WorldWideScience

Sample records for humor flow rate

  1. Flow of Aqueous Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Flow of Aqueous Humor Flow of Aqueous Humor Most, but not all, forms of glaucoma are ... remains normal when some of the fluid (aqueous humor) produced by the eye's ciliary body flows out ...

  2. Ciliary Blood Flow and Aqueous Humor Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, J.W.; Hollingsworth, M.; Rao, R.; Chen, M.; Reitsamer, H.A.

    2010-01-01

    Aqueous humor production is a metabolically active process sustained by the delivery of oxygen and nutrients and removal of metabolic waste by the ciliary circulation. This article describes our investigations into the relationship between ciliary blood flow and aqueous humor production. The results presented indicate that there is a dynamic relationship between ciliary blood flow and aqueous humor production, with production being blood flow independent above a critical level of perfusion, and blood flow dependent below it. The results also show that the plateau portion of the relationship shifts up or down depending on the level of secretory stimulation or inhibition, and that oxygen is one critical factor provided by ciliary blood flow. Also presented is a theoretical model of ocular hydrodynamics incorporating these new findings. PMID:20801226

  3. Exposure to Sexist Humor and Rape Proclivity: The Moderator Effect of Aversiveness Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Sanchez, Monica; Duran, Mercedes; Carretero-Dios, Hugo; Megias, Jesus L.; Moya, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the effect of exposure to sexist humor about women on men's self-reported rape proclivity. Earlier studies have shown that exposure to this type of humor increases rape proclivity and that funniness responses to jokes are a key element to consider. However, the role of aversiveness responses has not been…

  4. Columbus Payloads Flow Rate Anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta, Albino; Bufano, Gaetana; DePalo, Savino; Holt, James M.; Szigetvari, Zoltan; Palumberi, Sergio; Hinderer, S.

    2011-01-01

    The Columbus Active Thermal Control System (ATCS) is the main thermal bus for the pressurized racks working inside the European laboratory. One of the ATCS goals is to provide proper water flow rate to each payload (P/L) by controlling actively the pressure drop across the common plenum distribution piping. Overall flow measurement performed by the Water Pump Assembly (WPA) is the only flow rate monitor available at system level and is not part of the feedback control system. At rack activation the flow rate provided by the system is derived on ground by computing the WPA flow increase. With this approach, several anomalies were raised during these 3 years on-orbit, with the indication of low flow rate conditions on the European racks FSL, BioLab, EDR and EPM. This paper reviews the system and P/Ls calibration approach, the anomalies occurred, the engineering evaluation on the measurement approach and the accuracy improvements proposed, the on-orbit test under evaluation with NASA and finally discusses possible short and long term solutions in case of anomaly confirmation.

  5. College Students' Perception of Lecturers Using Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamborini, Ron; Zillmann, Dolf

    1981-01-01

    Audio-taped lectures by male or female professors were produced in four versions: no humor; sexual humor; other-disparaging humor; and self-disparaging humor. Male and female students rated lecturers' intelligence and appeal. Intelligence ratings were unaffected by humor variations, but significant lecturer-student sex interactions were found on…

  6. Humor and interpersonal attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murstein, B I; Brust, R G

    1985-12-01

    A humor test composed of cartoons, comic strips, and jokes was administered to 30 college couples (26 single, 4 married) who rated them for humor. Subjects also stated how much they loved and liked their partner, their probability of marrying the partner, and filled out Rubin's Liking and Love Scales. The hypotheses were that similarity of rating of the humorous stimuli would be associated with loving, liking, and predisposition to marry. Hypotheses were confirmed.

  7. Intraocular Pressure and the Mechanisms Involved in Resistance of the Aqueous Humor Flow in the Trabecular Meshwork Outflow Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamm, Ernst R; Braunger, Barbara M; Fuchshofer, Rudolf

    2015-01-01

    Intraocular pressure (IOP), the critical risk factor for glaucoma, is generated and maintained by the aqueous humor circulation system. Aqueous humor is secreted from the epithelial layers of the ciliary body and exits the eye through the trabecular meshwork or the uveoscleral outflow pathways. IOP builds up in response to a resistance to aqueous humor flow in the trabecular outflow pathways. The trabecular outflow resistance is localized in the inner wall region, which comprises the juxtacanalicular connective tissue (JCT) and the inner wall endothelium of Schlemm's canal (SC). Outflow resistance in this region is lowered through the relaxation of contractile myofibroblast-like cells in trabecular meshwork and the adjacent scleral spur, or the contraction of the ciliary muscle. In primary open-angle glaucoma, the most frequent form of glaucoma, outflow resistance of the inner wall region is typically higher than normal. There is evidence that the increase in resistance is related to characteristic biological changes in the resident cells of the JCT, which more and more acquire the structural and functional characteristics of contractile myofibroblasts. The changes involve an augmentation of their actin cytoskeleton and of their surrounding fibrillary extracellular matrix, which connects to JCT cells via integrins. This scenario leads to an overall stiffening of the inner wall region, and is modulated by transforming growth factor-β/connective tissue growth factor signaling. Essentially comparable changes appear to occur in SC endothelial cells. Stiffening of JCT and SC cells is very likely a critical causative factor for the increase in trabecular outflow resistance in POAG.

  8. Exchange Rate Forecasting with Information Flow Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Mačerinskienė

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to assess exchange rate forecasting possibilities with an information flow approach model. In the model the three types of information flows are distinguished: fundamental analysis information flow through particular macroeconomic determinants, microstructure approach information flow through dealer clients’ positioning data, technical analysis information flow through technical indicators. By using regression analysis it is shown that the composed model can forecast the exchange rate, the most significant information flows are distinguished. The results lead to further development of the information flow approach as a tool to forecast exchange rate fluctuations.

  9. Flow rate logging seepage meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reay, William G. (Inventor); Walthall, Harry G. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An apparatus for remotely measuring and logging the flow rate of groundwater seepage into surface water bodies. As groundwater seeps into a cavity created by a bottomless housing, it displaces water through an inlet and into a waterproof sealed upper compartment, at which point, the water is collected by a collection bag, which is contained in a bag chamber. A magnet on the collection bag approaches a proximity switch as the collection bag fills, and eventually enables the proximity switch to activate a control circuit. The control circuit then rotates a three-way valve from the collection path to a discharge path, enables a data logger to record the time, and enables a pump, which discharges the water from the collection bag, through the three-way valve and pump, and into the sea. As the collection bag empties, the magnet leaves the proximity of the proximity switch, and the control circuit turns off the pump, resets the valve to provide a collection path, and restarts the collection cycle.

  10. HANARO core channel flow-rate measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Heon Il; Chae, Hee Tae; Im, Don Soon; Kim, Seon Duk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-06-01

    HANARO core consists of 23 hexagonal flow tubes and 16 cylindrical flow tubes. To get the core flow distribution, we used 6 flow-rate measuring dummy fuel assemblies (instrumented dummy fuel assemblies). The differential pressures were measured and converted to flow-rates using the predetermined relationship between AP and flow-rate for each instrumented dummy fuel assemblies. The flow-rate for the cylindrical flow channels shows +-7% relative errors and that for the hexagonal flow channels shows +-3.5% relative errors. Generally the flow-rates of outer core channels show smaller values compared to those of inner core. The channels near to the core inlet pipe and outlet pipes also show somewhat lower flow-rates. For the lower flow channels, the thermal margin was checked by considering complete linear power histories. From the experimental results, the gap flow-rate was estimated to be 49.4 kg/s (cf. design flow of 50 kg/s). 15 tabs., 9 figs., 10 refs. (Author) .new.

  11. Aqueous Humor Dynamics: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Manik; Picciani, Renata G; Lee, Richard K; Bhattacharya, Sanjoy K

    2010-01-01

    Glaucoma is a family of optic neuropathies which cause irreversible but potentially preventable vision loss. Vision loss in most forms of glaucoma is related to elevated IOP with subsequent injury to the optic nerve. Secretion of aqueous humor and regulation of its outflow are physiologically important processes for maintaining IOP in the normal range. Thus, understanding the complex mechanisms that regulate aqueous humor circulation is essential for management of glaucoma. The two main structures related to aqueous humor dynamics are the ciliary body and the trabecular meshwork (TM). Three mechanisms are involved in aqueous humor formation: diffusion, ultrafiltration and active secretion. Active secretion is the major contributor to aqueous humor formation. The aqueous humor flow in humans follows a circadian rhythm, being higher in the morning than at night. The aqueous humor leaves the eye by passive flow via two pathways - the trabecular meshwork and the uveoscleral pathway. In humans, 75% of the resistance to aqueous humor outflow is localized within the TM with the juxtacanalicular portion of the TM being the main site of outflow resistance. Glycosaminoglycan deposition in the TM extracellular matrix (ECM) has been suggested to be responsible for increased outflow resistance at this specific site whereas others have suggested deposition of proteins, such as cochlin, obstruct the aqueous humor outflow through the TM. The uveoscleral outflow pathway is relatively independent of the intraocular pressure and the proportion of aqueous humor exiting the eye via the uveoscleral pathway decreases with age. PMID:21293732

  12. Exchange Rate Forecasting with Information Flow Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Irena Mačerinskienė; Andrius Balčiūnas

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to assess exchange rate forecasting possibilities with an information flow approach model. In the model the three types of information flows are distinguished: fundamental analysis information flow through particular macroeconomic determinants, microstructure approach information flow through dealer clients’ positioning data, technical analysis information flow through technical indicators. By using regression analysis it is shown that the composed model can for...

  13. Optimum solar collector fluid flow rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Shah, Louise Jivan

    1996-01-01

    the energy consumption of a normal ciculation pump in the solar heating system.Calculations showed that the highest thermal performances for small SDHW systems based on mantle tanks with constant volume flow rates in the solar collector loops are achieved if the flow rate is situated in the interval from 0...... to the temperature difference between the solar collector and the bottom of the mantle - an increase of about 1% of the thermal performance is possible.Finally, calculations showed that the highest thermal performance for large SDHW systems with constant volume flow rates in the solar collector loops are achieved....... The flow rate is increasing for increasing temperature.The flow rate at the high temperature level is typically 70 % greater than the flow rate at the low temperature level.Further, the energy consumption for the electronically controlled pump in a solar heating system will be somewhat smaller than...

  14. A + (B[subscript 1]) Professor--student Rapport + (B[subscript 2]) Humor + (B[subscript 3]) Student Engagement = (Y) Student Ratings of Instructors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Aaron S.; Berglund, Majken B.; Epelbaum, Vadim B.; Klein, Eric M.

    2015-01-01

    Teaching effectiveness is often evaluated through student ratings of instruction (SRI). Research suggests that there are many potential factors that can predict student's perceptions of teaching effectiveness such as professor-student rapport, student engagement, and perceived humor of the instructor. Therefore, we sought to assess whether…

  15. A + (B[subscript 1]) Professor--student Rapport + (B[subscript 2]) Humor + (B[subscript 3]) Student Engagement = (Y) Student Ratings of Instructors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Aaron S.; Berglund, Majken B.; Epelbaum, Vadim B.; Klein, Eric M.

    2015-01-01

    Teaching effectiveness is often evaluated through student ratings of instruction (SRI). Research suggests that there are many potential factors that can predict student's perceptions of teaching effectiveness such as professor-student rapport, student engagement, and perceived humor of the instructor. Therefore, we sought to assess whether…

  16. Coriolis mass flow rate meters for low flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehendale, A.

    2008-01-01

    The accurate and quick measurement of small mass flow rates (~10 mg/s) of fluids is considered an “enabling technology��? in semiconductor, fine-chemical, and food & drugs industries. Flowmeters based on the Coriolis effect offer the most direct sensing of the mass flow rate, and for this reason do

  17. Coriolis mass flow rate meters for low flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehendale, Aditya

    2008-01-01

    The accurate and quick measurement of small mass flow rates (~10 mg/s) of fluids is considered an "enabling technology" in semiconductor, fine-chemical, and food & drugs industries. Flowmeters based on the Coriolis effect offer the most direct sensing of the mass flow rate, and for this reason do no

  18. Capital Flows, Exchange Rate Flexibility, and the Real Exchange Rate

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Louis Combes; Patrick Plane; Tidiane Kinda

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of capital inflows and exchange rate flexibility on the real exchange rate in developing countries based on panel cointegration techniques. The results show that public and private flows are associated with a real exchange rate appreciation. Among private flows, portfolio investment has the highest appreciation effect-almost seven times that of foreign direct investment or bank loans-and private transfers have the lowest effect. Using a de facto measure of excha...

  19. Humoral regulation of heart rate during digestion in pythons (Python molurus and Python regius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enok, Sanne; Simonsen, Lasse Stærdal; Pedersen, Signe Vesterskov; Wang, Tobias; Skovgaard, Nini

    2012-05-15

    Pythons exhibit a doubling of heart rate when metabolism increases several times during digestion. Pythons, therefore, represent a promising model organism to study autonomic cardiovascular regulation during the postprandial state, and previous studies show that the postprandial tachycardia is governed by a release of vagal tone as well as a pronounced stimulation from nonadrenergic, noncholinergic (NANC) factors. Here we show that infusion of plasma from digesting donor pythons elicit a marked tachycardia in fasting snakes, demonstrating that the NANC factor resides in the blood. Injections of the gastrin and cholecystokinin receptor antagonist proglumide had no effect on double-blocked heart rate or blood pressure. Histamine has been recognized as a NANC factor in the early postprandial period in pythons, but the mechanism of its release has not been identified. Mast cells represent the largest repository of histamine in vertebrates, and it has been speculated that mast cells release histamine during digestion. Treatment with the mast cell stabilizer cromolyn significantly reduced postprandial heart rate in pythons compared with an untreated group but did not affect double-blocked heart rate. While this study indicates that histamine induces postprandial tachycardia in pythons, its release during digestion is not stimulated by gastrin or cholecystokinin nor is its release from mast cells a stimulant of postprandial tachycardia.

  20. Flow rate measurements by means of tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosetti, F. (Trieste Univ. (Italy). Istituto di Geodesia e Geofisica)

    The application of some sources of diffusion for the flow rate measurement of water or other fluids is here presented. The laminar instantaneous source, obtained in practice with easy devices, is very useful in river or channel measurements. The analysis of the measurements could supply the flow rate and the presence of water losses or recharges. The section of the channel can also be determined by such a method.

  1. Linguistic Features of Humor in Academic Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalicky, Stephen; Berger, Cynthia M.; Crossley, Scott A.; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2016-01-01

    A corpus of 313 freshman college essays was analyzed in order to better understand the forms and functions of humor in academic writing. Human ratings of humor and wordplay were statistically aggregated using Factor Analysis to provide an overall "Humor" component score for each essay in the corpus. In addition, the essays were also…

  2. Reserve, flowing electrolyte, high rate lithium battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puskar, M.; Harris, P.

    Flowing electrolyte Li/SOCl2 tests in single cell and multicell bipolar fixtures have been conducted, and measurements are presented for electrolyte flow rates, inlet and outlet temperatures, fixture temperatures at several points, and the pressure drop across the fixture. Reserve lithium batteries with flowing thionyl-chloride electrolytes are found to be capable of very high energy densities with usable voltages and capacities at current densities as high as 500 mA/sq cm. At this current density, a battery stack 10 inches in diameter is shown to produce over 60 kW of power while maintaining a safe operating temperature.

  3. Negative Policy Rates, Banking Flows and Exchange Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Khayat, Anwar

    2015-01-01

    Setting negative nominal rates is one of the unconventional policies implemented after the Great Recession to overcome the Zero Lower Bound. Using data from the euro area and Denmark, I assess the impact of introducing a negative interest rate on reserves. I find that it did put a depreciation pressure on the currency due to a reversal in banking flows. This effect is not only caused by policy differentials, but also by a distinct impact of going into negative territory from lowering interest...

  4. Humor as a Mental Fitness Indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P. Howrigan

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available To explain the pervasive role of humor in human social interaction and among mating partner preferences, Miller (2000a proposed that intentional humor evolved as an indicator of intelligence. To test this, we looked at the relationships among rater-judged humor, general intelligence, and the Big Five personality traits in a sample of 185 college-age students (115 women, 70 men. General intelligence positively predicted rater-judged humor, independent of the Big Five personality traits. Extraversion also predicted rater-judged humor, although to a lesser extent than general intelligence. General intelligence did not interact with the sex of the participant in predicting rating scores on the humor production tasks. The current study lends support to the prediction that effective humor production acts as an honest indicator of intelligence in humans. In addition, extraversion, and to a lesser extent, openness, may reflect motivational traits that encourage humor production.

  5. Flow of Aqueous Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Grant Terms & Conditions Patent & Intellectual Property Policy For Current Awardees FAQs Our Funding Philosophy ... Alzheimer’s Disease Research Macular Degeneration Research National Glaucoma Research ...

  6. Linguistic Features of Humor in Academic Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Skalicky

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A corpus of 313 freshman college essays was analyzed in order to better understand the forms and functions of humor in academic writing. Human ratings of humor and wordplay were statistically aggregated using Factor Analysis to provide an overall Humor component score for each essay in the corpus. In addition, the essays were also scored for overall writing quality by human raters, which correlated (r = .195 with the humor component score. Correlations between the humor component scores and linguistic features were examined. To investigate the potential for linguistic features to predict the Humor component scores, regression analysis identified four linguistic indices that accounted for approximately 17.5% of the variance in humor scores. These indices were related to text descriptiveness (i.e., more adjective and adverb use, lower cohesion (i.e., less paragraph-to-paragraph similarity, and lexical sophistication (lower word frequency. The findings suggest that humor can be partially predicted by linguistic features in the text. Furthermore, there was a small but significant correlation between the humor and essay quality scores, suggesting a positive relation between humor and writing quality.Keywords: humor, academic writing, text analysis, essay score, human rating

  7. Electromechanically Actuated Valve for Controlling Flow Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Paul

    2007-01-01

    A proposed valve for controlling the rate of flow of a fluid would include an electric-motor-driven ball-screw mechanism for adjusting the seating element of the valve to any position between fully closed and fully open. The motor would be of a type that can be electronically controlled to rotate to a specified angular position and to rotate at a specified rate, and the ball screw would enable accurate linear positioning of the seating element as a function of angular position of the motor. Hence, the proposed valve would enable fine electronic control of the rate of flow and the rate of change of flow. The uniqueness of this valve lies in a high degree of integration of the actuation mechanism with the flow-control components into a single, relatively compact unit. A notable feature of this integration is that in addition to being a major part of the actuation mechanism, the ball screw would also be a flow-control component: the ball screw would be hollow so as to contain part of the main flow passage, and one end of the ball screw would be the main seating valve element. The relationships among the components of the valve are best understood by reference to the figure, which presents meridional cross sections of the valve in the fully closed and fully open positions. The motor would be supported by a bracket bolted to the valve body. By means of gears or pulleys and a timing belt, motor drive would be transmitted to a sleeve that would rotate on bearings in the valve body. A ball nut inside the sleeve would be made to rotate with the sleeve by use of a key. The ball screw would pass through and engage the ball nut. A key would prevent rotation of the ball screw in the valve body while allowing the ball screw to translate axially when driven by the ball nut. The outer surface of the ball screw would be threaded only in a mid-length region: the end regions of the outer surface of the ball screw would be polished so that they could act as dynamic sealing surfaces

  8. Wall Shear Rates in Taylor Vortex Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sobolik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Wall shear rate and its axial and azimuthal components were evaluated in stable Taylor vortices. The measurements were carried out in a broad interval of Taylor numbers (52-725 and several gap width (R1/R2 = 0.5 – 0.8 by two three-segment electrodiffusion probes and three single probes flush mounted in the wall of the outer fixed cylinder. The axial distribution of wall shear rate components was obtained by sweeping the vortices along the probes using a slow axial flow. The experimental results were verified by CFD simulations. The knowledge of local wall shear rates and its fluctuations is of primordial interest for industrial applications like tangential filtration, membrane reactors and bioreactors containing shear sensitive cells.

  9. Increasing granular flow rate with obstructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Murray

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe a simple experiment involving spheres rolling down an inclined plane towards a bottleneck and through a gap. Results of the experiment indicate that flow rate can be increased by placing an obstruction at optimal positions near the bottleneck. We use the experiment to develop a computer simulation using the PhysX physics engine. Simulations confirm the experimental results and we state several considerations necessary to obtain a model that agrees well with experiment. We demonstrate that the model exhibits clogging, intermittent and continuous flow, and that it can be used as a tool for further investigations in granular flow. Received: 22 November 2015, Accepted: 19 February 2016; Edited by: L. A. Pugnaloni; Reviewed by: C. M. Carlevaro, Instituto de Física de Líquidos y Sistemas Biológicos, La Plata, Argentina; DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4279/PIP.080003 Cite as: A Murray, F Alonso-Marroquin, Papers in Physics 8, 080003 (2016

  10. Solids flow rate measurement in dense slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porges, K.G.; Doss, E.D.

    1993-09-01

    Accurate and rapid flow rate measurement of solids in dense slurries remains an unsolved technical problem, with important industrial applications in chemical processing plants and long-distance solids conveyance. In a hostile two-phase medium, such a measurement calls for two independent parameter determinations, both by non-intrusive means. Typically, dense slurries tend to flow in laminar, non-Newtonian mode, eliminating most conventional means that usually rely on calibration (which becomes more difficult and costly for high pressure and temperature media). These issues are reviewed, and specific solutions are recommended in this report. Detailed calculations that lead to improved measuring device designs are presented for both bulk density and average velocity measurements. Cross-correlation, chosen here for the latter task, has long been too inaccurate for practical applications. The cause and the cure of this deficiency are discussed using theory-supported modeling. Fluid Mechanics are used to develop the velocity profiles of laminar non-Newtonian flow in a rectangular duct. This geometry uniquely allows the design of highly accurate `capacitive` devices and also lends itself to gamma transmission densitometry on an absolute basis. An absolute readout, though of less accuracy, is also available from a capacitive densitometer and a pair of capacitive sensors yields signals suitable for cross-correlation velocity measurement.

  11. Unconventional aqueous humor outflow: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark; McLaren, Jay W; Overby, Darryl R

    2017-05-01

    Aqueous humor flows out of the eye primarily through the conventional outflow pathway that includes the trabecular meshwork and Schlemm's canal. However, a fraction of aqueous humor passes through an alternative or 'unconventional' route that includes the ciliary muscle, supraciliary and suprachoroidal spaces. From there, unconventional outflow may drain through two pathways: a uveoscleral pathway where aqueous drains across the sclera to be resorbed by orbital vessels, and a uveovortex pathway where aqueous humor enters the choroid to drain through the vortex veins. We review the anatomy, physiology and pharmacology of these pathways. We also discuss methods to determine unconventional outflow rate, including direct techniques that use radioactive or fluorescent tracers recovered from tissues in the unconventional pathway and indirect methods that estimate unconventional outflow based on total outflow over a range of pressures. Indirect methods are subject to a number of assumptions and generally give poor agreement with tracer measurements. We review the variety of animal models that have been used to study conventional and unconventional outflow. The mouse appears to be a promising model because it captures several aspects of conventional and unconventional outflow dynamics common to humans, although questions remain regarding the magnitude of unconventional outflow in mice. Finally, we review future directions. There is a clear need to develop improved methods for measuring unconventional outflow in both animals and humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Construction of the flow rate nomogram using polynomial regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosmane, B; Maurath, C; McConnell, M

    1993-04-01

    The urinary flow rates of normal individuals depend on the initial bladder volume in a non-linear fashion (J. Urol. 109 (1973) 874). A flow rate nomogram was developed by Siroky, Olsson and Krane, (J. Vol. 122 (1979) 665), taking the non-linear relationship into account, as an aid in the interpretation of urinary flow rate data. The use of a flow rate nomogram is to differentiate normal from obstructed individuals and is useful in the post operative follow-up of urinary outflow obstruction. It has been shown (J. Urol. 123 (1980) 123) that the flow rate nomogram is an objective measure of the efficacy of medical or surgical therapy. Instead of manually reading nomogram values from the flow rate nomogram, an algorithm is developed using polynomial regression to fit the flow rate nomograms and hence compute nomogram values directly from the fitted nomogram equations.

  13. Humor og sygepleje

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Inger

    1998-01-01

    I artiklen beskrives og reflekteres der over humors betydning som ressource for såvel patienter som sygeplejersker.......I artiklen beskrives og reflekteres der over humors betydning som ressource for såvel patienter som sygeplejersker....

  14. Can Computers Create Humor?

    OpenAIRE

    Ritchie, Graeme; University of Aberdeen

    2009-01-01

    Despite the fact that AI has always been adventurous in trying to elucidate complex aspects of human behaviour, only recently has there been research into computational modelling of humor. One obstacle to progress is the lack of a precise and detailed theory of how humor operates. Nevertheless, since the early 1990s, there have been a number of small programs that create simple verbal humor, and more recently there have been studies of the automatic classification of the humorous status of te...

  15. Decoding Photocopy Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerns, Dan

    Photocopy humor is defined as any facsimile, photocopy, or wire-copy line drawing, iconography, or textual material that was drawn or written for distribution to a larger select audience using the available technology to disperse material intended to be humorous. Professional humor is excluded from this consideration. The content of photocopy…

  16. Humor, Aggression, and Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrick, Ann Louise; And Others

    Although humor is an important phenomenon in human interactions, it has rarely been studied in the elderly. An understanding of responses to humor in aggressive cartoons as a function of advancing age would provide information regarding both the development of humor and the negative (aggressive) emotional experiences of the elderly. This study was…

  17. Effect of humor on interpersonal attraction and mate selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Elizabeth; Shevlin, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined whether different levels of sense of humor would influence respondents' ratings about a potentially desirable partner. The authors used vignettes to predict that the targets who possessed a good sense of humor would receive significantly higher ratings in measures of attractiveness and suitability as a long-term partner than would those who possessed an average or no sense of humor. In an experimental design--with gender and humor as independent variables and level of attractiveness and suitability as a long-term partner as dependent variables--the authors analyzed the data using a multivariate analysis of variance. Results show that the targets with a good sense of humor received significantly higher ratings of attractiveness and suitability than did those with an average or no sense of humor. Furthermore, male participants rated female targets as significantly more attractive than female participants rated male targets. The authors found no significant interaction between gender and humor.

  18. Laughing at the Looking Glass: Does Humor Style Serve as an Interpersonal Signal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgil Zeigler-Hill

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The provision of information appears to be an important feature of humor. The present studies examined whether humor serves as an interpersonal signal such that an individual's style of humor is associated with how the individual is perceived by others. Method: We examined this issue across two studies. In Study 1, undergraduate participants (257 targets were rated more positively by their friends and family members (1194 perceivers when they possessed more benign humor styles. In Study 2, 1190 community participants rated the romantic desirability of targets ostensibly possessing different humor styles. Results: Across both studies, our results were consistent with the possibility that humor serves as a signal. More specifically, individuals with benign humor styles (affiliative and self-enhancing humor styles were evaluated more positively than those targets with injurious humor styles (aggressive and self-defeating humor styles. Conclusion: These findings are discussed in terms of the role that humor may play in interpersonal perception and relationships.

  19. A novel concept of measuring mass flow rates using flow induced stresses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P I Jagad; B P Puranik; A W Date

    2015-08-01

    Measurement of mass flow rate is important for automatic control of the mass flow rate in many industries such as semiconductor manufacturing and chemical industry (for supply of catalyst to a reaction). In the present work, a new concept for direct measurement of mass flow rates which does not depend on the volumetric flow rate measurement and obviates the need for the knowledge of density is proposed from the measurement of the flow induced stresses in a substrate. The concept is formulated by establishing the relationship between the mass flow rate and the stress in the substrate. To this end, the flow field and the stress field in the substrate are evaluated simultaneously using a numerical procedure and the necessary correlations are derived. A least squares based procedure is used to derive the mass flow rate from the correlations as a function of the stress in the substrate.

  20. Continuum modeling of rate-dependent granular flows in SPH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Ryan C.; Andrade, José E.

    2016-09-01

    We discuss a constitutive law for modeling rate-dependent granular flows that has been implemented in smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH). We model granular materials using a viscoplastic constitutive law that produces a Drucker-Prager-like yield condition in the limit of vanishing flow. A friction law for non-steady flows, incorporating rate-dependence and dilation, is derived and implemented within the constitutive law. We compare our SPH simulations with experimental data, demonstrating that they can capture both steady and non-steady dynamic flow behavior, notably including transient column collapse profiles. This technique may therefore be attractive for modeling the time-dependent evolution of natural and industrial flows.

  1. Continuum modeling of rate-dependent granular flows in SPH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Ryan C.; Andrade, José E.

    2017-01-01

    We discuss a constitutive law for modeling rate-dependent granular flows that has been implemented in smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH). We model granular materials using a viscoplastic constitutive law that produces a Drucker-Prager-like yield condition in the limit of vanishing flow. A friction law for non-steady flows, incorporating rate-dependence and dilation, is derived and implemented within the constitutive law. We compare our SPH simulations with experimental data, demonstrating that they can capture both steady and non-steady dynamic flow behavior, notably including transient column collapse profiles. This technique may therefore be attractive for modeling the time-dependent evolution of natural and industrial flows.

  2. GROWTH RATE DISTRIBUTION OF BORAX SINGLE CRYSTALS ON THE (001 FACE UNDER VARIOUS FLOW RATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suharso Suharso

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The growth rates of borax single crystals from aqueous solutions at various flow rates in the (001 direction were measured using in situ cell method. From the growth rate data obtained, the growth rate distribution of borax crystals was investigated using Minitab Software and SPSS Software at relative supersaturation of 0807 and temperature of 25 °C. The result shows that normal, gamma, and log-normal distribution give a reasonably good fit to GRD. However, there is no correlation between growth rate distribution and flow rate of solution.   Keywords: growth rate dispersion (GRD, borax, flow rate

  3. Effect of flow rate on diameter of electrospun nanoporous fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Xiao-Peng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of flow rate on the diameter of the charged jet in the electrospinning process is studied theoretically. The obtained theoretical results offer in-depth physical understanding and mechanism of nanoporous fibers. It also reveals that the morphology and diameter of nanoporous microspheres can be controlled by the flow rate.

  4. 14 CFR 23.1095 - Carburetor deicing fluid flow rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carburetor deicing fluid flow rate. 23.1095 Section 23.1095 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Induction System § 23.1095 Carburetor deicing fluid flow rate. (a) If a carburetor deicing fluid system...

  5. Responses of prawn to water flow rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vascotto, G.L.; Nilas, P.U.

    1987-05-28

    An aquarium study to determine the responses of postlarval macrobrachium rosenbergii to varying water changes was carried out. Six week old postlarvae were raised in glass aquaria receiving 0, 1.15, 7.2 and 14.4 water changes per day over a 12 week period. The treatments had significant influences on survival, biomass, and average size of the animals. Maximum survival and highest biomass were found in the 1.15 water turnover treatment; however, this treatment also produced the smallest average size animals. Early high mortalities were attributed to poor growing conditions in the high and low flow treatments, while later mortality appeared to be biomass dependent.

  6. Humor in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Howard J

    2003-12-01

    Humor and laughter have been a focus of attention in the popular media and in the medical literature. Despite statements about the health benefits of humor, current research is insufficient to validate such claims. There is support in the literature for the role of humor and laughter in other areas, including patient-physician communication, psychological aspects of patient care, medical education, and as a means of reducing stress in medical professionals.

  7. Convective transport resistance in the vitreous humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penkova, Anita; Sadhal, Satwindar; Ratanakijsuntorn, Komsan; Moats, Rex; Tang, Yang; Hughes, Patrick; Robinson, Michael; Lee, Susan

    2012-11-01

    It has been established by MRI visualization experiments that the convection of nanoparticles and large molecules with high rate of water flow in the vitreous humor will experience resistance, depending on the respective permeabilities of the injected solute. A set of experiments conducted with Gd-DTPA (Magnevist, Bayer AG, Leverkusen, Germany) and 30 nm gadolinium-based particles (Gado CELLTrackTM, Biopal, Worcester, MA) as MRI contrast agents showed that the degree of convective transport in this Darcy-type porous medium varies between the two solutes. These experiments consisted of injecting a mixture of the two (a 30 μl solution of 2% Magnevist and 1% nanoparticles) at the middle of the vitreous of an ex vivo whole bovine eye and subjecting the vitreous to water flow rate of 100 μl/min. The water (0.9% saline solution) was injected at the top of the eye, and was allowed to drain through small slits cut at the bottom of the eyeball. After 50 minutes of pumping, MRI images showed that the water flow carried the Gd-DTPA farther than the nanoparticles, even though the two solutes, being mixed, were subjected to the same convective flow conditions. We find that the convected solute lags the water flow, depending on the solute permeability. The usual convection term needs to be adjusted to allow for the filtration effect on the larger particles in the form (1- σ) u . ∇ c with important implications for the modeling of such systems.

  8. COMPUTATIONAL FLOW RATE FEEDBACK AND CONTROL METHOD IN HYDRAULIC ELEVATORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Bing; Ma Jien; Lin Jianjie

    2005-01-01

    The computational flow rate feedback and control method, which can be used in proportional valve controlled hydraulic elevators, is discussed and analyzed. In a hydraulic elevator with this method, microprocessor receives pressure information from the pressure transducers and computes the flow rate through the proportional valve based on pressure-flow conversion real time algorithm. This hydraulic elevator is of lower cost and energy consumption than the conventional closed loop control hydraulic elevator whose flow rate is measured by a flow meter. Experiments are carried out on a test rig which could simulate the load of hydraulic elevator. According to the experiment results, the means to modify the pressure-flow conversion algorithm are pointed out.

  9. Decreasing the frequency and rate of wet brewers grains supplementation did not impact growth but reduced humoral immune response of preconditioning beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriel, P; Piccolo, M B; Artioli, L F A; Poore, M H; Marques, R S; Cooke, R F

    2016-07-01

    This study evaluated growth and measurements of innate and humoral immunity of preconditioning beef heifers supplemented with wet brewers grains (WBG) at 2 supplementation rates and frequencies. At 14 d after weaning (d 0), Angus heifers ( = 36; 213 ± 2 kg BW and 254 ± 7 d of age) were stratified by BW and age and randomly assigned to 1 of 12 drylot pens (3 heifers/pen). Treatments were randomly assigned to pens, in a 2 × 2 factorial design, and consisted of heifers provided ground tall fescue hay ad libitum (55% TDN and 12% CP of DM) and supplemented with WBG (75% TDN and 36% CP of DM) either daily (7X) or 3 times weekly (3X; Monday, Wednesday, and Friday) at 0.5 or 1.0% of BW (DM basis) for 42 d. Heifers were vaccinated against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), Mannheimia haemolytica, and Clostridium on d 14 and 28. Individual BW was measured before feeding on d 0 and 42 following 12 h of feed and water withdrawal. Blood samples were collected via jugular venipuncture 4 h after WBG supplementation on d 14, 15, 16, 17, 21, 28, 29, 30, 31, 35, and 42. Heifers fed WBG 3X had less hay DMI (2.6 ± 0.16 vs. 3.2 ± 0.16 kg/d; against BVDV-2 and IBR were greater for heifers fed WBG at 1.0% of BW vs. heifers fed WBG at 0.5% of BW (7.6 vs. 6.7 and 3.3 vs. 2.8 ± 0.19 log, respectively). In summary, decreasing WBG supplementation frequency (7 vs. 3 times weekly) or rate (1.0 vs. 0.5% of BW) for recently weaned beef heifers did not affect growth but decreased vaccine-induced antibody production against pathogens associated with bovine respiratory disease during a 42-d preconditioning period.

  10. Vitreous flow rates through dual pneumatic cutters: effects of duty cycle and cut rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abulon DJK

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Dina Joy K Abulon Medical Affairs, Alcon Research, Ltd, Lake Forest, CA, USA Purpose: We aimed to investigate effects of instrument settings on porcine vitreous flow rates through dual pneumatic high-speed vitrectomy probes. Methods: The CONSTELLATION® Vision System was tested with 250, 450, and 650 mmHg of vacuum using six ULTRAVIT® vitrectomy probes of each diameter (25+®, 25, 23, and 20 gauge operated from 500 cuts per minute (cpm up to 5,000 cpm. Duty cycle modes tested included biased open, 50/50, and biased closed. Flow rates were calculated by assessing the change in weight of porcine eyes during vitreous aspiration. Volumetric flow rate was measured with a computer-connected electronic scale. Results: At lower cut rates, the biased open mode produced higher flow than did the 50/50 mode, which produced higher flow than did the biased closed mode. In the biased closed and 50/50 modes, vitreous flow rates tended to increase with increasing cut rate. Vitreous flow rates in the biased open duty cycle mode remained relatively constant across cut rates. Conclusion: Vitreous flow rates through dual pneumatic vitrectomy probes could be manipulated by changing the duty cycle modes on the vitrectomy system. Differences in duty cycle behavior suggest that high-speed cut rates of 5,000 cpm may optimize vitreous aspiration. Keywords: enhanced 25-gauge vitrectomy, 25-gauge vitrectomy, 20-gauge vitrectomy, 23-gauge vitrectomy, aspiration, Constellation Vision System

  11. Humor and Giftedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziv, Avner; Gadish, Orit

    1990-01-01

    Two studies investigated humor among a total of 151 gifted adolescents. It was found that (1) in a sociometry of humor test, gifted adolescents received either few or many choices in a bimodal distribution; and (2) gifted adolescent humorists were more extroverted, more creative, and lower in need for social approval than other gifted adolescents.…

  12. Humor, Philosophy and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morreall, John

    2014-01-01

    This article begins by examining the bad reputation humor traditionally had in philosophy and education. Two of the main charges against humor--that it is hostile and irresponsible--are linked to the Superiority Theory. That theory is critiqued and two other theories of laughter are presented--the Relief Theory and the Incongruity Theory. In the…

  13. Humor's healing potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaward, B L

    1992-04-01

    In the past three decades the medical world has begun to take more serious notice of the healing power of humor and the positive emotions associated with it. Humor and laughter are currently being employed by psychotherapists and other care givers as tools to promote and maintain health, as well as intervention and rehabilitation tools for a host of maladies and illnesses related to stress and life-style. Although this empirical medical approach is relatively new, the study of humor has revealed a complex psychological phenomenon. Senses of humor have been categorized in types associated with personality. Humor has many styles and can be found in almost any situation, on any occasion. Theories of humor include the superiority theory, the incongruity theory, the release/relief theory, and the divinity theory. Laughter has many clinical benefits, promoting beneficial physiological changes and an overall sense of well-being. Humor even has long-term effects that strengthen the effectiveness of the immune system. In healthcare, humor therapy can help relieve stress associated with disease and illness. It serves as a diversionary tactic, a therapeutic tool for disorders such as depression, and a coping mechanism. It also is a natural healing component for care givers trying to cope with the stress and personal demands of their occupations.

  14. Humor, Philosophy and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morreall, John

    2014-01-01

    This article begins by examining the bad reputation humor traditionally had in philosophy and education. Two of the main charges against humor--that it is hostile and irresponsible--are linked to the Superiority Theory. That theory is critiqued and two other theories of laughter are presented--the Relief Theory and the Incongruity Theory. In the…

  15. Metonymy And Humor Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凤琴

    2008-01-01

    Study of humor discourse has attracted an increasingly numerousattention since 80's of last century.Traditionally.they approach it mainly from pragmatic aspect.In this paper.I try aflew research perspective,metonymicfunction and scenario concept to study how metonymic link works in theinterpretation of humor asa cognitive and mental process.

  16. Metonymy And Humor Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凤琴

    2008-01-01

    Study of humor discourse has attracted an increasingly numerousattention since 80’s of last century.Traditionally,they approach it mainly from pragmatic aspect.In this paper,I try a new research perspective,metonymic function and scenario concept to study how metonymic link works in the interpretation of humor as a cognitive and mental process.

  17. El humor centenarista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Sánchez

    1963-01-01

    Full Text Available En el número 7 -volumen IV- de julio de 1961, bajo el título de El Humor Parnasiano, fueron publicados cuatro sonetos humorísticos: dos del Maestro Guillermo Valencia y dos de su discípulo Carlos López Narváez.

  18. Studies on pressure losses and flow rate optimization in vanadium redox flow battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ao; Bao, Jie; Skyllas-Kazacos, Maria

    2014-02-01

    Premature voltage cut-off in the operation of the vanadium redox flow battery is largely associated with the rise in concentration overpotential at high state-of-charge (SOC) or state-of-discharge (SOD). The use of high constant volumetric flow rate will reduce concentration overpotential, although potentially at the cost of consuming excessive pumping energy which in turn lowers system efficiency. On the other hand, any improper reduction in flow rate will also limit the operating SOC and lead to deterioration in battery efficiency. Pressure drop losses are further exacerbated by the need to reduce shunt currents in flow battery stacks that requires the use of long, narrow channels and manifolds. In this paper, the concentration overpotential is modelled as a function of flow rate in an effort to determine an appropriate variable flow rate that can yield high system efficiency, along with the analysis of pressure losses and total pumping energy. Simulation results for a 40-cell stack under pre-set voltage cut-off limits have shown that variable flow rates are superior to constant flow rates for the given system design and the use of a flow factor of 7.5 with respect to the theoretical flow rate can reach overall high system efficiencies for different charge-discharge operations.

  19. Analytically computed rates of seepage flow into drains and cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, N.; Kacimov, A. R.

    1998-04-01

    The known formulae of Freeze and Cherry, Polubarinova-Kochina, Vedernikov for flow rate during 2-D seepage into horizontal drains and axisymmetric flow into cavities are examined and generalized. The case of an empty drain under ponded soil surface is studied and existence of drain depth providing minimal seepage rate is presented. The depth is found exhibiting maximal difference in rate between a filled and an empty drain. 3-D flow to an empty semi-spherical cavity on an impervious bottom is analysed and the difference in rate as compared with a completely filled cavity is established. Rate values for slot drains in a two-layer aquifer are inverted using the Schulgasser theorem from the Polubarinova-Kochina expressions for corresponding flow rates under a dam. Flow to a point sink modelling a semi-circular drain in a layered aquifer is treated by the Fourier transform method. For unsaturated flow the catchment area of a single drain is established in terms of the quasi-linear model assuming the isobaric boundary condition along the drain contour. Optimal shape design problems for irrigation cavities are addressed in the class of arbitrary contours with seepage rate as a criterion and cavity cross-sectional area as an isoperimetric restriction.

  20. Exchange Flow Rate Measurement Technique in Density Different Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoo Fumizawa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Buoyancy-driven exchange flows of helium-air through inclined a narrow tube was investigated. Exchange flows may occur following the opening of a window for ventilation, as well as when a pipe ruptures in a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. The experiment in this paper was carried out in a test chamber filled with helium and the flow was visualized using the smoke wire method. A high-speed camera recorded the flow behavior. The image of the flow was transferred to digital data, and the slow flow velocity, i.e. micro flow rate was measured by PIV software. Numerical simulation was carried out by the code of moving particle method with Lagrange method.

  1. Design and Implementation of Automatic Air Flow Rate Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, A.; Saputra, C.; Munir, M. M.; Khairurrijal

    2016-08-01

    Venturimeter is an apparatus that can be used to measure the air flow rate. In this experiment we designed a venturimeter which equipped with a valve that is used to control the air flow rate. The difference of pressure between the cross sections was measured with the differential pressure sensor GA 100-015WD which can calculate the difference of pressures from 0 to 3737.33 Pa. A 42M048C Z36 stepper motor was used to control the valve. The precision of this motor rotation is about 0.15 °. A Graphical User Interface (GUI) was developed to monitor and set the value of flow rate then an 8-bit microcontroller was used to process the control system In this experiment- the venturimeter has been examined to get the optimal parameter of controller. The results show that the controller can set the stable output air flow rate.

  2. Blood flow rate measurements with indicator techniques revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sejrsen, Per; Bülow, Jens

    2009-01-01

    In view of the emerging role, disturbances in regional blood flow rate seem to play in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome; we review the concepts of the classical indicator dilution and washout techniques used for determinations of regional blood flow rate. Prerequisites, assumptions......, necessary precautions for the application of these experimental techniques are emphasized. Special attention has been carried out to elucidate the consequence of a choice of indicators having a large distribution volume in the tissues....

  3. High Frame Rate Synthetic Aperture 3D Vector Flow Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villagómez Hoyos, Carlos Armando; Holbek, Simon; Stuart, Matthias Bo

    2016-01-01

    3-D blood flow quantification with high spatial and temporal resolution would strongly benefit clinical research on cardiovascular pathologies. Ultrasonic velocity techniques are known for their ability to measure blood flow with high precision at high spatial and temporal resolution. However......, current volumetric ultrasonic flow methods are limited to one velocity component or restricted to a reduced field of view (FOV), e.g. fixed imaging planes, in exchange for higher temporal resolutions. To solve these problems, a previously proposed accurate 2-D high frame rate vector flow imaging (VFI......) technique is extended to estimate the 3-D velocity components inside a volume at high temporal resolutions (

  4. Influence of Gas Flow Rate on the Deposition Rate on Stainless Steel 202 Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Chowdhury

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Solid thin films have been deposited on stainless steel 202 (SS 202 substrates at different flow rates of natural gas using a hot filament thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD reactor. In the experiments, the variations of thin film deposition rate with the variation of gas flow rate have been investigated. The effects of gap between activation heater and substrate on the deposition rate have also been observed. Results show that deposition rate on SS 202 increases with the increase in gas flow rate within the observed range. It is also found that deposition rate increases with the decrease in gap between activation heater and substrate. In addition, friction coefficient and wear rate of SS 202 sliding against SS 304 under different sliding velocities are also investigated before and after deposition. The experimental results reveal that improved friction coefficient and wear rate is obtained after deposition than that of before deposition.

  5. Numerical study on flow rate limitation of open capillary channel flow through a wedge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Ting Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The flow characteristics of slender-column flow in wedge-shaped channel under microgravity condition are investigated in this work. The one-dimensional theoretical model is applied to predict the critical flow rate and surface contour of stable flow. However, the one-dimensional model overestimates the critical flow rate for not considering the extra pressure loss. Then, we develop a three-dimensional simulation method with OpenFOAM, a computational fluid dynamics tool, to simulate various phenomena in wedge channels with different lengths. The numerical results are verified with the capillary channel flow experimental data on the International Space Station. We find that the three-dimensional simulation perfectly predicts the critical flow rates and surface contours under various flow conditions. Meanwhile, the general behaviors in subcritical, critical, and supercritical flow are studied in three-dimensional simulation considering variations of flow rate and open channel length. The numerical techniques for three-dimensional simulation is validated for a wide range of configurations and is hopeful to provide valuable guidance for capillary channel flow experiment and efficient liquid management in space.

  6. The influence of the flow rate on periodic flow unsteadiness behaviors in a sewage centrifugal pump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴吉; 袁寿其; 袁建平; 王文杰

    2013-01-01

    To design a single-blade pump with a good performance in a wide operational range and to increase the pump reliability in the multi-conditional hydraulic design process, an understanding of the unsteady flow behaviors as related with the flow rate is very important. However, the traditional design often considers only a single design condition, and the unsteady flow behaviors have not been well studied for single-blade pumps under different conditions. A comparison analysis of the flow unsteadiness behaviors at di-fferent flow rates within the whole flow passage of the pump is carried out in this paper by solving the three-dimensional unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations with the Shear Stress Transport (SST) turbulence model. A definition of the unsteadi-ness in the pump is made and applied to analyze the unsteady intensity distributions, and the flow rate effect on the complex unsteady flow in the pump is studied quantitatively while the flow mechanism is also analyzed. The CFD results are validated by experimental data collected at the laboratory. It is shown that a significant flow rate effect on the time-averaged unsteadiness and the turbulence in-tensity distribution can be observed in both rotor and stator domains including the side chamber. The findings would be useful to re-duce the flow unsteadiness and to increase the pump reliability under multi-conditions.

  7. Humor modeling in the interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Cockton, G.; Stock, O.; Korhonen, P.; Dix, A.; Bergman, E.; Bjork, S.; Morkes, J.; Collings, P.; Dey, A.; Draper, S.; Guliksen, J.; Keinonen, T.; Lazar, J.; Lund, A.; Malich, R.; Nakakoji, K.; Nigay, L.; Prates Oliveira, R.; Rieman, J.; Snyder, C.

    2003-01-01

    Humor is a multi-disciplinary field of research. People have been working on humor in many fields of research, such as psychology, philosophy and linguistics, sociology and literature. Especially in the context of computer science (or Artificial Intelligence) humor research aims at modeling humor in

  8. Humor modeling in the interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, A.; Stock, O.; Dix, A.; Morkes, J.; Cockton, G.; Korhonen, P.; Bergman, E.; Bjork, S.; Collings, P.; Dey, A.; Draper, S.; Guliksen, J.; Keinonen, T.; Lazar, J.; Lund, A.; Malich, R.; Nakakoji, K.; Nigay, L.; Prates Oliveira, R.; Rieman, J.; Snyder, C.

    2003-01-01

    Humor is a multi-disciplinary field of research. People have been working on humor in many fields of research, such as psychology, philosophy and linguistics, sociology and literature. Especially in the context of computer science (or Artificial Intelligence) humor research aims at modeling humor in

  9. Humors in Rip Van Winkle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张铂

    2014-01-01

    Humor is widely employed in Irving’s Rip Van Winkle. There are several kinds of humors in this short story, for exam-ple: irony, satire, farce, mockery, etc. Different humors indicate different attitudes the writer adopts toward his subject matter. This essay aims at grasping the main idea of the story through the analyses of various uses of humor.

  10. Flow of granular materials-I. Discharge rates from hoppers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nedderman, R.M. (Univ. of Cambridge, England); Tuezuen, U.; Savage, S.B.; Houlsby, G.T.

    1982-01-01

    This was the first of a set of three review papers on the flow of granular materials. The objective of the papers was to review the published literature in these fields. Much information was drawn from a body of unpulished work represented by internal reports of the Chemical Engineering Department at Cambridge. This paper discussed the experimental results for hopper discharge rates and the correlations of these results. Then theoretical analyses that have been advanced to explain the observations were presented. Also the effects of interstitial pressure gradients were discussed, both those that arise due to deliberate pressurization of the hopper and those caused by the dilation of the flowing material. The flow of coarse, free-flowing materials through orifices seemed to have been adequately investigated experimentally and the correlation of Beverloo or minor modifications of it appeared to predict the flow rates with acceptable precision. Some difficulties were however encountered with narrow angled conical hoppers or in cases where the orifice is close to a vertical wall. The effects of an imposed gas flow were also correlated to reasonable precision at least for modest gas flow rates. Though the correlations seemed satisfactory, there was no really adequate theoretical explanations of the observations. Several theories exist that give qualitative trends in accord with obsrvation but there is no theory that can be used without empirical adjustments of the coefficients. However, with fine particles many more difficulties are encountered. 6 figures. (DP)

  11. Internal Flow of Contra-Rotating Small Hydroturbine at Off- Design Flow Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    SHIGEMITSU, Toru; TAKESHIMA, Yasutoshi; OGAWA, Yuya; FUKUTOMI, Junichiro

    2016-11-01

    Small hydropower generation is one of important alternative energy, and enormous potential lie in the small hydropower. However, efficiency of small hydroturbines is lower than that of large one. Then, there are demands for small hydroturbines to keep high performance in wide flow rate range. Therefore, we adopted contra-rotating rotors, which can be expected to achieve high performance. In this research, performance of the contra-rotating small hydroturbine with 60mm casing diameter was investigated by an experiment and numerical analysis. Efficiency of the contra-rotating small hydroturbine was high in pico-hydroturbine and high efficiency could be kept in wide flow rate range, however the performance of a rear rotor decreased significantly in partial flow rates. Then, internal flow condition, which was difficult to measure experimentally, was investigated by the numerical flow analysis. Then, a relation between the performance and internal flow condition was considered by the numerical analysis result.

  12. Ultrasonic 3-D vector flow method for quantitative in vivo peak velocity and flow rate estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbek, Simon; Ewertsen, Caroline; Bouzari, Hamed;

    2017-01-01

    Current clinical ultrasound systems are limited to show blood flow movement in either 1-D or 2-D. In this paper, a method for estimating 3-D vector velocities in a plane using the Transverse Oscillation (TO) method, a 32 x 32 element matrix array, and the experimental ultrasound scanner SARUS...... is presented. The aim of this paper is to estimate precise flow rates and peak velocities derived from 3-D vector flow estimates. The emission sequence provides 3-D vector flow estimates at up to 1.145 frames per second in a plane, and was used to estimate 3-D vector flow in a cross sectional image plane....... The method is validated in two phantom studies, where flow rates are measured in a flow-rig, providing a constant parabolic flow, and in a straight-vessel phantom (ø = 8 mm) connected to a flow pump capable of generating time varying waveforms. Flow rates are estimated to be 82.1 ± 2.8 L/min in the flow...

  13. The origin of humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, N E

    2002-09-01

    Humor is spread throughout every culture on earth and occupies a large portion of our literature and social interaction. It is so deeply rooted in our culture that it may be a defining characteristic of our species. Yet there has been comparatively little effort to understand its origin. According to the Accepted Theory of Humor all jokes begin with a buildup of tension while an initial paradigm is formed. When the punch line occurs the subject must realign his thinking to accommodate the differences between the initial paradigm and the sudden burst of new information. The Mind Reading Hypothesis extends the accepted theory of humor to include a relationship between the observer and the subject of the humor. The actual source of amusement is the observation of the resolution in the mind of the subject of the collision between old perception and new reality.

  14. Humor and sexual selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Robert

    2003-12-01

    Recently Geoffrey Miller has suggested that humor evolved through sexual selection as a signal of "creativity," which in turn implies youthfulness, intelligence, and adaptive unpredictability. Drawing upon available empirical studies, I argue that the evidence for a link between humor and creativity is weak and ambiguous. I also find only tenuous support for Miller's assumption that the attractiveness of the "sense of humor" is to be found in the wittiness of its possessor, since those who use the phrase often seem to associate it with the affects of relatively mirthless "bonding" laughter. Humor, I conclude, may have evolved as an instrument for achieving broad social adhesiveness and for facilitating the individual's maneuverability within the group, but that it evolved through sexual selection has yet to be convincingly demonstrated.

