WorldWideScience

Sample records for hummingbirds calypte anna

  1. Structure of the vortex wake in hovering Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, M; Ortega-Jimenez, V M; Dudley, R

    2013-12-22

    Hummingbirds are specialized hoverers for which the vortex wake has been described as a series of single vortex rings shed primarily during the downstroke. Recent findings in bats and birds, as well as in a recent study on Anna's hummingbirds, suggest that each wing may shed a discrete vortex ring, yielding a bilaterally paired wake. Here, we describe the presence of two discrete rings in the wake of hovering Anna's hummingbirds, and also infer force production through a wingbeat with contributions to weight support. Using flow visualization, we found separate vortices at the tip and root of each wing, with 15% stronger circulation at the wingtip than at the root during the downstroke. The upstroke wake is more complex, with near-continuous shedding of vorticity, and circulation of approximately equal magnitude at tip and root. Force estimates suggest that the downstroke contributes 66% of required weight support, whereas the upstroke generates 35%. We also identified a secondary vortex structure yielding 8-26% of weight support. Lift production in Anna's hummingbirds is more evenly distributed between the stroke phases than previously estimated for Rufous hummingbirds, in accordance with the generally symmetric down- and upstrokes that characterize hovering in these birds.

  2. Mercury contamination in Anna’s hummingbirds

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Heavy metal contamination (n=17 metals) of feather and tissue samples from live and deceased Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna) was evaluated. Feathers taken from...

  3. Eye Morphology and Retinal Topography in Hummingbirds (Trochilidae: Aves).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisney, Thomas J; Wylie, Douglas R; Kolominsky, Jeffrey; Iwaniuk, Andrew N

    2015-01-01

    Hummingbirds are a group of small, highly specialized birds that display a range of adaptations to their nectarivorous lifestyle. Vision plays a key role in hummingbird feeding and hovering behaviours, yet very little is known about the visual systems of these birds. In this study, we measured eye morphology in 5 hummingbird species. For 2 of these species, we used stereology and retinal whole mounts to study the topographic distribution of neurons in the ganglion cell layer. Eye morphology (expressed as the ratio of corneal diameter to eye transverse diameter) was similar among all 5 species and was within the range previously documented for diurnal birds. Retinal topography was similar in Amazilia tzacatl and Calypte anna. Both species had 2 specialized retinal regions of high neuron density: a central region located slightly dorso-nasal to the superior pole of the pecten, where densities reached ∼ 45,000 cells · mm(-2), and a temporal area with lower densities (38,000-39,000 cells · mm(-2)). A weak visual streak bridged the two high-density areas. A retina from Phaethornis superciliosus also had a central high-density area with a similar peak neuron density. Estimates of spatial resolving power for all 3 species were similar, at approximately 5-6 cycles · degree(-1). Retinal cross sections confirmed that the central high-density region in C. anna contains a fovea, but not the temporal area. We found no evidence of a second, less well-developed fovea located close to the temporal retina margin. The central and temporal areas of high neuron density allow for increased spatial resolution in the lateral and frontal visual fields, respectively. Increased resolution in the frontal field in particular may be important for mediating feeding behaviors such as aerial docking with flowers and catching small insects.

  4. Wake patterns of the wings and tail of hovering hummingbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altshuler, Douglas L.; Princevac, Marko; Pan, Hansheng; Lozano, Jesse

    The flow fields of slowly flying bats and fasterflying birds differ in that bats produce two vortex loops during each stroke, one per wing, and birds produce a single vortex loop per stroke. In addition, the circulation at stroke transition approaches zero in bats but remains strong in birds. It is unknown if these difference derive from fundamental differences in wing morphology or are a consequence of flight speed. Here, we present an analysis of the horizontal flow field underneath hovering Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna) to describe the wake of a bird flying at zero forward velocity. We also consider how the hummingbird tail interacts with the wake generated by the wings. High-speed image recording and analysis from three orthogonal perspectives revealed that the wing tips reach peak velocities in the middle of each stroke and approach zero velocity at stroke transition. Hummingbirds use complex tail kinematic patterns ranging from in phase to antiphase cycling with respect to the wings, covering several phase shifted patterns. We employed particle image velocimetry to attain detailed horizontal flow measurements at three levels with respect to the tail: in the tail, at the tail tip, and just below the tail. The velocity patterns underneath the wings indicate that flow oscillates along the ventral-dorsal axis in response to the down- and up-strokes and that the sideways flows with respect to the bird are consistently from the lateral to medial. The region around the tail is dominated by axial flows in dorsal to ventral direction. We propose that these flows are generated by interaction between the wakes of the two wings at the end of the upstroke, and that the tail actively defects flows to generate moments that contribute to pitch stability. The flow fields images also revealed distinct vortex loops underneath each wing, which were generated during each stroke. From these data, we propose a model for the primary flow structures of hummingbirds that more

  5. Environmental Impact Analysis Process. Environmental Impact Statement, Flight Operations in the Sells Airspace Overlying the Tohono O’Odham Indian Reservation & Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, Southern Arizona. Revised Draft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-06

    Calliope hummingbird X Stellula calliope Blue-throated Hurmingoird X Lampornis clemenciae Kingfishers Belted Kingfisher Um Megaceryle alcyon Woodpeckers...White-throated Swift As, Uw Aeronautes saxatalis Hummingbirds Black-chinned Hummingbird Cm Archilochus alexandri Costa’s Hummingbird Cm, Us Calypte...costae Anna’s Hummingbird Um Calypte anna Broad-tailed Hummingbird Rm Selasphorus platycercus Rufous Hummingbird Rm Selasphorus rufus Allen’s

  6. Trace element contamination in feather and tissue samples from Anna’s hummingbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikoni, Nicole A.; Poppenga, Robert H.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Foley, Janet E.; Hazlehurst, Jenny; Purdin, Güthrum; Aston, Linda; Hargrave, Sabine; Jelks, Karen; Tell, Lisa A.

    2017-01-01

    Trace element contamination (17 elements; Be, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Cd, Ba, Hg, Tl, and Pb) of live (feather samples only) and deceased (feather and tissue samples) Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna) was evaluated. Samples were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS; 17 elements) and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (Hg only). Mean plus one standard deviation (SD) was considered the benchmark, and concentrations above the mean + 1 SD were considered elevated above normal. Contour feathers were sampled from live birds of varying age, sex, and California locations. In order to reduce thermal impacts, minimal feathers were taken from live birds, therefore a novel method was developed for preparation of low mass feather samples for ICP-MS analysis. The study found that the novel feather preparation method enabled small mass feather samples to be analyzed for trace elements using ICP-MS. For feather samples from live birds, all trace elements, with the exception of beryllium, had concentrations above the mean + 1 SD. Important risk factors for elevated trace element concentrations in feathers of live birds were age for iron, zinc, and arsenic, and location for iron, manganese, zinc, and selenium. For samples from deceased birds, ICP-MS results from body and tail feathers were correlated for Fe, Zn, and Pb, and feather concentrations were correlated with renal (Fe, Zn, Pb) or hepatic (Hg) tissue concentrations. Results for AA spectrophotometry analyzed samples from deceased birds further supported the ICP-MS findings where a strong correlation between mercury concentrations in feather and tissue (pectoral muscle) samples was found. These study results support that sampling feathers from live free-ranging hummingbirds might be a useful, non-lethal sampling method for evaluating trace element exposure and provides a sampling alternative since their small body size limits traditional sampling of blood and tissues. The

  7. Hooked on Hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Kim

    2002-01-01

    Describes several hummingbird adaptations and suggests ways of attracting hummingbirds to schoolyards and including them in the curriculum. Provides hummingbird feeder tips along with a list of ideas for designing inquiry-based activities related to hummingbird behavior. Also provides a hummingbird quiz, two instructional games, and a listing of…

  8. Anna Politkovskaja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulietto Chiesa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper draws a profile of Anna Politkovskaja, the journalist murdered in Moscow in October 2006. When the communist regime collapsed she sided with the “Democrats” (Boris Eltsin, but afterwards she departed from them when the first Cecenia War began (autumn 1994. With the beginning of the second Cecenia War (August-September 1999 Anna Politkovskaja definitively understood the Democrats no longer existed in Russia. In fact, opening the road to the new massacre had been their own responsibility. Once she had understood the truth, she began to tell the way “they”, the “Democrats” had organized the Cecenia Wars. Many times she went to that devastated land and denounced the dreadful war crimes committed there by the Russians, writing on her daily Novaja Gazeta. She openly condemned the Russian army and government for their lacking in respect of civil rights and their violation of the Constitutional State, both in Russia and Cecenia. In the West she had published a book –Putin’s Russia– from which she gained fame. But it provoked the Russian President to anger. The strong will of this woman with a feeble voice to testify and inform has been blown out, together with her obstinate tenaciousness. Anna Politkovskaja had staked her own life, conscious of the risk.

  9. Hummingbird Citizen Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givot, Rima; O'Connell, Kari; Hadley, Adam S.; Betts, Matthew G.

    2015-01-01

    The decline in hummingbird populations and shifts in their movements may adversely affect their role as pollinators and, in turn, plant biodiversity (Allen-Wardell et al. 1998). For example, Hadley et al. (2014) discovered that larger fragments of forest correlated with larger hummingbird populations and more seeds of "H. tortuosa" being…

  10. Conflicts in Anna Karenina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨恋

    2011-01-01

    Anna Karenina is a huge classic tragedy which is created by Tolstoy.This paper mainly talks about the conflict in the classic fictional story of Anna Karenina,which involves the conflicts between religious ethics,capitalistic new ideas,bravery and limitation,love for son and love for a lover,plus the variances between rural custom culture and urban culture.

  11. Conflicts in Anna Karenina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨恋

    2011-01-01

    Anna Karenina is a huge classic tragedy which is created by Tolstoy. This paper mainly talks about the conflict in the classic fictional story of Anna Karenina, which involves the conflicts between religious ethics, capitalistic new ideas, bravery and limitation, love for son and love for a lover, plus the variances between rural custom culture and urban culture.

  12. Floral arrangements and hummingbird feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainsworth, F Reed; Mercier, Theresa; Wolf, Larry L

    1983-05-01

    The influence of simulated inflorescence design on feeding behavior of 3 male Eugenes fulgens (Rivoli's hummingbird) and one female Lampornis clemenciae (Bluethroated hummingbird) was studied in the laboratory using artificial flowers. Five two-dimensional and three three-dimensional arrangements provided constant rewards per artificial flower. Visits to two-dimensional arrangements had more flower visits per feeding bout, proportionally more flower revisits, and shorter time between flowers than visits to three-dimensional arrangements. This suggests inflorescence design may influence pollen movement by hummingbirds.

  13. Anna Kurnikova taas seksikaim sportlane

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    USA spordikanali ESPN ja ajakirja US Magazini kuus nädalat kestnud hääletus tunnistas maailma seksikaimaks naissportlaseks Venemaa tennisisti Anna Kurnikova. Meeste tiitli võttis USA peapallur Derek Jeter

  14. An RFID Based Smart Feeder for Hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra, Vicente; Araya-Salas, Marcelo; Tang, Yu-ping; Park, Charlie; Hyde, Anthony; Wright, Timothy F; Tang, Wei

    2015-12-16

    We present an interdisciplinary effort to record feeding behaviors and control the diet of a hummingbird species (Phaethornis longirostris, the long-billed hermit or LBH) by developing a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) based smart feeder. The system contains an RFID reader, a microcontroller, and a servo-controlled hummingbird feeder opener; the system is presented as a tool for studying the cognitive ability of the LBH species. When equipped with glass capsule RFID tags (which are mounted on the hummingbird), the smart feeder can provide specific diets for predetermined sets of hummingbirds at the discretion of biologists. This is done by reading the unique RFID tag on the hummingbirds and comparing the ID number with the pre-programmed ID numbers stored in the smart feeder. The smart feeder records the time and ID of each hummingbird visit. The system data is stored in a readily available SD card and is powered by two 9 V batteries. The detection range of the system is approximately 9-11 cm. Using this system, biologists can assign the wild hummingbirds to different experimental groups and monitor their diets to determine if they develop a preference to any of the available nectars. During field testing, the smart feeder system has demonstrated consistent detection (when compared to detections observed by video-recordings) of RFID tags on hummingbirds and provides pre-designed nectars varying water and sugar concentrations to target individuals. The smart feeder can be applied to other biological and environmental studies in the future.

  15. Molecular phylogenetics and the diversification of hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Jimmy A; Witt, Christopher C; Remsen, J V; Corl, Ammon; Rabosky, Daniel L; Altshuler, Douglas L; Dudley, Robert

    2014-04-14

    The tempo of species diversification in large clades can reveal fundamental evolutionary mechanisms that operate on large temporal and spatial scales. Hummingbirds have radiated into a diverse assemblage of specialized nectarivores comprising 338 species, but their evolutionary history has not, until now, been comprehensively explored. We studied hummingbird diversification by estimating a time-calibrated phylogeny for 284 hummingbird species, demonstrating that hummingbirds invaded South America by ∼22 million years ago, and subsequently diversified into nine principal clades (see [5-7]). Using ancestral state reconstruction and diversification analyses, we (1) estimate the age of the crown-group hummingbird assemblage, (2) investigate the timing and patterns of lineage accumulation for hummingbirds overall and regionally, and (3) evaluate the role of Andean uplift in hummingbird speciation. Detailed analyses reveal disparate clade-specific processes that allowed for ongoing species diversification. One factor was significant variation among clades in diversification rates. For example, the nine principal clades of hummingbirds exhibit ∼15-fold variation in net diversification rates, with evidence for accelerated speciation of a clade that includes the Bee, Emerald, and Mountain Gem groups of hummingbirds. A second factor was colonization of key geographic regions, which opened up new ecological niches. For example, some clades diversified in the context of the uplift of the Andes Mountains, whereas others were affected by the formation of the Panamanian land bridge. Finally, although species accumulation is slowing in all groups of hummingbirds, several major clades maintain rapid rates of diversification on par with classical examples of rapid adaptive radiation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. An RFID Based Smart Feeder for Hummingbirds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Ibarra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We present an interdisciplinary effort to record feeding behaviors and control the diet of a hummingbird species (Phaethornis longirostris, the long-billed hermit or LBH by developing a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID based smart feeder. The system contains an RFID reader, a microcontroller, and a servo-controlled hummingbird feeder opener; the system is presented as a tool for studying the cognitive ability of the LBH species. When equipped with glass capsule RFID tags (which are mounted on the hummingbird, the smart feeder can provide specific diets for predetermined sets of hummingbirds at the discretion of biologists. This is done by reading the unique RFID tag on the hummingbirds and comparing the ID number with the pre-programmed ID numbers stored in the smart feeder. The smart feeder records the time and ID of each hummingbird visit. The system data is stored in a readily available SD card and is powered by two 9 V batteries. The detection range of the system is approximately 9–11 cm. Using this system, biologists can assign the wild hummingbirds to different experimental groups and monitor their diets to determine if they develop a preference to any of the available nectars. During field testing, the smart feeder system has demonstrated consistent detection (when compared to detections observed by video-recordings of RFID tags on hummingbirds and provides pre-designed nectars varying water and sugar concentrations to target individuals. The smart feeder can be applied to other biological and environmental studies in the future.

  17. Hummingbirds see near ultraviolet light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, T H

    1980-02-15

    Three species of hummingbird (Archilochus alexandri, Lampornis clemenciae, and Eugenes fulgens) were trained to make visual discriminations between lights of different spectral content. On the basis of initial choices of feeders following a period of conditioning, birds of all three species were able to distinguish near ultraviolet (370 nanometers, 20-nanometer half bandwidth) from darkness (unilluminated viewing screen) or from the small amount of far red light that leaked through the ultraviolet-transmitting glass filter. A human observer was unable to make either discrimination. The birds were also able to distinguish white lights lacking wavelengths shorter than 400 nanometers from the full spectrum of the quartz-halogen bulbs. One can infer that the cone oil droplets, which have been lost from the retinas of most mammals, provide a potentially more flexible system for restricting the short wavelength end of the visible spectrum than does the filtering action of lens and macula that serves this function in the human eye.

  18. Three-dimensional kinematics of hummingbird flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobalske, Bret W; Warrick, Douglas R; Clark, Christopher J; Powers, Donald R; Hedrick, Tyson L; Hyder, Gabriel A; Biewener, Andrew A

    2007-07-01

    Hummingbirds are specialized for hovering flight, and substantial research has explored this behavior. Forward flight is also important to hummingbirds, but the manner in which they perform forward flight is not well documented. Previous research suggests that hummingbirds increase flight velocity by simultaneously tilting their body angle and stroke-plane angle of the wings, without varying wingbeat frequency and upstroke: downstroke span ratio. We hypothesized that other wing kinematics besides stroke-plane angle would vary in hummingbirds. To test this, we used synchronized high-speed (500 Hz) video cameras and measured the three-dimensional wing and body kinematics of rufous hummingbirds (Selasphorus rufus, 3 g, N=5) as they flew at velocities of 0-12 m s(-1) in a wind tunnel. Consistent with earlier research, the angles of the body and the stroke plane changed with velocity, and the effect of velocity on wingbeat frequency was not significant. However, hummingbirds significantly altered other wing kinematics including chord angle, angle of attack, anatomical stroke-plane angle relative to their body, percent of wingbeat in downstroke, wingbeat amplitude, angular velocity of the wing, wingspan at mid-downstroke, and span ratio of the wingtips and wrists. This variation in bird-centered kinematics led to significant effects of flight velocity on the angle of attack of the wing and the area and angles of the global stroke planes during downstroke and upstroke. We provide new evidence that the paths of the wingtips and wrists change gradually but consistently with velocity, as in other bird species that possess pointed wings. Although hummingbirds flex their wings slightly at the wrist during upstroke, their average wingtip-span ratio of 93% revealed that they have kinematically ;rigid' wings compared with other avian species.

  19. Interview with Dr Anna Matamala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucinea Marcelino Villela

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this interview, which took place in June 2016, Dr Anna Matamala described some details about her long professional experience in Audiovisual Translation, especially in dubbing from English into Catalan, and we talked about many other things like her interest in lexicography, her point of view on some contemporary topics in Audiovisual Translation Studies: the use of technology, the relation between AVT and Accessibility Studies, AVT and Filmmaking fields, the importance of keeping in touch with other countries and even continents outside Europe, and she also gave some advice to the new generation of Translation students.

  20. Biogeography and taxonomy of racket-tail hummingbirds (Aves: Trochilidae: Ocreatus): evidence for species delimitation from morphology and display behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuchmann, Karl-L; Weller, André-A; Jürgens, Dietmar

    2016-11-27

    We analyzed geographic variation, biogeography, and intrageneric relationships of racket-tail hummingbirds Ocreatus (Aves, Trochilidae). Presently, the genus is usually considered monospecific, with O. underwoodii including eight subspecies (polystictus, discifer, underwoodii, incommodus, melanantherus, peruanus, annae, addae), although up to three species have been recognized by some authors. In order to evaluate the current taxonomy we studied geographic variation in coloration, mensural characters, and behavioral data of all Ocreatus taxa. We briefly review the taxonomic history of the genus. Applying the Biological Species Concept, species delimitation was based on a qualitative-quantitative criteria analysis including an evaluation of character states. Our results indicate that the genus should be considered a superspecies with four species, the monotypic Ocreatus addae, O. annae, and O. peruanus, and the polytypic O. underwoodii (including the subspecies underwoodii, discifer, incommodus, melanantherus, polystictus). In this taxonomic treatment, O. annae becomes an endemic species to Peru and O. addae is endemic to Bolivia. We recommend additional sampling of distributional, ethological, and molecular data for an improved resolution of the evolutionary history of Ocreatus.

  1. Outperforming hummingbirds' load-lifting capability with a lightweight hummingbird-like flapping-wing mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leys, Frederik; Reynaerts, Dominiek; Vandepitte, Dirk

    2016-08-15

    The stroke-cam flapping mechanism presented in this paper closely mimics the wing motion of a hovering Rufous hummingbird. It is the only lightweight hummingbird-sized flapping mechanism which generates a harmonic wing stroke with both a high flapping frequency and a large stroke amplitude. Experiments on a lightweight prototype of this stroke-cam mechanism on a 50 mm-long wing demonstrate that a harmonic stroke motion is generated with a peak-to-peak stroke amplitude of 175° at a flapping frequency of 40 Hz. It generated a mass lifting capability of 5.1 g, which is largely sufficient to lift the prototype's mass of 3.39 g and larger than the mass-lifting capability of a Rufous hummingbird. The motor mass of a hummingbird-like robot which drives the stroke-cam mechanism is considerably larger (about five times) than the muscle mass of a hummingbird with comparable load-lifting capability. This paper presents a flapping wing nano aerial vehicle which is designed to possess the same lift- and thrust-generating principles of the Rufous hummingbird. The application is indoor flight. We give an overview of the wing kinematics and some specifications which should be met to develop an artificial wing, and also describe the applications of these in the mechanism which has been developed in this work. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Calypte AWARE HIV-1/2 OMT antibody test using oral fluid: special challenges of rapid HIV testing in the developing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfried, Toby D; Mink, Ronald W; Phanuphak, Praphan

    2006-03-01

    The testing and counseling of persons at risk for infection with HIV and their subsequent treatment remains the primary tool to curb worldwide transmission of the virus. Rapid HIV tests address the need in the developing world for accurate, easy-to-use tests that do not require laboratory equipment or highly trained professionals for implementation or refrigeration for storage. Calypte Biomedical has recently developed the Calypte AWARE HIV-1/2 OMT antibody test using oral fluid samples. This test has demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity for specimens collected in target areas where increased testing is needed. The inexpensive dipstick format in combination with the use of an alternative fluid to blood provides an improved testing procedure for areas with limited resources.

  3. Adaptation in a plant-hummingbird association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temeles, Ethan J; Kress, W John

    2003-04-25

    Sexual dimorphism in bill morphology and body size of the Caribbean purple-throated carib hummingbird is associated with a reversal in floral dimorphism of its Heliconia food plants. This hummingbird is the sole pollinator of H. caribaea and H. bihai, with flowers of the former corresponding to the short, straight bills of males, the larger sex, and flowers of the latter corresponding to the long, curved bills of females. On St. Lucia, H. bihai compensates for the rarity of H. caribaea by evolving a second color morph with flowers that match the bills of males, whereas on Dominica, H. caribaea evolves a second color morph with flowers that match the bills of females. The nectar rewards of all Heliconia morphs are consistent with each sex's choice of the morph that corresponds to its bill morphology and energy requirements, supporting the hypothesis that feeding preferences have driven their coadaptation.

  4. Evaluation of Calypte AWARE HIV-1/2 OMT antibody test as a screening test in an Indian setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingole, N A; Mehta, P R; Bande, R N; Paranjpe, S M; Wanjare, S W

    2010-01-01

    Integrated counselling and testing centres (ICTC) provide counselling and blood testing facilities for HIV diagnosis. Oral fluid tests provide an alternative for people who do not want blood to be drawn. Also, it avoids the risk of occupational exposure. The goal of this study was to evaluate the utility of Calypte AWARE HIV-1/2 OMT antibody test as a screening test in an Indian setting. A cross-sectional study was carried out after ethics committee approval in 250 adult ICTC clients. Blood was collected and tested from these clients for HIV diagnosis as per routine policy and the results were considered as the gold standard. Also, after another written informed consent, oral fluid was collected from the clients and tested for the presence of HIV antibodies. Twenty five clients who had and 25 clients who had not completed their secondary school education (Group A and Group B, respectively) were also asked to perform and interpret the test on their own and their findings and experiences were noted. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of the oral fluid antibody test were 100%, 98.51%, 94.11% and 100%, respectively. Seventy six percent of clients preferred oral fluid testing. Group B found it difficult to perform the test as compared to Group A and this difference was statistically significant (P ≤ 0.05). Oral fluid testing can be used as a screening test for HIV diagnosis; however, confirmation of reactive results by blood-based tests is a must.

  5. Plant-hummingbird interactions in the West Indies: floral specialisation gradients associated with environment and hummingbird size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalsgaard, Bo; Martín González, Ana M; Olesen, Jens M; Ollerton, Jeff; Timmermann, Allan; Andersen, Laila H; Tossas, Adrianne G

    2009-04-01

    Floral phenotype and pollination system of a plant may be influenced by the abiotic environment and the local pollinator assemblage. This was investigated in seven plant-hummingbird assemblages on the West Indian islands of Grenada, Dominica and Puerto Rico. We report all hummingbird and insect pollinators of 49 hummingbird-pollinated plant species, as well as six quantitative and semi-quantitative floral characters that determine visitor restriction, attraction and reward. Using nonmetric multidimensional scaling analysis, we show that hummingbird-pollinated plants in the West Indies separate in floral phenotypic space into two gradients-one associated with the abiotic environment and another with hummingbird size. Plants pollinated by large, long-billed hummingbirds had flowers with long corolla tube, large amounts of nectar and showy orange-red colouration. These attracted few or no insect species, whereas plants pollinated by small, short-billed hummingbirds were frequently pollinated by insects, particularly lepidopterans. The separation of plants related to environmental factors showed that species in the wet and cold highlands produced large amounts of dilute nectar, possessed no or a weak odour, and were associated with few insects, particularly few hymenopterans, compared to plants in the dry and warm lowlands. The most specialised hummingbird-pollinated plants are found in the West Indian highlands where they are pollinated by mainly large, long-billed hummingbirds. At the other extreme, highly generalised plants growing in the dry and warm lowlands are pollinated by small, short-billed hummingbirds and numerous insect species. This illustrates that, even within the hummingbird-pollinated flora, pollination syndrome and the degree of specialisation may vary tremendously depending on pollinator morphology and environment.

  6. Evaluation of Calypte AWARE HIV-1/2 OMT antibody test as a screening test in an Indian setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingole N

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Integrated counselling and testing centres (ICTC provide counselling and blood testing facilities for HIV diagnosis. Oral fluid tests provide an alternative for people whodo not want blood to be drawn. Also, it avoids the risk of occupational exposure. The goal of this study was to evaluate the utility of Calypte AWARE HIV-1/2 OMT antibody test as a screening test in an Indian setting. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out after ethics committee approval in 250 adult ICTC clients. Blood was collected and tested from these clients for HIV diagnosis as per routine policy and the results were considered as the gold standard. Also, after another written informed consent, oral fluid was collected from the clients and tested for the presence of HIV antibodies. Twenty five clients who had and 25 clients who had not completed their secondary school education (Group A and Group B, respectively were also asked to perform and interpret the test on their own and their findings and experiences were noted. Result: The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of the oral fluid antibody test were 100%, 98.51%, 94.11% and 100%, respectively. Seventy six percent of clients preferred oral fluid testing. Group B found it difficult to perform the test as compared to Group A and this difference was statistically significant (P ≤ 0.05. Conclusion: Oral fluid testing can be used as a screening test for HIV diagnosis; however, confirmation of reactive results by blood-based tests is a must.

  7. Eesti goes St. Etienne / Anna Roomet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Roomet, Anna

    2006-01-01

    Näitus Eesti Kunstiakadeemia tootedisaini osakonna magistrantide viimase kahe aasta projektide paremikust esindas Eestit disainibiennaalil St. Etiennis Prantsusmaal. Näituse panid üles Pent Talvet ja Pavel Sidorenko, näitusel osalejad: Anna-Maria Einla, Kätlin Kangur, Triin Kuusler, Andri Laidre, Veiko Liis, Liina-Kai Raivet, P. Sidorenko, P. Talvet, Ingela Viks, Triin Voss

  8. A Teacher's Guide for "Anna Karenina."

    Science.gov (United States)

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    In 1870, after the successful publication of "War and Peace," Leo Tolstoy began imagining a story about a high-born society woman, "Anna Karenina," who destroys her life by having an adulterous affair. By presenting his adulteress as a sympathetic character, Tolstoy aimed to expose injustices in such Russian institutions as…

  9. Force production of a hovering hummingbird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Haoxiang; Song, Jialei; Hedrick, Tyson

    2013-11-01

    A three-dimensional numerical study is performed for a hovering Ruby-throated hummingbird (Archilochus colubris) based on an immersed-boundary method. To accurately model the unsteady aerodynamics, realistic 3D wing kinematics is reconstructed from high-speed images of the wing motion filmed at 1000 frames per second, resulting in 25 frames per flapping cycle. A high-resolution grid is employed to resolve the vortices shed from the wing. The results are validated by comparing the spanwise vorticity and circulation with the previous PIV data and also by calculating the average lift. The force production shows significant asymmetry with the downstroke producing lift 2.6 times as high as the upstroke, despite a nearly horizontal stroke plane. The total power consumption is around 55 W/kg, which is twice of previous estimate. In this presentation, we will discuss several mechanisms that lead to the force asymmetry, including the drag-based lift and the leading-edge vortex behavior. We will also address the role of wing-wake interaction, which appears to be different for the hummingbird than some of the insects such as fruit flies. Supported by NSF (No. CBET-0954381).

  10. Flight Performance and Competitive Displacement of Hummingbirds across Elevational Gradients

    OpenAIRE

    Altshuler, Douglas L.

    2006-01-01

    Hummingbirds, with their impressive flight ability and competitive aerial contests, make ideal candidates for applying a mechanistic approach to studying community structure. Because flight costs are influenced by abiotic factors that change systematically with altitude, elevational gradients provide natural experiments for hummingbird flight ecology. Prior attempts relied on wing disc loading (WDL) as a morphological surrogate for flight performance, but recent analyses indicate this variabl...

  11. Phylogenetic structure in tropical hummingbird communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graham, Catherine H; Parra, Juan L; Rahbek, Carsten;

    2009-01-01

    composition of 189 hummingbird communities in Ecuador. We assessed how species and phylogenetic composition changed along environmental gradients and across biogeographic barriers. We show that humid, low-elevation communities are phylogenetically overdispersed (coexistence of distant relatives), a pattern...... an expensive means of locomotion at high elevations. We found that communities in the lowlands on opposite sides of the Andes tend to be phylogenetically similar despite their large differences in species composition, a pattern implicating the Andes as an important dispersal barrier. In contrast, along...... the steep environmental gradient between the lowlands and the Andes we found evidence that species turnover is comprised of relatively distantly related species. The integration of local and regional patterns of diversity across environmental gradients and biogeographic barriers provides insight...

  12. Molecular phylogenetics of the hummingbird genus Coeligena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Juan Luis; Remsen, J V; Alvarez-Rebolledo, Mauricio; McGuire, Jimmy A

    2009-11-01

    Advances in the understanding of biological radiations along tropical mountains depend on the knowledge of phylogenetic relationships among species. Here we present a species-level molecular phylogeny based on a multilocus dataset for the Andean hummingbird genus Coeligena. We compare this phylogeny to previous hypotheses of evolutionary relationships and use it as a framework to understand patterns in the evolution of sexual dichromatism and in the biogeography of speciation within the Andes. Previous phylogenetic hypotheses based mostly on similarities in coloration conflicted with our molecular phylogeny, emphasizing the unreliability of color characters for phylogenetic inference. Two major clades, one monochromatic and the other dichromatic, were found in Coeligena. Closely related species were either allopatric or parapatric on opposite mountain slopes. No sister lineages replaced each other along an elevational gradient. Our results indicate the importance of geographic isolation for speciation in this group and the potential interaction between isolation and sexual selection to promote diversification.

  13. Professor dr hab. Anna Maria Bujakiewicz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kujawa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the biography and scientific achievements of Professor Anna Bujakiewicz. After receiving her master’s degree and doctorate in biology and mycology from Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Professor Bujakiewicz continued her exciting research and teaching on mycology at her Alma Mater Posnaniensis for more than 50 years. Her publications in this field include many books, articles, and other scholarly reports.

  14. Hummingbird conservation: discovering diversity patterns in southwest U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan M. Wethington; George C. West; Barbara A. Carlson

    2005-01-01

    Using data obtained in 2002 and 2003 from sites in the Hummingbird Monitoring Network, we investigated the effect of geographic factors—latitude, longitude, and elevation—and year on hummingbird diversity patterns in Southwestern U.S.A. In California, none of these factors affected hummingbird richness but elevation significantly affected abundance. In southeastern...

  15. Field Flight Dynamics of Hummingbirds during Territory Encroachment and Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholtis, Katherine M; Shelton, Ryan M; Hedrick, Tyson L

    2015-01-01

    Hummingbirds are known to defend food resources such as nectar sources from encroachment by competitors (including conspecifics). These competitive intraspecific interactions provide an opportunity to quantify the biomechanics of hummingbird flight performance during ecologically relevant natural behavior. We recorded the three-dimensional flight trajectories of Ruby-throated Hummingbirds defending, being chased from and freely departing from a feeder. These trajectories allowed us to compare natural flight performance to earlier laboratory measurements of maximum flight speed, aerodynamic force generation and power estimates. During field observation, hummingbirds rarely approached the maximal flight speeds previously reported from wind tunnel tests and never did so during level flight. However, the accelerations and rates of change in kinetic and potential energy we recorded indicate that these hummingbirds likely operated near the maximum of their flight force and metabolic power capabilities during these competitive interactions. Furthermore, although birds departing from the feeder while chased did so faster than freely-departing birds, these speed gains were accomplished by modulating kinetic and potential energy gains (or losses) rather than increasing overall power output, essentially trading altitude for speed during their evasive maneuver. Finally, the trajectories of defending birds were directed toward the position of the encroaching bird rather than the feeder.

  16. Into rude air: hummingbird flight performance in variable aerial environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Jimenez, V M; Badger, M; Wang, H; Dudley, R

    2016-09-26

    Hummingbirds are well known for their ability to sustain hovering flight, but many other remarkable features of manoeuvrability characterize the more than 330 species of trochilid. Most research on hummingbird flight has been focused on either forward flight or hovering in otherwise non-perturbed air. In nature, however, hummingbirds fly through and must compensate for substantial environmental perturbation, including heavy rain, unpredictable updraughts and turbulent eddies. Here, we review recent studies on hummingbirds flying within challenging aerial environments, and discuss both the direct and indirect effects of unsteady environmental flows such as rain and von Kármán vortex streets. Both perturbation intensity and the spatio-temporal scale of disturbance (expressed with respect to characteristic body size) will influence mechanical responses of volant taxa. Most features of hummingbird manoeuvrability remain undescribed, as do evolutionary patterns of flight-related adaptation within the lineage. Trochilid flight performance under natural conditions far exceeds that of microair vehicles at similar scales, and the group as a whole presents many research opportunities for understanding aerial manoeuvrability.This article is part of the themed issue 'Moving in a moving medium: new perspectives on flight'.

  17. Field Flight Dynamics of Hummingbirds during Territory Encroachment and Defense.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine M Sholtis

    Full Text Available Hummingbirds are known to defend food resources such as nectar sources from encroachment by competitors (including conspecifics. These competitive intraspecific interactions provide an opportunity to quantify the biomechanics of hummingbird flight performance during ecologically relevant natural behavior. We recorded the three-dimensional flight trajectories of Ruby-throated Hummingbirds defending, being chased from and freely departing from a feeder. These trajectories allowed us to compare natural flight performance to earlier laboratory measurements of maximum flight speed, aerodynamic force generation and power estimates. During field observation, hummingbirds rarely approached the maximal flight speeds previously reported from wind tunnel tests and never did so during level flight. However, the accelerations and rates of change in kinetic and potential energy we recorded indicate that these hummingbirds likely operated near the maximum of their flight force and metabolic power capabilities during these competitive interactions. Furthermore, although birds departing from the feeder while chased did so faster than freely-departing birds, these speed gains were accomplished by modulating kinetic and potential energy gains (or losses rather than increasing overall power output, essentially trading altitude for speed during their evasive maneuver. Finally, the trajectories of defending birds were directed toward the position of the encroaching bird rather than the feeder.

  18. Into turbulent air: size-dependent effects of von Kármán vortex streets on hummingbird flight kinematics and energetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Jimenez, Victor M; Sapir, Nir; Wolf, Marta; Variano, Evan A; Dudley, Robert

    2014-05-22

    Animal fliers frequently move through a variety of perturbed flows during their daily aerial routines. However, the extent to which these perturbations influence flight control and energetic expenditure is essentially unknown. Here, we evaluate the kinematic and metabolic consequences of flight within variably sized vortex shedding flows using five Anna's hummingbirds feeding from an artificial flower in steady control flow and within vortex wakes produced behind vertical cylinders. Tests were conducted at three horizontal airspeeds (3, 6 and 9 m s(-1)) and using three different wake-generating cylinders (with diameters equal to 38, 77 and 173% of birds' wing length). Only minimal effects on wing and body kinematics were demonstrated for flight behind the smallest cylinder, whereas flight behind the medium-sized cylinder resulted in significant increases in the variances of wingbeat frequency, and variances of body orientation, especially at higher airspeeds. Metabolic rate was, however, unchanged relative to that of unperturbed flight. Hummingbirds flying within the vortex street behind the largest cylinder exhibited highest increases in variances of wingbeat frequency, and of body roll, pitch and yaw amplitudes at all measured airspeeds. Impressively, metabolic rate under this last condition increased by up to 25% compared with control flights. Cylinder wakes sufficiently large to interact with both wings can thus strongly affect stability in flight, eliciting compensatory kinematic changes with a consequent increase in flight metabolic costs. Our findings suggest that vortical flows frequently encountered by aerial taxa in diverse environments may impose substantial energetic costs.

  19. Languages across boundaries: studies in memory of Anna Siewierska

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, D.; Haspelmath, H.

    2013-01-01

    This book is dedicated to Anna Siewierska, who died, far too young, in 2011. It contains 15 contributions by 20 linguists who may be counted among the foremost scholars in the field of linguistic typology. All of these articles discuss a topic that is prominent in Anna's work, whose journal articles

  20. Sugar Metabolism in Hummingbirds and Nectar Bats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul K. Suarez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hummingbirds and nectar bats coevolved with the plants they visit to feed on floral nectars rich in sugars. The extremely high metabolic costs imposed by small size and hovering flight in combination with reliance upon sugars as their main source of dietary calories resulted in convergent evolution of a suite of structural and functional traits. These allow high rates of aerobic energy metabolism in the flight muscles, fueled almost entirely by the oxidation of dietary sugars, during flight. High intestinal sucrase activities enable high rates of sucrose hydrolysis. Intestinal absorption of glucose and fructose occurs mainly through a paracellular pathway. In the fasted state, energy metabolism during flight relies on the oxidation of fat synthesized from previously-ingested sugar. During repeated bouts of hover-feeding, the enhanced digestive capacities, in combination with high capacities for sugar transport and oxidation in the flight muscles, allow the operation of the “sugar oxidation cascade”, the pathway by which dietary sugars are directly oxidized by flight muscles during exercise. It is suggested that the potentially harmful effects of nectar diets are prevented by locomotory exercise, just as in human hunter-gatherers who consume large quantities of honey.

  1. Flight mechanics and control of escape manoeuvres in hummingbirds. I. Flight kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Bo; Tobalske, Bret W; Powers, Donald R; Hedrick, Tyson L; Wethington, Susan M; Chiu, George T C; Deng, Xinyan

    2016-11-15

    Hummingbirds are nature's masters of aerobatic manoeuvres. Previous research shows that hummingbirds and insects converged evolutionarily upon similar aerodynamic mechanisms and kinematics in hovering. Herein, we use three-dimensional kinematic data to begin to test for similar convergence of kinematics used for escape flight and to explore the effects of body size upon manoeuvring. We studied four hummingbird species in North America including two large species (magnificent hummingbird, Eugenes fulgens, 7.8 g, and blue-throated hummingbird, Lampornis clemenciae, 8.0 g) and two smaller species (broad-billed hummingbird, Cynanthus latirostris, 3.4 g, and black-chinned hummingbirds Archilochus alexandri, 3.1 g). Starting from a steady hover, hummingbirds consistently manoeuvred away from perceived threats using a drastic escape response that featured body pitch and roll rotations coupled with a large linear acceleration. Hummingbirds changed their flapping frequency and wing trajectory in all three degrees of freedom on a stroke-by-stroke basis, likely causing rapid and significant alteration of the magnitude and direction of aerodynamic forces. Thus it appears that the flight control of hummingbirds does not obey the 'helicopter model' that is valid for similar escape manoeuvres in fruit flies. Except for broad-billed hummingbirds, the hummingbirds had faster reaction times than those reported for visual feedback control in insects. The two larger hummingbird species performed pitch rotations and global-yaw turns with considerably larger magnitude than the smaller species, but roll rates and cumulative roll angles were similar among the four species. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Premigratory fat metabolism in hummingbirds: A rumsfeldian approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul K. SUAREZ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Hummingbird migration is a remarkable feat, given the small body sizes of migratory species, their high metabolic rates during flight and the long distances traveled using fat to fuel the effort. Equally remarkable is the ability of premigratory hummingbirds in the wild to accumulate fat, synthesized from sugar, at rates as high as 10% of body mass per day. This paper summarizes, using Rumsfeldian terminology, “known knowns” concerning the energetics of hummingbird migration and premigratory fattening. Energy metabolism during hover-feeding on floral nectar is fueled directly by dietary sugar through the pathway recently named the “sugar oxidation cascade”. However, flight without feeding for more than a few minutes requires shifting to fat as a fuel. It is proposed that behavior and metabolic fuel choice are coadapted to maximize the rate of fat deposition during premigratory fattening. The hummingbird liver appears to possess extraordinarily high capacities for fatty acid synthesis. The analysis of “known knowns” leads to identification of “known unknowns”, e.g., the fates of dietary glucose and fructose, the regulation of fat metabolism and metabolic interactions between liver and adipose tissue. The history of science behooves recognition of “unknown unknowns” that, when discovered serendipitously, might shed new light on fundamental mechanisms as well as human pathological conditions [Current Zoology 59 (3: 371–380, 2013].

  3. The macroecology of phylogenetically structured hummingbird-plant networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez, Ana M. Martin; Dalsgaard, Bo; Nogues, David Bravo

    2015-01-01

    ° N–32° S), ranging from sea level to c. 3700 m a.s.l., located on the mainland and on islands and covering a wide range of climate regimes. Methods We measured the level of specialization and modularity in mutualistic plant–hummingbird interaction networks. Using an ordinary least squares multimodel...

  4. Premigratory fat metabolism in hummingbirds:A Rumsfeldian approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raul K.SUAREZ

    2013-01-01

    Hummingbird migration is a remarkable feat,given the small body sizes of migratory species,their high metabolic rates during flight and the long distances traveled using fat to fuel the effort.Equally remarkable is the ability of premigratory hummingbirds in the wild to accumulate fat,synthesized from sugar,at rates as high as 10% of body mass per day.This paper summarizes,using Rumsfeldian terminology,“known knowns” concerning the energetics of hummingbird migration and premigratory fattening.Energy metabolism during hover-feeding on floral nectar is fueled directly by dietary sugar through the path-way recently named the “sugar oxidation cascade”.However,flight without feeding for more than a few minutes requires shifting to fat as a fuel.It is proposed that behavior and metabolic fuel choice are coadapted to maximize the rate of fat deposition during premigratory fattening.The hummingbird liver appears to possess extraordinarily high capacities for fatty acid synthesis.The analysis of “known knowns” leads to identification of “known unknowns”,e.g.,the fates of dietary glucose and fructose,the regulation of fat metabolism and metabolic interactions between liver and adipose tissue.The history of science behooves recognition of“unknown unknowns” that,when discovered serendipitously,might shed new light on fundamental mechanisms as well as human pathological conditions.

  5. Hummingbird: Ultra-Lightweight Cryptography for Resource-Constrained Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Daniel; Fan, Xinxin; Gong, Guang; Hu, Honggang; Smith, Eric M.

    Due to the tight cost and constrained resources of high-volume consumer devices such as RFID tags, smart cards and wireless sensor nodes, it is desirable to employ lightweight and specialized cryptographic primitives for many security applications. Motivated by the design of the well-known Enigma machine, we present a novel ultra-lightweight cryptographic algorithm, referred to as Hummingbird, for resource-constrained devices in this paper. Hummingbird can provide the designed security with small block size and is resistant to the most common attacks such as linear and differential cryptanalysis. Furthermore, we also present efficient software implementation of Hummingbird on the 8-bit microcontroller ATmega128L from Atmel and the 16-bit microcontroller MSP430 from Texas Instruments, respectively. Our experimental results show that after a system initialization phase Hummingbird can achieve up to 147 and 4.7 times faster throughput for a size-optimized and a speed-optimized implementations, respectively, when compared to the state-of-the-art ultra-lightweight block cipher PRESENT[10] on the similar platforms.

  6. Flight performance and competitive displacement of hummingbirds across elevational gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altshuler, Douglas L

    2006-02-01

    Hummingbirds, with their impressive flight ability and competitive aerial contests, make ideal candidates for applying a mechanistic approach to studying community structure. Because flight costs are influenced by abiotic factors that change systematically with altitude, elevational gradients provide natural experiments for hummingbird flight ecology. Prior attempts relied on wing disc loading (WDL) as a morphological surrogate for flight performance, but recent analyses indicate this variable does not influence either territorial behavior or competitive ability. Aerodynamic power, by contrast, can be derived from direct measurements of performance and, like WDL, declines across elevations. Here, I demonstrate for a diverse community of Andean hummingbirds that burst aerodynamic power is associated with territorial behavior. Along a second elevational gradient in Colorado, I tested for correlated changes in aerodynamic power and competitive ability in two territorial hummingbirds. This behavioral analysis revealed that short-winged Selasphorus rufus males are dominant over long-winged Selasphorus platycercus males at low elevations but that the roles are reversed at higher elevations. Several lines of evidence support the hypothesis that the burst rather than sustained aerodynamic performance mediates competitive ability at high elevation. A minimum value for burst power may be required for successful competition, but other maneuverability features gain importance when all competitors have sufficient muscle power, as occurs at low elevations.

  7. Western armament and tactics in the writings of Anna Komnene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drašković Marko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, first we reconstructed and commented the western horseman's armament witch Anna Komnene had known (long spear, cross-bow, chain mail "Norman" shield, solarets. Afterwards, we established that Anne knew four types of western horseman's attack (attack in full gallop, attack from back slow march, attack from flank and three types of their battle formation (strewn formation, congested formation, formation of two columns. Also, we commented Anna's knowledge of western siege engines (battering-ram, tortoise catapult, siege tower; we established that Anne knew five types of western siege tower. In the end, we commented several fragments witch show Anna Komnene's knowledge of the western siege tactics.

  8. Kundnöjdheten i Hotel Anna

    OpenAIRE

    Boije, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    I dagens läge värderas kundrelationer högt inom marknadsföringen. Kundnöjdhet förknippas med lönsamhet och ses som en långsiktig investering. Hotel Anna är ett litet hotell i centrala Helsingfors och fungerar som min uppdragsgivare. Syftet med detta arbete är att utreda kundnöjdheten samt hur kundbetjäning och kvalitet upplevs i hotellet. Delsyftet är också att hitta kundnöjdhets förbättringsförslag för hotellet. Den teoretiska referensramen består av teori som behandlar tjänster, kvalitet, k...

  9. Relating form to function in the hummingbird feeding apparatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Rico-Guevara

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A complete understanding of the feeding structures is fundamental in order to study how animals survive. Some birds use long and protrusible tongues as the main tool to collect their central caloric source (e.g., woodpeckers and nectarivores. Hummingbirds are the oldest and most diverse clade of nectarivorous vertebrates, being a perfect subject to study tongue specializations. Their tongue functions to intraorally transport arthropods through their long bills and enables them to exploit the nectarivorous niche by collecting small amounts of liquid, therefore it is of vital importance to study its anatomy and structure at various scales. I focused on the portions of the hummingbird tongue that have been shown to be key for understanding their feeding mechanisms. I used histology, transmission and scanning electron microscopy, microCT, and ex-vivo experiments in order to advance the comprehension of the morphology and functioning of the hummingbird feeding apparatus. I found that hummingbird tongues are composed mainly of thin cornified epithelium, lack papillae, and completely fill the internal cast of the rostral oropharyngeal cavity. Understanding this puzzle-piece match between bill and tongue will be essential for the study of intraoral transport of nectar. Likewise, I found that the structural composition and tissue architecture of the tongue groove walls provide the rostral portion of the tongue with elastic properties that are central to the study of tongue-nectar interactions during the feeding process. Detailed studies on hummingbirds set the basis for comparisons with other nectar-feeding birds and contribute to comprehend the natural solutions to collecting liquids in the most efficient way possible.

