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Sample records for humor evaluations suggested

  1. Comparative evaluation of aqueous humor viscosity.

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    Davis, Kyshia; Carter, Renee; Tully, Thomas; Negulescu, Ioan; Storey, Eric

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate aqueous humor viscosity in the raptor, dog, cat, and horse, with a primary focus on the barred owl (Strix varia). Twenty-six raptors, ten dogs, three cats, and one horse. Animals were euthanized for reasons unrelated to this study. Immediately, after horizontal and vertical corneal dimensions were measured, and anterior chamber paracentesis was performed to quantify anterior chamber volume and obtain aqueous humor samples for viscosity analysis. Dynamic aqueous humor viscosity was measured using a dynamic shear rheometer (AR 1000 TA Instruments, New Castle, DE, USA) at 20 °C. Statistical analysis included descriptive statistics, unpaired t-tests, and Tukey's test to evaluate the mean ± standard deviation for corneal diameter, anterior chamber volume, and aqueous humor viscosity amongst groups and calculation of Spearman's coefficient for correlation analyses. The mean aqueous humor viscosity in the barred owl was 14.1 centipoise (cP) ± 9, cat 4.4 cP ± 0.2, and dog 2.9 cP ± 1.3. The aqueous humor viscosity for the horse was 1 cP. Of the animals evaluated in this study, the raptor aqueous humor was the most viscous. The aqueous humor of the barred owl is significantly more viscous than the dog (P humor viscosity of the raptor, dog, cat, and horse can be successfully determined using a dynamic shear rheometer. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  2. Humor in romantic contexts: do men participate and women evaluate?

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    Wilbur, Christopher J; Campbell, Lorne

    2011-07-01

    Several lines of research illustrate that humor plays a pivotal role in relationship initiation. The current article applies sexual selection theory to argue that humor production is a fitness indicator, allowing men to transmit information tacitly about their underlying qualities. And whereas prior research has emphasized women's appreciation of humor as a signal of interest, the focus here is on how women evaluate prospective suitors' humorous offerings. Two studies, including an ecologically valid study of online dating advertisements, provided evidence for men's production and women's evaluation of humor in romantic contexts. A third study revealed that women's evaluations of potential mates' humor are predictive of their romantic interest. Moreover, this article shows that preferences for and perceptions of humor are associated with preferences for and perceptions of intelligence and warmth, consistent with the argument that one function of humor is as a fitness indicator that provides information about underlying mate quality.

  3. [The effect of humor in the workplace on mental/physical health and self-evaluation of job performance].

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    Maruyama, Junichi; Fuji, Kei

    2016-04-01

    In this study we aimed to examine the contents of humor in the Japanese workplace and to understand the effects of humor on mental/physical health and self-evaluation of job performance. Japanese workers (N = 436) responded to questionnaires addressing workplace humor, feelings about workplace, workplace communication, mental/physical health, and perceived job performance. An exploratory factor analysis indicated that there are five types of workplace humor: norm-violating humor, experience-sharing humor workplace-enjoying humor, people-recalling humor, and outside-mocking humor. A covariance structural analysis showed that norm-violating humor and workplace-enjoying humor decreased mental and physical health by promoting both negative feelings in the workplace and self-disclosure about the negative side of work. Results also revealed that experience-sharing humor, people-recalling humor, and outside-mocking humor had a positive effect on the self-evaluation of job performance as well as mental and physical health, by promoting both positive feelings and mutual communication in the workplace. Results suggest that humor in the workplace has various influences on workers depending on the type of workplace humor.

  4. To Be or Not To Be Humorous? Cross Cultural Perspectives on Humor

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    Xiaodong Yue

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Humor seems to manifest differently in Western and Eastern cultures, although little is known about how culture shapes humor perceptions. The authors suggest that Westerners regard humor as a common and positive disposition; the Chinese regard humor as a special disposition particular to humorists, with controversial aspects. In Study 1, Hong Kong participants primed with Western culture evaluate humor more positively than they do when primed with Chinese culture. In Study 2a, Canadians evaluate humor as being more important in comparison with Chinese participants. In Study 2b, Canadians expect ordinary people to possess humor, while Chinese expect specialized comedians to be humorous. The implications and limitations are discussed.

  5. To Be or Not To Be Humorous? Cross Cultural Perspectives on Humor.

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    Yue, Xiaodong; Jiang, Feng; Lu, Su; Hiranandani, Neelam

    2016-01-01

    Humor seems to manifest differently in Western and Eastern cultures, although little is known about how culture shapes humor perceptions. The authors suggest that Westerners regard humor as a common and positive disposition; the Chinese regard humor as a special disposition particular to humorists, with controversial aspects. In Study 1, Hong Kong participants primed with Western culture evaluate humor more positively than they do when primed with Chinese culture. In Study 2a, Canadians evaluate humor as being more important in comparison with Chinese participants. In Study 2b, Canadians expect ordinary people to possess humor, while Chinese expect specialized comedians to be humorous. The implications and limitations are discussed.

  6. To Be or Not To Be Humorous? Cross Cultural Perspectives on Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xiaodong; Jiang, Feng; Lu, Su; Hiranandani, Neelam

    2016-01-01

    Humor seems to manifest differently in Western and Eastern cultures, although little is known about how culture shapes humor perceptions. The authors suggest that Westerners regard humor as a common and positive disposition; the Chinese regard humor as a special disposition particular to humorists, with controversial aspects. In Study 1, Hong Kong participants primed with Western culture evaluate humor more positively than they do when primed with Chinese culture. In Study 2a, Canadians evaluate humor as being more important in comparison with Chinese participants. In Study 2b, Canadians expect ordinary people to possess humor, while Chinese expect specialized comedians to be humorous. The implications and limitations are discussed. PMID:27757091

  7. Statistics? You Must Be Joking: The Application and Evaluation of Humor when Teaching Statistics

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    Neumann, David L.; Hood, Michelle; Neumann, Michelle M.

    2009-01-01

    Humor has been promoted as a teaching tool that enhances student engagement and learning. The present report traces the pathway from research to practice by reflecting upon various ways to incorporate humor into the face-to-face teaching of statistics. The use of humor in an introductory university statistics course was evaluated via interviews…

  8. Evaluation of Humoral Immune Function in Patients with Bronchiectasis

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    Parviz Tabatabaie

    2008-06-01

    Our study along with several other studies confirmed that all patients with bronchiectasis should undergo thorough immunological evaluation in order to identify the presence of the underlying immunologic defect. This evaluation should include serum immunoglobulins, IgG subclasses concentrations and also determination of serum antibodies against pneumococcal antigens. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment will prevent the subsequent complications and improve quality of life of affected individuals.

  9. Radiographic adenoid evaluation - suggestion of referral parameters

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    Murilo F.N. Feres

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: this study aimed to evaluate the usefulness of current radiographic measurements, which were originally conceived to evaluate adenoid hypertrophy, as potential referral parameters. METHODS: children aged from 4 to 14 years, of both genders, who presented nasal obstruction complaints, were subjected to cavum radiography. Radiographic examinations (n = 120 were evaluated according to categorical and quantitative parameters, and data were compared to gold-standard videonasopharyngoscopic examination, regarding accuracy (sensitivity, negative predictive value, specificity, and positive predictive value. RESULTS: radiographic grading systems presented low sensitivity for the identification of patients with two-thirds choanal space obstruction. However, some of these parameters presented relatively high specificity rates when three-quarters adenoid obstruction was the threshold of interest. Amongst the quantitative variables, a mathematical model was found to be more suitable for identifying patients with more than two-thirds obstruction. CONCLUSION: this model was shown to be potentially useful as a screening tool to include patients with, at least, two-thirds adenoid obstruction. Moreover, one of the categorical parameters was demonstrated to be relatively more useful, as well as a potentially safer assessment tool to exclude patients with less than three-quarters obstruction, to be indicated for adenoidectomy.

  10. Evaluation of a botulinum fragment C-based ELISA for measuring the humoral immune response in primates.

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    Lindsey, Changhong Y; Smith, Leonard A; West, Michael W; Boles, James W; Brown, J Edward

    2003-03-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using botulinum neurotoxin serotype B recombinant fragment C (rBoNTB(HC)) was developed to measure specific humoral immune responses of monkeys vaccinated with a vaccine consisting of rBoNTB(HC). Several fundamental parameters for a bioassay were evaluated. The evaluation results demonstrated that using BoNTB(HC) as the capture antigen led to a specific and sensitive ELISA for botulinum type B antibody with excellent precision, accuracy, and linearity. There was a good correlation (r=0.91) between ELISA titers and neutralization bioassay titers. Experimental results suggested that the ELISA could be useful for detecting botulinum type B antibody levels and may supplement mouse neutralization bioassays during planned clinical manufacturing and clinical trials of rBoNTB(HC) vaccine.

  11. Blood gas analyzer utility in evaluating oxygen kinetics of the aqueous humor

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    Ismail Ersan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To measure the partial pressure of oxygen (PO2 and carbon dioxide (PCO2 and the pH of aqueous humor (AH and arterial blood samples from rabbits using a blood gas analyzer. Methods: Twenty New Zealand rabbits were anesthetized intramuscularly with ketamine and xylazine and were then allowed to breathe room air. Using a gas blood analyzer, arterial blood and AH samples were analyzed for PO2, PCO2, and pH. Results: The mean arterial blood pressure was 87.14 ± 15.0 mmHg. The mean blood and AH PO2 were 95.18 ± 11.76 mmHg and 88.83 ± 9.92 mmHg, the mean blood and AH PCO2 were 25.86 ± 5.46 mmHg and 29.50 ± 5.36 mmHg, and the mean blood and AH pH were 7.38 ± 0.06 and 7.33 ± 0.09, respectively. Conclusion: Conclusions: The blood gas analyzer was easily employed to evaluate the aqueous humor in rabbits. When comparing the results of studies evaluating aqueous PO2, care should be taken to determine the methods used in these studies.

  12. Uses of humor in psychotherapy.

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    Dimmer, S A; Carroll, J L; Wyatt, G K

    1990-06-01

    Given demonstrated usefulness in facilitating learning, aiding healing, and reducing stress, humor has gained recognition as a clinical tool. This article reviews some uses and potential misuses of humor in psychotherapy and suggests directions for practice and research.

  13. Non Castigat Ridendo Mores: evaluating the effectiveness of humor appeal in printed advertisements for HIV/AIDS prevention in Italy.

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    Soscia, Isabella; Turrini, Alex; Tanzi, Emilio

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates the effects of different emotional appeals in HIV/AIDS prevention campaigns using printed advertisements. More specifically, it examines the effectiveness of humor appeal compared with shock and fear appeals. The authors experimentally test the level of attention drawn and the spontaneous recall arising when young Italian adults are shown different HIV/AIDS prevention campaigns. Findings show that humor appeals are less effective than fear and shock appeals, evidencing the failures in HIV/AIDS prevention campaigns in Italy, a country where the former communication strategy has been used in substantive ways. The results also indicate the higher effectiveness of fear appeals (over shock and humor) in printed HIV/AIDS advertising campaigns. The implications of these results for further studies and for improving the design, implementation, and evaluation of HIV/AIDS campaign efforts are also discussed.

  14. Relation between humor and empathic concern.

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    Hampes, W P

    2001-02-01

    A series of studies have shown that humor is associated with close interpersonal relationships and effective in reducing stress, which in turn enhances empathy. Therefore, it was hypothesized that humor and empathic concern would be positively correlated. The Empathic Concern subscale of the Empathy Questionnaire, the Coping Humor Scale, the Multidimensional Sense of Humor Scale, and the Situational Humor Response Questionnaire were given to 124 subjects. Scores on the Empathic Concern subscale were significantly correlated with those on each of the humor scales. Types of humor may be an important variable in the relationship between empathic concern and humor. Both humor and empathic concern are associated for people with emotional intelligence who use these to interact effectively with other individuals. As such, it was suggested that exploration would yield a relation between humor and emotional self-awareness, which is also associated with emotional intelligence.

  15. Humor and sexual selection.

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    Storey, Robert

    2003-12-01

    Recently Geoffrey Miller has suggested that humor evolved through sexual selection as a signal of "creativity," which in turn implies youthfulness, intelligence, and adaptive unpredictability. Drawing upon available empirical studies, I argue that the evidence for a link between humor and creativity is weak and ambiguous. I also find only tenuous support for Miller's assumption that the attractiveness of the "sense of humor" is to be found in the wittiness of its possessor, since those who use the phrase often seem to associate it with the affects of relatively mirthless "bonding" laughter. Humor, I conclude, may have evolved as an instrument for achieving broad social adhesiveness and for facilitating the individual's maneuverability within the group, but that it evolved through sexual selection has yet to be convincingly demonstrated.

  16. Aqueous Humor Dynamics: A Review

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    Goel, Manik; Picciani, Renata G; Lee, Richard K; Bhattacharya, Sanjoy K

    2010-01-01

    Glaucoma is a family of optic neuropathies which cause irreversible but potentially preventable vision loss. Vision loss in most forms of glaucoma is related to elevated IOP with subsequent injury to the optic nerve. Secretion of aqueous humor and regulation of its outflow are physiologically important processes for maintaining IOP in the normal range. Thus, understanding the complex mechanisms that regulate aqueous humor circulation is essential for management of glaucoma. The two main structures related to aqueous humor dynamics are the ciliary body and the trabecular meshwork (TM). Three mechanisms are involved in aqueous humor formation: diffusion, ultrafiltration and active secretion. Active secretion is the major contributor to aqueous humor formation. The aqueous humor flow in humans follows a circadian rhythm, being higher in the morning than at night. The aqueous humor leaves the eye by passive flow via two pathways - the trabecular meshwork and the uveoscleral pathway. In humans, 75% of the resistance to aqueous humor outflow is localized within the TM with the juxtacanalicular portion of the TM being the main site of outflow resistance. Glycosaminoglycan deposition in the TM extracellular matrix (ECM) has been suggested to be responsible for increased outflow resistance at this specific site whereas others have suggested deposition of proteins, such as cochlin, obstruct the aqueous humor outflow through the TM. The uveoscleral outflow pathway is relatively independent of the intraocular pressure and the proportion of aqueous humor exiting the eye via the uveoscleral pathway decreases with age. PMID:21293732

  17. Evaluation of the humoral immune response to human leukocyte antigens in Brazilian renal transplant candidates.

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    Patricia Keiko Saito

    Full Text Available Pre-transplant sensitization to human leukocyte antigens (HLA is a risk factor for graft failure. Studies of the immunological profile related to anti-HLA antibodies in Brazilian renal transplant candidates are few. In this study, we evaluated the humoral immune response to HLA antigens in 269 renal transplant candidates, in Paraná State, Brazil. The HLA typing was performed by the polymerase chain reaction sequence-specific oligonucleotide method (PCR-SSO combined with Luminex technology, using an SSO-LABType commercial kit (One Lambda, Inc., Canoga Park, CA, USA. The percentages of panel-reactive antibodies (PRA and the specificity of anti-HLA antibodies were determined using the LS1PRA and LS2PRA commercial kits (One Lambda, Inc.. The PRA-positive group consisted of 182 (67.7% patients, and the PRA-negative group of 87 (32.3% patients. The two groups differed significantly only with respect to gender. Females were the most sensitized. Among the 182 patients with PRA- positive, 62 (34.1% were positive for class I and negative for class II, 39 (21.4% were negative for class I and positive for class II, and 81 (44.5% were positive for both classes I and II. The HLA-A*02, A*24, A*01, B*44, B*35, B*15, DRB1*11, DRB1*04 and DRB1*03 allele groups were the most frequent. The specificities of anti-HLA antibodies were more frequent: A34, B57, Cw15, Cw16, DR51, DQ8 and DP14. This study documented the profile of anti-HLA antibodies in patients with chronic renal failure who were on waiting lists for an organ in Paraná, and found high sensitization to HLA antigens in the samples.

  18. Evaluation of the humoral immune response to human leukocyte antigens in Brazilian renal transplant candidates.

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    Saito, Patricia Keiko; Yamakawa, Roger Haruki; Aparecida, Erica Pereira; da Silva Júnior, Waldir Verissimo; Borelli, Sueli Donizete

    2014-01-01

    Pre-transplant sensitization to human leukocyte antigens (HLA) is a risk factor for graft failure. Studies of the immunological profile related to anti-HLA antibodies in Brazilian renal transplant candidates are few. In this study, we evaluated the humoral immune response to HLA antigens in 269 renal transplant candidates, in Paraná State, Brazil. The HLA typing was performed by the polymerase chain reaction sequence-specific oligonucleotide method (PCR-SSO) combined with Luminex technology, using an SSO-LABType commercial kit (One Lambda, Inc., Canoga Park, CA, USA). The percentages of panel-reactive antibodies (PRA) and the specificity of anti-HLA antibodies were determined using the LS1PRA and LS2PRA commercial kits (One Lambda, Inc.). The PRA-positive group consisted of 182 (67.7%) patients, and the PRA-negative group of 87 (32.3%) patients. The two groups differed significantly only with respect to gender. Females were the most sensitized. Among the 182 patients with PRA- positive, 62 (34.1%) were positive for class I and negative for class II, 39 (21.4%) were negative for class I and positive for class II, and 81 (44.5%) were positive for both classes I and II. The HLA-A*02, A*24, A*01, B*44, B*35, B*15, DRB1*11, DRB1*04 and DRB1*03 allele groups were the most frequent. The specificities of anti-HLA antibodies were more frequent: A34, B57, Cw15, Cw16, DR51, DQ8 and DP14. This study documented the profile of anti-HLA antibodies in patients with chronic renal failure who were on waiting lists for an organ in Paraná, and found high sensitization to HLA antigens in the samples.

  19. Humor styles, self-esteem, and subjective happiness.

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    Yue, Xiao Dong; Liu, Katy Wing-Yin; Jiang, Feng; Hiranandani, Neelam Arjan

    2014-10-01

    Summary.-This study examined how humor styles could mediate the effect of self-esteem on subjective happiness. 227 Hong Kong undergraduate students completed the Humor Styles Questionnaire, the Roxsenberg Self-esteem Scale, and the Subjective Happiness Scale. Results showed adaptive humor styles (affiliative humor and self-enhancing humor) significantly predicted self-esteem and subjective happiness and mediated the relationship between self-esteem and subjective happiness. Maladaptive humor styles (aggressive humor and self-defeating humor) did not strongly predict self-esteem or subjective happiness. The mediation effects of humor styles found in the present research provided useful suggestions for future studies.

  20. Economic Evaluation of Childhood Obesity Interventions: Reflections and Suggestions.

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    Frew, Emma

    2016-08-01

    Rising levels of childhood obesity present a serious global public health problem amounting to 7 % of GDP in developed countries and affecting 14 % of children. As such, many countries are investing increasingly large quantities of resource towards treatment and prevention. Whilst it is important to demonstrate the clinical effectiveness of any intervention, it is equally as important to demonstrate cost effectiveness as policy makers strive to get the best value for money from increasingly limited public resources. Economic evaluation assists with making these investment decisions and whilst it can offer considerable support in many healthcare contexts, applying it to a childhood obesity context is not straightforward. Childhood obesity is a complex disease with interventions being multi-component in nature. Furthermore, the interventions are implemented in a variety of settings such as schools, the community, and the home, and have costs and benefits that fall outside the health sector. This paper provides a reflection from a UK perspective on the application of the conventional approach to economic evaluation to childhood obesity. It offers suggestions for how evaluations should be designed to fit better within this context, and to meet the needs of local decision makers. An excellent example is the need to report costs using a micro-costing format and for benefit measurement to go beyond a health focus. This is critical as the organisation and commissioning of childhood obesity services is done from a Local Authority setting and this presents further challenges for what is the most appropriate economic evaluation approach to use. Given that adult obesity is now of epidemic proportions, the accurate assessment of childhood obesity interventions to support public health decision making is critical.

  1. Evaluation of ToxA and Vibrio parahaemolyticus lysate on humoral immune response and immune-related genes in Pacific red snapper.

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    Reyes-Becerril, Martha; Maldonado-García, Minerva; Guluarte, Crystal; León-Gallo, Amalia; Rosales-Mendoza, Sergio; Ascencio, Felipe; Hirono, Ikuo; Angulo, Carlos

    2016-09-01

    Immunogenicity of ToxA and Vibrio parahaemolyticus lysate was evaluated in a double immunostimulation scheme in Pacific red snapper after V. parahaemolyticus infection. Three groups of Pacific red snapper were intraperitonealy (i.p.) injected with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS group), ToxA of V. parahaemolyticus (ToxA-Vp group) or V. parahaemolyticus lysate (lysate-Vp group) (first injection, day 1; second injection, day 7). Fish were subsequently infected with live V. parahaemolyticus. Humoral immune parameters in skin mucus and serum were evaluated on days 1, 7, 8 and 14 days post-immunostimulation and 7 days post-infection. Moreover expression of immune-related genes was quantified by real time PCR in head-kidney leukocytes, spleen, liver, and intestine. The ToxA-Vp-treated group showed a higher anti-protease and catalase activity in skin mucus when compared with the PBS group. Measurements of SOD and CAT activities showed an increment in both activities a day after the second boost with ToxA-Vp or lysate-Vp. Interestingly, IgM levels in mucus and transcripts were enhanced followed the ToxA-Vp treatment even after challenge. Furthermore, IL-1β was strongly expressed in all analyzed cell or tissues followed ToxA-Vp or Vp-lysate treatments. Finally, SOD and CAT gene expression was up-regulated in fish immunostimulated with either treatment ToxA-Vp or lysate-Vp, mainly after infection in head-kidney leukocytes and intestine. This is the first study where the effects of ToxA from V. parahaemolyticus in the immune system of Pacific red snapper was evaluated. These results suggest that ToxA-Vp would positively affect humoral immune response and up-regulate expression of genes involved in the immune system function; and could help in the control of V. parahaemolyticus infection in Pacific red snapper Lutjanus peru, an economic important fish in Mexico.

  2. Medición de respuesta inmune humoral y celular frente a antígenos de Brucella abortus RB51 en bovinos (Evaluation of Humoral and cellular immune response evaluation against Brucella abortus strain RB51 antigens in bovine

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    N.I. Montaña S.

    1998-01-01

    strain B. abortus 2308. 30 days after challenge the protection level was evaluated. The humoral immune response was evaluated using conventional Rose Bengal agglutination test, complement fixation test, radial immunodiffusion as well as ELISA, western blot and dot blot assays at days 0, 8, 15, 30, 60 and 90. Additionally, the specific IgG2 isotype response was determined by double sandwich ELISA. To evaluate cellular immune responses, lymphocyte proliferation was measured by timidine incorporation and expressed as stimulation index (S.I., IFN-? activity by ELISA and CD4/CD8 ratio by fluorocitometry. Animals vaccinated with live strains presented 100% protection against challenge, while a 66% protection was observed in those vaccinated with purified antigens. The diagnostic advantage of B. abortus strain RB51 was evidenced by the lack of humoral immune responses against sLPS in all vaccinated groups except for the strain 19 group. No significant differences (p0.05 were detected in any of the groups by lymphoproliferation when stimulated in vitro with purified OMP-II, O-chain or sLPS. When crude soluble RB51 protein was used, S.I. turned significant (p<0.05 and indicated a better response induced by the live vaccines. IFN-?-ELISA tests with stimulated tissue cultures performed better when measured 72 hour after antigen exposure. In reference to the experimental groups, higher levels were detected in the groups immunised with live vaccine, mainly strain 19. When CD4/CD8 ratio were considered the values were constant during the observation and no differences were observed. The results confirm that B. abortus strain RB51 induced level of protection similar to strain 19, and had the advantage of differential diagnosis. Purified antigens OMP-II and OMP-II-O-chain, induced a lower level of protection but they performed similar to replicating vaccines indicating the immunodominance of OMP-II, but suggesting the need of multiple doses to reach the same level of protection. It is

  3. Preparation of ESAT-6 Nanoparticles and Evaluation of Humoral Immunity after Intranasal Administration

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    H Najminezhad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Among several tuberculosis vaccine candidates for replacement of BCG, ESAT-6 protein has a special role. Since mycobacterium tuberculosis infection most often attacks the lungs, intranasal rout can be regarded as appropriate methods for tuberculosis vaccines and drug delivery. One of the appropriate systems for intranasal vaccine delivery is using biodegradable nanoparticles. Among biodegradable polymers, chitosan polymer has great features to increase the response of immunity system. This study aimed to investigate the specific humoral immune response of mice model after encapsulation of recombinant ESAT-6 antigen in chitosan nanoparticles. Methods: The chitosan nanoparticles containing ESAT-6 antigen were synthesized by ionic gelation. Nanoparticle properties including morphology, particle size, zeta potential, encapsulation rates, and protein release were measured in vitro. The immunization was performed through the nose for 3 times on days 0 and 14 and 28. 2 weeks after last administration, blood samples were collected and specific IgG titers were measured by indirect ELISA. Results: The nanoparticles synthesized had appropriate properties. The mean size of resulting nanoparticles was 242.8 nm by excellent antigen loading capacity (95.23 %. The vitro release of antigen from nanoparticles after 200 hours was detected as 67.5%. The Level of IgG antibody showed significant increase in the group that had received chitosan nanoparticles containing ESAT-6 compared with other groups. Conclusion: ESAT-6 protein was encapsulated in chitosan nanoparticles successfully. Administration of chitosan nanoparticles can be a suitable method for administration of humoral immunity antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis through intranasal rout.

  4. Vaccination to gain humoral immune memory.

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    Sarkander, Jana; Hojyo, Shintaro; Tokoyoda, Koji

    2016-12-01

    The concept of immune memory forms the biological basis for vaccination programs. Despite advancements in the field of immune memory and vaccination, most current vaccines are evaluated by magnitude of antigen-specific antibody titers in serum or mucosa after vaccination. It has been shown, however, that antibody-mediated humoral immune memory is established regardless of the magnitude and duration of immune reactions, suggesting that assessment of vaccine efficacy should be performed for several years after vaccination. This long-term investigation is disadvantageous for prevalent and pandemic infections. Long-lived memory plasma cells and memory helper T cells which contribute to humoral immune memory are generated in the bone marrow after migration of memory cell precursors through bloodstream. Thus, it may be a novel evaluation strategy to assess the precursors of memory cells in the blood in the early phase of the immune reaction(s). We here review recent advances on the generation and maintenance of immune memory cells involved in humoral immunity and introduce a current concept of direct and short-term assessment of humoral immune memory formation upon vaccination as a correlate of protection.

  5. A Suggested Eclectic Checklist for ELT Coursebook Evaluation

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    Demir, Yusuf; Ertas, Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    Coursebook evaluation helps practitioners decide on the most appropriate coursebook to be exploited. Moreover, evaluation process enables to predict the potential strengths and weaknesses of a given coursebook. Checklist method is probably the most widely adopted way of judging coursebooks and there are plenty of ELT coursebook evaluation…

  6. Flow of Aqueous Humor

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    ... Home Flow of Aqueous Humor Flow of Aqueous Humor Most, but not all, forms of glaucoma are ... remains normal when some of the fluid (aqueous humor) produced by the eye's ciliary body flows out ...

  7. Caution, the Use of Humor May Lead to Confusion: Evaluation of a Video Podcast of the Midwest Teen Sex Show

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    Campo, Shelly; Askelson, Natoshia M.; Spies, Erica L.; Losch, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Web sites about sexual health lack the interactivity, humor, and "viral" nature required to attract young adults. The Midwest Teen Sex Show (www.midwestteensexshow.com) is an interactive, humor-based Web site that provides sexual health information to young adults. One episode from the Web site was shown to six focus groups of young women, ages…

  8. Caution, the Use of Humor May Lead to Confusion: Evaluation of a Video Podcast of the Midwest Teen Sex Show

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    Campo, Shelly; Askelson, Natoshia M.; Spies, Erica L.; Losch, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Web sites about sexual health lack the interactivity, humor, and "viral" nature required to attract young adults. The Midwest Teen Sex Show (www.midwestteensexshow.com) is an interactive, humor-based Web site that provides sexual health information to young adults. One episode from the Web site was shown to six focus groups of young women, ages…

  9. Linguistic Features of Humor in Academic Writing

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    Stephen Skalicky

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A corpus of 313 freshman college essays was analyzed in order to better understand the forms and functions of humor in academic writing. Human ratings of humor and wordplay were statistically aggregated using Factor Analysis to provide an overall Humor component score for each essay in the corpus. In addition, the essays were also scored for overall writing quality by human raters, which correlated (r = .195 with the humor component score. Correlations between the humor component scores and linguistic features were examined. To investigate the potential for linguistic features to predict the Humor component scores, regression analysis identified four linguistic indices that accounted for approximately 17.5% of the variance in humor scores. These indices were related to text descriptiveness (i.e., more adjective and adverb use, lower cohesion (i.e., less paragraph-to-paragraph similarity, and lexical sophistication (lower word frequency. The findings suggest that humor can be partially predicted by linguistic features in the text. Furthermore, there was a small but significant correlation between the humor and essay quality scores, suggesting a positive relation between humor and writing quality.Keywords: humor, academic writing, text analysis, essay score, human rating

  10. Evaluating Prior Learning Assessment Programs: A Suggested Framework

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    Nan L. Travers and Marnie T. Evans

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past two decades, American institutions have been expected to include systematic program reviews to meet accrediting standards, either by independent or governmental review agencies. Program evaluation is critical for several reasons: it provides systematic ways to assess what needs improvement or what needs changing and it provides ways to validate practices, whether to internal or external audiences (Mishra, 2007. Most program evaluative models are focused on academic programs, which don’t fit the uniqueness of prior learning assessment programs. This paper proposes an evaluative framework for prior learning assessment programs, which takes into account the type of work within prior learning assessment programs and uses program portfolios, similar to how students are asked to document their work.

  11. Evaluation of specific humoral immune response in pigs vaccinated with cell culture adapted classical swine fever vaccine

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    Mrinal K. Nath

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine an efficient vaccination schedule on the basis of the humoral immune response of cell culture adapted live classical swine fever virus (CSFV vaccinated pigs and maternally derived antibody (MDA in piglets of vaccinated sows. Materials and Methods: A cell culture adapted live CSFV vaccine was subjected to different vaccination schedule in the present study. Serum samples were collected before vaccination (day 0 and 7, 14, 28, 42, 56, 180, 194, 208, 270, 284 and 298 days after vaccination and were analyzed by liquid phase blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Moreover, MDA titre was detected in the serum of piglets at 21 and 42 days of age after farrowing of the vaccinated sows. Results: On 28 days after vaccination, serum samples of 83.33% vaccinated pigs showed the desirable level of antibody titer (log10 1.50 at 1:32 dilution, whereas 100% animals showed log10 1.50 at 1:32 dilution after 42 days of vaccination. Animals received a booster dose at 28 and 180 days post vaccination showed stable high-level antibody titre till the end of the study period. Further, piglets born from pigs vaccinated 1 month after conception showed the desirable level of MDA up to 42 days of age. Conclusion: CSF causes major losses in pig industry. Lapinised vaccines against CSFV are used routinely in endemic countries. In the present study, a cell culture adapted live attenuated vaccine has been evaluated. Based on the level of humoral immune response of vaccinated pigs and MDA titer in piglets born from immunized sows, it may be concluded that the more effective vaccination schedule for prevention of CSF is primary vaccination at 2 months of age followed by booster vaccination at 28 and 180 days post primary vaccination and at 1 month of gestation.

  12. Vaccination to gain humoral immune memory

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkander, Jana; Hojyo, Shintaro; Tokoyoda, Koji

    2016-01-01

    The concept of immune memory forms the biological basis for vaccination programs. Despite advancements in the field of immune memory and vaccination, most current vaccines are evaluated by magnitude of antigen-specific antibody titers in serum or mucosa after vaccination. It has been shown, however, that antibody-mediated humoral immune memory is established regardless of the magnitude and duration of immune reactions, suggesting that assessment of vaccine efficacy should be performed for sev...

  13. The Relationship Between Humor Styles and Forgiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampes, William

    2016-01-01

    Research has shown that a factor in a victim’s forgiveness of an offender is the victim’s ability to make more positive, or at least less negative, attributions of the offender’s behavior and that perspective-taking can be a factor in facilitating that process. Self-enhancing humor has been found to be positively correlated with perspective-taking empathy and aggressive humor found to be negatively correlated with perspective-taking empathy. Therefore it was predicted that self-enhancing humor would be positively correlated with forgiveness and aggressive humor negatively correlated with forgiveness. The Humor Styles Questionnaire, the Absence of Negative and Presence of Positive subscales of the Forgiveness Scale, and the Forgiveness Likelihood Scale were administered to 112 college undergraduates. Self-enhancing humor was significantly and positively correlated with all of the forgiveness measures, aggressive humor and self-defeating humor were significantly and negatively correlated with some of the forgiveness measures and affiliative humor was not significantly correlated with any of the forgiveness measures. The results were interpreted in terms of previous findings for humor styles, perspective-taking empathy, depression, self-esteem and anxiety. Future research involving the extent to which other personality variables, such as perspective-taking empathy, mediate the relationship between self-enhancing humor and forgiveness was suggested. PMID:27547252

  14. The Relationship Between Humor Styles and Forgiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Hampes

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown that a factor in a victim’s forgiveness of an offender is the victim’s ability to make more positive, or at least less negative, attributions of the offender’s behavior and that perspective-taking can be a factor in facilitating that process. Self-enhancing humor has been found to be positively correlated with perspective-taking empathy and aggressive humor found to be negatively correlated with perspective-taking empathy. Therefore it was predicted that self-enhancing humor would be positively correlated with forgiveness and aggressive humor negatively correlated with forgiveness. The Humor Styles Questionnaire, the Absence of Negative and Presence of Positive subscales of the Forgiveness Scale, and the Forgiveness Likelihood Scale were administered to 112 college undergraduates. Self-enhancing humor was significantly and positively correlated with all of the forgiveness measures, aggressive humor and self-defeating humor were significantly and negatively correlated with some of the forgiveness measures and affiliative humor was not significantly correlated with any of the forgiveness measures. The results were interpreted in terms of previous findings for humor styles, perspective-taking empathy, depression, self-esteem and anxiety. Future research involving the extent to which other personality variables, such as perspective-taking empathy, mediate the relationship between self-enhancing humor and forgiveness was suggested.

  15. Humor in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Cristiano S; Li, Rui; Lawrie, Sarah; Bar-Or, Amit; Clarke, Ann E; Da Costa, Deborah; Banerjee, Devi; Bernatsky, Sasha; Lee, Jennifer L; Pineau, Christian A

    2015-03-01

    Humor has neurophysiological effects influencing the release of cortisol, which may have a direct impact on the immune system. Laughter is associated with a decreased production of inflammatory cytokines both in the general population and in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Our objective was to explore the effects of humor on serum cytokines [particularly interleukin-6 (IL-6)] and cortisol levels in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), after a standard intervention (120 min of visual comedy). We enrolled 58 females with SLE from consecutive patients assessed in the Montreal General Hospital lupus clinic. The subjects who consented to participate were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to the intervention (watching 120 min of comedy) or control group (watching a 120 min documentary). Measurements of cytokine and serum cortisol levels as well as 24-h urine cortisol were taken before, during, and after the interventions. We compared serum cytokine levels and serum and 24-h urine cortisol levels in the humor and control groups and performed regression analyses of these outcomes, adjusting for demographics and the current use of prednisone. There were no significant differences between the control and humor groups in demographics or clinical variables. Baseline serum levels of IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and B-cell activating factor were also similar in both groups. There was no evidence of a humor effect in terms of decreasing cytokine levels, although there was some suggestion of lowered cortisol secretion in the humor group based the 24-h urinary cortisol levels in a subgroup. In contrast to what has been published for RA, we saw no clear effects of humor in altering cytokine levels in SLE, although interesting trends were seen for lower cortisol levels after humor intervention compared with the control group.

  16. Direct current stimulation of the left temporoparietal junction modulates dynamic humor appreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaby, Isabella; Holmes, Amanda; Moran, Joseph M; Eddy, Marianna D; Mahoney, Caroline R; Taylor, Holly A; Brunyé, Tad T

    2015-11-11

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of transcranial direct current stimulation targeting the left temporoparietal junction (TPJ) on humor appreciation during a dynamic video rating task. In a within-participants design, we targeted the left TPJ with anodal, cathodal, or no transcranial direct current stimulation, centered at electrode site C3 using a 4×1 targeted stimulation montage. During stimulation, participants dynamically rated a series of six stand-up comedy videos for perceived humor. We measured event-related (time-locked to crowd laughter) modulation of humor ratings as a function of stimulation condition. Results showed decreases in rated humor during anodal (vs. cathodal or none) stimulation; this pattern was evident for the majority of videos and was only partially predicted by individual differences in humor style. We discuss the possibility that upregulation of neural circuits involved in the theory of mind and empathizing with others may reduce appreciation of aggressive humor. In conclusion, the present data show that neuromodulation of the TPJ can alter the mental processes underlying humor appreciation, suggesting critical involvement of this cortical region in detecting, comprehending, and appreciating humor.

  17. Sexual Selection and Humor in Courtship

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    This investigation examines a sexual selection-based argument regarding humor’s role in courtship (i.e., humor production signals intelligence/creativity). Lens model (n =100) analyses suggest that humor production on Facebook profiles were self-reported and perceived to be associated with extroversion, not intelligence. Study 2 (n = 289) found that extroversion was associated humor production, but high school and college grade point average and American College Test (ACT) scores were not. In...

  18. Patients' Evaluation of Intervention by a Medical Clown Visit or by Viewing a Humorous Film Following In Vitro Fertilization and Embryo Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedler, Shevach; Glasser, Saralee; Levitan, Gila; Hadar, Dana; Sasi, Bat-El; Lerner-Geva, Liat

    2017-01-01

    This study compared responses to an in-person clown visit and a humorous film following in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer. Intervention was a 10-minute clown visit (n = 101) or 10-minute humorous video clip (n = 99). Demographic and fertility-related data and preintervention anxiety scores were collected. Participants completed an Evaluation of Intervention form postintervention. There were no group differences on demographic or fertility-related data or anxiety scores. Findings indicate while participants viewed the intervention positively, the clown visit offered a higher degree of satisfaction in more patients than did the film. Median evaluation scores were significantly higher for the clown visit, specifically reducing anxiety level and being more distracting. Both groups reported that the exposure made the clinic experience more pleasant and did not bother them, and most would recommend incorporating the intervention in routine treatment. However, free-text comments clearly expressed greater enthusiasm to the in-person clown intervention than to the film.

  19. Equine influenza: evaluation of the humoral immune response through the hemagglutination inhibition and single radial haemolysis, in vaccinated horses with commercial and experimental vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalva Assunção Portari Mancini

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available Equine Influenza: evaluation of the humoral immune response through the hemagglutination inhibition and single radial haemolysis, in horses vaccinated with commercial and experimental vaccines. From 4 equine groups, the antibody protection levels against influenza were evaluted through the hemagglutination inhibition and single radial haemolysis. One group of these animals received immunization from 2 doses of influenza vaccine, of experimental preparation, at the Butantan Institute, São Paulo, Brasil (IB. Two other horse groups, regularly vaccinated received the annual booster dose from both commercial and experimental vaccines (IB. A control group remained without vaccination. Differences were observed among the antibody level medians of the serum samples harvested prior and post immunization of those vaccinated animals. No evident differences were detected among the antibody level medians from animals that received annual booster doses, due to the persistence of the protective antibody level, 12 months after the regular immunization. In the control group, the animals showed low antibody levels, for both serum samples. In fact these results suggested the good serologic response of both vaccines, the commercial and the experimental, tested preparations.

  20. Humor in Elementary Science: Development and Evaluation of Comic Strips about Sound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertuğrul ÖZDEMİR

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Comic strips on newspapers, magazines and Internet are one of the most accessible materials that may be used in science classroom as instructional tool. However, it is sometimes difficult to find and adapt appropriate comic strips useful for instructional purposes, because most of them are irrelevant. The purpose of this study is to develop and evaluate instructional comic strips aiming to contribute learning about sound related concepts. In this study, a series of instructional comic strips were created and implemented to a group of seventh grade students. Students’ responses to a number of open-ended questions were evaluated through qualitative content analysis. According to results, most of the students believed that comic strips help learning through simplifying science concepts and making retention of them easier. In addition, comic strips seemed to contribute students’ enjoyment toward science and perception of success in science.

  1. Humor og sygepleje

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Inger

    1998-01-01

    I artiklen beskrives og reflekteres der over humors betydning som ressource for såvel patienter som sygeplejersker.......I artiklen beskrives og reflekteres der over humors betydning som ressource for såvel patienter som sygeplejersker....

  2. Can Computers Create Humor?

    OpenAIRE

    Ritchie, Graeme; University of Aberdeen

    2009-01-01

    Despite the fact that AI has always been adventurous in trying to elucidate complex aspects of human behaviour, only recently has there been research into computational modelling of humor. One obstacle to progress is the lack of a precise and detailed theory of how humor operates. Nevertheless, since the early 1990s, there have been a number of small programs that create simple verbal humor, and more recently there have been studies of the automatic classification of the humorous status of te...

  3. Decoding Photocopy Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerns, Dan

    Photocopy humor is defined as any facsimile, photocopy, or wire-copy line drawing, iconography, or textual material that was drawn or written for distribution to a larger select audience using the available technology to disperse material intended to be humorous. Professional humor is excluded from this consideration. The content of photocopy…

  4. Humor, Aggression, and Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrick, Ann Louise; And Others

    Although humor is an important phenomenon in human interactions, it has rarely been studied in the elderly. An understanding of responses to humor in aggressive cartoons as a function of advancing age would provide information regarding both the development of humor and the negative (aggressive) emotional experiences of the elderly. This study was…

  5. The role of the amygdala in incongruity resolution: the case of humor comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Tagiru; Matsui, Tomoko; Utsumi, Akira; Yamazaki, Mika; Makita, Kai; Harada, Tokiko; Tanabe, Hiroki C; Sadato, Norihiro

    2017-08-21

    A dominant theory of humor comprehension suggests that people understand humor by first perceiving some incongruity in an expression and then resolving it. This is called "the incongruity-resolution theory." Experimental studies have investigated the neural basis of humor comprehension, and multiple neural substrates have been proposed; however, the specific substrate for incongruity resolution is still unknown. The reason may be that the resolution phase, despite its importance in humor comprehension, has not been successfully distinguished from the perception phase because both phases occur almost simultaneously. To reveal the substrate, we conducted a functional magnetic resonance study using 51 healthy participants. We used a humor-producing frame of "Given A, I'd say B, because C" so as to focus on the resolution phase independently by suspending humor processing just after the perception phase. This frame allowed us to separate the two phases. Based on our results, incongruity resolution evoked positive emotion and activated the left amygdala, which is known to be related to positive emotion. On the basis of these findings, we argue that the amygdala plays an important role in humor comprehension, considering its functional role in emotional evaluation, particularly the relevance detection for incoming stimuli.

  6. Humor and interpersonal attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murstein, B I; Brust, R G

    1985-12-01

    A humor test composed of cartoons, comic strips, and jokes was administered to 30 college couples (26 single, 4 married) who rated them for humor. Subjects also stated how much they loved and liked their partner, their probability of marrying the partner, and filled out Rubin's Liking and Love Scales. The hypotheses were that similarity of rating of the humorous stimuli would be associated with loving, liking, and predisposition to marry. Hypotheses were confirmed.

  7. Humor in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Howard J

    2003-12-01

    Humor and laughter have been a focus of attention in the popular media and in the medical literature. Despite statements about the health benefits of humor, current research is insufficient to validate such claims. There is support in the literature for the role of humor and laughter in other areas, including patient-physician communication, psychological aspects of patient care, medical education, and as a means of reducing stress in medical professionals.

  8. Laughing at the Looking Glass: Does Humor Style Serve as an Interpersonal Signal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgil Zeigler-Hill

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The provision of information appears to be an important feature of humor. The present studies examined whether humor serves as an interpersonal signal such that an individual's style of humor is associated with how the individual is perceived by others. Method: We examined this issue across two studies. In Study 1, undergraduate participants (257 targets were rated more positively by their friends and family members (1194 perceivers when they possessed more benign humor styles. In Study 2, 1190 community participants rated the romantic desirability of targets ostensibly possessing different humor styles. Results: Across both studies, our results were consistent with the possibility that humor serves as a signal. More specifically, individuals with benign humor styles (affiliative and self-enhancing humor styles were evaluated more positively than those targets with injurious humor styles (aggressive and self-defeating humor styles. Conclusion: These findings are discussed in terms of the role that humor may play in interpersonal perception and relationships.

  9. Humor styles moderate borderline personality traits and suicide ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Neil A; Helle, Ashley C; Tucker, Raymond P; Lengel, Gregory J; DeShong, Hilary L; Wingate, LaRicka R; Mullins-Sweatt, Stephanie N

    2017-03-01

    The way individuals use humor to interact interpersonally has been associated with general personality, depression, and suicidality. Certain humor styles may moderate the risk for suicide ideation (SI) in individuals who are high in specific risk factors (e.g., thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness). Previous research suggests a relationship between humor styles and borderline personality disorder (BPD) and an increased risk of suicidality and suicide completion in individuals with BPD. Participants (n =176) completed measures of BPD traits, SI, and humor styles. It was hypothesized that BPD traits would be positively correlated with negative humor styles and negatively correlated with positive humor styles, and that humor styles would significantly moderate BPD traits and SI. Results showed that BPD traits were negatively correlated with self-enhancing humor styles and positively correlated with self-defeating humor styles, but that they were not significantly correlated with affiliative or aggressive humor styles. Bootstrapping analyses demonstrated that the affiliative, self-enhancing, and self-defeating humor styles significantly moderated BPD traits and SI, while the aggressive humor style did not. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Those Who Laugh Are Defenseless: How Humor Breaks Resistance to Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strick, Madelijn; Holland, Rob W.; van Baaren, Rick B.; van Knippenberg, Ad

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments illustrate that humor in advertisements prevents the development of negative brand associations due to resistance. Previous research on humor in advertising suggested that humor can counter negative responses during ad processing, but less is known about the effect of humor on the development of negative brand associations in…

  11. Those Who Laugh Are Defenseless: How Humor Breaks Resistance to Influence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strick, M.A.; Holland, R.W.; Baaren, R.B. van; Knippenberg, A.F.M. van

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments illustrate that humor in advertisements prevents the development of negative brand associations due to resistance. Previous research on humor in advertising suggested that humor can counter negative responses during ad processing, but less is known about the effect of humor on the

  12. Those Who Laugh Are Defenseless: How Humor Breaks Resistance to Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strick, Madelijn; Holland, Rob W.; van Baaren, Rick B.; van Knippenberg, Ad

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments illustrate that humor in advertisements prevents the development of negative brand associations due to resistance. Previous research on humor in advertising suggested that humor can counter negative responses during ad processing, but less is known about the effect of humor on the development of negative brand associations in…

  13. Those Who Laugh Are Defenseless: How Humor Breaks Resistance to Influence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strick, M.A.; Holland, R.W.; Baaren, R.B. van; Knippenberg, A.F.M. van

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments illustrate that humor in advertisements prevents the development of negative brand associations due to resistance. Previous research on humor in advertising suggested that humor can counter negative responses during ad processing, but less is known about the effect of humor on the

  14. Humor and Giftedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziv, Avner; Gadish, Orit

    1990-01-01

    Two studies investigated humor among a total of 151 gifted adolescents. It was found that (1) in a sociometry of humor test, gifted adolescents received either few or many choices in a bimodal distribution; and (2) gifted adolescent humorists were more extroverted, more creative, and lower in need for social approval than other gifted adolescents.…

  15. Humor, Philosophy and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morreall, John

    2014-01-01

    This article begins by examining the bad reputation humor traditionally had in philosophy and education. Two of the main charges against humor--that it is hostile and irresponsible--are linked to the Superiority Theory. That theory is critiqued and two other theories of laughter are presented--the Relief Theory and the Incongruity Theory. In the…

  16. Humor's healing potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaward, B L

    1992-04-01

    In the past three decades the medical world has begun to take more serious notice of the healing power of humor and the positive emotions associated with it. Humor and laughter are currently being employed by psychotherapists and other care givers as tools to promote and maintain health, as well as intervention and rehabilitation tools for a host of maladies and illnesses related to stress and life-style. Although this empirical medical approach is relatively new, the study of humor has revealed a complex psychological phenomenon. Senses of humor have been categorized in types associated with personality. Humor has many styles and can be found in almost any situation, on any occasion. Theories of humor include the superiority theory, the incongruity theory, the release/relief theory, and the divinity theory. Laughter has many clinical benefits, promoting beneficial physiological changes and an overall sense of well-being. Humor even has long-term effects that strengthen the effectiveness of the immune system. In healthcare, humor therapy can help relieve stress associated with disease and illness. It serves as a diversionary tactic, a therapeutic tool for disorders such as depression, and a coping mechanism. It also is a natural healing component for care givers trying to cope with the stress and personal demands of their occupations.

  17. Humor, Philosophy and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morreall, John

    2014-01-01

    This article begins by examining the bad reputation humor traditionally had in philosophy and education. Two of the main charges against humor--that it is hostile and irresponsible--are linked to the Superiority Theory. That theory is critiqued and two other theories of laughter are presented--the Relief Theory and the Incongruity Theory. In the…

  18. Metonymy And Humor Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凤琴

    2008-01-01

    Study of humor discourse has attracted an increasingly numerousattention since 80's of last century.Traditionally.they approach it mainly from pragmatic aspect.In this paper.I try aflew research perspective,metonymicfunction and scenario concept to study how metonymic link works in theinterpretation of humor asa cognitive and mental process.

  19. Metonymy And Humor Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凤琴

    2008-01-01

    Study of humor discourse has attracted an increasingly numerousattention since 80’s of last century.Traditionally,they approach it mainly from pragmatic aspect.In this paper,I try a new research perspective,metonymic function and scenario concept to study how metonymic link works in the interpretation of humor as a cognitive and mental process.

  20. El humor centenarista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Sánchez

    1963-01-01

    Full Text Available En el número 7 -volumen IV- de julio de 1961, bajo el título de El Humor Parnasiano, fueron publicados cuatro sonetos humorísticos: dos del Maestro Guillermo Valencia y dos de su discípulo Carlos López Narváez.