  15. Political Uses of Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Ronald G.

    1981-01-01

    Introduces a theoretical framework applicable to the political and social uses made of humor. Focuses on the uses individuals make of jokes and joking in relation to the constant interchange involved between institutional stability and social change. (FL)

  16. The Humor in Horror.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kies, Cosette

    1995-01-01

    Discussion of horror fiction for teenagers focuses on the element of humor. Topics include parodies, plots, the element of mystery, cover art, end-of-chapter cliffhangers, and formula books. An annotated list of 10 pertinent titles is included. (LRW)

  17. Estimation of Saturation Flow Rates at Signalized Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-qiao Shao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The saturation flow rate is a fundamental parameter to measure the intersection capacity and time the traffic signals. However, it is revealed that traditional methods which are mainly developed using the average value of observed queue discharge headways to estimate the saturation headway might lead to underestimate saturation flow rate. The goal of this paper is to study the stochastic nature of queue discharge headways and to develop a more accurate estimate method for saturation headway and saturation flow rate. Based on the surveyed data, the characteristics of queue discharge headways and the estimation method of saturated flow rate are studied. It is found that the average value of queue discharge headways is greater than the median value and that the skewness of the headways is positive. Normal distribution tests were conducted before and after a log transformation of the headways. The goodness-of-fit test showed that for some surveyed sites, the queue discharge headways can be fitted by the normal distribution and for other surveyed sites, the headways can be fitted by lognormal distribution. According to the queue discharge headway characteristics, the median value of queue discharge headways is suggested to estimate the saturation headway and a new method of estimation saturation flow rates is developed.

  18. Doppler-Based Flow Rate Sensing in Microfluidic Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liron Stern

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We design, fabricate and experimentally demonstrate a novel generic method to detect flow rates and precise changes of flow velocity in microfluidic devices. Using our method we can measure flow rates of ~2 mm/s with a resolution of 0.08 mm/s. The operation principle is based on the Doppler shifting of light diffracted from a self-generated periodic array of bubbles within the channel and using self-heterodyne detection to analyze the diffracted light. As such, the device is appealing for variety of “lab on chip” bio-applications where a simple and accurate speed measurement is needed, e.g., for flow-cytometry and cell sorting.

  19. A MEMS-Based Flow Rate and Flow Direction Sensing Platform with Integrated Temperature Compensation Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Yen Lee

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This study develops a MEMS-based low-cost sensing platform for sensing gas flow rate and flow direction comprising four silicon nitride cantilever beams arranged in a cross-form configuration, a circular hot-wire flow meter suspended on a silicon nitride membrane, and an integrated resistive temperature detector (RTD. In the proposed device, the flow rate is inversely derived from the change in the resistance signal of the flow meter when exposed to the sensed air stream. To compensate for the effects of the ambient temperature on the accuracy of the flow rate measurements, the output signal from the flow meter is compensated using the resistance signal generated by the RTD. As air travels over the surface of the cross-form cantilever structure, the upstream cantilevers are deflected in the downward direction, while the downstream cantilevers are deflected in the upward direction. The deflection of the cantilever beams causes a corresponding change in the resistive signals of the piezoresistors patterned on their upper surfaces. The amount by which each beam deflects depends on both the flow rate and the orientation of the beam relative to the direction of the gas flow. Thus, following an appropriate compensation by the temperature-corrected flow rate, the gas flow direction can be determined through a suitable manipulation of the output signals of the four piezoresistors. The experimental results have confirmed that the resulting variation in the output signals of the integrated sensors can be used to determine not only the ambient temperature and the velocity of the air flow, but also its direction relative to the sensor with an accuracy of ± 7.5o error.

  20. A MEMS-Based Flow Rate and Flow Direction Sensing Platform with Integrated Temperature Compensation Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Rong-Hua; Wang, Dung-An; Hsueh, Tzu-Han; Lee, Chia-Yen

    2009-01-01

    This study develops a MEMS-based low-cost sensing platform for sensing gas flow rate and flow direction comprising four silicon nitride cantilever beams arranged in a cross-form configuration, a circular hot-wire flow meter suspended on a silicon nitride membrane, and an integrated resistive temperature detector (RTD). In the proposed device, the flow rate is inversely derived from the change in the resistance signal of the flow meter when exposed to the sensed air stream. To compensate for the effects of the ambient temperature on the accuracy of the flow rate measurements, the output signal from the flow meter is compensated using the resistance signal generated by the RTD. As air travels over the surface of the cross-form cantilever structure, the upstream cantilevers are deflected in the downward direction, while the downstream cantilevers are deflected in the upward direction. The deflection of the cantilever beams causes a corresponding change in the resistive signals of the piezoresistors patterned on their upper surfaces. The amount by which each beam deflects depends on both the flow rate and the orientation of the beam relative to the direction of the gas flow. Thus, following an appropriate compensation by the temperature-corrected flow rate, the gas flow direction can be determined through a suitable manipulation of the output signals of the four piezoresistors. The experimental results have confirmed that the resulting variation in the output signals of the integrated sensors can be used to determine not only the ambient temperature and the velocity of the air flow, but also its direction relative to the sensor with an accuracy of ± 7.5° error.

  1. Flow Rate of He Ⅱ Liquid-Vapor Phase Separator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xingen YU; Qing LI; Qiang LI; Zhengyu LI

    2005-01-01

    Experimental results are presented for superfluld (He Ⅱ) flow through porous plug liquid-vapor phase separators.Tests have been performed on seven porous plugs with different thicknesses or different permeabilities. The temperature was measured from 1.5K to 1.9K. Two flow regions were observed in small and large pressure and temperature differences regions respectively. The experimental data are compared with theoretical predictions.The performance and applicability of the basic theory are discussed. Hysteresis of the flow rate is also observed and discussed.

  2. Relationship between salivary flow rates and Candida albicans counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navazesh, M; Wood, G J; Brightman, V J

    1995-09-01

    Seventy-one persons (48 women, 23 men; mean age, 51.76 years) were evaluated for salivary flow rates and Candida albicans counts. Each person was seen on three different occasions. Samples of unstimulated whole, chewing-stimulated whole, acid-stimulated parotid, and candy-stimulated parotid saliva were collected under standardized conditions. An oral rinse was also obtained and evaluated for Candida albicans counts. Unstimulated and chewing-stimulated whole flow rates were negatively and significantly (p or = 500 count. Differences in stimulated parotid flow rates were not significant among different levels of Candida counts. The results of this study reveal that whole saliva is a better predictor than parotid saliva in identification of persons with high Candida albicans counts.

  3. Debris flows and cosmogenic catchment wide denudation rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kober, F.; Hippe, K.; Salcher, B.; Ivy-Ochs, S.; Kubik, P. W.; Christl, M.; Wacker, L.

    2012-04-01

    One of the basic question in alpine Quantitative Geomorphology is: Are widely measured cosmogenic nuclide-derived denudation rates in alpine catchments truly representative for the whole catchment at any given time? Or in contrast can they vary markedly in response to extreme events and perturbations? And if such perturbations affect cosmogenic nuclide-derived denudation rates then what bias can occur when such denudation rates are compared with sediment yield or thermochronological data or to various morphometric parameters, such as slope, mean elevation or uplift rates as potential controlling factors? We present 10Be and 14C results measured in sand samples from an active river channel from a single catchment (upper Aare), in the Swiss Alps (up to monthly sampling between 2008 to 2011). Our goal was to establish a time series to see if extreme events (such as landslides or debris flows) do have a discernible effect on derived denudation rates. The admixture of sediment of debris flows in 2009, originating upstream of the sampling spot, began to have a marked effect on 10Be concentrations and thus catchment wide denudation rates that are assumed to be in a long-term range mode prior to 2009. In summer of 2010, several extreme debris flows were recorded in the studied catchment. Samples taken document a doubling of denudation rates over the values determined from 2008. These cosmogenic nuclide data clearly demonstrate the impact of episodic events on sediment flux and the related perturbation of catchment wide denudation rates. We have recently expanded this dataset into 2011, with i) a spatial sub-sampling of debris flow and non-debris flow catchment compartments and ii) including again a major debris flow event in early autumn 2011. These data will be presented at the conference. Never-the-less the fact that the CWDR's only doubled does suggest a certain robustness in the method beyond a certain catchment size. In addition to the 10Be data, in situ 14C

  4. Efficiencies of flat plate solar collectors at different flow rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ziqian; Furbo, Simon; Perers, Bengt;

    2012-01-01

    Two flat plate solar collectors for solar heating plants from Arcon Solvarme A/S are tested in a laboratory test facility for solar collectors at Technical University of Denmark (DTU). The collectors are designed in the same way. However, one collector is equipped with an ETFE foil between...... the absorber and the cover glass and the other is without ETFE foil. The efficiencies for the collectors are tested at different flow rates. On the basis of the measured efficiencies, the efficiencies for the collectors as functions of flow rate are obtained. The calculated efficiencies are in good agreement...

  5. Kinetic assessment of measured mass flow rates and streamwise pressure distributions in microchannel gas flows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Fan; Chong Xie; Jianzheng Jiang

    2007-01-01

    Measured mass flow rates and streamwise pressure distributions of gas flowing through microchannels were reported by many researchers. Assessment of these data is crucial before they are used in the examination of slip models and numerical schemes, and in the design of microchannel elements in various MEMS devices. On the basis of kinetic solutions of the mass flow rates and pressure distributions in microchannel gas flows, the measured data available are properly normalized and then are compared with each other. The 69 normalized data of measured pressure distributions are in excellent agreement, and 67 of them are within 1 ± 0.05. The normalized data of mass flow-rates ranging between 0.95 and 1 agree well with each other as the inlet Knudsen number Kni > 0.02, but they scat ter between 0.85 and 1.15 as Kni < 0.02 with, to some extent, a very interesting bifurcation trend.

  6. Impact of increased flow rate on specific growth rate of juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus, Rafinesque 1810)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schram, E.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Widjaja, R.T.O.B.H.; Kloet, C.J.; Foss, A.; Schelvis-Smit, A.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of flow rate on growth was investigated in juvenile turbot. Fish with a mean (SD) initial weight of 102 (10.4) g were reared at 6 different flow rates, equaling 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 or 8 tank volumes/h in 196 L tanks during 29 days at 18 ± 0.29 °C, a salinity of 18.0 ± 0.77¿ and a pH ranging

  7. Controlling Surface Roughness to Enhance Mass Flow Rates in Nanochannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimon, Malgorzata; Emerson, David; Reese, Jason

    2012-11-01

    A very active field of research in fluid mechanics and material science is predicting the behavior of Newtonian fluids flowing over porous media with different wettabilities. Opposite effects have been observed: some state that wall roughness always suppresses fluid-slip, whereas others show that for some cases roughness may reduce the surface friction. In this work, MD simulations were carried out to further investigate physical mechanisms for liquid slip, and factors affecting it. A rough wall was formed by either periodically spaced rectangular protrusions or was represented by a cosine wave. The MD simulations were conducted to study Poiseuille and Couette flow of liquid argon in a nanochannel with hydrophilic kryptonian walls. The effect of wall roughness and interface wettability on the streaming velocity, and the slip-length at the walls, is observed to be significant. Our results show a dependency of mass flow rate on the type of flow and topography of the channel walls. For a fixed magnitude of the driving force, an increase in the mass flow rate, compared to the smooth surface, was observed for the wavy roughness, whereas the opposite effect was observed for Couette flow where a higher slip was obtained for rectangular gaps. The study is funded in the UK by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council.

  8. Effects of argon gas flow rate on laser-welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Yasuko; Nomoto, Rie; Nakajima, Hiroyuki; Ohkubo, Chikahiro

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of the rate of argon gas flow on joint strength in the laser-welding of cast metal plates and to measure the porosity. Two cast plates (Ti and Co-Cr alloy) of the same metal were abutted and welded together. The rates of argon gas flow were 0, 5 and 10 L/min for the Co-Cr alloy, and 5 and 10 L/min for the Ti. There was a significant difference in the ratio of porosity according to the rate of argon gas flow in the welded area. Argon shielding had no significant effect on the tensile strength of Co-Cr alloy. The 5 L/min specimens showed greater tensile strength than the 10 L/min specimens for Ti. Laser welding of the Co-Cr alloy was influenced very little by argon shielding. When the rate of argon gas flow was high, joint strength decreased for Ti.

  9. Assessment of salivary flow rate: biologic variation and measure error.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerius, P.H.; Limbeek, J. van; Rotteveel, J.J.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the applicability of the swab method in the measurement of salivary flow rate in multiple-handicap drooling children. To quantify the measurement error of the procedure and the biologic variation in the population. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study. METHODS: In a repeated measurem

  10. Proposed method for measurement of flow rate in turbulent periodic pipe flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werzner, E.; Ray, S.; Trimis, D.

    2011-12-01

    The present investigation deals with a previously proposed flow metering technique for laminar, fully-developed, time-periodic pipe flow. Employing knowledge of the pulsation frequency-dependent relationship between the mass flow rate and the pressure gradient, the method allows reconstruction of the instantaneous mass flow rate on the basis of a recorded pressure gradient time series. In order to explore if the procedure can be extended for turbulent flows, numerical simulations for turbulent, fully-developed, sinusoidally pulsating pipe flow with low pulse amplitude have been carried out using a ν2-f turbulence model. The study covers pulsation frequencies, ranging from the quasi-steady up to the inertia-dominated frequency regime, and three cycle-averaged Reynolds numbers of 4360, 9750 and 15400. After providing the theoretical background of the flow rate reconstruction principle, the numerical model and an experimental facility for the verification of simulations are explained. The obtained results, presented in time and frequency domain, show good agreement with each other and indicate a frequency dependence, similar to that used for the signal reconstruction for laminar flows. A modified dimensionless frequency definition has been introduced, which allows a generalised representation of the results considering the influence of Reynolds number.

  11. Flow rate dependency of critical wall shear stress in a radial-flow cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Detry, J.G.; Jensen, Bo Boye Busk; Sindic, M.

    2009-01-01

    of a water or ethanol suspension of starch granules on the surfaces. Depending on the substrate and on the suspending liquid, the aggregates differed in size and shape. Aggregate removal was studied at two flow rates. At the lower flow rate (Re-inlet = 955), the values of critical wall shear stress......In the present work, a radial-flow cell was used to study the removal of starch particle aggregates from several solid substrates (glass, stainless steel, polystyrene and PTFE) in order to determine the critical wall shear stress value for each case. The particle aggregates were formed by aspersion...... for the different surfaces suggested that capillary forces were, for all of them, playing an important role in aggregate adhesion since aqueous based aggregates were always more difficult to remove. At the higher flow rate (Re-inlet = 2016) the critical wall shear stress increased as a result of the change...

  12. Process Measurement Deviation Analysis for Flow Rate due to Miscalibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Eunsuk; Kim, Byung Rae; Jeong, Seog Hwan; Choi, Ji Hye; Shin, Yong Chul; Yun, Jae Hee [KEPCO Engineering and Construction Co., Deajeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    An analysis was initiated to identify the root cause, and the exemption of high static line pressure correction to differential pressure (DP) transmitters was one of the major deviation factors. Also the miscalibrated DP transmitter range was identified as another major deviation factor. This paper presents considerations to be incorporated in the process flow measurement instrumentation calibration and the analysis results identified that the DP flow transmitter electrical output decreased by 3%. Thereafter, flow rate indication decreased by 1.9% resulting from the high static line pressure correction exemption and measurement range miscalibration. After re-calibration, the flow rate indication increased by 1.9%, which is consistent with the analysis result. This paper presents the brief calibration procedures for Rosemount DP flow transmitter, and analyzes possible three cases of measurement deviation including error and cause. Generally, the DP transmitter is required to be calibrated with precise process input range according to the calibration procedure provided for specific DP transmitter. Especially, in case of the DP transmitter installed in high static line pressure, it is important to correct the high static line pressure effect to avoid the inherent systematic error for Rosemount DP transmitter. Otherwise, failure to notice the correction may lead to indicating deviation from actual value.

  13. Using Humorous Programs as a Vehicle for Humorous Commercials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Stephen D.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Shows that an increased level of humor in commercials was beneficial to recall and purchase intention; increased humor in the television program was detrimental to recall of products advertised; and gender interacted with program humor levels, such that products were viewed less negatively by men when they were exposed to commercials in a more…

  14. Stimulus Characteristics Affect Humor Processing in Individuals with Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Andrea C.; Hegenloh, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The present paper aims to investigate whether individuals with Asperger syndrome (AS) show global humor processing deficits or whether humor comprehension and appreciation depends on stimulus characteristics. Non-verbal visual puns, semantic and Theory of Mind cartoons were rated on comprehension, funniness and the punchlines were explained. AS…

  15. Humorous Stimuli and Depression: An Examination of Beck's Premise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scogin, Forrest R.; Merbaum, Michael

    1983-01-01

    Studied the relationship between depression and humor in 85 college students who took the Beck Depression Inventory and then rated 10 cartoons. Results showed no difference between mildly depressed and nondepressed subjects. However, some trends were noted on a mood scale related to immediate feelings and humor preference. (Author/JAC)

  16. Uses of humor in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimmer, S A; Carroll, J L; Wyatt, G K

    1990-06-01

    Given demonstrated usefulness in facilitating learning, aiding healing, and reducing stress, humor has gained recognition as a clinical tool. This article reviews some uses and potential misuses of humor in psychotherapy and suggests directions for practice and research.

  17. Humor and creativity in psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Martín Camacho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the current article principal theories on humor are analyzed, relating them to different conceptions of creativity. Finally, some indications for the use of humor in psychotherapy are introduced, highlighting their positive and negative aspects. 

  18. Cultural Context and Humor Understanding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐中锋

    2009-01-01

    "Humor" is a very general word, which has been studied by numerous scholars from different points of view, pursuing different goals and using different assumptions. This paper holds that cultural context counts for the production and perception of humor.

  19. Droplet entrainment rate in gas-liquid annular flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawant, P. [Energy Research Inc., Rockville, Maryland (United States); Liu, Y.; Ishii, M. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, Indiana (United States); Mori, M. [Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc., Yokohama (Japan); Chen, S. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, Indiana (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Droplet entrainment and deposition are the two most important physical phenomena in the gas-liquid annular two-phase flow. Modeling of these phenomena is essential for the estimation of dryout margins in the Light Water Reactors (LWRs) and the boilers. In this study, gas-liquid annular two-phase flow experiments are performed in a vertical round tube test section under adiabatic conditions. Air-water and organic fluid Freon-113 are used as the test fluids. The experiments covered a wide range of pressure and flow conditions. Liquid film extraction technique was used for the measurement of droplet entrainment and deposition rates. Additionally, the thickness of liquid film was measured in the air-water experiments using the ring type conductance probes. In this paper, the experimental data on entrainment rate is used to analyze the currently available correlations in the literature. The analysis showed that the existing correlations failed to predict the data at high gas velocity conditions. At high gas velocity, the experimental entrainment rate approaches a maximum limiting value; however, the correlations predicted continuously increasing entrainment rate as the gas velocity increases. (author)

  20. Vacuum rated flow controllers for inert gas ion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pless, L. C.

    1987-01-01

    Electrical propulsion systems which use a gas as a propellant require a gas flowmeter/controller which is capable of operating in a vacuum environment. The presently available instruments in the required flow ranges are designed and calibrated for use at ambient pressure. These instruments operate by heating a small diameter tube through which the gas is flowing and then sensing the change in temperature along the length of the tube. This temperature change is a function of the flow rate and the gas heat capacity. When installed in a vacuum, the change in the external thermal characteristics cause the tube to overheat and the temperature sensors are then operating outside their calibrated range. In addition, the variation in heat capacity with temperature limit the accuracy obtainable. These problems and the work in progress to solve them are discussed.

  1. Mass flow-rate control through time periodic electro-osmotic flows in circular microchannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Suman; Ray, Subhashis

    2008-08-01

    The present study is directed towards devising a scientific strategy for obtaining controlled time-periodic mass flow-rate characteristics through the employment of pulsating electric fields in circular microchannels by exploiting certain intrinsic characteristics of periodic electro-osmosis phenomenon. Within the assumption of thin electrical double layers, the governing equations for potential distribution and fluid flow are derived, corresponding to a steady base state and a time-varying perturbed state, by assuming periodic forms of the imposed electrical fields and the resultant velocity fields. For sinusoidal pulsations of the electric field superimposed over its mean, a signature map depicting the amplitudes of the mass flow rate and the electrical field as well as their phase differences is obtained from the theoretical analysis as a function of a nondimensional frequency parameter for different ratios of the characteristic electric double layer thickness relative to the microchannel radius. Distinctive characteristics in the signature profiles are obtained for lower and higher frequencies, primarily attributed to the finite time scale for momentum propagation away from the walls. The signature characteristics, obtained from the solution of the prescribed sinusoidal electric field, are subsequently used to solve the "inverse" problem, where the mass flow rate is prescribed in the form of sinusoidal pulsations and the desired electric fields that would produce the required mass flow-rate variations are obtained. The analysis is subsequently extended for controlled triangular and trapezoidal pulsations in the mass flow rate and the required electric fields are successfully obtained. It is observed that the higher the double layer thickness is in comparison to the channel radius, the more prominent is the deviation of the shape of the required electric field pulsation from the desired transience in the mass flow-rate characteristics. Possible extensions of the

  2. Humor in Children's Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Frank; Coles, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Humorous literature for children has been around since Randolph Caldecott first started writing and illustrating picturebooks. In the article, the authors try to understand what makes picturebooks funny and discuss ways to use humor in the classroom. Many examples of humorous picturebooks are cited to provide teachers with resources for their…

  3. Using Humor in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barney, David; Christenson, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Humor can be extremely beneficial in everyday life, whether giving or receiving it. It can be used to lighten the mood, give encouragement, or make corrections. Humor in physical education is no exception. Physical educators can use humor as a teaching tool and to create an environment for students to acquire the knowledge to practice a lifetime…

  4. Humor and embodied conversational agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, A.

    2003-01-01

    This report surveys the role of humor in human-to-human interaction and the possible role of humor in human-computer interaction. The aim is to see whether it is useful for embodied conversational agents to integrate humor capabilities in their internal model of intelligence, emotions and interactio

  5. Using Humor in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barney, David; Christenson, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Humor can be extremely beneficial in everyday life, whether giving or receiving it. It can be used to lighten the mood, give encouragement, or make corrections. Humor in physical education is no exception. Physical educators can use humor as a teaching tool and to create an environment for students to acquire the knowledge to practice a lifetime…

  6. Variation analysis of flow rate delivered using a blister pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvakumar, Sivesh; Linares, Rodrigo; Oppenheimer, Aaron; Anthony, Brian

    2012-03-01

    Components for on-chip storage and delivery of liquid reagent are necessary for many commercial applications of lab-on- a-chip technology. One such system uses a 'blister-pack' that is pushed by an actuator. This paper explores the sensitivity of the flow rate produced by a blister-actuator pair to the expected manufacturing variations in its dimensions. A numerical model of the blister-actuator pair is developed and the tool of Variation Simulation Modeling (VSM) is used to determine the robustness of fluid delivery. For a flow-rate requirement of +/- 10%, the number of out-of-spec parts is found to be less than 0.01%. The critical dimensions that need to be controlled to improve robustness are also identified.

  7. THE OPTIMIZATION OF FLOW RATES OF AN EXTRUDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.O. Popoola

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The article addresses how the flow rates of an extruder can be optimized. It mentions the plastic recycling industry as an example, which is only one of many solid waste recycling industries. The literature on flow rates is reviewed to demonstrate a gap that the current study aims to fills, in the hope that it will stimulate further research in a fertile area.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die artikel adresseer die vraagstuk van vloeitempo van ‘n ekstrusieproses. Dit handel met ‘n voorbeeld van ‘n plastiekherwinningsproses wat spruit uit soliede afvalverwerking. ‘n Literatuurstudie toon hoedat die navorsing verdere areas wat braak lê, aanspreek in die hoop dat verdere studie gestimuleer sal word.

  8. Characteristics of Multiplexed Grooved Nozzles for High Flow Rate Electrospray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyoung Tae; Kim, Woo Jin; Kim, Sang Soo [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-10-15

    The electrospray operated in the cone-jet mode can generate highly charged micro droplets in an almost uniform size at flow rates. Therefore, the multiplexing system which can retain the characteristics of the cone-jet mode is inevitable for the electrospray application. This experiment reports the multiplexed grooved nozzle system with the extractor. The effects of the grooves and the extractor on the performance of the electrospray were evaluated through experiments. Using the grooved nozzle, the stable cone-jet mode can be achieved at the each groove in the grooved mode. Furthermore, the number of nozzles per unit area is increased by the extractor. The multiplexing density is 12 jets per cm{sup 2} at 30 mm distance from the nozzle tip to the ground plate. The multiplexing system for the high flow rate electrospray is realized with the extractor which can diminish the space charge effect without sacrificing characteristics of the cone-jet mode.

  9. Friendship, Intimacy and Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Mordechai

    2014-01-01

    A review of the literature in philosophy in the past 20 years indicates that relatively little has been written on the connection between friendship, intimacy and humor. This article is intended to begin to address the neglect of this topic among philosophers by focusing on some interesting aspects of the relationship between friendship, intimacy…

  10. A flux monitoring method for easy and accurate flow rate measurement in pressure-driven flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siria, Alessandro; Biance, Anne-Laure; Ybert, Christophe; Bocquet, Lydéric

    2012-03-07

    We propose a low-cost and versatile method to measure flow rate in microfluidic channels under pressure-driven flows, thereby providing a simple characterization of the hydrodynamic permeability of the system. The technique is inspired by the current monitoring method usually employed to characterize electro-osmotic flows, and makes use of the measurement of the time-dependent electric resistance inside the channel associated with a moving salt front. We have successfully tested the method in a micrometer-size channel, as well as in a complex microfluidic channel with a varying cross-section, demonstrating its ability in detecting internal shape variations.

  11. Innovative model-based flow rate optimization for vanadium redox flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, S.; Suriyah, M. R.; Leibfried, T.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, an innovative approach is presented to optimize the flow rate of a 6-kW vanadium redox flow battery with realistic stack dimensions. Efficiency is derived using a multi-physics battery model and a newly proposed instantaneous efficiency determination technique. An optimization algorithm is applied to identify optimal flow rates for operation points defined by state-of-charge (SoC) and current. The proposed method is evaluated against the conventional approach of applying Faraday's first law of electrolysis, scaled to the so-called flow factor. To make a fair comparison, the flow factor is also optimized by simulating cycles with different charging/discharging currents. It is shown through the obtained results that the efficiency is increased by up to 1.2% points; in addition, discharge capacity is also increased by up to 1.0 kWh or 5.4%. Detailed loss analysis is carried out for the cycles with maximum and minimum charging/discharging currents. It is shown that the proposed method minimizes the sum of losses caused by concentration over-potential, pumping and diffusion. Furthermore, for the deployed Nafion 115 membrane, it is observed that diffusion losses increase with stack SoC. Therefore, to decrease stack SoC and lower diffusion losses, a higher flow rate during charging than during discharging is reasonable.

  12. A correction to collision rates of droplets in turbulent flows

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Huang

    2016-01-01

    This paper makes a correction to the collision rates of small droplets in turbulent fluid derived by Saffman and Turner(1956). Not only the distortion but also the rotation of the fluid is taken into account between two close droplets. A rotation reference is fixed on one drop, and the fluxes of the other drops moving towards the fixed one are carried out based on this new reference. The behaviors of turbulent flow are analyzed within the smallest eddies under the rotation reference, and a correction is made to the collision rates by multiplying a factor sqrt(2).

  13. Relationship between Formation Water Rate, Equivalent Penetration Rate and Volume Flow Rate of Air in Air Drilling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Kexiong; Zhang Laibin; Jiang Hongwei

    2007-01-01

    Formation water invasion is the most troublesome problem associated with air drilling. However, it is not economical to apply mist drilling when only a small amount of water flows into wellbore from formation during air drilling. Formation water could be circulated out of the wellbore through increasing the gas injection rate. In this paper,the Angel model was modified by introducing Nikurade friction factor for the flow in coarse open holes and translating formation water rate into equivalent penetration rate. Thus the distribution of annular pressure and the relationship between minimum air injection rate and formation water rate were obtained. Real data verification indicated that the modified model is more accurate than the Angel model and can provide useful information for air drilling.

  14. Glem ikke at bruge humor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Preben Olund

    2017-01-01

    relationer og nærhed. Det er velkendt. Mindre velkendt er måske at gode relationer begynder med humor. Humorbegrebet kan begribes ud fra fire forskellige perspektiver. Humor bliver sammenlignet med leg, der er en undersøgende og seriøs form for læring mellem fantasi og virkelighed. Humor skaber sociale...... fællesskaber, der er grundlag for læring. Humor udvikler følelser, der er en motiverende faktor i undervisningen. Humor udvikler kognition, der er evnen til at kunne tænke....

  15. Does humor moderate the effects of experimentally-induced stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, M G; Stone, A A

    1996-06-01

    This study attempted to determine whether humor production moderates mood and physiological responses to stress of subjects high and low in trait humor. Forty subjects who were high and 40 subjects who were low in trait humor were selected. Half of each group was randomly assigned to one of two conditions. In one condition they generated a humorous monologue and in the other condition they generated a serious monologue to a silent stressful film. Heart rate, skin conductance level, and skin temperature were taken continuously for the fifteen minutes before, during, and fifteen minutes after the film. Pre- and post-stress mood and tension ratings were also recorded. Analyses of covariance were conducted with baseline mood and tension as covariates. Compared to the production of a serious narrative, humor production led to lower negative affect, lower tension, and reduced psychophysiological reactivity for both high and low trait-humor groups. These results suggest that humor production may be an effective coping strategy, even for individuals who do not typically use humor to cope with stress.

  16. Laugh yourself to sleep: memory consolidation for humorous information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Alexis M; Payne, Jessica D

    2014-05-01

    There is extensive evidence that emotional information is better remembered than neutral information across long delays, especially if the delay interval contains an opportunity for sleep. However, as prior studies have focused on memory for negative stimuli, it is unclear whether positive memories benefit from time and sleep as well. To investigate the consolidation of positive memories, the current study examined differences in memory for humorous and non-humorous cartoons. While prior evidence demonstrates that humorous information is preferentially remembered relative to non-humorous information over brief delays, it is unknown whether this benefit lasts across longer delay intervals or whether sleep is important for lasting humor memories to form. Thus, we tested memory for 27 cartoons across 12-h delay periods containing either sleep or wakefulness. Results indicate that humor's enhancing effect on recall memory is robust across a 12-h delay and that a period of sleep facilitates this effect over wakefulness when cartoons are novel to participants and ranked based on subjective emotional ratings. Further, in accordance with previous studies that reveal diminished emotional reactivity to stimuli following sleep, in a supplemental experiment, we found that sleep reduced subjective ratings of humor, arousal, and positivity of humorous cartoons. These findings provide preliminary evidence that sleep's impact on negative emotional memory consolidation and emotional reactivity can be extended to positive stimuli as well.

  17. Impact of extracorporeal blood flow rate on blood pressure, pulse rate and cardiac output during haemodialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schytz, Philip Andreas; Mace, Maria Lerche; Soja, Anne Merete Boas

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: If blood pressure (BP) falls during haemodialysis (HD) [intradialytic hypotension (IDH)] a common clinical practice is to reduce the extracorporeal blood flow rate (EBFR). Consequently the efficacy of the HD (Kt/V) is reduced. However, only very limited knowledge on the effect of redu...

  18. Rate Control Protocol for Fast Flows: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Gaganpreet Singh,

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In today’s world, congestion control is a main objective to maximize fairness, utilization and throughput of the Internet. Every protocol has its own features to handle the congestion. The most widely used protocol over the Internet is Transfer Control Protocol. It aims at reliable and in order delivery of bytes to the higher layer and it also protect the network from congestive control. Other congestion control protocols are XCP and RCP. These new protocols are advancement over TCP. We study new congestion control protocol like Rate Control Protocol that make flows complete frequently as compared to TCP and other version of TCP and XCP. In this paper we have presented a comparison between TCP, XCP and RCP, which shows that RCP is a superior choice to use over the Internet to make flows complete quickly

  19. Determination of tamsulosin in human aqueous humor and serum by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keski-Rahkonen, Pekka; Pärssinen, Olavi; Leppänen, Esa; Mauriala, Timo; Lehtonen, Marko; Auriola, Seppo

    2007-01-17

    A simple, sensitive and selective LC-MS/MS method was developed for the determination of tamsulosin in human aqueous humor and serum to study the recently reported eye-related adverse effects of this alpha(1)-blocker drug. Aqueous humor samples were analyzed by direct injection, after addition of the internal standard, labetalol. Liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate was used for serum sample preparation. The chromatographic separation was performed on a reversed phase column by gradient elution with acetonitrile -0.1% formic acid at a flow-rate of 0.2 ml/min. Detection and quantification of the analytes were carried out with a linear ion trap mass spectrometer, using positive electrospray ionization (ESI) and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). The limit of quantification was 0.1 ng/ml for both aqueous humor and serum samples and linearity was obtained over the concentration ranges of 0.1-4.7 ng/ml and 0.1-19.3 ng/ml for aqueous humor and serum samples, respectively. Acceptable accuracy and precision were obtained for concentrations within the standard curve ranges. The method has been used for the determination of tamsulosin in aqueous humor and serum samples from patients that were on tamsulosin medication and underwent cataract surgery.

  20. The wall shear rate in non-Newtonian turbulent pipe flow

    CERN Document Server

    Trinh, K T

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a method for calculating the wall shear rate in pipe turbulent flow. It collapses adequately the data measured in laminar flow and turbulent flow into a single flow curve and gives the basis for the design of turbulent flow viscometers. Key words: non-Newtonian, wall shear rate, turbulent, rheometer

  1. Humoral immunity in Hansen's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldenise Cossermelli-Messina

    Full Text Available For many years immune response in leprosy has been studied. Since 1960 several reports dealing with humoral immunity have been described in the literature. Different autoantibody rates occur in leprosy. There is an increase in the prevalence of autoantibodies in elderly patients with long standing disease, in lepromatous leprosy and in those with reactional states. The diferences in rates among various studies are attributed to different methods and variations among patient samples concerning age, gender, polar forms, therapy and other elements. The prevalence of numerous antibodies, immune complexes, cryoglobulins and complement levels have been studied by many authors. This also highlights the importance of the more recent reviews of anti-Mycobacterium leprae glycolipid antibodies such as the anti-phenolic glycolipid-I antibodies in which titers are variable and depend on genetic factors.

  2. THE IMPACT OF THE EXCHANGE RATE ON THE COMMERCIALS FLOWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela IAVORSCHI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The liberalization of capital movements between states and of the trade of goods and services, are one of the most important phenomena in the current world economy. The purpose of the present study, in the case of Romania, is to answer the question whether the interventions by means of the exchange rate of the national currency contributes to the fluidization and improvement of the commercial trades. The study demonstrates that the leu devaluation does not lead to a substantial increase of the exports. As a mechanism of influence of the commercials flows, the exchange rate has a short-term influence and the economy requires structural reforms, meant to stimulate the growth of the economic competitiveness.

  3. Characterization of Absorbent Flow Rate in Towel and Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D. Beuther

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The quality of a paper towel is often judged based on how quickly it can wipe up a spill. However, the test methods currently available cannot repeatably measure significant differences in absorbent rate between samples. Recent round-robin testing evaluations by TAPPI and CEN organizations have shown that past methods, such as ASTM D5802-95 and TAPPI T561-pm [1], are unreliable due to high variability. The reasons for the lack of repeatability are unclear. The relation between the wicking mechanism and the fundamental absorbent properties needs to be better understood. This paper uses x-ray imaging to show the overall flow characteristics of fluid absorption within a towel, and compares the results to model predictions to show which parameters are important to the process. From this understanding, a revised test method is proposed that provides adequate statistical discernment of absorbent rate properties of tissue on a simple lab-bench scale device.

  4. VARIABLE FIRING RATE OIL BURNER USING PULSE FUEL FLOW CONTROL.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRISHNA,C.R.; BUTCHER,T.A.; KAMATH,B.R.

    2004-10-01

    problem is to develop a burner, which can operate at two firing rates, with the lower rate being significantly lower than 0.5 gallons per hour. This paper describes the initial results of adopting this approach through a pulsed flow nozzle. It has been shown that the concept of flow modulation with a small solenoid valve is feasible. Especially in the second configuration tested, where the Lee valve was integrated with the nozzle, reasonable modulation in flow of the order of 1.7 could be achieved. For this first prototype, the combustion performance is still not quite satisfactory. Improvements in operation, for example by providing a sharp and positive shut-off so that there is no flow under low pressures with consequent poor atomization could lead to better combustion performance. This could be achieved by using nozzles that have shut off or check valves for example. It is recommended that more work in cooperation with the valve manufacturer could produce a technically viable system. Marketability is of course a far more complex problem to be addressed once a technically viable product is available.

  5. It's in the way that you use it: attachment and the dyadic nature of humor during conflict negotiation in romantic couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterheld, Heike A; Simpson, Jeffry A; Oriña, M Minda

    2013-04-01

    In a behavioral observation study with dating couples, we examined (a) how attachment orientations predict humor use and (b) how people respond to their partners' use of humor. Couples were videotaped while trying to resolve a relationship conflict. Each discussion was rated on several theoretically relevant dimensions. Highly avoidant individuals used more aggressive humor and less affiliative humor during their discussions, whereas highly anxious individuals used more self-defeating humor. Individuals also tailored their humor use to partners who were highly anxious and distressed. Aggressive humor was received more negatively by partners who sought more care. Affiliative humor was favorably received, especially when partners were more distressed, whereas self-defeating humor elicited negative responses from highly distressed partners. Both highly anxious and avoidant individuals reacted unfavorably when they were the recipients of the humor styles they used most often. The implications of these results for our understanding of relationships and humor are discussed.

  6. Study on Deep Structure of Humor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫林琼

    2007-01-01

    Humor is the common favorite of people in all walks of life and at all ages. Studying the deep structure of humor, that is, the psychological and cognitive foundation in producing and comprehending humor, is quite practical in helping people first to recognize, understand and appreciate others' humor and then to apply their own humor to their daily communication.

  7. Humor and embodied conversational agents

    OpenAIRE

    Nijholt, A.

    2003-01-01

    This report surveys the role of humor in human-to-human interaction and the possible role of humor in human-computer interaction. The aim is to see whether it is useful for embodied conversational agents to integrate humor capabilities in their internal model of intelligence, emotions and interaction (verbal and nonverbal) capabilities. A current state of the art of research in embodied conversational agents, affective computing and verbal and nonverbal interaction is presented. The report ad...

  8. Perception of aggressive humor in relation to gelotophobia, gelotophilia, and katagelasticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea C. Samson

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates humor appreciation of aggressive cartoons in relation to gelotophobia, gelotophilia, and katagelasticism. These traits were described to have a peculiar relation to laughter-related phenomena, in particular to disparagement humor. 185 participants rated highly aggressive and non-aggressive humorous stimuli for funniness and aversiveness and their scores on the gelotophobia, gelotophilia and katagelasticism scales were measured. The cartoons were controlled for their structural basis, i.e., incongruity-resolution and nonsense humor, as these two types of humor strongly influence the appreciation of humorous stimuli. The results revealed that high scores on gelotophobia lead to higher aversion to aggressive humor, whereas high scores on katagelasticism lead to more enjoyment of aggressive humor with less aversion. Gelotophobia and katagelasticism lead to sensitivity to aggression in humor, which fits the overt behavior of reacting sensitively towards laughter (gelotophobia and enjoying to laugh at others (katagelasticism. Gelotophilia did not predict reactions to either aggressive or non-aggressive humor but did predict more amusement in general: High scorers on gelotophilia seem to be relaxed towards any form of humor, even if it has an aggressive note. This study confirms the three dimensions to have peculiar responses to aggressive types of humor and opens up several questions to be explored in future research.

  9. Energy dissipation rate limits for flow through rough channels and tidal flow across topography

    CERN Document Server

    Kerswell, R R

    2016-01-01

    An upper bound on the energy dissipation rate per unit mass, $\\epsilon$, for pressure-driven flow through a channel with rough walls is derived for the first time. For large Reynolds numbers, $Re$, the bound - $\\epsilon \\,\\leq \\, c\\, U^3/h$ where $U$ is the mean flow through the channel, $h$ the channel height and $c$ a numerical prefactor - is independent of $Re$ (i.e. the viscosity) as in the smooth channel case but the numerical prefactor $c$, which is only a function of the surface heights and surface gradients (i.e. not higher derivatives), is increased. Crucially, this new bound captures the correct scaling law of what is observed in rough pipes and demonstrates that while a smooth pipe is a singular limit of the Navier-Stokes equations (data suggests $\\epsilon \\, \\sim \\, 1/(\\log Re)^2\\, U^3/h$ as $Re \\rightarrow \\infty$), it is a regular limit for current bounding techniques. As an application, the bound is extended to oscillatory flow to estimate the energy dissipation rate for tidal flow across botto...

  10. Development of digital flow control system for multi-channel variable-rate sprayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precision modulation of nozzle flow rates is a critical step for variable-rate spray applications in orchards and ornamental nurseries. An automatic flow rate control system activated with microprocessors and pulse width modulation (PWM) controlled solenoid valves was developed to control flow rates...

  11. Laughter, Humor and Pain Perception in Children: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Stuber

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Although there are many clinical programs designed to bring humor into pediatric hospitals, there has been very little research with children or adolescents concerning the specific utility of humor for children undergoing stressful or painful procedures. Rx Laughter™, a non-profit organization interested in the use of humor for healing, collaborated with UCLA to collect preliminary data on a sample of 18 children aged 7–16 years. Participants watched humorous video-tapes before, during and after a standardized pain task that involved placing a hand in cold water. Pain appraisal (ratings of pain severity and pain tolerance (submersion time were recorded and examined in relation to humor indicators (number of laughs/smiles during each video and child ratings of how funny the video was. Whereas humor indicators were not significantly associated with pain appraisal or tolerance, the group demonstrated significantly greater pain tolerance while viewing funny videos than when viewing the videos immediately before or after the cold-water task. The results suggest that humorous distraction is useful to help children and adolescents tolerate painful procedures. Further study is indicated to explore the specific mechanism of this benefit.

  12. Copepod feeding currents : flow patterns, filtration rates and energetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duren, LA; Stamhuis, EJ; Videler, JJ

    2003-01-01

    Particle image velocimetry was used to construct a quasi 3-dimensional image of the flow generated by the feeding appendages of the calanoid copepod Temora longicornis. By scanning layers of flow, detailed information was obtained on flow velocity and velocity gradients. The flow around feeding T. l

  13. Effect of Flow Characteristics in the Downstream of Butterfly Valve on the Flow Rate Measurement using Venturi Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seok Ho; Lee, Jungho; Yu, Cheong Hwan; Park, San-Jin; Chung, Chang-Hwan

    2010-06-01

    For testing large-capacity pump, the accurate flow rate measurement is needed in the test loop. As a measuring method of flow rate, venturi tube is recommended due to its low pressure loss. However, upstream disturbance of loop component such as valve has an effect upon the accuracy of flow rate measurement. For controlling flow rate in case of high flow rate and large-scale piping system, butterfly-type valve is generally used due to its compactness. However, butterfly valve disturbs downstream flow by generating turbulence, cavities, or abrupt pressure change. In this study, the effect of downstream disturbance of butterfly valve on the flow rate measurement using venturi tube is investigated. Test loop consists of circulation pump, reservoir, butterfly valve, venturi tube, and reference flow meter. The test is conducted with regard to a different valve opening angle of butterfly valve. PIV system is used to visualize and analyze flow in the downstream region of butterfly valve. According to valve opening angle, the flow characteristics and the accuracy of flow rate measurement are investigated.

  14. Design and construction of a novel Coriolis mass flow rate meter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehendale, Aditya; Zwikker, Rini; Jouwsma, Wybren

    2009-01-01

    The Coriolis principle for measuring flow rates has great advantages compared to other flow measurement principles, the most important being that mass flow is measured directly. Up to now the measurement of low flow rates posed a great challenge. In a joint research project, the University of Twente

  15. Design and construction of a novel Coriolis mass flow rate meter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehendale, A.; Zwikker, Rini; Jouwsma, Wybren

    2009-01-01

    The Coriolis principle for measuring flow rates has great advantages compared to other flow measurement principles, the most important being that mass flow is measured directly. Up to now the measurement of low flow rates posed a great challenge. In a joint research project, the University of Twente

  16. Humor, helt seriøst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundquist, Lita Sander

    2012-01-01

    Adfærd. Har humor grænser? Dansk humor har i hvert fald. Hvor humor typisk bruges til at glatte ud med, har det ofte den stik modsatte virkning, viser studie.......Adfærd. Har humor grænser? Dansk humor har i hvert fald. Hvor humor typisk bruges til at glatte ud med, har det ofte den stik modsatte virkning, viser studie....

  17. GROWTH RATE DISPERSION (GRD OF THE (010 FACE OF BORAX CRYSTALS IN FLOWING SOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suharso Suharso

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The growth rates of borax crystals from aqueous solutions in the (010 direction at various flow rates were measured. The observed variations of the growth rate can be represented by a normal distribution.  It was found that there is no correlation between growth rate distribution and solution flow under these experimental conditions.   Keywords: Growth rate dispersion (GRD, borax, flow rate

  18. Humor styles and symbolic boundaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, G.

    2009-01-01

    Humor is strongly related to group boundaries. Jokes and other humorous utterances often draw on implicit references and inside knowledge; they tend to refer to sensitive topics which may offend people; and they ideally incite laughter, one of the strongest markers of social solidarity and emotional

  19. A Pragmatic Study of Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibraheem, Sura Dhiaa; Abbas, Nawal Fadhil

    2016-01-01

    Linguistically speaking, the concept of humor, which seems to be vast for people, has specific dimensions by which it is generated including: puns, irony, sarcasm, wittiness, and contrastive utterances in relation to the speakers of those utterances. It is about how the extra linguistics elements dominate the situation and the delivery of humor.…

  20. Humor er en alvorlig sag

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søltoft, Pia

    2016-01-01

    I modsætning til ironi er humor for Kierkegaard fællesskabsgivende – ironikeren hævder sig selv, men humoristen har sympati med den, man ler med. Humor er hos Kierkegaard udtryk for, at humoristen forliger sig med tilværelsen og dens luner, og dermed grænser humoren hos Kierkegaard op til det...

  1. Humor styles and symbolic boundaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, G.

    2009-01-01

    Humor is strongly related to group boundaries. Jokes and other humorous utterances often draw on implicit references and inside knowledge; they tend to refer to sensitive topics which may offend people; and they ideally incite laughter, one of the strongest markers of social solidarity and emotional

  2. Investigation and numerical simulation of inner-flow of an axial mineflow fan under low flow rate conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yi-min; ZHOU Zhong-ning

    2008-01-01

    Because of unstable properties of axial mine flow fans working under conditions of low flow rates, the safety and reli-ability of fans in their operational zone is reduced. At times, serious vibration may bring about the destruction of equipment or even jeopardize the safety of entire factories. By means of oil flow visualization techniques and numerical simulation, we have investi-gated the inner-flow of an axial mine flow fan working under low flow rate conditions. The fundamental reasons of complex flow phenomena of the inner-flow of the flow fan under these stated conditions were revealed. At the same time and in order to improve the inner-flow under conditions of low flow rates, a blade separator and air separator were designed. From our tests we found that the blade separator and air separator are two kinds efficient methods to improve the unstable working characteristics of the axial mine flow fan operating under low flow rate conditions. The effect of the improvement of the air separator is stronger than that of the blade separator.

  3. Anomalous hypothalamic responses to humor in cataplexy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan L Reiss

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cataplexy is observed in a subset of patients with narcolepsy and affects approximately 1 in 2,000 persons. Cataplexy is most often triggered by strong emotions such as laughter, which can result in transient, yet debilitating, muscle atonia. The objective of this study was to examine the neural systems underlying humor processing in individuals with cataplexy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: While undergoing functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI, we showed ten narcolepsy-cataplexy patients and ten healthy controls humorous cartoons. In addition, we examined the brain activity of one subject while in a full-blown cataplectic attack. Behavioral results showed that participants with cataplexy rated significantly fewer humorous cartoons as funny compared to controls. Concurrent fMRI showed that patients, when compared to controls and in the absence of overt cataplexy symptoms, showed pronounced activity in the emotional network including the ventral striatum and hypothalamus while viewing humorous versus non-humorous cartoons. Increased activity was also observed in the right inferior frontal gyri--a core component of the inhibitory circuitry. In comparison, the one subject who experienced a cataplectic attack showed dramatic reductions in hypothalamic activity. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest an overdrive of the emotional circuitry and possible compensatory suppression by cortical inhibitory regions in cataplexy. Moreover, during cataplectic attacks, the hypothalamus is characterized by a marked decrease in activity similar to that observed during sleep. One possible explanation for these findings is an initial overdrive and compensatory shutdown of the hypothalamus resulting in full cataplectic symptoms.

  4. Spass Verstehen, Zur Pragmatik von konversationellem Humor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekmann, Bjørn

    2000-01-01

    Spøg, Humor, Komik, Ironi, Kommunikationsteori, Hermeneutik, Gruppedynamik, Logik, Tekstlingvistik......Spøg, Humor, Komik, Ironi, Kommunikationsteori, Hermeneutik, Gruppedynamik, Logik, Tekstlingvistik...

  5. Aqueous humor changes after experimental filtering surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radius, R L; Herschler, J; Claflin, A; Fiorentino, G

    1980-02-01

    We studied aqueous humor of rhesus and owl monkeys for its effect on the growth of subconjunctival fibroblasts in tissue culture. Aqueous humor samples obtained before glaucoma surgery inhibited the initiation of growth of fibroblasts. However, postoperative aqueous humor samples supported growth of fibroblasts. The change in aqueous humor physiology lasted for up to two months after glaucoma surgery. Our study indicated that possibly material added to the postoperative aqueous humor inactivates an inhibitor normally present in primary aqueous humor. An alternative explanation would be that primary aqueous humor, in contrast to secondary aqueous humor, lacks sufficient nutrient material to support fibroblast growth in tissue culture.

  6. Dependence of Selected Water Quality Parameters on Flow Rates in River Profiles in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Hanslík

    2016-06-01

    The results show that in the monitored profiles, there is a direct relationship with flow rate in case of N-NO3-, suspended solids and O2. Temperature shows an inverse relationship with the flow rate. Other parameters show different relationship with the flow rate in individual monitored profiles or do not show statistically significant relation.

  7. Accuracy of flow convergence estimates of mitral regurgitant flow rates obtained by use of multiple color flow Doppler M-mode aliasing boundaries: an experimental animal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Jones, M; Shandas, R; Valdes-Cruz, L M; Murillo, A; Yamada, I; Kang, S U; Weintraub, R G; Shiota, T; Sahn, D J

    1993-02-01

    The proximal flow convergence method of multiplying color Doppler aliasing velocity by flow convergence surface area has yielded a new means of quantifying flow rate by noninvasively derived measurements. Unlike previous methods of visualizing the turbulent jet of mitral regurgitation on color flow Doppler mapping, flow convergence methods are less influenced by machine factors because of the systematic structure of the laminar flow convergence region. However, recent studies have demonstrated that the flow rate calculated from the first aliasing boundary of color flow Doppler imaging is dependent on orifice size, flow rate, aliasing velocity and therefore on the distance from the orifice chosen for measurement. In this study we calculated the regurgitant flow rates acquired by use of multiple proximal aliasing boundaries on color Doppler M-mode traces and assessed the effect of distances of measurement and aliasing velocities on the calculated regurgitant flow rate. Six sheep with surgically induced mitral regurgitation were studied. The distances from the mitral valve leaflet M-mode line to the first, second, and third sequential aliasing boundaries on color Doppler M-mode traces were measured and converted to the regurgitant flow rates calculated by applying the hemispheric flow equation and averaging instantaneous flow rates throughout systole. The flow rates that were calculated from the first, second, and third aliasing boundaries correlated well with the actual regurgitant flow rates (r = 0.91 to 0.96). The mean percentage error from the actual flow rates were 151% for the first aliasing boundary, 7% for the second aliasing boundary, and -43% for the third aliasing boundary; and the association between aliasing velocities and calculated flow rates indicates an inverse relationship, which suggests that in this model, there were limited velocity-distance combinations that fit with a hemispheric assumption for flow convergence geometry. The second aliasing

  8. Method and apparatus for controlling the flow rate of mercury in a flow system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Mark W.; Speer, Richard

    1991-01-01

    A method for increasing the mercury flow rate to a photochemical mercury enrichment utilizing an entrainment system comprises the steps of passing a carrier gas over a pool of mercury maintained at a first temperature T1, wherein the carrier gas entrains mercury vapor; passing said mercury vapor entrained carrier gas to a second temperature zone T2 having temperature less than T1 to condense said entrained mercury vapor, thereby producing a saturated Hg condition in the carrier gas; and passing said saturated Hg carrier gas to said photochemical enrichment reactor.

  9. Effects of Classroom Humor Climate and Acceptance of Humor Messages on Adolescents' Expressions of Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Yi-Chen; Lee, Chun-Yang; Wang, Hong-Huei

    2016-01-01

    Background: To adapt to dramatic changes from physical growth, physical development and the increasing demand of significant others, humor has been found to be an effective coping strategy. However, previous studies have found that adolescents start to express their humor styles with aggressive components which causes negative consequences, such…

  10. Effects of Classroom Humor Climate and Acceptance of Humor Messages on Adolescents' Expressions of Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Yi-Chen; Lee, Chun-Yang; Wang, Hong-Huei

    2016-01-01

    Background: To adapt to dramatic changes from physical growth, physical development and the increasing demand of significant others, humor has been found to be an effective coping strategy. However, previous studies have found that adolescents start to express their humor styles with aggressive components which causes negative consequences, such…

  11. Volumetric flow rate comparisons for water and product on pasteurization systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesser, J E; Stroup, W H; McKinstry, J A

    1994-04-01

    A flow calibration tube system was assembled to determine the volumetric flow rates for water and various dairy products through a holding tube, using three different flow promotion methods. With the homogenizer, the volumetric flow rates of water and reconstituted skim milk were within 1.5% of each other. With the positive displacement pump, the flow rate for reconstituted skim milk increased compared with that for water as the pressure increased or temperature decreased. The largest increase in flow rate was at 310-kPa gauge and 20 degrees C. On a magnetic flow meter system, the volumetric flow rates of water and reconstituted skim milk were within .5% of the flow rate measured from the volume collected in a calibrated tank. The flow rate of whole milk was similar to that of skim milk on the three flow promoters evaluated. Ice milk mix increased the flow rate of the positive displacement pump, but not the homogenizer and magnetic flow meter system.

