baseline diastolic BP and increased HR but did not affect the reflex adjustments to LBNP. The reduction in CBV due to LBNP was blunted by phentolamine at -10 mmHg and -15 mmHg. Importantly, the increase in CVRI (i.e., coronary vasoconstriction) was abolished by phentolamine at -5 mmHg (0.21 ± 0.06 vs. 0.83 ± 0.13), -10 mmHg (0.24 ± 0.03 vs. 1.68 ± 0.31), and -15 mmHg (0.27 ± 0.10 vs. 2.34 ± 0.43). These data indicate that alpha-adrenergic coronary vasoconstriction is present during low levels of LBNP. With alpha blockade, more coronary flow is needed to maintain cardiac function. Our data suggest that alpha-adrenergic tone enhances coronary flow efficiency, presumably by redistributing flow from the epicardium to the endocardium.

  9. Humor processing in children: influence of temperament, age and IQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrticka, Pascal; Black, Jessica M; Neely, Michelle; Walter Shelly, Elizabeth; Reiss, Allan L

    2013-11-01

    Emerging evidence from fMRI studies suggests that humor processing is a specific social cognitive-affective human function that comprises two stages. The first stage (cognitive humor component) involves the detection and resolution of incongruity, and is associated with activity in temporo-occipito-parietal brain areas. The second stage (emotional humor component) comprises positive feelings related to mirth/reward, and is linked with reward-related activity in mesocorticolimbic circuits. In healthy adults, humor processing was shown to be moderated by temperament traits like intro-/extraversion, neuroticism, or social anxiety, representing risk factors for psychopathology. However, comparable data from early developmental stages is crucially lacking. Here, we report for the first time data from 22 children (ages 6 to 13) revealing an influence of temperament on humor processing. Specifically, we assessed the effects of Emotionality, Shyness, and Sociability, which are analogous to neuroticism, behavioral inhibition/fear and extraversion in adults. We found Emotionality to be positively, but Shyness negatively associated with brain activity linked with both cognitive and emotional humor components. In addition, Shyness and Sociability were positively related to activity in the periaqueductal gray region during humor processing. These findings are of potential clinical relevance regarding the early detection of childhood psychopathology. Previous data on humor processing in both adults and children furthermore suggest that intelligence (IQ) supports incongruity detection and resolution, whereas mirth and associated brain activity diminishes with increasing age. Here, we found that increasing age and IQ were linked with stronger activity to humor in brain areas implicated in the cognitive component of humor. Such data suggest that humor processing undergoes developmental changes and is moderated by higher IQ scores, both factors likely improving incongruity detection

  10. Reversible Cerebral Vasoconstriction Syndrome with Intracranial Hypertension: Should Decompressive Craniectomy Be Considered?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrozek, Ségolène; Lonjaret, Laurent; Jaffre, Aude; Januel, Anne-Christine; Raposo, Nicolas; Boetto, Sergio; Albucher, Jean-François; Fourcade, Olivier; Geeraerts, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Background Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is a rare cause of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) causing intracranial hypertension. Methods Case report. Results We report a case of RCVS-related ICH leading to refractory intracranial hypertension. A decompressive craniectomy was performed to control intracranial pressure. We discuss here the management of RCVS with intracranial hypertension. Decompressive craniectomy was preformed to avoid the risky option of high cerebral perfusion pressure management with the risk of bleeding, hemorrhagic complications, and high doses of norepinephrine. Neurological outcome was good. Conclusion RCVS has a complex pathophysiology and can be very difficult to manage in cases of intracranial hypertension. Decompressive craniectomy should probably be considered.

  11. Mitigation of ergot vasoconstriction by clover isoflavones in goats (Capra hircus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glen Eris Aiken

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ergot alkaloids produced by a fungal endophyte (Epichloë coenophiala; formerly Neotyphodium coenphialum that infects tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum can induce persistent constriction of the vasculature in ruminants, hindering their capability to thermo-regulate core body temperature. There is evidence that isoflavones produced by legumes can relax the vasculature, which suggests they could relieve ergot alkaloid-induced vasoconstriction and mitigate the vulnerability to severe heat stress in cattle that graze tall fescue. To test if isoflavones can relieve alkaloid-induced vasoconstriction, two pen experiments were conducted with rumen fistulated goats (Capra hircus to determine with ultrasonograpy if isoflavones can 1 promote vascular compliance by countering alkaloid-induced vasoconstriction, and 2 relieve already imposed alkaloid-induced vasoconstriction. Goats were fed ad libitum chopped orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata - timothy (Phleum pratense hay prior to conducting the experiments. Measures of carotid and interosseous luminal areas were obtained pre- (baseline and post-ruminal infusions in both experiments with goats being fed the hay, and for blood flow rate in the carotid artery in Exp. 2. Responses to infusion treatments were evaluated as proportionate differences from baseline measures. Peak systolic velocity, pulsatility index, and heart rate were measured on the last day of treatment (DOT in Exp. 1, and on all imaging sessions during Exp. 2. For Exp. 1, rumens were infused with ground toxic fescue seed and isoflavones in Phase A and with only the toxic seed in Phase B. The infusion treatments were switched between phases in Exp. 2, which employed a fescue seed extract having an ergot alkaloid composition equivalent to that of the ground seed used in Exp. 1. During Exp. 1, luminal areas of carotid and interosseous arteries in Phase A did not deviate (P > 0.1 from baselines over 1, 2, 3, and 4 DOT, but the areas of both declined

  12. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome combined with posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome after heart transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Seung Pil; Hwang, Gyojun; Kim, Chang Hyeun; Kwon, O-Ki

    2017-08-01

    Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) combined with posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a rare complication in patients treated with immunosuppressants. A 52-year-old male patient presented with seizures after heart transplantation. The patient was suspected of having PRES on brain images. Despite the strict blood pressure control, the patient presented with altered mentality and the brain images showed a newly developed large acute infarction. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) revealed the classic "sausage on a string" appearance of the cerebral arteries - potential feature of RCVS. To our knowledge, this is the first case report to describe RCVS combined with PRES after heart transplantation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Triptans induce vasoconstriction of human arteries and veins from the thoracic wall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wackenfors, Angelica; Jarvius, Malin; Ingemansson, Richard;

    2005-01-01

    A common side effect of migraine treatment with triptans is chest symptoms. The origin of these symptoms is not known. The aim of the present study was to examine the vasocontractile effect of triptans in human arteries and veins from the thoracic wall and in coronary artery bypass grafts. In vitro...... detected by real-time PCR in all blood vessels studied. In conclusion, triptans induce vasoconstriction in arteries and veins from the thoracic wall, most likely by activation of 5-HT1B receptors. This response could be observed in only 38% to 57% of the patients, which may provide an explanation for why...

  14. A pig model of acute right ventricular afterload increase by hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knai, Kathrine; Skjaervold, Nils Kristian

    2017-01-03

    The aim of this study was to construct a non-invasive model for acute right ventricular afterload increase by hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. Intact animal models are vital to improving our understanding of the pathophysiology of acute right ventricular failure. Acute right ventricular failure is caused by increased afterload of the right ventricle by chronic or acute pulmonary hypertension combined with regionally or globally reduced right ventricular contractile capacity. Previous models are hampered by their invasiveness; this is unfortunate as the pulmonary circulation is a low-pressure system that needs to be studied in closed chest animals. Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction is a mechanism that causes vasoconstriction in alveolar vessels in response to alveolar hypoxia. In this study we explored the use of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction as a means to increase the pressure load on the right ventricle. Pulmonary hypertension was induced by lowering the FiO2 to levels below the physiological range in eight anesthetized and mechanically ventilated pigs. The pigs were monitored with blood pressure measurements and blood gases. The mean pulmonary artery pressures (mPAP) of the animals increased from 18.3 (4.2) to 28.4 (4.6) mmHg and the pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) from 254 (76) dyns/cm(5) to 504 (191) dyns/cm(5), with a lowering of FiO2 from 0.30 to 0.15 (0.024). The animals' individual baseline mPAPs varied substantially as did their response to hypoxia. The reduced FiO2 level yielded an overall lowering in oxygen offer, but the global oxygen consumption was unaltered. We showed in this study that the mPAP and the PVR could be raised by approximately 100% in the study animals by lowering the FiO2 from 0.30 to 0.15 (0.024). We therefore present a novel method for minimally invasive (closed chest) right ventricular afterload manipulations intended for future studies of acute right ventricular failure. The method should in theory be reversible

  15. Humor en línea. Línea del humor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dra. Mirta Clara Echevarría

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available La autora indaga el humor propuesto por el diario ‘InterVoz’ (Córdoba, Argentina. El medio publica el "típico humor cordobés". Historietas, chistes y relatos representan la vida urbana cotidiana, confluencia de lo popular y lo masivo, a través de la inclusión de usos lingüísticos, costumbres, personajes típicos y personajes públicos, sobre todo políticos. Estos textos, en algunos casos, reproducen lo publicado en papel; sin embargo, son manifestaciones diferentes. En este discurso emergente, estudia las condiciones de producción, circulación y consumo desde varias vertientes. Subraya la autora la relación del humor con el resto del diario por: la fuerte relación intertextual con la información y el diseño hipertextual. Destaca tópicas y retórica del humor como parte de una política discursiva centrada en lo regional, con el objeto de construir un discurso identitario de clara apelación a "los cordobeses en el mundo". El humor de ‘InterVoz’ (el diario en su totalidad, en el marco de la globalización, se manifiesta como una otra voz, sin llegar a establecerse como contradiscurso. Este periódico –como tantos en la red– subraya las marcas de lo local para permanecer en lo global.

  16. Humoral Dysregulation Associated with Increased Systemic Inflammation among Injection Heroin Users.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S Piepenbrink

    Full Text Available Injection drug use is a growing major public health concern. Injection drug users (IDUs have a higher incidence of co-morbidities including HIV, Hepatitis, and other infections. An effective humoral response is critical for optimal homeostasis and protection from infection; however, the impact of injection heroin use on humoral immunity is poorly understood. We hypothesized that IDUs have altered B cell and antibody profiles.A comprehensive systems biology-based cross-sectional assessment of 130 peripheral blood B cell flow cytometry- and plasma- based features was performed on HIV-/Hepatitis C-, active heroin IDUs who participated in a syringe exchange program (n = 19 and healthy control subjects (n = 19. The IDU group had substantial polydrug use, with 89% reporting cocaine injection within the preceding month. IDUs exhibited a significant, 2-fold increase in total B cells compared to healthy subjects, which was associated with increased activated B cell subsets. Although plasma total IgG titers were similar between groups, IDUs had significantly higher IgG3 and IgG4, suggestive of chronic B cell activation. Total IgM was also increased in IDUs, as well as HIV Envelope-specific IgM, suggestive of increased HIV exposure. IDUs exhibited numerous features suggestive of systemic inflammation, including significantly increased plasma sCD40L, TNF-α, TGF-α, IL-8, and ceramide metabolites. Machine learning multivariate analysis distilled a set of 10 features that classified samples based on group with absolute accuracy.These results demonstrate broad alterations in the steady-state humoral profile of IDUs that are associated with increased systemic inflammation. Such dysregulation may impact the ability of IDUs to generate optimal responses to vaccination and infection, or lead to increased risk for inflammation-related co-morbidities, and should be considered when developing immune-based interventions for this growing population.

  17. Effects of Humor on Teacher Stress, Affect, and Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Jacqueline Dena

    2013-01-01

    Teachers are at high risk for stress, negative emotion, and job dissatisfaction, which has been linked with health problems and early attrition. Humor has been found to relieve various forms of stress. However, there is a gap in the literature regarding humor effects on teacher stress and its related consequences. The purpose of this quantitative,…

  18. Did You Hear the One about...? Humor in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Jim

    2006-01-01

    Used properly, humor can be a valuable educational tool. It also helps middle school students cope with many of the personal issues that arise and focus on school, and helps teachers connect with their students. From silly costumes to movie music, this article describes how some teachers and administrators incorporate humor into their daily school…

  19. An Empirical Foundation for a Taxonomy of Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froman, Richard L., Jr.

    The reliability of a taxonomy of humor was tested in two studies. The first study involved rater identification of nine categories for humorous incidents excerpted from television comedy programs (wordplay, exaggeration/understatement, contrast, audience knowledge, aggression, emotion, taboo, pratfall/slapstick, and repetition). The second study,…

  20. Examining Teachers' Motivation Level According to School Principals' Humor Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recepoglu, Ergun; Kilinc, Ali Cagatay; Cepni, Osman

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the motivation level of teachers according to school principals' humor styles. The humor styles survey and job motivation scale were used to gather data from 305 randomly selected teachers employed in primary schools in Karabuk. Results indicated that 141 of the teachers claimed school principal had…

  1. Does humor moderate the effects of experimentally-induced stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, M G; Stone, A A

    1996-06-01

    This study attempted to determine whether humor production moderates mood and physiological responses to stress of subjects high and low in trait humor. Forty subjects who were high and 40 subjects who were low in trait humor were selected. Half of each group was randomly assigned to one of two conditions. In one condition they generated a humorous monologue and in the other condition they generated a serious monologue to a silent stressful film. Heart rate, skin conductance level, and skin temperature were taken continuously for the fifteen minutes before, during, and fifteen minutes after the film. Pre- and post-stress mood and tension ratings were also recorded. Analyses of covariance were conducted with baseline mood and tension as covariates. Compared to the production of a serious narrative, humor production led to lower negative affect, lower tension, and reduced psychophysiological reactivity for both high and low trait-humor groups. These results suggest that humor production may be an effective coping strategy, even for individuals who do not typically use humor to cope with stress.

  2. The Humor Continuum: From Text to Smart Environments (Keynote Paper)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus

    Humor is important in our daily life, whether our activities are at home, at work, or in public spaces, for example during sports or other recreational and entertainment activities. Until now, computational humor, the research area that investigates rules and algorithms to understand and to generate

  3. Examining Teachers' Motivation Level According to School Principals' Humor Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recepoglu, Ergun; Kilinc, Ali Cagatay; Cepni, Osman

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the motivation level of teachers according to school principals' humor styles. The humor styles survey and job motivation scale were used to gather data from 305 randomly selected teachers employed in primary schools in Karabuk. Results indicated that 141 of the teachers claimed school principal had…

  4. Pastoral Perspectives of Humor's Use in Ministry Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jonathan W.

    2012-01-01

    Results from a qualitative component of a mixed-methods research design are reported regarding the use of humor in pastoral ministry. Thirteen Southern Baptist (SB) pastors were interviewed, from a total of 37 exemplars identified in the quantitative component of the study, regarding their perspectives toward humor in ministry. Results overall…

  5. Effects of Humor on Teacher Stress, Affect, and Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Jacqueline Dena

    2013-01-01

    Teachers are at high risk for stress, negative emotion, and job dissatisfaction, which has been linked with health problems and early attrition. Humor has been found to relieve various forms of stress. However, there is a gap in the literature regarding humor effects on teacher stress and its related consequences. The purpose of this quantitative,…

  6. Stimulus Characteristics Affect Humor Processing in Individuals with Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Andrea C.; Hegenloh, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The present paper aims to investigate whether individuals with Asperger syndrome (AS) show global humor processing deficits or whether humor comprehension and appreciation depends on stimulus characteristics. Non-verbal visual puns, semantic and Theory of Mind cartoons were rated on comprehension, funniness and the punchlines were explained. AS…

  7. Multilingual Manipulation and Humor in "I Love Lucy"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschen, Bryan

    2013-01-01

    "I Love Lucy" is considered to have been one of the most humorous television programs in the United States as early as the 1950s. This paper explores the use of language by the protagonists, Lucy and Ricky Ricardo, in order to understand the source of the program's humor. Linguistic analysis of the Ricardos' speech is applied,…

  8. Subversion or Socialization? Humor and Carnival in Morris Gleitzman's Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Kathryn

    2004-01-01

    Like their counterparts elsewhere, Australian children favour humorous novels; comedic writers consistently dominate the preteen and early teen fiction market in Australia. Regardless of its popularity, however, in comparison to more serious writing, humorous literature has received little critical attention. Of the studies aimed at this area,…

  9. Welcome to HELL : Humor in English Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncay, Hidayet

    2007-01-01

    Humor means understanding not only the language and words but their use, meaning, subtle nuances, the underlying culture, implications and unwritten messages. Humor does not often travel well from one culture to another, as each society has a somewhat different concept of what is funny (Dobson, 1987). In Foreign Language Learning (FLL), the…

  10. Embodied Agents: A New Impetus to Humor Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, A.; Stock, O.; Strapparava, C.; Nijholt, A.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we survey the role of humor in human-to-human interaction with the aim to see whether it is useful for embodied conversational agents to integrate humor capabilities in their internal model of intelligence, emotions and interaction (verbal and nonverbal) capabilities. For that reason w

  11. Conversational Agents and the Construction of Humorous Acts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Anton; Nishida, Toyoaki

    2007-01-01

    In this chapter we discuss the generation of humorous acts by embodied agents. It is observed that in future interfaces that are meant to allow natural interaction, embodied agents can play useful roles. Humor plays an important role in human-human interaction and therefore it is useful to investiga

  12. An Analysis of Black Humor in the Movie The Simpsons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵筱婧

    2016-01-01

    Black humor is widely applied in literature, drama, and film. This paper, through analyzing the theme, plot, and stereotypes of The Simpsons, aims to make a research of black humor and its application in this movie in order to facilitate the understanding of the movie and present its significance on modern society.

  13. Humor: What Can It Do for Tertiary Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Mehmet

    2004-01-01

    Given the important role of the affective variables in the process of learning, this paper examines ways of overcoming negative effects (i.e. anxiety, boredom) of the contextual factors. Exemplifying the uses of humor through context-specific, purpose-driven jokes, it maintains that humor can be utilized to produce a resourceful, encouraging and…

  14. The humor continuum: from text to smart environments (keynote paper)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Anton

    2015-01-01

    Humor is important in our daily life, whether our activities are at home, at work, or in public spaces, for example during sports or other recreational and entertainment activities. Until now, computational humor, the research area that investigates rules and algorithms to understand and to generate

  15. A Computational Model of Linguistic Humor in Puns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Justine T.; Levy, Roger; Goodman, Noah D.

    2016-01-01

    Humor plays an essential role in human interactions. Precisely what makes something funny, however, remains elusive. While research on natural language understanding has made significant advancements in recent years, there has been little direct integration of humor research with computational models of language understanding. In this paper, we…

  16. Subversion or Socialization? Humor and Carnival in Morris Gleitzman's Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Kathryn

    2004-01-01

    Like their counterparts elsewhere, Australian children favour humorous novels; comedic writers consistently dominate the preteen and early teen fiction market in Australia. Regardless of its popularity, however, in comparison to more serious writing, humorous literature has received little critical attention. Of the studies aimed at this area,…

  17. Humor: What Can It Do for Tertiary Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Mehmet

    2004-01-01

    Given the important role of the affective variables in the process of learning, this paper examines ways of overcoming negative effects (i.e. anxiety, boredom) of the contextual factors. Exemplifying the uses of humor through context-specific, purpose-driven jokes, it maintains that humor can be utilized to produce a resourceful, encouraging and…

  18. Humorous Stimuli and Depression: An Examination of Beck's Premise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scogin, Forrest R.; Merbaum, Michael

    1983-01-01

    Studied the relationship between depression and humor in 85 college students who took the Beck Depression Inventory and then rated 10 cartoons. Results showed no difference between mildly depressed and nondepressed subjects. However, some trends were noted on a mood scale related to immediate feelings and humor preference. (Author/JAC)

  19. Pelanggaran Prinsip Kooperatif dalam Wacana Humor di Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Sihombing, Marintan

    2010-01-01

    Penelitian ini menganalisis pelanggaran prinsip kooperatif dalam wacana humor di internet. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menjelaskan bagaimana proses terjadinya pelanggaran prinsip kooperatif dan mendeskripsikan faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi terjadinya pelanggaran prinsip kooperatif wacana humor di internet. Teori yang digunakan adalah implikatur percakapan, pertuturan atau tindak bahasa, konteks situasi. Pengumpulan data digunakan dengan metode simak, yaitu penyimakan terhadap penggunaan b...

  20. Application of Relevance Translation Theory in Humor Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵秀丽

    2013-01-01

    This thesis,aiming to investigate the process of English-Chinese translation of humor from the perspective of RT theory(relevance translation theory),endeavors to apply its principles and methods to the re-construction of humor in the target language.

  1. Laugh yourself to sleep: memory consolidation for humorous information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Alexis M; Payne, Jessica D

    2014-05-01

    There is extensive evidence that emotional information is better remembered than neutral information across long delays, especially if the delay interval contains an opportunity for sleep. However, as prior studies have focused on memory for negative stimuli, it is unclear whether positive memories benefit from time and sleep as well. To investigate the consolidation of positive memories, the current study examined differences in memory for humorous and non-humorous cartoons. While prior evidence demonstrates that humorous information is preferentially remembered relative to non-humorous information over brief delays, it is unknown whether this benefit lasts across longer delay intervals or whether sleep is important for lasting humor memories to form. Thus, we tested memory for 27 cartoons across 12-h delay periods containing either sleep or wakefulness. Results indicate that humor's enhancing effect on recall memory is robust across a 12-h delay and that a period of sleep facilitates this effect over wakefulness when cartoons are novel to participants and ranked based on subjective emotional ratings. Further, in accordance with previous studies that reveal diminished emotional reactivity to stimuli following sleep, in a supplemental experiment, we found that sleep reduced subjective ratings of humor, arousal, and positivity of humorous cartoons. These findings provide preliminary evidence that sleep's impact on negative emotional memory consolidation and emotional reactivity can be extended to positive stimuli as well.

  2. Playing with expectations: a contextual view of humor development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Airenti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the developmental literature it has been advanced that young children would not understand the specificity of nonliteral communicative acts. In this article I shall focus on young children’s ability to produce and understand different forms of humor. I shall explore children’s acquisition of the communicative contexts that constitute the background enabling them to perform humorous interactions before being able to analyze them in the terms allowed by a full fledged ToM. I consider that different forms of humor share a number of basic features and that we can draw a continuum from simple forms to sophisticated ones. In particular I shall focus on teasing, a form of humor already present in preverbal infants but also considered as a typical feature of irony. I shall argue that all forms of humor can be described in the terms of a kind of interaction that I propose to call playing with expectations.

  3. CLASSICAL CONDITIONING OF THREE KINDS OF HUMOR IN PUBLICITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAROLINA M. CIFUENTES

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of humor in advertisement published in Colombia were investigated in regards to brands,advertisement, purchase intention, recall and recognition.A simultaneous Classical Conditioning procedure was carried out, using Incongruous, Hostile and Allusivehumor associated to three brands. The procedure was applied to 30 university students. Results revealedthat the three kinds of humor work as unconditioning stimulus, generating positive attitudes towardsadvertisement and brand. Humor influences the purchase intention and recognition, but not the remembranceof brand when compared to neutral advertisement. Incongrous and Hostile Humor generate recognitionand positive attitude towards advertisement and brand. Allusions have a greater effect on purchaseintention than the other ones. Results corroborate the effectiveness of humor as an advertisement tool.

  4. Humor intervention program for children with chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, In Ok

    2015-11-01

    This study developed and implemented a humor intervention program for school-aged children with chronic diseases. Thirty-three children with atopic dermatitis and type 1 diabetes were divided into experimental and control groups. The experimental group included 17 children while the control group included 16 children. The experimental group participated in 6 weekly sessions of a 60-minute humor intervention. The subject and type of humorous material was collected from a survey of parents and children. Outcome measures assessed pre- and post-intervention included stress, behavior profile scores, and resilience. There was a significant decrease in behavior problems and increase in resiliency in experimental group compared to control group. There was no difference in stress cortisol measures between the groups. This study was the first to examine a humor intervention for children with chronic diseases in South Korea and offers practical implications for humor interventions in pediatric nursing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Humor, laughter, and physical health: methodological issues and research findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, R A

    2001-07-01

    All published research examining effects of humor and laughter on physical health is reviewed. Potential causal mechanisms and methodological issues are discussed. Laboratory experiments have shown some effects of exposure to comedy on several components of immunity, although the findings are inconsistent and most of the studies have methodological problems. There is also some evidence of analgesic effects of exposure to comedy, although similar findings are obtained with negative emotions. Few significant correlations have been found between trait measures of humor and immunity, pain tolerance, or self-reported illness symptoms. There is also little evidence of stress-moderating effects of humor on physical health variables and no evidence of increased longevity with greater humor. More rigorous and theoretically informed research is needed before firm conclusions can be drawn about possible health benefits of humor and laughter.

  6. Co-operative Principle of Conversation and Humor in English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付岚

    2012-01-01

    Language humor is a usual phenomenon in human communication. It is an interdisciplinary subject connected with a wide range of learning. Up to now, a great deal of research has been done from the viewpoint of psychology and sociology. In the field of linguistics, some explorations have already been made in regard to its semantic and rhetorical aspects, but due attention has not been paid to it in pragmatics in that in everyday verbal communication, humorous utterances are easy to enjoy but hard to define. Apart from its capability of laughter-making, language humor is more often than not, produced to implicitly perform some communicative functions, not achievable by explicit expressions. This the - sis, based on the fruitful studies of humor, attempts to investigate the mechanisms of English humor from the perspective of a new theory 一 Co- operative Principle.

  7. Oscillatory dynamics of vasoconstriction and vasodilation identified by time-localized phase coherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, L. W.; Vuksanović, V.; McClintock, P. V. E.; Stefanovska, A.

    2011-06-01

    We apply wavelet-based time-localized phase coherence to investigate the relationship between blood flow and skin temperature, and between blood flow and instantaneous heart rate (IHR), during vasoconstriction and vasodilation provoked by local cooling or heating of the skin. A temperature-controlled metal plate (≈10 cm2) placed on the volar side of the left arm was used to provide the heating and cooling. Beneath the plate, the blood flow was measured by laser Doppler flowmetry and the adjacent skin temperature by a thermistor. Two 1 h datasets were collected from each of the ten subjects. In each case a 30 min basal recording was followed by a step change in plate temperature, to either 24 °C or 42 °C. The IHR was derived from simultaneously recorded ECG. We confirm the changes in the energy and frequency of blood flow oscillations during cooling and heating reported earlier. That is, during cooling, there was a significant decrease in the average frequency of myogenic blood flow oscillations (p vasodilation, except in the myogenic interval. Weak phase coherence between temperature and blood flow was observed for unperturbed skin, but it increased in all frequency intervals as a result of heating. It was not significantly affected by cooling. We also show that significant (p vasodilation and vasoconstriction, in response to temperature change, are oscillatory in nature and are independent of central sources of variability.