  10. Anna Nava, baluarte da Escola Anna Nery (anos 1940/1970 Anna Nava, baluarte de la Escuela Anna Nery (años 1940/1970 Anna Nava, Escola Anna Nery´s (Anna Nery´s School bastion (1940s/1970s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suely de Souza Baptista

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Pesquisa histórico-biográfica que apresenta a trajetória de vida da enfermeira Anna Jaguaribe da Silva Nava (1910-2005. No período no qual transcorreu sua vida, o panorama nacional foi, por várias vezes, radicalmente alterado. Sua atuação como professora da Escola Anna Nery vai de 1940 a 1977. O texto foi construído a partir do depoimento oral da protagonista, concedido em 2003 e por ela doado ao Centro de Documentação da Escola de Enfermagem Anna Nery. O presente trabalho tem como interesse principal o entrelaçamento da história de vida desta personagem com as gestões de três diretoras da EAN, desde a época em que a Escola Anna Nery era padrão oficial para o ensino de enfermagem no país até o período da vigência da Lei 775/49.Investigación histórica y bibliográfica que presenta la trayectoria de vida de la enfermera Anna Jaguaribe da Silva Nava (1910-2005. Durante el periodo de su vida, el panorama nacional sufrió, en diversas ocasiones, cambios radicales. Fue Profesora de la Escuela Anna Nery entre 1940 y 1977. El texto fue elaborado a partir del testimonio oral de la protagonista concebido en 2003, y donado por ella al Centro de Documentación de la Escuela de Enfermería Anna Nery. Este trabajo tiene como centro de interés principal el entrelazamiento de la historia de vida de este personaje y las gestiones de tres directoras de la EAN. Incluye la época en que la Escuela Anna Nery fue el estándar oficial para la enseñanza de enfermería en el país hasta el periodo de la vigencia de la Ley 775/49.A historical biographical research that presents nurse Anna Jaguaribe da Silva Nava´s life path (1910-2005. During the period in which her life elapsed, the national panorama changed radically for many times. Her performance as Escola Anna Nery´s professor took place from 1940 to 1977. The text was built over the protagonist´s own oral report, given in 2003 and donated by herself to the Documentation Center of Anna

  11. Adipose energy stores, physical work, and the metabolic syndrome: lessons from hummingbirds

    OpenAIRE

    Hargrove James L

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Hummingbirds and other nectar-feeding, migratory birds possess unusual adaptive traits that offer important lessons concerning obesity, diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. Hummingbirds consume a high sugar diet and have fasting glucose levels that would be severely hyperglycemic in humans, yet these nectar-fed birds recover most glucose that is filtered into the urine. Hummingbirds accumulate over 40% body fat shortly before migrations in the spring and autumn. Despite hyperglycemia...

  12. Pollination syndromes ignored: importance of non-ornithophilous flowers to Neotropical savanna hummingbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Pietro K.; Oliveira, Genilda M.; Ferreira, Carolina; Dalsgaard, Bo; Oliveira, Paulo E.

    2013-11-01

    Generalization prevails in flower-animal interactions, and although animal visitors are not equally effective pollinators, most interactions likely represent an important energy intake for the animal visitor. Hummingbirds are nectar-feeding specialists, and many tropical plants are specialized toward hummingbird-pollination. In spite of this, especially in dry and seasonal tropical habitats, hummingbirds may often rely on non-ornithophilous plants to meet their energy requirements. However, quantitative studies evaluating the relative importance of ornithophilous vs. non-ornithophilous plants for hummingbirds in these areas are scarce. We here studied the availability and use of floral resources by hummingbirds in two different areas of the Cerrado, the seasonal savannas in Central Brazil. Roughly half the hummingbird visited plant species were non-ornithophilous, and these contributed greatly to increase the overall nectar availability. We showed that mean nectar offer, at the transect scale, was the only parameter related to hummingbird visitation frequency, more so than nectar offer at single flowers and at the plant scale, or pollination syndrome. Centrality indices, calculated using hummingbird-plant networks, showed that ornithophilous and non-ornithophilous plants have similar importance for network cohesion. How this foraging behaviour affects reproduction of non-ornithophilous plants remains largely unexplored and is probably case specific, however, we suggest that the additional energy provided by non-ornithophilous plants may facilitate reproduction of truly ornithophilous flowers by attracting and maintaining hummingbirds in the area. This may promote asymmetric hummingbird-plant associations, i.e., pollination depends on floral traits adapted to hummingbird morphology, but hummingbird visitation is determined more by the energetic "reward" than by pollination syndromes.

  13. The hummingbird community and their floral resources in an urban forest remnant in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LC. Rodrigues

    Full Text Available The temporal and spatial resource use among hummingbirds was studied over 13 months in an urban forest remnant (Prosa State Park: PSP in Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Hummingbird visitation was recorded at three ornithophilous and eleven non-ornithophilous species. Flower density was roughly constant during the study period, with the density of non-ornithophilous flowers being higher than that of ornithophilous ones. Mean values of nectar volume and concentration were similar between ornithophilous and non-ornithophilous species. Eight hummingbird species were observed at PSP: Amazilia fimbriata, Anthracothorax nigricollis, Chlorostilbon lucidus, Eupetomena macroura, Hylocharis chrysura, Florisuga fusca, Thalurania furcata and an unidentified species. Hummingbird visit frequencies to ornithophilous and non-ornithophilous flowers were similar. However, some non-ornithophilous species received a higher number of visits, which seems to be related to their large number of open flowers per plant per day. The number of feedings bouts of hummingbirds increased with the total number of flowers observed per focal plant. All recorded species of hummingbirds visited non-ornithophilous flowers, predominantly melittophilous and generalised entomophilous flowers. Hummingbird species recorded at PSP may be viewed as generalists, visiting a large number of non-ornithophilous species. Despite being an urban forest, PSP is relatively rich in hummingbird species, suggesting that it provides important shelter and foraging sites for hummingbirds in such an environment.

  14. Anna Pavlova, danzatrice eurasiana? (I parte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Mei

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract – IT Prima diva nella costellazione di nuove star dello spettacolo novecentesco, Anna Pavlova visse unicamente nello spirito e nella missione della danza come forma d’arte e stile di vita. Senza temere i rischi del solipsismo, si lancia nell’avventura di una compagnia tutta sua dopo il clamore parigino dei Ballets Russes. Il suo coraggio, la sua curiosità, il suo genio artistico la portano a viaggiare per i cinque continenti senza sosta, a scoprire danze tradizionali, a praticarle essa stessa, come quelle kabuki, apprese non senza sofferenze in Giappone nel 1922. Presentata nella vulgata come paladina della tradizione classicoaccademica, Pavlova può ostentare una biografia degna delle grandi danzatrici moderne a lei contemporanee, come una Duncan o una Ruth St. Denis (con quest’ultima in rapporto di competizione a distanza intorno al soggetto di Radha. Insieme ad una figura controversa e intrigante come quella del danzatore indiano Uday Shankar, crea un trittico di danze di ispirazione orientale all’insegna del rigore filologico e dell’integrazione linguistica, traccia della sua apertura e del rispetto di tradizioni teatrali altre. Abstract – EN Anna Pavlova, the first diva within the stars firmament of the 20th century, spent her life exclusively in the spirit of dance, intended as an art form and a life style, as if it were a mission. She threw herself into the adventure of leading her own company, after the Ballets Russes' European acclaim. Her courage, curiosity and artistic genius took her through five continents, endlessly searching for traditional dances that she learned with tremendous physical suffering, as in Japan with kabuki in 1922. She’s not simply a paladin of the academic tradition. She can in fact claim a biography and dance practice worthy of the most famous modern dancers who lived in her age, such as Duncan and St. Denis (with whom she was in a special competition, though after years, on the subject

  15. Evidence for ecological causation of sexual dimorphism in a hummingbird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temeles, E J; Pan, I L; Brennan, J L; Horwitt, J N

    2000-07-21

    Unambiguous examples of ecological causes of animal sexual dimorphism are rare. Here we present evidence for ecological causation of sexual dimorphism in the bill morphology of a hummingbird, the purple-throated carib. This hummingbird is the sole pollinator of two Heliconia species whose flowers correspond to the bills of either males or females. Each sex feeds most quickly at the flower species approximating its bill dimensions, which supports the hypothesis that floral specialization has driven the evolution of bill dimorphism. Further evidence for ecological causation of sexual dimorphism was provided by a geographic replacement of one Heliconia species by the other and the subsequent development of a floral dimorphism, with one floral morph matching the bills of males and the other of females.

  16. Optic flow stabilizes flight in ruby-throated hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, Ivo G; Biewener, Andrew A

    2016-08-15

    Flying birds rely on visual cues for retinal image stabilization by negating rotation-induced optic flow, the motion of the visual panorama across the retina, through corrective eye and head movements. In combination with vestibular and proprioceptive feedback, birds may also use visual cues to stabilize their body during flight. Here, we test whether artificially induced wide-field motion generated through projected visual patterns elicits maneuvers in body orientation and flight position, in addition to stabilizing vision. To test this hypothesis, we present hummingbirds flying freely within a 1.2 m cylindrical visual arena with a virtual surround rotated at different speeds about its vertical axis. The birds responded robustly to these visual perturbations by rotating their heads and bodies with the moving visual surround, and by adjusting their flight trajectories, following the surround. Thus, similar to insects, hummingbirds appear to use optic flow cues to control flight maneuvers as well as to stabilize their visual inputs.

  17. Anna Masecchia, Metropolis. Quaderni di Synapsis IX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niccolò Scaffai

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Giunta alla nona edizione (Pontignano, 8-15 settembre 2008, la Scuola Europea di Studi Comparati fondata da Roberto Bigazzi, Laura Caretti e Remo Ceserani conferma la sua ispirazione originaria, che la vuole luogo d’incontro tra studiosi di diverse nazionalità e competenze, pronti a far reagire i soggetti delle proprie ricerche con prospettive di metodo aggiornate; e fucina di idee e confronti tra i docenti, i tutor e i più giovani partecipanti alle lezioni e ai seminari che si svolgono durante la settimana di comune residenza, ad anni alterni presso le due sedi ‘storiche’: la certosa di Pontignano vicino Siena e la rocca di Bertinoro in Romagna. L’argomento dell’ultimo Quaderno, Metropolis, è stato declinato come sempre nelle varie forme sollecitate dai molteplici percorsi intellettuali degli intervenuti: come spiega infatti Anna Masecchia nella Premessa al volume, la metropoli è stata intesa tanto quale «spazio associativo e di organizzazione di una civiltà e dell’identità di una intera cultura», quanto come «rapporto del soggetto con lo spazio concreto e simbolico» della città. Questo prendendo in considerazione non solo la letteratura scritta, ma anche la fotografia, il cinema e naturalmente il teatro, che offre una «rappresentazione della metropoli come spazio ‘scenico’» (pp. VI-VII.

  18. Anna Politkovskaya: Rússlands Pútíns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pétur Berg Matthíasson

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Í umsögn gagnrýnanda kemur meðal annars eftirfarandi fram: Fram kemur í lok bókarinnar að Anna hafi illan bifur á Pútín. Það kemur lesandanum í sjálfu sér ekki á óvart enda bókin upptalning á skelfilegum atburðum sem lýsa hvers konar stjórnvöldum hann fer fyrir, fyrir utan það að Pútín gerir lítið sem ekkert til að breyta því til hins betra. Þessi bók er nauðsynleg fyrir alla þá sem vilja skyggnast bak við tjöldin og sjá Rússland eins og það er í raun og veru.

  19. Paediatrics and psychoanalysis--Miss Anna Freud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Miss Anna Freud died during the winter at the age of 86. She had been a pioneer in the understanding of children through psychoanalysis and a great champion of the rights of children. Her life began in Vienna as the youngest child of Sigmund Freud, and her early work with children was in Austria. In 1938, because of the Nazi régime and even though she was nursing her father during his terminal illness, she had to escape with him to London. Her work with homeless children and with those in residential nurseries in London during the second world war is well known, as is her work on child development and psychopathology in the postwar years. But one less well known aspect of her life that was of immense importance to a few fortunate British paediatricians was the 'paediatric group' that she ran for over a quarter of a century and which Dr Christine Cooper recalled at the memorial meeting in London earlier this year. PMID:6344806

  20. Hummingbirds at artificial flowers made to resemble ornithophiles versus melittophiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wyndee A. Guzman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Certain floral characteristics are associated with specific pollinators. Hummingbird-pollinated flowers are usually red, lack a landing platform, lack nectar guides, and contain a high amount of dilute sucrose-rich nectar. Here we test hypotheses concerning the reasons for these characters to the extent that they involve hummingbird responses. An array was set up of 16 artificial plants, each with five artificial flowers. (1 Flowers made to differ only in colour elicited a slight preference for red. (2 When colour was associated with nectar offerings, and birds generally learned to visit flowers that provided much more nectar but did not associatively learn differences as little as 2 µL. (3 Birds were offered 8 µL of 12% sucrose versus 2 µL of 48% hexose, and they did not prefer the dilute nectar; they showed no evidence of discerning sucrose from hexose; however, they preferred 48% over 12% sucrose when both were offered in the same quantity. (4 Birds preferred flowers that lacked landing platforms over those with landing platforms. (5 Birds were offered flowers with nectar guides, associated with differing nectar volumes, and they did not associate the higher nectar reward with either flower type. In summary, the feedback from hummingbirds reflects some of the differences between bird- and bee-adapted flowers, but nectar seemed less predictive than expected. Factors other than the behavioural proclivities of hummingbirds, such as adaptation to discourage bees, are discussed as additional causes for the differences between the syndromes. We also discuss significance testing for field experiments involving one unreplicated array.

  1. Into Turbulent Air: Hummingbird Aerodynamic Control in Unsteady Circumstances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-24

    of this study, we also completed analysis of hummingbird kinematic responses to transient vertical gusts and to flight in sheared flows , and have...Distribution A - Approved for Public Release 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT We have completed and published experimental results and analysis pertaining...enough to interact with both wings elicited the greatest changes in roll, pitch, and yaw fluctuations, and also induced major increases in metabolic

  2. Heat dissipation during hovering and forward flight in hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Donald R; Tobalske, Bret W; Wilson, J Keaton; Woods, H Arthur; Corder, Keely R

    2015-12-01

    Flying animals generate large amounts of heat, which must be dissipated to avoid overheating. In birds, heat dissipation is complicated by feathers, which cover most body surfaces and retard heat loss. To understand how birds manage heat budgets during flight, it is critical to know how heat moves from the skin to the external environment. Hummingbirds are instructive because they fly at speeds from 0 to more than 12 m s(-1), during which they transit from radiative to convective heat loss. We used infrared thermography and particle image velocimetry to test the effects of flight speed on heat loss from specific body regions in flying calliope hummingbirds (Selasphorus calliope). We measured heat flux in a carcass with and without plumage to test the effectiveness of the insulation layer. In flying hummingbirds, the highest thermal gradients occurred in key heat dissipation areas (HDAs) around the eyes, axial region and feet. Eye and axial surface temperatures were 8°C or more above air temperature, and remained relatively constant across speeds suggesting physiological regulation of skin surface temperature. During hovering, birds dangled their feet, which enhanced radiative heat loss. In addition, during hovering, near-body induced airflows from the wings were low except around the feet (approx. 2.5 m s(-1)), which probably enhanced convective heat loss. Axial HDA and maximum surface temperature exhibited a shallow U-shaped pattern across speeds, revealing a localized relationship with power production in flight in the HDA closest to the primary flight muscles. We conclude that hummingbirds actively alter routes of heat dissipation as a function of flight speed.

  3. Toxic metals and associated sporulated bacteria on Andean hummingbird feathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góngora, Esteban; Cadena, Carlos Daniel; Dussán, Jenny

    2016-11-01

    Human activities in the Sabana de Bogotá, Colombia, release toxic metals such as lead (Pb) and chromium (Cr) into the environment polluting the air, water, and soil. Because birds are in contact with these pollutants and their sources, they may serve as bioindicator organisms. We evaluated the use of hummingbird feathers obtained from individuals captured in three sites of the Sabana de Bogotá as bioindicators of toxic metal pollution using spectrophotometric and spectroscopic methods based on single-feather samples. We also characterized the bacterial microbiota associated with hummingbird feathers by molecular identification using the 16S rRNA with a special focus on sporulated bacteria. Finally, we described the interactions which naturally occur among the feathers, their associated bacteria, and pollutants. We found differences in Pb and Cr concentrations between sampling sites, which ranged from 2.11 to 4.69 ppm and 0.38 to 3.00 ppm, respectively. This may reflect the impact of the activities held in those sites which release pollutants to the environment. Bacterial assemblages mainly consisted of sporulated bacilli in the Bacillaceae family (65.7 % of the identified morphotypes). We conclude that the feathers of wild tropical birds, including hummingbirds, can be used as lead and chromium bioindicators and that bacteria growing on feathers may in fact interact with these two toxic metals.

  4. Partei tuhandete ja enda kommiraha eest 462 häält / Anna-Maria Galojan ; interv. Rainer Kerge

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Galojan, Anna-Maria, 1982-

    2007-01-01

    Intervjuu parlamendivalimistel osalenud politoloogiamagistrant Anna-Maria Galojaniga tema osalemisest valimistel. Vt. samas: Kes on Anna-Maria Galojan? Küsimustele vastab Reformierakonna kampaaniajuht Arto Aas

  5. Partei tuhandete ja enda kommiraha eest 462 häält / Anna-Maria Galojan ; interv. Rainer Kerge

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Galojan, Anna-Maria, 1982-

    2007-01-01

    Intervjuu parlamendivalimistel osalenud politoloogiamagistrant Anna-Maria Galojaniga tema osalemisest valimistel. Vt. samas: Kes on Anna-Maria Galojan? Küsimustele vastab Reformierakonna kampaaniajuht Arto Aas

  6. Hummingbird pollination and the diversification of angiosperms: an old and successful association in Gesneriaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Serrano, Martha Liliana; Rolland, Jonathan; Clark, John L; Salamin, Nicolas; Perret, Mathieu

    2017-04-12

    The effects of specific functional groups of pollinators in the diversification of angiosperms are still to be elucidated. We investigated whether the pollination shifts or the specific association with hummingbirds affected the diversification of a highly diverse angiosperm lineage in the Neotropics. We reconstructed a phylogeny of 583 species from the Gesneriaceae family and detected diversification shifts through time, inferred the timing and amount of transitions among pollinator functional groups, and tested the association between hummingbird pollination and speciation and extinction rates. We identified a high frequency of pollinator transitions, including reversals to insect pollination. Diversification rates of the group increased through time since 25 Ma, coinciding with the evolution of hummingbird-adapted flowers and the arrival of hummingbirds in South America. We showed that plants pollinated by hummingbirds have a twofold higher speciation rate compared with plants pollinated by insects, and that transitions among functional groups of pollinators had little impact on the diversification process. We demonstrated that floral specialization on hummingbirds for pollination has triggered rapid diversification in the Gesneriaceae family since the Early Miocene, and that it represents one of the oldest identified plant-hummingbird associations. Biotic drivers of plant diversification in the Neotropics could be more related to this specific type of pollinator (hummingbirds) than to shifts among different functional groups of pollinators. © 2017 The Author(s).

  7. Hummingbird wing efficacy depends on aspect ratio and compares with helicopter rotors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruyt, J.W.; Quicazan Rubio, E.M.; Heijst, van G.J.F.; Altshuler, D.L.; Lentink, D.

    2014-01-01

    Hummingbirds are the only birds that can sustain hovering. This unique flight behaviour comes, however, at high energetic cost. Based on helicopter and aeroplane design theory, we expect that hummingbird wing aspect ratio (AR), which ranges from about 3.0 to 4.5, determines aerodynamic efficacy. Pre

  8. Generalist bees pollinate red-flowered Penstemon eatonii: Duality in the hummingbird pollination syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    James H. Cane; Rick. Dunne

    2014-01-01

    The red tubular flowers of Penstemon eatonii (Plantaginaceae) typify the classic pollination syndrome for hummingbirds. Bees are thought to diminish its seed siring potential, but we found that foraging female generalist bees (Apis, Anthophora) deposited substantial amounts of conspecific pollen on P. eatonii stigmas. In the absence of hummingbirds, bee pollination of...

  9. [Hummingbird abundance and flowers use in a template forest from Southeast Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partida Lara, Ruth; Enríquez, Paula L; Rangel-Salazar, José Luis; Lara, Carlos; Martínez Ico, Miguel

    2012-12-01

    Hummingbird abundance varies with plant bloom phenology used for feeding. However, the information on hummingbird-flower interaction is limited for tropical mountain environments. We evaluated hummingbird abundance using mist nest and estimated monthly flowering phenology visited by hummingbirds in three different habitats (oak forest, cloud forest and bush) from January to August 2010 in Huitepec Ecological Reserve. We recorded four hummingbird species (Hylocharis leucotis, Lampornis amethystinus, Lamprolaima rhami and Eugenes fulgens), and their abundance varied among habitats (H3.8=14.8, p=0.001). Seven plant species were visited for hummingbirds and showed the highest number of flower species during dry season. Bush had the highest blossom. Fuchsia paniculata had the highest blossom period but only was visited by H. leucotis. Passiflora membranacea was the only species visited for all hummingbird species. The only positive association was E. fulgens abundance with P.a membranacea bloom (r(S)=0.93, p=0.02). Hummingbird abundance fluctuations in this study are determined for interactions with floral resources and their habitat distribution.

  10. Anna Karenina, the 'English novel'.Towards the study of anglomania in Leo Tolstoy 's novel Anna Karenina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Sarana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with one storyline of the novel Anna Karenina that stands as the key for the re-search into the significance of Anglomania in the novel. The 1850-1870s in Russian culture is the time of a most intensive formation of the image of the UK as a highly complex combination of real and mythological elements. The novel Anna Karenina, which Tolstoy himself called the novel about modern life, sets forth the fashion for everything ‘English’ in Russian high society in the 1870s with almost documentary precision. The episode the article deals with is Anna Karenina's reading of an English novel. The article looks at different theories of the origin of the novel and suggests a particular novel as the source for the English novel in Anna Karenina. Article argues that the knowledge of the particular English novel contributes not only to the re-search of Anglomania in Anna Karenina and other Tolstoy's works but also gives a significant in-sight into the study of the characters in the novel.

  11. Anna M. Gade dan MTQ di Indonesia: Sebuah Kajian Metodologis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Rohman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Tulisan ini merupakan upaya pembacaan ulang terhadap penelitian orientalis yang meneliti tentang praktek pembacaan Al-Qur’an di Indonesia. Pembacaan tentang karya ini menjadi penting, utamanya dalam kaitannya dengan metodologi yang dipakai, karena pada saat yang bersamaan para peminat kajian Al-Qur’an dan budayawan, banyak yang melihat aktifitas yang muncul di masyarakat menunjukkan gejala alamiah yang dapat didekati dengan disiplin keilmuan sosial-humaniora. Dalam tulisan ini dijelaskan bahwa Anna Gade mengoperasikan teori Geertz tentang Agama sebagai realitas kebudayaan. Sehingga Anna mengatakan bahwa praktik pembacaan Al-Qur’an didasari oleh beberapa hal yang kemudian dikelompokkan ke dalam mood and motivation.

  12. Anna Karenina, the 'English novel'.Towards the study of anglomania in Leo Tolstoy 's novel Anna Karenina

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia Sarana

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with one storyline of the novel Anna Karenina that stands as the key for the re-search into the significance of Anglomania in the novel. The 1850-1870s in Russian culture is the time of a most intensive formation of the image of the UK as a highly complex combination of real and mythological elements. The novel Anna Karenina, which Tolstoy himself called the novel about modern life, sets forth the fashion for everything ‘English’ in Russian high society in the 1870s with alm...

  13. Anna Karenina, the 'English novel'.Towards the study of anglomania in Leo Tolstoy 's novel Anna Karenina

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia Sarana

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with one storyline of the novel Anna Karenina that stands as the key for the re-search into the significance of Anglomania in the novel. The 1850-1870s in Russian culture is the time of a most intensive formation of the image of the UK as a highly complex combination of real and mythological elements. The novel Anna Karenina, which Tolstoy himself called the novel about modern life, sets forth the fashion for everything ‘English’ in Russian high society in the 1870s with alm...

  14. Convergence beyond flower morphology? Reproductive biology of hummingbird-pollinated plants in the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, C; Maruyama, P K; Oliveira, P E

    2016-03-01

    Convergent reproductive traits in non-related plants may be the result of similar environmental conditions and/or specialised interactions with pollinators. Here, we documented the pollination and reproductive biology of Bionia coriacea (Fabaceae), Esterhazya splendida (Orobanchaceae) and Ananas ananassoides (Bromeliaceae) as case studies in the context of hummingbird pollination in Cerrado, the Neotropical savanna of Central South America. We combined our results with a survey of hummingbird pollination studies in the region to investigate the recently suggested association of hummingbird pollination and self-compatibility. Plant species studied here differed in their specialisation for ornithophily, from more generalist A. ananassoides to somewhat specialist B. coriacea and E. splendida. This continuum of specialisation in floral traits also translated into floral visitor composition. Amazilia fimbriata was the most frequent pollinator for all species, and the differences in floral display and nectar energy availability among plant species affect hummingbirds' behaviour. Most of the hummingbird-pollinated Cerrado plants (60.0%, n = 20), including those studied here, were self-incompatible, in contrast to other biomes in the Neotropics. Association to more generalist, often territorial, hummingbirds, and resulting reduced pollen flow in open savanna areas may explain predominance of self-incompatibility. But it is possible that mating system is more associated with the predominance of woody hummingbird plants in the Cerrado plant assemblage than to the pollination system itself.

  15. The community of hummingbirds (Aves: Trochilidae) and the assemblage of flowers in a Caatinga vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Las-Casas, F M G; Azevedo Júnior, S M; Dias Filho, M M

    2012-02-01

    We studied hummingbirds and their food plants in an area of caatinga vegetation. We specifically examined their seasonal use of this habitat, migratory and non-migratory status, their foraging strategies and community roles The study was conducted in an area of arboreal-shrub caatinga, located in the Serra do Pará, municipality of Santa Cruz do Capibaribe, state of Pernambuco in northeastern Brazil. Field work was undertaken during 12 expeditions on a monthly basis between June, 2007 and May, 2008. Five species of hummingbirds were recorded visiting flowers in the community studied. Three were considered residents: Chlorostilbon lucidus (Shaw, 1812), Eupetomena macroura (Gmelin, 1788), and Heliomaster squamosus (Temminck, 1823). Hummingbirds visited 31 species of plants, of which only five presented attributes related to ornithophily. C. lucidus visited 29 plant species, including all ornithophilous species, and it was the most aggressive, defending territories. Among hummingbirds, C. lucidus may be considered the principal pollinator. Hummingbirds may also be acting as pollen vectors for some of the plant species not identified as ornithophilous. The hummingbird guilds varied among the plant species used as floral resources, as well as in their frequency of visits. Differences in plant species abundance, hummingbird preference, competitive exclusion or flowering seasonality are factors likely to influence those variations.

  16. Temporal-spatial segregation among hummingbirds foraging on honeydew in a temperate forest in Mexico

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carlos LARA; Vanessa MART(I)NEZ-GARC(I)A; Raúl ORTIZ-PULIDO; Jessica BRAVO-CADENA; Salvador LORANCA; Alex C(O)RDOBA-AGUILAR

    2011-01-01

    Spatial and temporal variation in interactions between hummingbirds and plants have often been examined, and hummingbirds and insects are known to indirectly interact in networks of nectar plants. In a highland temperate forest in Hidalgo,Mexico some oak trees were heavily infested by honeydew-producing insects (family Margarodidae, tribe Xylococcini, genus Strignacoccus) and the honeydew was consumed by hummingbirds. Here using survival analysis we investigate how the honeydew produced by dense populations of these margarodids is temporally and spatially partitioned by hummingbirds. We also measured the availability and quality of honeydew exudates, and then we recorded the time until a bird visited and used such re sources. Four hummingbird species consumed this resource (Atthis eloisa, Hylocharis leucotis, Colibri thalassinus and Eugenes fulgens). Data from 294 hours of observation on seven focal trees suggested temporal and spatial segregation among visiting birds according to body size and territorial behavior during the most honeydew-limited time. Hummingbird species differed in the daily times they foraged, as well as in the location where honeydew-producing insects were visited on the trees. Temporal and spatial segregation among hummingbird species is interpreted as an adaptation to reduce the risk of aggressive encounters. This may facilitate multispecies coexistence and allow these birds to exploit honeydew more effectively.

  17. Temporal-spatial segregation among hummingbirds foraging on honeydew in a temperate forest in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos LARA, Vanessa MARTÍNEZ-GARCÍA, Raúl ORTIZ-PULIDO, Jessica BRAVO-CADENA, Salvador LORANCA, Alex CÓRDOBA-AGUILAR

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Spatial and temporal variation in interactions between hummingbirds and plants have often been examined, and hummingbirds and insects are known to indirectly interact in networks of nectar plants. In a highland temperate forest in Hidalgo, Mexico some oak trees were heavily infested by honeydew-producing insects (family Margarodidae, tribe Xylococcini, genus Strigmacoccus and the honeydew was consumed by hummingbirds. Here using survival analysis we investigate how the honeydew produced by dense populations of these margarodids is temporally and spatially partitioned by hummingbirds. We also measured the availability and quality of honeydew exudates, and then we recorded the time until a bird visited and used such resources. Four hummingbird species consumed this resource (Atthis eloisa, Hylocharis leucotis, Colibri thalassinus and Eugenes fulgens. Data from 294 hours of observation on seven focal trees suggested temporal and spatial segregation among visiting birds according to body size and territorial behavior during the most honeydew-limited time. Hummingbird species differed in the daily times they foraged, as well as in the location where honeydew-producing insects were visited on the trees. Temporal and spatial segregation among hummingbird species is interpreted as an adaptation to reduce the risk of aggressive encounters. This may facilitate multispecies coexistence and allow these birds to exploit honeydew more effectively [Current Zoology 57 (1: 56–62, 2011].

  18. Anna Politkovskaja mälestus Euroopas / Marianne Mikko

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mikko, Marianne, 1961-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Virumaa Teataja, 18. sept. 2007, lk. 11; Põhjarannik, 18. sept. 2007, lk. 4; Severnoje Poberezhje, 18. sept. 2007, lk. 4; Sakala, 21. sept. 2007, lk. 2. Euroopa Parlamendi saadik toetas ideed anda Euroopa Parlamendi pressiruumile Anna Politkovskaja nimi, sellega antakse Venemaale ka teada, mida europarlament arvab Vene võimude tegevusest Tšetšeenias

  19. Kõrkjasaar Põlvas = Bulrush Island in Põlva / Anna-Liisa Unt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Unt, Anna-Liisa, 1982-

    2004-01-01

    Põlvas 2003. a. korraldatud ideevõistluste tulemused: keskpargi võistlus: II preemia - OÜ Kaunimad Aiad, III - Mart Mets; paisjärve kujunduse konkurss: II - Anna-Liisa Unt, III - Mart Mets. A.-L. Undi realiseeritud võistlustööst, paisjärve saare valguskujundusest. 4 ill

  20. Anna Politkovskaja mälestus Euroopas / Marianne Mikko

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mikko, Marianne, 1961-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Virumaa Teataja, 18. sept. 2007, lk. 11; Põhjarannik, 18. sept. 2007, lk. 4; Severnoje Poberezhje, 18. sept. 2007, lk. 4; Sakala, 21. sept. 2007, lk. 2. Euroopa Parlamendi saadik toetas ideed anda Euroopa Parlamendi pressiruumile Anna Politkovskaja nimi, sellega antakse Venemaale ka teada, mida europarlament arvab Vene võimude tegevusest Tšetšeenias

  1. Speciose opportunistic nectar-feeding avifauna in Cuba and its association to hummingbird island biogeography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Bo; Baquero, Andrea C.; Rahbek, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Island organisms often have wider feeding niches than mainland organisms, and migratory birds breeding on continents often widen their niches when overwintering on islands. Cuba's low hummingbird richness has puzzled ornithologists for decades. Here, we show that the Cuban hummingbird fauna is less...... rich than expected based on Cuba's elevation, when compared to the rest of the West Indian islands. Thereafter, we report nectar-feeding behaviour by 26 non-Trochilidae bird species in Cuba, encompassing pigeons/doves, woodpeckers and passerines, and endemic, resident and migratory species. We discuss...... if Cuba's speciose non-Trochilidae nectar-feeding avifauna may be associated with its depauperate hummingbird fauna....

  2. Flowers visited by hummingbirds in the open habitats of the southeastern brazilian mountaintops: species composition and seasonality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LC Rodrigues

    Full Text Available The hummingbird-visited plant community located on the open-habitat mountaintop of the Espinhaço Range was studied for two years (from August 2007 to July 2009 in Serra do Cipó National Park, Southeastern Brazil (19° 15′ S and 43° 31′ W. The floral characteristics and flowering period of the hummingbird-visited plants was monthly recorded along trails located in three vegetation types: (1 typical campos rupestres (TCR, (2 open fields (OPF, and (3 capões de mata(CAM. Hummingbird visitation was observed in 51 plant species, 22 ornithophilous and 29 non-ornithophilous species. The TCR showed the greatest number of species visited (N = 38, followed by the OPF (N = 18 and CAM (N = 17. Six species of hummingbirds were recorded visiting flowers: Augastes scutatus, Campylopterus largipennis, Colibri serrirostris, Chlorostilbon lucidus, Eupetomena macroura and Phaethornis pretrei. This study demonstrates that the species richness and the number of ornithophilous species visited by the hummingbirds at the study site are more similar to hummingbird-plant communities of the Atlantic Forest than to those of the Cerrado communities and other Brazilian highland open-habitat communities. The plant families most visited by hummingbirds were Bromeliaceae and Asteraceae. Although the Asteraceae family is rarely used as a food resource for hummingbirds in other high and lowland communities, in the study site this family is used mainly by the endemic hummingbird Augastes scutatus. We found a large overlap of flowering throughout the year among the species visited by the hummingbirds. Thus, the nectar availability supports these resident hummingbirds. The present study also showed that the studied hummingbird-plant community is composed of many species endemic to the campos rupestres of the Espinhaço Range, some of which are considered to be in danger of extinction, thus constituting a unique and threatened community. Thus, understanding hummingbird

  3. Flowers visited by hummingbirds in the open habitats of the southeastern Brazilian mountaintops: species composition and seasonality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, L C; Rodrigues, M

    2014-08-01

    The hummingbird-visited plant community located on the open-habitat mountaintop of the Espinhaço Range was studied for two years (from August 2007 to July 2009) in Serra do Cipó National Park, Southeastern Brazil (19° 15' S and 43° 31' W). The floral characteristics and flowering period of the hummingbird-visited plants was monthly recorded along trails located in three vegetation types: (1) typical campos rupestres (TCR), (2) open fields (OPF), and (3) capões de mata (CAM). Hummingbird visitation was observed in 51 plant species, 22 ornithophilous and 29 non-ornithophilous species. The TCR showed the greatest number of species visited (N = 38), followed by the OPF (N = 18) and CAM (N = 17). Six species of hummingbirds were recorded visiting flowers: Augastes scutatus, Campylopterus largipennis, Colibri serrirostris, Chlorostilbon lucidus, Eupetomena macroura and Phaethornis pretrei. This study demonstrates that the species richness and the number of ornithophilous species visited by the hummingbirds at the study site are more similar to hummingbird-plant communities of the Atlantic Forest than to those of the Cerrado communities and other Brazilian highland open-habitat communities. The plant families most visited by hummingbirds were Bromeliaceae and Asteraceae. Although the Asteraceae family is rarely used as a food resource for hummingbirds in other high and lowland communities, in the study site this family is used mainly by the endemic hummingbird Augastes scutatus. We found a large overlap of flowering throughout the year among the species visited by the hummingbirds. Thus, the nectar availability supports these resident hummingbirds. The present study also showed that the studied hummingbird-plant community is composed of many species endemic to the campos rupestres of the Espinhaço Range, some of which are considered to be in danger of extinction, thus constituting a unique and threatened community. Thus, understanding hummingbird-plant pollination

  4. Olfactory bulb size, odor discrimination and magnetic insensitivity in hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioalé, P; Papi, F

    1989-05-01

    Relative olfactory bulb size with respect to telencephalic hemispheres (olfactory ratio) was measured in five species of hummingbirds. Trochiliformes were found to be next to last among 25 avian orders with respect to olfactory bulb development. One hummingbird species, the White-vented Violetear (Colibri serrirostris), was trained in a successive go/no-go discrimination task, and learned to feed or not to feed from a container dependent on the olfactory stimuli associated with it. Test birds learned to discriminate amyl acetate vs. turpentine essence, jasmine essence vs. lavender essence, eucalyptus essence vs. no odor, beta-ionone vs. no odor, carvone vs. eucalyptol. In contrast, 1-phenylethanol vs. beta-ionone discrimination, two odorants which appear similar to humans, was unsuccessful. Using a similar procedure, attempts were made to condition a White-vented Violetear and a Versicolored Emerald (Amazilia versicolor) to magnetic stimuli. The birds were unable to discriminate between a normal field and an oscillating field (square wave, 1 Hz, amplitude +/- 0.40 G).

  5. Generalist bees pollinate red-flowered Penstemon eatonii: refining the hummingbird pollination syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    The red tubular flowers of Penstemon eatonii (Plantaginaceae, formerly Scrophulariaceae) conform to the classic pollination syndrome for hummingbirds. This could be problematic when farming this wildflower for rangeland restoration seed. By some models and experiments with nectaring bumblebees at ...

  6. Flight and size constraints: hovering performance of large hummingbirds under maximal loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, P; Millard, D

    1997-11-01

    As the smallest birds, hummingbirds are the only birds capable of prolonged hovering. This suggests that hovering locomotion scales unfavourably with size. Is the hovering performance of larger hummingbird species more constrained by size than that of smaller ones? Maximal load-lifting capacities of the two largest species of hummingbirds found in the United States, the blue-throated (Lampornis clemenciae, 8.4 g) and magnificent (Eugenes fulgens, 7.4 g) hummingbird, as well as the two other local small species, the black-chinned (Archilochus alexandri, 3.0 g) and rufus (Selasphorus rufus, 3.3 g) hummingbird, were determined under conditions of short-burst performance. The power reserves of hummingbirds are substantial relative to normal hovering performance. The two large species lifted maximal loads close to twice their body mass for a very brief duration of over 0.4 s. The small species lifted maximal loads approximately equal to their own mass with a longer duration of over 0.6 s. For the two large species under maximal loading, estimates of burst muscle mass-specific mechanical power output assuming perfect elastic energy storage averaged 309 W kg-1, compared with 75 W kg-1 during free hovering without loading. For the two small species, these values were 228 W kg-1 and 88 W kg-1, respectively. The differences in aerodynamic force production and power output between the large and small size classes occur despite their similar wing stroke velocity. This indicates that, during burst performance in these hummingbirds, the larger ones had a higher load-lifting capacity and generated more muscle power. In spite of the twofold difference in body mass, both large and small hummingbirds have evolved to become potent aerial competitors in order to exploit their common food resource, nectar. Both size classes have evolved to cope with the multi-dimensional effects of size constraining their aerodynamics, muscle mechanics, metabolism and ecology.

  7. Of hummingbirds and helicopters: Hovering costs, competitive ability, and foraging strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Altshuler, Douglas L.; Stiles, F. Gary; Dudley, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Wing morphology and flight kinematics profoundly influence foraging costs and the overall behavioral ecology of hummingbirds. By analogy with helicopters, previous energetic studies have applied the momentum theory of aircraft propellers to estimate hovering costs from wing disc loading (WDL), a parameter incorporating wingspan (or length) and body mass. Variation in WDL has been used to elucidate differences either among hummingbird species in nectar-foraging strategies (e.g., territoriality...

  8. Adipose energy stores, physical work, and the metabolic syndrome: lessons from hummingbirds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hargrove James L

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hummingbirds and other nectar-feeding, migratory birds possess unusual adaptive traits that offer important lessons concerning obesity, diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. Hummingbirds consume a high sugar diet and have fasting glucose levels that would be severely hyperglycemic in humans, yet these nectar-fed birds recover most glucose that is filtered into the urine. Hummingbirds accumulate over 40% body fat shortly before migrations in the spring and autumn. Despite hyperglycemia and seasonally elevated body fat, the birds are not known to become diabetic in the sense of developing polyuria (glucosuria, polydipsia and polyphagia. The tiny (3–4 g Ruby-throated hummingbird has among the highest mass-specific metabolic rates known, and loses most of its stored fat in 20 h by flying up to 600 miles across the Gulf of Mexico. During the breeding season, it becomes lean and maintains an extremely accurate energy balance. In addition, hummingbirds can quickly enter torpor and reduce resting metabolic rates by 10-fold. Thus, hummingbirds are wonderful examples of the adaptive nature of fat tissue, and may offer lessons concerning prevention of metabolic syndrome in humans.

  9. Outperforming hummingbirds’ load-lifting capability with a lightweight hummingbird-like flapping-wing mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederik Leys

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The stroke-cam flapping mechanism presented in this paper closely mimics the wing motion of a hovering Rufous hummingbird. It is the only lightweight hummingbird-sized flapping mechanism which generates a harmonic wing stroke with both a high flapping frequency and a large stroke amplitude. Experiments on a lightweight prototype of this stroke-cam mechanism on a 50 mm-long wing demonstrate that a harmonic stroke motion is generated with a peak-to-peak stroke amplitude of 175° at a flapping frequency of 40 Hz. It generated a mass lifting capability of 5.1 g, which is largely sufficient to lift the prototype's mass of 3.39 g and larger than the mass-lifting capability of a Rufous hummingbird. The motor mass of a hummingbird-like robot which drives the stroke-cam mechanism is considerably larger (about five times than the muscle mass of a hummingbird with comparable load-lifting capability. This paper presents a flapping wing nano aerial vehicle which is designed to possess the same lift- and thrust-generating principles of the Rufous hummingbird. The application is indoor flight. We give an overview of the wing kinematics and some specifications which should be met to develop an artificial wing, and also describe the applications of these in the mechanism which has been developed in this work.

  10. Different foraging preferences of hummingbirds on artificial and natural flowers reveal mechanisms structuring plant–pollinator interactions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maglianesi, María A; Böhning‐Gaese, Katrin; Schleuning, Matthias; Ings, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    ... pollinator communities. In this study, we tested whether morphological floral traits were associated with foraging preferences of hummingbirds for artificial and natural flower types in Costa Rica...

  11. AnnaBot: A Static Verifier for Java Annotation Usage

    OpenAIRE

    Ian Darwin

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes AnnaBot, one of the first tools to verify correct use of Annotation-based metadata in the Java programming language. These Annotations are a standard Java 5 mechanism used to attach metadata to types, methods, or fields without using an external configuration file. A binary representation of the Annotation becomes part of the compiled “.class” file, for inspection by another component or library at runtime. Java Annotations were introduced into the Java language in ...

  12. A new species of Anna (Mollusca: Neogastropoda: Buccinidae from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Coltro

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Anna capixaba, a new species found in depths of 45-60 m off the coast of the state of Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil, is herein described. The new species is mainly characterized by a teleoconch of 4.5 whorls, weakly demarcated from the protoconch; sculptured by rounded, prominent, narrowly-separated, spiral threads; outer lip with 5-6 teeth, posterior tooth stronger; columella with two plicae, smooth.

  13. Components of West European feudalism in the writings of Anna Komnine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drašković Marko

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In her "Alexiad", Anna Komnine had left various fragmented statements from witch we noticed her knowledge of many components of west European feudalism. By reciprocal comparison of Anna's statements and by analysis of separate Anna's statements on the ground of west European feudalism's erudition, we managed to prove, notice or verify Anna's knowledge of the following components: homage, vassal's oath of fealty, "ordinary" vassal liege vassal, feudal curia, feudal consilium, feudal primo­geniture, ordeal by battle, count, sergeant, constable, chevalier. Also, we tried to establish the concrete details witch Anne had known about each of these components.

  14. DNA hybridization evidence for the principal lineages of hummingbirds (Aves:Trochilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleiweiss, R; Kirsch, J A; Matheus, J C

    1997-03-01

    The spectacular evolutionary radiation of hummingbirds (Trochilidae) has served as a model system for many biological studies. To begin to provide a historical context for these investigations, we generated a complete matrix of DNA hybridization distances among 26 hummingbirds and an outgroup swift (Chaetura pelagica) to determine the principal hummingbird lineages. FITCH topologies estimated from symmetrized delta TmH-C values and subjected to various validation methods (bootstrapping, weighted jackknifing, branch length significance) indicated a fundamental split between hermit (Eutoxeres aquila, Threnetes ruckeri; Phaethornithinae) and nonhermit (Trochilinae) hummingbirds, and provided strong support for six principal nonhermit clades with the following branching order: (1) a predominantly lowland group comprising caribs (Eulampis holosericeus) and relatives (Androdon aequatorialis and Heliothryx barroti) with violet-ears (Colibri coruscans) and relatives (Doryfera ludovicae); (2) an Andean-associated clade of highly polytypic taxa (Eriocnemis, Heliodoxa, and Coeligena); (3) a second endemic Andean clade (Oreotrochilus chimborazo, Aglaiocercus coelestis, and Lesbia victoriae) paired with thorntails (Popelairia conversii); (4) emeralds and relatives (Chlorostilbon mellisugus, Amazilia tzacatl, Thalurania colombica, Orthorhyncus cristatus and Campylopterus villaviscensio); (5) mountain-gems (Lampornis clemenciae and Eugenes fulgens); and (6) tiny bee-like forms (Archilochus colubris, Myrtis fanny, Acestrura mulsant, and Philodice mitchellii). Corresponding analyses on a matrix of unsymmetrized delta values gave similar support for these relationships except that the branching order of the two Andean clades (2, 3 above) was unresolved. In general, subsidiary relationships were consistent and well supported by both matrices, sometimes revealing surprising associations between forms that differ dramatically in plumage and bill morphology. Our results also reveal some

  15. Fritz-Peter Hager/Daniel Tröhler (Hrsg.): Neue Pestalozzi-Studien. Bd. 1: Anna Pestalozzis Tagebuch - Käte Silber: Anna Pestalozzi und der Frauenkreis um Pestalozzi. Bern/Stuttgart: Haupt 1993 [Rezension

    OpenAIRE

    Liedtke, Max

    1994-01-01

    Rezension von: Fritz-Peter Hager/Daniel Tröhler (Hrsg.): Neue Pestalozzi-Studien. Bd. 1: Anna Pestalozzis Tagebuch - Käte Silber: Anna Pestalozzi und der Frauenkreis um Pestalozzi. Bern/Stuttgart: Haupt 1993, 242 S.

  16. VOCALIZATIONS AND ASSOCIATED BEHAVIORS OF THE SOMBRE HUMMINGBIRD (APHANTOCHROA CIRRHOCHLORIS) AND THE RUFOUS-BREASTED HERMIT (GLAUCIS HIRSUTUS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Adriana R. J.; Smulders, Tom V.; Sameshima, Koichi; Mello, Claudio V.; Jarvis, Erich D.

    2008-01-01

    Vocal behavior in tropical hummingbirds is a new area of study. Here, we present findings on the vocalizations and associated behaviors of two species: Sombre Hummingbird (Aphantochroa cirrhochloris) and Rufous-breasted Hermit (Glaucis hirsutus). These are the only hummingbirds in which the brain areas activated by singing have been demonstrated. They are also among the basal species of their respective subfamilies, Trochilinae and Phaethornithinae and, thus, represent early stages in the evolution of hummingbird vocal communication. We found that the two species exhibit distinctive vocalizations and behaviors. Sombre Hummingbird calls had more modulation and were often used during agonistic interactions, whereas Rufous-breasted Hermit calls had higher pitch and purer tones and were produced in less aggressive interactions. Sombre Hummingbird song was highly stereotyped in syllable structure and syntax, whereas Rufous-breasted Hermit song was highly variable. Comparative analysis points to consistent similarities in use of vocalizations by the Sombre Hummingbird and other trochilines, and by the Rufous-breasted Hermit and other phaethornithines. We hypothesize that differences in vocal behavior between hummingbird lineages arise as adaptations to their foraging strategies. PMID:18802498

  17. Do hummingbirds use a different mechanism than insects to flip and twist their wings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jialei; Luo, Haoxiang; Hedrick, Tyson

    2014-11-01

    Hovering hummingbirds flap their wings in an almost horizontal stroke plane and flip the wings to invert the angle of attack after stroke reversal, a strategy also utilized by many hovering insects such as fruit flies. However, unlike insects whose wing actuation mechanism is only located at the base, hummingbirds have a vertebrate musculoskeletal system and their wings contain bones and muscles and thus, they may be capable of both actively flipping and twisting their wings. To investigate this issue, we constructed a hummingbird wing model and study its pitching dynamics. The wing kinematics are reconstructed from high-speed imaging data, and the inertial torques are calculated in a rotating frame of reference using mass distribution data measured from dissections of hummingbird wings. Pressure data from a previous CFD study of the same wing kinematics are used to calculate the aerodynamic torque. The results show that like insect wings, the hummingbird wing pitching is driven by its own inertia during reversal, and the aerodynamic torque is responsible for wing twist during mid-stroke. In conclusion, our study suggests that their wing dynamics are very similar even though their actuation systems are entirely different. This research was supported by the NSF.