  12. A Pragmatic Study of Humor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sura Dhiaa Ibraheem

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Linguistically speaking, the concept of humor, which seems to be vast for people, has specific dimensions by which it is generated including: puns, irony, sarcasm, wittiness, and contrastive utterances in relation to the speakers of those utterances. It is about how the extra linguistics elements dominate the situation and the delivery of humor. The researchers of the present paper intend to show how the selected literary extract can be subjected to a linguistic pragmatic analysis and then be explained by applying the incongruity theory of humor by Kant (1790 in order to show the ways or the mechanisms that lead to the flouting, infringing and the violation of Gricean maxims can consequently lead to the creation of humor. Despite the fact that the present paper is qualitative in nature, some tables are provided by the researchers in order to reach into a better, deeper and more understandable analysis. Investigating the ways Gricean maxims are flouted, infringed and violated to create humor, and showing how the imperfect use of language sometimes create unintentional humor are the researchers’ aims of this paper. Keywords: pragmatics, humor, implicature, Gricean maxims, Measure for Measure

  13. Microstructure from simulated Brownian suspension flows at large shear rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jeffrey F.; Katyal, Bhavana

    2002-06-01

    Pair microstructure of concentrated Brownian suspensions in simple-shear flow is studied by sampling of configurations from dynamic simulations by the Stokesian Dynamics technique. Simulated motions are three dimensional with periodic boundary conditions to mimic an infinitely extended suspension. Hydrodynamic interactions through Newtonian fluid and Brownian motion are the only physical influences upon the motion of the monodisperse hard-sphere particles. The dimensionless parameters characterizing the suspension are the particle volume fraction and Péclet number, defined, respectively, as φ=(4π/3)na3 with n the number density and a the sphere radius, and Pe=6πηγ˙a3/kT with η the fluid viscosity, γ˙ the shear rate, and kT the thermal energy. The majority of the results reported are from simulations at Pe=1000; results of simulations at Pe=1, 25, and 100 are also reported for φ=0.3 and φ=0.45. The pair structure is characterized by the pair distribution function, g(r)=P1|1(r)/n, where P1|1(r) is the conditional probability of finding a pair at a separation vector r. The structure under strong shearing exhibits an accumulation of pair probability at contact, and angular distortion (from spherical symmetry at Pe=0), with both effects increasing with Pe. Flow simulations were performed at Pe=1000 for eight volume fractions in the range 0.2⩽φ⩽0.585. For φ=0.2-0.3, the pair structure at contact, g(|r|=2)≡g(2), is found to exhibit a single region of strong correlation, g(2)≫1, at points around the axis of compression, with a particle-deficient wake in the extensional zones. A qualitative change in microstructure is observed between φ=0.3 and φ=0.37. For φ⩾0.37, the maximum g(2) lies at points in the shear plane nearly on the x axis of the bulk simple shear flow Ux=γ˙y, while at smaller φ, the maximum g(2) lies near the compressional axis; long-range string ordering is not observed. For φ=0.3 and φ=0.45, g(2)˜Pe0.7 for 1⩽Pe⩽1000, a

  14. 4D ultrafast ultrasound flow imaging: in vivo quantification of arterial volumetric flow rate in a single heartbeat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Mafalda; Provost, Jean; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2016-12-01

    We present herein 4D ultrafast ultrasound flow imaging, a novel ultrasound-based volumetric imaging technique for the quantitative mapping of blood flow. Complete volumetric blood flow distribution imaging was achieved through 2D tilted plane-wave insonification, 2D multi-angle cross-beam beamforming, and 3D vector Doppler velocity components estimation by least-squares fitting. 4D ultrafast ultrasound flow imaging was performed in large volumetric fields of view at very high volume rate (>4000 volumes s-1) using a 1024-channel 4D ultrafast ultrasound scanner and a 2D matrix-array transducer. The precision of the technique was evaluated in vitro by using 3D velocity vector maps to estimate volumetric flow rates in a vessel phantom. Volumetric Flow rate errors of less than 5% were found when volumetric flow rates and peak velocities were respectively less than 360 ml min-1 and 100 cm s-1. The average volumetric flow rate error increased to 18.3% when volumetric flow rates and peak velocities were up to 490 ml min-1 and 1.3 m s-1, respectively. The in vivo feasibility of the technique was shown in the carotid arteries of two healthy volunteers. The 3D blood flow velocity distribution was assessed during one cardiac cycle in a full volume and it was used to quantify volumetric flow rates (375  ±  57 ml min-1 and 275  ±  43 ml min-1). Finally, the formation of 3D vortices at the carotid artery bifurcation was imaged at high volume rates.

  15. Humor and Healing in College Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Barbara J.; Roehrig, James P.; Yang, Peggy H.

    2015-01-01

    Humor is an often neglected but potentially powerful tool in college counseling center interventions. In this article we review potential benefits and hazards of using humor in a college mental health setting along with perspectives on humor's mechanism of action and distinctions between types of humor. Therapist and client-specific…

  16. Humor and Healing in College Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Barbara J.; Roehrig, James P.; Yang, Peggy H.

    2015-01-01

    Humor is an often neglected but potentially powerful tool in college counseling center interventions. In this article we review potential benefits and hazards of using humor in a college mental health setting along with perspectives on humor's mechanism of action and distinctions between types of humor. Therapist and client-specific…

  17. Pragmatic Analysis on Verbal Humor in Friends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳

    2009-01-01

    As a nature of humanity, humor is a way of communication peculiar to human beings. Verbal humor is a cate-gory of humor which is used to express humorist ideas through language, and siteom as a unique comedy performance is an important carrier of humor. This paper applies some basic pragnmtic theories, such as Cooperative Principles (CP) and Relevance Theory(RT), to analyze the verbal humor in American popular situational comedy Friends, aiming to explore the generation mechanism of English humor. And then a better understanding and appreciation of English humor for English learners can be achieved.

  18. Relation between humor and empathic concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampes, W P

    2001-02-01

    A series of studies have shown that humor is associated with close interpersonal relationships and effective in reducing stress, which in turn enhances empathy. Therefore, it was hypothesized that humor and empathic concern would be positively correlated. The Empathic Concern subscale of the Empathy Questionnaire, the Coping Humor Scale, the Multidimensional Sense of Humor Scale, and the Situational Humor Response Questionnaire were given to 124 subjects. Scores on the Empathic Concern subscale were significantly correlated with those on each of the humor scales. Types of humor may be an important variable in the relationship between empathic concern and humor. Both humor and empathic concern are associated for people with emotional intelligence who use these to interact effectively with other individuals. As such, it was suggested that exploration would yield a relation between humor and emotional self-awareness, which is also associated with emotional intelligence.

  19. 40 CFR 53.53 - Test for flow rate accuracy, regulation, measurement accuracy, and cut-off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... definitions. (1) Sample flow rate means the quantitative volumetric flow rate of the air stream caused by the... the flow rate cut-off test, download the archived data from the test sampler and verify that the...

  20. Dividend growth, cash flow, and discount rate news

    OpenAIRE

    Garrett, Ian; Priestley, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Using a new variable based on a model of dividend smoothing, we find that dividend growth is highly predictable and that cash flow news contributes importantly to return variability. Cash flow betas derived from this predictability are central to explaining the size effect in the cross section of returns. However, they do not explain the value effect; this is explained by noise betas. We also find that the relative importance of cash flow news in explaining recent stock price run-ups and subs...

  1. Dividend growth, cash flow, and discount rate news

    OpenAIRE

    Garrett, Ian; Priestley, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Using a new variable based on a model of dividend smoothing, we find that dividend growth is highly predictable and that cash flow news contributes importantly to return variability. Cash flow betas derived from this predictability are central to explaining the size effect in the cross section of returns. However, they do not explain the value effect; this is explained by noise betas. We also find that the relative importance of cash flow news in explaining recent stock price run-ups and subs...

  2. Humor in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Cristiano S; Li, Rui; Lawrie, Sarah; Bar-Or, Amit; Clarke, Ann E; Da Costa, Deborah; Banerjee, Devi; Bernatsky, Sasha; Lee, Jennifer L; Pineau, Christian A

    2015-03-01

    Humor has neurophysiological effects influencing the release of cortisol, which may have a direct impact on the immune system. Laughter is associated with a decreased production of inflammatory cytokines both in the general population and in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Our objective was to explore the effects of humor on serum cytokines [particularly interleukin-6 (IL-6)] and cortisol levels in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), after a standard intervention (120 min of visual comedy). We enrolled 58 females with SLE from consecutive patients assessed in the Montreal General Hospital lupus clinic. The subjects who consented to participate were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to the intervention (watching 120 min of comedy) or control group (watching a 120 min documentary). Measurements of cytokine and serum cortisol levels as well as 24-h urine cortisol were taken before, during, and after the interventions. We compared serum cytokine levels and serum and 24-h urine cortisol levels in the humor and control groups and performed regression analyses of these outcomes, adjusting for demographics and the current use of prednisone. There were no significant differences between the control and humor groups in demographics or clinical variables. Baseline serum levels of IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and B-cell activating factor were also similar in both groups. There was no evidence of a humor effect in terms of decreasing cytokine levels, although there was some suggestion of lowered cortisol secretion in the humor group based the 24-h urinary cortisol levels in a subgroup. In contrast to what has been published for RA, we saw no clear effects of humor in altering cytokine levels in SLE, although interesting trends were seen for lower cortisol levels after humor intervention compared with the control group.

  3. Performance prediction and flow analysis in the vaned distributor of a pump turbine under low flow rate in pump mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The main goal of this work is to investigate the possible different flow patterns existing in pump turbine under off-design conditions in pump mode. Numerical simulations by solving the Navier-Stokes equation, coupled with the "SST k-ω" turbulence model, were carried out. Flow characteristics were assumed to be stalled in the appropriate region of ?ow rate levels of Q/QD=0.15–0.61. The simulation result was compared with experimental data and they showed good agreement. Consequently, velocity fields in three axial locations in stay vanes and guide vanes were analysed in details. It was shown that "jet-wake" flow pattern exists near the band, which changes little in the whole shape with flow rate increasing; to the middle location of vanes, reverse flow begins to appear on the interface between the runner and guide vanes, which will disappear gradually as the flow rate increases; massive reverse flow is captured near the crown, whose intensity will be weakened as the flow rate increases. Ultimately, it was found that the special head-flow profile can be ascribed to the special hydraulic loss characteristics of the stay vanes and guide vanes.

  4. Investigation of the Flow Rate Effect Upstream of the Constant-Geometry Throttle on the Gas Mass Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. M. Timofeev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The turbulent-flow throttles are used in pneumatic systems and gas-supply ones to restrict or measure gas mass flow. It is customary to install the throttles in joints of pipelines (in teejoints and cross tees or in joints of pipelines with pneumatic automation devices Presently, in designing the pneumatic systems and gas-supply ones a gas mass flow through a throttle is calculated by a known equation derived from the Saint-Venant-Vantсel formula for the adiabatic flow of ideal gas through a nozzle from an unrestrictedly high capacity tank. Neglect of gas velocity at the throttle inlet is one of the assumptions taken in the development of the above equation. As may be seen in practice, in actual systems the diameters of the throttle and the pipe wherein it is mounted can be commensurable. Neglect of the inlet velocity therewith can result in an error when determining the required throttle diameter in design calculation and a flow rate in checking calculation, as well as when measuring a flow rate in the course of the test. The theoretical study has revealed that the flow velocity at the throttle inlet is responsible for two parameter values: the outlet flow velocity and the critical pressure ratio, which in turn determine the gas mass flow value. To calculate the gas mass flow, the dependencies are given in the paper, which allow taking into account the flow rate at the throttle inlet. The analysis of obtained dependencies has revealed that the degree of influence of inlet flow rate upon the mass flow is defined by two parameters: pressure ratio at the throttle and open area ratio of the throttle and the pipe wherein it is mounted. An analytical investigation has been pursued to evaluate the extent to which the gas mass flow through the throttle is affected by the inlet flow rate. The findings of the investigation and the indications for using the present dependencies are given in this paper. By and large the investigation allowed the

  5. Influence of total gas flow rate on microcrystalline silicon films prepared by VHF-PECVD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Yan-Tao; Zhang Xiao-Dan; Zhao Ying; Sun Jian; Zhu Feng; Wei Chang-Chun; Chen Fei

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon (μc-Si:H) films are fabricated by very high frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (VHF-PECVD) at a silane concentration of 7% and a varying total gas flow rate (H2+SiH4).Relations between the total gas flow rate and the electrical and structural properties as well as deposition rate of the films are studied. The results indicate that with the total gas flow rate increasing the photosensitivity and deposition rate increase, but the crystalline volume fraction (Xc) and dark conductivity decrease. And the intensity of (220) peak first increases then decreases with the increase of the total gas flow rate. The cause for the changes in the structure and deposition rate of the films with the total gas flow rate is investigated using optical emission spectroscopy (OES).

  6. An electronic flow control system for a variable-rate tree sprayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precise modulation of nozzle flow rates is a critical measure to achieve variable-rate spray applications. An electronic flow rate control system accommodating with microprocessors and pulse width modulation (PWM) controlled solenoid valves was designed to manipulate the output of spray nozzles inde...

  7. Numerical investigation and thermodynamic analysis of the effect of electrolyte flow rate on performance of all vanadium redox flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaeli, Ali; Vatani, Ali; Tahouni, Nassim; Panjeshahi, Mohammad Hassan

    2015-10-01

    In flow batteries, electrolyte flow rate plays a crucial role on the minimizing mass transfer polarization which is at the compensation of higher pressure drop. In this work, a two-dimensional numerical method is applied to investigate the effect of electrolyte flow rate on cell voltage, maximum depth of discharge and pressure drop a six-cell stack of VRFB. The results show that during the discharge process, increasing electrolyte flow rate can raise the voltage of each cell up to 50 mV on average. Moreover, the maximum depth of discharge dramatically increases with electrolyte flow rate. On the other hand, the pressure drop also positively correlates with electrolyte flow rate. In order to investigate all these effects simultaneously, average energy and exergy efficiencies are introduced in this study for the transient process of VRFB. These efficiencies give insight into choosing an appropriate strategy for the electrolyte flow rate. Finally, the energy efficiency of electricity storage using VRFB is investigated and compared with other energy storage systems. The results illustrate that this kind of battery has at least 61% storage efficiency based on the second law of thermodynamics, which is considerably higher than that of their counterparts.

  8. Real time mass flow rate measurement using multiple fan beam optical tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Rahim, R; Leong, L C; Chan, K S; Rahiman, M H; Pang, J F

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the implementing multiple fan beam projection technique using optical fibre sensors for a tomography system. From the dynamic experiment of solid/gas flow using plastic beads in a gravity flow rig, the designed optical fibre sensors are reliable in measuring the mass flow rate below 40% of flow. Another important matter that has been discussed is the image processing rate or IPR. Generally, the applied image reconstruction algorithms, the construction of the sensor and also the designed software are considered to be reliable and suitable to perform real-time image reconstruction and mass flow rate measurements.

  9. Measuring Flow Rate in Crystalline Bedrock Wells Using the Dissolved Oxygen Alteration Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Sarah A; Robbins, Gary A

    2017-03-22

    Determination of vertical flow rates in a fractured bedrock well can aid in planning and implementing hydraulic tests, water quality sampling, and improving interpretations of water quality data. Although flowmeters are highly accurate in flow rate measurement, the high cost and logistics may be limiting. In this study the dissolved oxygen alteration method (DOAM) is expanded upon as a low-cost alternative to determine vertical flow rates in crystalline bedrock wells. The method entails altering the dissolved oxygen content in the wellbore through bubbler aeration, and monitoring the vertical advective movement of the dissolved oxygen over time. Measurements were taken for upward and downward flows, and under ambient and pumping conditions. Vertical flow rates from 0.06 to 2.30 Lpm were measured. To validate the method, flow rates determined with the DOAM were compared to pump discharge rates and found to be in agreement within 2.5%.

  10. High Sensitivity Carbon Nanotubes Flow-Rate Sensors and Their Performance Improvement by Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Yang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A new type of hot-wire flow-rate sensor (HWFS with a sensing element made of a macro-sized carbon nanotube (CNT strand is presented in this study. An effective way to improve repeatability of the CNT flow-rate sensor by coating a layer of Al2O3 on the CNT surface is proposed. Experimental results show that due to the large surface-to-volume ratio and thin coated Al2O3 layer, the CNT flow-rate sensor has higher sensitivity and faster response than a conventional platinum (Pt HWFS. It is also demonstrated that the covered CNT flow-rate sensor has better repeatability than its bare counterpart due to insulation from the surrounding environment. The proposed CNT flow-rate sensor shows application potential for high-sensitivity measurement of flow rate.

  11. The German Version of the Humor Styles Questionnaire: Psychometric Properties and Overlap With Other Styles of Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruch, Willibald; Heintz, Sonja

    2016-08-01

    The Humor Styles Questionnaire (HSQ; Martin et al., 2003) is one of the most frequently used questionnaires in humor research and has been adapted to several languages. The HSQ measures four humor styles (affiliative, self-enhancing, aggressive, and self-defeating), which should be adaptive or potentially maladaptive to psychosocial well-being. The present study analyzes the internal consistency, factorial validity, and factorial invariance of the HSQ on the basis of several German-speaking samples combined (total N = 1,101). Separate analyses were conducted for gender (male/female), age groups (16-24, 25-35, >36 years old), and countries (Germany/Switzerland). Internal consistencies were good for the overall sample and the demographic subgroups (.80-.89), with lower values obtained for the aggressive scale (.66-.73). Principal components and confirmatory factor analyses mostly supported the four-factor structure of the HSQ. Weak factorial invariance was found across gender and age groups, while strong factorial invariance was supported across countries. Two subsamples also provided self-ratings on ten styles of humorous conduct (n = 344) and of eight comic styles (n = 285). The four HSQ scales showed small to large correlations to the styles of humorous conduct (-.54 to .65) and small to medium correlations to the comic styles (-.27 to .42). The HSQ shared on average 27.5-35.0% of the variance with the styles of humorous conduct and 13.0-15.0% of the variance with the comic styles. Thus-despite similar labels-these styles of humorous conduct and comic styles differed from the HSQ humor styles.

  12. Changes in Peak Expiratory Flow Rate, Blood Pressure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FinePrint

    2010-03-23

    Mar 23, 2010 ... (PEFR), blood pressure and pulse rate in an attempt to determine some physiological effects of ... SBP increased significantly at 4g and 6g when compared .... Decrease in heart rate associated with ... exercise performance .

  13. Nonlinear Analysis of Bedload Transport Rate of Paroxysm Debris Flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The evolution characteristics of bedload transport feature of paroxysm debris flow have been studied by means of both theory analysis and experimental data.The analysis based on the flume experiment data of a sand pile model as well as a large amount of field data of debris flow clearly shown that the statistical distribu- tion for the main variable of the sand pile made of non-uniform sand (according the sand pile experiment,φ≥2.55) conform to the negative power law,that means the non-uniform sand syste...

  14. Flow propagation velocity is not a simple index of diastolic function in early filling. A comparative study of early diastolic strain rate and strain rate propagation, flow and flow propagation in normal and reduced diastolic function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skjaerpe Terje

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Strain Rate Imaging shows the filling phases of the left ventricle to consist of a wave of myocardial stretching, propagating from base to apex. The propagation velocity of the strain rate wave is reduced in delayed relaxation. This study examined the relation between the propagation velocity of strain rate in the myocardium and the propagation velocity of flow during early filling. Methods 12 normal subjects and 13 patients with treated hypertension and normal systolic function were studied. Patients and controls differed significantly in diastolic early mitral flow measurements, peak early diastolic tissue velocity and peak early diastolic strain rate, showing delayed relaxation in the patient group. There were no significant differences in EF or diastolic diameter. Results Strain rate propagation velocity was reduced in the patient group while flow propagation velocity was increased. There was a negative correlation (R = -0.57 between strain rate propagation and deceleration time of the mitral flow E-wave (R = -0.51 and between strain rate propagation and flow propagation velocity and there was a positive correlation (R = 0.67 between the ratio between peak mitral flow velocity / strain rate propagation velocity and flow propagation velocity. Conclusion The present study shows strain rate propagation to be a measure of filling time, but flow propagation to be a function of both flow velocity and strain rate propagation. Thus flow propagation is not a simple index of diastolic function in delayed relaxation.

  15. To Be or Not To Be Humorous? Cross Cultural Perspectives on Humor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Yue

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Humor seems to manifest differently in Western and Eastern cultures, although little is known about how culture shapes humor perceptions. The authors suggest that Westerners regard humor as a common and positive disposition; the Chinese regard humor as a special disposition particular to humorists, with controversial aspects. In Study 1, Hong Kong participants primed with Western culture evaluate humor more positively than they do when primed with Chinese culture. In Study 2a, Canadians evaluate humor as being more important in comparison with Chinese participants. In Study 2b, Canadians expect ordinary people to possess humor, while Chinese expect specialized comedians to be humorous. The implications and limitations are discussed.

  16. To Be or Not To Be Humorous? Cross Cultural Perspectives on Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xiaodong; Jiang, Feng; Lu, Su; Hiranandani, Neelam

    2016-01-01

    Humor seems to manifest differently in Western and Eastern cultures, although little is known about how culture shapes humor perceptions. The authors suggest that Westerners regard humor as a common and positive disposition; the Chinese regard humor as a special disposition particular to humorists, with controversial aspects. In Study 1, Hong Kong participants primed with Western culture evaluate humor more positively than they do when primed with Chinese culture. In Study 2a, Canadians evaluate humor as being more important in comparison with Chinese participants. In Study 2b, Canadians expect ordinary people to possess humor, while Chinese expect specialized comedians to be humorous. The implications and limitations are discussed.

  17. To Be or Not To Be Humorous? Cross Cultural Perspectives on Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xiaodong; Jiang, Feng; Lu, Su; Hiranandani, Neelam

    2016-01-01

    Humor seems to manifest differently in Western and Eastern cultures, although little is known about how culture shapes humor perceptions. The authors suggest that Westerners regard humor as a common and positive disposition; the Chinese regard humor as a special disposition particular to humorists, with controversial aspects. In Study 1, Hong Kong participants primed with Western culture evaluate humor more positively than they do when primed with Chinese culture. In Study 2a, Canadians evaluate humor as being more important in comparison with Chinese participants. In Study 2b, Canadians expect ordinary people to possess humor, while Chinese expect specialized comedians to be humorous. The implications and limitations are discussed. PMID:27757091

  18. Frontal brain asymmetry and transient cardiovascular responses to the perception of humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papousek, Ilona; Schulter, Günter; Weiss, Elisabeth M; Samson, Andrea C; Freudenthaler, H Harald; Lackner, Helmut K

    2013-04-01

    The study examined the relationship of individual differences in prefrontal brain asymmetry, measured by the EEG in resting conditions, to the individual's responsivity in the context of humor (n=42). Several weeks after the EEG recording, immediate cardiovascular responses to the perception of humor and behavioral indicators of humor processing were obtained in an experimental paradigm involving non-verbal cartoons. Relatively greater resting activity in the left than right prefrontal cortex, particularly at the ventrolateral positions, was associated with faster detection of humor, a more pronounced cardiac response to the perception of humor (heart rate and cardiac output), and more accessible internal positive affective states (indicated by faster reports of amusement levels). The study confirms and extends findings of the relevance of prefrontal brain asymmetry to affective responsivity, contributing evidence in the domain of positive affect and humor, and demonstrating relationships to the immediate cardiovascular response pattern to an emotional event.

  19. Vitreous humor rheology after Nd:YAG laser photo disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelkawi, Salwa A; Abdel-Salam, Ahmed M; Ghoniem, Dina F; Ghaly, Sally K

    2014-03-01

    This work aimed to consider the hazardous side effect of eye floaters treatment with Q-switched Nd:YAG laser on the protein and viscoelastic properties of the vitreous humor, and evaluate the protective role of vitamin C against laser photo disruption. Five groups of New Zealand rabbits were divided as follows: control group for (n = 3) without any treatment, the second group (n = 9) treated with Q-switched Nd:YAG laser energy of 5 mJ × 100 pulse delivered to the anterior, middle, and posterior vitreous, respectively (n = 3 for each). The third group (n = 9) received a daily dose of 25 mg/kg body weight vitamin C for 2 weeks, and then treated with laser as the previous group. The fourth group (n = 9) treated with 10 mJ 9 50 pulse delivered to the anterior, middle, and posterior vitreous, respectively (n = 3 rabbits each). The fifth group (n = 9) received a daily dose of 25 mg/kg body weight vitamin C for 2 weeks, and then treated with laser as the previous group. After 2 weeks of laser treatment, the protein content, refractive index (RI), and the rheological properties of vitreous humor, such as consistency, shear stress, and viscosity, were determined. The results showed that, the anterior vitreous group exposed to of 5 mJ × 100 pulse and/or supplemented with vitamin C, showed no obvious change. Furthermore, all other treated groups especially for mid-vitreous and posterior vitreous humor showed increase in the protein content, RI and the viscosity of vitreous humor. The flow index remained below unity indicating the non-Newtonian behavior of the vitreous humor. Application of Q-switched Nd:YAG laser should be restricted to the anterior vitreous humor to prevent the deleterious effect of laser on the gel state of the vitreous humor.

  20. Flow Rate in the Discharge of a Two-dimensional Silo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuriguel, I.; Janda, A.; Garcimartín, A.; Maza, D.

    2009-06-01

    We present an experimental study of the flow rate in the discharge of a flat bottomed two-dimensional silo. The results of the flow rate dependence on the size of the orifice evidence that the Beverloo expression is not valid for small outlet sizes. This behavior is related with the properties of the flow rate which has been found to fluctuate in a gaussian like form for large orifices. On the contrary, for small orifices extreme events appear at zero flow rates causing a significant slow down of the average flow rate. These events are explained in terms of the existence of arches that block the outlet instantaneously but are unstable to permanently halt the flow.

  1. Litter ammonia losses amplified by higher air flow rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACT Broiler litter utilization has largely been associated with land application as fertilizer. Reducing ammonia (NH3) released from litter enhances its fertilizer value and negates detrimental impacts to the environment. A laboratory study was conducted to quantify the effect of air flow var...

  2. Does humor in radio advertising affect recognition of novel product brand names?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, E M; Lippman, L G

    2001-04-01

    The authors proposed that item selection during shopping is based on brand name recognition rather than recall. College students rated advertisements and news stories of a simulated radio program for level of amusement (orienting activity) before participating in a surprise recognition test. Humor level of the advertisements was varied systematically, and content was controlled. According to signal detection analysis, humor did not affect the strength of recognition memory for brand names (nonsense units). However, brand names and product types were significantly more likely to be associated when appearing in humorous advertisements than in nonhumorous advertisements. The results are compared with prior findings concerning humor and recall.

  3. Affective Style, Humor Styles and Happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Ford

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the relationships between dispositional approach and avoidance motives, humor styles, and happiness. In keeping with previous research, approach motives and the two positive humor styles (self-enhancing and affiliative positively correlated with happiness, whereas avoidance motives and the two negative humor styles (self-defeating and aggressive negatively correlated with happiness. Also, we found support for three new hypotheses. First, approach motives correlated positively with self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles. Second, avoidance motives correlated positively with self-defeating humor style, and third, the positive relationship between approach motives and happiness was mediated by self-enhancing humor style.

  4. Various Means of Achieving Humor in English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温晓棠

    2014-01-01

    Humor can be found everywhere in our daily life. It shows one's wisdom and confidence, which reflects a person's character, mind and cultivation. While it makes people laugh, it enlightens and instruct people. As we all know, English humor is a manifestation of the western literature. However, people in non-English speaking countries cannot completely understand English humor because of the differences of different cultures. The present paper starts from the analysis of English humor, trying to find out some ways of achieving humor so as to better our understanding and appreciation of English humor.

  5. Measurement and Modelling of Air Flow Rate in a Naturally Ventilated Double Skin Facade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Kalyanova, Olena; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2008-01-01

    Air flow rate in a naturally ventilated double skin façade (DSF) is extremely difficult to measure due to the stochastic nature of wind, and as a consequence non-uniform and dynamic flow conditions. This paper describes the results of two different methods to measure the air flow in a full-scale ...

  6. In Vivo Three-Dimensional Velocity Vector Imaging and Volumetric Flow Rate Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Michael Johannes; Stuart, Matthias Bo; Tomov, Borislav Gueorguiev

    2013-01-01

    scanner SARUS. Measurements are conducted on a carotid artery flow phantom from Danish Phantom Design, and 20 frames are acquired with a constant flow rate of 16.7±0.17 mL/s provided by a Shelley Medical Imaging Technologies CompuFlow 1000 system. The peak velocity magnitude in the vessel is found...

  7. El humor es algo serio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Guiralt Gomar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Reseña del libro colectivo El humor frente al poder. Prensa humorística, cultura política y poderes fácticos en España (1927-1987, editado por Enrique Bordería Ortiz, Francesc-Andreu Martínez Gallego y Josep Lluís Gómez Mompart y publicado en 2015 por Biblioteca Nueva, dentro de su “Colección Historia”. El volumen, resultado del Grupo de Investigación en Comunicación Humorística y Satírica (GRICOHUSA, consiste en una compilación de trabajos científicos y de gran rigor académico acerca de la prensa humorística y satírica española durante las dos transiciones políticas de la historia contemporánea de España. Así, en él se analizan en profundidad semanarios y rotativos fundamentales del periodismo de humor español, tales como La Traca, Gutiérrez, La Codorniz, El Jueves y El Papus, entre muchos otros.

  8. Investigation of the effect of wall friction on the flow rate in 2D and 3D Granular Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballo-Ramirez, Brenda; Pleau, Mollie; Easwar, Nalini; Birwa, Sumit; Shah, Neil; Tewari, Shubha

    We have measured the mass flow rate of spherical steel spheres under gravity in vertical, straight-walled 2 and 3-dimensional hoppers, where the flow velocity is controlled by the opening size. Our measurements focus on the role of friction and its placement along the walls of the hopper. In the 2D case, an increase in the coefficient of static friction from μ = 0.2 to 0.6 is seen to decrease the flow rate significantly. We have changed the placement of frictional boundaries/regions from the front and back walls of the 2D hopper to the side walls and floor to investigate the relative importance of the different regions in determining the flow rate. Fits to the Beverloo equation show significant departure from the expected exponent of 1.5 in the case of 2D flow. In contrast, 3D flow rates do not show much dependence on wall friction and its placement. We compare the experimental data to numerical simulations of gravity driven hopper granular flow with varying frictional walls constructed using LAMMPS*. *http://lammps.sandia.gov Supported by NSF MRSEC DMR 0820506.

  9. Influence of Reduced Mass Flow Rate and Chamber Backpressure on Swirl Injector Fluid Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, R Jeremy; Hulka, James R.

    2008-01-01

    Industry interest in variable-thrust liquid rocket engines places a demand on engine injector technology to operate over a wide range of liquid mass flow rates and chamber backpressures. One injection technology of current interest for variable thrust applications is an injector design with swirled fluids. Current swirl injector design methodologies do not take into account how swirl injector design parameters respond to elevated chamber backpressures at less than design mass flow rates. The current work was created to improve state-of-the-art swirl injector design methods in this area. The specific objective was to study the effects of elevated chamber backpressure and off-design mass flow rates on swirl injector fluid mechanics. Using a backpressure chamber with optical access, water was flowed through a swirl injector at various combinations of chamber backpressure and mass flow rates. The film thickness profile down the swirl injector nozzle section was measured through a transparent nozzle section of the injector. High speed video showed measurable increases in the film thickness profile with application of chamber backpressure and mass flow rates less than design. At prescribed combinations of chamber backpressure and injected mass flow rate, a discrete change in the film thickness profile was observed. Measured injector discharge coefficient values showed different trends with increasing chamber backpressure at low mass flow rates as opposed to near-design mass flow rates. Downstream spray angles showed classic changes in morphology as the mass flow rate was decreased below the design value. Increasing chamber backpressure decreased the spray angle at any injection mass flow rate. Experimental measurements and discussion of these results are reported in this paper.

  10. Influence of Reduced Mass Flow Rate and Chamber Backpressure on Swirl Injector Fluid Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, R Jeremy; Hulka, James R.

    2008-01-01

    Industry interest in variable-thrust liquid rocket engines places a demand on engine injector technology to operate over a wide range of liquid mass flow rates and chamber backpressures. One injection technology of current interest for variable thrust applications is an injector design with swirled fluids. Current swirl injector design methodologies do not take into account how swirl injector design parameters respond to elevated chamber backpressures at less than design mass flow rates. The current work was created to improve state-of-the-art swirl injector design methods in this area. The specific objective was to study the effects of elevated chamber backpressure and off-design mass flow rates on swirl injector fluid mechanics. Using a backpressure chamber with optical access, water was flowed through a swirl injector at various combinations of chamber backpressure and mass flow rates. The film thickness profile down the swirl injector nozzle section was measured through a transparent nozzle section of the injector. High speed video showed measurable increases in the film thickness profile with application of chamber backpressure and mass flow rates less than design. At prescribed combinations of chamber backpressure and injected mass flow rate, a discrete change in the film thickness profile was observed. Measured injector discharge coefficient values showed different trends with increasing chamber backpressure at low mass flow rates as opposed to near-design mass flow rates. Downstream spray angles showed classic changes in morphology as the mass flow rate was decreased below the design value. Increasing chamber backpressure decreased the spray angle at any injection mass flow rate. Experimental measurements and discussion of these results are reported in this paper.

  11. Distributed measurement of flow rate in conduits using heated fiber optic distributed temperature sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Raúl; Zubelzu, Sergio; Rodríguez-Sinobas, Leonor; Juana, Luis

    2016-04-01

    In some cases flow varies along conduits, such as in irrigated land drainage pipes and channels, irrigation laterals and others. Detailed knowledge of flow rate along the conduit makes possible analytical evaluation of water distribution and collection systems performance. Flow rate can change continuously in some systems, like in drainage pipes and channels, or abruptly, like in conduits bifurcations or emitter insertions. A heat pulse along the conduit makes possible to get flow rate from continuity and heat balance equations. Due to the great value of specific heat of water, temperature changes along conduit are smaller than the noise that involves the measurement process. This work presents a methodology that, dealing with the noise of distributed temperature measurements, leads to flow rate determination along pressurized pipes or open channel flows.

  12. Comparison of whole saliva flow rates and mucin concentrations in healthy Caucasian young and aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navazesh, M; Mulligan, R A; Kipnis, V; Denny, P A; Denny, P C

    1992-06-01

    Unstimulated and chewing-stimulated whole saliva samples were obtained from 42 healthy Caucasians; 21 were between 18 and 35 years of age, and 21 between 65 and 83 years of age. The unstimulated salivary flow rate was significantly lower in the aged group, but the stimulated flow rate was significantly higher in the aged than in the young group. Both groups showed significantly increased flow during salivary stimulation. MG1 and MG2 concentrations in unstimulated and stimulated saliva samples were significantly lower in the aged group. There were no significant correlations between salivary flow rates and MG1 and MG2 concentrations.

  13. Parametric expressions of tritium flow rates and inventories in a target factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherohman, J.W.

    1980-12-29

    Parametric expressions have been derived for tritium flow rates and inventories in a target factory. The expressions are based on a tritium system that interfaces with a generalized target production process. The relationship of flow rates and inventories to target production form a basis for parametric study to determine the amount of tritium involved in the target factory of an ICF power plant.

  14. Impact of catheter on uroflow rate in pressure-flow study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鹏; 武治津; 高居忠

    2004-01-01

    @@ The importance of a pressure-flow study in the diagnostic work-up of patients suffering from benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) has been recognized. However, there is still uncertainty regarding the role the catheter might play in affecting uroflow rate during a pressure-flow study. In this present study, we retrospectively analyzed voiding data from pressure-flow studies taken before and after catheterization in 44 patients suffering from BPH to investigate whether catheterization has an effect on uroflow rate.

  15. International Portfolio Flows and Exchange Rate Volatility for Emerging Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Caporale, Guglielmo Maria; Ali, Faek Menla; Spagnolo, Fabio; Spagnolo, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of equity and bond portfolio inflows on exchange rate volatility, using monthly bilateral data for the US vis-a-vis eight Asian developing and emerging countries (India, Indonesia, South Korea, Pakistan, Hong Kong, Thailand, the Philippines, and Taiwan) over the period 1993:01-2012:11, and estimating a time-varying transition probability Markov-switching model. We find that net equity (bond) inflows drive the exchange rate to a high (low) volatility state. ...

  16. Nocturnal variations in peripheral blood flow, systemic blood pressure, and heart rate in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sindrup, J H; Kastrup, J; Christensen, H

    1991-01-01

    was associated with a 30-40% increase in blood flow rate and a highly significant decrease in mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate (P less than 0.001 for all). Approximately 100 min after the subjects went to sleep an additional blood flow rate increment (mean 56%) and a simultaneous significant decrease......Subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow rate, together with systemic arterial blood pressure and heart rate under ambulatory conditions, was measured in the lower legs of 15 normal human subjects for 12-20 h. The 133Xe-washout technique, portable CdTe(Cl) detectors, and a portable data storage unit...... were used for measurement of blood flow rates. An automatic portable blood pressure recorder and processor unit was used for measurement of systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate every 15 min. The change from upright to supine position at the beginning of the night period...

  17. Influence of the mass flow rate of secondary air on the gas/particle flow characteristics in the near-burner region of a double swirl flow burner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, J.P.; Li, Z.Q.; Wang, L.; Chen, Z.C.; Chen, L.Z.; Zhang, F.C. [Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China)

    2011-06-15

    The influence of the mass flow rate of secondary air on the gas/particle flow characteristics of a double swirl flow burner, in the near-burner region, was measured by a three-component particle-dynamics anemometer, in conjunction with a gas/particle two-phase test facility. Velocities, particle volume flux profiles, and normalized particle number concentrations were obtained. The relationship between the gas/particle flows and the combustion characteristics of the burners was discussed. For different mass flow rates of secondary air, annular recirculation zones formed only in the region of r/d=0.3-0.6 at x/d=0.1-0.3. With an increasing mass flow rate of secondary air, the peaks of the root mean square (RMS) axial fluctuating velocities, radial mean velocities, RMS radial fluctuating velocities, and tangential velocities all increased, while the recirculation increased slightly. There was a low particle volume flux in the central zone of the burner. At x/d=0.1-0.7, the profiles of particle volume flux had two peaks in the secondary air flow zone near the wall. With an increasing mass flow rate of secondary air, the peak of particle volume flux in the secondary air flow zone decreased, but the peak of particle volume flux near the wall increased. In section x/d=0.1-0.5, the particle diameter in the central zone of the burner was always less than the particle diameter at other locations.

  18. Direct current stimulation of the left temporoparietal junction modulates dynamic humor appreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaby, Isabella; Holmes, Amanda; Moran, Joseph M; Eddy, Marianna D; Mahoney, Caroline R; Taylor, Holly A; Brunyé, Tad T

    2015-11-11

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of transcranial direct current stimulation targeting the left temporoparietal junction (TPJ) on humor appreciation during a dynamic video rating task. In a within-participants design, we targeted the left TPJ with anodal, cathodal, or no transcranial direct current stimulation, centered at electrode site C3 using a 4×1 targeted stimulation montage. During stimulation, participants dynamically rated a series of six stand-up comedy videos for perceived humor. We measured event-related (time-locked to crowd laughter) modulation of humor ratings as a function of stimulation condition. Results showed decreases in rated humor during anodal (vs. cathodal or none) stimulation; this pattern was evident for the majority of videos and was only partially predicted by individual differences in humor style. We discuss the possibility that upregulation of neural circuits involved in the theory of mind and empathizing with others may reduce appreciation of aggressive humor. In conclusion, the present data show that neuromodulation of the TPJ can alter the mental processes underlying humor appreciation, suggesting critical involvement of this cortical region in detecting, comprehending, and appreciating humor.

  19. Surface supersaturation in flow-rate modulation epitaxy of GaN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akasaka, Tetsuya; Lin, Chia-Hung; Yamamoto, Hideki; Kumakura, Kazuhide

    2017-06-01

    Hillocks on N-face GaN (000 1 bar) films are effectively eliminated by group-III-source flow-rate modulation epitaxy (FME), wherein the flow-rate of group-III sources are sequentially modulated under a constant supply of NH3. A hillock-free smooth surface obtained by group-III-source FME is attributed to the enhancement of step-flow growth. We found that a hillock originates from a micropipe and grows by spiral growth around the micropipe. The spiral growth rate rapidly decreases with decreasing the degree of surface supersaturation σ, while the step-flow growth rate decreases linearly. For group-III-source FME, wherein σ is lower than conventional continuous growth, the spiral growth rate could be lower than the step-flow growth one so that the formation of hillocks is suppressed.

  20. Adaptive real-time forecast of river flow-rates from rainfall data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolzern, P.; Ferrario, M.; Fronza, G.

    1980-07-01

    The paper describes a stochastic rainfall—river flow-rate model of the ARMAX type. Then a real-time Kalman predictor is derived from the model, namely a recursive relationship which, at the beginning of each time step, supplies the "best" forecast of future flow-rate on the basis of current rainfall and flow-rate measurements. Three different versions (ordered in the sense of increasing complexity) of the predictor are considered, corresponding to different approaches for estimating parameters and noise statistics of the stochastic model. The flood forecast performance of all predictors is tested on a real case (Lake Maggiore water system). The performance is satisfactory (for instance correlations about 99% between forecast and true values, standard deviation of the forecast error less than 1% of the average flood flow-rate) and conspicuously better than the one given by the trivial persistence predictor (the future flow-rate is the present one).

  1. Nitric oxide levels in the aqueous humor vary in different ocular hypertension experimental models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Wen Lu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the relationships among intraocular pressure (IOP, nitric oxide (NO levels, and aqueous flow rates in experimental ocular hypertension models. A total of 75 rabbits were used. One of four different materials [i.e., α-chymotrypsin, latex microspheres (Polybead, red blood cell ghosts, or sodium hyaluronate (Healon GV] was injected into the eyes of the 15 animals in each experimental group; the remaining 15 rabbits were reserved for a control group. The IOP changes in the five groups were recorded on postinduction Days 1–3, Day 7, Day 14, Day 30, Day 60, Day 90, and Day 120. On postinduction Day 7, the dynamics and NO levels in the aqueous humor were recorded. Significant IOP elevations were induced by α-chymotrypsin (p < 0.01 and Polybead (p < 0.01 on each postinduction day. In the red blood cell ghosts model, significant elevations (p < 0.01 were found on postinduction Days 1–3; Healon GV significantly elevated IOP (p < 0.01 on postinduction Day 1 and Day 2. On postinduction Day 7, the aqueous humor NO levels increased significantly in the models of α-chymotrypsin, Polybead, and red blood cell ghosts (all p < 0.01, while the aqueous flow rates were significantly reduced in the models of α-chymotrypsin and Polybead (p < 0.005. Persistent ocular hypertension models were induced with α-chymotrypsin and Polybead in the rabbits. The Polybead model exhibited the characteristic of an increased aqueous humor NO level, similar to human eyes with acute angle-closure glaucoma and neovascular glaucoma.

  2. Cooperative Principle and English Humorous Utterance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐芳

    2010-01-01

    <正>Humorous utterances,especially those in the form of conversation in life,have distinctive pragmatic features.There is a close relationship between humor and pragmatics,which can be found in various books on pragmatics.In those books,humorous utterances function as examples for pragmatic analysis.Effective humorous languages often reflect one or several pragmatic features.This paper specifically introduces one of the important theories of pragmatics:cooperative principle,by which the paper analyzes the humorous utterance and explores the relationship between pragmatic rules and humorous utterance.The purpose is to make people know humorous utterance is a matter of pragmatics. The reality of the humor especially depends on implication of the language and the context.

  3. Neural correlates of humor detection and appreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Joseph M; Wig, Gagan S; Adams, Reginald B; Janata, Petr; Kelley, William M

    2004-03-01

    Humor is a uniquely human quality whose neural substrates remain enigmatic. The present report combined dynamic, real-life content and event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to dissociate humor detection ("getting the joke") from humor appreciation (the affective experience of mirth). During scanning, subjects viewed full-length episodes of the television sitcoms Seinfeld or The Simpsons. Brain activity time-locked to humor detection moments revealed increases in left inferior frontal and posterior temporal cortices, whereas brain activity time-locked to moments of humor appreciation revealed increases in bilateral regions of insular cortex and the amygdala. These findings provide evidence that humor depends critically upon extant neural systems important for resolving incongruities (humor detection) and for the expression of affect (humor appreciation).

  4. Respons imun humoral pada pulpitis (Humoral immune response on pulpitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trijoedani Widodo

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Pulpitis is an inflammation process on dental pulp tissue, and usually as the continuous of caries. The microorganism in the caries is a potential immunogenic triggering the immune respons, both humoral and celluler immune responses. The aim of this research is to explain the humoral immune response changes in the dental pulp tissues of pulpitis. This research was done on three group samples: Irreversible pulpitis, Reversible pulpitis and sound teeth as the control group. The result showed that there were three pulpitis immunopathologic patterns: the sound teeth immunopathologic pattern showing a low humoral immune response, in a low level of IgG, IgA and IgM, the reversible pulpitis pattern showing that in a higher humoral immune response, IgG and IgA decreased but IgM increased, the irreversible pulpitis pattern showing that IgG and IgM increased, but it couldn't be repaired although it has highly immunity, and it showed an unusually low level of IgA. This low level of IgA meant that irreversible pulpitis had a low mucosal immunity.

  5. Black humor in O.Henry's novels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯静楠

    2013-01-01

      Black humor is a kind of literary style rose in American and O .Henry's novels used it to express the satire to society and show the sympathy to the lower class .The most typical works contain black humor two are The Cop and the Anthem and The Gift of the Magi.By using black humor, he created his unique endings .This article is trying to analysis the use of black humor in his novels and the effect.

  6. Humor as a Mental Fitness Indicator

    OpenAIRE

    Howrigan, Daniel P.; Kevin B. MacDonald

    2008-01-01

    To explain the pervasive role of humor in human social interaction and among mating partner preferences, Miller (2000a) proposed that intentional humor evolved as an indicator of intelligence. To test this, we looked at the relationships among rater-judged humor, general intelligence, and the Big Five personality traits in a sample of 185 college-age students (115 women, 70 men). General intelligence positively predicted rater-judged humor, independent of the Big Five personality traits. Extr...

  7. Single-pulse dynamics and flow rates of inertial micropumps

    CERN Document Server

    Govyadinov, A N; Markel, D P; Torniainen, E D

    2015-01-01

    Bubble-driven inertial pumps are a novel method of moving liquids through microchannels. We combine high-speed imaging, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations and an effective one-dimensional model to study the fundamentals of inertial pumping. Single-pulse flow through 22 x 17 um2 U-shaped channels containing 4-um polystyrene tracer beads has been imaged with a high-speed camera. The results are used to calibrate the CFD and one-dimensional models to extract an effective bubble strength. Then the frequency dependence of inertial pumping is studied both experimentally and numerically. The pump efficiency is found to gradually decrease once the successive pulses start to overlap in time.

  8. Effect of the flow composition on outflow rates from accretion discs around black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Rajiv; Chattopadhyay, Indranil; Chakrabarti, Sandip K

    2013-01-01

    We studied the outflow behaviour from accretion discs around black holes taking into account the vertical equilibrium accretion flow model. The outflow rate is found to depend crucially on flow composition. Our approach is to study the outflow behaviour as function of inflow around black holes with an equation of state which allows flow to be thermally relativistic close to black holes and non relativistic far away from black holes. We studied shock ejection model. A pure electron positron pair flow never undergoes shock transition while presence of some baryons (common in outflows and jets) makes it possible to have standing shock waves in the flow. It can be concluded that the presence of protons is necessary for the flow to show the outflow behaviour. The outflow rate is maximum when the flow contains the proton number density which is 27% of the electron number density. We conclude that a pure electron-positron jet is unlikely to form.

  9. Successful ingredients in the SMILE study: resident, staff, and management factors influence the effects of humor therapy in residential aged care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodaty, Henry; Low, Lee-Fay; Liu, Zhixin; Fletcher, Jennifer; Roast, Joel; Goodenough, Belinda; Chenoweth, Lynn

    2014-12-01

    To test the hypothesis that individual and institutional-level factors influence the effects of a humor therapy intervention on aged care residents. Data were from the humor therapy group of the Sydney Multisite Intervention of LaughterBosses and ElderClowns, or SMILE, study, a single-blind cluster randomized controlled trial of humor therapy conducted over 12 weeks; assessments were performed at baseline, week 13, and week 26. One hundred eighty-nine individuals from 17 Sydney residential aged care facilities were randomly allocated to the humor therapy intervention. Professional performers called "ElderClowns" provided 9-12 weekly humor therapy 2-hour sessions, augmented by trained staff, called "LaughterBosses." Outcome measures were as follows: Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia, Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory, Neuropsychiatric Inventory, the withdrawal subscale of Multidimensional Observation Scale for Elderly Subjects, and proxy-rated quality of life in dementia population scale. Facility-level measures were as follows: support of the management for the intervention, commitment levels of LaughterBosses, Environmental Audit Tool scores, and facility level of care provided (high/low). Resident-level measures were engagement, functional ability, disease severity, and time-in-care. Multilevel path analyses simultaneously modeled resident engagement at the individual level (repeated measures) and the effects of management support and staff commitment to humor therapy at the cluster level. Models indicated flow-on effects, whereby management support had positive effects on LaughterBoss commitment, and LaughterBoss commitment increased resident engagement. Higher resident engagement was associated with reduced depression, agitation, and neuropsychiatric scores. Effectiveness of psychosocial programs in residential aged care can be enhanced by management support, staff commitment, and active resident engagement. Copyright © 2014 American Association for

  10. Flow rate-pressure drop relation for deformable shallow microfluidic channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christov, Ivan C.; Cognet, Vincent; Stone, Howard A.

    2013-11-01

    Laminar flow in devices fabricated from PDMS causes deformation of the passage geometry, which affects the flow rate-pressure drop relation. Having an accurate flow rate-pressure drop relation for deformable microchannels is of importance given that the flow rate for a given pressure drop can be as much as 500% of the flow rate predicted by Poiseuille's law for a rigid channel. proposed a successful model of the latter phenomenon by heuristically coupling linear elasticity with the lubrication approximation for Stokes flow. However, their model contains a fitting parameter that must be found for each channel shape by performing an experiment. We present a perturbative derivation of the flow rate-pressure drop relation in a shallow deformable microchannel using Kirchoff-Love theory of isotropic quasi-static plate bending and Stokes' equations under a ``double lubrication'' approximation (i.e., the ratio of the channel's height to its width and of the channel's width to its length are both assumed small). Our result contains no free parameters and confirms Gervais et al.'s observation that the flow rate is a quartic polynomial of the pressure drop. ICC was supported by NSF Grant DMS-1104047 and the U.S. DOE through the LANL/LDRD Program; HAS was supported by NSF Grant CBET-1132835.

  11. Flow-rate Characteristics Measurement of Regulators Based on the Pressure Response in an Isothermal Tank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Wei; ZHANG Hongli; WANG Tao; PENG Guangzheng; ONEYAMA Naotake

    2009-01-01

    Regulators are important components in pneumatic system, and their flow-rate characteristics are the key parameters for designers. According to the correlatively international standard and national standard of China, which describe the flow-rate characteristics measurement method of pneumatic regulators, the pressure and the flow are measured point by point, and then the flow-rate characteristics curve is plotted point to point. This method has some disadvantages, such as equipment complexity, much air consumption, and low efficiency. To settle the problems presented above, this paper puts forward a new high efficient and energy saving flow-rate characteristics measurement method of regulators, which is based on the pressure response when charging and discharging to an isothermal tank without any flow meters. The measurement principle, the system and the steps are introduced. And the tracking differentiator is used for the data processing of the pressure difference. Two typical kinds of regulators were experimentally investigated, and their flow-rate characteristics curves were obtained with the new and the conventional method, respectively. Comparatively, it's proved that this new method is feasible because it is not only able to meet the demand of the measurement precision, but also to save energy and improve efficiency. Compared to the conventional method, the new method takes only about 1/10 amount of time and consumes about only 1/30 amount of air. Hopefully it will be able to serve as an international standard of flow-rate characteristics measurement method of regulators.

  12. A generalized Forchheimer radial flow model for constant-rate tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming-Ming; Chen, Yi-Feng; Zhan, Hongbin; Hu, Ran; Zhou, Chuang-Bing

    2017-09-01

    Models used for data interpretation of constant-rate tests (CRTs) are commonly derived with the assumption of Darcian flow in an idealized integer flow dimension, where the non-Darcian nature of fluid flow and the complexity of flow geometry are disregarded. In this study, a Forchheimer's law-based analytical model is proposed with the assumption of buildup (or drawdown) decomposition for characterizing the non-Darcian flow in a generalized radial formation where the flow dimension n may become non-integer. The proposed model immediately reduces to Barker's (1988) model for Darcian flow in the generalized radial formation and to Mathias et al.'s (2008) model for non-Darcian flow in a two-dimensional confined aquifer. A comparison with numerical simulations shows that the proposed model behaves well at late times for flow dimension n > 1.5. The proposed model is finally applied for data interpretation of the constant-rate pumping tests performed at Ploemeur (Le Borgne et al., 2004), showing that the intrinsic hydraulic conductivity of formations will be underestimated and the specific storage will be overestimated if the non-Darcian effect is ignored. The proposed model is an extension of the generalized radial flow (GRF) model based on Forchheimer's law, which would be of significance for data interpretation of CRTs in aquifers of complex flow geometry in which non-Darcian flow occurs.

  13. Passive sampling of perfluorinated chemicals in water: flow rate effects on chemical uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaserzon, Sarit L; Vermeirssen, Etiënne L M; Hawker, Darryl W; Kennedy, Karen; Bentley, Christie; Thompson, Jack; Booij, Kees; Mueller, Jochen F

    2013-06-01

    A recently developed modified polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) provides a means for monitoring perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) in water. However, changes in external flow rates may alter POCIS sampling behaviour and consequently affect estimated water concentrations of analytes. In this work, uptake kinetics of selected PFCs, over 15 days, were investigated. A flow-through channel system was employed with spiked river water at flow rates between 0.02 and 0.34 m s(-1). PFC sampling rates (Rs) (0.09-0.29 L d(-1) depending on analyte and flow rate) increased from the lowest to highest flow rate employed for some PFCs (MW ≤ 464) but not for others (MW ≥ 500). Rs's for some of these smaller PFCs were increasingly less sensitive to flow rate as this increased within the range investigated. This device shows promise as a sampling tool to support monitoring efforts for PFCs in a range of flow rate conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Tangential stretching rate (TSR) analysis of non premixed reactive flows

    KAUST Repository

    Valorani, Mauro

    2016-10-16

    We discuss how the Tangential stretching rate (TSR) analysis, originally developed and tested for spatially homogeneous systems (batch reactors), is extended to spatially non homogeneous systems. To illustrate the effectiveness of the TSR diagnostics, we study the ignition transient in a non premixed, reaction–diffusion model in the mixture fraction space, whose dependent variables are temperature and mixture composition. The reactive mixture considered is syngas/air. A detailed H2/CO mechanism with 12 species and 33 chemical reactions is employed. We will discuss two cases, one involving only kinetics as a model of front propagation purely driven by spontaneous ignition, the other as a model of deflagration wave involving kinetics/diffusion coupling. We explore different aspects of the system dynamics such as the relative role of diffusion and kinetics, the evolution of kinetic eigenvalues, and of the tangential stretching rates computed by accounting for the combined action of diffusion and kinetics as well for kinetics only. We propose criteria based on the TSR concept which allow to identify the most ignitable conditions and to discriminate between spontaneous ignition and deflagration front.