  8. The effect of hypertonic saline dextran solutions on hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction in anaesthetised piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellezza, M; Kerbaul, F; Roussel, L; Imbert, M; Guidon, C

    2002-10-01

    Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) is a regulatory mechanism by which blood is diverted from poorly ventilated to better ventilated areas of the lung. The aim of the present study was to assess the extent to which hypertonic saline dextran and dextran solutions modify the magnitude of HPV during isovolumic haemodilution in intact acutely instrumented piglets. Eighteen large white piglets were anesthetised and assigned to two groups. Mean pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) and cardiac output (Q), systemic arterial pressure and left arterial pressure (LAP) were measured. A decrease in Q was obtained by reducing venous return. This enabled measurement of transpulmonary pressures (mean PAP minus LAP) at four levels of Q in hyperoxia (inspiratory oxygen fraction (FiO2)=0.4) then in hypoxia (Fi,O2=0.1) in the two groups before blood soustraction (10 mL x kg(-1)) and after loading with sodium chloride (NaCl) 7.5% and dextran 6% or with dextran 6% alone. Dextran alone led to a decrease in mean PAP-LAP/Q values, and NaCl with dextran was associated with a significant shift of mean PAP-LAP/Q plots to higher pressures in hypoxia. Hypertonic saline dextran solution, as replacement fluid in isovolaemic haemodilution increased the magnitude of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, whereas dextran solution reduced it.

  9. Effect of high-frequency positive-pressure ventilation on halothane ablation of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, S M; Chapleau, M; Cairo, J; Levitzky, M G

    1985-08-01

    High-frequency positive-pressure ventilation (HFPPV) was compared to intermittent positive-pressure ventilation (IPPV) during unilateral atelectasis with and without halothane anesthesia. Dogs with electromagnetic flow probes chronically implanted on their main (Qt) and left (Ql) pulmonary arteries were ventilated via Carlen's dual-lumen endotracheal tubes. In eight closed-chest dogs, about 43% of the cardiac output perfused the left lung during bilateral ventilation by either a Harvard animal respirator (IPPV) or a Health-dyne model 300 high-frequency ventilator (HFPPV). Unilateral atelectasis decreased blood flow (Ql/Qt) to that lung. Ql/Qt was 19 +/- 1% with HFPPV during left-lung atelectasis and right-lung ventilation, compared to 32 +/- 1% with unilateral IPPV. This suggests that HFPPV permits stronger hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. Addition of 1% halothane increased blood flow to the atelectatic left lung during unilateral ventilation with IPPV but not with HFPPV. This suggests that halothane decreases the effects of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction during conventional ventilation but not during HFPPV.

  10. Laughing at the Looking Glass: Does Humor Style Serve as an Interpersonal Signal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgil Zeigler-Hill

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The provision of information appears to be an important feature of humor. The present studies examined whether humor serves as an interpersonal signal such that an individual's style of humor is associated with how the individual is perceived by others. Method: We examined this issue across two studies. In Study 1, undergraduate participants (257 targets were rated more positively by their friends and family members (1194 perceivers when they possessed more benign humor styles. In Study 2, 1190 community participants rated the romantic desirability of targets ostensibly possessing different humor styles. Results: Across both studies, our results were consistent with the possibility that humor serves as a signal. More specifically, individuals with benign humor styles (affiliative and self-enhancing humor styles were evaluated more positively than those targets with injurious humor styles (aggressive and self-defeating humor styles. Conclusion: These findings are discussed in terms of the role that humor may play in interpersonal perception and relationships.

  11. Hipercalcemia humoral secundaria a carcinoma mixto de endometrio Humoral hypercalcemia in mixed endometrial carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Pinal-Fernández

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available La hipercalcemia secundaria a enfermedad neoplásica es una entidad frecuente causada en la mayor parte de los casos por secreción ectópica de PTHrp. A pesar de esto hay ciertos tumores, como los carcinomas uterinos, en donde este tipo de manifestación paraneoplásica está muy poco descrita. Presentamos un caso de hipercalcemia humoral en un carcinoma mixto de endometrio.Hypercalcemia secondary to neoplastic disease is a frequent entity caused in the majority of cases by ectopic secretions of PTHrP. Despite this there are certain tumours, such as uterine carcinomas, in which this type of paraneoplastic manifestation has been described very little. We present a case of humoral hypercalcemia in a mixed endometrial carcinoma.

  12. Science For The Public: Collaboration and Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wargo, Richard

    2013-04-01

    The transformation of all things media and information into a dynamic environment of user access has created what seems infinite possibilities to inform the public in many different ways - as well as seemingly infinite possibilities to confuse. This talk will describe a rather non-conventional collaboration between two different creative cultures and its significance to maintaining scientific accuracy and devising strategies important to audience engagement - among them, humor. While focusing on the award-winning effort ``When Things Get Small'' created by University of California Television producer R. Wargo in collaboration with condensed matter physicist I.K. Schuller and actor Adam J. Smith, with both NSF and private support, the case study provides insight into a model and modes which can be used successfully by other scientists to engage the public in what they do.

  13. Disorders of Erythrocyte Volume Homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Glogowska, Edyta; Gallagher, Patrick G.

    2015-01-01

    Inherited disorders of erythrocyte volume homeostasis are a heterogeneous group of rare disorders with phenotypes ranging from dehydrated to overhydrated erythrocytes. Clinical, laboratory, physiologic, and genetic heterogeneity characterize this group of disorders. A series of recent reports have provided novel insights into our understanding of the genetic bases underlying some of these disorders of red cell volume regulation. This report reviews this progress in understanding determinants ...

  14. The role of verbal humor in second language education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ziyaeemehr

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Instructor humor serves a wide range of functions in educational contexts. This paper reports on a study that investigated the functions of instructors' humorous verbalizations in academic classrooms at a university where English is used as a second language. Data were collected through audio-recordings and classroom observations. The results of an inductive analysis led to the development of three major categories, namely “foregrounding form”, “reinforcing meaning” and “highlighting cultural dissimilarities”. These categories represented the strategies that served as instructional functions of humor in the context of L2 (second language education. Findings indicate that using verbal humor in L2 classrooms offers opportunities to facilitate access to L2 linguistic and cultural knowledge resources that are embedded in humorous exchanges. Additionally, the findings suggest that L2 instructors must have specific (socio linguistic and sociocultural humor competence to use humor to engage learners and communicate finer aspects of the L2. The implications of the findings are explored within the context of second language learning and teaching.

  15. Laughter, Humor and Pain Perception in Children: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Stuber

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Although there are many clinical programs designed to bring humor into pediatric hospitals, there has been very little research with children or adolescents concerning the specific utility of humor for children undergoing stressful or painful procedures. Rx Laughter™, a non-profit organization interested in the use of humor for healing, collaborated with UCLA to collect preliminary data on a sample of 18 children aged 7–16 years. Participants watched humorous video-tapes before, during and after a standardized pain task that involved placing a hand in cold water. Pain appraisal (ratings of pain severity and pain tolerance (submersion time were recorded and examined in relation to humor indicators (number of laughs/smiles during each video and child ratings of how funny the video was. Whereas humor indicators were not significantly associated with pain appraisal or tolerance, the group demonstrated significantly greater pain tolerance while viewing funny videos than when viewing the videos immediately before or after the cold-water task. The results suggest that humorous distraction is useful to help children and adolescents tolerate painful procedures. Further study is indicated to explore the specific mechanism of this benefit.

  16. Hypoxic vasoconstriction of partial muscular intra-acinar pulmonary arteries in murine precision cut lung slices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldenberg Anna

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute alveolar hypoxia causes pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV which serves to match lung perfusion to ventilation. The underlying mechanisms are not fully resolved yet. The major vascular segment contributing to HPV, the intra-acinar artery, is mostly located in that part of the lung that cannot be selectively reached by the presently available techniques, e.g. hemodynamic studies of isolated perfused lungs, recordings from dissected proximal arterial segments or analysis of subpleural vessels. The aim of the present study was to establish a model which allows the investigation of HPV and its underlying mechanisms in small intra-acinar arteries. Methods Intra-acinar arteries of the mouse lung were studied in 200 μm thick precision-cut lung slices (PCLS. The organisation of the muscle coat of these vessels was characterized by α-smooth muscle actin immunohistochemistry. Basic features of intra-acinar HPV were characterized, and then the impact of reactive oxygen species (ROS scavengers, inhibitors of the respiratory chain and Krebs cycle metabolites was analysed. Results Intra-acinar arteries are equipped with a discontinuous spiral of α-smooth muscle actin-immunoreactive cells. They exhibit a monophasic HPV (medium gassed with 1% O2 that started to fade after 40 min and was lost after 80 min. This HPV, but not vasoconstriction induced by the thromboxane analogue U46619, was effectively blocked by nitro blue tetrazolium and diphenyleniodonium, indicating the involvement of ROS and flavoproteins. Inhibition of mitochondrial complexes II (3-nitropropionic acid, thenoyltrifluoroacetone and III (antimycin A specifically interfered with HPV, whereas blockade of complex IV (sodium azide unspecifically inhibited both HPV and U46619-induced constriction. Succinate blocked HPV whereas fumarate had minor effects on vasoconstriction. Conclusion This study establishes the first model for investigation of basic characteristics of HPV

  17. [Kv3.4 channel is involved in rat pulmonary vasoconstriction induced by 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Bi, Hai-Rong; Zhang, Rong; Zhu, Da-Ling

    2006-02-25

    We have reported that hypoxia increases the activation of 15-lipoxygenase (15-LO), which converts arachidonic acid (AA) into 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15-HETE) in small pulmonary arteries (PAs). Through inhibition of Kv channels, 15-HETE causes more robust concentration-dependent contraction of PA rings from the hypoxic compared to the normoxic controls. However, the subtypes of Kv channels inhibited by 15-HETE are incompletely understood. The aim of the present study was to identify the contribution of Kv3.4 channel in the process of pulmonary vasoconstriction induced by 15-HETE using the tension studies of PA rings from rat with Kv3.4 channel blocker in tissue bath; to explore the role of vascular endothelium in15-HETE-induced pulmonary vasoconstriction through denuded endothelia of PA rings; and to define the downregulation of 15-HETE on the expression of Kv3.4 channel in cultured pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) with RT-PCR and Western blot. In the present study, healthy Wistar rats were divided randomly into two groups: Group A with normal oxygen supply and group B with hypoxia. Six days later, the rats were killed. Pulmonary artery rings were prepared for organ bath experiments. Firstly, different concentrations of 15-HETE (10~1 000 nmol/L) were added to the Krebs solution. The isometric tension was recorded using a four-channel force-displacement transducer. Then Kv3.4 channel blocker, 100 nmol/L BDS-I, was added, followed by adding 1 mumol/L 15-HETE, and the isometric tension was recorded. Furthermore, RT-PCR and Western blot were employed to identify the influence of 15-HETE on the expression of Kv3.4 channel in cultured rat PASMCs.The results showed the PA tension was significantly increased both in groups A and B by 15-HETE in a concentration-dependent manner (PKv3.4 channel blocker, BDS-I, significantly decreased the PA ring constriction induced by 15-HETE (PKv3.4 mRNA and protein in rat PASMCs were significantly downregulated by 15

  18. Reciprocal influence of masticatory apparatus, craniofacial structure and whole body homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong-Keun; Moon, Hyung-Joo

    2012-12-01

    There are evidences that the evolution into Homo erectus was partially induced by masticatory muscular dystrophy caused by a gene mutation, which in turn increased brain capacity and led to bipedalism. It is generally accepted that the morphology and function of mammalian skull are partially controlled by epigenetic mechanisms. Archeologic evidences support that the masticatory apparatus have influenced the mechanical stress distribution in hominin skull, and consequently changed craniofacial morphology and function. Even after evolution into H. erectus, alterations in food properties by civilization and cultural preferences have caused modification of human masticatory pattern and accordingly craniofacial structure. Since there are evidences that prehuman and human masticatory apparatus has been influenced the craniofacial and whole body morphology and function, this apparatus in turn might influence whole body homeostasis. Plausible reciprocal influencing mechanisms of the masticatory apparatus on the whole body homeostasis might be (1) direct mechanical influence on the craniofacial structure, (2) distortion of cerebrospinal fluid circulation, and/or (3) several neural/humoral routes. Based on these backgrounds, the hypothesis of the present study is that the morphology and function of masticatory apparatus influence the whole body homeostasis and these interactions are reciprocal. Therefore, human masticatory apparatus, at the present time, should be kept in its physiological status to maintain the whole body homeostasis. We recommend basic and clinical approaches to confirm this hypothesis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Danish Humor in Cross-Cultural Professional Settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundquist, Lita Sander

    2014-01-01

    , with no limits or taboos. These characteristics of Danish humor are analyzed here using two different theoretical frameworks: linguistics – where an explanation is found in certain type-specific features of the Danish language, namely the dialogical particles typical of the Nordic languages in general...... welfare state. Work relationships in Denmark are based on a horizontal, flat structure with low power distance, a structure for which management researchers actually recommend the use of humor, irony and self-irony. Finally, the specificities of Danish humor are linked to a low degree of gelotophobia...

  20. Tipos de humor en la publicidad impresa en Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina María Cifuentes

    2005-01-01

    Una de las herramientas frecuentemente utilizadas por los publicistas para persuadir es el humor. De ahí el creciente interés por estudiar su influencia en el procesamiento, actitudes y comportamiento de los individuos. Se realizó una revisión de investigaciones sobre humor publicitario y sus efectos en la persuasión, atención, comprensión, actitudes y memoria, así como estudios sobre humor y factores culturales, de audiencia, medios masivos y tipos de producto. Se pre...

  1. Political humor as a confrontational tool against the syrian regime

    OpenAIRE

    Camps-Febrer, Blanca

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this working paper is to analyze the inclusion of political humor into the set of actions used by opponents to the Syrian regime during the first year of a state-wide uprising in 2011. The research ar-gues that although political humor has traditionally been seen mainly as a concealed voice against dominant elites, it can nevertheless take a confrontational stance and challenge a regime. In this paper we assess the role of political humor in challenging the legitimacy of the Syrian...

  2. Humor in the teaching of writing: A microethnographic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian F. Hempelmann

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the content of a critical thinking and writing course, along with similar courses derived from it, designed around the topic of humor and culminating in a microethnographic investigation of humor in students’ lives. The aims of the paper are threefold: to offer a general rationale for using humor in the writing classroom; to illustrate different types of potentials and dangers of such an approach; and to suggest extensions of the findings to the second-language writing classroom. The paper offers texts, writing prompts, and activities for instructors teaching classes that focus on the writing process in a first or second language.

  3. Pitfalls in the diagnosis of reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome and primary angiitis of the central nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, K; Uyttenboogaart, M; Luijckx, G J; De Keyser, J; Vroomen, P C A J

    2007-01-01

    A case of a 51-year-old woman with reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) without an associative cause is reported. Initially the diagnosis primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS) was considered. Both diagnosis are rare and can mimic each other. Distinction between both

  4. Differential effects of self-esteem and interpersonal competence on humor styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCosker, Bernadette; Moran, Carmen C

    2012-01-01

    Background In contrast with an early implicit “facilitative hypothesis” of humor, a revised specificity hypothesis predicts that the benefits of humor depend on the specific style of humor used. Information on predictors of these humor styles in turn enhances the ability to predict the effect on well-being. Methods We examined the relationships between interpersonal competence, self-esteem, and different styles of humor, while also examining the contributions of age and gender. Participants (n = 201) aged 18–63 years completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory, the Interpersonal Competence Questionnaire, and the Humor Styles Questionnaire, and gave demographic information. Results High self-esteem was associated with higher use of affiliative, aggressive, and self-enhancing humor styles, but lower use of self-defeating humor. High interpersonal competence predicted greater use of affiliative humor, whereas low interpersonal competence predicted greater use of aggressive humor. Further analyses showed that initiation competence predicted affiliative humor (positively) but both initiation competence (positively) and conflict management competence (negatively) predicted aggressive humor. Conclusion The findings that both self-esteem and initiation competence contribute to use of aggressive humor add to knowledge of who is likely to use this potentially harmful humor style. We conclude that a readiness to initiate humorous interactions is not on its own a general and positive attribute contributing to “good” humor. PMID:23180973

  5. Those Who Laugh Are Defenseless: How Humor Breaks Resistance to Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strick, Madelijn; Holland, Rob W.; van Baaren, Rick B.; van Knippenberg, Ad

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments illustrate that humor in advertisements prevents the development of negative brand associations due to resistance. Previous research on humor in advertising suggested that humor can counter negative responses during ad processing, but less is known about the effect of humor on the development of negative brand associations in…

  6. Exploratory Theoretical Tests of the Instructor Humor-Student Learning Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolkan, San; Goodboy, Alan K.

    2015-01-01

    Instructors' use of humor is generally a positive influence on student outcomes. However, examinations of humor have found that specific types of messages may not impact, or may even reverse, its positive effect. Instructional humor processing theory (IHPT) has been used to explain how humor impacts student learning. The current study sought to…

  7. Those Who Laugh Are Defenseless: How Humor Breaks Resistance to Influence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strick, M.A.; Holland, R.W.; Baaren, R.B. van; Knippenberg, A.F.M. van

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments illustrate that humor in advertisements prevents the development of negative brand associations due to resistance. Previous research on humor in advertising suggested that humor can counter negative responses during ad processing, but less is known about the effect of humor on the

  8. The puzzle of joking: Disentangling the cognitive and affective components of humorous distraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strick, M.A.; Holland, R.W.; Baaren, R.B. van; Knippenberg, A.F.M. van

    2010-01-01

    Studies in cognitive psychology, marketing, and education indicate that humor distracts attention from non-humorous information presented at the same time. Two experiments investigated why humor distracts attention. The two basic components of humor comprise (1) incongruency resolution, which poses

  9. Those Who Laugh Are Defenseless: How Humor Breaks Resistance to Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strick, Madelijn; Holland, Rob W.; van Baaren, Rick B.; van Knippenberg, Ad

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments illustrate that humor in advertisements prevents the development of negative brand associations due to resistance. Previous research on humor in advertising suggested that humor can counter negative responses during ad processing, but less is known about the effect of humor on the development of negative brand associations in…

  10. Those Who Laugh Are Defenseless: How Humor Breaks Resistance to Influence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strick, M.A.; Holland, R.W.; Baaren, R.B. van; Knippenberg, A.F.M. van

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments illustrate that humor in advertisements prevents the development of negative brand associations due to resistance. Previous research on humor in advertising suggested that humor can counter negative responses during ad processing, but less is known about the effect of humor on the

  11. Call-Fleming Syndrome (Reversible Cerebral Artery Vasoconstriction and Aneurysm Associated with Multiple Recreational Drug Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doniel Drazin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug abuse represents a significant health issue. Evidence suggests that recreational drug use has a direct effect on the cerebral vasculature and is of greater concern in those with undiagnosed aneurysms or vascular malformations. The authors report a case of thunderclap headache with a negative head CT and equivocal lumbar puncture after a drug-fueled weekend. The patient underwent diagnostic cerebral angiogram which demonstrated multisegmental, distal areas of focal narrowing of the middle, anterior, posterior, and posterior inferior cerebral artery and an incidental aneurysm. It is often difficult to determine the exact origin of symptoms; thus we were left with a bit of a chicken or the egg debate, trying to decipher which part came first. Either the aneurysm ruptured with associated concomitant vasospasm or it is a case of Call-Fleming syndrome (reversible cerebral artery vasoconstriction with an incidental aneurysm. The authors proposed their management and rationale of this complex case.

  12. Call-fleming syndrome (reversible cerebral artery vasoconstriction) and aneurysm associated with multiple recreational drug use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drazin, Doniel; Alexander, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Drug abuse represents a significant health issue. Evidence suggests that recreational drug use has a direct effect on the cerebral vasculature and is of greater concern in those with undiagnosed aneurysms or vascular malformations. The authors report a case of thunderclap headache with a negative head CT and equivocal lumbar puncture after a drug-fueled weekend. The patient underwent diagnostic cerebral angiogram which demonstrated multisegmental, distal areas of focal narrowing of the middle, anterior, posterior, and posterior inferior cerebral artery and an incidental aneurysm. It is often difficult to determine the exact origin of symptoms; thus we were left with a bit of a chicken or the egg debate, trying to decipher which part came first. Either the aneurysm ruptured with associated concomitant vasospasm or it is a case of Call-Fleming syndrome (reversible cerebral artery vasoconstriction) with an incidental aneurysm. The authors proposed their management and rationale of this complex case.

  13. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V V Ashraf

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 42-year-old woman, a diagnosed case of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, developed severe headache followed by left hemiparesis and cortical blindness. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of brain demonstrated right parieto-occipital infarct and the patient was initiated on high-dose steroids and antiplatelet agents with which the patient had clinical and radiological deterioration. Magnetic Resonance angiography showed severe narrowing of bilateral anterior, middle, and posterior cerebral arteries (PCA suggestive of reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS. Patient was treated with IV nimodipine and she recovered over a period of 2 weeks. Repeat MR-angiography done on day-30 was normal. The diagnosis of RCVS in patients with SLE is of practical importance, because treatment and prognosis for SLE-associated cerebral vasculitis differ strongly from the treatment of RCVS. Empirical high-dose glucocorticoid therapy should be avoided in patients with typical features of RCVS.

  14. Sildenafil acutely reverses the hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction response of the newborn pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessler, Rogerio; Wu, Shengping; Fiori, Renato; Macgowan, Christopher K; Belik, Jaques

    2008-09-01

    Sildenafil is a pulmonary vasodilator shown to be effective in neonates, but conflicting data exist regarding its effect on arterial oxygenation. To address this issue, we tested the sildenafil effect on the piglet's hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) response. A segmental lung atelectasis was created by obstructing the corresponding bronchus. Total pulmonary and specific flows to the atelectatic and contra-lateral lobes were measured by magnetic resonance (MR) before and 30-min post sildenafil (0.2 and 1 mg/kg i.v.) or saline administration. Flow was reduced (p Sildenafil at both doses significantly (p sildenafil induced a decrease in Pao2 from 285 +/- 37 to 161 +/- 22 mm Hg (p sildenafil i.v. administration in a dose-dependent manner. In the presence of lung parenchymal disease, the use of i.v. sildenafil as a pulmonary vasodilator may worsen arterial oxygenation by reversing the HPV response in nonventilated lung units.

  15. Cutaneous vasoconstriction contributes to hyperthermia induced by 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (ecstasy) in conscious rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, N P; Blessing, W W

    2001-11-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; "Ecstasy") increases body temperature. This process could be associated with increased cutaneous blood flow, as normally occurs with exercise-induced hyperthermia. Alternatively, an MDMA-induced fall in cutaneous blood flow could contribute to the hyperthermia by diminishing normal heat transfer from the body to the environment. We investigated these possibilities by administering MDMA (1.5-6 mg/kg, i.v.) to conscious freely moving rabbits, determining effects on body temperature, cutaneous blood flow (measured by a Doppler ultrasonic probe that was chronically implanted around the ear pinna artery), and other cardiovascular parameters. MDMA caused a dose-dependent increase in body temperature (from 38.3 +/- 0.3 to 41.2 +/- 0.4 degrees C after 6 mg/kg; p mechanism whereby MDMA causes hyperthermia. Reversal of cutaneous vasoconstriction by appropriate pharmacological means could be of therapeutic benefit in humans suffering from life-threatening hyperthermia induced by MDMA.

  16. Contribution of renal purinergic receptors to renal vasoconstriction in angiotensin II-induced hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Martha; Bautista, Rocio; Tapia, Edilia; Soto, Virgilia; Santamaría, José; Osorio, Horacio; Pacheco, Ursino; Sánchez-Lozada, L Gabriela; Kobori, Hiroyuki; Navar, L Gabriel

    2011-06-01

    To investigate the participation of purinergic P2 receptors in the regulation of renal function in ANG II-dependent hypertension, renal and glomerular hemodynamics were evaluated in chronic ANG II-infused (14 days) and Sham rats during acute blockade of P2 receptors with PPADS. In addition, P2X1 and P2Y1 protein and mRNA expression were compared in ANG II-infused and Sham rats. Chronic ANG II-infused rats exhibited increased afferent and efferent arteriolar resistances and reductions in glomerular blood flow, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), single-nephron GFR (SNGFR), and glomerular ultrafiltration coefficient. PPADS restored afferent and efferent resistances as well as glomerular blood flow and SNGFR, but did not ameliorate the elevated arterial blood pressure. In Sham rats, PPADS increased afferent and efferent arteriolar resistances and reduced GFR and SNGFR. Since purinergic blockade may influence nitric oxide (NO) release, we evaluated the role of NO in the response to PPADS. Acute blockade with N(ω)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) reversed the vasodilatory effects of PPADS and reduced urinary nitrate excretion (NO(2)(-)/NO(3)(-)) in ANG II-infused rats, indicating a NO-mediated vasodilation during PPADS treatment. In Sham rats, PPADS induced renal vasoconstriction which was not modified by l-NAME, suggesting blockade of a P2X receptor subtype linked to the NO pathway; the response was similar to that obtained with l-NAME alone. P2X1 receptor expression in the renal cortex was increased by chronic ANG II infusion, but there were no changes in P2Y1 receptor abundance. These findings indicate that there is an enhanced P2 receptor-mediated vasoconstriction of afferent and efferent arterioles in chronic ANG II-infused rats, which contributes to the increased renal vascular resistance observed in ANG II-dependent hypertension.