  1. Differentiating what is humorous from what is not.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Caleb; McGraw, A Peter

    2016-03-01

    After 2.5 millennia of philosophical deliberation and psychological experimentation, most scholars have concluded that humor arises from incongruity. We highlight 2 limitations of incongruity theories of humor. First, incongruity is not consistently defined. The literature describes incongruity in at least 4 ways: surprise, juxtaposition, atypicality, and a violation. Second, regardless of definition, incongruity alone does not adequately differentiate humorous from nonhumorous experiences. We suggest revising incongruity theory by proposing that humor arises from a benign violation: something that threatens a person's well-being, identity, or normative belief structure but that simultaneously seems okay. Six studies, which use entertainment, consumer products, and social interaction as stimuli, reveal that the benign violation hypothesis better differentiates humorous from nonhumorous experiences than common conceptualizations of incongruity. A benign violation conceptualization of humor improves accuracy by reducing the likelihood that joyous, amazing, and tragic situations are inaccurately predicted to be humorous. (PsycINFO Database Record

  2. Neuropsychology of humor: an introduction. Part II. Humor and the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derouesné, Christian

    2016-09-01

    Impairment of the perception or comprehension of humor is observed in patients with focal brain lesions in both hemispheres, but mainly in the right frontal lobe. Studies by functional magnetic resonance imaging in healthy subjects show that humor is associated with activation of two main neural systems in both hemispheres. The detection and resolution of incongruity, cognitive groundings of humor, are associated with activation of the medial prefrontal and temporoparietal cortex, and the humor appreciation with activation of the orbito-frontal and insular cortex, amygdala and the brain reward system. However, activation of these areas is not humor-specific and can be observed in various cognitive or emotional processes. Event-related potential studies confirm the involvement of both hemispheres in humor processing, and suggest that left prefrontal area is associated with joke comprehension and right prefrontal area with the resolution stage. Humor thus appears to be a complex and dynamic functional process involving, on one hand, two specialized but not specific neural systems linked to humor apprehension and appreciation, and, on the other hand, multiple interconnected functional brain networks including neural patterns underlying the moral framework and belief system, acquired by conditioning or imitation during the cognitive development and social interactions of the individual, and more distributed systems associated with the analysis of the current context of humor occurrence. Disturbances of the sense of humor could then result from focal brain alterations localized in one or two of the specialized areas underlying the comprehension or appreciation of humor, or from perturbations of the network interconnectivity in non-focal brain disorders such as Alzheimer's disease or schizophrenia.

  3.  Evaluation of the humoral and cellular immune responses after implantation of a PTFE vascular prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Skóra

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available  Introduction:The experiment was designed in order to determine the immunological processes that occur during the healing in synthetic vascular grafts, especially to establish the differences in the location of the complement system proteins between the proximal and distal anastomosis and the differences in the arrangement of inflammatory cells in those anastomoses. The understanding of those processes will provide a true basis for determining risk factors for complications after arterial repair procedures.Material/Methods:The experiment was carried out on 16 dogs that underwent implantation of unilateral aorto-femoral bypass with expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE. After 6 months all animals were euthanized to dissect the vascular grafts. Immunohistochemical assays and electron microscopic examinations were performed.Results:Immunohistochemical findings in the structure of neointima between anastomoses of vascular prostheses demonstrated significant differences between humoral and cellular responses. The area of proximal anastomosis revealed the presence of fibroblasts, but no macrophages were detected. The histological structure of the proximal anastomosis indicates that inflammatory processes were ended during the prosthesis healing. The immunological response obtained in the distal anastomosis corresponded to the chronic inflammatory reaction with the presence of macrophages, myofibroblasts and deposits of complement C3.Discussion:The identification of differences in the presence of macrophages and myofibroblasts and the presence of the C3 component between the anastomoses is the original achievement of the present study. In the available literature, no such significant differences have been shown so far in the humoral and cellular immune response caused by the presence of an artificial vessel in the arterial system.

  4. Evaluating Youth Sexual Health Peer Education Programs: "Challenges and Suggestions for Effective Evaluation Practices"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworsky, Denise; Larkin, June; Sriranganathan, Gobika; Clout, Jerri; Janssen, Jesse; Campbell, Lisa; Flicker, Sarah; Stadnicki, Dan; Erlich, Leah; Flynn, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Although peer sexual health education is a common form of sexual health promotion for youth, systematic reviews of these programs are relatively rare. In this study we interviewed youth peer educators to inquire about their experience of program evaluation and their perception of what is needed to develop effective evaluation practices. Data were…

  5. Evaluation of humoral and cellular immune responses to a DNA vaccine encoding chicken type II collagen for rheumatoid arthritis in normal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhao; Juan, Long; Song, Yun; Zhijian, Zhang; Jing, Jin; Kun, Yu; Yuna, Hao; Dongfa, Dai; Lili, Ding; Liuxin, Tan; Fei, Liang; Nan, Liu; Fang, Yuan; Yuying, Sun; Yongzhi, Xi

    2015-01-01

    A major challenge in the development of effective therapies for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is finding a method for the specific inhibition of the inflammatory disease processes without the induction of generalized immunosuppression. Of note, the development of therapeutic DNA vaccines and boosters that may restore immunological tolerance remains a high priority. pcDNA-CCOL2A1 is a therapeutic DNA vaccine encoding chicken type II collagen(CCII). This vaccine was developed by our laboratory and has been shown to exhibit efficacy comparable to that of the current "gold standard" treatment, methotrexate (MTX). Here, we used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays with anti-CII IgG antibodies, quantified the expression levels of Th1, Th2, and Th3 cytokines, and performed flow cytometric analyses of different T-cell subsets, including Th1, Th2, Th17, Tc, Ts, Treg, and CD4(+)CD29(+)T cells to systemically evaluate humoral and cellular immune responses to pcDNA-CCOL2A1 vaccine in normal rats. Similar to our observations at maximum dosage of 3 mg/kg, vaccination of normal rats with 300 μg/kg pcDNA-CCOL2A1 vaccine did not induce the production of anti-CII IgG. Furthermore, no significant changes were observed in the expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-5, IL-6, IL-12(IL-23p40), monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α, regulated on activation in normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), receptor activator for nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL), and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) or anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 in vaccinated normal rats relative to that in controls(P > 0.05). However, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β levels were significantly increased on days 10 and 14, while interferon (IFN)-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels were significantly decreased on days 28 and 35 after vaccination(P 0.05), with the exception of Treg cells, which were significantly

  6. Humor modeling in the interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Cockton, G.; Stock, O.; Korhonen, P.; Dix, A.; Bergman, E.; Bjork, S.; Morkes, J.; Collings, P.; Dey, A.; Draper, S.; Guliksen, J.; Keinonen, T.; Lazar, J.; Lund, A.; Malich, R.; Nakakoji, K.; Nigay, L.; Prates Oliveira, R.; Rieman, J.; Snyder, C.

    2003-01-01

    Humor is a multi-disciplinary field of research. People have been working on humor in many fields of research, such as psychology, philosophy and linguistics, sociology and literature. Especially in the context of computer science (or Artificial Intelligence) humor research aims at modeling humor in

  7. Humor modeling in the interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, A.; Stock, O.; Dix, A.; Morkes, J.; Cockton, G.; Korhonen, P.; Bergman, E.; Bjork, S.; Collings, P.; Dey, A.; Draper, S.; Guliksen, J.; Keinonen, T.; Lazar, J.; Lund, A.; Malich, R.; Nakakoji, K.; Nigay, L.; Prates Oliveira, R.; Rieman, J.; Snyder, C.

    2003-01-01

    Humor is a multi-disciplinary field of research. People have been working on humor in many fields of research, such as psychology, philosophy and linguistics, sociology and literature. Especially in the context of computer science (or Artificial Intelligence) humor research aims at modeling humor in

  8. Humors in Rip Van Winkle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张铂

    2014-01-01

    Humor is widely employed in Irving’s Rip Van Winkle. There are several kinds of humors in this short story, for exam-ple: irony, satire, farce, mockery, etc. Different humors indicate different attitudes the writer adopts toward his subject matter. This essay aims at grasping the main idea of the story through the analyses of various uses of humor.

  9. Sexual Selection and Humor in Courtship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey A. Hall

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This investigation examines a sexual selection-based argument regarding humor’s role in courtship (i.e., humor production signals intelligence/creativity. Lens model (n =100 analyses suggest that humor production on Facebook profiles were self-reported and perceived to be associated with extroversion, not intelligence. Study 2 (n = 289 found that extroversion was associated humor production, but high school and college grade point average and American College Test (ACT scores were not. In Study 3, pairs of opposite-sex strangers (n = 102 interacted for 10–12 min. Males’ humor production and females’ responsive laughter were both associated with females’ dating interest. Both partners’ dating interest was associated with simultaneous laughter. Without support for the sexual selection argument, three alternative explanations of humor’s role in courtship are discussed.

  10. The origin of humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, N E

    2002-09-01

    Humor is spread throughout every culture on earth and occupies a large portion of our literature and social interaction. It is so deeply rooted in our culture that it may be a defining characteristic of our species. Yet there has been comparatively little effort to understand its origin. According to the Accepted Theory of Humor all jokes begin with a buildup of tension while an initial paradigm is formed. When the punch line occurs the subject must realign his thinking to accommodate the differences between the initial paradigm and the sudden burst of new information. The Mind Reading Hypothesis extends the accepted theory of humor to include a relationship between the observer and the subject of the humor. The actual source of amusement is the observation of the resolution in the mind of the subject of the collision between old perception and new reality.

  11. Political Uses of Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Ronald G.

    1981-01-01

    Introduces a theoretical framework applicable to the political and social uses made of humor. Focuses on the uses individuals make of jokes and joking in relation to the constant interchange involved between institutional stability and social change. (FL)

  12. The Humor in Horror.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kies, Cosette

    1995-01-01

    Discussion of horror fiction for teenagers focuses on the element of humor. Topics include parodies, plots, the element of mystery, cover art, end-of-chapter cliffhangers, and formula books. An annotated list of 10 pertinent titles is included. (LRW)

  13. Suggested Model (Related to the Student Portfolio) Used in Evaluation the Students in University Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahasneh, Omar M.; Murad, Odeh S.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a suggested model related to the student's portfolio used in evaluating the students in the university courses. After revising the theoretical literature and previous studies, two tools of the study have been constructed: Suggested model related to the student portfolio, and identifying the specifications towards using…

  14. Aqueous humor tyrosinase activity is indicative of iris melanocyte toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahanty, Sarmistha; Kawali, Ankush A; Dakappa, Shruthi Shirur; Mahendradas, Padmamalini; Kurian, Mathew; Kharbanda, Varun; Shetty, Rohit; Setty, Subba Rao Gangi

    2017-09-01

    Antibiotics such as fluoroquinolones (FQLs) are commonly used to treat ocular infections but are also known to cause dermal melanocyte toxicity. The release of dispersed pigments from the iris into the aqueous humor has been considered a possible ocular side effect of the systemic administration of FQLs such as Moxifloxacin, and this condition is known as bilateral acute iris transillumination (BAIT). Bilateral acute depigmentation of iris (BADI) is a similar condition, with iris pigment released into the aqueous, but it has not been reported as a side effect of FQL. Iris pigments are synthesized by the melanogenic enzyme tyrosinase (TYR) and can be detected but not quantified by using slit-lamp biomicroscopy. The correlation between dispersed pigments in the aqueous and the extent of melanocyte toxicity due to topical antibiotics in vivo is not well studied. Here, we aimed to study the effect of topical FQLs on iris tissue, the pigment release in the aqueous humor and the development of clinically evident iris atrophic changes. We evaluated this process by measuring the activity of TYR in the aqueous humor of 82 healthy eyes undergoing cataract surgery following topical application of FQLs such as Moxifloxacin (27 eyes, preservative-free) or Ciprofloxacin (29 eyes, with preservative) or the application of non-FQL Tobramycin (26 eyes, with preservative) as a control. In addition, the patients were questioned and examined for ocular side effects in pre- and post-operative periods. Our data showed a significantly higher mean TYR activity in the aqueous humor of Ciprofloxacin-treated eyes compared to Moxifloxacin- (preservative free, p humor from both Ciprofloxacin- and Moxifloxacin-treated eyes showed the presence of soluble TYR enzyme, thus reflecting its toxicity to iris melanocytes and corresponding to its activity in the aqueous humor. Intriguingly, none of these patients developed any clinically appreciable ocular side effects characteristic of BAIT or BADI

  15. Point-of-service, quantitative analysis of ascorbic acid in aqueous humor for evaluating anterior globe integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartia, Manas R.; Misra, Santosh K.; Ye, Mao; Schwartz-Duval, Aaron; Plucinski, Lisa; Zhou, Xiangfei; Kellner, David; Labriola, Leanne T.; Pan, Dipanjan

    2015-11-01

    Limited training, high cost, and low equipment mobility leads to inaccuracies in decision making and is concerning with serious ocular injuries such as suspected ruptured globe or post-operative infections. Here, we present a novel point-of-service (POS) quantitative ascorbic acid (AA) assay with use of the OcuCheck Biosensor. The present work describes the development and clinical testing of the paper-based biosensor that measures the changes in electrical resistance of the enzyme-plated interdigitated electrodes to quantify the level of AA present in ocular fluid. We have demonstrated the proof-of-concept of the biosensor testing 16 clinical samples collected from aqueous humor of patients undergoing therapeutic anterior chamber paracentesis. Comparing with gold standard colorimetric assay for AA concentration, OcuCheck showed accuracy of >80%, sensitivity of >88% and specificity of >71%. At present, there are no FDA-approved POS tests that can directly measures AA concentration levels in ocular fluid. We envisage that the device can be realized as a handheld, battery powered instrument that will have high impact on glaucoma care and point-of-care diagnostics of penetrating ocular globe injuries.

  16. Comparative Study of Two Vitreous Humor Sampling Methods in Rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lan; ZHOU Weiguang; REN Liang; LIU Qian; LIU Liang

    2006-01-01

    To compare and evaluate two methodologies, entire-sampling and micro-sampling for the harvesting of vitreous humor, the vitreous humor of rabbits were sampled with the two methods respectively, and the concentrations of calcium, chlorine, potassium, sodium and phosphorus of the were measured. The results showed that the differences in the variance coefficient and two-eye concentrations of micro-sampled specimens were less than those of the entire-sampled specimens. In the micro-sampling group, the concentrations of repeated micro-sampling showed no differences among different groups (P>0.05) and the intra-ocular fluid dynamics did not have significant influence on post-mortem sampling. The sampling technique may affect the concentrations of specimen collected.Our study suggests that micro-sampling is less influenced by the human factor and is reliable, reproducible, and more suitable for forensic investigation.

  17. Humor as an adjunct to occupational therapy interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooper, V O

    1984-01-01

    Although humor and laughter have been a natural part of human life in all cultures as far back as recorded history can determine, the conscious use of humor as a therapeutic technique is comparatively recent. This article suggests that health specialists have been slow to adopt the ideas of some of the better known researchers and writers in the field due to professional and cultural attitudes toward humor as a "frivolous" subject. As more information on the positive benefits of humor and laughter is being disseminated in books and workshops, previous myths regarding humor are being dispelled and attitudes are changing. A brief history of the state of the art over the past decade is included along with a few ideas from seminars and workshops on the use of humor as a planned activity in health and educational settings.

  18. Trait humor and longevity: do comics have the last laugh?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotton, J

    1992-01-01

    Four sets of biographical data were analyzed in order to test the hypothesis that the ability to generate humor is associated with longevity. Although steps were taken to ensure that tests had high levels of statistical power, analyses provided very little support for the idea that individuals with a well-developed sense of humor live longer than serious writers and other entertainers. In addition, a subsidiary analysis revealed that those in the business of entertaining others died at an earlier age than those in other lines of endeavor. These findings suggest that researchers should turn their attention from trait humor to the effects of humorous material.

  19. A Study of the Translation of Humor in English Movies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丹丹

    2016-01-01

    What is believed to be the most important thing in translating English movie subtitle is the transmission of humorous effects. Humor is the development result of language and culture, and it is human's wisdom. Based on Vermeer's Skopostheorie theory of functionalist approaches, the thesis suggests that the instrumental translation strategy based on the source text analysis can be used for the translation of humor discourses. The translator can translate humorous languages by way of literal translation, annotation, combination of literal translation and free translation.

  20. Self-esteem instability and humor styles: does the stability of self-esteem influence how people use humor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Jessica; Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Arnau, Randolph C

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine whether self-esteem instability moderated the association between self-esteem level and the use of humor. This was accomplished by examining the associations that humor styles had with self-esteem level and self-esteem instability among 499 undergraduates. The results of the present study show that self-esteem instability moderated the association between self-esteem level and humor styles such that individuals with stable high self-esteem reported the highest levels of affiliative humor as well as the lowest levels of aggressive and self-defeating humor. These results suggest that individuals with stable and unstable forms of self-esteem employ different styles of humor.

  1. Using Humorous Programs as a Vehicle for Humorous Commercials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Stephen D.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Shows that an increased level of humor in commercials was beneficial to recall and purchase intention; increased humor in the television program was detrimental to recall of products advertised; and gender interacted with program humor levels, such that products were viewed less negatively by men when they were exposed to commercials in a more…

  2. Humor and creativity in psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Martín Camacho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the current article principal theories on humor are analyzed, relating them to different conceptions of creativity. Finally, some indications for the use of humor in psychotherapy are introduced, highlighting their positive and negative aspects. 

  3. Cultural Context and Humor Understanding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐中锋

    2009-01-01

    "Humor" is a very general word, which has been studied by numerous scholars from different points of view, pursuing different goals and using different assumptions. This paper holds that cultural context counts for the production and perception of humor.

  4. Effectiveness of humor training among adolescents with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ching-Lin; Liu, Ya-Ru; Kuo, Ching-Chih; Chen, Hsueh-Chih; Chang, Yu-Lin

    2016-12-30

    Humor training has been applied to educational and clinical cases and has been found to be effective, but humor training for individuals with autism is relatively rare. The present study proposed a humor-knowledge and humor-skill training workshop to enhance the humor comprehension and appreciation of individuals with autism and examined the effects of the training. Participants were 20 adolescents with autism and average intelligence (above 70 in WAIS-III). They were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. Both questionnaire of joke comprehension and appreciation and a humor style questionnaire were used as instruments. The results supported the effectiveness of the 15-h training. The comprehension and appreciation of nonsense humor were significantly increased in the experimental group in comparison with the control group, although the incongruity-resolution jokes remained difficult to comprehend. The tendency to use affiliative humor was greater among individuals with autism in the experimental group, suggesting that the appreciation of humor can be learned.

  5. Humor processing in children: influence of temperament, age and IQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrticka, Pascal; Black, Jessica M; Neely, Michelle; Walter Shelly, Elizabeth; Reiss, Allan L

    2013-11-01

    Emerging evidence from fMRI studies suggests that humor processing is a specific social cognitive-affective human function that comprises two stages. The first stage (cognitive humor component) involves the detection and resolution of incongruity, and is associated with activity in temporo-occipito-parietal brain areas. The second stage (emotional humor component) comprises positive feelings related to mirth/reward, and is linked with reward-related activity in mesocorticolimbic circuits. In healthy adults, humor processing was shown to be moderated by temperament traits like intro-/extraversion, neuroticism, or social anxiety, representing risk factors for psychopathology. However, comparable data from early developmental stages is crucially lacking. Here, we report for the first time data from 22 children (ages 6 to 13) revealing an influence of temperament on humor processing. Specifically, we assessed the effects of Emotionality, Shyness, and Sociability, which are analogous to neuroticism, behavioral inhibition/fear and extraversion in adults. We found Emotionality to be positively, but Shyness negatively associated with brain activity linked with both cognitive and emotional humor components. In addition, Shyness and Sociability were positively related to activity in the periaqueductal gray region during humor processing. These findings are of potential clinical relevance regarding the early detection of childhood psychopathology. Previous data on humor processing in both adults and children furthermore suggest that intelligence (IQ) supports incongruity detection and resolution, whereas mirth and associated brain activity diminishes with increasing age. Here, we found that increasing age and IQ were linked with stronger activity to humor in brain areas implicated in the cognitive component of humor. Such data suggest that humor processing undergoes developmental changes and is moderated by higher IQ scores, both factors likely improving incongruity detection

  6. Humor in Children's Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Frank; Coles, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Humorous literature for children has been around since Randolph Caldecott first started writing and illustrating picturebooks. In the article, the authors try to understand what makes picturebooks funny and discuss ways to use humor in the classroom. Many examples of humorous picturebooks are cited to provide teachers with resources for their…

  7. Using Humor in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barney, David; Christenson, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Humor can be extremely beneficial in everyday life, whether giving or receiving it. It can be used to lighten the mood, give encouragement, or make corrections. Humor in physical education is no exception. Physical educators can use humor as a teaching tool and to create an environment for students to acquire the knowledge to practice a lifetime…

  8. Humor and embodied conversational agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, A.

    2003-01-01

    This report surveys the role of humor in human-to-human interaction and the possible role of humor in human-computer interaction. The aim is to see whether it is useful for embodied conversational agents to integrate humor capabilities in their internal model of intelligence, emotions and interactio

  9. Using Humor in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barney, David; Christenson, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Humor can be extremely beneficial in everyday life, whether giving or receiving it. It can be used to lighten the mood, give encouragement, or make corrections. Humor in physical education is no exception. Physical educators can use humor as a teaching tool and to create an environment for students to acquire the knowledge to practice a lifetime…

  10. Friendship, Intimacy and Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Mordechai

    2014-01-01

    A review of the literature in philosophy in the past 20 years indicates that relatively little has been written on the connection between friendship, intimacy and humor. This article is intended to begin to address the neglect of this topic among philosophers by focusing on some interesting aspects of the relationship between friendship, intimacy…

  11. Do we really know how to evaluate tooth prognosis? A systematic review and suggested approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin-Sternfeld, Michal; Levin, Liran

    2013-05-01

    Periodontal treatment is based on tooth prognosis evaluation. Different approaches for determining tooth prognosis have been described in the literature. The vast majority are based on clinical and radiographic findings, as well as patient-related factors. The availability of various systems for assigning tooth prognosis complicates both the assignment process and the communication between clinicians regarding patient status and treatment plan. In addition, performance evaluation of several systems reveals that the accuracy of prediction differs between teeth of various conditions in most methods, as well as the factors providing significant predictive power. As a standardized prognostic classification system is still lacking, an overall evaluation based on a uniform dataset could provide an objective comparison of all methods, and help progress towards developing novel approaches. The main features of such approaches should include the selection of predictive factors, their assigned weights in accordance with different tooth conditions, and the estimated period of time applicable for reevaluation of prognosis. In this paper, we propose a different approach for prognosis evaluation, suggesting reevaluating tooth prognosis at several time points during the treatment plan, and taking into consideration some of the most important issues of patient compliance, oral hygiene, and plaque control. The suggested approach attempts to address prognosis from a different perspective, viewing the process as a dynamic and recurring evaluation embedded within each step of the treatment plan. Due to the fact that accurate tooth prognosis evaluation is still (and might forever be) unavailable, a more humble and less aggressive approach should be adopted, trying to preserve more and extract less.

  12. Glem ikke at bruge humor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Preben Olund

    2017-01-01

    relationer og nærhed. Det er velkendt. Mindre velkendt er måske at gode relationer begynder med humor. Humorbegrebet kan begribes ud fra fire forskellige perspektiver. Humor bliver sammenlignet med leg, der er en undersøgende og seriøs form for læring mellem fantasi og virkelighed. Humor skaber sociale...... fællesskaber, der er grundlag for læring. Humor udvikler følelser, der er en motiverende faktor i undervisningen. Humor udvikler kognition, der er evnen til at kunne tænke....

  13. The value of humor in psycotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Chazenbalk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The main point of this work is to show how humor—when is used properly- has a positive effect on the patient ant the therapist’s self improving their alliance, supervision and team meetings. It’s also good for profesionals to include humor, recreation and rest in their job routines, because these ingredients let them be more effective in psychoterapy. The vast majority of psychological theories agree on its importance. The Cognitive Psychology believes that humor helps the patient evaluate reality in a different way, stops disfunctional thoughts, lets the expression of negative emotions and finds more adaptative patterns. 

  14. Primary graft dysfunction; possible evaluation by high resolution computed tomography, and suggestions for a scoring system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belmaati, Esther; Jensen, Claus; Kofoed, Klaus F

    2009-01-01

    /exclusion criteria of patients, pilot testing, and training investigators through review of disagreements, were possibilities suggested for decreasing inter/intra observer variability. Factors affecting the image attenuation (Hounsfield numbers) and thus, the reproducibility of CT densitometric measurements were...... of minimal influence. Studies have reported on how lung tissue images, derived by HRCT, can be scored and graded. There does not seem to be a golden standard for evaluating these images, which makes comparison between methods challenging. These scoring systems assess the presence, severity, and extent...

  15. Vocabulary Matching for Book Indexing Suggestion in Linked Libraries - A Prototype Implementation and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Antoine; Kramer, Dirk; van der Meij, Lourens; Wang, Shenghui; Schlobach, Stefan; Stapel, Johan

    In this paper, we report on a technology-transfer effort on using the Semantic Web (SW) technologies, esp. ontology matching, for solving a real-life library problem: book subject indexing. Our purpose is to streamline one library's book description process by suggesting new subjects based on descriptions created by other institutions, even when the vocabularies used are different. The case at hand concerns the National Library of the Netherlands (KB) and the network of Dutch local public libraries. We present a prototype subject suggestion tool, which is directly connected to the KB production cataloguing environment. We also report on the results of a user study and evaluation to assess the feasibility of exploiting state-of-the art techniques in such a real-life application. Our prototype demonstrates that SW components can be seamlessly plugged into the KB production environment, which potentially brings a higher level of flexibility and openness to networked Cultural Heritage (CH) institutions. Technical hurdles can be tackled and the suggested subjects are often relevant, opening up exciting new perspectives on the daily work of the KB. However, the general performance level should be made higher to warrant seamless embedding in the production environment—notably by considering more contextual metadata for the suggestion process.

  16. Humor in print health advertisements: enhanced attention, privileged recognition, and persuasiveness of preventive messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, Nathalie; Brigaud, Emmanuelle

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the effect of humor in one particular type of print advertisement: the preventive health ads for three topics (alcohol, tobacco, obesity). Previous research using commercial ads demonstrated that individuals' attention is spontaneously attracted by humor, leading to a memory advantage for humorous information over nonhumorous information. Two experiments investigated whether the positive effect of humor can occur with preventive health ads. In Experiment 1, participants observed humorous and nonhumorous health ads while their viewing times were recorded. In Experiment 2, to compare humorous and nonhumorous ads, the memory of health messages was assessed through a recognition task and a convincing score was collected. The results confirmed that, compared to nonhumorous health ads, those using humor received prolonged attention, were judged more convincing, and their messages were better recognized. Overall, these findings suggest that humor can be of use in preventive health communication.

  17. Does humor moderate the effects of experimentally-induced stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, M G; Stone, A A

    1996-06-01

    This study attempted to determine whether humor production moderates mood and physiological responses to stress of subjects high and low in trait humor. Forty subjects who were high and 40 subjects who were low in trait humor were selected. Half of each group was randomly assigned to one of two conditions. In one condition they generated a humorous monologue and in the other condition they generated a serious monologue to a silent stressful film. Heart rate, skin conductance level, and skin temperature were taken continuously for the fifteen minutes before, during, and fifteen minutes after the film. Pre- and post-stress mood and tension ratings were also recorded. Analyses of covariance were conducted with baseline mood and tension as covariates. Compared to the production of a serious narrative, humor production led to lower negative affect, lower tension, and reduced psychophysiological reactivity for both high and low trait-humor groups. These results suggest that humor production may be an effective coping strategy, even for individuals who do not typically use humor to cope with stress.

  18. Evaluation of humoral and cellular immune responses to BP26 and OMP31 epitopes in the attenuated Brucella melitensis vaccinated sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenjing; Wu, Jingbo; Qiao, Jun; Weng, Yunceng; Zhang, Hui; Liao, Qingyu; Qiu, Jinlang; Chen, Chuangfu; Allain, Jean-Pierre; Li, Chengyao

    2014-02-07

    In recent years, the number of cases of human brucellosis has been increasing by approximately 10% per year in China. Most cases were caused by Brucella melitensis through contacts with infected sheep, goats or their products. An attenuated B. melitensis vaccine M5-90 is currently used to vaccinate both animals in China. This vaccine has not been investigated for critical parameters such as immune response and its association with protective efficacy. In this study, humoral and cellular immune response to the periplasmic protein BP26 and the outer membrane protein OMP31 were evaluated in M5-90 vaccinated Chinese merino and Kazak sheep. Antibodies to BP26 or OMP31 were detected at low levels, and specific IFN-γ response was quantified. Strongly reactive peptides derived from BP26 and OMP31 identified five T-cell epitopes (BP26-6, -8, -11, -12 and OMP31-23) common to both sheep species, five species-specific epitopes (BP26-10, -18, -21 and -22 and OMP31-12) and four animal-specific epitopes (BP26-15, -23, OMP31-6 and -21), which stimulated specific IFN-γ response in vaccinated sheep. Among those T-cell epitopes, reactivity to BP26-18 and -21 epitopes was significantly associated with MHC-I B allele (P=0.024). However, a specific T-cell response induced by the M5-90 vaccine was relatively week and did not sustain long enough, which might be suppressed by rapid activation of T-regulatory (Treg) cells following vaccination. These findings provide an insight in designing a safer and more effective vaccine for use in animals and in humans.

  19. Stress-related temporary hearing loss--evaluation of bio-humoral parameters: forensic and criminological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borraccia, Vito; Sblano, Sara; Carabellese, Felice; De Sario, Rosalisa; Zefferino, Roberto; Vinci, Francesco

    2012-07-01

    The body-alarm reaction results from the activation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, which can lead to physio-psychological phenomena such as an exclusion/occlusion of the sense of hearing. One hypothesis to explain this alteration consists in a hydromechanical dysfunction of the internal ear attributable to antidiuretic hormone. In this study, we evaluated the perception of acoustic stimuli administered in stressful conditions in 14 phobic patients and in 20 healthy subjects, in order to assess the influence of stress on perceiving capabilities. We also measured the concentration of salivary cortisol and IL-1β and neurovegetative parameters to objectivise and quantify the physiological reactions. Our results show a worse perception of the frequencies of the human voice under stress; these findings could have a dual value: in the legal field, concerning criminal liability, and on the operative context, regarding the efficiency of verbal communication among law enforcement officers in situations inducing intense emotional stress.

  20. College Students' Perception of Lecturers Using Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamborini, Ron; Zillmann, Dolf

    1981-01-01

    Audio-taped lectures by male or female professors were produced in four versions: no humor; sexual humor; other-disparaging humor; and self-disparaging humor. Male and female students rated lecturers' intelligence and appeal. Intelligence ratings were unaffected by humor variations, but significant lecturer-student sex interactions were found on…

  1. Study on Deep Structure of Humor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫林琼

    2007-01-01

    Humor is the common favorite of people in all walks of life and at all ages. Studying the deep structure of humor, that is, the psychological and cognitive foundation in producing and comprehending humor, is quite practical in helping people first to recognize, understand and appreciate others' humor and then to apply their own humor to their daily communication.

  2. Humor and embodied conversational agents

    OpenAIRE

    Nijholt, A.

    2003-01-01

    This report surveys the role of humor in human-to-human interaction and the possible role of humor in human-computer interaction. The aim is to see whether it is useful for embodied conversational agents to integrate humor capabilities in their internal model of intelligence, emotions and interaction (verbal and nonverbal) capabilities. A current state of the art of research in embodied conversational agents, affective computing and verbal and nonverbal interaction is presented. The report ad...

  3. Avaliação polissonográfica de pacientes ambulatoriais portadores de transtornos do humor Polysomnographic evaluation of clinical patients suffering from mood disturbance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica M. Souza

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A avaliação do sono e os achados polissonográficos de 60 pacientes portadores de transtorno do humor, acompanhados em ambulatório, com média de idade de 36,1 ± 11,3 anos são apresentados ( 12 M, 48 F. Os pacientes foram submetidos a entrevista clínica, questionário do sono e a duas noites de polissonografia, sendo a segunda noite utilizada para dados estatísticos. A distimia foi o diagnóstico mais comum em 25 casos. (41,6%. Para o delineamento do estudo utilizou-se análise descritiva. As avaliações estatísticas empregadas foram o teste exato de Fisher e o teste de Kruskal-Wallis. Houve tendência para redução da continuidade do sono e aumento da densidade REM, em níveis estatisticamente não significantes. Ocorreu redução significante do sono profundo (estágio 4 diretamente relacionada com a maior severidade da depressão (p=0,0253.The sleep patterns of sixty patients suffering from mood disturbance, were studied, with mean age of 36.1 ± 11.3 years ( 12 males, 48 females. These patients were submitted to two nights of nocturnal polysomnographic evaluation; the second night acquired data was employed in the statistics. The following parameters were analyzed: parameters of sleep continuity, parameters of sleep architecture, REM and non-REM sleep parameters. The patients were analyzed in accordance to depression severity, presence of sleep disorders and relevant mood disturbances. The most common diagnosis was dysthymia in 25 cases (41.6%. Descriptive analysis was used to delineate the study. The statistics evaluation used the Fisher exact test and the Kruskal-Wallis statistics heterogeneity test. There was reduction in sleep continuity and increase in REM density, both not statistic significant. Stage 4 sleep showed significant reduction in severely depressed patients (p=0.0253.

  4. Humor, helt seriøst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundquist, Lita Sander

    2012-01-01

    Adfærd. Har humor grænser? Dansk humor har i hvert fald. Hvor humor typisk bruges til at glatte ud med, har det ofte den stik modsatte virkning, viser studie.......Adfærd. Har humor grænser? Dansk humor har i hvert fald. Hvor humor typisk bruges til at glatte ud med, har det ofte den stik modsatte virkning, viser studie....

  5. Humor in the teaching of writing: A microethnographic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian F. Hempelmann

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the content of a critical thinking and writing course, along with similar courses derived from it, designed around the topic of humor and culminating in a microethnographic investigation of humor in students’ lives. The aims of the paper are threefold: to offer a general rationale for using humor in the writing classroom; to illustrate different types of potentials and dangers of such an approach; and to suggest extensions of the findings to the second-language writing classroom. The paper offers texts, writing prompts, and activities for instructors teaching classes that focus on the writing process in a first or second language.

  6. Humor styles and symbolic boundaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, G.

    2009-01-01

    Humor is strongly related to group boundaries. Jokes and other humorous utterances often draw on implicit references and inside knowledge; they tend to refer to sensitive topics which may offend people; and they ideally incite laughter, one of the strongest markers of social solidarity and emotional

  7. A Pragmatic Study of Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibraheem, Sura Dhiaa; Abbas, Nawal Fadhil

    2016-01-01

    Linguistically speaking, the concept of humor, which seems to be vast for people, has specific dimensions by which it is generated including: puns, irony, sarcasm, wittiness, and contrastive utterances in relation to the speakers of those utterances. It is about how the extra linguistics elements dominate the situation and the delivery of humor.…

  8. Humor er en alvorlig sag

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søltoft, Pia

    2016-01-01

    I modsætning til ironi er humor for Kierkegaard fællesskabsgivende – ironikeren hævder sig selv, men humoristen har sympati med den, man ler med. Humor er hos Kierkegaard udtryk for, at humoristen forliger sig med tilværelsen og dens luner, og dermed grænser humoren hos Kierkegaard op til det...

  9. Humor styles and symbolic boundaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, G.

    2009-01-01

    Humor is strongly related to group boundaries. Jokes and other humorous utterances often draw on implicit references and inside knowledge; they tend to refer to sensitive topics which may offend people; and they ideally incite laughter, one of the strongest markers of social solidarity and emotional

  10. Spass Verstehen, Zur Pragmatik von konversationellem Humor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekmann, Bjørn

    2000-01-01

    Spøg, Humor, Komik, Ironi, Kommunikationsteori, Hermeneutik, Gruppedynamik, Logik, Tekstlingvistik......Spøg, Humor, Komik, Ironi, Kommunikationsteori, Hermeneutik, Gruppedynamik, Logik, Tekstlingvistik...

  11. Aqueous humor changes after experimental filtering surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radius, R L; Herschler, J; Claflin, A; Fiorentino, G

    1980-02-01

    We studied aqueous humor of rhesus and owl monkeys for its effect on the growth of subconjunctival fibroblasts in tissue culture. Aqueous humor samples obtained before glaucoma surgery inhibited the initiation of growth of fibroblasts. However, postoperative aqueous humor samples supported growth of fibroblasts. The change in aqueous humor physiology lasted for up to two months after glaucoma surgery. Our study indicated that possibly material added to the postoperative aqueous humor inactivates an inhibitor normally present in primary aqueous humor. An alternative explanation would be that primary aqueous humor, in contrast to secondary aqueous humor, lacks sufficient nutrient material to support fibroblast growth in tissue culture.

  12. Anomalous hypothalamic responses to humor in cataplexy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan L Reiss

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cataplexy is observed in a subset of patients with narcolepsy and affects approximately 1 in 2,000 persons. Cataplexy is most often triggered by strong emotions such as laughter, which can result in transient, yet debilitating, muscle atonia. The objective of this study was to examine the neural systems underlying humor processing in individuals with cataplexy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: While undergoing functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI, we showed ten narcolepsy-cataplexy patients and ten healthy controls humorous cartoons. In addition, we examined the brain activity of one subject while in a full-blown cataplectic attack. Behavioral results showed that participants with cataplexy rated significantly fewer humorous cartoons as funny compared to controls. Concurrent fMRI showed that patients, when compared to controls and in the absence of overt cataplexy symptoms, showed pronounced activity in the emotional network including the ventral striatum and hypothalamus while viewing humorous versus non-humorous cartoons. Increased activity was also observed in the right inferior frontal gyri--a core component of the inhibitory circuitry. In comparison, the one subject who experienced a cataplectic attack showed dramatic reductions in hypothalamic activity. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest an overdrive of the emotional circuitry and possible compensatory suppression by cortical inhibitory regions in cataplexy. Moreover, during cataplectic attacks, the hypothalamus is characterized by a marked decrease in activity similar to that observed during sleep. One possible explanation for these findings is an initial overdrive and compensatory shutdown of the hypothalamus resulting in full cataplectic symptoms.

  13. The role of verbal humor in second language education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ziyaeemehr

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Instructor humor serves a wide range of functions in educational contexts. This paper reports on a study that investigated the functions of instructors' humorous verbalizations in academic classrooms at a university where English is used as a second language. Data were collected through audio-recordings and classroom observations. The results of an inductive analysis led to the development of three major categories, namely “foregrounding form”, “reinforcing meaning” and “highlighting cultural dissimilarities”. These categories represented the strategies that served as instructional functions of humor in the context of L2 (second language education. Findings indicate that using verbal humor in L2 classrooms offers opportunities to facilitate access to L2 linguistic and cultural knowledge resources that are embedded in humorous exchanges. Additionally, the findings suggest that L2 instructors must have specific (socio linguistic and sociocultural humor competence to use humor to engage learners and communicate finer aspects of the L2. The implications of the findings are explored within the context of second language learning and teaching.

  14. Laughter, Humor and Pain Perception in Children: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Stuber

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Although there are many clinical programs designed to bring humor into pediatric hospitals, there has been very little research with children or adolescents concerning the specific utility of humor for children undergoing stressful or painful procedures. Rx Laughter™, a non-profit organization interested in the use of humor for healing, collaborated with UCLA to collect preliminary data on a sample of 18 children aged 7–16 years. Participants watched humorous video-tapes before, during and after a standardized pain task that involved placing a hand in cold water. Pain appraisal (ratings of pain severity and pain tolerance (submersion time were recorded and examined in relation to humor indicators (number of laughs/smiles during each video and child ratings of how funny the video was. Whereas humor indicators were not significantly associated with pain appraisal or tolerance, the group demonstrated significantly greater pain tolerance while viewing funny videos than when viewing the videos immediately before or after the cold-water task. The results suggest that humorous distraction is useful to help children and adolescents tolerate painful procedures. Further study is indicated to explore the specific mechanism of this benefit.

  15. On Untranslatability of Humor in Mark Twain's Novels and Compensating Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹小路

    2016-01-01

    Mark Twain was a well-known 19th-century American author and a reputed critical realist. His novels are excellent for combining humor with irony, which reveal his criticism of kinds of miserable reality in American society. His humor is not just for humorous effect, but has serious and profound social connotations. So when readers of the target language are reading his novels, their understanding of the deep purpose and connotations would be influenced by the quality of translation of those humors. Therefore, translators must own language competence and sufficient knowledge about the cultural background, for humor is a typical example of untranslatability. This paper makes an analysis of the two types of untranslatability: the cultural untranslatability and the linguistic and takes translation of humor in Mark Twain's novels as examples to analyze the untranslatability of humor in literature and gives suggestions of compensating strategy.

  16. Effects of Classroom Humor Climate and Acceptance of Humor Messages on Adolescents' Expressions of Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Yi-Chen; Lee, Chun-Yang; Wang, Hong-Huei

    2016-01-01

    Background: To adapt to dramatic changes from physical growth, physical development and the increasing demand of significant others, humor has been found to be an effective coping strategy. However, previous studies have found that adolescents start to express their humor styles with aggressive components which causes negative consequences, such…

  17. Effects of Classroom Humor Climate and Acceptance of Humor Messages on Adolescents' Expressions of Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Yi-Chen; Lee, Chun-Yang; Wang, Hong-Huei

    2016-01-01

    Background: To adapt to dramatic changes from physical growth, physical development and the increasing demand of significant others, humor has been found to be an effective coping strategy. However, previous studies have found that adolescents start to express their humor styles with aggressive components which causes negative consequences, such…

  18. The Suggestion of the Macrophoto Method for the Evaluation of the Gear Damages by Pitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopiláková, Beáta; Bošanský, Miroslav; Zápotočný, Ján

    2012-12-01

    It is necessary to determine regularly the span of a damaged gear surface caused by pitting. It is an arduous task, because the size of the damage on the tooth flank depends on the number of cycles and the torque. Therefore it is needed to check continually the degree of the surface damage during the testing. When evaluating it is needed to take into account both the area of one tooth and all teeth. In the past various tedious methods with the arduous manual evaluating were used to evaluate pitting . The article deals with the analysis and evaluating of pitting by a new original macrophoto method via the electronic microscope with the computer processing. The main advantage of this method is its speed, exactness and universality.

  19. A Pragmatic Study of Humor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sura Dhiaa Ibraheem

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Linguistically speaking, the concept of humor, which seems to be vast for people, has specific dimensions by which it is generated including: puns, irony, sarcasm, wittiness, and contrastive utterances in relation to the speakers of those utterances. It is about how the extra linguistics elements dominate the situation and the delivery of humor. The researchers of the present paper intend to show how the selected literary extract can be subjected to a linguistic pragmatic analysis and then be explained by applying the incongruity theory of humor by Kant (1790 in order to show the ways or the mechanisms that lead to the flouting, infringing and the violation of Gricean maxims can consequently lead to the creation of humor. Despite the fact that the present paper is qualitative in nature, some tables are provided by the researchers in order to reach into a better, deeper and more understandable analysis. Investigating the ways Gricean maxims are flouted, infringed and violated to create humor, and showing how the imperfect use of language sometimes create unintentional humor are the researchers’ aims of this paper. Keywords: pragmatics, humor, implicature, Gricean maxims, Measure for Measure

  20. Humor and Healing in College Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Barbara J.; Roehrig, James P.; Yang, Peggy H.

    2015-01-01

    Humor is an often neglected but potentially powerful tool in college counseling center interventions. In this article we review potential benefits and hazards of using humor in a college mental health setting along with perspectives on humor's mechanism of action and distinctions between types of humor. Therapist and client-specific…

  1. Humor and Healing in College Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Barbara J.; Roehrig, James P.; Yang, Peggy H.

    2015-01-01

    Humor is an often neglected but potentially powerful tool in college counseling center interventions. In this article we review potential benefits and hazards of using humor in a college mental health setting along with perspectives on humor's mechanism of action and distinctions between types of humor. Therapist and client-specific…

  2. Experimentally Manipulating Items Informs on the (Limited) Construct and Criterion Validity of the Humor Styles Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruch, Willibald; Heintz, Sonja

    2017-01-01

    How strongly does humor (i.e., the construct-relevant content) in the Humor Styles Questionnaire (HSQ; Martin et al., 2003) determine the responses to this measure (i.e., construct validity)? Also, how much does humor influence the relationships of the four HSQ scales, namely affiliative, self-enhancing, aggressive, and self-defeating, with personality traits and subjective well-being (i.e., criterion validity)? The present paper answers these two questions by experimentally manipulating the 32 items of the HSQ to only (or mostly) contain humor (i.e., construct-relevant content) or to substitute the humor content with non-humorous alternatives (i.e., only assessing construct-irrelevant context). Study 1 (N = 187) showed that the HSQ affiliative scale was mainly determined by humor, self-enhancing and aggressive were determined by both humor and non-humorous context, and self-defeating was primarily determined by the context. This suggests that humor is not the primary source of the variance in three of the HQS scales, thereby limiting their construct validity. Study 2 (N = 261) showed that the relationships of the HSQ scales to the Big Five personality traits and subjective well-being (positive affect, negative affect, and life satisfaction) were consistently reduced (personality) or vanished (subjective well-being) when the non-humorous contexts in the HSQ items were controlled for. For the HSQ self-defeating scale, the pattern of relationships to personality was also altered, supporting an positive rather than a negative view of the humor in this humor style. The present findings thus call for a reevaluation of the role that humor plays in the HSQ (construct validity) and in the relationships to personality and well-being (criterion validity).

  3. Decoding Humor Experiences from Brain Activity of People Viewing Comedy Movies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawahata, Yasuhito; Komine, Kazuteru; Morita, Toshiya; Hiruma, Nobuyuki

    2013-01-01

    Humans naturally have a sense of humor. Experiencing humor not only encourages social interactions, but also produces positive physiological effects on the human body, such as lowering blood pressure. Recent neuro-imaging studies have shown evidence for distinct mental state changes at work in people experiencing humor. However, the temporal characteristics of these changes remain elusive. In this paper, we objectively measured humor-related mental states from single-trial functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data obtained while subjects viewed comedy TV programs. Measured fMRI data were labeled on the basis of the lag before or after the viewer’s perception of humor (humor onset) determined by the viewer-reported humor experiences during the fMRI scans. We trained multiple binary classifiers, or decoders, to distinguish between fMRI data obtained at each lag from ones obtained during a neutral state in which subjects were not experiencing humor. As a result, in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the right temporal area, the decoders showed significant classification accuracies even at two seconds ahead of the humor onsets. Furthermore, given a time series of fMRI data obtained during movie viewing, we found that the decoders with significant performance were also able to predict the upcoming humor events on a volume-by-volume basis. Taking into account the hemodynamic delay, our results suggest that the upcoming humor events are encoded in specific brain areas up to about five seconds before the awareness of experiencing humor. Our results provide evidence that there exists a mental state lasting for a few seconds before actual humor perception, as if a viewer is expecting the future humorous events. PMID:24324656

  4. Decoding humor experiences from brain activity of people viewing comedy movies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhito Sawahata

    Full Text Available Humans naturally have a sense of humor. Experiencing humor not only encourages social interactions, but also produces positive physiological effects on the human body, such as lowering blood pressure. Recent neuro-imaging studies have shown evidence for distinct mental state changes at work in people experiencing humor. However, the temporal characteristics of these changes remain elusive. In this paper, we objectively measured humor-related mental states from single-trial functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data obtained while subjects viewed comedy TV programs. Measured fMRI data were labeled on the basis of the lag before or after the viewer's perception of humor (humor onset determined by the viewer-reported humor experiences during the fMRI scans. We trained multiple binary classifiers, or decoders, to distinguish between fMRI data obtained at each lag from ones obtained during a neutral state in which subjects were not experiencing humor. As a result, in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the right temporal area, the decoders showed significant classification accuracies even at two seconds ahead of the humor onsets. Furthermore, given a time series of fMRI data obtained during movie viewing, we found that the decoders with significant performance were also able to predict the upcoming humor events on a volume-by-volume basis. Taking into account the hemodynamic delay, our results suggest that the upcoming humor events are encoded in specific brain areas up to about five seconds before the awareness of experiencing humor. Our results provide evidence that there exists a mental state lasting for a few seconds before actual humor perception, as if a viewer is expecting the future humorous events.

  5. Pragmatic Analysis on Verbal Humor in Friends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳

    2009-01-01

    As a nature of humanity, humor is a way of communication peculiar to human beings. Verbal humor is a cate-gory of humor which is used to express humorist ideas through language, and siteom as a unique comedy performance is an important carrier of humor. This paper applies some basic pragnmtic theories, such as Cooperative Principles (CP) and Relevance Theory(RT), to analyze the verbal humor in American popular situational comedy Friends, aiming to explore the generation mechanism of English humor. And then a better understanding and appreciation of English humor for English learners can be achieved.

  6. Regional distribution of phospholipids in porcine vitreous humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnepf, Abigail; Yappert, Marta Cecilia; Borchman, Douglas

    2017-07-01

    This project explores the regional phospholipid distribution in porcine vitreous humor, retina, and lens. Matrix-assisted laser desorption mass spectrometry has been used previously to image lipids, proteins, and other metabolites in retinas and lenses. However, the regional composition of phospholipids in vitreous humors is not known. To address this issue, we have applied this mass spectral method to explore the regional phospholipid distribution in porcine vitreous humor both ex-situ and in-vitro. To establish the possible source(s) of phospholipids in the vitreous humor, compositional studies of the lens and retina were also pursued. Due to the overall low levels of phospholipids in vitreous humor, it was necessary to optimize the experimental approaches for ex-situ and in-vitro studies. The sensitivity observed in the spectra of methanol extracts from the lens and retina was higher than that for methanol:chloroform extracts, but the compositional trends were the same. A fourfold improvement in sensitivity was observed in the analysis of vitreous humor extracts obtained with the Bligh and Dyer protocol relative to the other two extraction methods. For ex-situ studies, the 'stamp method' with para-nitroaniline as the matrix was chosen. Throughout the vitreous humor, phosphatidylcholines were the most abundant phospholipids. In-vitro results showed higher relative levels of phospholipids compared to the 'stamp' method. However, more details in the regional phospholipid distribution were provided by the ex-situ approach. Both in-vitro and ex-situ results indicated higher levels of phospholipids in the posterior vitreous region, followed by the anterior and central regions. The posterior region contained more unsaturated species whereas more saturated phospholipids were detected in the anterior region. The observed trends suggest that the phospholipids detected in the posterior vitreous humor migrate from the retina and associated vasculature while those present in

  7. Evaluating annotations of an Agilent expression chip suggests that many features cannot be interpreted

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ried Thomas

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While attempting to reanalyze published data from Agilent 4 × 44 human expression chips, we found that some of the 60-mer olignucleotide features could not be interpreted as representing single human genes. For example, some of the oligonucleotides align with the transcripts of more than one gene. We decided to check the annotations for all autosomes and the X chromosome systematically using bioinformatics methods. Results Out of 42683 reporters, we found that 25505 (60% passed all our tests and are considered "fully valid". 9964 (23% reporters did not have a meaningful identifier, mapped to the wrong chromosome, or did not pass basic alignment tests preventing us from correlating the expression values of these reporters with a unique annotated human gene. The remaining 7214 (17% reporters could be associated with either a unique gene or a unique intergenic location, but could not be mapped to a transcript in RefSeq. The 7214 reporters are further partitioned into three different levels of validity. Conclusion Expression array studies should evaluate the annotations of reporters and remove those reporters that have suspect annotations. This evaluation can be done systematically and semi-automatically, but one must recognize that data sources are frequently updated leading to slightly changing validation results over time.