  15. Formation of the geometrically controlled carbon coils by manipulating the additive gas (SF6) flow rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Young-Chul; Kim, Sung-Hoon

    2012-07-01

    Carbon coils could be synthesized using C2H2/H2 as source gases and SF6 as an incorporated additive gas under the thermal chemical vapor deposition system. The nickel catalyst layer deposition and then hydrogen plasma pretreatment were performed prior to the carbon coils deposition reaction. The flow rate and the injection time of SF6 varied according to the different reaction processes. Geometries of carbon coils developed from embryos to nanosized coils with increasing SF, flow rate from 5 to 35 sccm under the short SF6 flow injection time (5 minutes) condition. The gradual development of carbon coils geometries from nanosized to microsized types could be observed with increasing SF6 flow rate under the full time (90 minutes) SF6 flow injection condition. The flow rate of SF6 for the coil-type geometry formation should be more than or at least equal to the flow rate of carbon source gas (C2H2). A longer injection time of SF6 flow would increase the size of coils diameters from nanometer to micrometer.

  16. Quartz measurement in coal dust with high-flow rate samplers: laboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Taekhee; Lee, Eun Gyung; Kim, Seung Won; Chisholm, William P; Kashon, Michael; Harper, Martin

    2012-05-01

    A laboratory study was performed to measure quartz in coal dust using high-flow rate samplers (CIP10-R, GK2.69 cyclone, and FSP10 cyclone) and low-flow rate samplers [10-mm nylon and Higgins-Dewell type (BGI4L) cyclones] and to determine whether an increased mass collection from high-flow rate samplers would affect the subsequent quartz measurement by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analytical procedures. Two different sizes of coal dusts, mass median aerodynamic diameter 4.48 μm (Coal Dust A) and 2.33 μm (Coal Dust B), were aerosolized in a calm air chamber. The mass of coal dust collected by the samplers was measured gravimetrically, while the mass of quartz collected by the samplers was determined by FTIR (NIOSH Manual of Analytical Method 7603) and XRD (NIOSH Manual of Analytical Method 7500) after one of two different indirect preparations. Comparisons between high-flow rate samplers and low-flow rate samplers were made by calculating mass concentration ratios of coal dusts, net mass ratios of coal dusts, and quartz net mass. Mass concentrations of coal dust from the FSP10 cyclone were significantly higher than those from other samplers and mass concentrations of coal dust from 10-mm nylon cyclone were significantly lower than those from other samplers, while the CIP10-R, GK2.69, and BGI4L samplers did not show significant difference in the comparison of mass concentration of coal dusts. The BGI4L cyclone showed larger mass concentration of ∼9% compared to the 10-mm nylon cyclone. All cyclones provided dust mass concentrations that can be used in complying with the International Standard Organization standard for the determination of respirable dust concentration. The amount of coal dust collected from the high-flow rate samplers was found to be higher with a factor of 2-8 compared to the low-flow rate samplers but not in direct proportion of increased flow rates. The high-flow rate samplers collected more quartz compared to

  17. Effects of mass flow rate and droplet velocity on surface heat flux during cryogen spray cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karapetian, Emil [Department of Chemical Engineering and Material Sciences, University of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Aguilar, Guillermo [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Kimel, Sol [Beckman Laser Institute, University of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Lavernia, Enrique J [Department of Chemical Engineering and Material Sciences, University of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Nelson, J Stuart [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2003-01-07

    Cryogen spray cooling (CSC) is used to protect the epidermis during dermatologic laser surgery. To date, the relative influence of the fundamental spray parameters on surface cooling remains incompletely understood. This study explores the effects of mass flow rate and average droplet velocity on the surface heat flux during CSC. It is shown that the effect of mass flow rate on the surface heat flux is much more important compared to that of droplet velocity. However, for fully atomized sprays with small flow rates, droplet velocity can make a substantial difference in the surface heat flux. (note)

  18. Financial modeling in medicine: cash flow, basic metrics, the time value of money, discount rates, and internal rate of return.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lexa, Frank James; Berlin, Jonathan W

    2005-03-01

    In this article, the authors cover tools for financial modeling. Commonly used time lines and cash flow diagrams are discussed. Commonly used but limited terms such as payback and breakeven are introduced. The important topics of the time value of money and discount rates are introduced to lay the foundation for their use in modeling and in more advanced metrics such as the internal rate of return. Finally, the authors broach the more sophisticated topic of net present value.

  19. Mercury flow experiments. 4th report Measurements of erosion rate caused by mercury flow

    CERN Document Server

    Kinoshita, H; Hino, R; Kaminaga, M

    2002-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) are promoting a construction plan of the Material-Life Science Facility, which is consisted of a Muon Science Facility and a Neutron Scattering Facility, in order to open up the new science fields. The Neutron Scattering Facility will be utilized for advanced fields of Material and Life science using high intensity neutron generated by the spallation reaction of a 1 MW pulsed proton beam and mercury target. Design of the spallation mercury target system aims to obtain high neutron performance with high reliability and safety. Since the target system is using mercury as the target material and contains large amount of radioactive spallation products, it is necessary to estimate reliability for strength of instruments in a mercury flow system during lifetime of the facility. Piping and components in the mercury flow system would be damaged by erosion with mercury flow, since these components will be we...

  20. Humor Appreciation Involves Parametric and Synchronized Activity in the Medial Prefrontal Cortex and Hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iidaka, Tetsuya

    2016-10-18

    Humor perception is a ubiquitous phenomenon in human societies. In theories of humor perception, three factors, non-seriousness, social context, and incongruity, have been implicated in humor. In another theory, however, elaboration and reinterpretation of contexts are considered to play a role in eliciting humor. Although the neural correlates of humor appreciation have been investigated using neuroimaging methods, only a few studies have conducted such experiments under natural conditions. In the present study, two functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments, using a comedy movie as a stimulus, were conducted to investigate the neural correlates of humor under natural conditions. The subjects' brain activity was measured while watching and enjoying a movie. In experiment 1, a parametric analysis showed that the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and hippocampus/amygdala had a positive relationship with the subjective rating of funniness. In experiment 2, intersubject correlation was analyzed to investigate synchronized activity across all participants. Signal synchronization that paralleled increased funniness ratings was observed in the MPFC and hippocampus. Thus, it appears that both parametric and synchronized activity in the MPFC and hippocampus are important during humor appreciation. The present study has revealed the brain regions that are predominantly involved in humor sensation under natural condition. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Measurement of Air Flow Rate in a Naturally Ventilated Double Skin Facade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalyanova, Olena; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Heiselberg, Per

    2007-01-01

    Air flow rate in a naturally ventilated space is extremely difficult to measure due to the stochastic nature of wind, and as a consequence non-uniform and dynamic flow conditions. This paper describes three different methods to measure the air flow in a full-scale outdoor test facility...... with a naturally ventilated double skin façade. In the first method, the air flow in the cavity is estimated on the basis of six measured velocity profiles. The second method is represented by constant injection of tracer gas and in the third method a measured relation in the laboratory is used to estimate...... the flow rate on the basis of continues measurement of the pressure difference between the surface pressure at the opening and inside pressure of the double skin façade. Although all three measurement methods are difficult to use under such dynamic air flow conditions, two of them show reasonable agreement...

  2. Humor in intimate relationships Ties among sense of humor, similarity in humor and relationship quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barelds, D.P.H.; Barelds-Dijkstra, P.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined relations between different aspects of humor and relationship quality Participants 114 married or cohabiting heterosexual couples from the general community with a mean relationship length of 22 years completed a number of measures assessing these two themes We expected

  3. Humor in intimate relationships Ties among sense of humor, similarity in humor and relationship quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barelds, Dick P. H.; Barelds-Dijkstra, Pieternel

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined relations between different aspects of humor and relationship quality Participants 114 married or cohabiting heterosexual couples from the general community with a mean relationship length of 22 years completed a number of measures assessing these two themes We expected di

  4. Humor in intimate relationships Ties among sense of humor, similarity in humor and relationship quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barelds, D.P.H.; Barelds-Dijkstra, P.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined relations between different aspects of humor and relationship quality Participants 114 married or cohabiting heterosexual couples from the general community with a mean relationship length of 22 years completed a number of measures assessing these two themes We expected di

  5. CASH FLOW IMPLICATIONS OF FIXED VERSUS VARIABLE INTEREST RATE DEBT STRUCTURES

    OpenAIRE

    Moe, Lonn; Thompson, Jerry L.

    1984-01-01

    The objective of this study was to discover the magnitude of the effect variable rate loans have on net operating cash flow over the period from 1968 to 1981. This was done by comparing a variable rate loan model with a fixed rate loan model under varying debt loads for four farm types.

  6. CASH FLOW IMPLICATIONS OF FIXED VERSUS VARIABLE INTEREST RATE DEBT STRUCTURES

    OpenAIRE

    Moe, Lonn; Thompson, Jerry L.

    1984-01-01

    The objective of this study was to discover the magnitude of the effect variable rate loans have on net operating cash flow over the period from 1968 to 1981. This was done by comparing a variable rate loan model with a fixed rate loan model under varying debt loads for four farm types.

  7. Power flow controller with a fractionally rated back-to-back converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divan, Deepakraj M.; Kandula, Rajendra Prasad; Prasai, Anish

    2016-03-08

    A power flow controller with a fractionally rated back-to-back (BTB) converter is provided. The power flow controller provide dynamic control of both active and reactive power of a power system. The power flow controller inserts a voltage with controllable magnitude and phase between two AC sources at the same frequency; thereby effecting control of active and reactive power flows between the two AC sources. A transformer may be augmented with a fractionally rated bi-directional Back to Back (BTB) converter. The fractionally rated BTB converter comprises a transformer side converter (TSC), a direct-current (DC) link, and a line side converter (LSC). By controlling the switches of the BTB converter, the effective phase angle between the two AC source voltages may be regulated, and the amplitude of the voltage inserted by the power flow controller may be adjusted with respect to the AC source voltages.

  8. Effects of neuropeptide Y on regulation of blood flow rate in canine myocardium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Sheikh, S P; Jørgensen, J

    1990-01-01

    The effect of neuropeptide Y (NPY) on tension development was examined in isolated canine coronary arteries, and the effects on local myocardial blood flow rate were studied in open-chest anesthetized dogs by the local 133Xe washout technique. By immunohistochemistry, numerous NPY......+. In contrast, intracoronary NPY (0.01-10 micrograms) induced a considerable degree of vasoconstriction; the reduction of blood flow rate was dose related, with a maximum reduction to 52% of control values. The effect of intracoronary NPY (1 microgram) on maximally relaxed arterioles elicited by 30 s...... of ischemia was studied in separate experiments during reactive hyperemia. NPY induced a decrease in maximum blood flow during reactive hyperemia (166.6 vs. 214.6% of preocclusive blood flow rate, mean values; P = 0.05), an increase in the cumulative excess blood flow (61.0 vs. 35.3 ml/100 g; P = 0...

  9. Effects of Asymmetrical Micro Electrode Surface Topography to AC Electroosmosis flow Rate

    CERN Document Server

    Hong-Yuan, Jiang; Zhen-Xiu, Hou; Yu-Kun, Ren; Yong-Jun, Sun

    2010-01-01

    AC Electroosmosis (ACEO) has many advantages such as low power consumption, non-moving parts, and easy to integrate etc., so it is widely used for low concentration microfluid manipulation in low frequency range. Classical ACEO theory assumes that electric double layer (EDL) is the main cause of electric field induced flow, and gives electric-flow field coupling equations for ACEO flow rate. But the calculation data usually are tens times faster than the experimental velocities. In this paper, electrode surface topography is included to solve ACEO flow rate. With electrode surface roughness as the characteristic parameter, equivalent EDL model is set up to modify the classical EDL model. The relationship between flow rate and electrode surface roughness is studied. Experiment results agree with the simulation very well, proving the feasibility of equivalent EDL model.

  10. The Relationship Between Humor Styles and Forgiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampes, William

    2016-01-01

    Research has shown that a factor in a victim’s forgiveness of an offender is the victim’s ability to make more positive, or at least less negative, attributions of the offender’s behavior and that perspective-taking can be a factor in facilitating that process. Self-enhancing humor has been found to be positively correlated with perspective-taking empathy and aggressive humor found to be negatively correlated with perspective-taking empathy. Therefore it was predicted that self-enhancing humor would be positively correlated with forgiveness and aggressive humor negatively correlated with forgiveness. The Humor Styles Questionnaire, the Absence of Negative and Presence of Positive subscales of the Forgiveness Scale, and the Forgiveness Likelihood Scale were administered to 112 college undergraduates. Self-enhancing humor was significantly and positively correlated with all of the forgiveness measures, aggressive humor and self-defeating humor were significantly and negatively correlated with some of the forgiveness measures and affiliative humor was not significantly correlated with any of the forgiveness measures. The results were interpreted in terms of previous findings for humor styles, perspective-taking empathy, depression, self-esteem and anxiety. Future research involving the extent to which other personality variables, such as perspective-taking empathy, mediate the relationship between self-enhancing humor and forgiveness was suggested. PMID:27547252

  11. The Relationship Between Humor Styles and Forgiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Hampes

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown that a factor in a victim’s forgiveness of an offender is the victim’s ability to make more positive, or at least less negative, attributions of the offender’s behavior and that perspective-taking can be a factor in facilitating that process. Self-enhancing humor has been found to be positively correlated with perspective-taking empathy and aggressive humor found to be negatively correlated with perspective-taking empathy. Therefore it was predicted that self-enhancing humor would be positively correlated with forgiveness and aggressive humor negatively correlated with forgiveness. The Humor Styles Questionnaire, the Absence of Negative and Presence of Positive subscales of the Forgiveness Scale, and the Forgiveness Likelihood Scale were administered to 112 college undergraduates. Self-enhancing humor was significantly and positively correlated with all of the forgiveness measures, aggressive humor and self-defeating humor were significantly and negatively correlated with some of the forgiveness measures and affiliative humor was not significantly correlated with any of the forgiveness measures. The results were interpreted in terms of previous findings for humor styles, perspective-taking empathy, depression, self-esteem and anxiety. Future research involving the extent to which other personality variables, such as perspective-taking empathy, mediate the relationship between self-enhancing humor and forgiveness was suggested.

  12. Macropore system characteristics controls on non-reactive solute transport at different flow rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsbo, Mats; Koestel, John

    2014-05-01

    Preferential flow and transport in macroporous soils are important pathways for the leaching of agrochemicals through soils. Preferential solute transport in soil is to a large extent determined by the macropore system characteristics and the water flow conditions. The importance of different characteristics of the macropore system is likely to vary with the flow conditions. The objective of this study was to determine which properties of the macropore system that control the shape of non-reactive tracer solute breakthrough curves at different steady-state flow rates. We sampled five undisturbed columns (20 cm high, 20 cm diameter) from the soil surface of four soils with clay contents between 21 and 50 %. Solute transport experiments were carried out under unsaturated conditions at 2, 4, 6, 8 and 12 mm h-1 flow rates. For each flow rate a pulse of potassium bromide solution was applied at the soil surface and the electrical conductivity was measured with high temporal resolution in the column effluent. We used the 5 % arrival time and the holdback factor to estimate the degree of preferential transport from the resulting breakthrough curves. Unsaturated hydraulic conductivities were measured at the soil surface of the columns using a tension disc infiltrometer. The macropore system was imaged by industrial X-ray computed tomography at a resolution of 125 μm in all directions. Measures of the macropore system characteristics including measures of pore continuity were calculated from these images using the ImageJ software. Results show that the degree of preferential transport is generally increasing with flow rate when larger pores become active in the transport. The degree of preferential flow was correlated to measures of macropore topology. This study show that conclusions drawn from experiments carried out at one flow rate should generally not be extrapolated to other flow rates.

  13. Particle Flow Cell Formation at Minimum Fluidization Flow Rates in a Rectangular Gas-Fluidized Bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    Kunii and Levenspiel Model ----------------- 66 C. FLUIDIZED BED VARIABLES THAT AFFECT HEAT TRANSFER ---------------------------------- 69 5 1...and Levenspiel Model -------------------------- 68 25. Heat transfer coefficient vs. mass velocity --------- 72 26. Contact geometry of surface-particle...becomes a very important factor. According to Kunii and Levenspiel [34], distributors should have a sufficient pressure drop to achieve equal flow

  14. Numerical Simulation for Effect of Inlet Cooling Rate on Fluid Flow and Temperature Distribution in Tundish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QU Tian-peng; LIU Cheng-jun; JIANG Mao-fa

    2012-01-01

    The fluid flow in tundish is a non-isothermal process and the temperature variation of stream from teeming ladle dominates the fluid flow and thermal distribution in tundish. A numerical model was established to investigate the effect of inlet cooling rate on fluid flow and temperature distribution in tundish based on a FTSC (Flexible Thin Slab Casting) tundish. The inlet cooling rate varies from 0. 5 to 0. 25 ~C/rain. Under the present calculation conditions, the following conclusions were made. When the stream temperature from teeming ladle drops seriously (for inlet cooling rate of 0.5℃/min), there is a "backward flow" at the coming end of casting. The horizontal flow along the free surface turns to flow along the bottom of tundish. The bottom flow shortens the fluid flow route in tundish and deteriorates the removal effect of nonmetallic inclusions from molten steel. Nevertheless, when the inlet cooling rate decreases to 0.25℃/min, the horizontal flow is sustained during the whole casting period. The present research provides theoretical directions for temperature control in teeming ladle and continuous casting tundish during production of advanced steels.

  15. Direct Measurement of Planar Flow Rate in Excised Canine Larynx Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oren, Liran; Khosla, Sid; Dembinski, Doug; Ying, Jun; Gutmark, Ephraim

    2014-01-01

    Objective During phonation, skewing of the glottal flow waveform (Q) during phonation refers to a phenomenon that occurs when the flow decelerates more rapidly than it accelerates. This skewing is clinically important because it increases the glottal efficiency, which is defined by the acoustic intensity (units are sound pressure level or SPL) divided by the subglottal pressure. Current theoretical models predict that the only mechanism to cause skewing of Q involves changes in the vocal tract inertance. The purpose of the current work is to show that other factors at the vocal fold level can also cause skewing of Q and to determine if the acoustic intensity is correlated with MFDR. Study design Basic Science Methods Intraglottal geometry and velocity measurements were taken in five canine larynges at the mid-membranous plane using two-dimensional particle imaging velocimetry (PIV). The flow rate at the glottal exit was computed from the PIV measurements for low, medium, and high subglottal pressures. Results Vortices form in the superior aspect of the divergent glottis during closing. These vortices produce negative pressure that increases both the maximum value of Q and the rapid deceleration of the flow. The skewing of the flow rate is increased as the intraglottal vortices are increased by increasing the subglottal pressure. The increase in the acoustic intensity is highly correlated with certain properties of the flow rate waveform, such as maximum flow rate. Conclusion Flow skewing and the acoustic intensity can be increased by increasing the intraglottal vortices. PMID:25093928

  16. A Distributed Flow Rate Control Algorithm for Networked Agent System with Multiple Coding Rates to Optimize Multimedia Data Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Zeng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of wireless technologies, mobile communication applies more and more extensively in the various walks of life. The social network of both fixed and mobile users can be seen as networked agent system. At present, kinds of devices and access network technology are widely used. Different users in this networked agent system may need different coding rates multimedia data due to their heterogeneous demand. This paper proposes a distributed flow rate control algorithm to optimize multimedia data transmission of the networked agent system with the coexisting various coding rates. In this proposed algorithm, transmission path and upload bandwidth of different coding rate data between source node, fixed and mobile nodes are appropriately arranged and controlled. On the one hand, this algorithm can provide user nodes with differentiated coding rate data and corresponding flow rate. On the other hand, it makes the different coding rate data and user nodes networked, which realizes the sharing of upload bandwidth of user nodes which require different coding rate data. The study conducts mathematical modeling on the proposed algorithm and compares the system that adopts the proposed algorithm with the existing system based on the simulation experiment and mathematical analysis. The results show that the system that adopts the proposed algorithm achieves higher upload bandwidth utilization of user nodes and lower upload bandwidth consumption of source node.

  17. Effects of the flow rate of hydrogen on the growth of graphene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-gui Shi; Yue Hao; Dong Wang; Jin-cheng Zhang; Peng Zhang; Xue-fang Shi; Dang Han; Zheng Chai; Jing-dong Yan

    2015-01-01

    Graphene samples with different morphologies were fabricated on the inside of copper enclosures by low pressure chemical vapor deposition and tuning the flow rate of hydrogen. It is found that the flow rate of hydrogen greatly influences the growth of graphene. Ther-modynamic analysis indicates that a higher flow rate of hydrogen is favorable to the formation of good quality graphene with regular mor-phology. However, the mass-transfer process of methane dominates the growth driving force. At very low pressure, mass-transfer proceeds by Knudsen diffusion, and the mass-transfer flux of methane decreases as the flow rate of hydrogen increases, leading to a decrease in the growth driving force. At a higher pressure, mass-transfer proceeds by Fick’s diffusion, and the mass-transfer flux of methane is dominated by the gas velocity, whose variation determines the growth driving force variation of graphene.

  18. Passive sampling of perfluorinated chemicals in water: Flow rate effects on chemical uptake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaserzon, S.L.; Vermeirssen, E.L.M.; Hawker, D.W.; Kennedy, K.; Bentley, C.; Thompson, J.; Booij, K.; Mueller, J.F.

    2013-01-01

    A recently developed modified polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) provides a means for monitoring perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) in water. However, changes in external flow rates may alter POCIS sampling behaviour and consequently affect estimated water concentrations of analytes. In

  19. Relationship between Supplied Oil Flow Rates and Oil Film Thicknesses under Starved Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taisuke Maruyama

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have already considered starved lubrication. However, there have been no reports on the oil film thicknesses under steady starved EHL (elastohydrodynamic lubrication, where the ultra-low volume of oil supplied per unit time is uniform. The present study examined the relationship between the supplied oil flow rate and oil film thickness under steady starved lubrication. A ball-on-disk testing machine was used in experiments to measure the oil film thickness by means of optical interferometry. A microsyringe pump was used to accurately control the supplied oil flow rate. The supplied oil flow rate was kept constant, and the minimum oil film thickness was measured for 1 h after the start of the tests to determine the relationship between the supplied oil flow rate and oil film thickness.

  20. Influence of carrier gas flow rate on carbon nanotubes growth by TCVD with Cu catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Khorrami

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs were grown on copper catalyst by thermal chemical vapor deposition (TCVD using H2 and N2 as carrier gases. CNTs with different morphologies were observed using different carrier gas flow rates. The influence of carrier gas flow rates on the structure of carbon nanotubes was compared. Catalyst nanolayer was sputtered on mirror polished silicon wafers. The catalyst film thickness was determined by using the Rutherford Back Scattering (RBS technique. Ethanol as carbon source has been used. The surface morphology and nanostructure were studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, Raman Spectroscopy, Tunneling Electron Microscopy (TEM and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM. Results indicated that the amounts of deposited carbon decrease with increasing flow rates. These results showed that CNTs’ length decreased with increasing flow rates. Results suggest that Cu nanolayer is suitable as catalyst due to the fact that CNTs are monotonous.

  1. An in vivo assessment of the influence of needle gauges on endodontic irrigation flow rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velayutham Gopikrishna

    2016-01-01

    Statistical Analysis Used: The following tests were used for the statistical analysis: Independent sample "T" test, one-way ANOVA test, and post hoc multiple comparison was carried out using Tukey′s honest significant difference (HSD test using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS version 16 for Windows. Results: The average flow rate of 26 gauge was 0.27 mLs−1 , of 27 gauge was 0.19 mLs−1 , and of 30 gauge was 0.09 mls−1 . There was statistical significance among the gauges (P < 0.001. 26 gauge had highest flow rate when compared with other groups followed by 27 gauge and 30 gauge respectively. The operator variability for flow rate of three endodontic irrigation needle gauges (26 gauge, 27 gauge, and 30 gauge was found to be not significant. Conclusions: Needle gauge has significant influence on endodontic irrigation flow rate.

  2. The Dark Side of Humor: DSM-5 Pathological Personality Traits and Humor Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgil Zeigler-Hill

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Basic personality traits (e.g., extraversion have been found to be associated with the humor styles that individuals employ. In the present study, we were interested in determining whether pathological personality traits were also associated with humor styles. We examined the associations between the pathological personality traits captured by the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 (PID-5 and humor styles in a sample of college students (N = 594. Negative affectivity and detachment were negatively associated with the affiliative and self-enhancing humor styles. Antagonism was positively associated with the aggressive humor style but negatively associated with the affiliative humor style. Disinhibition was positively associated with the aggressive humor style, whereas disinhibition and psychoticism were both positively associated with the self-defeating humor style. Discussion focuses on the implications of these findings and how they can expand our understanding of the connections between the darker aspects of personality and humor.

  3. Measurement of cerebral blood flow rate and its relationship with brain function using optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Wang, Yi; Zhao, Yuqian; Dou, Shidan; Ma, Yushu; Ma, Zhenhe

    2016-03-01

    Activity of brain neurons will lead to changes in local blood flow rate (BFR). Thus, it is important to measure the local BFR of cerebral cortex on research of neuron activity in vivo, such as rehabilitation evaluation after stroke, etc. Currently, laser Doppler flowmetry is commonly used for blood flow measurement, however, relatively low resolution limits its application. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a powerful noninvasive 3D imaging modality with high temporal and spatial resolutions. Furthermore, OCT can provide flow distribution image by calculating Doppler frequency shift which makes it possible for blood flow rate measurement. In this paper, we applied OCT to measure the blood flow rate of the primary motor cortex in rats. The animal was immobilized and anesthetized with isoflurane, an incision was made along the sagittal suture, and bone was exposed. A skull window was opened on the primary motor cortex. Then, blood flow rate changes in the primary motor cortex were monitored by our homemade spectral domain OCT with a stimulation of the passive movement of the front legs. Finally, we established the relationship between blood flow rate and the test design. The aim is to demonstrate the potential of OCT in the evaluation of cerebral cortex function.

  4. Two Models of DMFC under Effects of Cathode Humidification Temperature and Anode Flow Rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduced a novel self-adjustment of parameters of fuzzy neural networks. Then,the effects of cathode humidification temperature and anode flow rate on the performance of direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC)were described respectively. Two dynamic performance models of DMFC under the influences of cathode humidification temperature and anode flow rate were established separately based on fuzzy neural networks. The simulation results show the accuracy of the models established is satisfactory.

  5. Flow Rates in Liquid Chromatography, Gas Chromatography and Supercritical Fluid Chromatography: A Tool for Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Joris Meurs

    2016-01-01

    This paper aimed to develop a standalone application for optimizing flow rates in liquid chromatography (LC), gas chromatography (GC) and supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC). To do so, Van Deemter’s equation, Knox’ equation and Golay’s equation were implemented in a MATLAB script and subsequently a graphical user interface (GUI) was created. The application will show the optimal flow rate or linear velocity and the corresponding plate height for the set input parameters. Furthermore, a p...

  6. Effect of Flow Rate of Side-Type Orifice Intake on Withdrawn Water Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Xueping Gao; Guangning Li; Yunpeng Han

    2014-01-01

    Side-type orifice intake is a type of selective withdrawal facility used in managing reservoirs to mitigate the negative effects of low-temperature water. Based on the temperature data of a thermal stratified reservoir in China, an experiment was conducted in flume to study the influence of intake flow rate on withdrawn water temperature with different temperature distributions. Results indicated that withdrawn water temperature changed with different flow rates. The temperature change was de...

  7. Effect of air-flow rate and turning frequency on bio-drying of dewatered sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ling; Gu, Wei-Mei; He, Pin-Jing; Shao, Li-Ming

    2010-12-01

    Sludge bio-drying is an approach for biomass energy utilization, in which sludge is dried by means of the heat generated by aerobic degradation of its organic substances. The study aimed at investigating the interactive influence of air-flow rate and turning frequency on water removal and biomass energy utilization. Results showed that a higher air-flow rate (0.0909m(3)h(-1)kg(-1)) led to lower temperature than did the lower one (0.0455m(3)h(-1)kg(-1)) by 17.0% and 13.7% under turning per two days and four days. With the higher air-flow rate and lower turning frequency, temperature cumulation was almost similar to that with the lower air-flow rate and higher turning frequency. The doubled air-flow rate improved the total water removal ratio by 2.86% (19.5gkg(-1) initial water) and 11.5% (75.0gkg(-1) initial water) with turning per two days and four days respectively, indicating that there was no remarkable advantage for water removal with high air-flow rate, especially with high turning frequency. The heat used for evaporation was 60.6-72.6% of the total heat consumption (34,400-45,400kJ). The higher air-flow rate enhanced volatile solids (VS) degradation thus improving heat generation by 1.95% (800kJ) and 8.96% (3200kJ) with turning per two days and four days. With the higher air-flow rate, heat consumed by sensible heat of inlet air and heat utilization efficiency for evaporation was higher than the lower one. With the higher turning frequency, sensible heat of materials and heat consumed by turning was higher than lower one.

  8. Review Of Applied Mathematical Models For Describing The Behaviour Of Aqueous Humor In Eye Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzierka M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, currently used methods for modeling the flow of the aqueous humor through eye structures are presented. Then a computational model based on rheological models of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids is proposed. The proposed model may be used for modeling the flow of the aqueous humor through the trabecular meshwork. The trabecular meshwork is modeled as an array of rectilinear parallel capillary tubes. The flow of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids is considered. As a results of discussion mathematical equations of permeability of porous media and velocity of fluid flow through porous media have been received.

  9. Risk Factors for Reduced Salivary Flow Rate in a Japanese Population: The Hisayama Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Takeuchi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine distinct risk factors causing reduced salivary flow rate in a community-dwelling population using a prospective cohort study design. This was a 5-year follow-up survey of 1,377 community-dwelling Japanese individuals aged ≥40 years. The salivary flow rate was evaluated at baseline and follow-up by collecting stimulated saliva. Data on demographic characteristics, use of medication, and general and oral health status were obtained at baseline. The relationship between reduced salivary flow rate during the follow-up period and its predictors was evaluated after adjustment for confounding factors. In a multivariate logistic regression model, higher age and plaque score and lower serum albumin levels were significantly associated with greater odds of an obvious reduction in salivary flow rate (age per decade, odds ratio [OR] = 1.25, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03–1.51; serum albumin levels <4 g/dL, OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.04–2.46; plaque score ≥1, OR = 1.53, 95% CI = 1.04–2.24. In a multivariate linear regression model, age and plaque score remained independently associated with the increased rate of reduced salivary flow. These results suggest that aging and plaque score are important predictors of reduced salivary flow rate in Japanese adults.

  10. Flow rate of polygonal grains through a bottleneck: Interplay between shape and size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezequiel Goldberg

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We report two-dimensional simulations of circular and polygonal grains passing through an aperture at the bottom of a silo. The mass flow rate for regular polygons is lower than for disks\\red{,} as observed by other authors. We show that both the exit velocity of the grains and the packing fraction are lower for polygons, which leads to the reduced flow rate. We point out the importance of the criteria used to define when two objects of different shape are considered to be of the same size. Depending on this criteria, the mass flow rate may vary significantly for some polygons. Moreover, the particle flow rate is non-trivially related to a combination of mass flow rate, particle shape and particle size. For some polygons, the particle flow rate may be lower or higher than that of the corresponding disks depending on the size comparison criteria. Received: 18 May 2015, Accepted: 30 October 2015; Edited by: F. Melo; Reviewed by: J.-N. Roux, Universite Parsi Est, Laboratoire Navier, Champs-sur-Marne, France; DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4279/PIP.070016 Cite as: E Goldberg, C M Carlevaro, L A Pugnaloni, Papers in Physics 7, 070016 (2015

  11. Flow rate dictates permeability enhancement during fluid pressure oscillations in laboratory experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candela, Thibault; Brodsky, Emily E.; Marone, Chris; Elsworth, Derek

    2015-04-01

    Seismic waves have been observed to increase the permeability in fractured aquifers. A detailed, predictive understanding of the process has been hampered by a lack of constraint on the primary physical controls. What aspect of the oscillatory forcing is most important in determining the magnitude of the permeability enhancement? Here we present laboratory results showing that flow rate is the primary control on permeability increases in the laboratory. We fractured Berea sandstone samples under triaxial stresses of tens of megapascals and applied dynamic fluid stresses via pore pressure oscillations. In each experiment, we varied either the amplitude or the frequency of the pressure changes. Amplitude and frequency each separately correlated with the resultant permeability increase. More importantly, the permeability changes correlate with the flow rate in each configuration, regardless of whether flow rate variations were driven by varying amplitude or frequency. We also track the permeability evolution during a single set of oscillations by measuring the phase lags (time delays) of successive oscillations. Interpreting the responses with a poroelastic model shows that 80% of the permeability enhancement is reached during the first oscillation and the final permeability enhancement scales exponentially with the imposed change in flow rate integrated over the rock volume. The establishment of flow rate as the primary control on permeability enhancement from seismic waves opens the door to quantitative studies of earthquake-hydrogeological coupling. The result also suggests that reservoir permeability could be engineered by imposing dynamic stresses and changes in flow rate.

  12. English Humor Derived from the Violation of Cooperative Principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    逯凌虹

    2009-01-01

    Humor is a wisdom, which reflects a person's character, mind and educational level. Humor can be revealed in many ways, yet mainly by means oflanguage. Starting from the analysis of the language of English humor, this paper studies the ways of English humor, especially the English humor on the violation of Cooperative Principle. By analyzing the relationship of English humor and the Cooperative Principle, this paper aims at bettering our understanding and comprehension of the Cooperative Principle and English humor.

  13. Personality, Humor Styles and Happiness: Happy People Have Positive Humor Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Thomas E; Lappi, Shaun K; Holden, Christopher J

    2016-08-01

    The present study examined the relationships between four personality traits, humor styles, and happiness. Replicating previous research, happiness was positively correlated with four personality traits: extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism. Further, happiness positively related to self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles; it related negatively to self-defeating and aggressive humor styles. Thus, happy people habitually engage in positive uses of humor and avoid engaging in negative uses of humor in daily life. We also found support for our hypothesis. People high in extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism are happier because they engage in positive humor in daily life.

  14. Personality, Humor Styles and Happiness: Happy People Have Positive Humor Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Ford

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the relationships between four personality traits, humor styles, and happiness. Replicating previous research, happiness was positively correlated with four personality traits: extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism. Further, happiness positively related to self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles; it related negatively to self-defeating and aggressive humor styles. Thus, happy people habitually engage in positive uses of humor and avoid engaging in negative uses of humor in daily life. We also found support for our hypothesis. People high in extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism are happier because they engage in positive humor in daily life.

  15. Personality, Humor Styles and Happiness: Happy People Have Positive Humor Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Thomas E.; Lappi, Shaun K.; Holden, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the relationships between four personality traits, humor styles, and happiness. Replicating previous research, happiness was positively correlated with four personality traits: extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism. Further, happiness positively related to self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles; it related negatively to self-defeating and aggressive humor styles. Thus, happy people habitually engage in positive uses of humor and avoid engaging in negative uses of humor in daily life. We also found support for our hypothesis. People high in extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism are happier because they engage in positive humor in daily life. PMID:27547251

  16. A constant air flow rate control of blower for residential applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, S.M. [Tamkang Univ., Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1998-03-01

    This paper presents a technique to control a blower for residential applications at constant air flow rate using an induction motor drive. The control scheme combines a variable volt/hertz ratio inverter drive and an average motor current regulation loop to achieve control of the motor torque-speed characteristics, consequently controlling the air flow rate of the blower which the motor is driving. The controller is simple to implement and practical for commercialization. It is also reliable, since no external pressure or air flow sensor is required. Both a theoretical derivation and an experimental verification for the control scheme are presented in this paper.

  17. Effects of flow rate and temperature on cyclic gas exchange in tsetse flies (Diptera, Glossinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terblanche, John S; Chown, Steven L

    2010-05-01

    Air flow rates may confound the investigation and classification of insect gas exchange patterns. Here we report the effects of flow rates (50, 100, 200, 400 ml min(-1)) on gas exchange patterns in wild-caught Glossina morsitans morsitans from Zambia. At rest, G. m. morsitans generally showed continuous or cyclic gas exchange (CGE) but no evidence of discontinuous gas exchange (DGE). Flow rates had little influence on the ability to detect CGE in tsetse, at least in the present experimental setup and under these laboratory conditions. Importantly, faster flow rates resulted in similar gas exchange patterns to those identified at lower flower rates suggesting that G. m. morsitans did not show DGE which had been incorrectly identified as CGE at lower flow rates. While CGE cycle frequency was significantly different among the four flow rates (prate treatment variation. Using a laboratory colony of closely related, similar-sized G. morsitans centralis we subsequently investigated the effects of temperature, gender and feeding status on CGE pattern variation since these factors can influence insect metabolic rates. At 100 ml min(-1) CGE was typical of G. m. centralis at rest, although it was significantly more common in females than in males (57% vs. 43% of 14 individuals tested per gender). In either sex, temperature (20, 24, 28 and 32 degrees C) had little influence on the number of individuals showing CGE. However, increases in metabolic rate with temperature were modulated largely by increases in burst volume and cycle frequency. This is unusual among insects showing CGE or DGE patterns because increases in metabolic rate are usually modulated by increases in frequency, but either no change or a decline in burst volume.

  18. Impact of gas flow rate on breakdown of filamentary dielectric barrier discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höft, H.; Becker, M. M.; Kettlitz, M.

    2016-03-01

    The influence of gas flow rate on breakdown properties and stability of pulsed dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) in a single filament arrangement using a gas mixture of 0.1 vol. % O2 in N2 at atmospheric pressure was investigated by means of electrical and optical diagnostics, accompanied by fluid dynamics and electrostatics simulations. A higher flow rate perpendicular to the electrode symmetry axis resulted in an increased breakdown voltage and DBD current maximum, a higher discharge inception jitter, and a larger emission diameter of the discharge channel. In addition, a shift of the filament position for low gas flow rates with respect to the electrode symmetry axis was observed. These effects can be explained by the change of the residence time of charge carriers in the discharge region—i.e., the volume pre-ionization—for changed flow conditions due to the convective transport of particles out of the center of the gap.

  19. Modeling Flow Rate to Estimate Hydraulic Conductivity in a Parabolic Ceramic Water Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana Wald

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this project we model volumetric flow rate through a parabolic ceramic water filter (CWF to determine how quickly it can process water while still improving its quality. The volumetric flow rate is dependent upon the pore size of the filter, the surface area, and the height of water in the filter (hydraulic head. We derive differential equations governing this flow from the conservation of mass principle and Darcy's Law and find the flow rate with respect to time. We then use methods of calculus to find optimal specifications for the filter. This work is related to the research conducted in Dr. James R. Mihelcic's Civil and Environmental Engineering Lab at USF.

  20. Fabrication of microfluidic architectures for optimal flow rate and concentration measurement for lab on chip application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Tijjani; Hashim, U.

    2017-03-01

    Optimum flow in micro channel for sensing purpose is challenging. In this study, The optimizations of the fluid sample flows are made through the design and characterization of the novel microfluidics' architectures to achieve the optimal flow rate in the micro channels. The biocompatibility of the Polydimetylsiloxane (Sylgard 184 silicon elastomer) polymer used to fabricate the device offers avenue for the device to be implemented as the universal fluidic delivery system for bio-molecules sensing in various bio-medical applications. The study uses the following methodological approaches, designing a novel microfluidics' architectures by integrating the devices on a single 4 inches silicon substrate, fabricating the designed microfluidic devices using low-cost solution soft lithography technique, characterizing and validating the flow throughput of urine samples in the micro channels by generating pressure gradients through the devices' inlets. The characterization on the urine samples flow in the micro channels have witnessed the constant flow throughout the devices.

  1. The Relationship of Self Esteem and Humor Styles in First Class Medical Students: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soner Cakmak

    2015-12-01

    Material and Methods: Two hundred three medical students (107 males, 96 females were included this study. Self-esteem was measured with the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale and humor style was measured with Humor Styles Questionnaire. Results: The rate of students who have mild or high self-esteem levels was 89.7%. In Humor Styles Questionnaire, the average scores of affiliative and self-enhancing humor were significantly higher than the average scores of aggressive and self-defeating humor. Male students were using humor, especially aggressive and self-defeating humor styles more commonly than female students. A positive correlation was found between self-esteem and affiliative and self-enhancing humor styles. Conclusion: The present study revealed a positive correlation between self-esteem and positive humor styles. There is a need to develop educational models that would bolster self-esteem and positive humor in medical students. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(4.000: 782-793

  2. Bimatoprost Effects on Aqueous Humor Dynamics in Monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David F. Woodward

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of bimatoprost on aqueous humor dynamics were quantified in monkey eyes. Uveoscleral outflow was measured by the anterior chamber perfusion method, using FITC-dextran. Total outflow facility was determined by the two-level constant pressure method. Aqueous flow was measured with a scanning ocular fluorophotometer. Uveoscleral outflow was 0.96±0.19 L min−1 in vehicle-treated eyes and 1.37±0.27 L min−1 (=6; <.05 in eyes that received bimatoprost 0.01% b.i.d. × 5 days. Bimatoprost had no effect on total outflow facility, which was 0.42±0.05 L min−1 at baseline and 0.42±0.04 L min−1 after bimatoprost treatment. Bimatoprost had no significant effect on aqueous humor flow. This study demonstrates that bimatoprost increases uveoscleral outflow but not total outflow facility or aqueous humor flow, indicating that it lowers intraocular pressure in ocular normotensive monkeys by a mechanism that exclusively involves uveoscleral outflow.

  3. Effect of water flow rate and feed training on "pacamã" (Siluriforme: Pseudopimelodidae juvenile production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K. Luz

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different water flow rates and feed training on the production of "pacamã" Lophiosilurus alexandri juveniles were evaluated. In the first experiment, nine day post-hatch larvae (n= 2,400 were stocked at a density of 5 larvae/L. Different water flow (F rates were tested: F1 = 180; F2 = 600; F3 = 1,300; and F4 = 2,600mL/min. Artemia nauplii were offered as food during the first 15 days of active feeding. In the second experiment for feed training, 720 juveniles (total length of 22.2mm were stocked at a density of 1.5 juveniles/L. A water flow rate similar to F1 was used. The use of extruded dry diet was tested, and feed training was done with and without other enhanced flavors (Artemia nauplii or Scott emulsion. The water flow rates did not influence the survival or growth of L. alexandri. Cannibalism occurred during feed training. The worst survival, specific growth rate and high mortality were found with the use of extruded dry diet, while similar values were registered with the different feed training diets used. Reduced water flow rate can be used to lower water consumption during larviculture and feed training of L. alexandri.

  4. Influence of chemistry on steam generator primary-to-secondary stabilized low leak flow rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hervouet, C.; Pages, D. [EDF R and D (France); Fauchon, C.; Bretelle, J.L. [EDF GDL (France); Bus, F. [EDF DPN (France)

    2002-07-01

    The comparison of the leak flow rate behavior between the previous and the new boron/lithium coordination, the second one corresponding to an higher pH during the cycle than the first one, leads to the following conclusions, confirmed by the experimental and theoretical studies: Low leak flow rate is extremely sensitive to pH in the zone of pH of primary water because the behavior of metallic oxide is changing drastically in that range of pH (from precipitation to dissolution); Leak flow rate is often maintained lower with low pH. Let's recall however that pH can not reach a too low value which could enhance corrosion product deposition, increase dose rates along the primary circuit, and lead to reactor outages due to problems on fuel assemblies. The understanding of the governing phenomena led to adapt in 2000 the reactor cooling system chemical conditioning for the French Pressurized Water reactors facing problems with the management of the stabilized leak flow rate fluctuations, once no degradation of tube bundle integrity is proved. Each part of the cycle and operating conditions lead to an advised operating action. In general, the new recommendations for the reactors facing problems with the management of low leak flow rate are based on the principle of helping the precipitation of metallic oxide within the crack and preventing their dissolution. (authors)

  5. Engineering Mathematical Analysis Method for Productivity Rate in Linear Arrangement Serial Structure Automated Flow Assembly Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Chan Sin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Productivity rate (Q or production rate is one of the important indicator criteria for industrial engineer to improve the system and finish good output in production or assembly line. Mathematical and statistical analysis method is required to be applied for productivity rate in industry visual overviews of the failure factors and further improvement within the production line especially for automated flow line since it is complicated. Mathematical model of productivity rate in linear arrangement serial structure automated flow line with different failure rate and bottleneck machining time parameters becomes the basic model for this productivity analysis. This paper presents the engineering mathematical analysis method which is applied in an automotive company which possesses automated flow assembly line in final assembly line to produce motorcycle in Malaysia. DCAS engineering and mathematical analysis method that consists of four stages known as data collection, calculation and comparison, analysis, and sustainable improvement is used to analyze productivity in automated flow assembly line based on particular mathematical model. Variety of failure rate that causes loss of productivity and bottleneck machining time is shown specifically in mathematic figure and presents the sustainable solution for productivity improvement for this final assembly automated flow line.

  6. High-repetition-rate XeCl waveguide laser without gas flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, C.P.; Gordon C. III; Moutoulas, C.; Feldman, B.J.

    1987-03-01

    Operation of a microwave discharge XeCl laser at pulse-repetition rates extending to 8 kHz without flow of the laser gas is reported. Present limits on pulse-repetition rate appear to be imposed by thermally induced refractive-index gradients.

  7. Flow rate calibration to determine cell-derived microparticles and homogeneity of blood components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noulsri, Egarit; Lerdwana, Surada; Kittisares, Kulvara; Palasuwan, Attakorn; Palasuwan, Duangdao

    2017-07-18

    Cell-derived microparticles (MPs) are currently of great interest to screening transfusion donors and blood components. However, the current approach to counting MPs is not affordable for routine laboratory use due to its high cost. The current study aimed to investigate the potential use of flow-rate calibration for counting MPs in whole blood, packed red blood cells (PRBCs), and platelet concentrates (PCs). The accuracy of flow-rate calibration was investigated by comparing the platelet counts of an automated counter and a flow-rate calibrator. The concentration of MPs and their origins in whole blood (n=100), PRBCs (n=100), and PCs (n=92) were determined using a FACSCalibur. The MPs' fold-changes were calculated to assess the homogeneity of the blood components. Comparing the platelet counts conducted by automated counting and flow-rate calibration showed an r(2) of 0.6 (y=0.69x+97,620). The CVs of the within-run and between-run variations of flow-rate calibration were 8.2% and 12.1%, respectively. The Bland-Altman plot showed a mean bias of -31,142platelets/μl. MP enumeration revealed both the difference in MP levels and their origins in whole blood, PRBCs, and PCs. Screening the blood components demonstrated high heterogeneity of the MP levels in PCs when compared to whole blood and PRBCs. The results of the present study suggest the accuracy and precision of flow-rate calibration for enumerating MPs. This flow-rate approach is affordable for assessing the homogeneity of MPs in blood components in routine laboratory practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Acute short-term mental stress does not influence salivary flow rate dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ella A Naumova

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Results of studies that address the influence of stress on salivary flow rate and composition are controversial. The aim of this study was to reveal the influence of stress vulnerability and different phases of stress reactivity on the unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow rate. We examined that acute mental stress does not change the salivary flow rate. In addition, we also examined the salivary cortisol and protein level in relation to acute mental stress stimuli. METHODS: Saliva of male subjects was collected for five minutes before, immediately, 10, 30 and 120 min after toothbrushing. Before toothbrushing, the subjects were exposed to acute stress in the form of a 2 min public speech. Salivary flow rate and total protein was measured. The physiological stress marker cortisol was analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. To determine the subjects' psychological stress reaction, the State-Trait-Anxiety Inventory State questionnaire (STAI data were obtained. The subjects were divided into stress subgroup (S1 (psychological reactivity, stress subgroup (S2 (psychological and physiological reactivity and a control group. The area under the curve for salivarycortisol concentration and STAI-State scores were calculated. All data underwent statistical analysis using one-way analysis of variance. RESULTS: Immediately after stress exposure, all participants exhibited a psychological stress reaction. Stress exposure did not change the salivary flow rate. Only 69% of the subjects continued to display a physiological stress reaction 20 minutes after the public talk. There was no significant change in the salivary flow rate during the psychological and the physiological stress reaction phases relative to the baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Acute stress has no impact on the salivary flow rate; however, there may be other responses through salivary proteins that are increased with the acute stress stimuli. Future studies are needed to examine

  9. Silica Measurement with High Flow Rate Respirable Size Selective Samplers: A Field Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Taekhee; Harper, Martin; Kashon, Michael; Lee, Larry A; Healy, Catherine B; Coggins, Marie A; Susi, Pam; O'Brien, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    High and low flow rate respirable size selective samplers including the CIP10-R (10 l min(-1)), FSP10 (11.2 l min(-1)), GK2.69 (4.4 l min(-1)), 10-mm nylon (1.7 l min(-1)), and Higgins-Dewell type (2.2 l min(-1)) were compared via side-by-side sampling in workplaces for respirable crystalline silica measurement. Sampling was conducted at eight different occupational sites in the USA and five different stonemasonry sites in Ireland. A total of 536 (268 pairs) personal samples and 55 area samples were collected. Gravimetric analysis was used to determine respirable dust mass and X-ray diffraction analysis was used to determine quartz mass. Ratios of respirable dust mass concentration, quartz mass concentration, respirable dust mass, and quartz mass from high and low flow rate samplers were compared. In general, samplers did not show significant differences greater than 30% in respirable dust mass concentration and quartz mass concentration when outliers (ratio 3.0) were removed from the analysis. The frequency of samples above the limit of detection and limit of quantification of quartz was significantly higher for the CIP10-R and FSP10 samplers compared to low flow rate samplers, while the GK2.69 cyclone did not show significant difference from low flow rate samplers. High flow rate samplers collected significantly more respirable dust and quartz than low flow rate samplers as expected indicating that utilizing high flow rate samplers might improve precision in quartz measurement. Although the samplers did not show significant differences in respirable dust and quartz concentrations, other practical attributes might make them more or less suitable for personal sampling.

  10. Strategi Penciptaan Humor dengan Pemanfaatan Aspek-aspek Kebahasaan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rohmadi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Humor is universal. Nobody never gets involved with humor. It's the difference lies in its frequency and its target. One person may have a high sense of humor whereas another may have a low sense of humor. In fact every person needs humor in many communication activities. Though humor is only word game, people cannot avoid it. However, humor does not always cause the people to laugh. The creation of humor discourse can make use of articles, pictures, and sounds. Humor consumers assess humor variously. Sometimes people can feel happy when they hear humor; but sometimes they can feel infuriated, hateful, insinuated, or even aggrieved. This is caused by immeasurable humor context in each communication. It depends on the target that the humor creator wants.

  11. How fun are your meetings? Investigating the relationship between humor patterns in team interactions and team performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann-Willenbrock, Nale; Allen, Joseph A

    2014-11-01

    Research on humor in organizations has rarely considered the social context in which humor occurs. One such social setting that most of us experience on a daily basis concerns the team context. Building on recent theorizing about the humor-performance link in teams, this study seeks to increase our understanding of the function and effects of humor in team interaction settings. We examined behavioral patterns of humor and laughter in real teams by videotaping and coding humor and laughter during 54 regular organizational team meetings. Performance ratings were obtained immediately following the team meetings as well as at a later time point from the teams' supervisors. At the behavioral unit level within the team interaction process, lag sequential analysis identified humor and laughter patterns occurring above chance (e.g., a joke followed by laughter, followed by another joke). Moreover, humor patterns triggered positive socioemotional communication, procedural structure, and new solutions. At the team level, humor patterns (but not humor or laughter alone) positively related to team performance, both immediately and 2 years later. Team-level job insecurity climate was identified as a boundary condition: In low job insecurity climate conditions, humor patterns were positively related to performance, whereas in high job insecurity climate conditions, humor patterns did not relate to team performance. The role of job insecurity as a boundary condition persisted at both time points. These findings underscore the importance of studying team interactions for understanding the role of humor in organizations and considering team-level boundary conditions over time. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Humor styles, self-esteem, and subjective happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xiao Dong; Liu, Katy Wing-Yin; Jiang, Feng; Hiranandani, Neelam Arjan

    2014-10-01

    Summary.-This study examined how humor styles could mediate the effect of self-esteem on subjective happiness. 227 Hong Kong undergraduate students completed the Humor Styles Questionnaire, the Roxsenberg Self-esteem Scale, and the Subjective Happiness Scale. Results showed adaptive humor styles (affiliative humor and self-enhancing humor) significantly predicted self-esteem and subjective happiness and mediated the relationship between self-esteem and subjective happiness. Maladaptive humor styles (aggressive humor and self-defeating humor) did not strongly predict self-esteem or subjective happiness. The mediation effects of humor styles found in the present research provided useful suggestions for future studies.

  13. HPLC determination of pirenzepine dihydrochloride in rabbit aqueous humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Jiasheng; Li, Pengmei; Yang, Xiaoyan; Pang, Hui

    2005-08-05

    Pirenzepine was considered as a pharmacologic agent of preventing form-deprivation myopia. To assess the ocular bioavailability of pirenzepine, a HPLC method for determination of pirenzepine in rabbit aqueous humor was developed. An HPLC system was used in the reverse phase mode for the determination of pirenzepine. A Luna RP18 5 microm 4.6 mm x 150 mm column was employed at 35 degrees C. The mobile phase was methanol/0.02 M KH2PO4/sodium 1-pentanesulfonate (350/650/1, v/v/m, pH was adjusted to 8.0 by dropping 1M NaOH). The flow rate was 1 ml/min. Pirenzepine was monitored at 280 nm. Sample treatment procedure consists of deproteinisation with methanol. Calibration curves fitted by plotting the peak area versus concentration were linear in the range 20-400 ng/ml. The limit of quantification (LOQ) of present method was 20 ng/ml. Within-day and inter-day coefficient of variation was lower than 10%. Analytical recoveries were determined as 92.4, 95.4 and 101.4% at concentrations of 40, 200 and 400 ng/ml. In conclusion, this HPLC method using a simple sample treatment procedure appears suitable for monitoring ocular concentration of pirenzepine.