  18. Wild, free-living rufous hummingbirds do not use geometric cues in a spatial task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornsby, Mark A W; Hurly, T Andrew; Hamilton, Caitlin E; Pritchard, David J; Healy, Susan D

    2014-10-01

    In the laboratory, many species orient themselves using the geometric properties of an enclosure or array and geometric information is often preferred over visual cues. Whether animals use geometric cues when relocating rewarded locations in the wild, however, has rarely been investigated. We presented free-living rufous hummingbirds with a rectangular array of four artificial flowers to investigate learning of rewarded locations using geometric cues. In one treatment, we rewarded two of four flowers at diagonally opposite corners. In a second treatment, we provided a visual cue to the rewarded flower by connecting the flowers with "walls" consisting of four dowels (three white, one blue) laid on the ground connecting each of the flowers. Neither treatment elicited classical geometry results; instead, hummingbirds typically chose one particular flower over all others. When we exchanged that flower with another, hummingbirds tended to visit the original flower. These results suggest that (1) hummingbirds did not use geometric cues, but instead may have used a visually derived cue on the flowers themselves, and (2) using geometric cues may have been more difficult than using visual characteristics. Although hummingbirds typically prefer spatial over visual information, we hypothesize that they will not use geometric cues over stable visual features but that they make use of small, flower-specific visual cues. Such cues may play a more important role in foraging decisions than previously thought. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. High proportion of smaller ranged hummingbird species coincides with ecological specialization across the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín González, Ana M.; Maruyama, Pietro K.; Sandel, Brody; Vizentin-Bugoni, Jeferson; Schleuning, Matthias; Abrahamczyk, Stefan; Alarcón, Ruben; Araujo, Andréa C.; Araújo, Francielle P.; Mendes de Azevedo, Severino; Baquero, Andrea C.; Cotton, Peter A.; Ingversen, Tanja Toftemark; Kohler, Glauco; Lara, Carlos; Guedes Las-Casas, Flor Maria; Machado, Adriana O.; Machado, Caio Graco; Maglianesi, María Alejandra; Moura, Alan Cerqueira; Nogués-Bravo, David; Oliveira, Genilda M.; Oliveira, Paulo E.; Ornelas, Juan Francisco; Rodrigues, Licléia da Cruz; Rosero-Lasprilla, Liliana; Rui, Ana Maria; Sazima, Marlies; Timmermann, Allan; Varassin, Isabela Galarda; Wang, Zhiheng; Watts, Stella; Fjeldså, Jon; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Rahbek, Carsten; Dalsgaard, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Ecological communities that experience stable climate conditions have been speculated to preserve more specialized interspecific associations and have higher proportions of smaller ranged species (SRS). Thus, areas with disproportionally large numbers of SRS are expected to coincide geographically with a high degree of community-level ecological specialization, but this suggestion remains poorly supported with empirical evidence. Here, we analysed data for hummingbird resource specialization, range size, contemporary climate, and Late Quaternary climate stability for 46 hummingbird–plant mutualistic networks distributed across the Americas, representing 130 hummingbird species (ca 40% of all hummingbird species). We demonstrate a positive relationship between the proportion of SRS of hummingbirds and community-level specialization, i.e. the division of the floral niche among coexisting hummingbird species. This relationship remained strong even when accounting for climate, furthermore, the effect of SRS on specialization was far stronger than the effect of specialization on SRS, suggesting that climate largely influences specialization through species' range-size dynamics. Irrespective of the exact mechanism involved, our results indicate that communities consisting of higher proportions of SRS may be vulnerable to disturbance not only because of their small geographical ranges, but also because of their high degree of specialization. PMID:26842573

  20. Of hummingbirds and helicopters: hovering costs, competitive ability, and foraging strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altshuler, Douglas L

    2004-01-01

    Wing morphology and flight kinematics profoundly influence foraging costs and the overall behavioral ecology of hummingbirds. By analogy with helicopters, previous energetic studies have applied the momentum theory of aircraft propellers to estimate hovering costs from wing disc loading (WDL), a parameter incorporating wingspan (or length) and body mass. Variation in WDL has been used to elucidate differences either among hummingbird species in nectar-foraging strategies (e.g., territoriality, traplining) and dominance relations or among gender-age categories within species. We first demonstrate that WDL, as typically calculated, is an unreliable predictor of hovering (induced power) costs; predictive power is increased when calculations use wing length instead of wingspan and when actual wing stroke amplitudes are incorporated. We next evaluate the hypotheses that foraging strategy and competitive ability are functions of WDL, using our data in combination with those of published sources. Variation in hummingbird behavior cannot be easily classified using WDL and instead is correlated with a diversity of morphological and physiological traits. Evaluating selection pressures on hummingbird wings will require moving beyond wing and body mass measurements to include the assessment of the aerodynamic forces, power requirements, and power reserves of hovering, forward flight, and maneuvering. However, the WDL-helicopter dynamics model has been instrumental in calling attention to the importance of comparative wing morphology and related aerodynamics for understanding the behavioral ecology of hummingbirds.

  1. Effect of artificial feeders on pollen loads of the hummingbirds of Cerro de la Muerte, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avalos, Gerardo; Soto, Alejandra; Alfaro, Willy

    2012-03-01

    Although sugar-water feeders are commonly used by enthusiasts to attract hummingbirds, little is known about how they affect hummingbird behavior and flower use. We studied the highland hummingbird assemblage of Cerro de La Muerte, Costa Rica, both at a site with permanent feeders (La Georgina Restaurant) and further from it. We examined how feeder use and monopolization affected seasonal changes in pollen loads during four sampling periods, including dry and wet seasons, from 2003-2005. We expected that species monopolizing the feeders would carry little or no pollen whatsoever, and would have pollen loads characterized by low floral diversity, in contrast with species less dependent on feeders. We obtained pollen samples from 183 individuals of four hummingbird species captured around the feeders using mist nets, which were compared with a pollen reference collection of plants with a pollination syndrome by hummingbirds. The same methods were implemented at a site 3km away from the feeders. Feeder usage was quantified by counting the number of times hummingbirds drank from the feeders in periods of 4min separated by 1min. The effects of hummingbird species and season on pollen load categories were assessed using a nominal logistic regression. The alpha species at the site, the Fiery-throated Hummingbird (Panterpe insignis), dominated the feeders during the dry season. Meanwhile, in the wet season, feeder usage was more evenly distributed across species, with the exception of the Volcano Hummingbird, Selasphorus flammula, which occupies the last place in the dominance hierarchy. Pollen loads of hummingbirds captured near feeders were low in abundance (more than 50% of captured individuals had zero or low pollen loads), and low in species richness (96% of the hummingbirds with pollen from only one plant genus, Centropogon). Overall pollen loads increased during the dry season coinciding with peaks in flower availability, although the majority of captured

  2. Eluloofilmide põud paneb rääkima Anna Chapmanist / Andres Laasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laasik, Andres, 1960-2016

    2010-01-01

    Ameerika ajalehede käivitatud diskussioonist eluloofilmist, mille võiks vändata spiooniafääriga kuulsaks saanud Anna Chapmanist (Anna Kuštšenko). USA-s, Suurbritannias, Indias ja Soomes valmivatest eluloofilmidest. Austraalia filmist "Mao viimane tantsija"

  3. Eluloofilmide põud paneb rääkima Anna Chapmanist / Andres Laasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laasik, Andres, 1960-2016

    2010-01-01

    Ameerika ajalehede käivitatud diskussioonist eluloofilmist, mille võiks vändata spiooniafääriga kuulsaks saanud Anna Chapmanist (Anna Kuštšenko). USA-s, Suurbritannias, Indias ja Soomes valmivatest eluloofilmidest. Austraalia filmist "Mao viimane tantsija"

  4. [O rzeczach minionych, scripta rerum historicarum annae rutkowska-plachcińska oblata] / Risto Pullat

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pullat, Raimo, 1935-

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus: O rzeczach minionych, scripta rerum historicarum annae rutkowska-plachcińska oblata. (Pod redakeja Marty Mlynarskiej-Kaletynowej i Jerzego Kruppe. Studia i materaly z historii kultury materialney pod redakeja Jerzego Kruppe). Warszawa, 2006. Sisukast ja mitmekülgsest Anna Rutkowska-Plachcinska juubelikogumikust

  5. [O rzeczach minionych, scripta rerum historicarum annae rutkowska-plachcińska oblata] / Risto Pullat

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pullat, Raimo, 1935-

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus: O rzeczach minionych, scripta rerum historicarum annae rutkowska-plachcińska oblata. (Pod redakeja Marty Mlynarskiej-Kaletynowej i Jerzego Kruppe. Studia i materaly z historii kultury materialney pod redakeja Jerzego Kruppe). Warszawa, 2006. Sisukast ja mitmekülgsest Anna Rutkowska-Plachcinska juubelikogumikust

  6. Anna-Maria Galojan: jah-liikumisega võivad liituda kõik soovijad / Anna-Maria Galojan ; interv. Ishtvan Ban

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Galojan, Anna-Maria, 1982-

    2003-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Severnoje Poberezhje : Subbota 2. aug. lk. 1. Eesti Euroopa liikumise Ida-Virumaa tugikeskuse piirkondlik koordinaator Anna-Maria Galojan oma organisatsioonist, noorte vabatahtlike tööst

  7. Anna-Maria Galojan: jah-liikumisega võivad liituda kõik soovijad / Anna-Maria Galojan ; interv. Ishtvan Ban

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Galojan, Anna-Maria, 1982-

    2003-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Severnoje Poberezhje : Subbota 2. aug. lk. 1. Eesti Euroopa liikumise Ida-Virumaa tugikeskuse piirkondlik koordinaator Anna-Maria Galojan oma organisatsioonist, noorte vabatahtlike tööst

  8. [Princess Anna Vasa--her fascinating life story and skeleton].

    Science.gov (United States)

    During, Ebba

    2005-01-01

    The Princess Anna Vasa was born in Sweden in 1568 and spent her first 19 years there. She was the daughter of the Swedish king Johan III and his wife, the Polish Royal Princess Katarina Jagellonica. She was brought up as a Catholic but converted to be a Protestant already in 1583 and remained a fervent Protestant to the end of her life. She was an exceptionally intelligent and extensively educated woman. When her brother became king, Sigismund III of Poland, she accompanied him there. She exerted great influence on Sigismund who was brought up to be a Catholic. She was persistent in her religion, yet working for religious liberty. "The Swedish Princess" was also named "the Queen of Polish Botany". She was never married and she died 57 years old in 1625. For religious reasons her body had to wait 11 years for a funeral of royal standing. The funeral took place in 1636 in St Mary's Church in Torun, Poland. During restoration work at the church in April 1994, Anna Vasa's skeleton was removed from the tomb, and an antropological investigation in order to establish her identity was carried by Dr Andrzej Florkowski at the Dept of Anthrop, Nicholas Copernicus University of Torun. I was invited to Torun to examine her remains in May 1995. The skeleton was in a rather good state of preservation. However, her grave had been plundered at least twice. Her skeleton lacked the right forearm and hand, probably as the result of the pillage of her rings and bracelets. Some other bones and teeth were also missing. At our ocular examination the skeleton revealed a number of anatomical deformations and pathological changes. A conventional radiography and CT of Anna Vasa's skeletal remains was later carried out in 1995 by M. Grzegorzewski, Z. Boron and W. Lasek at the Dept of Radiology, Med. Acad. of Bydgoszcz, Polen. A DNA-analysis was carried out by Dr Anders Götherström at the Archaeol. Res. Lab., Stockholm Univ. An odontological and radiological study was performed by Dr Sigrid I

  9. Anna Justina Ferreira Nery: um marco na história da enfermagem brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Manuela Vila Nova Cardoso

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available O objeto deste estudo é Anna Nery (1814-1880, uma mulher anônima, que participou da Guerra do Paraguai (1865-1870. Trata-se de um estudo biográfico de natureza sócio-histórica, que é orientado por princípios da História Nova. O objetivo deste estudo é caracterizar a vida de Anna Nery. Alguns aspectos relevantes são levantados neste estudo. Anna Nery deixa o espaço privado do lar para assumir um papel importante no espaço público. A solicitação de Anna Nery é puramente afetiva e não pediu para ser intitulada enfermeira. Anna Nery atendia às exigências que elevariam o status social e moral da enfermeira do século XX e tornou-se símbolo da enfermagem brasileira.

  10. Local origin and diversification among Lampornis hummingbirds: a Mesoamerican taxon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Moreno, Jaime; Cortés, Nandadeví; García-Deras, Gabriela M; Hernández-Baños, Blanca E

    2006-02-01

    The huge biodiversity found in Mesoamerica is often explained by its geographic situation as a natural bridge between two large biogeographic regions. Often overlooked, however, are the high levels of speciation and diversification in the area. Here we assess the phylogenetic relationships within a Mesoamerican group of hummingbirds (Lampornis). We sequenced both mtDNA (1,143 bp of cyt b and 727 bp of ND5) and nuclear genes (505 bp of AK-5 intron and 567 bp of c-mos) for each of the seven recognised species and outgroups. We find two or three clades of similar age within this genus: L. clemenciae and L. amethystinus (singly or as each other's sister taxa) and a Central American clade. This Central-American clade presents a clear bipartition between northern (L. viridipallens and L. sybillae) and southern Mesoamerica, which is shared with many other Mesoamerican organisms. Our analyses suggest that L. hemileucus does not belong in the genus Lampornis. While we refrain to apply a time-scale to our data because of the lack of an appropriate calibration, our results indicate that the genus Lampornis predates the uprising of the Panama land-bridge, and that diversification among the isthmian species (L. castaneoventris and L. calolaema) is a very recent event. Our results strongly suggest a local Mesoamerican origin for this genus.

  11. Between practice and theory: Melanie Klein, Anna Freud and the development of child analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, G

    1996-04-01

    An examination of the early history of child analysis in the writings of Melanie Klein and Anna Freud reveals how two different and opposing approaches to child analysis arose at the same time. The two methods of child analysis are rooted in a differential emphasis on psychoanalytic theory and practice. The Kleinian method derives from the application of technique while the Anna Freudian method is driven by theory. Furthermore, by holding to the Freudian theory of child development Anna Freud was forced to limit the scope of child analysis, while Klein's application of Freudian practice has led to new discoveries about the development of the infant psyche.

  12. Analisis Simbolik Kyrie Eleison Karya Anna Wahyu Prasetyowati

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RINA MARTIARA

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Symbolic Analysis of Kyrie Eleison of Anna Wahyu Prasetyowati’s Work. This paper describes and interpretsthe Kyrie Eleison as a performing arts. Kyrie Eleison text is read through choreography elements that shape thethemes, motion, musical accompaniment, fashion makeup, fl oor pattern, form and stage layout. This paper useshermeneutic approach. Based on the research it can be concluded that this work has a deep meaning. The story ofJesus Christ journey in teaching the word with great passion until his death on the Cross is fi xated religious valuesthat serve as an example for mankind. This work also contains the values of humanity that every human being mustbe having a miserable, suffering, and death. Humans must be steadfast and strong in the face of every temptationthat comes when he/she want to achieve the highest inner awareness and understanding of divine truth.

  13. The Bonny Method: Training Innovations at Anna Maria College

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Anne Abbott

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In the 1970s, Helen Bonny developed the Bonny Method of Guided Imagery and Music for use as a primary process of receptive music psychotherapy in long-term therapy. Training programs in the method traditionally taught it for use in this manner. Over the last two decades, however, modifications of the Bonny Method for use in short term therapy have inspired innovations in training. As a part of this movement, the Anna Maria College training program is innovative in three main areas: a the music and imagery methods used to train students, b the processes of personal development in which students are engaged, and c the processes used for distance supervision and peer interaction.

  14. Spatial segregation of the endemic versus non-endemic hummingbird on Robinson Crusoe Island, Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vizentin-Bugoni, Jeferson; Sonne, Jesper; Hodum, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Competitive pressure from invasive species tends to have a particularly strong impact on remote islands, and knowledge of such phenomena can be crucial to the conservation of endemic biodiversity. Of the two hummingbird species inhabiting Robinson Crusoe Island, Juan Fernández Archipelago, Chile...

  15. Memory for location and visual cues in white-eared hummingbirds Hylocharis leucotis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo PÉREZ, Carlos LARA, José VICCON-PALE, Martha SIGNORET-POILLON

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In nature hummingbirds face floral resources whose availability, quality and quantity can vary spatially and temporally. Thus, they must constantly make foraging decisions about which patches, plants and flowers to visit, partly as a function of the nectar reward. The uncertainty of these decisions would possibly be reduced if an individual could remember locations or use visual cues to avoid revisiting recently depleted flowers. In the present study, we carried out field experiments with white-eared hummingbirds Hylocharis leucotis, to evaluate their use of locations or visual cues when foraging on natural flowers Penstemon roseus. We evaluated the use of spatial memory by observing birds while they were foraging between two plants and within a single plant. Our results showed that hummingbirds prefer to use location when foraging in two plants, but they also use visual cues to efficiently locate unvisited rewarded flowers when they feed on a single plant. However, in absence of visual cues, in both experiments birds mainly used the location of previously visited flowers to make subsequent visits. Our data suggest that hummingbirds are capable of learning and employing this flexibility depending on the faced environmental conditions and the information acquired in previous visits [Current Zoology 57 (4: 468–476, 2011].

  16. Residency in white-eared hummingbirds (Hylocharis leucotis and its effect in territorial contest resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Mendiola-Islas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Territory owners usually defeat intruders. One explanation for this observation is the uncorrelated asymmetry hypothesis which argues that contests might be settled by an arbitrary convention such as “owners win.” We studied the effect of territorial residency on contest asymmetries in the white-eared hummingbird (Hylocharis leucotis in a fir forest from central Mexico. Methods Twenty white-eared male adult hummingbird territories were monitored during a winter season, recording the territorial behavior of the resident against intruding hummingbirds. The size and quality of the territory were related to the probability that the resident would allow the use of flowers by the intruder. Various generalized models (logistical models were generated to describe the probabilities of victory for each individual resident depending on the different combinations of three predictor variables (territory size, territory quality, and intruder identity. Results In general, small and low quality territory owners tend to prevent conspecific intruders from foraging at a higher rate, while they frequently fail to exclude heterospecific intruders such as the magnificent hummingbird (Eugenes fulgens or the green violetear hummingbird (Colibri thalassinus on any territory size. Our results showed that the identity of the intruder and the size and quality of the territory determined the result of the contests, but not the intensity of defense. Discussion Initially, the rule that “the resident always wins” was supported, since no resident was expelled from its territory during the study. Nevertheless, the resident-intruder asymmetries during the course of a day depended on different factors, such as the size and quality of the territory and, mainly, the identity of the intruders. Our results showed that flexibility observed in contest tactics suggests that these tactics are not fixed but are socially plastic instead and they can be adjusted to

  17. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Powder River Basin Province (033) Anna Lineaments

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset represents lineaments in the Powder River Basin as identified in the following U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper: Anna, L.O., 1986, Geologic...

  18. 'A cure with a defect': a previously unpublished letter by Freud concerning 'Anna O.'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, J; Cameron, L

    1999-10-01

    The authors make available in this paper the text of a previously unpublished letter by Freud, probably addressed to the founder of British ecology and his former patient, Sir Arthur Tansley, F.R.S., dating from 1932, concerning the treatment and later life of 'Anna O.', the first psychoanalytic patient. They give the full text of Freud's letter as discovered, and offer a brief commentary on its significance as evidence of Freud's view or views of Anna O.'s treatment, case-history and later life. The authors compare the view of Anna O.'s treatment and later life with other sources, in particular Freud's roughly contemporaneous letter to Stefan Zweig. The letter's principal novel formulation is to be found in the phrase 'a cure with a defect', with which Freud characterised Anna O.'s experience of her treatment with Breuer.

  19. The semantics of greeting and leavetaking in Leo Tolstoy's «Anna Karenina»

    OpenAIRE

    Lebedeva, A.

    2010-01-01

    The article deals with the non-verbal analogues of greeting and leave-taking which are supposed to be etiquette speech genres in situations of communication. The subject of research is Leo Tolstoy's «Anna Karenina».

  20. THE SEMANTICS OF GREETING AND LEAVETAKING IN LEO TOLSTOY'S «ANNA KARENINA»

    OpenAIRE

    LEBEDEVA A.

    2010-01-01

    The article deals with the non-verbal analogues of greeting and leave-taking which are supposed to be etiquette speech genres in situations of communication. The subject of research is Leo Tolstoy's «Anna Karenina».

  1. Serum protein response and renal failure in canine Babesia annae infection

    OpenAIRE

    Camacho, Angel; Guitian, Francisco; Pallas, Estrella; Gestal, Juan; Olmeda, Sonia; Goethert, Heidi; III, Sam; Spielman, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    International audience; Babesia annae piroplasms have recently been recognised as a cause of infection and disease among dogs in Europe. The pathogenesis and clinical implications of this emerging disease remain poorly understood. We conducted this study to describe the electrophoretic profiles associated with the infection and to determine if B. annae associated azotaemia is caused by renal failure. We examined by microscopy 2 979 canine blood samples submitted to a diagnostic laboratory in ...

  2. Influence of normal daytime fat deposition on laboratory measurements of torpor use in territorial versus nonterritorial hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Donald R; Brown, Alison R; Van Hook, Jessamyn A

    2003-01-01

    Fat deposition and torpor use in hummingbirds exhibiting distinct foraging styles should vary. We predicted that dominant territorial hummingbirds will use torpor less than subordinate nonterritorial species because unrestricted access to energy by territory owners allows for fat storage. Entry into torpor was monitored using open-flow respirometry on hummingbirds allowed to accumulate fat normally during the day. Fat accumulation was measured by solvent fat extraction. Territorial blue-throated hummingbirds (Lampornis clemenciae) had the highest fat accumulation and used torpor only 17% of the time. Fat storage by L. clemenciae averaged 26% of lean dry mass (LDM) in 1995 and 18% in 1996, similar to that measured for other nonmigratory birds. Fat storage by magnificent hummingbirds (Eugenes fulgens; trapliner) and black-chinned hummingbirds (Archilochus alexandri; nectar robber) averaged 19% and 16% of LDM, respectively, and they used torpor frequently (64% and 92% of the time, respectively). All species initiated torpor if total body fat dropped below 10% of LDM, indicating the existence of a torpor threshold. The ability of L. clemenciae to store enough fat to support nighttime metabolism is likely an important benefit of territoriality. Likewise, frequent torpor use by subordinates suggests that natural restrictions to energy intake can impact their energy budget, necessitating energy conservation by use of torpor.

  3. Experimental floral and inflorescence trait manipulations affect pollinator preference and function in a hummingbird-pollinated plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudash, Michele R; Hassler, Cynthia; Stevens, Peter M; Fenster, Charles B

    2011-02-01

    Controversy is ongoing regarding the importance of pollinator-mediated selection as a source of observed patterns of floral diversity. Although increasing evidence exists of pollinator-mediated selection acting on female reproductive success, there is still limited understanding of pollinator-mediated selection on floral traits via male reproductive success. Here we quantify potential selection by the ruby-throated hummingbird, Archilochus colubris, on four floral traits of hermaphroditic Silene exerted through male floral function. In single trait manipulative experiments we quantified hummingbird visitation preference and/or fluorescent dye (a pollen analog) donation as a function of number of flowers displayed (inflorescence size), height of the floral display (inflorescence height), floral color, and corolla tube length. Hummingbirds preferred to visit larger floral displays and floral displays at greater height, likely representing a general pollinator preference for larger, more visible signals and/or greater rewards. In addition, hummingbirds preferred to visit red flowers, and male function was greater in flowers manipulated to have longer corolla tubes. Selection pressures exerted by hummingbirds on S. virginica floral and inflorescence design through male reproductive success are consistent with the contemporary expression of floral traits of S. virginica relative to related Silene species with different pollinators, and they are consistent with the hummingbird syndrome of traits expressed by S. virginica.

  4. Quantifying hummingbird preference for floral trait combinations: The role of selection on trait interactions in the evolution of pollination syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenster, Charles B; Reynolds, Richard J; Williams, Christopher W; Makowsky, Robert; Dudash, Michele R

    2015-05-01

    Darwin recognized the flower's importance for the study of adaptation and emphasized that the flower's functionality reflects the coordinated action of multiple traits. Here we use a multitrait manipulative approach to quantify the potential role of selection acting on floral trait combinations underlying the divergence and maintenance of three related North American species of Silene (Caryophyllaceae). We artificially generated 48 plant phenotypes corresponding to all combinations of key attractive traits differing among the three Silene species (color, height, inflorescence architecture, flower orientation, and corolla-tube width). We quantified main and interaction effects of trait manipulation on hummingbird visitation preference using experimental arrays. The main effects of floral display height and floral orientation strongly influenced hummingbird visitation, with hummingbirds preferring flowers held high above the ground and vertically to the sky. Hummingbirds also prefer traits in a nonadditive manner as multiple two-way and higher order interaction effects were important predictors of hummingbird visitation. Contemporary trait combinations found in hummingbird pollinated S. virginica are mostly preferred. Our study demonstrates the likelihood of pollination syndromes evolving due to selection on trait combinations and highlights the importance of trait interactions in understanding the evolution of complex adaptations. © 2015 The Author(s).

  5. Diagnoses of hybrid hummingbirds (Aves: Trochilidae). 17. Documentation of the intrageneric hybrid (Archilochus colubris × Archilochus alexandri)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graves, Gary R.; Dittmann, Donna L.; Cardiff, Steven W.

    2016-01-01

    Although the breeding ranges of Archilochus alexandri (Black-chinned Hummingbird) and Archilochus colubris (Ruby throated Hummingbird) are narrowly parapatric in central Texas and central and southern Oklahoma, there have been few reports of hybridization in the literature and no well-documented ......Although the breeding ranges of Archilochus alexandri (Black-chinned Hummingbird) and Archilochus colubris (Ruby throated Hummingbird) are narrowly parapatric in central Texas and central and southern Oklahoma, there have been few reports of hybridization in the literature and no well...

  6. Anna-Maria Galojan - värske hääl poliitikas / Anna-Maria Galojan ; interv. Toomas Verrev

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Galojan, Anna-Maria, 1982-

    2007-01-01

    Transiidifirma Transgroup Invest arendusdirektor, Eesti Välispoliitika Instituudi töötaja Anna-Maria Galojan, kes kandideerib Riigikogu valimistel Reformierakonna nimekirjas, räägib oma haridusteest, karjäärist ja poliitilistest eesmärkidest

  7. Anna-Maria Galojan - värske hääl poliitikas / Anna-Maria Galojan ; interv. Toomas Verrev

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Galojan, Anna-Maria, 1982-

    2007-01-01

    Transiidifirma Transgroup Invest arendusdirektor, Eesti Välispoliitika Instituudi töötaja Anna-Maria Galojan, kes kandideerib Riigikogu valimistel Reformierakonna nimekirjas, räägib oma haridusteest, karjäärist ja poliitilistest eesmärkidest

  8. Anna Freud and the Holocaust: mourning and survival guilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, John J

    2014-12-01

    This article explores the period of Anna Freud's life after she was informed of the deaths of her aunts in Nazi concentration camps during World War II. Understanding of this period may be enhanced by consideration of the role of the Holocaust in her complicated mourning process. A series of her dreams is re-examined from the point of view of survivor guilt and the complicated mourning of her father in the context of the Holocaust. It is argued that unconscious reproaches against her father led to an identification with him that included his 'decision' to leave his sisters in Vienna. Survivor guilt in relation to her aunts' murders is seen as one of the complicating factors in the mourning process. In addition the article discusses the possible role of this period, particularly her work with child concentration camp survivors, in her post-war writing. The noted duality in her work between innovation and conservatism is explored in terms of an outcome of the mourning process of this period. It is argued that her views on mourning, trauma, attachment, and the widening scope of indications for psychoanalysis were influenced by the outcome of her mourning process. Finally, an irony is noted in the fact that her attitude about altruism never changed despite the role of the altruism of others in her rescue from the Nazis. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  9. Revista Annaes de Enfermagem: publicações de enfermeiras sobre pediatria (1932-1941 Revista Annaes de Enfermagem: publicaciones de enfermeras sobre pediatria (1932-1941 Revista Annaes de Enfermagem: nurses' publications about pediatrics (1932-1941

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Silva Fontes

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Estudo histórico-social que tem como objeto a produção intelectual de enfermeiras e estudantes de enfermagem relativas à enfermagem pediátrica na revista Annaes de Enfermagem, no período entre 1932-1941. A fonte primária refere-se aos números da revista Annaes de Enfermagem pertencentes ao recorte temporal do estudo, além de relatórios e correspondências. As fontes secundárias estão constituídas de livros, artigos, dissertações e teses relativas à história do Brasil e da enfermagem. A análise dos dados teve o apoio das fontes secundárias e do pensamento do sociólogo francês Pierre Bourdieu. Os resultados evidenciam que a revista Annaes de Enfermagem publicou e divulgou temas importantes sobre a assistência de enfermagem à criança e contribuiu para a visibilidade da enfermeira brasileira junto à comunidade científica.Estudio de naturaleza historico-social que tiene como objeto la producción intelectual de las enfermeras y estudiantes de enfermería relativos a la enfermería pediátrica en el periodico Annaes de Enfermagem, en el período 1932-1941. Las fuentes primarias se refieren a los números de la Revista Annaes de Enfermagem pertenecientes al recorte temporal del estudio, además de los informes y correspondencia. Las fuentes secundarias están compuestas de libros, artículos, tesis y disertaciones sobre la historia de la enfermería de Brasil. El análisis de datos cuenta con el apoyo de fuentes secundarias y el pensamiento del sociólogo francés Pierre Bourdieu. Los resultados muestran que el periodico Annaes de Enfermería publicó sobre las importantes cuestiones de la asistencia de enfermería para el niño y ha contribuydo con la visibilidad de la enfermera brasileña en la comunidad científica.Historic-social study whose object was the intellectual production of nurses and students about pediatric nursing in the journal Annaes de Enfermagem, in the period 1932-1941. The primary source refers to the

  10. Complete mitochondrial genome of the versicoloured emerald hummingbird Amazilia versicolor, a polymorphic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosdocimi, Francisco; Souto, Helena Magarinos; Ruschi, Piero Angeli; Furtado, Carolina; Jennings, W Bryan

    2016-09-01

    The genome of the versicoloured emerald hummingbird (Amazilia versicolor) was partially sequenced in one-sixth of an Illumina HiSeq lane. The mitochondrial genome was assembled using MIRA and MITObim software, yielding a circular molecule of 16,861 bp in length and deposited in GenBank under the accession number KF624601. The mitogenome contained 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer tRNAs, 2 ribosomal RNAs and 1 non-coding control region. The molecule was assembled using 21,927 sequencing reads of 100 bp each, resulting in ∼130 × coverage of uniformly distributed reads along the genome. This is the forth mitochondrial genome described for this highly diverse family of birds and may benefit further phylogenetic, phylogeographic, population genetic and species delimitation studies of hummingbirds.

  11. Low Dimensional Analysis of Wing Surface Morphology in Hummingbird Free Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shallcross, Gregory; Ren, Yan; Liu, Geng; Dong, Haibo; Tobalske, Bret

    2015-11-01

    Surface morphing in flapping wings is a hallmark of bird flight. In current work, the role of dynamic wing morphing of a free flying hummingbird is studied in detail. A 3D image-based surface reconstruction method is used to obtain the kinematics and deformation of hummingbird wings from high-quality high-speed videos. The observed wing surface morphing is highly complex and a number of modeling methods including singular value decomposition (SVD) are used to obtain the fundamental kinematical modes with distinct motion features. Their aerodynamic roles are investigated by conducting immersed-boundary-method based flow simulations. The results show that the chord-wise deformation modes play key roles in the attachment of leading-edge vortex, thus improve the performance of the flapping wings. This work is supported by NSF CBET-1313217 and AFOSR FA9550-12-1-0071.

  12. The power of feeder-mask respirometry as a method for examining hummingbird energetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Kenneth C

    2011-03-01

    Many birds spend important portions of their time and energy flying. For this reason, quantification of metabolic rates during flight is of crucial importance to understanding avian energy balance. Measurement of organismal gas exchange rates using a mask enclosing the whole head or respiratory orifices has served as an important tool for studying animal energetics because it can free the rest of the body, permitting movement. Application of so-called "mask respirometry" to the study of avian forward flight energetics presents unique challenges because birds must be tethered to gas analysis equipment thus typically necessitating use of a wind tunnel. Resulting potential alterations to a study organism's behaviour, physiology, and aerodynamics have made interpretation of such studies contentious. In contrast, the study of hovering flight energetics in hummingbirds using a specialized form of mask respirometry is comparatively easy and can be done without a wind tunnel. Small size, hovering flight, and a nectarivorous diet are characteristics shared by all hummingbird species that make these birds ideally suited for this approach. Specifically, nectar feeders are modified to function as respirometry masks hummingbirds voluntarily respire into when hover-feeding. Feeder-mask based respirometry has revealed some of the highest vertebrate metabolic rates in hovering hummingbirds. In this review I discuss techniques for the successful measurement of metabolic rate using feeder-mask respirometry. I also emphasize how this technique has been used to address fundamental questions regarding avian flight energetics such as capacities for fuel use and mechanisms by which ecology, behaviour and energy balance are linked. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Myosin heavy-chain isoforms in the flight and leg muscles of hummingbirds and zebra finches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velten, Brandy P; Welch, Kenneth C

    2014-06-01

    Myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform complement is intimately related to a muscle's contractile properties, yet relatively little is known about avian MHC isoforms or how they may vary with fiber type and/or the contractile properties of a muscle. The rapid shortening of muscles necessary to power flight at the high wingbeat frequencies of ruby-throated hummingbirds and zebra finches (25-60 Hz), along with the varied morphology and use of the hummingbird hindlimb, provides a unique opportunity to understand how contractile and morphological properties of avian muscle may be reflected in MHC expression. Isoforms of the hummingbird and zebra finch flight and hindlimb muscles were electrophoretically separated and compared with those of other avian species representing different contractile properties and fiber types. The flight muscles of the study species operate at drastically different contraction rates and are composed of different histochemically defined fiber types, yet each exhibited the same, single MHC isoform corresponding to the chicken adult fast isoform. Thus, despite quantitative differences in the contractile demands of flight muscles across species, this isoform appears necessary for meeting the performance demands of avian powered flight. Variation in flight muscle contractile performance across species may be due to differences in the structural composition of this conserved isoform and/or variation within other mechanically linked proteins. The leg muscles were more varied in their MHC isoform composition across both muscles and species. The disparity in hindlimb MHC expression between hummingbirds and the other species highlights previously observed differences in fiber type composition and thrust production during take-off. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Are hummingbirds facultatively ammonotelic? Nitrogen excretion and requirements as a function of body size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhorter, Todd J; Powers, Donald R; Martínez Del Rio, Carlos

    2003-01-01

    Most birds are uricotelic. An exception to this rule may be nectar-feeding birds, which excrete significant amounts of ammonia under certain conditions. Although ammonia is toxic, because it is highly water soluble its excretion may be facilitated in animals that ingest and excrete large amounts of water. Bird-pollinated plants secrete carbohydrate- and water-rich floral nectars that contain exceedingly little protein. Thus, nectar-feeding birds are faced with the dual challenge of meeting nitrogen requirements while disposing of large amounts of water. The peculiar diet of nectar-feeding birds suggests two hypotheses: (1) these birds must have low protein requirements, and (2) when they ingest large quantities of water their primary nitrogen excretion product may be ammonia. To test these hypotheses, we measured maintenance nitrogen requirements (MNR) and total endogenous nitrogen losses (TENL) in three hummingbird species (Archilochus alexandri, Eugenes fulgens, and Lampornis clemenciae) fed on diets with varying sugar, protein, and water content. We also quantified the form in which the by-products of nitrogen metabolism were excreted. The MNR and TENL of the hummingbirds examined were exceptionally low. However, no birds excreted more than 50% of nitrogen as ammonia or more nitrogen as ammonia than urates. Furthermore, ammonia excretion was not influenced by either water or protein intake. The smallest species (A. alexandri) excreted a significantly greater proportion (>25%) of their nitrogenous wastes as ammonia than the larger hummingbirds ( approximately 4%). Our results support the hypothesis that nectar-feeding birds have low protein requirements but cast doubt on the notion that they are facultatively ammonotelic. Our data also hint at a possible size-dependent dichotomy in hummingbirds, with higher ammonia excretion in smaller species. Differences in proportionate water loads and/or postrenal modification of urine may explain this dichotomy.

  15. Phylogeography and population genetics of the Amethyst-throated Hummingbird (Lampornis amethystinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Rodríguez, Nandadevi; Hernández-Baños, Blanca E; Navarro-Sigüenza, Adolfo G; Townsend Peterson, A; García-Moreno, Jaime

    2008-07-01

    We analyzed mitochondrial DNA sequence variation across 69 Amethyst-throated Hummingbirds (Lampornis amethystinus), comparing with samples of related taxa. Although this group shows discrete phenotypic variation in throat color among populations in Oaxaca and Guerrero (Mexico), the only phylogeographic structure observed was between phenotypically similar populations north and south of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. As such, it appears that throat color variation is of recent origin and likely based only on minor genetic differences.

  16. Hummingbirds as vectors of fungal spores in Moussonia deppeana (Gesneriaceae): taking advantage of a mutualism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Carlos; Ornelas, Juan Francisco

    2003-02-01

    Hummingbirds act as vectors of Fusarium moniliforme spores on protandrous flowers of Moussonia deppeana. The resulting interactions between the pathogen and plant-pollinator interactions were investigated in a 4-yr study to determine the pathogen's impact on host flowering phenology, flower longevity, nectar production, and fruit and seed production. We also evaluated hummingbird behavior on healthy and diseased plants and its effectiveness on spore transmission. Individual plants expressed the disease from year to year, and new infected individuals were detected every year. A fraction of the flowers in a plant expressed the disease, and this varied among and within years. Diseased plants produced more inflorescences, buds, and open healthy flowers than did healthy plants. Further, diseased plants bore proportionally fewer pistillate flowers than did healthy plants when considering only healthy flowers. Neither nectar nor fruit production differed between healthy and diseased plants, but healthy plants produced more seeds. Infected flowers were retained longer than uninfected ones, producing an additional 2 mg · μL(-1) · flower(-1) of nectar sugar. Hummingbirds visited more flowers on diseased plants than they did on healthy plants, regardless of number and sexual phase. Most pollen and spores were deposited within plants. These behavioral outcomes may promote geitonogamy and limit fungal spore mixing.

  17. Hummingbird with modern feathering: an exceptionally well-preserved Oligocene fossil from southern France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louchart, Antoine; Tourment, Nicolas; Carrier, Julie; Roux, Thierry; Mourer-Chauviré, Cécile

    2008-02-01

    Hummingbirds (Trochilidae) today have an exclusively New World distribution, but their pre-Pleistocene fossil record comes from Europe only. In this study, we describe an exceptionally preserved fossil hummingbird from the early Oligocene of southeastern France. The specimen is articulated, with a completely preserved beak and feathering. Osteological characters allow to identify it as Eurotrochilus sp. This genus is a stem group representative of Trochilidae and was recently described from the early Oligocene of southern Germany. The new fossil reveals that these European Trochilidae were remarkably modern in size, skeletal proportions and the shape of the wing, tail and beak and hyoid bones. These features confirm the early acquisition of the abilities of hovering and nectarivory in hummingbirds, probably before the Oligocene. In several morphological characteristics, they resemble members of the ‘true hummingbirds’ (subfamily Trochilinae) and differ from hermits (Phaethornithinae). These features, which include a short and square tail and a moderately long, almost straight beak, appear to be primitive within the family Trochilidae.

  18. The Rufous Hummingbird in hovering flight -- full-body 3D immersed boundary simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira de Sousa, Paulo; Luo, Haoxiang; Bocanegra Evans, Humberto

    2009-11-01

    Hummingbirds are an interesting case study for the development of micro-air vehicles since they combine the high flight stability of insects with the low metabolic power per unit of body mass of bats, during hovering flight. In this study, simulations of a full-body hummingbird in hovering flight were performed at a Reynolds number around 3600. The simulations employ a versatile sharp-interface immersed boundary method recently enhanced at our lab that can treat thin membranes and solid bodies alike. Implemented on a Cartesian mesh, the numerical method allows us to capture the vortex dynamics of the wake accurately and efficiently. The whole-body simulation will allow us to clearly identify the three general patterns of flow velocity around the body of the hummingbird referred in Altshuler et al. (Exp Fluids 46 (5), 2009). One focus of the current study is to understand the interaction between the wakes of the two wings at the end of the upstroke, and how the tail actively defects the flow to contribute to pitch stability. Another focus of the study will be to identify the pair of unconnected loops underneath each wing.

  19. Hummingbirds control turning velocity using body orientation and turning radius using asymmetrical wingbeat kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Tyson J G; Segre, Paolo S; Middleton, Kevin M; Altshuler, Douglas L

    2016-03-01

    Turning in flight requires reorientation of force, which birds, bats and insects accomplish either by shifting body position and total force in concert or by using left-right asymmetries in wingbeat kinematics. Although both mechanisms have been observed in multiple species, it is currently unknown how each is used to control changes in trajectory. We addressed this problem by measuring body and wingbeat kinematics as hummingbirds tracked a revolving feeder, and estimating aerodynamic forces using a quasi-steady model. During arcing turns, hummingbirds symmetrically banked the stroke plane of both wings, and the body, into turns, supporting a body-dependent mechanism. However, several wingbeat asymmetries were present during turning, including a higher and flatter outer wingtip path and a lower more deviated inner wingtip path. A quasi-steady analysis of arcing turns performed with different trajectories revealed that changes in radius were associated with asymmetrical kinematics and forces, and changes in velocity were associated with symmetrical kinematics and forces. Collectively, our results indicate that both body-dependent and -independent force orientation mechanisms are available to hummingbirds, and that these kinematic strategies are used to meet the separate aerodynamic challenges posed by changes in velocity and turning radius.

  20. Multiple personality disorder and iatrogenesis: the cautionary tale of Anna O.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissberg, M

    1993-01-01

    An examination of Breuer's treatment of Anna O. illustrates some of the controversies surrounding the recent rise of case reports of multiple personality disorder. Anna O., the first patient of the cathartic method, psychoanalysis, and dynamic psychiatry, fits current criteria for multiple personality disorder. Breuer's treatment, however, may have contributed to her states of absence; the timing, type, and intensity of Breuer's interventions make it possible that he unwittingly encouraged and amplified Anna's dissociations, reified her ego fragments, and then explained Anna's symptoms with the pseudomemories and confabulations recovered from Anna while she was hypnotized. A review of Breuer's treatment highlights some of the controversial aspects of multiple personality disorder, specifically its possible vulnerability to iatrogenesis via suggestion and unconscious collusion and other factors. The current stance of some multiple personality disorder enthusiasts, opaque to their participation in interactions that may lead to certain patient productions, resembles the older psychoanalytic stance exemplified by the early Breuer and Freud. The dialectic of the therapist as a neutral observer versus as an influential participant continues to be a focus of controversy, both within psychoanalysis and psychotherapy and in the understandings of the etiology and treatment of multiple personality disorder.

  1. Aiamängud vormi ja värviga / Anna-Liisa Unt ; interv. Victoria Parmas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Unt, Anna-Liisa, 1982-

    2006-01-01

    Eesti Maaülikoolis ja Rootsi Põllumajandusülikoolis maastikuarhitektuuri õppinud Anna-Liisa Unt (sünd. 1982) endast, oma aiakujundustest, tüüpilisest eestlase aiast tänapäeval jm. Anna-Liisa Undi tööde loetelu

  2. Aiamängud vormi ja värviga / Anna-Liisa Unt ; interv. Victoria Parmas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Unt, Anna-Liisa, 1982-

    2006-01-01

    Eesti Maaülikoolis ja Rootsi Põllumajandusülikoolis maastikuarhitektuuri õppinud Anna-Liisa Unt (sünd. 1982) endast, oma aiakujundustest, tüüpilisest eestlase aiast tänapäeval jm. Anna-Liisa Undi tööde loetelu

  3. [Anna Justina Ferreira Nery: framework in the history of Brazilian nursing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, M M; Miranda, C M

    1999-01-01

    The object of this study is Anna Neri (1814-1880), an anonymous woman who participated in the Paraguay War (1865-1870). This is a social-historical biographical study guided by the principles of the New History. The objective of this research is to characterize and raise relevant aspects of Anna Neri's life. It is known that this woman left her domestic life to play an important role in the public space. Her motivation was genuinely affectionate, and she didn't expect to be called a nurse. Anna Neri met the requirements that would raise the social and moral status of the XXth century nursing workers, and became a symbol of Brazilian nursing.

  4. Anna Sui爱恋巴黎香氛七月现身

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张录音(译)

    2007-01-01

    Anna Sui成功推出广受欢迎的两款洋娃娃系列香氛之后.全新的Anna Sui Dolly Girl Bonjour L’Amour爱恋巴黎限量香氛于7月正式上市。作为Anna Sui洋娃娃系列香氛的第三款限量版造型.该款香水营造出了一个在2007年的夏天来到巴黎度假的洋娃娃.沉浸在一场属于巴黎的恋爱中那摩登迷人又娇俏可爱的模样。

  5. Infantile sexuality: Its place in the conceptual developments of Anna Freud and Donald W. Winnicott.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Angela

    2016-06-01

    This essay explores the place of infantile sexuality in the theories of Anna Freud and Donald W Winnicott. Both Anna Freud and D.W. Winnicott incorporated and at the same time changed the classical psychoanalytic account of infantile sexuality and the instinctual drives. Whilst Anna Freud remained closer to her father's original conceptualization, she developed a multidimensional model of development which gave the drives a foundational status whist also maintaining their significance in giving meaning and texture to children's subjective experience. Winnicott also retained much of S. Freud's original theorizing except that in a fundamental way he turned it on its head when considering earliest development. For him the establishment of the self was paramount, and the drives and infantile sexuality merely served to give substance to that self. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  6. [Revista Annaes de Enfermagem: nurses' publications about pediatrics (1932-1941)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, Aline Silva; Santos, Tânia Cristina Franco; Oliveira, Alexandre Barbosa de

    2009-01-01

    Historic-social study whose object was the intellectual production of nurses and students about pediatric nursing in the journal Annaes de Enfermagem, in the period 1932-1941. The primary source refers to the issues of the journal Annaes de Enfermagem considering the established time limits for the study, as well as reports and correspondences. The secondary sources are constituted by books, articles, dissertations and thesis on the Brazilian history of nursing. On data analysis it was used the thought of the French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu. The results show that the journal Annaes de Enfermagem published important issues of nursing care to the child and contributed to the visibility of Brazilian nurses among the scientific community.

  7. Preferential nectar robbing of flowers with long corollas: experimental studies of two hummingbird species visiting three plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Carlos; Ornelas, Juan

    2001-07-01

    Long flower tubes have been traditionally viewed as the result of coevolution between plants and specialized, legitimate, long billed-pollinators. However, nectar robbers may have played a role in selection acting on corolla length. This study evaluated whether hummingbirds are more likely to rob flowers with longer corollas from which they cannot efficiently extract nectar with legitimate visits. We compared two hummingbird species with similar bill lengths (Lampornis amethystinus and Colibri thalassinus) visiting floral arrays of artificial flowers with exaggerated corolla lengths, and also evaluated how the birds extract nectar rewards from medium to long corollas of three hummingbird-pollinated plants (Salvia mexicana, S. iodantha and Ipomoea hederifolia). The consequences of foraging for plant fitness were evaluated in terms of seed production per flower. Variation in seed production after legitimate visits of hummingbird-pollinated plants was mostly explained by differences in pollinator effectiveness. Seed production did not increase with the number of legitimate visits to a flower, except in I. hederifolia. We found that birds were more likely to rob both artificial and natural flowers with long corolla tubes. Nectar robbing was not observed on short-corolla flowers of Salvia spp., but robbing negatively affected seed production of long-tubed flowers of I. hederifolia. Significant differences between hummingbird species in the use of this behavior were observed, but males and females behaved alike. We suggest that short-billed hummingbirds with enlarged bill serrations (the edge of both tomia finely toothed) may have an advantage in illegitimately feeding at long-corolla flowers. This raises the possibility of counter-selection on increasing corolla length by nectar robbers.