  8. Piloted "Well Clear" Performance Evaluation of Detect-and-Avoid Systems with Suggestive Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Eric R.; Santiago, Confesor; Watza, Spencer

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the performance of four prototype unmanned aircraft detect-and-avoid (DAA) display configurations, each with different informational elements driven by alerting and guidance algorithms. Sixteen unmanned aircraft pilots flew each combination of the display configurations, with half being given zero DAA surveillance sensor uncertainty and the other half experiencing errors that were comparable, and in some cases slightly better than, errors that were measured in DAA system flight tests. The displays that showed intruder alert information in altitude and heading bands had significantly fewer losses of well clear compared with alternative displays that lacked that information. This difference was significant from a statistical and practical perspective: those losses that did occur lasted for shorter periods and did not penetrate as far into the geometric "separation cylinder" as those in the non-banded displays. A modest level of DAA surveillance sensor uncertainty did not affect the proportion of losses of well clear or their severity. It is recommended that DAA traffic displays implement a band-type display in order to improve the safety of UAS operations in the National Airspace System. Finally, this report provides pilot response time distributions for responding to DAA alerts.

  9. The Experience of Failed Humor: Implications for Interpersonal Affect Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Michele; Emich, Kyle J

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate failed interpersonal affect regulation through the lens of humor. We investigated individual differences that influenced people's affective and cognitive responses to failed humor and their willingness to persist in the interpersonal regulation of positive affect after a failed attempt. Using well-established autobiographical narrative methods and surveys, we collected data at two time points. All participants (n = 127) received identical surveys at time 1. At time 2, they were randomly assigned to complete a narrative about either successful or failed humor as well as a second survey. Using moderated regression analyses and SEM, we found significant differences between our failed and successful humor conditions. Specifically, individual differences, including gender, affective perspective taking, and humor self-efficacy, were associated with negative reactions to failed humor and the willingness of individuals to persist in the interpersonal regulation of positive affect. Moreover, affective perspective taking moderated the effect of gender in both the failed and successful humor conditions. Our results suggest that failed humor is no laughing matter. Understanding individuals' willingness to continue in attempts to regulate the affect of others contributes to the comprehension of an understudied phenomenon that has implications for interpersonal behavior in organizations such as helping, group decision making, and intragroup conflict. Studies of interpersonal affect regulation often focus on people's ability to successfully regulate others' emotions. In contrast, this is the first quantitative study to explore factors that influence individual's willingness to persist in interpersonal affect regulation after failure, and to investigate how individual differences influence the personal outcomes associated with failed attempts.

  10. Economic evaluation of integrated new technologies for health and social care: Suggestions for policy makers, users and evaluators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildman, John; McMeekin, Peter; Grieve, Eleanor; Briggs, Andrew

    2016-11-01

    With an ageing population there is a move towards the use of assisted living technologies (ALTs) to provide social care and health care services, and to improve service processes. These technologies are at the forefront of the integration of health and social care. However, economic evaluations of ALTs, and indeed economic evaluations of any interventions providing both health benefits and benefits beyond health are complex. This paper considers the challenges faced by evaluators and presents a method of economic evaluation for use with interventions where traditional methods may not be suitable for informing funders and decision makers. We propose a method, combining economic evaluation techniques, that can accommodate health outcomes and outcomes beyond health through the use of a common numeraire. Such economic evaluations can benefit both the public and private sector, firstly by ensuring the efficient allocation of resources. And secondly, by providing information for individuals who, in the market for ALTs, face consumption decisions that are infrequent and for which there may be no other sources of information. We consider these issues in the welfarist, extra-welfarist and capabilities frameworks, which we link to attributes in an individual production model. This approach allows for the valuation of the health component of any such intervention and the valuation of key social care attributes and processes. Finally, we present a set of considerations for evaluators highlighting the key issues that need to be considered in this type of economic evaluation.

  11. Humor Styles and the Intolerance of Uncertainty Model of Generalized Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A. Kuiper

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Past research suggests that sense of humor may play a role in anxiety. The present study builds upon this work by exploring how individual differences in various humor styles, such as affiliative, self-enhancing, and self-defeating humor, may fit within a contemporary research model of anxiety. In this model, intolerance of uncertainty is a fundamental personality characteristic that heightens excessive worry, thus increasing anxiety. We further propose that greater intolerance of uncertainty may also suppress the use of adaptive humor (affiliate and self-enhancing, and foster the increased use of maladaptive self-defeating humor. Initial correlational analyses provide empirical support for these proposals. In addition, we found that excessive worry and affiliative humor both served as significant mediators. In particular, heightened intolerance of uncertainty lead to both excessive worry and a reduction in affiliative humor use, which, in turn, increased anxiety. We also explored potential humor mediating effects for each of the individual worry content domains in this model. These analyses confirmed the importance of affiliative humor as a mediator for worry pertaining to a wide range of content domains (e.g., relationships, lack of confidence, the future and work. These findings were then discussed in terms of a combined model that considers how humor styles may impact the social sharing of positive and negative emotions.

  12. Piloted Well Clear Performance Evaluation of Detect and Avoid Systems with Suggestive Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Eric; Santiago, Confesor; Watza, Spencer

    2016-01-01

    Regulations to establish operational and performance requirements for unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) are being developed by a consortium of government, industry and academic institutions (RTCA, 2013). Those requirements will apply to the new detect-and-avoid (DAA) systems and other equipment necessary to integrate UAS with the United States (U.S) National Airspace System (NAS) and will be determined according to their contribution to the overall safety case. That safety case requires demonstration that DAA-equipped UAS collectively operating in the NAS meet an airspace safety threshold (AST). Several key gaps must be closed in order to link equipment requirements to an airspace safety case. Foremost among these is calculation of the systems risk ratio, the degree to which a particular system mitigates violation of an aircraft separation standard (FAA, 2013). The risk ratio of a DAA system, in combination with risk ratios of other collision mitigation mechanisms, will determine the overall safety of the airspace measured in terms of the number of collisions per flight hour. It is not known what the effectiveness is of a pilot-in-the-loop DAA system or even what parameters of the DAA system most improve the pilots ability to maintain separation. The relationship between the DAA system design and the overall effectiveness of the DAA system that includes the pilot, expressed as a risk ratio, must be determined before DAA operational and performance requirements can be finalized. Much research has been devoted to integrating UAS into non-segregated airspace (Dalamagkidis, 2009, Ostwald, 2007, Gillian, 2012, Hesselink, 2011, Santiago, 2015, Rorie 2015 and 2016). Several traffic displays intended for use as part of a DAA system have gone through human-in-the-loop simulation and flight-testing. Most of these evaluations were part of development programs to produce a deployable system, so it is unclear how to generalize particular aspects of those designs to general

  13. The evolution of humor from male aggression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuster S

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sam ShusterNewcastle University, Newcastle Upon Type, NE1 7RU, UKAbstract: The response to seeing a man riding a unicycle was reported to be consistently related to the viewer's sex and stage of physical development. To see if this observation was universal, observations of responses were collected from 23 male and 9 female unicyclists aged 15–69 years, with 2–40 years cycling experience across four continents. With two exceptions among men, the findings were the same as those originally reported: children showed interest and curiosity, young girls showed little interest, while adult women showed a kindly, concerned, praising response. By contrast, boys showed physical aggression, which became more verbal, merging in the later teens to the snide, aggressive, stereotyped humorous response shown by adult males, which became less frequent in elderly men. The universality of the response across different individuals, environments, and dates of observation suggests an endogenous mechanism, and the association with masculine development relates this to androgen. The theoretical consequences are discussed. It is concluded that humor develops from aggression in males and is evolutionarily related to sexual selection.Keywords: humor evolution, male aggressive behavior

  14. [Evaluation of a child protecting team by an independent cooperation partner - suggestions for an optimized procedure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verocai, E; Kitzelmann, I; Juen, F; Simma, B

    2013-07-01

    Cooperation between different institutions in cases of child abuse is essential for the children and their families. The aim of this study is to evaluate the cooperation between the Child Protection Team (CPT) and the Youth Welfare Agency (YWF) in an academic teaching hospital. Is the child or the family already be known to the YWF? Was the suspicion of child abuse confirmed by the CPT? What impact did the CPT's report to the YWF have on the situation of the children, their families, and the members of the YWF?Between 1999 and 2009 196 cases were investigated by the CPT; 80 of them had been reported to the YWF. In 45 of the 80 cases, structured interviews were completed by the YWF social workers. In the remaining 35, the questionnaires were not fully completed (n=15), the responsible social workers not present (n=6), or data were not available due to change of -residence (n=14).Maltreatment was suspected in 21/45 (47%), child abuse in 7 (16%), child neglect in 12 (26%), and a combination of the above in 5 (11%) children. Of the children, 26/45 (58%) were already known to the YWF before being contacted by the CPT, and in 34/45 (75%) children either institutions reported the case to the criminal prosecution authorities. Positive changes were seen in 35/45 (78%) children and in 19/45 (42%) families and the CPT's report was considered helpful for the social workers in 41/45 (91%) children.A CPT is able to correctly identify new cases of child abuse. The activity of the CPT has a positive influence on the situation of affected children, their families, and the respective staff members of the YWF. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Geothermal Potential Evaluation for Northern Chile and Suggestions for New Energy Plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monia Procesi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Chile is a country rich in natural resources, and it is the world’s largest producer and exporter of copper. Mining is the main industry and is an essential part of the Chilean economy, but the country has limited indigenous fossil fuels—over 90% of the country’s fossil fuels must be imported. The electricity market in Chile comprises two main independent systems: the Northern Interconnected Power Grid (SING and the Central Interconnected Power Grid (SIC. Currently, the primary Chilean energy source is imported fossil fuels, whereas hydropower represents the main indigenous source. Other renewables such as wind, solar, biomass and geothermics are as yet poorly developed. Specifically, geothermal energy has not been exploited in Chile, but among all renewables it has the greatest potential. The transition from thermal power plants to renewable energy power plants is an important target for the Chilean Government in order to reduce dependence on imported fossil fuels. In this framework, the proposed study presents an evaluation of the geothermal potential for northern Chile in terms of power generation. The El Tatio, Surire, Puchuldiza, Orriputunco-Olca and Apacheta geothermal fields are considered for the analysis. The estimated electrical power is approximately 1300 MWe, and the energy supply is 10,200 GWh/year. This means that more than 30% of the SING energy could be provided from geothermal energy, reducing the dependence on imported fossil fuels, saving 8 Mton/year of CO2 and supplying the mining industry, which is Chile’s primary energy user.

  16. A + (B[subscript 1]) Professor--student Rapport + (B[subscript 2]) Humor + (B[subscript 3]) Student Engagement = (Y) Student Ratings of Instructors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Aaron S.; Berglund, Majken B.; Epelbaum, Vadim B.; Klein, Eric M.

    2015-01-01

    Teaching effectiveness is often evaluated through student ratings of instruction (SRI). Research suggests that there are many potential factors that can predict student's perceptions of teaching effectiveness such as professor-student rapport, student engagement, and perceived humor of the instructor. Therefore, we sought to assess whether…

  17. A + (B[subscript 1]) Professor--student Rapport + (B[subscript 2]) Humor + (B[subscript 3]) Student Engagement = (Y) Student Ratings of Instructors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Aaron S.; Berglund, Majken B.; Epelbaum, Vadim B.; Klein, Eric M.

    2015-01-01

    Teaching effectiveness is often evaluated through student ratings of instruction (SRI). Research suggests that there are many potential factors that can predict student's perceptions of teaching effectiveness such as professor-student rapport, student engagement, and perceived humor of the instructor. Therefore, we sought to assess whether…

  18. Three Decades Investigating Humor and Laughter: An Interview With Professor Rod Martin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rod Martin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Since the start of the 21st century, the investigation of various psychological aspects of humor and laughter has become an increasingly prominent topic of research. This growth can be attributed, in no small part, to the pioneering and creative work on humor and laughter conducted by Professor Rod Martin. Dr. Martin’s research interests in humor and laughter began in the early 1980s and continued throughout his 32 year long career as a professor of clinical psychology at the University of Western Ontario. During this time, Dr. Martin published numerous scholarly articles, chapters, and books on psychological aspects of humor and laughter. Professor Martin has just retired in July 2016, and in the present interview he recounts a number of research highlights of his illustrious career. Dr. Martin’s earliest influential work, conducted while he was still in graduate school, stemmed from an individual difference perspective that focused on the beneficial effects of sense of humor on psychological well-being. This research focus remained evident in many of Professor Martin’s subsequent investigations, but became increasingly refined as he developed several measures of different components of sense of humor, including both adaptive and maladaptive humor styles. In this interview, Dr. Martin describes the conceptualization, development and use of the Humor Styles Questionnaire, along with suggestions for future research and development. In doing so, he also discusses the three main components of humor (i.e., cognitive, emotional and interpersonal, as well as the distinctions and similarities between humor and laughter. Further highlights of this interview include Professor Martin’s comments on such diverse issues as the genetic versus environmental loadings for sense of humor, the multifaceted nature of the construct of humor, and the possible limitations of teaching individuals to use humor in a beneficial manner to cope with stress and

  19. Three Decades Investigating Humor and Laughter: An Interview With Professor Rod Martin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Rod; Kuiper, Nicholas A

    2016-08-01

    Since the start of the 21st century, the investigation of various psychological aspects of humor and laughter has become an increasingly prominent topic of research. This growth can be attributed, in no small part, to the pioneering and creative work on humor and laughter conducted by Professor Rod Martin. Dr. Martin's research interests in humor and laughter began in the early 1980s and continued throughout his 32 year long career as a professor of clinical psychology at the University of Western Ontario. During this time, Dr. Martin published numerous scholarly articles, chapters, and books on psychological aspects of humor and laughter. Professor Martin has just retired in July 2016, and in the present interview he recounts a number of research highlights of his illustrious career. Dr. Martin's earliest influential work, conducted while he was still in graduate school, stemmed from an individual difference perspective that focused on the beneficial effects of sense of humor on psychological well-being. This research focus remained evident in many of Professor Martin's subsequent investigations, but became increasingly refined as he developed several measures of different components of sense of humor, including both adaptive and maladaptive humor styles. In this interview, Dr. Martin describes the conceptualization, development and use of the Humor Styles Questionnaire, along with suggestions for future research and development. In doing so, he also discusses the three main components of humor (i.e., cognitive, emotional and interpersonal), as well as the distinctions and similarities between humor and laughter. Further highlights of this interview include Professor Martin's comments on such diverse issues as the genetic versus environmental loadings for sense of humor, the multifaceted nature of the construct of humor, and the possible limitations of teaching individuals to use humor in a beneficial manner to cope with stress and enhance their social and

  20. Evaluation of the effect of increasing dietary vitamin E in combination with different fat sources on performance, humoral immune responses and antioxidant status of weaned pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    involved a total of 180 pigs of 20 litters. Nine pigs of each litter were allotted to 9 dietary treatments in a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments in a randomized complete block design, which was conducted in 20 replicates. The 9 experimental groups were fed 50 g/kg diet of tallow, sunflower oil......This study investigated the influence of different fat sources and vitamin E supplementation on performance, humoral immune responses, plasma biochemical responses, mucosal fatty acid profile, and α-tocopherol status in serum and intestine of pigs after weaning (days 28-56 of age). The experiment...... responses, concentration of triglyceride and cholesterol in plasma, and fatty acid composition of mucosal samples. Vitamin E supplementation increased the α-tocopherol status of pigs 14 days after weaning, and a dietary concentration of 150 mg vitamin E/kg diet (at the present fat level of 50 g/kg diet...

  1. Humor in the eye tracker: attention capture and distraction from context cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strick, Madelijn; Holland, Rob W; Van Baaren, Rick; Van Knippenberg, Ad

    2010-01-01

    The humor effect refers to a robust finding in memory research that humorous information is easily recalled, at the expense of recall of nonhumorous information that was encoded in close temporal proximity. Previous research suggests that memory retrieval processes underlie this effect. That is, free recall is biased toward humorous information, which interferes with the retrieval of nonhumorous information. The present research tested an additional explanation that has not been specifically addressed before: Humor receives enhanced attention during information encoding, which decreases attention for context information. Participants observed humorous, nonhumorous positive, and nonhumorous neutral texts paired with novel consumer brands, while their eye movements were recorded using eye-tracker technology. The results confirmed that humor receives prolonged attention relative to both positive and neutral nonhumorous information. This enhanced attention correlated with impaired brand recognition.

  2. Affective Style, Humor Styles and Happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Ford

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the relationships between dispositional approach and avoidance motives, humor styles, and happiness. In keeping with previous research, approach motives and the two positive humor styles (self-enhancing and affiliative positively correlated with happiness, whereas avoidance motives and the two negative humor styles (self-defeating and aggressive negatively correlated with happiness. Also, we found support for three new hypotheses. First, approach motives correlated positively with self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles. Second, avoidance motives correlated positively with self-defeating humor style, and third, the positive relationship between approach motives and happiness was mediated by self-enhancing humor style.

  3. Various Means of Achieving Humor in English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温晓棠

    2014-01-01

    Humor can be found everywhere in our daily life. It shows one's wisdom and confidence, which reflects a person's character, mind and cultivation. While it makes people laugh, it enlightens and instruct people. As we all know, English humor is a manifestation of the western literature. However, people in non-English speaking countries cannot completely understand English humor because of the differences of different cultures. The present paper starts from the analysis of English humor, trying to find out some ways of achieving humor so as to better our understanding and appreciation of English humor.

  4. El humor es algo serio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Guiralt Gomar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Reseña del libro colectivo El humor frente al poder. Prensa humorística, cultura política y poderes fácticos en España (1927-1987, editado por Enrique Bordería Ortiz, Francesc-Andreu Martínez Gallego y Josep Lluís Gómez Mompart y publicado en 2015 por Biblioteca Nueva, dentro de su “Colección Historia”. El volumen, resultado del Grupo de Investigación en Comunicación Humorística y Satírica (GRICOHUSA, consiste en una compilación de trabajos científicos y de gran rigor académico acerca de la prensa humorística y satírica española durante las dos transiciones políticas de la historia contemporánea de España. Así, en él se analizan en profundidad semanarios y rotativos fundamentales del periodismo de humor español, tales como La Traca, Gutiérrez, La Codorniz, El Jueves y El Papus, entre muchos otros.

  5. Adjuvant activity of peanut, cottonseed and rice oils on cellular and humoral response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Freitas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The potentiality of the usage of vegetable oils such as soybean, corn, olive, sesame, murici seed, rapeseed, linseed, rice and cashew nuts as adjuvant of the humoral and cellular immune response has been recently shown. In the present work, besides of evaluating the adjuvant action of peanut, cottonseed and rice oils on humoral and cellular immune responses against ovalbumin (OVA we also evaluated the protective immune response induced by Leishmania antigens. The peanut oil significantly increased the synthesis of anti-ovalbumin antibodies in the primary response, but it did not favor cellular response. Concerning mice immunized with L. amazonensis antigens emulsified with peanut oil exacerbated skin lesions and lymph node parasite load what suggests stimulation of the Th2 immune response and down regulation of Th1 response. The cottonseed oil was shown to have adjuvant effect to the humoral response, stimulating a secondary response and also favored the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH response to OVA. The rice oil stimulated a strong DTH reaction to OVA and enhanced the synthesis of antibodies after the third dose. Mice immunized with L. amazonensis antigens emulsified with rice oil or cotton seed oil were protected from developing skin lesions and lymph node parasite load. These results emphasize the interest and importance of the vegetable oils as tools in different procedures of immunization and their differential role in relation to the other adjuvant under usage.

  6. Evaluation of anti-rabies vaccination and supplementation with probiotic in the humoral immune response in cattle / Avaliação da vacinação anti-rábica e da suplementação com probiótico na resposta imune humoral em bovinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Souza Lima de Souza Reis

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the humoral immune response of a new rabies vaccine developed by the Instituto Butantan (potency of 3.27 UI/ml in primovaccinated cattle and the effect of probiotic on this response. Thirty-four 15-month old Nelore cattle were randomly divided into 2 groups (17 animals/group. All the animals were vaccinated on day 0 (zero and then animals in one group received probiotic added to a mineral mixture (GP while the others were given only the mineral mixture (GC. Blood samples were collected on days 0, 75 and 150 for rabies neutralizing antibodies titers by seroneutralization assay on BHK21 cells (RFFIT. Protective antibody titers (?0.5 UI/mL were found in 82.4% of the animals from GP and in 76.5% of the animals from GC and no statistical difference (p > 0.05 between antibody titers in GP and GC was detected on days 75 and 150. It was also observed that in both groups antibody titers was decreased on day 150 (p Objetivou-se avaliar a resposta imune humoral a uma nova vacina anti-rábica, desenvolvida no Instituto Butantan em bovinos primovacinados e o efeito do probiótico nesta resposta. Trinta e quatro bovinos da raça Nelore com idade de 15 meses foram divididos aleatoriamente em 2 grupos (17 bovinos/grupo: os animais foram vacinados no dia zero e um dos grupos recebeu uma mistura mineral com probiótico (GP, enquanto o outro apenas a mistura (GC. Colheu-se sangue dos animais nos dias 0, 75 e 150 após a vacinação para determinação dos títulos de anticorpos anti-rábicos neutralizantes pela técnica de soroneutralização em células BHK21 (RFFIT. Foram encontrados títulos de anticorpos protetores ( ? 0,5 UI/mL em 82,4% dos animais do grupo GP e 76,5% do grupo GC. Não houve diferença significativa (p > 0,05 nos títulos de anticorpos entre os soros coletados dos dois grupos de animais nos dias 75 e 150. Verificou-se também que para ambos os grupos no dia 150 houve uma redução significativa (p < 0,01 nos títulos de

  7. Cooperative Principle and English Humorous Utterance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐芳

    2010-01-01

    <正>Humorous utterances,especially those in the form of conversation in life,have distinctive pragmatic features.There is a close relationship between humor and pragmatics,which can be found in various books on pragmatics.In those books,humorous utterances function as examples for pragmatic analysis.Effective humorous languages often reflect one or several pragmatic features.This paper specifically introduces one of the important theories of pragmatics:cooperative principle,by which the paper analyzes the humorous utterance and explores the relationship between pragmatic rules and humorous utterance.The purpose is to make people know humorous utterance is a matter of pragmatics. The reality of the humor especially depends on implication of the language and the context.

  8. Humor as a Mental Fitness Indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P. Howrigan

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available To explain the pervasive role of humor in human social interaction and among mating partner preferences, Miller (2000a proposed that intentional humor evolved as an indicator of intelligence. To test this, we looked at the relationships among rater-judged humor, general intelligence, and the Big Five personality traits in a sample of 185 college-age students (115 women, 70 men. General intelligence positively predicted rater-judged humor, independent of the Big Five personality traits. Extraversion also predicted rater-judged humor, although to a lesser extent than general intelligence. General intelligence did not interact with the sex of the participant in predicting rating scores on the humor production tasks. The current study lends support to the prediction that effective humor production acts as an honest indicator of intelligence in humans. In addition, extraversion, and to a lesser extent, openness, may reflect motivational traits that encourage humor production.

  9. Neural correlates of humor detection and appreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Joseph M; Wig, Gagan S; Adams, Reginald B; Janata, Petr; Kelley, William M

    2004-03-01

    Humor is a uniquely human quality whose neural substrates remain enigmatic. The present report combined dynamic, real-life content and event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to dissociate humor detection ("getting the joke") from humor appreciation (the affective experience of mirth). During scanning, subjects viewed full-length episodes of the television sitcoms Seinfeld or The Simpsons. Brain activity time-locked to humor detection moments revealed increases in left inferior frontal and posterior temporal cortices, whereas brain activity time-locked to moments of humor appreciation revealed increases in bilateral regions of insular cortex and the amygdala. These findings provide evidence that humor depends critically upon extant neural systems important for resolving incongruities (humor detection) and for the expression of affect (humor appreciation).

  10. Respons imun humoral pada pulpitis (Humoral immune response on pulpitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trijoedani Widodo

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Pulpitis is an inflammation process on dental pulp tissue, and usually as the continuous of caries. The microorganism in the caries is a potential immunogenic triggering the immune respons, both humoral and celluler immune responses. The aim of this research is to explain the humoral immune response changes in the dental pulp tissues of pulpitis. This research was done on three group samples: Irreversible pulpitis, Reversible pulpitis and sound teeth as the control group. The result showed that there were three pulpitis immunopathologic patterns: the sound teeth immunopathologic pattern showing a low humoral immune response, in a low level of IgG, IgA and IgM, the reversible pulpitis pattern showing that in a higher humoral immune response, IgG and IgA decreased but IgM increased, the irreversible pulpitis pattern showing that IgG and IgM increased, but it couldn't be repaired although it has highly immunity, and it showed an unusually low level of IgA. This low level of IgA meant that irreversible pulpitis had a low mucosal immunity.

  11. HIV-specific humoral and cellular immunity in rabbits vaccinated with recombinant human immunodeficiency virus-like gag-env particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haffar, O.K.; Smithgall, M.D.; Moran, P.A.; Travis, B.M.; Zarling, J.M.; Hu, S.L. (Department of Virology, Bristol-Myers Squibb Pharmaceutical Research Institute-Seattle, WA (USA))

    1991-08-01

    Recombinant human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1)-like gag-env particles produced in mammalian cells were inoculated into two New Zealand white rabbits. In parallel, two control rabbits were inoculated with the homologous HIV-1 virions inactivated by ultraviolet light (uv) and psoralen treatments. The humoral and cellular immune responses to HIV-1 were evaluated for both groups of animals. Recombinant particles elicited humoral immunity that was specific for all the viral structural proteins. The antibodies recognized both denatured and nondenatured proteins. Moreover, the sera neutralized the in vitro infectivity of the homologous virus in CEM cells. Importantly, the recombinant particles also generated a T helper response by priming with the HIV proteins. Similar results were observed with inactivated virus immunization. Therefore, the authors results suggest that the recombinant HIV-like particles elicit functional humoral immunity as well as cellular immunity and represent a novel vaccine candidate for AIDS.

  12. Vitreous humor rheology after Nd:YAG laser photo disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelkawi, Salwa A; Abdel-Salam, Ahmed M; Ghoniem, Dina F; Ghaly, Sally K

    2014-03-01

    This work aimed to consider the hazardous side effect of eye floaters treatment with Q-switched Nd:YAG laser on the protein and viscoelastic properties of the vitreous humor, and evaluate the protective role of vitamin C against laser photo disruption. Five groups of New Zealand rabbits were divided as follows: control group for (n = 3) without any treatment, the second group (n = 9) treated with Q-switched Nd:YAG laser energy of 5 mJ × 100 pulse delivered to the anterior, middle, and posterior vitreous, respectively (n = 3 for each). The third group (n = 9) received a daily dose of 25 mg/kg body weight vitamin C for 2 weeks, and then treated with laser as the previous group. The fourth group (n = 9) treated with 10 mJ 9 50 pulse delivered to the anterior, middle, and posterior vitreous, respectively (n = 3 rabbits each). The fifth group (n = 9) received a daily dose of 25 mg/kg body weight vitamin C for 2 weeks, and then treated with laser as the previous group. After 2 weeks of laser treatment, the protein content, refractive index (RI), and the rheological properties of vitreous humor, such as consistency, shear stress, and viscosity, were determined. The results showed that, the anterior vitreous group exposed to of 5 mJ × 100 pulse and/or supplemented with vitamin C, showed no obvious change. Furthermore, all other treated groups especially for mid-vitreous and posterior vitreous humor showed increase in the protein content, RI and the viscosity of vitreous humor. The flow index remained below unity indicating the non-Newtonian behavior of the vitreous humor. Application of Q-switched Nd:YAG laser should be restricted to the anterior vitreous humor to prevent the deleterious effect of laser on the gel state of the vitreous humor.

  13. Relationships between Humor Styles and Family Functioning in Parents of Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Alicja; McGrail, J. Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The humor styles and family functioning of parents of children with disabilities are understudied subjects. This study seeks to shed quantitative light on these areas. Seventy-two parents of children with disabilities completed the "Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales" (FACES IV) and the "Humor Styles…

  14. Relationships between Humor Styles and Family Functioning in Parents of Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Alicja; McGrail, J. Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The humor styles and family functioning of parents of children with disabilities are understudied subjects. This study seeks to shed quantitative light on these areas. Seventy-two parents of children with disabilities completed the "Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales" (FACES IV) and the "Humor Styles…

  15. Black humor in O.Henry's novels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯静楠

    2013-01-01

      Black humor is a kind of literary style rose in American and O .Henry's novels used it to express the satire to society and show the sympathy to the lower class .The most typical works contain black humor two are The Cop and the Anthem and The Gift of the Magi.By using black humor, he created his unique endings .This article is trying to analysis the use of black humor in his novels and the effect.

  16. Humor as a Mental Fitness Indicator

    OpenAIRE

    Howrigan, Daniel P.; Kevin B. MacDonald

    2008-01-01

    To explain the pervasive role of humor in human social interaction and among mating partner preferences, Miller (2000a) proposed that intentional humor evolved as an indicator of intelligence. To test this, we looked at the relationships among rater-judged humor, general intelligence, and the Big Five personality traits in a sample of 185 college-age students (115 women, 70 men). General intelligence positively predicted rater-judged humor, independent of the Big Five personality traits. Extr...

  17. Identity and Stereotypes: Humor Manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Repšienė

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The traditional understanding of humor as being tolerant, full of non-aggressive life curiosities, funny situations, mocking national or human vices, and related to an optimistic and contemplative attitude towards reality, has changed its main supportive points: the optimistic view of reality has been altered into a pessimistic and destructive one, forbearing ridicule has turned into severe offence, strangeness into stupidity, funny situations into futile misunderstanding. Everything is regarded as a dramatic possibility to survive or an endless situational tragedy where the most strict evaluation criteria, censorship, and dogmatism are empowered, meaning that, in the current times of widely propagated tolerance and overwhelming comprehension, it is extremely dangerous to offend somebody with an innocent joke or light mockery, to evoke an urge to contradict or negate when ideological aspirations are beyond “decency” limits. One of the most advocated rules in the Lithuanian press is: “Joke carefully with foreign nationals” from an interview with Barry Tomelin, London “International house” consultant and teaching director, the author of the book “World’s Business Cultures: And How to Unlock Them” (with Michael Nicks. Identity is to be saved and nourished as the highest sanctity but its formation, meaningfulness and spread are not always attuned to the official approach.Our life is full of stereotypes and our neighboring countries are not to be excluded – we have a preconceived notion of them. Using the national stereotype term we characterize relatively stable generalized opinions, in an open or hidden form, containing one or another assessment of a nation.Our attitude towards neighbors is revealed in nicknames given to them – non-official ethnonyms usually bearing a negative connotation. Some monikers have already lasted for centuries while others have been coined during the last decades. Anecdotes with the most popular

  18. Spanish Teachers' Sense of Humor and Student Performance on the National Spanish Exams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Peter B.

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that second/foreign language teachers' sense of humor is directly related to many outcomes for teachers and their students. This research investigates the relationship between the perceived sense of humor of in-service Spanish teachers' (n?=?102) and their students' (n?=?5,419) score on the National Spanish Exams…

  19. Linguistic Features of Humor in Academic Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalicky, Stephen; Berger, Cynthia M.; Crossley, Scott A.; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2016-01-01

    A corpus of 313 freshman college essays was analyzed in order to better understand the forms and functions of humor in academic writing. Human ratings of humor and wordplay were statistically aggregated using Factor Analysis to provide an overall "Humor" component score for each essay in the corpus. In addition, the essays were also…

  20. That’s Not Funny! – But It Should Be: Effects of Humorous Emotion Regulation on Emotional Experience and Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa eKugler

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that humorous reappraisal can reduce elicited negative emotions, suggesting that humor may be a functional strategy to cope with emotionally negative situations. However, the effect of humorous reappraisal on later memory about the emotion-eliciting situation is currently unknown, although this is crucial for more adaptive responding in future situations. To address this issue, we examined the effects of humorous reappraisal on both emotional experience and memory, compared to non-humorous rational reappraisal and a non-reappraisal control condition. Replicating previous findings, humorous reappraisal reduced evoked negative valence and arousal levels very effectively, and the down-regulation of experienced negative emotions was even more pronounced after humorous compared to rational reappraisal. Regarding later memory for emotion-eliciting stimuli, both humorous and rational reappraisal reduced free recall, but recognition memory was unaffected, with memory strength being stronger after humorous than after rational reappraisal. These results indicate that humor seems to be indeed an optimal strategy to cope with negative situations because humor can help us to feel better when confronted with negative stimuli, but still allows us to retrieve stimulus information later when afforded to do so by the presence of appropriate contextual features.

  1. Humor in intimate relationships Ties among sense of humor, similarity in humor and relationship quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barelds, D.P.H.; Barelds-Dijkstra, P.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined relations between different aspects of humor and relationship quality Participants 114 married or cohabiting heterosexual couples from the general community with a mean relationship length of 22 years completed a number of measures assessing these two themes We expected

  2. Humor in intimate relationships Ties among sense of humor, similarity in humor and relationship quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barelds, Dick P. H.; Barelds-Dijkstra, Pieternel

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined relations between different aspects of humor and relationship quality Participants 114 married or cohabiting heterosexual couples from the general community with a mean relationship length of 22 years completed a number of measures assessing these two themes We expected di

  3. Humor in intimate relationships Ties among sense of humor, similarity in humor and relationship quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barelds, D.P.H.; Barelds-Dijkstra, P.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined relations between different aspects of humor and relationship quality Participants 114 married or cohabiting heterosexual couples from the general community with a mean relationship length of 22 years completed a number of measures assessing these two themes We expected di

  4. The Dark Side of Humor: DSM-5 Pathological Personality Traits and Humor Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgil Zeigler-Hill

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Basic personality traits (e.g., extraversion have been found to be associated with the humor styles that individuals employ. In the present study, we were interested in determining whether pathological personality traits were also associated with humor styles. We examined the associations between the pathological personality traits captured by the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 (PID-5 and humor styles in a sample of college students (N = 594. Negative affectivity and detachment were negatively associated with the affiliative and self-enhancing humor styles. Antagonism was positively associated with the aggressive humor style but negatively associated with the affiliative humor style. Disinhibition was positively associated with the aggressive humor style, whereas disinhibition and psychoticism were both positively associated with the self-defeating humor style. Discussion focuses on the implications of these findings and how they can expand our understanding of the connections between the darker aspects of personality and humor.

  5. Adaptação e validação da Escala de Senso de Humor Situacional Adaptación y validez de la Escala de Sentido del Humor Situacional Adaptation and validation of the Situational Humor Response Questionaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Benevides Soares

    2012-08-01

    transcultural adaptation and evaluation of the psychometric measures for the Brazilian context. The instrument has been translated from the original Portuguese to the Brazilian Portuguese, respecting the stages of semantic adaptation, the comparison of the versions and the adaptation to the cross-cultural in face validity and content. The instrument was applied to a sample of 621 participants. It has extracted factors with oblique rotation, analysis of factorial loadings and internal analysis of consistency. The results have pointed out three main factors: mood with friends and colleagues (α=0.70; influences on moods (α=0.70, and humor in adverse situations (α=0.55. The internal consistency suggests that for the Brazilian context some items can be improved, especially concerning the humor in adverse situations, in order to enhance the precision factor. However, it provides an acceptable internal consistency.

  6. Evaluación de la respuesta clínico-patológica e inmune humoral en crías de trucha arco iris (Oncorhynchus mykiss infectadas experimentalmente con el virus de la Necrosis Pancreática Infecciosa (IPNV Evaluation of the clinical-pathological and humoral immune response in rainbow trout fry (Oncorhynchus mykiss experimentally infected with Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus (IPNV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LF Vega

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio para obtener información acerca de la relación existente entre el cuadro clínico-patológico desarrollado en crías de trucha arco iris (Oncorhynchus mykiss infectadas con el virus de la necrosis pancreática infecciosa (IPNV y el nivel de inmunoglobulina M (IgM en suero sanguíneo. Los parámetros fueron determinados hasta 45 días postinfección (dpi en peces inoculados por vía intraperitoneal (IP con 1X10(4 TCDI de IPNV o únicamente inoculados con Medio Mínimo Esencial (MEM y en un grupo control no inoculado. Los peces infectados presentaron los signos característicos de necrosis pancreática (IPN a partir de 19 dpi, alcanzando una mortalidad acumulada de 70%, con evidente emaciación de animales sobrevivientes; asimismo, el nivel de IgM en suero sanguíneo se incrementó progresivamente hasta alcanzar su punto máximo a 31 dpi; los hallazgos histopatológicos más significativos fueron: incremento de centros de melanomacrófagos en riñón, necrosis pancreática y enteritis catarral. El aislamiento viral fue posible únicamente en peces infectados a partir del día 3 y hasta los 45 dpi (P > 0,5. Los resultados observados sugieren que aunque los animales infectados con IPNV pueden desarrollar una respuesta inmune humoral caracterizada por incremento de IgM, ésta es insuficiente para desarrollar protección, ya que al mismo tiempo que se incrementa el nivel de IgM, también aumenta el título viral, acompañado de signos clínicos y lesiones histopatológicas típicas de la enfermedad.The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the clinical-pathologic process in rainbow trout fry (Oncorhynchus mykiss infected with infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV and the immunoglobulin M (IgM levels in blood serum. Parameters were evaluated up to 45 days post infection (dpi in fish intraperitoneally inoculated (IP with 1X10(4 TCDI of IPNV, with minimal essential medium (MEM and in the control group

  7. Effects of Vitrectomy and Lensectomy on Older Rhesus Macaques: Oxygen Distribution, Antioxidant Status, and Aqueous Humor Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegfried, Carla J; Shui, Ying-Bo; Tian, Baohe; Nork, T Michael; Heatley, Gregg A; Kaufman, Paul L

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate effects of vitrectomy (PPV) and lens extraction with intraocular lens implantation (PE/IOL) on molecular oxygen (pO2) distribution, aqueous humor antioxidant-oxidant balance, aqueous humor dynamics, and histopathologic changes in the trabecular meshwork (TM) in the older macaque monkey. Six rhesus monkeys underwent PPV followed by PE/IOL. pO2, outflow facility, and intraocular pressure (IOP) were measured. Aqueous and vitreous humor specimens were analyzed for antioxidant status and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a marker of oxidative damage. TM specimens were obtained for immunohistochemical and quantitative PCR analysis. pO2 at baseline revealed steep gradients in the anterior chamber and low levels in the posterior chamber (PC) and around the lens. Following PPV and PE/IOL, pO2 significantly increased in the PC, around the IOL, and angle. IOP increased following both surgical interventions, with no change in outflow facility. Histopathologic analysis did not show changes in TM cell quantification, but there was an increase in 8-OHdG. Quantitative PCR did not reveal significant differences in glaucoma-related gene expression. Aqueous and vitreous humor analysis revealed decreased ascorbate and total reactive antioxidant potential and increased 8-OHdG in the aqueous humor only in the surgical eyes. Oxygen distribution in the older rhesus monkey is similar to humans at baseline and following surgical interventions. Our findings of histopathologic changes of TM oxidative damage and alterations in the oxidant-antioxidant balance suggest a potential correlation of increased oxygen exposure with oxidative stress/damage and the development of open angle glaucoma.

  8. English Humor Derived from the Violation of Cooperative Principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    逯凌虹

    2009-01-01

    Humor is a wisdom, which reflects a person's character, mind and educational level. Humor can be revealed in many ways, yet mainly by means oflanguage. Starting from the analysis of the language of English humor, this paper studies the ways of English humor, especially the English humor on the violation of Cooperative Principle. By analyzing the relationship of English humor and the Cooperative Principle, this paper aims at bettering our understanding and comprehension of the Cooperative Principle and English humor.

  9. Personality, Humor Styles and Happiness: Happy People Have Positive Humor Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Thomas E; Lappi, Shaun K; Holden, Christopher J

    2016-08-01

    The present study examined the relationships between four personality traits, humor styles, and happiness. Replicating previous research, happiness was positively correlated with four personality traits: extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism. Further, happiness positively related to self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles; it related negatively to self-defeating and aggressive humor styles. Thus, happy people habitually engage in positive uses of humor and avoid engaging in negative uses of humor in daily life. We also found support for our hypothesis. People high in extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism are happier because they engage in positive humor in daily life.

  10. Personality, Humor Styles and Happiness: Happy People Have Positive Humor Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Ford

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the relationships between four personality traits, humor styles, and happiness. Replicating previous research, happiness was positively correlated with four personality traits: extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism. Further, happiness positively related to self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles; it related negatively to self-defeating and aggressive humor styles. Thus, happy people habitually engage in positive uses of humor and avoid engaging in negative uses of humor in daily life. We also found support for our hypothesis. People high in extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism are happier because they engage in positive humor in daily life.

  11. Personality, Humor Styles and Happiness: Happy People Have Positive Humor Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Thomas E.; Lappi, Shaun K.; Holden, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the relationships between four personality traits, humor styles, and happiness. Replicating previous research, happiness was positively correlated with four personality traits: extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism. Further, happiness positively related to self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles; it related negatively to self-defeating and aggressive humor styles. Thus, happy people habitually engage in positive uses of humor and avoid engaging in negative uses of humor in daily life. We also found support for our hypothesis. People high in extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism are happier because they engage in positive humor in daily life. PMID:27547251

  12. Aqueous Humor Antimicrobial Activity: In Vitro Analysis after Topical 0.5% Chloramphenicol Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagini, Carlo; Dragoni, Annalisa; Orsolini, Giampaolo; Fiore, Tito; Beccasio, Alfredo; Spadea, Leopoldo; Moretti, Amedeo; Mencacci, Antonella

    2017-06-01

    To assess aqueous humor antimicrobial activity in vitro after topical 0.5% chloramphenicol application. This investigation included 63 eyes from 65 cataract surgery patients. The study group of 48 eyes received preoperatively four topical applications of 0.5% chloramphenicol. The control group of 15 eyes was given no topical applications. Aqueous humor samples were collected for in vitro antimicrobial analysis using Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Pasteurella multocida organisms by means of disk diffusion test. No inhibition halo was observed around all aqueous humor samples from all chloramphenicol-treated patients, irrespective of the sample quantity added to the paper disks, with no significant difference from aqueous humor from untreated control patients. Aqueous humor displayed no bactericidal effect against any of the microorganisms evaluated after topical 0.5% chloramphenicol application.

  13. Effectiveness of humor intervention for patients with schizophrenia: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Chunfeng; Yu, Liping; Rong, Lan; Zhong, Hanling

    2014-12-01

    The primary aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the possible therapeutic effects of a 10-session humor intervention program in improving rehabilitative outcomes and the effects of the intervention on patients' sense of humor among patients with schizophrenia. Thirty subjects were randomly assigned into either the intervention (humor skill training) group (n = 15) or the control (doing handwork) group (n = 15). The results were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-tests and ANOVA. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests were conducted to examine the differences across conditions and time. A group by time interaction effect was observed on all of the outcomes, except positive symptoms of PANSS. The time main effect was also significant on the total score (p humor skill training in a mental health service can improve rehabilitative outcomes and sense of humor for schizophrenia patients who were in the rehabilitation stage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Strategi Penciptaan Humor dengan Pemanfaatan Aspek-aspek Kebahasaan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rohmadi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Humor is universal. Nobody never gets involved with humor. It's the difference lies in its frequency and its target. One person may have a high sense of humor whereas another may have a low sense of humor. In fact every person needs humor in many communication activities. Though humor is only word game, people cannot avoid it. However, humor does not always cause the people to laugh. The creation of humor discourse can make use of articles, pictures, and sounds. Humor consumers assess humor variously. Sometimes people can feel happy when they hear humor; but sometimes they can feel infuriated, hateful, insinuated, or even aggrieved. This is caused by immeasurable humor context in each communication. It depends on the target that the humor creator wants.

  15. Effects of Humor Production, Humor Receptivity, and Physical Attractiveness on Partner Desirability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tornquist, Michelle; Chiappe, Dan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined women’s and men’s preferences for humor production and humor receptivity in long-term and short-term relationships, and how these factors interact with physical attractiveness to influence desirability...

  16. Humor: Aggression, Defence, and Conservatism: Group Characteristics and Differential Humor Appreciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askenasy, George H.

    1976-01-01

    A broad sample of adult male and female subjects was administered an humor appreciation inventory (54 jokes, 9 categories). The major finding was that humor appreciation scores are remarkably similar regardless of background characteristics. (Author/SBP)

  17. Developing a typology of humor in audiovisual media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijzen, M.A.; Valkenburg, P.M.

    2004-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to develop and investigate a typology of humor in audiovisual media. We identified 41 humor techniques, drawing on Berger's (1976, 1993) typology of humor in narratives, audience research on humor preferences, and an inductive analysis of humorous commercials. We

  18. Developing a typology of humor in audiovisual media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijzen, M.A.; Valkenburg, P.M.

    2004-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to develop and investigate a typology of humor in audiovisual media. We identified 41 humor techniques, drawing on Berger's (1976, 1993) typology of humor in narratives, audience research on humor preferences, and an inductive analysis of humorous commercials. We analy

  19. The Cooperative Principle and English Humor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李澜

    2007-01-01

    English jokes are humorous and implicit. They can set people laughing, and at the same time they can also set people thinking. However, people in non-English speaking countries cannot completely understand English humor because of the differences between different cultures. This paper tries to explain the causes of English humor in terms of cooperative principles of conversation. Examples are given to illustrate each cause.

  20. Instructional scientific humor in the secondary classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wizner, Francine

    This study is an examination of the manner in which educators employ scientific content humor and how that humor is perceived by their students. Content humor is a useful strategy in drawing the attention of students and improving their receptivity toward scientific information. It is also a useful tool in combating the growing distractions of the electronic classroom. Previous studies have found that humor has a positive effect on knowledge, memory, and understanding. However, few studies have been conducted below the undergraduate level and mainly quantitative measures of student recall have been used to measure learning. This study employed multiple data sources to determine how two secondary biology teachers used humor in order to explain scientific concepts and how their students perceived their teachers' use of scientific instructional humor. Evidence of student humor reception was collected from four students in each of the two classes. All of the scientific instructional humor used in the studied classrooms was cognitive in nature, varying among factual, procedural, conceptual, and metacognitive knowledge. Teachers tended to use dialogic forms of humor. Their scientific humor reflected everyday experiences, presented queries, poked fun at authority, and asked students to search out new perspectives and perform thought experiments. Teachers were the primary actors in performing the humorous events. The events were sometimes physical exaggerations of words or drawings, and they occurred for the purpose of establishing rapport or having students make connections between scientific concepts and prior knowledge. Student perceptions were that teachers did employ humor toward instructional objectives that helped their learning. Helping students become critical thinkers is a trademark of science teachers. Science teachers who take the risk of adopting some attributes of comedians may earn the reward of imparting behaviors on their students like critical thinking

  1. Effectiveness of humor advertising on advertising success

    OpenAIRE

    S, venkatesh; N, senthilkumar

    2015-01-01

    In global advertising ‘humor’ is the most effective emotion used in advertising compared to other emotional appeals. Advertisers and researchers more interested in Humor in advertising for more than 100 years. But there is no review paper for Impact of humor in advertising till twenty two years of time, in between period there was lot of research outcomes published about humor in advertising. The purpose of this paper to get detailed review about Impact of humor in advertising for 40 years an...

  2. Cognitive Distortions, Humor Styles, and Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Rnic

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive distortions are negative biases in thinking that are theorized to represent vulnerability factors for depression and dysphoria. Despite the emphasis placed on cognitive distortions in the context of cognitive behavioural theory and practice, a paucity of research has examined the mechanisms through which they impact depressive symptomatology. Both adaptive and maladaptive styles of humor represent coping strategies that may mediate the relation between cognitive distortions and depressive symptoms. The current study examined the correlations between the frequency and impact of cognitive distortions across both social and achievement-related contexts and types of humor. Cognitive distortions were associated with reduced use of adaptive Affiliative and Self-Enhancing humor styles and increased use of maladaptive Aggressive and Self-Defeating humor. Reduced use of Self-Enhancing humor mediated the relationship between most types of cognitive distortions and depressed mood, indicating that distorted negative thinking may interfere with an individual’s ability to adopt a humorous and cheerful outlook on life (i.e., use Self-Enhancing humor as a way of regulating emotions and coping with stress, thereby resulting in elevated depressive symptoms. Similarly, Self-Defeating humor mediated the association of the social impact of cognitive distortions with depression, such that this humor style may be used as a coping strategy for dealing with distorted thinking that ultimately backfires and results in increased dysphoria.

  3. Cognitive Distortions, Humor Styles, and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rnic, Katerina; Dozois, David J. A.; Martin, Rod A.

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive distortions are negative biases in thinking that are theorized to represent vulnerability factors for depression and dysphoria. Despite the emphasis placed on cognitive distortions in the context of cognitive behavioural theory and practice, a paucity of research has examined the mechanisms through which they impact depressive symptomatology. Both adaptive and maladaptive styles of humor represent coping strategies that may mediate the relation between cognitive distortions and depressive symptoms. The current study examined the correlations between the frequency and impact of cognitive distortions across both social and achievement-related contexts and types of humor. Cognitive distortions were associated with reduced use of adaptive Affiliative and Self-Enhancing humor styles and increased use of maladaptive Aggressive and Self-Defeating humor. Reduced use of Self-Enhancing humor mediated the relationship between most types of cognitive distortions and depressed mood, indicating that distorted negative thinking may interfere with an individual’s ability to adopt a humorous and cheerful outlook on life (i.e., use Self-Enhancing humor) as a way of regulating emotions and coping with stress, thereby resulting in elevated depressive symptoms. Similarly, Self-Defeating humor mediated the association of the social impact of cognitive distortions with depression, such that this humor style may be used as a coping strategy for dealing with distorted thinking that ultimately backfires and results in increased dysphoria. PMID:27547253

  4. Humor: The "Witting" Edge in Business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scriven, Jolene; Hefferin, Linda

    1998-01-01

    Humor contributes to teamwork, creative problem solving, mental flexibility, and risk taking in the workplace. As a classroom tool, it increases student attentiveness and retention of information. (SK)

  5. Comparison of humoral immune response, neutralization capacity of anticrotalic serum in young ovines, clinical and weight evaluation between animals inoculated with Crotalus durissus terrificus venom, natural or Cobalt-60-irradiated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira Junior, R.S. E-mail: rseabra@cevap.org.br

    2005-07-01

    The Elisa technique was used to evaluate and compare the humoral immune response of young ovine to anticrotalic serum production. During serum production, the clinical and weight evaluation of the animals was performed. The parameters utilized were complete blood count, and dosage of urea, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase, total proteins, albumin and globulin. The animals weight was verified fortnightly during the experiment. The neutralization capacity of the serum produced from the snake Crotalus durissus terrificus natural (NV) and Cobalt-60-irradiated venom (IrV) was evaluated by in vitro challenges. One group of six animals received natural venom, the second group received irradiated venom, and the third was the control group. The animals received six immunizations during 84 days with an interval of 14 days. There was a significant difference (p<5%) in the ELISA test for the profile of the antibodies produced by the experimental groups (NVevaluation showed that the o vines in post-weaning phase did not have their physiological profiles altered, and showed an excellent increase in weight during the experimental period. These results indicate a new perspective for the utilization of o vines, aiming the commercial production of anticrotalic serum, which may be applied in the treatment of human and animal envenomation. The cost for its production may be reduced by the posterior utilization of hyperimmunized ovine in human feeding. (author)

  6. Humor in leader-follower relationships : Humor styles, similarity and relationship quality.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisse, Barbara; Rietzschel, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The present study focuses on how humor may affect the quality of the relationship between leader and follower (LMX). More specifically, we examined the impact of follower self-reported humor style and leader self-reported humor style on the extent to which followers perceived their relationship with

  7. Humor in leader-follower relationships : Humor styles, similarity and relationship quality.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisse, Barbara; Rietzschel, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The present study focuses on how humor may affect the quality of the relationship between leader and follower (LMX). More specifically, we examined the impact of follower self-reported humor style and leader self-reported humor style on the extent to which followers perceived their relationship with

  8. Antioxidant status of dog aqueous humor after extracapsular lens extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barros P.S.M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We determined the antioxidant status of the aqueous humor after extracapsular lens extraction in 14 mongrel dogs weighing about 10 kg. The animals were examined by slit lamp biomicroscopy, applanation tonometry and indirect ophthalmoscopy. One eye was submitted to conventional extracapsular lens extraction and the other was used as control. Samples of aqueous humor were obtained by anterior chamber paracentesis before and at days 1, 2, 3, 7 and 15 after surgery. Total antioxidant status was determined as the capacity of aqueous humor to inhibit free radical generation by 2,2-azobis(2-amidopropane chlorine. Ascorbic acid concentration was measured by HPLC with UV detection. Protein content was determined with the biuret reagent. Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA followed by the Tukey-Kramer test. Protein concentration increased from 0.61 to 22 mg/ml 24 h after surgery. These levels were maintained and returned to normal at day 7. Total antioxidant capacity was reduced from 50 to about 30 min until day 3 and at day 7 it was equal to control. Ascorbic acid levels were reduced from 252 to about 110 µM and then returned to control values at day 15. Considering the importance of ascorbic acid concentration in aqueous humor for the maintenance of the antioxidant status of the anterior segment of the eye, the decrease of antioxidant defenses suggests that the surgical procedures promote an oxidative stress condition in the eye.