  14. Assessment of Average Tracer Concentration Approach for Flow Rate Measurement and Field Calibration

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    P. Sidauruk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tracer method is one of the methods available for open channel flow rate measurements such as in irrigation canals. Average tracer concentration approach is an instantaneous injection method that based on the average tracer concentrations value at the sampling point. If the procedures are correct and scientific considerations are justified, tracer method will give relatively high accuracy of measurements. The accuracy of the average tracer concentration approach has been assessed both in laboratory and field. The results of accuracy tests of open channel flow that has been conducted at the Center for Application Isotopes and Radiation Laboratory-BATAN showed that the accuracy level of average concentrations approach method was higher than 90% compared to the true value (volumetric flow rate. The accuracy of average tracer concentration approach was also assessed during the application of the method to measure flow rate of Mrican irrigation canals as an effort to perform field calibration of existing weirs. Both average tracer concentration approach and weirs can predict the trend of the flow correctly. However, it was observed that flow discrepancies between weirs measurement and average tracer concentration approach predictions were as high as 27%. The discrepancies might be due to the downgrading performances of the weirs because of previous floods and high sediment contents of the flow

  15. FLUVIAL PROCESSES AND SEDIMENT SCOUR RATE OF THE YELLOW RIVER UNDER ACTION OF UNSTEADY FLOWS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Nian XU; Zhi-Yong LIANG; Zhao-Yin WANG

    2001-01-01

    Riverbed scour of the main channel by floods in the Yellow River and its tributaries was investigated, including scour by hyper-concentrated floods. Flood scour usually causes variation of river cross-sections in a way similar to that occured when the sediment inflow is less than the sediment-laden capacity. Scour rate equation for the main channel derived based on the momentum and continuous equations was verified by field data. This equation indicates that unsteady flow scour rate is proportional to the flow density, the velocity of the flood peak, the rising rate of flow discharge per unit width, and so on. The Maximum scour depth after a flood could be predicted by the scour rate equation proposed in this paper.

  16. Effect of Various Sugary Beverages on Salivary pH, Flow Rate, and Oral Clearance Rate amongst Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hans, Rinki; Thomas, Susan; Garla, Bharat; Dagli, Rushabh J; Hans, Manoj Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Diet is a major aetiological factor for dental caries and enamel erosion. This study was undertaken with the aim of assessing the effect of selected locally available beverages on salivary pH, flow rate, and oral clearance rate amongst adults. Materials and Method. This clinical trial comprised 120 subjects. Test beverages undertaken were pepsi, fruit drink, coffee, and sweetened milk. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS version 17. Descriptive statistics, one-way ANOVA, and post hoc Tukey's test were applied in the statistical tests. Results. It was found that salivary pH decreased for all the beverages immediately after consumption and the salivary flow rate increased after their consumption. The oral clearance rate of sweetened milk was found to be the least at 6.5 minutes and that of pepsi was found to be 13 minutes. However, the oral clearance rates of fruit drink and coffee were found to be equal at 15 minutes. Conclusion. Although it was found out that liquids cleared rapidly from the oral cavity, they had a significant cariogenic and erosive potential. Hence, it is always advised to minimise the consumption of beverages, especially amongst children and young adults to maintain a good oral health.

  17. Effect of Various Sugary Beverages on Salivary pH, Flow Rate, and Oral Clearance Rate amongst Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinki Hans

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Diet is a major aetiological factor for dental caries and enamel erosion. This study was undertaken with the aim of assessing the effect of selected locally available beverages on salivary pH, flow rate, and oral clearance rate amongst adults. Materials and Method. This clinical trial comprised 120 subjects. Test beverages undertaken were pepsi, fruit drink, coffee, and sweetened milk. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS version 17. Descriptive statistics, one-way ANOVA, and post hoc Tukey’s test were applied in the statistical tests. Results. It was found that salivary pH decreased for all the beverages immediately after consumption and the salivary flow rate increased after their consumption. The oral clearance rate of sweetened milk was found to be the least at 6.5 minutes and that of pepsi was found to be 13 minutes. However, the oral clearance rates of fruit drink and coffee were found to be equal at 15 minutes. Conclusion. Although it was found out that liquids cleared rapidly from the oral cavity, they had a significant cariogenic and erosive potential. Hence, it is always advised to minimise the consumption of beverages, especially amongst children and young adults to maintain a good oral health.

  18. Tracheal compliance and limit flow rate changes in a murine model of asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Trachea is the unique passage for air to flow in and out. Its tone is of importance for the respiration system. However, investigation on how tracheal tone changes due to asthma is limited. Aiming at studying how the mechanical property changes due to asthma as well as the compliance and flow limitation, the following methods are adopted. Static and passive pressure-volume tests of rats’ trachea of the asthmatic and control groups are carried out and a new type of tube law is formulated to fit the experimental data, based on which changes of compliance and limit flow rate are investigated. In order to give explanation to such changes, histological examinations with tracheal soft tissues are made. The results show that compliance, limit flow rate and material constants included in the tube law largely depend on the longitudinal stretching ratio. Compared with the control group, the tracheal compliance of asthmatic animals decreases significantly, which results in an increased limit flow rate. Histological studies indicate that asthma can lead to hyperplasia/hypertrophy of smooth muscle cells, and increase elastin and collagen fibres in the muscular membrane. Though decreasing compliance increases sta- bility, during the onset of asthma, limit flow rate is much smaller due to the lower transmural pressure. Asthma leads to a stiffer trachea and the obtained results reveal some aspects relevant to asthma-induced tracheal remodelling.

  19. Effects of Humor Production, Humor Receptivity, and Physical Attractiveness on Partner Desirability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tornquist, Michelle; Chiappe, Dan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined women’s and men’s preferences for humor production and humor receptivity in long-term and short-term relationships, and how these factors interact with physical attractiveness to influence desirability...

  20. Tracheal compliance and limit flow rate changes in a urine model of asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TENG ZhongZhao; WANG YiQin; LI FuFeng; YAN HaiXia; LIU ZhaoRong

    2008-01-01

    Trachea is the unique passage for air to flow in and out. Its tone is of importance for the respiration system. However, investigation on how tracheal tone changes due to asthma is limited. Aiming at studying how the mechanical property changes due to asthma as well as the compliance and flow limitation, the following methods are adopted. Static and passive pressure-volume tests of rats' trachea of the asthmatic and control groups are carried out and a new type of tube law is formulated to fit the experimental data, based on which changes of compliance and limit flow rate are investigated. In order to give explanation to such changes, histological examinations with tracheal soft tissues are made. The results show that compliance, limit flow rate and material constants included in the tube law largely depend on the longitudinal stretching ratio. Compared with the control group, the tracheal compliance of asthmatic animals decreases significantly, which results in an increased limit flow rate. Histological studies indicate that asthma can lead to hyperplasia/hypertrophy of smooth muscle cells, and increase elastin and collagen fibres in the muscular membrane. Though decreasing compliance increases sta-bility, during the onset of asthma, limit flow rate is much smaller due to the lower transmural pressure. Asthma leads to a stiffer trachea and the obtained results reveal some aspects relevant to asthma-induced tracheal remodelling.

  1. Characterization of fractured reservoirs using tracer and flow-rate data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliusson, Egill; Horne, Roland N.

    2013-05-01

    This article introduces a robust method for characterizing fractured reservoirs using tracer and flow-rate data. The flow-rate data are used to infer the interwell connectivity matrix, which describes how injected fluids are divided between producers in the reservoir. The tracer data are used to find a function called the tracer kernel for each injector-producer connection. The tracer kernel describes the volume and dispersive properties of the interwell flow path. A combination of parametric and nonparametric regression methods was developed to estimate the tracer kernels in situations where data are collected at variable flow rate or variable-injected concentration conditions. This characterization method was developed to describe enhanced geothermal systems, although it works well in general for characterizing incompressible flow in fractured reservoirs (e.g., geothermal, carbon sequestration, radioactive waste and waterfloods of oil fields) where transverse dispersivity can be considered negligible and production takes place at constant bottomhole pressure conditions. The inferred metrics can be used to sketch informative field maps and predict tracer breakthrough curves at variable flow-rate conditions.

  2. Mechanism for measurement of flow rate of cerebrospinal fluid in hydrocephalus shunts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekaran, Sathish; Kovar, Spencer; Qu, Peng; Inwald, David; Williams, Evan; Qu, Hongwei; Zakalik, Karol

    2014-01-01

    The measurement of the flow rate of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or existence of CSF flow inside the shunt tube after shunt implant have been reported as tedious process for both patients and doctors; this paper outlines a potential in vitro flow rate measurement method for CSF in the hydrocephalus shunt. The use of implantable titanium elements in the shunt has been proposed to allow for an accurate temperature measurement along the shunt for prediction of CSF flow rate. The CSF flow velocity can be deduced by decoupling the thermal transfer in the measured differential time at a pair of measurement spots of the titanium elements. Finite element analyses on the fluidic and thermal behaviors of the shunt system have been conducted. Preliminary bench-top measurements on a simulated system have been carried out. The measured flow rates, ranging from 0.5 mm/sec to 1.0 mm/sec, which is clinically practical, demonstrate good agreements with the simulation results.

  3. Humor: Aggression, Defence, and Conservatism: Group Characteristics and Differential Humor Appreciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askenasy, George H.

    1976-01-01

    A broad sample of adult male and female subjects was administered an humor appreciation inventory (54 jokes, 9 categories). The major finding was that humor appreciation scores are remarkably similar regardless of background characteristics. (Author/SBP)

  4. On rating curve variability in presence of movable bed and unsteady flow. Applications to Tuscan rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minatti, Lorenzo; Nicoletta De Cicco, Pina; Paris, Enio

    2014-05-01

    In common engineering practice, rating curves are obtained from direct stage-discharge measurements or, more often, from stage measurements coupled with flow simulations. The present work mainly focuses on the latter technique, where stage-measuring gauges are usually installed on bridges with flow conditions likely to be influenced by local geometry constraints. In such cases, backwater flow and flow transition to supercritical state may occur, influencing sediment transport capacity and triggering more intense changes in river morphology. The unsteadiness of the flow hydrograph may play an important role too, according to the velocity of its rising and falling limbs. Nevertheless, the simulations conducted to build a rating curve are often carried out with steady flow and fixed bed conditions where the afore-mentioned effects are not taken into account at all. Numerical simulations with mobile bed and different unsteady flow conditions have been conducted on some real case studies in the rivers of Tuscany (Italy), in order to assess how rating curves change with respect to the "standard" one (that is, the classical steady flow rating curve). A 1D finite volume numerical model (REMo, River Evolution Modeler) has been employed for the simulations. The model solves the 1D Shallow Water equations coupled with the sediments continuity equation in composite channels, where the overbanks are treated with fixed bed conditions while the main channel can either aggrade or be scoured. The model employs an explicit scheme with 2nd order accuracy in both space and time: this allows the correct handling of moderately stiff source terms via a local corrector step. Such capability is very important for the applications of the present work as it allows the modelling of abrupt contractions and jumps in bed bottom elevations which often occur near bridges. The outcomes of the simulations are critically analyzed in order to provide a first insight on the conditions inducing

  5. Developing a typology of humor in audiovisual media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijzen, M.A.; Valkenburg, P.M.

    2004-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to develop and investigate a typology of humor in audiovisual media. We identified 41 humor techniques, drawing on Berger's (1976, 1993) typology of humor in narratives, audience research on humor preferences, and an inductive analysis of humorous commercials. We

  6. Developing a typology of humor in audiovisual media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijzen, M.A.; Valkenburg, P.M.

    2004-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to develop and investigate a typology of humor in audiovisual media. We identified 41 humor techniques, drawing on Berger's (1976, 1993) typology of humor in narratives, audience research on humor preferences, and an inductive analysis of humorous commercials. We analy

  7. Molecule-based approach for computing chemical-reaction rates in upper atmosphere hypersonic flows.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallis, Michail A.; Bond, Ryan Bomar; Torczynski, John Robert

    2009-08-01

    This report summarizes the work completed during FY2009 for the LDRD project 09-1332 'Molecule-Based Approach for Computing Chemical-Reaction Rates in Upper-Atmosphere Hypersonic Flows'. The goal of this project was to apply a recently proposed approach for the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method to calculate chemical-reaction rates for high-temperature atmospheric species. The new DSMC model reproduces measured equilibrium reaction rates without using any macroscopic reaction-rate information. Since it uses only molecular properties, the new model is inherently able to predict reaction rates for arbitrary nonequilibrium conditions. DSMC non-equilibrium reaction rates are compared to Park's phenomenological non-equilibrium reaction-rate model, the predominant model for hypersonic-flow-field calculations. For near-equilibrium conditions, Park's model is in good agreement with the DSMC-calculated reaction rates. For far-from-equilibrium conditions, corresponding to a typical shock layer, the difference between the two models can exceed 10 orders of magnitude. The DSMC predictions are also found to be in very good agreement with measured and calculated non-equilibrium reaction rates. Extensions of the model to reactions typically found in combustion flows and ionizing reactions are also found to be in very good agreement with available measurements, offering strong evidence that this is a viable and reliable technique to predict chemical reaction rates.

  8. Skeletal blood flow, iliac histomorphometry, and strontium kinetics in osteoporosis: a relationship between blood flow and corrected apposition rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeve, J.; Arlot, M.; Wootton, R.; Edouard, C.; Tellez, M.; Hesp, R.; Green, J.R.; Meunier, P.J.

    1988-06-01

    In 20 untreated patients with idiopathic or postmenopausal osteoporosis, kinetic studies of skeletal blood flow (using /sup 18/F) and bone turnover (using /sup 85/Sr) were combined with dynamic histomorphometry performed on transiliac biopsies taken within 6 weeks of each other. In 8 patients the combined studies were repeated after treatment. A further 5 patients were studied only while receiving treatment. As expected, skeletal blood flow measured by /sup 18/F correlated with an index of /sup 85/Sr uptake into the exchangeable pools of bone. Additionally and independently, skeletal blood flow correlated with an index of the work rate of the osteoblasts in each multicellular unit of bone (the corrected apposition rate of Parfitt). These correlations were statistically significant in both the untreated patients (P less than 0.05) and the whole group (P less than 0.001). Further indices related to bone turnover at the level of the skeleton as a whole were significantly associated with skeletal blood flow only in the combined group.

  9. Sexual Selection and Humor in Courtship

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    This investigation examines a sexual selection-based argument regarding humor’s role in courtship (i.e., humor production signals intelligence/creativity). Lens model (n =100) analyses suggest that humor production on Facebook profiles were self-reported and perceived to be associated with extroversion, not intelligence. Study 2 (n = 289) found that extroversion was associated humor production, but high school and college grade point average and American College Test (ACT) scores were not. In...

  10. The Cooperative Principle and English Humor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李澜

    2007-01-01

    English jokes are humorous and implicit. They can set people laughing, and at the same time they can also set people thinking. However, people in non-English speaking countries cannot completely understand English humor because of the differences between different cultures. This paper tries to explain the causes of English humor in terms of cooperative principles of conversation. Examples are given to illustrate each cause.

  11. Flow rate impacts on capillary pressure and interface curvature of connected and disconnected fluid phases during multiphase flow in sandstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Anna L.; Middleton, Jill; Walsh, Rick; Kingston, Andrew; Sheppard, Adrian

    2017-09-01

    We investigate capillary pressure-saturation (PC-S) relationships for drainage-imbibition experiments conducted with air (nonwetting phase) and brine (wetting phase) in Bentheimer sandstone cores. Three different flow rate conditions, ranging over three orders of magnitude, are investigated. X-ray micro-computed tomographic imaging is used to characterize the distribution and amount of fluids and their interfacial characteristics. Capillary pressure is measured via (1) bulk-phase pressure transducer measurements, and (2) image-based curvature measurements, calculated using a novel 3D curvature algorithm. We distinguish between connected (percolating) and disconnected air clusters: curvatures measured on the connected phase interfaces are used to validate the curvature algorithm and provide an indication of the equilibrium condition of the data; curvature and volume distributions of disconnected clusters provide insight to the snap-off processes occurring during drainage and imbibition under different flow rate conditions.

  12. Model for charge/discharge-rate-dependent plastic flow in amorphous battery materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosrownejad, S. M.; Curtin, W. A.

    2016-09-01

    Plastic flow is an important mechanism for relaxing stresses that develop due to swelling/shrinkage during charging/discharging of battery materials. Amorphous high-storage-capacity Li-Si has lower flow stresses than crystalline materials but there is evidence that the plastic flow stress depends on the conditions of charging and discharging, indicating important non-equilibrium aspects to the flow behavior. Here, a mechanistically-based constitutive model for rate-dependent plastic flow in amorphous materials, such as LixSi alloys, during charging and discharging is developed based on two physical concepts: (i) excess energy is stored in the material during electrochemical charging and discharging due to the inability of the amorphous material to fully relax during the charging/discharging process and (ii) this excess energy reduces the barriers for plastic flow processes and thus reduces the applied stresses necessary to cause plastic flow. The plastic flow stress is thus a competition between the time scales of charging/discharging and the time scales of glassy relaxation. The two concepts, as well as other aspects of the model, are validated using molecular simulations on a model Li-Si system. The model is applied to examine the plastic flow behavior of typical specimen geometries due to combined charging/discharging and stress history, and the results generally rationalize experimental observations.

  13. Control of skin blood flow, sweating, and heart rate - Role of skin vs. core temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyss, C. R.; Brengelmann, G. L.; Johnson, J. M.; Rowell, L. B.; Niederberger, M.

    1974-01-01

    A study was conducted to generate quantitative expressions for the influence of core temperature, skin temperature, and the rate of change of skin temperature on sweat rate, skin blood flow, and heart rate. A second goal of the study was to determine whether the use of esophageal temperature rather than the right atrial temperature as a measure of core temperature would lead to different conclusions about the control of measured effector variables.

  14. ChargeOut! : discounted cash flow compared with traditional machine-rate analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ted Bilek

    2008-01-01

    ChargeOut!, a discounted cash-flow methodology in spreadsheet format for analyzing machine costs, is compared with traditional machine-rate methodologies. Four machine-rate models are compared and a common data set representative of logging skidders’ costs is used to illustrate the differences between ChargeOut! and the machine-rate methods. The study found that the...

  15. Impact of stretching-segment on saturated flow rate of signalized intersection using cellular automation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李岩; 陈宽民; 过秀成

    2013-01-01

    In order to analyze the impact of stretching-segment on the saturated flow rate of signalized intersection approach, an improved cellular automation model was proposed to estimate its saturated flow rate. The NaSch model was improved by adding different slow probabilities, turning deceleration rules and modified lane changing rules. The relationship between the saturated flow rate of stretching-segments and adjacent lanes was tested in numerical simulation. The length of stretching-segment, cycle length and green time were selected as impact factors of the cellular automation model. The simulation result indicates that the geometrics design of stretching-segment and the traffic signal timing scenario have major effects on the saturated flow rate of the intersection approach. The saturated flow rate will continually increase with increasing stretching-segment length until it reaches a threshold. After reaching the threshold, the stretching-segment can be treated as a separate lane. The green time is approximately linearly related to the threshold length of the stretching-segment. An optimum cycle length exists when the length of the stretching-segment is not long enough, and it is approximately linearly related to the length of stretching-segment.

  16. A Flow Rate Control Approach on Off-Design Analysis of an Organic Rankine Cycle System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben-Ran Fu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study explored effects of off-design heat source temperature (TW,in or flow rate (mW on heat transfer characteristics and performance of an organic Rankine cycle system by controlling the flow rate of working fluid R245fa (i.e., the operation flow rate of R245fa was controlled to ensure that R245fa reached saturation liquid and vapor states at the outlets of the preheater and evaporator, respectively. The results showed that the operation flow rate of R245fa increased with TW,in or mW; higher TW,in or mW yielded better heat transfer performance of the designed preheater and required higher heat capacity of the evaporator; heat transfer characteristics of preheater and evaporator differed for off-design TW,in and mW; and net power output increased with TW,in or mW. The results further indicated that the control strategy should be different for various off-design conditions. Regarding maximum net power output, the flow rate control approach is optimal when TW,in or mW exceeds the design point, but the pressure control approach is better when TW,in or mW is lower than the design point.

  17. Comparative evaluation of aqueous humor viscosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kyshia; Carter, Renee; Tully, Thomas; Negulescu, Ioan; Storey, Eric

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate aqueous humor viscosity in the raptor, dog, cat, and horse, with a primary focus on the barred owl (Strix varia). Twenty-six raptors, ten dogs, three cats, and one horse. Animals were euthanized for reasons unrelated to this study. Immediately, after horizontal and vertical corneal dimensions were measured, and anterior chamber paracentesis was performed to quantify anterior chamber volume and obtain aqueous humor samples for viscosity analysis. Dynamic aqueous humor viscosity was measured using a dynamic shear rheometer (AR 1000 TA Instruments, New Castle, DE, USA) at 20 °C. Statistical analysis included descriptive statistics, unpaired t-tests, and Tukey's test to evaluate the mean ± standard deviation for corneal diameter, anterior chamber volume, and aqueous humor viscosity amongst groups and calculation of Spearman's coefficient for correlation analyses. The mean aqueous humor viscosity in the barred owl was 14.1 centipoise (cP) ± 9, cat 4.4 cP ± 0.2, and dog 2.9 cP ± 1.3. The aqueous humor viscosity for the horse was 1 cP. Of the animals evaluated in this study, the raptor aqueous humor was the most viscous. The aqueous humor of the barred owl is significantly more viscous than the dog (P humor viscosity of the raptor, dog, cat, and horse can be successfully determined using a dynamic shear rheometer. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  18. Instructional scientific humor in the secondary classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wizner, Francine

    This study is an examination of the manner in which educators employ scientific content humor and how that humor is perceived by their students. Content humor is a useful strategy in drawing the attention of students and improving their receptivity toward scientific information. It is also a useful tool in combating the growing distractions of the electronic classroom. Previous studies have found that humor has a positive effect on knowledge, memory, and understanding. However, few studies have been conducted below the undergraduate level and mainly quantitative measures of student recall have been used to measure learning. This study employed multiple data sources to determine how two secondary biology teachers used humor in order to explain scientific concepts and how their students perceived their teachers' use of scientific instructional humor. Evidence of student humor reception was collected from four students in each of the two classes. All of the scientific instructional humor used in the studied classrooms was cognitive in nature, varying among factual, procedural, conceptual, and metacognitive knowledge. Teachers tended to use dialogic forms of humor. Their scientific humor reflected everyday experiences, presented queries, poked fun at authority, and asked students to search out new perspectives and perform thought experiments. Teachers were the primary actors in performing the humorous events. The events were sometimes physical exaggerations of words or drawings, and they occurred for the purpose of establishing rapport or having students make connections between scientific concepts and prior knowledge. Student perceptions were that teachers did employ humor toward instructional objectives that helped their learning. Helping students become critical thinkers is a trademark of science teachers. Science teachers who take the risk of adopting some attributes of comedians may earn the reward of imparting behaviors on their students like critical thinking

  19. Effectiveness of humor advertising on advertising success

    OpenAIRE

    S, venkatesh; N, senthilkumar

    2015-01-01

    In global advertising ‘humor’ is the most effective emotion used in advertising compared to other emotional appeals. Advertisers and researchers more interested in Humor in advertising for more than 100 years. But there is no review paper for Impact of humor in advertising till twenty two years of time, in between period there was lot of research outcomes published about humor in advertising. The purpose of this paper to get detailed review about Impact of humor in advertising for 40 years an...

  20. Cognitive Distortions, Humor Styles, and Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Rnic

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive distortions are negative biases in thinking that are theorized to represent vulnerability factors for depression and dysphoria. Despite the emphasis placed on cognitive distortions in the context of cognitive behavioural theory and practice, a paucity of research has examined the mechanisms through which they impact depressive symptomatology. Both adaptive and maladaptive styles of humor represent coping strategies that may mediate the relation between cognitive distortions and depressive symptoms. The current study examined the correlations between the frequency and impact of cognitive distortions across both social and achievement-related contexts and types of humor. Cognitive distortions were associated with reduced use of adaptive Affiliative and Self-Enhancing humor styles and increased use of maladaptive Aggressive and Self-Defeating humor. Reduced use of Self-Enhancing humor mediated the relationship between most types of cognitive distortions and depressed mood, indicating that distorted negative thinking may interfere with an individual’s ability to adopt a humorous and cheerful outlook on life (i.e., use Self-Enhancing humor as a way of regulating emotions and coping with stress, thereby resulting in elevated depressive symptoms. Similarly, Self-Defeating humor mediated the association of the social impact of cognitive distortions with depression, such that this humor style may be used as a coping strategy for dealing with distorted thinking that ultimately backfires and results in increased dysphoria.

  1. Cognitive Distortions, Humor Styles, and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rnic, Katerina; Dozois, David J. A.; Martin, Rod A.

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive distortions are negative biases in thinking that are theorized to represent vulnerability factors for depression and dysphoria. Despite the emphasis placed on cognitive distortions in the context of cognitive behavioural theory and practice, a paucity of research has examined the mechanisms through which they impact depressive symptomatology. Both adaptive and maladaptive styles of humor represent coping strategies that may mediate the relation between cognitive distortions and depressive symptoms. The current study examined the correlations between the frequency and impact of cognitive distortions across both social and achievement-related contexts and types of humor. Cognitive distortions were associated with reduced use of adaptive Affiliative and Self-Enhancing humor styles and increased use of maladaptive Aggressive and Self-Defeating humor. Reduced use of Self-Enhancing humor mediated the relationship between most types of cognitive distortions and depressed mood, indicating that distorted negative thinking may interfere with an individual’s ability to adopt a humorous and cheerful outlook on life (i.e., use Self-Enhancing humor) as a way of regulating emotions and coping with stress, thereby resulting in elevated depressive symptoms. Similarly, Self-Defeating humor mediated the association of the social impact of cognitive distortions with depression, such that this humor style may be used as a coping strategy for dealing with distorted thinking that ultimately backfires and results in increased dysphoria. PMID:27547253

  2. Humor: The "Witting" Edge in Business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scriven, Jolene; Hefferin, Linda

    1998-01-01

    Humor contributes to teamwork, creative problem solving, mental flexibility, and risk taking in the workplace. As a classroom tool, it increases student attentiveness and retention of information. (SK)

  3. Optimal power flow calculation for power system with UPFC considering load rate equalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiankun; Chen, Jing; Zhang, Qingsong

    2017-06-01

    Unified power flow controller (UPFC) device can change system electrical quantity (such as voltage, impedance, phase angle, etc.) rapidly and flexibly under the premise of maintain security, stability and reliability of power system, thus can improve the transmission power and transmission line utilization, so as to enhance the power supply capacity of the power grid. Based on a thorough study of the steady-state model of UPFC, taking load rate equalization as objective function, the optimal power flow model is established with UPFC, and simplified interior point method is used to solve it. Finally, optimal power flow of 24 continuous sections actual data is calculated on a typical day of Nanjing network. The results show that the optimal power flow calculation with UPFC can optimize the load rate equalization on the basis of eliminating line overload, improving the voltage level of local power network.

  4. Flow Rate of Particles through Apertures Obtained from Self-Similar Density and Velocity Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janda, Alvaro; Zuriguel, Iker; Maza, Diego

    2012-06-01

    “Beverloo’s law” is considered as the standard expression to estimate the flow rate of particles through apertures. This relation was obtained by simple dimensional analysis and includes empirical parameters whose physical meaning is poorly justified. In this Letter, we study the density and velocity profiles in the flow of particles through an aperture. We find that, for the whole range of apertures studied, both profiles are self-similar. Hence, by means of the functionality obtained for them the mass flow rate is calculated. The comparison of this expression with the Beverloo’s one reveals some differences which are crucial to understanding the mechanism that governs the flow of particles through orifices.

  5. Humor in leader-follower relationships : Humor styles, similarity and relationship quality.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisse, Barbara; Rietzschel, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The present study focuses on how humor may affect the quality of the relationship between leader and follower (LMX). More specifically, we examined the impact of follower self-reported humor style and leader self-reported humor style on the extent to which followers perceived their relationship with

  6. Humor in leader-follower relationships : Humor styles, similarity and relationship quality.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisse, Barbara; Rietzschel, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The present study focuses on how humor may affect the quality of the relationship between leader and follower (LMX). More specifically, we examined the impact of follower self-reported humor style and leader self-reported humor style on the extent to which followers perceived their relationship with

  7. Propellant flow rate through simulated liquid-core nuclear rocket fuel bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcguirk, J. P.; Park, C.

    1972-01-01

    Experimental investigation of the validity of Zuber and Finlay's (1965) gas flow-rate formula for a two-phase flow in a rotating cylinder under high centrifugal acceleration. This formula was originally derived from tests in a 1-g environment in pipes. In the light of the investigation results obtained, the formula is valid also for a high-g environment in the rotating chamber tested.

  8. Time Decay Rates of the Isotropic Non-Newtonian Flows in Rn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo-Qing Dong

    2007-01-01

    This paper is concerned with time decay rates for weak solutions to a class system of isotropic incompressible non-Newtonian fluid motion in Rn. With the use of the spectral decomposition methods of Stokes operator, the optimal decay estimates of weak solutions in L2 norm are derived under the different conditions on the initial velocity. Moreover, the error estimates of the difference between non-Newtonian flow and Navier-Stokes flow are also investigated.

  9. Laminar flow at a three-dimensional stagnation point with large rates of injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libby, P. A.

    1976-01-01

    Exact calculations of the titled flow are presented and compared to the predictions of an asymptotic analysis for large rates of injection. The inner layer of the boundary layer is found to involve outflow in both orthogonal directions whether the external flow along the y axis is inward or outward. As a result, the flow at a nearly two-dimensional stagnation point involves drastic changes as a weak outflow changes to a weak inflow. It is also found that the velocity profiles in the two directions in the inner layer are quite different.

  10. Unsteady Unidirectional Flow of Voigt Fluid through the Parallel Microgap Plates with Wall Slip and Given Inlet Volume Flow Rate Variations

    OpenAIRE

    Yinwei Lin; Chen, C. K.

    2015-01-01

    In order to solve the velocity profile and pressure gradient of the unsteady unidirectional slip flow of Voigt fluid, Laplace transform method is adopted in this research. Between the parallel microgap plates, the flow motion is induced by a prescribed arbitrary inlet volume flow rate which varies with time. The velocity slip condition on the wall and the flow conditions are known. In this paper, two basic flow situations are solved, which are a suddenly started and a constant acc...

  11. Mass flow-rate control unit to calibrate hot-wire sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durst, F.; Uensal, B. [FMP Technology GmbH, Erlangen (Germany); Haddad, K. [FMP Technology GmbH, Erlangen (Germany); Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, LSTM-Erlangen, Institute of Fluid Mechanics, Erlangen (Germany); Al-Salaymeh, A.; Eid, Shadi [University of Jordan, Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Amman (Jordan)

    2008-02-15

    Hot-wire anemometry is a measuring technique that is widely employed in fluid mechanics research to study the velocity fields of gas flows. It is general practice to calibrate hot-wire sensors against velocity. Calibrations are usually carried out under atmospheric pressure conditions and these suggest that the wire is sensitive to the instantaneous local volume flow rate. It is pointed out, however, that hot wires are sensitive to the instantaneous local mass flow rate and, of course, also to the gas heat conductivity. To calibrate hot wires with respect to mass flow rates per unit area, i.e., with respect to ({rho}U), requires special calibration test rigs. Such a device is described and its application is summarized within the ({rho}U) range 0.1-25 kg/m{sup 2} s. Calibrations are shown to yield the same hot-wire response curves for density variations in the range 1-7 kg/m{sup 3}. The application of the calibrated wires to measure pulsating mass flows is demonstrated, and suggestions are made for carrying out extensive calibrations to yield the ({rho}U) wire response as a basis for advanced fluid mechanics research on ({rho}U) data in density-varying flows. (orig.)

  12. Debris-flow deposits and watershed erosion rates near southern Death Valley, CA, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, K.M.; Menges, C.M.; ,

    2003-01-01

    Debris flows from the steep, granitic hillslopes of the Kingston Range, CA are commensurate in age with nearby fluvial deposits. Quaternary chronostratigraphic differentiation of debris-flow deposits is based upon time-dependent characteristics such as relative boulder strength, derived from Schmidt Hammer measurements, degree of surface desert varnish, pedogenesis, and vertical separation. Rock strength is highest for Holocene-aged boulders and decreases for Pleistocene-aged boulders weathering to grus. Volumes of age-stratified debris-flow deposits, constrained by deposit thickness above bedrock, GPS surveys, and geologic mapping, are greatest for Pleistocene deposits. Shallow landslide susceptibility, derived from a topographically based GIS model, in conjunction with deposit volumes produces watershed-scale erosion rates of ???2-47 mm ka-1, with time-averaged Holocene rates exceeding Pleistocene rates. ?? 2003 Millpress.

  13. Flow rate and humidification effects on a PEM fuel cell performance and operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guvelioglu, Galip H.; Stenger, Harvey G.

    A new algorithm is presented to integrate component balances along polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) channels to obtain three-dimensional results from a detailed two-dimensional finite element model. The analysis studies the cell performance at various hydrogen flow rates, air flow rates and humidification levels. This analysis shows that hydrogen and air flow rates and their relative humidity are critical to current density, membrane dry-out, and electrode flooding. Uniform current densities along the channels are known to be critical for thermal management and fuel cell life. This approach, of integrating a detailed two-dimensional across-the-channel model, is a promising method for fuel cell design due to its low computational cost compared to three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics models, its applicability to a wide range of fuel cell designs, and its ease of extending to fuel cell stack models.

  14. Pre-Spud Mud Loss Flow Rate in Steeply Folded Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zhiyuan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new method that predicts the pre-spud mud loss flow rate in formations with tectonic fractures of steeply folded structures is proposed. The new method is based on finite element analysis of the palaeo-tectonic and current tectonic stress field and fracture distribution. The steps of the method are as follows. First, palaeo-tectonic stress distribution is simulated through finite element analysis. The tectonic fracture distribution of the region is obtained by combining rock failure criteria with palaeo-tectonic stress distribution. Afterward, the tectonic fracture density, aperture, porosity and permeability are calculated by studying the rebuilding process of current stress to the fracture parameters. Finally, the mud loss flow rate is calculated according to fracture parameters and the basic data of a given well. The new method enables the prediction of the mud loss flow rate before drilling steeply folded structures.

  15. Effect of transient change in strain rate on plastic flow behaviour of low carbon steel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Ray; P Barat; P Mukherjee; A Sarkar; S K Bandyopadhyay

    2007-02-01

    Plastic flow behaviour of low carbon steel has been studied at room temperature during tensile deformation by varying the initial strain rate of 3.3 × 10-4 s-1 to a final strain rate ranging from 1.33 × 10-3 s-1 to 2 × 10-3 s-1 at a fixed engineering strain of 12%. Haasen plot revealed that the mobile dislocation density remained almost invariant at the juncture where there was a sudden increase in stress with a change in strain rate and the plastic flow was solely dependent on the velocity of mobile dislocations. In that critical regime, the variation of stress with time was fitted with a Boltzmann type Sigmoid function. The increase in stress was found to increase with final strain rate and the time elapsed in attaining these stress values showed a decreasing trend. Both of these parameters saturated asymptotically at a higher final strain rate.

  16. Prediction of flow stress of 7017 aluminium alloy under high strain rate compression at elevated temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ravindranadh BOBBILI; B. RAMAKRISHNA; V. MADHU; A.K. GOGIA

    2015-01-01

    An artificial neural network (ANN) constitutive model and JohnsoneCook (JeC) model were developed for 7017 aluminium alloy based on high strain rate data generated from split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) experiments at various temperatures. A neural network configuration consists of both training and validation, which is effectively employed to predict flow stress. Temperature, strain rate and strain are considered as inputs, whereas flow stress is taken as output of the neural network. A comparative study on JohnsoneCook (JeC) model and neural network model was performed. It was observed that the developed neural network model could predict flow stress under various strain rates and tem-peratures. The experimental stressestrain data obtained from high strain rate compression tests using SHPB over a range of temperatures (25?e300 ?C), strains (0.05e0.3) and strain rates (1500e4500 s?1) were employed to formulate JeC model to predict the flow stress behaviour of 7017 aluminium alloy under high strain rate loading. The JeC model and the back-propagation ANN model were developed to predict the flow stress of 7017 aluminium alloy under high strain rates, and their predictability was evaluated in terms of correlation coefficient (R) and average absolute relative error (AARE). R and AARE for the J-C model are found to be 0.8461 and 10.624%, respectively, while R and AARE for the ANN model are 0.9995 and 2.58%, respectively. The predictions of ANN model are observed to be in consistent with the experimental data for all strain rates and temperatures.

  17. Evaluation of Bubbler Irrigation System at Different Emission Flow Rates for Young Mango Orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumar Soothar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted on evaluating performance of bubbler irrigation system under young mango plant rows at the Higher Education Commission, research station at Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam. The experimental station possesses more than 70 mango plants, irrigated by micro and traditional irrigation methods fed by tubewell with average water static level of 9 ft below ground surface. Bubbler irrigation system was designed to irrigate 12 mango plants. The aim of study was to assess the performance of the bubbler irrigation system at different emission flow rates with an installed bubbler irrigation system to improve water distribution uniformity. The result of this study showed that the high pressure losses and the system operated on one gallon per minute flow rate of each bubbler, water distribution uniformity was low, with an average of 68 %. Other hand, comparison with emission (bubbler flow rate was adjusted at half gallon per minute has shown high water emission uniformity of system performed with an average of 92 % distribution uniformity. The reasons for the minimum distribution uniformity of bubblers were observed at one gallon per minute emission flow and this study recommended to improve the bubbler irrigation at dissimilar flow rates.

  18. Investigation of relationship between mental workload and information flow rate of accident diagnosis tasks in NPPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Chang Hoon

    2005-02-15

    The objective of this study is to investigate experimentally the relationship between an operator's mental workload and the information flow rate of accident diagnosis tasks and further to propose the information flow rate as an analytic method for measuring the mental workload. There are two types of mental workload in the advanced MCR of NPPs: the information processing workload, which is the processing that the human operator must actually perform in order to complete the diagnosis task, and emotional stress workload experienced by the operator. In this study, the focus is on the former. Three kinds of methods are used to measure the operator's workload: information flow rate, subjective methods, and physiological measures. Information flows for eight accident diagnosis tasks are modeled qualitatively using a stage model and are quantified using Conant's model. The eight accident cases are considered here are: Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA), Steam Generator Tube Rupture (SGTR), Steam Line Break (SLB), Feedwater Line Break (FLB), Pressurizer (PZR) spray and heater failure, Reactor Coolant Pump (RCP) trip, Main Steam Isolation Valve (MSIV) failure, and PZR spray failure. The information flow rate is obtained for each diagnosis task by imposing time limit restrictions for the tasks. Subjective methods require the operators to respond to questionnaires to rate their level of mental effort. NASA-TLX and MCH scale are selected as subjective methods. NASA-TLX is a subjective method used in the various fields including the aviation, automobile, and nuclear industries. It has a multi-dimensional rating technique and provides an overall workload score based on a weighted average on six subscales using pair-wise comparison tests. MCH, on the other hand, is one-dimensional and uses a 10- point rating technique. As with NASA-TLX, the higher the score is, the higher the subjective workload is. For the physiological measurements, an eye tracking system analyzes

  19. Estimation of Leak Flow Rate during Post-LOCA Using Cascaded Fuzzy Neural Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Yeong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Na, Man Gyun [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In this study, important parameters such as the break position, size, and leak flow rate of loss of coolant accidents (LOCAs), provide operators with essential information for recovering the cooling capability of the nuclear reactor core, for preventing the reactor core from melting down, and for managing severe accidents effectively. Leak flow rate should consist of break size, differential pressure, temperature, and so on (where differential pressure means difference between internal and external reactor vessel pressure). The leak flow rate is strongly dependent on the break size and the differential pressure, but the break size is not measured and the integrity of pressure sensors is not assured in severe circumstances. In this paper, a cascaded fuzzy neural network (CFNN) model is appropriately proposed to estimate the leak flow rate out of break, which has a direct impact on the important times (time approaching the core exit temperature that exceeds 1200 .deg. F, core uncover time, reactor vessel failure time, etc.). The CFNN is a data-based model, it requires data to develop and verify itself. Because few actual severe accident data exist, it is essential to obtain the data required in the proposed model using numerical simulations. In this study, a CFNN model was developed to predict the leak flow rate before proceeding to severe LOCAs. The simulations showed that the developed CFNN model accurately predicted the leak flow rate with less error than 0.5%. The CFNN model is much better than FNN model under the same conditions, such as the same fuzzy rules. At the result of comparison, the RMS errors of the CFNN model were reduced by approximately 82 ~ 97% of those of the FNN model.

  20. Co-Relationships between Glandular Salivary Flow Rates and Dental Caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Guillory, Carolina Diaz; Schoolfield, John D; Johnson, Dorthea; Yeh, Chih-Ko; Chen, Shuo; Cappelli, David P; Bober-Moken, Irene G; Dang, Howard

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study was designed to evaluate the relationship of age, gender, ethnicity and salivary flow rates on dental caries in an adult population using data collected from the Oral Health San Antonio Longitudinal Study of Aging (OH:SALSA). Background Saliva is essential to maintain a healthy oral environment and diminished output can result in dental caries. Although gender and age play a role in the quantity of saliva, little is known about the interaction of age, gender and ethnicity on dental caries and salivary flow rates. Materials and Methods Data from the 1,147 participants in the OH: SALSA was analyzed. The dependent variables were the number of teeth with untreated coronal caries, number of teeth with root caries, and the number of coronal and root surfaces with untreated caries. The independent variables were stimulated and unstimulated glandular salivary flow rates along with the age, sex, and ethnicity (e.g. European or Mexican ancestry) of the participants. Results Coronal caries experience was greater in younger participants while root surface caries experience was greater in the older participants. Coronal caries was lower in the older age groups while the root caries experience increased. Men had a statistically significant (p<0.02) higher experience of root caries than women. Values for unstimulated and stimulated parotid salivary flow rates showed no age difference and remained constant with age, whereas the age differences in the unstimulated and stimulated submandibular/sublingual salivary flow rates were significant. The mean number of teeth with coronal and root caries was higher in Mexican-Americans than in European-Americans. Conclusions Over one-fourth of the adults between the ages of 60 and 79 have untreated root caries over one-third having untreated coronal caries. Lower salivary flow rates play a significant role in the both the number of teeth and the number of surfaces developing caries in these adults. Women and individuals

  1. Investigations on efficiencies of HT solar collectors for different flow rates and collector tilts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ziqian; Perers, Bengt; Furbo, Simon;

    2013-01-01

    Two HT solar collectors for solar heating plants from Arcon Solvarme A/S are tested in a laboratory test facility for solar collectors at Technical University of Denmark (DTU). The collectors are designed in the same way. However, one solar collector is equipped with an ETFE foil between...... the absorber and the cover glass and the other is without ETFE foil. The efficiencies for the collectors are tested at different flow rates and tilt. On the basis of the measured efficiencies, the efficiencies for the collectors as functions of flow rates are obtained. The calculated efficiencies are in good...... agreement with the measured efficiencies....

  2. Cash flow and discount rate risk in up and down markets: What is actually priced?

    OpenAIRE

    Botshekan, M.; Kraeussl, R.G.W.; Lucas, A

    2010-01-01

    This discussion paper resulted in a publication in the 'Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis', 2012, 47(6), 1279-1301. We test whether asymmetric preferences for losses versus gains as in Ang, Chen, and Xing (2006) also affect the pricing of cash flow versus discount rate news as in Campbell and Vuolteenaho (2004). We construct a new four-fold beta decomposition, distinguishing cash flow and discount rate betas in up and down markets. Using CRSP data over 1963--2008, we find that th...

  3. Robust and Optimal Control of Magnetic Microparticles inside Fluidic Channels with Time-Varying Flow Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam S.M. Khalil

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Targeted therapy using magnetic microparticles and nanoparticles has the potential to mitigate the negative side-effects associated with conventional medical treatment. Major technological challenges still need to be addressed in order to translate these particles into in vivo applications. For example, magnetic particles need to be navigated controllably in vessels against flowing streams of body fluid. This paper describes the motion control of paramagnetic microparticles in the flowing streams of fluidic channels with time-varying flow rates (maximum flow is 35 ml.hr−1. This control is designed using a magnetic-based proportional-derivative (PD control system to compensate for the time-varying flow inside the channels (with width and depth of 2 mm and 1.5 mm, respectively. First, we achieve point-to-point motion control against and along flow rates of 4 ml.hr−1, 6 ml.hr−1, 17 ml.hr−1, and 35 ml.hr−1. The average speeds of single microparticle (with average diameter of 100 μm against flow rates of 6 ml.hr−1 and 30 ml.hr−1 are calculated to be 45 μm.s−1 and 15 μm.s−1, respectively. Second, we implement PD control with disturbance estimation and compensation. This control decreases the steady-state error by 50%, 70%, 73%, and 78% at flow rates of 4 ml.hr−1, 6 ml.hr−1, 17 ml.hr−1, and 35 ml.hr−1, respectively. Finally, we consider the problem of finding the optimal path (minimal kinetic energy between two points using calculus of variation, against the mentioned flow rates. Not only do we find that an optimal path between two collinear points with the direction of maximum flow (middle of the fluidic channel decreases the rise time of the microparticles, but we also decrease the input current that is supplied to the electromagnetic coils by minimizing the kinetic energy of the microparticles, compared to a PD control with disturbance compensation.

  4. Robust and Optimal Control of Magnetic Microparticles Inside Fluidic Channels with Time-varying Flow Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam S.M. Khalil

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Targeted therapy using magnetic microparticles and nanoparticles has the potential to mitigate the negative side-effects associated with conventional medical treatment. Major technological challenges still need to be addressed in order to translate these particles into in vivo applications. For example, magnetic particles need to be navigated controllably in vessels against flowing streams of body fluid. This paper describes the motion control of paramagnetic microparticles in the flowing streams of fluidic channels with time-varying flow rates (maximum flow is 35 ml.hr-1. This control is designed using a magnetic-based proportional-derivative (PD control system to compensate for the time-varying flow inside the channels (with width and depth of 2 mm and 1.5 mm, respectively. First, we achieve point-to-point motion control against and along flow rates of 4 ml.hr-1, 6 ml.hr-1, 17 ml.hr-1, and 35 ml.hr-1. The average speeds of single microparticle (with average diameter of 100 μm against flow rates of 6 ml.hr-1 and 30 ml.hr-1 are calculated to be 45 μm.s-1 and 15 μm.s-1, respectively. Second, we implement PD control with disturbance estimation and compensation. This control decreases the steady-state error by 50%, 70%, 73%, and 78% at flow rates of 4 ml.hr-1, 6 ml.hr-1, 17 ml.hr-1, and 35 ml.hr-1, respectively. Finally, we consider the problem of finding the optimal path (minimal kinetic energy between two points using calculus of variation, against the mentioned flow rates. Not only do we find that an optimal path between two collinear points with the direction of maximum flow (middle of the fluidic channel decreases the rise time of the microparticles, but we also decrease the input current that is supplied to the electromagnetic coils by minimizing the kinetic energy of the microparticles, compared to a PD control with disturbance compensation.

  5. Effects of Purge-Flow Rate on Microbubble Capture in Radial Arterial-Line Filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Daniel P

    2016-09-01

    The process of microbubble filtration from blood is complex and highly dependent on the forces of flow and buoyancy. To protect the patient from air emboli, arterial-line filters commonly use a micropore screen, a large volume housing with purpose-built shape, and a purge port to trap, separate, and remove circulating microbubbles. Although it has been proposed that an insufficient buoyancy force renders the purge port ineffective at removing microbubbles smaller than 500 μm, this research attempts to investigate the purge flow of an arterial-line filter to better understand the microbubble removal function in a typical radial filter design. As its primary objective, the study aims to determine the effect of purge-flow rate on bubble capture using air bolus injections from a syringe pump with 22-gauge needle and Doppler ultrasound bubble detection. The measureable bubble size generated in the test circuit ranged between 30 and 500 μm, while purge flow was varied between .1 and .5 L/min for testing. Statistical analysis of the test data was handled using a repeated measures design with significance set at p purge flows yielded higher bubble counts, but the effect of purge-flow rate on bubble capture decreased as bubble size increased. Results also showed that purge flow from the test filter was capable of capturing all bubble sizes being generated over the entire flow range tested, and confirms utility of the purge port in removing microbubbles smaller than 500 μm. By analyzing bubble counts in the purge flow of a typical radial-filter design, this study demonstrates that currently available micropore filter technology is capable of removing the size range of bubbles that commonly pass through modern pump-oxygenator systems and should continue to be considered during extracorporeal circulation as a measure to improve patient safety.

  6. Humor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谈华军

    2005-01-01

    As I drove into a car park, I noticed that a utility truck with a dog sitting behind the wheel was rolling towards a female pedestrian. She seemed oblivious. So I hit my horn to get her attention, she looked up just in time to jump out of the truck's path, and the vehicle bumped harmlessly into the herb and stopped.

  7. The Role of Humor in Language Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓艳

    2013-01-01

    Humor plays an important role in many spheres and aspects of human life. The study is intended to analyze the feasibil-ity of utilizing humor as a communicative strategy as well as a tool to create a positive teaching environment for language teach-ing in class.

  8. "That Hurts!": Humor and Sadomasochism in "Lolita."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bick, Ilsa J.

    1994-01-01

    States that humor is dependent on individual perspective, and that the subject matter of "Lolita" (1962), which concerns child abuse and molestation, is difficult to treat with humor. Argues that despite its subject, "Lolita" continues to be funny. Concludes that viewers know the subject matter is not funny, but while watching, viewers do not…

  9. A Study on Intertextuality in Verbal Humor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周燕

    2015-01-01

    This paper talks about how intertextuality and its concerned theories can be well applied to the study of humor.Through analysis of specific samples,the paper finds parody,verbal irony and text allusions are effective intertextual means to produce and understand verbal humor.

  10. American Learners' Comprehension of Russian Textual Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shardakova, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, second language (L2) humor has attracted scholarly attention as both a means and a goal of L2 development. Much of this research, however, has focused on oral communication, whereas virtually no studies address humor as an aspect of reading comprehension. This exploratory study combines these two areas of inquiry, examining…

  11. Humor: A Therapeutic Intervention for Child Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Rachelle G.; Parr, Gerald; Bradley, Loretta J.; Berry, Jeremy J.

    2009-01-01

    Counselors utilize many strategies, techniques, and tools when building a therapeutic alliance or addressing children's issues. Due to the serious nature of discussing problems or perhaps because of the fear of seeming insensitive, counselors often overlook humor as a means to enhance therapy. Whether deliberate or spontaneous, humor can add…

  12. Confessions from a Guy Who Teaches Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Gene L.

    2008-01-01

    Humor is an intriguing topic that exists in the contexts of adult education and human resource development. This paper describes my experiences at developing and facilitating a graduate course on humor and adult learning. Researchers and scholarly practitioners in adult education and human resource development are encouraged to build their…

  13. "That Hurts!": Humor and Sadomasochism in "Lolita."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bick, Ilsa J.

    1994-01-01

    States that humor is dependent on individual perspective, and that the subject matter of "Lolita" (1962), which concerns child abuse and molestation, is difficult to treat with humor. Argues that despite its subject, "Lolita" continues to be funny. Concludes that viewers know the subject matter is not funny, but while watching,…

  14. "That Hurts!": Humor and Sadomasochism in "Lolita."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bick, Ilsa J.

    1994-01-01

    States that humor is dependent on individual perspective, and that the subject matter of "Lolita" (1962), which concerns child abuse and molestation, is difficult to treat with humor. Argues that despite its subject, "Lolita" continues to be funny. Concludes that viewers know the subject matter is not funny, but while watching,…

  15. Determination of flow rates of oil, water and gas in pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roach, G.J.; Watt, J.S.; Zastawny, H.W. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia). Div. of Mineral Physics

    1993-12-31

    This paper describes a multiphase flow meter developed by CSIRO for determining of the flow rates of oil, water and gas in high pressure pipelines, and the results of a trial of this flow meter on an offshore oil platform. Two gamma-ray transmission gauges are mounted about a pipeline carrying the full flow of oil, water and gas. The flow rates are determined by combining single energy gamma-ray transmission measurements which determine the mass per unit area of fluids in the gamma-ray beam as a function of time, dual energy gamma-ray transmission (DUET) which determine the approximate mass fraction of oil in the liquids, cross-correlation of gamma-ray transmission measurements, with one gauge upstream of the other, which determines flow velocity, pressure and temperature measurements, and knowledge of the specific gravities of oil and (salt) water, and solubility of the gas in the liquids, all as a function of pressure and temperature. 3 figs.

  16. Variability in venom volume, flow rate and duration in defensive stings of five scorpion species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meijden, Arie; Coelho, Pedro; Rasko, Mykola

    2015-06-15

    Scorpions have been shown to control their venom usage in defensive encounters, depending on the perceived threat. Potentially, the venom amount that is injected could be controlled by reducing the flow speed, the flow duration, or both. We here investigated these variables by allowing scorpions to sting into an oil-filled chamber, and recording the accreting venom droplets with high-speed video. The size of the spherical droplets on the video can then be used to calculate their volume. We recorded defensive stings of 20 specimens representing 5 species. Significant differences in the flow rate and total expelled volume were found between species. These differences are likely due to differences in overall size between the species. Large variation in both venom flow speed and duration are described between stinging events of single individuals. Both venom flow rate and flow duration correlate highly with the total expelled volume, indicating that scorpions may control both variables in order to achieve a desired end volume of venom during a sting.

  17. Electron-impact vibrational excitation rates in the flow field of aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.-H.

    1985-01-01

    This paper examines the vibrational excitation rate processes expected in the flow field of aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicles (AOTVs). An analysis of the multiple-quantum vibrational excitation processes by electron impact is made to predict the vibrational excitation cross sections, rate coefficients, and relaxation times which control vibrational temperature. The expression for the rate of electron-vibration energy transfer is derived by solving the system of master equations which account for the multiple-level transitions. The vibrational excitation coefficients, which are the prerequisite physical quantities in solving the obtained vibrational equation, are calculated based on the theoretically predicted cross sections. These cross sections are obtained from quantum mechanical calculations, based on the concept that vibrational excitation of molecules by electron impact occurs through formation of an intermediate negative ion state. Finally, the modified Landau-Teller-type rate equation, which is suitable for the numerical calculations for the AOTV flow fields, is suggested.

  18. Research on Gas-liquid Flow Rate Optimization in Foam Drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, B. K.; Sun, D. G.; Jia, Z. G.; Huang, Z. Q.

    2010-03-01

    With the advantages of less gas consumption, higher carrying rocks ability, lower leakage and higher penetration rate, foam drilling is widely used today in petroleum industry. In the process of foam underbalanced drilling, the mixture of gas, liquid and cuttings flows upwards through the annular, so it is a typical gas-liquid-solid multi-phase flow. In order to protect the reservoir and avoid borehole wall collapsing during foam drilling, it is crucial to ensure that the bottom hole pressure is lower than the formation pressure and higher than the formation collapse pressure, and in the mean time, foam drilling fluid in the whole wellbore should be in the best foam quality stage in order to have sufficient capacity to carry cuttings. In this paper, main relations between bottom hole pressure and gas-liquid injecting rate are analyzed with the underbalanced multiphase flow models. And in order to obtain precise flow pattern and flow pressure, the whole well bore is spatial meshed and iterative method is used. So, a convenient safety window expressed by gas-liquid injecting rate is obtained instead of that by bottom hole pressure. Finally, a foam drilling example from a block in Yemen is presented; the drilling results show that this method is reliable and practical.