  8. Kas kooliraamatukogus on hea raamatuvalik? / Inga Paaskivi, Anna Elise Rohtmets, Piia Selge ... [jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Küsimusele vastasid: Muhu põhikooli raamatukoguhoidja Inga Paaskivi, Mustamäe gümnaasiumi abiturient Anna Elise Rohtmets, Tallinna Arte gümnaasiumi raamatukoguhoidja Piia Selge, Saue gümnaasiumi emakeeleõpetaja Piret Uulma, Mõisaküla kooli raamatukoguhoidja Airi Allikivi, Loksa gümnaasiumi emakeeleõpetaja Urve Toompuu, lapsevanem Heli Kilter

  9. The "Matchbox School" (1927-1932): Anna Freud and the Idea of a "Psychoanalytically Informed Education"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midgley, Nick

    2008-01-01

    Of all the applications of psychoanalysis to various fields, perhaps none has been as important--or as fraught--as the application of psychoanalytic insights to education. This paper re-constructs some of the early debates around psychoanalysis and pedagogy that Anna Freud engaged with during the 1920s in Vienna, when the whole question of what…

  10. Abjeção em textos de André Sant’Anna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Salgueirinho

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de uma leitura de textos do escritor André Sant’Anna a partir da problematização que, em The Return of the Real (1986, o crítico de arte norte-americano Hal Foster faz da noção de abjeto e da dita abject art.

  11. ANNA: A Dictionary with a Name (and what Lies Behind it)*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    robot. In ANNA the information from the two parts is brought together, amalgamated, resulting ... The work for this part was done at Port Elizabeth in close collaboration ..... of 'keep in memory' if applied to a human object is specified to 'remem-.

  12. Failures of Language and Laughter: Anna Julia Cooper and Contemporary Problems of Humanistic Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Jane Anna

    2007-01-01

    This essay briefly explores reflections of Anna Julia Cooper concerning the meaning and significance of moments within educational settings when the conditions for laughter and language break down. The author suggests that what she presented as moments of social and political failure have become the aims of contemporary, rigid nonpromotion public…

  13. The NCSS Curriculum Standards: A Response to Anna Ochoa-Becker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Susan

    2001-01-01

    Provides a response to the April 2001 "Social Education" article, "A Critique of the NCSS Curriculum Standards," (Anna Ochoa-Becker). Focuses on the critiques offered by Ochoa-Becker that address the lack of time given to certain issues. (CMK)

  14. Printsip zolotoi seredinõ / Anna-Maria Galojan ; interv. Jelena Nikanorova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Galojan, Anna-Maria, 1982-

    2007-01-01

    Eesti Välispoliitika Instituudi töötaja, transiidifirma arendusdirektor, politoloog Anna-Maria Galojan räägib oma haridusteest, tööst, perekonnast, väärtushinnangutest, osalemisest kodanikeühenduses Eesti Euroopa Liikumine, spordiharrastusest

  15. Kas kooliraamatukogus on hea raamatuvalik? / Inga Paaskivi, Anna Elise Rohtmets, Piia Selge ... [jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Küsimusele vastasid: Muhu põhikooli raamatukoguhoidja Inga Paaskivi, Mustamäe gümnaasiumi abiturient Anna Elise Rohtmets, Tallinna Arte gümnaasiumi raamatukoguhoidja Piia Selge, Saue gümnaasiumi emakeeleõpetaja Piret Uulma, Mõisaküla kooli raamatukoguhoidja Airi Allikivi, Loksa gümnaasiumi emakeeleõpetaja Urve Toompuu, lapsevanem Heli Kilter

  16. The "Matchbox School" (1927-1932): Anna Freud and the Idea of a "Psychoanalytically Informed Education"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midgley, Nick

    2008-01-01

    Of all the applications of psychoanalysis to various fields, perhaps none has been as important--or as fraught--as the application of psychoanalytic insights to education. This paper re-constructs some of the early debates around psychoanalysis and pedagogy that Anna Freud engaged with during the 1920s in Vienna, when the whole question of what…

  17. Mida teie arvate eestikeelsest õppest vene koolides? / Kaider Vardja, Anna Verschik, Tatjana Zarutskihh...[jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Küsimusele vastavad Tallinna kesklinna vene gümnaasiumi eesti keele õpetaja Kaider Vardja, TLÜ eesti keele ja kultuuri instituudi üldkeeleteaduse professor Anna Verschik, Narva Pähklimäe gümnaasiumi direktor Tatjana Zarutskihh, Tapa vene gümnaasiumi direktor Henry Kallaste, riigikogu liige Igor Gräzin

  18. Dr. Anna Julia Cooper, 1858-1964: Teacher, Scholar, and Timeless Womanist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Mark S.

    2006-01-01

    The study examines the various accomplishments and achievements of Dr. Anna Julia Cooper, a social activist-educator, scholar and an early model for African-American feminist theory. Cooper was a great public intellectual and teacher, as she highly attacked the prevalence of racism, sexism and poverty through her writings and by working with…

  19. African American Women Scholars and International Research: Dr. Anna Julia Cooper's Legacy of Study Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Stephanie Y.

    2009-01-01

    EIn this article, the author presents a little-known but detailed history of Black women's tradition of study abroad. Specifically, she situates Dr. Anna Julia Cooper within the landscape of historic African American students who studied in Japan, Germany, Jamaica, England, Italy, Haiti, India, West Africa, and Thailand, in addition to France. The…

  20. Pollination ecology of two species of Elleanthus (Orchidaceae): novel mechanisms and underlying adaptations to hummingbird pollination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, C E P; Amorim, F W; Mayer, J L S; Sazima, M

    2016-01-01

    Relationships among floral biology, floral micromorphology and pollinator behaviour in bird-pollinated orchids are important issues to understand the evolution of the huge flower diversity within Orchidaceae. We aimed to investigate floral mechanisms underlying the interaction with pollinators in two hummingbird-pollinated orchids occurring in the Atlantic forest. We assessed floral biology, nectar traits, nectary and column micromorphologies, breeding systems and pollinators. In both species, nectar is secreted by lip calli through spaces between the medial lamellar surfaces of epidermal cells. Such a form of floral nectar secretion has not been previously described. Both species present functional protandry and are self-compatible yet pollinator-dependent. Fruit set in hand-pollination experiments was more than twice that under natural conditions, evidencing pollen limitation. The absence of fruit set in interspecific crosses suggests the existence of post-pollination barriers between these sympatric co-flowering species. In Elleanthus brasiliensis, fruits resulting from cross-pollination and natural conditions were heavier than those resulting from self-pollination, suggesting advantages to cross-pollination. Hummingbirds pollinated both species, which share at least one pollinator species. Species differences in floral morphologies led to distinct pollination mechanisms. In E. brasiliensis, attachment of pollinarium to the hummingbird bill occurs through a lever apparatus formed by an appendage in the column, another novelty to our knowledge of orchid pollination. In E. crinipes, pollinarium attachment occurs by simple contact with the bill during insertion into the flower tube, which fits tightly around it. The novelties described here illustrate the overlooked richness in ecology and morphophysiology in Orchidaceae. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  1. Contrasting patterns of phylogenetic assemblage structure along the elevational gradient for major hummingbird clades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parra, Juan L.; Rahbek, Carsten; McGuire, Jimmy A.

    2011-01-01

    a variety of published and non-published sources. For the entire family and each of the major hummingbird clades (hermits, emeralds, mangoes, coquettes and brilliants) we quantified the phylogenetic structure of each assemblage using the net relatedness index (NRI). This index calculates the standardized...... relatives away from the elevation of origin at the family level and for assemblages of mangoes and brilliants. The opposite pattern was found for assemblages of coquettes and emeralds. For the hermits, variation in phylogenetic structure was not explained by elevation. Clades with high levels of feeding...

  2. Toward understanding the mechanics of hovering in insects, hummingbirds and bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vejdani, Hamid; Boerma, David; Swartz, Sharon; Breuer, Kenneth

    2016-11-01

    We present results on the dynamical characteristics of two different mechanisms of hovering, corresponding to the behavior of hummingbirds and bats. Using a Lagrangian formulation, we have developed a dynamical model of a body (trunk) and two rectangular wings. The trunk has 3 degrees of freedom (x, z and pitch angle) and each wing has 3 modes of actuation: flapping, pronation/supination, and wingspan extension/flexion (only present for bats). Wings can be effectively massless (hummingbird and insect wings) or relatively massive (important in the case of bats). The aerodynamic drag and lift forces are calculated using a quasi-steady blade-element model. The regions of state space in which hovering is possible are computed by over an exhaustive range of parameters. The effect of wing mass is to shrink the phase space available for viable hovering and, in general, to require higher wingbeat frequency. Moreover, by exploring hovering energy requirements, we find that the pronation angle of the wings also plays a critical role. For bats, who have relatively heavy wings, we show wing extension and flexion is critical in order to maintain a plausible hovering posture with reasonable power requirements. Comparisons with biological data show good agreement with our model predictions.

  3. Bimodal pollination system of the bromeliad Aechmea nudicaulis involving hummingbirds and bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, S; Schmid, V S; Zillikens, A; Harter-Marques, B; Steiner, J

    2011-01-01

    In order to compare the effectiveness of birds and insects as pollinators, we studied the floral biology of the bromeliad Aechmea nudicaulis (L.) Grisebach in the biome of the Atlantic rain forest, southern Brazil. On Santa Catarina Island, flowering extends from mid-September to the end of December, with diurnal anthesis. The reproductive system is obligatory xenogamy, thus pollinator-dependent. Flowers secrete 31.84 μl of nectar per day, with a mean sugar concentration of 23.2%. Highest nectar volume and sugar concentration occur at the beginning of anthesis. Most floral traits are characteristic for ornithophily, and nectar production appears to be adapted to the energy demand of hummingbirds. Continued secretion of the sucrose-dominated nectar attracts and binds visitors to inflorescences, strengthening trapline foraging behaviour. Experiments assessing seed set after single flower visits were performed with the most frequent visitors, revealing the hummingbird Thalurania glaucopis as the most effective pollen vector. In addition, bees are also functional pollinators, as substantiated by their high visitation frequency. We conclude that this pollination system is bimodal. Thus, there is redundancy in the pollination service provided by birds and bees, granting a high probability of successful reproduction in Ae. nudicaulis.

  4. Fragmentation of CagA Reduces Hummingbird Phenotype Induction by Helicobactor pylori.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Chi Chang

    Full Text Available Infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori has been linked to various gastro-intestinal diseases; nevertheless it remains to be clarified why only a minority of infected individuals develop illness. Studies from the West have indicated that the cagA gene and the associated EPIYA genotype of H. pylori is closely linked to the development of severe gastritis and gastric carcinoma; however, as yet no consistent correlation has been found among the bacteria from East Asia. In addition to genotype variation, the CagA protein undergoes fragmentation; however, the functional significance of fragmentation with respect to H. pylori infection remains unknown. In this study, we isolated 594 H. pylori colonies from 99 patients and examined the fragmentation patterns of CagA protein using immunoblotting. By analyzing the ability of the isolates to induce the host cell morphological transition to the highly invasive hummingbird phenotype, we demonstrated that H. pylori colonies with substantial CagA fragmentation are less potent in terms of causing this morphological transition. Our results uncovered a functional role for CagA fragmentation with respect to H. pylori-induced hummingbird phenotype formation and these findings suggest the possibility that the post-translational processing of CagA may be involved in H. pylori infection pathogenesis.

  5. Wing, tail, and vocal contributions to the complex acoustic signals of courting Calliope hummingbirds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher James CLARK

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Multi-component signals contain multiple signal parts expressed in the same physical modality. One way to identify individual components is if they are produced by different physical mechanisms. Here, I studied the mechanisms generating acoustic signals in the courtship displays of the Calliope hummingbird Stellula calliope. Display dives consisted of three synchronized sound elements, a high-frequency tone (hft, a low frequency tone (lft, and atonal sound pulses (asp, which were then followed by a frequency-modulated fall. Manipulating any of the rectrices (tail-feathers of wild males impaired production of the lft and asp but not the hft or fall, which are apparently vocal. I tested the sound production capabilities of the rectrices in a wind tunnel. Single rectrices could generate the lft but not the asp, whereas multiple rectrices tested together produced sounds similar to the asp when they fluttered and collided with their neighbors percussively, representing a previously unknown mechanism of sound production. During the shuttle display, a trill is generated by the wings during pulses in which the wingbeat frequency is elevated to 95 Hz, 40% higher than the typical hovering wingbeat frequency. The Calliope hummingbird courtship displays include sounds produced by three independent mechanisms, and thus include a minimum of three acoustic signal components. These acoustic mechanisms have different constraints and thus potentially contain different messages. Producing multiple acoustic signals via multiple mechanisms may be a way to escape the constraints present in any single mechanism [Current Zoology 57 (2: 187–196, 2011].

  6. The Hummingbird GC-IMS: In Situ Analysis of a Cometary Nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojiro, Daniel R.; Carle, Glenn C.; Cohen, Martin J.; Wernlund, Roger F.; Stimac, Robert M.; Takeuchi, Norishige; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Comets are of enormous scientific interest for many reasons. They are primitive bodies that date back to the earliest stages of solar system formation and, because of their small size and because they have been stored in the outer reaches of the solar system, their pristine nature has been preserved better than for any other class of body. They are extremely rich in highly volatile elements, many in the form of ices, and are richer in organic matter than any other known solar system body. It is strongly suspected that in addition to their content of primordial solar nebular material, they also incorporate unprocessed matter from the interstellar medium. Impacts by comets occur onto all the planets and satellites, often with major consequences (e.g., the dinosaur extinction event at the KIT boundary), or sometimes just providing a spectacular cosmic event (e.g., the collision of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 with Jupiter). A mission to analyze a cometary nucleus must be capable of detecting and identifying over 30 molecular species among several different chemical groups. The Hummingbird Mission will rendezvous with, orbit, characterize, and make multiple descents to the nucleus of a comet. Hummingbird will employ a Gas Chromatograph - Ion Mobility Spectrometer (GC-IMS) as part-of a suite of sophisticated instruments for a comprehensive in situ elemental, molecular, and isotopic analysis of the comet.

  7. Different foraging preferences of hummingbirds on artificial and natural flowers reveal mechanisms structuring plant-pollinator interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglianesi, María A; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Schleuning, Matthias

    2015-05-01

    In plant-pollinator networks, the floral morphology of food plants is an important determinant of the interaction niche of pollinators. Studies on foraging preferences of pollinators combining experimental and observational approaches may help to understand the mechanisms behind patterns of interactions and niche partitioning within pollinator communities. In this study, we tested whether morphological floral traits were associated with foraging preferences of hummingbirds for artificial and natural flower types in Costa Rica. We performed field experiments with artificial feeders, differing in length and curvature of flower types, to quantify the hummingbirds' interaction niche under unlimited nectar resources. To quantify the interaction niche under real-world conditions of limited nectar resources, we measured foraging preferences of hummingbirds for a total of 34 plant species. Artificial feeders were visited by Eupherusa nigriventris and Phaethornis guy in the pre-montane forest, and Lampornis calolaemus in the lower montane forest. Under experimental conditions, all three hummingbird species overlapped their interaction niches and showed a preference for the short artificial flower type over the long-straight and the long-curved flower types. Under natural conditions, the two co-occurring hummingbird species preferred to feed on plant species with floral traits corresponding to their bill morphology. The short-billed hummingbird E. nigriventris preferred to feed on short and straight flowers, whereas the long- and curved-billed P. guy preferred long and curved natural flowers. The medium-size billed species L. calolaemus preferred to feed on flowers of medium length and did not show preferences for plant species with specific corolla curvature. Our results show that floral morphological traits constrain access by short-billed hummingbird species to nectar resources. Morphological constraints, therefore, represent one important mechanism structuring trophic

  8. Kahevahel : Kui hajusad on kultuuriruumi piirid? / Anna Verschik, Tiina Kirss, Mikko Lagerspetz ; intervjueerinud Daniele Monticelli, Merle Karro-Kalberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Verschik, Anna, 1968-

    2015-01-01

    Kultuurist, kultuuriruumist, kultuuris olemisest ja sealt pärinemisest arutlevad TLÜ professori Daniele Monticelli eestvõttel TLÜ professorid Anna Verschik ja Tiina Kirss ning Turu Åbo Akadeemia professor Mikko Lagerspetz

  9. Muusikamaailm. Thessalonikis oma ooperimaja. Haitink Dresdenisse kauemaks. Juubilar Anna TomovaئSintov. Marius Flothuis lahkunud. Konkursipreemiaid / Priit Kuusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuusk, Priit, 1938-

    2002-01-01

    Thessalonikis on nüüd uus ooperimaja. Bernard Haitink jääb Dresdenisse kauemaks. Laulja Anna TomovaئSintov sai 60. aastaseks. Suri tunnustatud ja mitmekülgne muusikategelane Marius Flothuis. Konkursipreemiatest

  10. Kahevahel : Kui hajusad on kultuuriruumi piirid? / Anna Verschik, Tiina Kirss, Mikko Lagerspetz ; intervjueerinud Daniele Monticelli, Merle Karro-Kalberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Verschik, Anna, 1968-

    2015-01-01

    Kultuurist, kultuuriruumist, kultuuris olemisest ja sealt pärinemisest arutlevad TLÜ professori Daniele Monticelli eestvõttel TLÜ professorid Anna Verschik ja Tiina Kirss ning Turu Åbo Akadeemia professor Mikko Lagerspetz

  11. Peter Heller's a Child Analysis with Anna Freud: the significance of the case for the history of child psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midgley, Nick

    2012-02-01

    A Child Analysis with Anna Freud, a collection of Anna Freud's detailed case notes of her treatment of the young Peter Heller between 1929 and 1932, was first published in English in 1990. Not only does this work give us direct access to Anna Freud's ways of thinking and working at a crucial period in the early history of child analysis; it is also one of the few records of an adult reflecting in depth on the experience of being in analysis as a child. Yet to date this work has received little attention in the psychoanalytic literature. In an attempt to redress this neglect, the Heller case study is placed in the context of Anna Freud's emerging ideas about child analysis. In particular, its significance in the development of her psychoanalytic thinking is investigated in the light of her 1927 book, The Technique of Child Analysis.

  12. Hummingbird responses to gender-biased nectar production: are nectar biases maintained by natural or sexual selection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Jane E

    2008-01-01

    Pollinators mediate the evolution of secondary floral traits through both natural and sexual selection. Gender-biased nectar, for example, could be maintained by one or both, depending on the interactions between plants and pollinators. Here, I investigate pollinator responses to gender-biased nectar using the dichogamous herb Chrysothemis friedrichsthaliana (Gesneriaceae) which produces more nectar during the male floral phase. Previous research showed that the hummingbird pollinator Phaethornis striigularis visited male-phase flowers more often than female-phase flowers, and multiple visits benefited male more than female fecundity. If sexual selection maintains male-biased rewards, hummingbirds should prefer more-rewarding flowers independent of floral gender. If, however, differential rewards are partially maintained through natural selection, hummingbirds should respond to asymmetry with visits that reduce geitonogamy, i.e. selfing and pollen discounting. In plants with male biases, these visit types include single-flower visits and movements from low to high rewards. To test these predictions, I manipulated nectar asymmetry between pairs of real or artificial flowers on plants and recorded foraging behaviour. I also assessed maternal costs of selfing using hand pollinations. For plants with real flowers, hummingbirds preferred more-rewarding flowers and male-phase morphology, the latter possibly owing to previous experience. At artificial arrays, hummingbirds responded to extreme reward asymmetry with increased single-flower visits; however, they moved from high to low rewards more often than low to high. Finally, selfed flowers did not produce inferior seeds. In summary, sexual selection, more so than geitonogamy avoidance, maintains nectar biases in C. friedrichsthaliana, in one of the clearest examples of sexual selection in plants, to date. PMID:18460431

  13. Cell size and basal metabolic rate in hummingbirds Tamaño celular y tasa metabólica basal en picaflores

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Juan C. Opazo; Mauricio Soto-Gamboa; Maria José Fernández

    2005-01-01

    .... Knowing that cell size is proportional to C-value, in this study we tested for a relationship between mean corpuscular volume of red blood cells and BMR in four species of hummingbirds ranging from 4 to 20 g...

  14. Vos, Faust, Voss: raakpunte tussen Vos deur Anna M. Louw en enkele ander tekste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. John

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Vos, Faust, Voss: Points of contact between Vos by Anna M. Louw and selected other texts This article explores points of contact between “Vos” by Anna M. Louw and a number of related texts, including the following: the book “Job” from the Christian Bible, “Faust” by Goethe, “Voss” by Patrick White and texts forming part of the Gnostic tradition. The analysis describes similarities and differences, arguing that the implication of the points of contact between the various texts is that Vos suggests that the heritage of the Christian Reformation is not adequate for an understanding of life in South Africa, and it has to be supplemented with perspectives from other traditions.

  15. Melanie Klein and Anna Freud: the discourse of the early dispute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viner, R

    1996-01-01

    Divisions in the field of the psychoanalysis of children can be traced to a dispute over the infantile super-ego between the theorists Melanie Klein and Anna Freud beginning in 1927. These divisions are understood within the analytic world as the result of scientific disputation between alternative valid theories. An examination of the language, claims, and epistemology of Klein's and Freud's publications in 1927 that marked the public commencement of the conflict, reveals a personalized discourse in which authority was derived from the allegiance, experience, and personal analytic standing of the contestants as much as from theoretical insight. The structure and rhetoric of the debate suggest that, rather than terminating the dispute, the publications of 1927 served to encourage professionalization in child analysis and establish Anna Freud and Melanie Klein as authoritative alternative theorists.

  16. Clinical Holistic Medicine: The Case Story of Anna. II. Patient Diary as a Tool in Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sören Ventegodt

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of extreme childhood sexual and violent abuse, a 22-year-old young woman, Anna, healed during holistic existential therapy. New and highly confrontational therapeutic tools were developed and used to help this patient (like acceptance through touch and acupressure through the vagina. Her vulva and introitus were scarred from repeated brutal rape, as was the interior of her mouth. During therapy, these scars were gently contacted and the negative emotional contents released. The healing was in accordance with the advanced holistic medical toolbox that uses (1 love, (2 trust, (3 holding, and (4 helping the patient to process and integrate old traumas.The case story clearly revealed the philosophical adjustments that Anna made during treatment in response to the severe childhood abuse. These adjustments are demonstrated by her diary, where sentences contain both the feelings and thoughts of the painful present (the gestalt at the time of the abuse, thus containing the essence of the traumas, making the repression of the painful emotions possible through the change in the patient’s philosophical perspective. Anna's case gives a unique insight into the process of traumatization (pathogenesis and the process of healing (salutogenesis. At the end of the healing, Anna reconnected her existence to the outer world in a deep existential, suicidal crisis and faced her choice of life or death. She decided to live and, in this process, assumed existential responsibility, which made her able to step out of her mental disease. The advanced holistic toolbox seems to help patients heal even from the worst childhood abuse. In spite of the depth of the existential crisis, holistic existential therapy seems to support existential responsibility well and thus safe for the patients.

  17. Effect of artificial feeders on pollen loads of the hummingbirds of Cerro de La Muerte, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Avalos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Although sugar-water feeders are commonly used by enthusiasts to attract hummingbirds, little is known about how they affect hummingbird behavior and flower use. We studied the highland hummingbird assemblage of Cerro de La Muerte, Costa Rica, both at a site with permanent feeders (La Georgina Restaurant and further from it. We examined how feeder use and monopolization affected seasonal changes in pollen loads during four sampling periods, including dry and wet seasons, from 2003-2005. We expected that species monopolizing the feeders would carry little or no pollen whatsoever, and would have pollen loads characterized by low floral diversity, in contrast with species less dependent on feeders. We obtained pollen samples from 183 individuals of four hummingbird species captured around the feeders using mist nets, which were compared with a pollen reference collection of plants with a pollination syndrome by hummingbirds. The same methods were implemented at a site 3km away from the feeders. Feeder usage was quantified by counting the number of times hummingbirds drank from the feeders in periods of 4min separated by 1min. The effects of hummingbird species and season on pollen load categories were assessed using a nominal logistic regression. The alpha species at the site, the Fiery-throated Hummingbird (Panterpe insignis, dominated the feeders during the dry season. Meanwhile, in the wet season, feeder usage was more evenly distributed across species, with the exception of the Volcano Hummingbird, Selasphorus flammula, which occupies the last place in the dominance hierarchy. Pollen loads of hummingbirds captured near feeders were low in abundance (more than 50% of captured individuals had zero or low pollen loads, and low in species richness (96% of the hummingbirds with pollen from only one plant genus, Centropogon. Overall pollen loads increased during the dry season coinciding with peaks in flower availability, although the majority of

  18. ENGAGING ELEMENTARY AND MIDDLE SCHOOL STUDENTS IN ROBOTICS THROUGH HUMMINGBIRD KIT WITH SNAP! VISUAL PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Newley

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to describe how Hummingbird robotics kit with Snap! programing language was used to introduce basics of robotics to elementary and middle school students. Each student in the robotics program built a robot. The robot building process was open ended. Any specific robotics challenge was not provided to the students. Students’ knowledge about robots and programming language were measured through pre, post, and delayed posttests. Results indicated that students improved their knowledge about robotics and programing language at the end of the robotics program. Delayed posttest results indicated that the students were able to sustain their improved knowledge two months after the posttest. Formal data about student motivation and interest in STEM learning were not collected; however, it was observed that students expressed interest to participate in more advanced robotics programs in the future.

  19. Wing,tail,and vocal contributions to the complex acoustic signals of courting Calliope hummingbirds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christopher James CLARK

    2011-01-01

    Multi-component signals contain multiple signal parts expressed in the same physical modality.One way to identify individual components is if they are produced by different physical mechanisms.Here,I studied the mechanisms generating acoustic signais in the courtship displays of the Calliope hummingbird Stellula calliope.Display dives consisted of three synchronized sound elements,a high-frequency tone(hft),a low frequency tone(lft),and atonal sound pulses(asp),which were then followed by a frequency-modulaled fall.Manipulating any of the rectrices(tail-feathers)of wild males impaired production of the lft and asp,but not the hft or fall,which are apparently vocal.I tested the sound production capabilities of the rectrices in a wind tuunel.Single rectrices could generate the lft but not the asp,whereas multiple rectrices tested together produced sounds similar to the asp when they fluttered and collided with their neighbors percussively,representing a previously unknown mechanism of sound production.During the shuttle display,a trill is generated by the wings during pulses in which the wingbeat frequency is elevated to 95 Hz,40% higher than the typical hovering wingbeat frequency.Tbe Caillope hummingbird courtship displays include sounds produced by three independent mechauisms,and thus include a minimum of three acoustic signal components.These acoustic mechanisms have different constraints and thus potentially contain different messages.Producing multiple acoustic signals via multiple mechanisms may be a way to escape the constraints present in any single mechanism.

  20. Five new feather mites of the subfamily Pterodectinae (Acariformes: Astigmata: Proctophyllodidae) from passerines and hummingbirds (Aves) of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandes, Fabio Akashi; Pedroso, Luiz Gustavo A; Oniki-Willis, Yoshika

    2016-09-06

    Five new species of feather mites (Proctophyllodidae: Pterodectinae) are described from passerines and hummingbirds of Brazil: Amerodectes longifuscus sp. nov. from Poospiza lateralis (Nordmann, 1835) (Passeriformes: Emberizidae), A. vireonis sp. nov. from Vireo olivaceus (Linnaeus, 1766) (Passeriformes: Vireonidae), Tyrannidectes synallaxis sp. nov. from Synallaxis ruficapilla Vieillot, 1819 (Passeriformes: Furnariidae), Trochilodectes willisi sp. nov. from Phaethornis eurynome (Lesson, 1832) (Apodiformes: Trochilidae), and Xynonodectes phaethornis sp. nov. from Ph. pretrei (Lesson & Delattre, 1839) (Apodiformes: Trochilidae).

  1. Harmonic hopping, and both punctuated and gradual evolution of acoustic characters in Selasphorus hummingbird tail-feathers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher James Clark

    Full Text Available Models of character evolution often assume a single mode of evolutionary change, such as continuous, or discrete. Here I provide an example in which a character exhibits both types of change. Hummingbirds in the genus Selasphorus produce sound with fluttering tail-feathers during courtship. The ancestral character state within Selasphorus is production of sound with an inner tail-feather, R2, in which the sound usually evolves gradually. Calliope and Allen's Hummingbirds have evolved autapomorphic acoustic mechanisms that involve feather-feather interactions. I develop a source-filter model of these interactions. The 'source' comprises feather(s that are both necessary and sufficient for sound production, and are aerodynamically coupled to neighboring feathers, which act as filters. Filters are unnecessary or insufficient for sound production, but may evolve to become sources. Allen's Hummingbird has evolved to produce sound with two sources, one with feather R3, another frequency-modulated sound with R4, and their interaction frequencies. Allen's R2 retains the ancestral character state, a ∼1 kHz "ghost" fundamental frequency masked by R3, which is revealed when R3 is experimentally removed. In the ancestor to Allen's Hummingbird, the dominant frequency has 'hopped' to the second harmonic without passing through intermediate frequencies. This demonstrates that although the fundamental frequency of a communication sound may usually evolve gradually, occasional jumps from one character state to another can occur in a discrete fashion. Accordingly, mapping acoustic characters on a phylogeny may produce misleading results if the physical mechanism of production is not known.

  2. Reproductive biology and nectar production of the Mexican endemic Psittacanthus auriculatus (Loranthaceae), a hummingbird-pollinated mistletoe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Crespo, M J; Ornelas, J F; Martén-Rodríguez, S; González-Rodríguez, A; Lara, C

    2016-01-01

    Many mistletoe species produce 'bird'-pollinated flowers; however, the reproductive biology of the majority of these species has not been studied. Psittacanthus auriculatus is a Mexican endemic mistletoe, most common in open, dry mesquite grassland. Knowledge of the reproductive biology of P. auriculatus is essential for understanding species formation and diversification of Psittacanthus mistletoes, but it is currently poorly understood. Thus, we studied floral biology and phenology, nectar production and breeding system and pollination of this species. The hermaphroditic red-pink flowers open from the middle to the tip and petals are curly, but remain partially fused forming a floral tube of ca. 20-mm long. Flowers are partially protandrous, produce large amounts of nectar, last 2 days, and stigma receptivity is highest during the second day. We recorded hummingbirds (Cynanthus latirostris, Hylocharis leucotis, Amazilia beryllina, A. violiceps, Calothorax lucifer, Archilochus colubris) and less commonly butterflies (Agraulis vanillae, Anteos clorinde, Papilio multicaudatus, Phocides urania, Phoebis sennae) as floral visitors. P. auriculatus flowers are self-compatible. However, this mistletoe is an obligate animal-pollinated species, as the sensitive stigma avoids self-pollination. Under natural conditions, reproductive success was higher than in manually selfed or cross-pollinated flowers, likely due to the traplining foraging behaviour of hummingbirds. We suggest that the apparent efficient foraging behaviour of hummingbirds maintains gene flow among P. auriculatus, promoting outcrossing.

  3. Implications of inflorescence clustering for the visitation rate by hummingbirds and fruit production by Heliconia bihai (L. L. (Heliconiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio César Corrêa Missagia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant spatial distribution can influence the activity of floral visitors. Flower clustering in patches may be more attractive to visitors and it supposedly influences the fruit production. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that in Heliconia bihai (L. L. (Heliconiaceae the inflorescence clustering size positively influences the visitation rate and fruit production by the species. The study was conducted at a stretch of Atlantic Forest, in Rio de Janeiro city, Brazil. Five hummingbird species were registered as floral visitors. The average visitation rate (± standard deviation of hummingbirds was 2 (± 0.56 visits per hour per clustering. The amount of inflorescences per clustering positively influenced the visitation rate of hummingbirds, but it negatively influenced the amount of fruits produced per inflorescence. According to the results obtained, we suggest that the density of inflorescences in a clustering may negatively influence the number of flowers visited per inflorescence, due to an increased amount of inflorescences included in the foraging routes.

  4. Genetic architecture of pollination syndrome transition between hummingbird-specialist and generalist species in the genus Rhytidophyllum (Gesneriaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermine Alexandre

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation to pollinators is a key factor of diversification in angiosperms. The Caribbean sister genera Rhytidophyllum and Gesneria present an important diversification of floral characters. Most of their species can be divided in two major pollination syndromes. Large-open flowers with pale colours and great amount of nectar represent the generalist syndrome, while the hummingbird-specialist syndrome corresponds to red tubular flowers with a less important nectar volume. Repeated convergent evolution toward the generalist syndrome in this group suggests that such transitions rely on few genes of moderate to large effect. To test this hypothesis, we built a linkage map and performed a QTL detection for divergent pollination syndrome traits by crossing one specimen of the generalist species Rhytidophyllum auriculatum with one specimen of the hummingbird pollinated R. rupincola. Using geometric morphometrics and univariate traits measurements, we found that floral shape among the second-generation hybrids is correlated with morphological variation observed between generalist and hummingbird-specialist species at the genus level. The QTL analysis showed that colour and nectar volume variation between syndromes involve each one major QTL while floral shape has a more complex genetic basis and rely on few genes of moderate effect. Finally, we did not detect any genetic linkage between the QTLs underlying those traits. This genetic independence of traits could have facilitated evolution toward optimal syndromes.

  5. Specialization in plant-hummingbird networks is associated with species richness, contemporary precipitation and quaternary climate-change velocity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Dalsgaard

    Full Text Available Large-scale geographical patterns of biotic specialization and the underlying drivers are poorly understood, but it is widely believed that climate plays an important role in determining specialization. As climate-driven range dynamics should diminish local adaptations and favor generalization, one hypothesis is that contemporary biotic specialization is determined by the degree of past climatic instability, primarily Quaternary climate-change velocity. Other prominent hypotheses predict that either contemporary climate or species richness affect biotic specialization. To gain insight into geographical patterns of contemporary biotic specialization and its drivers, we use network analysis to determine the degree of specialization in plant-hummingbird mutualistic networks sampled at 31 localities, spanning a wide range of climate regimes across the Americas. We found greater biotic specialization at lower latitudes, with latitude explaining 20-22% of the spatial variation in plant-hummingbird specialization. Potential drivers of specialization--contemporary climate, Quaternary climate-change velocity, and species richness--had superior explanatory power, together explaining 53-64% of the variation in specialization. Notably, our data provides empirical evidence for the hypothesized roles of species richness, contemporary precipitation and Quaternary climate-change velocity as key predictors of biotic specialization, whereas contemporary temperature and seasonality seem unimportant in determining specialization. These results suggest that both ecological and evolutionary processes at Quaternary time scales can be important in driving large-scale geographical patterns of contemporary biotic specialization, at least for co-evolved systems such as plant-hummingbird networks.

  6. Fossil evidence of wing shape in a stem relative of swifts and hummingbirds (Aves, Pan-Apodiformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksepka, Daniel T; Clarke, Julia A; Nesbitt, Sterling J; Kulp, Felicia B; Grande, Lance

    2013-06-22

    A feathered specimen of a new species of Eocypselus from the Early Eocene Green River Formation of Wyoming provides insight into the wing morphology and ecology in an early part of the lineage leading to extant swifts and hummingbirds. Combined phylogenetic analysis of morphological and molecular data supports placement of Eocypselus outside the crown radiation of Apodiformes. The new specimen is the first described fossil of Pan-Apodiformes from the pre-Pleistocene of North America and the only reported stem taxon with informative feather preservation. Wing morphology of Eocypselus rowei sp. nov. is intermediate between the short wings of hummingbirds and the hyper-elongated wings of extant swifts, and shows neither modifications for the continuous gliding used by swifts nor modifications for the hovering flight style used by hummingbirds. Elongate hindlimb elements, particularly the pedal phalanges, also support stronger perching capabilities than are present in Apodiformes. The new species is the smallest bird yet described from the Green River Formation, and supports the hypothesis that a decrease in body size preceded flight specializations in Pan-Apodiformes. The specimen also provides the first instance of melanosome morphology preserved in association with skeletal remains from the Green River Formation.

  7. Specialization in Plant-Hummingbird Networks Is Associated with Species Richness, Contemporary Precipitation and Quaternary Climate-Change Velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalsgaard, Bo; Magård, Else; Fjeldså, Jon; Martín González, Ana M.; Rahbek, Carsten; Olesen, Jens M.; Ollerton, Jeff; Alarcón, Ruben; Cardoso Araujo, Andrea; Cotton, Peter A.; Lara, Carlos; Machado, Caio Graco; Sazima, Ivan; Sazima, Marlies; Timmermann, Allan; Watts, Stella; Sandel, Brody; Sutherland, William J.; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2011-01-01

    Large-scale geographical patterns of biotic specialization and the underlying drivers are poorly understood, but it is widely believed that climate plays an important role in determining specialization. As climate-driven range dynamics should diminish local adaptations and favor generalization, one hypothesis is that contemporary biotic specialization is determined by the degree of past climatic instability, primarily Quaternary climate-change velocity. Other prominent hypotheses predict that either contemporary climate or species richness affect biotic specialization. To gain insight into geographical patterns of contemporary biotic specialization and its drivers, we use network analysis to determine the degree of specialization in plant-hummingbird mutualistic networks sampled at 31 localities, spanning a wide range of climate regimes across the Americas. We found greater biotic specialization at lower latitudes, with latitude explaining 20–22% of the spatial variation in plant-hummingbird specialization. Potential drivers of specialization - contemporary climate, Quaternary climate-change velocity, and species richness - had superior explanatory power, together explaining 53–64% of the variation in specialization. Notably, our data provides empirical evidence for the hypothesized roles of species richness, contemporary precipitation and Quaternary climate-change velocity as key predictors of biotic specialization, whereas contemporary temperature and seasonality seem unimportant in determining specialization. These results suggest that both ecological and evolutionary processes at Quaternary time scales can be important in driving large-scale geographical patterns of contemporary biotic specialization, at least for co-evolved systems such as plant-hummingbird networks. PMID:21998716

  8. Genetic architecture of pollination syndrome transition between hummingbird-specialist and generalist species in the genus Rhytidophyllum (Gesneriaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre, Hermine; Vrignaud, Justine; Mangin, Brigitte; Joly, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Adaptation to pollinators is a key factor of diversification in angiosperms. The Caribbean sister genera Rhytidophyllum and Gesneria present an important diversification of floral characters. Most of their species can be divided in two major pollination syndromes. Large-open flowers with pale colours and great amount of nectar represent the generalist syndrome, while the hummingbird-specialist syndrome corresponds to red tubular flowers with a less important nectar volume. Repeated convergent evolution toward the generalist syndrome in this group suggests that such transitions rely on few genes of moderate to large effect. To test this hypothesis, we built a linkage map and performed a QTL detection for divergent pollination syndrome traits by crossing one specimen of the generalist species Rhytidophyllum auriculatum with one specimen of the hummingbird pollinated R. rupincola. Using geometric morphometrics and univariate traits measurements, we found that floral shape among the second-generation hybrids is correlated with morphological variation observed between generalist and hummingbird-specialist species at the genus level. The QTL analysis showed that colour and nectar volume variation between syndromes involve each one major QTL while floral shape has a more complex genetic basis and rely on few genes of moderate effect. Finally, we did not detect any genetic linkage between the QTLs underlying those traits. This genetic independence of traits could have facilitated evolution toward optimal syndromes.

  9. Exploring the boundary between pollination syndromes: bats and hummingbirds as pollinators of Burmeistera cyclostigmata and B. tenuiflora (Campanulaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muchhala, Nathan

    2003-02-01

    In this study I documented the degree of specialization in the pollination systems of Burmeistera cyclostigmata and B. tenuiflora (Campanulaceae) to explore the potential role of floral isolation in the diversification of the genus. I asked which floral characteristics are important in specializing on either bat or hummingbird pollination, and whether overlap between these floral syndromes can exist. I examined nocturnal and diurnal pollen deposition, pollinator visitation rates, and single visit effectiveness and related them to intra- and interspecific variation in Burmeistera floral characteristics at Monteverde, Costa Rica. Bats and hummingbirds visited both Burmeistera species, and bats pollinated both species. Owing to differences in floral morphology, however, hummingbirds effectively pollinated only B. tenuiflora. The generalized pollination system of B. tenuiflora demonstrates that there can be overlap in the boundary between ornithophily and chiropterophily, and that nectar production and timing of anthesis do not serve as barriers between these syndromes. The high intraspecific variation in floral color from green to red or purple did not correlate with either nocturnal or diurnal pollen deposition. Degree of flower accessibility did affect pollination; nocturnal pollen deposition significantly decreased as flowers become more obstructed. In Burmeistera, floral morphology and accessibility appear to be the most important floral characteristics for specialization at the boundary between ornithophily and chiropterophily.

  10. Specialization in plant-hummingbird networks is associated with species richness, contemporary precipitation and quaternary climate-change velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalsgaard, Bo; Magård, Else; Fjeldså, Jon; Martín González, Ana M; Rahbek, Carsten; Olesen, Jens M; Ollerton, Jeff; Alarcón, Ruben; Cardoso Araujo, Andrea; Cotton, Peter A; Lara, Carlos; Machado, Caio Graco; Sazima, Ivan; Sazima, Marlies; Timmermann, Allan; Watts, Stella; Sandel, Brody; Sutherland, William J; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2011-01-01

    Large-scale geographical patterns of biotic specialization and the underlying drivers are poorly understood, but it is widely believed that climate plays an important role in determining specialization. As climate-driven range dynamics should diminish local adaptations and favor generalization, one hypothesis is that contemporary biotic specialization is determined by the degree of past climatic instability, primarily Quaternary climate-change velocity. Other prominent hypotheses predict that either contemporary climate or species richness affect biotic specialization. To gain insight into geographical patterns of contemporary biotic specialization and its drivers, we use network analysis to determine the degree of specialization in plant-hummingbird mutualistic networks sampled at 31 localities, spanning a wide range of climate regimes across the Americas. We found greater biotic specialization at lower latitudes, with latitude explaining 20-22% of the spatial variation in plant-hummingbird specialization. Potential drivers of specialization--contemporary climate, Quaternary climate-change velocity, and species richness--had superior explanatory power, together explaining 53-64% of the variation in specialization. Notably, our data provides empirical evidence for the hypothesized roles of species richness, contemporary precipitation and Quaternary climate-change velocity as key predictors of biotic specialization, whereas contemporary temperature and seasonality seem unimportant in determining specialization. These results suggest that both ecological and evolutionary processes at Quaternary time scales can be important in driving large-scale geographical patterns of contemporary biotic specialization, at least for co-evolved systems such as plant-hummingbird networks.

  11. Serum protein response and renal failure in canine Babesia annae infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Angel Tomas; Guitian, Francisco Javier; Pallas, Estrella; Gestal, Juan Jesus; Olmeda, Sonia; Goethert, Heidi; Telford, Sam; Spielman, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    Babesia annae piroplasms have recently been recognised as a cause of infection and disease among dogs in Europe. The pathogenesis and clinical implications of this emerging disease remain poorly understood. We conducted this study to describe the electrophoretic profiles associated with the infection and to determine if B. annae associated azotaemia is caused by renal failure. We examined by microscopy 2,979 canine blood samples submitted to a diagnostic laboratory in NW Spain between September 2001 and April 2002. Small ring-shaped piroplasms were detected in blood smears of 87 samples and the identity of 58 of these presumptive cases were confirmed by PCR. This group of 58 infected dogs and a reference group of 15 healthy non-infected dogs were our study population. For all the dogs, serum protein response to -albumin, alpha-1 globulin, alpha-2 globulin, beta globulin and gamma globulin- was measured by capillary electrophoresis. The response of infected and non-infected dogs was compared and within infected dogs, the response of those with azotaemia (19) was compared with that of non-azotaemic dogs (39). Infected dogs presented a significant elevation of total proteins and all the different globulin fractions, and significantly lower levels of albumin compared to non-infected dogs. Among infected dogs, those presenting azotaemia had significantly lower concentrations of total proteins, albumin, beta and gamma globulins, and significantly higher values of alpha-2 globulin. Specific gravity was below the threshold of 1,025 for all dogs with azotaemia for which a urine sample was available (7) suggesting that azotaemia, in these dogs was of renal origin. Azotaemic dogs had higher concentrations of cholesterol and triglycerides, probably as a result of a liver compensatory response to the loss of proteins. We conclude that serum protein response in B. annae infected dogs corresponds to the pattern of a haemolytic syndrome with intense inflammatory reaction and that

  12. Stress and stability: applying the Anna Karenina principle to animal microbiomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaneveld, Jesse R; McMinds, Ryan; Vega Thurber, Rebecca

    2017-08-24

    All animals studied to date are associated with symbiotic communities of microorganisms. These animal microbiotas often play important roles in normal physiological function and susceptibility to disease; predicting their responses to perturbation represents an essential challenge for microbiology. Most studies of microbiome dynamics test for patterns in which perturbation shifts animal microbiomes from a healthy to a dysbiotic stable state. Here, we consider a complementary alternative: that the microbiological changes induced by many perturbations are stochastic, and therefore lead to transitions from stable to unstable community states. The result is an 'Anna Karenina principle' for animal microbiomes, in which dysbiotic individuals vary more in microbial community composition than healthy individuals-paralleling Leo Tolstoy's dictum that "all happy families look alike; each unhappy family is unhappy in its own way". We argue that Anna Karenina effects are a common and important response of animal microbiomes to stressors that reduce the ability of the host or its microbiome to regulate community composition. Patterns consistent with Anna Karenina effects have been found in systems ranging from the surface of threatened corals exposed to above-average temperatures, to the lungs of patients suffering from HIV/AIDs. However, despite their apparent ubiquity, these patterns are easily missed or discarded by some common workflows, and therefore probably underreported. Now that a substantial body of research has established the existence of these patterns in diverse systems, rigorous testing, intensive time-series datasets and improved stochastic modelling will help to explore their importance for topics ranging from personalized medicine to theories of the evolution of host-microorganism symbioses.

  13. The historical methodology of Anna Komnene: A case study of book XII chapter 3 of the Alexias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inoue Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we examine Anna Komnene’s editorial procedure in Book XII chapter 3 of the Alexias and reappraise her historical methodology. We investigate the two dates at the end of XII.3.1, which are incompatible: the indiction does not correspond to the regnal year. Our investigations come to the following conclusions: Anna composes XII.3 using reliable sources, Alexios I’s official letters and court logbook; both of the dates originate in the trustworthy imperial documents that she consulted; the discrepancy between the two, commonly regarded as a mistake made by Anna, was caused by editorial work on the text after her death. As far as we can tell from XII.3, her method of historical composition is entirely clear and this suggests that the Alexias is a reliable historical source.

  14. Hilda Anna Krisch: pioneira na enfermagem catarinense - formação e contribuição

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Süsskind Borenstein

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de pesquisa sócio-histórica cujo objetivo é desvelar a historicidade da primeira enfermeira catarinense formada pela Escola de Enfermagem Anna Nery, com atuação de destaque no cenário nacional. Na coleta de dados foram utilizadas entrevistas arquivadas realizadas com Hilda Anna Krisch e com outras personagens que fizeram parte do cenário da época. Além destas, utilizou-se outras fontes documentais como: periódicos, livros, cartas, relatórios, histórico escolar e fotografias. Os dados permitiram identificar a origem e a trajetória da enfermeira, bem como os trabalhos desenvolvidos por esta, durante sua vida profissional. Os achados possibilitam inferir que a enfermeira Hilda Anna Krisch, foi um baluarte na enfermagem catarinense e brasileira por ter desempenhado relevante papel dentro e fora da profissão.