  9. A nonparametric procedure for defining a new humoral immunologic profile in a pilot study on HIV infected patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Brombin

    Full Text Available This work aims at identifying a set of humoral immunologic parameters that improve prediction of the activation process in HIV patients. Starting from the well-known impact of humoral immunity in HIV infection, there is still a lack of knowledge in defining the role of the modulation of functional activity and titers of serum antibodies from early stage of infection to the development of AIDS. We propose an integrated approach that combines humoral and clinical parameters in defining the host immunity, implementing algorithms associated with virus control. A number of humoral parameters were simultaneously evaluated in a whole range of serum samples from HIV-positive patients. This issue has been afforded accounting for estimation problems typically related to "feasibility" studies where small sample size in each group and large number of parameters are jointly estimated. We used nonparametric statistical procedures to identify biomarkers in our study which included 42 subjects stratified on five different stages of HIV infection, i.e., Elite Controllers (EC, Long Term Non Progressors (LTNP, HAART, AIDS and Acute Infection (AI. The main goal of the paper is to illustrate a novel profiling method for helping to design a further confirmatory study. A set of seventeen different HIV-specific blood humoral factors were analyzed in all subjects, i.e. IgG and IgA to gp120IIIB, to gp120Bal, to whole gp41, to P1 and T20 gp41 epitopes of the MPER-HR2 region, to QARILAV gp41 epitope of the HR1 region and to CCR5; neutralization activity against five different virus strains and ADCC were also evaluated. Patients were selected on the basis of CD4 cell counts, HIV/RNA and clinical status. The Classification and Regression Trees (CART approach has been used to uncover specific patterns of humoral parameters in different stages of HIV disease. Virus neutralization of primary virus strains and antibodies to gp41 were required to classify patients, suggesting

  10. Humor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谈华军

    2005-01-01

    As I drove into a car park, I noticed that a utility truck with a dog sitting behind the wheel was rolling towards a female pedestrian. She seemed oblivious. So I hit my horn to get her attention, she looked up just in time to jump out of the truck's path, and the vehicle bumped harmlessly into the herb and stopped.

  11. The Role of Humor in Language Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓艳

    2013-01-01

    Humor plays an important role in many spheres and aspects of human life. The study is intended to analyze the feasibil-ity of utilizing humor as a communicative strategy as well as a tool to create a positive teaching environment for language teach-ing in class.

  12. "That Hurts!": Humor and Sadomasochism in "Lolita."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bick, Ilsa J.

    1994-01-01

    States that humor is dependent on individual perspective, and that the subject matter of "Lolita" (1962), which concerns child abuse and molestation, is difficult to treat with humor. Argues that despite its subject, "Lolita" continues to be funny. Concludes that viewers know the subject matter is not funny, but while watching, viewers do not…

  13. A Study on Intertextuality in Verbal Humor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周燕

    2015-01-01

    This paper talks about how intertextuality and its concerned theories can be well applied to the study of humor.Through analysis of specific samples,the paper finds parody,verbal irony and text allusions are effective intertextual means to produce and understand verbal humor.

  14. American Learners' Comprehension of Russian Textual Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shardakova, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, second language (L2) humor has attracted scholarly attention as both a means and a goal of L2 development. Much of this research, however, has focused on oral communication, whereas virtually no studies address humor as an aspect of reading comprehension. This exploratory study combines these two areas of inquiry, examining…

  15. Humor: A Therapeutic Intervention for Child Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Rachelle G.; Parr, Gerald; Bradley, Loretta J.; Berry, Jeremy J.

    2009-01-01

    Counselors utilize many strategies, techniques, and tools when building a therapeutic alliance or addressing children's issues. Due to the serious nature of discussing problems or perhaps because of the fear of seeming insensitive, counselors often overlook humor as a means to enhance therapy. Whether deliberate or spontaneous, humor can add…

  16. Confessions from a Guy Who Teaches Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Gene L.

    2008-01-01

    Humor is an intriguing topic that exists in the contexts of adult education and human resource development. This paper describes my experiences at developing and facilitating a graduate course on humor and adult learning. Researchers and scholarly practitioners in adult education and human resource development are encouraged to build their…

  17. "That Hurts!": Humor and Sadomasochism in "Lolita."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bick, Ilsa J.

    1994-01-01

    States that humor is dependent on individual perspective, and that the subject matter of "Lolita" (1962), which concerns child abuse and molestation, is difficult to treat with humor. Argues that despite its subject, "Lolita" continues to be funny. Concludes that viewers know the subject matter is not funny, but while watching,…

  18. "That Hurts!": Humor and Sadomasochism in "Lolita."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bick, Ilsa J.

    1994-01-01

    States that humor is dependent on individual perspective, and that the subject matter of "Lolita" (1962), which concerns child abuse and molestation, is difficult to treat with humor. Argues that despite its subject, "Lolita" continues to be funny. Concludes that viewers know the subject matter is not funny, but while watching,…

  19. Evaluation on the Implementation of Urban and Rural Planning Law and Some Policy Suggestions: A Case Study in Western China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang; Kai; Li; Hao; Zhang; Qingfei

    2015-01-01

    The study evaluates the implementation of the Urban and Rural Planning Law in western China through questionnaires, interviews, onsite visits, and literature analysis. Results show that, though the western region has made great progress in the study and publicity of the Law, as well as in their local legislation and administrative system adjustments, there are problems impeding the implementation of the Law, such as overlapping government administration, inadequate implementation measures, controversial provisions that cause operational difficulties, local legislative confusion, and poor legal awareness. As such, this article proposes suggestions as follows: to legalize the detailed implementation rules and regulations, as well as other related regulations and technical standards, in order to improve the system of urban and rural planning laws and regulations; to strengthen legal supervision to maintain the authority of the law; to formulate proper planning policy guidelines based on the specifi c conditions of western region; and to strengthen the publicity, education, and training of the Law so as to promote the publics’ legal awareness.

  20. Laughing off the Stereotypes: Age and Aging in Seniors' Online Sex-Related Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimrod, Galit; Berdychevsky, Liza

    2017-05-17

    Focusing on sex, the most salient topic featured in ageist jokes, this study aims at exploring the extent to which seniors' own humor reflects common ageist stereotypes or rather echoes contemporary consumer society representations of seniors' sexuality. The study was based on a quantitative content analysis of 300 humorous sex-related messages posted during one full year by members of 14 leading online communities for seniors. Findings indicated that whereas the portrayal of older adults in humor typically relied on negative ageist stereotypes, their representation in seniors' online sex-related humor depended on the social identity of the butt of this humor. If it was an in-group member (oneself, another community member, or the community as a whole), the portrayal was rather positive, but when the butt belonged to the out-group (older adults in general), the depiction was far more ageist. Nonetheless, the representation of older butts of humor was generally more positive than that of the younger ones. These findings suggest that seniors tend to identify with current cultural representations of sexuality in later life and use sex-related humor as a personal means of resisting ageism. They apply two principal strategies: Distancing-reproducing certain ageist stereotypes by ascribing them to other older adults, but less so to their own group and even less than that to themselves-and equalizing older and younger individuals, even according the former an advantage regarding sexuality.

  1. Humor, Loneliness and Interpersonal Communication: A Quantitative Study of Romanian Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Schiau

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This quantitative study examines the correlations between humor, loneliness, gender and aging by presenting the results from a sample of eighty-three older Romanian adults, aged sixty and above. The first section of the paper is a comprehensive review of the social-psychological literature on aging, gender and humor. The second section assesses the findings generated from a study that uses the Multidimensional Sense of Humor Scale (Thorson & Powell, 1993 and the Social and Emotional Loneliness Scale for Adults – short version, (diTomaso, Brannen & Best, 2004. Building on Robert Weiss’s (1973 reflections on the differences between feelings of loneliness because of social isolation or emotional isolation, the research findings nuance –and in some cases challenge several assumptions on gender, age, and emotional and social loneliness. The findings also point to the correlation between feelings of social loneliness and the use of humor in interpersonal communications. The data collected suggests that while Romanian men may value the use of humor more than women when self-reporting, that older Romanian women tend to use humor in interpersonal situations and that there is a significant correlation between the use of this type of humor and a reduced sense of social loneliness.

  2. Humoral immunity in Hansen's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldenise Cossermelli-Messina

    Full Text Available For many years immune response in leprosy has been studied. Since 1960 several reports dealing with humoral immunity have been described in the literature. Different autoantibody rates occur in leprosy. There is an increase in the prevalence of autoantibodies in elderly patients with long standing disease, in lepromatous leprosy and in those with reactional states. The diferences in rates among various studies are attributed to different methods and variations among patient samples concerning age, gender, polar forms, therapy and other elements. The prevalence of numerous antibodies, immune complexes, cryoglobulins and complement levels have been studied by many authors. This also highlights the importance of the more recent reviews of anti-Mycobacterium leprae glycolipid antibodies such as the anti-phenolic glycolipid-I antibodies in which titers are variable and depend on genetic factors.

  3. Humor and creative life styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, J

    2001-01-01

    This paper is based upon the writings of William James in the late 19th century, and Alfred Adler and Sigmund Freud in the 20th, enriched by the contributions of later personality and role theorists. The self is defined as the unique organization of each person; a style is the self in action. Different life styles and their components are expressed in different situations. I posit that humor and positive thinking, combined with meaning and purpose, are vital components of all constructive life styles. The knowledge of life styles cuts through diagnostic labels to reveal our universal humanity. It can be fruitfully applied to patients and nonpatients alike and, I found, for the self-understanding of therapist. The clinical application of life styles is illustrated through numerous vignettes.

  4. El humor es cosa seria

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    La capacidad de goce, trabajo y sobre todo el humor constituyen un criterio importante en la evaluación psicodiagnóstica, a pesar de ser a menudo, un aspecto excluido de los informes. Una razón de dicha exclusión podría ser el hecho de no contribuir por sí mismo a incluir al sujeto evaluado en una categoría psicopatológica. Otra razón que se suma a la anterior, es que el “ sentido del humor” que surge durante el transcurso de un proceso psicodiagnóstico exige de parte del que lo administra un...

  5. Por un humor ético

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Paramo Valero

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Ética del humor es una obra original, abundantemente documentada, de contenido científico y filosófico, que aborda un problema de gran importancia en los actuales estudios de éticas aplicadas. La ética del humor es una nueva ética aplicada que pretende comprender el fenómeno del humor a la luz de sus implicaciones éticas. Como señala el autor, Juan Carlos Siurana, reputado experto en el ámbito de la filosofía práctica, el interés por el humor es un interés por la ética. En la obra no presenta una nueva teoría filosófica del humor –las cuales se han venido sucediendo, al menos, desde los Diálogos de Platón–, sino una nueva teoría ética, que toma al humor como objeto principal de análisis. Por tanto, la finalidad es realizar una aportación dentro del ámbito de la ética. Para ello se nutre de distintos estudios psicológicos, biológicos, fisiológicos y neurológicos sobre el humor, así como de clásicas obras de filosofía que han abordado esta cuestión.

  6. Development and evaluation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for quantification of the humoral response of cattle vaccinated against Campylobacter fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repiso, Maria V; Baraibar, Martin A; Olivera, Maria A; Silveyra, Silvia; Battistoni, Julio

    2002-04-01

    To develop a reliable ELISA by use of a unique antigen preparation for serum IgG quantification after vaccination against Campylobacter fetus in cattle. Twenty-six 24-month-old virgin Hereford heifers and a naturally infected Hereford bull. 5 antigens were prepared from a cell suspension of C fetus. Antigen preparations were the same as those reported in the literature, with the exception of antigens that were obtained by detergent solubilization of a C fetus cell suspension. For each antigen preparation, the optimal ELISA conditions for its immobilization were determined. Biotinylated antibodies against bovine immunoglobulins were obtained and used in the ELISA. Two groups of heifers were inoculated with commercial vaccines according to manufacturers' instructions. A control group was included. The immune response of vaccinated heifers and controls was followed for 6 months. Detergent solubilized C fetus antigens resulted in better ELISA performance than other antigen preparations. Antigens were optimally immobilized at neutral pH and low ionic strength. All antigen preparations saturated the well with the same amount of protein. The vaccination schedule that advised a booster resulted in higher antibody titers, which were sustained over a longer period than the other schedule. In the vaccination of cattle against C fetus, the ELISA we have developed may be used to evaluate serum antibody concentrations in response to various vaccines and vaccination schedules. Our results indicate that it is advisable to include a booster in the immunization protocol.

  7. Humoral and Cellular Immune Response in Canine Hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J; Popiel, J; Chełmońska-Soyta, A

    2015-07-01

    Hypothyroidism is one of the most common endocrine diseases in dogs and is generally considered to be autoimmune in nature. In human hypothyroidism, the thyroid gland is destroyed by both cellular (i.e. autoreactive helper and cytotoxic T lymphocytes) and humoral (i.e. autoantibodies specific for thyroglobulin, thyroxine and triiodothyronine) effector mechanisms. Other suggested factors include impaired peripheral immune suppression (i.e. the malfunction of regulatory T cells) or an additional pro-inflammatory effect of T helper 17 lymphocytes. The aim of this study was to evaluate immunological changes in canine hypothyroidism. Twenty-eight clinically healthy dogs, 25 hypothyroid dogs without thyroglobulin antibodies and eight hypothyroid dogs with these autoantibodies were enrolled into the study. There were alterations in serum proteins in hypothyroid dogs compared with healthy controls (i.e. raised concentrations of α-globulins, β2- and γ-globulins) as well as higher concentration of acute phase proteins and circulating immune complexes. Hypothyroid animals had a lower CD4:CD8 ratio in peripheral blood compared with control dogs and diseased dogs also had higher expression of interferon γ (gene and protein expression) and CD28 (gene expression). Similar findings were found in both groups of hypothyroid dogs. Canine hypothyroidism is therefore characterized by systemic inflammation with dominance of a cellular immune response.

  8. Comprehension of humor in primary agenesis of the corpus callosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Warren S; Paul, Lynn K; Symington, Melissa; Dietrich, Rosalind

    2005-01-01

    Individuals with agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC) can, in some cases, perform normally on standardized intelligence tests. Nevertheless, recent studies suggest that individuals with ACC and normal IQ scores have deficits in domains of fluid and social intelligence. Anecdotal reports from families suggest diminished appreciation of the subtleties of social interactions, and deficits in the comprehension of jokes and stories. In this research, both the cartoon and narrative joke subtests of a humor test (developed by Brownell et al. [Brownell, H., Michel, D., Powelson, J., & Gardner, H. (1983). Surprise but not coherence: sensitivity to verbal humor in right-hemisphere patients. Brain and language, 18(1), 20-27] and Bihrle et al. [Bihrle, A. M., Brownell, H. H., Powelson, J. A., & Gardner, H. (1986). Comprehension of humorous and non-humorous materials by left and right brain-damaged patients. Brain and Cognition, 5(4), 399-411]) were given to 16 adults with complete ACC (all with IQs>80) and 31 controls of similar age and IQ. Individuals with ACC performed worse than controls on the narrative joke subtest (p<.025) when VIQ was controlled. However, on the cartoon subtest the two groups were not significantly different. Covarying age, forms of IQ, narrative memory, set-switching, and literal language comprehension did not substantially alter the group difference. However, covarying comprehension of nonliteral language and proverbs eliminated the difference, suggesting a common origin for the comprehension of jokes, nonliteral language, and proverbs, most likely related to capacity for understanding second-order meanings.

  9. Race-Based Humor and Peer Group Dynamics in Adolescence: Bystander Intervention and Social Exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Palmer, Sally B; Abrams, Dominic

    2016-09-01

    Adolescents' evaluations of discriminatory race-based humor and their expectations about peer responses to discrimination were investigated in 8th- (Mage  = 13.80) and 10th-grade (Mage  = 16.11) primarily European-American participants (N = 256). Older adolescents judged race-based humor as more acceptable than did younger adolescents and were less likely to expect peer intervention. Participants who rejected discrimination were more likely to reference welfare/rights and prejudice and to anticipate that peers would intervene. Showing awareness of group processes, adolescents who rejected race-based humor believed that peers who intervened would be more likely to be excluded. They also disapproved of exclusion more than did participants who supported race-based humor. Results expose the complexity of situations involving subtle discrimination. Implications for bullying interventions are discussed.

  10. Towards Humor Modelling and Facilitation in Smart Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Gu Ji, Y.; Choi, S.

    We know about word play, verbal jokes, and about humor that appears spontaneously in conversations. This humor is studied in computational linguistics, together with issues such as verbal incongruities, ambiguities, irony and sarcasm. These appearances of humor are also part of computational humor

  11. Exploring the Relationship between Humor and Aesthetic Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Mordechai

    2012-01-01

    The connection between humor and aesthetic experience has already been recognized by several thinkers and aesthetic educators. For instance, humor theorist John Morreall writes that "humor is best understood as itself a kind of aesthetic experience, equal in value at least to any other kind of aesthetic experience." For Morreall, both humor and…

  12. LOL Teacher! Using Humor to Enhance Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrell, Shelly

    2015-01-01

    Laughing with students can help them connect on a deeper level with the teacher and the learning. This article offers the following four strategies to incorporate humor into teaching: (1) Integrate humorous bits to boost engagement; (2) Choose humorous materials; (3) Create interest with humorous web tools and apps; and (4) Teach with silly…

  13. Towards Humor Modelling and Facilitation in Smart Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Anton; Gu Ji, Y.; Choi, S.

    2014-01-01

    We know about word play, verbal jokes, and about humor that appears spontaneously in conversations. This humor is studied in computational linguistics, together with issues such as verbal incongruities, ambiguities, irony and sarcasm. These appearances of humor are also part of computational humor s

  14. Burnout and Humor Usage among Community College Nursing Faculty Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Laura A.

    2000-01-01

    Assesses the correlation of burnout among community college nursing faculty members and their use of humor to mediate academic stress related to burnout. Differences in burnout between high versus low humor usage respondents showed a higher sense of personal accomplishment with high humor usage. Of those with low humor usage, workload was related…

  15. Differences in Humor Styles between China and America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玮

    2014-01-01

    Humor, as a relaxing topic, is a very complicate thing in the intercultural communication. The famous professor of psychology at the University of Western Ontario, Rod A. Martin who focuses his study on functions of humor and laughter proposes four humor styles. In this essay, I use four dimensions referred by Hofstede to analyze the preferred humor styles in China and America.

  16. Designed and Accidental Humor in the Smart Digital Wild

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Anton; Ruiz Miyares, L.

    2017-01-01

    Humor can be designed and canned, for example as it appears in videogames, sitcoms or amusement parks. We often have humor professionals that have responsibility for this inclusion of humor. Humor can be designed for a particular occasion, for example in an April prank. However, in real life we ofte

  17. Exploring the Relationship between Humor and Aesthetic Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Mordechai

    2012-01-01

    The connection between humor and aesthetic experience has already been recognized by several thinkers and aesthetic educators. For instance, humor theorist John Morreall writes that "humor is best understood as itself a kind of aesthetic experience, equal in value at least to any other kind of aesthetic experience." For Morreall, both humor and…

  18. LOL Teacher! Using Humor to Enhance Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrell, Shelly

    2015-01-01

    Laughing with students can help them connect on a deeper level with the teacher and the learning. This article offers the following four strategies to incorporate humor into teaching: (1) Integrate humorous bits to boost engagement; (2) Choose humorous materials; (3) Create interest with humorous web tools and apps; and (4) Teach with silly…

  19. The effectiveness of humor in persuasion: the case of business ethics training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyttle, J

    2001-04-01

    In this study, persuasion theory was used to develop the following predictions about use of humor in persuasive messages for business ethics training: (a) cartoon drawings will enhance persuasion by creating liking for the source, (b) ironic wisecracks will enhance persuasion by serving as a distraction from counterarguments, and (c) self-effacing humor will enhance persuasion by improving source credibility. Canadian business students (N = 148) participated in 1 of 4 versions of "The Ethics Challenge," a training exercise used by the Lockheed Martin Corporation. Three versions were modified by adding or removing cartoon drawings (of cartoon characters Dilbert and Dogbert) and humorous responses (Dogbert's wisecracks). Removing the cartoon drawings had little effect on persuasiveness. Removing ironic wisecracks had more effect, and interfering with the self-effacing combination of cartoons and wisecracks had the strongest effect. The results suggest that researchers should ground their predictions in existing theory and that practitioners should differentiate among humor types.

  20. Humor and Laughter May Influence Health IV. Humor and Immune Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Payne Bennett

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the final article in a four part series reviewing the influence of humor and laughter on physiological and psychological well-being. This final article reviews the evidence for the effect of sense of humor, exposure to a humor stimulus and laughter on various immune system components, with a focus on the effects of laughter on natural killer cell cytotoxicity.

  1. El humor en los servicios hospitalarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguinaga Benítez Óscar William

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available

    El humor es un fenómeno demasiado complejo para ser explicado fácilmente, sin embargo la risa, es una de las formas más admirables del comportamiento humano. El humor forma parte de nuestra vida cotidiana y todos tenemos de él, ya desde nuestra más tierna infancia un conocimiento intuitivo. Muchos saben que el humor mejora las relaciones humanas, puede favorecer una cierta distensión y facilita el bienestar de todos los miembros de una empresa, dirigentes, empleados y obreros. Muchos esperan encontrar en él la forma de resolver los conflictos y de reducir la agresividad. Allí donde se encuentren hombres, existe el humor, comprenderlo mejor y utilizarlo más libremente y en el momento oportuno, puede ayudarnos a hacer nuestra vida más agradable.

  2. Laughter and humor therapy in dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Paul N; Parsons, Trisha; Ben-Moshe, Ros; Weinberg, Melissa; Neal, Merv; Gilbert, Karen; Rawson, Helen; Ockerby, Cherene; Finlay, Paul; Hutchinson, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Laughter and humor therapy have been used in health care to achieve physiological and psychological health-related benefits. The application of these therapies to the dialysis context remains unclear. This paper reviews the evidence related to laughter and humor therapy as a medical therapy relevant to the dialysis patient population. Studies from other groups such as children, the elderly, and persons with mental health, cancer, and other chronic conditions are included to inform potential applications of laughter therapy to the dialysis population. Therapeutic interventions could range from humorous videos, stories, laughter clowns through to raucous simulated laughter and Laughter Yoga. The effect of laughter and humor on depression, anxiety, pain, immunity, fatigue, sleep quality, respiratory function and blood glucose may have applications to the dialysis context and require further research.

  3. Efficiency of Matricaria chamomilla CH12 and number of doses of rabies vaccine on the humoral immune response in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Reis, Luis Souza; Frazatti-Gallina, Neuza Maria; de Lima Paoli, Rosana; Giuffrida, Rogerio; Albas, Avelino; Oba, Eunice; Pardo, Paulo Eduardo

    2008-12-01

    This study evaluated the effect of Matricaria chamomilla and vaccination frequency on cattle immunization against rabies. Four groups (n = 15 /group) were treated with or without Matricaria chamomilla CH12 and vaccinated with one or two doses of rabies vaccine (30 day interval). No effect of chamomile was found on cattle immunization against rabies; however, antibody titers were protective in cattle vaccinated twice, while 93.3% of cattle vaccinated only once had titers under 0.5 UI/ml after 60 days. In conclusion, the use of chamomile did not alter the humoral immune response in cattle, and two vaccine doses are suggested for achieving protective antibody titers.

  4. Evaluating "Cat Country": The Humor within Satire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chung-chien Karen

    2010-01-01

    Satire, as a mode, is not frequently employed in Chinese narratives. "Cat Country," or "Mao Cheng Ji," written by Lao She (pen name of Shu Qing Chun, 1898--1966) has come under much attack of its literary values. Whereas most critics have no doubt that this work sets out to satirize China through the portrayal of a society of…

  5. Circulating Humorous Antitobacco Videos on Social Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moon J; Chen, Fannin

    2017-03-01

    We investigated whether exposure to same humorous antitobacco videos via different types of social media platforms and contexts (health vs. humor) influences individual's health risk perceptions, attitudes, and behavioral intents. An experiment with a 2 (social media types: YouTube and Facebook) × 2 (message contexts: health-focused and humor-focused contexts) factorial design was conducted. It was found that those who watched the humorous antitobacco videos on Facebook in the health-context exhibited a higher level of risk perception of smoking, less positive attitude toward smokers, and a higher level of intention to avoid smoking in the future than the participants who viewed the same videos on YouTube in the health-context or on Facebook in the humor-context. These findings provide useful practical guidelines in using social media for health communication/promotion. Humorous health promotion messages are best circulated on social networking sites such as Facebook accompanied by others' support for the given health topic (i.e., in health-contexts). Practical/theoretical implications and limitations of the study were further discussed in this article.

  6. Laughing in the Face of Fear (of Disease Detection): Using Humor to Promote Cancer Self-Examination Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi, Robin L

    2016-07-01

    This research examines the possible benefit of using humor to reduce anxiety associated with performing cancer self-examination behaviors. In Study 1, 187 undergraduates read a humorous public service announcement (PSA) script promoting either breast or testicular self-exams. Results suggest that perception of humor reduced anxiety about self-exams, which, in turn, related to more positive self-exam attitudes. Simultaneously, humor perception associated with greater message processing motivation, which, in turn, associated with more supportive self-exam attitudes. Self-exam attitudes also positively associated with self-exam intentions. These results were largely replicated in Study 2. Further, self-exam intentions predicted self-exam behavior 1 week later. However, consistent with past research, the humorous and serious messages did not generate differences in subsequent self-exam behavior, though the intention-behavior relationship was stronger and significant for those exposed to the humorous versus the serious messages. In light of these findings, and given that humor has the advantage of attracting and holding attention in real message environments, the use of carefully constructed humor appeals may be a viable message strategy to promote health detection behaviors.

  7. Mindfulness and self-compassion as predictors of humor styles in US and Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khramtsova I.I.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mindfulness and self-compassion are increasingly coming into mainstream psychological research in the Western world as they correlate with and predict various aspects of mental health and positivity. However, little is known about their relationship to another construct that is also associated with well-being, that is, humor. The unique contribution of the present study is in exploring whether mindfulness and self-compas- sion would predict the use of adaptive and maladaptive humor styles and whether this prediction will be the same across cultures. 90 U.S. and 106 Russian college students responded to a survey consisting of three measures: Mindfulness Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS; Brown & Ryan, 2003, Self-Compassion Scale-Short Form (SCS-SF; Raes, Pommier, Neff, & Van Gucht, 2011, and Humor Styles Questionnaire (HSQ; Martin, Puhlik-Doris, Larsen, Gray, & Weir, 2003. Our findings suggest that mind- fulness and self-compassion can serve as predictors of humor styles, that is, more mind- ful and self-compassionate participants tended to use more adaptive humor styles and less maladaptive styles. However, the contribution of these two variables to the vari- ance in humor styles depended on the culture.

  8. Humor and Trauma-Related Psychopathology Among Survivors of Terror Attacks and Their Spouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, Avi; Weinberg, Michael; Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Ataria, Yochai; Neria, Yuval

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the bidirectional relationships between humor and trauma-related psychopathology (posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD], depression, and anxiety symptoms) among 105 dyads consisting of Israelis who were injured during terror attacks and their spouses (N = 210). An actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) was applied as part of a structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis aimed at examining the associations between the use of different styles of humor and trauma-related psychopathology. Consistent with our hypotheses, results suggested that benign styles of humor were associated with survivors' lower levels of trauma-related symptoms (actor effects) and also had a buffering effect for the spouse (partner effects). More specifically, the use of self-enhancing humor by survivors was negatively associated with spousal symptoms and the use of affiliative humor by spouses was negatively associated with psychopathology symptoms reported by survivors. The results of this study shed light on the role that benign humor may play in coping with traumatic events while taking into account the dyadic relationships among survivors and their spouses. Theoretical and clinical implications of the findings are discussed.

  9. A systematic review of humoral immune responses against tumor antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuschenbach, Miriam; von Knebel Doeberitz, Magnus; Wentzensen, Nicolas

    2009-10-01

    This review summarizes studies on humoral immune responses against tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) with a focus on antibody frequencies and the potential diagnostic, prognostic, and etiologic relevance of antibodies against TAAs. We performed a systematic literature search in Medline and identified 3,619 articles on humoral immune responses and TAAs. In 145 studies, meeting the inclusion criteria, humoral immune responses in cancer patients have been analyzed against over 100 different TAAs. The most frequently analyzed antigens were p53, MUC1, NY-ESO-1, c-myc, survivin, p62, cyclin B1, and Her2/neu. Antibodies against these TAAs were detected in 0-69% (median 14%) of analyzed tumor patients. Antibody frequencies were generally very low in healthy individuals, with the exception of few TAAs, especially MUC1. For several TAAs, including p53, Her2/neu, and NY-ESO-1, higher antibody frequencies were reported when tumors expressed the respective TAA. Antibodies against MUC1 were associated with a favorable prognosis while antibodies against p53 were associated with poor disease outcome. These data suggest different functional roles of endogenous antibodies against TAAs. Although data on prediagnostic antibody levels are scarce and antibody frequencies for most TAAs are at levels precluding use in diagnostic assays for cancer early detection, there is some promising data on achieving higher sensitivity for cancer detection using panels of TAAs.

  10. An Explanation of the Relationship between Instructor Humor and Student Learning: Instructional Humor Processing Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanzer, Melissa B.; Frymier, Ann B.; Irwin, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes the Instructional Humor Processing Theory (IHPT), a theory that incorporates elements of incongruity-resolution theory, disposition theory, and the elaboration likelihood model (ELM) of persuasion. IHPT is proposed and offered as an explanation for why some types of instructor-generated humor result in increased student…

  11. Computational Humor 2012 : extended abstacts of the (3rd international) Workshop on computational Humor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Unknown, [Unknown

    2012-01-01

    Like its predecessors in 1996 (University of Twente, the Netherlands) and 2002 (ITC-irst, Trento, Italy), this Third International Workshop on Computational Humor (IWCH 2012) focusses on the possibility to find algorithms that allow understanding and generation of humor. There is the general aim of

  12. Investigating the Effect of Humor Communication Skills Training on Pro-Social and Anti-Social Humor Styles, Cognitive Learning, Self-Efficacy, Motivation, and Humor Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, Lori E.

    2013-01-01

    Humor is an important aspect of interpersonal interactions as it is linked to the development and maintenance of relationships (Merolla, 2006). The purpose of this dissertation was to test the effect of a humor communication skills training program on the ability to minimize anti-social humor (i.e., aggressive, self-defeating) and enhance…

  13. Investigating the Effect of Humor Communication Skills Training on Pro-Social and Anti-Social Humor Styles, Cognitive Learning, Self-Efficacy, Motivation, and Humor Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, Lori E.

    2013-01-01

    Humor is an important aspect of interpersonal interactions as it is linked to the development and maintenance of relationships (Merolla, 2006). The purpose of this dissertation was to test the effect of a humor communication skills training program on the ability to minimize anti-social humor (i.e., aggressive, self-defeating) and enhance…

  14. Sense of Humor, Stable Affect, and Psychological Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnie Cann

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A good sense of humor has been implicated as a quality that could contribute to psychological well-being. The mechanisms through which sense of humor might operate include helping to reappraise threats, serving as a character strength, or facilitating happiness. The current research attempts to integrate these possibilities by examining whether a good sense of humor might operate globally by helping to maintain a more stable positive affect. Stable positive affect has been shown to facilitate more effective problem solving and to build resilience. However, not all humor is adaptive humor, so we also examine the roles that different styles of humor use might play. Individual differences in humor styles were used to predict stable levels of affect. Then, in a longitudinal design, humor styles and stable affect were used to predict subsequent resilience and psychological health. The results indicated that stable affect was related to resilience and psychological well-being, and that a sense of humor that involves self-enhancing humor, humor based on maintaining a humorous perspective about one’s experiences, was positively related to stable positive affect, negatively related to stable negative affect, and was mediated through stable affect in influencing resilience, well-being and distress. Thus, while a good sense of humor can lead to greater resilience and better psychological health, the current results, focusing on stable affect, find only self-enhancing humor provides reliable benefits.

  15. Comprehensive evaluation of genetic variation in S100A7 suggests an association with the occurrence of allergic rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adner Mikael

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background S100A7 is a calcium-binding protein with chemotactic and antimicrobial properties. S100A7 protein levels are decreased in nasal lavage fluid from individuals with ongoing allergic rhinitis, suggesting a role for S100A7 in allergic airway inflammation. The aims of this study were to describe genetic variation in S100A7 and search for associations between this variation and allergic rhinitis. Methods Peripheral blood was collected from 184 atopic patients with a history of pollen-induced allergic rhinitis and 378 non-atopic individuals, all of Swedish origin. DNA was extracted and the S100A7 gene was resequenced in a subset of 47 randomly selected atopic individuals. Nine polymorphisms were genotyped in 184 atopic and 378 non-atopic individuals and subsequently investigated for associations with allergic rhinitis as well as skin prick test results. Haplotypes were estimated and compared in the two groups. Results Thirteen polymorphisms were identified in S100A7, of which 7 were previously undescribed. rs3014837 (G/C, which gives rise to an Asp → Glu amino acid shift, had significantly increased minor allele frequency in atopic individuals. The major haplotype, containing the major allele at all sites, was more common in non-atopic individuals, while the haplotype containing the minor allele at rs3014837 was equally more common among the atopic individuals. Additionally, heterozygotes at this site had significantly higher scores in skin prick tests for 9 out of 11 tested allergens, compared to homozygotes. Conclusion This is the first study describing genetic variation, associated with allergy, in S100A7. The results indicate that rs3014837 is linked to allergic rhinitis in our Swedish population and render S100A7 a strong candidate for further investigations regarding its role in allergic inflammation.

  16. Humor: a pedagogical tool to promote learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabeli, M

    2008-09-01

    It has become critical that learners are exposed to varied methods of teaching and assessment that will promote critical thinking of learners. Humor creates a relaxed atmosphere where learning can be enhanced and appreciated. When learners are relaxed, thinking becomes eminent. Authoritative and tense environment hinders thinking. This paper seeks to explore the perceptions of nurse teacher learners regarding the use of humor as a pedagogical tool to promote learning. A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual research design was employed (Burns & Grove, 2001:61; Mouton, 1996:103). 130 naive sketches were collected from nurse teacher learners who volunteered to take part in the study (Giorgi in_Omery, 1983:52) Follow up interviews were conducted to verify the findings. A qualitative, open-coding method of content analysis was done Tesch (in Creswell, 1994:155). Measures to ensure trustworthiness of the study were taken in accordance with the protocol of (Lincoln & Guba, 1985:290-326). The findings of the study will assist the nurse educators to create a positive, affective, psychological and social learning environment through the use of humor in a positive manner. Nurse educators will appreciate the fact that integration of humor to the learning content will promote the learners' critical thinking and emotional intelligence. Negative humor has a negative impact on learning. Learner nurses who become critical thinkers will be able to be analytical and solve problems amicably in practice.

  17. Adult Playfulness, Humor Styles, and Subjective Happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xiao D; Leung, Chun-Lok; Hiranandani, Neelam A

    2016-12-01

    Playfulness has been referred to as a disposition that involves reframing a situation to amuse others and to make the situation more stimulating and enjoyable. It may serve to shift one's perspective when dealing with environmental threats. Despite all the benefits of playfulness towards psychological well-being, it remains a largely understudied subject in psychology, particularly in Chinese societies. Hence, this study examined the association between adult playfulness, humor styles, and subjective happiness among a sample of 166 university students in Hong Kong and 159 students in Guangzhou, who completed a self-administered questionnaire, including the Short Measure for Adult Playfulness, the Chinese Humor Styles Questionnaire, and the Subjective Happiness Scale. Results showed that adult playfulness was positively correlated with affiliative humor, self-enhancing humor, and subjective happiness in both Hong Kong and Guangzhou samples. By its implication, highly playful Chinese students preferred using affiliative and self-enhancing humor to amuse themselves and others. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. El humor como herramienta para lograr aprendizajes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Torres de Sánchez

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Una tendencia mundial se ha originado: el uso del humor como herramienta para lograr aprendizajes y mejorar el ambiente donde la persona se encuentre. En el área educativa hay pruebas que demuestran su utilidad y que efectivamente origina cambios positivos, medidos en las evaluaciones, tanto en los estudiantes como en participantes de sesiones de facilitación. El objetivo del experimento realizado fue: Determinar el comportamiento a través de la calificaciones en la primera prueba, del efecto del uso del humor en el dictado de clases utilizando diferentes herramientas como: chistes, anécdotas, analogías en los contenidos. A través de un estudio experimental con un grupo de control realizado en dos aulas de clases con 35 alumnos cada uno, al grupo experimental se le aplicó diferentes recursos humorísticos como herramientas de aprendizaje. Se analizaron las calificaciones en la primera prueba a través de porcentajes de aprobados y aplazados, observándose que el grupo experimental arrojó los mayores porcentajes de aprobados. Tales resultados confirman que el humor como herramienta, si induce a un desempeño excelente en alumnos, lo que lleva a implementar acciones de adiestramiento para los facilitadores, así como el surgimiento de investigaciones más profundas sobre el uso del humor en la educación.

  19. [Positive aspects of old ages - humor of seniors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mareš, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    This survey study has five parts. In the first part two conceptual approaches to humor are characterized. One considers "the comic" to be an umbrella concept, and humor is only one of its rather positive forms. The other comes out from the umbrella concept "humor", and distinguishes between various forms of humor including the negative ones. Three main theories of humor are presented: theory of superiority, theory of incongruity, and a relief theory. The second part introduces humor in the elderly and draws the attention to the fact that we know relatively little about humor in old age because most research has been carried out in children, adolescents or adults in productive age. The third part of the study describes the process of diagnostics of humor in the elderly. For example, within the qualitative methods, in-depth interviews with seniors or analyses of their diary entries are used. Within quantitative methods, questionnaires are used, and this study presents the survey of seven most frequent ones applied in the studies of humor in the elderly. In the context of mixed methods, understanding of humor in young and seniors, or understanding of humor in relatively healthy seniors and seniors after stroke are compared. The fourth part of the study presents the Gelkopfs model on relationship between humor, treatment and cure of patients. The fifth part of the study demonstrates the options how to use humor to improve the mental state of the elderly (by means of individual or group interventions).

  20. Ciliary Blood Flow and Aqueous Humor Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, J.W.; Hollingsworth, M.; Rao, R.; Chen, M.; Reitsamer, H.A.

    2010-01-01

    Aqueous humor production is a metabolically active process sustained by the delivery of oxygen and nutrients and removal of metabolic waste by the ciliary circulation. This article describes our investigations into the relationship between ciliary blood flow and aqueous humor production. The results presented indicate that there is a dynamic relationship between ciliary blood flow and aqueous humor production, with production being blood flow independent above a critical level of perfusion, and blood flow dependent below it. The results also show that the plateau portion of the relationship shifts up or down depending on the level of secretory stimulation or inhibition, and that oxygen is one critical factor provided by ciliary blood flow. Also presented is a theoretical model of ocular hydrodynamics incorporating these new findings. PMID:20801226

  1. Mecanismos de humor verbal en Twitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Simarro Vázquez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The present article aims to characterize samples of verbal humor published on the social network Twitter. To do so, an analysis of 81 humorous texts published under the hashtag #otegi during 1 March 2016, on which date Arnaldo Otegi was released from prison after six years, was carried out. A pragmatic study of the tweets was performed, opting for the General Theory of Verbal Humor as a basis. The examination conducted reveals that the manner of presentation of opposing scripts, the logical mechanisms availed of to resolve this kind of incongruity, the special narrative strategies selected and the linguistic choices made are determined at all times by the circumstances in which the texts are presented and the upper limit constraint of 140 characters per Twitter publication.

  2. Humor in the classroom using faculty skits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Cheryl Mixon; Noviello, Sheri Reynolds

    2012-01-01

    The infusion of humor in the classroom through faculty-developed skits is a teaching-learning strategy that engages nursing students in the learning process. Gardner's Multiple Intelligence Theory for Adult Learners provides the framework for the use of humor as a strategy in higher education. Three exemplars are presented with a description of the specific strategy, an objective for each strategy, and the effect of the strategy on student engagement in nursing education. In the exemplars, the authors provide "ready to use" ideas with some "pearls of wisdom" for other faculty interested in developing similar learning activities.

  3. [The Use of Humor in Psychotherapy: a View].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaloult, Guillaume; Blondeau, Claude

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this article is to expose different aspects of the use of humor in therapy. We hope that it will stimulate reflection and guide the clinician toward appropriate use of humorous interventions. Historical highlights of the topic will be presented. Then a practical definition of therapeutic humor and the main theories about humor will be reviewed. We will also discuss the probable mechanisms of action explaining the efficacy of humor in psychotherapy, as well as potential risks and benefits of its use. We will try to determine different factors influencing the patient's receptivity to humor. Subsequently, a classification of humor will be proposed, followed by a description of selected types of humor often used in therapy, with clinical cases as examples.

  4. Risky business: When humor increases and decreases status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitterly, T Bradford; Brooks, Alison Wood; Schweitzer, Maurice E

    2017-03-01

    Across 8 experiments, we demonstrate that humor can influence status, but attempting to use humor is risky. The successful use of humor can increase status in both new and existing relationships, but unsuccessful humor attempts (e.g., inappropriate jokes) can harm status. The relationship between the successful use of humor and status is mediated by perceptions of confidence and competence. The successful use of humor signals confidence and competence, which in turn increases the joke teller's status. Interestingly, telling both appropriate and inappropriate jokes, regardless of the outcome, signals confidence. Although signaling confidence typically increases status and power, telling inappropriate jokes signals low competence and the combined effect of high confidence and low competence harms status. Rather than conceptualizing humor as a frivolous or ancillary behavior, we argue that humor plays a fundamental role in shaping interpersonal perceptions and hierarchies within groups. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Open To Suggestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Reading, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Suggests class activities in three short articles including: (1) "Students Evaluate Reading," by Lenore Sandel; (2) "Solving Verbal Analogies," by Edward J. Dwyer; and (3) "Becoming Testwise," by Dean Schoen. (RS)

  6. Pharmacokinetics of ofloxacin in serum and vitreous humor of albino and pigmented rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, R J; Liu, W; Drusano, G; Madu, A; Mayers, M; Madu, C; Miller, M H

    1995-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of ofloxacin in serum and vitreous humor samples from albino and pigmented rabbits by using a recently described animal model which permits robust estimation of parameter values. The drug was administered to rabbits intravenously, multiple vitreous humor and serum samples were taken from each rabbit, and the vitreous humor and serum samples were assayed by high-pressure liquid chromatography. The pharmacokinetic parameters were determined with RSTRIP, an iterative, nonlinear, weighted, least-squares regression program. Eight New Zealand White rabbits and eight Dutch Belted rabbits (split into single-dose and multiple-dose groups) were investigated in this study. The value of penetration into the vitreous humor of albino rabbits (n = 6) was 32.6% +/- 2.12%, with terminal-elimination half-life values of 3.21 and 2.39 h, respectively, for vitreous humor and serum. In pigmented rabbits after a single dose (n = 3) and with a steady-state concentration of drug in serum (n = 4), penetration values were similar, at 30.4% +/- 2.98% and 30.0% +/- 4.12%, respectively (P > 0.10). Following a single dose of ofloxacin, pigmented animals had elimination half-life values from serum and vitreous humor of 2.64 and 4.32 h, respectively. After steady state was achieved, half-life values for serum and vitreous humor were 3.12 and 6.05 h, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Cannabis e humor Cannabis and mood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Faria Sanches

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as relações entre o uso agudo e crônico de cannabis e alterações do humor. MÉTODO: Os artigos foram selecionados por meio de busca eletrônica no indexador PubMed. Capítulos de livros e as listas de referências dos artigos selecionados também foram revisados. RESULTADOS: Observam-se elevados índices de comorbidade entre abuso/dependência de cannabis e transtornos afetivos em estudos transversais e em amostras clínicas. Estudos longitudinais indicam que, em longo prazo, o uso mais intenso de cannabis está relacionado com um risco maior de desenvolvimento de doença bipolar e, talvez, depressão maior em indivíduos inicialmente sem quadros afetivos; porém, os mesmos não encontraram maior risco de uso de cannabis entre aqueles com mania ou depressão sem esta comorbidade. Outra importante observação é que o uso de substâncias psicoativas em bipolares pode estar associado a uma série de características negativas, como dificuldade na recuperação dos sintomas afetivos, maior número de internações, piora na adesão ao tratamento, risco aumentado de suicídio, agressividade e a uma pobre resposta ao lítio. Tratamentos psicossociais e farmacológicos são indicados para o manejo da comorbidade entre cannabis e transtornos afetivos. CONCLUSÃO: As relações entre o uso de cannabis e alterações do humor são observadas tanto epidemiologicamente quanto nos contextos clínicos.OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the relationship between acute and chronic use of cannabis and mood changes. METHOD: Articles were selected by electronic search in PubMed. Chapters in books and reference lists of selected articles were also reviewed. As the research did not involve humans, there was no evaluation by a Research Ethics Committee. RESULTS: High rates of comorbidity between use/abuse/dependence of cannabis and affective disorders in longitudinal studies and in clinical samples were observed. Longitudinal studies indicate that, in long

  8. Aqueous humor erythropoietin levels in open-angle glaucoma patients with and without TTR V30M familial amyloid polyneuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beirão, João M; Moreira, Luciana M; Oliveira, João C; Menéres, Maria J; Pessoa, Bernardete B; Matos, Maria E; Costa, Paulo P; Torres, Paulo A; Beirão, Idalina B

    2014-01-01

    Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible blindness in familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP) patients. Erythropoietin (EPO) is a cytokine that has been shown to play a role in neuroprotection and is endogenously produced in the eye. EPO levels in the aqueous humor are increased in eyes with glaucoma. In this study, we evaluated the EPO concentration in the aqueous humor of FAP and non-FAP patients, with and without glaucoma. Undiluted aqueous humor samples were obtained from 42 eyes that underwent glaucoma surgery, phacoemulsification, or vitrectomy. EPO concentration in the aqueous humor and blood were measured using the Immulite 2000 Xpi using an automatic analyzer (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics). The mean EPO concentration in the aqueous humor of non-FAP glaucoma eyes group 2 (75.73±13.25 mU/ml) was significantly higher than non-FAP cataract eyes (17.22±5.33 mU/ml; phumor EPO concentration and the ocular pressure (p = 0.95) and mean deviation (p = 0.41). There was no correlation between the EPO serum concentration and EPO aqueous humor concentration in our patients (p = 0.77). Unlike other glaucomatous patients, FAP patients with glaucoma do not show increased and potentially neuroprotective endocular EPO production in the aqueous humor and may need more aggressive glaucoma management.

  9. Analysis on the Translation Strategies in English humor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王乐

    2015-01-01

    1.Definition and connotation of humor The English word"humor"came from Latin originally which was used to refer to"wet"and"fluid"After a series of evolution,it finally evolved into the word used in daily life in the16th century.Then it was used to describe a kind of people who are humorous,funny and clever.Humor is a cultural phenomenon based on language.There are

  10. Semantic Perspective:Verbal Humor in Chinese Cross Talk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Shao-li

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to study the verbal humor in Guo Degang’s cross talk from semantic perspective. The focus is to illus-trate the generating process and the mechanism of verbal humor. Three aspects of semantics which produce humorous effect, morpheme absorption, ambiguity, and script opposition will be discussed. Finally, it is found out that script opposition can take place of morpheme absorption, ambiguity to explain how humor is caused fundamentally.

  11. Humor and Laughter may Influence Health. I. History and Background

    OpenAIRE

    Mary Payne Bennett; Lengacher, Cecile A.

    2006-01-01

    Articles in both the lay and professional literature have extolled the virtues of humor, many giving the impression that the health benefits of humor are well documented by the scientific and medical community. The concept that humor or laughter can be therapeutic goes back to biblical times and this belief has received varying levels of support from the scientific community at different points in its history. Current research indicates that using humor is well accepted by the public and is...

  12. Truly Funny: Humor, Irony, and Satire as Moral Criticism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadlez, E. M.

    2011-01-01

    The occasional role of humor as a vehicle for moral criticism is investigated. I begin by distinguishing between this particular role and the other kinds of ways in which humor and amusement might be regarded through a moral lens, consider historical approaches to humor that corroborate the kind of role for it on which my investigation focuses,…

  13. Factors Affecting the Humorous Language Style of Mark Twin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙秀丽

    2014-01-01

    As we all know, Mark Twain is an expert in handling humor.The formation of his language style has close connection with three aspects. Local literature influences Mark Twain very much. Western humor is another influential element. And his per-sonal experience is also contributed to his humorous language style.

  14. Assessing Students' Perceptions of Inappropriate and Appropriate Teacher Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frymier, Ann Bainbridge; Wanzer, Melissa Bekelja; Wojtaszczyk, Ann M.

    2008-01-01

    This study replicated and extended a preliminary typology of appropriate and inappropriate teacher humor and advanced three explanations for differences in interpretations of teacher humor. Students were more likely to view teacher humor as inappropriate when it was perceived as offensive and when it demeaned students as a group or individually.…

  15. Higher Education Lecturing and Humor: From Perspectives to Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri, Fuzhan; Mafakheri, Fereshteh

    2015-01-01

    This article will review the issues surrounding the use of humor as an informal teaching method in higher education lecturing. The impact and usefulness of humor, from both a teacher's and a student's perspective, will be investigated. The aim is to classify the challenges and limitations of using humor in classrooms and to investigate and…

  16. Truly Funny: Humor, Irony, and Satire as Moral Criticism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadlez, E. M.