  19. Nanoparticle transport in water-unsaturated porous media: effects of solution ionic strength and flow rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prédélus, Dieuseul; Lassabatere, Laurent; Louis, Cédric; Gehan, Hélène; Brichart, Thomas; Winiarski, Thierry; Angulo-Jaramillo, Rafael

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents the influence of ionic strength and flow on nanoparticle (NP) retention rate in an unsaturated calcareous medium, originating from a heterogeneous glaciofluvial deposit of the region of Lyon (France). Laboratory columns 10 cm in diameter and 30 cm in length were used. Silica nanoparticles (Au-SiO2-FluoNPs), with hydrodynamic diameter ranging from 50 to 60 nm and labeled with fluorescein derivatives, were used to simulate particle transport, and bromide was used to characterize flow. Three flow rates and five different ionic strengths were tested. The transfer model based on fractionation of water into mobile and immobile fractions was coupled with the attachment/detachment model to fit NPs breakthrough curves. The results show that increasing flow velocity induces a decrease in nanoparticle retention, probably as the result of several physical but also geochemical factors. The results show that NPs retention increases with ionic strength. However, an inversion of retention occurs for ionic strength >5.10-2 M, which has been scarcely observed in previous studies. The measure of zeta potential and DLVO calculations show that NPs may sorb on both solid-water and air-water interfaces. NPs size distribution shows the potential for nanoparticle agglomeration mostly at low pH, leading to entrapment in the soil pores. These mechanisms are highly sensitive to both hydrodynamic and geochemical conditions, which explains their high sensitivity to flow rates and ionic strength.

  20. Cerberus Fossae and Elysium Planitia Lavas, Mars: Source Vents, Flow Rates, Edifice Styles and Water Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakimoto, S. E. H.; Gregg, T. K. P.

    2004-01-01

    The Cerberus Fossae and Elysium Planitia regions have been suggested as some of the youngest martian surfaces since the Viking mission, although there was doubt whether the origins were predominantly volcanic or fluvial. The Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey Missions have shown that the region is certainly young in terms of the topographic preservation and the youthful crater counts (e.g. in the tens to a few hundred million yrs.). Numerous authors have shown that fluvial and volcanic features share common flow paths and vent systems, and that there is evidence for some interaction between the lava flows and underlying volatiles as well as the use by lavas and water of the same vent system. Given the youthful age and possible water-volcanism interaction environment, we'd like constraints on water and volcanic flux rates and interactions. Here, we model ranges of volcanic flow rates where we can well-constrain them, and consider the modest flow rate results results in context with local eruption styles, and track vent locations, edifice volumes, and flow sources and data.

  1. Effects of Gas Flow Rate on the Discharge Characteristics of a DC Excited Plasma Jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuechen; Jia, Pengying; Di, Cong; Bao, Wenting; Zhang, Chunyan

    2015-09-01

    A direct current (DC) source excited plasma jet consisting of a hollow needle anode and a plate cathode has been developed to form a diffuse discharge plume in ambient air with flowing argon as the working gas. Using optical and electrical methods, the discharge characteristics are investigated for the diffuse plasma plume. Results indicate that the discharge has a pulse characteristic, under the excitation of a DC voltage. The discharge pulse corresponds to the propagation process of a plasma bullet travelling from the anode to the cathode. It is found that, with an increment of the gas flow rate, both the discharge plume length and the current peak value of the pulsed discharge decrease in the laminar flow mode, reach their minima at about 1.5 L/min, and then slightly increase in the turbulent mode. However, the frequency of the pulsed discharge increases in the laminar mode with increasing the argon flow rate until the argon flow rate equals to about 1.5 L/min, and then slightly decreases in the turbulent mode. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 10805013, 11375051), Funds for Distinguished Young Scientists of Hebei Province, China (No. A2012201045), Department of Education for Outstanding Youth Project of China (No. Y2011120), and Youth Project of Hebei University of China (No. 2011Q14)

  2. Review of flow rate estimates of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNutt, Marcia K.; Camilli, Rich; Crone, Timothy J.; Guthrie, George D.; Hsieh, Paul A.; Ryerson, Thomas B.; Savas, Omer; Shaffer, Frank

    2012-01-01

    The unprecedented nature of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill required the application of research methods to estimate the rate at which oil was escaping from the well in the deep sea, its disposition after it entered the ocean, and total reservoir depletion. Here, we review what advances were made in scientific understanding of quantification of flow rates during deep sea oil well blowouts. We assess the degree to which a consensus was reached on the flow rate of the well by comparing in situ observations of the leaking well with a time-dependent flow rate model derived from pressure readings taken after the Macondo well was shut in for the well integrity test. Model simulations also proved valuable for predicting the effect of partial deployment of the blowout preventer rams on flow rate. Taken together, the scientific analyses support flow rates in the range of ~50,000–70,000 barrels/d, perhaps modestly decreasing over the duration of the oil spill, for a total release of ~5.0 million barrels of oil, not accounting for BP's collection effort. By quantifying the amount of oil at different locations (wellhead, ocean surface, and atmosphere), we conclude that just over 2 million barrels of oil (after accounting for containment) and all of the released methane remained in the deep sea. By better understanding the fate of the hydrocarbons, the total discharge can be partitioned into separate components that pose threats to deep sea vs. coastal ecosystems, allowing responders in future events to scale their actions accordingly.

  3. Relationship of medical status, medications, and salivary flow rates in adults of different ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navazesh, M; Brightman, V J; Pogoda, J M

    1996-02-01

    Multiple systemic disorders and medications have been reported to cause xerostomia or salivary gland hypofunction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship among systemic disorders, medications, and salivary flow rates. Sixty-three ambulatory dental patients aged 23 to 82 years were randomly selected. The nature, duration, and number of systemic disorders and medications were documented. Repeated measurements of unstimulated whole, chewing-stimulated whole, acid-stimulated parotid, and candy-stimulated parotid salivary flow rates were obtained. Data were analyzed with the Wilcoxon rank-sum test, nonparametric multivariate analysis of variance, and Fisher's exact test. For persons with systemic disorders who were taking medication, all salivary flow rates were significantly (p = 0.03 - 0.001) lower than the flow rates in healthy persons. Among persons with at least one systemic disorder who were taking medication, those who had been taking medication for longer than 2 years had significantly lower unstimulated whole saliva (p = 0.002), chewing-stimulated whole saliva (p = 0.0004), and candy-stimulated parotid saliva (p = 0.02) flow rates than those who had been taking medication for 1 to 2 years. The number of systemic disorders significantly (p = 0.02) and negatively affected the acid-stimulated parotid salivary rates. The prevalence of salivary hypofunction determined on the basis of unstimulated whole saliva and acid-stimulated parotid saliva was significantly higher (p = < 0.001, p = 0.007) in the those persons with systemic disorders and taking medications. The results suggest that salivary secretion is affected by the number of systemic disorders and duration of the potentially xerogenic medications.

  4. Corporate Cash Flow and Stock Price Exposures to Foreign Exchange Rate Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Bartram, Söhnke M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper estimates the foreign exchange rate exposure of 6,917 U.S. nonfinancial firms on the basis of stock prices and corporate cash flows. The results show that several firms are significantly exposed to at least one of the foreign exchange rates Canadian Dollar, Japanese Yen and Euro, and significant exposures are more frequent at longer horizons. The percentage of firms for which stock price and earnings exposures are significantly different is relatively low, though it increases with ...

  5. Corporate Cash Flow and Stock Price Exposures to Foreign Exchange Rate Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Bartram, Söhnke M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper estimates the foreign exchange rate exposure of 6,917 U.S. nonfinancial firms on the basis of stock prices and corporate cash flows. The results show that several firms are significantly exposed to at least one of the foreign exchange rates Canadian Dollar, Japanese Yen and Euro, and significant exposures are more frequent at longer horizons. The percentage of firms for which stock price and earnings exposures are significantly different is relatively low, though it increases with ...

  6. The Effect of the Volume Flow rate on the Efficiency of a Solar Collector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Shah, Louise Jivan; Furbo, Simon

    rates. Theoretically, a simplified model of the solar collector panel is built by means of the CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) code Fluent, where the geometry of the collector panel except the casing is fully modeled. Both lateral and longitudinal heat conduction in the absorber fins, the heat...... transfer from the absorber to the solar collector fluid and the heat loss from the absorber are considered. Flow and temperature distribution in the collector panel are investigated with buoyancy effect. Measurements are carried out with the solar collector panel. Collector efficiencies are measured......The flow distribution inside a collector panel with an area of 12.5 m² and with 16 parallel connected horizontal fins and the effect of the flow nonuniformity on the risk of boiling and on the collector efficiency have been theoretically and experimentally investigated for different volume flow...

  7. Observation of Oil Flow Characteristics in Rolling Piston Rotary Compressor for Reducing Oil Circulation Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, S. j.; Noh, K. Y.; Min, B. C.; Yang, J. S.; Choi, G. M.; Kim, D. J.

    2015-08-01

    The oil circulation rate (OCR) of the rolling piston rotary compressor is a significant factor which affects the performance of refrigeration system. The increase of oil discharge causes decreasing of the heat transfer efficiency in the heat exchanger, pressure drop and lack of oil in lubricate part in compressor. In this study, the internal flow of compressor was visualized to figure out the oil droplet flow characteristics. The experiments and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were conducted in various frequency of compressor to observe the effect of operation frequency on oil droplet flow characteristics for reducing OCR. In situ, measurement of oil droplet diameter and velocity were conducted by using high speed image visualization and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The flow paths were dominated by copper wire parts driving the motor which was inserted in compressor. In order to verify the reliability of CFD simulation, the tendency of oil flow characteristics in each flow path and the compressor operating conditions were applied in CFD simulation. For reducing OCR, the structure such as vane, disk and ring is installed in the compressor to restrict the main flow path of oil particle. The effect of additional structure for reducing OCR was evaluated using CFD simulation and the results were discussed in detail.

  8. Toward compressed DMD: spectral analysis of fluid flows using sub-Nyquist-rate PIV data

    CERN Document Server

    Tu, Jonathan H; Kutz, J Nathan; Shang, Jessica K

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic mode decomposition (DMD) is a powerful and increasingly popular tool for performing spectral analysis of fluid flows. However, it requires data that satisfy the Nyquist-Shannon sampling criterion. In many fluid flow experiments, such data are impossible to capture. We propose a new approach that combines ideas from DMD and compressed sensing. Given a vector-valued signal, we take measurements randomly in time (at a sub-Nyquist rate) and project the data onto a low-dimensional subspace. We then use compressed sensing to identify the dominant frequencies in the signal and their corresponding modes. We demonstrate this method using two examples, analyzing both an artificially constructed test dataset and particle image velocimetry data collected from the flow past a cylinder. In each case, our method correctly identifies the characteristic frequencies and oscillatory modes dominating the signal, proving the proposed method to be a capable tool for spectral analysis using sub-Nyquist-rate sampling.

  9. High frame rate synthetic aperture vector flow imaging for transthoracic echocardiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villagómez Hoyos, Carlos Armando; Stuart, Matthias Bo; Bechsgaard, Thor

    2016-01-01

    This work presents the first in vivo results of 2-D high frame rate vector velocity imaging for transthoracic cardiac imaging. Measurements are made on a healthy volunteer using the SARUS experimental ultrasound scanner connected to an intercostal phased-array probe. Two parasternal long-axis view...... (PLAX) are obtained, one centred at the aortic valve and another centred at the left ventricle. The acquisition sequence was composed of 3 diverging waves for high frame rate synthetic aperture flow imaging. For verification a phantom measurement is performed on a transverse straight 5 mm diameter....... In-vivo acquisitions show complex flow patterns in the heart. In the aortic valve view, blood is seen exiting the left ventricle cavity through the aortic valve into the aorta during the systolic phase of the cardiac cycle. In the left ventricle view, blood flow is seen entering the left ventricle...

  10. Flow rate estimation by optical coherence tomography using contrast dilution approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štohanzlová, Petra; Kolář, Radim

    2015-07-01

    This paper describes experiments and methodology for flow rate estimation using optical coherence tomography and dilution method in single fiber setup. The single fiber is created from custom made glass capillary and polypropylene hollow fiber. As a data source, measurements on single fiber phantom with continuous flow of carrier medium and bolus of Intralipid solution as a contrast agent were used using Thorlabs OCT OCS1300SS. The measured data were processed by methods of image processing, in order to precisely align the individual images in the sequence and extract dilution curves from the area inside the fiber. An experiment proved that optical coherence tomography can be used for flow rate estimation by the dilution method with precision around 7%.

  11. Energy policy act transportation study: Interim report on natural gas flows and rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-17

    This report, Energy Policy Act Transportation Study: Interim Report on Natural Gas Flows and Rates, is the second in a series mandated by Title XIII, Section 1340, ``Establishment of Data Base and Study of Transportation Rates,`` of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102--486). The first report Energy Policy Act Transportation Study: Availability of Data and Studies, was submitted to Congress in October 1993; it summarized data and studies that could be used to address the impact of legislative and regulatory actions on natural gas transportation rates and flow patterns. The current report presents an interim analysis of natural gas transportation rates and distribution patterns for the period from 1988 through 1994. A third and final report addressing the transportation rates and flows through 1997 is due to Congress in October 2000. This analysis relies on currently available data; no new data collection effort was undertaken. The need for the collection of additional data on transportation rates will be further addressed after this report, in consultation with the Congress, industry representatives, and in other public forums.

  12. Effect of Pressure, Feed Rate, and Abrasive Mass Flow Rate on Water Jet Cutting Efficiency When Cutting Recombinant Bamboo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongrong Li

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The impact of varying pressure, feed rate, and abrasive mass flow rate on the efficiency of an abrasive water jet cutting process was studied in this work. Recombinant bamboo samples with thicknesses of 5, 10, and 15 mm were cut by the abrasive water jet. The upper kerf width, lower kerf width, and the ratio of the upper kerf width to lower kerf width were chosen as the efficiency parameters. Mathematical models were developed to describe the relationship between the input process parameters and the efficiency parameters. The arrangement of experiments and analysis of results were performed based on response surface methodology. The evaluated model yielded predictions in agreement with experimental results.

  13. 40 CFR 1065.642 - SSV, CFV, and PDP molar flow rate calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false SSV, CFV, and PDP molar flow rate calculations. 1065.642 Section 1065.642 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.642...

  14. Fabric inlet stratifiers for solar tanks with different volume flow rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Furbo, Simon

    2006-01-01

    in the centre of a glass tank (400 x 400 x 900 mm). The forced volume flow rate is in the range of 6 – 10 l/min, and water enters the stratification pipe from the bottom of the tank. The thermal behaviour of the stratification pipes is investigated for different realistic operation conditions...

  15. Accurate Angle Estimator for High-Frame-rate 2-D Vector Flow Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villagómez Hoyos, Carlos Armando; Stuart, Matthias Bo; Lindskov Hansen, Kristoffer

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach for estimating 2-D flow angles using a high-frame-rate ultrasound method. The angle estimator features high accuracy and low standard deviation (SD) over the full 360° range. The method is validated on Field II simulations and phantom measurements using the ex...

  16. Determination of flow-rate characteristics and parameters of piezo pilot valves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takosoglu Jakub

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pneumatic directional valves are used in most industrial pneumatic systems. Most of them are two-stage valves controlled by a pilot valve. Pilot valves are often chosen randomly. Experimental studies in order to determine the flow-rate characteristics and parameters of pilot valves were not conducted. The paper presents experimental research of two piezo pilot valves.

  17. Effect of pulsed corona discharge voltage and feed gas flow rate on dissolved ozone concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasetyaningrum, A., E-mail: ajiprasetyaningrum@gmail.com; Ratnawati,; Jos, B. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Diponegoro University Jl. Prof. H. Soedarto Tembalang, Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia, 50276 (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    Ozonization is one of the methods extensively used for water purification and degradation of organic materials. Ozone (O{sub 3}) is recognized as a powerful oxidizing agent. Due to its strong oxidability and better environmental friendless, ozone increasing being used in domestic and industrial applications. Current technology in ozone production utilizes several techniques (corona discharge, ultra violet radiation and electrolysis). This experiment aimed to evaluating effect of voltage and gas flow rate on ozone production with corona discharge. The system consists of two net-type stainless steel electrode placed in a dielectric barrier. Three pulsed voltage (20, 30, 40 KV) and flow rate (5, 10, 15 L/min) were prepare for operation variable at high frequency (3.7 kHz) with AC pulsed power supply. The dissolved ozone concentration depends on the applied high-voltage level, gas flow rate and the discharge exposure duration. The ozone concentration increases with decreasing gas flow rate. Dissolved ozone concentrations greater than 200 ppm can be obtained with a minimum voltage 40 kV.

  18. A Direct inverse model to determine permeability fields from pressure and flow rate measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, G.K.; Fokker, P.A.; Wilschut, F.; Zijl, W.

    2008-01-01

    The determination of the permeability field from pressure and flow rate measurements in wells is a key problem in reservoir engineering. This paper presents a Double Constraint method for inverse modeling that is an example of direct inverse modeling. The method is used with a standard block-centere

  19. The control of self-propelled microjets inside a microchannel with time-varying flow rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khalil, Islam S.M.; Magdanz, Veronika; Sanchez, Samuel; Schmidt, Oliver S.; Misra, Sarthak

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate the closed-loop motion control of self-propelled microjets inside a fluidic microchannel. The motion control of the microjets is achieved in hydrogen peroxide solution with time-varying flow rates, under the influence of the controlled magnetic fields and the self-propulsion force. Ma

  20. Effect of reference conditions on flow rate, modifier fraction and retention in supercritical fluid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pauw, Ruben; Shoykhet Choikhet, Konstantin; Desmet, Gert; Broeckhoven, Ken

    2016-08-12

    When using compressible mobile phases such as fluidic CO2, the density, the volumetric flow rates and volumetric fractions are pressure dependent. The pressure and temperature definition of these volumetric parameters (referred to as the reference conditions) may alter between systems, manufacturers and operating conditions. A supercritical fluid chromatography system was modified to operate in two modes with different definition of the eluent delivery parameters, referred to as fixed and variable mode. For the variable mode, the volumetric parameters are defined with reference to the pump operating pressure and actual pump head temperature. These conditions may vary when, e.g. changing the column length, permeability, flow rate, etc. and are thus variable reference conditions. For the fixed mode, the reference conditions were set at 150bar and 30°C, resulting in a mass flow rate and mass fraction of modifier definition which is independent of the operation conditions. For the variable mode, the mass flow rate of carbon dioxide increases with system pump operating pressure, decreasing the fraction of modifier. Comparing the void times and retention factor shows that the deviation between the two modes is almost independent of modifier percentage, but depends on the operating pressure. Recalculating the set volumetric fraction of modifier to the mass fraction results in the same retention behaviour for both modes. This shows that retention in SFC can be best modelled using the mass fraction of modifier. The fixed mode also simplifies method scaling as it only requires matching average column pressure.

  1. Effect of flow rate and lead/copper pipe sequence on lead release from service lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartier, Clément; Arnold, Roger B; Triantafyllidou, Simoni; Prévost, Michèle; Edwards, Marc

    2012-09-01

    A pilot experiment examined lead leaching from four representative configurations of service lines including: (1) 100% lead (Pb), (2) 100% copper (Cu), (3) 50% Pb upstream of 50% Cu, and (4) 50% Pb-downstream of 50% Cu using a range of flow rates. The cumulative mass of lead release indicated that a typical partial replacement configuration (50% lead downstream of copper) did not provide a net reduction in lead when compared to 100% lead pipe (85 mg for 50% Pb-downstream versus 83 mg for 100%-Pb) due to galvanic and deposition corrosion. The partially replaced service line configuration also had a much greater likelihood of producing water with "spikes" of lead particulates at higher flow rates, while tending to produce lower levels of lead at very low flow rates. After the first 214 days the galvanic current between copper and lead was only reduced by 34%, proving that galvanic impacts can be highly persistent even in water with optimized corrosion control by dosing of zinc orthophosphate. Finally, this experiment raises concern about the low flow rates used during some prior home sampling events, which may underestimate exposure to lead during normal water use, especially when galvanic Pb:Cu connections are present.

  2. Nocturnal variations in subcutaneous blood flow rate in lower leg of normal human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sindrup, J H; Kastrup, J; Jørgensen, B;

    1991-01-01

    Subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow rate was measured in the lower leg of 22 normal human subjects over 12- to 20-h ambulatory conditions. The 133Xe washout technique, portable CdTe(Cl) detectors, and a portable data storage unit were used. The tracer depot was applied on the medial aspect...

  3. Diurnal variations in lower leg subcutaneous blood flow rate in patients with chronic venous leg ulcers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sindrup, J H; Kastrup, J; Kristensen, J K

    1991-01-01

    telluride (CdTe(Cl)) detectors. In both groups, the change from an upright to a supine position at the beginning of the night period elicited an instantaneous increment in the blood flow rate of 30-40% with a decrease in the central and local postural sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity. After...

  4. Regional variations in nocturnal fluctuations in subcutaneous blood flow rate in the lower leg of man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sindrup, J H; Kastrup, J; Jørgensen, B

    1991-01-01

    aspect of the right lower leg of normal human subjects. In the present study subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow rates were measured simultaneously in the right and left lower legs of 16 normal human subjects over 12-20 h ambulatory conditions. The 133Xe wash-out technique, portable CdTe(Cl) detectors...

  5. Botulinum toxin effect on salivary flow rate in children with cerebral palsy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerius, P.H.; Rotteveel, J.J.; Limbeek, J. van; Gabreëls, F.J.M.; Hulst, K. van; Hoogen, F.J.A. van den

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effectiveness of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) type A in reducing salivary flow rate in children with cerebral palsy (CP) with severe drooling. METHODS: During a controlled clinical trial, single-dose BoNT injections into the submandibular salivary glands were compared wi

  6. PROGRESSIVE MUSCLE RELAXATION INCREASE PEAK EXPIRATORY FLOW RATE ON CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tintin Sukartini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Limited progressive air flow in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD can caused by small airway disease (bronchiolitis obstructive and loss of elasticity of the lung (emphysema. Further it can be decreasing the quality of life in COPD patients because dyspnea and uncomfortable in activity. Progressive muscle relaxation (PMR is one of the relaxation technique that can repair pulmonary ventilation by decreasing chronic constriction of the respiratory muscles. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of progressive muscle relaxation on raised peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR. Method: A pre-experimental one group pre-post test design was used in this study. Population was all of the COPD patients at Pulmonary Specialist Polyclinic Dr Mohamad Soewandhie Surabaya. There were 8 respondents taken by using purposive sampling. PEFR was counted by using peak flow meter every six day. Data were analyzed by using Paired t-Test with significance level  p≤0.05. Result: The result showed that PMR had significance level on increasing of PEFR (p=0.012. Discussion: It can be concluded that PMR has an effect on raise PEFR. Further studies are recommended to measure the effect of PMR on respiratory rate (RR, heart rate (HR subjective dyspnoe symptoms, forced expiration volume on the first minute (FEV1 and mid maximum flow rate (MMFR in COPD patients.

  7. Effect of warming and flow rate conditions of blood warmers on red blood cell integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poder, T G; Pruneau, D; Dorval, J; Thibault, L; Fisette, J-F; Bédard, S K; Jacques, A; Beauregard, P

    2016-11-01

    Fluid warmers are routinely used to reduce the risk of hypothermia and cardiac complications associated with the infusion of cold blood products. However, warming blood products could generate haemolysis. This study was undertaken to compare the impact of temperature of blood warmers on the per cent haemolysis of packed red blood cells (RBCs) heated at different flow rates as well as non-flow conditions. Infusion warmers used were calibrated at 41·5°C ± 0·5°C and 37·5°C ± 0·5°C. Cold RBC units stored at 4°C in AS-3 (n = 30), aged 30-39 days old, were divided into half units before being allocated under two different scenarios (i.e. infusion pump or syringe). Blood warmers were effective to warm cold RBCs to 37·5°C or 41·5°C when used in conjunction with an infusion pump at flow rate up to 600 ml/h. However, when the warmed blood was held in a syringe for various periods of time, such as may occur in neonatal transfusions, the final temperature was below the expected requirements with measurement as low as 33·1°C. Increasing the flow with an infusion pump increased haemolysis in RBCs from 0·2% to up to 2·1% at a flow rate of 600 ml/h regardless of the warming device used (P < 0·05). No relevant increase of haemolysis was observed using a syringe. The use of a blood warmer adjusted to 41·5°C is probably the best choice for reducing the risk of hypothermia for the patient without generating haemolysis. However, we should be cautious with the use of an infusion pump for RBC transfusion, particularly at high flow rates. © 2016 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  8. The feasible study of the water flow in the micro channel with the Y-junction and narrow structure for various flow rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasikova D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we present the results of measurement in micro-channel with the Y-junction and narrow structure for various flow rates. There was used BSG micro-channel with trapezoidal cross-section. The parameters of the channel are described in the paper. The flow in the micro-channel was invested with micro-PIV technique and various flow rates were set on each inlet. The resulting flow rate in the steady area follows the laminar flow with very low Re 30. Here we are focused on the flow characteristic in the Y-junction and in selected narrow structure. The fluid flow is evaluated with vector and scalar maps and the profile plots that were taken in the point of interest.

  9. Using Psychophysiological Measures to Examine the Temporal Profile of Verbal Humor Elicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiacconi, Chris M; Owen, Adrian M

    2015-01-01

    Despite its pervasiveness in popular culture, there remains much to be learned about the psychological and physiological processes that underlie our experience of humor. In the present study, we examined the temporal profile of verbal humor elicitation using psychophysiological measures of heart rate (HR) and facial electromyography (EMG). Consistent with recent prior research on cardiovascular changes to perceived humor, we found that HR acceleration was greater for jokes relative to non-jokes, and was positively related to the level of perceived humor elicited by these jokes. In addition, activity recorded from the zygomaticus major muscle that controls smiling was found to be greater for jokes relative to non-jokes. To link these physiological changes to the psychological processes that govern humor comprehension, we took the initial inflection point of the zygomatic EMG response as a marker for the onset of humor comprehension, and used this marker to probe the pattern of cardiovascular activity at this time-point. We estimated the onset of the humor response to occur during the initial HR deceleration phase, and found that jokes relative to non-jokes elicited a decreased HR response at this time-point. This result questions the previously forwarded notion that the psychological "moment of insight" that signals the start of the humor response is always associated with heightened cardiovascular activity. This discrepancy is discussed in relation to possible differences in the cognitive processes required to comprehend different forms of humor. At a broader level, our results also demonstrate the advantages of combining different psychophysiological measures to examine psychological phenomena, and illustrate how one such measure can constrain the interpretation of others.

  10. Prediction of Leak Flow Rate Using FNNs in Severe LOCA Circumstances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Yeong; Yoo, Kwae Hwan; Kim, Ju Hyun; Na, Man Gyun [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Hur, Seop; Kim, Chang Hwoi [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Leak flow rate is a function of break size, differential pressure ( i.e., difference between internal and external reactor vessel pressure), temperature, and so on. Specially, the leak flow rate is strongly dependent on the break size and the differential pressure, but the break size is not measured and the integrity of pressure sensors is not assured in severe circumstances. In this study, a fuzzy neural network (FNN) model is proposed to predict the leak flow rate out of break, which has a direct impact on the important times (time approaching the core exit temperature that exceeds 1200 .deg. F, core uncover time, reactor vessel failure time, etc.). Since FNN is a data-based model, it requires data to develop and verify itself. However, because actual severe accident data do not exist to the best of our knowledge, it is essential to obtain the data required in the proposed model using numerical simulations. These data were obtained by simulating severe accident scenarios for the optimized power reactor 1000 (OPR 1000) using MAAP4 code. In this study, FNN model was developed to predict the leak flow rate in severe post-LOCA circumstances.. The training data were selected from among all the acquired data using an SC method to train the proposed FNN model with more informative data. The developed FNN model predicted the leak flow rate using the time elapsed after reactor shutdown and the predicted break size, and its validity was verified in the basis of the simulation data of OPR1000 using MAAP4 code.

  11. Influence of mechanical rock properties and fracture healing rate on crustal fluid flow dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachau, Till; Bons, Paul; Gomez-Rivas, Enrique; Koehn, Daniel; de Riese, Tamara

    2016-04-01

    Fluid flow in the Earth's crust is very slow over extended periods of time, during which it occurs within the connected pore space of rocks. If the fluid production rate exceeds a certain threshold, matrix permeability alone is insufficient to drain the fluid volume and fluid pressure builds up, thereby reducing the effective stress supported by the rock matrix. Hydraulic fractures form once the effective pressure exceeds the tensile strength of the rock matrix and act subsequently as highly effective fluid conduits. Once local fluid pressure is sufficiently low again, flow ceases and fractures begin to heal. Since fluid flow is controlled by the alternation of fracture permeability and matrix permeability, the flow rate in the system is strongly discontinuous and occurs in intermittent pulses. Resulting hydraulic fracture networks are largely self-organized: opening and subsequent healing of hydraulic fractures depends on the local fluid pressure and on the time-span between fluid pulses. We simulate this process with a computer model and describe the resulting dynamics statistically. Special interest is given to a) the spatially and temporally discontinuous formation and closure of fractures and fracture networks and b) the total flow rate over time. The computer model consists of a crustal-scale dual-porosity setup. Control parameters are the pressure- and time-dependent fracture healing rate, and the strength and the permeability of the intact rock. Statistical analysis involves determination of the multifractal properties and of the power spectral density of the temporal development of the total drainage rate and hydraulic fractures. References Bons, P. D. (2001). The formation of large quartz veins by rapid ascent of fluids in mobile hydrofractures. Tectonophysics, 336, 1-17. Miller, S. a., & Nur, A. (2000). Permeability as a toggle switch in fluid-controlled crustal processes. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 183(1-2), 133-146. Sachau, T., Bons, P. D

  12. Food loss rate in food supply chain using material flow analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Munsol; Osako, Masahiro; Harashina, Sachihiko

    2017-03-01

    The food loss rate is a factor that represents food consumption efficiency. To improve food consumption efficiency, we need to fundamentally quantify food loss at national and global levels. This study examines food and food waste flow and calculates the food loss rate in the food supply chain by targeting Japan. We analyzed inedible food waste and avoidable food losses in wholesale, manufacturing, retail, food services, and households and considered different supply chain pathways, different food categories representing whole Japanese meals, and weight changes after cooking. The results are as follows: (1) Japan has an overall rate of avoidable food losses of approximately 15% for meals (excluding agricultural losses), (2) the supply sector with the highest food loss rate is food services, and (3) the food category with the highest food loss rate is vegetables. Finally, we proposed a model for calculating food loss rates that could be used for future analysis in Japan or other countries.

  13. Effects of flow and water chemistry on lead release rates from pipe scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yanjiao; Giammar, Daniel E

    2011-12-01

    Lead release from pipe scales was investigated under different water compositions, stagnation times, and flow regimes. Pipe scales containing PbO(2) and hydrocerussite (Pb(3)(OH)(2)(CO(3))(2)) were developed on lead pipes by conditioning the pipes with water containing free chlorine for eight months. Water chemistry and the composition of the pipe scales are two key factors affecting lead release from pipe scales. The water rarely reached equilibrium with pipe scales within one day, which makes solid-water contact time and corrosion product dissolution rates the controlling factors of lead concentrations for the conditions tested. Among five water compositions studied, a solution with orthophosphate had the lowest dissolved lead release rate and highest particulate lead release rate. Free chlorine also decreased the dissolved lead release rate at stagnant conditions. Water flow increased rates of release of both dissolved and particulate lead by accelerating the mass transfer of lead out of the porous pipe scales and by physically destabilizing pipe scales. Dissolved lead comprised the majority of the lead released at both stagnant and laminar flow conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Relationship between sperm viability as determined by flow cytometry and nonreturn rate of dairy bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Preben; Boelling, Dorothee; Pedersen, Kurt Myrup; Korsgaard, Inge Riis; Jensen, Just

    2005-01-01

    A newly developed flow cytometric method for determination of sperm concentration and viability was tested in an insemination trial with cryopreserved bull sperm to establish the relationship between sperm viability and nonreturn rates. Semen for experimental inseminations was produced from 157 young sires (114 Holstein and 43 Jersey), each contributing 4 experimental semen collections. Straws containing approximately 15 x 10(6) motile sperm before freezing were used in 118,680 experimental inseminations performed by 254 artificial insemination technicians in 6352 Danish herds. Statistical analysis based on 44,946 experimental first inseminations showed that the major part (95.4%) of variation in the 56-day nonreturn rate (NRR56) was residual. Only 0.38% of the total variation in NRR56 was due to bulls and differences between ejaculate within bull. However, bulls were preselected, and a relatively high insemination dose was used. Correlations between sperm viability as assessed by flow cytometry and NRR56 was slightly lower than observed for microscopic assessment of sperm motility. However, flow cytometry makes it possible to achieve an objective and precise determination of sperm viability. It was therefore possible to calculate the effect on NRR56 provided selection of semen is based on the flow cytometric method. Three freezing extenders were used in this experiment, but a significant difference in NRR56 was not observed. Flow cytometric results for 1 extender (Biociphos Plus) indicated poorer sperm survival during postthaw incubation compared with Triladyl extender with whole and with clarified egg yolk.

  15. Fast pyrolysis of sunflower-pressed bagasse: effects of sweeping gas flow rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gercel, H.F.; Putun, E.

    2002-05-01

    Sunflower (Helianthus annus L.)-pressed bagasse pyrolysis experiments were performed in a fixed-bed tubular reactor. The effects of nitrogen flow rate and final pyrolysis temperature on the pyrolysis product yields and chemical compositions have been investigated. The maximum bio-oil yield of 52.85 wt% was obtained in a nitrogen atmosphere and a nitrogen flow rate of 50 cm{sup 3} min{sup -1} and at a pyrolysis temperature of 550{sup o}C and heating rate of 5{sup o}C s{sup -1}. The chemical characterization has shown that the oil obtained from sunflower-pressed bagasse may be potentially valuable as fuel and chemical feedstocks. (author)

  16. The effect of a sweeping gas flow rate on the fast pyrolysis of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gercel, H.F.

    2002-07-01

    Sunflower (Helianthus annus L.)-pressed bagasse pyrolysis experiments were performed in a fixed-bed tubular reactor. The effects of nitrogen flow rate and final pyrolysis temperature on the pyrolysis product yields and chemical compositions have been investigated. The maximum bio-oil yield of 46.62 wt% was obtained in a nitrogen atmosphere with a nitrogen flow rate of 25 cm{sup 3}min{sup -1} and at a pyrolysis temperature of 550{sup o}C with a heating rate of 300{sup o}C min{sup -1}. The chemical characterization showed that the oil obtained from sunflower-pressed bagasse may be potentially valuable as fuel and chemical feedstocks. (author)

  17. Use of Flow Cytometry to Measure Biogeochemical Rates and Processes in the Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomas, Michael W.; Bronk, Deborah A.; van den Engh, Ger

    2011-01-01

    An important goal of marine biogeochemists is to quantify the rates at which elements cycle through the ocean's diverse microbial assemblage, as well as to determine how these rates vary in time and space. The traditional view that phytoplankton are producers and bacteria are consumers has been found to be overly simplistic, and environmental metagenomics is discovering new and important microbial metabolisms at an accelerating rate. Many nutritional strategies previously attributed to one microorganism or functional group are also or instead carried out by other groups. To tease apart which organism is doing what will require new analytical approaches. Flow cytometry, when combined with other techniques, has great potential for expanding our understanding of microbial interactions because groups can be distinguished optically, sorted, and then collected for subsequent analyses. Herein, we review the advances in our understanding of marine biogeochemistry that have arisen from the use of flow cytometry.

  18. A Rate-Based Flow Control Mechanism for AvoidingCongestion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张孝林; 王宇宏; 吴介一

    2002-01-01

    The rate-based flow control mechanisms for the Available Bit Rate (ABR) service are used to share the available bandwidth of a bottleneck switch connected to a bottleneck link fairly and reasonably among many competitive users, and to maintain the buffer queue length of the switch at a desired level in order to avoid congestion in Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) networks. In this paper, a control theoretic approach that uses a DeadbeatResponse (DR) controller to the design of a rate-based flow control mechanism is presented.The mechanism has a simple structure and is robust in the sense that its stability is not sensitive to the change of the number of active Virtual Connections (VCs). Simulation results show that this mechanism not only ensures fair share of the bandwidth for all active VCs regardless of the number of hops they traverse but also has the advantages of fast convergence, no oscillation,and high link bandwidth utilization.

  19. Humor and creative life styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, J

    2001-01-01

    This paper is based upon the writings of William James in the late 19th century, and Alfred Adler and Sigmund Freud in the 20th, enriched by the contributions of later personality and role theorists. The self is defined as the unique organization of each person; a style is the self in action. Different life styles and their components are expressed in different situations. I posit that humor and positive thinking, combined with meaning and purpose, are vital components of all constructive life styles. The knowledge of life styles cuts through diagnostic labels to reveal our universal humanity. It can be fruitfully applied to patients and nonpatients alike and, I found, for the self-understanding of therapist. The clinical application of life styles is illustrated through numerous vignettes.

  20. El humor es cosa seria

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    La capacidad de goce, trabajo y sobre todo el humor constituyen un criterio importante en la evaluación psicodiagnóstica, a pesar de ser a menudo, un aspecto excluido de los informes. Una razón de dicha exclusión podría ser el hecho de no contribuir por sí mismo a incluir al sujeto evaluado en una categoría psicopatológica. Otra razón que se suma a la anterior, es que el “ sentido del humor” que surge durante el transcurso de un proceso psicodiagnóstico exige de parte del que lo administra un...

  1. 40 CFR 75.33 - Standard missing data procedures for SO2, NOX, Hg, and flow rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SO2 concentration (MPC) value for each type of fuel combusted in the unit, in a manner consistent with... units. For each hour of missing volumetric flow rate data, NOX emission rate data, or NOX concentration... units using operational bins. Whenever no prior quality-assured flow rate data, NOX concentration data...

  2. Grain-size-independent plastic flow at ultrahigh pressures and strain rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H-S; Rudd, R E; Cavallo, R M; Barton, N R; Arsenlis, A; Belof, J L; Blobaum, K J M; El-dasher, B S; Florando, J N; Huntington, C M; Maddox, B R; May, M J; Plechaty, C; Prisbrey, S T; Remington, B A; Wallace, R J; Wehrenberg, C E; Wilson, M J; Comley, A J; Giraldez, E; Nikroo, A; Farrell, M; Randall, G; Gray, G T

    2015-02-13

    A basic tenet of material science is that the flow stress of a metal increases as its grain size decreases, an effect described by the Hall-Petch relation. This relation is used extensively in material design to optimize the hardness, durability, survivability, and ductility of structural metals. This Letter reports experimental results in a new regime of high pressures and strain rates that challenge this basic tenet of mechanical metallurgy. We report measurements of the plastic flow of the model body-centered-cubic metal tantalum made under conditions of high pressure (>100  GPa) and strain rate (∼10(7)  s(-1)) achieved by using the Omega laser. Under these unique plastic deformation ("flow") conditions, the effect of grain size is found to be negligible for grain sizes >0.25  μm sizes. A multiscale model of the plastic flow suggests that pressure and strain rate hardening dominate over the grain-size effects. Theoretical estimates, based on grain compatibility and geometrically necessary dislocations, corroborate this conclusion.

  3. PWM Flow Rate Control of ER Valve and its Application to ER Actuator Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Masami; Minagawa, Shuji; Hagino, Katsuya

    The PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) control of ER valve consisting of two parallel electrodes has been investigated to continuously control the flow rate of an electrorheological (ER) suspension containing sulfonated polymer particles in silicone oil. PWM wave voltages are applied to the electrodes of the ER valve. It is possible to control continuously the flow rate by changing the duty ratio of the PWM wave from 1 to 0, where the duty ratio of 1 corresponds to the state to stop the flow. A miniature bellows actuator driven by a pair of PWM controlled ER valves has been developed, and the control characteristics of the actuator have been investigated. The duty ratios of both ER valves have been proposed to be changed alternately in proportion to the control voltage V to control the flow rate into and out of the bellows chamber, and also an overlap duty ratio Dov at V=0V has been introduced. The introduction of the overlap duty ratio Dov was found to be very important to smoothly control the actuator and to improve the control performance.

  4. Mass flow rate of granular material in silos with lateral exit holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Abraham; Serrano, Armando; Sanchez, Florencio

    2014-11-01

    In this work we have analyzed experimentally the mass flow rate, m', of the lateral outflow of cohesionless granular material through circular orifices of diameter D and rectangular and triangular slots of hydraulic diameter DH made in vertical walls of bins. Experiments were made in order to determine also the influence of the wall thickness of the bin, w. Geometrical and physical arguments, are given to get a general correlation for m' embracing both quantities, D (DH) and w. The angle of repose is also an important factor characterizing these flows.

  5. Flow rate through microfilters: Influence of the pore size distribution, hydrodynamic interactions, wall slip, and inertia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kaare H.; Valente, André X. C. N.; Stone, Howard A.

    2014-05-01

    We examine the fluid mechanics of viscous flow through filters consisting of perforated thin plates. We classify the effects that contribute to the hydraulic resistance of the filter. Classical analyses assume a single pore size and account only for filter thickness. We extend these results to obtain an analytical formula for the pressure drop across the microfilter versus the flow rate that accounts for the non-uniform distribution of pore sizes, the hydrodynamic interactions between the pores given their layout pattern, and wall slip. Further, we discuss inertial effects and their order of scaling.

  6. Flow rate through microfilters: Influence of the pore size distribution, hydrodynamic interactions, wall slip, and inertia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kaare Hartvig; Valente, Andre X. C. N.; Stone, Howard A.

    2014-01-01

    to obtain an analytical formula for the pressure drop across the microfilter versus the flow rate that accounts for the non-uniform distribution of pore sizes, the hydrodynamic interactions between the pores given their layout pattern, and wall slip. Further, we discuss inertial effects and their order......We examine the fluid mechanics of viscous flow through filters consisting of perforated thin plates. We classify the effects that contribute to the hydraulic resistance of the filter. Classical analyses assume a single pore size and account only for filter thickness. We extend these results...

  7. Flow Rate Driven by Peristaltic Movement in Plasmodial Tube of Physarum Polycephalum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Hiroyasu; Nakagaki, Toshiyuki

    2008-07-01

    We report a theoretical analysis of protoplasmic streaming driven by peristaltic movement in an elastic tube of an amoeba-like organism. The Plasmodium of Physarum polycephalum, a true slime mold, is a large amoeboid organism that adopts a sheet-like form with a tubular network. The network extends throughout the Plasmodium and enables the transport and circulation of chemical signals and nutrients. This tubular flow is driven by periodically propagating waves of active contraction of the tube cortex, a process known as peristaltic movement. We derive the relationship between the phase velocity of the contraction wave and the flow rate, and we discuss the physiological implications of this relationship.

  8. Investigations on Oil Flow Rates Projected on the Casing Walls by Splashed Lubricated Gears

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    In order to investigate the oil projected by gears rotating in an oil bath, a test rig has been set up in which the quantity of lubricant splashed at several locations on the casing walls can be measured. An oblong-shaped window of variable size is connected to a tank for flow measurements, and the system can be placed at several locations. A series of formulae have been deduced using dimensional analysis which can predict the lubricant flow rate generated by one spur gear or one disk at vari...

  9. A QUASI-FLOW CONSTITUTIVE MODEL WITH STRAIN-RATE DEPENDENCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Ping; SHEN Guozhe; YANG Guang

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the proposed is a quasi-flow constitutive model with strain-rate sensitivity for elastic plastic large deformation. The model is based on the Quasi-flow Corner theory,and is suitable for the sheet metal forming process simulation with a variable punch machine velocity.Uniaxial tensile tests and deep-drawing tests of a circular blank with square punch are carried out and numerically simulated. The consistency between the experimental and the numerically simulated results shows the validity of the present new constitutive model.

  10. Computational Study of the Noise Radiation in a Centrifugal Pump When Flow Rate Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Gao

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Noise radiation is of importance for the performance of centrifugal pumps. Aiming at exploring noise radiation patterns of a typical centrifugal pump at different flow rates, a three-dimensional unsteady hydro/aero acoustic model with large eddy simulation (LES closure is developed. Specifically, the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings model (FW-H is employed to predict noise generation by the impeller and volute. The simulated flow fields reveal that the interactions of the blades with the volute induce root mean square (RMS pressure and further lead to noise radiation. Moreover, it is found that the profiles of total sound pressure level (TSPL regarding the directivity field for the impeller-generated noise demonstrate a typical dipole characteristic behavior, whereas strictly the volute-generated noise exhibits an apparently asymmetric behavior. Additionally, the design operation (Here, 1 Q represents the design operation generates the lowest TSPL vis-a-vis the off-design operations for all the flow rates studied. In general, as the flow rates decrease from 1 Q to 0.25 Q, TSPL initially increases significantly before 0.75 Q and then levels off afterwards. A similar trend appears for cases having the larger flow rates (1–1.25 Q. The TSPL deviates with the radiation directivity and the maximum is about 50%. It is also found that TSPL by the volute and the blades can reach ~87 dB and ~70 dB at most, respectively. The study may offer a priori guidance for the experimental set up and the actual design layout.

  11. Por un humor ético

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Paramo Valero

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Ética del humor es una obra original, abundantemente documentada, de contenido científico y filosófico, que aborda un problema de gran importancia en los actuales estudios de éticas aplicadas. La ética del humor es una nueva ética aplicada que pretende comprender el fenómeno del humor a la luz de sus implicaciones éticas. Como señala el autor, Juan Carlos Siurana, reputado experto en el ámbito de la filosofía práctica, el interés por el humor es un interés por la ética. En la obra no presenta una nueva teoría filosófica del humor –las cuales se han venido sucediendo, al menos, desde los Diálogos de Platón–, sino una nueva teoría ética, que toma al humor como objeto principal de análisis. Por tanto, la finalidad es realizar una aportación dentro del ámbito de la ética. Para ello se nutre de distintos estudios psicológicos, biológicos, fisiológicos y neurológicos sobre el humor, así como de clásicas obras de filosofía que han abordado esta cuestión.

  12. Non-contact flow gauging for the extension and development of rating curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perks, Matthew; Large, Andy; Russell, Andy

    2015-04-01

    Accurate measurement of river discharge is fundamental to understanding hydrological processes, associated hazards and ecological responses within fluvial systems. Established protocols for determining river discharge are partial, predominantly invasive and logistically difficult during high flows. There is demand for new methods for accurate quantification of flow velocity under high-flow/flood conditions to in turn enable better post-event reconstruction of peak discharge. As a consequence considerable effort has been devoted to the development of innovative technologies for the representation of flow in open channels. Remotely operated fixed and mobile systems capable of providing quantitative estimates of instantaneous and time-averaged flow characteristics using non-contact methods has been a major development. Amongst the new approaches for stand-alone continuous monitoring of surface flows is Large Scale Particle Image Velocimetry (LSPIV). Here we adapt the LSPIV concept, to provide continuous discharge measurements in non-uniform channels with complex flow conditions. High Definition videos (1080p; 30fps) of the water surface are acquired at 5 minute intervals. The image is rectified to correct for perspective distortion using a new, open source tool which minimises errors resulting from oblique image capture. Naturally occurring artefacts on the water surface (e.g. bubbles, debris, etc.) are tracked with the Kanade-Lucas-Tomasi (KLT) algorithm. The data generated is in the form of a complex surface water velocity field which can be interrogated to extract a range of hydrological information such as the streamwise velocity at a cross-section of interest, or even allow the interrogation of hydrodynamic flow structures. Here we demonstrate that this approach is capable of generating river discharge data comparable to concurrent measurements made using existing, accepted technologies (e.g. ADCP). The outcome is better constraint and extension of rating curves

  13. Kinetic performance limits of constant pressure versus constant flow rate gradient elution separations. Part I: theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broeckhoven, K; Verstraeten, M; Choikhet, K; Dittmann, M; Witt, K; Desmet, G

    2011-02-25

    We report on a general theoretical assessment of the potential kinetic advantages of running LC gradient elution separations in the constant-pressure mode instead of in the customarily used constant-flow rate mode. Analytical calculations as well as numerical simulation results are presented. It is shown that, provided both modes are run with the same volume-based gradient program, the constant-pressure mode can potentially offer an identical separation selectivity (except from some small differences induced by the difference in pressure and viscous heating trajectory), but in a significantly shorter time. For a gradient running between 5 and 95% of organic modifier, the decrease in analysis time can be expected to be of the order of some 20% for both water-methanol and water-acetonitrile gradients, and only weakly depending on the value of V(G)/V₀ (or equivalently t(G)/t₀). Obviously, the gain will be smaller when the start and end composition lie closer to the viscosity maximum of the considered water-organic modifier system. The assumptions underlying the obtained results (no effects of pressure and temperature on the viscosity or retention coefficient) are critically reviewed, and can be inferred to only have a small effect on the general conclusions. It is also shown that, under the adopted assumptions, the kinetic plot theory also holds for operations where the flow rate varies with the time, as is the case for constant-pressure operation. Comparing both operation modes in a kinetic plot representing the maximal peak capacity versus time, it is theoretically predicted here that both modes can be expected to perform equally well in the fully C-term dominated regime (where H varies linearly with the flow rate), while the constant pressure mode is advantageous for all lower flow rates. Near the optimal flow rate, and for linear gradients running from 5 to 95% organic modifier, time gains of the order of some 20% can be expected (or 25-30% when accounting for

  14. Estimation of permafrost thawing rates in a sub-arctic catchment using recession flow analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. W. Lyon

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Permafrost thawing is likely to change the flow pathways taken by water as it moves through arctic and sub-arctic landscapes. The location and distribution of these pathways directly influence the carbon and other biogeochemical cycling in northern latitude catchments. While permafrost thawing due to climate change has been observed in the arctic and sub-arctic, direct observations of permafrost depth are difficult to perform at scales larger than a local scale. Using recession flow analysis, it may be possible to detect and estimate the rate of permafrost thawing based on a long-term streamflow record. We demonstrate the application of this approach to the sub-arctic Abiskojokken catchment in northern Sweden. Based on recession flow analysis, we estimate that permafrost in this catchment may be thawing at an average rate of about 0.9 cm/yr during the past 90 years. This estimated thawing rate is consistent with direct observations of permafrost thawing rates, ranging from 0.7 to 1.3 cm/yr over the past 30 years in the region.

  15. Influence of nitrogen flow rates on materials properties of CrN films grown by reactive magnetron sputtering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B Subramanian; K Prabakaran; M Jayachandran

    2012-08-01

    Chromium nitride (CrN) hard thin films were deposited on different substrates by reactive direct current (d.c.) magnetron sputtering with different nitrogen flow rates. The X-ray diffraction patterns showed mixed Cr2N and CrN phases. The variations in structural parameters are discussed. The grain size increased with increasing nitrogen flow rates. Scanning electron microscopy image showed columnar and dense microstructure with varying nitrogen flow rates. An elemental analysis of the samples was realized by means of energy dispersive spectroscopy. The electrical studies indicated the semiconducting behaviour of the films at the nitrogen flow rate of 15 sccm.

  16. Effect of acetylene flow rate on morphology and structure of carbon nanotube thick films grown by thermal chemical vapor deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Zhangyi; SUN Zhuo; GUO Pingsheng; CHEN Yiwei

    2007-01-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) films were grown on nickel foil substrates by thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) with acetylene and hydrogen as the precursors. The morphology and structure of CNTs depending on the acetylene flow rate were characterized by a scanning electron microscope (SEM),a transmission electron microscope (TEM) and a Raman spectrometer,respectively.The effect of acetylene flow rate on the morphology and structure of CNT films was investigated.By increasing the acetylene flow rate from 10 to 90 sccm (standard cubic centimeter perminute),the yield and the diameter of CNTs increase.Also, the defects and amorphous phase in CNT films increase with increasing acetylene flow rate.

  17. Specific heat flow rate: an on-line monitor and potential control variable of specific metabolic rate in animal cell culture that combines microcalorimetry with dielectric spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Y; Evans, P M; Kemp, R B

    1998-06-05

    One of the requirements for enhanced productivity by the animal culture systems used in biotechnology is the direct assessment of the metabolic rate by on-line biosensors. Based on the fact that cell growth is associated with an enthalpy change, it is shown that the specific heat flow rate is stoichiometrically related to the net specific rates of substrates, products, and indeed to specific growth rate, and therefore a direct reflection of metabolic rate. Heat flow rate measured by conduction calorimetry has a technical advantage over estimates for many material flows which require assays at a minimum of two discrete times to give the rate. In order to make heat flow rate specific to the amount of the living cellular system, it would be advantageous to divide it by viable biomass. This requirement has been fulfilled by combining a continuous flow microcalorimeter ex situ with a dielectric spectroscope in situ, the latter measuring the viable cell mass volume fraction. The quality of the resulting biosensor for specific heat flow rate was illustrated using batch cultures of Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO 320) producing recombinant human interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) during growth in a stirred tank bioreactor under fully aerobic conditions. The measuring scatter of the probe was decreased significantly by applying the moving average technique to the two participant signals. It was demonstrated that the total metabolic rate of the cells, as indicated by the specific heat flow rate sensor, decreased with increasing time in batch culture, coincident with the decline in the two major substrates, glucose and glutamine, and the accumulation of the by-products, ammonia and lactate. Furthermore, the specific heat flow rate was an earlier indicator of substrate depletion than the flow rate alone. The calorimetric-respirometric ratio showed the intensive participation of anaerobic processes during growth and the related IFN-gamma production. Specific heat flow rate was

  18. Maximizing protein translation rate in the non-homogeneous ribosome flow model: a convex optimization approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poker, Gilad; Zarai, Yoram; Margaliot, Michael; Tuller, Tamir

    2014-11-06

    Translation is an important stage in gene expression. During this stage, macro-molecules called ribosomes travel along the mRNA strand linking amino acids together in a specific order to create a functioning protein. An important question, related to many biomedical disciplines, is how to maximize protein production. Indeed, translation is known to be one of the most energy-consuming processes in the cell, and it is natural to assume that evolution shaped this process so that it maximizes the protein production rate. If this is indeed so then one can estimate various parameters of the translation machinery by solving an appropriate mathematical optimization problem. The same problem also arises in the context of synthetic biology, namely, re-engineer heterologous genes in order to maximize their translation rate in a host organism. We consider the problem of maximizing the protein production rate using a computational model for translation-elongation called the ribosome flow model (RFM). This model describes the flow of the ribosomes along an mRNA chain of length n using a set of n first-order nonlinear ordinary differential equations. It also includes n + 1 positive parameters: the ribosomal initiation rate into the mRNA chain, and n elongation rates along the chain sites. We show that the steady-state translation rate in the RFM is a strictly concave function of its parameters. This means that the problem of maximizing the translation rate under a suitable constraint always admits a unique solution, and that this solution can be determined using highly efficient algorithms for solving convex optimization problems even for large values of n. Furthermore, our analysis shows that the optimal translation rate can be computed based only on the optimal initiation rate and the elongation rate of the codons near the beginning of the ORF. We discuss some applications of the theoretical results to synthetic biology, molecular evolution, and functional genomics.