  17. The role of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase in the hypoxic vasoconstriction in isolated rat basilar artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Haitao; Liang, Peng; Qiu, Suhua; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Yongli; Lv, Ping

    2016-06-01

    Hypoxia-induced cerebrovascular dysfunction is a key factor in the occurrence and the development of cerebral ischemia. Na(+), K(+)-ATPase affects the regulation of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration and plays an important role in vascular smooth muscle function. However, the potential role of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase in hypoxia-induced cerebrovascular dysfunction is unknown. In this study, we found that the KCl-induced contraction under hypoxia in rat endothelium-intact basilar arteries is similar to that of denuded arteries, suggesting that hypoxia may cause smooth muscle cell (SMC)-dependent vasoconstriction in the basilar artery. The Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity of the isolated basilar artery with or without endothelium significantly reduced with prolonged hypoxia. Blocking the Na(+)-Ca(2+) exchanger with Ni(2+) (10(-3)M) or the L-type Ca(2+) channel with nimodipine (10(-8)M) dramatically attenuated KCl-induced contraction under hypoxia. Furthermore, prolonged hypoxia significantly reduced Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity and increased [Ca(2+)]i in cultured rat basilar artery SMCs. Hypoxia reduced the protein and mRNA expression of the α2 isoform of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase in SMCs in vitro. We used a low concentration of the Na(+), K(+)-ATPase inhibitor ouabain, which possesses a high affinity for the α2 isoform. The contractile response in the rat basilar artery under hypoxia was partly inhibited by ouabain pretreatment. The decreased Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity in isolated basilar artery and the increased [Ca(2+)]i in SMCs induced by hypoxia were partly inhibited by pretreatment with a low concentration of ouabain. These results suggest that hypoxia may educe Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity in SMCs through the α2 isoform contributing to vasoconstriction in the rat basilar artery.

  18. Quercetin protects against diabetes-induced exaggerated vasoconstriction in rats: effect on low grade inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona F Mahmoud

    Full Text Available Vascular complications are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes. Quercetin is an important flavonoid with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. Here, the effect of quercetin on diabetes-induced exaggerated vasoconstriction in insulin deficient and insulin resistant rat models was investigated. Insulin deficiency was induced by streptozotocin while, insulin resistance by fructose. Rats were left 8 weeks or 12 weeks after STZ or fructose administration respectively. Quercetin was daily administered in the last 6 weeks. Then, tail blood pressure (BP was recorded in conscious animals; concentration-response curves for phenylephrine (PE and KCl were studied in thoracic aorta rings. Non-fasting blood glucose level, serum insulin level, insulin resistance index, serum tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and serum C-reactive protein (CRP were determined. Nuclear transcription factor-κB (NF-κB was assessed by immunofluorescence technique. Histopathological examination was also performed. The results showed that quercetin protected against diabetes-induced exaggerated vasoconstriction and reduced the elevated blood pressure. In addition, quercetin inhibited diabetes associated adventitial leukocyte infiltration, endothelial pyknosis and increased collagen deposition. These effects were accompanied with reduction in serum level of both TNF-α and CRP and inhibition of aortic NF-κB by quercetin in both models of diabetes. On the other hand, quercetin did not affect glucose level in any of the used diabetic models. This suggests that the protective effect of quercetin is mediated by its anti-inflammatory effect rather than its metabolic effects. In summary, quercetin is potential candidate to prevent diabetic vascular complications in both insulin deficiency and resistance via its inhibitory effect on inflammatory pathways especially NF-κB signaling.

  19. CODING LOGICAL MECHANISM AND STEREOTYPING IN GENDER CYBER HUMORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truly Almendo Pasaribu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Gender-related humors have their own way of being funny; and this research aims to find out how and why they are funny. For this purpose, both researchers have collected 50 gender cyber humors and analyzed them, first, to decode how their logical mechanism relates to specific linguistic features, and secondly, to uncover how gender stereotyping contributes to the comical effects. The twisting of logic and linguistic ambiguity is analyzed formally using Attardos (2001 General Theory of Verbal Humor (GTVH and supported by gender studies. The findings reveal that the logical mechanism consists of elements of incongruities, and gender stereotyping presents negative stereotypical images. The analysis further shows that some gender stereotypical images ridicule traditional roles of man and woman while others make fun of non-traditional representations. This shift from women only to both men and women as targets of gender humors has been an impact of effective feminist movements.

  20. Universalidad y variabilidad cultural de la risa y el humor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Jáuregui

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available La risa es un fenómeno aparentemente universal, pero el humor que la provoca muestra una variabilidad casi infinita. Este artículo trata de distinguir entre los aspectos universales de la risa y los que son culturalmente variables. Define la risa como una emoción básica del ser humano, provocada por un estímulo cognitivo que depende de definiciones sociales de la situación, lo cual explica al menos en parte su aparente heterogeneidad. Otros aspectos que también pueden variar son las normas y costumbres relativas a la expresión de la risa y del humor, los géneros humorísticos, las instituciones del humor y las definiciones culturales de la risa misma.

  1. La capacidad retorica del humor grafico: la columna grafica

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lemos-Alonso, Haizea

    2012-01-01

    .... En este estudio se plantea un exhaustivo analisis retorico del humor grafico que permita no solo definir su capacidad argumentativa, sino ubicar dicho producto dentro de los estudios tradicionales...

  2. Regional distribution of phospholipids in porcine vitreous humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnepf, Abigail; Yappert, Marta Cecilia; Borchman, Douglas

    2017-07-01

    This project explores the regional phospholipid distribution in porcine vitreous humor, retina, and lens. Matrix-assisted laser desorption mass spectrometry has been used previously to image lipids, proteins, and other metabolites in retinas and lenses. However, the regional composition of phospholipids in vitreous humors is not known. To address this issue, we have applied this mass spectral method to explore the regional phospholipid distribution in porcine vitreous humor both ex-situ and in-vitro. To establish the possible source(s) of phospholipids in the vitreous humor, compositional studies of the lens and retina were also pursued. Due to the overall low levels of phospholipids in vitreous humor, it was necessary to optimize the experimental approaches for ex-situ and in-vitro studies. The sensitivity observed in the spectra of methanol extracts from the lens and retina was higher than that for methanol:chloroform extracts, but the compositional trends were the same. A fourfold improvement in sensitivity was observed in the analysis of vitreous humor extracts obtained with the Bligh and Dyer protocol relative to the other two extraction methods. For ex-situ studies, the 'stamp method' with para-nitroaniline as the matrix was chosen. Throughout the vitreous humor, phosphatidylcholines were the most abundant phospholipids. In-vitro results showed higher relative levels of phospholipids compared to the 'stamp' method. However, more details in the regional phospholipid distribution were provided by the ex-situ approach. Both in-vitro and ex-situ results indicated higher levels of phospholipids in the posterior vitreous region, followed by the anterior and central regions. The posterior region contained more unsaturated species whereas more saturated phospholipids were detected in the anterior region. The observed trends suggest that the phospholipids detected in the posterior vitreous humor migrate from the retina and associated vasculature while those present in

  3. How fun are your meetings? How and when humor patterns emerge and impact team performance.

    OpenAIRE

    Lehmann-Willenbrock, N.K.; Allen, J A

    2014-01-01

    Research on humor in organizations has rarely considered the social context in which humor occurs. One such social setting that most of us experience on a daily basis concerns the team context. Building on recent theorizing about the humor–performance link in teams, this study seeks to increase our understanding of the function and effects of humor in team interaction settings. We examined behavioral patterns of humor and laughter in real teams by videotaping and coding humor and laughter dur...

  4. Zinc homeostasis and neurodegenerative disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadeta eSzewczyk

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Zinc is an essential trace element, whose importance to the function of the central nervous system (CNS is increasingly being appreciated. Alterations in zinc dyshomeostasis has been suggested as a key factor in the development of several neuropsychiatric disorders. In the CNS, zinc occurs in two forms: the first being tightly bound to proteins and, secondly, the free, cytoplasmic or extracellular form found in presynaptic vesicles. Under normal conditions, zinc released from the synaptic vesicles modulates both ionotropic and metabotropic post-synaptic receptors. While under clinical conditions such as traumatic brain injury, stroke or epilepsy, the excess influx of zinc into neurons has been found to result in neurotoxicity and damage to postsynaptic neurons. On the other hand, a growing body of evidence suggests that a deficiency, rather than an excess, of zinc leads to an increased risk for the development of neurological disorders. Indeed, zinc deficiency has been shown to affect neurogenesis and increase neuronal apoptosis, which can lead to learning and memory deficits. Altered zinc homeostasis is also suggested as a risk factor for depression, Alzheimer’s disease, aging and other neurodegenerative disorders. Under normal CNS physiology, homeostatic controls are put in place to avoid the accumulation of excess zinc or its deficiency. This cellular zinc homeostasis results from the actions of a coordinated regulation effected by different proteins involved in the uptake, excretion and intracellular storage/trafficking of zinc. These proteins include membranous transporters (ZnT and Zip and metallothioneins (MT which control intracellular zinc levels. Interestingly, alterations in ZnT and MT have been recently reported in both aging and Alzheimer’s disease. This paper provides an overview of both clinical and experimental evidence that implicates a dysfunction in zinc homeostasis in the pathophysiology of depression, Alzheimer

  5. Gastric cancer progression associated with local humoral immune responses

    OpenAIRE

    Yolanda, López-Vidal; Sergio, Ponce-de-León; Hugo, Esquivel-Solís; Isabel, Amieva-Fernández Rosa; Rafael, Barreto-Zúñiga; Aldo, Torre-Delgadillo; Gonzalo, Castillo-Rojas

    2015-01-01

    Background Although the association between H. pylori and gastric cancer has been well described, the alterations studies are scarce in the humoral immune response in specific anatomical areas of stomach and during the stages of gastric cancer. The aim in this study was to determine the influence of humoral immune responses against H. pylori infection on gastric carcinoma. Methods We selected 16 gastric cancer cases and approximately one matched control per case at the National Institute of M...

  6. The Experience of Failed Humor: Implications for Interpersonal Affect Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Michele; Emich, Kyle J

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate failed interpersonal affect regulation through the lens of humor. We investigated individual differences that influenced people's affective and cognitive responses to failed humor and their willingness to persist in the interpersonal regulation of positive affect after a failed attempt. Using well-established autobiographical narrative methods and surveys, we collected data at two time points. All participants (n = 127) received identical surveys at time 1. At time 2, they were randomly assigned to complete a narrative about either successful or failed humor as well as a second survey. Using moderated regression analyses and SEM, we found significant differences between our failed and successful humor conditions. Specifically, individual differences, including gender, affective perspective taking, and humor self-efficacy, were associated with negative reactions to failed humor and the willingness of individuals to persist in the interpersonal regulation of positive affect. Moreover, affective perspective taking moderated the effect of gender in both the failed and successful humor conditions. Our results suggest that failed humor is no laughing matter. Understanding individuals' willingness to continue in attempts to regulate the affect of others contributes to the comprehension of an understudied phenomenon that has implications for interpersonal behavior in organizations such as helping, group decision making, and intragroup conflict. Studies of interpersonal affect regulation often focus on people's ability to successfully regulate others' emotions. In contrast, this is the first quantitative study to explore factors that influence individual's willingness to persist in interpersonal affect regulation after failure, and to investigate how individual differences influence the personal outcomes associated with failed attempts.

  7. Conversational Agents and the Construction of Humorous Acts

    OpenAIRE

    Nijholt, Anton; Nishida, Toyoaki

    2007-01-01

    In this chapter we discuss the generation of humorous acts by embodied agents. It is observed that in future interfaces that are meant to allow natural interaction, embodied agents can play useful roles. Humor plays an important role in human-human interaction and therefore it is useful to investigate how it should become part of the internal modeling of an embodied agent, along with intelligence and emotion modeling. Employment of embodied agents will also give rise to expectations concernin...

  8. Embodied Agents: A New Impetus to Humor Research

    OpenAIRE

    Stock, O.; Strapparava, C.; Nijholt, A.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we survey the role of humor in human-to-human interaction with the aim to see whether it is useful for embodied conversational agents to integrate humor capabilities in their internal model of intelligence, emotions and interaction (verbal and nonverbal) capabilities. For that reason we shortly survey the current state of the art of research in embodied conversational agents, affective computing and verbal and nonverbal interaction. We adhere to the ‘Computers Are Social Actors’...

  9. Humorous Names in the Light of Incongruity Theory

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The article addresses the humorous function of proper names in the light of incongruity theory. It aims at proving that, although names are often defined as pragmatically “transparent,” they may possess some humorous value due to semantic and pragmatic shifts resulting from the disturbance of ordinary patterns of proper names identification and interpretation. After a brief introduction, the author discusses different variants of incongruity theory as resented in the works by Victor Raskin an...

  10. Dahl SS rats demonstrate enhanced aortic perivascular adipose tissue-mediated buffering of vasoconstriction through activation of NOS in the endothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spradley, Frank T; Ho, Dao H; Pollock, Jennifer S

    2016-02-01

    Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) mediates buffering of vasoconstriction through activation of endothelium-derived factors. We hypothesized that the PVAT of Dahl salt-sensitive (Dahl SS) rats has reduced ability to buffer vasoconstriction. Vascular reactivity experiments were performed on aortic rings with PVAT intact (+PVAT) or removed (-PVAT), and endothelium intact (+ENDO) or removed (-ENDO) from Dahl SS rats and control SS.13(BN) rats (Dahl SS rats that have had chromosome 13 completely replaced with that of the Brown Norway rat, rendering this strain insensitive to high-salt or high-fat diet-induced hypertension). Endothelial dysfunction, assessed by ACh-mediated vasorelaxation, was confirmed in aortic rings of Dahl SS rats. The +PVAT+ENDO aortic rings had indistinguishable phenylephrine-induced vasoconstriction between genotypes. In both strains, removal of PVAT significantly enhanced vasoconstriction. Dahl SS rat -PVAT+ENDO aortic rings displayed exaggerated vasoconstriction to phenylephrine vs. SS.13(BN) rats, indicating that PVAT-mediated buffering of vasoconstriction was greater in Dahl SS rats. Removal of both the ENDO and PVAT restored vasoconstriction in both strains. The nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), produced a similar effect as that seen with -ENDO. These data indicate that the function of the PVAT to activate endothelium-derived NOS is enhanced in Dahl SS compared with SS.13(BN) rats and, most likely, occurs through a pathway that is distinct from ACh-mediated activation of NOS. PVAT weight and total PVAT leptin levels were greater in Dahl SS rats. Leptin induced a significantly decreased vasoconstriction in -PVAT+ENDO aortic rings from Dahl SS rats, but not SS.13(BN) rats. In contrast to our initial hypothesis, PVAT in Dahl SS rats buffers vasoconstriction by activating endothelial NOS via mechanisms that may include the involvement of leptin. Thus, the PVAT serves a vasoprotective role in

  11. Longitudinal Associations Between Humor Styles and Psychosocial Adjustment in Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Louise Fox

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the concurrent and prospective associations between psychosocial adjustment and four humor styles, two of which are adaptive (affiliative, self-enhancing and two maladaptive (aggressive, self-defeating. Participants were 1,234 adolescents (52% female aged 11-13 years, drawn from six secondary schools in England. Self-reports of psychosocial adjustment (loneliness, depressive symptomatology, and self-esteem and humor styles were collected at two time points (fall and summer. In cross-lagged panel analyses, self-defeating humor was associated with an increase in both depressive symptoms and loneliness, and with a decrease in self-esteem. In addition, depressive symptoms predicted an increase in the use of self-defeating humor over time, indicating that these may represent a problematic spiral of thoughts and behaviors. Self-esteem was associated with an increase in the use of affiliative humor over the school year but not vice-versa. These results inform our understanding of the ways in which humor is associated with psychosocial adjustment in adolescence.

  12. Humor, laughter, learning, and health! A brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Brandon M; Lujan, Heidi L; Thipparthi, Raghavendar R; DiCarlo, Stephen E

    2017-09-01

    Human emotions, such as anxiety, depression, fear, joy, and laughter, profoundly affect psychological and physiological processes. These emotions form a set of basic, evolved functions that are shared by all humans. Laughter is part of a universal language of basic emotions that all humans recognize. Health care providers and educators may utilize the power of laughter to improve health and enhance teaching and learning. This is an important consideration because teaching is not just about content: it is also about forming relationships and strengthening human connections. In this context, when used effectively, humor is documented to build relationships and enhance performance. Specifically, humor improves student performance by attracting and sustaining attention, reducing anxiety, enhancing participation, and increasing motivation. Moreover, humor stimulates multiple physiological systems that decrease levels of stress hormones, such as cortisol and epinephrine, and increase the activation of the mesolimbic dopaminergic reward system. To achieve these benefits, it is important to use humor that is relevant to the course content and not disparaging toward others. Self-effacing humor illustrates to students that the teacher is comfortable making mistakes and sharing these experiences with the classroom. In this brief review, we discuss the history and relationship between humor, laughing, learning, and health with an emphasis on the powerful, universal language of laughter. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Hipercalcemia humoral secundaria a carcinoma mixto de endometrio Humoral hypercalcemia in mixed endometrial carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    I. Pinal-Fernández

    2010-01-01

    La hipercalcemia secundaria a enfermedad neoplásica es una entidad frecuente causada en la mayor parte de los casos por secreción ectópica de PTHrp. A pesar de esto hay ciertos tumores, como los carcinomas uterinos, en donde este tipo de manifestación paraneoplásica está muy poco descrita. Presentamos un caso de hipercalcemia humoral en un carcinoma mixto de endometrio.Hypercalcemia secondary to neoplastic disease is a frequent entity caused in the majority of cases by ectopic secretions of P...

  14. The humor after of the humor: concepts around Pablo Holberg´s Eden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Turnes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of 21st century comics production in Argentina have experienced the emergence of new methods of publication, promotion and circulation consisting of a series of devices whose complex relationship has redefined the authorial figureas well as a new reading audience. The passage from the Internet and digital formats to the book has established itself as post-industrial strategy in the context of the reconstitution of a diverse comics field, where the national tradition of humor serves as example of the mentioned changes

  15. Humor styles and personality: A meta-analysis of the relation between humor styles and the Big Five personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendiburo-Seguel, Andrés; Páez, Darío; Martínez-Sánchez, Francisco

    2015-06-01

    This research summarizes the knowledge generated in social psychology and positive psychology about the relationship between humor styles, personality and wellbeing. Specifically, a meta-analysis was performed with the results of 15 studies on humor styles measured by the Humor Styles Questionnaire (Martin, Puhlik-Doris, Larsen, Gray & Weir, 2003) in correlation with the personality traits measured by the Big Five Personality model (measured with different scales). Following the steps presented by Rosenthal (1991) for meta-analysis in the case of correlational research, we calculated the total mean r as an indicator of effect size. Results show that affiliative humor has a strong and homogeneous relation to neuroticism and extraversion. The homogeneity and heterogeneity found between variables and possible explanations are discussed in the conclusion.

  16. Humorous "Era" stories from the Arilje region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Desanka P.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses humorous stories collected in the village of Brekovo near Arilje; the stories were created in the first half of the 20th century and noted down by Momčilo Jovanović, a villager from Brekovo. Later on, in the 1980's, the stories were passed down to the author of this paper. These narrations are mostly short stories and anecdotes; in a very realistic fashion, the stories depict life and culture of the Dinaric race from old Vlah - Zlatibor cultural area, namely, the type of person also known as "Era", well-known for its wittiness, smartness and wisdom. Based on the analysis of seven Era-stories, the author identified the social and cultural values highlighted in the stories (such as attitudes toward authorities intergenerational relationship, status of women, power relations between townsmen and peasants, propensity toward justice and truth. In summary, the stories document the mutual influence between traditional culture and the Era personality in this particular rural region; therefore, they could contribute to studies on character traits of the inhabitants in a given area of western Serbia.

  17. Convective transport resistance in the vitreous humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penkova, Anita; Sadhal, Satwindar; Ratanakijsuntorn, Komsan; Moats, Rex; Tang, Yang; Hughes, Patrick; Robinson, Michael; Lee, Susan

    2012-11-01

    It has been established by MRI visualization experiments that the convection of nanoparticles and large molecules with high rate of water flow in the vitreous humor will experience resistance, depending on the respective permeabilities of the injected solute. A set of experiments conducted with Gd-DTPA (Magnevist, Bayer AG, Leverkusen, Germany) and 30 nm gadolinium-based particles (Gado CELLTrackTM, Biopal, Worcester, MA) as MRI contrast agents showed that the degree of convective transport in this Darcy-type porous medium varies between the two solutes. These experiments consisted of injecting a mixture of the two (a 30 μl solution of 2% Magnevist and 1% nanoparticles) at the middle of the vitreous of an ex vivo whole bovine eye and subjecting the vitreous to water flow rate of 100 μl/min. The water (0.9% saline solution) was injected at the top of the eye, and was allowed to drain through small slits cut at the bottom of the eyeball. After 50 minutes of pumping, MRI images showed that the water flow carried the Gd-DTPA farther than the nanoparticles, even though the two solutes, being mixed, were subjected to the same convective flow conditions. We find that the convected solute lags the water flow, depending on the solute permeability. The usual convection term needs to be adjusted to allow for the filtration effect on the larger particles in the form (1- σ) u . ∇ c with important implications for the modeling of such systems.

  18. Whole vitreous humor dissection for vitreodynamic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murali, Karthik; Kashani, Amir H; Humayun, Mark S

    2015-05-24

    The authors propose an effective technique to isolate whole, intact vitreous core and cortex from post mortem enucleated porcine eyes. While previous studies have shown the results of such dissections, the detailed steps have not been described, precluding researchers outside the field from replicating their methods. Other studies harvest vitreous either through aspiration, which does not maintain the vitreous structure anatomy, or through partial dissection, which only isolates the vitreous core. The proposed method isolates the whole vitreous body, with the vitreous core and cortex intact, while maintaining vitreous anatomy and structural integrity. In this method, a full thickness scleral flap in an enucleated porcine eye is first created and through this, the choroid tissue can be separated from the sclera. The scleral flap is then expanded and the choroid is completely separated from the sclera. Finally the choroid-retina tissue is peeled off the vitreous to leave an isolated intact vitreous body. The proposed vitreous dissection technique can be used to study physical properties of the vitreous humor. In particular, this method has significance for experimental studies involving drug delivery, vitreo-retinal oxygen transport, and intraocular convection.

  19. Intrathecal Humoral Immunity to Encephalitic RNA Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia C. Bergmann

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The nervous system is the target for acute encephalitic viral infections, as well as a reservoir for persisting viruses. Intrathecal antibody (Ab synthesis is well documented in humans afflicted by infections associated with neurological complications, as well as the demyelinating disease, multiple sclerosis. This review focuses on the origin, recruitment, maintenance, and biological relevance of Ab-secreting cells (ASC found in the central nervous system (CNS following experimental neurotropic RNA virus infections. We will summarize evidence for a highly dynamic, evolving humoral response characterized by temporal alterations in B cell subsets, proliferation, and differentiation. Overall local Ab plays a beneficial role via complement-independent control of virus replication, although cross or self-reactive Ab to CNS antigens may contribute to immune-mediated pathogenesis during some infections. Importantly, protective Ab exert anti-viral activity not only by direct neutralization, but also by binding to cell surface-expressed viral glycoproteins. Ab engagement of viral glycoproteins blocks budding and mediates intracellular signaling leading to restored homeostatic and innate functions. The sustained Ab production by local ASC, as well as chemokines and cytokines associated with ASC recruitment and retention, are highlighted as critical components of immune control.

  20. Humoral pattern recognition and the complement system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degn, S E; Thiel, S

    2013-08-01

    In the context of immunity, pattern recognition is the art of discriminating friend from foe and innocuous from noxious. The basis of discrimination is the existence of evolutionarily conserved patterns on microorganisms, which are intrinsic to these microorganisms and necessary for their function and existence. Such immutable or slowly evolving patterns are ideal handles for recognition and have been targeted by early cellular immune defence mechanisms such as Toll-like receptors, NOD-like receptors, RIG-I-like receptors, C-type lectin receptors and by humoral defence mechanisms such as the complement system. Complement is a proteolytic cascade system comprising around 35 different soluble and membrane-bound proteins. It constitutes a central part of the innate immune system, mediating several major innate effector functions and modulating adaptive immune responses. The complement cascade proceeds via controlled, limited proteolysis and conformational changes of constituent proteins through three activation pathways: the classical pathway, the alternative pathway and the lectin pathway, which converge in common effector functions. Here, we review the nature of the pattern recognition molecules involved in complement activation, as well as their close relatives with no or unknown capacity for activating complement. We proceed to examine the composition of the pattern recognition complexes involved in complement activation, focusing on those of the lectin pathway, and arrive at a new model for their mechanism of operation, supported by recently emerging evidence.

  1. Study on the CE/EC Humorous Utterances Translation under the Skopos Theory%Study on the CE/EC Humorous Utterances Translation under the Skopos Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛昆

    2012-01-01

    This thesis takes the Skopos Theory which is the core of German functionalism as the breakthrough point. According to the general classification of humorous utterance, this thesis divides it into situational humor and language humor. This thesis aims to analyze the application of the Skopos Theory in the two classifications of humorous utterances translation from the two perspectives which are conformity and conflict between the source-te~tfunction and the target-text function.

  2. A physiologist's view of homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modell, Harold; Cliff, William; Michael, Joel; McFarland, Jenny; Wenderoth, Mary Pat; Wright, Ann

    2015-12-01

    Homeostasis is a core concept necessary for understanding the many regulatory mechanisms in physiology. Claude Bernard originally proposed the concept of the constancy of the "milieu interieur," but his discussion was rather abstract. Walter Cannon introduced the term "homeostasis" and expanded Bernard's notion of "constancy" of the internal environment in an explicit and concrete way. In the 1960s, homeostatic regulatory mechanisms in physiology began to be described as discrete processes following the application of engineering control system analysis to physiological systems. Unfortunately, many undergraduate texts continue to highlight abstract aspects of the concept rather than emphasizing a general model that can be specifically and comprehensively applied to all homeostatic mechanisms. As a result, students and instructors alike often fail to develop a clear, concise model with which to think about such systems. In this article, we present a standard model for homeostatic mechanisms to be used at the undergraduate level. We discuss common sources of confusion ("sticky points") that arise from inconsistencies in vocabulary and illustrations found in popular undergraduate texts. Finally, we propose a simplified model and vocabulary set for helping undergraduate students build effective mental models of homeostatic regulation in physiological systems.