  15. Physiatrie and German maternal feminism: Dr. Anna Fischer-Dückelmann critiques academic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Paulette

    2006-01-01

    Alternative medicine and reform strategies made Anna Fischer-Dückelmann a most controversial, notorious, and widely read women doctor before World War I. She published a dozen titles in 13 languages asserting that national well-being depended on maternal prowess. To her critics, Fischer-Dückelmann's commitment to medical self-help and practices of Physiatrie amounted to medical quackery. Her career has been largely unexamined, yet her feminist critiques and social concerns are not far removed from modern social medicine. For this pioneering doctor, treating physical and emotional ills and promoting the health of families were first steps toward healing the divisions of a world at war.

  16. Hartnell, Anna. Rewriting Exodus: American Futures from Du Bois to Obama.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Despina Feleki

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Anna Hartnell’s good knowledge of black political and religious discourse, dating from slavery to the present post-9/11 and post-Katrina America, grants her the confidence to draw parallels and to highlight the dividing lines that connect the political speeches of the most eminent African American politicians and thinkers in the history of the American nation. In an effort to map the Exodus rhetoric in the 20th and the early 21st century, the book explores the biblical Exodus text as it has b...

  17. THE FUNKTION OF DESCRIPTIONS IN ANNA SEGHERS’ “REVOLT OF THE FISHERMEN OF SANTA BARBARA”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gürsel UYANIK

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this essay is to provide a different interpretation of Anna Seghers’ “St. Barbaralı Balıkçıların İsyanı”. The novel that bears various discourses is examined on the basis of the function of descriptive texts. Seghers through the descriptive texts about people and events creates staggering impressions on the reader and opens the door to an imaginary world. Seghers with realist narrayive techniques is able to reflect social problems. Especially the environmental descriptions help to understand the psyche of the characters.

  18. El elemento sobrenatural en Anna Karénnina (Ana Karenina, 1835), de Clarence Brown

    OpenAIRE

    Guiralt Gomar, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Anna Karénina (Ana Karenina, 1935), de Clarence Brown, ha sido un largometraje generalmente menospreciado por los analíticos del medio fílmico, pues en torno a él existen múltiples prejuicios: vehículo para la estrella de Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Greta Garbo, versión hollywoodiense poco fiel a la novela de Tolstoi, etc. Ahora bien, un estudio individual de la película revela importantes cuestiones relacionadas con su puesta en escena apenas reflexionadas. El resultado es una atmósfe...

  19. [Questions and worries. On the correspondence of Grete Bibring and Anna Freud 1949-1975].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakman, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Grete Bibring (1899 - 1977) was a representative of the second generation of analysts. Having emigrated from Vienna to London in 1938, she left for Boston in 1942 where she made a remarkable career. 1946 she became head of the department of psychiatry at the Beth-Israel hospital in Harvard and from 1961 the first woman professor of medicine there. She maintained a connection with European psychoanalysis in the person of Anna Freud with whom she corresponded regularly. Their letters contain an interesting exchange of ideas about psychoanalytic institutions (e.g. the American Psychoanalytical Association) and papers (e.g. on pregnancy). It is also the testimony of an exceptional friendship.

  20. Flower morphology, nectar features, and hummingbird visitation to Palicourea crocea (Rubiaceae in the Upper Paraná River floodplain, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana B. Mendonça

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated flower morphology, nectar features, and hummingbird visitation to Palicourea crocea (Rubiaceae, a common ornithophilous shrub found in the riparian forest understory in the Upper Paraná River floodplain, Brazil. Flowers are distylous and the style-stamen dimorphism is accompanied by other intermorph dimorphisms in corolla length, anther length, and stigma lobe length and form. We did not observe strict reciprocity in the positioning of stigma and anthers between floral morphs. Flowering occurred during the rainy season, October to December. Nectar standing crop per flowerwas relatively constant throughout the day, which apparently resulted in hummingbirds visiting the plant throughout the day. Energetic content of the nectar in each flower (66.5J and that required daily by hummingbird visitors (up to 30kJ would oblige visits to hundreds of flowers each day, and thus movements between plants that should result in pollen flow. Three hummingbird species visited the flowers: the Gilded Sapphire (Hylocharis chrysura, the Black-throated Mango (Anthracothorax nigricollis, and the Glittering-bellied Emerald (Chlorostilbon aureoventris. The frequency of hummingbird visitation, nectar features, and the scarcity of other hummingbird-visited flowers in the study area, indicate that P. crocea is an important nectar resource for short-billed hummingbirds in the study site.Investigamos a morfologia floral, as características do néctar e a visita de beija-flores a Palicourea crocea (Rubiaceae, uma espécie ornitófila arbustiva comumente encontrada no sub-bosque da vegetação ripária na planície de inundação do Alto Rio Paraná, Brasil. As flores são distílicas, sendo o dimorfismo estilete-estames acompanhado por outras variações morfológicas no comprimento da corola, altura das anteras, comprimento das anteras e comprimento e forma das papilas estigmáticas. Não foi observada reciprocidade estrita na posição dos estigmas e

  1. Scale-4 analysis of pressurized water reactor critical configurations: Volume 5, North Anna Unit 1 Cycle 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, S.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Suto, T. [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokyo (Japan)]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-10-01

    ANSI/ANS 8.1 requires that calculational methods for away-from- reactor (AFR) criticality safety analyses be validated against experiment. This report summarizes part of the ongoing effort to benchmark AFR criticality analysis methods using selected critical configurations from commercial PWRs. Codes and data in the SCALE-4 code system were used. This volume documents the SCALE system analysis of one reactor critical configuration for North Anna Unit 1 Cycle 5. The KENO V.a criticality calculations for the North Anna 1 Cycle 5 beginning-of-cycle model yielded a value for k{sub eff} of 1. 0040{+-}0.0005.

  2. Historical and current introgression in a Mesoamerican hummingbird species complex: a biogeographic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Alicia Jiménez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of geologic and Pleistocene glacial cycles might result in morphological and genetic complex scenarios in the biota of the Mesoamerican region. We tested whether berylline, blue-tailed and steely-blue hummingbirds, Amazilia beryllina, Amazilia cyanura and Amazilia saucerottei, show evidence of historical or current introgression as their plumage colour variation might suggest. We also analysed the role of past and present climatic events in promoting genetic introgression and species diversification. We collected mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA sequence data and microsatellite loci scores for populations throughout the range of the three Amazilia species, as well as morphological and ecological data. Haplotype network, Bayesian phylogenetic and divergence time inference, historical demography, palaeodistribution modelling, and niche divergence tests were used to reconstruct the evolutionary history of this Amazilia species complex. An isolation-with-migration coalescent model and Bayesian assignment analysis were assessed to determine historical introgression and current genetic admixture. mtDNA haplotypes were geographically unstructured, with haplotypes from disparate areas interdispersed on a shallow tree and an unresolved haplotype network. Assignment analysis of the nuclear genome (nuDNA supported three genetic groups with signs of genetic admixture, corresponding to: (1 A. beryllina populations located west of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec; (2 A. cyanura populations between the Isthmus of Tehuantepec and the Nicaraguan Depression (Nuclear Central America; and (3 A. saucerottei populations southeast of the Nicaraguan Depression. Gene flow and divergence time estimates, and demographic and palaeodistribution patterns suggest an evolutionary history of introgression mediated by Quaternary climatic fluctuations. High levels of gene flow were indicated by mtDNA and asymmetrical isolation-with-migration, whereas the microsatellite analyses

  3. The Anna Karenina principle: A mechanism for the explanation of success in science

    CERN Document Server

    Bornmann, Lutz

    2011-01-01

    The first sentence of Leo Tolstoy's novel Anna Karenina is: "Happy families are all alike; every unhappy family is unhappy in its own way". Here Tolstoy means that for a family to be happy, several key aspects must be given (such as good health of all family members, acceptable financial security, and mutual affection). If there is a deficiency in any one or more of these key aspects, the family will be unhappy. In this paper we introduce the Anna Karenina principle as a principle that can explain success in science. Here we will refer to three central areas in modern science in which scarce resources will most usually lead to failure: (1) peer review of research grant proposals and manuscripts (money and journal space as scarce resources), (2) citation of publications (reception as a scarce resource), and (3) new scientific discoveries (recognition as a scarce resource). If resources are scarce (journal space, funds, reception, and recognition), there can be success only when several key prerequisites for th...

  4. Intertekstualiteit en die Bose in Kroniek van Perdepoort (Anna M. Louw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Linde

    1986-05-01

    Full Text Available In Anna M. Louw’s novel Kroniek van Perdepoort the primal conflict between good and evil is an important constituent element. Well-known authors in world literature have been fascinated by this problem, and it is an enriching experience to bring together allusions and to investigate points of contact with authors such as Feodor Dostoyevsky, Thomas Mann. William Faulkner and Patrick White. In Kroniek van Perdepoort there is a meeting between Klaas Kamer and the devil. Similarities between this meeting and similar meetings in Dr Faustus (Thomas Mann and The Brothers Karamazov (Dostoyevsky are pointed out.Subsequently the portrayal of sin in Kroniek van Perdepoort is compared with Faulkner’s novels The Sound and the Fury and Absalom, Absalom!, in which a similar theme is represented.Patrick White is also an author of religious literature to whom Anna M. Louw is attracted by her own admission. His novels. The solid Mandala and Riders in the Chariot are studied, and similarities with Kroniek van Perdepoort indicated.

  5. Patronage in the dispute over child analysis between Melanie Klein and Anna Freud--1927-1932.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguayo, J

    2000-08-01

    The author investigates the role of patrons and advocates for Melanie Klein's clinical ideas at the British Psycho-Analytical Society against the backdrop of her theoretical and technical differences with Anna Freud from 1927 to 1932. He also outlines the development of Klein and Anna Freud's theories and techniques within the nascent discipline of child psychoanalysis. The London and Viennese patrons/advocates contributed to polarising what initially were clinical differences about how to analyse pre-latency and latency-age children and which technical processes might best facilitate successful treatment. While the author speculates that a diversity of motivations and agendas may have driven the London group's support for Klein--personal and politicised enthusiasm (Jones), genuine conviction (Riviere) and attempts at theoretical rapprochement between the London and Vienna schools (Glover)--he also argues that Freud's diagnosis with cancer in 1923 and suspicion of patricidal son-successors necessitated the choice of a female successor with unquestioning loyalty to his doctrines. From 1932, when Klein's clinical authority was established, her first group of English supporters began to splinter, as she went on to become a training analyst, mentor and patron in her own right to a succeeding generation of adherents who defended her views during the Controversial Discussions.

  6. Genetic, ecological and morphological divergence between populations of the endangered Mexican Sheartail hummingbird (Doricha eliza).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licona-Vera, Yuyini; Ornelas, Juan Francisco

    2014-01-01

    The Mexican Sheartail (Doricha eliza), an endangered hummingbird, is endemic to Mexico where two populations have a disjunct distribution. One population is distributed along the northern tip of the Yucatan Peninsula whereas the other is mostly restricted to central Veracruz. Despite their disjunct distribution, previous work has failed to detect morphological or behavioral differences between these populations. Here we use variation in morphology, mtDNA and nuDNA sequences to determine the degree of morphological and molecular divergence between populations, their divergence time, and historical demography. We use species distribution modeling and niche divergence tests to infer the relative roles of vicariance and dispersal in driving divergence in the genus. Our Bayesian and maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses revealed that Doricha eliza populations form a monophyletic clade and support their sister relationship with D. enicura. We found marked genetic differentiation, with reciprocal monophyly of haplotypes and highly restricted gene flow, supporting a history of isolation over the last 120,000 years. Genetic divergence between populations is consistent with the lack of overlap in environmental space and slight morphological differences between males. Our findings indicate that the divergence of the Veracruz and Yucatan populations is best explained by a combination of a short period of isolation exacerbated by subsequent divergence in climate conditions, and that rather than vicariance, the two isolated ranges of D. eliza are the product of recent colonization and divergence in isolation.

  7. Pollinator-mediated selection in a specialized hummingbird-Heliconia system in the Eastern Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temeles, E J; Rah, Y J; Andicoechea, J; Byanova, K L; Giller, G S J; Stolk, S B; Kress, W J

    2013-02-01

    Phenotypic matches between plants and their pollinators often are interpreted as examples of reciprocal selection and adaptation. For the two co-occurring plant species, Heliconia bihai and H. caribaea in the Eastern Caribbean, we evaluated for five populations over 2 years the strength and direction of natural selection on corolla length and number of bracts per inflorescence. These plant traits correspond closely to the bill lengths and body masses of their primary pollinators, female or male purple-throated carib hummingbirds (Eulampis jugularis). In H. bihai, directional selection for longer corollas was always significant with the exception of one population in 1 year, whereas selection on bract numbers was rare and found only in one population in 1 year. In contrast, significant directional selection for more bracts per inflorescence occurred in all three populations of the yellow morph and in two populations of the red morph of H. caribaea, whereas significant directional selection on corolla length occurred in only one population of the red morph and one population of the yellow morph. Selection for longer corollas in H. bihai may result from better mechanical fit, and hence pollination, by the long bills of female E. jugularis, their sole pollinator. In contrast, competition between males of E. jugularis for territories may drive selection for more bracts in H. caribaea. Competitive exclusion of female E. jugularis by territorial males also implicates pollinator competition as a possible ecological mechanism for trait diversification in these plants.

  8. Cognitive Ecology in Hummingbirds: The Role of Sexual Dimorphism and Its Anatomical Correlates on Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Gómez, Paulina L.; Madrid-Lopez, Natalia; Salazar, Juan E.; Suárez, Rodrigo; Razeto-Barry, Pablo; Mpodozis, Jorge; Bozinovic, Francisco; Vásquez, Rodrigo A.

    2014-01-01

    In scatter-hoarding species, several behavioral and neuroanatomical adaptations allow them to store and retrieve thousands of food items per year. Nectarivorous animals face a similar scenario having to remember quality, location and replenishment schedules of several nectar sources. In the green-backed firecrown hummingbird (Sephanoides sephanoides), males are territorial and have the ability to accurately keep track of nectar characteristics of their defended food sources. In contrast, females display an opportunistic strategy, performing rapid intrusions into males territories. In response, males behave aggressively during the non-reproductive season. In addition, females have higher energetic demands due to higher thermoregulatory costs and travel times. The natural scenario of this species led us to compared cognitive abilities and hippocampal size between males and females. Males were able to remember nectar location and renewal rates significantly better than females. However, the hippocampal formation was significantly larger in females than males. We discuss these findings in terms of sexually dimorphic use of spatial resources and variable patterns of brain dimorphisms in birds. PMID:24599049

  9. Genetic, ecological and morphological divergence between populations of the endangered Mexican Sheartail hummingbird (Doricha eliza.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuyini Licona-Vera

    Full Text Available The Mexican Sheartail (Doricha eliza, an endangered hummingbird, is endemic to Mexico where two populations have a disjunct distribution. One population is distributed along the northern tip of the Yucatan Peninsula whereas the other is mostly restricted to central Veracruz. Despite their disjunct distribution, previous work has failed to detect morphological or behavioral differences between these populations. Here we use variation in morphology, mtDNA and nuDNA sequences to determine the degree of morphological and molecular divergence between populations, their divergence time, and historical demography. We use species distribution modeling and niche divergence tests to infer the relative roles of vicariance and dispersal in driving divergence in the genus. Our Bayesian and maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses revealed that Doricha eliza populations form a monophyletic clade and support their sister relationship with D. enicura. We found marked genetic differentiation, with reciprocal monophyly of haplotypes and highly restricted gene flow, supporting a history of isolation over the last 120,000 years. Genetic divergence between populations is consistent with the lack of overlap in environmental space and slight morphological differences between males. Our findings indicate that the divergence of the Veracruz and Yucatan populations is best explained by a combination of a short period of isolation exacerbated by subsequent divergence in climate conditions, and that rather than vicariance, the two isolated ranges of D. eliza are the product of recent colonization and divergence in isolation.

  10. Three-dimensional flow and lift characteristics of a hovering ruby-throated hummingbird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jialei; Luo, Haoxiang; Hedrick, Tyson L

    2014-09-06

    A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics simulation is performed for a ruby-throated hummingbird (Archilochus colubris) in hovering flight. Realistic wing kinematics are adopted in the numerical model by reconstructing the wing motion from high-speed imaging data of the bird. Lift history and the three-dimensional flow pattern around the wing in full stroke cycles are captured in the simulation. Significant asymmetry is observed for lift production within a stroke cycle. In particular, the downstroke generates about 2.5 times as much vertical force as the upstroke, a result that confirms the estimate based on the measurement of the circulation in a previous experimental study. Associated with lift production is the similar power imbalance between the two half strokes. Further analysis shows that in addition to the angle of attack, wing velocity and surface area, drag-based force and wing-wake interaction also contribute significantly to the lift asymmetry. Though the wing-wake interaction could be beneficial for lift enhancement, the isolated stroke simulation shows that this benefit is buried by other opposing effects, e.g. presence of downwash. The leading-edge vortex is stable during the downstroke but may shed during the upstroke. Finally, the full-body simulation result shows that the effects of wing-wing interaction and wing-body interaction are small.

  11. Review Essay: John Pratt and Anna Eriksson (2013 'Contrasts in Punishment: An Explanation of Anglophone Excess and Nordic Exceptionalism'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Brown

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This review essay combines the comments made by David Brown, Russell Hogg and Mark Finanne at the Crime, Justice and Social Democracy: 2nd International Conference July 2013. It is followed by a rejoinder by the two authors John Pratt and Anna Eriksson.

  12. Jekaterinas Metelicas ,,Anna Kareņina”: romāna transformācija komiksā.

    OpenAIRE

    Šlahota, Olga

    2013-01-01

    Jekaterinas Metelicas «Anna Kareņina»: romāna transformācija komiksā: bakalaura darbs. – Rīga, 2013. - 55 lpp. Šis darbs ir veltīts romāna transformācijaj L. N. Tolstova «Anna Kareņina» grafiskā novelē. Darbā tiek identificēta grafiska romāna žanra īpatnības un transformācijas kuras notiek ar romānu kad tas nonāk dažādu mākslu. Pētījuma materiāls ir romāns «Anna Kareņina» un komikss «Anna Kareņina by Leo Tolstoy» kas ir iesniegts divās valodās: angļu un krievu. Darbs ir paredzēts zin...

  13. Anna Freud: the Hampstead War Nurseries and the role of the direct observation of children for psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midgley, Nick

    2007-08-01

    The psychoanalytic tradition of direct observation of children has a long history, going back to the early 20th century, when psychoanalysis and the emerging field of 'child studies' came into fruitful contact in Freud's Vienna. As a leading figure in the attempted integration of direct observation with the new psychoanalytic knowledge emerging from the consulting room, Anna Freud played a crucial role in the emergence of this field. But her major contribution to the theory and practice of observing children came during the Second World War, when she founded the Hampstead War Nurseries. The author describes in detail this important period of Anna Freud's career, and discusses the impact it had on later work. He explores the theoretical contribution that Anna Freud made in the post-war years to the debate about the place of direct observation in psychoanalysis, and concludes that Anna Freud's 'double approach' (direct observation plus analytic reconstruction) still has a great deal to offer as a method of both psychoanalytic research and education.

  14. Education and Access to Christian Thought in the Writing of Harriet Beecher Stowe and Anna Julia Cooper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magno, JoJo

    2009-01-01

    In attempting to climb past the racist and sexist barriers which existed in nineteenth-century America, women could look to writers such as Harriet Beecher Stowe and Anna Julia Cooper. Their works not only reflect the conditions of women and African-American women in particular, but also call for access to educational opportunities for these women…

  15. Jekaterinas Metelicas ,,Anna Kareņina”: romāna transformācija komiksā.

    OpenAIRE

    Šlahota, Olga

    2013-01-01

    Jekaterinas Metelicas «Anna Kareņina»: romāna transformācija komiksā: bakalaura darbs. – Rīga, 2013. - 55 lpp. Šis darbs ir veltīts romāna transformācijaj L. N. Tolstova «Anna Kareņina» grafiskā novelē. Darbā tiek identificēta grafiska romāna žanra īpatnības un transformācijas kuras notiek ar romānu kad tas nonāk dažādu mākslu. Pētījuma materiāls ir romāns «Anna Kareņina» un komikss «Anna Kareņina by Leo Tolstoy» kas ir iesniegts divās valodās: angļu un krievu. Darbs ir paredzēts zin...

  16. 从《安娜·卡列尼娜》中安娜之死说起%Starting with the Death of Anna in Anna Karenina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛守魁

    2011-01-01

    Lev Tolstoy' s religious thoughts and superstitious beliefs in Anna Karenina are expounded through studying the creative process of sublimating prototypes in real life to great artistic images. Anna' s persistent pursuit of love as an aristocratic woman and the great social changes of Russia in 1970s and 1980s are discussed. What it is aimed to tell the readers is that even a great figure like Tolstoy cannot get rid of the limitations which times, society and family bring to him.%力图通过从生活原型升华为伟大艺术形象的创作过程,在表现贵族女性安娜对爱情执著追求以及19世纪七八十年代俄国社会大变动的同时,阐释列夫·托尔斯泰留在《安娜·卡列尼娜》这部小说中的宗教思想和某些迷信意识,从而使读者了解到:一个即使像托尔斯泰这样的伟大人物,也不可能完全摆脱时代、社会乃至家庭给他留下的局限性。

  17. Studi Komunikasi Interpersonal Antara Perawat Dengan Lansia Di Panti Lansia Santa Anna Teluk Gong Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mela Cristanty

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses the interpersonal communication between the nurses with elderly who were living in a nursing home. Establishment of a nursing home is one of the government's efforts to address the issue of social welfare for the elderly. Like the other nursing homes Nursing Home “Santa Anna” also have nurses on duty to take care the elderly living at home. In order to perform their duties the nurses need to perform an effective interpersonal communication with the elderly. Interpersonal communication activities have influence in building a relationship with the elderly in order to provide guidance, supervision and encouragement to the elderly. The theory used in this research is theory of communication, interpersonal communication, social penetration theory, concept of nurses, the elderly and nursing homes. This study used descriptive qualitative method and authors conducted in-depth interviews with four informants, namely two nurses and two elderly people, also made observation and doing literature study. The results of this study reveals that the closeness of interpersonal relations between nurses and elderly in Nursing Home “Santa Anna” can be seen through five general quality that are openness, positive behavior, supportive behavior, empathy, and equality. These five factors mentioned above is run entirely by nurses in the Nursing Home “Santa Anna” in terms of communicating and forming relationships with the elderly who live in institutions. Penelitian ini membahas mengenai komunikasi antarpribadi yang dilakukan antara perawat dengan lansia yang tinggal di panti jompo. Pendirian panti jompo merupakan salah satu usaha pemerintah dalam menangani masalah kesejahteraan sosial untuk para lansia. Seperti panti-panti jompo lainnya Panti Lansia Santa Anna juga memiliki perawat-perawat yang bertugas untuk merawat, mengurus, dan mengasuh para lansia yang tinggal di panti. Untuk dapat menjalankan tugas serta perannya perawat perlu

  18. Anna Perenna : religión y ejemplaridad mítica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabino Perea

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Sobre Anna Perenna los propios romanos tenían una idea poco clara. Sin embargo, sus noticias «anticuaristas» y su literatura etiológica, unidas a otro tipo de documentación, la epigráfica, y a nuevos métodos de estudio, nos permiten a posteriori abordar el conocimiento de esta divinidad con una visión más amplia. Este trabajo no elude deliberadamente ninguna perspectiva; así pues, para obtener finalmente una imagen más cabal de la diosa se verán algunos aspectos que la conciernen analizados a través de la fenomenología religiosa, su papel dentro del culto privado y, sobre todo, las manifestaciones públicas de ese culto (el calendario y la fiesta, así como su utilización política y simbólica (ejemplaridad mítica durante la época augustea.The goddess Anna Perenna have a signifiant place in the román calendar. His party is celebrated in the idus oí March (coincident day of Julius Caesar death, and have a propiciatory character: renovated abundance and fertility for the New Year. This work shows the contradictions and coincidences of latin-text on purpose to the her divine-personality (especially Ovid. Fast. III, 523-720; some characteristic of her archaic phenomenology; her possible origin; her cult; and also her mythical modelity, throug the public and prívate religión, as a way of augustan propaganda (vgr. Aen. IV.

  19. Pollination efficiency and effectiveness or bumble bees and hummingbirds visiting Delphinium nelsonii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waser, Nicholas M.

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available Delphinium nelsonii Greene is a spring-flowering perennial of the Rocky Mountains of North America. Its blue flowers conform to a classical «bee pollination syndrome», but in western Colorado they are visited by hummingbirds (mostly in the first half of the flowering season as well as bumble bee queens (mostly in the second half of the season. Experiments with potted plants showed that a bee deposits about 10 times as much pollen while visiting a flower as does a bird, and causes about la times as many seeds to be set. In contrast, bees and birds appear similar in the «quality» of pollen they deliver, e. g., in its outcrossing distance. At the level of entire pollinator populations, hummingbird visitation rates may be over 10 times as great as those or bumble bees, in part because birds visit flowers more quickly. Thus the two visitor classes should deliver similar pollen quantities overall, which is confirmed by similar pollen loads of flowers early and late in the season, and should contribute about equally to seed set, which is confirmed by several experiments and observations. Exact relative contributions probably depend on pollinator population sizes, which in the case of hummingbirds appear to have varied 2.5 fold across 14 years. The similar contributions or birds and bees lo seed set shows that individual pollination efficiency must be distinguished from population-level effectiveness. and that the «pollination syndrome» of a flower may not indicate present-day effectiveness of its visitors.

    [ca] Delphinium nelsonii Greene és una planta perenne de floració primaveral que creix a les Muntanyes Rocoses de Nordamèrica. Les seves flors blaves s'acorden a la clàssica (síndrome de pol-linització per abellots», però, a l'oest de Colorado, són visitades per colibrís (durant la primera meitat del període de floració així com per reines d'abellots (principalment durant la segona meitat del període. Els

  20. Flight muscle enzymes and metabolic flux rates during hovering flight of the nectar bat, Glossophaga soricina: further evidence of convergence with hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, R K; Welch, K C; Hanna, S K; Herrera M, L G

    2009-06-01

    Given their high metabolic rates, nectarivorous diet, and ability to directly fuel their energetically-expensive flight using recently-ingested sugar, we tested the hypothesis that Pallas long tongued nectar bats (Glossophaga soricina) possess flight muscles similar to those of hummingbirds with respect to enzymatic flux capacities in bioenergetic pathways. In addition, we compared these biochemical capacities with flux rates achieved in vivo during hovering flight. Rates of oxygen consumption (V(O(2))) were measured during hover-feeding and used to estimate rates of ATP turnover, glucose and long-chain fatty acid oxidation per unit mass of flight muscle. Enzyme V(max) values at key steps in glucose and fatty acid oxidation obtained in vitro from pectoralis muscle samples exceed those found in the locomotory muscles of other species of small mammals and resemble data obtained from hummingbird flight muscles. The ability of nectar bats and hummingbirds to hover in fed and fasted states, fueled almost exclusively by carbohydrate or fat, respectively, allowed the estimation of fractional velocities (v/V(max)) at both the hexokinase and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-2 steps in glucose and fatty acid oxidation, respectively. The results further support the hypothesis of convergent evolution in biochemical and physiological traits in nectar bats and hummingbirds.

  1. Migrations and Diasporas. German Writers in Mexican Exile. Egon Erwin Kisch’s and Anna Seghers’ Promotion of Cross-Cultural Understanding

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jennifer E. Michaels

    2012-01-01

    The journalist and popular travel writer, Egon Erwin Kisch, and the well-known novelist and short story writer Anna Seghers were among the many left wing and communist intellectuals for whom Mexico...

  2. Mida teeb Narva kutseõppekeskus teie arvates Narva linna heaks? / Burkina, Irina; Patlep, Kaarel; Kaalik, Ljubov; Dolgovskaja, Tatjana; Ibragimov, Muret; Vorobjova, Anna

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Vastavad Narva Kutseõppekeskuse kutseõpetajad Irina Burkina, Tatjana Dolgovskaja ja Murat Ibragimov ning autovaldkonna juht Kaarel Patlep, projektijuht Ljubov Kaalik ja PR-spetsialist Anna Vorobjova

  3. Potential Autonomous Selfing in Gesneria citrina (Gesneriaceae), a Specialized Hummingbird Pollinated Species with Variable Expression of Herkogamy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-Sheng Chen; Silvana Martén-Rodriguez; Qing-Jun Li; Charles B.Fenster

    2009-01-01

    Species with mixed mating systems often demonstrate vadable expression of breeding system characteristics and thus represent the opportunity to understand the factors and mechanisms that promote both outcrossed and selfed seed production. Here, we investigate variation In levels of herkogamy (variation in stigma-anther separation distance) In a Puerto Rican population of hummingbird pollinated Gesneria citrina Urban. There is significant variation in herkogamy levels among individuals of this species and stigma-anther separation is negatively associated with the ability to set fruits and seeds in the absence of pollinators. The variation in levels of herkogamy may represent a mechanism to ensure the production of some self-fertilized progeny in the absence of hummingbird pollinators. We also describe a novel breeding system in G. citrina, where stamens elongate over time to reach stigma height, but stamen elongation is accelerated by pollination. These results suggest that once the flowers are pollinated, stamen elongation may favor increased pollen removal and siring success, while the reduction in stigma-anther distance no longer imposes the risk of interference between male and female functions. We discuss our findings of breeding system variation in the context of pollination system evolution in an island setting (Antillean islands).

  4. Potential autonomous selfing in Gesneria citrina (Gesneriaceae), a specialized hummingbird pollinated species with variable expression of herkogamy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin-Sheng; Martén-Rodríguez, Silvana; Li, Qing-Jun; Fenster, Charles B

    2009-10-01

    Species with mixed mating systems often demonstrate variable expression of breeding system characteristics and thus represent the opportunity to understand the factors and mechanisms that promote both outcrossed and selfed seed production. Here, we investigate variation in levels of herkogamy (variation in stigma-anther separation distance) in a Puerto Rican population of hummingbird pollinated Gesneria citrina Urban. There is significant variation in herkogamy levels among individuals of this species and stigma-anther separation is negatively associated with the ability to set fruits and seeds in the absence of pollinators. The variation in levels of herkogamy may represent a mechanism to ensure the production of some self-fertilized progeny in the absence of hummingbird pollinators. We also describe a novel breeding system in G. citrina, where stamens elongate over time to reach stigma height, but stamen elongation is accelerated by pollination. These results suggest that once the flowers are pollinated, stamen elongation may favor increased pollen removal and siring success, while the reduction in stigma-anther distance no longer imposes the risk of interference between male and female functions. We discuss our findings of breeding system variation in the context of pollination system evolution in an island setting (Antillean islands).

  5. Effects of indiscriminate foraging by tropical hummingbirds on pollination and plant reproductive success: experiments with two tropical treelets (Rubiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinsinger, Peter; Busby, William H; Tiebout, Hary M

    1988-08-01

    In cloud forest at Monteverde, Costa Rica, two common treelets (Palicourea lasiorrachis and Cephaelis elata, both Rubiaceae) depend simultaneously on one hummingbird population (Lampornis calolaema) for pollination. Both species are distylous and self-incompatible. In laboratory experiments, we examined possible effects of indiscriminate foraging by hummingbirds among flowers of both species, as observed in the field, on pollination of Palicourea. In each of 35 trials, captive L. calolaema probed 2 flowers from pin plants of Palicourea followed by 20 thrum flowers of the same species, with either 0, 2, or 10 Cephaelis flowers intervening. We assessed pollen transfer by staining and counting pin pollen tubes growing in thrum styles; counts of 0, 1, or ≥2 pollen tubes relate directly to seed output (0, 1, or 2 seeds per fruit, respectively). Intervening Cephaelis flowers sharply reduced pollen receipt by thrum flowers of Palicourea and reduced some aspects of pollen dispersal from pins as well, thereby curtailing maternal and paternal reproductive potential of Palicourea. Such effects of interspecific pollen loss on reproductive output may lead to strong competition among some, though not all, combinations of plant species pollinated by L. calolaema or of other plant combinations that share animal pollinators.

  6. Multiyear study of multivariate linear and nonlinear phenotypic selection on floral traits of hummingbird-pollinated Silene virginica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Richard J; Dudash, Michele R; Fenster, Charles B

    2010-02-01

    Pollination syndromes suggest that convergent evolution of floral traits and trait combinations reflects similar selection pressures. Accordingly, a pattern of selection on floral traits is expected to be consistent with increasing the attraction and pollen transfer of the important pollinator. We measured individual variation in six floral traits and yearly and lifetime total plant seed and fruit production of 758 plants across nine years of study in natural populations of Ruby-Throated Hummingbird-pollinated Silene virginica. The type, strength, and direction of selection gradients were observed by year, and for two cohorts selection was estimated through lifetime maternal fitness. Positive directional selection was detected on floral display height in all years of study and stigma exsertion in all years but one. Significant quadratic and correlational selection gradients were rare. However, a canonical analysis of the gamma matrix indicated nonlinear selection was common; if significant curvature was detected it was convex with one exception. Our analyses demonstrated selection favored trait combinations and the integration of floral features of attraction and pollen transfer efficiency that were consistent with the hummingbird pollination syndrome.

  7. What's a Nice Hummingbird Like You Doing at an AGU Meeting Like This? (or, Operation RubyThroat Meets The GLOBE Program)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, B.

    2003-12-01

    "Operation RubyThroat: The Hummingbird Project" is an international cross-disciplinary initiative that uses Ruby-throated Hummingbirds (Archilochus colubris) as a hook to excite K-12 students (and adults) about science learning. In 2002, Operation RubyThroat affiliated with The GLOBE Program as the first GLOBE protocol that involves animal behavior. Through Operation RubyThroat, students make observations about hummingbird phenology, behavior, and ecology and correlate their data against traditional GLOBE observations of atmosphere, climate, land cover, soils, hydrology, and phenology. Although Ruby-throated Hummingbirds (RTHUs) breed throughout the eastern half of the United States and southern Canada and may be the most common and most widely distributed of all 338 hummingbird species, little is known about how abiotic environmental factors affect their migration, nesting activities, and everyday behavior. Operation RubyThroat participants in the U.S. and Canada log early arrival dates of RTHUs during spring migration, note their presence throughout the breeding season, and report the last date RTHUs are seen in autumn. Conversely, participants in Mexico and all seven Central American countries (the region in which RTHUs spend their non-breeding months) watch for early arrivals in fall and late departures in spring. Participants also attempt to estimate numbers of RTHUs in local populations by counting the number of visits hummingbirds make to feeders and/or flowers in a 45-minute time block. Optional activities include observations of RTHU nesting behaviors and determining RTHU preferences for various species of native and exotic nectar sources. Participating schools are encouraged to establish Schoolyard Hummingbird Habitats in which to make their observations, but data may be collected in backyards or at local parks, nature centers, botanical gardens, and other sites where RTHUs occur. Adults not affiliated with K-12 schools are invited to become certified in

  8. Phylogenetic systematics and biogeography of hummingbirds: Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses of partitioned data and selection of an appropriate partitioning strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Jimmy A; Witt, Christopher C; Altshuler, Douglas L; Remsen, J V

    2007-10-01

    Hummingbirds are an important model system in avian biology, but to date the group has been the subject of remarkably few phylogenetic investigations. Here we present partitioned Bayesian and maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses for 151 of approximately 330 species of hummingbirds and 12 outgroup taxa based on two protein-coding mitochondrial genes (ND2 and ND4), flanking tRNAs, and two nuclear introns (AK1 and BFib). We analyzed these data under several partitioning strategies ranging between unpartitioned and a maximum of nine partitions. In order to select a statistically justified partitioning strategy following partitioned Bayesian analysis, we considered four alternative criteria including Bayes factors, modified versions of the Akaike information criterion for small sample sizes (AIC(c)), Bayesian information criterion (BIC), and a decision-theoretic methodology (DT). Following partitioned maximum likelihood analyses, we selected a best-fitting strategy using hierarchical likelihood ratio tests (hLRTS), the conventional AICc, BIC, and DT, concluding that the most stringent criterion, the performance-based DT, was the most appropriate methodology for selecting amongst partitioning strategies. In the context of our well-resolved and well-supported phylogenetic estimate, we consider the historical biogeography of hummingbirds using ancestral state reconstructions of (1) primary geographic region of occurrence (i.e., South America, Central America, North America, Greater Antilles, Lesser Antilles), (2) Andean or non-Andean geographic distribution, and (3) minimum elevational occurrence. These analyses indicate that the basal hummingbird assemblages originated in the lowlands of South America, that most of the principle clades of hummingbirds (all but Mountain Gems and possibly Bees) originated on this continent, and that there have been many (at least 30) independent invasions of other primary landmasses, especially Central America.

  9. Setenta anos de vida universitária da Escola de Enfermagem Anna Nery: uma breve reflexão Setenta años de Vida Universitaria de la Escuela de Enfermería Anna Nery: una breve reflexión Seventy years of the Anna Nery School of Nursing's University Life: a brief reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Antonieta Rubio Tyrrell

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente texto tem como objeto, o discurso de abertura das comemorações dos setenta anos de vida universitária da Escola de Enfermagem Anna Nery, proferido por sua Diretora. Ele tem como propósito refletir sobre a trajetória institucional da Escola de Enfermagem Anna Nery e sua importância para a proclamação de um modelo de enfermeiro para a sociedade brasileira. As fontes consultadas e analisadas à luz do pensamento do sociólogo francês Pierre Bourdieu evidenciaram que houve um grande investimento na formação do habitus profissional dos postulantes à profissão, culminando em um modelo de enfermeiro para a sociedade brasileira. Concluiu-se, nesta reflexão que os emblemas e rituais foram instrumentos simbólicos que legitimaram e consagraram esse modelo.El presente texto tiene como objeto, la habla de abertura de las conmemoraciones de los setenta años de vida universitaria de la Escuela de Enfermería Anna Nery, proferido por su Directora. Él tiene como propósito reflejar sobre la trayectoria institucional de la Escuela de Enfermería Anna Nery su importancia para la proclamación de un modelo de enfermero para la sociedad brasileña. Las fuentes consultadas y analizadas a la luz del pensamiento del sociólogo francés Pierre Bourdieu evidenciaran que hubo una gran inversión en la formación del habitus profesional de los postulantes a la profesión, culminando en un modelo de enfermero para la sociedad brasileña. Concluyese, en esta reflexión que los emblemas y rituales fueran instrumentos simbólicos que legitimaran y consagraran ese modelo.The present text has as object, the opening speech of the seventy years celebration of the Anna Nery School of Nursing's university life, said by its Head Master. It has as purpose to reflect about the institutional trajectory of the Anna Nery School of Nursing and its importance to the proclamation of a nurse model to the Brazilian society. The sources used and analyzed to the light

  10. Analysis on the Reason of Anna Karenina’s Tragedy by Comparison of Anna and Kitty%从安娜和基蒂的人物比较分析安娜悲剧的原因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李甜

    2014-01-01

    在列夫·托尔斯泰的小说《安娜·卡列尼娜》中,安娜和基蒂都是年轻貌美,善良聪慧的女子,并且都生活在同样的社会背景下,但是两人却是截然不同的命运和结局。通过比较两种人物的性格、家庭环境及价值观,可以发现导致安娜悲剧更深一层次的原因。%in the Anna Karenina written by Leo Tolstoy, both Anna and Kitty were young, beautiful, nice and clever ladies, and they both lived in the same social condition. While their destiny were quite different. By comparison of their character, domestic environment and outlook, the more profound reasons for Anna Karenina’s tragedy can be found.

  11. Becoming an expert practitioner: court experimentalism and the medical skills of Anna of Saxony (1532-1585).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Alisha

    2007-03-01

    This essay proposes that the well-documented interest in empirical and experimental practice at the early modern German courts was not limited to male practitioners. Just as princes evinced an interest in practical alchemy, mathematics, and astronomy, a large number of gentlewomen became expert medical practitioners. Using a case study of one noblewoman, Electress Anna of Saxony, I would like to expand the notion of "prince-practitioning" to a more general and inclusive "court experimentalism." Like the prince-practitioners, Anna engaged in a laborious attempt to learn the hands-on techniques involved in becoming an expert; she collaborated with both noblewomen and noblemen in her efforts; and she semantically linked her medicine to the alchemical skills (Künste) practiced by her husband, Elector August. Although court experimentalism cannot be equated with experimentation in the modern sense, medicine is one area in which women actively shared in the early modern fascination with empirical knowledge.

  12. Santa Anna, ¿una figura necesaria en el México independiente? Entrevista a Will Fowler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Flores Clair

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante noviembre del presente año, el Dr. Will Fowler, de la Universidad de San Andrews, en Escocia, impartió una serie de conferencias en distintos centros académicos de nuestro país con el fin de dar a conocer su más reciente libro publicado en los Estados Unidos, Santa Anna of Mexico (University of Nebraska, 2007. El tema principal fue la biografía de Antonio López de Santa Anna. Fowler es un especialista en la historia y el pensamiento político de México de las primeras décadas del sigl...

  13. "There has never been anything like a classical child analysis". Clinical discussions with Anna Freud, 1970-1971.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penman, Ava Bry

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on a series of clinical discussions with Anna Freud, faculty and trainees at the Hampstead Clinic in 1970-1971. Anna Freud's comments are published here for the first time. The meetings concerned the nature and use of relationships in work with children who do not have a well-defined neurosis. If parochial borders are erased among the domains of upbringing, education, and psychoanalysis, potential therapeutic fertility and strength can increase. The clinical material in the paper makes it possible to explore the old and new aspects of the treatment relationship, such as the transferential, the externalization of the self-representational, the developmental, and so forth. This is a personal account of a formative experience during training.

  14. Anna Freud, una vida dedicada al conocimiento y a la ayuda psicológica del niño.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyes Vallejo Orellana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Anna Freud fue una psicoanalista de la infancia que trató de dar continuidad a la obra de su padre. Revisamos en este trabajo su vida y sus trabajos más importantes, resaltando su aportación a la psicología del ego y las controversias que tuvo con Melanie Klein a partir de sus respectivas concepciones del desarrollo infantil y de los fenómenos transferenciales.

  15. North Anna Nuclear Power Plant Strong Motion Records of the Mineral, Virginia Earthquake of August 23, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graizer, V.

    2012-12-01

    The MW 5.8 Mineral, Virginia earthquake was recorded at a relatively short epicentral distance of about 18 km at the North Anna Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) by the SMA-3 magnetic tape digital accelerographs installed inside the plant's containment at the foundation and deck levels. The North Anna NPP is operated by the Virginia Electric and Power Company (VEPCO) and has two pressurized water reactors (PWR) units that began operation in 1978 and 1980, respectively. Following the earthquake, both units were safely shutdown. The strong-motion records were processed to get velocity, displacement, Fourier and 5% damped response spectra. The basemat record demonstrated relatively high amplitudes of acceleration of 0.26 g and velocity of 13.8 cm/sec with a relatively short duration of strong motion of 2-3 sec. Recorded 5% damped Response Spectra exceed Design Basis Earthquake for the existing Units 1 and 2, while comprehensive plant inspections performed by VEPCO and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission have concluded that the damage to the plant was minimal not affecting any structures and equipment significant to plant operation. This can be explained in part by short duration of the earthquake ground motion at the plant. The North Anna NPP did not have free-field strong motion instrumentation at the time of the earthquake. Since the containment is founded on rock there is a tendency to consider basemat record as an approximation of the free-field recording. However, comparisons of deck and basemat records demonstrate that the basemat recording is also affected by structural resonance frequencies higher than 3 Hz. Structural resonances in the frequency range of 3-4 Hz can at least partially explain significant exceedance of observed motions relative to ground motion calculated using ground motion prediction equations.cceleration, velocity and displacement at the North Anna NPP basemat level. Amplitudes of acceleration, velocity and displacement at basemat and deck levels

  16. Latin and knitting. Educational and biographical experiences in «My life» by Anna Franchi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucilla Gigli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The life and works of Anna Franchi remained undiscovered for a long time despite the writer desired to become part of history and to leave a trace both in the socialist and in the emancipa­tionist movements. In the literary production of Anna Franchi, autobiographical elements and fictions become an inseparable issue. Particularly in her biography La mia vita (My life pub­lished for the first time in 1940 the writer looked through her life searching for a deeper meaning. Franchi does not limit to describe events and characters but, through narration, she gives an interpretation of her own experience giving in the same time a meaning to it: from her childhood when she ab­sorbs and adopts the ideals of the Risorgimento and the love for art and literature to the long and extremely painful period of her marriage; from journalistic and artistic activities to the political commitment with the socialist party and the movement for women’s rights. Through her works, Franchi provides a political example of free woman Received: 27/05/2013 / Accepted: 20/06/2013 How to reference this article Gigli, L. (2014. Latino e calza. Educazione ed esperienze biografiche ne «La mia vita» di Anna Franchi. Espacio, Tiempo y Educación, 1(1, pp. 97-113. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.14516/ete.2014.001.001.005

  17. On the Source of Rebellious Female'Fate in Anna Karenina and The Scar-let Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟建

    2015-01-01

    Anna Karenina and The Scarlet Letter are written by the Russian writer Leo Troels and USA novelist Nathaniel Haw-thorne respectively.Both of them are masterpieces in the history of the world literature.The two masterpieces account for two differ-ent love stories happened in different background respectively.If you compare the heroine of the two classics—Anna Karenina's and Hester Prynne's fate,we will find that the two have many similarities.They have a similar experience—they had to get mar-ried for getting married and then they fell in love again for seeking true love after they have married,finally they paid a heavy price for their extramarital love.However,Due to their different demands and understanding about love as well as different resistance form to protect their love,their ending is also quite different..This thesis mainly analyzes the causes of the fate of Anna and Hester respectively.This analysis is the combination of subjective and objective through social,life and spirit field,in order to achieve the dialectical unity both subjective and objective,the dialectical unity of personality and common.

  18. "Hummingbird" floral traits interact synergistically to discourage visitation by bumble bee foragers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gegear, Robert J; Burns, Rebecca; Swoboda-Bhattarai, Katharine A

    2017-02-01

    Pollination syndromes are suites of floral traits presumed to reflect adaptations to attract and utilize a "primary" type of animal pollinator. However, syndrome traits may also function to deter "secondary" flower visitors that reduce plant fitness through their foraging activities. Here we use the hummingbird-pollinated plant species Mimulus cardinalis as a model to investigate the potential deterrent effects of classic bird syndrome traits on bumble bee foragers. To establish that M. cardinalis flowers elicit an avoidance response in bees, we assessed the choice behavior of individual foragers on a mixed experimental array of M. cardinalis and its bee-pollinated sister species M. lewisii. As expected, bees showed a strong preference against M. cardinalis flowers (only 22% of total bee visits were to M. cardinalis), but surprisingly also showed a high degree of individual specialization (95.2% of total plant transitions were between conspecifics). To determine M. cardinalis floral traits that discourage bee visitation, we then assessed foraging responses of individuals to M. cardinalis-like and M. lewisii-like floral models differing in color, orientation, reward, and combinations thereof. Across experiments, M. cardinalis-like trait combinations consistently produced a higher degree of flower avoidance behavior and individual specialization than expected based on bee responses to each trait in isolation. We then conducted a series of flower discrimination experiments to assess the ability of bees to utilize traits and trait combinations associated with each species. Relative to M. lewisii-like alternatives, M. cardinalis-like traits alone had a minimal effect on bee foraging proficiency but together increased the time bees spent searching for rewarding flowers from 1.49 to 2.65 s per visit. Collectively, our results show that M. cardinalis flowers impose foraging costs on bumble bees sufficient to discourage visitation and remarkably, generate such

  19. Effect of flower shape and size on foraging performance and trade-offs in a tropical hummingbird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temeles, Ethan J; Koulouris, Carolyn R; Sander, Sarah E; Kress, W John

    2009-05-01

    Matches between the bills of hummingbirds and the flowers they visit have been interpreted as examples of coadaptation and feeding specialization. Observations of birds feeding at flowers longer or shorter than their bills combined with a lack of experimental evidence for foraging trade-offs, however, fail to support these interpretations. We addressed these inconsistencies by considering a seldom-studied dimension of hummingbird-flower relationships, the shape of bills and flowers, through experiments on the Purple-throated Carib, Eulampis jugularis, and its major food plant, Heliconia, in the eastern Caribbean. Bills of male E. jugularis are considerably shorter and straighter than bills of females. We examined foraging performances and trade-offs during visits to natural heliconias and 34 artificial flowers of differing length and curvature. Supporting predictions based on matches between bill and flower morphology, handling times of females were significantly shorter than those of males at the long, curved flowers of a green morph of H. bihai. Contrary to predictions, handling times of males were not significantly shorter than handling times of females at the short flowers of H. caribaea. At artificial flowers, maximum extraction depths of females were significantly longer than maximum extraction depths of males at all curved flowers, but not at straight flowers. Handling times of females were significantly shorter than handling times of males at the longest artificial flowers for all curvatures, whereas handling times of males were significantly shorter at short, straight, artificial flowers, but only while hover-feeding without a perch. Within each sex, handling times were inversely related to bill length at long flowers for all shapes. Taken together, these performance trade-offs suggest that the long, curved bills of females are adapted for feeding from long, curved flowers, whereas the short bills of males are adapted for hover-feeding from short

  20. Årets gang i ord og sang, med Axel, Anna og lille Camilla

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Lise Charlotte Sanders; Lefmann, Else

    "Årets gang i ord og sang med Axel, Anna og lille Camilla" henvender sig til de 5-8 årige i skole, hjem eller daginstitution - og består af: En illustreret bog med: 14 historier, der følger en familie, bestående af far, mor og tre børn. Gennem et helt år, måned for måned, hører vi om deres liv......, deres oplevelser, glæder og skuffelser. 14 sange, der ligeledes følger familiens liv gennem årstidernes skiften. Til sangene er der såvel noder som becifringer En CD Her er sangene først fuldt arrangeret med musik, børne- og voksenstemmer. Dernæst kommer musikken alene, således at Cd'en også kan bruges...... som akkompagnement, når man synger sangene. Materialet kan bruges på mange måder: Rent pædagogisk kan det bruges til at lære om årets gang og månedernes navne og rækkefølge Som en oplagt mulighed for at lære nye børnevenlige årstids sange i forskellige genre Som samtalestof med gode...