  19. Intrapericardial denervation - Radial artery blood flow and heart rate responses to LBNP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckeever, Kenneth H.; Skidmore, Michael G.; Keil, Lanny C.; Sandler, Harold

    1990-01-01

    The effects of intrapericardial denervation on the radial artery blood flow velocity (RABFV) and heart rate (HR) responses to LBNP in rhesus monkeys were investigated by measuring the RABFV transcutaneously by a continuous-wave Doppler ultrasonic flowmeter in order to derive an index of forearm blood flow response to low (0 to -20 mm Hg) and high (0 to -60 mm Hg) ramp exposures during supine LBNP. Four of the eight subjects were subjected to efferent and afferent cardiac denervation. It was found that, during low levels of LBNP, monkeys with cardiac denervation exhibited no cardiopulmonary baroreceptor-mediated change in the RABFV or HR, unlike the intact animals, which showed steady decreases in RABFV during both high- and low-pressure protocols. It is suggested that forearm blood flow and HR responses to low-level LBNP, along with pharmacological challenge, are viable physiological tests for verifying the completeness of atrial and cardiopulmonary baroreceptor denervation.

  20. Contributions of collision rate and collision efficiency to erythrocyte aggregation in postcapillary venules at low flow rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangho; Zhen, Janet; Popel, Aleksander S; Intaglietta, Marcos; Johnson, Paul C

    2007-09-01

    Red blood cell aggregation at low flow rates increases venous vascular resistance, but the process of aggregate formation in these vessels is not well understood. We previously reported that aggregate formation in postcapillary venules of the rat spinotrapezius muscle mainly occurs in a middle region between 15 and 30 microm downstream from the entrance. In light of the findings in that study, the main purpose of this study was to test two hypotheses by measuring collision frequency along the length of the venules during low flow. We tested the hypothesis that aggregation rarely occurs in the initial 15-microm region of the venule because collision frequency is very low. We found that collision frequency was lower than in other regions, but collision efficiency (the ratio of aggregate formation to collisions) was almost nil in this region, most likely because of entrance effects and time required for aggregation. Radial migration of red blood cells and Dextran 500 had no effect on collision frequency. We also tested the hypothesis that aggregation was reduced in the distal venule region because of the low aggregability of remaining nonaggregated cells. Our findings support this hypothesis, since a simple model based on the ratio of aggregatable to nonaggregatable red blood cells predicts the time course of collision efficiency in this region. Collision efficiency averaged 18% overall but varied from 0 to 52% and was highest in the middle region. We conclude that while collision frequency influences red blood cell aggregate formation in postcapillary venules, collision efficiency is more important.

  1. The efficacy of centralized flow rate control in 802.11-based wireless mesh networks

    KAUST Repository

    Jamshaid, K.

    2013-06-13

    Commodity WiFi-based wireless mesh networks (WMNs) can be used to provide last mile Internet access. These networks exhibit extreme unfairness with backlogged traffic sources. Current solutions propose distributed source-rate control algorithms requiring link-layer or transport-layer changes on all mesh nodes. This is often infeasible in large practical deployments. In wireline networks, router-assisted rate control techniques have been proposed for use alongside end-to-end mechanisms. We wish to evaluate the feasibility of establishing similar centralized control via gateways in WMNs. In this paper, we focus on the efficacy of this control rather than the specifics of the controller design mechanism. We answer the question: Given sources that react predictably to congestion notification, can we enforce a desired rate allocation through a single centralized controller? The answer is not obvious because flows experience varying contention levels, and transmissions are scheduled by a node using imperfect local knowledge. We find that common router-assisted flow control schemes used in wired networks fail in WMNs because they assume that (1) links are independent, and (2) router queue buildups are sufficient for detecting congestion. We show that non-work-conserving, rate-based centralized scheduling can effectively enforce rate allocation. It can achieve results comparable to source rate limiting, without requiring any modifications to mesh routers or client devices. 2013 Jamshaid et al.; licensee Springer.

  2. Improved determination of vascular blood-flow shear rate using Doppler ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farison, James B.; Begeman, Garett A.; Salles-Cunha, Sergio X.; Beebe, Hugh G.

    1997-05-01

    Shear rate has been linked to endothelial and smooth muscle cell function, neointimal hyperplasia, poststenotic dilation and progression of atherosclerotic plaque. In vivo studies of shear rate have been limited in humans due to the lack of a truly accurate noninvasive method of measuring blood flow. In clinical vascular laboratories, the primary method of wall shear rate estimation is the scaled ratio between the center line systolic velocity and the local arterial radius. The present study compares this method with the shear rate calculated directly from data collected using a Doppler ultrasound scanner. Blood flow in the superficial femoral artery of 20 subjects was measured during three stages of distal resistance. Analysis and display programs were written for use with the MATLAB image processing software package. The experimental values of shear rate were calculated using the formal definition and then compared to the standard estimate. In all three states of distal resistance, the experimental values were significantly higher than the estimated values by a factor of approximately 1.57. These results led to the conclusion that the direct method of measuring shear rate is more precise and should replace the estimation model in the clinical laboratory.

  3. Towards Humor Modelling and Facilitation in Smart Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Gu Ji, Y.; Choi, S.

    We know about word play, verbal jokes, and about humor that appears spontaneously in conversations. This humor is studied in computational linguistics, together with issues such as verbal incongruities, ambiguities, irony and sarcasm. These appearances of humor are also part of computational humor

  4. Exploring the Relationship between Humor and Aesthetic Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Mordechai

    2012-01-01

    The connection between humor and aesthetic experience has already been recognized by several thinkers and aesthetic educators. For instance, humor theorist John Morreall writes that "humor is best understood as itself a kind of aesthetic experience, equal in value at least to any other kind of aesthetic experience." For Morreall, both humor and…

  5. LOL Teacher! Using Humor to Enhance Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrell, Shelly

    2015-01-01

    Laughing with students can help them connect on a deeper level with the teacher and the learning. This article offers the following four strategies to incorporate humor into teaching: (1) Integrate humorous bits to boost engagement; (2) Choose humorous materials; (3) Create interest with humorous web tools and apps; and (4) Teach with silly…

  6. Towards Humor Modelling and Facilitation in Smart Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Anton; Gu Ji, Y.; Choi, S.

    2014-01-01

    We know about word play, verbal jokes, and about humor that appears spontaneously in conversations. This humor is studied in computational linguistics, together with issues such as verbal incongruities, ambiguities, irony and sarcasm. These appearances of humor are also part of computational humor s

  7. Burnout and Humor Usage among Community College Nursing Faculty Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Laura A.

    2000-01-01

    Assesses the correlation of burnout among community college nursing faculty members and their use of humor to mediate academic stress related to burnout. Differences in burnout between high versus low humor usage respondents showed a higher sense of personal accomplishment with high humor usage. Of those with low humor usage, workload was related…

  8. Differences in Humor Styles between China and America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玮

    2014-01-01

    Humor, as a relaxing topic, is a very complicate thing in the intercultural communication. The famous professor of psychology at the University of Western Ontario, Rod A. Martin who focuses his study on functions of humor and laughter proposes four humor styles. In this essay, I use four dimensions referred by Hofstede to analyze the preferred humor styles in China and America.

  9. Designed and Accidental Humor in the Smart Digital Wild

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Anton; Ruiz Miyares, L.

    2017-01-01

    Humor can be designed and canned, for example as it appears in videogames, sitcoms or amusement parks. We often have humor professionals that have responsibility for this inclusion of humor. Humor can be designed for a particular occasion, for example in an April prank. However, in real life we ofte

  10. Exploring the Relationship between Humor and Aesthetic Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Mordechai

    2012-01-01

    The connection between humor and aesthetic experience has already been recognized by several thinkers and aesthetic educators. For instance, humor theorist John Morreall writes that "humor is best understood as itself a kind of aesthetic experience, equal in value at least to any other kind of aesthetic experience." For Morreall, both humor and…

  11. LOL Teacher! Using Humor to Enhance Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrell, Shelly

    2015-01-01

    Laughing with students can help them connect on a deeper level with the teacher and the learning. This article offers the following four strategies to incorporate humor into teaching: (1) Integrate humorous bits to boost engagement; (2) Choose humorous materials; (3) Create interest with humorous web tools and apps; and (4) Teach with silly…

  12. Investigation of oil-air two-phase mass flow rate measurement using Venturi and void fraction sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hong-jian; YUE Wei-ting; HUANG Zhi-yao

    2005-01-01

    Oil-air two-phase flow measurement was investigated with a Venturi and void fraction meters in this work. This paper proposes a new flow rate measurement correlation in which the effect of the velocity ratio between gas and liquid was considered.With the pressure drop across the Venturi and the void fraction that was measured by electrical capacitance tomography apparatus,both mixture flow rate and oil flow rate could be obtained by the correlation. Experiments included bubble-, slug-, wave and annular flow with the void fraction ranging from 15% to 83%, the oil flow rate ranging from 0.97 kg/s to 1.78 kg/s, the gas flow rate ranging up to 0.018 kg/s and quality ranging nearly up to 2.0%. The root-mean-square errors of mixture mass flow rate and that ofoil mass flow rate were less than 5%. Furthermore, coefficients of the correlation were modified based on flow regimes, with the results showing reduced root-mean-square errors.

  13. Effect of flow rate and insulin priming on the recovery of insulin from microbore infusion tubing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuloria, M; Friedberg, M A; DuRant, R H; Aschner, J L

    1998-12-01

    A retrospective medical record review of 13 consecutive, hyperglycemic, extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants treated with continuous insulin infusions revealed a 14- to 24-hour delay (mean, 19 hours) in blood glucose normalization despite stepwise increases in insulin infusion rates. This in vitro study examined the effects of flow rate and insulin priming on insulin recovery from polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubing and polyethylene (PE)-lined PVC tubing infused with a standard insulin stock solution. Stock insulin solution (0.2 U/mL) was infused through microbore PVC or PE-lined tubing at flow rates of 0.05 and 0.2 mL/h. To determine if saturation of nonspecific binding sites would alter effluent insulin concentration, we compared insulin recovery from tubing previously flushed with the stock solution and tubing primed with 5 U/mL of insulin for 20 minutes. Effluent samples, which were collected at baseline and at six time points during a 24-hour period, were immediately frozen at -20 degreesC. Insulin concentration was measured by IMx immunoassay. Data were analyzed using general linear modeling with repeated measures. At 0.05 mL/h flow rate, insulin recovery from unprimed PVC tubing at 1, 2, 4, and 8 hours was 17%, 11%, 27%, and 55%, respectively, with 100% recovery at 24 hours. From insulin-primed tubing, insulin recovery was approximately 70% at 1, 2, and 4 hours, and close to 100% at 8 hours. At a faster flow rate of 0.2 mL/h, insulin recovery at 1, 2, 4, and 8 hours was 22%, 38%, 67%, and 75% vs 42%, 85%, 91% and 95% from unprimed and insulin-primed PVC tubing, respectively. Similar results were obtained from unprimed and insulin-primed PE-lined tubing at 0.2 mL/h flow rate. Priming of microbore tubing with 5 U/mL of insulin solution for 20 minutes to block nonspecific binding sites enhances delivery of a standard insulin stock at infusion rates typically used to treat hyperglycemic ELBW infants. We conclude that priming the tubing with a higher

  14. Hydrodechlorination of TCE in a circulated electrolytic column at high flow rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahpour, Noushin; Yuan, Songhu; Rajic, Ljiljana; Alshawabkeh, Akram N

    2016-02-01

    Palladium-catalytic hydrodechlorination of trichloroethylene (TCE) by cathodic H2 produced from water electrolysis has been tested. For a field in-well application, the flow rate is generally high. In this study, the performance of Pd-catalytic hydrodechlorination of TCE using cathodic H2 is evaluated under high flow rate (1 L min(-1)) in a circulated column system, as expected to occur in practice. An iron anode supports reduction conditions and it is used to enhance TCE hydrodechlorination. However, the precipitation occurs and high flow rate was evaluated to minimize its adverse effects on the process (electrode coverage, clogging, etc.). Under the conditions of 1 L min(-1) flow, 500 mA current, and 5 mg L(-1) initial TCE concentration, removal efficacy using iron anodes (96%) is significantly higher than by mixed metal oxide (MMO) anodes (66%). Two types of cathodes (MMO and copper foam) in the presence of Pd/Al2O3 catalyst under various currents (250, 125, and 62 mA) were used to evaluate the effect of cathode materials on TCE removal efficacy. The similar removal efficiencies were achieved for both cathodes, but more precipitation generated with copper foam cathode (based on the experiments done by authors). In addition to the well-known parameters such as current density, electrode materials, and initial TCE concentration, the high velocities of groundwater flow can have important implications, practically in relation to the flush out of precipitates. For potential field application, a cost-effective and sustainable in situ electrochemical process using a solar panel as power supply is being evaluated.

  15. A Study of the Critical Nozzle for Flow Rate Measurement of High-Pressure Hydrogen Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.D.Kim; J.H.Lee; K.A.Park; T.Setoguchi; S.Matsuo

    2007-01-01

    The mass flow rate measurement using a critical nozzle shows the validity of the inviscid theory, indicating that the discharge coefficient increases and approaches unity as the Reynolds number increases under the ideal gas law.However, when the critical nozzle measures the mass flow rate of a real gas such as hydrogen at a pressure of hundreds bar, the discharge coefficient exceeds unity, and the real gas effects should be taken into account. The present study aims at investigating the flow features of the critical nozzle using high-pressured hydrogen gas. The axisymmetric, compressible Navier-Stokes computation is employed to simulate the critical nozzle flow, and a fully implicit finite volume method is used to discretize the governing equation system. The real gas effects are simulated to consider the intermolecular forces, which account for the possibility of liquefying hydrogen gas. The computational results are compared with past experimental data. It has been found that the coefficient of discharge for real gas can be corrected properly below unity adopting the real gas assumption.

  16. Turbulent transport measurements in a cold model of GT-burner at realistic flow rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gobyzov Oleg

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work simultaneous velocity field and passive admixture concentration field measurements at realistic flow-rates conditions in a non-reacting flow in a model of combustion chamber with an industrial mixing device are reported. In the experiments for safety reasons the real fuel (natural gas was replaced with neon gas to simulate stratification in a strongly swirling flow. Measurements were performed by means of planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF and particle image velocimetry technique (PIV at Reynolds number, based on the mean flow rate and nozzle diameter, ≈300 000. Details on experimental technique, features of the experimental setup, images and data preprocessing procedures and results of performed measurements are given in the paper. In addition to the raw velocity and admixture concentration data in-depth evaluation approaches aimed for estimation of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE components, assessment of turbulent Schmidt number and analysis of the gradient closure hypothesis from experimental data are presented in the paper.

  17. Granular-flow rheology: Role of shear-rate number in transition regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C.-L.; Ling, C.-H.

    1996-01-01

    This paper examines the rationale behind the semiempirical formulation of a generalized viscoplastic fluid (GVF) model in the light of the Reiner-Rivlin constitutive theory and the viscoplastic theory, thereby identifying the parameters that control the rheology of granular flow. The shear-rate number (N) proves to be among the most significant parameters identified from the GVF model. As N ??? 0 and N ??? ???, the GVF model can reduce asymptotically to the theoretical stress versus shear-rate relations in the macroviscous and graininertia regimes, respectively, where the grain concentration (C) also plays a major role in the rheology of granular flow. Using available data obtained from the rotating-cylinder experiments of neutrally buoyant solid spheres dispersing in an interstitial fluid, the shear stress for granular flow in transition between the two regimes proves dependent on N and C in addition to some material constants, such as the coefficient of restitution. The insufficiency of data on rotating-cylinder experiments cannot presently allow the GVF model to predict how a granular flow may behave in the entire range of N; however, the analyzed data provide an insight on the interrelation among the relevant dimensionless parameters.

  18. Definition of hydraulic stability of KVGM-100 hot-water boiler and minimum water flow rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belov, A. A.; Ozerov, A. N.; Usikov, N. V.; Shkondin, I. A.

    2016-08-01

    In domestic power engineering, the methods of quantitative and qualitative-quantitative adjusting the load of the heat supply systems are widely distributed; furthermore, during the greater part of the heating period, the actual discharge of network water is less than estimated values when changing to quantitative adjustment. Hence, the hydraulic circuits of hot-water boilers should ensure the water velocities, minimizing the scale formation and excluding the formation of stagnant zones. The results of the calculations of hot-water KVGM-100 boiler and minimum water flow rate for the basic and peak modes at the fulfillment of condition of the lack of surface boil are presented in the article. The minimal flow rates of water at its underheating to the saturation state and the thermal flows in the furnace chamber were defined. The boiler hydraulic calculation was performed using the "Hydraulic" program, and the analysis of permissible and actual velocities of the water movement in the pipes of the heating surfaces was carried out. Based on the thermal calculations of furnace chamber and thermal- hydraulic calculations of heating surfaces, the following conclusions were drawn: the minimum velocity of water movement (by condition of boiling surface) at lifting movement of environment increases from 0.64 to 0.79 m/s; it increases from 1.14 to 1.38 m/s at down movement of environmental; the minimum water flow rate by the boiler in the basic mode (by condition of the surface boiling) increased from 887 t/h at the load of 20% up to 1074 t/h at the load of 100%. The minimum flow rate is 1074 t/h at nominal load and is achieved at the pressure at the boiler outlet equal to 1.1 MPa; the minimum water flow rate by the boiler in the peak mode by condition of surface boiling increases from 1669 t/h at the load of 20% up to 2021 t/h at the load of 100%.

  19. Humor and Laughter May Influence Health IV. Humor and Immune Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Payne Bennett

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the final article in a four part series reviewing the influence of humor and laughter on physiological and psychological well-being. This final article reviews the evidence for the effect of sense of humor, exposure to a humor stimulus and laughter on various immune system components, with a focus on the effects of laughter on natural killer cell cytotoxicity.

  20. Flow-rate fluctuations in the outpouring of grains from a two-dimensional silo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janda, A; Harich, R; Zuriguel, I; Maza, D; Cixous, P; Garcimartín, A

    2009-03-01

    We present experimental results obtained with a two-dimensional silo discharging under gravity through an orifice at the flat bottom. High-speed measurements provide enough time resolution to detect every single bead that goes out and this allows the measurement of the flow rate in short-time windows. Two different regimes are clearly distinguished: one for large orifices, which can be described by Gaussian fluctuations, and another for small orifices, in which extreme events appear. The frontier between those two regimes coincides with the outlet size below which jamming events are frequent. Moreover, it is shown that the power spectrum of the flow-rate oscillations is not dominated by any particular frequency.

  1. Noise-induced convergence of the low flow rate chaos in the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimoto, Minoru; Nakaiwa, Masaru; Akiya, Takaji; Ohmori, Takao; Yamaguchi, Tomohiko

    The effect of noise on the low flow-rate chaos in the Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction was studied. The chaos was simulated using the three-variable model of Györgyi and Field. Gaussian white noise was imposed on the flow-rate of the reactant solutions fed into CSTR to simulate the so-called type P noise. The range of average noise amplitudes was chosen between 0.01% and 1% related to the inverse residence time. The calculated time series were analyzed on the basis of their Fourier spectra, maximum Lyapunov exponent, Kolmogorov entropies, return maps and invariant density. We found that the noise induces partial order of the period-3-like oscillations in the low flowrate chaos.

  2. Model Reference Adaptive Control of the Air Flow Rate of Centrifugal Compressor Using State Space Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Jaeyoung; Jung, Mooncheong; Yu, Sangseok [Chungnam Nat’l Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Sun [North Carolina A and T State Univ., Raleigh (United States)

    2016-08-15

    In this study, a model reference adaptive controller is developed to regulate the outlet air flow rate of centrifugal compressor for automotive supercharger. The centrifugal compressor is developed using the analytical based method to predict the transient behavior of operating and the designed model is validated with experimental data to confirm the system accuracy. The model reference adaptive control structure consists of a compressor model and a MRAC(model reference adaptive control) mechanism. The feedback control do not robust with variation of system parameter but the applied adaptive control is robust even if the system parameter is changed. As a result, the MRAC was regulated to reference air flow rate. Also MRAC was found to be more robust control compared with the feedback control even if the system parameter is changed.

  3. Design and optimization of a large flow rate booster pump in SWRO energy recovery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Z. N.; Wu, P.; Wu, D. Z.; Wang, L. Q.

    2013-12-01

    Seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) is a high energy-consumption industry, so energy efficiency is an important issue. Energy recovery systems, which contain a pressure exchanger and a booster pump, are widely used in SWRO plants. As a key part of energy recovery system, the difficulty of designing booster pumps lies in high inlet pressure, high medium causticity and large flow rate. High inlet pressure adds difficulties to seal design, and large flow rate and high efficiency requirement bring high demand for hydraulic design. In this paper, a 625 m3/h booster pump is designed and optimized according to the CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulation results. The impeller and volute is well designed, a new type of high pressure mechanical seal is applied and axial force is well balanced. After optimization based on blade redesign, the efficiency of the pump was improved. The best efficiency reaches more than 85% at design point according to the CFD simulation result.

  4. Effect of Flow Rate of Side-Type Orifice Intake on Withdrawn Water Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueping Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Side-type orifice intake is a type of selective withdrawal facility used in managing reservoirs to mitigate the negative effects of low-temperature water. Based on the temperature data of a thermal stratified reservoir in China, an experiment was conducted in flume to study the influence of intake flow rate on withdrawn water temperature with different temperature distributions. Results indicated that withdrawn water temperature changed with different flow rates. The temperature change was determined by the water temperature gradients above and below the intake, whereas the change trend of temperature depended on the difference between the water temperature gradient above and below the intake. We likewise proposed a new equation with which the withdrawn water temperature of a thermal stratified reservoir using a side-type orifice could be calculated. These findings could be directly applied to the design and operation of side-type orifice intake in thermal stratified reservoirs.

  5. Effect of flow rate of side-type orifice intake on withdrawn water temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xueping; Li, Guangning; Han, Yunpeng

    2014-01-01

    Side-type orifice intake is a type of selective withdrawal facility used in managing reservoirs to mitigate the negative effects of low-temperature water. Based on the temperature data of a thermal stratified reservoir in China, an experiment was conducted in flume to study the influence of intake flow rate on withdrawn water temperature with different temperature distributions. Results indicated that withdrawn water temperature changed with different flow rates. The temperature change was determined by the water temperature gradients above and below the intake, whereas the change trend of temperature depended on the difference between the water temperature gradient above and below the intake. We likewise proposed a new equation with which the withdrawn water temperature of a thermal stratified reservoir using a side-type orifice could be calculated. These findings could be directly applied to the design and operation of side-type orifice intake in thermal stratified reservoirs.

  6. Chemical elements potentially toxic at different flow rates in the Turvo Sujo river, MG, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Cecon

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Some chemical elements in small amounts are essential to life; however, in high concentrations can commit the quality of the water courses and cause damages to human health. The objective of this work was to quantify the presence of potentially toxic elements, in a section of the Turvo Sujo river in the Viçosa city during different flow rates. In this river five collection points were chosen and monitored in four different seasons. For each point, the concentrations of copper, manganese, iron, zinc, chromium, cadmium and lead were obtained. The iron and manganese concentrations were larger in summer time, due to the largest superficial drainage in this period, while the most toxic elements, such as chromium, cadmium and lead were observed in higher concentrations in the spring period corresponding to the lowest rate flow.

  7. Intergenic DNA sequences from the human X chromosome reveal high rates of global gene flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wall Jeffrey D

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite intensive efforts devoted to collecting human polymorphism data, little is known about the role of gene flow in the ancestry of human populations. This is partly because most analyses have applied one of two simple models of population structure, the island model or the splitting model, which make unrealistic biological assumptions. Results Here, we analyze 98-kb of DNA sequence from 20 independently evolving intergenic regions on the X chromosome in a sample of 90 humans from six globally diverse populations. We employ an isolation-with-migration (IM model, which assumes that populations split and subsequently exchange migrants, to independently estimate effective population sizes and migration rates. While the maximum effective size of modern humans is estimated at ~10,000, individual populations vary substantially in size, with African populations tending to be larger (2,300–9,000 than non-African populations (300–3,300. We estimate mean rates of bidirectional gene flow at 4.8 × 10-4/generation. Bidirectional migration rates are ~5-fold higher among non-African populations (1.5 × 10-3 than among African populations (2.7 × 10-4. Interestingly, because effective sizes and migration rates are inversely related in African and non-African populations, population migration rates are similar within Africa and Eurasia (e.g., global mean Nm = 2.4. Conclusion We conclude that gene flow has played an important role in structuring global human populations and that migration rates should be incorporated as critical parameters in models of human demography.

  8. Comparison of unstimulated salivary flow rate and oral symptoms between premenopausal and postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shirzaiy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dry mouth is one of the most common complications during menopause that affects quality of life as well as oral tissue dysfunction. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the unstimulated salivary flow rate and oral symptoms between premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Methods: This case-control study was conducted in 80 healthy women including 40 postmenopausal women as case group and 40 over 30-year-old premenopausal women as control group. Data were collected through a questionnaire including demographics, oral symptoms and examination. The subjects were asked to avoid eating and drinking 90 minutes before examination. The unstimulated salivary flow rate was measured by spitting method in milliliters per minute. Data were analyzed using Chi-square test, Mann Whitney U test, T-test, and Spearman correlation coefficient. Findings: The mean unstimulated saliva was 0.182±0.149 ml/min and 0.304±0.129 ml/min in postmenopausal and premenopausal women, respectively and the difference was statistically significant. The prevalence of dry mouth was 45% in postmenopausal women and was 12.5% in premenopausal women. Burning sensation in mouth and change in taste sensation were 27.5% and 5% in postmenopausal women and were 2.5% and 0% in premenopausal women. There was negative significant correlation between the unstimulated salivary flow rate and age. Conclusion: The unstimulated salivary flow rate decreases after menopause. Oral symptoms are more prevalent in this period compared to before menopause. These differences may be due to hormonal changes (decreased estrogen and progesterone during menopause.

  9. Development and evaluation of a meter for measuring return line fluid flow rates during drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeppke, G.E.; Schafer, D.M.; Glowka, D.A.; Scott, D.D.; Wernig, M.D. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Wright, E.K. (Ktech Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

    1992-06-01

    The most costly problem routinely encountered in geothermal drilling is lost circulation, which occurs when drilling fluid is lost to the formation rather than circulating back to the surface. The successful and economical treatment of lost circulation requires the accurate measurement of drilling fluid flow rate both into and out of the well. This report documents the development of a meter for measuring drilling fluid outflow rates in the return line of a drilling rig. The meter employs a rolling counterbalanced float that rides on the surface of the fluid in the return line. The angle of the float pivot arm is sensed with a pendulum potentiometer, and the height of the float is calculated from this measurement. The float height is closely related to the fluid height and, therefore, the flow rate in the line. The prototype rolling float meter was extensively tested under laboratory conditions in the Wellbore Hydraulics Flow Facility; results from these tests were used in the design of the field prototype rolling float meter. The field prototype meter was tested under actual drilling conditions in August and September 1991 at the Long Valley Exploratory Well near Mammoth Lakes, Ca. In addition, the performance of several other commercially available inflow and outflow meters was evaluated in the field. The tested inflow meters included conventional pump stroke counters, rotary pump speed counters, magnetic flowmeters, and an ultrasonic Doppler flowmeter. On the return flow line, a standard paddlemeter, an acoustic level meter, and the prototype rolling float meter were evaluated for measuring drilling fluid outflow rates.

  10. Peak expiratory flow rate in healthy children aged 6-17 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, A; Høst, A H; Ibsen, T

    1994-01-01

    Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) was measured in a cross-sectional study in 861 healthy Danish schoolchildren aged 6-17 years using a Mini Wright peak flowmeter. We found a strong correlation between PEFR and height, age and sex. The results were comparable with those from previous studies using...... coefficient in this large sample. Among healthy children without previous asthma, earlier episodes of recurrent wheezing were reported in 8.8% and a significantly lower PEFR was found in this group....

  11. A differential equation for the flow rate during silo discharge: Beyond the Beverloo rule

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    We present a differential equation for the flow rate of granular materials during the discharge of a silo. This is based in the energy balance of the variable mass system in contrast with the traditional derivations based on heuristic postulates such as the free fall arch. We show that this new equation is consistent with the well known Beverloo rule, providing an independent estimate for the universal Beverloo prefactor. We also find an analytic expression for the pressure under discharging ...

  12. Removal of Cryptosporidium sized particle under different filtration temperature, flow rate and alum dosing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Guo-ren; Fitzpatrick S. B. Caroline; Gregory John; DENG Lin-yu

    2007-01-01

    Recent Cryptosporidium outbreaks have highlighted concerns about filter efficiency and in particular particle breakthrough. It is essential to ascertain the causes of Cryptosporidium sized particle breakthrough for Cryptosporidium cannot be destroyed by conventional chlorine disinfection. This research tried to investigate the influence of temperature, flow rate and chemical dosing on particle breakthrough during filtration. The results showed that higher temperatures and coagulant doses could reduce particle breakthrough. The increase of filtration rate made the residual particle counts become larger. There was an optimal dose in filtration and was well correlated to ζ potential.

  13. Effect of Dissolved Organic Matter on Basalt Weathering Rates under Flow Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dontsova, K.; Steefel, C. I.; Chorover, J. D.

    2009-12-01

    Rock weathering is an important aspect of soil formation that is tightly coupled to the progressive colonization of grain surfaces by microorganisms and plant tissue, both of which are associated with the exudation of complexing ligands and reducing equivalents that are incorporated into dissolved organic matter. As part of a larger hillslope experimental study being designed for Biosphere 2 (Oracle, AZ), we seek to determine how the presence and concentration of dissolved organic matter affects the incongruent dissolution rates of basaltic tuff. Saturated flow column experiments are being conducted using plant-derived soluble organic matter solutions of variable concentrations, and comparisons are being made to experiments conducted with malic acid, a low-molecular weight organic acid commonly exuded into the rhizosphere. Dissolved organic matter was extracted from Ponderosa Pine forest floor and was characterized for aqueous geochemical parameters (pH, EC, ion balance, DOC/TN) and also for DOC composition (UV-Vis, FTIR spectroscopy). Column effluents are being analyzed for major and trace cations, anions, silica and organic solutes. Dissolution rates of primary minerals and precipitation rates of secondary phases will be estimated by fitting the data to a numerical reactive transport model, CrunchFlow2007. At the end of the fluid flow experiment, column materials will be analyzed for biogeochemical composition to detect preferential dissolution of specific phases, the precipitation of new ones, and to monitor the associated formation of biofilms. The influence of organic solutions on weathering patterns of basalt will be discussed.

  14. El humor en los servicios hospitalarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguinaga Benítez Óscar William

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available

    El humor es un fenómeno demasiado complejo para ser explicado fácilmente, sin embargo la risa, es una de las formas más admirables del comportamiento humano. El humor forma parte de nuestra vida cotidiana y todos tenemos de él, ya desde nuestra más tierna infancia un conocimiento intuitivo. Muchos saben que el humor mejora las relaciones humanas, puede favorecer una cierta distensión y facilita el bienestar de todos los miembros de una empresa, dirigentes, empleados y obreros. Muchos esperan encontrar en él la forma de resolver los conflictos y de reducir la agresividad. Allí donde se encuentren hombres, existe el humor, comprenderlo mejor y utilizarlo más libremente y en el momento oportuno, puede ayudarnos a hacer nuestra vida más agradable.

  15. Sexual Selection and Humor in Courtship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey A. Hall

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This investigation examines a sexual selection-based argument regarding humor’s role in courtship (i.e., humor production signals intelligence/creativity. Lens model (n =100 analyses suggest that humor production on Facebook profiles were self-reported and perceived to be associated with extroversion, not intelligence. Study 2 (n = 289 found that extroversion was associated humor production, but high school and college grade point average and American College Test (ACT scores were not. In Study 3, pairs of opposite-sex strangers (n = 102 interacted for 10–12 min. Males’ humor production and females’ responsive laughter were both associated with females’ dating interest. Both partners’ dating interest was associated with simultaneous laughter. Without support for the sexual selection argument, three alternative explanations of humor’s role in courtship are discussed.

  16. Laughter and humor therapy in dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Paul N; Parsons, Trisha; Ben-Moshe, Ros; Weinberg, Melissa; Neal, Merv; Gilbert, Karen; Rawson, Helen; Ockerby, Cherene; Finlay, Paul; Hutchinson, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Laughter and humor therapy have been used in health care to achieve physiological and psychological health-related benefits. The application of these therapies to the dialysis context remains unclear. This paper reviews the evidence related to laughter and humor therapy as a medical therapy relevant to the dialysis patient population. Studies from other groups such as children, the elderly, and persons with mental health, cancer, and other chronic conditions are included to inform potential applications of laughter therapy to the dialysis population. Therapeutic interventions could range from humorous videos, stories, laughter clowns through to raucous simulated laughter and Laughter Yoga. The effect of laughter and humor on depression, anxiety, pain, immunity, fatigue, sleep quality, respiratory function and blood glucose may have applications to the dialysis context and require further research.

  17. Heat and mass transfer rates during flow of dissociated hydrogen gas over graphite surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nema, V. K.; Sharma, O. P.

    1986-01-01

    To improve upon the performance of chemical rockets, the nuclear reactor has been applied to a rocket propulsion system using hydrogen gas as working fluid and a graphite-composite forming a part of the structure. Under the boundary layer approximation, theoretical predictions of skin friction coefficient, surface heat transfer rate and surface regression rate have been made for laminar/turbulent dissociated hydrogen gas flowing over a flat graphite surface. The external stream is assumed to be frozen. The analysis is restricted to Mach numbers low enough to deal with the situation of only surface-reaction between hydrogen and graphite. Empirical correlations of displacement thickness, local skin friction coefficient, local Nusselt number and local non-dimensional heat transfer rate have been obtained. The magnitude of the surface regression rate is found low enough to ensure the use of graphite as a linear or a component of the system over an extended period without loss of performance.

  18. Effect of flow rate on the enhancement of particulate fouling in the presence of a developing biofilm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, G.R.; Blimkie, M.E.; McGarvey, G.B.; Turner, C.W

    2001-03-01

    The rate of magnetite deposition on a heated test section was investigated using radiotracing methods as a function of flow rate in the absence and presence of a growing biofilm of Pseudomonas fluorescens. The flow rate was adjusted to span Reynolds numbers from 2200 to 9600. For all flow rates, there was an increase in the rate of magnetite deposition in the presence of the growing biofilm. In addition, the rate of deposition was 10 times greater for a Reynolds number of 6400 than that observed at lower and higher flow rates with Reynolds numbers of 2200 and 9600, respectively. The results are discussed in relation to the shear stress on the biofilm and to the rate of transport of nutrients. (author)

  19. Mass flow rate measurements in gas-liquid flows by means of a venturi or orifice plate coupled to a void fraction sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Jorge Luiz Goes; Passos, Julio Cesar [Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica-LEPTEN/Boiling-UFSC, Campus Universitario, Trindade, 88.040-900 Florianopolis-SC (Brazil); Verschaeren, Ruud; Geld, Cees van der [Eindhoven University of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, W-hoog 2.135, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2009-01-15

    Two-phase flow measurements were carried out using a resistive void fraction meter coupled to a venturi or orifice plate. The measurement system used to estimate the liquid and gas mass flow rates was evaluated using an air-water experimental facility. Experiments included upward vertical and horizontal flow, annular, bubbly, churn and slug patterns, void fraction ranging from 2% to 85%, water flow rate up to 4000 kg/h, air flow rate up to 50 kg/h, and quality up to almost 10%. The fractional root mean square (RMS) deviation of the two-phase mass flow rate in upward vertical flow through a venturi plate is 6.8% using the correlation of Chisholm (D. Chisholm, Pressure gradients during the flow of incompressible two-phase mixtures through pipes, venturis and orifice plates, British Chemical Engineering 12 (9) (1967) 454-457). For the orifice plate, the RMS deviation of the vertical flow is 5.5% using the correlation of Zhang et al. (H.J. Zhang, W.T. Yue, Z.Y. Huang, Investigation of oil-air two-phase mass flow rate measurement using venturi and void fraction sensor, Journal of Zhejiang University Science 6A (6) (2005) 601-606). The results show that the flow direction has no significant influence on the meters in relation to the pressure drop in the experimental operation range. Quality and slip ratio analyses were also performed. The results show a mean slip ratio lower than 1.1, when bubbly and slug flow patterns are encountered for mean void fractions lower than 70%. (author)

  20. Effect of wall shear rate on biofilm deposition and grazing in drinking water flow chambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Tony; Skali-Lami, Salaheddine; Block, Jean-Claude

    2007-08-15

    The effect of four-wall shear rates (34.9, 74.8, 142.5, and 194.5 s(-1)) on bacterial deposition on glass slides in drinking water flow chambers was studied. Biofilm image acquisition was performed over a 50-day period. Bacterial accumulation and surface coverage curves were obtained. Microscopic observations allowed us to obtain information about the dynamics and spatial distribution of the biofilm. During the first stage of biofilm formation (210-518 h), bacterial accumulation was a function of the wall shear rate: the higher the wall shear rate, the faster the bacterial deposition (1.1 and 1.9 x 10(4) bacterial cells . cm(-2) for wall shear rates of 34.9 and 142.5 s(-1), respectively). A new similarity relationship characteristic of a non-dimensional time and function of the wall shear rate was proposed to describe initial bacterial deposition. After 50 days of exposure to drinking water, surface coverage was more or less identical under the entire wall shear rates (7.44 +/- 0.9%), suggesting that biofilm bacterial density cannot be controlled using hydrodynamics. However, the spatial distribution of the biofilm was clearly different. Under low wall shear rate, aggregates were composed of bacterial cells able to "vibrate" independently on the surface, whereas, under a high wall shear rate, aggregates were more cohesive. Therefore, susceptibility to the hydraulic discontinuities occurring in drinking water system may not be similar. In all the flow chambers, significant decreases in bacterial biomass (up to 77%) were associated with the presence of amoebae. This grazing preferentially targeted small, isolated cells.

  1. Circulating Humorous Antitobacco Videos on Social Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moon J; Chen, Fannin

    2017-03-01

    We investigated whether exposure to same humorous antitobacco videos via different types of social media platforms and contexts (health vs. humor) influences individual's health risk perceptions, attitudes, and behavioral intents. An experiment with a 2 (social media types: YouTube and Facebook) × 2 (message contexts: health-focused and humor-focused contexts) factorial design was conducted. It was found that those who watched the humorous antitobacco videos on Facebook in the health-context exhibited a higher level of risk perception of smoking, less positive attitude toward smokers, and a higher level of intention to avoid smoking in the future than the participants who viewed the same videos on YouTube in the health-context or on Facebook in the humor-context. These findings provide useful practical guidelines in using social media for health communication/promotion. Humorous health promotion messages are best circulated on social networking sites such as Facebook accompanied by others' support for the given health topic (i.e., in health-contexts). Practical/theoretical implications and limitations of the study were further discussed in this article.

  2. Skin blood flow and local temperature independently modify sweat rate during passive heat stress in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingo, Jonathan E; Low, David A; Keller, David M; Brothers, R Matthew; Shibasaki, Manabu; Crandall, Craig G

    2010-11-01

    Sweat rate (SR) is reduced in locally cooled skin, which may result from decreased temperature and/or parallel reductions in skin blood flow. The purpose of this study was to test the hypotheses that decreased skin blood flow and decreased local temperature each independently attenuate sweating. In protocols I and II, eight subjects rested supine while wearing a water-perfused suit for the control of whole body skin and internal temperatures. While 34°C water perfused the suit, four microdialysis membranes were placed in posterior forearm skin not covered by the suit to manipulate skin blood flow using vasoactive agents. Each site was instrumented for control of local temperature and measurement of local SR (capacitance hygrometry) and skin blood flow (laser-Doppler flowmetry). In protocol I, two sites received norepinephrine to reduce skin blood flow, while two sites received Ringer solution (control). All sites were maintained at 34°C. In protocol II, all sites received 28 mM sodium nitroprusside to equalize skin blood flow between sites before local cooling to 20°C (2 sites) or maintenance at 34°C (2 sites). In both protocols, individuals were then passively heated to increase core temperature ~1°C. Both decreased skin blood flow and decreased local temperature attenuated the slope of the SR to mean body temperature relationship (2.0 ± 1.2 vs. 1.0 ± 0.7 mg·cm(-2)·min(-1)·°C(-1) for the effect of decreased skin blood flow, P = 0.01; 1.2 ± 0.9 vs. 0.07 ± 0.05 mg·cm(-2)·min(-1)·°C(-1) for the effect of decreased local temperature, P = 0.02). Furthermore, local cooling delayed the onset of sweating (mean body temperature of 37.5 ± 0.4 vs. 37.6 ± 0.4°C, P = 0.03). These data demonstrate that local cooling attenuates sweating by independent effects of decreased skin blood flow and decreased local skin temperature.

  3. Investigating Cooling Rates of a Controlled Lava Flow using Infrared Imaging and Three Heat Diffusion Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarlow, S.; Lev, E.; Zappa, C. J.; Karson, J.; Wysocki, B.

    2011-12-01

    Observation and investigation of surface cooling rates of active lava flows can help constrain thermal parameters necessary for creating of more precise lava flow models. To understand how the lava cools, temperature data was collected using an infrared video camera. We explored three models of the release of heat from lava stream; one based on heat conduction, another based on crust thickness and radiation, and a third model based on radiative cooling and variable crust thickness. The lava flow, part of the Syracuse University Lava Project (http://lavaproject.syr.edu), was made by pouring molten basalt at 1300 Celsius from a furnace into a narrow trench of sand. Hanging roughly 2 m over the trench, the infrared camera, records the lava's surface temperature for the duration of the flow. We determine the average surface temperature of the lava flow at a fixed location downstream as the mean of the lateral cross section of each frame of the IR imagery. From the recorded IR frames, we calculate the mean cross-channel temperature for each downstream distance. We then examine how this mean temperature evolves over time, and plot cooling curves for selected down-stream positions. We then compared the observed cooling behavior to that predicted by three cooling models: a conductive cooling model, a radiative cooling model with constant crust thickness, and a radiative cooling model with variable crust thickness. All three models are solutions to the one-dimensional heat equation. To create the best fit for the conductive model, we constrained thermal diffusivity and to create the best fit for the radiative model, we constrained crust thickness. From the comparison of our data to the models we can conclude that the lava flow's cooling is primarily driven by radiation.

  4. The measurements of water flow rates in the straight microchannel based on the scanning micro-PIV technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H. L.; Han, W.; Xu, M.

    2011-12-01

    Measurement of the water flow rate in microchannel has been one of the hottest points in the applications of microfluidics, medical, biological, chemical analyses and so on. In this study, the scanning microscale particle image velocimetry (scanning micro-PIV) technique is used for the measurements of water flow rates in a straight microchannel of 200μm width and 60μm depth under the standard flow rates ranging from 2.481μL/min to 8.269μL/min. The main effort of this measurement technique is to obtain three-dimensional velocity distribution on the cross sections of microchannel by measuring velocities of the different fluid layers along the out-of-plane direction in the microchannel, so the water flow rates can be evaluated from the discrete surface integral of velocities on the cross section. At the same time, the three-dimensional velocity fields in the measured microchannel are simulated numerically using the FLUENT software in order to verify the velocity accuracy of measurement results. The results show that the experimental values of flow rates are well consistent to the standard flow rates input by the syringe pump and the compared results between numerical simulation and experiment are consistent fundamentally. This study indicates that the micro-flow rate evaluated from three-dimensional velocity by the scanning micro-PIV technique is a promising method for the micro-flow rate research.

  5. Effect of the solvent flow rate on the ionization efficiency in atmospheric pressure photoionization-mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kauppila, TJ; Bruins, AP; Kostiainen, R

    In the novel atmospheric pressure photoionization-mass spectrometry the ionization efficiency has been observed to decrease when the solvent flow rate is increased. The effect of the flow rate on the ionization efficiency was studied by comparing the behavior of two analytes, one of which is ionized

  6. Neuropsychology of humor: an introduction. Part II. Humor and the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derouesné, Christian

    2016-09-01

    Impairment of the perception or comprehension of humor is observed in patients with focal brain lesions in both hemispheres, but mainly in the right frontal lobe. Studies by functional magnetic resonance imaging in healthy subjects show that humor is associated with activation of two main neural systems in both hemispheres. The detection and resolution of incongruity, cognitive groundings of humor, are associated with activation of the medial prefrontal and temporoparietal cortex, and the humor appreciation with activation of the orbito-frontal and insular cortex, amygdala and the brain reward system. However, activation of these areas is not humor-specific and can be observed in various cognitive or emotional processes. Event-related potential studies confirm the involvement of both hemispheres in humor processing, and suggest that left prefrontal area is associated with joke comprehension and right prefrontal area with the resolution stage. Humor thus appears to be a complex and dynamic functional process involving, on one hand, two specialized but not specific neural systems linked to humor apprehension and appreciation, and, on the other hand, multiple interconnected functional brain networks including neural patterns underlying the moral framework and belief system, acquired by conditioning or imitation during the cognitive development and social interactions of the individual, and more distributed systems associated with the analysis of the current context of humor occurrence. Disturbances of the sense of humor could then result from focal brain alterations localized in one or two of the specialized areas underlying the comprehension or appreciation of humor, or from perturbations of the network interconnectivity in non-focal brain disorders such as Alzheimer's disease or schizophrenia.

  7. Long-term flow-through column experiments and their relevance to natural granitoid weathering rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Art F.; Schulz, Marjorie S.; Lawrence, Corey R.; Vivit, Davison V.; Stonestrom, David A.

    2017-04-01

    Four pairs of fresh and partly-weathered granitoids, obtained from well-characterized watersheds-Merced River, CA, USA; Panola, GA, USA; Loch Vale, CO, USA, and Rio Icacos, Puerto Rico-were reacted in columns under ambient laboratory conditions for 13.8 yrs, the longest running experimental weathering study to date. Low total column mass losses (convergence during the last decade of reaction. NETPATH/PHREEQC code simulations indicated non-stoichiometric dissolution involving Ca release from disseminated calcite and excess K release from interlayer biotite. Effluent 87Sr/85Sr ratios reflected a progressive weathering sequence beginning and ending with 87Sr/85Sr values of plagioclase with an additional calcite input and a radiogenic biotite excursion proportional to the granitoid ages. Effluents became thermodynamically saturated with goethite and gibbsite, slightly under-saturated with kaolinite and strongly under-saturated with plagioclase, consistent with kinetically-limited weathering in which solutes such as Na varied with column flow rates. Effluent Na concentrations showed no clear trend with time during the last decade of reaction (fresh granitoids) or increased slowly with time (weathered granitoids). Analysis of cumulative Na release indicated that plagioclase dissolution achieved steady state in 3 of the 4 fresh granitoids during the last decade of reaction. Surface-area normalized plagioclase dissolution rates exhibited a narrow range (0.95-1.26 10-13 moles m-2 s-1), in spite of significant stoichiometric differences (An0.21 to An0.50). Rates were an order of magnitude slower than previously reported in shorter duration experiments but generally 2-3 orders of magnitude faster than corresponding natural analogs. CrunchFlow simulations indicated that more than a hundredfold decrease in column flow rates would be required to produce near-saturation reaction affinities that would start to slow plagioclase weathering to real-world levels. Extending simulations

  8. Relationships between medication intake, complaints of dry mouth, salivary flow rate and composition, and the rate of tooth demineralization in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardow, A; Nyvad, B; Nauntofte, B

    2001-05-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the relationships between the rate of tooth demineralisation and medication intake, subjective feeling of dry mouth, saliva flow, saliva composition and the salivary level of lactobacilli. The study group consisted of 28 subjects that were divided into three groups according to their unstimulated whole saliva flow rate. Group 1 had an unstimulated saliva low rate 0.30 ml/min (n=9). The rate of tooth demineralization was determined as mineral loss assessed by quantitative microradiography of human root surfaces, exposed to the oral environment for 62 days in situ. The unstimulated and stimulated saliva flow rates, pH, bicarbonate, calcium, phosphate, and protein concentrations, as well as the degree of saturation of saliva with hydroxyapatite and the saliva buffer capacity were determined. The results showed that almost all subjects developed demineralization, albeit at highly varying rates. Eighty-five percent of the subjects in group 1, 33% of the subjects in group 2, and 0% of the subjects in group 3 developed mineral loss above the mean mineral loss for all the root surfaces in this experiment. Futhermore, group 1 differed significantly from groups 2 and 3 in having a higher medication intake, a more pronounced feeling of dry mouth, lower stimulated saliva flow rate, lower stimulated bicarbonate concentration, lower unstimulated and stimulated compositional outputs (bicarbonate, calcium, phosphate, and protein), and a higher Lactobacillus level. The best explanatory variable for high mineral loss in this study was a low unstimulated saliva flow rate. In conclusion, our results suggest that an unstimulated salivary flow rate Navazesh et al. (1992), is a better indicator of increased caries risk due to impaired salivation, than the currently accepted definition of hyposalivation (unstimulated saliva flow rate < or =0.10 ml/min), which relates to the function of the salivary glands (Sreebny, 1992).

  9. The influence of flow rate on inter-nucleation site heat transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baltis Coen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main topic of this paper is the influence of vertically aligned nucleation sites on each other in upward flow boiling. A setup was constructed to facilitate vertical up-flow of deminiralized water under saturation conditions. The main test section is a glass channel with a set of vertically aligned bubble generators. Each bubble generator is operated independently, where power and wall temperature are registered and the vapour bubbles are visualized by a high-speed camera. During the experiments, the downstream bubble generator (BG1 power is kept constant, while the power fed to the upstream bubble generator (BG2 is incrementally increased. Two main trends have been identified. The first trend is dominated by added convection from one site to the other. Both bubble frequency and detachment diameter on BG1 increase with increased power fed to upstream BG2. This effect decreases with increasing inter-site distance and becomes more significant with increasing liquid flow rate. When vapor bubbles start nucleating from BG2, these vapor bubbles inhibit bubble nucleation BG1 and can even lead to deactivation of this nucleation site. This second trend is only weakly dependent on inter-site distance, since the inhibition originates from bubbles flowing past BG1 in close proximity.

  10. Influence of air flow rate and backwashing on the hydraulic behaviour of a submerged filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobos-Becerra, Yazmin Lucero; González-Martínez, Simón

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate backwashing effects on the apparent porosity of the filter media and on the hydraulic behaviour of a pilot scale submerged filter, prior to biofilm colonization, under different hydraulic retention times, and different air flow rates. Tracer curves were analysed with two mathematical models for ideal and non-ideal flow (axial dispersion and Wolf and Resnick models). The filter media was lava stones sieved to 4.5 mm. Backwashing causes attrition of media particles, decreasing the void volume of the filter media and, consequently, the tracer flow is more uniform. The eroded media presented lower dead volumes (79% for the filter with aeration and 8% for the filter without aeration) compared with the new media (83% for the filter with aeration and 22% for the filter without aeration). The flow patterns of eroded and new media were different because the more regular shape of the particles decreases the void volume of the filter media. The dead volume is attributed, in the case of the filter with aeration, to the turbulence caused by the air bubbles that generate preferential channelling of the bulk liquid along the filter media, creating large zones of stagnant liquid and, for the filter without aeration, to the channels formed due to the irregular shaped media.

  11. Habitat availability vs. flow rate for the Pecos River, Part 1 : Depth and velocity availability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, Scott Carlton; Schaub, Edward F.; Jepsen, Richard Alan; Roberts, Jesse Daniel

    2004-02-01

    The waters of the Pecos River in New Mexico must be delivered to three primary users: (1) The Pecos River Compact: each year a percentage of water from natural river flow must be delivered to Texas; (2) Agriculture: Carlsbad Irrigation District has a storage and diversion right and Fort Sumner Irrigation District has a direct flow diversion right; and, (3) Endangered Species Act: an as yet unspecified amount of water is to support Pecos Bluntnose Shiner Minnow habitat within and along the Pecos River. Currently, the United States Department of Interior Bureau of Reclamation, the New Mexico Interstate Stream Commission, and the United States Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service are studying the Pecos Bluntnose Shiner Minnow habitat preference. Preliminary work by Fish and Wildlife personnel in the critical habitat suggest that water depth and water velocity are key parameters defining minnow habitat preference. However, river flows that provide adequate preferred habitat to support this species have yet to be determined. Because there is a limited amount of water in the Pecos River and its reservoirs, it is critical to allocate water efficiently such that habitat is maintained, while honoring commitments to agriculture and to the Pecos River Compact. This study identifies the relationship between Pecos River flow rates in cubic feet per second (cfs) and water depth and water velocity.