    2011-01-01

    The occasional role of humor as a vehicle for moral criticism is investigated. I begin by distinguishing between this particular role and the other kinds of ways in which humor and amusement might be regarded through a moral lens, consider historical approaches to humor that corroborate the kind of role for it on which my investigation focuses,…

  17. Humor Styles and Leadership Styles: Community College Presidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrica, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between leadership styles (transformational, transactional, laissez-faire) and humor styles (affiliative, self-enhancing, aggressive, self-defeating) of community college presidents. Research has shown that humor and leadership styles are related and that humor may enhance interpersonal…

  18. Strategically Funny: Romantic Motives Affect Humor Style in Relationship Initiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa E. DiDonato

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Not all humor is the same, yet little is known about the appeal of specific humor styles in romantic initiation. The current experimental study addresses this gap by investigating how romantic motives (short-term or long-term affect individuals’ anticipated use of, and response to, positive humor and negative humor. Heterosexual participants (n = 224 imagined the pursuit of either a desired short-term or long-term relationship, indicated the extent to which they would produce positive and negative humor, and reported how their own interest would change in response to the imaginary target’s use of positive or negative humor. Results revealed that individuals are strategic in their humor production as a function of relational motives. Individuals produced positive humor in both contexts but limited their use of negative humor when pursuing a long-term relationship. The target’s positive humor increased individuals’ attraction, especially women’s, and although negative humor boosted attraction, it did not boost attraction more for short-term than long-term relationships. Findings extend a trait-indicator model of humor and their implications are discussed in light of other theoretical perspectives.

  19. A Study of Linguistic Humor Translation of British Sitcoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟瑾

    2015-01-01

    The translatability of humor is gradually accepted and linguistic humor based on specific features in the phonology, morphology or syntax of particular languages is considered to be the most difficult to translate. This paper is to study the linguistic humor translation of British sitcoms in the light of Skopos theory and explore practical ways of E-C translation of linguistic hu⁃mor.

  20. Teaching French Language and Culture by Means of Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berwald, Jean-Pierre

    1992-01-01

    Humor can enliven classes, establish and maintain rapport, create ambiance for learning, and enhance student acquisition and retention. Ways to use humor in the classroom are presented, including clearly verbal approaches, visual aid techniques (magazines, cartoons, ads, etc.), and the humor of stand-up comedians. (12 references) (LB)

  1. The Influence of Humorous Atmosphere on Divergent Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziv, Avner

    1983-01-01

    In one experiment, 78 adolescents were shown humorous film clips and required to write captions for cartoons. A creativity test was administered. In a second study, the experimental group completed the Torrance Creativity Test with humorous responses. In both studies, a humorous atmosphere was found to significantly increase creativity scores.…

  2. Humor in Context: Fire Service and Joking Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Larry; Roth, Gene

    2013-01-01

    Although theorizing about humor has occurred for several decades, scant research exists that examines humor in the broad context of human resource development. Humor exists in workplaces and it is historicized in the professional and organizational contexts of workers. This paper explores aspects of a joking culture within the specific work…

  3. Humor Styles and Leadership Styles: Community College Presidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrica, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between leadership styles (transformational, transactional, laissez-faire) and humor styles (affiliative, self-enhancing, aggressive, self-defeating) of community college presidents. Research has shown that humor and leadership styles are related and that humor may enhance interpersonal…

  4. Encyclopedia of 20th-Century American Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Alleen Pace; Nilsen, Don L. F.

    This reference encyclopedia contains information on both the historical and contemporary aspects of humor and comedy in the United States. Arranged in an A-to-Z format, the encyclopedia is a collection of article-length essays that examine humor from many perspectives, from defining terms; to providing information on humor writers, comedians, and…

  5. Mark Twain and American Humor [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000

    In this three-part lesson, students examine structure and characterization in the short story and consider the significance of humor through a study of Mark Twain's "The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County." In Part I, through skits and storytelling, students first examine the structure of Twain's story and the role he creates for his…

  6. Comic Relief: Engaging Students through Humor Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Bruce A.

    2009-01-01

    In this time of high-stakes tests and school accountability, English classrooms have been pushed to become increasingly serious places. Combining NCLB pressures with desires to use literature to do important cultural work--such as fighting ethnic, gender, and social-class discrimination--virtually bans humor from the classroom. This is unfortunate…

  7. Humor in the Films of Alfred Hitchcock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Glenn D.

    Although usually considered the "master of suspense," Alfred Hitchcock relished working humor into his films, frequently juxtaposing it against scenes of utter gruesomeness. This placement of comic elements--comic relief--in an otherwise serious murder mystery or suspense thriller became a Hitchcock trademark early in his career.…

  8. Humor: A pedagogical tool to promote learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Chabeli

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available It has become critical that learners are exposed to varied methods of teaching and assessment that will promote critical thinking of learners. Humor creates a relaxed atmosphere where learning can be enhanced and appreciated. When learners are relaxed, thinking becomes eminent. Authoritative and tense environment hinders thinking.

  9. The Role of Humor in Children's Sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogh, Suzanne L.

    A total of 40 children in the three primary grades were studied to determine if they would donate more to a worthy cause after having been exposed to a humorous situation, in contrast to exposure to a serious one. The children who had heard a serious story about sharing donated slightly more to help Ethiopian refugees than did children who had…

  10. Economics with a Sense of Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Diane

    1985-01-01

    In this humorous dialogue that can be read and acted out as a play in high school economics classes, Karl Marx, a spokesman for communism, and Adam Smith, the father of capitalism, debate (1) whether an economy should produce designer jeans and (2) who should own McDonald's restaurant. (RM)

  11. T cells and the humoral immune system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.B. van Muiswinkel (Willem)

    1975-01-01

    textabstractLymphoid cells and macrophages play an important role in the development and rnaintance of humoral and cellular immunity in mammals. The lymphoid cells in the peripheral lymphoid organs are divided into two major classes: (1) thymus-derived lymphocytes or T cells and (2) bursa-equivalent

  12. T cells and the humoral immune system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.B. van Muiswinkel (Willem)

    1975-01-01

    textabstractLymphoid cells and macrophages play an important role in the development and rnaintance of humoral and cellular immunity in mammals. The lymphoid cells in the peripheral lymphoid organs are divided into two major classes: (1) thymus-derived lymphocytes or T cells and (2) bursa-equivalent

  13. Dialogic Grounds of Humor in Mathnavi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ar Mohammadi Kalesar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available “Dialogue”, in Bakhtin’s thought, is a term which has a methodological nature. This term shows a method for facing cases which are not hegemonic. Dialogue, therefore, is in opposition to the hegemony of monophonic forces. The origins of the dialogical aspects of humor, laugh and carnival are in very character. In this article, we want to investigate the bases that make the dialogical carnival and form the humorous elements. In the first section, we illustrate the subversion of the superior voice as a semantic and formal structural method in Mathnavi. In the second section, the reflection of this method in formation of humor in the stories of Mathnavi has been investigated. In these stories, presence of the superior voice in the public space and its dialogue with the suppressed voices makes a space steeped in the elements of carnival and laugh. It can be said that the humors in Mathnavi are not the techniques for embellishing the text but the affects of the transcendental method of Mathnavi for interpreting the world.

  14. Computers that smile: Humor in the interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, A.; Blythe, M.

    2002-01-01

    It is certainly not the case that wen we consider research on the role of human characteristics in the user interface of computers that no attention has been paid to the role of humor. However, when we compare efforts in this area with efforts and experiments that attempt to demonstrate the positive

  15. Metabolomic profiling of reactive persulfides and polysulfides in the aqueous and vitreous humors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunikata, Hiroshi; Ida, Tomoaki; Sato, Kota; Aizawa, Naoko; Sawa, Tomohiro; Tawarayama, Hiroshi; Murayama, Namie; Fujii, Shigemoto; Akaike, Takaaki; Nakazawa, Toru

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the metabolomic profile of reactive persulfides and polysulfides in the aqueous and vitreous humors. Eighteen eyes of 18 consecutive patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and diabetic retinopathy underwent microincision vitrectomy combined with cataract surgery. Samples of the aqueous and vitreous humors were collected and underwent mass spectrometry-based metabolomic profiling of reactive persulfides and polysulfides (polysulfidomics). The effect of reactive polysulfide species on the viability of immortalized retinal cells (the RGC-5 cell line) under oxidative stress (induced with H2O2) was also evaluated with an Alamar Blue assay. The experiments showed that cysteine persulfides (CysSSH), oxidized glutathione trisulfide (GSSSG) and cystine were elevated in the aqueous humor, and CysSSH, Cys, and cystine were elevated in the vitreous. Furthermore, GSSSG, cystine, and CysSSH levels were correlated in the aqueous and vitreous humors. A comparison, in DM and control subjects, of plasma levels of reactive persulfides and polysulfides showed that they did not differ. In vitro findings revealed that reactive polysulfide species increased cell viability under oxidative stress. Thus, various reactive persulfides and polysulfides appear to be present in the eye, and some reactive sulfide species, which have a protective effect against oxidative stress, are upregulated in the aqueous and vitreous humors of DM eyes. PMID:28169324

  16. The Influences of Humorous Advertising on Brand Popularity and Advertising Effects in the Tourism Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Yu Chang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available With a diversity of promotional channels and ever-increasing numbers of participants, the tourism industry in Taiwan faces keen competition. Along with the direct cross-strait flights policy, groups like Eastern Multimedia Group, Tsann Kuen Enterprise Company Limited and Want Want China Times Group have founded travel agencies for the purpose of increasing their market share in the tourism industry. Therefore, the formulation of marketing strategies has become a critical issue for all travel agencies that wish to ensure their prominence in the market. The frequent use of humorous materials and appeals has been the main tendency in advertising. However, no consistent conclusions regarding the actual effects of humorous advertising have been determined. The subjects of the current study were users of the Lion Travel website. Online questionnaires were sent to and collected from random respondents. One hundred questionnaires were delivered, and 512 valid questionnaires were collected. Each collected questionnaire represented a valid sample. The study generated the following five results: (1 humorous advertisements may partially influence brand awareness; (2 humorous elements may partially influence advertising effects; (3 brand awareness has significant positive effects on the advertising attitude of advertising effects; (4 brand awareness has significant positive effects on the brand attitude of advertising effects; (5 brand awareness has significant positive effects on the purchasing intention of advertising effects. Eventually, it is anticipated that the results of this study can serve as a reference and provide suggestions for humorous advertising strategies in the tourism industry.

  17. Humor and laughter may influence health. I. History and background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Mary Payne; Lengacher, Cecile A

    2006-03-01

    Articles in both the lay and professional literature have extolled the virtues of humor, many giving the impression that the health benefits of humor are well documented by the scientific and medical community. The concept that humor or laughter can be therapeutic goes back to biblical times and this belief has received varying levels of support from the scientific community at different points in its history. Current research indicates that using humor is well accepted by the public and is frequently used as a coping mechanism. However, the scientific evidence of the benefits of using humor on various health related outcomes still leaves many questions unanswered.

  18. Humor and Laughter may Influence Health. I. History and Background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Payne Bennett

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Articles in both the lay and professional literature have extolled the virtues of humor, many giving the impression that the health benefits of humor are well documented by the scientific and medical community. The concept that humor or laughter can be therapeutic goes back to biblical times and this belief has received varying levels of support from the scientific community at different points in its history. Current research indicates that using humor is well accepted by the public and is frequently used as a coping mechanism. However, the scientific evidence of the benefits of using humor on various health related outcomes still leaves many questions unanswered.

  19. On the Humor Translation in Subtitling of American Sitcom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石杨

    2014-01-01

    The subtitling translation in American sitcom is of great significance which helps Chinese audiences to understand pro-grams. Humor element is an essential part of the sitcom. However, the loss of humor is very common in subtitling translation, so the vivid and accurate translation for humor in sitcoms has become a challenge for the translators. This thesis analyzes the defini-tion of humor and the main features of subtitling translation, and then discusses several examples of humor loss in the subtitling translation of Friends to put forward corresponding strategies.

  20. The cellular and humoral immunity assay in patients with complicated urolithiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceban, E; Banov, P; Galescu, A; Tanase, D

    2017-01-01

    Especially complicated, renal lithiasis contributes to the general inflammatory syndrome development that interferes with nonspecific, humoral and cellular immune system. The surgical treatment of nephrolithiasis is closely related to drug therapy of urinary infection, one of the reasons being the reduction of the immune status. The work is performed by evaluating the immunological status preoperatively in 58 patients with complicated lithiasis. The analysis of the status in these patients demonstrated that complicated urolithiasis results in significant changes in the immune system, these changes being expressed at the cellular and humoral level of immunity. PMID:28255384

  1. CONSECUTIVE IMMUNIZATION WITH RECOMBINANT FOWLPOX VIRUS AND PLASMID DNA FOR ENHANCING CELLULAR AND HUMORAL IMMUNITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗坤; 金宁一; 郭志儒; 秦云龙; 郭炎; 方厚华; 安汝国; 殷震

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the influence of consecutive immunization on cellular and humoral immunity in mice. Methods: We evaluated a consecutive immunization strategy of priming with recombinant fowlpox virus vUTALG and boosting with plasmid DNA pcDNAG encoding HIV-1 capsid protein Gag. Results: In immunized mice, the number of CD4+ T cells from splenic lymphocytes increased significantly and the proliferation response of splenocytes to ConA and LPS elevated markedly and HIV-1-specific antibody response could be induced. Conclusion: Consecutive immunization could increase cellular and humoral immunity responses in mice.

  2. Race-Based Humor and Peer Group Dynamics in Adolescence:Bystander Intervention and Social Exclusion

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents’ evaluations of discriminatory race-based humor and their expectations about peer responses to\\ud discrimination were investigated in 8th- (Mage = 13.80) and 10th-grade (Mage = 16.11) primarily European-\\ud American participants (N = 256). Older adolescents judged race-based humor as more acceptable than did\\ud younger adolescents and were less likely to expect peer intervention. Participants who rejected discrimination\\ud were more likely to reference welfare/rights and prejudice...

  3. Vitreous humor and albumin augment the proliferation of cultured retinal precursor cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Jing; Klassen, Henry; Pries, Mette

    2008-01-01

    Intravitreal injection is an important delivery route for studies involving the transplantation of various types of precursor cells to the retina; however, the effect on these cells of exposure to the vitreous microenvironment has not been specifically investigated. Here vitreous humor was evalua......Intravitreal injection is an important delivery route for studies involving the transplantation of various types of precursor cells to the retina; however, the effect on these cells of exposure to the vitreous microenvironment has not been specifically investigated. Here vitreous humor...... was evaluated for the potential to influence the proliferation of rat retinal precursor cells in vitro. Cells were isolated at embryonic day 19 and plated in standard proliferation medium in the presence or absence of fluid expressed from porcine vitreous humor. Cellular proliferation at different...

  4. La investigación en tomo al humor verbal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Llera, José Antonio

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The author of this article suggests a diachronic approach to the humorous mode and criticizes any essentialist theory that defines the concept as a closed category. Every kind of humour within the whole spectrum, i.e. satire and irony, should be looked at following semantic and pragmatic principles, not forgetting the influence of classical rhetoric. As regards the recent history of Spanish humour, the contributions of the most important authors of the so-called «otra generación del 27» shall be analyzed by considering the reasons for their ostracism and for the lack of a present high quality generation of authors able to take over their literary tradition.El autor de este artículo propone un acercamiento diacrónico a la modalidad humorística, y crítica cualquier aproximación de carácter esencialista que trate de fijar el concepto como una categoría cerrada. Cada una de las especies del espectro humorístico —la sátira y la ironía, por ejemplo— debieran abordarse desde una óptica que combine la semántica con la pragmática, sin olvidar el concurso de la antigua retórica. En cuanto a la historia más reciente del humorismo hispano, se valoran los autores más representativos de la llamada «otra generación del 27», reflexionando sobre la causa de su postergación y sobre la ausencia en la actualidad de un relevo de verdadera calidad literaria.

  5. Serial changes of humor comprehension for four-frame comic Manga: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaka, Mariko; Yaoi, Ken; Minamoto, Takehiro; Osaka, Naoyuki

    2014-07-25

    Serial changes of humor comprehension evoked by a well organized four-frame comic Manga were investigated by fMRI in each step of humor comprehension. The neural substrates underlying the amusing effects in response to funny and mixed order manga were compared. In accordance with the time course of the four frames, fMRI activations changed serially. Beginning with the second frame (development scene), activation of the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) was observed, followed by activations in the temporal and frontal areas during viewing of the third frame (turn scene). For the fourth frame (punch line), strong increased activations were confirmed in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and cerebellum. Interestingly, distinguishable activation differences in the cerebellum between funny and non-funny conditions were also found for the fourth frame. These findings suggest that humor comprehension evokes activation that initiates in the TPJ and expands to the MPFC and cerebellum at the convergence level.

  6. Humor style similarity and difference in friendship dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Simon C; Fox, Claire L; Jones, Siân E

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the concurrent and prospective (fall to spring) associations between four different humor styles to assess the degree to which stable friendships are characterized by similarity, and to assess whether best friends' humor styles influence each other's later use of humor. Participants were aged 11-13 years, with 87 stable, reciprocal best friend dyads. Self-report assessments of humor styles were completed on both occasions. Results indicated that there was no initial similarity in dyads' levels of humor. However, dyads' use of humor that enhances interpersonal relationships (Affiliative humor) became positively correlated by spring. Additionally, young people's use of this humor style was positively associated with their best friend's later use of the same. No such effects were present for humor which was aggressive, denigrating toward the self, or used to enhance the self. These results have clear implications for theories of humor style development, highlighting an important role for Affiliative humor within stable friendship dyads. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of humor on interpersonal attraction and mate selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Elizabeth; Shevlin, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined whether different levels of sense of humor would influence respondents' ratings about a potentially desirable partner. The authors used vignettes to predict that the targets who possessed a good sense of humor would receive significantly higher ratings in measures of attractiveness and suitability as a long-term partner than would those who possessed an average or no sense of humor. In an experimental design--with gender and humor as independent variables and level of attractiveness and suitability as a long-term partner as dependent variables--the authors analyzed the data using a multivariate analysis of variance. Results show that the targets with a good sense of humor received significantly higher ratings of attractiveness and suitability than did those with an average or no sense of humor. Furthermore, male participants rated female targets as significantly more attractive than female participants rated male targets. The authors found no significant interaction between gender and humor.

  8. The Analysis of Lin Yutang’s Humor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓琴

    2014-01-01

    Lin Yutang is called the master humorist in China. He advocates humor and spiritual literature in his maga-zine Lun Yu (Analects) which attracts essays and readership. His informal but polished style in both Chinese and English makes him one of the most influential writers of his generation, and his compilations and translations of classic Chinese texts into English are bestsellers in the West. Humor is a distinctive feature in his works. In his book, he uses humor as he sees appropriate, and through humor he criticizes social realities, depicts characters and introduces original expressions, etc. His humor can be related to some aspects in his life. In this paper, I will briefly analysis Lin's sense of humor and how Lin' applies humor in his works.

  9. Humor as "Cultural Reconciliation" in South African Situation Comedy: "Suburban Bliss" and Multicultural Female Viewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roome, Dorothy

    2000-01-01

    Conducts interviews with nine groups of South African women, examining their responses to episodes of "Suburban Bliss," a South African television sitcom that attempted to use humor as a catalyst to transcend the aftermath of apartheid. Evaluates whether "cultural reconciliation" is possible through harnessing the varying…

  10. Mathematics and Humor: John Allen Paulos and the Numeracy Crusade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul H. Grawe

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available John Allen Paulos at minimum gave the Numeracy movement a name through his book Innumeracy: Mathematical Illiteracy and Its Consequences. What may not be so obvious was Paulos’ strong interest in the relationship between mathematics and mathematicians on the one hand and humor and stand-up-comedian joke structures on the other. Innumeracy itself could be seen as a typically mathematical Gotcha joke on American culture generally. In this perspective, a Minnesotan acculturated to Minnesota-Nice Humor of Self-Immolation Proclivities (SImP looks at the more raw-boned, take-no-prisoners humor style Paulos outlined in Mathematics and Humor and implemented in Innumeracy. Despite the difference in humor styles, there is much to applaud in Paulos’ analysis of the relationship between certain types of humor and professional interests of mathematicians in Mathematics and Humor. Much humor relies on the sense of incongruity which Paulos’ claims to be central to all humor and key to mathematical reductio ad absurdum. Mathematics is rightfully famous for a sense of combinatorial playfulness in its most elegant proofs, as humor often relies on clashing combinations of word play. And a great range of mathematical lore is best understood within a concept of a sudden drop from one sense of certainty to another (essentially a Gotcha on the audience. Innumeracy repeatedly exemplifies Gotchas on the great unwashed and unmathematical majority. Extensive empirical evidence over the last quarter century allows us to synthesize these Paulos observations into the idea that inculcated mathematical humor has strong propensities to complex Intellectual, Advocate, and Crusader humor forms. However, the Paulos humors do not include the Sympathetic Pain humor form, the inclusion of which may increase teaching effectiveness.

  11. Depresión (humor deprimido en los mayores residentes en la comunidad Depression (depressed humor among the elderly residents in the community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª. Gorete Reis

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Los mayores están sujetos a riesgos acrecentados por el poco compromiso con la vida, el aislamiento, la precariedad de recursos y la enfermedad, entre otros. Hoy, la depresión es considerada la perturbación mental con mayor crecimiento, repercutiendo en los cambios en el estilo de vida y en la salud. Nos cuestionamos sobre el estado de humor deprimido de los mayores que viven en la comunidad. El objetivo es evaluar la depresión e identificar los factores relacionados con ella. Estudio descriptivo correlacional. Conclusión: Hay un número elevado de personas con humor deprimido. Ser mujer y estar enferma revela relaciones con la depresión, así como tener limitaciones para ejecutar las actividades.Old people are submit to risk factors that increase from life disengagement; loneliness, decrease in income and in resources and also from diseases, among others. Today depression is considered a mental disturb in a growing process which affects life style and health. That's why we questioned old people living in community, about depressed humor. The aim of this study is to evaluate depression's level nd associate factors. It's a descriptive, correlate study. Conclusions: There are a great number of people with depressed humor and, be woman, have diseabilities are factors relate to depression.

  12. Stress Management Strategies for Students: The Immediate Effects of Yoga, Humor, and Reading on Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzolo, Denise; Zipp, Genevieve Pinto; Stiskal, Doreen; Simpkins, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Background: Health science programs can be demanding and difficult for many students, leading to high levels of stress. High levels of stress can have a negative effect on students and subsequently the practicing clinician. Research suggests that yoga, humor, and reading are simple, effective methods to help reduce stress. To date no research…

  13. Anti-TNF treatment blocks the induction of T cell-dependent humoral responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Salinas; L. de Rycke (Leen); B.H. Barendregt (Barbara); J.E. Paramarta (Jacqueline); H. Hreggvidstdottir (Hulda); T. Cantaert (Tineke); M. van der Burg (Mirjam); P.P. Tak (Paul); D. Baeten (Dominique)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Experimental and human data suggest that tumour necrosis factor (TNF) blockade may affect B cell responses, in particular the induction of T cell-dependent (TD) humoral immunity. This study aimed to assess this hypothesis directly in patients with arthritis by analysing

  14. The Effect of Context (Humorous vs. Non-humorous on Vocabulary Acquisition and Retention of Iranian EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Ghaffari

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available For almost four decades, ESL/EFL scholars have been trying to find which learning type, contextualized vs. decontextualized, leads to better vocabulary acquisition and retention. In an attempt to solve this problem, this study tried to examine the possible effectiveness of using humorous context on vocabulary acquisition and retention. Another issue that was undertaken in the present study was comparing the efficiency of contextualized and decontextualized vocabulary learning and retention. For this purpose, 58 Iranian EFL learners were categorized into 3 groups: a humorous, b non-humorous, and c decontextualized. The findings were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey post hoc test. As the results revealed, the participants in decontextualized group outperformed the participants in both humorous and non-humorous groups. However, it should be noted that the performance of humorous group was significantly better than the performance of non-humorous group.

  15. The Leishmania infantum PUF proteins are targets of the humoral response during visceral leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Requena Jose M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RNA-binding proteins of the PUF family share a conserved domain consisting of tandemly repeated 36-40 amino acid motifs (typically eight known as Puf repeats. Proteins containing tandem repeats are often dominant targets of humoral responses during infectious diseases. Thus, we considered of interest to analyze whether Leishmania PUF proteins result antigenic during visceral leishmaniasis (VL. Findings Here, employing whole-genome databases, we report the composition, and structural features, of the PUF family in Leishmania infantum. Additionally, the 10 genes of the L. infantum PUF family were cloned and used to express the Leishmania PUFs in bacteria as recombinant proteins. Finally, the antigenicity of these PUF proteins was evaluated by determining levels of specific antibodies in sera from experimentally infected hamsters. The Leishmania PUFs were all recognized by the sera, even though with different degree of reactivity and/or frequency of recognition. The reactivity of hamster sera against recombinant LiPUF1 and LiPUF2 was particularly prominent, and these proteins were subsequently assayed against sera from human patients. High antibody responses against rLiPUF1 and rLiPUF2 were found in sera from VL patients, but these proteins resulted also recognized by sera from Chagas' disease patients. Conclusion Our results suggest that Leishmania PUFs are targets of the humoral response during L. infantum infection and may represent candidates for serodiagnosis and/or vaccine reagents; however, it should be kept in mind the cross-reactivity of LiPUFs with antibodies induced against other trypanosomatids such as Trypanosoma cruzi.

  16. Sentido del humor en el adulto mayor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina M. Labarca R.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available El humor es un fenómeno poco estudiado dentro del contexto de la psicología, menos aún, en el adulto mayor, grupo etario que se encuentra en constante crecimiento dentro de nuestro país.En tal sentido, la investigación, guiada por los planteamientos de Carbelo (2007 y DAnello (2010, denominada sentido del humor en el adulto mayor, tuvo por objetivo, determinar el significado que tiene este fenómeno para el adulto mayor. Para ello, se realizó un estudio de corte cualitativo,donde se utilizó la Entrevista en Profundidad como método de recolección de la información. Los informantes fueron 4 adultos mayores (2 hombres y 2 mujeres con edades comprendidas entre 60 y 73 años de edad, los cuales fueron seleccionados como una muestra de propósito. Para el análisis, se utilizó la Teoría Fundamentada, concluyéndose que para el adulto mayor, cuando el sentido del humor se convierte en parte de la personalidad, es un factor protector de la salud, da sentido de pertenencia y cambia positivamente el ambiente, trayendo como consecuencia una mejor calidad de vida, siendo esto último el principal significante que surgió del análisis de la información. Igualmente, se determinó que el sentido del humor es una construcción social que se va elaborando a lo largo de la vida y que se afianza en esta etapa vital.

  17. Humoral Immune Response in Tuberculous Pleuritis

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    Prabha C.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculous pleuritis is a good human model to understand the local and protective immune response against tuberculosis, due to the self-limitedness of the disease. Although the cellular immune response has been well characterised in tuberculous pleurisy, much less is known about the humoral immune response operating at the site of infection. To understand the humoral immune response, B cells were enumerated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC and pleural fluid mononuclear cells (PFMC of tuberculous (TP and non-tuberculous pleuritis patients (NTP. The levels of IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies for PPD, culture filtrate (CF and sonicate antigens (Son Ag were assessed in plasma (BL and pleural fluid (PF and a western blot was carried out with the CF antigen. The percentage of CD19+B-cells was similar in PBMC and PFMC of TP patients but was significantly lower in PFMCs of NTP patients. The IgG levels for PPD and CF antigens were higher in PF of TP than NTP patients. The antigen recognition patterns did not differ in plasma and pleural fluid of the same patient in both groups pointing out the passive diffusion of the plasma to the pleura. The antigens 25, 31, 33, 70, 110, 124 and 132 kDa were recognized exclusively by the TP patients. Thus our study showed that the local humoral response in TP did not differ from the systemic response. However, the humoral response differed in TP patients when compared to NTP patients.

  18. Can the use of humor in psychotherapy be taught?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Lisa; Gabbard, Glen O

    2014-02-01

    Despite an abundance of literature detailing the potential benefits of the use of humor in therapy, humor is rarely taught to psychiatric residents as a method of therapeutic intervention. This communication attempts to explain how current understanding of attachment theory and neuroscience may assist psychiatric faculty and supervisors in their teaching of humorous therapeutic interventions. This article reviews and synthesizes the extant literature on the use of humor, as well as recent work in neuroscience, attachment theory, and mentalization. Humor can be conceptualized as an instance of implicit relational knowing and may thus contribute significantly to the therapeutic action of psychotherapy as a subcategory of "moments of meeting" between therapist and patient. However, training residents to use humor in psychotherapy requires more individualized attention in supervision and classroom seminars. Factors such as individual proclivities for humorous repartee, mentalizing capacity, and an authentic interest in adding humor to the session may be necessary to incorporate spontaneous humor into one's technique. New findings from the areas of attachment theory, neuroscience, and right-hemisphere learning are providing potential opportunities for sophisticated teaching of the use of humor in psychotherapy.

  19. The use of humor in the care of psychiatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrysodimitra Galatou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Humor is defined as a state of good spirit, exhibited with a smile or laughter, as a response to external stimuli. It constitutes a special form of human communication as well as a form of social conduct. The word «humor» appears for the first time in Hippocrates' writings. Psychology considers humor as one of the most powerful weapons against depression and disappointment. In psychiatric therapeutics humor serves many purposes, thereby acting as a supplement, not a substitute to treatment received. Purpose: of this article is to highlight the positive effects of humor in humans, health professionals and patient. Material and method: An extensive literature search databases such as Medline, Pub Med, Wikipedia, Cinahl, Medscape, with key words: humor, psychiatric patient, care, humor scales Results: Humor is an interpersonal process which facilitates and promotes expression and exchange of views; however it requires prudence, cautiousness and respect to patients' personality and sensitive issues. Humor is not innate, it is acquired and it can be learning and taught. Conclusion: The correct use of humor in therapeutic practice, contributes to the development of a therapeutic relationship between patient and healthcare professional as well as a sense of trust between them.

  20. Unconventional aqueous humor outflow: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark; McLaren, Jay W; Overby, Darryl R

    2017-05-01

    Aqueous humor flows out of the eye primarily through the conventional outflow pathway that includes the trabecular meshwork and Schlemm's canal. However, a fraction of aqueous humor passes through an alternative or 'unconventional' route that includes the ciliary muscle, supraciliary and suprachoroidal spaces. From there, unconventional outflow may drain through two pathways: a uveoscleral pathway where aqueous drains across the sclera to be resorbed by orbital vessels, and a uveovortex pathway where aqueous humor enters the choroid to drain through the vortex veins. We review the anatomy, physiology and pharmacology of these pathways. We also discuss methods to determine unconventional outflow rate, including direct techniques that use radioactive or fluorescent tracers recovered from tissues in the unconventional pathway and indirect methods that estimate unconventional outflow based on total outflow over a range of pressures. Indirect methods are subject to a number of assumptions and generally give poor agreement with tracer measurements. We review the variety of animal models that have been used to study conventional and unconventional outflow. The mouse appears to be a promising model because it captures several aspects of conventional and unconventional outflow dynamics common to humans, although questions remain regarding the magnitude of unconventional outflow in mice. Finally, we review future directions. There is a clear need to develop improved methods for measuring unconventional outflow in both animals and humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Drug Transport by the Blood-Aqueous Humor Barrier of the Eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonghwa; Pelis, Ryan M

    2016-10-01

    The ocular barriers (cornea, blood-retinal barrier, and blood-aqueous humor barrier) make treating eye diseases with therapeutic drugs challenging. The tight capillary endothelium of the iris and the ciliary body epithelium form the blood-aqueous humor barrier. The iris and ciliary body (iris-ciliary body) express a variety of drug transporters in the ATP-binding cassette and solute carrier (SLC) families. ATP-binding cassette family drug transporters that are present in the iris-ciliary body include P-glycoprotein, breast cancer resistance protein, and several multidrug resistance-associated proteins. SLC family drug transporters that are present in the iris-ciliary body include organic anion transporters, organic anion transporting polypeptides, bile acid transporters (apical sodium-dependent bile salt transporter and sodium taurocholate cotransporter), organic cation transporters (novel organic cation transporter and multidrug and toxin extrusion transporter) and peptide transporters. Freshly dissected iris-ciliary body preparations actively accumulate a variety of substrates of SLC drug transporters that are expressed in the tissue. The ciliary body in vitro supports active transport in the aqueous humor-to-blood direction of several substrates of organic anion transporters and multidrug resistance-associated proteins, consistent with the subcellular localization of these transporters in the ciliary body epithelium. In vivo data suggest that drug transporters in the iris-ciliary body reduce the permeation of drugs in the direction of blood-to-aqueous humor, thereby reducing ocular drug bioavailability, and are also involved in active drug elimination from the aqueous humor. An understanding of the influence on pharmacokinetics of drug transporters in the blood-aqueous humor barrier should help improve drug delivery and efficacy in the eye. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  2. Distribution of flunixin meglumine and firocoxib into aqueous humor of horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, H G; Magdesian, K G; Groth, A D; Knych, H; Stanley, S D; Hollingsworth, S R

    2011-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are commonly used systemically for the treatment of inflammatory ocular disease in horses. However, little information exists regarding the ocular penetration of this class of drugs in the horse. To determine the distribution of orally administered flunixin meglumine and firocoxib into the aqueous humor of horses. Fifteen healthy adult horses with no evidence of ophthalmic disease. Horses were randomly assigned to a control group and 2 treatment groups of equal sizes (n = 5). Horses assigned to the treatment groups received an NSAID (flunixin meglumine, 1.1 mg/kg PO q24h or firocoxib, 0.1 mg/kg PO q24h for 7 days). Horses in the control group received no medications. Concentrations of flunixin meglumine and firocoxib in serum and aqueous humor and prostaglandin (PG) E(2) in aqueous humor were determined on days 1, 3, and 5 and aqueous : serum ratios were calculated. Firocoxib penetrated the aqueous humor to a significantly greater extent than did flunixin meglumine at days 3 and 5. Aqueous : serum ratios were 3.59 ± 3.32 and 11.99 ± 4.62% for flunixin meglumine and firocoxib, respectively. Ocular PGE(2) concentrations showed no differences at any time point among study groups. Both flunixin meglumine and firocoxib penetrated into the aqueous humor of horses. This study suggests that orally administered firocoxib penetrates the aqueous humor better than orally administered flunixin meglumine at label dosages in the absence of ocular inflammation. Firocoxib should be considered for the treatment of inflammatory ophthalmic lesions in horses at risk for the development of adverse effects associated with nonselective NSAID administration. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  3. Association of NT-proANP Level in Plasma and Humor Aqueous with Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumane, Kristine; Ranka, Renate; Laganovska, Guna

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study is to determine differences in the levels of NT-proANP in the plasma and aqueous humor of glaucoma and cataract patients and to evaluate whether any relationships are present. The study group consisted of 58 patients with primary-open glaucoma (POAG) undergoing trabeculectomy surgery. The control group was comprised of 32 age-matched cataract patients. The concentration of the N-terminal fragment of the proatrial natriuretic peptide (NT-proANP, 1-98) in the aqueous humor and blood plasma samples was measured using an immunochemical method (ELISA). The plasma NT-proANP concentration was significantly increased in patients with POAG compared to that in the control group (7.00 vs. 4.65 nmol/L, P = 0.0054). Similarly, the NT-proANP concentration in the aqueous humor was significantly higher in the POAG patients (0.47 vs. 0.09 nmol/L, P = 0.0112). However, there was no correlation between the NT-proANP values in the aqueous humor and the plasma of the POAG patients, as well as between the NT-proANP values in the aqueous humor and the intraocular pressure. We identified an association between the levels of NT-proANP in the plasma and the aqueous humor with POAG. Our data support the idea of the involvement of NP system in the development of POAG and highlight ANP as a possible biomarker of glaucoma.

  4. Humor Style and Motor Skills: Understanding Vulnerability to Bullying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Plenty

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the role of humor style and motor skills in vulnerability to bullying. 729 adults responded to the Humor Style Questionnaire (HSQ and items retrospectively addressing their motor skills and bullying experiences during childhood. Consistent with recent research, poorer motor skills were associated with a greater extent of having been bullied. An association between stronger motor skills and affiliative humor was found, lending support to a shared biological basis theory underlying social and motor competency processes. Most importantly, being bullied was associated with higher self-defeating humor and lower affiliative humor. This supports earlier theoretical work by Klein and Kuiper (2006 and highlights the role that humor styles play in social interactions that can promote positive peer acceptance and wellbeing.

  5. Humor and older adults: what makes them laugh?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Barbara G; Prazak, Mark

    2006-09-01

    Laughter, the physical response to perceived humor, has demonstrated positive effects on physical and psychological well-being. Studies that focus on effects of humor on health and well-being of older adults are scarce. No studies were found that examine what older adults find humorous. The purpose of this descriptive study was to explore the humor stimulus in a population of older adults. One hundred thirty (130) hospital auxiliary personnel aged 50 and older were asked the question What makes you laugh? Content analysis of responses revealed nine themes in two major categories, which were (a) people or animals and (b) situations or events. Children represented the largest category of people (30%), and telling jokes represented the largest category of situations or events (51%). Humor can be used by nurses as an effective therapeutic tool when caring for older adults if appropriate sources of humor are identified and applied.

  6. Cultures of (Un)happiness: Teaching, Schooling, and Light and Dark Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullough, Robert V., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The author explores humor during a time of increasingly hostile accountability measures directed toward educators. Drawing on incongruity and other theories of humor, he explores both "light" and "dark" humor and some aspects of the educational potential and power of humor. Noting how humor is related to creativity and problem management, the…

  7. The Sociological Theory of Humor and Its Application Research%幽默的社会理论及其应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈世民; 方杰; 孙配贞; 张进辅; 郑雪

    2012-01-01

    way. And relationship satisfaction and interpersonal context have an influ- ence on the complex use of humor. Many factors contribute to humor understanding such as relationship satisfaction, familiarity with each other, humor tendency of involved parties and their interaction, and humor characteristics. If humor is understood and accepted, it must be appropriate to the situation and the conversational partners. Relationship satisfaction causes the recipient of humor, making different attributions to their argument partner' s reasons for using humor. Effectively employing humor requires knowledge of one' s partner and a shared history. It also requires the humor tendency of the involved parties, the dispositional tendency of the parties involved in the interaction, the characteristics of humorous messages such as funniness, timing, witness, relevance, unexpectedness and silliness. Humor is applied extensively in persuasion, comfort, conflict management, leadership, and mate selection. Humor can reduce tension and anxiety, create positive affection, increase liking for the source. It can relieve frustration, alleviate boredom, and facilitate in- formation transfer at work. It can also enhance leadership ability by shaping the work environment. In mate selection, the targets who possessed a good sense of humor will receive significantly higher ratings in the measures of attractiveness and suitability as a long-term partner. Some suggestions were proposed for further studies. Firstly, to broaden the exploration of the age difference of humor production. Currently, most participants are college students. People with different ages can produce humor with different features, and their characteristics of humor should be explored. Secondly, more research methods such as experiments and journals should be employed to explore humor understanding in the social context. Thirdly, the application of humor in other contexts such as education, criticism and suggestion can be

  8. Humor recognition and appreciation deficits in early psychosis

    OpenAIRE

    吳愷晴; Ng, Hoi-ching, Iris

    2013-01-01

    Humor recognition and appreciation are important aspects to enhance psychological well-being and enrich social relationships and interactions. The present study hypothesized that first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients with adult onset in the Chinese society have deficits in humor recognition and appreciation compared with healthy controls. It also predicted FEP patients with a diminished ability in recalling humorous stimuli. Moreover, this study sought to explore the potential associations o...

  9. Humor: Power Conveying Social Structures Inside Forensic Mental Health Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildberg, Frederik A; Paaske, Kristian J; Rasmussen, Vivian L; Nissen, Ricko D; Bradley, Stephen K; Hounsgaard, Lise

    2016-01-01

    According to research literature, humor inside the staff-patient interaction seems to be significant in the area of forensic mental healthcare. However, existing literature on the subject is limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the characteristics of the use humor by forensic mental health staff members in interactions with forensic mental health inpatients. The study included 32 forensic mental health staff members, used 307 hours of participant observations, 48 informal interviews, and seven formal semistructured interviews. Outcomes identify four themes concerning the conveyance of power to, from, and between forensic mental health staff and patients as they interact: (a) "the informal use: the human-to-human approach," characterized by an informal use of humor and without any reference to mental health issues; (b) the "formal use of humor: the staff-patient approach," characterized as formal with a view on the patient as mentally ill, unable to understand humor, and with the aim of using humor to prevent conflicts or negative behavior; (c) "protest against requested care: the human-patient approach," characterized by the use of humor as a protest against requested care; and the use of (d) "inadequacy humor: the staff-human approach," characterized by the use of inadequacy-humor referring to, for example, patients' physical features. Recommendations and clinical implications are discussed.

  10. Humor as a Complementary Therapy: A Narrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raziyeh Ghafouri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research on the subject of laughter commenced on the 20th century. In recent decades researcher demonstrated that humor and laughter has positive impact on physical body same as psychological aspect. This study was conduct for integrate knowledge about humor as complementary therapy through the narrative review. Evidence Acquisition: The keywords humor, laughter, joking and humor therapy and humor sense were used. Data was collected from PUBMED, Ovid, ProQuest, Science Direct electronic databases. Literatures that were published in English or Persian between 1970- 2015 that were addressed humor were included. 181 literatures were collected. Based on the in clouding criteria 52 articles were included for review and finally 33 articles were selected after critical reviewing. Results: Humor reduces acute and chronic pain, decrease stress hormone and depression, boost self-esteem, increased encephalin and endorphins, decreased blood pressure through increasing nitric oxide, decreasing catecholamine and regulating vascular wall function, increased cardiac output, improve pulmonary ventilation and prevent diabetic nephropathy. Conclusion: Humor could be helpful for patient and it improve quality of life but it needed more research especially meta-analysis. We must don’t forget that lough with others not to each other's. Implications of key findings: Humor gives patients the opportunity to forget about their anxiety and pain, if only for a brief period of time.

  11. Analysis on the Mechanism Whereby Humor is Produced

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周先军

    2014-01-01

    Humor, a distinctive linguistic phenomenon, plays an important role in the language culture. In addition, humor has become a topic in linguistics. As the most important principles in pragmatics, the CP has provided a theoretical tool for analyzing humor, which is the product of the speaker’s intentional or unintentional violation of certain maxim of the Cooperative Principle. Participants should understand the literal meaning of an utterance firstly, and then, by relating the utterance to the specific context and certain background information, they come to realize the violation of the CP and appreciate the humor.

  12. Hippocrates' humoral pathology in nowaday's reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujalkova, M; Straka, S; Jureckova, A

    2001-01-01

    Ancient medicine integrated three components: experience (empirical observation), religion/magic and speculations of natural philosophers. The Greek medicine out-achieved medicine of other ancient nations in starting to investigate the true causes of health and diseases and thus laying foundations for the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment. Hippocrates, the most famous physician of the ancient times, made a synthesis of existing philosophical opinions from the point of view of a physician. His 58 writings were preserved in the collection "Corpus Hippocraticum". The most relevant writing in it--"Peri fyseos anthropu" (On the nature of man)--is ascribed to Hippocrates' son-in-law Polybos to whom we are grateful for the ancient humoral-pathological theory. In explaining human organism and its processes the author integrated ancient teachings on 4 basic humors (humoral theory), elements and qualities with observations of manifestations of health and disease. Normal condition (health) was defined as balance between the body fluids (eukrasia) and external environment. If this balance is disturbed, the result is dyskrasia, i.e. disease studied by pathology. According to Hippocrates disease causes can be understood only through empirical study. A man has a power to overcome disease, but to achieve it the right diet is necessary to keep harmony in body fluids of an organism. The role of a physician was just to support the nature. "Prognosis", another writing included in "Corpus Hippocraticum", reflects Hippocrates' understanding of prognosis as a necessary development of diagnosis based on past knowledge (anamnesis) and present observation. Ideas of Hippocrates and his medical school are still valuable and inspiring especially for today's very sophisticated medicine--concept of fighting diseases by natural means: maintaining healthy lifestyle and harmony within the organism, or an effort for perfect understanding of human creature and for humanization of medicine. (Fig. 3

  13. Thanatochemistry: Study of vitreous humor potassium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilesh Keshav Tumram

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study has been carried out to determine the death interval from the biochemical parameter of vitreous potassium. In 308 medicolegal cases vitreous humor was taken and analyzed for potassium with known time of death. There was a linear rise in potassium concentration with increasing death interval. Regression equation was calculated for the same. The study indicates that potassium levels in vitreous for determining death interval are useful and can afford a good method of determining the death interval along with other traditional methods. Also the previously established formulae for estimating death interval from vitreous potassium were also studied.

  14. Effects of a Humor Therapy Program on Stress Levels in Pediatric Inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Julio C; Echeverri, Luis F; Londoño, Manuel J; Ochoa, Sergio A; Quiroz, Andrés F; Romero, César R; Ruiz, Joaquín O

    2017-01-01

    Disease and hospitalization generate stress, which can affect the response to treatment. Humor has been used in many hospitals to decrease stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a humor therapy program on stress levels in pediatric inpatients. In the first phase, an intervention and a control group were studied over 2 consecutive 3-month periods; the interventions were performed by a team of artists trained in humor therapy. Salivary cortisol levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the Weisz test, a pictorial chart that determines subjective stress perception, and the Parker test, which assesses objective stress, were applied. In the second phase, salivary cortisol levels were measured and the Weisz test was administered before and after the interventions. A total of 306 patients were recruited into this study: 198 in the first phase (94 in the intervention group and 104 in the nonintervention group) and 108 in the second phase. There were no differences between groups regarding age, sex, or medical diagnosis. The children in the intervention group presented lower cortisol levels, lower scores on the Parker test, and higher scores on the Weisz test than children in the nonintervention group. In the second phase, the children showed lower salivary cortisol levels and higher scores on the Weisz test after the intervention. Humor therapy has beneficial effects on stress and cortisol levels in pediatric inpatients. This supports the implementation and reinforcement of these therapies in pediatric hospitals. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  15. Between laugh, common sense and dissent. Humor magazine as a controversial space (1978-1980.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Raices

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals on initial phase of argentine Humor magazine, between 1978 and 1980, during the military dictatorship period (1976-1983. Our text is focused on significative actores implied with the magazine. In that sense, we research the intervention of its public through reader’s letters section. Our goal was to analyze controversies in that section. We assert it was a useful space in restablishing broken social links resulting from state repression. In addition to this, the reader’s section was a way so Humor could evaluate the effects of contents offered to its public.The analysis let us detect two controversies developed about relevant public matters. The first one concerns horror representation, relating the jewish genocide (Shoah; the second one dealt with how comic cartoons depicts the Other in the shape of popular classes. Both controversies oblige Humor to state explicitly the values of its editorial project and also evidenced a notorious dissent between its readers. Our contribution is intended to bring complexity to an assumed vision that relates directly actors connected with Humor magazine with oposition to dictatorial government.

  16. The Applicability of Humorous Print Ads%幽默平面广告的适用性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨海波

    2012-01-01

    为了探讨哪一类别商品的平面广告更适合于采用幽默的诉求方式,研究随机选取160大学生为被试,以16则改编平面广告为实验材料,以广告类型(幽默,非幽默)、商品类别为自变量,以广告评价、广告顺序为协变量,以商品的印象、喜爱程度、购买意向为因变量,进行平衡设计实验。结果表明,幽默广告具有较好广告效果,可以提高受众对大宗工具、小奖赏和小工具型商品的记忆;幽默平面广告更适用于低风险、功能性商品,不适用于高风险、享乐性商品。%Humor is widely used in advertisements. However, it is not applicable to all. If not used properly, the humor inthe advertisements may have reversed influence. This research attempted to find out which types of merchandise humor was more applicable, using Product Color Matrix as the standard classification for merchandises. I chose two kinds of representative merchandise from each category, which were big tools (range hood, water heater), big toys (diamond bracelet, sports car), little treats (beer, juice), and little tools (toothpaste and beer bottle opener). Two different print advertisements were made for each merchandise, respectively, humorous ad and non-humorous ad. Two hypotheses were put forward : ( 1 ) humor always harvested good advertising effect ; ( 2 ) humor acted dif- ferently on the merchandise of different types. A total of 16 adapted unfamiliar or foreign print advertisements were shown to 160 college students, who were randomly selected to take the questionnaire. In this experiment with balanced design, univariate analysis variance and multivariate analysis of variance were applied to analyze data. Whether humor was used in advertisement was the independent variable. Evaluation and the order of the ads were the covariates. Impression, preference, and purchase intention toward the merchandise were the dependent variables

  17. Age-Related Differences in Judgments of Inappropriate Behavior are Related to Humor Style Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Jennifer Tehan; Lohani, Monika; Isaacowitz, Derek M.

    2014-01-01

    Identifying social gaffes is important for maintaining relationships. Older adults are less able than young to discriminate between socially appropriate and inappropriate behavior in video clips. One open question is how these social appropriateness ratings relate to potential age differences in the perception of what is actually funny or not. In the present study, young, middle-aged, and older adults were equally able to discriminate between appropriate and inappropriate social behavior in a diverse set of clips relevant to both age groups. However, young and middle-aged adults rated the gaffe clips as funnier than control clips and young adults smiled more during the inappropriate clips than the control clips. Older adults did not show this pattern, suggesting that they did not find the inappropriate clips funny. Additionally, young adults endorsed a more aggressive humor style than middle-aged and older adults and aggressive humor style endorsement mediated age differences in social appropriateness ratings. Results are discussed in terms of possible mechanisms such as cohort differences in humor and developmental prioritization of certain humor styles, as well as the importance of investigating age differences in both abilities and preferences. PMID:25244473

  18. Natural humoral immune competence and survival in layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Star, L; Frankena, K; Kemp, B; Nieuwland, M G B; Parmentier, H K

    2007-06-01

    The relation between survival and levels of humoral components of innate (and specific) immune competence of laying hens was investigated in a population of 1,063 laying hens from 12 purebred layer lines. Natural immune competence of the chickens was studied by measuring levels of natural antibodies (NAb) binding to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS), respectively, and hemolytic (classical and alternative) complement activity at 20, 40, and 65 wk of age. In addition, levels of antibodies binding a Newcastle disease vaccine strain as a measure of specific immunity were investigated at 20 wk of age. A distinction could be made between lines showing high or low immune competence with respect to NAb, complement activity, and specific antibodies. Within lines, significant correlations were found for each of the innate parameters among the 3 ages. The innate and specific parameters were, however, not correlated with each other. Based on the limited data set, it was not possible to draw conclusions on line differences for innate or specific immune competence in relation to survival. However, regardless of line, low levels of NAb binding to KLH or high levels of NAb binding to LPS were detected in chickens that did not survive the laying period. The major difference between the responses of NAb binding to KLH or LPS was that the chickens probably did not encounter KLH, which suggests a reflection of the capacity to respond, whereas the chickens most probably did encounter LPS, which suggests a reflection of the active status of the innate humoral immune system. In conclusion, we propose that levels (KLH) and activation (LPS) of components of natural antibodies are indicative for the probability that chickens survive a laying period.