  1. Bohemia as the Homeland of the Soul in the Letters of Marina Tsvetaeva to Anna Teskova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Tria

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the letters sent by Marina Tsvetaeva to the translator and public figure Anna Teskova, who was one of the few poet’s Czech intimate friends, whom she met during her stay in Czechoslovakia (1922-1925. In the first part of the paper the Author focuses on the echoes of Prague and its culture in this specific correspondence, trying to ascertain to which extent Marina Tsvetaeva was acquainted with the cultural world she lived in: the lack of knowledge of the Czech language and the limited relationships with Prague intellectuals didn’t allow her to get a deep insight of the Czech cultural milieu. The textual analysis of the letters, though, on the basis of key concepts as “родной”, “родина”, “честь”, confirms the presence of a persistent feeling of Prague-homesickness in Tsvetaeva’s psycho- logical world, which brought her to develop an alternative model of Homeland, substitute to her native Russia and to Germany, which disappointed her after the rise of the Nazi Regime. Through this unique correspondence (including the first part of her Verses dedicated to Bohemia we gain the certainty that Tsvetaeva discovered in Prague and in the Czech lands an idealized model of a pacific, beautiful and faithful Homeland.

  2. Diversity and community structure of butterfly of Arignar Anna Zoological Park, Chennai, Tamil Nadu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal, T; Sekar, M; Manimozhi, A; Baskar, N; Archunan, G

    2011-03-01

    Investigation was carried out on the diversity of butterfly fauna in selected localities of conservation and breeding center of Arignar Anna Zoological Park (AAZP), Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Atotal of 56 species were recorded, 15 of them belonged to Pieridae, 12 Nymphalidae, 9 Satyridae, 8 Papilionidae, 7 Danaidae, 3 Lycaenidae and 1 species each belonged to the families Acraeidae and Hesperidae. Qualitatively and quantitatively Pieridae family were comparatively dominant than that of other families. The notable addition to the 25 more species listed during this observation were compared to previous field survey. Comparison of butterfly species distribution between the different localities revealed that butterfly species richness was higher at mountain region with 52 species and lowest of 25 species at public visiting areas. Visitor's activities may be that reason for effects on butterfly distribution and lack of vegetation. Each five endemic and protected species (i.e. endangered) listed under the Wildlife (Protection)Act were highlighted greater conservation importances of the AAZP. It is suggest that butterfly species diversity generally increase with increase in vegetation and declines with the increase in disturbance.

  3. Babesia (Theileria) annae in a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) from Prince Edward Island, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancey, Noel; Horney, Barbara; Burton, Shelley; Birkenheuer, Adam; McBurney, Scott; Tefft, Karen

    2010-04-01

    A 4-6-mo-old female red fox (Vulpes vulpes) was presented to the Atlantic Veterinary College (AVC) Teaching Hospital, Prince Edward Island, Canada. On presentation, the fox was weak and had pale mucous membranes. A complete blood count and a serum biochemistry profile were performed. Blood smear examination revealed low numbers of erythrocytes containing centrally to paracentrally located, single, rarely multiple, approximately 1 x 2 microm, oval to round organisms with morphology similar to Babesia microti. Polymerase chain reaction testing and DNA sequencing of the Babesia species 18S rRNA gene were performed on DNA extracted from whole blood. Results were positive for a Babesia microti-like parasite genetically identical to Babesia (Theileria) annae. The fox was euthanized due to poor prognosis for recovery. Necropsy examination revealed multifocal to locally extensive subacute nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis, an eosinophilic broncho-pneumonia, a moderate diffuse vacuolar hepatopathy, and lesions associated with blunt trauma to the left abdominal region. This is the first reported case of a red fox in Canada infected with a piroplasm. It remains uncertain whether the presence of this hemoparasite in this fox was pathogenic or an incidental finding. The potential for competent vectors of Babesia species on Prince Edward Island, the potential for this Babesia microti-like parasite to infect other wild and domestic canids, and the significance of this parasite to the health of infected individuals are yet to be determined.

  4. Carl Linnaeus, Erasmus Darwin and Anna Seward: Botanical Poetry and Female Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Sam

    2014-03-01

    This article will explore the intersection between `literature' and `science' in one key area, the botanical poem with scientific notes. It reveals significant aspects of the way knowledge was gendered in the Enlightenment, which is relevant to the present-day education of girls in science. It aims to illustrate how members of the Lichfield Botanical Society (headed by Erasmus Darwin) became implicated in debates around the education of women in Linnaean botany. The Society's translations from Linnaeus inspired a new genre of women's educational writing, the botanical poem with scientific notes, which emerged at this time. It focuses in particular on a poem by Anna Seward and argues that significant problems regarding the representation of the Linnaean sexual system of botany are found in such works and that women in the culture of botany struggled to give voice to a subject which was judged improper for female education. The story of this unique poem and the surrounding controversies can teach us much about how gender impacted upon women's scientific writing in eighteenth century Britain, and how it shaped the language and terminology of botany in works for female education. In particular, it demonstrates how the sexuality of plants uncovered by Linnaeus is a paradigmatic illustration of how societal forces can simultaneously both constrict and stimulate women's involvement in science. Despite the vast changes to women's access in scientific knowledge of the present day, this `fair sexing' of botany illustrates the struggle that women have undergone to give voice to their botanical knowledge.

  5. Translating Anna Karenina - to the Question About the Pragmatics of Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Gurina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the stylistic peculiarities of the translations made by R. Pevear and L. Volokhonsky, L. and A. Maud, J. Carmichael of the novel Anna Karenina by L. Tolstoy on the basis of pragmastylistics and comparative analysis. It tries to analyze the text of the novel using the lingo-stylistic characteristics in accordance with the national bias in the way of thinking and individual creative preferences of every translator taking an attempt to introduce a foreign picture of the world to his countrymen. It underlines the impact of Tolstoy’s complicated attitude towards the customs and traditions of the Russian Orthodox church and the specific relationship of the author of the novel with God and its manifestation in the description of the heroes’ characters. In stresses how vital it may turn out to preserve the author’s ideostyle - lexis and syntax (the word order, the choice of them and the length of the sentences for the successful interpretation of the writer’s views and stance by the reader.

  6. Specialization in Plant-Hummingbird Networks Is Associated with Species Richness, Contemporary Precipitation and Quaternary Climate-Change Velocity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Bo; Magård, Else; Fjeldså, Jon

    2011-01-01

    hypothesis is that contemporary biotic specialization is determined by the degree of past climatic instability, primarily Quaternary climate-change velocity. Other prominent hypotheses predict that either contemporary climate or species richness affect biotic specialization. To gain insight into geographical...... latitudes, with latitude explaining 20-22% of the spatial variation in plant-hummingbird specialization. Potential drivers of specialization--contemporary climate, Quaternary climate-change velocity, and species richness--had superior explanatory power, together explaining 53-64% of the variation...... in specialization. Notably, our data provides empirical evidence for the hypothesized roles of species richness, contemporary precipitation and Quaternary climate-change velocity as key predictors of biotic specialization, whereas contemporary temperature and seasonality seem unimportant in determining...

  7. Mito e realtà della letteratura ebraica al femminile in Germania: Anna Seghers e Mascha Kaléko

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Birge Gilardoni-Büch

    2014-04-01

    Both of them succeed in emigrating and surviving the destruction of the European Jews. Anna Seghers comes back in 1947 to the Soviet occupied zone and will later hold significant offices inside East Germany's cultural life. Mascha Kaléko will however come back only now and then to the German Federal Republic. Did their writing change after the Shoah? And if so, to what extent? Moreover, do the texts mirror the situation in which their authors found themselves? Aren’t they linked to a specific social condition, that of a woman? To what extent do specific female and Jewish experiences take shape in their works?

  8. ["Signs for the whole rest of the life". The house as symbol and autobiographical substrate in letters, dreams and literary texts by by Anna Freud].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spreitzer, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    The house as object and symbol preoccupied Anna Freud from childhood onwards. This article traces these ideas in letters, autobiographical documents and literary texts. It focuses on the phantasmal construction of a dream house; on the organisation, loss and later efforts to recover Hochrotherd; on casual birthday poems dedicated to Anna, praising the country house, as well as on the purchase of a weekend cottage in Walberswick reflected in dreams related to the process of inner detachment from the dead father. A fluent interchange between reality and imagination comes into focus, high- lighting the dimension of inwardness rather than that of biographical reality.

  9. Os elementos simbólicos do monumento a Anna Nery no Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Los elementos del monumento simbólico a Anna Nery en Rio de Janeiro, Brasil The symbolic elements in the Anna Nery monument in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Porto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi analisar os elementos simbólicos da estátua e placas do monumento em tributo a homenageada, pela Cruz Vermelha Brasileira, como efeito simbólico para a sociedade. A análise foi documental, principalmente, mediante registros da imprensa institucional e imagens, as quais foram interpretadas, por meio das noções de representação objetal e hexis corporal. Os resultados evidenciaram que as representações objetais ostentadas na estátua de Anna Nery careceram de representação de heroína articulada a sua hexis corporal, o que conduziu a interpretação do monumento - estátua e quatro placas narrativas - como homenagem a mulher brasileira.El objetivo era examinar los elementos simbólicos de la placa de la estatua y el monumento en honor de la homenajeada, la Cruz Roja Brasileña, como el efecto simbólico en la sociedad. El análisis documental ha sido principalmente a través de los registros institucionales de prensa e imágenes, que fueron interpretadas por medio de las nociones de representación y el cuerpo objeto hexis. Los resultados evidenciaron que las representaciones objetales ostentadas en la estatua de Anna Nery carecían de representación de heroína articulada a sua hexis corporal, lo que condujo a la interpretación del monumento - estatua y cuatro placas narrativas - como homenaje a la mujer brasileña.The objective of this study was to examine the symbolic elements of the statue and memorial plaques in honor of Anna Nery offered by the Brazilian Red Cross, as a symbolic effect on society. The documentary analysis was performed mainly through institutional press records and images, which were interpreted by means of the notions of object representation and object bodyly hexis. Results showed that the object representations in the statue of Anna Nery lacked a representation of her articulated to her bodyly hexis, which led to the interpretation of the monument - both the statue and the four

  10. Selection and geographic isolation influence hummingbird speciation: genetic, acoustic and morphological divergence in the wedge-tailed sabrewing (Campylopterus curvipennis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ornelas Juan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mesoamerica is one of the most threatened biodiversity hotspots in the world, yet we are far from understanding the geologic history and the processes driving population divergence and speciation for most endemic taxa. In species with highly differentiated populations selective and/or neutral factors can induce rapid changes to traits involved in mate choice, promoting reproductive isolation between allopatric populations that can eventually lead to speciation. We present the results of genetic differentiation, and explore drift and selection effects in promoting acoustic and morphological divergence among populations of Campylopterus curvipennis, a lekking hummingbird with an extraordinary vocal variability across Mesoamerica. Results Analyses of two mitochondrial genes and ten microsatellite loci genotyped for 160 individuals revealed the presence of three lineages with no contemporary gene flow: C. c. curvipennis, C. c. excellens, and C. c. pampa disjunctly distributed in the Sierra Madre Oriental, the Tuxtlas region and the Yucatan Peninsula, respectively. Sequence mtDNA and microsatellite data were congruent with two diversification events: an old vicariance event at the Isthmus of Tehuantepec (c. 1.4 Ma, and a more recent Pleistocene split, isolating populations in the Tuxtlas region. Hummingbirds of the excellens group were larger, and those of the pampa group had shorter bills, and lineages that have been isolated the longest shared fewer syllables and differed in spectral and temporal traits of a shared syllable. Coalescent simulations showed that fixation of song types has occurred faster than expected under neutrality but the null hypothesis that morphological divergence resulted from drift was not rejected. Conclusions Our phylogeographic analyses uncovered the presence of three Mesoamerican wedge-tailed sabrewing lineages, which diverged at different time scales. These results highlight the importance of the

  11. Anna-Caterina Walk: Das Andere im Tatort. Migration und Integration im Fernsehkrimi. Marburg: Tectum Wissenschaftsverlag 2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Piberger

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Aus medien- und kulturwissenschaftlicher Perspektive widmet sich Anna-Caterina Walk in ihrer knappen Publikation der TV-Krimireihe ‚Tatort‘. Anhand von drei konkreten Folgen analysiert sie, wie das Andere in dieser Serie medial repräsentiert und konstruiert wird. Ihr Ziel ist es, die konkreten Darstellungen und deren Bedeutungen in ihrer Selbstverständlichkeit zu hinterfragen. Dabei sucht sie vor allem nach nicht-stereotypen oder destabilisierenden Bildern und fordert zugleich einen kritischeren Umgang mit Differenzkonstruktionen der Identität innerhalb der einzelnen ‚Tatort‘-Folgen. Zumal der Fokus der Autorin auf kulturellen Andersartigkeiten liegt, kommen Betrachtungen des_der geschlechtlich Anderen eine marginale Position zu und bleiben prinzipiell eher oberflächlich.In her concise publication, Anna-Caterina Walk dedicates herself to the TV crime series Tatort using a media studies and cultural studies perspective. Based on three specific episodes, she analyzes how the ‘other’ is medially represented and constructed in the series. She aims at questioning the self-evidence of specific representations and their meanings. In doing so, she searches, above all, for non-stereotypical or destabilizing images and, at the same time, demands a more critical approach to constructions of difference regarding identity within the individual Tatort episodes. Considerations of the gendered ‘other/s’ are treated only marginally and generally remain superficial, particularly since the author focuses on cultural otherness.

  12. Hollandse zee- en scheepstermen in het Russisch: Anna Croiset van der Kop versus Reinder van der Meulen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja Louwerse

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Dutch nautical terms in Russian. Anna Croiset van der Kop versus Reinder van der Meulen This article explores the controversy in the beginning of the 20th century between de Dutch slavists Anna Croiset van der Kop and Reindert van der Meulen, author of the book De Hollandsche Zee- en Scheepstermen in het Russisch (Dutch Nautical Terms in Russian. After publication, she reacted with an undeniably negative and unusually elaborate review (72 pages!, written not in Dutch, but in Russian and published in one of the most leading, scientific series in Russia. Van der Meulen has never directly reacted to this review: in 1959 he published a supplement to his earlier work from 1909: Nederlandse woorden in het Russisch (Dutch words in Russian, not mentioning Croiset van der Kops name, nor her review. Obviously he felt hurt by her merciless criticism. The article focuses on the motives underlying her strong reaction. It will be argued that her severe criticism was not really inspired by Van der Meulen’s subject, but by his failing research methods. Furthermore, it will be pointed out that this review seemed to offer her an opportunity to measure up to her Dutch colleagues and to present herself internationally as a slavist. On the basis of the now available data it is hard to say, which motives really brought Croiset van der Kop to write her review. Investigation of her archives, preserved in St- Petersburg, and until now hardly studied, may perhaps reveal her real motives.

  13. [Improvement of transrectal ultrasound. Artificial neural network analysis (ANNA) in detection and staging of prostatic carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loch, T; Leuschner, I; Genberg, C; Weichert-Jacobsen, K; Küppers, F; Retz, M; Lehmann, J; Yfantis, E; Evans, M; Tsarev, V; Stöckle, M

    2000-07-01

    As a result of the enhanced clinical application of prostate specific antigen (PSA), an increasing number of men are becoming candidates for prostate cancer work-up. A high PSA value over 20 ng/ml is a good indicator of the presence of prostate cancer, but within the range of 4-10 ng/ml, it is rather unreliable. Even more alarming is the fact that prostate cancer has been found in 12-37% of patients with a "normal" PSA value of under 4 ng/ml (Hybritech). While PSA is capable of indicating a statistical risk of prostate cancer in a defined patient population, it is not able to localize cancer within the prostate gland or guide a biopsy needle to a suspicious area. This necessitates an additional effective diagnostic technique that is able to localize or rule out a malignant growth within the prostate. The methods available for the detection of these prostate cancers are digital rectal examination (DRE) and Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS). DRE is not suitable for early detection, as about 70% of the palpable malignancies have already spread beyond the prostate. The classic problem of visual interpretation of TRUS images is that hypoechoic areas suspicious for cancer may be either normal or cancerous histologically. Moreover, about 25% of all cancers have been found to be isoechoic and therefore not distinguishable from normal-appearing areas. None of the current biopsy or imaging techniques are able to cope with this dilemma. Artificial neural networks (ANN) are complex nonlinear computational models, designed much like the neuronal organization of a brain. These networks are able to model complicated biologic relationships without making assumptions based on conventional statistical distributions. Applications in Medicine and Urology have been promising. One example of such an application will be discussed in detail: A new method of Artificial Neural Network Analysis (ANNA) was employed in an attempt to obtain existing subvisual information, other than the gray scale

  14. Of Victorianism, Civilizationism, and Progressivism: The Educational Ideas of Anna Julia Cooper and W.E.B. Du Bois, 1892-1940

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alridge, Derrick P.

    2007-01-01

    Anna Julia Cooper and W.E.B. Du Bois were two of the most prominent African-American educators of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. During this period, they both envisioned a broad education tailored specifically to the critical intellectual and vocational needs of the entire black community. In this essay, the author examines common themes…

  15. Anna Kareņina mūsdienu literatūrā: no anekdotes līdz romānam-apgreidam

    OpenAIRE

    Vinčugova, Natālija

    2009-01-01

    Bakalaura darbs „Anna Kareņina mūsdienu literatūrā: no anekdotes līdz romānam – apgreidam” – ir mēģinājums uz Annas Kareņinas tēla piemēra izanalizēt „klasisko” daiļdarbu popularitāti starp mūsdienu autoriem, kuru uztveres un izpratnes problēma mūsdienu sabiedrībā ir ļoti aktuāla. Pētījums tiek veikts uz anekdošu teksta analīzes, kuri subjekta vai objekta lomā izmanto Annas Kareņinas tēlu, kā arī Ļva Nikolajeviča „Anna Kareņina” un Lilijas Kim „Aņa Kareņina” romānu pamata. Darbā arī ir ...

  16. Anna Kareņina mūsdienu literatūrā: no anekdotes līdz romānam-apgreidam

    OpenAIRE

    Vinčugova, Natālija

    2009-01-01

    Bakalaura darbs „Anna Kareņina mūsdienu literatūrā: no anekdotes līdz romānam – apgreidam” – ir mēģinājums uz Annas Kareņinas tēla piemēra izanalizēt „klasisko” daiļdarbu popularitāti starp mūsdienu autoriem, kuru uztveres un izpratnes problēma mūsdienu sabiedrībā ir ļoti aktuāla. Pētījums tiek veikts uz anekdošu teksta analīzes, kuri subjekta vai objekta lomā izmanto Annas Kareņinas tēlu, kā arī Ļva Nikolajeviča „Anna Kareņina” un Lilijas Kim „Aņa Kareņina” romānu pamata. Darbā arī ir ...

  17. [Pertti Virtaranta. Lyydiläisiä tekstejä VI. Anna Vasiljevna Ţesnakovan kerrontaa ja itkuvirsiä] / Paul Alvre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alvre, Paul

    1995-01-01

    Arvustus: Pertti Virtaranta. Lyydiläisiä tekstejä VI. Anna Vasiljevna Ţesnakovan kerrontaa ja itkuvirsiä. Suomalais-Ugrilaisen Seuran Toimituksia 218. Helsinki, 1994. 256 s.; Näytteitä karjalan kielestä I. Karjalan Tasavallan ja Sisä-Venäjän karjalaismurteet. Joensuu-Petroskoi, 1994

  18. A new opioid peptide predicted from cloned cDNAs from skin of Pachymedusa dacnicolor and Agalychnis annae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechselberger, C; Severini, C; Kreil, G; Negri, L

    1998-06-05

    We have isolated a cDNA encoding a precursor of dermorphin from the skin of Pachymedusa dacnicolor. Besides four copies of this opioid peptide, the deduced sequence also contains the genetic information for a novel peptide Tyr-Ile-Phe-His-Leu-Met-Asp-NH2. This differs from Met-deltorphin by the presence of Ile at position 2. In a related precursor from the skin of Agalychnis annae, the sequence of this peptide is in the 3'-untranslated region of the cloned cDNA. From earlier results we predict that in skin peptides the second residue is D-allo-Ile. We have synthesized this and related peptides with different D-amino acids, and determined their delta agonist activity. The peptide with D-nor-Leu binds with high affinity to delta receptors, while that with D-allo-Ile is about 100 times less active.

  19. Produção de conhecimento na enfermagem em oncologia: contribuição da escola de enfermagem Anna Nery Producción de conocimiento en la enfermería en oncología: contribución de la escola de enfermagem anna nery (escuela de enfermería Anna Nery Production of knowledge in nursing in oncology: contribution of Anna Nery nursing school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marléa Chagas Moreira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O estudo teve como objetivos mapear as teses e dissertações produzidas no Programa de Pós-Graduação da Escola de Enfermagem Anna Nery com enfoque na enfermagem em oncologia e analisar as repercussões diante dos aspectos epistemológicos destacados. Estudo exploratório, descritivo, retrospectivo e bibliográfico de 59 estudos (45 dissertações e 14 teses produzidos de 1980 a 2009. O referencial teórico-metodológico foi a Metodologia de Categorização Epistemológica para a Pesquisa na Enfermagem. Os resultados indicam que a produção analisada é mais setorizada na área da oncologia clínica, com ênfase nos aspectos Gestão Saúde/Enfermagem, Saúde da Mulher e Fundamentos do Cuidado de Enfermagem. Houve predomínio de estudos na perspectiva sociológica com abordagem qualitativa. As repercussões demonstradas nos aspectos epistemológicos destacados possibilitam afirmar que o conhecimento produzido é consistente com a complexidade e as tentativas de explicação sobre a arte de cuidar dos clientes com câncer e com esforços de definir/ampliar critérios e padrões assistenciais. Enfermagem Oncológica. Pesquisa em Enfermagem. Educação de Pós-graduação em EnfermagemEl estudio tuvo como objetivo mapear las tesis y disertaciones del Programa de Posgraduado de la Escola de Enfermagem Anna Nery (Escuela de Enfermería Anna Nery con énfasis en la enfermería en oncología y analizar las repercusiones frente los aspectos epistemológicos señalados. Exploratorio, descriptivo, retrospectivo y documental de 59 estudios (45 disertaciones y 14 tesis producidos desde 1980 hasta 2009. El referencial teórico-metodológico fue la Metodología Epistemológica para la Investigación en Enfermería. Los resultados indican que la producción es la más sectorizada de la oncología clínica, con énfasis en Gestión de la Salud / Enfermería, Salud de la Mujer y Fundamentos de la Atención de Enfermería. Se detectó un predominio de los

  20. Evaporative water loss and dehydration during the night in hummingbirds Pérdida de agua evaporativa y deshidratación nocturna en picaflores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRADLEY HARTMAN BAKKEN

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Nectar-feeding birds oscillate between avoiding overhydration when they are feeding and preventing dehydration during fasts. Here, we examined how resting rates of total evaporative water loss (TEWL and metabolic water production (MWP influence water balance in the green-backed firecrown (Sephanoides sephanoides, a Chilean hummingbird. We hypothesized that a circadian rhythm in TEWL would assuage the dehydration risk that hummingbirds face during the night. However, we did not find support for this idea. In resting hummingbirds, rates of TEWL during the day (54 ±6 µLh-1,n = 8 and night (65 ± 12 h-1, n = 5 were similar. Rates of MWP were also similar between the day (22 ±3 µL h-1, n = 8 and night (23 ± 2 µL h-1, n = 5. MWP rates were significantly lower than TEWL rates during both the day and night. Our findings both support the notion that hummingbirds dehydrate during extended fasts and illustrate that evaporative water loss is an important osmoregulatory consideration in hummingbirds. However, because the technique we used to estimate rates of TEWL and MWP at night was indirect, our findings should be interpreted cautiously until direct measurements are availableLas aves nectarívoras oscilan entre la sobrehidratación durante los períodos de alimentación y la prevención de la deshidratación durante el ayuno. Examinamos cómo las tasas de pérdida total de agua evaporativa (TEWL y la producción de agua metabólica (MWP durante el descanso influyen sobre el balance hídrico en el picaflor chileno (Sephanoides sephanoides. Hipotetizamos que el ritmo circadiano en la TEWL podría disminuir el riesgo de deshidratación que los picaflores enfrentan durante la noche. Sin embargo, no encontramos apoyo de esta hipótesis. En los picaflores en reposo, las tasas de TEWL durante el día (54 ± 6 µL h-1, n = 8 y la noche (65 ± 12 µL h-1, n = 5 fueron similares. Las tasas de MWP también fueron similares durante el día (22 ±3 µL h-1, n

  1. Beija-flores (Aves, Trochilidae e seus recursos florais em uma área urbana do Sul do Brasil Hummingbirds (Aves, Trochilidae and their flowers in an urban area of southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Baza Mendonça

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A assembléia de flores visitadas por beija-flores e a partilha de recursos entre estas aves foram estudadas em uma área urbana do sul do Brasil. Vinte e duas espécies de plantas, em sua maioria exóticas e/ou não-ornitófilas, receberam visitas dos beija-flores. As espécies de beija-flores registradas apresentaram diferentes combinações de características morfológicas (massa, comprimento do bico, comprimento da asa e relação bico/asa, que refletiram no conjunto de flores exploradas e no papel comunitário desempenhado por cada espécie. De um modo geral, beija-flores com nichos tróficos mais amplos foram também os mais freqüentes na área de estudo, indicando que o ambiente urbano pode ser mais favorável às espécies generalistas.The main purpose of this study was to identify the assemblage of flowers used by hummingbirds in an urban area of southern Brazil, as well as describe the patterns of resource partitioning among the hummingbird species. Twenty two plant species were recorded, which flowers are visited by ten hummingbird species. Most of these plants are exotics and regarded as non-ornithophilous. The hummingbirds displayed different combinations of morphological features (mass, bill length, wing length and relation bill/wing, which were reflected in the sets of flowers visited and the community role played by each species. In general, hummingbirds with largest niche breadths were also the most frequent ones, indicating that urban areas could be more suitable for generalist species.

  2. A voz da boneca noturna: notas sobre um objeto-paixão em O livro de Praga de Sergio Sant’Anna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Virginia de Almeida

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available O artigo aborda o romance de Sérgio Sant'Anna O livro de Praga, publicado em 2011, como resultado de um projeto em que a editora Companhia das Letras enviou escritores para cidades ao redor do mundo, a fim de escrever histórias de amor. Sergio Sant'Anna cria o personagem-narrador, Antônio Fernandes, que, ao longo de sua estadia em Praga, se envolve com várias figuras femininas entre elas uma boneca, uma miniatura de uma atriz de teatro-de-sombras. O artigo concentra-se no episódio da boneca, no mistério que envolve sua voz, nas relações com o gênero fantástico e nas leituras possíveis da sua presença na narrativa.

  3. Migrations and Diasporas. German Writers in Mexican Exile. Egon Erwin Kisch’s and Anna Seghers’ Promotion of Cross-Cultural Understanding

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer E. Michaels

    2012-01-01

    The journalist and popular travel writer, Egon Erwin Kisch, and the well-known novelist and short story writer Anna Seghers were among the many left wing and communist intellectuals for whom Mexico was a haven during the Hitler years. Kisch traveled extensively in Mexico, immersed himself in its history and culture and interpreted Mexico for the other German exiles. On her return from exile Seghers became an important mediator in the GDR of Mexican and South American culture and a strong voic...

  4. 精神分析视阈中的《安娜·卡列宁娜》%The Psychoanalysis of Anna Karenina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴静

    2013-01-01

    国内外对《安娜·卡列宁娜》的研究大都集中于对安娜悲剧精神的认同及造成其悲剧的社会因素批判。即使用精神分析学来阐释,其中“三我”的主体定位也各有侧重。本文将运用弗洛伊德的人格结构理论,提出安娜、卡里宁、列文和伏伦斯基分别是本我、自我、超我和“三我”变体的代表。通过人格结构之间的激烈冲突与斗争,并以超我的胜利为终极目标,反映了托尔斯泰对人类精神性存在的深刻挖掘与反思。%The domestic and international study on Anna Karenina mostly focuses on Anna ’s tragic spirit and the social factors, which causes the tragedy of Anna. The explanation of the using of psychoanalysis, in which the positioning of "Three I"also has particular emphasis . This paper will use Freud's theory of personality structure, propose that Anna, Karenin, Levin and Vronsky are the representative of id, ego, superego and the variants of"Three I". Through the fierce conflict and struggle between the personality structure, and the ultimate goal of the superego’s victory, Tolstoy reflects the deep mining and reflections in the human spirit.

  5. Turbulent Finances of Labour Market Pension Funds Sviptingar í fjárhag lífeyrissjóðanna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ólafur Ísleifsson

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract in English is unavailable.Viðfangsefni þessarar greinar er leit að skýringum þess að fjárhagur lífeyrissjóða hins almenna vinnumarkaðar snerist úr að vera mjög bágborinn í að vera svo sterkur að fá lönd standa Íslandi á sporði þegar kemur að lífeyriseignum mældum sem hlutfall af landsframleiðslu. Til skamms tíma hafa lífeyrissjóðirnir einnig almennt átt fyrir skuldbindingum sínum á tryggingafræðilegan mælikvarða. Fyrirfram má gera ráð fyrir að þættir eins og verðtrygging fjárskuldbindinga, góð ávöxtun eigna, aukið val um fjárfestingarkosti og þrenging á réttindum í samþykktum sjóða hafi ráðið úrslitum. Í ritgerðinni er fjallað um tryggingafræðilegar úttektir sem mælikvarða á fjárhagsstöðu lífeyrissjóða. Leidd eru rök að því að niðurstaða tryggingafræðilegra úttekta sé tiltölulega viðkvæm fyir breytingum á ávöxtunarkröfu, sem er hinn eiginlegi grundvöllur úttektanna. Varpað er ljósi á bága stöðu sjóðanna þangað til fjárhagur þeirra snerist við og grafist fyrir um skýringar á þeirri þróun. Leitt er í ljós að verðtrygging eigna sjóðanna hafi ráðið úrslitum í því efni. Sýnt er fram á sterka samleitni sem gætti í viðsnúningi á fjárhag sjóða hins almenna vinnumarkaðar um eða upp úr miðjum tíunda áratug 20. aldar. Loks er fjallað um áhrif efnahagshruns haustið 2008 á fjárhag sjóðanna.

  6. Feeding behavior of hummingbirds and perching birds on Erythrina speciosa Andrews (Fabaceae) flowers in an urban area, Londrina, Paraná, Brazil Comportamento alimentar de beija-flores e Passeriformes nas flores de Erytrhina speciosa Andrews (Fabaceae) em uma área urbana de Londrina, Paraná, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana Baza Mendonça; Luiz dos Anjos

    2006-01-01

    Nine species of birds - seven hummingbirds (Trochilidae) and two Passeriformes - were observed visiting the flowers of Erythrina speciosa Andrews (Fabaceae), a hummingbird-pollinated species present on the campus of Londrina State University, Paraná State, Brazil. Nectar in bagged flowers bore little relationship with nectar in flowers opened to foragers either regarding quantity or diurnal pattern of availability. Birds were more frequent early in the morning and their activity on flowers fu...

  7. Dietary protein and carbohydrate affect feeding behavior and metabolic regulation in hummingbirds (Melanotrochilus fuscus) Las proteínas y carbohidratos dietarios afectan la conducta de alimentación y la regulación metabólica en picaflores (Melanotrochilus fuscus)

    OpenAIRE

    Zanotto,Flavia P.; Bicudo, J.E.P.W.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this work was to link hummingbird feeding behavior with metabolic regulation and in addition to assess whether dietary composition would affect entrance into torpor. Hummingbirds were fed a combination of diets with contrasting amounts of protein and carbohydrate. The diets were composed of the following: 2.4 % protein (P) - 12 % sucrose (S) and 0.8 % protein (P) - 36 % sucrose (S). The main findings showed that periods of feeding on each of the diets could be distinguished a...

  8. Sensitivity of metrics of phylogenetic structure to scale, source of data and species pool of hummingbird assemblages along elevational gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Caro, Sebastián; Parra, Juan L; Graham, Catherine H; McGuire, Jimmy A; Cadena, Carlos Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Patterns of phylogenetic structure of assemblages are increasingly used to gain insight into the ecological and evolutionary processes involved in the assembly of co-occurring species. Metrics of phylogenetic structure can be sensitive to scaling issues and data availability. Here we empirically assess the sensitivity of four metrics of phylogenetic structure of assemblages to changes in (i) the source of data, (ii) the spatial grain at which assemblages are defined, and (iii) the definition of species pools using hummingbird (Trochilidae) assemblages along an elevational gradient in Colombia. We also discuss some of the implications in terms of the potential mechanisms driving these patterns. To explore how source of data influence phylogenetic structure we defined assemblages using three sources of data: field inventories, museum specimens, and range maps. Assemblages were defined at two spatial grains: coarse-grained (elevational bands of 800-m width) and fine-grained (1-km(2) plots). We used three different species pools: all species contained in assemblages, all species within half-degree quadrats, and all species either above or below 2000 m elevation. Metrics considering phylogenetic relationships among all species within assemblages showed phylogenetic clustering at high elevations and phylogenetic evenness in the lowlands, whereas those metrics considering only the closest co-occurring relatives showed the opposite trend. This result suggests that using multiple metrics of phylogenetic structure should provide greater insight into the mechanisms shaping assemblage structure. The source and spatial grain of data had important influences on estimates of both richness and phylogenetic structure. Metrics considering the co-occurrence of close relatives were particularly sensitive to changes in the spatial grain. Assemblages based on range maps included more species and showed less phylogenetic structure than assemblages based on museum or field inventories

  9. Sensitivity of metrics of phylogenetic structure to scale, source of data and species pool of hummingbird assemblages along elevational gradients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián González-Caro

    Full Text Available Patterns of phylogenetic structure of assemblages are increasingly used to gain insight into the ecological and evolutionary processes involved in the assembly of co-occurring species. Metrics of phylogenetic structure can be sensitive to scaling issues and data availability. Here we empirically assess the sensitivity of four metrics of phylogenetic structure of assemblages to changes in (i the source of data, (ii the spatial grain at which assemblages are defined, and (iii the definition of species pools using hummingbird (Trochilidae assemblages along an elevational gradient in Colombia. We also discuss some of the implications in terms of the potential mechanisms driving these patterns. To explore how source of data influence phylogenetic structure we defined assemblages using three sources of data: field inventories, museum specimens, and range maps. Assemblages were defined at two spatial grains: coarse-grained (elevational bands of 800-m width and fine-grained (1-km(2 plots. We used three different species pools: all species contained in assemblages, all species within half-degree quadrats, and all species either above or below 2000 m elevation. Metrics considering phylogenetic relationships among all species within assemblages showed phylogenetic clustering at high elevations and phylogenetic evenness in the lowlands, whereas those metrics considering only the closest co-occurring relatives showed the opposite trend. This result suggests that using multiple metrics of phylogenetic structure should provide greater insight into the mechanisms shaping assemblage structure. The source and spatial grain of data had important influences on estimates of both richness and phylogenetic structure. Metrics considering the co-occurrence of close relatives were particularly sensitive to changes in the spatial grain. Assemblages based on range maps included more species and showed less phylogenetic structure than assemblages based on museum or field

  10. Sensitivity of Metrics of Phylogenetic Structure to Scale, Source of Data and Species Pool of Hummingbird Assemblages along Elevational Gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Caro, Sebastián; Parra, Juan L.; Graham, Catherine H.; McGuire, Jimmy A.; Cadena, Carlos Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Patterns of phylogenetic structure of assemblages are increasingly used to gain insight into the ecological and evolutionary processes involved in the assembly of co-occurring species. Metrics of phylogenetic structure can be sensitive to scaling issues and data availability. Here we empirically assess the sensitivity of four metrics of phylogenetic structure of assemblages to changes in (i) the source of data, (ii) the spatial grain at which assemblages are defined, and (iii) the definition of species pools using hummingbird (Trochilidae) assemblages along an elevational gradient in Colombia. We also discuss some of the implications in terms of the potential mechanisms driving these patterns. To explore how source of data influence phylogenetic structure we defined assemblages using three sources of data: field inventories, museum specimens, and range maps. Assemblages were defined at two spatial grains: coarse-grained (elevational bands of 800-m width) and fine-grained (1-km2 plots). We used three different species pools: all species contained in assemblages, all species within half-degree quadrats, and all species either above or below 2000 m elevation. Metrics considering phylogenetic relationships among all species within assemblages showed phylogenetic clustering at high elevations and phylogenetic evenness in the lowlands, whereas those metrics considering only the closest co-occurring relatives showed the opposite trend. This result suggests that using multiple metrics of phylogenetic structure should provide greater insight into the mechanisms shaping assemblage structure. The source and spatial grain of data had important influences on estimates of both richness and phylogenetic structure. Metrics considering the co-occurrence of close relatives were particularly sensitive to changes in the spatial grain. Assemblages based on range maps included more species and showed less phylogenetic structure than assemblages based on museum or field inventories

  11. Analisando o conteúdo da seção "Página do Estudante" dos Annaes de Enfermagem Analisando el contenido de la sección "Pagina del Estudiante" de los Annaes de Enfermagem Analysing the content of the section Students' page of the Annaes de Enfermagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Nunes Morais Pereira

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A Revista Annaes Enfermagem foi um veiculo para retratar os problemas da saúde e evidenciar o exercício da profissão. A seção página do estudante foi criada para dar incentivo ao aluno, para expor suas idéias e focar pontos importantes na formação do enfermeiro da época. Este trabalho teve por objetivo analisar e descrever o conteúdo das publicações no período de 1932 a 1941. Trata-se de estudo de abordagem qualitativa pelo método histórico. Os principais elementos descritos na seção analisada estavam relacionados com os problemas de saúde, como escarlatina, tétano eclâmpsia. Conclui-se que o conteúdo do material analisado reflete que neste período existia uma preocupação com a preparação das alunas para suprir a necessidade vigente que o país atravessava.El periodico Annaes de Enfermagem ha sido el veiculo para discutir los problemas de salud y para evidenciar el professional rol. La sección "Pagina de estudiante" há sido creada para incentivar los estudiantes a exponer sus ideas y para focalisar en los puntos relevantes de formación del enfermero el aquelle tienpo . Esto estúdio objectivó describir y analisar el contenido de lo material publicado em el periodo de 1932 hasta 1941. Esto és um estudio con abordaje cualitativo usandoce el metodo historìco. Los principales elementos descriptos en la sección analisada estan relacionados a los problemas de salud colectiva como la escarlatina, tétano, eclampsia y tanbien a la ética. Se ha concluydo que el contenido del material analisado reflete que en el período analisado habia una preocupación com la preparación del studiante para atender a las necesidades de salud que el pais presentava.The journal Annaes de Enfermagem was a publishing vehicle to discuss health problems and to evidence the professional role. The section "Students Page" Was created for the motivation of students to expose their ideas and to focus in relevant points of the nurse education by

  12. Cell size and basal metabolic rate in hummingbirds Tamaño celular y tasa metabólica basal en picaflores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C. Opazo

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Nucleotypic theory suggests that genome size play indirect roles in determining organismal fitness. Among endotherms this theory has been demonstrated by an inverse correlation between basal metabolic rate (BMR and genome size. Nonetheless, accumulation of variables, especially for some key groups of endotherms, involved in C-value enigma (e.g., cell size will fortify this theory. In this sense, hummingbird species are of particular interest because they are an energetic extreme in avian and endotherm evolution. Knowing that cell size is proportional to C-value, in this study we tested for a relationship between mean corpuscular volume of red blood cells and BMR in four species of hummingbirds ranging from 4 to 20 g. In comparison with other birds, our hummingbird data show higher BMR and the smallest mean corpuscular volumes, thereby providing further support for the nucleotypic theoryLa teoría nucleotípica sugiere que el tamaño del genoma juega un rol indirecto en la adecuación biológica, a través de las variables con las que se relaciona. En endotermos esta teoría ha sido demostrada por la relación inversa entre la tasa metabólica basal y el tamaño del genoma. La acumulación de variables, en grupos claves de endotermos, relacionadas con esta problemática (e.g., tamaño celular son ideales para poner a prueba esta teoría. En este sentido, los picaflores son de particular interés ya que son el extremo energético dentro de los endotermos. Sabiendo que el tamaño celular es proporcional al tamaño del genoma, en este trabajo ponemos a prueba la relación del volumen corpuscular medio y la tasa metabólica basal, e indirectamente el tamaño del genoma, en cuatro especies de picaflores con masas corporales que van desde 4 a 20 g. Los datos de metabolismo mostraron estar dentro de los mayores descritos para aves, asimismo, los tamaños de los eritrocitos fueron los más pequeños dentro de los valores reportados en la literatura

  13. Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) thermal surface water mapping and its correlation to LANDSAT. [Lake Anna, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvocoresses, A. P. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    Graphics are presented which show HCMM mapped water-surface temperature in Lake Anna, a 13,000 dendrically-shaped lake which provides cooling for a nuclear power plant in Virginia. The HCMM digital data, produced by NASA were processed by NOAA/NESS into image and line-printer form. A LANDSAT image of the lake illustrates the relationship between MSS band 7 data and the HCMM data as processed by the NASA image processing facility which transforms the data to the same distortion-free hotline oblique Mercator projection. Spatial correlation of the two images is relatively simple by either digital or analog means and the HCMM image has a potential accuracy approaching the 80 m of the original LANDSAT data. While it is difficult to get readings that are not diluted by radiation from cooler adjacent land areas in narrow portions of the lake, digital data indicated by the line-printer display five different temperatures for open-water areas. Where the water surface response was not diluted by land areas, the temperature difference recorded by HCMM corresponds to in situ readings with rsme on the order of 1 C.

  14. Abundancia de colibríes y uso de flores en un bosque templado del sureste de México Hummingbird abundance and flowers use in a template forest from Southeast Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Partida Lara

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La abundancia de los colibríes puede variar por la fenología de floración de las plantas de las que se alimentan. Sin embargo, la información sobre la interacción colibrí-flor es limitada en ambientes tropicales de montaña. En este estudio se evaluó la abundancia de colibríes con redes de niebla y se registró la fenología de floración mensual de las flores visitadas por los colibríes en tres ambientes (bosque de encino, de neblina y matorral en la Reserva Ecológica Huitepec, Chiapas, México de enero a agosto 2010. Cuatro especies de colibríes (Hylocharis leucotis, Lampornis amethystinus, Lamprolaima rhami y Eugenes fulgens se registraron y sus abundancias variaron entre ambientes (H3.8=14.8, p=0.001. Siete especies de plantas fueron visitadas por los colibríes, y presentaron una mayor floración formando parches durante la temporada de secas. En el matorral se concentró el mayor número de especies de plantas con flores. Fuchsia paniculata presentó el mayor periodo de floración aunque solo fue visitada por H. leucotis. Passiflora membranacea fue la única especie visitada por las cuatro especies de colibríes. La única asociación positiva fue la abundancia de E. fulgens con la floración de P. membranacea (rS=0.93, p=0.02. Las fluctuaciones de las abundancias de colibríes en este estudio están en cierta forma determinadas por las interacciones del recurso floral y su distribución en el ambienteHummingbird abundance varies with plant bloom phenology used for feeding. However, the information on hummingbird-flower interaction is limited for tropical mountain environments. We evaluated hummingbird abundance using mist nest and estimated monthly flowering phenology visited by hummingbirds in three different habitats (oak forest, cloud forest and bush from January to August 2010 in Huitepec Ecological Reserve. We recorded four hummingbird species (Hylocharis leucotis, Lampornis amethystinus, Lamprolaima rhami and Eugenes

  15. Elementos do Projeto Político Profissional da Associação Nacional das Enfermeiras Diplomadas Brasileiras presentes nos Annaes de Enfermagem Elementos del Proyecto Politico Profesional de la Asociación Nacional de Enfermeras Graduadas Brasileras presentes en los Annaes de Enfermagem Elements of the Political Professional Project of the Brazilian Graduate Nurses National Association present in the Annaes de Enfermagem

    OpenAIRE

    Jane Liliane Gonçalves da Cruz; Isaac Rosa Marques

    2006-01-01

    A revista Annaes de Enfermagem foi criada para publicar idéias, conceitos, resultados da produção científica, reflexões e, principalmente, o de expor e discutir o Projeto Político Profissional da Associação Nacional de Enfermeiras Diplomadas Brasileiras (ANEDB). Este estudo teve como objetivo descrever e caracterizar estes elementos presentes na referida revista no período de 1932 a 1941. Trata-se de um estudo de abordagem qualitativa pelo método histórico. Os principais elementos do projeto ...

  16. Characterization techniques for nano-electronics, with emphasis to electron microscopy. The role of the European Project ANNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armigliato, A.

    2008-07-01

    , however, European laboratories with high-level expertise in materials characterization still operate in a largely independent way; this adversely affects the competitivity of European science and industry at the international level. For this reason the European Commission has started an Integrated Infrastructure Initiative (I3) in the sixth Framework Programme (now continuing in FP7) and funded a project called ANNA (2006-2010). This acronym stands for European Integrated Activity of Excellence and Networking for Nano and Micro- Electronics Analysis. The consortium includes 12 partners from 7 European countries and is coordinated by the Fondazione B.Kessler (FBK) in Trento (Italy); CNR-IMM is one of the 12 partners. Aim of ANNA is the onset of strong, long-term collaboration among the partners, so to form an integrated multi-site analytical facility, able to offer to the European community a wide variety of top-level analytical expertise and services in the field of micro- and nano-electronics. They include X-ray diffraction and scattering, SIMS, electron microscopy, medium-energy ion scattering, optical and electrical techniques. The project will be focused on three main activities: Networking (standardization of samples and methodologies, establishment of accredited reference laboratories), Transnational Access to laboratories located in the partners' premises to perform specific analytical experiments (an example is given by the two STEM methodologies discussed above) and Joint Research activity, which is targeted at the improvement and extension of the methodologies through a continuous instrumental and technical development. It is planned that the European joint analytical laboratory will continue its activity beyond the end of the project in 2010.