  3. The German Version of the Humor Styles Questionnaire: Psychometric Properties and Overlap With Other Styles of Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruch, Willibald; Heintz, Sonja

    2016-08-01

    The Humor Styles Questionnaire (HSQ; Martin et al., 2003) is one of the most frequently used questionnaires in humor research and has been adapted to several languages. The HSQ measures four humor styles (affiliative, self-enhancing, aggressive, and self-defeating), which should be adaptive or potentially maladaptive to psychosocial well-being. The present study analyzes the internal consistency, factorial validity, and factorial invariance of the HSQ on the basis of several German-speaking samples combined (total N = 1,101). Separate analyses were conducted for gender (male/female), age groups (16-24, 25-35, >36 years old), and countries (Germany/Switzerland). Internal consistencies were good for the overall sample and the demographic subgroups (.80-.89), with lower values obtained for the aggressive scale (.66-.73). Principal components and confirmatory factor analyses mostly supported the four-factor structure of the HSQ. Weak factorial invariance was found across gender and age groups, while strong factorial invariance was supported across countries. Two subsamples also provided self-ratings on ten styles of humorous conduct (n = 344) and of eight comic styles (n = 285). The four HSQ scales showed small to large correlations to the styles of humorous conduct (-.54 to .65) and small to medium correlations to the comic styles (-.27 to .42). The HSQ shared on average 27.5-35.0% of the variance with the styles of humorous conduct and 13.0-15.0% of the variance with the comic styles. Thus-despite similar labels-these styles of humorous conduct and comic styles differed from the HSQ humor styles.

  4. Humor as a Communication Strategy in Provider-Patient Communication in a Chronic Care Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöpf, Andrea C; Martin, Gillian S; Keating, Mary A

    2017-02-01

    Humor is a potential communication strategy to accomplish various and potentially conflicting consultation goals. We investigated humor use and its reception in diabetes consultations by analyzing how and why humor emerges and its impact on the interaction. We did this by using an interactional sociolinguistics approach. We recorded 50 consultations in an Irish diabetes setting. Analysis of the humor events drew on framework analysis and on concepts from Conversation Analysis and pragmatics. The study also comprised interviews using tape-assisted recall. We identified 10 humor functions and two umbrella functions. A key finding is that most humor is relationship-protecting humor initiated by patients, that is, they voice serious messages and deal with emotional issues through humor. Our findings imply that patients' and providers' awareness of indirect communication strategies needs to be increased. We also recommend that researchers employ varied methods to adequately capture the interactive nature of humor.

  5. The Use of Humor in Forensic Mental Health Staff-Patient Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, Lise; Alkier Gildberg, Frederik; Bradley, S. K.;

    2014-01-01

    Humor utilized in the practice of forensic mental health nursing might seem somehow inappropriate, given the serious circumstances surrounding most forensic mental health patients. However, some recent research has pointed to the use of humor as an important component in staff interactions...... with forensic mental health patients. This study reviews the existing international forensic mental health research literature on humor to investigate (a) what characterizes forensic mental health staff-patient use of humor and (b) what significance humor holds within the forensic mental health setting...... identified: (a) "humor as staff skill," showing that staff found humor to be important as an interpersonal ability; (b) "humor as a relational tool" with the purpose of establishing and maintaining staff-patient interactions; and (c) "the impact of humor on patients," describing impacts on conflicts...

  6. Vitreous humor rheology after Nd:YAG laser photo disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelkawi, Salwa A; Abdel-Salam, Ahmed M; Ghoniem, Dina F; Ghaly, Sally K

    2014-03-01

    This work aimed to consider the hazardous side effect of eye floaters treatment with Q-switched Nd:YAG laser on the protein and viscoelastic properties of the vitreous humor, and evaluate the protective role of vitamin C against laser photo disruption. Five groups of New Zealand rabbits were divided as follows: control group for (n = 3) without any treatment, the second group (n = 9) treated with Q-switched Nd:YAG laser energy of 5 mJ × 100 pulse delivered to the anterior, middle, and posterior vitreous, respectively (n = 3 for each). The third group (n = 9) received a daily dose of 25 mg/kg body weight vitamin C for 2 weeks, and then treated with laser as the previous group. The fourth group (n = 9) treated with 10 mJ 9 50 pulse delivered to the anterior, middle, and posterior vitreous, respectively (n = 3 rabbits each). The fifth group (n = 9) received a daily dose of 25 mg/kg body weight vitamin C for 2 weeks, and then treated with laser as the previous group. After 2 weeks of laser treatment, the protein content, refractive index (RI), and the rheological properties of vitreous humor, such as consistency, shear stress, and viscosity, were determined. The results showed that, the anterior vitreous group exposed to of 5 mJ × 100 pulse and/or supplemented with vitamin C, showed no obvious change. Furthermore, all other treated groups especially for mid-vitreous and posterior vitreous humor showed increase in the protein content, RI and the viscosity of vitreous humor. The flow index remained below unity indicating the non-Newtonian behavior of the vitreous humor. Application of Q-switched Nd:YAG laser should be restricted to the anterior vitreous humor to prevent the deleterious effect of laser on the gel state of the vitreous humor.

  7. Cannabis e humor Cannabis and mood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Faria Sanches

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as relações entre o uso agudo e crônico de cannabis e alterações do humor. MÉTODO: Os artigos foram selecionados por meio de busca eletrônica no indexador PubMed. Capítulos de livros e as listas de referências dos artigos selecionados também foram revisados. RESULTADOS: Observam-se elevados índices de comorbidade entre abuso/dependência de cannabis e transtornos afetivos em estudos transversais e em amostras clínicas. Estudos longitudinais indicam que, em longo prazo, o uso mais intenso de cannabis está relacionado com um risco maior de desenvolvimento de doença bipolar e, talvez, depressão maior em indivíduos inicialmente sem quadros afetivos; porém, os mesmos não encontraram maior risco de uso de cannabis entre aqueles com mania ou depressão sem esta comorbidade. Outra importante observação é que o uso de substâncias psicoativas em bipolares pode estar associado a uma série de características negativas, como dificuldade na recuperação dos sintomas afetivos, maior número de internações, piora na adesão ao tratamento, risco aumentado de suicídio, agressividade e a uma pobre resposta ao lítio. Tratamentos psicossociais e farmacológicos são indicados para o manejo da comorbidade entre cannabis e transtornos afetivos. CONCLUSÃO: As relações entre o uso de cannabis e alterações do humor são observadas tanto epidemiologicamente quanto nos contextos clínicos.OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the relationship between acute and chronic use of cannabis and mood changes. METHOD: Articles were selected by electronic search in PubMed. Chapters in books and reference lists of selected articles were also reviewed. As the research did not involve humans, there was no evaluation by a Research Ethics Committee. RESULTS: High rates of comorbidity between use/abuse/dependence of cannabis and affective disorders in longitudinal studies and in clinical samples were observed. Longitudinal studies indicate that, in long

  8. Copper Homeostasis in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaoshan; Darwin, K. Heran

    2015-01-01

    Copper (Cu) is a trace element essential for the growth and development of almost all organisms, including bacteria. However, Cu overload in most systems is toxic. Studies show Cu accumulates in macrophage phagosomes infected with bacteria, suggesting Cu provides an innate immune mechanism to combat invading pathogens. To counteract the host-supplied Cu, increasing evidence suggests that bacteria have evolved Cu resistance mechanisms to facilitate their pathogenesis. In particular, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of tuberculosis, has evolved multiple pathways to respond to Cu. Here, we summarize what is currently known about Cu homeostasis in Mtb and discuss potential sources of Cu encountered by this and other pathogens in a mammalian host. PMID:25614981

  9. Oscillatory dynamics of vasoconstriction and vasodilation identified by time-localized phase coherence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheppard, L W; McClintock, P V E; Stefanovska, A [Department of Physics, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YB (United Kingdom); Vuksanovic, V, E-mail: aneta@lancaster.ac.uk [Institute of Biophysics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia)

    2011-06-21

    We apply wavelet-based time-localized phase coherence to investigate the relationship between blood flow and skin temperature, and between blood flow and instantaneous heart rate (IHR), during vasoconstriction and vasodilation provoked by local cooling or heating of the skin. A temperature-controlled metal plate ({approx}10 cm{sup 2}) placed on the volar side of the left arm was used to provide the heating and cooling. Beneath the plate, the blood flow was measured by laser Doppler flowmetry and the adjacent skin temperature by a thermistor. Two 1 h datasets were collected from each of the ten subjects. In each case a 30 min basal recording was followed by a step change in plate temperature, to either 24 deg. C or 42 deg. C. The IHR was derived from simultaneously recorded ECG. We confirm the changes in the energy and frequency of blood flow oscillations during cooling and heating reported earlier. That is, during cooling, there was a significant decrease in the average frequency of myogenic blood flow oscillations (p < 0.05) and the myogenic spectral peak became more prominent. During heating, there was a significant (p < 0.05) general increase in spectral energy, associated with vasodilation, except in the myogenic interval. Weak phase coherence between temperature and blood flow was observed for unperturbed skin, but it increased in all frequency intervals as a result of heating. It was not significantly affected by cooling. We also show that significant (p < 0.05) phase coherence exists between blood flow and IHR in the respiratory and myogenic frequency intervals. Cooling did not affect this phase coherence in any of the frequency intervals, whereas heating enhanced the phase coherence in the respiratory and myogenic intervals. This can be explained by the reduction in vascular resistance produced by heating, a process where myogenic mechanisms play a key role. We conclude that the mechanisms of vasodilation and vasoconstriction, in response to temperature

  10. A Study of Humor in Lost in Thailand from the Perspective of Presupposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洁

    2014-01-01

    Humor study enjoys a long history with a variety of theories and methods. Among them, the pragmatic approach is a relatively new and vigorous perspective. Scholars have adopted the cooperative principle and relevance theory to explain humor. However, as to studying humor from the perspective of pragmatic presupposition, very few researches have been done in this regard. Such being the case, this paper will use presupposition as a tool to analyze humor in Lost in Thailand which is a sensational comedy in China. By analyzing cases from this film, the paper aims to explore how presupposition functions in the production of humorous effect, and to provide some new insights into humor study.

  11. An Analysis of Verbal Humor in American Sitcom The Big Bang Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴珍; 芮艳芳

    2015-01-01

    Humor plays an indispensable part in human communication. This thesis is a tentative analysis of verbal humor under-standing within the framework of Relevance Theory. This paper, using The Big Bang Theory as a corpus, analyzes the humor gener-ated in the cognitive process of searching for relevance. According to the Relevance Theory, the understanding of humor is a pro-cess in which the hearer finds"relevance"in what seems"irrelevant". The author hopes that this analysis can help more people un-derstand and appreciate the humor in The Big Bang Theory. And meanwhile their personal sense of humor can also be improved.

  12. Does Humor Explain Why Relationally Aggressive Adolescents Are Popular?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, Julie C.; Etkin, Rebecca G.

    2013-01-01

    The association between relational aggression and popularity during early adolescence is well established. Yet, little is known about why, exactly, relationally aggressive young adolescents are able to achieve and maintain high popular status among peers. The present study investigated the mediating role of humor in the association between relational aggression and popularity during early adolescence. Also considered was whether the association between relational aggression and humor varies according to adolescents’ gender and their friends’ levels of relational aggression. Participants were 265 sixth-grade students (48% female; 41% racial/ethnic minority; Mage = 12.04 years) who completed peer nomination and friendship measures in their classrooms at two time points (Wave 1: February; Wave 2: May). The results indicated that Wave 1 relational aggression was related to Wave 1 and 2 popularity indirectly through Wave 1 humor, after accounting for the effects of Wave 1 physical aggression, ethnicity, and gender. Additional analyses showed that relational aggression and humor were related significantly only for boys and for young adolescents with highly relationally aggressive friends. The results support the need for further research on humor and aggression during early adolescence and other mechanisms by which relationally aggressive youth achieve high popular status. PMID:24136377

  13. The effects of oxygen induced pulmonary vasoconstriction on bedside measurement of pulmonary gas exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinreich, Ulla M; Thomsen, Lars P; Rees, Stephen E; Rasmussen, Bodil S

    2016-04-01

    In patients with respiratory failure measurements of pulmonary gas exchange are of importance. The bedside automatic lung parameter estimator (ALPE) of pulmonary gas exchange is based on changes in inspired oxygen (FiO2) assuming that these changes do not affect pulmonary circulation. This assumption is investigated in this study. Forty-two out of 65 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) had measurements of mean pulmonary arterial pressure (MPAP), cardiac output and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure thus enabling the calculation of pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) at each FiO2 level. The research version of ALPE was used and FiO2 was step-wise reduced a median of 0.20 and ultimately returned towards baseline values, allowing 6-8 min' steady state period at each of 4-6 levels before recording the oxygen saturation (SpO2). FiO2 reduction led to median decrease in SpO2 from 99 to 92 %, an increase in MPAP of 4 mmHg and an increase in PVR of 36 dyn s cm(-5). Changes were immediately reversed on returning FiO2 towards baseline. In this study changes in MPAP and PVR are small and immediately reversible consistent with small changes in pulmonary gas exchange. This indicates that mild deoxygenation induced pulmonary vasoconstriction does not have significant influences on the ALPE parameters in patients after CABG.

  14. Milrinone attenuates arteriolar vasoconstriction and capillary perfusion deficits on endotoxemic hamsters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Lopes de Miranda

    Full Text Available Apart from its inotropic property, milrinone has vasodilator, anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic effects that could assist in the reversal of septic microcirculatory changes. This paper investigates the effects of milrinone on endotoxemia-related microcirculatory changes and compares them to those observed with the use of norepinephrine.After skinfold chamber implantation procedures and endotoxemia induction by intravenous Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide administration (2 mg.kg-1, male golden Syrian hamsters were treated with two regimens of intravenous milrinone (0.25 or 0.5 μg.kg-1.min-1. Intravital microscopy of skinfold chamber preparations allowed quantitative analysis of microvascular variables. Macro-hemodynamic, biochemical, and hematological parameters and survival rate were also analyzed. Endotoxemic non-treated animals, endotoxemic animals treated with norepinephrine (0.2 μg.kg-1.min-1, and non-endotoxemic hamsters served as controls.Milrinone (0.5 μg.kg-1.min-1 was effective in reducing lipopolysaccharide-induced arteriolar vasoconstriction, capillary perfusion deficits, and inflammatory response, and in increasing survival. Norepinephrine treated animals showed the best mean arterial pressure levels but the worst functional capillary density values among all endotoxemic groups.Our data suggests that milrinone yielded protective effects on endotoxemic animals' microcirculation, showed anti-inflammatory properties, and improved survival. Norepinephrine did not recruit the microcirculation nor demonstrated anti-inflammatory effects.

  15. Catecholamine-induced vasoconstriction is sensitive to carbonic anhydrase I activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puscas I.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the relationship between alpha- and beta-adrenergic agonists and the activity of carbonic anhydrase I and II in erythrocyte, clinical and vessel studies. Kinetic studies were performed. Adrenergic agonists increased erythrocyte carbonic anhydrase as follows: adrenaline by 75%, noradrenaline by 68%, isoprenaline by 55%, and orciprenaline by 62%. The kinetic data indicated a non-competitive mechanism of action. In clinical studies carbonic anhydrase I from erythrocytes increased by 87% after noradrenaline administration, by 71% after orciprenaline and by 82% after isoprenaline. The increase in carbonic anhydrase I paralleled the increase in blood pressure. Similar results were obtained in vessel studies on piglet vascular smooth muscle. We believe that adrenergic agonists may have a dual mechanism of action: the first one consists of a catecholamine action on its receptor with the formation of a stimulus-receptor complex. The second mechanism proposed completes the first one. By this second component of the mechanism, the same stimulus directly acts on the carbonic anhydrase I isozyme (that might be functionally coupled with adrenergic receptors, so that its activation ensures an adequate pH for stimulus-receptor coupling for signal transduction into the cell, resulting in vasoconstriction.

  16. Experimental Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Induces Blunted Vasoconstriction and Functional Changes in the Rat Aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Tufiño

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic conditions increase vascular reactivity to angiotensin II in several studies but there are scarce reports on cardiovascular effects of hypercaloric diet (HD induced gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM, so the objective of this work was to determine the effects of HD induced GDM on vascular responses. Angiotensin II as well as phenylephrine induced vascular contraction was tested in isolated aorta rings with and without endothelium from rats fed for 7 weeks (4 before and 3 weeks during pregnancy with standard (SD or hypercaloric (HD diet. Also, protein expression of AT1R, AT2R, COX-1, COX-2, NOS-1, and NOS-3 and plasma glucose, insulin, and angiotensin II levels were measured. GDM impaired vasoconstrictor response (P<0.05 versus SD in intact (e+ but not in endothelium-free (e− vessels. Losartan reduced GDM but not SD e− vasoconstriction (P<0.01 versus SD. AT1R, AT2R, and COX-1 and COX-2 protein expression were significantly increased in GDM vessels (P<0.05 versus SD. Results suggest an increased participation of endothelium vasodilator mediators, probably prostaglandins, as well as of AT2 vasodilator receptors as a compensatory mechanism for vasoconstrictor changes generated by experimental GDM. Considering the short term of rat pregnancy findings can reflect early stage GDM adaptations.

  17. Potentiation of phorbol ester-induced coronary vasoconstriction in dogs following endothelium disruption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, R.B.; Ku, D.D.

    1986-03-05

    In the present study, the effect of phorbol ester, 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA), activation of protein kinase C on coronary vascular reactivity was studied in isolated dog coronary arteries. Addition of TPA (10-100 nM) produced a slow, time- and dose-dependent contraction reaching a maximum at approx 2-3 hrs and was essentially irreversible upon washing. Disruption of the endothelium(EC) greatly accelerated the development as well as increase the magnitude of TPA contraction (50-100%). Prior treatment of vessels with phentolamine (1..mu..M), cyproheptadine (1..mu..H) and ibuprofen (1..mu..g/ml) did not alter the TPA contraction. Furthermore, in contrast to previously reported calcium-dependence of TPA contraction in other vessels, complete removal of extracellular calcium (Ca/sub 0/) or addition of 1..mu..M nimodipine after TPA(30nM) resulted in only 32 +/- 4% and 25 +/- 3% reversal of TPA contraction, respectively. Addition of amiloride (10..mu..M to 1mM), however, resulted in a dose-dependent reversal of TPA contraction. The results of the present study indicate that a similar activation of protein kinase C by TPA leads to potent coronary vasoconstriction, which is not completely dependent on Ca/sub 0/. More importantly, these results further support their hypothesis that EC also functions as an inhibitory barrier to prevent circulating vasoconstrictors from exerting their deleterious constrictory effects.

  18. Effects of acidosis and alkalosis on hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimioulle, S; Lejeune, P; Vachiery, J L; Leeman, M; Melot, C; Naeije, R

    1990-02-01

    We studied the effects of metabolic and respiratory acidosis (pH 7.20) and alkalosis (pH 7.60) on pulmonary vascular tone in 32 pentobarbital-anesthetized dogs ventilated with hyperoxia (inspired oxygen fraction, FIO2 0.40) and with hypoxia (FIO2 0.10). Ventilation, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (Ppw), and cardiac output (3 l.min-1.m-2) were maintained constant to prevent passive changes in pulmonary arterial pressure (Ppa). Metabolic acidosis and alkalosis were induced with HCl (2 mmol.kg-1.h-1) and NaHCO3-Na2CO3 (5 mmol.kg-1.h-1) infusions, respectively, and respiratory acidosis and alkalosis by modifying the inspiratory CO2 fraction. The hypoxia-induced rise in Ppa-Ppw gradient increased from 5 to 9 mmHg in metabolic acidosis (P less than 0.001), decreased from 6 to 1 mmHg in metabolic alkalosis (P less than 0.001), remained unchanged in respiratory acidosis, and decreased from 5 to 2 mmHg in respiratory alkalosis (P less than 0.001). Linear relationships were found between pH and Ppa-Ppw gradients. These data indicate that in intact anesthetized dogs, metabolic acidosis and alkalosis, respectively, enhance and reverse hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV). Respiratory acidosis did not affect HPV and respiratory alkalosis blunted HPV, which suggests an pH-independent vasodilating effect of CO2.

  19. α1B-Adrenoceptors mediate adrenergically-induced renal vasoconstrictions in rats with renal impairment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Md Abdul Hye KHAN; Munavvar Abdul SATTAR; Nor Azizan ABDULLAH; Edward James JOHNS

    2008-01-01

    Aim: This study examined whether α1B-adrenoceptors are involved in mediating adrenergically-induced renal vasoconstrictor responses in rats with pathophysi-ological and normal physiological states. Methods: Male Wistar Kyoto and spon-taneously hypertensive rats were induced with acute renal failure or experimental early diabetic nephropathy by cisplatin or streptozotocin, respectively. Cisplatin-induced renal failure was confirmed by impaired renal function and pronounced tubular damage. Experimental early diabetic nephropathy was confirmed by hyperglycemia, changes in physiological parameters, and renal function. The hemodynamic study was conducted on anesthetized rats after 7 d of cisplatin (renal failure) and 4 weeks of streptozotocin (experimental early diabetic nephropathy). Results: In the rats with renal failure and experimental early dia-betic nephropathy, there were marked reductions in their baseline renal blood flow (P0.05) in the renal failure and experimental early diabetic nephropathy rats, respectively, as compared to their non-renal failure and non-diabetic nephropathy controls. In the rats with renal impairment, chloroethylclonidine caused either accentuation or attenuation (all P0.05). Conclusion: This study demonstrated the presence of functional α1B-adrenoceptors that mediated the adrenergically-induced renal vaso-constrictions in rats with renal impairment, but not in rats with normal renal function.

  20. The MicroRNA-130/301 Family Controls Vasoconstriction in Pulmonary Hypertension*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertero, Thomas; Cottrill, Katherine; Krauszman, Adrienn; Lu, Yu; Annis, Sofia; Hale, Andrew; Bhat, Balkrishen; Waxman, Aaron B.; Chau, B. Nelson; Kuebler, Wolfgang M.; Chan, Stephen Y.

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a complex disorder, spanning several known vascular cell types. Recently, we identified the microRNA-130/301 (miR-130/301) family as a regulator of multiple pro-proliferative pathways in PH, but the true breadth of influence of the miR-130/301 family across cell types in PH may be even more extensive. Here, we employed targeted network theory to identify additional pathogenic pathways regulated by miR-130/301, including those involving vasomotor tone. Guided by these predictions, we demonstrated, via gain- and loss-of-function experimentation in vitro and in vivo, that miR-130/301-specific control of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ regulates a panel of vasoactive factors communicating between diseased pulmonary vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells. Of these, the vasoconstrictive factor endothelin-1 serves as an integral point of communication between the miR-130/301-peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ axis in endothelial cells and contractile function in smooth muscle cells. Thus, resulting from an in silico analysis of the architecture of the PH disease gene network coupled with molecular experimentation in vivo, these findings clarify the expanded role of the miR-130/301 family in the global regulation of PH. They further emphasize the importance of molecular cross-talk among the diverse cellular populations involved in PH. PMID:25505270

  1. Possible overlap between reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome and symptomatic vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forget, Patrice; Goffette, Pierre; van de Wyngaert, Françoise; Raftopoulos, Christian; Hantson, Philippe

    2009-08-01

    A 34-year-old woman with a previous history of severe headache ("thunderclap") was admitted with a diagnosis of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The patient developed symptomatic vasospasm on day 5 that resolved rapidly after having increased arterial blood pressure. She experienced also short-lasting excruciating headache. On day 12, while velocities had normalised, as revealed by transcranial Doppler (TCD), for more than 48 h, she developed aphasia and right hemiplegia associated with diffuse segmental vasospasm on the left middle cerebral artery. Intra-arterial infusion of vasodilatory agents was required. Recurrence of symptomatic vasospasm was noted on day 25, with a great number of territories involved as shown in the cerebral angiogram. A second intra-arterial treatment was needed. The patient complained of multiple episodes of extremely severe headache ("thunderclap"), with also transient dysarthria and hemiparesia on day 30. She was discharged on day 38 after full recovery. The clinical and TCD/radiological findings were consistent with a reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome overlapping SAH related symptomatic vasospasm.

  2. Differential effects of self-esteem and interpersonal competence on humor styles

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    McCosker B

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Bernadette McCosker, Carmen C MoranSchool of Psychology, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, NSW, AustraliaBackground: In contrast with an early implicit “facilitative hypothesis” of humor, a revised specificity hypothesis predicts that the benefits of humor depend on the specific style of humor used. Information on predictors of these humor styles in turn enhances the ability to predict the effect on well-being.Methods: We examined the relationships between interpersonal competence, self-esteem, and different styles of humor, while also examining the contributions of age and gender. Participants (n = 201 aged 18–63 years completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory, the Interpersonal Competence Questionnaire, and the Humor Styles Questionnaire, and gave demographic information.Results: High self-esteem was associated with higher use of affiliative, aggressive, and self-enhancing humor styles, but lower use of self-defeating humor. High interpersonal competence predicted greater use of affiliative humor, whereas low interpersonal competence predicted greater use of aggressive humor. Further analyses showed that initiation competence predicted affiliative humor (positively but both initiation competence (positively and conflict management competence (negatively predicted aggressive humor.Conclusion: The findings that both self-esteem and initiation competence contribute to use of aggressive humor add to knowledge of who is likely to use this potentially harmful humor style. We conclude that a readiness to initiate humorous interactions is not on its own a general and positive attribute contributing to “good” humor.Keywords: self-esteem, interpersonal competence, humor styles, differential effects

  3. The Use of Humor in Serious Mental Illness: A Review

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    Marc Gelkopf

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is now a relatively good understanding of the broad range of direct and indirect effects of humor and laughter on perceptions, attitudes, judgments and emotions, which can potentially benefit the physical and psychological state. This article presents a review and discussion of the use of humor and laughter in treating people with serious mental illness, distinguishing between clinical papers on individual and group psychotherapy, and empirical research reports describing humor and laughter interventions. In spite of the exponential growth of the field over the last 30 years, I conclude that empirical studies are still lacking, the studies that do exist have major methodological shortcomings, and the field is in dire need of further investigation.