  19. Humor en línea. Línea del humor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dra. Mirta Clara Echevarría

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available La autora indaga el humor propuesto por el diario ‘InterVoz’ (Córdoba, Argentina. El medio publica el "típico humor cordobés". Historietas, chistes y relatos representan la vida urbana cotidiana, confluencia de lo popular y lo masivo, a través de la inclusión de usos lingüísticos, costumbres, personajes típicos y personajes públicos, sobre todo políticos. Estos textos, en algunos casos, reproducen lo publicado en papel; sin embargo, son manifestaciones diferentes. En este discurso emergente, estudia las condiciones de producción, circulación y consumo desde varias vertientes. Subraya la autora la relación del humor con el resto del diario por: la fuerte relación intertextual con la información y el diseño hipertextual. Destaca tópicas y retórica del humor como parte de una política discursiva centrada en lo regional, con el objeto de construir un discurso identitario de clara apelación a "los cordobeses en el mundo". El humor de ‘InterVoz’ (el diario en su totalidad, en el marco de la globalización, se manifiesta como una otra voz, sin llegar a establecerse como contradiscurso. Este periódico –como tantos en la red– subraya las marcas de lo local para permanecer en lo global.

  20. A comparative evaluation of the regulation of GM crops or products containing dsRNA and suggested improvements to risk assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, Jack A; Agapito-Tenfen, Sarah Zanon; Carman, Judy A

    2013-05-01

    Changing the nature, kind and quantity of particular regulatory-RNA molecules through genetic engineering can create biosafety risks. While some genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are intended to produce new regulatory-RNA molecules, these may also arise in other GMOs not intended to express them. To characterise, assess and then mitigate the potential adverse effects arising from changes to RNA requires changing current approaches to food or environmental risk assessments of GMOs. We document risk assessment advice offered to government regulators in Australia, New Zealand and Brazil during official risk evaluations of GM plants for use as human food or for release into the environment (whether for field trials or commercial release), how the regulator considered those risks, and what that experience teaches us about the GMO risk assessment framework. We also suggest improvements to the process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The effect of humor on short-term memory in older adults: a new component for whole-person wellness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bains, Gurinder Singh; Berk, Lee S; Daher, Noha; Lohman, Everett; Schwab, Ernie; Petrofsky, Jerrold; Deshpande, Pooja

    2014-01-01

    For older adults, the damaging effects of aging and stress can impair the ability to learn and sustain memory. Humor, with its associated mirthful laughter, can reduce stress and cortisol, a stress hormone. Chronic release of cortisol can damage hippocampus neurons, leading to impairment of learning and memory. The primary goal of this study was to determine whether watching a humorous video had an effect on short-term memory in an older population. The research team designed a randomized, controlled trial. The study took place at Loma Linda University in Loma Linda, California. The research team recruited 20 normal, healthy, older adults, 11 males and 9 females. The humor group (n = 10, mean = 69.3 ± 3.7 y) self-selected 1 of 2 humorous videos--a Red Skelton comedy or a montage of America's Funniest Home Videos--and watched it for 20 min. A control group (n = 10, mean = 68.7 ± 5.5 y) sat calmly for 20 min and were not allowed to read, sleep, or talk on a cell phone. The Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test was used to assess short-term memory--learning ability, delayed recall, and visual recognition. Salivary cortisol levels were measured at predetermined times. Learning ability improved by 38.5% and 24.0% in the humor and control groups, respectively (P = .014). Delayed recall improved by 43.6% and 20.3% in the humor and control groups, respectively (P =.029). Within the humor group, delayed recall (43.6%) was significant compared with learning ability (38.5%) (P = .002). At 3 predetermined time points, significant decreases in salivary cortisol were observed in the humor group (P = .047, P = .046, and P = .062, respectively). The study's findings suggest that humor can have clinical benefits and rehabilitative implications and can be implemented in programs that support whole-person wellness for older adults. Learning ability and delayed recall are important to these individuals for a better quality of life--considering mind, body, spirit, social, and economic

  2. Effects of Humor on Teacher Stress, Affect, and Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Jacqueline Dena

    2013-01-01

    Teachers are at high risk for stress, negative emotion, and job dissatisfaction, which has been linked with health problems and early attrition. Humor has been found to relieve various forms of stress. However, there is a gap in the literature regarding humor effects on teacher stress and its related consequences. The purpose of this quantitative,…

  3. Did You Hear the One about...? Humor in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Jim

    2006-01-01

    Used properly, humor can be a valuable educational tool. It also helps middle school students cope with many of the personal issues that arise and focus on school, and helps teachers connect with their students. From silly costumes to movie music, this article describes how some teachers and administrators incorporate humor into their daily school…

  4. An Empirical Foundation for a Taxonomy of Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froman, Richard L., Jr.

    The reliability of a taxonomy of humor was tested in two studies. The first study involved rater identification of nine categories for humorous incidents excerpted from television comedy programs (wordplay, exaggeration/understatement, contrast, audience knowledge, aggression, emotion, taboo, pratfall/slapstick, and repetition). The second study,…

  5. Examining Teachers' Motivation Level According to School Principals' Humor Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recepoglu, Ergun; Kilinc, Ali Cagatay; Cepni, Osman

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the motivation level of teachers according to school principals' humor styles. The humor styles survey and job motivation scale were used to gather data from 305 randomly selected teachers employed in primary schools in Karabuk. Results indicated that 141 of the teachers claimed school principal had…

  6. The Humor Continuum: From Text to Smart Environments (Keynote Paper)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus

    Humor is important in our daily life, whether our activities are at home, at work, or in public spaces, for example during sports or other recreational and entertainment activities. Until now, computational humor, the research area that investigates rules and algorithms to understand and to generate

  7. Examining Teachers' Motivation Level According to School Principals' Humor Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recepoglu, Ergun; Kilinc, Ali Cagatay; Cepni, Osman

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the motivation level of teachers according to school principals' humor styles. The humor styles survey and job motivation scale were used to gather data from 305 randomly selected teachers employed in primary schools in Karabuk. Results indicated that 141 of the teachers claimed school principal had…

  8. Pastoral Perspectives of Humor's Use in Ministry Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jonathan W.

    2012-01-01

    Results from a qualitative component of a mixed-methods research design are reported regarding the use of humor in pastoral ministry. Thirteen Southern Baptist (SB) pastors were interviewed, from a total of 37 exemplars identified in the quantitative component of the study, regarding their perspectives toward humor in ministry. Results overall…

  9. Effects of Humor on Teacher Stress, Affect, and Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Jacqueline Dena

    2013-01-01

    Teachers are at high risk for stress, negative emotion, and job dissatisfaction, which has been linked with health problems and early attrition. Humor has been found to relieve various forms of stress. However, there is a gap in the literature regarding humor effects on teacher stress and its related consequences. The purpose of this quantitative,…

  10. Stimulus Characteristics Affect Humor Processing in Individuals with Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Andrea C.; Hegenloh, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The present paper aims to investigate whether individuals with Asperger syndrome (AS) show global humor processing deficits or whether humor comprehension and appreciation depends on stimulus characteristics. Non-verbal visual puns, semantic and Theory of Mind cartoons were rated on comprehension, funniness and the punchlines were explained. AS…

  11. Multilingual Manipulation and Humor in "I Love Lucy"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschen, Bryan

    2013-01-01

    "I Love Lucy" is considered to have been one of the most humorous television programs in the United States as early as the 1950s. This paper explores the use of language by the protagonists, Lucy and Ricky Ricardo, in order to understand the source of the program's humor. Linguistic analysis of the Ricardos' speech is applied,…

  12. Subversion or Socialization? Humor and Carnival in Morris Gleitzman's Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Kathryn

    2004-01-01

    Like their counterparts elsewhere, Australian children favour humorous novels; comedic writers consistently dominate the preteen and early teen fiction market in Australia. Regardless of its popularity, however, in comparison to more serious writing, humorous literature has received little critical attention. Of the studies aimed at this area,…

  13. Welcome to HELL : Humor in English Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncay, Hidayet

    2007-01-01

    Humor means understanding not only the language and words but their use, meaning, subtle nuances, the underlying culture, implications and unwritten messages. Humor does not often travel well from one culture to another, as each society has a somewhat different concept of what is funny (Dobson, 1987). In Foreign Language Learning (FLL), the…

  14. Embodied Agents: A New Impetus to Humor Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, A.; Stock, O.; Strapparava, C.; Nijholt, A.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we survey the role of humor in human-to-human interaction with the aim to see whether it is useful for embodied conversational agents to integrate humor capabilities in their internal model of intelligence, emotions and interaction (verbal and nonverbal) capabilities. For that reason w

  15. Conversational Agents and the Construction of Humorous Acts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Anton; Nishida, Toyoaki

    2007-01-01

    In this chapter we discuss the generation of humorous acts by embodied agents. It is observed that in future interfaces that are meant to allow natural interaction, embodied agents can play useful roles. Humor plays an important role in human-human interaction and therefore it is useful to investiga

  16. An Analysis of Black Humor in the Movie The Simpsons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵筱婧

    2016-01-01

    Black humor is widely applied in literature, drama, and film. This paper, through analyzing the theme, plot, and stereotypes of The Simpsons, aims to make a research of black humor and its application in this movie in order to facilitate the understanding of the movie and present its significance on modern society.

  17. Humor: What Can It Do for Tertiary Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Mehmet

    2004-01-01

    Given the important role of the affective variables in the process of learning, this paper examines ways of overcoming negative effects (i.e. anxiety, boredom) of the contextual factors. Exemplifying the uses of humor through context-specific, purpose-driven jokes, it maintains that humor can be utilized to produce a resourceful, encouraging and…

  18. The humor continuum: from text to smart environments (keynote paper)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Anton

    2015-01-01

    Humor is important in our daily life, whether our activities are at home, at work, or in public spaces, for example during sports or other recreational and entertainment activities. Until now, computational humor, the research area that investigates rules and algorithms to understand and to generate

  19. A Computational Model of Linguistic Humor in Puns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Justine T.; Levy, Roger; Goodman, Noah D.

    2016-01-01

    Humor plays an essential role in human interactions. Precisely what makes something funny, however, remains elusive. While research on natural language understanding has made significant advancements in recent years, there has been little direct integration of humor research with computational models of language understanding. In this paper, we…

  20. Subversion or Socialization? Humor and Carnival in Morris Gleitzman's Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Kathryn

    2004-01-01

    Like their counterparts elsewhere, Australian children favour humorous novels; comedic writers consistently dominate the preteen and early teen fiction market in Australia. Regardless of its popularity, however, in comparison to more serious writing, humorous literature has received little critical attention. Of the studies aimed at this area,…

  1. Humor: What Can It Do for Tertiary Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Mehmet

    2004-01-01

    Given the important role of the affective variables in the process of learning, this paper examines ways of overcoming negative effects (i.e. anxiety, boredom) of the contextual factors. Exemplifying the uses of humor through context-specific, purpose-driven jokes, it maintains that humor can be utilized to produce a resourceful, encouraging and…

  2. Humorous Stimuli and Depression: An Examination of Beck's Premise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scogin, Forrest R.; Merbaum, Michael

    1983-01-01

    Studied the relationship between depression and humor in 85 college students who took the Beck Depression Inventory and then rated 10 cartoons. Results showed no difference between mildly depressed and nondepressed subjects. However, some trends were noted on a mood scale related to immediate feelings and humor preference. (Author/JAC)

  3. Pelanggaran Prinsip Kooperatif dalam Wacana Humor di Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Sihombing, Marintan

    2010-01-01

    Penelitian ini menganalisis pelanggaran prinsip kooperatif dalam wacana humor di internet. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menjelaskan bagaimana proses terjadinya pelanggaran prinsip kooperatif dan mendeskripsikan faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi terjadinya pelanggaran prinsip kooperatif wacana humor di internet. Teori yang digunakan adalah implikatur percakapan, pertuturan atau tindak bahasa, konteks situasi. Pengumpulan data digunakan dengan metode simak, yaitu penyimakan terhadap penggunaan b...

  4. Application of Relevance Translation Theory in Humor Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵秀丽

    2013-01-01

    This thesis,aiming to investigate the process of English-Chinese translation of humor from the perspective of RT theory(relevance translation theory),endeavors to apply its principles and methods to the re-construction of humor in the target language.

  5. Laugh yourself to sleep: memory consolidation for humorous information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Alexis M; Payne, Jessica D

    2014-05-01

    There is extensive evidence that emotional information is better remembered than neutral information across long delays, especially if the delay interval contains an opportunity for sleep. However, as prior studies have focused on memory for negative stimuli, it is unclear whether positive memories benefit from time and sleep as well. To investigate the consolidation of positive memories, the current study examined differences in memory for humorous and non-humorous cartoons. While prior evidence demonstrates that humorous information is preferentially remembered relative to non-humorous information over brief delays, it is unknown whether this benefit lasts across longer delay intervals or whether sleep is important for lasting humor memories to form. Thus, we tested memory for 27 cartoons across 12-h delay periods containing either sleep or wakefulness. Results indicate that humor's enhancing effect on recall memory is robust across a 12-h delay and that a period of sleep facilitates this effect over wakefulness when cartoons are novel to participants and ranked based on subjective emotional ratings. Further, in accordance with previous studies that reveal diminished emotional reactivity to stimuli following sleep, in a supplemental experiment, we found that sleep reduced subjective ratings of humor, arousal, and positivity of humorous cartoons. These findings provide preliminary evidence that sleep's impact on negative emotional memory consolidation and emotional reactivity can be extended to positive stimuli as well.

  6. Genetic analysis of varicella-zoster virus in the aqueous humor in uveitis with severe hyphema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosogai, Mayumi; Nakatani, Yoko; Mimura, Kensuke; Kishi, Shoji; Akiyama, Hideo

    2017-06-15

    aqueous humor is the key investigation necessary for the diagnosis. The measurement of VZV-DNA copies by real-time PCR would be useful for evaluation of therapeutic effects. We could amplify and analyze VZV genotype using the aqueous humor including a very large number of VZV-DNA copies (1.61 × 10(9) copies/mL).

  7. Cytokine Expression Profile in Aqueous Humor and Sera of Patients with Acute Anterior Uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W; Zhao, B; Jiang, R; Zhang, R; Wang, Y; Wu, H; Gordon, L; Chen, L

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate cytokine expression profile in aqueous humor and sera in patients with HLAB27 associated acute anterior uveitis (AAU) and idiopathic AAU. Twenty patients with AAU and 17 controls were recruited from August 2012 to March 2013. Study subjects with uveitis were divided into two groups: 9 patients with idiopathic AAU and 11 patients with HLA-B27 associated AAU. Complete ophthalmological examinations were performed and clinical features of each group were clearly documented. Aqueous humor and sera were collected and the concentration of 15 immune mediators (IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-21, IL-22, IL-23, IL-25, IL-31, IL-33, TNF-α, IFN-γ, sCD40L) were measured in both aqueous humor and sera simultaneously by multiplex immunoassay. There were significantly higher levels of multiple cytokines in aqueous humor in patients with uveitis compared to controls, including IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17a, IL-17f, IL-21, IL-25, IL-31, IFN-γ, TNF-α, and sCD40L. The levels of IL-17a in aqueous humor correlated significantly with disease activity in patients with idiopathic AAU, while the level of IFN-γ in aqueous humor correlated significantly with disease activity in patients with HLA-B27 associated AAU. There was no significant difference in serum cytokine expression between uveitis patients and controls except IL-6, elevated in patients with both idiopathic and HLA-B27 associated AAU. Cytokine expression pattern in the aqueous humor, in contrast to that in serum, may reflect intraocular immune reactions during active inflammation in patients with AAU. Both Th1 and Th17 are involved in immunopathogenesis of HLA-B27 associated and idiopathic AAU, but a different cytokine pattern was identified in these two clinical entities. A predominant Th17-driven immune response may play an important role in the immunopathogenesis of idiopathic AAU, while Th1 dominant immune response may be responsible for the inflammation in HLA-B27 associated AAU.

  8. Playing with expectations: a contextual view of humor development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Airenti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the developmental literature it has been advanced that young children would not understand the specificity of nonliteral communicative acts. In this article I shall focus on young children’s ability to produce and understand different forms of humor. I shall explore children’s acquisition of the communicative contexts that constitute the background enabling them to perform humorous interactions before being able to analyze them in the terms allowed by a full fledged ToM. I consider that different forms of humor share a number of basic features and that we can draw a continuum from simple forms to sophisticated ones. In particular I shall focus on teasing, a form of humor already present in preverbal infants but also considered as a typical feature of irony. I shall argue that all forms of humor can be described in the terms of a kind of interaction that I propose to call playing with expectations.

  9. CLASSICAL CONDITIONING OF THREE KINDS OF HUMOR IN PUBLICITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAROLINA M. CIFUENTES

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of humor in advertisement published in Colombia were investigated in regards to brands,advertisement, purchase intention, recall and recognition.A simultaneous Classical Conditioning procedure was carried out, using Incongruous, Hostile and Allusivehumor associated to three brands. The procedure was applied to 30 university students. Results revealedthat the three kinds of humor work as unconditioning stimulus, generating positive attitudes towardsadvertisement and brand. Humor influences the purchase intention and recognition, but not the remembranceof brand when compared to neutral advertisement. Incongrous and Hostile Humor generate recognitionand positive attitude towards advertisement and brand. Allusions have a greater effect on purchaseintention than the other ones. Results corroborate the effectiveness of humor as an advertisement tool.

  10. Humor intervention program for children with chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, In Ok

    2015-11-01

    This study developed and implemented a humor intervention program for school-aged children with chronic diseases. Thirty-three children with atopic dermatitis and type 1 diabetes were divided into experimental and control groups. The experimental group included 17 children while the control group included 16 children. The experimental group participated in 6 weekly sessions of a 60-minute humor intervention. The subject and type of humorous material was collected from a survey of parents and children. Outcome measures assessed pre- and post-intervention included stress, behavior profile scores, and resilience. There was a significant decrease in behavior problems and increase in resiliency in experimental group compared to control group. There was no difference in stress cortisol measures between the groups. This study was the first to examine a humor intervention for children with chronic diseases in South Korea and offers practical implications for humor interventions in pediatric nursing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Humor, laughter, and physical health: methodological issues and research findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, R A

    2001-07-01

    All published research examining effects of humor and laughter on physical health is reviewed. Potential causal mechanisms and methodological issues are discussed. Laboratory experiments have shown some effects of exposure to comedy on several components of immunity, although the findings are inconsistent and most of the studies have methodological problems. There is also some evidence of analgesic effects of exposure to comedy, although similar findings are obtained with negative emotions. Few significant correlations have been found between trait measures of humor and immunity, pain tolerance, or self-reported illness symptoms. There is also little evidence of stress-moderating effects of humor on physical health variables and no evidence of increased longevity with greater humor. More rigorous and theoretically informed research is needed before firm conclusions can be drawn about possible health benefits of humor and laughter.

  12. Co-operative Principle of Conversation and Humor in English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付岚

    2012-01-01

    Language humor is a usual phenomenon in human communication. It is an interdisciplinary subject connected with a wide range of learning. Up to now, a great deal of research has been done from the viewpoint of psychology and sociology. In the field of linguistics, some explorations have already been made in regard to its semantic and rhetorical aspects, but due attention has not been paid to it in pragmatics in that in everyday verbal communication, humorous utterances are easy to enjoy but hard to define. Apart from its capability of laughter-making, language humor is more often than not, produced to implicitly perform some communicative functions, not achievable by explicit expressions. This the - sis, based on the fruitful studies of humor, attempts to investigate the mechanisms of English humor from the perspective of a new theory 一 Co- operative Principle.

  13. Serum and Aqueous Humor Levels of Fetuin-A in Pseudoexfoliation Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Nilay; Takmaz, Tamer; Ozel Turkcu, Ummuhani; Ergin, Merve; Altinkaynak, Hasan; Bilgihan, Ayse

    2017-06-16

    To evaluate serum and aqueous humor levels of fetuin-A in patients with pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PEXS) in comparison with those of age- and sex-matched healthy subjects. This prospective study included 25 patients with PEXS and 25 control subjects who were undergoing cataract surgery without any systemic or ocular disease. Aqueous humor and serum fetuin-A levels were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. The mean age of the PEXS group (14 males, 11 females, n = 25) was 57.7 ± 6.9 years, and the control group (13 males, 12 females, n = 25) was 58.1 ± 5.7 years. There was no difference between the groups in terms of age (p = 0.77) and sex (p = 0.83). The mean serum fetuin-A level of the PEXS group did not differ from that of the control group (p = 0.53). The mean aqueous humor level of the PEXS group was significantly higher than that of the control group (p = 0.032). There were no significant correlations between aqueous humor and serum fetuin-A levels among patients with PEXS and control group (p > 0.05). Increased levels of fetuin-A in aqueous humor of patients with PEXS may show the local effect of fetuin-A on the anterior segment. With considering the wide range of possible biological functions of fetuin-A in the pathogenesis of PEXS, further studies are needed to clarify the clinical relevance of these findings.

  14. Neural circuit of verbal humor comprehension in schizophrenia - an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Przemysław; Wyczesany, Miroslaw; Domagalik, Aleksandra; Daren, Artur; Cepuch, Kamil; Błądziński, Piotr; Cechnicki, Andrzej; Marek, Tadeusz

    2017-01-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia exhibit problems with understanding the figurative meaning of language. This study evaluates neural correlates of diminished humor comprehension observed in schizophrenia. The study included chronic schizophrenia (SCH) outpatients (n = 20), and sex, age and education level matched healthy controls (n = 20). The fMRI punchline based humor comprehension task consisted of 60 stories of which 20 had funny, 20 nonsensical and 20 neutral (not funny) punchlines. After the punchlines were presented, the participants were asked to indicate whether the story was comprehensible and how funny it was. Three contrasts were analyzed in both groups reflecting stages of humor processing: abstract vs neutral stories - incongruity detection; funny vs abstract - incongruity resolution and elaboration; and funny vs neutral - complete humor processing. Additionally, parametric modulation analysis was performed using both subjective ratings separately. Between-group comparisons revealed that the SCH subjects had attenuated activation in the right posterior superior temporal gyrus (BA 41) in case of irresolvable incongruity processing of nonsensical puns; in the left dorsomedial middle and superior frontal gyri (BA 8/9) in case of incongruity resolution and elaboration processing of funny puns; and in the interhemispheric dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (BA 24) in case of complete processing of funny puns. Additionally, during comprehensibility ratings the SCH group showed a suppressed activity in the left dorsomedial middle and superior frontal gyri (BA 8/9) and revealed weaker activation during funniness ratings in the left dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (BA 24). Interestingly, these differences in the SCH group were accompanied behaviorally by a protraction of time in both types of rating responses and by indicating funny punchlines less comprehensible. Summarizing, our results indicate neural substrates of humor comprehension processing

  15. Dinâmicas sociais e estados de humor Social dynamics and mood states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Rebustini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar as relações das dinâmicas sociais (família, amigos e escola; i.e., três fatores sociais sobre os estados de humor. A pesquisa foi realizada com uma equipe feminina de voleibol (14/15 anos. Aplicou-se o teste POMS (Profile of Mood States para mensurar os estados de humor. Foi utilizada uma escala de 1 (muito mal a 5 (muito bem para que as atletas avaliassem cada um dos três fatores. Os resultados apontaram correlações significativas entre as escalas e os estados de humor; e diferenças significativas entre os níveis de intensidade apontados na escala dos três fatores e os estados de humor. Os resultados indicam clara interferência das dinâmicas sociais sobre os estados de humor, portanto, as interferências sociais não podem ser descartadas na preparação do atleta.The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of social dynamics (family, friends and school; i.e., three social factors on mood states. The survey was conducted with a women's volleyball team (14/15 years. The POMS test (Profile of Mood States was employed to measure the team's mood states. The athletes assessed the three factors by the use of a Likert scale ranging from 1 (very bad to 5 (very good. Results showed significant correlations between scales and mood states, and significant differences between the intensity levels representing their moods for each of the three factors. The results show clear interference of social dynamics on the mood states. Therefore, social interference cannot be ignored during an athlete's training program.

  16. Correlation of endothelin-1 concentration in aqueous humor with intraocular pressure in primary open angle and pseudoexfoliation glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choritz, Lars; Machert, Maren; Thieme, Hagen

    2012-10-23

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) has been found in elevated concentrations in the aqueous humor of glaucoma patients. Indirect evidence from animal studies suggests that ET-1 might directly influence intraocular pressure (IOP). The aim of this study was to determine whether ET-1 concentrations in aqueous humor of cataract and glaucoma patients correlate with IOP. Aqueous humor and blood samples from patients with either cataract (control, n = 38), primary open angle glaucoma (POAG, n = 35), or pseudoexfoliation glaucoma (PEXG, n = 21), without other ocular or systemic disease, were collected during routine cataract surgery or trabeculectomy. ET-1 concentration was determined by an ET-1 ELISA kit. IOP was measured preoperatively by standard Goldmann applanation tonometry. All statistical analysis was performed using commercial predictive analytics software. Both IOP and ET-1 concentration in aqueous humor were significantly increased in POAG (23.4 ± 6.8 mm Hg, 5.9 ± 2.9 pg/mL) and PEXG (24.3 ± 8.8 mm Hg, 7.7 ± 2.1 pg/mL) compared with control (15.0 ± 2.9 mm Hg, 4.3 ± 2.4 pg/mL). No difference was detected for plasma ET-1 concentrations. IOP and ET-1 in the aqueous humor were significantly correlated (R = 0.394, R² = 0.155, P < 0.001), although no correlation was found between IOP and ET-1 in blood plasma or between ET-1 in aqueous humor and ET-1 in plasma. In this study, a small but highly significant correlation between IOP and the ET-1 concentration in the aqueous humor was found. Although no causative relationship can be deduced from this, ocular ET-1 effects on IOP control may merit further investigation.

  17. Decreased humoral antibody episodes of acute renal allograft rejection in recipients expressing the HLA-DQβ1*0202 allele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannam, Venkat K R; Santos, Mark; Lewis, Robert E; Cruse, Julius M

    2012-10-01

    The present investigation was designed to show the effect of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II molecular allelic specificities in the recipient on the induction of humoral antibody rejection, identified by C4d peritubular capillary staining, as well as specific antibody identified by Luminex technology. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules are expressed on dendritic cells, macrophages, and B lymphocytes and they present antigenic peptides to CD4 positive T lymphocytes. Human renal peritubular and glomerular capillaries express class II MHC molecules upon activation. Expression of class II molecules on renal microvascular endothelial cells exposes them to possible interaction with specific circulating antibodies. We hypothesize that HLA-DQβ1*0202 expression in recipients decreases the likelihood of antibody-mediated renal allograft rejection. We found that 80% (=25) of DQ2 positive haplotype recipients failed to induce humoral antibody renal allograft rejection and 20% (n=25) of DQ2 positive haplotype recipients induced humoral antibody renal allograft rejection (p=0.008). By contrast, 48% (n=46) of DQ2 negative haplotype recipients failed to induce a humoral antibody component of renal allograft rejection and 52% (n=46) of DQ2 negative haplotype recipients induced humoral antibody-mediated renal allograft rejection. Our results suggest that recipients who express the DQβ1*0202 allele are less likely to induce a humoral antibody component of acute renal allograft rejection than are those expressing DQ1, DQ3, or DQ4 alleles. DQβ1*0202 allele expression in recipients could possibly be protective against acute humoral allograft rejection and might serve as a future criterion in recipient selection and in appropriate therapy for acute renal rejection episodes.

  18. Natural and Induced Humoral Responses to MUC1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mensdorff-Pouilly, Silvia von, E-mail: s.vonmensdorff@vumc.nl; Moreno, Maria [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, Amsterdam 1081 HV (Netherlands); Verheijen, René H. M. [Department of Woman & Baby, Division of Surgical & Oncological Gynaecology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, Utrecht 3508 GA (Netherlands)

    2011-07-29

    MUC1 is a membrane-tethered mucin expressed on the ductal cell surface of glandular epithelial cells. Loss of polarization, overexpression and aberrant glycosylation of MUC1 in mucosal inflammation and in adenocarcinomas induces humoral immune responses to the mucin. MUC1 IgG responses have been associated with a benefit in survival in patients with breast, lung, pancreatic, ovarian and gastric carcinomas. Antibodies bound to the mucin may curb tumor progression by restoring cell-cell interactions altered by tumor-associated MUC1, thus preventing metastatic dissemination, as well as counteracting the immune suppression exerted by the molecule. Furthermore, anti-MUC1 antibodies are capable of effecting tumor cell killing by antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Although cytotoxic T cells are indispensable to achieve anti-tumor responses in advanced disease, abs to tumor-associated antigens are ideally suited to address minimal residual disease and may be sufficient to exert adequate immune surveillance in an adjuvant setting, destroying tumor cells as they arise or maintaining occult disease in an equilibrium state. Initial evaluation of MUC1 peptide/glycopeptide mono and polyvalent vaccines has shown them to be immunogenic and safe; anti-tumor responses are scarce. Progress in carbohydrate synthesis has yielded a number of sophisticated substrates that include MUC1 glycopeptide epitopes that are at present in preclinical testing. Adjuvant vaccination with MUC1 glycopeptide polyvalent vaccines that induce strong humoral responses may prevent recurrence of disease in patients with early stage carcinomas. Furthermore, prophylactic immunotherapy targeting MUC1 may be a strategy to strengthen immune surveillance and prevent disease in subjects at hereditary high risk of breast, ovarian and colon cancer.

  19. Natural and Induced Humoral Responses to MUC1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Von Mensdorff-Pouilly

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available MUC1 is a membrane-tethered mucin expressed on the ductal cell surface of glandular epithelial cells. Loss of polarization, overexpression and aberrant glycosylation of MUC1 in mucosal inflammation and in adenocarcinomas induces humoral immune responses to the mucin. MUC1 IgG responses have been associated with a benefit in survival in patients with breast, lung, pancreatic, ovarian and gastric carcinomas. Antibodies bound to the mucin may curb tumor progression by restoring cell-cell interactions altered by tumor-associated MUC1, thus preventing metastatic dissemination, as well as counteracting the immune suppression exerted by the molecule. Furthermore, anti-MUC1 antibodies are capable of effecting tumor cell killing by antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Although cytotoxic T cells are indispensable to achieve anti-tumor responses in advanced disease, abs to tumor-associated antigens are ideally suited to address minimal residual disease and may be sufficient to exert adequate immune surveillance in an adjuvant setting, destroying tumor cells as they arise or maintaining occult disease in an equilibrium state. Initial evaluation of MUC1 peptide/glycopeptide mono and polyvalent vaccines has shown them to be immunogenic and safe; anti-tumor responses are scarce. Progress in carbohydrate synthesis has yielded a number of sophisticated substrates that include MUC1 glycopeptide epitopes that are at present in preclinical testing. Adjuvant vaccination with MUC1 glycopeptide polyvalent vaccines that induce strong humoral responses may prevent recurrence of disease in patients with early stage carcinomas. Furthermore, prophylactic immunotherapy targeting MUC1 may be a strategy to strengthen immune surveillance and prevent disease in subjects at hereditary high risk of breast, ovarian and colon cancer.

  20. Parasite-specific antibody profile in the aqueous humor of rabbits with ocular toxocariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Takashi; Ohta, Nobuo

    2010-06-01

    Human ocular toxocariasis is diagnosed using ophthalmologic and immunologic examinations. Many researchers have suggested that intraocular parasite-specific antibody levels are indicative of ocular toxocariasis, but little is known about the time course of the changes in these levels. We therefore investigated the anti-Toxocara canis antibody profile in the aqueous humor in an animal model of ocular toxocariasis. We intravitreally injected T. canis larvae into the right eye of 4 rabbits; 2 rabbits were orally administered T. canis eggs. We collected serum, aqueous humor, and tear samples weekly and determined the serum and aqueous humor levels of anti-T. canis immunoglobulin (Ig)G, IgA, IgM, and IgE antibodies and the tear IgG antibody level by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The severity of vitreous opacity and the aqueous humor IgG levels (measured using optical density [OD]) changed concordantly in the larvae-injected eyes; the OD exceeded 0.1 from 2-4 weeks after infection and remained elevated during active intraocular inflammation. However, the aqueous humor IgG levels were also elevated in 6 out of 8 eyes without intraocular larvae in both groups, and were low in 1 eye with live intravitreal larvae. In contrast, the serum IgG and IgM levels and the tear IgG levels increased in all rabbits, regardless of the presence of intraocular inflammation. Vitreous opacity occurred in all intravitreally infected eyes, but significant histopathological evidence of retinal damage was not detected. Thus, besides the presence of intraocular larvae, some other factors in the host may be required for the development of retinal lesions.

  1. Re-evaluation of bone pain in patients with type 1 Gaucher disease suggests that bone crises occur in small bones as well as long bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baris, Hagit N; Weisz Hubshman, Monika; Bar-Sever, Zvi; Kornreich, Liora; Shkalim Zemer, Vered; Cohen, Ian J

    2016-09-01

    Bone crises in type 1 Gaucher disease are reported in long bones and occasionally in weight bearing bones and other bones, but rarely in small bones of the hands and feet. We retrospectively examined the incidence of bone pain in patients followed at the Rabin Medical Center, Israel, before and following the initiation of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) and evaluated them for bone crises. Of 100 type I Gaucher disease patients, 30 (30%) experienced one or more bone crises. Small bone crises represented 31.5% of all bone crises and were always preceded by crises in other bones. While the incidence of long bone crises reduced after the initiation of ERT, small bone crises increased. Almost 60% of patients with bone crises were of the N370S/84GG genotype suggesting a greater susceptibility of N370S/84GG patients to severe bone complications. These patients also underwent the greatest number of splenectomies (70.6% of splenectomised patients). Splenectomised patients showed a trend towards increased long and small bone crises after surgery. Active investigation of acute pain in the hands and feet in patients in our cohort has revealed a high incidence of small bone crises. Physicians should consider imaging studies to investigate unexplained pain in these areas.

  2. Hipercalcemia humoral secundaria a carcinoma mixto de endometrio Humoral hypercalcemia in mixed endometrial carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Pinal-Fernández

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available La hipercalcemia secundaria a enfermedad neoplásica es una entidad frecuente causada en la mayor parte de los casos por secreción ectópica de PTHrp. A pesar de esto hay ciertos tumores, como los carcinomas uterinos, en donde este tipo de manifestación paraneoplásica está muy poco descrita. Presentamos un caso de hipercalcemia humoral en un carcinoma mixto de endometrio.Hypercalcemia secondary to neoplastic disease is a frequent entity caused in the majority of cases by ectopic secretions of PTHrP. Despite this there are certain tumours, such as uterine carcinomas, in which this type of paraneoplastic manifestation has been described very little. We present a case of humoral hypercalcemia in a mixed endometrial carcinoma.

  3. Hypnosis, suggestion, and suggestibility: an integrative model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Steven Jay; Laurence, Jean-Roch; Kirsch, Irving

    2015-01-01

    This article elucidates an integrative model of hypnosis that integrates social, cultural, cognitive, and neurophysiological variables at play both in and out of hypnosis and considers their dynamic interaction as determinants of the multifaceted experience of hypnosis. The roles of these variables are examined in the induction and suggestion stages of hypnosis, including how they are related to the experience of involuntariness, one of the hallmarks of hypnosis. It is suggested that studies of the modification of hypnotic suggestibility; cognitive flexibility; response sets and expectancies; the default-mode network; and the search for the neurophysiological correlates of hypnosis, more broadly, in conjunction with research on social psychological variables, hold much promise to further understanding of hypnosis.

  4. Efecto de un modelo de enseñanza utilizando el "Humor" y la "Simpatía" en el aprendizaje de conceptos de física

    OpenAIRE

    Dumois González, Martha

    2016-01-01

    The problem of academic achievement on the basic concepts of mechanical physics in the preparatory course of Introduction to Physics, and attitude of students to the course are the triggers for this study, on the development of a methodology, of teaching and learning using humor and sympathy as teaching tools. The hypothesis of this research suggests that the teaching model humorous constructivism increases the academic achievement of typical students of the course Introduction to Physics tha...

  5. Effect of Different Levels of Zinc on the Performance and Humoral Immunity Response in Broiler Chicken

    OpenAIRE

    S Sharbatdar; M Shamse Shargh; A Hesabi Namaghi; S. Hasani; R Hadadian

    2012-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of different levels of zinc on the performance and humoral immunity response in broiler chickens with 250 Ross broiler chickens with five experimental treatments consisted of five replicates in a completely randomized design. Treatments were diets containing: basal diet (control) and basal diet plus 40, 80, 120 and 160 mg Zn/kg. Results of the experiment indicated that birds were fed on diets containing 120 mg Zn/kg and control showed the ...

  6. Science For The Public: Collaboration and Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wargo, Richard

    2013-04-01

    The transformation of all things media and information into a dynamic environment of user access has created what seems infinite possibilities to inform the public in many different ways - as well as seemingly infinite possibilities to confuse. This talk will describe a rather non-conventional collaboration between two different creative cultures and its significance to maintaining scientific accuracy and devising strategies important to audience engagement - among them, humor. While focusing on the award-winning effort ``When Things Get Small'' created by University of California Television producer R. Wargo in collaboration with condensed matter physicist I.K. Schuller and actor Adam J. Smith, with both NSF and private support, the case study provides insight into a model and modes which can be used successfully by other scientists to engage the public in what they do.

  7. Evaluation of antibody responses in american visceral leishmaniasis by ELISA and immunoblot Avaliação da resposta imune humoral na leishmaniose visceral americana pelos métodos ELISA e "immunoblot"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas G. Evans

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL is an important disease among children of northeast Brazil. In order to characterize antibody responses during AVL, sera of hospitalized patients were analyzed by ELISA and Western blot using a Leishmania chagasi antigen preparation. The ELISA was positive (asorbance [greater than or equals to] 0.196 at a serum dilution of 1:1024 in all patients at presentation, and fell to ward control levels over the following year. Only one of 72 control subjects tested positive, and that donor had a sibling with AVL. Immunoblots of the patients' sera recognized multiple bands, the most frequent of which were at approximately 116 kDa, 70 kDa, and 26 kDa. Less frenquently observed were bands at approximately 93 kDa, 74 kDa, 62 kDa, 46 kDa and 32 kDa. The ELISA responses and patterns of banding were distinctive for AVL, and could be used to differentiate patients with AVL from those with Chagas' disease of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Sera from six AVL patients followed for up to six weeks after treatment identified no new bands. Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE of surface iodinated parasite proteins showed one major band and four minor bands, whereas SDS-PAGE of biotinylated prarasite proteins revealed a banding pattern similar to those of patient sera. AVL appears to produce characteristic immunoblot patterns which can be used along with a sensitive screening ELISA to diagnose AVL.A leishmaniose visceral americana é uma doença importante entre crianças do nordeste do Brasil. Com o objetivo de caracterizar a resposta imune humoral durante o curso da doença, foram analisados soros de pacientes hospitalizados, pelos métodos ELISA e Western blot, usando-se preparaçöes de antígenos de Leishmania donovani chagasi. O teste de ELISA foi positivo (absorbância > 0,196, numa diluiçäo de 1: 1024, em todos os pacientes no início da doença, diminuindo no decorrer do ano, para os níveis dos

  8. Humor e Discriminação por Orientação Sexual no Ambiente Organizacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio Arthur Reis Irigaray

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available To deal with multiple social manifestations in the organizational world, humor is an important form of communicating something, although not in an explicit way, smoothing critics and aggressions under the pretext of getting a laugh. In this paper we discuss humor as a form of manifesting discrimination of sexual orientation in the work place. Based on specialized literature about social, denotative and connotative functions of humor, and the insertion of female and male homosexuals in a professional atmosphere, we conducted a qualitative study with heterosexual and homosexual workers in companies located in the metropolitan regions of the cities of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo from 2005 through 2008 to obtain their life stories. The interviews were recorded and fully transcribed. They were then subjected to a French discourse analysis technique. The main results suggest that heterosexual humor about gays is explicit, and it seems to be socially legitimated because gays are funny. We also found surprising evidence that gays make jokes about themselves, confirming social stigma through laughs. The main conclusions discuss the need to put humor in a political context, as a form of communication in organizations, because one of its social functions is to aid the social processes of controlling and social discrimination.

  9. Overseas and Domestic Research Status of Analysis of Humor from the Perspective of Cooperative Principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹雨娟

    2016-01-01

    In Harvard University in 1967, an American linguistic philosopher, Grice, firstly put forward Cooperative Principle. From then on, overseas and domestic scholars began to pay much attention on CP, and analysis of humor from CP also became popular among researchers. The thesis reviews overseas and domestic research status of the research field from the violation of CP, in order to offer some constructive suggestions and research directions.

  10. Bromfenac ophthalmic solution 0.09 %: human aqueous humor concentration detected by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macrì, Angelo; Vagge, Aldo; Salis, Annalisa; Fucile, Carmen; Marini, Valeria; Martelli, Antonietta; Giuffrida, Sebastiano; Iester, Michele; Damonte, Gianluca; Mattioli, Francesca

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the aqueous humor concentrations of bromfenac ophthalmic solution 0.09 % in patients undergoing phacoemulsification. Patients requiring cataract extraction received one drop (50 µL) of bromfenac 0.09 % solution in the eye to be operated, before bedtime the day before surgery or the morning of the surgery. The last administration was recorded. At the time of paracentesis, an aqueous humor sample was collected with a 30-gauge needle attached to a TB syringe and was later analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography for drug concentration. 188 treated volunteers and 48 control, untreated, subjects were included in the study. The mean aqueous concentration of bromfenac in the treated group was 37.60 ± 68.86 and 0 nM (nmol/L) in the control group (p humor up to about 12 h after instillation.

  11. Fear versus humor: the impact of sensation seeking on physiological, cognitive, and emotional responses to antialcohol abuse messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moon J; Shin, Mija

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the differences in physiological, cognitive, and emotional responses to existing emotional antialcohol abuse advertisements (fear vs. humor appeal) between high and low sensation seekers. A 2 (Message Type) x 2 (Sensation-Seeking Tendency) x 4 (Message Repetition) mixed-model experiment with repeated measures was conducted with 71 college students. The results, based on self-reports, indicated that fear messages generated more interest and perceived danger of excessive drinking regardless of sensation-seeking tendency, whereas humorous messages were rated as more likeable than fear messages, and the difference was bigger among low sensation seekers than among high sensation seekers. One interesting finding was that for both fear and humor appeals, low sensation seekers showed greater emotional responses (greater corrugators activities and greater zygomatic activities) than high sensation seekers overall. The implications of the current study as well as suggestions for future study were discussed.

  12. Hypercalcaemia of malignancy: evidence for a nonparathyroid humoral agent with an effect on renal tubular handling of calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralston, S H; Fogelman, I; Gardner, M D; Dryburgh, F J; Cowan, R A; Boyle, I T

    1984-02-01

    The renal handling of calcium was examined in 31 patients with hypercalcaemia of malignancy. Results were compared with those from patients with primary hyperparathyroidism, and normal controls rendered hypercalcaemic by calcium infusion. On relating the urinary calcium excretion indices to serum calcium values, inappropriately low rates of urinary calcium excretion were generally found in patients with malignancy associated hypercalcaemia. Further, the pattern of urinary calcium excretion in these subjects was similar to that found in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. These observations suggest that, in many solid tumours, the development of hypercalcaemia may be attributable to a humoral mediator with a parathyroid hormone-like effect on renal tubular calcium reabsorption. The relatively frequent occurrence of hypercalcaemia in malignant disease thus may be partially explained by the presence of this humoral agent, which may impair the renal excretion of an increase in filtered calcium load, whether due to bone metastases, or humorally mediated osteolysis.

  13. Danish Humor in Cross-Cultural Professional Settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundquist, Lita Sander

    2014-01-01

    , with no limits or taboos. These characteristics of Danish humor are analyzed here using two different theoretical frameworks: linguistics – where an explanation is found in certain type-specific features of the Danish language, namely the dialogical particles typical of the Nordic languages in general...... welfare state. Work relationships in Denmark are based on a horizontal, flat structure with low power distance, a structure for which management researchers actually recommend the use of humor, irony and self-irony. Finally, the specificities of Danish humor are linked to a low degree of gelotophobia...

  14. Tipos de humor en la publicidad impresa en Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina María Cifuentes

    2005-01-01

    Una de las herramientas frecuentemente utilizadas por los publicistas para persuadir es el humor. De ahí el creciente interés por estudiar su influencia en el procesamiento, actitudes y comportamiento de los individuos. Se realizó una revisión de investigaciones sobre humor publicitario y sus efectos en la persuasión, atención, comprensión, actitudes y memoria, así como estudios sobre humor y factores culturales, de audiencia, medios masivos y tipos de producto. Se pre...

  15. Political humor as a confrontational tool against the syrian regime

    OpenAIRE

    Camps-Febrer, Blanca

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this working paper is to analyze the inclusion of political humor into the set of actions used by opponents to the Syrian regime during the first year of a state-wide uprising in 2011. The research ar-gues that although political humor has traditionally been seen mainly as a concealed voice against dominant elites, it can nevertheless take a confrontational stance and challenge a regime. In this paper we assess the role of political humor in challenging the legitimacy of the Syrian...

  16. Immunomodulatory activity of Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Salvia officinalis L. and Syzygium aromaticum L. essential oils: evidence for humor- and cell-mediated responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Fábio Ricardo; Schmidt, Gustavo; Romero, Adriano Lopez; Sartoretto, Juliano Luiz; Caparroz-Assef, Silvana Martins; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar Aparecida; Cuman, Roberto Kenji Nakamura

    2009-07-01

    The immunomodulatory effect of ginger, Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae), sage, Salvia officinalis (Lamiaceae) and clove, Syzygium aromaticum (Myrtaceae), essential oils were evaluated by studying humor- and cell-mediated immune responses. Essential oils were administered to mice (once a day, orally, for a week) previously immunized with sheep red blood cells (SRBCs). Clove essential oil increased the total white blood cell (WBC) count and enhanced the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response in mice. Moreover, it restored cellular and humoral immune responses in cyclophosphamide-immunosuppressed mice in a dose-dependent manner. Ginger essential oil recovered the humoral immune response in immunosuppressed mice. Contrary to the ginger essential oil response, sage essential oil did not show any immunomodulatory activity. Our findings establish that the immunostimulatory activity found in mice treated with clove essential oil is due to improvement in humor- and cell-mediated immune response mechanisms.

  17. [Determination of cytomegalovirus IgG synthesis by the albumin correction in the aqueous humor of posner-schlossmann syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X L; Wang, Z J; Tang, L; Cao, W W; Sun, X H

    2017-02-11

    Objective: To evaluate the usefulness of albumin correction in determination of cytomegalovirus IgG in the aqueous humor of Posner-Schlossman syndrome (PSS) patients. Methods: Cases series studies. Forty-two patients (26 men and 16 women) who were diagnosed as PSS were enrolled from Oct. 2009 to Oct. 2015 at the Eye and ENT Hospital. During the same period, 20 patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and 30 patients with bacterial endophthalmitis or retinal necrosis were enrolled as negative control group and inflammatory disease control group, respectively. Aqueous humor and serum samples were assayed to detect CMV IgG by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and albumin by scattering immunonephelometry. CMV DNA in aqueous humor was assayed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The ratio which was calculated as the (aqueous humor CMV IgG/serum CMV IgG)/(aqueous humor concentration of albumin/serum albumin concentration) over 0.6 was considered as intraocular antibody formation. Performance of differentiating control eyes from eyes with CMV-positive PSS was evaluated by the receiver operating characteristic curve. The ANOVA test, Mann-Whitney test and Chi-square test were performed to compare the differences among groups. Results: The detectable rate of CMV IgG antibody in the aqueous humor was 76.2%, 100.0% and 10.0% in PSS, inflammatory disease control and POAG groups, respectively. The levels of CMV IgG antibody in the PSS groups were significantly higher than that of POAG groups (Z=4.23, Phumor and serum albumin could effectively improve aqueous antibody specificity in PSS patients. Furthermore, CMV IgG antibody ratio combined with PCR could improve the sensitivity of CMV detection. All of which help clarify the CMV infection in PSS in CMV DNA negative eyes. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2017, 53: 104-108).

  18. Differential effects of self-esteem and interpersonal competence on humor styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCosker, Bernadette; Moran, Carmen C

    2012-01-01

    Background In contrast with an early implicit “facilitative hypothesis” of humor, a revised specificity hypothesis predicts that the benefits of humor depend on the specific style of humor used. Information on predictors of these humor styles in turn enhances the ability to predict the effect on well-being. Methods We examined the relationships between interpersonal competence, self-esteem, and different styles of humor, while also examining the contributions of age and gender. Participants (n = 201) aged 18–63 years completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory, the Interpersonal Competence Questionnaire, and the Humor Styles Questionnaire, and gave demographic information. Results High self-esteem was associated with higher use of affiliative, aggressive, and self-enhancing humor styles, but lower use of self-defeating humor. High interpersonal competence predicted greater use of affiliative humor, whereas low interpersonal competence predicted greater use of aggressive humor. Further analyses showed that initiation competence predicted affiliative humor (positively) but both initiation competence (positively) and conflict management competence (negatively) predicted aggressive humor. Conclusion The findings that both self-esteem and initiation competence contribute to use of aggressive humor add to knowledge of who is likely to use this potentially harmful humor style. We conclude that a readiness to initiate humorous interactions is not on its own a general and positive attribute contributing to “good” humor. PMID:23180973

  19. Exploratory Theoretical Tests of the Instructor Humor-Student Learning Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolkan, San; Goodboy, Alan K.

    2015-01-01

    Instructors' use of humor is generally a positive influence on student outcomes. However, examinations of humor have found that specific types of messages may not impact, or may even reverse, its positive effect. Instructional humor processing theory (IHPT) has been used to explain how humor impacts student learning. The current study sought to…

  20. The puzzle of joking: Disentangling the cognitive and affective components of humorous distraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strick, M.A.; Holland, R.W.; Baaren, R.B. van; Knippenberg, A.F.M. van

    2010-01-01

    Studies in cognitive psychology, marketing, and education indicate that humor distracts attention from non-humorous information presented at the same time. Two experiments investigated why humor distracts attention. The two basic components of humor comprise (1) incongruency resolution, which poses

  1. The effects of ochratoxin/aluminosilicate interaction on the tissues and humoral immune response of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santin, Elizabeth; Paulillo, Antonio C; Maiorka, Paulo C; Alessi, Antonio C; Krabbe, Everton L; Maiorka, Alex

    2002-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of dietary ochratoxin, in the presence or absence of aluminosilicate, on the histology of the bursa of Fabricius, liver and kidneys, and on the humoral immune response of broilers vaccinated against Newcastle disease virus. The exposure of birds to 2 p.p.m. ochratoxin, in the presence or absence of aluminosilicate, reduced their humoral immune response and the number of mitotic cells in the bursa. The relative weight of the livers of the birds exposed to this toxin was increased and, microscopically, there was hepatocyte vacuolation and megalocytosis with accompanying hyperplasia of the biliary epithelium. The kidneys showed hypertrophy of the renal proximal tubular epithelium, with thickening of the glomerular basement membrane. Aluminosilicate did not ameliorate the deleterious effects of the ochratoxin.