  17. 角色理论视阈下的安娜·卡列尼娜悲剧%The Tragedy of Anna Karenina in the Role Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张巧欢

    2012-01-01

    “社会角色”是社会学中的术语,指的是个体在社会上扮演的角色。用社会学中的角色理论解读安娜·卡列尼娜的悲剧,安娜最终的死亡是因为安娜在扮演社会角色的过程中无法协调个人与角色的关系,使个人对爱情的内在需要与妻子角色、母亲角色、贵妇角色和情人角色产生矛盾冲突,而导致角色的崩溃。在文化转型期如何调整自己的内在需求与角色期待之间的关系,这也是安娜悲剧留给我们的思考之一。%Social Role, a term in sociology, refers to the part that an individual plays in the society. From the per- spective of role play, what leads to the death of Anna Karenina is that Anna Karenina can' t coordinate the role she plays in the play and herself in the flesh. Therefore, there is a conflict between the inner need for love and the roles as a wife,mother,noble woman and lover, which results in the failure of the roles -playing. The traged Karenina leaves us with such a thought that~ during the period of cultural transition, how someone should own inner need and role expectations. y of Anna adjust his

  18. XIX a. Mažosios Lietuvos įvaizdis Jodocus’o Donatus’o Hubertus’o Temme’ės romane Anna Jogszis | The Image of Lithuania Minor in the 19th Century in Jodocus Donatus Hubertus Temme’s Novel Anna Jogszis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nijolė Brazauskienė

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In his novel Anna Jogszis (1856, the German lawyer and writer Jodocus Donatus Hubertus Temme (1798–1881 represents Lithuania Minor in the 19th century. Lithuania Minor was a multicultural boundary region. J. D. H. Temme describes Lithuanian culture, relationship among Lithuanians, Germans, Russians, and Jews. The main aim of this article is to discover the image of Lithuania Minor in Temme’s novel. Temme states that freedom, humanity, cultural memory are important for every nation. For Temme’s novel, the Lithuanian national spirit is important. The human spirit of his personages is described not so precisely. The author also represented the frontier of Prussia and Russia, the behaviour of custom officials, smuggling. For the Lithuanian image ofthe 19th century, the inferiority complex, loyalty to power in the Kingdom of Prussia, lack of tolerance to other nations, insufficient attention to the Lithuanian historical and cultural past are characteristic. Lithuania Minor needed a national rebirth, civic society, which were the only way to resist Germanisation. The killer of Jews Anna Jogszis was a crisis’ personality and could be interpreted as a symbol of the endangered national spirit in Lithuania Minor. Temme’s novel Anna Jogszis could be used as a historical source for the research of East Prussia’s multicultural identity.

  19. Feminism and emancipation at the threshold of the 20th century. Anna Řeháková, Vlasta Pittnerová, two case studies

    OpenAIRE

    Potměšilová, Magdaléna

    2012-01-01

    Feminism and emancipation at the threshold of the 20th century Anna Řeháková, Vlasta Pittnerová, two case studies This PhD thesis deals with feminism and women's emancipation in Prague at the threshold of the 20th century. This work is a case study, based mainly on the biographical method. It is a concrete contribution to the history of emancipation and women's issues. The aim is to contribute to understanding the development of the women's movement in the Czech region on the border of the 19...

  20. Un confronto tra Elena Ferrante e Anna Maria Ortese: la città di Napoli, la fuga, l’identità

    OpenAIRE

    Adele Ricciotti

    2016-01-01

    Il presente saggio vuole proporre un confronto tra le scrittrici italiane Elena Ferrante e Anna Maria Ortese. Attraverso la lettura dell’opera fondamentale della Ferrante, L’amica geniale, ricaveremo indizi che ci permetteranno di accostare il personaggio di Elena – protagonista della storia – alla figura della Ortese. La città di Napoli, interpretata quale luogo di origine e di ritorno, patria rifiutata e pure amata, è la più evidente affinità riscontrata tra le due autrici: essa diviene sim...

  1. Un confronto tra Elena Ferrante e Anna Maria Ortese: la città di Napoli, la fuga, l’identità

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adele Ricciotti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Il presente saggio vuole proporre un confronto tra le scrittrici italiane Elena Ferrante e Anna Maria Ortese. Attraverso la lettura dell’opera fondamentale della Ferrante, L’amica geniale, ricaveremo indizi che ci permetteranno di accostare il personaggio di Elena – protagonista della storia – alla figura della Ortese. La città di Napoli, interpretata quale luogo di origine e di ritorno, patria rifiutata e pure amata, è la più evidente affinità riscontrata tra le due autrici: essa diviene simbolo dell’essenza italiana e dell’impossibilità di cambiamento che le due intuiscono e su cui scrivono.

  2. The aging of Anna Freud's diagnostic profile: a re-examination and re-application of the psychoanalytic assessment for older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Carola

    2011-01-01

    In 1962 Anna Freud published her pioneering paper on the Diagnostic Profile, proposing a framework for organizing relevant clinical material and observations for the assessment of a child's inner world. Since that time, the Profile has been applied, with modifications, to work with babies, adolescents, adults, blind children, and others. This paper strives to demonstrate the Profile's applicability to a group often neglected in the psychoanalytic literature, namely the older population, a vibrant group frequently seeking psychotherapy and even psychoanalysis. A case study of a woman in her 70s is used to illustrate the advantages for clinicians of the Profile for a clearer understanding, both diagnostically and intrapsychically, of the older adult.

  3. Migrations and Diasporas. German Writers in Mexican Exile. Egon Erwin Kisch’s and Anna Seghers’ Promotion of Cross-Cultural Understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer E. Michaels

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The journalist and popular travel writer, Egon Erwin Kisch, and the well-known novelist and short story writer Anna Seghers were among the many left wing and communist intellectuals for whom Mexico was a haven during the Hitler years. Kisch traveled extensively in Mexico, immersed himself in its history and culture and interpreted Mexico for the other German exiles. On her return from exile Seghers became an important mediator in the GDR of Mexican and South American culture and a strong voice for crosscultural understanding

  4. Of Hummingbirds and Parrots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leander, Anna

    and legal specialists that are based on a future orientation. As this indicates this paper is a very preliminary attempt to reach out to theories emphasizing on the role of technological actants (of which the drones are the example here)—as found e.g. in the context of the social studies of science......This paper looks at how the growing use of drones is re-producing the future orientation of law both expressed in the sense of law resting on precautionary, scenarios based thinking. It does this by focusing more specifically on how drones are actants in the creation of legal subjects, legal space...... or in the work of Friedrich Kittler—in generating social reality (in this case a specific form of legal temporality)....

  5. On the Intersubjectivity of the Characters’ Relationship in the Novel“Anna of the Five Towns”%论《五镇的安娜》中人物关系的主体间性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋虎堂

    2016-01-01

    英国作家阿诺德·贝奈特的《五镇的安娜》在人物关系上互为主体,其小说人物“特尔赖特———安娜”“安娜———迈诺斯/威利”之间突显出一种主体间性。“特尔赖特———安娜”的关系表明主体间性的失衡,“安娜———迈诺斯/威利”的关系代表了主体间性的延伸,而贯穿主体间性始终的则是以安娜父亲为代表的父权意志。《五镇的安娜》对父权话语的反抗和对女性自由问题的探求,其目的和意义在于追求女性个体的自由,实现主体间性的平衡。%Arnold Bennett was a British author in the late nineteenth century. His novel “Anna of the Five Towns” is about the relationship between the characters. The intersubjectivity of “Anna of the Five Towns”is mainly shown in the relation of “Tellwright-Anna” and “Anna-Mynors/Willie”. The relationship between “Tellwright-Anna” indicates an imbalanced intersubjectivity, and the relationship of “Anna-Mynors/Willie” represents the extension of the intersubjectivity. While Anna's father representing the patriarchal will is always throughout the intersubjectivity. The freedom of women and the revolt against patriarchal discourse are explored in "Anna of the Five Towns ". The purpose and significance is the pursuit of freedom of individual women to achieve a balance between subjectivity.

  6. Primeiras dissertações do curso de mestrado da escola de enfermagem Anna Nery (1972-1975 Primeras disertaciones del curso de maestría de la escuela de enfermería Anna Nery (1972-1975 First dissertations of the Anna Nery nursing school master's degree program (1972-1975

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Ribeiro Machado

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudo histórico-social que tem como objeto as condições de produção das primeiras dissertações do Curso de Mestrado da Escola de Enfermagem Anna Nery, elaboradas no período 1972-1975. Objetivos: descrever as características iniciais do Curso de Mestrado da EEAN; analisar o perfil das autoras das primeiras dissertações desse Curso e de suas orientadoras; e discutir a inserção dessas dissertações nas áreas e linhas de pesquisa em enfermagem. Foi realizada análise documental e foram organizados quadros para apresentação dos resultados. Resultados: nove das doze alunas de tempo integral da turma pioneira apresentaram suas dissertações antes do prazo regulamentar de quatro anos. Embora oito das mestrandas fossem docentes, cerca de 90% de suas dissertações inserem-se na Área Assistencial, foco de interesse de sua prática de ensino. O mestrado da EEAN qualificou profissionais para lecionar nos cursos superiores de enfermagem. As nove primeiras dissertações nele produzidas constituíram importante contribuição para a produção científica de enfermagem.Estudio histórico-social que tiene como objeto las condiciones de producción de las primeras disertaciones del Curso de Maestría de la Escuela de Enfermería Anna Nery, elaboradas en el periodo 1972-1975. Objetivos: describir las características iniciales del Curso de Maestría de EEAN; analizar el perfil de las autoras de las primeras disertaciones de ese Curso y de sus orientadoras; y discutir la inserción de esas disertaciones en las áreas y líneas de investigación en enfermería. Se realizó análisis documental y se organizó cuadros para presentación de los resultados. Resultados: Nueve de las doce alumnas de tiempo completo de la clase pionera presentaron sus disertaciones antes del plazo estatutario, que era de cuatro años. Aunque ocho de las alumnas de la maestría fueran profesoras, cerca del 90% de sus disertaciones se insertan en el Área Asistencial

  7. Effects of a snowstorm event on the interactions between plants and hummingbirds: fast recovery of spatio-temporal patterns Efecto de una tormenta de nieve sobre la interacción colibrí-planta: los patrones espacio-temporales se recobran rápido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Román Díaz-Valenzuela

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The global climatic change could cause, in some places, appearance of meteorological phenomena considered rare. If we understand the effect of these phenomena on birds we can understand how birds respond to weather changes. We report here the effect of a severe snowfall on hummingbird activity, flower abundance and hummingbird-plant interaction in a temperate forest of central Mexico. During our study we registered 1 hummingbird species (Hylocharis leucotis and 7 plant species (Fuchsia thymifolia, F. microphyla, Salvia amarissima, S. elegants, Cestrum roseum, Penstemon campanulatus and Lonicera mexicana. Before the sudden climatic phenomena we registered 66 records of hummingbirds, 8 700 flowers, and 6 hummingbird visits to flowers. During the phenomena, there were zero hummingbird records, 160 flowers and zero visits. A month after the event there were 67 hummingbirds records, 1 825 flowers and 13 visits. Hummingbird activity recovered rapidly after the snowstorm, but 6 of 7 plants species lost all their flowers, except for L. mexicana, which received all hummingbird visits a month after the climatic event.El cambio climático global podría causar fenómenos meteorológicos considerados como raros. Si entendemos el efecto de estos fenómenos en las aves podríamos comprender como las aves responden a este tipo de cambios en el tiempo. Aquí documentamos el efecto de una nevada severa sobre la actividad de colibríes, la abundancia floral y la interación colibrí-planta en un bosque templado del centro de México. Durante nuestro estudio registramos 1 especie de colibrí (Hylocharis leucotis y 7 especies de plantas (Fuchsia thymifolia, F. microphyla, Salvia amarissima, S. elegants, Cestrum roseum, Penstemon campanulatus y Lonicera mexicana. Antes de la nevada registramos 66 avistamientos de colibríes, 8 700 flores y 6 visitas de colibríes a las flores. Durante el fenómeno hubo cero registros de colibríes, 160 flores y cero visitas. Un mes

  8. Minimalism and sociability in crisis: masks of alterity in the works of Marcelino Freire and André Sant’Anna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Maria Dias

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian literature, when dedicated to recreating contemporary social fractures, has frequently chosen a minimalist perspective in order to counteract the representationalist lineage overly expressed in our tradition. Nowadays, there two writers operating in the minimalist scene and elaborating on the disjunctions of a problematic sociability of a rather impersonal diction in favor of a stylized theater of alterity: André Sant’Anna and Marcelino Freire. The latter, in his modulated short-stories, adopts the rhythms and the assonances of a reduced vocabulary to give form to the situation of marginal characters and, in so doing, he is capable of making them sing. André Sant’Anna, for his part, works through dissonance and seeks to disarrange language by adopting a coordinated syntax, full of repetitions and recurrences. His style causes the tedious effect that underlies the grotesque comicality of certain dictions. Consequently, the examined short-stories, although they offer differences in their conception, practice the rituals of performance, due to their respective efforts to influence reception, as they include elements of reality and equally try to produce literature open to an ethical commitment to life.

  9. Between Les Rendez-vous d’Anna and Demain on Déménage: m(other inscriptions in two films by Chantal Akerman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Rowley

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available 'Demain on Déménage' is a gloriously comic queering of reproduction that claims as its foundation heterosexual sexuality and the stability of the hetero-normative unit of the couple. Akerman's decision to cast Aurore Clément in the role of a mother in 'Demain on Déménage', over two decades after playing a daughter in 'Les Rendez-vous d'Anna', encourages a reading of the 2005 film as a reprise of concerns first explored in 1978. If 'Les Rendez-vous d'Anna' has moments in common with Lee Edelman's uncompromisingly provocative polemic against the ideology of 'reproductive futurism', this paper argues that 'Demain on Déménage' figures the 'matrixial' movement Bracha Ettinger theorises as opening on to a different concept of futurity, symbolised not in post-natal terms by the child or the mother, but rather as a corporeal- psychic imprint of the 'originary prenatal encounter event, with-in pregnancy' common to all human beings, which offers another model of communal relations.

  10. Interpretation of Tragic Love Affairs of Anna and Francesca%安娜和弗兰西斯卡的悲剧爱情解读

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕代珍

    2011-01-01

    Anna is the protagonists in the novel Anna Karenina and Francesca in The Bridges of the Madison County.In an unemotional marriage,both of them pursue their own love.The main causes of their extramarital affairs are their economic dependence and traditional patriarchy,and their female self-consciousness awakening and sublimation as well.But their weakness in characters becomes the main reasons for their tragic love.%安娜和弗兰西斯卡分别是作品《安娜·卡列尼娜》和《廊桥遗梦》中的女主人公。在无爱的婚姻以外,她们各自追求着自己的爱情。两位女主人公婚外情产生的根源主要是由于经济上的依赖与传统的父权制度;女性自我意识的苏醒与升华。而女性性格深处的弱点又成为她们追求自主爱情失败的重要原因。

  11. Scale-4 Analysis of Pressurized Water Reactor Critical Configurations: Volume 5 - North Anna Unit 1 Cycle 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, S.M.

    1993-01-01

    The requirements of ANSI/ANS 8.1 specify that calculational methods for away-from-reactor (AFR) criticality safety analyses be validated against experimental measurements. If credit for the negative reactivity of the depleted (or spent) fuel isotopics is desired, it is necessary to benchmark computational methods against spent fuel critical configurations. This report summarizes a portion of the ongoing effort to benchmark AFR criticality analysis methods using selected critical configurations from commercial pressurized-water reactors (PWR). The analysis methodology selected for all calculations reported herein was the codes and data provided in the SCALE-4 code system. The isotopic densities for the spent fuel assemblies in the critical configurations were calculated using the SAS2H analytical sequence of the SCALE-4 system. The sources of data and the procedures for deriving SAS2H input parameters are described in detail. The SNIKR code module was used to extract the necessary isotopic densities from the SAS2H results and to provide the data in the format required by the SCALE criticality analysis modules. The CSASN analytical sequence in SCALE-4 was used to perform resonance processing of the cross sections. The KENO V.a module of SCALE-4 was used to calculate the effective multiplication factor (k{sub eff}) of each case. The SCALE-4 27-group burnup library containing ENDF/B-IV (actinides) and ENDF/B-V (fission products) data was used for all the calculations. This volume of the report documents the SCALE system analysis of one reactor critical configuration for North Anna Unit 1 Cycle 5. This unit and cycle were chosen for a previous analysis using a different methodology because detailed isotopics from multidimensional reactor calculations were available from the Virginia Power Company. These data permitted comparison of criticality calculations directly using the utility-calculated isotopics to those using the isotopics generated by the SCALE-4 SAS2H

  12. Rabotorgovlja protsvetajet / Anna Litvinjuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Litvinjuk, Anna

    2004-01-01

    India päritolu ameeriklanna Rania Hong, kes ise sattus lapsepõlves illegaalse inimkaubanduse ohvriks, tegeleb alates 1999. aastast selgitustööga ja ohvrite abistamisega rahvusvahelise organisatsiooni Shared Hope International töötajana

  13. Norra disain / Anna Roomet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Roomet, Anna

    2006-01-01

    Norra disainist, tootedisaini, sisekujundust ja installatsioone valmistavast disainikompaniist Norway Says, mille asutasid Torbjorn Anderssen, Andreas Engesvik ja Espen Voll.. Torbjorn Anderssen kompaniist, selle eesmärkidest, pingist Break, oma lemmikprojektidest. 9 ill

  14. Sportivnaja gratsija / Anna Litvinjuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Litvinjuk, Anna

    2006-01-01

    Tallinna klubis Arctic Sport demonstreeritud firma Adidas uutest sügis-talviste spordirõivaste kollektsioonidest Adilibria ja Fuse naistele. Adilibria kollektsiooni loomisel kasutati moekunstnik Stella McCartney ideesid

  15. Rabotorgovlja protsvetajet / Anna Litvinjuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Litvinjuk, Anna

    2004-01-01

    India päritolu ameeriklanna Rania Hong, kes ise sattus lapsepõlves illegaalse inimkaubanduse ohvriks, tegeleb alates 1999. aastast selgitustööga ja ohvrite abistamisega rahvusvahelise organisatsiooni Shared Hope International töötajana

  16. Milano 2006 / Anna Roomet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Roomet, Anna

    2006-01-01

    Sisekujunduse- ja mööblimessist I Saloni, mis tähistas oma 45. juubelit uues asupaigas Massimiliano Fuksase kavandite järgi ehitatud Fiera Milano Rho Pero messiavenüül 5.-10. aprillil. 36 värv. ill

  17. Vsepobezhdajushtshaja strast / Anna Litvinjuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Litvinjuk, Anna

    2003-01-01

    Professionaalsete lilleseadjate võistlusest "Lillekleit 2003" Tallinnas klubis Opium. Võitis läti lilleseadja Druvis Ciritise lillekleit "Puudutus", II koha sai Irmen Laving ja III koha Heiki Põder. Rikkalikult illustreeritud

  18. Tsvetotshnaja skazka / Anna Litvinjuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Litvinjuk, Anna

    2003-01-01

    Tatjana Tridvornova organiseeritud lilleballist Tallinnas. Algas lillekleitide defileega Saku Suurhallis ja jätkus lillekleitide konkursiga klubis Opium. Žürii koosseis. Osalejad Eestist, Lätist ja Soomest. Võitja on läti florist Druvis Ciritis lillekleidiga "Puudutus"

  19. Milano 2006 / Anna Roomet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Roomet, Anna

    2006-01-01

    Sisekujunduse- ja mööblimessist I Saloni, mis tähistas oma 45. juubelit uues asupaigas Massimiliano Fuksase kavandite järgi ehitatud Fiera Milano Rho Pero messiavenüül 5.-10. aprillil. 36 värv. ill

  20. Posvjashtshenije muzam / Anna Litvinjuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Litvinjuk, Anna

    2003-01-01

    Tallinna Vene Draamateatri galeriis avatakse maalinäitus "Pühendus teatrile". Kunstnikud A. Strahhov, S. Semerikov, S. ja V. Inkatovid, E. Sterpu, V. Voitsehhovitsh ja S. Minin oma teatrikogemustest ja töödest näitusel

  1. ‘The Good Terrorist(s’? Interrogating Gender and Violence in Ann Devlin’s ‘Naming the Names’ and Anna Burns’ No Bones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona McCann

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyse the depiction of IRA female volunteers in Ann Devlin’s “Naming the Names” (1986 and Anna Burns’ No Bones (2001 and to consider the relationship established between gender and violence in these texts. I investigate the extent to which the female terrorists portrayed conform to the “mother, monster, whore” paradigm identified by Laura Sjoberg and Caron Gentry (2007 in their study of women’s violence in global politics and consider what differences, if any, are established with these characters’ male counterparts. The ways in which both authors destabilise traditional gender stereotypes is also explored, as is the question of whether these texts might be considered as feminist fictions.

  2. Two Austro-Hungarian Women Writers, Anna Tutsek and Terka Lux, Creating New Urban Identities in Early Twentieth-Century Budapest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judit Kádár

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I examine some literary texts of two turn-of-the century Hungarian women writers, Anna Tutsek and Terka Lux who left behind their childhood environment in remote regions of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy in order to move to Budapest, the capital of the eastern part of the Empire. Assuming that individuals hold multiple identities that are flexible and inevitably affected by environmental and social changes, my main focus is on the transformation of their ethnic, regional, occupational and gender identity influenced by the disengagement from their birthplace. Within a context of Hungarian−Eastern-European women's social history, I investigate how migration had led them to reshape their original identities and create new ones and how these emigrant writers reacted to the loss of cultural and social norms in which they had previously lived.

  3. Biblioteca escolar das escolas reunidas Sant’anna do Paranahyba/MT (1936-1945: contribuições para o estudo de sua história.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosimar Pires Alves

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste texto apresentam-se os resultados de pesquisa de mestrado vinculada ao Programa de Pós-Graduação em Educação da Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul (UEMS, Unidade Universitária de Paranaíba, sobre o tema história das bibliotecas escolares na escola primária urbana em Paranaíba/MT. A pesquisa é oriunda dos resultados do projeto “Memória da Escola Primária em Paranaíba/MS (1946-1971”, desenvolvido no âmbito do Grupo de Estudos e Pesquisas em História e Historiografia da Educação Brasileira (GEPHEB. No projeto verificou-se em alguns documentos escolares localizados, reunidos e selecionados sobre as Escolas Reunidas Sant‟Anna do Paranahyba – um dos primeiros núcleos de escolarização do município de Paranaíba –, a fundação e a organização de uma biblioteca escolar a partir do ano de 1936, o que levou à constituição do objeto de estudo. Com isso traçou-se como objetivo contribuir para a produção de uma história das bibliotecas escolares em Mato Grosso do Sul e no Brasil, a partir da história da primeira biblioteca escolar organizada nas Escolas Reunidas Sant‟Anna do Paranahyba, mediante localização, reunião, seleção, organização e análise de fontes documentais sobre a implantação, o acervo, as especificidades e os sujeitos envolvidos. O recorte temporal abrange o período de 1936 – início das atividades da biblioteca escolar – até 1945, quando as Escolas Reunidas Sant‟Anna do Paranahyba foram transformadas no Grupo Escolar José Garcia Leal. A pesquisa fundamentou-se na abordagem histórica, no campo da educação, na vertente da Nova História que apresenta um leque de possibilidades no que se refere à pesquisa histórica em educação, constituindo um campo produtivo de estudos. Assim, a pesquisa realizada permitiu compreender que a Biblioteca Escolar das Escolas Reunidas Sant‟Anna do Paranahyba não se mostrou aquém do movimento em prol da leitura e das bibliotecas

  4. Clinical Holistic Medicine: The Case Story of Anna. III. Rehabilitation of Philosophy of Life During Holistic Existential Therapy for Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available When we experience life events with overwhelming emotional pain, we can escape this pain by making decisions (in our mind that transfer responsibility from our existence to the surrounding world. By doing this, we slowly destroy the essence of our being, health, quality of life, and ability to function. The case of Anna is an excellent example of such a systematic destruction of self, done to survive the extreme pressure from childhood abuse and sexual abuse. The case study shows that the damage done to us by traumatic events is not on our body or soul, but rather our philosophy of life. The important consequence is that we can heal our existence by letting go of the negative decisions taken in the past painful and traumatic situations. By letting go of the life-denying sentences, we come back to life and take responsibility for our own life and existence. The healing of Anna’s existence was done by existential holistic therapy. Although the processing did not always run smoothly, as she projected very charged material on the therapists on several occasions, the process resulted in full health and a good quality of life due to her own will to recover and heal completely. The case illustrates the inner logic and complexity of intensive holistic therapy at the most difficult moment, where only a combination of intensive medical, psychiatric, and sexological treatment could set her free. In the paper, we also present a meta-perspective on intensive holistic therapy and its most characteristic phases.

  5. 生之本能--对安娜之死的另类解读%Life Instinct-Another Interpretation of Anna's Death

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙红果

    2016-01-01

    Instinct has personalized, emotional and forceful characteristics;Life instinct is what Anna's death leaves for readers to think, love and maternal love are the basic support of Anna’ s instinct for living, when the balance of her life instinct is broken, Anna’ s life comes to an end due to the ending of love, pain from maternal love and restrict by morality;Anna's death is a rebirth of life instinct after her choice and giving up as well as her giving up and choice;Anna’ s death reflects how Tolstoy achieves the sublimation from individual life instinct to social life instinct, which is a thinking for each individual to find the meaning of life in social develop-ment.%本能具有个性化、情绪化、力量性等特点;生之本能是安娜之死留给读者的思考,情爱、母爱是安娜生之本能的基本支撑,当生之本能的平衡性被打破,情爱之殇、母爱之痛、道德之囿使安娜的生命走到尽头;安娜之死是选择与放弃、放弃与选择之后的生之本能的重生;安娜之死是托尔斯泰实现个体生之本能向生之本能社会性的升华,是对每一个个体在社会发展中寻找到生命意义的思考。

  6. Final Assessment of Manual Ultrasonic Examinations Applied to Detect Flaws in Primary System Dissimilar Metal Welds at North Anna Power Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Michael T.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Crawford, Susan L.; Prowant, Matthew S.; Doctor, Steven R.

    2014-03-24

    PNNL conducted a technical assessment of the NDE issues and protocols that led to missed detections of several axially oriented flaws in a steam generator primary inlet dissimilar metal weld at North Anna Power Station, Unit 1 (NAPS-1). This particular component design exhibits a significant outside-diameter (OD) taper that is not included as a blind performance demonstration mock-up within the industry’s Performance Demonstration Initiative, administered by EPRI. For this reason, the licensee engaged EPRI to assist in the development of a technical justification to support the basis for a site-specific qualification. The service-induced flaws at NAPS-1 were eventually detected as a result of OD surface machining in preparation for a full structural weld overlay. The machining operation uncovered the existence of two through-wall flaws, based on the observance of primary water leaking from the dissimilar metal weld. A total of five axially oriented flaws were detected in varied locations around the weld circumference. The field volumetric examination that was conducted at NAPS-1 was a non-encoded, real-time manual ultrasonic examination. PNNL conducted both an initial assessment, and subsequently, a more rigorous technical evaluation (reported here), which has identified an array of NDE issues that may have led to the subject missed detections. These evaluations were performed through technical reviews and discussions with NRC staff, EPRI NDE Center personnel, industry and ISI vendor personnel, and ultrasonic transducer manufacturers, and laboratory tests, to better understand the underlying issues at North Anna.

  7. On Tolstoy's Philosophy from the Cause of Anna's Death%从安娜的死因看托尔斯泰的人生观

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林曦

    2013-01-01

    In the novel"Anna Karenina", Anna, a pretty woman, finally ended her young life in a brutal way. On the one hand, her personality inevitably led to her suicide. On the other hand, the cruel social forces, composed of the following three aspects:the hypocrisy of the bourgeois aristocratic class,"no name, no consciousness"murdering clique, her cruel selfish husband and lover, are The main causes of her death. By analyzing the inevitability of Anna’ suicide, we can conclude that Tolstoy’s arrangements for such an outcome embodied his outlook on life:"It is mine to avenge, I will repay and Living for God and for the soul%  在《安娜·卡列尼娜》中,美丽的安娜最终以残忍的方式结束了自己年轻的生命。安娜的自杀一方面是是自身的性格导致的,另一方面则是由虚伪的资产阶级上流社会贵族阶层,“无主名、无意识”杀人团以及自私冷酷的丈夫和情人所合成的残酷的社会势力造成的。从安娜自杀背后的必然性我们可以看到,安排这样的结局正是托尔斯泰“伸冤在我,我必报应”及“为上帝、为灵魂活着”的人生观的体现。

  8. Responses in bird communities to wildland fires in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelsohn, Mark B.; Brehme, Cheryl S.; Rochester, Carlton J.; Stokes, Drew C.; Hathaway, Stacie A.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2008-01-01

    There is a growing body of literature covering the responses of bird species to wildland fire events. Our study was unique among these because we investigated the effects of large-scale wildland fires on entire bird communities across multiple vegetation types. We conducted avian point counts during the breeding seasons for two years before and two years after the Cedar and Otay Fires in 2003 in southern California. Our balanced sampling effort took place at two sites, one low-elevation and one high-elevation, each containing replicate stations (burned and unburned) within five vegetation types: chaparral, coastal sage scrub, grassland, oak woodland, and riparian. Although fire caused some degree of change in the vegetation structure at all of our impacted survey points, we found that the post-fire shrub and tree cover was significantly lower in only two of the vegetation types within the low-elevation site, coastal sage scrub and chaparral. We found no significant changes in cover at the high-elevation site. Using univariate and multivariate analyses, we tested whether the fires were associated with a change in bird species diversity, community structure, and the relative abundance of individuals within a species. We found that species diversity changed in only one circumstance: it increased in coastal sage scrub at the low-elevation site. Multivariate analyses revealed significant differences in the post-fire bird community structure in the low-elevation chaparral, low-elevation coastal sage scrub, and the high-elevation grassland communities. Vegetation characteristics altered by fire, such as decreases in shrub and tree cover, influenced the changes we observed in the bird communities. The relative abundance of some species (lazuli bunting [Passerina amoena] and horned lark [Eremophila alpestris]) significantly increased after the fires, while other species declined significantly (Anna's hummingbird [Calypte anna], wrentit [Chamaea fasciata], and bushtit

  9. Cuphea melvilla Lindlay (Lythraceae: uma espécie do Cerrado polinizada por beija-flores Cuphea melvilla Lindlay (Lythraceae: a Cerrado species pollinated by hummingbirds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Flávia de Oliveira Melazzo

    2012-06-01

    melittophilous genus. Various aspects of the floral and reproductive biology of two groups of individuals, which occur on the edge of gallery forests on the Panga stream (in Uberlândia, southeastern Brazil, were studied. Observations were carried out during the flowering season of 1999. Cuphea melvilla is a shrub with floral features adapted to hummingbird pollination. It has a long flowering period, from January to July, but flowers the most during the rainy season. The flower tube of this species is of hypanthial origin, has a spur at the base, and accumulates nectar, which is produced by a nectary at the base of the ovary. The flowers were protandrous but different floral phases were present from the top to the bottom of the simple racemes. The species appears to be self-compatible but non-apomictic and needs active pollination to form fruits. Pheathornis pretrei, Amazilia fimbriata, Thalurania furcata, Eupetomena macroura and Chlorostilbon lucidus (female were the hummingbird species observed visiting and pollinating the C. melvilla flowers. Amazilia fimbriata and C. lucidus showed occasional territorial behaviour in relation to the C. melvilla populations, whereas P. pretrei seemed to be trapliner. Thalurania furcata and E. macroura visited the studied populations sporadically. Amazilia fimbriata, C. lucidus and P. pretrei were considered the main pollinators for the studied populations due to their frequency. The flower features of Cuphea melvilla that are related to hummingbird pollination appear to be derived within the genus, and bird pollination, within different sections of the genus, indicate a convergent adaptation.

  10. Elementos do Projeto Político Profissional da Associação Nacional das Enfermeiras Diplomadas Brasileiras presentes nos Annaes de Enfermagem Elementos del Proyecto Politico Profesional de la Asociación Nacional de Enfermeras Graduadas Brasileras presentes en los Annaes de Enfermagem Elements of the Political Professional Project of the Brazilian Graduate Nurses National Association present in the Annaes de Enfermagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Liliane Gonçalves da Cruz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A revista Annaes de Enfermagem foi criada para publicar idéias, conceitos, resultados da produção científica, reflexões e, principalmente, o de expor e discutir o Projeto Político Profissional da Associação Nacional de Enfermeiras Diplomadas Brasileiras (ANEDB. Este estudo teve como objetivo descrever e caracterizar estes elementos presentes na referida revista no período de 1932 a 1941. Trata-se de um estudo de abordagem qualitativa pelo método histórico. Os principais elementos do projeto político compreendem os atributos desejáveis no enfermeiro como altruísmo, abnegação, patriotismo, senso humanitário, progresso profissional ligado à educação, arte, ideal, ética e componentes da religião cristã. Todos estes elementos fizeram parte de um projeto político que visava a integração da enfermagem no contexto de saúde nacional da época. (118 palavras.El periódico Annaes de Enfermagem fue creado para publicar ideas, conceptos, resultados de la producción cientifica, reflexiones y principalmente o de presentar y discutir el proyecto politico profesional de la Asociación Nacional de Enfermeras Graduadas Brasileras. Este estudio tuvo como objectivo decribir y caracterizar estos elementos presentes en este periódico en lo periodo de 1932 hasta 1941. Tratase de um estudio de abordaje cualitativa por lo metodo historico. Lo principales elementos del proyecto politico compreenden los atributos desejables en lo enfermero como el altruismo, abnegación, patriotismo, senso humaño, progreso profesional junto com la educación, arte, ideal, etica y componentes de la religión cristiana. Todos los elementos hicierón parte del proyecto politico que objectivó la integración de la enfermería en el contexto de salud en ámbito nacional a la epoca.The journal Annaes de Enfermagem was created to publish ideas, concepts, results of scientific production, reflections and, meanly to expose the Political Professional Project of the

  11. A loucura na fronteira entre a medicina e o direito: a elite médica em busca da legitimação socioprofissional nas páginas do Annaes Brasilienses de Medicina (1860-1880

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique de Siqueira Gonçalves

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo examina o papel estratégico desempenhado pelo Annaes Brasilienses de Medicina - órgão oficial da Academia Imperial de Medicina -, na busca da elite médica pela legitimação socioprofissional no campo da medicina mental, visando a expansão de suas prerrogativas no âmbito das relações entre loucura, responsabilidade penal, direitos civis e medicina legal de 1860 a 1880.

  12. Two Young Women Destroyed by Passion-Contrast between Anna and Emma%两个为激情所毁的少妇:安娜和埃玛比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨正先

    2011-01-01

    《安娜·卡列宁娜》中的安娜和《包法利夫人》中的埃玛是两个为激情所毁的少妇,她们的悲剧有某些相同的地方。但她们毕竟是出于不同国家、处于不同的时代,且是出自两个不同作家笔下,因此,这两个形象之间在实质上有着较大的差异。安娜追求的是高尚的爱情,而埃玛追求的在很大程度上是低级的情欲。%Anna in Anna · Kalieningnain and Emma in Madame Bovary are two young women destroyed by the passion,and their tragedies are of some similarity.However,these two images have big differences as they are from different countries at different times and dipicted by two different authors.Therefore,Anna is the noble pursuit of love,while Emma is largely low-level pursuit of passions.

  13. 桃叶杜鹃菌根显微结构及侵染情况%Study on microstructure and infections of Rhododendron annae mycorrhiza

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧静; 刘仁阳; 陈训

    2012-01-01

    By using the acid fuchsin staining, the roots of Rhododendron annae Franch were dyed and squashed, which grows in Guizhou province, and the microstructure and mycorrhizal colonization were observed. The results show that the lateral roots of ferine R. annae have complex structure, were enwrap by dense hypase to form hyphal sheath on the outside of the roots and there was no root hair; There wtre intracellular hyphal knots which are the unique and typical structure of ericoid mycorrhiza, there also were a few septate hypha and fasciculate hyphae structure. Wild plant infection index was higher, the indexes differences of the infected roots in different regions were remarkable, the indexes of Luchonghuang mycorrhiza of adult flowering plant were higher than Fangjiaping's; In different seasons, the rates in spring were higher than that in summer; The indexes of flowering adult tree were obviously less than that young tree. Sowing seedlings' index was lower. The infection indexes of 2-year-old sowing seedlings showed a rising trend compared with that of 1-year-old.%采用酸性品红染色法对贵州不同地域分布的桃叶杜鹃根系染色压片,对其菌根进行显微结构及菌根侵染情况观察.结果表明,野生桃叶杜鹃菌根结构复杂,根外被密集的菌丝包被形成菌丝鞘,无根毛,在菌根中具有杜鹃花类菌根特有典型结构菌丝结,也有穿梭于细胞间的有隔菌丝和束状菌丝等结构.野生植株菌根侵染指标较高;不同地域的菌根侵染指标差异显著,贵阳鹿冲关成年开花植株高于百里杜鹃方家坪成年开花植株;不同季节侵染指标两地春季高于夏季.分布于百里杜鹃的开花成年树侵染指标明显低于幼树.播种苗侵染指标较低,2a播种苗侵染指标较1a呈上升趋势.

  14. Hummingbirds and the plants they visit in the Tehuacán-Cuicatlán Biosphere Reserve, Mexico Colibríes y las plantas que visitan en la Reseva de la Biosfera Tehuacán-Cuicatlán, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Ortiz-Pulido

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe the relative abundance, plant species visited, and plant communities used by hummingbird species inhabiting the Tehuacán-Cuicatlán Biosphere Reserve, a semiarid area in South-central Mexico. We recorded 14 hummingbird species and 35 plant species distributed in 4 plant communities during our study. We found 86 different hummingbird-plant interactions. Amazilia violiceps and Cynanthus latirostris were the most common hummingbirds, while C. latirostris, A. violiceps, and Cynanthus sordidus were the hummingbirds that visited more plant species. Hummingbirds were distributed differentially between plant communities inside the reserve, with 12 species being present in the arboreal plant community of the lowlands, 11 both in cactus forest and perennial spine shrub plants, and 6 in perennial unarmed shrub plants. Cercidium praecox (Fabaceae was the plant species with the highest number of visiting hummingbird species (10 species. Cactus forest and perennial spine shrub plants were the plant communities with largest number of possible interactions (57 and 51, respectively. The mean connectance value of the interaction matrix was similar between plant communities (near to 22%, but lower than those reported previously in other places. In the Tehuacán-Cuicatlán Biosphere Reserve the hummingbird-plant interaction system will be preserved if the hummingbirds C. latirostris, A. violiceps, C. sordidus, and L. clemenciae, and the plants C. praecox, I. arborescens, E. chiotilla, and N. glauca, are protected.Describimos la abundancia relativa, especies de plantas visitadas y tipos de vegetación utilizados por los colibríes de la Reserva de la Biosfera Tehuacán-Cuicatlán, México. Durante nuestro de estudio registramos 14 especies de colibríes y 35 especies de plantas utilizadas por ellos dentro de cuatro tipos de vegetación, representando 86 diferentes interacciones colibrí-planta. Amazilia violiceps y Cynanthus latirostris fueron los

  15. Von der Bezeugung zur narrativen Vergegenwärtigung. Fokalisierung im Reisebuch des Syrers Ḥanna Dyāb (1764

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Stephan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Travelogues involve different truth claims, depending on whether their authors attempt on the one hand to convey received knowledge about entities and places, or on the other hand, present accounts of the traveler character’s own experiences. This study focuses on a travelogue from 1764 written by the Arabian Nights’ Syrian storyteller, Ḥanna Dyāb. Having written his travelogue more than 50 years after his trip to Paris, he evidently conceived of his narrative as a means to re-enact his experiences as a young traveler. To describe his particular self-staging in this autodiegetic narration “before fiction” (Paige 2011, I argue that an understanding of focalization as a graded visual mediation between the character’s inner life and the reader is needed. This approach helps one grasp how, with reference to Dyāb’s travelogue, truth is not something the traveler witnesses, but rather something the reader is invited to realize. I conclude that, with this shift from witnessing to visualization (Vergegenwärtigung, Dyāb’s travelogue fulfills a core function of literature.

  16. Ultrasonic Phased Array Assessment of the Interference Fit and Leak Path of the North Anna Unit 2 Control Rod Drive Mechanism Nozzle 63 with Destructive Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, Susan L.; Cinson, Anthony D.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Hanson, Brady D.; Mathews, Royce

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the efficacy of ultrasonic testing (UT) for primary water leak path assessments of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) upper head penetrations. Operating reactors have experienced leakage when stress corrosion cracking of nickel-based alloy penetrations allowed primary water into the annulus of the interference fit between the penetration and the low-alloy steel RPV head. In this investigation, UT leak path data were acquired for an Alloy 600 control rod drive mechanism nozzle penetration, referred to as Nozzle 63, which was removed from the North Anna Unit 2 reactor when the RPV head was replaced in 2002. In-service inspection prior to the head replacement indicated that Nozzle 63 had a probable leakage path through the interference fit region. Nozzle 63 was examined using a phased-array UT probe with a 5.0-MHz, eight-element annular array. Immersion data were acquired from the nozzle inner diameter surface. The UT data were interpreted by comparing to responses measured on a mockup penetration with known features. Following acquisition of the UT data, Nozzle 63 was destructively examined to determine if the features identified in the UT examination, including leakage paths and crystalline boric acid deposits, could be visually confirmed. Additional measurements of boric acid deposit thickness and low-alloy steel wastage were made to assess how these factors affect the UT response. The implications of these findings for interpreting UT leak path data are described.

  17. Infantile anorexia, co-excitation and co-mastery in the parent/baby cathexis: The contribution of Sigmund and Anna Freud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascales, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Recent epidemiological studies show that 2% of babies in ordinary paediatric clinics suffer from infantile anorexia. In the first part of this paper we present a case study from our hospital clinical activity. Our framework combines clinical psychoanalytic sessions and perinatal videos. In the second part, we will focus on the concepts of instinct and excitation proposed by Sigmund Freud and the concept of mastery proposed by Anna Freud. In the third part, we will examine these concepts in the light of the case study. The fourth part is devoted to clinical recommendations from our hospital psychoanalytic practice. In conclusion, unlike other clinical settings, the psychoanalytic setting allows for the elaboration of the parental hatred included in the libidinal cathexis. Our psychoanalytic setting (sessions/videos) makes it possible to decontaminate parental intrapsychic elements overloaded with excitement, saturated with hate elements, and rendered sterile by the instinct for mastery. An initial part of the treatment process involves working through the intersubjective elements observed in the video. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  18. 简论安娜·卡列尼娜与托尔斯泰的妇女观%Anna Karenina and Tolstoy's View on Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施一蓓

    2011-01-01

    对于托尔斯泰的妇女观,人们历来过分强调它保守落后的一面,漠视其应有的积极意义。安娜.卡列尼娜的独特性为我们理解他的妇女观提供了一个全新的视角。同时,也体现了托尔斯泰妇女观的矛盾性和他在思想上的艰难探索与突破。%As for Tolstoy's view on woman,people paid too much attention to his conservative aspect instead of his active one.The uniqueness of Anna Karenina provides us with a new angle to understand his ideas about the woman and it shows the contradictory of his view on woman and indicates the difficulties for Tolstoy to change his ideas in some problems.

  19. When hummingbirds are the thieves: visitation effect on the reproduction of Neotropical snowbell Styrax ferrugineus Nees & Mart (Styracaceae Quando os beija-flores são os ladrões: efeito da visitação na reprodução de uma planta Neotropical Styrax ferrugineus Nees & Mart (Styracaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Kiyoshi Maruyama

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum of floral visitors associated with a particular plant is frequently larger than predicted by the traditional concept of floral syndromes and the role that unpredicted visitors play in plant reproduction deserves attention. Hummingbirds are frequently recorded visiting flowers with distinct floral syndromes, especially in some hummingbird flower poor ecosystem such as the Cerrado. In this study we investigated the effect of frequent hummingbird visits on the reproduction of melittophilous Styrax ferrugineus. The flowers were visited by many different insect groups and visits by hummingbirds were frequent, especially early in the morning when nectar availability was higher. Nectar parameters varied considerably during the flower life span, and was probably affected by the temperature variation during the day. Hummingbird exclusion experiments showed no effect in the fruit-set of the plant. The inability of hummingbirds to deplete all of the nectar produced in this mass-flowering plant, and the existence of another resource (pollen for the primary pollinator (large bees, are possible reasons why there was no perceptible hindrance of plant reproduction by the hummingbirds. Although no effect in the fruit-set was observed, the use of non-ornithophilous flowers must be important for hummingbirds, which are specialized nectar consumers.O espectro de visitantes florais associados a uma planta é frequentemente maior que o esperado pelo conceito tradicional de síndromes florais e o papel desses visitantes inesperados tem recebido mais atenção. Os beija-flores freqüentemente visitam flores com síndromes florais distintas, especialmente em alguns ecossistemas pobre em flores ornitófilas como o Cerrado. Investigamos aqui o efeito das visitas de beija-flores na reprodução de Styrax ferrugineus, uma espécie melitófila. As flores foram visitadas por diferentes grupos de insetos e as visitas por beija-flores foram frequentes

  20. The Power of The Scarlet Letter: An Exploration of Causes for Anna Karenina's Tragedy%“红字”的力量:安娜悲剧成因探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    储诚意

    2012-01-01

    The tragedy of Anna Karenina had been attributed to external causes: the hypocrisy and coldness of her husband Karenin,her being teased and abandoned by her lover Vronsky and the ruthless persecution of high society.In fact,what makes Anna kill herself on the railway is the "scarlet letter" in her-moral consciousness and conscientious awareness.In her struggle of soul and body,Anna finally gives way to the pain of moral consciousness and the torture of conscientious awareness.Her suicide is a self-conscious choice.There is something more important than love in the world,that is,sense of sin and guilt.%安娜的悲剧,以往学界都归结为外在原因:一是丈夫卡列宁的虚伪与冷酷;二是情人伏伦斯基的戏弄与抛弃;三是上流社会的无情迫害。其实不然,真正促使安娜卧轨自杀的是她背负的"红字"——内心道德的自觉,良知的觉悟。在灵与肉的搏斗中,安娜最终不堪忍受道德自觉的痛苦,良知觉悟的折磨。她卧轨是一种自觉的选择:世界上有比爱情更重要的,是罪孽、负罪感。

  1. Unique Long Poem---on Anna Akhmatova’s Requiem%独特的“长诗”--也谈阿赫玛托娃的《安魂曲》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾思艺

    2016-01-01

    Requiem is one of the representative poems of Anna Akhmatova in her later years.The uniqueness of this long poem lies in: length and genre; writinga nd publication; thought and content;structure and technique.%《安魂曲》是阿赫玛托娃晚年诗歌的代表作之一,是一首独特的长诗:篇幅与体裁独特,写作与发表独特,思想与内容独特,结构与手法独特。

  2. Maria Lisiewska and Anna Bujakiewicz – on the occasion of their 80th and 75th birthdays and the 60th anniversary of creating Poznań Mycocoenological School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ławrynowicz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Birthday anniversaries of excellent mycologists professor Maria Lisiewska (born 2 January 1934 and professor Anna Bujakiewicz (born 1 February 1940 are an occasion for dedicating them the jubilee issue of Acta Mycologica. Both ladies are known as authors of remarkable papers on mycocoenology, chorology and taxonomy of fungi. Specially appreciated is their educational activity in the form of courses and seminars opened for people from the whole country. The entity of their work resulted with the creation of Poznań Mycocoenological School and was important for integration of Polish mycologists, which later contributed to establishing the Polish Mycological Society.

  3. Em defesa da imagem do Brasil no exterior: Frederico José de Santa-Anna Nery e a escrita da história da educação no Império

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Gonçalves Vidal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A escrita da história da educação no Brasil mobilizou diferentes sujeitos e respondeu a distintos objetivos desde as últimas décadas do século XIX, quando se registram as primeiras iniciativas do gênero. Recentemente, a decifração dessas interpretações tem agenciado pesquisadores do campo, interessados em compreender os modos como se foi configurando a produção historiográfico-educativa brasileira. Fernando de Azevedo talvez seja o intelectual mais visitado por essa comunidade. Outros autores, no entanto, ficaram esquecidos. Frederico José de Santa-Anna Nery, que sonhou com uma civilização dos trópicos e viveu a maior parte de sua vida na Europa, foi um deles. Com o intuito de trazer à cena esse personagem e tensionar a escrita da história da educação, recorrendo a análises elaboradas no período imperial, pretendo, neste artigo, abordar a produção de Santa-Anna Nery a partir de duas problemáticas (a comparação e a estatística e do enfoque no ensino primário.