  4. The Use of Humor in Serious Mental Illness: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelkopf, Marc

    2011-01-01

    There is now a relatively good understanding of the broad range of direct and indirect effects of humor and laughter on perceptions, attitudes, judgments and emotions, which can potentially benefit the physical and psychological state. This article presents a review and discussion of the use of humor and laughter in treating people with serious mental illness, distinguishing between clinical papers on individual and group psychotherapy, and empirical research reports describing humor and laughter interventions. In spite of the exponential growth of the field over the last 30 years, I conclude that empirical studies are still lacking, the studies that do exist have major methodological shortcomings, and the field is in dire need of further investigation. PMID:19687190

  5. Using humor in systematic desensitization to reduce fear.

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    Ventis, W L; Higbee, G; Murdock, S A

    2001-04-01

    Effectiveness of systematic desensitization for fear reduction, using humorous hierarchy scenes without relaxation, was tested. Participants were 40 students highly fearful of spiders. Using a 24-item behavioral approach test with an American tarantula, participants were matched on fear level and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups: (a) systematic desensitization, (b) humor desensitization, and (c) untreated controls. Each participant was seen for 6 sessions, including pretest and posttest. Analyses of covariance of posttest scores revealed that the 2 treatment groups showed greater reduction in fear than the controls on 3 measures but did not differ from each other. Therefore, humor in systematic desensitization reduced fear as effectively as more traditional desensitization. This finding may have therapeutic applications; however, it may also be applicable in advertising to desensitize fear of a dangerous product, such as cigarettes.

  6. Was that really funny? The politics of humor.

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    Kennedy, M M

    1995-07-01

    Everybody loves a comic--or do they? A Human Resources Department picked up a pattern when several departing employees, all excellent performers, said they liked their jobs but felt "excluded" from the camaraderie. One said he'd found the humor "barbed." Another said she's never seen anything funny in jokes that seemed to convulse everyone else. The past five years have been so gloomy, economically speaking, that, in many hospitals and health care organizations, laughter is a mega-event. But lately I've been listening to what employees joke about and watching how their humor affects others. Physician executives need to be alert to some kinds of humor that are weapons used by employees against other employees, their managers, and the company generally.

  7. VIOLENCE DRESSED IN HUMOR: COMEDIC VIOLENCE IN ADVERTISING

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    Camelia Gradinaru

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the concepts of humor and violence and their complex relationships contextualised in the advertising domain. Thus, the main theories of humor and the most important elements from media violence paradigms are critically pointed out. The effects of comedic violence in advertising may be positive (great involvement with the ad message, retention of brand information, higher pass-along probability, and also negative (offending the audience, desensitization, damaging the reputation and the brand equity. A lot of factors change the perception of comedic violent ads (gender, social norm beliefs etc., so that a multidimensional analysis of consumer perceptions is needed if we want to draw a more accurate picture of this phenomenon. The analysis of the specific ad that I developed in the second part of this paper showed clearly the interplay between perceived humor and perceived violence and also the relevance of the cultural background in its interpretation.

  8. Analysis on the Humor and Irony in Pride and Prejudice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓越

    2016-01-01

    Pride and Prejudice, published in 1813, is the most influential work of British female writer Jane Austen (1775-1817). By analyzing Jane Austen's representative novel, Pride and Prejudice, we are convinced by the excellent humor and irony used in it. Irony in Pride and Prejudice is mainly embodied in Austen's verbal irony, situational irony and dramatic irony. Under the perspective of stylistics, this paper analyzes dialogues, descriptive and commentary language and the arrangement of the whole plots of Austen's Pride and Prejudice to show how the different tones of humor and irony are reflected in the novel. This paper also focuses on the significance in portraying the characteristics of the roles and theme performance of humor and irony used in Pride and Prejudice, which help us to appreciate the satire literature.

  9. Reconsidering language teaching through a focus on humor

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    Nancy Bell

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Formal language education is often predicated on a series of modernist fictions that greatly simplify the nature of language and the process of communication. Acts of linguistic creativity involving humor and language play are frequently either ignored or considered deviant. In this paper, we contribute to ongoing efforts to re-conceptualize language education in ways that make use of more robust (and less modernist theories of language and communication. We revisit calls for more pedagogical focus on humor and language play and illustrate how more attention to these types of language might help us to move away from some of the classroom fictions that currently constrain teachers and learners alike. Specifically, we present recent conceptions of language and of communication, and discuss how, in light of these, humor and language play can be used to increase learners’ metalinguistic awareness and expand their communicative/interpretive repertoires.

  10. Validation of the Humor Style Questionnaire with university students

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    Mónica Cassaretto B.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study validates the Humor Style Questionnaire in a group of 315 university students of both genders from Lima, Peru, with an average age of 19,7. The Humor Style Questionnaire (HSQ by Martin, Puhlik-Doris, Larsen, Gray & Weir (2003, the Psychological Well-Being Scale (BIEPS-A by Casullo (2002 and the Hope Scale by Herth (1991 were used. After the neutralization of four items, results show reliability coefficients between 0,64 to 0,78 and a factorial structure confirming the existence of four factors (42,94% of the total variance.Results show positive associations between psychological well-being and hope with affiliation and self-enhancing styles, and negative associations between aggression and self-defeating humor. Results support the convergence validity and the construct of the scale.

  11. Erotismo, sexualidad y humor en las danzas del altiplano boliviano

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    Eveline Sigl

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo analiza la importancia del erotismo, la sexualidad y el humor en las danzas del altiplano boliviano. Demuestra que estos elementos performativos no solo están fuertemente interconectados, sino también íntimamente ligados a la sacralidad andina. La primera parte del texto está dedicada a los componentes humorísticos y lúdicos del enamoramiento mediante la danza, postulando que humor y alegría forman parte del “erotismo andino”. Mientras tanto, la segunda parte estudia el “transformismo ritual andino”, que consiste en presentaciones dancísticas sumamente jocosas y fuertemente sexuadas a cargo de hombres hetero y homosexuales disfrazados de mujer.

  12. [Changes of local resistance of oral cavity and humoral immunity among workers of metallurgical and chemical production during parodontitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobakhidze, M V; Dzhashi, L M; Chelidze, L N; Gogebashvili, N V

    2005-01-01

    On the basis of the data of immunological investigations of 142 workers of metallurgical (melting shops of Zestaphoni's Farroalloy Plant) and chemical (electrolytic shops of manganese and dioxide manganese of Farroalloy Plant and "Azoti") production it was found that during parodontitis among studied contingent local resistance of mouth cavity and humoral immunity are changed, the compound of lysozyme and amylase in saliva is lowered, in the layers of saliva and blood is revealed the misbalance of immunoglobulin's system. First of all was established, that during parodontitis among the studied workers autoimmune processes are developed directed against the I-st type collagen and the tissue of gum. Changes of local and common homeostasis as well as the changes of intensity of autoimmune process are in direct correlation with the severity of parodontitis and the pollution of production environment with the spray of manganese dioxide.

  13. Vascular mineralocorticoid receptor regulates microRNA-155 to promote vasoconstriction and rising blood pressure with aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuPont, Jennifer J.; McCurley, Amy; Davel, Ana P.; McCarthy, Joseph; Bender, Shawn B.; Hong, Kwangseok; Yang, Yan; Yoo, Jeung-Ki; Aronovitz, Mark; Baur, Wendy E.; Christou, Demetra D.; Hill, Michael A.; Jaffe, Iris Z.

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is nearly universal yet poorly controlled in the elderly despite proven benefits of intensive treatment. Mice lacking mineralocorticoid receptors in smooth muscle cells (SMC-MR-KO) are protected from rising blood pressure (BP) with aging, despite normal renal function. Vasoconstriction is attenuated in aged SMC-MR-KO mice, thus they were used to explore vascular mechanisms that may contribute to hypertension with aging. MicroRNA (miR) profiling identified miR-155 as the most down-regulated miR with vascular aging in MR-intact but not SMC-MR-KO mice. The aging-associated decrease in miR-155 in mesenteric resistance vessels was associated with increased mRNA abundance of MR and of predicted miR-155 targets Cav1.2 (L-type calcium channel (LTCC) subunit) and angiotensin type-1 receptor (AgtR1). SMC-MR-KO mice lacked these aging-associated vascular gene expression changes. In HEK293 cells, MR repressed miR-155 promoter activity. In cultured SMCs, miR-155 decreased Cav1.2 and AgtR1 mRNA. Compared to MR-intact littermates, aged SMC-MR-KO mice had decreased systolic BP, myogenic tone, SMC LTCC current, mesenteric vessel calcium influx, LTCC-induced vasoconstriction and angiotensin II-induced vasoconstriction and oxidative stress. Restoration of miR-155 specifically in SMCs of aged MR-intact mice decreased Cav1.2 and AgtR1 mRNA and attenuated LTCC-mediated and angiotensin II-induced vasoconstriction and oxidative stress. Finally, in a trial of MR blockade in elderly humans, changes in serum miR-155 predicted the BP treatment response. Thus, SMC-MR regulation of miR-155, Cav1.2 and AgtR1 impacts vasoconstriction with aging. This novel mechanism identifies potential new treatment strategies and biomarkers to improve and individualize antihypertensive therapy in the elderly. PMID:27683672

  14. Validation of the Humor Style Questionnaire with university students

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    Mónica Cassaretto B.; Patricia Martínez U.

    2009-01-01

    This study validates the Humor Style Questionnaire in a group of 315 university students of both genders from Lima, Peru, with an average age of 19,7. The Humor Style Questionnaire (HSQ) by Martin, Puhlik-Doris, Larsen, Gray & Weir (2003), the Psychological Well-Being Scale (BIEPS-A) by Casullo (2002) and the Hope Scale by Herth (1991) were used. After the neutralization of four items, results show reliability coefficients between 0,64 to 0,78 and a factorial structure confirming the exis...

  15. Humor e Shoah: O trem da vida, de Radu Mihaileanu

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    Lyslei Nascimento

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Um vilarejo da Ucrânia, na Europa Oriental, no ano de 1941, é o cenário do filme O trem da vida, do diretor romeno Radu Mihaileanu. O roteiro, ao se afastar de dados históricos e de uma configuração realista da Shoah, configura-­se como uma fábula. Não é fácil fazer humor, muito menos, sobre a catástrofe. O humor presente no filme de Mihaileanu é reflexivo, expondo, com leveza, as fraturas do discurso.

  16. [Neuropsychology of humor: an introduction Part 1. Psychological data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derouesné, Christian

    2016-03-01

    Humor is, from a psychological point of view, a complex process involving cognitive, affective, interspersonal and social elements in a interpersonal context. Its cognitive core is based on the perception of incongruity between two related inconsistent or contradictory mental representations. The total or partial resolution of incongruity in a playful frame is associated with a specific positive emotion, which characteristics and intensity are determined by the structure of the humoristic stimulus more than its content, and the personal and social contexts. Main theories of humor are reviewed as well as its development, its cognitive and affective correlates, and the influence of genre, age and personality.

  17. Taurine Homeostasis and Volume Control.

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    Pasantes-Morales, Herminia

    2017-01-01

    Taurine content is high (mM) in mammalian brain. By its major role as an osmolyte, taurine contributes to the cell volume control, which is particularly critical in the brain. Taurine participates in osmotic adjustments required to maintain the organization and size of intracellular compartments. It counteracts volume fluctuations in unbalanced transmembrane fluxes of ions and neurotransmitters, preserving the functional synaptic contacts. Taurine has a key role in the long-term adaptation to chronic hyponatremia as well as in other pathologies leading to brain edema. Together with other osmolytes, taurine corrects cell shrinkage, preventing mysfunction of organelles and apoptosis. Swelling corrective taurine efflux occurs through a leak pathway, likely formed by LCRR8 protein isoforms. Shrinkage-activated influx comes largely by the increased activity of the Na(+)/Cl(-)-dependent transporter. The brain taurine pool results from the equilibrium between (i) dietary intake and active transport into the cell, (ii) synthesis in the brain itself or import of that synthesized elsewhere, and (iii) leak and posterior excretion. The interplay between these elements preserves brain taurine homeostasis in physiological conditions and permits the proper adjustments upon deviations of normal in the internal/external environment.

  18. Redox Homeostasis in Pancreatic Cells

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    Petr Ježek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We reviewed mechanisms that determine reactive oxygen species (redox homeostasis, redox information signaling and metabolic/regulatory function of autocrine insulin signaling in pancreatic β cells, and consequences of oxidative stress and dysregulation of redox/information signaling for their dysfunction. We emphasize the role of mitochondrion in β cell molecular physiology and pathology, including the antioxidant role of mitochondrial uncoupling protein UCP2. Since in pancreatic β cells pyruvate cannot be easily diverted towards lactate dehydrogenase for lactate formation, the respiration and oxidative phosphorylation intensity are governed by the availability of glucose, leading to a certain ATP/ADP ratio, whereas in other cell types, cell demand dictates respiration/metabolism rates. Moreover, we examine the possibility that type 2 diabetes mellitus might be considered as an inevitable result of progressive self-accelerating oxidative stress and concomitantly dysregulated information signaling in peripheral tissues as well as in pancreatic β cells. It is because the redox signaling is inherent to the insulin receptor signaling mechanism and its impairment leads to the oxidative and nitrosative stress. Also emerging concepts, admiting participation of redox signaling even in glucose sensing and insulin release in pancreatic β cells, fit in this view. For example, NADPH has been firmly established to be a modulator of glucose-stimulated insulin release.

  19. Using Humor in Treatment of Substance Use Disorders: Worthy of Further Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canha, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Throughout the literature, humor has demonstrated positive effects on memory and learning, as well as physiological and psychological well being. Research has described improvements in communication and trust through the use of humor in the nurse-patient relationship. The utilization of humor with certain populations, including those with anxiety disorders, cancer patients and mood disorders has also been widely described in the literature but little research has been conducted with humor use in patients' recovery from substance use disorders. This population might benefit from the thoughtful applications of humor to promote laughter and mirth as well as learning recovery principles. A review of the humor theories, theoretical processes and humor styles are discussed for their use in individuals with substance use disorders, in particularly for early recovery engagement in 12 step programs and other recover support social networks. The application of humor in efforts to support recovery with substance use disorder patients is worth investigating further.

  20. Humor in print health advertisements: enhanced attention, privileged recognition, and persuasiveness of preventive messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, Nathalie; Brigaud, Emmanuelle

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the effect of humor in one particular type of print advertisement: the preventive health ads for three topics (alcohol, tobacco, obesity). Previous research using commercial ads demonstrated that individuals' attention is spontaneously attracted by humor, leading to a memory advantage for humorous information over nonhumorous information. Two experiments investigated whether the positive effect of humor can occur with preventive health ads. In Experiment 1, participants observed humorous and nonhumorous health ads while their viewing times were recorded. In Experiment 2, to compare humorous and nonhumorous ads, the memory of health messages was assessed through a recognition task and a convincing score was collected. The results confirmed that, compared to nonhumorous health ads, those using humor received prolonged attention, were judged more convincing, and their messages were better recognized. Overall, these findings suggest that humor can be of use in preventive health communication.

  1. Analysis of Humor in The Big Bang Theory Based on the Conversational Relevance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Yang

    2014-01-01

    Humor is the life buoy in waves of life. Pragmatics and humor are closely linked. Relevance is one of the important topics of Pragmatics. This paper takes the lines from The Big Bang Theory as a case study and analyzes the humorous effect from the perspective of Principle of Relevance and Conversational Relevance, hoping to help people deepen the appreciation and un⁃derstanding of humor.

  2. Why We Laugh and What Makes Us Laugh: The Enigma of Humor

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    Arthur Asa Berger

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Humor (and related concerns such as the nature of comedy and of laughter is an enigmatic subject that has perplexed our greatest thinkers from Aristotle’s time to the present. There are four competing theories that explain humor, each of which argues that all humor is based on: superiority, incongruity, cognitive problems in processing humor and psychoanalytic perspectives (such as masked aggression.

  3. Was That Levity or Livor Mortis? Crime Scene Investigators' Perspectives on Humor and Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivona, Brian D.

    2012-01-01

    Humor is common and purposeful in most work settings. Although researchers have examined humor and joking behavior in various work settings, minimal research has been done on humor applications in the field of crime scene investigation. The crime scene investigator encounters death, trauma, and tragedy in a more intimate manner than any other…

  4. The Use of Humor as a Teaching Strategy in Nursing Education

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    Lukehart, Dennis E.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to determine the use of humor as a teaching strategy among a sample of nurse educators employed by community colleges and universities in Northern and Central California nursing programs. The study also identified the types of humor used, how humor is used in the classroom, and nurse educators' perceptions of…

  5. Humor in Literature about Children with Disability: What Are We Seeing in Literature?

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    McGrail, Ewa; Rieger, Alicja

    2014-01-01

    This article explores instances of humor in literature as it relates to children with disabilities and offers ways to help children and adolescents build an authentic understanding of disability and disability humor. The prevalent message in the books reviewed is that children with disability not only appreciate humor but also can produce various…

  6. Learning to Laugh at Ourselves: Humor, Self-Transcendence, and the Cultivation of Moral Virtues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Mordechai

    2010-01-01

    In this essay Mordechai Gordon begins to address the neglect of humor among philosophers of education by focusing on some interesting connections between humor, self-transcendence, and the development of moral virtues. More specifically, he explores the kind of humor that makes fun of oneself and how it can affect educational encounters. Gordon…

  7. Was That Levity or Livor Mortis? Crime Scene Investigators' Perspectives on Humor and Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivona, Brian D.

    2012-01-01

    Humor is common and purposeful in most work settings. Although researchers have examined humor and joking behavior in various work settings, minimal research has been done on humor applications in the field of crime scene investigation. The crime scene investigator encounters death, trauma, and tragedy in a more intimate manner than any other…

  8. Use and Non-Use of Humor in Academic ESL Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziyaeemehr, Ali; Kumar, Vijay; Abdullah, Mohd S. Faiz

    2011-01-01

    A substantial body of research emphasizes the importance of humor in teaching/learning processes; however, research on the reasons for non-use of humor in academic contexts has enjoyed scant attention. Addressing this gap, this study examines the reasons for instructors' humor avoidance taking into account student perceived benefits of using humor…

  9. Statistics? You Must Be Joking: The Application and Evaluation of Humor when Teaching Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, David L.; Hood, Michelle; Neumann, Michelle M.

    2009-01-01

    Humor has been promoted as a teaching tool that enhances student engagement and learning. The present report traces the pathway from research to practice by reflecting upon various ways to incorporate humor into the face-to-face teaching of statistics. The use of humor in an introductory university statistics course was evaluated via interviews…

  10. "I May Be Crackin', But Um Fackin": Racial Humor in "The Watsons Go To Birmingham--1963"

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNair, Jonda C.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the utilization of racial humor in Christopher Paul Curtis' novel, "The Watsons Go To Birmingham--1963." The theoretical perspectives that inform the analysis include critical race theory and humor theory. The results of the analysis reveal that the use of humor in this book is influenced to a significant degree by race and…

  11. A Study of Dicken’s Humor Weiting——With Incongruity Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李如红

    2008-01-01

    Many scholars have shown great interest in Dickens’ humor writing.On the basis of the scholars’ studies,this thesis will make an analysis on the humor in his works that arise as reaction to what we perceive "incongruous".The thesis will apply the incongruity theory to Dickens’ humor writing.

  12. Hope, Laughter, and Humor in Residents and Staff at an Assisted Living Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westburg, Nancy G.

    2003-01-01

    Assesses and compares hope levels and laughter and humor experiences of 24 elderly residents and 21 staff at an assisted living facility. Residents and staff reported numerous benefits from humor and laughing, but differences arose between the two groups about the source and frequency of humor and laughter. Implications for mental health…

  13. The Effects of Professor Humor on College Students' Attention and Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantooth, James D.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this present study was to investigate the effect of instructor humor on college students' levels of engagement and retention of material. A convenience sample of junior- and senior-level students enrolled in four separate courses within the College of Education were exposed to two different lectures--one humorous, one non-humorous.…

  14. The Relationship between Instructor Humor Orientation and Students' Report on Second Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziyaeemehr, Ali; Kumar, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    Humor is an integral component of any language and therefore has an impact on the way languages are acquired/learned. Numerous studies have investigated the role of instructor humor in teaching/learning processes; however, there is little empirical research on the relationship between instructor humor and learning of a second language. This paper…

  15. Perception of aggressive humor in relation to gelotophobia, gelotophilia, and katagelasticism

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    Andrea C. Samson

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates humor appreciation of aggressive cartoons in relation to gelotophobia, gelotophilia, and katagelasticism. These traits were described to have a peculiar relation to laughter-related phenomena, in particular to disparagement humor. 185 participants rated highly aggressive and non-aggressive humorous stimuli for funniness and aversiveness and their scores on the gelotophobia, gelotophilia and katagelasticism scales were measured. The cartoons were controlled for their structural basis, i.e., incongruity-resolution and nonsense humor, as these two types of humor strongly influence the appreciation of humorous stimuli. The results revealed that high scores on gelotophobia lead to higher aversion to aggressive humor, whereas high scores on katagelasticism lead to more enjoyment of aggressive humor with less aversion. Gelotophobia and katagelasticism lead to sensitivity to aggression in humor, which fits the overt behavior of reacting sensitively towards laughter (gelotophobia and enjoying to laugh at others (katagelasticism. Gelotophilia did not predict reactions to either aggressive or non-aggressive humor but did predict more amusement in general: High scorers on gelotophilia seem to be relaxed towards any form of humor, even if it has an aggressive note. This study confirms the three dimensions to have peculiar responses to aggressive types of humor and opens up several questions to be explored in future research.

  16. Learning to Laugh at Ourselves: Humor, Self-Transcendence, and the Cultivation of Moral Virtues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Mordechai

    2010-01-01

    In this essay Mordechai Gordon begins to address the neglect of humor among philosophers of education by focusing on some interesting connections between humor, self-transcendence, and the development of moral virtues. More specifically, he explores the kind of humor that makes fun of oneself and how it can affect educational encounters. Gordon…

  17. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome and posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome associated with intracranial hypotension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feil, Katharina; Forbrig, Robert; Thaler, Franziska S; Conrad, Julian; Heck, Suzette; Dorn, Franziska; Pfister, Hans-Walter; Straube, Andreas

    2017-02-01

    Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) and posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) are both rare disorders. The pathophysiology of both diseases is not yet fully understood. We report the unique case of a 19-year-old comatose woman who was brought to the ER after a series of generalized tonic-clonic seizures 6 days post peridural anesthesia for cesarean section. Vital signs and initial laboratory testing including urine analysis and drug screening were unremarkable. Initial cranial CT scan showed an acute small subdural hematoma (17 mm length × 6 mm width × 30 mm height), cerebral edema with slit ventricles, and slight cerebellar tonsillar herniation as signs of intracranial hypotension. CT angiography depicted narrowing of the proximal intracranial vessels consistent with RCVS. MR imaging was also suggestive of both intracranial hypotension and RCVS and showed, in addition, vasogenic edema consistent with PRES. An extensive CSF leakage involving T1 to L2/L3 was confirmed by spinal MRI. The patient underwent conservative therapy for intracranial hypotension (e.g., head-down position) as well as epidural blood patch, which led to regression of the clinical symptoms within a few days. Follow-up MRI showed complete resolution of all radiological changes. In summary, our patient developed clinical and neuroradiological signs of intracranial hypotension and a combination of PRES and RCVS associated with a CSF leakage caused by peridural anesthesia; by treating the intracranial hypotension, the other syndromes resolved. From a clinical point of view, it is important to look for CSF leakage as a treatable possible cause of PRES and/or RCVS triggered by intracranial hypotension as in our patient postpartum. Moreover, it is vital to obtain a good history as, in cases of suspected CSF leakage with classic postural headache, a recent spinal/cranial procedure is typically present.

  18. Nebulization of the acidified sodium nitrite formulation attenuates acute hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surber Mark W

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Generalized hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV occurring during exposure to hypoxia is a detrimental process resulting in an increase in lung vascular resistance. Nebulization of sodium nitrite has been shown to inhibit HPV. The aim of this project was to investigate and compare the effects of nebulization of nitrite and different formulations of acidified sodium nitrite on acute HPV. Methods Ex vivo isolated rabbit lungs perfused with erythrocytes in Krebs-Henseleit buffer (adjusted to 10% hematocrit and in vivo anesthetized catheterized rabbits were challenged with periods of hypoxic ventilation alternating with periods of normoxic ventilation. After baseline hypoxic challenges, vehicle, sodium nitrite or acidified sodium nitrite was delivered via nebulization. In the ex vivo model, pulmonary arterial pressure and nitric oxide concentrations in exhaled gas were monitored. Nitrite and nitrite/nitrate were measured in samples of perfusion buffer. Pulmonary arterial pressure, systemic arterial pressure, cardiac output and blood gases were monitored in the in vivo model. Results In the ex vivo model, nitrite nebulization attenuated HPV and increased nitric oxide concentrations in exhaled gas and nitrite concentrations in the perfusate. The acidified forms of sodium nitrite induced higher levels of nitric oxide in exhaled gas and had longer vasodilating effects compared to nitrite alone. All nitrite formulations increased concentrations of circulating nitrite to the same degree. In the in vivo model, inhaled nitrite inhibited HPV, while pulmonary arterial pressure, cardiac output and blood gases were not affected. All nitrite formulations had similar potency to inhibit HPV. The tested concentration of appeared tolerable. Conclusion Nitrite alone and in acidified forms effectively and similarly attenuates HPV. However, acidified nitrite formulations induce a more pronounced increase in nitric oxide exhalation.

  19. Characterization of the polymorphonuclear leukocyte-induced vasoconstriction in isolated human umbilical veins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, S W; Yu, R; Stearns, C D; Haynes, N A; Winquist, R J

    1998-11-01

    We investigated the contractile effects of both activated and unactivated polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) on human vascular tissue to characterize the influence of human PMNs on vascular tone. PMNs were added either unactivated or after f-met-leu-phe (fMLP) activation (10(-8) M), into tissue chambers containing human umbilical vein segments under either control or cytokine-treated conditions. The activation state of different PMN preparations was measured by immunofluorescence staining of the adhesion glycoproteins Mac-1 and L-selectin. Both unactivated and activated PMNs induced a cell number-dependent (1.5 x 10(5) to 2 x 10(6) cells/ml) vasoconstriction in human umbilical vein segments. This PMN-induced response was not inhibited by treatment with indomethacin (10(-5) M), superoxide dismutase (2 x 10(-7) M) or L-nitro-monomethyl arginine (10(-4) M). However, treatment of PMNs with the leukotriene biosynthesis inhibitor BIRM-270 partially inhibited (-61 +/- 19%, P <.05) the contraction induced only by unactivated PMNs. Moreover, the supernatant from unactivated, but not that from activated, PMNs elicited a contractile response comparable to that from the addition of cells. We observed a significant correlation between the Mac-1/L-selectin ratio of activated PMNs and the contractile response they generated (r = 0.77, P <.05). The activated PMN response had an endothelium-dependent component, whereas the unactivated PMN response was endothelium-independent. These results suggest that human PMNs of varying activation states have the capacity to modulate vascular smooth muscle tone via distinct mechanisms. Unactivated PMNs appear to modulate tone via a secreted product, whereas the more activated phenotype modulates vascular tone via a cognate interaction with the endothelium.