  2. PTX3, a humoral pattern recognition molecule at the interface between microbe and matrix recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlanda, Cecilia; Jaillon, Sebastien; Doni, Andrea; Bottazzi, Barbara; Mantovani, Alberto

    2016-02-01

    Innate immunity consists of a cellular and a humoral arm. PTX3 is a fluid patter recognition molecule (PRM) with antibody-like properties. Gene targeted mice and genetic associations in humans suggest that PTX3 plays a non-redundant role in resistance against selected pathogens (e.g. Aspergillus fumigatus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, uropathogenic Escherichia coli) and in the regulation of inflammation. PTX3 acts as an extrinsic oncosuppressor by taming complement elicited tumor-promoting inflammation. Recent results indicate that, by interacting with provisional matrix components, PTX3 contributes to the orchestration of tissue repair. An acidic pH sets PTX3 in a tissue repair mode, while retaining anti-microbial recognition. Based on these data and scattered information on humoral PRM and matrix components, we surmise that matrix and microbial recognition are related functions in evolution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Humoral hypercalcaemia of malignancy: metabolic and histomorphometric studies during surgical management of the primary tumour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralston, S H; Boyce, B F; Cowan, R A; Gardner, M D; Dryburgh, F J; Boyle, I T

    1986-03-01

    Several aspects of calcium metabolism were studied in five patients during the surgical exploration of malignant tumours associated with humorally-mediated hypercalcaemia. Before operation in all patients the renal tubular threshold for calcium reabsorption was raised and the threshold for renal tubular phosphate reabsorption depressed. On removal of the primary tumour in three cases, serum calcium returned to normal, renal calcium threshold fell, renal phosphate threshold rose, but urinary hydroxyproline excretion did not change. In two patients where the tumour proved inoperable, serum calcium remained elevated and no changes in renal calcium threshold or phosphate threshold occurred. Histomorphometry carried out on biopsy specimens from four patients showed normal bone resorption in three, and slightly increased resorption in one, without depression of osteoblastic bone formation. It is suggested that hypercalcaemia in these patients resulted mainly from an alteration in renal calcium threshold caused by a humoral substance released by tumour cells. Correction of hypercalcaemia on removal of the primary tumour was achieved rapidly and could be explained principally by a reduction in renal calcium threshold with increased loss of calcium into the urine. These data contrast with those of many previous studies which have emphasised the predominant role of accelerated osteoclastic bone resorption as the principal cause of hypercalcaemia in malignancy and suggest that a renal effect of the putative humoral agent may predominate in some cases.

  4. Assessing humoral and cell-mediated immune response in Hawaiian green turtles, Chelonia mydas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, T.M.; Balazs, G.H.; Rameyer, R.A.; Chang, S.P.; Berestecky, J.

    2000-01-01

    Seven immature green turtles, Chelonia mydas, captured from Kaneohe Bay on the island of Oahu were used to evaluate methods for assessing their immune response. Two turtles each were immunized intramuscularly with egg white lysozyme (EWL) in Freunda??s complete adjuvant, Gerbu, or ISA-70; a seventh turtle was immunized with saline only and served as a control. Humoral immune response was measured with an indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Cell-mediated immune response was measured using in vitro cell proliferation assays (CPA) using whole blood or peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBM) cultured with concanavalin A (ConA), phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), or soluble egg EWL antigen. All turtles, except for one immunized with Gerbu and the control, produced a detectable humoral immune response by 6 weeks which persisted for at least 14 weeks after a single immunization. All turtles produced an anamnestic humoral immune response after secondary immunization. Antigen specific cell-mediated immune response in PBM was seen in all turtles either after primary or secondary immunization, but it was not as consistent as humoral immune response; antigen specific cell-mediated immune response in whole blood was rarely seen. Mononuclear cells had significantly higher stimulation indices than whole blood regardless of adjuvant, however, results with whole blood had lower variability. Both Gerbu and ISA-70 appeared to potentiate the cell-mediated immune response when PBM or whole blood were cultured with PHA. This is the first time cell proliferation assays have been compared between whole blood and PBM for reptiles. This is also the first demonstration of antigen specific cell-mediated response in reptiles. Cell proliferation assays allowed us to evaluate the cell-mediated immune response of green turtles. However, CPA may be less reliable than ELISA for detecting antigen specific immune response. Either of the three adjuvants appears suitable to safely elicit a

  5. CODING LOGICAL MECHANISM AND STEREOTYPING IN GENDER CYBER HUMORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truly Almendo Pasaribu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Gender-related humors have their own way of being funny; and this research aims to find out how and why they are funny. For this purpose, both researchers have collected 50 gender cyber humors and analyzed them, first, to decode how their logical mechanism relates to specific linguistic features, and secondly, to uncover how gender stereotyping contributes to the comical effects. The twisting of logic and linguistic ambiguity is analyzed formally using Attardos (2001 General Theory of Verbal Humor (GTVH and supported by gender studies. The findings reveal that the logical mechanism consists of elements of incongruities, and gender stereotyping presents negative stereotypical images. The analysis further shows that some gender stereotypical images ridicule traditional roles of man and woman while others make fun of non-traditional representations. This shift from women only to both men and women as targets of gender humors has been an impact of effective feminist movements.

  6. Universalidad y variabilidad cultural de la risa y el humor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Jáuregui

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available La risa es un fenómeno aparentemente universal, pero el humor que la provoca muestra una variabilidad casi infinita. Este artículo trata de distinguir entre los aspectos universales de la risa y los que son culturalmente variables. Define la risa como una emoción básica del ser humano, provocada por un estímulo cognitivo que depende de definiciones sociales de la situación, lo cual explica al menos en parte su aparente heterogeneidad. Otros aspectos que también pueden variar son las normas y costumbres relativas a la expresión de la risa y del humor, los géneros humorísticos, las instituciones del humor y las definiciones culturales de la risa misma.

  7. La capacidad retorica del humor grafico: la columna grafica

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lemos-Alonso, Haizea

    2012-01-01

    .... En este estudio se plantea un exhaustivo analisis retorico del humor grafico que permita no solo definir su capacidad argumentativa, sino ubicar dicho producto dentro de los estudios tradicionales...

  8. Model performance evaluation (validation and calibration) in model-based studies of therapeutic interventions for cardiovascular diseases : a review and suggested reporting framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji Ali Afzali, Hossein; Gray, Jodi; Karnon, Jonathan

    2013-04-01

    Decision analytic models play an increasingly important role in the economic evaluation of health technologies. Given uncertainties around the assumptions used to develop such models, several guidelines have been published to identify and assess 'best practice' in the model development process, including general modelling approach (e.g., time horizon), model structure, input data and model performance evaluation. This paper focuses on model performance evaluation. In the absence of a sufficient level of detail around model performance evaluation, concerns regarding the accuracy of model outputs, and hence the credibility of such models, are frequently raised. Following presentation of its components, a review of the application and reporting of model performance evaluation is presented. Taking cardiovascular disease as an illustrative example, the review investigates the use of face validity, internal validity, external validity, and cross model validity. As a part of the performance evaluation process, model calibration is also discussed and its use in applied studies investigated. The review found that the application and reporting of model performance evaluation across 81 studies of treatment for cardiovascular disease was variable. Cross-model validation was reported in 55 % of the reviewed studies, though the level of detail provided varied considerably. We found that very few studies documented other types of validity, and only 6 % of the reviewed articles reported a calibration process. Considering the above findings, we propose a comprehensive model performance evaluation framework (checklist), informed by a review of best-practice guidelines. This framework provides a basis for more accurate and consistent documentation of model performance evaluation. This will improve the peer review process and the comparability of modelling studies. Recognising the fundamental role of decision analytic models in informing public funding decisions, the proposed

  9. How fun are your meetings? How and when humor patterns emerge and impact team performance.

    OpenAIRE

    Lehmann-Willenbrock, N.K.; Allen, J A

    2014-01-01

    Research on humor in organizations has rarely considered the social context in which humor occurs. One such social setting that most of us experience on a daily basis concerns the team context. Building on recent theorizing about the humor–performance link in teams, this study seeks to increase our understanding of the function and effects of humor in team interaction settings. We examined behavioral patterns of humor and laughter in real teams by videotaping and coding humor and laughter dur...

  10. Gastric cancer progression associated with local humoral immune responses

    OpenAIRE

    Yolanda, López-Vidal; Sergio, Ponce-de-León; Hugo, Esquivel-Solís; Isabel, Amieva-Fernández Rosa; Rafael, Barreto-Zúñiga; Aldo, Torre-Delgadillo; Gonzalo, Castillo-Rojas

    2015-01-01

    Background Although the association between H. pylori and gastric cancer has been well described, the alterations studies are scarce in the humoral immune response in specific anatomical areas of stomach and during the stages of gastric cancer. The aim in this study was to determine the influence of humoral immune responses against H. pylori infection on gastric carcinoma. Methods We selected 16 gastric cancer cases and approximately one matched control per case at the National Institute of M...

  11. Conversational Agents and the Construction of Humorous Acts

    OpenAIRE

    Nijholt, Anton; Nishida, Toyoaki

    2007-01-01

    In this chapter we discuss the generation of humorous acts by embodied agents. It is observed that in future interfaces that are meant to allow natural interaction, embodied agents can play useful roles. Humor plays an important role in human-human interaction and therefore it is useful to investigate how it should become part of the internal modeling of an embodied agent, along with intelligence and emotion modeling. Employment of embodied agents will also give rise to expectations concernin...

  12. Embodied Agents: A New Impetus to Humor Research

    OpenAIRE

    Stock, O.; Strapparava, C.; Nijholt, A.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we survey the role of humor in human-to-human interaction with the aim to see whether it is useful for embodied conversational agents to integrate humor capabilities in their internal model of intelligence, emotions and interaction (verbal and nonverbal) capabilities. For that reason we shortly survey the current state of the art of research in embodied conversational agents, affective computing and verbal and nonverbal interaction. We adhere to the ‘Computers Are Social Actors’...

  13. Humorous Names in the Light of Incongruity Theory

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The article addresses the humorous function of proper names in the light of incongruity theory. It aims at proving that, although names are often defined as pragmatically “transparent,” they may possess some humorous value due to semantic and pragmatic shifts resulting from the disturbance of ordinary patterns of proper names identification and interpretation. After a brief introduction, the author discusses different variants of incongruity theory as resented in the works by Victor Raskin an...

  14. Longitudinal Associations Between Humor Styles and Psychosocial Adjustment in Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Louise Fox

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the concurrent and prospective associations between psychosocial adjustment and four humor styles, two of which are adaptive (affiliative, self-enhancing and two maladaptive (aggressive, self-defeating. Participants were 1,234 adolescents (52% female aged 11-13 years, drawn from six secondary schools in England. Self-reports of psychosocial adjustment (loneliness, depressive symptomatology, and self-esteem and humor styles were collected at two time points (fall and summer. In cross-lagged panel analyses, self-defeating humor was associated with an increase in both depressive symptoms and loneliness, and with a decrease in self-esteem. In addition, depressive symptoms predicted an increase in the use of self-defeating humor over time, indicating that these may represent a problematic spiral of thoughts and behaviors. Self-esteem was associated with an increase in the use of affiliative humor over the school year but not vice-versa. These results inform our understanding of the ways in which humor is associated with psychosocial adjustment in adolescence.

  15. Humor, laughter, learning, and health! A brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Brandon M; Lujan, Heidi L; Thipparthi, Raghavendar R; DiCarlo, Stephen E

    2017-09-01

    Human emotions, such as anxiety, depression, fear, joy, and laughter, profoundly affect psychological and physiological processes. These emotions form a set of basic, evolved functions that are shared by all humans. Laughter is part of a universal language of basic emotions that all humans recognize. Health care providers and educators may utilize the power of laughter to improve health and enhance teaching and learning. This is an important consideration because teaching is not just about content: it is also about forming relationships and strengthening human connections. In this context, when used effectively, humor is documented to build relationships and enhance performance. Specifically, humor improves student performance by attracting and sustaining attention, reducing anxiety, enhancing participation, and increasing motivation. Moreover, humor stimulates multiple physiological systems that decrease levels of stress hormones, such as cortisol and epinephrine, and increase the activation of the mesolimbic dopaminergic reward system. To achieve these benefits, it is important to use humor that is relevant to the course content and not disparaging toward others. Self-effacing humor illustrates to students that the teacher is comfortable making mistakes and sharing these experiences with the classroom. In this brief review, we discuss the history and relationship between humor, laughing, learning, and health with an emphasis on the powerful, universal language of laughter. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Hipercalcemia humoral secundaria a carcinoma mixto de endometrio Humoral hypercalcemia in mixed endometrial carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    I. Pinal-Fernández

    2010-01-01

    La hipercalcemia secundaria a enfermedad neoplásica es una entidad frecuente causada en la mayor parte de los casos por secreción ectópica de PTHrp. A pesar de esto hay ciertos tumores, como los carcinomas uterinos, en donde este tipo de manifestación paraneoplásica está muy poco descrita. Presentamos un caso de hipercalcemia humoral en un carcinoma mixto de endometrio.Hypercalcemia secondary to neoplastic disease is a frequent entity caused in the majority of cases by ectopic secretions of P...

  17. The humor after of the humor: concepts around Pablo Holberg´s Eden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Turnes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of 21st century comics production in Argentina have experienced the emergence of new methods of publication, promotion and circulation consisting of a series of devices whose complex relationship has redefined the authorial figureas well as a new reading audience. The passage from the Internet and digital formats to the book has established itself as post-industrial strategy in the context of the reconstitution of a diverse comics field, where the national tradition of humor serves as example of the mentioned changes

  18. Humor styles and personality: A meta-analysis of the relation between humor styles and the Big Five personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendiburo-Seguel, Andrés; Páez, Darío; Martínez-Sánchez, Francisco

    2015-06-01

    This research summarizes the knowledge generated in social psychology and positive psychology about the relationship between humor styles, personality and wellbeing. Specifically, a meta-analysis was performed with the results of 15 studies on humor styles measured by the Humor Styles Questionnaire (Martin, Puhlik-Doris, Larsen, Gray & Weir, 2003) in correlation with the personality traits measured by the Big Five Personality model (measured with different scales). Following the steps presented by Rosenthal (1991) for meta-analysis in the case of correlational research, we calculated the total mean r as an indicator of effect size. Results show that affiliative humor has a strong and homogeneous relation to neuroticism and extraversion. The homogeneity and heterogeneity found between variables and possible explanations are discussed in the conclusion.

  19. Humorous "Era" stories from the Arilje region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Desanka P.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses humorous stories collected in the village of Brekovo near Arilje; the stories were created in the first half of the 20th century and noted down by Momčilo Jovanović, a villager from Brekovo. Later on, in the 1980's, the stories were passed down to the author of this paper. These narrations are mostly short stories and anecdotes; in a very realistic fashion, the stories depict life and culture of the Dinaric race from old Vlah - Zlatibor cultural area, namely, the type of person also known as "Era", well-known for its wittiness, smartness and wisdom. Based on the analysis of seven Era-stories, the author identified the social and cultural values highlighted in the stories (such as attitudes toward authorities intergenerational relationship, status of women, power relations between townsmen and peasants, propensity toward justice and truth. In summary, the stories document the mutual influence between traditional culture and the Era personality in this particular rural region; therefore, they could contribute to studies on character traits of the inhabitants in a given area of western Serbia.

  20. Convective transport resistance in the vitreous humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penkova, Anita; Sadhal, Satwindar; Ratanakijsuntorn, Komsan; Moats, Rex; Tang, Yang; Hughes, Patrick; Robinson, Michael; Lee, Susan

    2012-11-01

    It has been established by MRI visualization experiments that the convection of nanoparticles and large molecules with high rate of water flow in the vitreous humor will experience resistance, depending on the respective permeabilities of the injected solute. A set of experiments conducted with Gd-DTPA (Magnevist, Bayer AG, Leverkusen, Germany) and 30 nm gadolinium-based particles (Gado CELLTrackTM, Biopal, Worcester, MA) as MRI contrast agents showed that the degree of convective transport in this Darcy-type porous medium varies between the two solutes. These experiments consisted of injecting a mixture of the two (a 30 μl solution of 2% Magnevist and 1% nanoparticles) at the middle of the vitreous of an ex vivo whole bovine eye and subjecting the vitreous to water flow rate of 100 μl/min. The water (0.9% saline solution) was injected at the top of the eye, and was allowed to drain through small slits cut at the bottom of the eyeball. After 50 minutes of pumping, MRI images showed that the water flow carried the Gd-DTPA farther than the nanoparticles, even though the two solutes, being mixed, were subjected to the same convective flow conditions. We find that the convected solute lags the water flow, depending on the solute permeability. The usual convection term needs to be adjusted to allow for the filtration effect on the larger particles in the form (1- σ) u . ∇ c with important implications for the modeling of such systems.

  1. Whole vitreous humor dissection for vitreodynamic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murali, Karthik; Kashani, Amir H; Humayun, Mark S

    2015-05-24

    The authors propose an effective technique to isolate whole, intact vitreous core and cortex from post mortem enucleated porcine eyes. While previous studies have shown the results of such dissections, the detailed steps have not been described, precluding researchers outside the field from replicating their methods. Other studies harvest vitreous either through aspiration, which does not maintain the vitreous structure anatomy, or through partial dissection, which only isolates the vitreous core. The proposed method isolates the whole vitreous body, with the vitreous core and cortex intact, while maintaining vitreous anatomy and structural integrity. In this method, a full thickness scleral flap in an enucleated porcine eye is first created and through this, the choroid tissue can be separated from the sclera. The scleral flap is then expanded and the choroid is completely separated from the sclera. Finally the choroid-retina tissue is peeled off the vitreous to leave an isolated intact vitreous body. The proposed vitreous dissection technique can be used to study physical properties of the vitreous humor. In particular, this method has significance for experimental studies involving drug delivery, vitreo-retinal oxygen transport, and intraocular convection.

  2. Intrathecal Humoral Immunity to Encephalitic RNA Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia C. Bergmann

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The nervous system is the target for acute encephalitic viral infections, as well as a reservoir for persisting viruses. Intrathecal antibody (Ab synthesis is well documented in humans afflicted by infections associated with neurological complications, as well as the demyelinating disease, multiple sclerosis. This review focuses on the origin, recruitment, maintenance, and biological relevance of Ab-secreting cells (ASC found in the central nervous system (CNS following experimental neurotropic RNA virus infections. We will summarize evidence for a highly dynamic, evolving humoral response characterized by temporal alterations in B cell subsets, proliferation, and differentiation. Overall local Ab plays a beneficial role via complement-independent control of virus replication, although cross or self-reactive Ab to CNS antigens may contribute to immune-mediated pathogenesis during some infections. Importantly, protective Ab exert anti-viral activity not only by direct neutralization, but also by binding to cell surface-expressed viral glycoproteins. Ab engagement of viral glycoproteins blocks budding and mediates intracellular signaling leading to restored homeostatic and innate functions. The sustained Ab production by local ASC, as well as chemokines and cytokines associated with ASC recruitment and retention, are highlighted as critical components of immune control.

  3. Humoral pattern recognition and the complement system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degn, S E; Thiel, S

    2013-08-01

    In the context of immunity, pattern recognition is the art of discriminating friend from foe and innocuous from noxious. The basis of discrimination is the existence of evolutionarily conserved patterns on microorganisms, which are intrinsic to these microorganisms and necessary for their function and existence. Such immutable or slowly evolving patterns are ideal handles for recognition and have been targeted by early cellular immune defence mechanisms such as Toll-like receptors, NOD-like receptors, RIG-I-like receptors, C-type lectin receptors and by humoral defence mechanisms such as the complement system. Complement is a proteolytic cascade system comprising around 35 different soluble and membrane-bound proteins. It constitutes a central part of the innate immune system, mediating several major innate effector functions and modulating adaptive immune responses. The complement cascade proceeds via controlled, limited proteolysis and conformational changes of constituent proteins through three activation pathways: the classical pathway, the alternative pathway and the lectin pathway, which converge in common effector functions. Here, we review the nature of the pattern recognition molecules involved in complement activation, as well as their close relatives with no or unknown capacity for activating complement. We proceed to examine the composition of the pattern recognition complexes involved in complement activation, focusing on those of the lectin pathway, and arrive at a new model for their mechanism of operation, supported by recently emerging evidence.

  4. Study on the CE/EC Humorous Utterances Translation under the Skopos Theory%Study on the CE/EC Humorous Utterances Translation under the Skopos Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛昆

    2012-01-01

    This thesis takes the Skopos Theory which is the core of German functionalism as the breakthrough point. According to the general classification of humorous utterance, this thesis divides it into situational humor and language humor. This thesis aims to analyze the application of the Skopos Theory in the two classifications of humorous utterances translation from the two perspectives which are conformity and conflict between the source-te~tfunction and the target-text function.

  5. The German Version of the Humor Styles Questionnaire: Psychometric Properties and Overlap With Other Styles of Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruch, Willibald; Heintz, Sonja

    2016-08-01

    The Humor Styles Questionnaire (HSQ; Martin et al., 2003) is one of the most frequently used questionnaires in humor research and has been adapted to several languages. The HSQ measures four humor styles (affiliative, self-enhancing, aggressive, and self-defeating), which should be adaptive or potentially maladaptive to psychosocial well-being. The present study analyzes the internal consistency, factorial validity, and factorial invariance of the HSQ on the basis of several German-speaking samples combined (total N = 1,101). Separate analyses were conducted for gender (male/female), age groups (16-24, 25-35, >36 years old), and countries (Germany/Switzerland). Internal consistencies were good for the overall sample and the demographic subgroups (.80-.89), with lower values obtained for the aggressive scale (.66-.73). Principal components and confirmatory factor analyses mostly supported the four-factor structure of the HSQ. Weak factorial invariance was found across gender and age groups, while strong factorial invariance was supported across countries. Two subsamples also provided self-ratings on ten styles of humorous conduct (n = 344) and of eight comic styles (n = 285). The four HSQ scales showed small to large correlations to the styles of humorous conduct (-.54 to .65) and small to medium correlations to the comic styles (-.27 to .42). The HSQ shared on average 27.5-35.0% of the variance with the styles of humorous conduct and 13.0-15.0% of the variance with the comic styles. Thus-despite similar labels-these styles of humorous conduct and comic styles differed from the HSQ humor styles.

  6. Low-Level Evidence Suggests that Perceived Ability to Evaluate and Trust Online Health Information is Associated with Low Health Literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay Alcock

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To review, based on research evidence, the correlation between low health literacy and four outcomes of interest: (1 the ability to evaluate online health information based on (2 perceived reliability and accuracy, (3 trust in the Internet as an information source, and (4 the application of established evaluation criteria. Design – Systematic review and narrative synthesis. Setting –MEDLINE, PsycInfo, Web of Science, CINAHL, and Communication and Mass-media Complete as well as articles discovered through the snowball method. Subjects – 38 studies identified through a systematic literature search. Methods – An exhaustive list of potential articles was gathered through searching five online databases and Google Scholar, and hand searching of references. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied in a two-phase screening process in which two researchers participated to address reliability. Data, including study characteristics and metadata, predictors, assessment methods, and outcomes, were extracted from relevant studies, and then synthesized narratively. Main Results – Following duplication removal 13,632 records were retrieved, 254 of which were identified for full-text assessment. Thirty-eight studies met the eligibility criteria. All studies were non-experimental and therefore graded as a low level of evidence; 35 were cross-sectional designs, 1 a focus group, and 2 were observational studies. Studies varied widely in population definition and sample size and were published between 2001 and 2013, primarily in North America. Overall, a positive association was identified between health literacy and outcomes related to the ability to evaluate or trust Internet health information, while findings were inconsistent related to perceived quality of information and the application of evaluative criteria. Four studies examined the impact of health literacy levels on one or more of the outcomes of interest. The most prevalent

  7. The gender-differentiated antioxidant effects of a lutein-containing supplement in the aqueous humor of patients with senile cataracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Rijo; Hayashi, Shimmin; Arai, Kiyomi; Sakai, Miki; Okamoto, Hiroyuki; Chikuda, Makoto

    2014-12-01

    Antioxidant supplements are expected to decrease oxidative damage and prevent ocular diseases. In this study, changes in the anti-oxidative ability and oxidative status in the aqueous humor before and after intake of a lutein-containing supplement were measured. Forty patients who all had identical grades of cataracts in both eyes were included. The aqueous humor was collected as pre-intake samples during cataract surgery. Ocuvite + Lutein(Ⓡ), an antioxidant supplement, was administered orally beginning the day after surgery. Six weeks later, the aqueous humor was collected as a post-intake sample during cataract surgery of the opposite eye. To determine the anti-oxidative ability, the levels of superoxide (O2(*-)) scavenging activity were measured. To determine the oxidative status, the levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and total amount of hydroperoxides (TH, including H2O2 and peroxides of lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids) were measured. In post-intake samples, the O2(*-) scavenging activities were significantly higher in both genders (p humor in females only (r = 0.66 and p humor to prevent further oxidation of lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids, which was confirmed by the low levels of TH in post-intake samples. Antioxidant supplements are suggested to be effective in reducing oxidation in the aqueous humor by different mechanisms in both genders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Theories of Suggestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, W

    1928-02-01

    The word "suggestion" has been used in educational, scientific and medical literature in slightly different senses. In psychological medicine the use of suggestion has developed out of the earlier use of hypnotic influence.Charcot defined hypnosis as an artificial hysteria, Bernheim as an artificially increased suggestibility. The two definitions need to be combined to give an adequate account of hypnosis. Moreover, due allowance should be made for the factors of dissociation and of rapport in hypnotic phenomena.The relationships between dissociation, suggestibility, and hypnotizability.Theories of suggestion propounded by Pierre Janet, Freud, McDougall, Pawlow and others. Ernest Jones's theory of the nature of auto-suggestion. Janet explains suggestion in terms of ideo-motor action in which the suggested idea, because of the inactivity of competing ideas, produces its maximum effect. Freud explains rapport in terms of the sex instinct "inhibited in its aim" (transference) and brings in his distinction of "ego" and "ego-ideal" (or "super-ego") to supplement the theory. Jones explains auto-suggestion in terms of narcissism. McDougall explains hypnotic suggestion in terms of the instinct of self-abasement. But different instincts may supply the driving power to produce suggestion-effects in different circumstances. Such instincts as those of self-preservation (fear) and gregariousness may play their part. Auto-suggestion as a therapeutic factor is badly named. It supplements, but does not supplant the will, and makes complete volition possible.

  9. Pharmacokinetics of amikacin and chloramphenicol in the aqueous humor of rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayers, M; Rush, D; Madu, A; Motyl, M; Miller, M H

    1991-01-01

    Composite data describing ocular pharmacokinetics are unreliable because of intersubject variation. To address this problem, an animal model was developed in which multiple aqueous samples from single subjects were obtained. Following direct anterior chamber or intravenous administration of amikacin or chloramphenicol, pharmacokinetic analysis of drug concentrations in the serum and anterior chamber was performed by using a nonlinear least-squares regression program. The number of anterior chamber paracenteses performed did not alter the beta elimination rates or percent penetration into the anterior chamber. The aqueous humor and peripheral-compartment terminal slopes were identical. These data indicate that complete ocular concentration-time curves can be obtained without altering antibiotic pharmacokinetics. Following direct injection into the anterior chamber, the elimination rates for both antibiotics followed a one-compartment model, whereas those following intravenous administration best fit an open, first-order, two-compartment model. Following intravenous administration, the anterior chamber elimination rate constants for both drugs were equal to that of the serum and significantly longer than that following direct injection. The elimination rates of both drugs following direct injection were similar. Systemic administration resulted in drug levels in aqueous humor that persisted longer than those following direct injection. Chloramphenicol, a lipophilic compound, gave higher mean concentrations in aqueous humor than did amikacin. Our model provides a new approach which rigorously examines ocular pharmacokinetics and provides data which suggest that for selected compounds the parenteral route of administration is preferable. PMID:1952850

  10. An acidic microenvironment sets the humoral pattern recognition molecule PTX3 in a tissue repair mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doni, Andrea; Musso, Tiziana; Morone, Diego; Bastone, Antonio; Zambelli, Vanessa; Sironi, Marina; Castagnoli, Carlotta; Cambieri, Irene; Stravalaci, Matteo; Pasqualini, Fabio; Laface, Ilaria; Valentino, Sonia; Tartari, Silvia; Ponzetta, Andrea; Maina, Virginia; Barbieri, Silvia S; Tremoli, Elena; Catapano, Alberico L; Norata, Giuseppe D; Bottazzi, Barbara; Garlanda, Cecilia; Mantovani, Alberto

    2015-06-01

    Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is a fluid-phase pattern recognition molecule and a key component of the humoral arm of innate immunity. In four different models of tissue damage in mice, PTX3 deficiency was associated with increased fibrin deposition and persistence, and thicker clots, followed by increased collagen deposition, when compared with controls. Ptx3-deficient macrophages showed defective pericellular fibrinolysis in vitro. PTX3-bound fibrinogen/fibrin and plasminogen at acidic pH and increased plasmin-mediated fibrinolysis. The second exon-encoded N-terminal domain of PTX3 recapitulated the activity of the intact molecule. Thus, a prototypic component of humoral innate immunity, PTX3, plays a nonredundant role in the orchestration of tissue repair and remodeling. Tissue acidification resulting from metabolic adaptation during tissue repair sets PTX3 in a tissue remodeling and repair mode, suggesting that matrix and microbial recognition are common, ancestral features of the humoral arm of innate immunity. © 2015 Doni et al.

  11. Humoral and Cellular Immunity Changed after Traumatic Brain Injury in Human Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia-Wei; Li, Jin-Ping; Song, Ying-Lun; Zhao, Qi-Huang

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that there is a disproportionally higher risk of infection following traumatic brain injury (TBI). This predisposition to infection may be driven by a poorly understood, brain-specific response in the immune system after TBI. However, there is a lack of studies that have fully characterized TBI patients to understand the relationship between TBI and peripheral immune function. In the present study, markers for humoral immunity and cellular immunity were measured for up to 2 weeks in the peripheral blood of 37 patients with TBI in order to elucidate the time course and the type of the peripheral immune response following TBI. 12 relatively healthy individuals without TBI and other neurological diseases were enrolled into the control group. Our data indicated that TBI could induce significant changes in humoral immunity characterized by a decrease in IgG and IgM levels and an increase in the complements C3 and C4 levels in comparison with the control group. Moreover, compared with the control group, a significant reduction in peripheral blood CD3(+) and CD3(+)CD4(+) lymphocyte counts occurred early (days 1-3) following the onset of trauma. These results provide evidence that TBI is associated with substantial changes in humoral immunity and cellular immunity, which may explain the high incidence of infection encountered in these patients. © 2017 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  12. INFLUENCE OF Breg AND IL-10 UPON HUMORAL IMMUNE RESPONSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Gavrilova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available B regulatory cells (Bregs are shown to downregulate autoimmune and inflammation processes. Their modifying effects depend on IL-10 secretion. A role of Bregs in development of humoral immune response was not investigated. Influence of Bregs and IL-10 upon in vitro response of murine B1 and B2 cells to T-dependent and T-independent antigens was studied in a model system. A water-soluble sheep erythrocyte antigen was used as a T-dependent antigen, whereas LPS was applied as a type 1 T-independent antigen, and polyvinylpirrolidone and alpha(1→3dextran were added as type 2 T-independent antigens. В1and B2 lymphocytes were isolated from, respectively, peritoneal cavity and spleen of CBA mice. The cells were cultured in RPMI1640 medium with 10% of FCS supplemented with appropriate antigens and IL-10. The numbers of antibody- and total Ig-forming cells were determined by ELISPOT method.The erythrocyte antigen induced an increase of antibody- and total Ig-forming cell numbers in cultured B1 and B2 cell populations. IL-10 addition caused reduction of antibody- and total Ig-forming cells by 27%. Similarly, IL-10 caused a drop in antibody- and total Ig-forming cells in LPS-stimulated B2 cell cultures by 75%, as well as 50 per cent decrease in numbers of antibody-forming cells in B-1 cell cultures when induced by the type 2 T-independent antigens.To assess functional activity of Bregs, the cells were isolated from peritoneal cavity and spleen of CBA mice. Total yields of Bregs were 20-fold increased upon activation of B cells with LPS, ionomycin and phorbol ester (from 4% to 96%. IgM was the main immunoglobulin isotype secreted by the Bregs. 96% of activated Bregs produced IL-10. About 12% of the cells were shown to produce immunoglobulins. This finding suggests that some of Bregs synthesize both IL-10 and immunoglobulins.To study distant effect of Bregs upon immune response, the splenocyte culture of xid CBA/N mice were tested in Transwells with

  13. Humor as a Communication Strategy in Provider-Patient Communication in a Chronic Care Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöpf, Andrea C; Martin, Gillian S; Keating, Mary A

    2017-02-01

    Humor is a potential communication strategy to accomplish various and potentially conflicting consultation goals. We investigated humor use and its reception in diabetes consultations by analyzing how and why humor emerges and its impact on the interaction. We did this by using an interactional sociolinguistics approach. We recorded 50 consultations in an Irish diabetes setting. Analysis of the humor events drew on framework analysis and on concepts from Conversation Analysis and pragmatics. The study also comprised interviews using tape-assisted recall. We identified 10 humor functions and two umbrella functions. A key finding is that most humor is relationship-protecting humor initiated by patients, that is, they voice serious messages and deal with emotional issues through humor. Our findings imply that patients' and providers' awareness of indirect communication strategies needs to be increased. We also recommend that researchers employ varied methods to adequately capture the interactive nature of humor.

  14. The Use of Humor in Forensic Mental Health Staff-Patient Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, Lise; Alkier Gildberg, Frederik; Bradley, S. K.;

    2014-01-01

    Humor utilized in the practice of forensic mental health nursing might seem somehow inappropriate, given the serious circumstances surrounding most forensic mental health patients. However, some recent research has pointed to the use of humor as an important component in staff interactions...... with forensic mental health patients. This study reviews the existing international forensic mental health research literature on humor to investigate (a) what characterizes forensic mental health staff-patient use of humor and (b) what significance humor holds within the forensic mental health setting...... identified: (a) "humor as staff skill," showing that staff found humor to be important as an interpersonal ability; (b) "humor as a relational tool" with the purpose of establishing and maintaining staff-patient interactions; and (c) "the impact of humor on patients," describing impacts on conflicts...

  15. Deregulation of the humoral immune response of the oyster (Crassostrea corteziensis exposed to naphthalene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KJG Díaz-Resendiz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Naphthalene is one of the most abundant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH in aquatic ecosystems, and it can cause alterations in the immune system of organisms that live there. The oyster Crassostrea corteziensis is a species native to the Eastern Tropical Pacific, with economic and ecological importance. In this study, we evaluated the effect of subacute exposure to sublethal concentrations of naphthalene on the parameters of the humoral immune response (lysozyme and phenoloxidase activity, and nitric oxide production on the oyster C. corteziensis. The results indicated that naphthalene, under the conditions tested, significantly deregulated the parameters evaluated. This could increase susceptibility to infections and therefore affect oyster production.

  16. Suggested safeguards an

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MJM Venter

    ... COORDINATION. (FACILITATION OR CASE MANAGEMENT) IN SOUTH AFRICA ... SUGGESTED SAFEGUARDS AND LIMITATIONS FOR EFFECTIVE AND .... professional practice.27 They have to assess the situation; educate the parents.

  17. Manufacturer's Suggested Retail Prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenkranz, S.

    2003-01-01

    Based on arguments of the `reference- dependent' theory of consumer choice we assume that a retailer's discount of a manufacturer's suggested retail price changes consumers' demand. We can show that the producer benefits from suggesting a retail price. If consumers are additionally sufficiently `los

  18. A Study of Humor in Lost in Thailand from the Perspective of Presupposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洁

    2014-01-01

    Humor study enjoys a long history with a variety of theories and methods. Among them, the pragmatic approach is a relatively new and vigorous perspective. Scholars have adopted the cooperative principle and relevance theory to explain humor. However, as to studying humor from the perspective of pragmatic presupposition, very few researches have been done in this regard. Such being the case, this paper will use presupposition as a tool to analyze humor in Lost in Thailand which is a sensational comedy in China. By analyzing cases from this film, the paper aims to explore how presupposition functions in the production of humorous effect, and to provide some new insights into humor study.

  19. An Analysis of Verbal Humor in American Sitcom The Big Bang Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴珍; 芮艳芳

    2015-01-01

    Humor plays an indispensable part in human communication. This thesis is a tentative analysis of verbal humor under-standing within the framework of Relevance Theory. This paper, using The Big Bang Theory as a corpus, analyzes the humor gener-ated in the cognitive process of searching for relevance. According to the Relevance Theory, the understanding of humor is a pro-cess in which the hearer finds"relevance"in what seems"irrelevant". The author hopes that this analysis can help more people un-derstand and appreciate the humor in The Big Bang Theory. And meanwhile their personal sense of humor can also be improved.

  20. Land drainage system detection using IR and visual imagery taken from autonomous mapping airship and evaluation of physical and spatial parameters of suggested method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koska, Bronislav; Křemen, Tomáš; Štroner, Martin; Pospíšil, Jiří; Jirka, Vladimír.

    2014-10-01

    An experimental approach to the land drainage system detection and its physical and spatial parameters evaluation by the form of pilot project is presented in this paper. The novelty of the approach is partly based on using of unique unmanned aerial vehicle - airship with some specific properties. The most important parameters are carrying capacity (15 kg) and long flight time (3 hours). A special instrumentation was installed for physical characteristic testing in the locality too. The most important is 30 meter high mast with 3 meter length bracket at the top with sensors recording absolute and comparative temperature, humidity and wind speed and direction in several heights of the mast. There were also installed several measuring units recording local condition in the area. Recorded data were compared with IR images taken from airship platform. The locality is situated around village Domanín in the Czech Republic and has size about 1.8 x 1.5 km. There was build a land drainage system during the 70-ties of the last century which is made from burnt ceramic blocks placed about 70 cm below surface. The project documentation of the land drainage system exists but real state surveying haveńt been never realized. The aim of the project was land surveying of land drainage system based on infrared, visual and its combination high resolution orthophotos (10 cm for VIS and 30 cm for IR) and spatial and physical parameters evaluation of the presented procedure. The orthophoto in VIS and IR spectrum and its combination seems to be suitable for the task.

  1. Does Humor Explain Why Relationally Aggressive Adolescents Are Popular?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, Julie C.; Etkin, Rebecca G.

    2013-01-01

    The association between relational aggression and popularity during early adolescence is well established. Yet, little is known about why, exactly, relationally aggressive young adolescents are able to achieve and maintain high popular status among peers. The present study investigated the mediating role of humor in the association between relational aggression and popularity during early adolescence. Also considered was whether the association between relational aggression and humor varies according to adolescents’ gender and their friends’ levels of relational aggression. Participants were 265 sixth-grade students (48% female; 41% racial/ethnic minority; Mage = 12.04 years) who completed peer nomination and friendship measures in their classrooms at two time points (Wave 1: February; Wave 2: May). The results indicated that Wave 1 relational aggression was related to Wave 1 and 2 popularity indirectly through Wave 1 humor, after accounting for the effects of Wave 1 physical aggression, ethnicity, and gender. Additional analyses showed that relational aggression and humor were related significantly only for boys and for young adolescents with highly relationally aggressive friends. The results support the need for further research on humor and aggression during early adolescence and other mechanisms by which relationally aggressive youth achieve high popular status. PMID:24136377

  2. Research Suggestions for Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, John L.

    1974-01-01

    Describes how to perform accurate research. Also includes suggestions for specific research projects under such headings as: (1) types; (2) environments; (3) interactions; (4) classification; (5) hexagonal model; and (6) differentiation. (HMV)

  3. Open to Suggestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Reading, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Contributors offer suggestions concerning parents as reading stimulators, book discussions, a test bank for the secondary school/college reading lab, standardized reading tests, television reading, plagiarism, vocabulary development, and book reports. (FL)

  4. Evaluation of the safety of ancient strains of wheat in coeliac disease reveals heterogeneous small intestinal T cell responses suggestive of coeliac toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šuligoj, Tanja; Gregorini, Armando; Colomba, Mariastella; Ellis, H Julia; Ciclitira, Paul J

    2013-12-01

    Coeliac disease is a chronic small intestinal immune-mediated enteropathy triggered by dietary gluten in genetically predisposed individuals. Since it is unknown if all wheat varieties are equally toxic to coeliac patients seven Triticum accessions showing different origin (ancient/modern) and ploidy (di-, tetra- hexaploid) were studied. Selected strains of wheat were ancient Triticum monococcum precoce (AA genome) and Triticum speltoides (BB genome), accessions of Triticum turgidum durum (AABB genome) including two ancient (Graziella Ra and Kamut) and two modern (Senatore Cappelli and Svevo) durum strains of wheat and Triticum aestivum compactum (AABBDD genome). Small intestinal gluten-specific T-cell lines generated from 13 coeliac patients were tested with wheat accessions by proliferation assays. All strains of wheat independent of ploidy or ancient/modern origin triggered heterogeneous responses covering wide ranges of stimulation indices. Ancient strains of wheat, although previously suggested to be low or devoid of coeliac toxicity, should be tested for immunogenicity using gluten-specific T-cell lines from multiple coeliac patients rather than gluten-specific clones to assess their potential toxicity. Our findings provide further evidence for the need for a strict gluten-free diet in coeliac patients, including avoidance of ancient strains of wheat. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  5. 对新《医院财务制度》的评价及建议%Evaluation and Suggestion about the New Hospital Financial System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    芮清; 宜静; 李国栋

    2012-01-01

    The new Hospital Financial System adapted the needs of socialist market economy and the development of medical and health services. It has overcome many disadvantages of the old one, strengthened the financial supervision and cost accounting, and improved the effectiveness of financial data. The new Hospital Financial System yet has some obvious shortcomings in cost management and income distribution. The paper suggests that the hospital financial system should be improved through hospital financial target, budgetary management, cost accounting recognition and the design of the financial analysis indicator system.%新适应社会主义市场经济和医疗卫生事业发展的需要,克服了旧制度的诸多弊端,加强了财务监督和成本核算,提高了财务数据的有效性.但在成本管理和收入分配上还存在明显不足.建议从医院财务目标、预算管理、成本核算口径和财务分析指标体系设计等方面进一步完善医院财务制度.

  6. Differential effects of self-esteem and interpersonal competence on humor styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCosker B

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Bernadette McCosker, Carmen C MoranSchool of Psychology, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, NSW, AustraliaBackground: In contrast with an early implicit “facilitative hypothesis” of humor, a revised specificity hypothesis predicts that the benefits of humor depend on the specific style of humor used. Information on predictors of these humor styles in turn enhances the ability to predict the effect on well-being.Methods: We examined the relationships between interpersonal competence, self-esteem, and different styles of humor, while also examining the contributions of age and gender. Participants (n = 201 aged 18–63 years completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory, the Interpersonal Competence Questionnaire, and the Humor Styles Questionnaire, and gave demographic information.Results: High self-esteem was associated with higher use of affiliative, aggressive, and self-enhancing humor styles, but lower use of self-defeating humor. High interpersonal competence predicted greater use of affiliative humor, whereas low interpersonal competence predicted greater use of aggressive humor. Further analyses showed that initiation competence predicted affiliative humor (positively but both initiation competence (positively and conflict management competence (negatively predicted aggressive humor.Conclusion: The findings that both self-esteem and initiation competence contribute to use of aggressive humor add to knowledge of who is likely to use this potentially harmful humor style. We conclude that a readiness to initiate humorous interactions is not on its own a general and positive attribute contributing to “good” humor.Keywords: self-esteem, interpersonal competence, humor styles, differential effects

  7. Humoral immunity links Candida albicans infection and celiac disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Corouge

    Full Text Available The protein Hwp1, expressed on the pathogenic phase of Candida albicans, presents sequence analogy with the gluten protein gliadin and is also a substrate for transglutaminase. This had led to the suggestion that C. albicans infection (CI may be a triggering factor for Celiac disease (CeD onset. We investigated cross-immune reactivity between CeD and CI.Serum IgG levels against recombinant Hwp1 and serological markers of CeD were measured in 87 CeD patients, 41 CI patients, and 98 healthy controls (HC. IgA and IgG were also measured in 20 individuals from each of these groups using microchips sensitized with 38 peptides designed from the N-terminal of Hwp1.CI and CeD patients had higher levels of anti-Hwp1 (p=0.0005 and p=0.004 and anti-gliadin (p=0.002 and p=0.0009 antibodies than HC but there was no significant difference between CeD and CI patients. CeD and CI patients had higher levels of anti-transglutaminase IgA than HC (p=0.0001 and p=0.0039. During CI, the increase in anti-Hwp1 paralleled the increase in anti-gliadin antibodies. Microchip analysis showed that CeD patients were more reactive against some Hwp1 peptides than CI patients, and that some deamidated peptides were more reactive than their native analogs. Binding of IgG from CeD patients to Hwp1 peptides was inhibited by γIII gliadin peptides.Humoral cross-reactivity between Hwp1 and gliadin was observed during CeD and CI. Increased reactivity to Hwp1 deamidated peptide suggests that transglutaminase is involved in this interplay. These results support the hypothesis that CI may trigger CeD onset in genetically-susceptible individuals.

  8. The Use of Humor in Serious Mental Illness: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Gelkopf

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is now a relatively good understanding of the broad range of direct and indirect effects of humor and laughter on perceptions, attitudes, judgments and emotions, which can potentially benefit the physical and psychological state. This article presents a review and discussion of the use of humor and laughter in treating people with serious mental illness, distinguishing between clinical papers on individual and group psychotherapy, and empirical research reports describing humor and laughter interventions. In spite of the exponential growth of the field over the last 30 years, I conclude that empirical studies are still lacking, the studies that do exist have major methodological shortcomings, and the field is in dire need of further investigation.

  9. The Use of Humor in Serious Mental Illness: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelkopf, Marc

    2011-01-01

    There is now a relatively good understanding of the broad range of direct and indirect effects of humor and laughter on perceptions, attitudes, judgments and emotions, which can potentially benefit the physical and psychological state. This article presents a review and discussion of the use of humor and laughter in treating people with serious mental illness, distinguishing between clinical papers on individual and group psychotherapy, and empirical research reports describing humor and laughter interventions. In spite of the exponential growth of the field over the last 30 years, I conclude that empirical studies are still lacking, the studies that do exist have major methodological shortcomings, and the field is in dire need of further investigation. PMID:19687190

  10. Using humor in systematic desensitization to reduce fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventis, W L; Higbee, G; Murdock, S A

    2001-04-01

    Effectiveness of systematic desensitization for fear reduction, using humorous hierarchy scenes without relaxation, was tested. Participants were 40 students highly fearful of spiders. Using a 24-item behavioral approach test with an American tarantula, participants were matched on fear level and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups: (a) systematic desensitization, (b) humor desensitization, and (c) untreated controls. Each participant was seen for 6 sessions, including pretest and posttest. Analyses of covariance of posttest scores revealed that the 2 treatment groups showed greater reduction in fear than the controls on 3 measures but did not differ from each other. Therefore, humor in systematic desensitization reduced fear as effectively as more traditional desensitization. This finding may have therapeutic applications; however, it may also be applicable in advertising to desensitize fear of a dangerous product, such as cigarettes.

  11. Was that really funny? The politics of humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, M M

    1995-07-01

    Everybody loves a comic--or do they? A Human Resources Department picked up a pattern when several departing employees, all excellent performers, said they liked their jobs but felt "excluded" from the camaraderie. One said he'd found the humor "barbed." Another said she's never seen anything funny in jokes that seemed to convulse everyone else. The past five years have been so gloomy, economically speaking, that, in many hospitals and health care organizations, laughter is a mega-event. But lately I've been listening to what employees joke about and watching how their humor affects others. Physician executives need to be alert to some kinds of humor that are weapons used by employees against other employees, their managers, and the company generally.

  12. VIOLENCE DRESSED IN HUMOR: COMEDIC VIOLENCE IN ADVERTISING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia Gradinaru

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the concepts of humor and violence and their complex relationships contextualised in the advertising domain. Thus, the main theories of humor and the most important elements from media violence paradigms are critically pointed out. The effects of comedic violence in advertising may be positive (great involvement with the ad message, retention of brand information, higher pass-along probability, and also negative (offending the audience, desensitization, damaging the reputation and the brand equity. A lot of factors change the perception of comedic violent ads (gender, social norm beliefs etc., so that a multidimensional analysis of consumer perceptions is needed if we want to draw a more accurate picture of this phenomenon. The analysis of the specific ad that I developed in the second part of this paper showed clearly the interplay between perceived humor and perceived violence and also the relevance of the cultural background in its interpretation.

  13. Analysis on the Humor and Irony in Pride and Prejudice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓越

    2016-01-01

    Pride and Prejudice, published in 1813, is the most influential work of British female writer Jane Austen (1775-1817). By analyzing Jane Austen's representative novel, Pride and Prejudice, we are convinced by the excellent humor and irony used in it. Irony in Pride and Prejudice is mainly embodied in Austen's verbal irony, situational irony and dramatic irony. Under the perspective of stylistics, this paper analyzes dialogues, descriptive and commentary language and the arrangement of the whole plots of Austen's Pride and Prejudice to show how the different tones of humor and irony are reflected in the novel. This paper also focuses on the significance in portraying the characteristics of the roles and theme performance of humor and irony used in Pride and Prejudice, which help us to appreciate the satire literature.

  14. Reconsidering language teaching through a focus on humor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Bell

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Formal language education is often predicated on a series of modernist fictions that greatly simplify the nature of language and the process of communication. Acts of linguistic creativity involving humor and language play are frequently either ignored or considered deviant. In this paper, we contribute to ongoing efforts to re-conceptualize language education in ways that make use of more robust (and less modernist theories of language and communication. We revisit calls for more pedagogical focus on humor and language play and illustrate how more attention to these types of language might help us to move away from some of the classroom fictions that currently constrain teachers and learners alike. Specifically, we present recent conceptions of language and of communication, and discuss how, in light of these, humor and language play can be used to increase learners’ metalinguistic awareness and expand their communicative/interpretive repertoires.

  15. Validation of the Humor Style Questionnaire with university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Cassaretto B.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study validates the Humor Style Questionnaire in a group of 315 university students of both genders from Lima, Peru, with an average age of 19,7. The Humor Style Questionnaire (HSQ by Martin, Puhlik-Doris, Larsen, Gray & Weir (2003, the Psychological Well-Being Scale (BIEPS-A by Casullo (2002 and the Hope Scale by Herth (1991 were used. After the neutralization of four items, results show reliability coefficients between 0,64 to 0,78 and a factorial structure confirming the existence of four factors (42,94% of the total variance.Results show positive associations between psychological well-being and hope with affiliation and self-enhancing styles, and negative associations between aggression and self-defeating humor. Results support the convergence validity and the construct of the scale.

  16. Erotismo, sexualidad y humor en las danzas del altiplano boliviano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveline Sigl

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo analiza la importancia del erotismo, la sexualidad y el humor en las danzas del altiplano boliviano. Demuestra que estos elementos performativos no solo están fuertemente interconectados, sino también íntimamente ligados a la sacralidad andina. La primera parte del texto está dedicada a los componentes humorísticos y lúdicos del enamoramiento mediante la danza, postulando que humor y alegría forman parte del “erotismo andino”. Mientras tanto, la segunda parte estudia el “transformismo ritual andino”, que consiste en presentaciones dancísticas sumamente jocosas y fuertemente sexuadas a cargo de hombres hetero y homosexuales disfrazados de mujer.