  12. Impact of flow rates in a cardiac cycle on correlations between advanced human carotid plaque progression and mechanical flow shear stress and plaque wall stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferguson Marina

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mechanical stresses are known to play important roles in atherosclerotic plaque initiation, progression and rupture. It has been well-accepted that atherosclerosis initiation and early progression correlate negatively with flow wall shear stresses (FSS. However, mechanisms governing advanced plaque progression are not well understood. Method In vivo serial MRI data (patient follow-up were acquired from 14 patients after informed consent. Each patient had 2-4 scans (scan interval: 18 months. Thirty-two scan pairs (baseline and follow-up scans were formed with slices matched for model construction and analysis. Each scan pair had 4-10 matched slices which gave 400-1000 data points for analysis (100 points per slice on lumen. Point-wise plaque progression was defined as the wall thickness increase (WTI at each data point. 3D computational models with fluid-structure interactions were constructed based on in vivo serial MRI data to extract flow shear stress and plaque wall stress (PWS on all data points to quantify correlations between plaque progression and mechanical stresses (FSS and PWS. FSS and PWS data corresponding to both maximum and minimum flow rates in a cardiac cycle were used to investigate the impact of flow rates on those correlations. Results Using follow-up scans and maximum flow rates, 19 out of 32 scan pairs showed a significant positive correlation between WTI and FSS (positive/negative/no significance correlation ratio = 19/9/4, and 26 out of 32 scan pairs showed a significant negative correlation between WTI and PWS (correlation ratio = 2/26/4. Corresponding to minimum flow rates, the correlation ratio for WTI vs. FSS and WTI vs. PWS were (20/7/5 and (2/26/4, respectively. Using baseline scans, the correlation ratios for WTI vs. FSS were (10/12/10 and (9/13/10 for maximum and minimum flow rates, respectively. The correlation ratios for WTI vs. PWS were the same (18/5/9, corresponding to maximum and minimum

  13. Impact of flow rates in a cardiac cycle on correlations between advanced human carotid plaque progression and mechanical flow shear stress and plaque wall stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chun; Canton, Gador; Yuan, Chun; Ferguson, Marina; Hatsukami, Thomas S; Tang, Dalin

    2011-07-19

    Mechanical stresses are known to play important roles in atherosclerotic plaque initiation, progression and rupture. It has been well-accepted that atherosclerosis initiation and early progression correlate negatively with flow wall shear stresses (FSS). However, mechanisms governing advanced plaque progression are not well understood. In vivo serial MRI data (patient follow-up) were acquired from 14 patients after informed consent. Each patient had 2-4 scans (scan interval: 18 months). Thirty-two scan pairs (baseline and follow-up scans) were formed with slices matched for model construction and analysis. Each scan pair had 4-10 matched slices which gave 400-1000 data points for analysis (100 points per slice on lumen). Point-wise plaque progression was defined as the wall thickness increase (WTI) at each data point. 3D computational models with fluid-structure interactions were constructed based on in vivo serial MRI data to extract flow shear stress and plaque wall stress (PWS) on all data points to quantify correlations between plaque progression and mechanical stresses (FSS and PWS). FSS and PWS data corresponding to both maximum and minimum flow rates in a cardiac cycle were used to investigate the impact of flow rates on those correlations. Using follow-up scans and maximum flow rates, 19 out of 32 scan pairs showed a significant positive correlation between WTI and FSS (positive/negative/no significance correlation ratio = 19/9/4), and 26 out of 32 scan pairs showed a significant negative correlation between WTI and PWS (correlation ratio = 2/26/4). Corresponding to minimum flow rates, the correlation ratio for WTI vs. FSS and WTI vs. PWS were (20/7/5) and (2/26/4), respectively. Using baseline scans, the correlation ratios for WTI vs. FSS were (10/12/10) and (9/13/10) for maximum and minimum flow rates, respectively. The correlation ratios for WTI vs. PWS were the same (18/5/9), corresponding to maximum and minimum flow rates. Flow shear stress

  14. Radiotherapy Reduced Salivary Flow Rate and Might Induced C. albicans Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Surjadi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Radiotherapy has impact in oral health especially on the secretion capacity of the salivary glands. Another impact is the increase of Candida albicans colony. Objectives: To evaluate salivary flow in relation with Candida albicans colony in head and neck cancer patients during and after radiotherapy. Methods: Twenty-four head and neck cancer patients in Dharmais Cancer Hospital, Jakarta who were undergoing radiotherapy or had undergone radiotherapy and 24 match healthy volunteers were included in the study. Clinical observation carried out by collecting unstimulated salivary flow rate and followed by culture of Candida in Saboraud agar medium. Data were analyzed statistically by Chi-square. Results: Nasopharynx cancer was the most frequent type of head and neck cancers (87.5% followed by tongue cancer (12.5% and and found in 41-50 years old patients and 51-60 years old patients respectively, with male predilection compare to female (17:7. Approxiamtely 87.5% of subjects showed decreased salivary flow rate (1.01-1.50mL/10min during and after radiotherapy. However, 91.7% of cancer patients had increased C.albicans colony during and after radiotherapy compared to control (p=0.00. Conclusion: This study showed that radiotherapy induced hyposalivation and might increase the C.albicans colony.  

  15. Relationships between loading rates and nitrogen removal effectiveness in subsurface flow constructed wetlands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rongshe ZHANG; Guanghe LI; Qi ZHOU; Xu ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    Nitrogen removal of wetlands under 40 different inflow loadings were studied in the field during 15 months. The removal efficiency of four different sets of beds, namely the reed bed, the Zizania caduciflor bed, the mixing planting bed, and the control bed were studied. The outflow loading and total nitrogen (TN) removal rate of these beds under different inflow loadings and pollution loadings were investigated. The inflow loadings of 4 sub-surface flow systems (SFS) ranged from 400 to 8000 mg· (m2·d)-1, while outflow loadings were less than 7000 mg· (m2·d)-1. The results showed that the inflow and outflow loading of TN removal rate in SFS presented an obvious linear relationship. The optical inflow loading to run the system was between 2000 to 4000 mg·(m2·d)-1. Average removal rate was between 1062 and 2007 mg·(m2·d)-1. SFS with plant had a better removal rate than the control. TN removal rates of the reed and Zizania caduciflora bed were 63% and 27% higher than the control bed, respectively. The results regarding the TN absorption of plants indicated that the absorption amount was very limited, less than 5% of the total removal. It proved that plants clearly increase TN removal rates by improving the water flow, and increasing the biomass, as well as activities of microorganisms around the roots. The research provided a perspective for understanding the TN removal mechanism and design for SFS.

  16. Peak expiratory flow rates in healthy Turkish children living in Istanbul, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oneş, Ulker; Somer, Ayper; Sapan, Nihat; Dişçi, Rian; Güler, Nermin

    2004-01-01

    In the evaluation and management of bronchial asthma, simple instruments for measurements of the peak expiratory flow (PEF) rate are needed. The aim of this study was to determine normal PEF values of Turkish children living in Istanbul. This is the largest study conducted in Turkey. In a cross-sectional study, we measured PEF in 2791 healthy schoolchildren (1468 boys and 1323 girls) aged 7-14 years, with a Mini Wright peak flow meter. We entered height, age, and sex into the regression equation. The equation for prediction of PEF in boys was calculated as (3.5 x height [cm]) + (9.2 x age [years]) - 256.5, (p 7 millions inhabitants) can reflect more reliably real PEF values of Turkish children. We concluded that our findings would serve as an important basis for preparing centile curves for normal PEF values for Turkish children.

  17. Measuring the orientation and rotation rate of 3D printed particles in turbulent flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voth, Greg; Kramel, Stefan; Cole, Brendan

    2015-03-01

    The orientation distribution and rotations of anisotropic particles plays a key role in many applications ranging from icy clouds to papermaking and drag reduction in pipe flow. Experimental access to time resolved orientations of anisotropic particles has not been easy to achieve. We have found that 3D printing technology can be used to fabricate a wide range of particle shapes with smallest dimension down to 300 ?m. So far we have studied rods, crosses, jacks, tetrads, and helical shapes. We extract the particle orientations from stereoscopic video images using a method of least squares optimization in Euler angle space. We find that in turbulence the orientation and rotation rate of many particles can be understood using a simple picture of alignment of both the vorticity and a long axis of the particle with the Lagrangian stretching direction of the flow.

  18. Investigations on Oil Flow Rates Projected on the Casing Walls by Splashed Lubricated Gears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Leprince

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the oil projected by gears rotating in an oil bath, a test rig has been set up in which the quantity of lubricant splashed at several locations on the casing walls can be measured. An oblong-shaped window of variable size is connected to a tank for flow measurements, and the system can be placed at several locations. A series of formulae have been deduced using dimensional analysis which can predict the lubricant flow rate generated by one spur gear or one disk at various places on the casing. These results have been experimentally validated over a wide range of operating conditions (rotational speed, geometry, immersion depth, etc..

  19. An Explanation of the Relationship between Instructor Humor and Student Learning: Instructional Humor Processing Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanzer, Melissa B.; Frymier, Ann B.; Irwin, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes the Instructional Humor Processing Theory (IHPT), a theory that incorporates elements of incongruity-resolution theory, disposition theory, and the elaboration likelihood model (ELM) of persuasion. IHPT is proposed and offered as an explanation for why some types of instructor-generated humor result in increased student…

  20. Computational Humor 2012 : extended abstacts of the (3rd international) Workshop on computational Humor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Unknown, [Unknown

    2012-01-01

    Like its predecessors in 1996 (University of Twente, the Netherlands) and 2002 (ITC-irst, Trento, Italy), this Third International Workshop on Computational Humor (IWCH 2012) focusses on the possibility to find algorithms that allow understanding and generation of humor. There is the general aim of

  1. High rates of gene flow by pollen and seed in oak populations across Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Gerber

    Full Text Available Gene flow is a key factor in the evolution of species, influencing effective population size, hybridisation and local adaptation. We analysed local gene flow in eight stands of white oak (mostly Quercus petraea and Q. robur, but also Q. pubescens and Q. faginea distributed across Europe. Adult trees within a given area in each stand were exhaustively sampled (range [239, 754], mean 423, mapped, and acorns were collected ([17,147], 51 from several mother trees ([3], [47], 23. Seedlings ([65,387], 178 were harvested and geo-referenced in six of the eight stands. Genetic information was obtained from screening distinct molecular markers spread across the genome, genotyping each tree, acorn or seedling. All samples were thus genotyped at 5-8 nuclear microsatellite loci. Fathers/parents were assigned to acorns and seedlings using likelihood methods. Mating success of male and female parents, pollen and seed dispersal curves, and also hybridisation rates were estimated in each stand and compared on a continental scale. On average, the percentage of the wind-borne pollen from outside the stand was 60%, with large variation among stands (21-88%. Mean seed immigration into the stand was 40%, a high value for oaks that are generally considered to have limited seed dispersal. However, this estimate varied greatly among stands (20-66%. Gene flow was mostly intraspecific, with large variation, as some trees and stands showed particularly high rates of hybridisation. Our results show that mating success was unevenly distributed among trees. The high levels of gene flow suggest that geographically remote oak stands are unlikely to be genetically isolated, questioning the static definition of gene reserves and seed stands.

  2. Determination of rapid chlorination rate constants by a stopped-flow spectrophotometric competition kinetics method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dean; Liu, Huijuan; Qiang, Zhimin; Qu, Jiuhui

    2014-05-15

    Free chlorine is extensively used for water and wastewater disinfection nowadays. However, it still remains a big challenge to determine the rate constants of rapid chlorination reactions although competition kinetics and stopped-flow spectrophotometric (SFS) methods have been employed individually to investigate fast reaction kinetics. In this work, we proposed an SFS competition kinetics method to determine the rapid chlorination rate constants by using a common colorimetric reagent, N,N-diethyl-p-phenylenediamine (DPD), as a reference probe. A kinetic equation was first derived to estimate the reaction rate constant of DPD towards chlorine under a given pH and temperature condition. Then, on that basis, an SFS competition kinetics method was proposed to determine directly the chlorination rate constants of several representative compounds including tetracycline, ammonia, and four α-amino acids. Although Cl2O is more reactive than HOCl, its contribution to the overall chlorination kinetics of the test compounds could be neglected in this study. Finally, the developed method was validated through comparing the experimentally measured chlorination rate constants of the selected compounds with those obtained or calculated from literature and analyzing with Taft's correlation as well. This study demonstrates that the SFS competition kinetics method can measure the chlorination rate constants of a test compound rapidly and accurately.

  3. Investigating the Effect of Humor Communication Skills Training on Pro-Social and Anti-Social Humor Styles, Cognitive Learning, Self-Efficacy, Motivation, and Humor Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, Lori E.

    2013-01-01

    Humor is an important aspect of interpersonal interactions as it is linked to the development and maintenance of relationships (Merolla, 2006). The purpose of this dissertation was to test the effect of a humor communication skills training program on the ability to minimize anti-social humor (i.e., aggressive, self-defeating) and enhance…

  4. Investigating the Effect of Humor Communication Skills Training on Pro-Social and Anti-Social Humor Styles, Cognitive Learning, Self-Efficacy, Motivation, and Humor Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, Lori E.

    2013-01-01

    Humor is an important aspect of interpersonal interactions as it is linked to the development and maintenance of relationships (Merolla, 2006). The purpose of this dissertation was to test the effect of a humor communication skills training program on the ability to minimize anti-social humor (i.e., aggressive, self-defeating) and enhance…

  5. Sense of Humor, Stable Affect, and Psychological Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnie Cann

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A good sense of humor has been implicated as a quality that could contribute to psychological well-being. The mechanisms through which sense of humor might operate include helping to reappraise threats, serving as a character strength, or facilitating happiness. The current research attempts to integrate these possibilities by examining whether a good sense of humor might operate globally by helping to maintain a more stable positive affect. Stable positive affect has been shown to facilitate more effective problem solving and to build resilience. However, not all humor is adaptive humor, so we also examine the roles that different styles of humor use might play. Individual differences in humor styles were used to predict stable levels of affect. Then, in a longitudinal design, humor styles and stable affect were used to predict subsequent resilience and psychological health. The results indicated that stable affect was related to resilience and psychological well-being, and that a sense of humor that involves self-enhancing humor, humor based on maintaining a humorous perspective about one’s experiences, was positively related to stable positive affect, negatively related to stable negative affect, and was mediated through stable affect in influencing resilience, well-being and distress. Thus, while a good sense of humor can lead to greater resilience and better psychological health, the current results, focusing on stable affect, find only self-enhancing humor provides reliable benefits.

  6. Maximizing Protein Translation Rate in the Ribosome Flow Model: The Homogeneous Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarai, Yoram; Margaliot, Michael; Tuller, Tamir

    2014-01-01

    Gene translation is the process in which intracellular macro-molecules, called ribosomes, decode genetic information in the mRNA chain into the corresponding proteins. Gene translation includes several steps. During the elongation step, ribosomes move along the mRNA in a sequential manner and link amino-acids together in the corresponding order to produce the proteins. The homogeneous ribosome flow model (HRFM) is a deterministic computational model for translation-elongation under the assumption of constant elongation rates along the mRNA chain. The HRFM is described by a set of n first-order nonlinear ordinary differential equations, where n represents the number of sites along the mRNA chain. The HRFM also includes two positive parameters: ribosomal initiation rate and the (constant) elongation rate. In this paper, we show that the steady-state translation rate in the HRFM is a concave function of its parameters. This means that the problem of determining the parameter values that maximize the translation rate is relatively simple. Our results may contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms and evolution of translation-elongation. We demonstrate this by using the theoretical results to estimate the initiation rate in M. musculus embryonic stem cell. The underlying assumption is that evolution optimized the translation mechanism. For the infinite-dimensional HRFM, we derive a closed-form solution to the problem of determining the initiation and transition rates that maximize the protein translation rate. We show that these expressions provide good approximations for the optimal values in the n-dimensional HRFM already for relatively small values of n. These results may have applications for synthetic biology where an important problem is to re-engineer genomic systems in order to maximize the protein production rate.

  7. Flow rate analysis of wastewater inside reactor tanks on tofu wastewater treatment plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamat; Sintawardani, N.; Astuti, J. T.; Nilawati, D.; Wulan, D. R.; Muchlis; Sriwuryandari, L.; Sembiring, T.; Jern, N. W.

    2017-03-01

    The research aimed to analyse the flow rate of the wastewater inside reactor tanks which were placed a number of bamboo cutting. The resistance of wastewater flow inside reactor tanks might not be occurred and produce biogas fuel optimally. Wastewater from eleven tofu factories was treated by multi-stages anaerobic process to reduce its organic pollutant and produce biogas. Biogas plant has six reactor tanks of which its capacity for waste water and gas dome was 18 m3 and 4.5 m3, respectively. Wastewater was pumped from collecting ponds to reactors by either serial or parallel way. Maximum pump capacity, head, and electrical motor power was 5m3/h, 50m, and 0.75HP, consecutively. Maximum pressure of biogas inside the reactor tanks was 55 mbar higher than atmosphere pressure. A number of 1,400 pieces of cutting bamboo at 50-60 mm diameter and 100 mm length were used as bacteria growth media inside each reactor tank, covering around 14,287 m2 bamboo area, and cross section area of inner reactor was 4,9 m2. In each reactor, a 6 inches PVC pipe was installed vertically as channel. When channels inside reactor were opened, flow rate of wastewater was 6x10-1 L.sec-1. Contrary, when channels were closed on the upper part, wastewater flow inside the first reactor affected and increased gas dome. Initially, wastewater flowed into each reactor by a gravity mode with head difference between the second and third reactor was 15x10-2m. However, head loss at the second reactor was equal to the third reactor by 8,422 x 10-4m. As result, wastewater flow at the second and third reactors were stagnant. To overcome the problem pump in each reactor should be installed in serial mode. In order to reach the output from the first reactor and the others would be equal, and biogas space was not filled by wastewater, therefore biogas production will be optimum.

  8. Effects of in-stream structures and channel flow rate variation on transient storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, S. M. Masud; Scott, Durelle T.; Hester, Erich T.

    2017-05-01

    In-stream structures can potentially enhance surface and subsurface solute retention. They form naturally in small streams and their installation has gained popularity in stream restoration for multiple purposes, including improved water quality. Yet few studies have quantified the cumulative effect of multiple structures on solute transport at the reach scale, nor how this varies with changing stream flow. We built a series of weirs in a small stream to simulate channel spanning structures such as natural debris dams and stream restoration log dams and boulder weirs. We conducted constant rate conservative (NaCl) tracer injections to quantify the effect of the weirs on solute transport at the reach scale. We used a one dimensional solute transport model with transient storage to quantify the change of solute transport parameters with increasing number of weirs. Results indicate that adding weirs significantly increased the cross-sectional area of the surface stream (A) and transient storage zones (As) while exchange with transient storage (α) decreased. The increase in A and As is due to backwater behind weirs and increased hydrostatically driven hyporheic exchange induced by the weirs, while we surmise that the reduction in α is due at least in part to reduced hydrodynamically driven hyporheic exchange in bed ripples drowned by the weir backwater. In order for weir installation to achieve net improvement in solute retention and thus water quality, cumulative reactions in weir backwater and enhanced hydrostatically driven hyporheic exchange would have to overcome the reduced hydrodynamically driven exchange. Analysis of channel flow variation over the course of the experiments indicated that weirs change the relationship between transient storage parameters and flow, for example the trend of increasing α with flow without weirs was reversed in the presence of weirs. Effects of flow variation were substantial, indicating that transient storage measurements at a

  9. Bubbling at high flow rates in inviscid and viscous liquids (slags)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engh, T. Abel; Nilmani, M.

    1988-02-01

    The behavior of gas discharging into melts at high velocities but still in the bubbling regime has been investigated in a laboratory modeling study for constant flow conditions. Air or helium was injected through a vertical tuyere into water, zinc-chloride, and aqueous glycerol solutions. High speed cinematography and pressure measurements in the tuyere have been carried out simultaneously. Pressure fluctuations at the injection point were monitored and correlated to the mode of bubble formation. The effects of high gas flow rates and high liquid viscosities have been examined in particular. Flow rates were employed up to 10-3 m3/s and viscosity to 0.5 Ns/m2. In order to attain a high gas momentum, the tuyere diameter was only 3 x 10-3 m. The experimental conditions and modeling liquids were chosen with special reference to the established practice of submerged gas injection to treat nonferrous slags. Such slags can be highly viscous. Bubble volume is smaller than that calculated from existing models such as those given by Davidson and Schüler10,11 due to the effect of gas momentum elongating the bubbles. On the other hand, viscosity tends to retard the bubble rise velocity, thus increasing volumes. To take elongation into account, a mathematical model is presented that assumes a prolate ellipsoidal shape of the bubbles. The unsteady potential flow equations for the liquid are solved for this case. Viscous effects are taken into account by noting that flow deviates from irrotational motion only in a thin boundary layer along the surface of the bubble. Thus, drag on the bubble can be obtained by calculating the viscous energy dissipation for potential flow past an ellipse. The time-dependent inertia coefficient for the ellipsoid is found by equating the vertical pressure increase inside and outside the bubble. This pressure change in the bubble is obtained by assuming that gas enters as a homogeneous jet and then calculating the stagnation pressure at the apex of

  10. Effects of Temperature, Humidity and Air Flow on Fungal Growth Rate on Loaded Ventilation Filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, W; Kuehn, T H; Simcik, Matt F

    2015-01-01

    This study compares the fungal growth ratio on loaded ventilation filters under various temperature, relative humidity (RH), and air flow conditions in a controlled laboratory setting. A new full-size commercial building ventilation filter was loaded with malt extract nutrients and conidia of Cladosporium sphaerospermum in an ASHRAE Standard 52.2 filter test facility. Small sections cut from this filter were incubated under the following conditions: constant room temperature and a high RH of 97%; sinusoidal temperature (with an amplitude of 10°C, an average of 23°C, and a period of 24 hr) and a mean RH of 97%; room temperature and step changes between 97% and 75% RH, 97% and 43% RH, and 97% and 11% RH every 12 hr. The biomass on the filter sections was measured using both an elution-culture method and by ergosterol assay immediately after loading and every 2 days up to 10 days after loading. Fungal growth was detected earlier using ergosterol content than with the elution-culture method. A student's t-test indicated that Cladosporium sphaerospermum grew better at the constant room temperature condition than at the sinusoidal temperature condition. By part-time exposure to dry environments, the fungal growth was reduced (75% and 43% RH) or even inhibited (11% RH). Additional loaded filters were installed in the wind tunnel at room temperature and an RH greater than 95% under one of two air flow test conditions: continuous air flow or air flow only 9 hr/day with a flow rate of 0.7 m(3)/s (filter media velocity 0.15 m/s). Swab tests and a tease mount method were used to detect fungal growth on the filters at day 0, 5, and 10. Fungal growth was detected for both test conditions, which indicates that when temperature and relative humidity are optimum, controlling the air flow alone cannot prevent fungal growth. In real applications where nutrients are less sufficient than in this laboratory study, fungal growth rate may be reduced under the same operating conditions.

  11. Analysis of carrier gas flow rate effect on hydroxyapatite particle formation in ultrasonic spray pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiyastuti, W.; Setiawan, Adhi; Nurtono, Tantular; Winardi, Sugeng

    2016-02-01

    Ultrasonic spray pyrolysis has been well-known process for producing fine particles from single and multicomponent materials. Here, the effect of carrier gas flow rate in ultrasonic spray pyrolysis process was studied in the particle formation of hydroxyapatite using solution precursor of Ca(CH3COO)2 and (NH4)2HPO4 with Ca/P ratio of 1.67. The experimental analysis was accompanied with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation for comparison. In the simulation, the evaporation of the solvent in the droplets, a second evaporation due to crust formation, the decomposition reaction of the precursor involving the transfer of heat and mass transfer from droplet to surrounding were considered. By maintaining temperature at 900 °C, the residence time increased with decreasing the carrier gas flow rate led to the increasing the evaporation rate and the reacted fraction of the precursor. The predicted and experimental results of average particles size were agreed well with discrepancy 6.3%.

  12. Bounds on the Rate Dependent Plastic Flow of Tantalum up to 75 GPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Bryan; Patterson, Reed; Kumar, Mukul

    2013-06-01

    We report improvements in a general thermodynamics-based velocimetry analysis method designed to extract strength and plastic-flow information from shock and ramp compression experiments. The method allows extraction of thermodynamic histories, including deviatoric stress and plastic strain, including nonsteady rate-dependent features. The improved method includes free-surface corrections for pullback waves, reduced noise sensitivity, and application to pressures of 75 GPa and higher. Specifically, we show results for shock waves in tantalum, including bounds on the plastic flow behavior at strain rates exceeding 1e7/s.The deviatoric stress appears to be almost entirely dependent on strain rate, with very little pressure dependence.The deviatoric stress in the post-shock plateau state appears to be very small at higher pressures, calling into question the value of considering strength as a steady- state pressure-dependent quantity. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  13. The effects of flow rate and temperature on SPMD measurements of bioavailable PAHs in seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wan-Ting; Lee, Chon-Lin; Brimblecombe, Peter; Fang, Meng-Der; Chang, Kuo-Tung; Liu, James T

    2015-08-15

    This work investigates the dependence of the sampling rate (Rs) of semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs) on flow rate and temperature. The in situ Rs values were obtained using performance reference compounds (PRCs) with weighted polynomial regression and used to estimate the bioavailable polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in seawater. The in situ Rs values did not vary with flow rate and temperature. The empirical equation of the Rs value from the SPMDs was established. This infers that PRCs could be avoided by using an established empirical equation under similar field conditions. The sum of the bioavailable PAHs ranged from 0.281 to 0.611ngL(-1) on the eastern side of the Taiwan Strait and from 0.438 to 1.10ngL(-1) on the western side. Distinct sources and toxicity of these bioavailable PAHs were observed and mainly resulted from different types of energy consumption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Net capital flows to and the real exchange rate of Western Balkan countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrisch Hubert

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses Granger causality tests to assess the linkages between changes in the real exchange rate and net capital inflows using the example of Western Balkan countries, which have suffered from low competitiveness and external imbalances for many years. The real exchange rate is a measure of a country’s price competitiveness, and the paper uses two concepts: relative unit labour cost and relative inflation differential. The sample consists of six Western Balkan countries for the period 1996-2012, relative to the European Union (EU. The main finding is that changes in the net capital flows precede changes in relative unit labour costs and not vice versa. Also, there is evidence that net capital flows affect the inflation differential of countries, although to a less discernible extent. This suggests that the increasing divergence in the unit labour cost between the EU and Western Balkan countries up to the global financial crisis was at least partly the result of net capital inflows. The paper adds to the ongoing debate on improving cost competitiveness through wage restrictions as the main vehicle to avert the accumulation of current account imbalances. It shows the importance of changes in the exchange rate regime, reform of the interaction between the financial and the real sector, and financial supervision and structural change.

  15. Identity and Stereotypes: Humor Manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Repšienė

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The traditional understanding of humor as being tolerant, full of non-aggressive life curiosities, funny situations, mocking national or human vices, and related to an optimistic and contemplative attitude towards reality, has changed its main supportive points: the optimistic view of reality has been altered into a pessimistic and destructive one, forbearing ridicule has turned into severe offence, strangeness into stupidity, funny situations into futile misunderstanding. Everything is regarded as a dramatic possibility to survive or an endless situational tragedy where the most strict evaluation criteria, censorship, and dogmatism are empowered, meaning that, in the current times of widely propagated tolerance and overwhelming comprehension, it is extremely dangerous to offend somebody with an innocent joke or light mockery, to evoke an urge to contradict or negate when ideological aspirations are beyond “decency” limits. One of the most advocated rules in the Lithuanian press is: “Joke carefully with foreign nationals” from an interview with Barry Tomelin, London “International house” consultant and teaching director, the author of the book “World’s Business Cultures: And How to Unlock Them” (with Michael Nicks. Identity is to be saved and nourished as the highest sanctity but its formation, meaningfulness and spread are not always attuned to the official approach.Our life is full of stereotypes and our neighboring countries are not to be excluded – we have a preconceived notion of them. Using the national stereotype term we characterize relatively stable generalized opinions, in an open or hidden form, containing one or another assessment of a nation.Our attitude towards neighbors is revealed in nicknames given to them – non-official ethnonyms usually bearing a negative connotation. Some monikers have already lasted for centuries while others have been coined during the last decades. Anecdotes with the most popular

  16. Implications of sediment transport by subglacial water flow for interpreting contemporary glacial erosion rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaud, Flavien; Flowers, Gwenn E.; Venditti, Jeremy G.

    2017-04-01

    The role of glaciers in landscape evolution is central to the interactions between climate and tectonic forces at high latitudes and in mountainous regions. Sediment yields from glacierized basins are used to quantify contemporary erosion rates on seasonal to decadal timescales, often under the assumption that subglacial water flow is the main contributor to these yields. Two recent studies have furthermore used such sediment fluxes to calibrate a glacial erosion rule, where erosion rate scales with ice sliding speed raised to a power greater than one. Subglacial sediment transport by water flow has however seldom been studied, thus the controls on sediment yield from glacierized basins remain enigmatic. To bridge this gap, we develop a 1-D model of morphodynamics in semi-circular bedrock-floored subglacial channels. We adapt a sediment conservation law from the fluvial literature, developed for both mixed bedrock / alluvial and alluvial conditions, to subglacial channels. Channel evolution is a function of the traditional melt-opening due to viscous heat dissipation from the water flow, and creep closure of the overlying ice, to which we add the closure or enlargement due to sediment deposition or removal, respectively. Using a simple ice geometry representing a land-terminating glacier, we find that the shear stresses produced by the water flow on the bed decrease significantly near the terminus. As the ice thins, creep closure decreases and large hydraulic potential gradients cannot be sustained. The resulting gradients in sediment transport lead to a bottleneck, and sediment accumulates if the sediment supply is adequate. A similar bottleneck occurs if a channel is well established and water discharge drops. Whether such constriction happens in space of time, in the presence of a sufficiently large sediment supply sediment accumulates temporarily near the terminus, followed shortly thereafter by enhanced sediment transport. Reduction in the cross-sectional area

  17. Effects of Chewing Different Flavored Gums on Salivary Flow Rate and pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Karami Nogourani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chewing gum increases salivary flow rate (SFR and pH, but differences in preferences of gum flavor may influence SFR and pH. The aim of this paper was to assess the effect of five different flavors of sucrose-free chewing gum on the salivary flow rate and pH in healthy dental students in Isfahan, Iran. Fifteen (7 men and 8 women healthy dental student volunteers collected unstimulated saliva and then chewed one of five flavored gums for 6 min. The whole saliva was collected and assessed for 6 consecutive days. After unstimulated saliva was collected, stimulated saliva was collected at interval of 0-1, 1–3, and 3–6 minutes after the start of different flavored chewing gums. The SFR and salivary pH were measured. The SFR increased in all five flavored gums at 1, 3, and 6 minutes after start of chewing gums (<0.001. The flow rate of all products reached peak in the 1st minute of stimulation, except spearmint-flavored gums which reached peak in the 6th minute. In the 1st minute, the strawberry-flavored gums showed the highest SFR. During 1–3 minutes, strawberry- and apple-flavored gums showed higher SFR, respectively. Only the spearmint- and cinnamon-flavored gum significantly increased salivary pH. Gum flavored can affect the SFR and pH and special flavors can be advised for different individuals according to their oral conditions.

  18. Gas mass derived by infrasound and UV cameras: Implications for mass flow rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delle Donne, D.; Ripepe, M.; Lacanna, G.; Tamburello, G.; Bitetto, M.; Aiuppa, A.

    2016-10-01

    Mass Flow Rate is one of the most crucial eruption source parameter used to define magnitude of eruption and to quantify the ash dispersal in the atmosphere. However, this parameter is in general difficult to be derived and no valid technique has been developed yet to measure it in real time with sufficient accuracy. Linear acoustics has been applied to infrasonic pressure waves generated by explosive eruptions to indirectly estimate the gas mass erupted and then the mass flow rate. Here, we test on Stromboli volcano (Italy) the performance of such methodology by comparing the acoustic derived results with independent gas mass estimates obtained with UV cameras, and constraining the acoustic source by thermal imagery. We show that different acoustic methods give comparable total gas masses in the 2 to 1425 kg range, which are fully consistent with the gas masses derived by UV cameras and previous direct SO2 measurements. We show that total erupted gas mass, estimated by infrasound is not simply a function of the initial pressure, but rather the full infrasonic waveform should be considered. Thermal imagery provides evidence that infrasound is generated during the entire gas thrust phase. We provide examples to show how total gas masses derived by infrasonic signals can be affected by large uncertainties if duration of the signal is neglected. Only when duration of infrasound is included, the best correlation (0.8) with UV cameras and the 1:1 direct linear proportionality is obtained. Our results open new perspective for remotely derived gas mass and mass flow rates from acoustic signals.

  19. Theoretical relation between water flow rate in a vertical fracture and rock temperature in the surrounding massif

    CERN Document Server

    Maréchal, Jean-Christophe

    2010-01-01

    A steady-state analytical solution is given describing the temperature distribution in a homogeneous massif perturbed by cold water flow through a discrete vertical fracture. A relation is derived to express the flow rate in the fracture as a function of the temperature measured in the surrounding rock. These mathematical results can be useful for tunnel drilling as it approaches a vertical cold water bearing structure that induces a thermal anomaly in the surrounding massif. During the tunnel drilling, by monitoring this anomaly along the tunnel axis one can quantify the flow rate in the discontinuity ahead before intersecting the fracture. The cases of the Simplon, Mont Blanc and Gotthard tunnels (Alps) are handled with this approach which shows very good agreement between observed temperatures and the theoretical trend. The flow rates before drilling of the tunnel predicted with the theoretical solution are similar in the Mont Blanc and Simplon cases, as well as the flow rates observed during the drilling....

  20. Mineral/solution reaction rates in a mixed flow reactor: Wollastonite hydrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimstidt, J. Donald; Dove, Patricia M.

    1986-11-01

    A newly developed mixed flow reactor was used to measure the rate of hydrolysis of wollastonite over the pH range of 3 to 8. This design avoids abrasion of the solid sample by confining it within a nylon mesh while the reacting solution is circulated over it by a stirrer. The rate of reaction was determined from the difference of the compositions of the input and output solutions following the methods used by chemical engineers for the analysis of mixed flow reactors, also called continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTR). This apparatus, constructed from easily obtainable parts, avoids many of the problems inherent in studying mineral/solution reaction kinetics in batch reactors. The hydrolysis of wollastonite CaSiO3 + 2 H+ + H2O = Ca2+ + H4SiO4 can be fit to a rate law of the form: dnH+/ dt = kadKH+mH+/(1.0 + KH+mH+) where kad = 9.80 × 10 -8molm-2sec-1 and KH+ = 2.08 × 10 5. Over the pH range of 4 to 7, the data also may fit a simple linear form: dnH+/ dt = - Ak+( aH+) 0.40 where k+ = 3.80 × 10 -6 sec -1 at 25°C. The presence of calcium ion in the solution at concentrations up to 1.0 mol kg -1 produces only a minor reduction of the reaction rate. The activation energy for this reaction is 79.2 kJ mol -1. Examination of the surfaces of the reacted grains showed no evidence of incongruent reaction leading to a product layer but did show the extensive development of etch pits leading to a rapid increase in the specific surface area. At large extents of reaction at low pH, diffusion of ions into or from these deep etch pits may limit the reaction rate.

  1. DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF LARGE FLOW RATING ELECTRO-HYDRAULIC PROPORTIONAL CARTRIDGE VALVE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A kind of cartridge servo proportional valve is discussed, which can be used for controlling large flow rate with high performance. By analyzing the structure principle of the valve, the transfer function of the valve is derived. With the transfer function, some structure elements that may affect its performance are investigated. Through the numerical simulation and test study, some principles of optimality and effective methods for improving the dynamic performance of the valve are proposed. The test results conform to the results of the theoretical analysis and simulation, which proves the correctness of the study and simulation works. The paper provides theoretical basis for engineering applications and series expanding design works.

  2. Tribological development of TiCN coatings by adjusting the flowing rate of reactive gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillmann, Wolfgang; Momeni, Soroush

    2016-03-01

    TiCN coatings were deposited by means of direct current magnetron sputtering of Ti targets in presence of N2 and C2H2 reactive gases. The microstructure, composition, mechanical and tribological properties of the deposited thin films were analyzed by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), nanoindentation, ball-on-disc, scratch test, and three dimensional (3D) optical microscopy. The obtained results presents a reproducible processing route for tailoring microstructure, mechanical and tribological behavior of TiCN coatings by controlling flowing rate of the reactive gases.

  3. Dimensionless numbers used to characterize stratification in water tanks for discharging at low flow rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castell, A.; Medrano, M.; Sole, C.; Cabeza, L.F. [GREA Innovacio concurrent, Universitat de Lleida, Pere de Cabrera s/n, 25001 Lleida (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    The efficiency of thermal energy storage and solar collector systems is improved if the water tank is stratified. There are many parameters to characterize stratification but no work compares their suitability. This paper identifies the most used dimensionless numbers to characterize stratification in water tanks and studies their suitability. Experiments with different flow rates were done and the dimensionless numbers were determined. Richardson is the best number to define stratification in a water tank, while Mix number presents some problems and a bad behaviour. The other numbers do not clearly characterize stratification but can be useful combined with Richardson. (author)

  4. Target heart rate to determine the normal value of coronary flow reserve during dobutamine stress echocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rousse Maria G

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The determination of coronary flow reserve (CFR is an essential concept at the moment of decision-making in ischemic heart disease. There are several direct and indirect tests to evaluate this parameter. In this sense, dobutamine stress echocardiography is one of the pharmacological method most commonly used worldwide. It has been previously demonstrated that CFR can be determined by this technique. Despite our wide experience with dobutamine stress echocardiography, we ignored the necessary heart rate to consider sufficient the test for the analysis of CFR. For this reason, our main goal was to determine the velocity of coronary flow in each stage of dobutamine stress echocardiography and the heart rate value necessary to double the baseline values of coronary flow velocity in the territory of the left anterior descending (LAD coronary artery. Methods A total of 33 consecutive patients were analyzed. The patients included had low risk for coronary artery disease. All the participants underwent dobutamine stress echocardiography and coronary artery flow velocity was evaluated in the distal segment of LAD coronary artery using transthoracic color-Doppler echocardiography. Results The feasibility of determining CFR in the territory of the LAD during dobutamine stress echocardiography was high: 31/33 patients (94%. Mean CFR was 2.67 at de end of dobutamine test. There was an excellent concordance between delta HR (difference between baseline HR and maximum HR and the increase in the CFR (correlation coefficient 0.84. In this sense, we found that when HR increased by 50 beats, CFR was ≥ 2 (CI 93-99.2%. In addition, 96.4% of patients reached a CFR ≥ 2 (IC 91.1 - 99% at 75% of their predicted maximum heart rate. Conclusions We found that the feasibility of dobutamine stress echocardiography to determine CFR in the territory of the LAD coronary artery was high. In this study, it was necessary to achieve a difference of 50 bpm

  5. A differential equation for the flow rate during silo discharge: Beyond the Beverloo rule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madrid Marcos A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a differential equation for the flow rate of granular materials during the discharge of a silo. This is based in the energy balance of the variable mass system in contrast with the traditional derivations based on heuristic postulates such as the free fall arch. We show that this new equation is consistent with the well known Beverloo rule, providing an independent estimate for the universal Beverloo prefactor. We also find an analytic expression for the pressure under discharging conditions.

  6. CORRELATION OF PEAK EXPIRATORY FLOW RATE WITH PULMONARY FUNCTION TEST IN CHILDHOOD ASTHMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antony Jenifer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To ascertain whether the severity of childhood asthma as assessed by peak expiratory flow rate correlated with assessment by spirometry. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patient between 6-18 years of age attending the asthma clinic during the non-exacerbation phase were included, those in whom PFT, PEFR could not be performed and those with diagnosis other than asthma were excluded. A total of 102 patients were enrolled in the study. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrated that PEFR measurement alone had poor predictive value for abnormal spirometry. In the absence of PFTs, PEFR often overestimated how well a patient's asthma was controlled.

  7. Effects of chest wall compression on expiratory flow rates in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masafumi Nozoe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Manual chest wall compression (CWC during expiration is a technique for removing airway secretions in patients with respiratory disorders. However, there have been no reports about the physiological effects of CWC in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Objective: To compare the effects of CWC on expiratory flow rates in patients with COPD and asymptomatic controls. Method: Fourteen subjects were recruited from among patients with COPD who were receiving pulmonary rehabilitation at the University Hospital (COPD group. Fourteen age-matched healthy subjects were also consecutively recruited from the local community (Healthy control group. Airflow and lung volume changes were measured continuously with the subjects lying in supine position during 1 minute of quiet breathing (QB and during 1 minute of CWC by a physical therapist. Results: During CWC, both the COPD group and the healthy control group showed significantly higher peak expiratory flow rates (PEFRs than during QB (mean difference for COPD group 0.14 L/sec, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.04 to 0.24, p<0.01, mean difference for healthy control group 0.39 L/sec, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.57, p<0.01. In the between-group comparisons, PEFR was significantly higher in the healthy control group than in the COPD group (-0.25 L/sec, 95% CI -0.43 to -0.07, p<0.01. However, the expiratory flow rates at the lung volume at the PEFR during QB and at 50% and 25% of tidal volume during QB increased in the healthy control group (mean difference for healthy control group 0.31 L/sec, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.47, p<0.01: 0.31 L/sec, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.47, p<0.01: 0.27 L/sec, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.41, p<0.01, respectively but not in the COPD group (0.05 L/sec, 95% CI -0.01 to 0.12: -0.01 L/sec, 95% CI -0.11 to 0.08: 0.02 L/sec, 95% CI -0.05 to 0.90 with the application of CWC. Conclusion: The effects of chest wall compression on expiratory flow rates was different between COPD patients and

  8. Stream flow rate measurement using tracer techniques at the Kemubu Agricultural Development Authority (KADA), Kelantan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daud Mohammad; Abd Razak Hamzah; Wan Abd Aziz Wan Mohamad; Juhari Yusoff; Wan Zakaria Wan Mohd Tahir

    1985-06-01

    Measuring the flow rate of a water course is one of the basic operations in hydrology, being of general relevance to water problems and of particular importance in the planning of water control schemes. The techniques commonly used in streamflow gauging are either by a current meter of tracer dilution method. This paper describes the latter technique in which radioisotope Tc-99m was used as a tracer in streamflow measurements performed in 1983 in a few selected irrigation canals and pump house under the Kemubu Agriculture Development Authority (KADA), Kelantan. Total count technique and peak-to-peak method were adopted in this study. (author).

  9. Development of ultrasonic velocity profile method for flow rate measurements of power plant (effect of measurement volume on turbulent flow measurement)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiroshige, Kikura; Gentaro, Yamanaka; Tsuyoshi, Taishi; Masanori, Aritomi [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Yasushi, Takeda [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Michitsugu, Mori [Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    Ultrasonic Velocity Profile method has many advantages for flow rate measurement of power plant over the conventional flow measurement methods, such as measurement of the instantaneous velocity profile along the measuring line and its applicability to opaque liquids. Furthermore, the method has an advantage of being non-intrusive. Hence, it is applicable to various flow conditions, although it requires a relatively large measurement volume. In this paper, the effects of the measurement volume on the mean velocity profile for flow rate measurements of power plant and the Reynolds stress measurement have been investigated for fully developed turbulent pipe flows in a vertical pipe. The results are then compared with data obtained by Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS). (authors)

  10. Humor: a pedagogical tool to promote learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabeli, M

    2008-09-01

    It has become critical that learners are exposed to varied methods of teaching and assessment that will promote critical thinking of learners. Humor creates a relaxed atmosphere where learning can be enhanced and appreciated. When learners are relaxed, thinking becomes eminent. Authoritative and tense environment hinders thinking. This paper seeks to explore the perceptions of nurse teacher learners regarding the use of humor as a pedagogical tool to promote learning. A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual research design was employed (Burns & Grove, 2001:61; Mouton, 1996:103). 130 naive sketches were collected from nurse teacher learners who volunteered to take part in the study (Giorgi in_Omery, 1983:52) Follow up interviews were conducted to verify the findings. A qualitative, open-coding method of content analysis was done Tesch (in Creswell, 1994:155). Measures to ensure trustworthiness of the study were taken in accordance with the protocol of (Lincoln & Guba, 1985:290-326). The findings of the study will assist the nurse educators to create a positive, affective, psychological and social learning environment through the use of humor in a positive manner. Nurse educators will appreciate the fact that integration of humor to the learning content will promote the learners' critical thinking and emotional intelligence. Negative humor has a negative impact on learning. Learner nurses who become critical thinkers will be able to be analytical and solve problems amicably in practice.

  11. Adult Playfulness, Humor Styles, and Subjective Happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xiao D; Leung, Chun-Lok; Hiranandani, Neelam A

    2016-12-01

    Playfulness has been referred to as a disposition that involves reframing a situation to amuse others and to make the situation more stimulating and enjoyable. It may serve to shift one's perspective when dealing with environmental threats. Despite all the benefits of playfulness towards psychological well-being, it remains a largely understudied subject in psychology, particularly in Chinese societies. Hence, this study examined the association between adult playfulness, humor styles, and subjective happiness among a sample of 166 university students in Hong Kong and 159 students in Guangzhou, who completed a self-administered questionnaire, including the Short Measure for Adult Playfulness, the Chinese Humor Styles Questionnaire, and the Subjective Happiness Scale. Results showed that adult playfulness was positively correlated with affiliative humor, self-enhancing humor, and subjective happiness in both Hong Kong and Guangzhou samples. By its implication, highly playful Chinese students preferred using affiliative and self-enhancing humor to amuse themselves and others. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. El humor como herramienta para lograr aprendizajes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Torres de Sánchez

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Una tendencia mundial se ha originado: el uso del humor como herramienta para lograr aprendizajes y mejorar el ambiente donde la persona se encuentre. En el área educativa hay pruebas que demuestran su utilidad y que efectivamente origina cambios positivos, medidos en las evaluaciones, tanto en los estudiantes como en participantes de sesiones de facilitación. El objetivo del experimento realizado fue: Determinar el comportamiento a través de la calificaciones en la primera prueba, del efecto del uso del humor en el dictado de clases utilizando diferentes herramientas como: chistes, anécdotas, analogías en los contenidos. A través de un estudio experimental con un grupo de control realizado en dos aulas de clases con 35 alumnos cada uno, al grupo experimental se le aplicó diferentes recursos humorísticos como herramientas de aprendizaje. Se analizaron las calificaciones en la primera prueba a través de porcentajes de aprobados y aplazados, observándose que el grupo experimental arrojó los mayores porcentajes de aprobados. Tales resultados confirman que el humor como herramienta, si induce a un desempeño excelente en alumnos, lo que lleva a implementar acciones de adiestramiento para los facilitadores, así como el surgimiento de investigaciones más profundas sobre el uso del humor en la educación.

  13. Influence of flow direction and flow rate on the initial adhesion of seven Listeria monocytogenes strains to fine polished stainless steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovager, Anne; Whitehead, Kathryn; Siegumfeldt, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    (IAR) was studied. A method, including fluorescence microscopy and a flow perfusion system, was developed and used to examine the real-time initial cell adhesion of different L. monocytogenes species in situ to opaque surfaces under flow conditions. The results demonstrated that shear stress......The effects of flow direction and shear stress on the adhesion of different strains of Listeria monocytogenes to fine polished stainless steel under liquid flow conditions were investigated. Furthermore, the relationship between cell surface properties and cell size and the initial adhesion rate...... was the determining factor for the initial adhesion of L. monocytogenes under flow conditions. The flow direction in relation to the orientation of surface features (the scratches) could be disregarded. IARs were dependent on the shear stress and strain type. The strain EGDe, which had the lowest IAR, had the largest...

  14. Effect of Flow Velocity on Corrosion Rate and Corrosion Protection Current of Marine Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seong Jong [Kunsan National University, Kunsan (Korea, Republic of); Han, Min Su; Jang, Seok Ki; Kim, Seong Jong [Mokpo National Maritime University, Mokpo (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In spite of highly advanced paint coating techniques, corrosion damage of marine metal and alloys increase more and more due to inherent micro-cracks and porosities in coatings formed during the coating process. Furthermore, flowing seawater conditions promote the breakdown of the protective oxide of the materials introducing more oxygen into marine environments, leading to the acceleration of corrosion. Various corrosion protection methods are available to prevent steel from marine corrosion. Cathodic protection is one of the useful corrosion protection methods by which the potential of the corroded metal is intentionally lowered to an immune state having the advantage of providing additional protection barriers to steel exposed to aqueous corrosion or soil corrosion, in addition to the coating. In the present investigation, the effect of flow velocity was examined for the determination of the optimum corrosion protection current density in cathodic protection as well as the corrosion rate of the steel. It is demonstrated from the result that the material corrosion under dynamic flowing conditions seems more prone to corrosion than under static conditions.

  15. Long-term flow-through column experiments and their relevance to natural granitoid weathering rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Arthur F.; Schulz, Marjorie S.; Lawrence, Corey R.; Vivit, Davison V.; Stonestrom, David A.

    2017-01-01

    Four pairs of fresh and partly-weathered granitoids, obtained from well-characterized watersheds—Merced River, CA, USA; Panola, GA, USA; Loch Vale, CO, USA, and Rio Icacos, Puerto Rico—were reacted in columns under ambient laboratory conditions for 13.8 yrs, the longest running experimental weathering study to date. Low total column mass losses (Fe-oxyhydroxide precipitation. Surface areas returned to within factors of 2 to 3 of their original values after dithionite extraction. Miscible displacement experiments indicated homogeneous plug flow with negligible immobile water, commonly cited for column experiments. Fresh granitoid effluent solute concentrations initially declined rapidly, followed by much slower decreases over the next decade. Weathered granitoid effluent concentrations increased modestly over the same time period, indicating losses of natural Fe-oxide and/or clay coatings and the increased exposure of primary mineral surfaces. Corresponding (fresh and weathered) elemental effluent concentrations trended toward convergence during the last decade of reaction. NETPATH/PHREEQC code simulations indicated non-stoichiometric dissolution involving Ca release from disseminated calcite and excess K release from interlayer biotite. Effluent 87Sr/85Sr ratios reflected a progressive weathering sequence beginning and ending with 87Sr/85Sr values of plagioclase with an additional calcite input and a radiogenic biotite excursion proportional to the granitoid ages.Effluents became thermodynamically saturated with goethite and gibbsite, slightly under-saturated with kaolinite and strongly under-saturated with plagioclase, consistent with kinetically-limited weathering in which solutes such as Na varied with column flow rates. Effluent Na concentrations showed no clear trend with time during the last decade of reaction (fresh granitoids) or increased slowly with time (weathered granitoids). Analysis of cumulative Na release indicated that plagioclase dissolution

  16. Influence of bubble size, diffuser width, and flow rate on the integral behavior of bubble plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Bruño.; Stoesser, Thorsten

    2016-06-01

    A large-eddy simulation based Eulerian-Lagrangian model is employed to quantify the impact of bubble size, diffuser diameter, and gas flow rate on integral properties of bubble plumes, such as the plume's width, centerline velocity, and mass flux. Calculated quantities are compared with experimental data and integral model predictions. Furthermore, the LES data were used to assess the behavior of the entrainment coefficient, the momentum amplification factor, and the bubble-to-momentum spread ratio. It is found that bubble plumes with constant bubble size and smaller diameter behave in accordance with integral plume models. Plumes comprising larger and non-uniform bubble sizes appear to deviate from past observations and model predictions. In multi-diameter bubble plumes, a bubble self-organisation takes place, i.e., small bubbles cluster in the center of the plume whilst large bubbles are found at the periphery of the plume. Multi-diameter bubble plumes also feature a greater entrainment rate than single-size bubble plumes, as well as a higher spread ratio and lower turbulent momentum rate. Once the plume is fully established, the size of the diffuser does not appear to affect integral properties of bubble plumes. However, plume development is affected by the diffuser width, as larger release areas lead to a delayed asymptotic behavior of the plume and consequently to a lower entrainment and higher spread ratio. Finally, the effect of the gas flow rate on the integral plume is studied and is deemed very relevant with regards to most integral plume properties and coefficients. This effect is already fairly well described by integral plume models.

  17. Groundwater flow analysis and dose rate estimates from releases to wells at a coastal site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kattilakoski, E.; Suolanen, V. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    2000-09-01

    {sup 3}/a. Due to the placing of the shallow wells in the discharge areas, the dilution calculated in the shallow well was shown to be close to that calculated in the deep well. In conservative considerations the value around 90 000 m{sup 3}/a can be regarded as a representative expectation value of the effective dilution of the well. This dilution volume value was also suggested by the most realistic modelling approach of the groundwater flow analysis. It was used as basis when calculating the nuclide specific dose conversion factors (DCF's) for the drinking water pathway. The DCF's were calculated for unit release rates (1 Bq/a) and the assumed water consumption rate was 2 litres/day. (orig.)

  18. Salivary flow rates in patients with head and neck cancer 0. 5 to 25 years after radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, R.P.; Fleming, T.J.; Toth, B.B.; Keene, H.J. (Univ. of Texas, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston (USA))

    1990-12-01

    In this clinical study at the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow rates were obtained from 47 patients with head and neck cancer who had received mantle, unilateral facial, or bilateral facial field radiotherapy from 0.5 to 25 years earlier. The magnitude of salivary flow rate reduction compared with a healthy control group was primarily related to the radiation dosage and the amount of salivary gland tissue included in the irradiated fields. Flow rates were lower for women in all groups, but these differences were not statistically significant.

  19. Relationship between reduced lower abdominal blood flows and heart rate in recovery following cycling exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osada, T; Iwane, H; Katsumura, T; Murase, N; Higuchi, H; Sakamoto, A; Hamaoka, T; Shimomitsu, T

    2012-03-01

    To examine the blood flow (BF) response in the lower abdomen (LAB) in recovery following upright cycling exercise at three levels of relative maximum pulmonary oxygen consumption (VO(2max)) and the relationship of BF(LAB) to heart rate (HR) and target intensity. For 11 healthy subjects, BF (Doppler ultrasound) in the upper abdominal aorta (Ao) above the coeliac trunk and in the right femoral artery (RFA) was measured repeatedly for 720 s after the end of cycling exercises at target intensities of 30%, 50% and 85% VO(2max), respectively. Blood flow in the lower abdomen (BF(LAB)) can be measured by subtracting bilateral BF(FAs) (≈twofolds of BF(RFA)) from BF(Ao). Change in BF(LAB) (or BF(LAB) volume) at any point was evaluated by difference between change in BF(Ao) and in BF(FAs). Heart rate and blood pressure were also measured. At 85% VO(2max), significant reduction in BF(LAB) by approx. 89% was shown at 90 s and remained until 360 s. At 50% VO(2max), reduction in BF(LAB) by approx. 33% was found at 90 s although it returned to pre-exercise value at 120 s. On the contrary at 30% VO(2max), BF(LAB) showed a light increase (exercise intensities. © 2011 The Authors. Acta Physiologica © 2011 Scandinavian Physiological Society.

  20. Main components and performances of the IMGC calibration facilities for liquid helium flow rate measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivetti, A.; Martini, G.; Goria, R.; Lorefice, S.

    Within the framework of a National Project on superconductivity two facilities have been designed and built at the Istituto di Metrologia 'G. Colonnetti' (IMGC) with the purpose of studying and calibrating liquid helium flowmeters in the range 1-20 g s -1 of liquid helium (LHe). After a brief description of these set-ups, this Paper examines in detail the solutions adopted in the design of the main calibration facility, particularly with regard to the circulating pump and the submerged driving motor. The latter has been devised for working only at LHe temperature, having an a.c. three-phase stator winding made of thin superconducting wire. The construction characteristics and operation conditions are discussed. As a flow rate reference, a new turbine flowmeter with its rotor magnetically suspended by the Meissner effect (described in another paper presented at the workshop), is used. A LHe flow rate transducer, based upon the measurement of the transit time of short thermal pulses, has been designed and tested with these facilities: the good results obtained using commercial low cost diodes as ΔT sensors are reported.