  20. Cerebral endothelial dysfunction in reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyun Ah; Lee, Mi Ji; Chung, Chin-Sang

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate cerebral endothelial dysfunction in patients with reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS). We prospectively recruited patients with RCVS, age-matched controls with episodic migraine, and age-matched healthy controls at Samsung Medical Center from Apr 2015 to Jul 2016. All participants underwent transcranial Doppler evaluation, with a breath-holding maneuver, for the evaluation of bilateral middle cerebral arteries (MCAs), posterior cerebral arteries (PCAs), and the basilar artery (BA). The breath-holding index (BHI) was used to measure cerebral endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Follow-up BHIs were recorded in selected patients with RCVS after 3 months. A total of 84 subjects were recruited for this study (n = 28 in each group of RCVS, episodic migraine, and healthy control; mean age, 49.8 years). The RCVS group showed lower BHIs in all basal arteries, in comparison to healthy controls (p < 0.001, 0.009 for bilateral MCAs, p < 0.001 and 0.028 for bilateral PCAs, and p = 0.060 for the BA). Compared to migraineurs, RCVS patients had lower BHIs only in the anterior circulation (p = 0.002 and 0.038 for bilateral MCAs; p = 0.069 and 0.247 for bilateral PCAs; p = 0.120 for the BA). Of the 10 patients who had follow-up BHIs at 3 months, 7 showed complete normalization, while three did not. Cerebral endothelial function is impaired in a widespread distribution in RCVS. Its role in the pathogenesis and clinical outcome of RCVS should be determined in further studies.

  1. Effects of hypercapnia and NO synthase inhibition in sustained hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction

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    Ketabchi Farzaneh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute respiratory disorders may lead to sustained alveolar hypoxia with hypercapnia resulting in impaired pulmonary gas exchange. Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV optimizes gas exchange during local acute (0-30 min, as well as sustained (> 30 min hypoxia by matching blood perfusion to alveolar ventilation. Hypercapnia with acidosis improves pulmonary gas exchange in repetitive conditions of acute hypoxia by potentiating HPV and preventing pulmonary endothelial dysfunction. This study investigated, if the beneficial effects of hypercapnia with acidosis are preserved during sustained hypoxia as it occurs, e.g in permissive hypercapnic ventilation in intensive care units. Furthermore, the effects of NO synthase inhibitors under such conditions were examined. Method We employed isolated perfused and ventilated rabbit lungs to determine the influence of hypercapnia with or without acidosis (pH corrected with sodium bicarbonate, and inhibitors of endothelial as well as inducible NO synthase on acute or sustained HPV (180 min and endothelial permeability. Results In hypercapnic acidosis, HPV was intensified in sustained hypoxia, in contrast to hypercapnia without acidosis when HPV was amplified during both phases. L-NG-Nitroarginine (L-NNA, a non-selective NO synthase inhibitor, enhanced acute as well as sustained HPV under all conditions, however, the amplification of sustained HPV induced by hypercapnia with or without acidosis compared to normocapnia disappeared. In contrast 1400 W, a selective inhibitor of inducible NO synthase (iNOS, decreased HPV in normocapnia and hypercapnia without acidosis at late time points of sustained HPV and selectively reversed the amplification of sustained HPV during hypercapnia without acidosis. Hypoxic hypercapnia without acidosis increased capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc. This increase disappeared after administration of 1400 W. Conclusion Hypercapnia with and without acidosis

  2. Extracellular Volume Overload and Increased Vasoconstriction in Patients With Recurrent Intradialytic Hypertension

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    Peter Noel Van Buren

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Intradialytic hypertension (IH occurs frequently in some hemodialysis patients and increases mortality risk. We simultaneously compared pre-dialysis, post-dialysis and changes in extracellular volume and hemodynamics in recurrent IH patients and controls. Methods: We performed a case-control study among prevalent hemodialysis patients with recurrent IH and hypertensive hemodialysis controls. We used bioimpedance spectroscopy and impedance cardiography to compare pre-dialysis, post-dialysis, and intradialytic change in total body water (TBW and extracellular water (ECW, as well as cardiac index (CI and total peripheral resistance index (TPRI. Results: The ECW/TBW was 0.453 (0.05 pre-dialysis and 0.427 (0.04 post-dialysis in controls vs. 0.478 (0.03 and 0.461 (0.03 in IH patients (p=0.01 post-dialysis. The ECW/TBW change was -0.027 (0.03 in controls and -0.013 (0.02 in IH patients (p=0.1. In controls, pre- and post-dialysis TPRI were 3254 (994 and 2469 (529 dynes/sec/cm2/m2 vs. 2983 (747 and 3408 (980 dynes/sec/cm2/m2 in IH patients (p=0.002 post-dialysis. There were between-group differences in TPRI change (0=0.0001, but not CI (p=0.09. Conclusions: Recurrent intradialytic hypertension is associated with higher post-dialysis extracellular volume and TPRI. Intradialytic TPRI surges account for the vasoconstrictive state post-dialysis, but intradialytic fluid shifts may contribute to post-hemodialysis volume expansion.

  3. Infrared imaging to quantify the effects of nicotine-induced vasoconstriction in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Siegfried; Kargel, Christian

    2009-05-01

    Smoking is the most significant source of preventable morbidity and premature mortality worldwide (WHO-2008). One of the many effects of nicotine is vasoconstriction which is triggered by the autonomic nervous system. The constriction of blood vessels e.g. of the skin's vascular bed is responsible for a decrease of the supply with oxygen and nutrients and a lowering of the skin temperature. We used infrared imaging to quantify temperature decreases caused by cigarette smoking in the extremities of smokers and also monitored heart rate as well as blood pressure. The results - including thermograms showing "temporary amputations" of the fingertips due to a significant temperature drop - can help increase the awareness of the dangers of smoking and the success of withdrawal programs. Surprisingly, in our control persons (3 brave non-smoking volunteers who smoked a cigarette) we also found temperature increases suggesting that vasodilation (widening of blood vessels) was provoked by cigarettes. To verify this unexpected finding and eliminate effects from the 4000 chemical compounds in the smoke, we repeated the experiment following a stringent protocol ruling out physiological and psychological influences with 9 habitual smokers and 17 nonsmokers who all chew gums with 2 mg of nicotine. Task-optimized digital image processing techniques (target detection, image-registration and -segmentation) were applied to the acquired infrared image sequences to automatically yield temperature plots of the fingers and palm. In this paper we present the results of our study in detail and show that smokers and non-smokers respond differently to the administration of nicotine.

  4. Endothelin-dependent vasoconstriction in human uterine artery: application to preeclampsia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clotilde Dechanet

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Reduced uteroplacental perfusion, the initiating event in preeclampsia, is associated with enhanced endothelin-1 (ET-1 production which feeds the vasoconstriction of uterine artery. Whether the treatments of preeclampsia were effective on ET-1 induced contraction and could reverse placental ischemia is the question addressed in this study. We investigated the effect of antihypertensive drugs used in preeclampsia and of ET receptor antagonists on the contractile response to ET-1 on human uterine arteries. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Experiments were performed, ex vivo, on human uterine artery samples obtained after hysterectomy. We studied variations in isometric tension of arterial rings in response to the vasoconstrictor ET-1 and evaluated the effects of various vasodilators and ET-receptor antagonists on this response. Among antihypertensive drugs, only dihydropyridines were effective in blocking and reversing the ET-1 contractile response. Their efficiency, independent of the concentration of ET-1, was only partial. Hydralazine, alpha-methyldopa and labetalol had no effect on ET-1 induced contraction which is mediated by both ET(A and ET(B receptors in uterine artery. ET receptors antagonists, BQ-123 and BQ-788, slightly reduced the amplitude of the response to ET-1. Combination of both antagonists was more efficient, but it was not possible to reverse the maximal ET-1-induced contraction with antagonists used alone or in combination. CONCLUSION: Pharmacological drugs currently used in the context of preeclampsia, do not reverse ET-1 induced contraction. Only dihydropyridines, which partially relax uterine artery previously contracted with ET-1, might offer interesting perspectives to improve placental perfusion.

  5. Hypoxemia and hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction: autonomic nervous system versus mixed venous PO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellett, A A; Cairo, J M; Levitzky, M G

    1997-09-01

    Hypoxemia interferes with hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV). We investigated the respective roles of the autonomic nervous system and the mixed venous PO2 (PVO2) in the attenuation of HPV by hypoxemia. Pentobarbital-anesthetized dogs had their lungs separately ventilated with a dual-lumen endotracheal tube. Left (Ql) and total (Qt) pulmonary blood flows were determined using electromagnetic flow probes. HPV was initiated by ventilating the left lung with nitrogen for 5-10 min while the right lung received 100% oxygen. The animals were subsequently made hypoxemic by switching the right lung to room air ventilation (5-10 min). Two different protocol groups received either intravenous atropine during hypoxemia (group I) or intravenous propranolol prior to protocol initiation (group II). A third group of dogs (group III) had their mixed venous PO2S maintained above 30 torr during hypoxemia. In response to left lung hypoxia, Ql/Qt decreased from 44 +/- 5, 48 +/- 3 and 46 +/- 2% to 25 +/- 4, 28 +/- 2 and 26 +/- 3% in the three groups, respectively. During hypoxemia Ql/Qt increased to 50 +/- 7 and 47 +/- 3% in groups I and II. In group III dogs, Ql/Qt remained significantly decreased at 31 +/- 3%. Subsequent administration of atropine in group I had no effect on Ql/Qt. We conclude that the loss of flow diversion from a hypoxic lung during hypoxemia may be mediated primarily by a decreased in mixed venous PO2 when PVO2 is allowed to decrease to 15-20 torr.

  6. Leptin augments coronary vasoconstriction and smooth muscle proliferation via a Rho-kinase-dependent pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noblet, Jillian N; Goodwill, Adam G; Sassoon, Daniel J; Kiel, Alexander M; Tune, Johnathan D

    2016-05-01

    Leptin has been implicated as a key upstream mediator of pathways associated with coronary vascular dysfunction and disease. The purpose of this investigation was to test the hypothesis that leptin modifies the coronary artery proteome and promotes increases in coronary smooth muscle contraction and proliferation via influences on Rho kinase signaling. Global proteomic assessment of coronary arteries from lean swine cultured with obese concentrations of leptin (30 ng/mL) for 3 days revealed significant alterations in the coronary artery proteome (68 proteins) and identified an association between leptin treatment and calcium signaling/contraction (four proteins) and cellular growth and proliferation (35 proteins). Isometric tension studies demonstrated that both acute (30 min) and chronic (3 days, serum-free media) exposure to obese concentrations of leptin potentiated depolarization-induced contraction of coronary arteries. Inhibition of Rho kinase significantly reduced leptin-mediated increases in coronary artery contractions. The effects of leptin on the functional expression of Rho kinase were time-dependent, as acute treatment increased Rho kinase activity while chronic (3 day) exposure was associated with increases in Rho kinase protein abundance. Proliferation assays following chronic leptin administration (8 day, serum-containing media) demonstrated that leptin augmented coronary vascular smooth muscle proliferation and increased Rho kinase activity. Inhibition of Rho kinase significantly reduced these effects of leptin. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that leptin promotes increases in coronary vasoconstriction and smooth muscle proliferation and indicate that these phenotypic effects are associated with alterations in the coronary artery proteome and dynamic effects on the Rho kinase pathway.

  7. Effects of niflumic acid on alpha1-adrenoceptor-induced vasoconstriction in mesenteric artery in vitro and in vivo in two-kidney one-clip hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Y; Tabrizchi, R

    1997-06-11

    The influence of niflumic acid (3 and 10 microM), a Cl- channel antagonist, on cirazoline-induced vasoconstriction in isolated perfused mesenteric artery (5 ml/min) from two-kidney one-clip (2K1C) hypertensive and sham normotensive rats was examined. In addition, the effect of a single i.v. bolus injection of niflumic acid (3 mg/kg) on cirazoline-mediated reduction in vascular conductance in superior mesenteric artery was determined in pentobarbital-anaesthetized hypertensive and normotensive rats. Bolus injections of cirazoline induced a dose-dependent transient increase in the perfusion pressure in vitro. In the presence of niflumic acid, cirazoline-mediated vasoconstriction was significantly inhibited. Cirazoline-induced vasoconstriction in isolated mesenteric beds was also significantly inhibited following perfusion with Cl(-)-free buffer. Pre-perfusion of mesenteric blood vessels with Cl(-)-free buffer resulted in a significantly greater inhibition of cirazoline-mediated vasoconstriction in sham normotensive rats than in hypertensive rats. We found that in Cl(-)-free buffer, cirazoline-mediated vasoconstriction could be further inhibited by niflumic acid. Intravenous infusion of cumulative doses of cirazoline in vivo caused a dose-dependent decrease in superior mesenteric vascular conductance. Pretreatment with niflumic acid significantly impaired cirazoline-mediated decreases in vascular conductance. Our results indicate that chloride ions play an important role in alpha1-adrenoceptor-mediated vasoconstriction in mesenteric blood vessels. In addition, the contribution of chloride ions in alpha1-adrenoceptor-mediated vasoconstriction in blood vessels from hypertensive rats appears to be reduced.

  8. Calcium homeostasis in barley aleurone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, R.L.

    1990-02-21

    Under the auspices of the Department of Energy we investigated calcium homeostasis in aleurone cells of barley. This investigation was initiated to explore the role played by extracellular Ca{sup 2+} in gibberellic acid (GA)-induced synthesis and secretion of hydrolases in the aleurone layer. We have focused our attention on four topics that relate to the role of Ca{sup 2+} in regulating the synthesis of {alpha}-amylase. First, we determined the stoichiometry of Ca{sup 2+} binding to the two principal classes of barley {alpha}-amylase and examined some of the biochemical and physical properties of the native and Ca{sup 2+}-depleted forms of the enzyme. Second, since {alpha}-amylase is a Ca{sup 2+} containing metalloenzyme that binds one atom of Ca{sup 2+} per molecule, we developed methods to determine the concentration of Ca{sup 2+} in the cytosol of the aleurone cell. We developed a technique for introducing Ca{sup 2+}-sensitive dyes into aleurone protoplasts that allows the measurement of Ca{sup 2+} in both cytosol and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Third, because the results of our Ca{sup 2+} measurements showed higher levels of Ca{sup 2+} in the ER than in the cytosol, we examined Ca{sup 2+} transport into the ER of control and GA-treated aleurone tissue. And fourth, we applied the technique of patch-clamping to the barley aleurone protoplast to examine ion transport at the plasma membrane. Our results with the patch-clamp technique established the presence of K{sup +} channels in the plasma membrane of the aleurone protoplast, and they showed that this cell is ideally suited for the application of this methodology for studying ion transport. 34 refs.

  9. Targeting the humoral immune system of patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teng, Yoe Kie Onno

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to unravel the role of the humoral immune system in rheumatoid arthritis patients by employing new immunosuppressive strategies, i.e. specific B-cell depletion with Rituximab and non-specific lymfoablative treatment with high dose chemotherapy and hematopoeietic stem cell

  10. Humor and the Emeritus Professor: An Interview with Gene Roth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivona, Brian

    2015-01-01

    This essay is a compilation of several conversations with Dr. Gene Roth, Distinguished Teaching Professor Emeritus at Northern Illinois University. Dr. Roth is past President of the Academy of Human Resource Development, and although he is well known for his efforts in bringing humor into the field of HRD, he is not the same Gene Roth that played…

  11. Humor in Father-Daughter Immigration Narratives of Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    This article draws from an ethnography on Mexican immigrant fathers and their children to examine humor in immigration narratives as acts of resistance. The analysis focuses on the devices employed by a father and daughter during their everyday talk and co-narration of an incident with police officers. Findings illustrate how the form and content…

  12. The Muhammad cartoon controversy and the globalization of humor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Kuipers

    2008-01-01

    At the 2006 conference of the International Society for Humor Studies (Danish University of Education, Copenhagen), several panels addressed issues raised by the Muhammad cartoon story. Among these, a colloquium organized by Paul Lewis and decorously titled "Transnational Ridicule and Response" focu

  13. Antioxidant status of dog aqueous humor after extracapsular lens extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barros P.S.M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We determined the antioxidant status of the aqueous humor after extracapsular lens extraction in 14 mongrel dogs weighing about 10 kg. The animals were examined by slit lamp biomicroscopy, applanation tonometry and indirect ophthalmoscopy. One eye was submitted to conventional extracapsular lens extraction and the other was used as control. Samples of aqueous humor were obtained by anterior chamber paracentesis before and at days 1, 2, 3, 7 and 15 after surgery. Total antioxidant status was determined as the capacity of aqueous humor to inhibit free radical generation by 2,2-azobis(2-amidopropane chlorine. Ascorbic acid concentration was measured by HPLC with UV detection. Protein content was determined with the biuret reagent. Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA followed by the Tukey-Kramer test. Protein concentration increased from 0.61 to 22 mg/ml 24 h after surgery. These levels were maintained and returned to normal at day 7. Total antioxidant capacity was reduced from 50 to about 30 min until day 3 and at day 7 it was equal to control. Ascorbic acid levels were reduced from 252 to about 110 µM and then returned to control values at day 15. Considering the importance of ascorbic acid concentration in aqueous humor for the maintenance of the antioxidant status of the anterior segment of the eye, the decrease of antioxidant defenses suggests that the surgical procedures promote an oxidative stress condition in the eye.

  14. "The Truth Is Funny": A Study of Jesse Stuart's Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Wade

    This study of works of Jesse Stuart treats in some depth the setting and background for the humor in his writings, his reverence for the eastern Kentucky hill country, and the various ways he uses materials from his own life and observations as subject matter for his fictional world. After establishing Stuart's kinship with earlier frontier…

  15. Humor in Father-Daughter Immigration Narratives of Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    This article draws from an ethnography on Mexican immigrant fathers and their children to examine humor in immigration narratives as acts of resistance. The analysis focuses on the devices employed by a father and daughter during their everyday talk and co-narration of an incident with police officers. Findings illustrate how the form and content…

  16. Using Humorous Sitcom Clips in Teaching Federal Income Taxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecil, H. Wayne

    2014-01-01

    This article shares the motivation, process, and outcomes of using humorous scenes from television comedies to teach the real world of tax practice. The article advances the literature by reviewing the use of video clips in a previously unexplored discipline, discussing the process of identifying and selecting appropriate clips, and introducing…

  17. Humor As a Weapon in Virginia Woolf's "Orlando."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Robin

    Virginia Woolf's "Orlando" is an excellent example of mock biography to use in literature classes concerned with analyzing literary genres. Woolf used humor to undermine some conventions of the genre of biography and to reform biography into a shape adequate to express the life of Vita Sackville-West. An ordinary biography most likely…

  18. Humor and the Emeritus Professor: An Interview with Gene Roth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivona, Brian

    2015-01-01

    This essay is a compilation of several conversations with Dr. Gene Roth, Distinguished Teaching Professor Emeritus at Northern Illinois University. Dr. Roth is past President of the Academy of Human Resource Development, and although he is well known for his efforts in bringing humor into the field of HRD, he is not the same Gene Roth that played…

  19. Laugh and Learn: Using Humor to Teach Tragedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggieri, Colleen A.

    1999-01-01

    Describes how one high school English teacher used humor when teaching Shakespearean tragedy. Describes how this improved students' attitudes and appreciation of the tragedies, helped them appreciate literature devices in the plays, and helped them review prior to their exam. (SR)

  20. Humorous Names in the Light of Incongruity Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Rutkowski

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses the humorous function of proper names in the light of incongruity theory. It aims at proving that, although names are often defined as pragmatically “transparent,” they may possess some humorous value due to semantic and pragmatic shifts resulting from the disturbance of ordinary patterns of proper names identification and interpretation. After a brief introduction, the author discusses different variants of incongruity theory as resented in the works by Victor Raskin and Thomas C. Veatch as well as their possible application to the study of humorous names. The second part of the paper provides an analysis of the humorous effects of proper names which includes anthroponyms, toponyms, trade names, football team names and names in literature. The first section of this part concentrates on names in which humour is unintentional and seems to be induced by the context, while the second section focuses on names which are intentionally humourous, i.e. supposed to amuse from the moment of their creation. The author argues that the incongruity theory can provide a useful framework for the study of the different mechanisms responsible of the semantic shifts which determine the variation of pragmatic values of proper names.

  1. Towards environments that have a sense of humor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Reidsma, Dennis; Choi, Insook; Bargar, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Humans have humorous conversations and interactions. Nowadays our real life existence is integrated with our life in social media, videogames, mixed reality and physical environments that sense our activities and that can adapt appearance and properties due to our activities. There are other

  2. Aqueous humor ferritin in hereditary hyperferritinemia cataract syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzhofer, Markus; Schroedl, Falk; Trost, Andrea; Kaser-Eichberger, Alexandra; Wiedemann, Helmut; Strohmaier, Clemens; Hohensinn, Melchior; Strasser, Michael; Muckenthaler, Martina U; Grabner, Guenther; Aigner, Elmar; Reitsamer, Herbert A

    2015-04-01

    Hereditary hyperferritinemia cataract syndrome (HHCS) is a rare autosomal dominant hereditary disease, characterized by hyperferritinemia but with absence of body iron excess and early onset of bilateral cataracts. Although 5- to 20-fold increased serum ferritin concentrations have been reported in HHCS patients, data of ferritin levels in aqueous humor have not been obtained. We therefore aimed to investigate the ferritin levels in aqueous humor and serum and further present histological and ultrastructural data of the lens. During cataract extraction and intraocular lens implantation, aqueous humor and lens aspirate of a 37-year-old HHCS patient were obtained from both eyes. Ferritin levels in serum and aqueous humor were quantitatively analyzed via immunoassays in the HHCS patient and healthy control subjects (n = 6). Lens aspirate in HHCS was analyzed histologically and at the ultrastructural level. Further, genetic mutation screening by polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing in blood was performed. Serum ferritin levels in the control group were 142.2 ± 38.7 μg/L, whereas in the HHCS patient, this parameter was excessively increased (1086 μg/L). Analysis of ferritin in aqueous humor revealed 6.4 ± 3.8 μg/L in normal control subjects and 146.3 μg/L (OD) and 160.4 μg/L (OS) in the HHCS patient. DNA analysis detected a C>A mutation on position +18, a T>G mutation on position +22, a T>C mutation on position +24, and a T>G polymorphism on position +26 in the iron-responsive element of the light-chain ferritin (L-ferritin) gene. In the HHCS patient, a 23-fold (OD) to 25-fold (OS) increased aqueous humor ferritin level was detected. Therefore, the formation of bilateral cataract in HHCS is most likely a result of elevated aqueous humor ferritin. In addition, a novel mutation in this rare disease in the iron-responsive element of L-ferritin gene is reported.

  3. Aqueous humor tyrosinase activity is indicative of iris melanocyte toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahanty, Sarmistha; Kawali, Ankush A; Dakappa, Shruthi Shirur; Mahendradas, Padmamalini; Kurian, Mathew; Kharbanda, Varun; Shetty, Rohit; Setty, Subba Rao Gangi

    2017-09-01

    Antibiotics such as fluoroquinolones (FQLs) are commonly used to treat ocular infections but are also known to cause dermal melanocyte toxicity. The release of dispersed pigments from the iris into the aqueous humor has been considered a possible ocular side effect of the systemic administration of FQLs such as Moxifloxacin, and this condition is known as bilateral acute iris transillumination (BAIT). Bilateral acute depigmentation of iris (BADI) is a similar condition, with iris pigment released into the aqueous, but it has not been reported as a side effect of FQL. Iris pigments are synthesized by the melanogenic enzyme tyrosinase (TYR) and can be detected but not quantified by using slit-lamp biomicroscopy. The correlation between dispersed pigments in the aqueous and the extent of melanocyte toxicity due to topical antibiotics in vivo is not well studied. Here, we aimed to study the effect of topical FQLs on iris tissue, the pigment release in the aqueous humor and the development of clinically evident iris atrophic changes. We evaluated this process by measuring the activity of TYR in the aqueous humor of 82 healthy eyes undergoing cataract surgery following topical application of FQLs such as Moxifloxacin (27 eyes, preservative-free) or Ciprofloxacin (29 eyes, with preservative) or the application of non-FQL Tobramycin (26 eyes, with preservative) as a control. In addition, the patients were questioned and examined for ocular side effects in pre- and post-operative periods. Our data showed a significantly higher mean TYR activity in the aqueous humor of Ciprofloxacin-treated eyes compared to Moxifloxacin- (preservative free, p humor from both Ciprofloxacin- and Moxifloxacin-treated eyes showed the presence of soluble TYR enzyme, thus reflecting its toxicity to iris melanocytes and corresponding to its activity in the aqueous humor. Intriguingly, none of these patients developed any clinically appreciable ocular side effects characteristic of BAIT or BADI

  4. Air pollution particles and iron homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The mechanism underlying biological effects of particles deposited in the lung has not been defined. Major Conclusions: A disruption in iron homeostasis follows exposure of cells to all particulate matter including air pollution particles. Following endocytosis, fun...

  5. Air pollution particles and iron homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The mechanism underlying biological effects of particles deposited in the lung has not been defined. Major Conclusions: A disruption in iron homeostasis follows exposure of cells to all particulate matter including air pollution particles. Following endocytosis, fun...