  17. A study on verbal humor in The Big Bang Theory from the perspective of relevance theory%从关联理论视角解读《生活大爆炸》中的言语幽默

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丽玉

    2013-01-01

    本文运用关联理论解读美国情景喜剧《生活大爆炸》中的幽默对白,探讨言语幽默的产生机制,以期更好地理解和欣赏言语幽默。%The present paper aims to study verbal humor in the American sitcom The Big Bang Theory from a perspective of Relevance Theory with a purpose of summarizing the generating mechanism of verbal humor and providing suggestions for better appreciation of verbal humor.

  18. Attitudes to Suggestions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PETER; JOHNSON

    2007-01-01

    As an Australian expat teaching English in China for over four years, I often encourage my students to not only learn the English language but also try to understand Western culture. This includes the fact that Westerners frequently initiate proactive suggestions on any aspects of soci-

  19. Validation of the Humor Style Questionnaire with university students

    OpenAIRE

    Mónica Cassaretto B.; Patricia Martínez U.

    2009-01-01

    This study validates the Humor Style Questionnaire in a group of 315 university students of both genders from Lima, Peru, with an average age of 19,7. The Humor Style Questionnaire (HSQ) by Martin, Puhlik-Doris, Larsen, Gray & Weir (2003), the Psychological Well-Being Scale (BIEPS-A) by Casullo (2002) and the Hope Scale by Herth (1991) were used. After the neutralization of four items, results show reliability coefficients between 0,64 to 0,78 and a factorial structure confirming the exis...

  20. Humor e Shoah: O trem da vida, de Radu Mihaileanu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyslei Nascimento

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Um vilarejo da Ucrânia, na Europa Oriental, no ano de 1941, é o cenário do filme O trem da vida, do diretor romeno Radu Mihaileanu. O roteiro, ao se afastar de dados históricos e de uma configuração realista da Shoah, configura-­se como uma fábula. Não é fácil fazer humor, muito menos, sobre a catástrofe. O humor presente no filme de Mihaileanu é reflexivo, expondo, com leveza, as fraturas do discurso.

  1. [Neuropsychology of humor: an introduction Part 1. Psychological data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derouesné, Christian

    2016-03-01

    Humor is, from a psychological point of view, a complex process involving cognitive, affective, interspersonal and social elements in a interpersonal context. Its cognitive core is based on the perception of incongruity between two related inconsistent or contradictory mental representations. The total or partial resolution of incongruity in a playful frame is associated with a specific positive emotion, which characteristics and intensity are determined by the structure of the humoristic stimulus more than its content, and the personal and social contexts. Main theories of humor are reviewed as well as its development, its cognitive and affective correlates, and the influence of genre, age and personality.

  2. Humoral Dysregulation Associated with Increased Systemic Inflammation among Injection Heroin Users.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S Piepenbrink

    Full Text Available Injection drug use is a growing major public health concern. Injection drug users (IDUs have a higher incidence of co-morbidities including HIV, Hepatitis, and other infections. An effective humoral response is critical for optimal homeostasis and protection from infection; however, the impact of injection heroin use on humoral immunity is poorly understood. We hypothesized that IDUs have altered B cell and antibody profiles.A comprehensive systems biology-based cross-sectional assessment of 130 peripheral blood B cell flow cytometry- and plasma- based features was performed on HIV-/Hepatitis C-, active heroin IDUs who participated in a syringe exchange program (n = 19 and healthy control subjects (n = 19. The IDU group had substantial polydrug use, with 89% reporting cocaine injection within the preceding month. IDUs exhibited a significant, 2-fold increase in total B cells compared to healthy subjects, which was associated with increased activated B cell subsets. Although plasma total IgG titers were similar between groups, IDUs had significantly higher IgG3 and IgG4, suggestive of chronic B cell activation. Total IgM was also increased in IDUs, as well as HIV Envelope-specific IgM, suggestive of increased HIV exposure. IDUs exhibited numerous features suggestive of systemic inflammation, including significantly increased plasma sCD40L, TNF-α, TGF-α, IL-8, and ceramide metabolites. Machine learning multivariate analysis distilled a set of 10 features that classified samples based on group with absolute accuracy.These results demonstrate broad alterations in the steady-state humoral profile of IDUs that are associated with increased systemic inflammation. Such dysregulation may impact the ability of IDUs to generate optimal responses to vaccination and infection, or lead to increased risk for inflammation-related co-morbidities, and should be considered when developing immune-based interventions for this growing population.

  3. Impairment of the humoral and CD4(+) T cell responses in HTLV-1-infected individuals immunized with tetanus toxoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Anselmo; Santos, Silvane; Carvalho, Lucas P; Grassi, Maria Fernanda R; Carvalho, Edgar M

    2016-08-01

    T cells from HTLV-1-infected individuals have a decreased ability to proliferate after stimulation with recall antigens. This abnormality may be due to the production of regulatory cytokine or a dysfunctional antigen presentation. The aims of this study were to evaluate the antibody production and cytokine expression by lymphocytes before and after immunization with tetanus toxoid (TT) and to evaluate the immune response of monocytes after stimulation with TT and frequency of dendritic cells (DC) subsets. HTLV-1 carriers (HC) and uninfected controls (UC) with negative serology for TT were immunized with TT, and the antibody titers were determined by ELISA as well as the cell activation markers expression by monocytes. The frequencies of DC subsets were determined by flow cytometry. Following immunization, the IgG anti-TT titers and the frequency of CD4(+) T cells expressing IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-10 in response to TT were lower in the HC than in the UC. Additionally, monocytes from HC did not exhibit increased HLA-DR expression after stimulation with TT, and presented low numbers of DC subsets, therefore, it's necessary to perform functional studies with antigen-presenting cells. Collectively, our finding suggests that HC present an impairment of the humoral and CD4(+) T cell immune responses after vaccination.

  4. Effects of humoral factors on amplification of nonrecognizable erythrocytic and granulocytic precursors. [Rats, radiation effects on blood cell production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cronkite, E P; Carsten, A L; Cohen, R; Miller, M E; Moccia, G

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of these studies was to evaluate the effects of humoral factors on amplification of nonrecognizable erythrocytic and granulocytic precursors using the in vivo plasma clot diffusion chamber and the in vitro plasma clot culture methods. Plasma erythropoietin levels changes in the reticulocyte concentration and hematocrits of irradiated and non-irradiated Long-Evans rats exposed to hypoxia were also determined. While erythropoietin plasma levels appeared to effect BFU-E and CFU-E growth, results suggest erythropoietin may not be the sole regulator of red cell production and that inhibitors or chalone-like mechanisms may be involved. Measurements made on granulocyte precursors treated with CSF containing L-cell conditioned medium revealed granulocytic colonies and burst-like formations, similar to those seen for erythrocytic growth. There is strong evidence suggesting that CSF is a regulator of granulopoiesis; however, it is not the sole regulator and it appears that inhibitors may play an in vivo role. Growth of colonies with cell numbers not a power of 2 implies either asymmetric nitosis due to loss of genetic information required for continuing division, or differences in concentration of, or ability to recognize inhibitory factors. These possibilities are examined on the basis of results using in vivo and in vitro culture techniques.

  5. Using Humor in Treatment of Substance Use Disorders: Worthy of Further Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canha, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Throughout the literature, humor has demonstrated positive effects on memory and learning, as well as physiological and psychological well being. Research has described improvements in communication and trust through the use of humor in the nurse-patient relationship. The utilization of humor with certain populations, including those with anxiety disorders, cancer patients and mood disorders has also been widely described in the literature but little research has been conducted with humor use in patients' recovery from substance use disorders. This population might benefit from the thoughtful applications of humor to promote laughter and mirth as well as learning recovery principles. A review of the humor theories, theoretical processes and humor styles are discussed for their use in individuals with substance use disorders, in particularly for early recovery engagement in 12 step programs and other recover support social networks. The application of humor in efforts to support recovery with substance use disorder patients is worth investigating further.

  6. Suggestions for Teaching Practice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAN Na-na

    2013-01-01

    Teacher development and teaching practice(TP) have caught the eyes of researchers at home and abroad for many years. Many western scholars hold that reflective teaching is an efficient way to promote teacher development, but traditional TP is prevailing in China. Based on the merits and demerits of traditional TP and reflective TP, the author hopes to provide some suggestions for the people involved to promote the development of teacher education.

  7. Association of aqueous humor cytokines with the development of retinal ischemia and recurrent macular edema in retinal vein occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sang Hoon; Kim, Kyung-A; Sohn, Sea Woon; Yang, Sung Jae

    2014-04-09

    We evaluated the association of angiogenic and inflammatory cytokine levels in the aqueous humor with development of retinal ischemia and recurrent macular edema in retinal vein occlusion (RVO) patients. This was a retrospective cross-sectional study, and patients with RVO (n = 41) and age-matched control subjects (n = 25) were included. The concentrations of angiogenic and inflammatory cytokines, including VEGF, PDGF-AA, IL-1a, IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, TNF-α, and IP-10, in the aqueous humor were measured before intravitreal injection of bevacizumab using suspension array technology. After retinal hemorrhage disappeared, fluorescein angiography (FA) images were obtained. Based on FA data, RVO patients were divided into a nonischemic group and an ischemic group. We investigated the presence of recurrent macular edema using optical coherent tomography (OCT) during the follow-up period. We compared the levels of cytokines between RVO patients and control subjects, between nonischemic and ischemic groups, and between patients with and without recurrent macular edema. The levels of VEGF, PDGF-AA, IL-1a, IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, TNF-α, and IP-10 in the aqueous humor were higher in the RVO group than in the control group. The levels of IL-8, PDFGF-AA, TNF-α, and VEGF in the aqueous humor were significantly higher in the ischemic RVO group than in the nonischemic RVO group. We did not observe any association between cytokine levels and recurrent macular edema. Angiogenic and inflammatory cytokines were overexpressed in RVO patients. Additionally, increased levels of IL-8, PDFGF-AA, TNF-α, and VEGF in the aqueous humor at the onset of RVO were associated with the development of future retinal ischemia in RVO patients.

  8. Analysis of Humor in The Big Bang Theory Based on the Conversational Relevance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Yang

    2014-01-01

    Humor is the life buoy in waves of life. Pragmatics and humor are closely linked. Relevance is one of the important topics of Pragmatics. This paper takes the lines from The Big Bang Theory as a case study and analyzes the humorous effect from the perspective of Principle of Relevance and Conversational Relevance, hoping to help people deepen the appreciation and un⁃derstanding of humor.

  9. Why We Laugh and What Makes Us Laugh: The Enigma of Humor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Asa Berger

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Humor (and related concerns such as the nature of comedy and of laughter is an enigmatic subject that has perplexed our greatest thinkers from Aristotle’s time to the present. There are four competing theories that explain humor, each of which argues that all humor is based on: superiority, incongruity, cognitive problems in processing humor and psychoanalytic perspectives (such as masked aggression.

  10. Evaluation of the humoral immune response to Strongyloides venezuelensis antigens

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    A estrongiloidíase afeta 30 milhões de pessoas em 70 países. Usualmente, o diagnóstico dessa enteroparasitose é realizado por testes parasitológicos baseados no hidro termotropismo das larvas eliminadas nas fezes, porém esses têm se mostrado pouco sensíveis. Neste trabalho, extratos antigênicos foram testados pelas técnicas de ELISA, Immunoblotting e IFI, utilizando larvas filarióides de Strongyloides venezuelensis, parasita de roedores, que mostram reação cruzada com epítopos de Strongyloide...

  11. In vitro antimicrobial analysis of aqueous humor after topical application of moxifloxacin hydrochloride 0.5%.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Miranda, Aline P; Silva, Cely B; Mimica, Lycia M J; Moscovici, Bernardo K; Malavazzi, Gustavo R; Hida, Richard Y

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of aqueous humor in patients who had preoperative topical application of moxifloxacin hydrochloride 0.5%. Department of Ophthalmology, Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo, Brazil. Comparative case series. Twenty-nine eyes from 29 cataract surgery patients were included in this study. In the study group (n = 15 eyes), 3 topical applications of moxifloxacin hydrochloride 0.5% were administered preoperatively; in the control group (n = 14 eyes), no topical applications were administered. Aqueous humor samples were collected and stored in sterile microtubes at -80°C until analysis. Antimicrobial analysis was performed using standard strains with standard sterile filter paper disks. Inhibition halos were measured in millimeters, and both bactericidal and bacteriostatic effects were analyzed. Inhibition halos were observed on most of the study group plates except those with Streptococcus pneumoniae: Escherichia coli (13.93 mm ± 0.64 [SD]), Klebsiella pneumoniae (10.63 ± 0.61 mm), Staphylococcus aureus (7.47 ± 0.68 mm), and S epidermidis (4.20 ± 3.33 mm) The differences between the mean inhibition halo diameters were statistically significant (P < .0001) in all samples. No bactericidal effect was observed against any of the microorganisms studied. After topical application of moxifloxacin 0.5%, aqueous humor showed bacteriostatic effect against E coli, K pneumoniae, S aureus, and S epidermidis. No bactericidal effect was observed against any of the microorganisms evaluated. No antimicrobial effect against S pneumoniae was observed. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Was That Levity or Livor Mortis? Crime Scene Investigators' Perspectives on Humor and Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivona, Brian D.

    2012-01-01

    Humor is common and purposeful in most work settings. Although researchers have examined humor and joking behavior in various work settings, minimal research has been done on humor applications in the field of crime scene investigation. The crime scene investigator encounters death, trauma, and tragedy in a more intimate manner than any other…

  13. The Use of Humor as a Teaching Strategy in Nursing Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukehart, Dennis E.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to determine the use of humor as a teaching strategy among a sample of nurse educators employed by community colleges and universities in Northern and Central California nursing programs. The study also identified the types of humor used, how humor is used in the classroom, and nurse educators' perceptions of…

  14. Humor in Literature about Children with Disability: What Are We Seeing in Literature?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrail, Ewa; Rieger, Alicja

    2014-01-01

    This article explores instances of humor in literature as it relates to children with disabilities and offers ways to help children and adolescents build an authentic understanding of disability and disability humor. The prevalent message in the books reviewed is that children with disability not only appreciate humor but also can produce various…

  15. Learning to Laugh at Ourselves: Humor, Self-Transcendence, and the Cultivation of Moral Virtues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Mordechai

    2010-01-01

    In this essay Mordechai Gordon begins to address the neglect of humor among philosophers of education by focusing on some interesting connections between humor, self-transcendence, and the development of moral virtues. More specifically, he explores the kind of humor that makes fun of oneself and how it can affect educational encounters. Gordon…

  16. Was That Levity or Livor Mortis? Crime Scene Investigators' Perspectives on Humor and Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivona, Brian D.

    2012-01-01

    Humor is common and purposeful in most work settings. Although researchers have examined humor and joking behavior in various work settings, minimal research has been done on humor applications in the field of crime scene investigation. The crime scene investigator encounters death, trauma, and tragedy in a more intimate manner than any other…

  17. Use and Non-Use of Humor in Academic ESL Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziyaeemehr, Ali; Kumar, Vijay; Abdullah, Mohd S. Faiz

    2011-01-01

    A substantial body of research emphasizes the importance of humor in teaching/learning processes; however, research on the reasons for non-use of humor in academic contexts has enjoyed scant attention. Addressing this gap, this study examines the reasons for instructors' humor avoidance taking into account student perceived benefits of using humor…

  18. "I May Be Crackin', But Um Fackin": Racial Humor in "The Watsons Go To Birmingham--1963"

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNair, Jonda C.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the utilization of racial humor in Christopher Paul Curtis' novel, "The Watsons Go To Birmingham--1963." The theoretical perspectives that inform the analysis include critical race theory and humor theory. The results of the analysis reveal that the use of humor in this book is influenced to a significant degree by race and…

  19. A Study of Dicken’s Humor Weiting——With Incongruity Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李如红

    2008-01-01

    Many scholars have shown great interest in Dickens’ humor writing.On the basis of the scholars’ studies,this thesis will make an analysis on the humor in his works that arise as reaction to what we perceive "incongruous".The thesis will apply the incongruity theory to Dickens’ humor writing.

  20. Hope, Laughter, and Humor in Residents and Staff at an Assisted Living Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westburg, Nancy G.

    2003-01-01

    Assesses and compares hope levels and laughter and humor experiences of 24 elderly residents and 21 staff at an assisted living facility. Residents and staff reported numerous benefits from humor and laughing, but differences arose between the two groups about the source and frequency of humor and laughter. Implications for mental health…

  1. The Effects of Professor Humor on College Students' Attention and Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantooth, James D.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this present study was to investigate the effect of instructor humor on college students' levels of engagement and retention of material. A convenience sample of junior- and senior-level students enrolled in four separate courses within the College of Education were exposed to two different lectures--one humorous, one non-humorous.…

  2. The Relationship between Instructor Humor Orientation and Students' Report on Second Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziyaeemehr, Ali; Kumar, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    Humor is an integral component of any language and therefore has an impact on the way languages are acquired/learned. Numerous studies have investigated the role of instructor humor in teaching/learning processes; however, there is little empirical research on the relationship between instructor humor and learning of a second language. This paper…

  3. Perception of aggressive humor in relation to gelotophobia, gelotophilia, and katagelasticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea C. Samson

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates humor appreciation of aggressive cartoons in relation to gelotophobia, gelotophilia, and katagelasticism. These traits were described to have a peculiar relation to laughter-related phenomena, in particular to disparagement humor. 185 participants rated highly aggressive and non-aggressive humorous stimuli for funniness and aversiveness and their scores on the gelotophobia, gelotophilia and katagelasticism scales were measured. The cartoons were controlled for their structural basis, i.e., incongruity-resolution and nonsense humor, as these two types of humor strongly influence the appreciation of humorous stimuli. The results revealed that high scores on gelotophobia lead to higher aversion to aggressive humor, whereas high scores on katagelasticism lead to more enjoyment of aggressive humor with less aversion. Gelotophobia and katagelasticism lead to sensitivity to aggression in humor, which fits the overt behavior of reacting sensitively towards laughter (gelotophobia and enjoying to laugh at others (katagelasticism. Gelotophilia did not predict reactions to either aggressive or non-aggressive humor but did predict more amusement in general: High scorers on gelotophilia seem to be relaxed towards any form of humor, even if it has an aggressive note. This study confirms the three dimensions to have peculiar responses to aggressive types of humor and opens up several questions to be explored in future research.

  4. Learning to Laugh at Ourselves: Humor, Self-Transcendence, and the Cultivation of Moral Virtues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Mordechai

    2010-01-01

    In this essay Mordechai Gordon begins to address the neglect of humor among philosophers of education by focusing on some interesting connections between humor, self-transcendence, and the development of moral virtues. More specifically, he explores the kind of humor that makes fun of oneself and how it can affect educational encounters. Gordon…

  5. Neural Correlates of Hostile Jokes: Cognitive and Motivational Processes in Humor Appreciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chen Chan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hostile jokes provide aggressive catharsis and a feeling of superiority. Behavioral research has found that hostile jokes are perceived as funnier than non-hostile jokes. The purpose of the present study was to identify the neural correlates of the interaction between type and humor by comparing hostile jokes (HJs, non-hostile jokes (NJs, and their corresponding hostile sentences (HSs and non-hostile sentences (NSs. Hostile jokes primarily showed activation in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC and midbrain compared with the corresponding hostile baseline. Conversely, non-hostile jokes primarily revealed activation in the ventromedial PFC (vmPFC, amygdala, midbrain, ventral anterior cingulate cortex, and nucleus accumbens (NAcc compared with the corresponding non-hostile baseline. These results support the critical role of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC for the neural correlates of social cognition and socio-emotional processing in response to different types of jokes. Moreover, the processing of hostile jokes showed increased activation in the dmPFC, which suggested cognitive operations of social motivation, whereas the processing of non-hostile jokes displayed increased activation in the vmPFC, which suggested social-affective engagement. Hostile jokes versus non-hostile jokes primarily showed increased activation in the dmPFC and midbrain, whereas non-hostile jokes versus hostile jokes primarily displayed greater activation in the amygdala and midbrain. The psychophysiological interaction (PPI analysis demonstrated functional coupling of the dmPFC-dlPFC and midbrain-dmPFC for hostile jokes and functional coupling of the vmPFC-midbrain and amygdala-midbrain-NAcc for non-hostile jokes. Surprisingly, the neural correlates of hostile jokes were not perceived as funnier than non-hostile jokes. Future studies could further investigate the neural correlates of potentially important traits of high-hostility tendencies in humor appreciation

  6. Neural Correlates of Hostile Jokes: Cognitive and Motivational Processes in Humor Appreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yu-Chen; Liao, Yi-Jun; Tu, Cheng-Hao; Chen, Hsueh-Chih

    2016-01-01

    Hostile jokes (HJs) provide aggressive catharsis and a feeling of superiority. Behavioral research has found that HJs are perceived as funnier than non-hostile jokes (NJs). The purpose of the present study was to identify the neural correlates of the interaction between type and humor by comparing HJs, NJs, and their corresponding hostile sentences (HSs) and non-hostile sentences (NSs). HJs primarily showed activation in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) and midbrain compared with the corresponding hostile baseline. Conversely, NJs primarily revealed activation in the ventromedial PFC (vmPFC), amygdala, midbrain, ventral anterior cingulate cortex, and nucleus accumbens (NAcc) compared with the corresponding non-hostile baseline. These results support the critical role of the medial PFC (mPFC) for the neural correlates of social cognition and socio-emotional processing in response to different types of jokes. Moreover, the processing of HJs showed increased activation in the dmPFC, which suggested cognitive operations of social motivation, whereas the processing of NJs displayed increased activation in the vmPFC, which suggested social-affective engagement. HJs versus NJs primarily showed increased activation in the dmPFC and midbrain, whereas NJs versus HJs primarily displayed greater activation in the amygdala and midbrain. The psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analysis demonstrated functional coupling of the dmPFC-dlPFC and midbrain-dmPFC for HJs and functional coupling of the vmPFC-midbrain and amygdala-midbrain-NAcc for NJs. Surprisingly, HJs were not perceived as funnier than NJs. Future studies could further investigate the neural correlates of potentially important traits of high-hostility tendencies in humor appreciation based on the psychoanalytic and superiority theories of humor.

  7. Targeting the humoral immune system of patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teng, Yoe Kie Onno

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to unravel the role of the humoral immune system in rheumatoid arthritis patients by employing new immunosuppressive strategies, i.e. specific B-cell depletion with Rituximab and non-specific lymfoablative treatment with high dose chemotherapy and hematopoeietic stem cell

  8. Humor and the Emeritus Professor: An Interview with Gene Roth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivona, Brian

    2015-01-01

    This essay is a compilation of several conversations with Dr. Gene Roth, Distinguished Teaching Professor Emeritus at Northern Illinois University. Dr. Roth is past President of the Academy of Human Resource Development, and although he is well known for his efforts in bringing humor into the field of HRD, he is not the same Gene Roth that played…

  9. Humor in Father-Daughter Immigration Narratives of Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    This article draws from an ethnography on Mexican immigrant fathers and their children to examine humor in immigration narratives as acts of resistance. The analysis focuses on the devices employed by a father and daughter during their everyday talk and co-narration of an incident with police officers. Findings illustrate how the form and content…

  10. The Muhammad cartoon controversy and the globalization of humor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Kuipers

    2008-01-01

    At the 2006 conference of the International Society for Humor Studies (Danish University of Education, Copenhagen), several panels addressed issues raised by the Muhammad cartoon story. Among these, a colloquium organized by Paul Lewis and decorously titled "Transnational Ridicule and Response" focu

  11. "The Truth Is Funny": A Study of Jesse Stuart's Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Wade

    This study of works of Jesse Stuart treats in some depth the setting and background for the humor in his writings, his reverence for the eastern Kentucky hill country, and the various ways he uses materials from his own life and observations as subject matter for his fictional world. After establishing Stuart's kinship with earlier frontier…

  12. Humor in Father-Daughter Immigration Narratives of Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    This article draws from an ethnography on Mexican immigrant fathers and their children to examine humor in immigration narratives as acts of resistance. The analysis focuses on the devices employed by a father and daughter during their everyday talk and co-narration of an incident with police officers. Findings illustrate how the form and content…

  13. Using Humorous Sitcom Clips in Teaching Federal Income Taxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecil, H. Wayne

    2014-01-01

    This article shares the motivation, process, and outcomes of using humorous scenes from television comedies to teach the real world of tax practice. The article advances the literature by reviewing the use of video clips in a previously unexplored discipline, discussing the process of identifying and selecting appropriate clips, and introducing…

  14. Humor As a Weapon in Virginia Woolf's "Orlando."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Robin

    Virginia Woolf's "Orlando" is an excellent example of mock biography to use in literature classes concerned with analyzing literary genres. Woolf used humor to undermine some conventions of the genre of biography and to reform biography into a shape adequate to express the life of Vita Sackville-West. An ordinary biography most likely…

  15. Humor and the Emeritus Professor: An Interview with Gene Roth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivona, Brian

    2015-01-01

    This essay is a compilation of several conversations with Dr. Gene Roth, Distinguished Teaching Professor Emeritus at Northern Illinois University. Dr. Roth is past President of the Academy of Human Resource Development, and although he is well known for his efforts in bringing humor into the field of HRD, he is not the same Gene Roth that played…

  16. Laugh and Learn: Using Humor to Teach Tragedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggieri, Colleen A.

    1999-01-01

    Describes how one high school English teacher used humor when teaching Shakespearean tragedy. Describes how this improved students' attitudes and appreciation of the tragedies, helped them appreciate literature devices in the plays, and helped them review prior to their exam. (SR)

  17. Humorous Names in the Light of Incongruity Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Rutkowski

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses the humorous function of proper names in the light of incongruity theory. It aims at proving that, although names are often defined as pragmatically “transparent,” they may possess some humorous value due to semantic and pragmatic shifts resulting from the disturbance of ordinary patterns of proper names identification and interpretation. After a brief introduction, the author discusses different variants of incongruity theory as resented in the works by Victor Raskin and Thomas C. Veatch as well as their possible application to the study of humorous names. The second part of the paper provides an analysis of the humorous effects of proper names which includes anthroponyms, toponyms, trade names, football team names and names in literature. The first section of this part concentrates on names in which humour is unintentional and seems to be induced by the context, while the second section focuses on names which are intentionally humourous, i.e. supposed to amuse from the moment of their creation. The author argues that the incongruity theory can provide a useful framework for the study of the different mechanisms responsible of the semantic shifts which determine the variation of pragmatic values of proper names.

  18. Towards environments that have a sense of humor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Reidsma, Dennis; Choi, Insook; Bargar, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Humans have humorous conversations and interactions. Nowadays our real life existence is integrated with our life in social media, videogames, mixed reality and physical environments that sense our activities and that can adapt appearance and properties due to our activities. There are other

  19. Aqueous humor ferritin in hereditary hyperferritinemia cataract syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzhofer, Markus; Schroedl, Falk; Trost, Andrea; Kaser-Eichberger, Alexandra; Wiedemann, Helmut; Strohmaier, Clemens; Hohensinn, Melchior; Strasser, Michael; Muckenthaler, Martina U; Grabner, Guenther; Aigner, Elmar; Reitsamer, Herbert A

    2015-04-01

    Hereditary hyperferritinemia cataract syndrome (HHCS) is a rare autosomal dominant hereditary disease, characterized by hyperferritinemia but with absence of body iron excess and early onset of bilateral cataracts. Although 5- to 20-fold increased serum ferritin concentrations have been reported in HHCS patients, data of ferritin levels in aqueous humor have not been obtained. We therefore aimed to investigate the ferritin levels in aqueous humor and serum and further present histological and ultrastructural data of the lens. During cataract extraction and intraocular lens implantation, aqueous humor and lens aspirate of a 37-year-old HHCS patient were obtained from both eyes. Ferritin levels in serum and aqueous humor were quantitatively analyzed via immunoassays in the HHCS patient and healthy control subjects (n = 6). Lens aspirate in HHCS was analyzed histologically and at the ultrastructural level. Further, genetic mutation screening by polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing in blood was performed. Serum ferritin levels in the control group were 142.2 ± 38.7 μg/L, whereas in the HHCS patient, this parameter was excessively increased (1086 μg/L). Analysis of ferritin in aqueous humor revealed 6.4 ± 3.8 μg/L in normal control subjects and 146.3 μg/L (OD) and 160.4 μg/L (OS) in the HHCS patient. DNA analysis detected a C>A mutation on position +18, a T>G mutation on position +22, a T>C mutation on position +24, and a T>G polymorphism on position +26 in the iron-responsive element of the light-chain ferritin (L-ferritin) gene. In the HHCS patient, a 23-fold (OD) to 25-fold (OS) increased aqueous humor ferritin level was detected. Therefore, the formation of bilateral cataract in HHCS is most likely a result of elevated aqueous humor ferritin. In addition, a novel mutation in this rare disease in the iron-responsive element of L-ferritin gene is reported.

  20. Detection of Toxoplasma gondii DNA in peripheral blood and aqueous humor of patients with Toxoplasmic active focal necrotizing retinochoroiditis using real-time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Felipe dos Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the ability of real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR for detectingToxoplasma gondii DNA in the peripheral blood and aqueous humor of patients with toxoplasmic active focal necrotizing retinochoroiditis. Methods: Fifty-five patients with infectious uveitis seen from 2009 to 2013 at the Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences of the Federal University of São Paulo were enrolled in this study. Forty-three patients had toxoplasmic active focal necrotizing retinochoroiditis, and the remaining 12 had non-toxoplasmic infectious uveitis and served as controls. qPCR analysis forT. gondii DNA was performed on the patients' peripheral blood and aqueous humor samples. Results: The qPCR was positive for T. gondii DNA in 37.21% (16/43 of the aqueous humor samples and 2.33% (1/43 of the peripheral blood samples; further, 16.27% (7/43 of the patients had positive results in both their blood and aqueous humor samples. Conclusion: qPCR was able to detect T. gondii DNA in patients with toxoplasmic active focal necrotizing retinochoroiditis in the blood as well as the aqueous humor and can help with the diagnosis of the disease.

  1. Towards a new structural model of the sense of humor: preliminary findings

    OpenAIRE

    N.D.van

    2012-01-01

    In this article some formal, content-related and procedural considerations towards the sense of humor are articulated and the analysis of both everyday humor behavior and of comic styles leads to the initial proposal of a four factor- model of humor (4FMH). This model is tested in a new dataset and it is also examined whether two forms of comic styles (benevolent humor and moral mockery) do fit in. The model seems to be robust but further studies on the structure of the sense of humor as a pe...

  2. A Study of the Humor in Modern Family from the Perspective of Frame Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾红玲; 沈金婷

    2014-01-01

    Humor, which plays a very important role in people’s lives,has been studied from the perspectives of sociology,psy⁃chology,linguistics,etc.And in the discipline of linguistics,most studies are from the angle of pragmatics,semantics, rhetorics and cognitive linguistics.While rare study on humor are based on frame theory.And category,an indispensable element in frame,plays an essential role in humor analysis.This thesis attempts to analyze the humor in Modern Family from the perspective of frame theo⁃ry and to help readers have a deeper understanding on how humor occurs in conversation.

  3. Pigment Epithelium-derived Factor in Cataractous Aqueous Humor and Lens Epithelial Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Liu; Yizhi Liu; Mingxing Wu

    2006-01-01

    Purpose:To study the characteristics of PEDF in cataractous aqueous humor and its expression in human lens epithelium.Methods:The PEDF concentration in the aqueous humor was measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay in senile (130cases) and congenital (18cases) cataract patients who underwent cataract phacoemulsification extraction surgery. Anterior lens capsular specimens were obtained from these patients to count lens epithelial cells(LEC) density. The Lens Opacities Classification System Ⅲ was used to classify the senile cataracts as cortical, nuclear, posterior subcapsular and mixed types of opacity, and quantitative analysis of the nuclear opacities was performed by Pentacam Scheimpflug imaging system. Anterior lens capsular specimens from another senile(10cases) and congenital (10cases) cataract were collected for immunofluorescence with polyclonal antibodies specific to human pigment epithelium-derived factor(PEDF).Results:The mean aqueous level of PEDF was(178. 9±87. 5)ng/ml, and there was negative linear correlation of PEDF level and age (r=0. 811, P < 0. 001) . In senile cases, the aqueous PEDF concentration decreased with increasing nuclear opacities(r=0. 447, P < 0.01 ), and the mean PEDF level in nuclear cataract was significantly lower than that in posterior subcapsular opacity (P < 0.01 ) . PEDF immunostaining was detected in LEC of all capsular specimens.Conclusion :The PEDF level in human aqueous humor is related to age, types of cataracts and lens opacity. PEDF also express in human LEC. The study results suggest PEDF may regulate and/or protect LEC by paracrine and autocrine, and lack of PEDF may play a role in cataractogenesis.

  4. A possible role for humoral immunity in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Carolyn F; Rowe, Dominic B; Mizuno, Yoshikuni; Mori, Hideo; Halliday, Glenda M

    2005-11-01

    The pathogenesis of idiopathic Parkinson's disease is unknown, but nigral degeneration and depigmentation are associated with microglial inflammation and anti-inflammatory medications appear to protect against the disease. The possibility that humoral immunity may play a role in initiating or regulating the inflammation has been suggested by experimental studies triggering dopamine cell death using a variety of transfer strategies and the observation of CD8+ T lymphocytes and complement in the nigra in Parkinson's disease. We analysed the association between degeneration and humoral immune markers in brain tissue of patients with idiopathic (n = 13) or genetic (n = 2 with alpha-synuclein and n = 1 with parkin mutations) Parkinson's disease and controls without neurological disease (n = 12) to determine the humoral immune involvement in Parkinson's disease. Formalin-fixed tissue samples from the substantia nigra and primary visual cortex for comparison were stained for alpha-synuclein, major histocompatibility complex II (HLA), immunoglobulin M (IgM), immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgG subclasses 1-4 and IgG receptors FcgammaR I-III. Antigen retrieval and both single immunoperoxidase and double immunofluorescence procedures were employed to determine the cell types involved and their pattern and semiquantitative densities. Significant dopamine neuron loss occurred in all patients with Parkinson's disease, negatively correlating with disease duration (r = -0.76, P = 0.002). Although all patients had increased inflammatory HLA immunopositive microglia, the degree of inflammation was similar throughout the disease (r = 0.08, P = 0.82). All patients with Parkinson's disease had IgG binding on dopamine neurons but not IgM binding. Lewy bodies were strongly immunolabelled with IgG. A mean 30 +/- 12% of dopamine nigral neurons were immunoreactive for IgG in Parkinson's disease with the proportion of IgG immunopositive neurons negatively correlating with the degree of cell loss in

  5. Various eicosanoids modulate the cellular and humoral immune responses of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Sony; Kim, Yonggyun

    2009-09-01

    Cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) can catalyze the oxidation of C20 fatty acids to produce certain eicosanoids, which play roles in mediating immune responses in insects. Despite their critical role in insect immunity, there have been few studies of the unique effects of different eicosanoids on immune responses. This study analyzed cellular and humoral immune responses of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, using seven eicosanoids selected from two major eicosanoid subgroups: prostaglandin (PG) and leukotriene (LT), derived from catalytic activities of COX and LOX respectively. Upon bacterial challenge, all seven eicosanoids (PGA(1), PGB(2), PGD(2), PGE(1), PGE(2), PGF(1alpha), and LTB(4)) significantly induced hemocyte nodulation and phagocytosis in the presence of dexamethasone, an eicosanoid biosynthesis inhibitor. However, only PGs induced cell lysis of oenocytoids to release prophenoloxidase, which resulted in an increase in phenoloxidase activity. These seven eicosanoids also induced expression of humoral immune-associated genes, including prophenoloxidase, serpin, dopa decarboxylase, cecropin, and lysozyme, in which PGB(2) and PGE(1) did not induce gene expression of prophenoloxidase. To understand the interactions between different eicosanoids, mixture effects of these eicosanoids were compared with their individual eicosanoid effects on mediating nodule formation in response to bacterial challenge. All six single PGs showed increases in nodule formation in a dose-dependent manner without significant difference among the different types. LTB(4) was more potent than the tested PGs in mediating the cellular immune response. At low doses, all combinations of two eicosanoids showed significant additive effects on nodule formation. These results indicate that immune target cells, such as hemocyte and fat body, of S. exigua can respond to different COX and LOX products to express cellular and humoral immune responses, and their overlapping, additive

  6. Suggested use of vaccines in diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jothydev Kesavadev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes has emerged as a disease of major public health importance in India affecting the rich and the poor alike. Conventionally, comprehensive diabetes management is aimed at preventing micro and macro vascular complications. However, morbidity and mortality due to infections are also significant. In developing countries like India, the concept of adult immunization is far from reality. Recently the H1N1 pandemic has triggered the necessity for considering immunization in all age groups for the prevention of vaccine-preventable fatal infectious diseases. Considering the economics of immunization in a developing country, providing free vaccines to all adults may not be a practical solution, although the free universal immunization program for children is in existence for several decades. There is no consensus on the use of vaccines in diabetes subjects in India. However, there are some clinics offering routine pneumococcal, influenza and other vaccinations. Patients with diabetes have a deranged immune system making them more prone for infections. Hospitalization and death due to pneumococcal disease and influenza are higher in diabetes patients. They, like other healthy individuals, have a normal humoral response to vaccination with clinically significant benefits. The American Diabetes Association, Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, World Health Organization, United Kingdom Guidelines and a number of other scientific organizations have well defined guidelines for vaccination in diabetes. In this article we make some suggestions for clinicians in India, regarding use of vaccines in subjects with diabetes.

  7. Induction of cellular and humoral responses by autoclaved and heat-killed antigen of Leishmania donovani in experimental visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagill, Rajeev; Mahajan, Raman; Sharma, Meenakshi; Kaur, Sukhbir

    2009-12-01

    The potential of autoclaved and heat-killed antigen of Leishmania donovani to induce cell-mediated and humoral response has been evaluated in the present study. The vaccines were delivered thrice subcutaneously at an interval of 2 weeks. Two weeks after second booster, BALB/c mice were challenged with 10(7) stationary phase promastigotes of L. donovani. Significant protection was achieved in immunized mice against L. donovani challenge with 69% to 76% and 59% to 64% reduction in parasite load in the liver and spleen respectively. Immunization induced significantly higher level of delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) response in mice immunized with heat-killed antigen followed by autoclaved antigen. The immune response was assessed by quantifying Leishmania-specific antibodies and cytokine production. The antibody response was predominantly of IgG type with increased IgG2a production and lesser amount of IgM. The immunization preferentially stimulates the production of IFN-gamma and IL-2 in splenocytes which suggests a Th1 type response with a concomitant down-regulation of IL-10 and IL-4. These results indicate a potential for the heat-killed and autoclaved antigen as a vaccine which could trigger cell-mediated immune response.

  8. Case of Acute Graft Failure during Suspected Humoral Rejection with Preserved Ejection Fraction, but Severely Reduced Longitudinal Deformation Detected by 2D-Speckle Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tor Skibsted Clemmensen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This case displays limited utility of left ventricular ejection fraction to detect acute graft failure due to microvascular vasculopathy and suspected humoral rejection. Despite severe and progressive graft failure, clinically and by right heart catheterizations, left ventricular ejection fraction remained unchanged, indicating need of more reliable noninvasive methods for graft function surveillance. Global longitudinal strain relates to clinical heart failure, filling pressure, and cardiac index during suspected humoral rejection and microvascular dysfunction in this HTX patient. We suggest routine monitoring of graft function by global longitudinal strain as supplement to routine left ventricular ejection fraction and diastolic Doppler measurements.

  9. mTOR Promotes Antiviral Humoral Immunity by Differentially Regulating CD4 Helper T Cell and B Cell Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lilin; Lee, Junghwa; Xu, Lifan; Mohammed, Ata-Ur-Rasheed; Li, Weiyan; Hale, J Scott; Tan, Wendy G; Wu, Tuoqi; Davis, Carl W; Ahmed, Rafi; Araki, Koichi

    2017-02-15

    mTOR has important roles in regulation of both innate and adaptive immunity, but whether and how mTOR modulates humoral immune responses have yet to be fully understood. To address this issue, we examined the effects of rapamycin, a specific inhibitor of mTOR, on B cell and CD4 T cell responses during acute infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. Rapamycin treatment resulted in suppression of virus-specific B cell responses by inhibiting proliferation of germinal center (GC) B cells. In contrast, the number of memory CD4 T cells was increased in rapamycin-treated mice. However, the drug treatment caused a striking bias of CD4 T cell differentiation into Th1 cells and substantially impaired formation of follicular helper T (Tfh) cells, which are essential for humoral immunity. Further experiments in which mTOR signaling was modulated by RNA interference (RNAi) revealed that B cells were the primary target cells of rapamycin for the impaired humoral immunity and that reduced Tfh formation in rapamycin-treated mice was due to lower GC B cell responses that are essential for Tfh generation. Additionally, we found that rapamycin had minimal effects on B cell responses activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which stimulates B cells in an antigen-independent manner, suggesting that rapamycin specifically inhibits B cell responses induced by B cell receptor stimulation with antigen. Together, these findings demonstrate that mTOR signals play an essential role in antigen-specific humoral immune responses by differentially regulating B cell and CD4 T cell responses during acute viral infection and that rapamycin treatment alters the interplay of immune cell subsets involved in antiviral humoral immunity. mTOR is a serine/threonine kinase involved in a variety of cellular activities. Although its specific inhibitor, rapamycin, is currently used as an immunosuppressive drug in transplant patients, it has been reported that rapamycin can also stimulate pathogen

  10. Ridiculed death and the dead: Black humor on the epitaphs and epigrams of the ancient Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Lađa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Theories about black humor usually regard that it as a contemporary phenomenon and a culmination of the literary modernism and beginning of post-modernism. My intent in this paper is to refute the thesis that the black humor is a modern invention. I am going to prove its existence still in Greek antiquity, quoting and analyzing humorous epitaphs and black humor epigrams. Putting in relation black humor with the joy and humor in religious (fertility and funeral rituals, I am also going to set a question about the attitude to death and life inherent for this kind of humor, arguing that its origin should be searched in the folk tradition.

  11. Humor styles and loneliness: a study among Hong Kong and Hangzhou undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xiao Dong; Wong, Ashley Yuen Man; Hiranandani, Neelam Arjan

    2014-08-01

    This study examined the relationship between humor styles and loneliness among a sample of Hong Kong and Mainland Chinese. A total of 159 Hong Kong undergraduates and 178 Hangzhou undergraduates were recruited to complete a survey composed of the Humor Styles Questionnaire and the Emotional and Social Loneliness Scales. Multiple regression analyses showed that self-defeating humor explained significant variance in both social and emotional loneliness for Hong Kong students, but only in social loneliness for Hangzhou students. Hong Kong students scored significantly higher on aggressive humor and self-defeating humor, and scored significantly lower on affiliative humor and self-enhancing humor than did their counterparts in Hangzhou. This could be attributed to the greater influence of Confucianism in Mainland China than in Hong Kong.

  12. Rumination, Suicidal Ideation, and the Mediating Effect of Self-Defeating Humor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond P. Tucker

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Research has demonstrated that a self-defeating humor style is related to indicators of psychopathology and interpersonal dysfunction, including depression, anxiety, loneliness, thwarted belongingness, and perceived burdensomeness. The current study continued this investigation by examining how self-defeating humor is related to suicidal ideation and a ruminative response style. Analyses indicated that a self-defeating humor style was positively associated to rumination, brooding, reflection, and suicidal ideation. Results of bootstrapping analyses indicated that self-defeating humor mediated the relationship between rumination and suicidal ideation. This same effect was seen for both brooding and reflection individually. Results indicate that self-defeating humor may serve as an interpersonal means of ruminating as this humor style involves consistent focus on perceived flaws and weaknesses. The assessment of this humor style may provide additional information about the maintenance of suicidal thinking.

  13. Humoral and cellular immunity to hepatitis B virus-derived antigens: comparative activity of Freund complete adjuvant alum, and liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Y; Ionescu-Matiu, I; Dreesman, G R; Kramp, W; Six, H R; Hollinger, F B; Melnick, J L

    1980-01-01

    Complete Freud adjuvant, aluminum gel, and liposomes were compared for their ability to enhance the immunogenicity of an intact 22-nm HBsAg particle vaccine and an HBsAg-derived polypeptide vaccine in guinea pigs. Both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses were evaluated. The greatest immune response was obtained with complete Freund adjuvant, regardless of the antigen preparation. Aluminum gel appeared to be a better adjuvant for 22-nm HBsAg particles, but the liposomes rendered polypeptide preparations more immunogenic. The possibility that various proportions were entrapped in aqueous compartments instead of being inserted into the lipid bilayers of liposomes might account for this difference. The development of both humoral and cellular immunity was dependent upon the use of an adjuvant, because aqueous preparations had poor immunogenicity. PMID:7014445

  14. Case of Acute Graft Failure during Suspected Humoral Rejection with Preserved Ejection Fraction, but Severely Reduced Longitudinal Deformation Detected by 2D-Speckle Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Tor Skibsted; Eiskjær, Hans; Kofoed-Nielsen, Pernille B;

    2014-01-01

    remained unchanged, indicating need of more reliable noninvasive methods for graft function surveillance. Global longitudinal strain relates to clinical heart failure, filling pressure, and cardiac index during suspected humoral rejection and microvascular dysfunction in this HTX patient. We suggest...... routine monitoring of graft function by global longitudinal strain as supplement to routine left ventricular ejection fraction and diastolic Doppler measurements....

  15. A Recombinant Trivalent Fusion Protein F1-LcrV-HSP70(II) Augments Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses and Imparts Full Protection against Yersinia pestis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Shailendra K; Batra, Lalit; Tuteja, Urmil

    2016-01-01

    Plague is one of the most dangerous infections in humans caused by Yersinia pestis, a Gram-negative bacterium. Despite of an overwhelming research success, no ideal vaccine against plague is available yet. It is well established that F1/LcrV based vaccine requires a strong cellular immune response for complete protection against plague. In our earlier study, we demonstrated that HSP70(II) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis modulates the humoral and cellular immunity of F1/LcrV vaccine candidates individually as well as in combinations in a mouse model. Here, we made two recombinant constructs caf1-lcrV and caf1-lcrV-hsp70(II). The caf1 and lcrV genes of Y. pestis and hsp70 domain II of M. tuberculosis were amplified by polymerase chain reaction. Both the recombinant constructs caf1-lcrV and caf1-lcrV-hsp70(II) were cloned in pET28a vector and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant fusion proteins F1-LcrV and F1-LcrV-HSP70(II) were purified using Ni-NTA columns and formulated with alum to evaluate the humoral and cell mediated immune responses in mice. The protective efficacies of F1-LcrV and F1-LcrV-HSP70(II) were determined following challenge of immunized mice with 100 LD50 of Y. pestis through intraperitoneal route. Significant differences were noticed in the titers of IgG and it's isotypes, i.e., IgG1, IgG2b, and IgG3 in anti- F1-LcrV-HSP70(II) sera in comparison to anti-F1-LcrV sera. Similarly, significant differences were also noticed in the expression levels of IL-2, IFN-γ and TNF-α in splenocytes of F1-LcrV-HSP(II) immunized mice in comparison to F1-LcrV. Both F1-LcrV and F1-LcrV-HSP70(II) provided 100% protection. Our research findings suggest that F1-LcrV fused with HSP70 domain II of M. tuberculosis significantly enhanced the humoral and cellular immune responses in mouse model.

  16. Is Laughing at the Expense of Victims and Offenders a Red Flag? Humor and Secondary Traumatic Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craun, Sarah W; Bourke, Michael L

    2015-01-01

    Those who work with human trauma often use humor to handle job stressors. Research has demonstrated that lighthearted humor is related to lower secondary traumatic stress scores, while gallows humor has the inverse relationship. This work explores how three types of humor relate to secondary traumatic stress: (a) humor at the expense of victims, (b) humor at the expense of offenders, and (c) humor containing sexual innuendo. Internet crimes against children taskforce personnel completed questionnaires about secondary traumatic stress and coping techniques. Humor at the expense of victims was rarely used, but when it was, it was indicative of higher secondary traumatic stress. There were no relationships between secondary traumatic stress and the use of humor at the expense of offenders or humor containing sexual innuendo.

  17. Evening types among german university students score higher on sense of humor after controlling for big five personality factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randler, Christoph

    2008-10-01

    Humor research has focused on relationships between humor and various personality traits. As personality and morningness-eveningness, as well as personality and humor, are related based on genetics and neurobehavioral function, one might also expect a relationship between humor and chronotype. 197 students responded to the Composite Scale of Morningness as a measure of chronotype, the Sense of Humor Questionnaire and a 10-item version of the Big Five Inventory. Individuals scoring as evening types reported a greater sense of humor than morning individuals, with higher morningness scores. In a stepwise linear regression, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Openness, and Chronotype each accounted for a significant amount of variance in sense of Humor scores. That is, the relationship between scores on Sense of Humor and evening orientation was significant after controlling for personality dimensions. Eveningness was related to sense of Humor scores in women but not in men. Social but not cognitive humor was predicted by eveningness.

  18. Adult Drosophila melanogaster evolved for antibacterial defense invest in infection-induced expression of both humoral and cellular immunity genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGraw Elizabeth A

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While the transcription of innate immunity genes in response to bacterial infection has been well-characterised in the Drosophila model, we recently demonstrated the capacity for such transcription to evolve in flies selected for improved antibacterial defense. Here we use this experimental system to examine how insects invest in constitutive versus infection-induced transcription of immunity genes. These two strategies carry with them different consequences with respect to energetic and pleiotropic costs and may be more or less effective in improving defense depending on whether the genes contribute to humoral or cellular aspects of immunity. Findings Contrary to expectation we show that selection preferentially increased the infection-induced expression of both cellular and humoral immunity genes. Given their functional roles, infection induced increases in expression were expected for the humoral genes, while increases in constitutive expression were expected for the cellular genes. We also report a restricted ability to improve transcription of immunity genes that is on the order of 2-3 fold regardless of total transcription level of the gene. Conclusions The evolved increases in infection-induced expression of the cellular genes may result from specific cross talk with humoral pathways or from generalised strategies for enhancing immunity gene transcription. A failure to see improvements in constitutive expression of the cellular genes suggests either that increases might come at too great a cost or that patterns of expression in adults are decoupled from the larval phase where increases would be most effective. The similarity in fold change increase across all immunity genes may suggest a shared mechanism for the evolution of increased transcription in small, discrete units such as duplication of cis-regulatory elements.

  19. How fun are your meetings? Investigating the relationship between humor patterns in team interactions and team performance

    OpenAIRE

    Lehmann-Willenbrock, N.K.; Allen, J A

    2014-01-01

    Research on humor in organizations has rarely considered the social context in which humor occurs. One such social setting that most of us experience on a daily basis concerns the team context. Building on recent theorizing about the humor–performance link in teams, this study seeks to increase our understandingof the function and effects of humor in team interaction settings. We examined behavioral patterns of humor and laughter in real teams by videotaping and coding humor and laughter duri...

  20. Human Avatars in Playful and Humorous Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, A.; Chung, WJ.; Sungsoo Shin, C.

    2016-01-01

    In future smart environments sensors and actuators know about the environment’s inhabitants and visitors. This knowledge allows them to predict and suggest activities and behavior and even to take care that certain activities and behavior are enforced on inhabitants and visitors. For example, in a p