  6. Does microbiota composition affect thyroid homeostasis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virili, Camilla; Centanni, Marco

    2015-08-01

    The intestinal microbiota is essential for the host to ensure digestive and immunologic homeostasis. When microbiota homeostasis is impaired and dysbiosis occurs, the malfunction of epithelial barrier leads to intestinal and systemic disorders, chiefly immunologic and metabolic. The role of the intestinal tract is crucial in the metabolism of nutrients, drugs, and hormones, including exogenous and endogenous iodothyronines as well as micronutrients involved in thyroid homeostasis. However, the link between thyroid homeostasis and microbiota composition is not yet completely ascertained. A pathogenetic link with dysbiosis has been described in different autoimmune disorders but not yet fully elucidated in autoimmune thyroid disease which represents the most frequent of them. Anyway, it has been suggested that intestinal dysbiosis may trigger autoimmune thyroiditis. Furthermore, hypo- and hyper-thyroidism, often of autoimmune origin, were respectively associated to small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and to changes in microbiota composition. Whether some steps of this thyroid network may be affected by intestinal microbiota composition is briefly discussed below.

  7. Iron Homeostasis and Nutritional Iron Deficiency123

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Nonheme food ferritin (FTN) iron minerals, nonheme iron complexes, and heme iron contribute to the balance between food iron absorption and body iron homeostasis. Iron absorption depends on membrane transporter proteins DMT1, PCP/HCP1, ferroportin (FPN), TRF2, and matriptase 2. Mutations in DMT1 and matriptase-2 cause iron deficiency; mutations in FPN, HFE, and TRF2 cause iron excess. Intracellular iron homeostasis depends on coordinated regulation of iron trafficking and storage proteins enc...

  8. Genome wide expression analysis suggests perturbation of vascular homeostasis during high altitude pulmonary edema.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Sharma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: High altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE is a life-threatening form of non-cardiogenic edema which occurs in unacclimatized but otherwise normal individuals within two to four days after rapid ascent to altitude beyond 3000 m. The precise pathoetiology and inciting mechanisms regulating HAPE remain unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: We performed global gene expression profiling in individuals with established HAPE compared to acclimatized individuals. Our data suggests concurrent modulation of multiple pathways which regulate vascular homeostasis and consequently lung fluid dynamics. These pathways included those which regulate vasoconstriction through smooth muscle contraction, cellular actin cytoskeleton rearrangements and endothelial permeability/dysfunction. Some notable genes within these pathways included MYLK; rho family members ARGEF11, ARHGAP24; cell adhesion molecules such as CLDN6, CLDN23, PXN and VCAM1 besides other signaling intermediates. Further, several important regulators of systemic/pulmonary hypertension including ADRA1D, ECE1, and EDNRA were upregulated in HAPE. We also observed significant upregulation of genes involved in paracrine signaling through chemokines and lymphocyte activation pathways during HAPE represented by transcripts of TNF, JAK2, MAP2K2, MAP2K7, MAPK10, PLCB1, ARAF, SOS1, PAK3 and RELA amongst others. Perturbation of such pathways can potentially skew vascular homeostatic equilibrium towards altered vascular permeability. Additionally, differential regulation of hypoxia-sensing, hypoxia-response and OXPHOS pathway genes in individuals with HAPE were also observed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data reveals specific components of the complex molecular circuitry underlying HAPE. We show concurrent perturbation of multiple pathways regulating vascular homeostasis and suggest multi-genic nature of regulation of HAPE.

  9. Towards a new structural model of the sense of humor: preliminary findings

    OpenAIRE

    N.D.van

    2012-01-01

    In this article some formal, content-related and procedural considerations towards the sense of humor are articulated and the analysis of both everyday humor behavior and of comic styles leads to the initial proposal of a four factor- model of humor (4FMH). This model is tested in a new dataset and it is also examined whether two forms of comic styles (benevolent humor and moral mockery) do fit in. The model seems to be robust but further studies on the structure of the sense of humor as a pe...

  10. A Study of the Humor in Modern Family from the Perspective of Frame Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾红玲; 沈金婷

    2014-01-01

    Humor, which plays a very important role in people’s lives,has been studied from the perspectives of sociology,psy⁃chology,linguistics,etc.And in the discipline of linguistics,most studies are from the angle of pragmatics,semantics, rhetorics and cognitive linguistics.While rare study on humor are based on frame theory.And category,an indispensable element in frame,plays an essential role in humor analysis.This thesis attempts to analyze the humor in Modern Family from the perspective of frame theo⁃ry and to help readers have a deeper understanding on how humor occurs in conversation.

  11. Activation of ATP/UTP-selective receptors increases blood flow and blunts sympathetic vasoconstriction in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yegutkin, G.G.; Gonzalez-Alonso, J.; Rosenmeier, Jaya Birgitte

    2008-01-01

    and sympatholytic effects of exogenous ATP in the skeletal muscle vasculature are largely mediated via ATP itself rather than its dephosphorylated metabolites, most likely via binding to endothelial ATP/UTP-selective P2Y(2) receptors. These data are consistent with a role of ATP in skeletal muscle hyperaemia......Sympathetic vasoconstriction is blunted in the vascular beds of contracting skeletal muscle in humans, presumably due to the action of vasoactive metabolites (functional sympatholysis). Recently, we demonstrated that infusion of ATP into the arterial circulation of the resting human leg increases...

  12. Ridiculed death and the dead: Black humor on the epitaphs and epigrams of the ancient Greece

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    Stevanović Lađa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Theories about black humor usually regard that it as a contemporary phenomenon and a culmination of the literary modernism and beginning of post-modernism. My intent in this paper is to refute the thesis that the black humor is a modern invention. I am going to prove its existence still in Greek antiquity, quoting and analyzing humorous epitaphs and black humor epigrams. Putting in relation black humor with the joy and humor in religious (fertility and funeral rituals, I am also going to set a question about the attitude to death and life inherent for this kind of humor, arguing that its origin should be searched in the folk tradition.

  13. Humor styles and loneliness: a study among Hong Kong and Hangzhou undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xiao Dong; Wong, Ashley Yuen Man; Hiranandani, Neelam Arjan

    2014-08-01

    This study examined the relationship between humor styles and loneliness among a sample of Hong Kong and Mainland Chinese. A total of 159 Hong Kong undergraduates and 178 Hangzhou undergraduates were recruited to complete a survey composed of the Humor Styles Questionnaire and the Emotional and Social Loneliness Scales. Multiple regression analyses showed that self-defeating humor explained significant variance in both social and emotional loneliness for Hong Kong students, but only in social loneliness for Hangzhou students. Hong Kong students scored significantly higher on aggressive humor and self-defeating humor, and scored significantly lower on affiliative humor and self-enhancing humor than did their counterparts in Hangzhou. This could be attributed to the greater influence of Confucianism in Mainland China than in Hong Kong.

  14. Rumination, Suicidal Ideation, and the Mediating Effect of Self-Defeating Humor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond P. Tucker

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Research has demonstrated that a self-defeating humor style is related to indicators of psychopathology and interpersonal dysfunction, including depression, anxiety, loneliness, thwarted belongingness, and perceived burdensomeness. The current study continued this investigation by examining how self-defeating humor is related to suicidal ideation and a ruminative response style. Analyses indicated that a self-defeating humor style was positively associated to rumination, brooding, reflection, and suicidal ideation. Results of bootstrapping analyses indicated that self-defeating humor mediated the relationship between rumination and suicidal ideation. This same effect was seen for both brooding and reflection individually. Results indicate that self-defeating humor may serve as an interpersonal means of ruminating as this humor style involves consistent focus on perceived flaws and weaknesses. The assessment of this humor style may provide additional information about the maintenance of suicidal thinking.

  15. On Untranslatability of Humor in Mark Twain's Novels and Compensating Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹小路

    2016-01-01

    Mark Twain was a well-known 19th-century American author and a reputed critical realist. His novels are excellent for combining humor with irony, which reveal his criticism of kinds of miserable reality in American society. His humor is not just for humorous effect, but has serious and profound social connotations. So when readers of the target language are reading his novels, their understanding of the deep purpose and connotations would be influenced by the quality of translation of those humors. Therefore, translators must own language competence and sufficient knowledge about the cultural background, for humor is a typical example of untranslatability. This paper makes an analysis of the two types of untranslatability: the cultural untranslatability and the linguistic and takes translation of humor in Mark Twain's novels as examples to analyze the untranslatability of humor in literature and gives suggestions of compensating strategy.

  16. Pharmacological characterization of muscarinic receptor subtypes mediating vasoconstriction of human umbilical vein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol Lereis, Virginia Andrea; Hita, Francisco Javier; Gobbi, Mauro Darío; Verdi, Marcela Gomez; Rodriguez, María Cecilia; Rothlin, Rodolfo Pedro

    2006-01-01

    The present study attempted to pharmacologically characterize the muscarinic receptor subtypes mediating contraction of human umbilical vein (HUV). HUV rings were mounted in organ baths and concentration–response curves were constructed for acetylcholine (ACh) (pEC50: 6.16±0.04; maximum response 80.00±1.98% of the responses induced by serotonin 10 μM). The absence of endothelium did not modify the contractile responses of ACh in this tissue. The role of cholinesterases was evaluated: neither neostigmine (acetylcholinesterase inhibitor) nor iso-OMPA (butyrylcholinesterase inhibitor) modified ACh responses. When both enzymes were simultaneously inhibited, a significantly but little potentiation was observed (control: pEC50 6.33±0.03; double inhibition: pEC50 6.57±0.05). Atropine, nonselective muscarinic receptors antagonist, inhibited ACh-induced contraction (pKB 9.67). The muscarinic receptors antagonists pirenzepine (M1), methoctramine (M2) and pFHHSiD (M3) also antagonized responses to ACh. The affinity values estimated for these antagonists against responses evoked by ACh were 7.58, 6.78 and 7.94, respectively. On the other hand, PD 102807 (M4 selective muscarinic receptors antagonist) was ineffective against ACh-induced contraction. In presence of a blocking concentration of pirenzepine, pFHHSiFD produced an additional antagonism activity on ACh-induced responses. The M1 muscarinic receptors agonist McN-A-343 produced similar maximum but less potent responses than ACh in HUV. The calculated pA2 for pirenzepine against McN-A-343 induced responses was 8.54. In conclusion, the data obtained in this study demonstrate the role of M1 muscarinic receptor subtypes and suggest the involvement of M3 muscarinic receptor subtypes in ACh-induced vasoconstriction in HUV rings. In addition, the vasomotor activity evoked by ACh does not seem to be modulated by endothelial factors, and their enzymatic degradation appears to have little functional relevance in this

  17. Attenuation of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction in acute oleic acid lung injury--significance of vasodilator prostanoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, K; Mori, M; Kawai, A; Asano, K; Takasugi, T; Umeda, A; Yokoyama, T

    1992-01-01

    To assess a significant role of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, HPV, on maintaining the gas exchange efficiency in acute lung injury, 24 mongrel dogs were treated with intravenously injecting 0.07 ml/kg of oleic acid. Hemodynamic and gas-exchange parameters were investigated at varied inspired O2 concentration, FIO2. To know a possible contribution of vasoactive prostanoids in regulating vascular reactivity under these circumstances, observations were repeated after infusion of indomethacin. The impairment of gas exchange in injured lungs was examined by measuring the fractional retention, R, of the gas in arterial blood. For this evaluation, a normal saline containing five foreign inert gases such as sulfur hexafluoride, SF6, ethane, cyclopropane, halothane and diethyl ether was infused at a constant rate through a peripheral vein. After a steady state was established, the expired gas was collected and the samples of both arterial and mixed venous blood were simultaneously taken for the inert-gas analysis. The concentrations of the indicator gases in the samples were measured in terms of a gas chromatograph equipped with an electron capture detector for SF6 and a flame ionization detector for the other four gases. Although pulmonary vascular resistance, PVR, after injecting oleic acid at FIO2 0.60 was significantly smaller than that obtained at FIO2 0.21, cardiac output, QT as well as extravascular lung water were not different between the two conditions. R value for the indicator gas was consistently lower at FIO2 0.60 irrespective of the gas species. As increasing FIO2, R estimate concerning SF6, RSF6, rational index of the fractional blood flow perfusing shunt area, decreased significantly. Administration of indomethacin caused the rise in PVR without an appreciable change in either QT or extravascular lung water but a considerable diminution in R value for the inert gas. RSF6 after infusion of indomethacin decreased from 0.35 to 0.27, accompanied by a

  18. IL-2 induces pulmonary edema and vasoconstriction independent of circulating lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferro, T.J.; Johnson, A.; Everitt, J.; Malik, A.B.

    1989-03-15

    We investigated the effect of IL-2 in the isolated guinea pig lung perfused with phosphate-buffered Ringer's solution (containing 0.5 g/100 ml albumin and 5.5 mM dextrose) to determine the mechanism of IL-2-induced pulmonary edema. IL-2 (0 to 10,000 U/ml) was added to the perfusate following a 10 min baseline steady-state period. Pulmonary arterial pressure (Ppa), pulmonary capillary pressure (Ppc), and change in lung weight (as a measure of developing pulmonary edema) were recorded at 0, 10, 30, 40, and 60 min. The capillary filtration coefficient (Kf.c), an index of vascular permeability to water, was measured at 30 and 60 min. Infusion of IL-2 increased Ppc (from 3.9 +/- 0.1 cm H2O at baseline to 8.8 +/- 1.1 cm H2O at 60 min for IL-2 at 2000 U/ml, p less than 0.01; and from 3.8 +/- 0.1 cm H2O at baseline to 8.9 +/- 0.6 cm H2O at 60 min for IL-2 at 10,000 U/ml, p less than 0.01. The lung weight also increased (32% at IL-2 concentration of 2000 U/ml, and 26% at IL-2 concentration of 10,000 U/ml) The capillary filtration coefficient did not change with IL-2 infusion. The IL-2 response was prevented using the pulmonary vasodilator, papaverine. The infusion of IL-2 was associated with the generation of thromboxane A2(TxA2) in the effluent perfusate. Inhibition of TxA2 synthetase using Dazoxiben prevented the pulmonary vasoconstriction and edema response to IL-2. In addition, IL-2 had no effect on the transendothelial clearance of 125I-albumin. The results indicate that IL-2 causes pulmonary edema secondary to an increase in Ppc. The response is mediated by IL-2 stimulation of TxA2 generation from the lung.

  19. [The effect of humor in the workplace on mental/physical health and self-evaluation of job performance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Junichi; Fuji, Kei

    2016-04-01

    In this study we aimed to examine the contents of humor in the Japanese workplace and to understand the effects of humor on mental/physical health and self-evaluation of job performance. Japanese workers (N = 436) responded to questionnaires addressing workplace humor, feelings about workplace, workplace communication, mental/physical health, and perceived job performance. An exploratory factor analysis indicated that there are five types of workplace humor: norm-violating humor, experience-sharing humor workplace-enjoying humor, people-recalling humor, and outside-mocking humor. A covariance structural analysis showed that norm-violating humor and workplace-enjoying humor decreased mental and physical health by promoting both negative feelings in the workplace and self-disclosure about the negative side of work. Results also revealed that experience-sharing humor, people-recalling humor, and outside-mocking humor had a positive effect on the self-evaluation of job performance as well as mental and physical health, by promoting both positive feelings and mutual communication in the workplace. Results suggest that humor in the workplace has various influences on workers depending on the type of workplace humor.

  20. Experimentally Manipulating Items Informs on the (Limited) Construct and Criterion Validity of the Humor Styles Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruch, Willibald; Heintz, Sonja

    2017-01-01

    How strongly does humor (i.e., the construct-relevant content) in the Humor Styles Questionnaire (HSQ; Martin et al., 2003) determine the responses to this measure (i.e., construct validity)? Also, how much does humor influence the relationships of the four HSQ scales, namely affiliative, self-enhancing, aggressive, and self-defeating, with personality traits and subjective well-being (i.e., criterion validity)? The present paper answers these two questions by experimentally manipulating the 32 items of the HSQ to only (or mostly) contain humor (i.e., construct-relevant content) or to substitute the humor content with non-humorous alternatives (i.e., only assessing construct-irrelevant context). Study 1 (N = 187) showed that the HSQ affiliative scale was mainly determined by humor, self-enhancing and aggressive were determined by both humor and non-humorous context, and self-defeating was primarily determined by the context. This suggests that humor is not the primary source of the variance in three of the HQS scales, thereby limiting their construct validity. Study 2 (N = 261) showed that the relationships of the HSQ scales to the Big Five personality traits and subjective well-being (positive affect, negative affect, and life satisfaction) were consistently reduced (personality) or vanished (subjective well-being) when the non-humorous contexts in the HSQ items were controlled for. For the HSQ self-defeating scale, the pattern of relationships to personality was also altered, supporting an positive rather than a negative view of the humor in this humor style. The present findings thus call for a reevaluation of the role that humor plays in the HSQ (construct validity) and in the relationships to personality and well-being (criterion validity).

  1. Decoding Humor Experiences from Brain Activity of People Viewing Comedy Movies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawahata, Yasuhito; Komine, Kazuteru; Morita, Toshiya; Hiruma, Nobuyuki

    2013-01-01

    Humans naturally have a sense of humor. Experiencing humor not only encourages social interactions, but also produces positive physiological effects on the human body, such as lowering blood pressure. Recent neuro-imaging studies have shown evidence for distinct mental state changes at work in people experiencing humor. However, the temporal characteristics of these changes remain elusive. In this paper, we objectively measured humor-related mental states from single-trial functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data obtained while subjects viewed comedy TV programs. Measured fMRI data were labeled on the basis of the lag before or after the viewer’s perception of humor (humor onset) determined by the viewer-reported humor experiences during the fMRI scans. We trained multiple binary classifiers, or decoders, to distinguish between fMRI data obtained at each lag from ones obtained during a neutral state in which subjects were not experiencing humor. As a result, in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the right temporal area, the decoders showed significant classification accuracies even at two seconds ahead of the humor onsets. Furthermore, given a time series of fMRI data obtained during movie viewing, we found that the decoders with significant performance were also able to predict the upcoming humor events on a volume-by-volume basis. Taking into account the hemodynamic delay, our results suggest that the upcoming humor events are encoded in specific brain areas up to about five seconds before the awareness of experiencing humor. Our results provide evidence that there exists a mental state lasting for a few seconds before actual humor perception, as if a viewer is expecting the future humorous events. PMID:24324656

  2. Decoding humor experiences from brain activity of people viewing comedy movies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhito Sawahata

    Full Text Available Humans naturally have a sense of humor. Experiencing humor not only encourages social interactions, but also produces positive physiological effects on the human body, such as lowering blood pressure. Recent neuro-imaging studies have shown evidence for distinct mental state changes at work in people experiencing humor. However, the temporal characteristics of these changes remain elusive. In this paper, we objectively measured humor-related mental states from single-trial functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data obtained while subjects viewed comedy TV programs. Measured fMRI data were labeled on the basis of the lag before or after the viewer's perception of humor (humor onset determined by the viewer-reported humor experiences during the fMRI scans. We trained multiple binary classifiers, or decoders, to distinguish between fMRI data obtained at each lag from ones obtained during a neutral state in which subjects were not experiencing humor. As a result, in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the right temporal area, the decoders showed significant classification accuracies even at two seconds ahead of the humor onsets. Furthermore, given a time series of fMRI data obtained during movie viewing, we found that the decoders with significant performance were also able to predict the upcoming humor events on a volume-by-volume basis. Taking into account the hemodynamic delay, our results suggest that the upcoming humor events are encoded in specific brain areas up to about five seconds before the awareness of experiencing humor. Our results provide evidence that there exists a mental state lasting for a few seconds before actual humor perception, as if a viewer is expecting the future humorous events.

  3. Is Laughing at the Expense of Victims and Offenders a Red Flag? Humor and Secondary Traumatic Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craun, Sarah W; Bourke, Michael L

    2015-01-01

    Those who work with human trauma often use humor to handle job stressors. Research has demonstrated that lighthearted humor is related to lower secondary traumatic stress scores, while gallows humor has the inverse relationship. This work explores how three types of humor relate to secondary traumatic stress: (a) humor at the expense of victims, (b) humor at the expense of offenders, and (c) humor containing sexual innuendo. Internet crimes against children taskforce personnel completed questionnaires about secondary traumatic stress and coping techniques. Humor at the expense of victims was rarely used, but when it was, it was indicative of higher secondary traumatic stress. There were no relationships between secondary traumatic stress and the use of humor at the expense of offenders or humor containing sexual innuendo.

  4. Evening types among german university students score higher on sense of humor after controlling for big five personality factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randler, Christoph

    2008-10-01

    Humor research has focused on relationships between humor and various personality traits. As personality and morningness-eveningness, as well as personality and humor, are related based on genetics and neurobehavioral function, one might also expect a relationship between humor and chronotype. 197 students responded to the Composite Scale of Morningness as a measure of chronotype, the Sense of Humor Questionnaire and a 10-item version of the Big Five Inventory. Individuals scoring as evening types reported a greater sense of humor than morning individuals, with higher morningness scores. In a stepwise linear regression, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Openness, and Chronotype each accounted for a significant amount of variance in sense of Humor scores. That is, the relationship between scores on Sense of Humor and evening orientation was significant after controlling for personality dimensions. Eveningness was related to sense of Humor scores in women but not in men. Social but not cognitive humor was predicted by eveningness.

  5. Nitric oxide (NO) inhibits antigen-stimulated increases in vasoconstriction and glycogenolysis in perfused livers derived from sensitized rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hines, K.L.; Bates, J.N.; Fisher, R.A. (Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City (United States))

    1991-03-11

    Recent studies in the authors laboratory demonstrated that infusion of antigen into perfused livers from sensitized rats produces increases in hepatic portal pressure, increases in hepatic glucose output and decreases in hepatic oxygen consumption. In the present study, effects of NO on these hepatic responses to antigen challenge were investigated. Infusion of NO into perfused livers from sensitized rats attenuated ovalbumin induced increases in hepatic portal pressure and glucose output approximately 85% and 90%, respectively, and abolished ovalbumin-induced decreases in hepatic oxygen consumption. The duration of ovalbumin-stimulated increases in hepatic portal pressure was reduced nearly 90% by NO. Similarly, infusion of NO into perfused livers from sensitized rats inhibited increases in hepatic portal pressure and glucose output in response to platelet-activating factor (PAF) nearly 80 and 90%, respectively. In contrast, NO inhibited completely hepatic vasoconstriction in response to phenylephrine without altering glycogenolytic responses to this {alpha}-adrenergic agonist. These results provide evidence for regulatory effects of NO on hemodynamic and glycogenolytic responses to antigen in perfused livers from sensitized rats. These observations support previous findings which suggest that hepatic responses to sensitizing antigen may be mediated by PAF or other autacoid mediators which stimulate glycogenolysis in liver by indirect mechanisms involving hepatic vasoconstriction.

  6. Mapping and signaling of neural pathways involved in the regulation of hydromineral homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Antunes-Rodrigues

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Several forebrain and brainstem neurochemical circuitries interact with peripheral neural and humoral signals to collaboratively maintain both the volume and osmolality of extracellular fluids. Although much progress has been made over the past decades in the understanding of complex mechanisms underlying neuroendocrine control of hydromineral homeostasis, several issues still remain to be clarified. The use of techniques such as molecular biology, neuronal tracing, electrophysiology, immunohistochemistry, and microinfusions has significantly improved our ability to identify neuronal phenotypes and their signals, including those related to neuron-glia interactions. Accordingly, neurons have been shown to produce and release a large number of chemical mediators (neurotransmitters, neurohormones and neuromodulators into the interstitial space, which include not only classic neurotransmitters, such as acetylcholine, amines (noradrenaline, serotonin and amino acids (glutamate, GABA, but also gaseous (nitric oxide, carbon monoxide and hydrogen sulfide and lipid-derived (endocannabinoids mediators. This efferent response, initiated within the neuronal environment, recruits several peripheral effectors, such as hormones (glucocorticoids, angiotensin II, estrogen, which in turn modulate central nervous system responsiveness to systemic challenges. Therefore, in this review, we shall evaluate in an integrated manner the physiological control of body fluid homeostasis from the molecular aspects to the systemic and integrated responses.

  7. How fun are your meetings? Investigating the relationship between humor patterns in team interactions and team performance

    OpenAIRE

    Lehmann-Willenbrock, N.K.; Allen, J A

    2014-01-01

    Research on humor in organizations has rarely considered the social context in which humor occurs. One such social setting that most of us experience on a daily basis concerns the team context. Building on recent theorizing about the humor–performance link in teams, this study seeks to increase our understandingof the function and effects of humor in team interaction settings. We examined behavioral patterns of humor and laughter in real teams by videotaping and coding humor and laughter duri...

  8. Humorous Writing Exercise Using Internet Memes On English Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Aziz Turhan Kariko

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses Internet memes found by Internet users and how they appeal for them, by deconstructing what internet meme is and what it does. Analysis are conducted especially on how the relation between images, text, and meanings connect with each other to form social messages, political messages, universal emotions, or merely to make humor and entertain its users. Researcher examines five samples of internet memes on the internet and decodes their relation between images, texts, and meanings using semiotics. These samples are then introduced as writing assignments to two BINUS University’s English department classes and one Global English Class. The study reveals that humor and creativity in using internet memes are related to the students’ achievement in their studies.

  9. Semblanzas deportivas: humor, deporte y terror en Fontanarrosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Palacios

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza el uso del humor negro del caricaturista Fontanarrosa en su serie Semblanzas Deportivas, definiendo, a la vez que deslindando, lo humorístico y lo cómico. Se aborda también el lugar que ocupa la obra de Fontanarrosa en la cultura popular, en donde destacan sobre todo temas deportivos como: fútbol, boxeo, atletismo y lucha libre. Se observa el uso de la literatura borgeana en Fontanarrosa y cómo, a partir de la exageración en imágenes de los rasgos de sus personajes, se consigue elaborar una crítica sin que sea necesario recurrir a la abierta oposición.

  10. La grata dominación del humor publicitario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lic. Elena del Carmen Pérez

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo se propone dar cuenta de las estrategias con que el humor hace emerger, en el contexto general de los discursos, aquellos fragmentos omitidos por el decir oficial. Por su naturaleza de articulador ideológico, el texto publicitario (como todo texto remite a lo ya dicho en un estado dado de sociedad. En este sentido, resulta interesante observar qué fragmentos del discurso social recoge la publicidad humorística, con qué retórica los hace risibles y quiénes son aquellos sobre los que recae la risa. Se comentan avisos que son emitidos actualmente por canales de cable o aire en la ciudad de Córdoba, Argentina.

  11. Cartooning Humor: How Arabs are Laughably Derided in Animations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Belamghari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Some animated movies use humor to capture the full attention of its audience. In so doing, the movie’s messages have become a great concern for many theorists and critics by virtue of the idea that a movie can be a repository of ideologies meant to construct a certain type of easy-going and noncritical audience. This paper, therefore, takes the example of Max Fleischer’s Popeye the Sailor Meets Ali Baba and his Forty Thieves (1937 and Robert Clampett’s Ali Baba Bound (1941 as its case studies aiming at spotting the different manifestations of humor, taking Arabs as its subject-matter, becoming a leaked ideology and taming the discourse that is amplified, manipulated, and delivered to the Western public in unwarrantable ways compared to the imagery of Westerners.

  12. Comparative Study of Two Vitreous Humor Sampling Methods in Rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lan; ZHOU Weiguang; REN Liang; LIU Qian; LIU Liang

    2006-01-01

    To compare and evaluate two methodologies, entire-sampling and micro-sampling for the harvesting of vitreous humor, the vitreous humor of rabbits were sampled with the two methods respectively, and the concentrations of calcium, chlorine, potassium, sodium and phosphorus of the were measured. The results showed that the differences in the variance coefficient and two-eye concentrations of micro-sampled specimens were less than those of the entire-sampled specimens. In the micro-sampling group, the concentrations of repeated micro-sampling showed no differences among different groups (P>0.05) and the intra-ocular fluid dynamics did not have significant influence on post-mortem sampling. The sampling technique may affect the concentrations of specimen collected.Our study suggests that micro-sampling is less influenced by the human factor and is reliable, reproducible, and more suitable for forensic investigation.

  13. Mother, melancholia, and humor in Erik H. Erikson's earliest writings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, Donald

    2008-09-01

    Erik H. Erikson wrote three articles when he was in his late-twenties and an up-and-coming member of the psychoanalytic community in Vienna. At the time he wrote these articles, he was in a training psychoanalysis with Anna Freud, teaching at the Heitzing School in Vienna, and learning the Montessori method of teaching. These articles focus on the loss of primary narcissism and the development of the superego (or punitive conscience) in early childhood, especially through the child's conflict with maternal authority. They support the idea that melancholia, with its internalized rage against the mother, is the inevitable outcome of the loss of primary narcissism. I note, however, that the third of these articles makes a case for the restorative role of humor, especially when Freud's view that humor is a function of the superego is taken into account.

  14. KEPEKAAN HUMOR DENGAN DEPRESI PADA REMAJA DITINJAU DARI JENIS KELAMIN

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    Nurul Hidayah

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the relationship between sense of humorsand depression in adolescents in terms of gender. The subjects of this studywere students of SMA Negeri 1 Sewon, Bantul, Yogyakarta class X andXI. The data collection tools of this study used the Beck Depression Inventory(BDI and the Sense of Humor Scale Version-B, and used the analysiscovariance method to analyze the data. The results of this study showedsignificant differences in depression among female subjects and male subjects with a value of F = 6.905 and p = 0.010 (p <0.05 by controlling the sense of humor variable. The average level of female depression (7.284 was higher than male subjects (6.196. This result will be discussed further in this paper.

  15. Hipercalcemia humoral secundaria a carcinoma mixto de endometrio

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    I. Pinal-Fernández

    Full Text Available La hipercalcemia secundaria a enfermedad neoplásica es una entidad frecuente causada en la mayor parte de los casos por secreción ectópica de PTHrp. A pesar de esto hay ciertos tumores, como los carcinomas uterinos, en donde este tipo de manifestación paraneoplásica está muy poco descrita. Presentamos un caso de hipercalcemia humoral en un carcinoma mixto de endometrio.

  16. American Humor reflected in English Film The Big Bang Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘珍

    2016-01-01

    With the accelerated process of globalization, we are able to access to the wide variety of cultural forms from all over the world conveniently. The United States, a typical country of immigrants, enjoys the world's first place of ethnic cultural melt-ing. In this paper, the writer takes popular sitcom, The Big Bang Theory, for example to explore the humorous culture of the United States as well as its sources and characteristics from the perspective of subtitle translation.

  17. Humor on the unpublished poetry of Vinicius de Moraes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Gil

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this essay is to present the humor in poems that Vinicius de Moraes left unpublished in books, its types and incidence. It reviews the development of the comic instances in his work, and makes a close analysis of the poems “Mote e contramote” and “Sob o trópico do câncer”.

  18. Comprehension of humor in primary agenesis of the corpus callosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Warren S; Paul, Lynn K; Symington, Melissa; Dietrich, Rosalind

    2005-01-01

    Individuals with agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC) can, in some cases, perform normally on standardized intelligence tests. Nevertheless, recent studies suggest that individuals with ACC and normal IQ scores have deficits in domains of fluid and social intelligence. Anecdotal reports from families suggest diminished appreciation of the subtleties of social interactions, and deficits in the comprehension of jokes and stories. In this research, both the cartoon and narrative joke subtests of a humor test (developed by Brownell et al. [Brownell, H., Michel, D., Powelson, J., & Gardner, H. (1983). Surprise but not coherence: sensitivity to verbal humor in right-hemisphere patients. Brain and language, 18(1), 20-27] and Bihrle et al. [Bihrle, A. M., Brownell, H. H., Powelson, J. A., & Gardner, H. (1986). Comprehension of humorous and non-humorous materials by left and right brain-damaged patients. Brain and Cognition, 5(4), 399-411]) were given to 16 adults with complete ACC (all with IQs>80) and 31 controls of similar age and IQ. Individuals with ACC performed worse than controls on the narrative joke subtest (p<.025) when VIQ was controlled. However, on the cartoon subtest the two groups were not significantly different. Covarying age, forms of IQ, narrative memory, set-switching, and literal language comprehension did not substantially alter the group difference. However, covarying comprehension of nonliteral language and proverbs eliminated the difference, suggesting a common origin for the comprehension of jokes, nonliteral language, and proverbs, most likely related to capacity for understanding second-order meanings.

  19. Linguistic aspects of verbal humor in stand-up comedy

    OpenAIRE

    Schwarz, Jeannine

    2009-01-01

    This study attempts to explore the ways in which stand-up comedians organize and perform their material in order to create humor, elicit laughter, and make the audience appreciate their performances. It also examines the audience's central role in comedians' organization and presentation of the material. In order to provide authentic material, performances by comedians Jerry Seinfeld and Steven Wright were transcribed and served as main data for the analytical part of this study. The crea...

  20. The acceptability of humor between palliative care patients and health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, Julia; Dance, Derry; Pare, Daniel

    2014-04-01

    Humor frequently occurs in palliative care environments; however, the acceptability of humor, particularly between patients and health care providers has not been previously examined. To explore the importance and acceptability of humor to participants who are patients in a palliative care context, the study determines if demographics are correlated with the degree of acceptability, and examines the acceptance of humor by patients with advanced illness when interacting with nurses or physicians. One hundred participants admitted to a palliative care unit or residential hospice were surveyed. Basic demographic data were collected, as well as responses on a five-point Likert scale to a variety of questions regarding the participants' attitudes about humor before and after their illness and the acceptability of humor in a palliative setting. Participants were also given the opportunity to comment freely on the topic of humor and the palliative experience. A large majority of participants valued humor highly both prior to (77%) and during (76%) their illness experience. Despite this valuation, the frequency of laughter in their daily lives diminished significantly as patients' illness progressed. Most participants remembered laughing with a nurse (87%) and a doctor (67%) in the week prior to the survey, and found humor with their doctors (75%) and nurses appropriate (88%). The vast majority of participants found humorous interactions with their health care providers acceptable and appropriate, and this may indicate a opportunity for enhanced and more effective end-of-life care in the future.

  1. Humor Styles and the Intolerance of Uncertainty Model of Generalized Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A. Kuiper

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Past research suggests that sense of humor may play a role in anxiety. The present study builds upon this work by exploring how individual differences in various humor styles, such as affiliative, self-enhancing, and self-defeating humor, may fit within a contemporary research model of anxiety. In this model, intolerance of uncertainty is a fundamental personality characteristic that heightens excessive worry, thus increasing anxiety. We further propose that greater intolerance of uncertainty may also suppress the use of adaptive humor (affiliate and self-enhancing, and foster the increased use of maladaptive self-defeating humor. Initial correlational analyses provide empirical support for these proposals. In addition, we found that excessive worry and affiliative humor both served as significant mediators. In particular, heightened intolerance of uncertainty lead to both excessive worry and a reduction in affiliative humor use, which, in turn, increased anxiety. We also explored potential humor mediating effects for each of the individual worry content domains in this model. These analyses confirmed the importance of affiliative humor as a mediator for worry pertaining to a wide range of content domains (e.g., relationships, lack of confidence, the future and work. These findings were then discussed in terms of a combined model that considers how humor styles may impact the social sharing of positive and negative emotions.

  2. HUMOR STYLES, CREATIVE PERSONALITY TRAITS, AND CREATIVE THINKING IN A HONG KONG SAMPLE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xiao Dong; Hui, Anna Na

    2015-12-01

    Humor is found to be an essential element of creative thinking in Western culture. In Eastern culture, however, the relationship between creativity and humor is ambivalent. This study examined the relationship among humor styles, creative personality traits, and creative thinking abilities. A sample of 118 Chinese undergraduates in Hong Kong was recruited to complete the Humor Styles Questionnaire, the three Creative Personality subscales of the Chinese Personality Assessment Inventory-2 (CPAI-2), and the Verbal Test of the Wallach-Kogan Creativity Tests. Results show that humor styles are uncorrelated with creative thinking abilities of flexibility, fluency, and originality, but affiliative humor and aggressive humor are correlated with creative personality traits of novelty and diversity. A hierarchical multiple regression shows that both humor styles and creative personality traits of novelty and diversity account for non-significant variance on creative thinking abilities. These findings largely support a hypothesized non-association between humor styles and creative measures. They also pose a sharp contrast to findings obtained in the West, in which humor styles are typically correlated with both creative thinking abilities and creative personality traits.

  3. Iron homeostasis: new players, newer insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edison, Eunice S; Bajel, Ashish; Chandy, Mammen

    2008-12-01

    Although iron is a relatively abundant element in the universe, it is estimated that more than 2 billion people worldwide suffer from iron deficiency anemia. Iron deficiency results in impaired production of iron-containing proteins, the most prominent of which is hemoglobin. Cellular iron deficiency inhibits cell growth and subsequently leads to cell death. Hemochromatosis, an inherited disorder results in disproportionate absorption of iron and the extra iron builds up in tissues resulting in organ damage. As both iron deficiency and iron overload have adverse effects, cellular and systemic iron homeostasis is critically important. Recent advances in the field of iron metabolism have led to newer understanding of the pathways involved in iron homeostasis and the diseases which arise from alteration in the regulators. Although insight into this complex regulation of the proteins involved in iron homeostasis has been obtained mainly through animal studies, it is most likely that this knowledge can be directly extrapolated to humans.

  4. The effect of humor on aggression catharsis in the classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziv, A

    1987-07-01

    Two studies were designed to measure the cathartic effects of humor on aggressive responses. In the first study, two versions (easy and difficult) of Raven's intelligence test were administered to two groups of high school students. Only the easy version could be solved in the alloted time. Rosenzweig's (1951) Picture Frustration test was then administered and the students' aggressive responses were scored. Results showed that those who did not solve the problems had significantly higher scores on aggressivity than did the others. The second study, using four different groups, was planned according to a modified Solomon design. Two of the four groups of students completed the difficult part of the Raven test, and then two video-tapes were presented: a humorous one to two groups and a neutral one to the others. Finally, the Rosenzweig Picture Frustration test was administered to all four groups. An analysis of variance computed on the aggressivity scores showed one significant difference: frustrated students who viewed the humorous videotape had lower scores than those viewing the neutral one.

  5. Bimatoprost Effects on Aqueous Humor Dynamics in Monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David F. Woodward

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of bimatoprost on aqueous humor dynamics were quantified in monkey eyes. Uveoscleral outflow was measured by the anterior chamber perfusion method, using FITC-dextran. Total outflow facility was determined by the two-level constant pressure method. Aqueous flow was measured with a scanning ocular fluorophotometer. Uveoscleral outflow was 0.96±0.19 L min−1 in vehicle-treated eyes and 1.37±0.27 L min−1 (=6; <.05 in eyes that received bimatoprost 0.01% b.i.d. × 5 days. Bimatoprost had no effect on total outflow facility, which was 0.42±0.05 L min−1 at baseline and 0.42±0.04 L min−1 after bimatoprost treatment. Bimatoprost had no significant effect on aqueous humor flow. This study demonstrates that bimatoprost increases uveoscleral outflow but not total outflow facility or aqueous humor flow, indicating that it lowers intraocular pressure in ocular normotensive monkeys by a mechanism that exclusively involves uveoscleral outflow.

  6. A systematic review of humoral immune responses against tumor antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuschenbach, Miriam; von Knebel Doeberitz, Magnus; Wentzensen, Nicolas

    2009-10-01

    This review summarizes studies on humoral immune responses against tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) with a focus on antibody frequencies and the potential diagnostic, prognostic, and etiologic relevance of antibodies against TAAs. We performed a systematic literature search in Medline and identified 3,619 articles on humoral immune responses and TAAs. In 145 studies, meeting the inclusion criteria, humoral immune responses in cancer patients have been analyzed against over 100 different TAAs. The most frequently analyzed antigens were p53, MUC1, NY-ESO-1, c-myc, survivin, p62, cyclin B1, and Her2/neu. Antibodies against these TAAs were detected in 0-69% (median 14%) of analyzed tumor patients. Antibody frequencies were generally very low in healthy individuals, with the exception of few TAAs, especially MUC1. For several TAAs, including p53, Her2/neu, and NY-ESO-1, higher antibody frequencies were reported when tumors expressed the respective TAA. Antibodies against MUC1 were associated with a favorable prognosis while antibodies against p53 were associated with poor disease outcome. These data suggest different functional roles of endogenous antibodies against TAAs. Although data on prediagnostic antibody levels are scarce and antibody frequencies for most TAAs are at levels precluding use in diagnostic assays for cancer early detection, there is some promising data on achieving higher sensitivity for cancer detection using panels of TAAs.

  7. Investigating vision in schizophrenia through responses to humorous stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Tschacher

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The visual environment of humans contains abundant ambiguity and fragmentary information. Therefore, an early step of vision must disambiguate the incessant stream of information. Humorous stimuli produce a situation that is strikingly analogous to this process: Funniness is associated with the incongruity contained in a joke, pun, or cartoon. Like in vision in general, appreciating a visual pun as funny necessitates disambiguation of incongruous information. Therefore, perceived funniness of visual puns was implemented to study visual perception in a sample of 36 schizophrenia patients and 56 healthy control participants. We found that both visual incongruity and Theory of Mind (ToM content of the puns were associated with increased experienced funniness. This was significantly less so in participants with schizophrenia, consistent with the gestalt hypothesis of schizophrenia, which would predict compromised perceptual organization in patients. The association of incongruity with funniness was not mediated by known predictors of humor appreciation, such as affective state, depression, or extraversion. Patients with higher excitement symptoms and, at a trend level, reduced cognitive symptoms, reported lower funniness experiences. An open question remained whether patients showed this deficiency of visual incongruity detection independent of their ToM deficiency. Humorous stimuli may be viewed as a convenient method to study perceptual processes, but also fundamental questions of higher-level cognition.

  8. Three Decades Investigating Humor and Laughter: An Interview With Professor Rod Martin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rod Martin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Since the start of the 21st century, the investigation of various psychological aspects of humor and laughter has become an increasingly prominent topic of research. This growth can be attributed, in no small part, to the pioneering and creative work on humor and laughter conducted by Professor Rod Martin. Dr. Martin’s research interests in humor and laughter began in the early 1980s and continued throughout his 32 year long career as a professor of clinical psychology at the University of Western Ontario. During this time, Dr. Martin published numerous scholarly articles, chapters, and books on psychological aspects of humor and laughter. Professor Martin has just retired in July 2016, and in the present interview he recounts a number of research highlights of his illustrious career. Dr. Martin’s earliest influential work, conducted while he was still in graduate school, stemmed from an individual difference perspective that focused on the beneficial effects of sense of humor on psychological well-being. This research focus remained evident in many of Professor Martin’s subsequent investigations, but became increasingly refined as he developed several measures of different components of sense of humor, including both adaptive and maladaptive humor styles. In this interview, Dr. Martin describes the conceptualization, development and use of the Humor Styles Questionnaire, along with suggestions for future research and development. In doing so, he also discusses the three main components of humor (i.e., cognitive, emotional and interpersonal, as well as the distinctions and similarities between humor and laughter. Further highlights of this interview include Professor Martin’s comments on such diverse issues as the genetic versus environmental loadings for sense of humor, the multifaceted nature of the construct of humor, and the possible limitations of teaching individuals to use humor in a beneficial manner to cope with stress and

  9. Three Decades Investigating Humor and Laughter: An Interview With Professor Rod Martin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Rod; Kuiper, Nicholas A

    2016-08-01

    Since the start of the 21st century, the investigation of various psychological aspects of humor and laughter has become an increasingly prominent topic of research. This growth can be attributed, in no small part, to the pioneering and creative work on humor and laughter conducted by Professor Rod Martin. Dr. Martin's research interests in humor and laughter began in the early 1980s and continued throughout his 32 year long career as a professor of clinical psychology at the University of Western Ontario. During this time, Dr. Martin published numerous scholarly articles, chapters, and books on psychological aspects of humor and laughter. Professor Martin has just retired in July 2016, and in the present interview he recounts a number of research highlights of his illustrious career. Dr. Martin's earliest influential work, conducted while he was still in graduate school, stemmed from an individual difference perspective that focused on the beneficial effects of sense of humor on psychological well-being. This research focus remained evident in many of Professor Martin's subsequent investigations, but became increasingly refined as he developed several measures of different components of sense of humor, including both adaptive and maladaptive humor styles. In this interview, Dr. Martin describes the conceptualization, development and use of the Humor Styles Questionnaire, along with suggestions for future research and development. In doing so, he also discusses the three main components of humor (i.e., cognitive, emotional and interpersonal), as well as the distinctions and similarities between humor and laughter. Further highlights of this interview include Professor Martin's comments on such diverse issues as the genetic versus environmental loadings for sense of humor, the multifaceted nature of the construct of humor, and the possible limitations of teaching individuals to use humor in a beneficial manner to cope with stress and enhance their social and

  10. Penetration of topically administered prednisolone acetate into the human aqueous humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibowitz, H M; Berrospi, A R; Kupferman, A; Restropo, G V; Galvis, V; Alvarez, J A

    1977-03-01

    A single standardized drop of 1.0% prednisolone acetate labeled with tritiated thymidine was administered topically to one eye of 58 patients shortly before elective cataract extraction. An aqueous humor sample was aspirated at varying intervals and its corticosteroid content was determined. Peak drug concentration in aqueous humor was 1.13 mug/ml, which occurred 30 to 45 minutes after instillation of the medication. Substantial quantitites of corticosteroid were found in the aqueous humor five minutes after drug administration. The area under the drug concentration in aqueous humor-vs-time curve (a measure of the drug's bioavailability in aqueous humor) was 88 mug min/ml, and its half-life in human aqueous humor was 28 minutes. None of these values were significantly different from the comparable values in rabbit eyes.

  11. Sense of humor, childhood cancer stressors, and outcomes of psychosocial adjustment, immune function, and infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Jacqueline S; Hockenberry, Marilyn; Gregory, Richard L

    2003-01-01

    The diagnosis, treatment, and side effects of childhood cancer have been described as extremely stressful experiences in the life of a child. Anecdotally, children report that a sense of humor helps them cope with the daily experiences of living with cancer; however, no research has examined sense of humor and childhood cancer stressors. This study investigated the effect of sense of humor on the relationship between cancer stressors and children's psychosocial adjustment to cancer, immune function, and infection using Lazarus and Folkman's theory of stress, appraisal, and coping. A direct relationship was observed between sense of humor and psychosocial adjustment to cancer, such that children with a high sense of humor had greater psychological adjustment, regardless of the amount of cancer stressors. A moderating effect was observed for incidence of infection. As childhood cancer stressors increase, children with high coping humor scores reported fewer incidences of infection than low scorers.

  12. Analysis of Humor in Zhao Benshan’s Comic Sketch from Relevance Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丹

    2012-01-01

      Humor is a pervasive human phenomenon. It is observable in many spheres and aspects of life in various human interactions. Humor plays an important role in our social life. Relevance Theory provides a new perspective on the analysis of humor interpretation. From a relevance-theoretic point of view, humor interpretation is a cognitive process in which the addressee is willing to sacrifice more cognitive effort to access the more covert interpretation in pursuit of the extra ef ect—amusement brought about by comic sketch. The conclusion is made in the end in which the Relevance Theory works as it plays such an important role in analyzing humor production that helps us understand and appreciate Zhao’s humor better.

  13. Humor in the eye tracker: attention capture and distraction from context cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strick, Madelijn; Holland, Rob W; Van Baaren, Rick; Van Knippenberg, Ad

    2010-01-01

    The humor effect refers to a robust finding in memory research that humorous information is easily recalled, at the expense of recall of nonhumorous information that was encoded in close temporal proximity. Previous research suggests that memory retrieval processes underlie this effect. That is, free recall is biased toward humorous information, which interferes with the retrieval of nonhumorous information. The present research tested an additional explanation that has not been specifically addressed before: Humor receives enhanced attention during information encoding, which decreases attention for context information. Participants observed humorous, nonhumorous positive, and nonhumorous neutral texts paired with novel consumer brands, while their eye movements were recorded using eye-tracker technology. The results confirmed that humor receives prolonged attention relative to both positive and neutral nonhumorous information. This enhanced attention correlated with impaired brand recognition.

  14. Frontal brain asymmetry and transient cardiovascular responses to the perception of humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papousek, Ilona; Schulter, Günter; Weiss, Elisabeth M; Samson, Andrea C; Freudenthaler, H Harald; Lackner, Helmut K

    2013-04-01

    The study examined the relationship of individual differences in prefrontal brain asymmetry, measured by the EEG in resting conditions, to the individual's responsivity in the context of humor (n=42). Several weeks after the EEG recording, immediate cardiovascular responses to the perception of humor and behavioral indicators of humor processing were obtained in an experimental paradigm involving non-verbal cartoons. Relatively greater resting activity in the left than right prefrontal cortex, particularly at the ventrolateral positions, was associated with faster detection of humor, a more pronounced cardiac response to the perception of humor (heart rate and cardiac output), and more accessible internal positive affective states (indicated by faster reports of amusement levels). The study confirms and extends findings of the relevance of prefrontal brain asymmetry to affective responsivity, contributing evidence in the domain of positive affect and humor, and demonstrating relationships to the immediate cardiovascular response pattern to an emotional event.

  15. Molecular monitoring of equine joint homeostasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Grauw, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    Chronic joint disorders are a major cause of impaired mobility and loss of quality of life in both humans and horses. Regardless of the primary insult, any joint disorder is characterized by an upset in normal joint homeostasis, the balance between tissue anabolism and catabolism that is normally ma

  16. Achieving global perfect homeostasis through transporter regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Nutrient homeostasis—the maintenance of relatively constant internal nutrient concentrations in fluctuating external environments—is essential to the survival of most organisms. Transcriptional regulation of plasma membrane transporters by internal nutrient concentrations is typically assumed to be the main mechanism by which homeostasis is achieved. While this mechanism is homeostatic we show that it does not achieve global perfect homeostasis—a condition where internal nutrient concentrations are completely independent of external nutrient concentrations for all external nutrient concentrations. We show that the criterion for global perfect homeostasis is that transporter levels must be inversely proportional to net nutrient flux into the cell and that downregulation of active transporters (activity-dependent regulation) is a simple and biologically plausible mechanism that meets this criterion. Activity-dependent transporter regulation creates a trade-off between robustness and efficiency, i.e., the system's ability to withstand perturbation in external nutrients and the transporter production rate needed to maintain homeostasis. Additionally, we show that a system that utilizes both activity-dependent transporter downregulation and regulation of transporter synthesis by internal nutrient levels can create a system that mitigates the shortcomings of each of the individual mechanisms. This analysis highlights the utility of activity-dependent regulation in achieving homeostasis and calls for a re-examination of the mechanisms of regulation of other homeostatic systems. PMID:28414718

  17. Calcium homeostasis in fly photoreceptor cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oberwinkler, J

    2002-01-01

    In fly photoreceptor cells, two processes dominate the Ca2+ homeostasis: light-induced Ca2+ influx through members of the TRP family of ion channels, and Ca2+ extrusion by Na+/Ca2+ exchange.Ca2+ release from intracellular stores is quantitatively insignificant. Both, the light-activated channels and

  18. Molecular monitoring of equine joint homeostasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Grauw, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    Chronic joint disorders are a major cause of impaired mobility and loss of quality of life in both humans and horses. Regardless of the primary insult, any joint disorder is characterized by an upset in normal joint homeostasis, the balance between tissue anabolism and catabolism that is normally ma

  19. Analysis on Humor of Situation Comedy My Own Swordsman by Politeness Principles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴敏

    2013-01-01

    Humor, as a linguistic phenomenon, appeals more and more attention from linguist, psychologist, sociologist, and the scholars of other disciplines. This paper, takes the humorous language of My Own Swordsman as research material, which contain⁃ing the depiction of trivial daily life, the meaning of life. Then, the author analyzed these data and discussed its features of humor from Pragmatic view by Leech and Levinson’s politeness principle.

  20. Analysis of Black Humor in the Movie Forrest Gump From Rhetorical Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱梅红; 刘立红

    2009-01-01

    The humorous effect is well presented throughout the American movie Forrest Gump by using kinds of rhetoric methods.This paper mainly focuses on the black humor in the movie from rhetorical perspective.It analyzes the application of certain rhetoric methods such as sarcasm,irony,simile,and hyperbole in the movie;and it also illustrates how the effect of black humor is achieved by giving a great number of examples.