  4. Exploring the Secrets of Dream —— Anna Karenina%探寻梦的深处那些不为人知的秘密——浅谈《安娜·卡列尼娜》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于大海

    2012-01-01

      Dream not only is a mental activity, but also connects closely to literature. The study of the dreams of the character in literature contributes a more thorough understanding of the character’s personality and the author’s inner world. This article will analyze the dream of Anna in Anna Karenina based on the features of her dream and the connection between dreams and literature.%  梦是人的一种心理活动。梦与文学作品同样也有着密切联系,通过作品中人物的梦,可以更透彻的了解作品中人物的性格以及作者的内心世界。本文从作品中主人公梦的基本特征以及梦与文学之间的内在联系,对《安娜·卡列尼娜》中安娜的梦进行分析解读。

  5. Clinical Holistic Medicine: The Case Story of Anna. I. Long-Term Effect of Childhood Sexual Abuse and Incest with a Treatment Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The nervous breakdown of a 22-year-old, young woman was caused by severe sexual abuse in childhood, which was repressed over many years. During therapy, the patient accumulated resources to start the painful integration of these old traumas. Using holistic existential therapy in accordance with the life mission theory and the holistic process theory of healing, she finally was able to confront her old traumas and heal her existence. She seemingly recovered completely (including regaining full emotional range through holistic existential therapy, individually and in a group. The therapy took 18 months and more than 100 hours of intensive therapy. In the beginning of the therapy, the issues were her physical and mental health; in the middle of the therapy, the central issue was her purpose of life and her love life; and at the conclusion of the therapy, the issue was gender and sexuality. The strategy was to build up her strength for several months, mobilizing hidden resources and motivation for living, before the old traumas could be confronted and integrated. The therapy was based on quality of life philosophy, on the life mission theory, the theory of ego, the theory of talent, the theory of the evil side of man, the theory of human character, and the holistic process theory of healing. The clinical procedures included conversation, philosophical training, group therapeutic tools, extended use of therapeutic touch, holistic pelvic examination, and acceptance through touch was used to integrate the early traumas bound to the pelvis and scar tissue in the sexual organs. She was processed according to 10 levels of the advanced toolbox for holistic medicine and the general plan for clinical holistic psychiatry. The emotional steps she went through are well described by the scale of existential responsibility. The case story of Anna is an example of how even the most severely ill patient can recover fully with the support of holistic medical

  6. Eiríkur Bergmann Einarsson: Opið land: Staða Íslands í samfélagi þjóðanna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnús Árni Magnússon

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Opið land, staða Íslands í samfélagi þjóðanna, eftir Eirík Bergmann Einarsson kom út á vegum bókaforlagsins Skruddu á vormánuðum 2007. Eiríkur er forstöðumaður Evrópufræðaseturs á Bifröst og dósent í stjórnmálafræði við félagsvísindadeild skólans. Hann hefur í á annan áratug fjallað um Evrópumál - og ekki síður þjóðmál - á opinberum vettvangi, sem pistlahöfundur í dagblöðum og tímaritum, sem álitsgjafi í fréttum, sem talsmaður Evrópusambandsins á Íslandi, (en Eiríkur er einn fárra Íslendinga sem hafa starfað fyrir það, svo og bæði sem stjórnmálamaður (Eiríkur var varaþingmaður Samfylkingarinnar kjörtímabilið 2003-2007 og sem fræðimaður. Opið land er fjórða bók höfundar, en fyrri bækur eru Ísland í Evrópu, Evrópuúttekt Samfylkingarinnar 2001, sem Eiríkur ritstýrði, Evrópusamruninn og Ísland, sem kom út á vegum Háskólaútgáfunnar 2003 og Glapræði, sem er skáldsaga og kom út á vegum áðurnefndrar Skruddu 2005.

  7. Monitoring breeding and migration of neotropical migratory birds at Point Loma, San Diego County, California, 5-year summary, 2011–15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Suellen; Madden, Melanie C.; Kus, Barbara E.

    2017-04-27

    species of conservation concern. Two of these species, Vireo bellii pusillus (least Bell’s vireo) and Empidonax traillii (willow flycatcher) are listed as State and (or) federally threatened or endangered.Except for Archilochus alexandri (black-chinned hummingbird) and Setophaga occidentalis (hermit warbler), which arrived later during the migratory season in latter years of our study, median arrival dates for migratory species tended to be earlier each year or did not change across 5 years. Of the five most common migratory species, white-crowned sparrow and rufous hummingbird arrived earlier in latter years of the study, but Pacific-slope flycatcher, warbling vireo, and Wilson’s warbler median arrival dates were variable and showed no trend.We captured 1,680 individuals of 66 species during the MAPS/breeding season (May through August) across the 5 years of our study, 72 percent (1,211) of which were newly banded, 10 percent (167) of which were recaptures, and 18 percent (302 hummingbirds and other birds that escaped prior to banding) of which we released unbanded. Bird capture rate averaged 0.65 ± 0.21 captures per net-hour (range 0.12–2.54). Species richness per day ranged from 9.80 ± 5.01 to 14.20 ± 4.57. Calypte anna (Anna’s hummingbird) was the most abundant breeding species captured, followed by Oreothlypis celata (orange-crowned warbler), Psaltriparus minimus (bushtit), Pipilo maculatus (spotted towhee), Thryomanes bewickii (Bewick’s wren), Melozone crissalis (California towhee), and Chamaea fasciata (wrentit). Fifty-one percent of known-sex captures were female, and 49 percent were male. Thirty-one percent of known-age captures were juveniles.Populations of bushtits and orange-crowned warbler decreased significantly over 5 years. Anna’s hummingbird abundance was high for 4 years, and then decreased in 2015. Bewick’s wren and wrentit populations were highest in 2015. There was no obvious pattern in spotted towhee and California towhee abundance

  8. Karikatura i meditatsija / Anna Litvinjuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Litvinjuk, Anna

    2003-01-01

    Aserbaidžaani kunstniku Rashid Sherifi tööde näitus Tallinnas Kodulinna Majas. Enne seda eksponeeriti Sherifi töid Ugala teatris, kus ta oli näidendi "Dekameron" külaliskunstnikuks. Kunstnik oma töödest

  9. Podcast - Interview with Anna Sfard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    During the 14th - 17th of November PhD Students and researchers from e-learning lab attended a PhD course called "Perspectives on Identity in Learning and Education Research". This course was co-organised by three local doctoral schools; The International Doctoral school of Technology and Science...

  10. Bez strahhovki nikuda / Anna Litvinjuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Litvinjuk, Anna

    2006-01-01

    Eestis elamisloaga elavate kolmandate riikide kodanikud peavad Lätti ja Leetu sõites muretsema täiendava tervisekindlustuse tõendi. Samuti soovitab haigekassa muretseda kindlustuse Eesti kodanikel, kel kavas reisida Euroopas. Lühiülevaade haigekaasa poolt 2005. aastal välja makstud hüvitistest ja Euroopa ravikindlustuskaartide väljastamisest

  11. Peizazh v oprave / Anna Litvinjuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Litvinjuk, Anna

    2004-01-01

    Vene Draamateatri galerii avas teatri remondi tõttu hooaja juveelikeskuses Bindes Tartu mnt. 10. Maalinäitusel "Peizazh" osaleb 15 eesti kunstnikku. Nendest on mainitud V. Laur, V. Inkatov, S. Semerikov, A. Strahhov, E. Zentshik ja M. Leis. Avamisel näitas moekunstnik D. Denissova oma uut suvekollektsiooni

  12. Peizazh v oprave / Anna Litvinjuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Litvinjuk, Anna

    2004-01-01

    Vene Draamateatri galerii avas teatri remondi tõttu hooaja juveelikeskuses Bindes Tartu mnt. 10. Maalinäitusel "Peizazh" osaleb 15 eesti kunstnikku. Nendest on mainitud V. Laur, V. Inkatov, S. Semerikov, A. Strahhov, E. Zentshik ja M. Leis. Avamisel näitas moekunstnik D. Denissova oma uut suvekollektsiooni

  13. Jaht ei anna ainelist tulu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2013-01-01

    Jahimeeste selts andis 1924. a välja Jahimeeste käsiraamatu, mille autor M. Treumann muu hulgas kirjeldab jahimeheks olemise eripärasid ja pakub välja, kellel tema arvates ei tasu mõtelda jahimeheks hakkamisest

  14. Podcast - Interview with Anna Sfard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    During the 14th - 17th of November PhD Students and researchers from e-learning lab attended a PhD course called "Perspectives on Identity in Learning and Education Research". This course was co-organised by three local doctoral schools; The International Doctoral school of Technology and Science...

  15. Dostojevski bez nakipi / Anna Moleva

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Moleva, Anna

    2002-01-01

    Fjodor Dostojevski romaani "Idioot" järgi filmitud 10-osalise samanimelise Venemaa draamaseriaali valmimisest : režissöör Vladimir Bortko. Oma arvamust avaldavad produtsent Valeri Todorovski, näitlejad Oleg Basilashvili, Vladimir Mashkov, Jevgeni Mironov, Andrei Smirnov, Mihhail Bojarski, Maria Kisseljova, Sasha Lazarev

  16. Evaluación del uso de señales visuales y de localización por el colibrí cola-ancha (Selasphorus platycercus al visitar flores de Penstemon roseus Evaluation of the use of visual and location cues by the Broad-tailed hummingbird (Selasphorus platycercusforaging in flowers of Penstemon roseus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Pérez

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available En los colibríes la memoria espacial desempeña un papel importante durante el forrajeo. Éste se basa en el uso de señales específicas (visuales o en señales espaciales (localización de flores y plantas con néctar. Sin embargo, el uso de estas señales por los colibríes puede variar de acuerdo con la escala espacial que enfrentan cuando visitan flores de una o más plantas durante el forrajeo; ésto se puso a prueba con individuos del colibrí cola-ancha Selasphorus platycercus. Por otro lado, para evaluar la posible variación en el uso de las señales, se llevaron a cabo experimentos en condiciones semi-naturales utilizando flores de la planta Penstemon roseus, nativa del sitio de estudio. A través de la manipulación de la presencia/ausencia de una recompensa (néctar y señales visuales, evaluamos el uso de la memoria espacial durante el forrajeo entre 2 plantas (experimento 1 y dentro de una sola planta (experimento 2. Los resultados demostraron que los colibríes utilizaron la memoria de localización de la planta de cuyas flores obtuvieron recompensa, independientemente de la presencia de señales visuales. Por el contrario, en flores individuales de una sola planta, después de un corto periodo de aprendizaje los colibríes pueden utilizar las señales visuales para guiar su forrajeo y discriminar las flores sin recompensa. Asimismo, en ausencia de señales visuales los individuos basaron su forrajeo en la memoria de localización de la flor con recompensa visitada previamente. Estos resultados sugieren plasticidad en el comportamiento de forrajeo de los colibríes influenciada por la escala espacial y por la información adquirida en visitas previas.In hummingbirds spatial memory plays an important role during foraging. It is based in use of specific cues (visual or spatial cues (location of flowers and plants with nectar. However, use of these cues by hummingbirds may change according to the spatial scale they face when visit

  17. Dietary protein and carbohydrate affect feeding behavior and metabolic regulation in hummingbirds (Melanotrochilus fuscus Las proteínas y carbohidratos dietarios afectan la conducta de alimentación y la regulación metabólica en picaflores (Melanotrochilus fuscus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLAVIA P. ZANOTTO

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to link hummingbird feeding behavior with metabolic regulation and in addition to assess whether dietary composition would affect entrance into torpor. Hummingbirds were fed a combination of diets with contrasting amounts of protein and carbohydrate. The diets were composed of the following: 2.4 % protein (P - 12 % sucrose (S and 0.8 % protein (P - 36 % sucrose (S. The main findings showed that periods of feeding on each of the diets could be distinguished as separate bouts or feeding events. Hummingbirds presented to high protein-low carbohydrate diets (2.4P-12S ingested a larger volume of diet, fed for longer (both around 1.7x and increased the interval between feedings compared with hummingbirds fed diets 0.8P-36S. Physiological regulation between feeding events, on the other hand, was achieved through an increase in metabolic rate for low protein-high sugar diets (0.8P-36S. This response could probably be related to high sucrose assimilation rates through the digestive system of hummingbirds, a process already known to be very efficient in these birds. Additionally, there was a steeper decrease in oxygen consumption for hummingbirds fed diets 2.4P-12S during fasting and a suggestion of a higher torpor incidence in birds fed these dietsEl objetivo de este trabajo fue unir la conducta de alimentación de picaflores con su regulación metabólica y además determinar como la composición dietaria podría afectar la entrada en sopor. Los picaflores fueron alimentados con una combinación de dietas con cantidades contrastantes de proteínas y carbohidratos. La composición dietaria fue: 2,4 % proteína (P - 12 % sacarosa (S y 0.8 % proteína (P - 36 % (sacarosa (S. Se observó que para cada dieta, los períodos de alimentación se pueden distinguir como eventos separados de alimentación. Cuando se enfrentan a dietas de alta proteína-bajo carbohidratos (2,4P-12S, los picaflores ingieren grandes volúmenes de

  18. Evaluation of HCMM satellite data for estuarine tidal circulation patterns and thermal inertia soil moisture measurements. [Delaware Bay, Cooper River, and the Potomac River estuaries; Luverne, Minnesota, soil moisture, and water temperature of Lake Anna, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesnet, D. R.; Mcginnis, D. F., Jr. (Principal Investigator); Matson, M.; Pritchard, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    Digital thermal maps of the Cooper River (SC) and the Potomac River estuaries were prepared from heat capacity mapping radiometer (HCMR) tapes. Tidal phases were correctly interpreted and verified. Synoptic surface circulation patterns were charted by location thermal fronts and water mass boundaries within the estuaries. Thermal anomalies were detected adjacent of a conventional power plant on the Potomac. Under optimum conditions, estuaries as small as the Cooper River can be monitored for generalized thermal/tidal circulation patterns by the HCMM-type IR sensors. The HCMM thermal inertia approach to estimating soil moisture at the Luverne (MN) test site was found to be unsatisfactory as a NESS operational satellite technique because of cloud cover interference. Thermal-IR data show similar structure of the Baltimore and Washington heat islands when compared to NOAA AVHRR thermal-IR data. Thermal anomalies from the warm water discharge water of a nuclear power plant were mapped in Lake Anna, Virginia.

  19. “Joannes Stradanus faciebat”: un dibujo preparatorio para el grabado de la pala de altar de S. Anna in Giolica di Prato en la colección de la Biblioteca Nacional de España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pezzuto, Luca

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Virgin and Child with Saint Anne, Saint Augustin and Saint Nicholas of Tolentino, an unpublished drawing in the Biblioteca Nacional of Spain is by Johannes Stradanus. It served as a model for the print based on the painting still preserved in the church of St. Anne in Giolica in Prato.El dibujo que representa a Santa Ana Metterza con San Nicolás de Tolentino y San Agustín conservado en la Biblioteca Nacional de España es obra inédita del pintor flamenco Jan Var der Straet y una de las pruebas definitivas del cuadro existente en el altar mayor de la iglesia de Santa Anna in Giolica en Prato.

  20. 安娜·休厄尔《黑骏马》的生态解读%An Eco-critical Reading on Anna Sewell’s Black Beauty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐玉娟

    2015-01-01

    《黑骏马》出版于1877年,是安娜·休厄尔唯一的一部作品。一匹名为“黑骏马”的马驹以第一人称叙述的方式讲述了自身的经历。它经历了在伦敦艰难的拉车生活,饱尝人间冷暖后,最后有幸回归到恬静淡然的乡村生活。作品通过分析黑骏马在不同主人家里的经历,揭示了深刻的生态观点,也反映了安娜·休厄尔对19世纪末动物福利的一些前瞻性思考。%Black Beauty was published in 1877,the only work by Anna Sewell.It is about the story of a horse named Black Beauty in the first person narrative way about their own experiences.It underwent the hardship as a cab horse in London.After this,Black Beauty returned to the quiet life fortunately.An analysis of Black Beauty’s experience in different owners’home indicates the deep eco-critical viewpoint,and the work reflects Anna Sewell’s prospective thinking about the animals’welfare in the end of 19th century.

  1. 从精神分析的角度解读《金色笔记》中安娜的分裂与整合%Interpretation of Anna's Division and Integration in"The Golden Notebook"from the Perspective of Spirit Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁丽影

    2015-01-01

    Doris Lessing won Nobel Prize in Literature in 2007, Her book,"The Golden Notebook"tells the heroine Anna experi-enced political, writing, and other emotional difficulties, this paper will focus on the spiritual mistress Anna from fragmented per-sonality to the final realization of spiritual integration process, in-depth analysis of Anna schizophrenic symptoms, and causes of mental breakdown Anna, Anna finally complete regression of personality. In this paper, by analyzing the heroine Anna lost from split personality to return to a normal life of self in the process, further interpretation of the people lose even lose yourself in the es-sence of the social environment to guide and encourage people to overcome hurdles to achieve new self.%多丽丝·莱辛曾在2007年获得诺贝尔文学奖,其著作《金色笔记》讲述了女主人公安娜所经历的政治、写作、感情等困境,本文将围绕女主人安娜在精神上从四分五裂的人格到最后实现精神上的整合这一过程,深入分析安娜精神分裂的现象,以及造成安娜精神崩溃的原因,到最后安娜完整人格的回归。本论文通过分析女主人公安娜从迷失人格的分裂到回归自我走向正常生活的这一过程,进一步诠释出人们在当时的社会环境下迷失甚至失去自我的实质,从而引导鼓励人们冲破重重障碍实现新的自我。

  2. Relación entre el estilo familiar y el aprendizaje de los niños/as del segundo de básica “A” de la unidad educativa bilingüe “Anna Eleanor Roosevelt”

    OpenAIRE

    Rivera Pérez, Pamela Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Children's learning is a fundamental responsibility of the family, but nowadays this responsibility is delegated completely to the school, disassociating the parents of this process. That is why this research seeks to analyze the relationship between a family’s lifestyle and children’s learning of Second grade Primary School "A" at the Educational Unit Anna Eleonor Roosevelt in Capelo, Pichincha. One seeks to identify the type of family and how this one influences the developme...

  3. Producción del manzano (Malus sp. cv Anna en el oriente Antioqueño con la abeja melífera, Apis mellifera L. (hymenoptera: apidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botero Garcés Natalia

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available La necesidad de diversificar cultivos ha marcado el comienzo de otras alternativas agronómicas en nuestro país tales como la producción de manzano. Hace unos 6 años se inició en Colombia la plantación de cultivares comerciales mejorados de cuya biología y necesidades poco se sabe. Se planteó un estudio sobre la influencia de la polinización entomófila en la producción de manzana Anna. El trabajo se desarrolló en un cultivo de manzano en el Municipio del Carmen de Viboral (Oriente Antioqueño, correspondiente a la zona de vida bosque húmedo montano bajo (bh-MB, con temperatura promedio anual de 14-24°C, altura de 2200 msnm y precipitación promedio anual de 1800 mm. Se propuso estimar el efecto de los insectos polinizadores en la producción, comparando ésta en ramas enjauladas excluidas de todos los visitantes florales, con la de ramas expuestas a éstos durante la floración, en árboles escogidos al azar. Se encontró que las ramas que habían sido visitadas por insectos producían significativamente más manzanas (t = 2,95, para t0.05 con 18 g.l., con mayor pesos (t=2,21, para t0.05 con 18 g.l. y mayor número de semillas (t=3.75, para t0.05 con 18 g.l., que ramas sin acceso de visitantes florales. Una medición de índices de diversidad mostró que la abeja melífera (Apis mellifera L. constituyó el 76% de los visitantes florales y que la diversidad fue muy baja (λ=0.7439. Se concluyó que el manzano Anna requiere polinización entomófila, que la abeja melífera fue el polinizador más importante y que se incrementó significativamente la producción de frutos bajo la influencia de esta especie de abeja. Se recomienda la introducción al cultivo de Apis mellifera al momento de la floración, para garantizar una producción adecuada.

  4. LA CALIDAD DE LAS PRÁCTICAS AGRÍCOLAS EN EL PROCESO DE TRANSFORMACIÓN A LA AGRICULTURA ECOLÓGICA EN ENGUERA Y ANNA (COMUNIDAD VALENCIANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Peris Mendoza

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Las transformaciones agronómicas necesarias para sustituir las técnicas convencionales por las ecológicas conllevan un periodo de reconversión. En este trabajo proponemos un método para establecer este periodo que se valora a partir de la calidad de las prácticas agrícolas, información recabada de encuestas realizadas a agricultores. En las encuestas se recogen datos, cualitativos y cuantitativos, sobre el tipo de cultivo, la aplicación de insumos, considerando dosis y peligrosidad de fertilizantes y pesticidas, y las características de las prácticas agrícolas. Una vez evaluados los resultados se elabora un índice que determina la mayor o menor dificultad para la transformación a la agricultura ecológica. Este método se ha aplicado en 75 parcelas de Enguera y Anna, analizando, en 49 de ellas, las características físicas y químicas de los suelos.

  5. “L’arte differente: MOCAK al MAXXI”. Mostra a cura di Anna Maria Potocka, Roma, MAXXI - Museo nazionale delle arti del XXI secolo, 7 dicembre 2016 – 22 gennaio 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Smigiel

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Il presente testo è una recensione della mostra "L'arte differente: MOCAK al MAXXI" ospitata presso il Museo Nazionale delle Arti del XXI Secolo di Roma tra il 7 dicembre 2016 e il 22 gennaio 2017. Questo evento d’arte fa parte del grande progetto del MAXXI, intitolato " Expanding the Horizon". L’obbiettivo è quello di presentare le collezioni provenienti da diverse istituzioni al fine di dare l'opportunità ai visitatori italiani e internazionali di entrare in contatto diretto con le diverse realtà culturali ed artistiche. La mostra è dedicata alla collezione del MOCAK (Museo d'Arte Contemporanea di Cracovia, della quale numerose opere mostrano la storia e lo stato attuale dell'arte contemporanea in Polonia. Come ha evidenziato il curatore dell'evento e la direttrice del MOCAK, Anna Maria Potocka, non è solo una collezione di opere d'arte, ma piuttosto di idee. La presente recensione descrive alcune opere esposte e la loro accurata selezione che riflette la strategia curatoriale del museo cracoviano.

  6. 安娜·休厄尔《黑骏马》中的象征寓意研究%A Symbolic Study on Anna Sewell’s Black Beauty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐玉娟

    2016-01-01

    Black Beauty is the only work by English writer Anna Sewell of the nineteenth century I.t is about the story of a horse named Black Beauty .The work highlights the theme of harmony between human and nature .With careful reading Black Beauty ,some special meaning can be found from the names of hor‐ses and people .An analysis of the symbolic meaning of the names of horses and people can help understand the theme reflected in the work better .%《黑骏马》是19世纪英国女作家安娜·休厄尔唯一的一部作品。作品的主人公是一匹名为黑骊的骏马。小说用第一人称的方式讲述了黑骊的传奇经历,集中突出了人类和自然界需要和谐相处的主题。细读《黑骏马》,从中也能发现一些马匹和人物角色的名字被赋予了特殊含义。通过分析作品中作者精心选取的马匹名、人名的象征寓意,可以更好地理解作品的主题。

  7. 比较视野中的安娜与杜十娘悲剧成因探析%A Comparative Analysis of the Causes of the Tragedies of Anna and Du Shiniang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘迪

    2016-01-01

    Anna Karenina and Du Shiniang are both famous literary characters. The former is a young royal la-dy portrayed by Russian novelist Tolstoy; the latter is a prostitute portrayed by Feng Menglong of Ming Dynasty. The characters are from totally different backgrounds, but both suffer a lot in their pursuit of love. Finally, one of them dies under the wheels of a train, and the other becomes tragically obscure. They are from different countries and societies, but, the causes of their tragedies are somewhat similar.%安娜·卡列尼娜和杜十娘,都是为人熟知的文学经典形象,一个是俄国小说家托尔斯泰笔下的贵族少妇,一个是明代小说家冯梦龙刻画的风尘花魁。两人虽然出身不同,但都为了追求爱情历尽艰辛。最后,一个在呼啸的列车下丧生,一个被滚滚洪流吞没,她们虽处在不同的国家和社会,但是,造成她们悲剧的成因却有相似之处。

  8. Feeding behavior of hummingbirds and perching birds on Erythrina speciosa Andrews (Fabaceae flowers in an urban area, Londrina, Paraná, Brazil Comportamento alimentar de beija-flores e Passeriformes nas flores de Erytrhina speciosa Andrews (Fabaceae em uma área urbana de Londrina, Paraná, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Baza Mendonça

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Nine species of birds - seven hummingbirds (Trochilidae and two Passeriformes - were observed visiting the flowers of Erythrina speciosa Andrews (Fabaceae, a hummingbird-pollinated species present on the campus of Londrina State University, Paraná State, Brazil. Nectar in bagged flowers bore little relationship with nectar in flowers opened to foragers either regarding quantity or diurnal pattern of availability. Birds were more frequent early in the morning and their activity on flowers further declined, apparently following the pattern of nectar availability. The manner to which birds probed the flowers and, in consequence, their role on pollination were greatly determined by morphological traits and approaching behavior of birds. E. speciosa seemed best suited for pollination by long-billed hummingbirds but some short to medium-billed species may play some role on its pollination.Nove espécies de aves - sete beija-flores (Trochilidae e duas aves Passeriformes - foram observados visitando as flores de Erythrina speciosa Andrews (Fabaceae, uma espécie polinizada por beija-flores presente no campus da Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Paraná, Brasil. O néctar em flores ensacadas apresentou pouca relação com aquele em flores expostas aos visitantes, tanto em termos de quantidade como em temos de padrão diurno de disponibilidade. As aves foram mais freqüentes de manhã e sua atividade nas flores diminuiu no transcorrer do dia, coincidindo com o padrão de disponibilidade de néctar. O comportamento de visita das aves e, em conseqüência, sua atuação na polinização da espécie foram em grande parte determinadas por características morfológicas e comportamentais destas. E. speciosa parece ser adaptada para polinização por beija-flores de bicos longos, embora espécies com bicos de comprimento curto a médio possam ter algum papel em sua polinização.

  9. Nectar robbery by a hermit hummingbird

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maruyama, Pietro Kiyoshi; Vizentin-Bugoni, Jeferson; Dalsgaard, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between flowers and their visitors span the spectrum from mutualism to antagonism. The literature is rich in studies focusing on mutualism, but nectar robbery has mostly been investigated using phytocentric approaches focused on only a few plant species. To fill this gap, we studied ...

  10. Brodvei na gastroljah v Estonii / Anna Litvinjuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Litvinjuk, Anna

    2003-01-01

    26. apr. tähistab A. Ivashkevitshi stepptantsustuudio Duff-tap studio oma kümnendat tegevusaastat. Sel puhul on 26. ja 27. apr. Vene Draamateatris Jazz&Tapdance show, kuhu on kutsutud ka B. Duffy Ameerikast jt.

  11. Konstantin Habenski stanet Ostapom Benderom / Anna Veligzhanina

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Veligzhanina, Anna

    2004-01-01

    Proovivõtetest, mille tulemusena jagati rollid Ilfi ja Petrovi surematute raamatute "Kuldvasikas" ja "Kaksteist tooli" ekraniseeringutes läbi aegade. Praegu on valitud näitlejad Vene telekanali "Rossija" 12-osalise seriaali "Kuldvasikas" tootmiseks. Selle režissöör on Uljana Shilkina

  12. Novaja Margarita / Anna Kovaltshuk ; interv. Andrei Arhangelski

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kovaltshuk, Anna

    2004-01-01

    Vene telekanali "Rossija" jaoks alustati filmivõtteid teleseriaalile Mihhail Bulgakovi romaanist "Meister ja Margarita", mille režissööriks Vladimir Bortko. Näitlejanna mõtteid, kes mängib seriaalis Margaritat

  13. Estonski peizazh v japonskom stile / Anna Litvinjuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Litvinjuk, Anna

    2004-01-01

    Tallinna Valdeku gümnaasiumi siidimaalistuudio õpilaste tööde näituse "Shjolkovõje volshebnitsõ" avamisest. Näitus on Tallinnas Tervishoiumuuseumis kuni 22. oktoobrini. Stuudiot juhatab õpetaja Olga Ignatova

  14. Brodvei na gastroljah v Estonii / Anna Litvinjuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Litvinjuk, Anna

    2003-01-01

    26. apr. tähistab A. Ivashkevitshi stepptantsustuudio Duff-tap studio oma kümnendat tegevusaastat. Sel puhul on 26. ja 27. apr. Vene Draamateatris Jazz&Tapdance show, kuhu on kutsutud ka B. Duffy Ameerikast jt.

  15. VITSH vlijajet na moral / Anna Litvinjuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Litvinjuk, Anna

    2006-01-01

    Vestlusest Eesti Seksuaaltervise Liidu noorte reproduktiivtervise alase nõustamise ja sugulisel teel levivate haiguste ennetamise programmi juhi Tiia Perteliga, kes osales hiljuti Torontos toimunud AIDSI-teemalisel rahvusvahelisel konverentsil

  16. Moda zajavljajet o sebe / Anna Korjakina

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Korjakina, Anna

    2005-01-01

    Balti Moeföderatsiooni organiseeritud Riia moenädalast, kus oma töid demonstreerisid Läti, Eesti, Leedu, Venemaa ja Prantsusmaa moeloojad. Eestist Oksana Tandit ja Triinu Pungits. Pikemalt Masha Tsigali kollektsioonist (Venemaa)

  17. Moekunstniku katsetused kinolinal / Anna-Liisa Soomann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soomann, Anna-Liisa

    2007-01-01

    Taani moekunstniku Mads Nırgaardi filmidebüüt Kopenhaageni moenädalal. Film tutvustab kunstniku moekollektsiooni, kaasa teevad taani supermodellid Freja Beha ja Eddie Merz, muusika DJ Djuna Barnes'ilt

  18. Anna Wintour: The Truth behind the Bob

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloeppel, Tara

    2011-01-01

    While her occupation, and the stereotypes associated with running a fashion magazine, may not initially seem to be worthy of scholastic attention, careful study of Wintour's influence reveals insight into the rhetorical tactics penetrating fashion culture in America, and perhaps more broadly, pop culture in America.

  19. VITSH vlijajet na moral / Anna Litvinjuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Litvinjuk, Anna

    2006-01-01

    Vestlusest Eesti Seksuaaltervise Liidu noorte reproduktiivtervise alase nõustamise ja sugulisel teel levivate haiguste ennetamise programmi juhi Tiia Perteliga, kes osales hiljuti Torontos toimunud AIDSI-teemalisel rahvusvahelisel konverentsil

  20. Ljubov nebessnaja i zemnaja / Anna Moleva

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Moleva, Anna

    2002-01-01

    Venemaa teleseriaali "Vene amatsoonid" ("Russkije amazonki") võtteplatsil vastavad küsimustele režissöör Isaak Fridberg, näitlejad Leonid Jakubovitsh, Juozas Budraitis, Aleksei Krivtshenko ja Irina Rozanova

  1. Tri dnja - tri seminara / Anna Orshanskaja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Orshanskaja, Anna

    2004-01-01

    16.-19. juunini 2004 Narvas toimuvate Soome päevade raames korraldatakse kolm seminari: Soome ja Narva ajaloolistest suhetest, rahvusvahelisest koostööst tervishoiu alal ja sotsiaalsfääris, Narva piirkonna arenguvõimalustest Euroopa Liidus

  2. Vjatsheslav Tihhonov stanet bogom / Anna Veligzhanina

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Veligzhanina, Anna

    2006-01-01

    Vene režissöör Eldar Rjazanov teeb oma viimase filmi muinasjutuvestja Hans Christian Anderseni elust. Esialgne pealkiri on "Andersen. Fantazii na temu". Filmist ja näitleja Vjatsheslav Tihhonovi rollist

  3. The Interview with Anna Yakovlevna Chumakova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V. Martynova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The material concerns the period of 1920–1930s, describes the political, economic and social phenomena and processes of the period, such as the establishing of collective farms, the famine of the 1930s, anti-religious policy, Decossackization, etc., discloses the features of the Don Cossack’s everyday life.

  4. Mitmekeelsuse uurimise perspektiive Eestis / Anna Verschik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Verschik, Anna, 1968-

    2004-01-01

    Mitmekeelsuse uurimise kehva seisu põhjuste analüüs, mikrosotsiolingvistilise lähenemise vajaduse põhjendamine ning arutelu keelelise loovuse ja identiteetide konstrueerimise võimaluste teemadel.

  5. Trebujutsja Minin i Pozharski / Anna Hrustaljova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hrustaljova, Anna

    2004-01-01

    Vene filmifestival "Moskovskaja premjera" ja seal esile tõstetud filmid : "Shiza" ( režissöör Gulshad Omarova), "Pikk hüvastijätt" ("Dolgoje proshtshanije"), parima režissööri tiitli saanud Sergei Ursuljak)

  6. Indiana protiv KGB / Anna Fedina, Pjotr Obraztsov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Fedina, Anna

    2008-01-01

    Steven Spielbergi neljas Indiana Jones'i film Harrison Fordiga nimiosas "Indiana Jones ja kristallpealuu kuningriik" ("Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull") : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2008

  7. Zhertvõ "Strastei" / Anna Fedina

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Fedina, Anna

    2004-01-01

    Mel Gibsoni mängufilmi "Kristuse kannatused" ("The Passion of Christ") seanssidel on saanud infarkti juba kaks vaatajat ning mõrva üles tunnistanud üks kurjategija. Kiirabi oli valves ka Iirimaa esilinastuse ajal. Südame atakke on juhtunud ka Lars von Trieri filmide näitamise ajal

  8. Zhertvõ "Strastei" / Anna Fedina

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Fedina, Anna

    2004-01-01

    Mel Gibsoni mängufilmi "Kristuse kannatused" ("The Passion of Christ") seanssidel on saanud infarkti juba kaks vaatajat ning mõrva üles tunnistanud üks kurjategija. Kiirabi oli valves ka Iirimaa esilinastuse ajal. Südame atakke on juhtunud ka Lars von Trieri filmide näitamise ajal

  9. Ljubov nebessnaja i zemnaja / Anna Moleva

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Moleva, Anna

    2002-01-01

    Venemaa teleseriaali "Vene amatsoonid" ("Russkije amazonki") võtteplatsil vastavad küsimustele režissöör Isaak Fridberg, näitlejad Leonid Jakubovitsh, Juozas Budraitis, Aleksei Krivtshenko ja Irina Rozanova

  10. Anna Wintour: The Truth behind the Bob

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloeppel, Tara

    2011-01-01

    While her occupation, and the stereotypes associated with running a fashion magazine, may not initially seem to be worthy of scholastic attention, careful study of Wintour's influence reveals insight into the rhetorical tactics penetrating fashion culture in America, and perhaps more broadly, pop culture in America.

  11. Mitte sellist Euroopat / Anna-Greta Tsahkna

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tsahkna, Anna-Greta, 1980-

    2009-01-01

    IRL-i kandidaat Euroopa Parlamendi valimistel ütleb, et me peame ka edaspidi seisma nende väärtuste eest, mida oleme austanud. Kui "vana" Euroopa kipub neid väärtusi unustama, on meie kohus neid meelde tuletada

  12. Trebujutsja Minin i Pozharski / Anna Hrustaljova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hrustaljova, Anna

    2004-01-01

    Vene filmifestival "Moskovskaja premjera" ja seal esile tõstetud filmid : "Shiza" ( režissöör Gulshad Omarova), "Pikk hüvastijätt" ("Dolgoje proshtshanije"), parima režissööri tiitli saanud Sergei Ursuljak)

  13. Moda zajavljajet o sebe / Anna Korjakina

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Korjakina, Anna

    2005-01-01

    Balti Moeföderatsiooni organiseeritud Riia moenädalast, kus oma töid demonstreerisid Läti, Eesti, Leedu, Venemaa ja Prantsusmaa moeloojad. Eestist Oksana Tandit ja Triinu Pungits. Pikemalt Masha Tsigali kollektsioonist (Venemaa)

  14. Putin predlozhil Nikite rabotu / Anna Skvortsova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Skvortsova, Anna

    2001-01-01

    Moskva XXIII rahvusvahelise filmifestivali külaliseks olnud Hollywoodi kuulsused Jack Nicholson, Sean Penn ja mitmed teised tuntud vene ja välismaa filmiinimesed kohtusid Venemaa presidendi Vladimir Putiniga Nikita Mihhalkovi suvilas

  15. Moekunstniku katsetused kinolinal / Anna-Liisa Soomann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soomann, Anna-Liisa

    2007-01-01

    Taani moekunstniku Mads Nırgaardi filmidebüüt Kopenhaageni moenädalal. Film tutvustab kunstniku moekollektsiooni, kaasa teevad taani supermodellid Freja Beha ja Eddie Merz, muusika DJ Djuna Barnes'ilt

  16. Indiana protiv KGB / Anna Fedina, Pjotr Obraztsov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Fedina, Anna

    2008-01-01

    Steven Spielbergi neljas Indiana Jones'i film Harrison Fordiga nimiosas "Indiana Jones ja kristallpealuu kuningriik" ("Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull") : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2008

  17. Putin predlozhil Nikite rabotu / Anna Skvortsova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Skvortsova, Anna

    2001-01-01

    Moskva XXIII rahvusvahelise filmifestivali külaliseks olnud Hollywoodi kuulsused Jack Nicholson, Sean Penn ja mitmed teised tuntud vene ja välismaa filmiinimesed kohtusid Venemaa presidendi Vladimir Putiniga Nikita Mihhalkovi suvilas

  18. Beck Robert et Madoeuf Anna, Divertissements et loisirs dans les sociétés urbaines à l’époque moderne et contemporaine, Tours, Presses universitaires François Rabelais et Maison des Sciences de l’Homme, 2005, 410 p.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine Fourmaux

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Comment prend-on du bon temps dans les sociétés urbaines, à l’époque moderne et contemporaine ? Telle est la question à laquelle plus d’une vingtaine de chercheurs ont consacré leurs analyses, rassemblées dans cet ouvrage par Robert Beck et Anna Madoeuf à la suite du colloque international et pluridisciplinaire « Divertissements et loisirs dans les sociétés urbaines, une approche comparative monde occidental – monde musulman » qu’ils ont organisé à Tours en 2003. L’historien Alain Corbin l’a ...

  19. The Identification of Military Installations as Important Migratory Bird Stopover Sites and the Development of Bird Migration Forecast Models: A Radar Ornithology Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    30. Moore, F. R. 1994. Resumption of feeding under risk of predation: effect of migratory condition. Animal Behaviour 48:975-977. Moore, F. R. 1999...can be used to map geographical areas of high bird activity (e.g., stopover, roosting and feeding , and colonial breeding areas). It also provides... Raptors Unknown Abert’s Towhee American Avocet Broad-winged Hawk Unknown Accipiter Anna’s Hummingbird American Bittern Mississippi Kite Unknown

  20. Anna Mouglalis kõikide vastu / Anna Mouglalis ; intervjueerinud Guillermo Espinosa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mouglalis, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Prantsuse moekunstniku Coco Chaneli ja vene helilooja Igor Stravinki armuloost rääkivas filmis "Coco Chanel & Igor Stravinski" mängib peaosa Chaneli moemaja modell ja reklaaminägu. Intervjuus endast ja oma rollidest

  1. Anna Mouglalis kõikide vastu / Anna Mouglalis ; intervjueerinud Guillermo Espinosa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mouglalis, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Prantsuse moekunstniku Coco Chaneli ja vene helilooja Igor Stravinki armuloost rääkivas filmis "Coco Chanel & Igor Stravinski" mängib peaosa Chaneli moemaja modell ja reklaaminägu. Intervjuus endast ja oma rollidest

  2. 接种ERM真菌对桃叶杜鹃幼苗的促生效应及生理生化影响%Effects of Inoculation with ERM Fungi Isolates on the Growth and Physio-biochemical Properties of Rhododendron annae seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧静; 韦小丽; 何跃军; 刘仁阳; 陈训

    2013-01-01

    通过12个不同ERM真菌菌株接种2年生无菌实生桃叶杜鹃幼苗,研究接种对幼苗生长势与生物量的影响,分析ERM菌株对内源激素含量与氧化酶活性的变化.结果表明:接种显著提高桃叶杜鹃幼苗的苗高、地径、叶面积、主根长和生物量.接种苗苗高比对照增加29.47% ~ 73.68%,地径比对照增加11.16%~70.09%,总生物量比对照增长3.86%~61.22%;地上部分干质量增幅最高值为99.69%,地下部分干质量增幅最高值为27.27%.ERM菌株显著提高接种苗地上和地下部分吲哚乙酸(IAA)、赤霉素(GA3)、玉米素核苷(ZR)、脱落酸(ABA)含量和超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化物酶(POD)和过氧化氢酶(CAT)活性,降低了丙二醛(MDA)含量.ERM真菌可能是通过分泌激素或刺激植株分泌激素,几种激素物质的协调配合来促进桃叶杜鹃幼苗的生长.从综合接种效应来看,TY29,TY35,TY12,TY18,TY14和TY02是培育桃叶杜鹃菌根苗优良备选菌株.%Twelve ericoid mycorrhiza (ERM) fungal isolates were used to inoculate 2-year-old Rhododendron annae Franch.seedlings to study effects of the inoculations on the plant growth potential,biomass and endogenous hormones contents and enzyme activity.The results showed that the inoculations with ERM significantly increased height,diameter,leaf area,mainroot length and biomass of the seedlings.The height increased by 29.47%-73.68% than that control,and diameter increased by 11.16% ~70.09%.The total biomass increased by 3.86%-61.22%,of which the highest increase in shoot dry weight was 99.69%,and and the highest increase in underground part dry weight was 27.27%.The contents of indole acetic acid (IAA),gibberellin (GA3),zeatin riboside (ZR),abscisic acid (ABA) and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD),peroxidase (POD),catalase (CAT) in the inoculated seedlings with ERM were significantly higher than those in non-inoculated plants,while the

  3. The Markedness of an Oriental Woman as a Sign in the Chinese and Western Contexts---A Semiotic Study of the Early Chinese American Movie Star Anna May Wong%中西方文化语境与“东方”女性符号的标出性--论早期好莱坞华人影星黄柳霜

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任文

    2014-01-01

    Anna May Wong may still be one of the oriental women that the Western mainstream film circle is most familiar with.However people's perceptions about her both in China and in the West have been constantly changing during the nearly one hundred years since she first tried her hand at film at a young age. According to the semiotic point of view the markedness of a sign resulting from the asymmetry between two opposing cultures will evolve with the development of culture and may even encounter big flips.A semiotic analysis of Anna May Wong indicates that in the Western context the markedness of Wong as a symbol of oriental women experienced a strong-to-weak evolution whereas in China people flipped back and forth in their attitude towards this markedness.It is undeniable that today under the joint gaze of both China and the West Anna May Wong is becoming more and more appealing giving rise to a more objective and multifaceted image of an early female Chinese American movie star and cultural celebrity.%黄柳霜迄今仍然是西方主流电影界最熟悉的“东方”女性之一,在其从影以来的近百年时间里,中西方对她的认知一直都在发生着变化。符号学观点认为,对立文化范畴之间的不对称所带来的符号标出性,会随着文化的发展而变化,甚至实现历史性的翻转。对黄柳霜这一特殊的文化符号进行全面解读后可以发现,在西方语境下,作为“东方”女性象征的符号,黄柳霜的标出性经历了由强及弱的嬗变;而在中国视域里,作为一个传统文化的异质符号,黄柳霜的标出性使她遭遇了褒贬评价的多次翻转。进入21世纪,在中西方文化的共同凝视下,黄柳霜散发出越来越强的吸引力,呈现出一个更为真实的、多面化的早期华裔美国女星形象。

  4. „No i co z tego”. O dyskusji wokół "Kamieni na szaniec" Aleksandra Kamińskiego z Bożeną Keff, Magdą Szcześniak, Tomaszem Tomasikiem i Błażejem Warkockim rozmawia Anna Zawadzka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Zawadzka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available “So what?” Bożena Keff, Magda Szcześniak, Tomasz Tomasik & Błażej Warkocki in a conversation with Anna Zawadzka In April 2013, the Polish Press Agency published an article in which Elżbieta Janicka proposed a new interpretations of Stones on the barricades. She claimed i.a.: ”Since we are deliberating, placed in a ho-mophobic culture, where questioning someone’s heterosexual orientation is not an observation but a de­lation, I would compare Zośka and Rudy to Achilles and Patroclus, a pair of legendary warriors. […] I think that this is one of the most beautiful texts about love knowing no limits, whereas all we know about the main characters’ relations testifies to the unheard power and depth of this feeling”. Those words caused an avalanche of reactions, starting from polemics with Janicka or libels on her to violence threats against the scholar. In this conversation, Bożena Keff, Magda Szcześniak, Tomasz Tomasik, Błażej Warkocki and Anna Zawadzka are discussing Janicka’s proposition (developed in her book Festung Warschau, published prior to the quoted text to interpret Stones on the barricades as a text also on a romantic relationship between two men. They analyse social and political causes of the “scandal”, induced by the Polish mainstream media together with a part of the Polish academic milieu. This conversation took place in May 2013.   „No i co z tego”. O dyskusji wokół Kamieni na szaniec Aleksandra Kamińskiego z Bożeną Keff, Magdą Szcześniak, Tomaszem Tomasikiem i Błażejem Warkockim rozmawia Anna Zawadzka W kwietniu 2013 roku Polska Agencja Prasowa opublikowała artykuł, w którym Elżbieta Janicka proponowała nowe interpretacje Kamieni na szaniec. Janicka mówiła m.in.: „Ponieważ rozmawiamy w kulturze homofobicznej, gdzie zakwestionowanie czyjejś heteroseksualnej orientacji nie jest konstatacją, lecz denuncjacją, porównałabym Zośkę i Rudego do Achillesa i Patroklesa, pary

  5. Female hummingbirds do not relocate rewards using colour cues

    OpenAIRE

    Tello Ramos, Maria Cristina; Hurly, T. Andrew; Healy, Susan D.

    2014-01-01

    This research was supported by CONACYT (The Mexican National Council for Science and Technology) grant number: 310717, the University of Lethbridge and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (grant number: RGPIN 121496-2003) and the University of St Andrew's Russell Trust Award. Males generally outperform females in spatial tasks. This difference in spatial performance may reflect differences in cue preference because males often use both spatial cues 9distance and...

  6. Hummingbird's-eye view for the US military

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sabbapathy, L.

    2013-01-01

    The US research defense agency, DARPA has once again breached the innovation barrier by developing a miniature flying robot project, a humming bird mimicking Nano Air Vehicle (NAV) with AeroVironment Inc. This bio-inspired flying machine has been recognized among TIME Magazine’s 2011 best fifty inve

  7. Hummingbird's-eye view for the US military

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sabbapathy, L.

    2013-01-01

    The US research defense agency, DARPA has once again breached the innovation barrier by developing a miniature flying robot project, a humming bird mimicking Nano Air Vehicle (NAV) with AeroVironment Inc. This bio-inspired flying machine has been recognized among TIME Magazine’s 2011 best fifty inve

  8. Baseline tests of the EPC Hummingbird electric passenger vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavik, R. J.; Maslowski, E. A.; Sargent, N. B.; Birchenough, A. G.

    1977-01-01

    The rear-mounted internal combustion engine in a four-passenger Volkswagen Thing was replaced with an electric motor made by modifying an aircraft generator and powered by 12 heavy-duty, lead-acid battery modules. Vehicle performance tests were conducted to measure vehicle maximum speed, range at constant speed, range over stop-and-go driving schedules, maximum acceleration, gradeability limit, road energy consumption, road power, indicated energy consumption, braking capability, battery charger efficiency, and battery characteristics. Test results are presented in tables and charts.

  9. Review Article: The Wedding Gown Writes Back. Borgos, Anna. 2013. Nemek között: Nőtörténet, szexualitástörténet ('Between the Sexes: Women's History, Sexuality History'. Budapest: Noran Libro Kiadó. 317 pp.; and Lovas, Ildikó. 2008. Spanyol menyasszony (‘The Spanish Bride’. Bratislava/Pozsony: Kalligram Kiadó. 304 pp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz Chmurski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In Central Europe nowadays universities, research institutes or museums are attempting to reconfigure the region's complex history from the perspectives of formerly forgotten or marginal/ized individuals and groups. Besides initiatives such as the opening of the Museum of the History of Polish Jews in Warsaw, or of the Center for Queer Memory in Prague, new studies and literary works presently (re-create narratives that challenge the generally accepted past. Two recently published Hungarian books, a novel and a study that partly deals with the novel, exemplify this revisionist tendency. Ildikó Lovas’ novel, Spanyol Menyasszony ['The Spanish Bride'] (2007, which questions the cult of Géza Csáth (1887-1919, the writer and psychoanalyst who was also a drug addict that murdered his wife, renders the fictional diary of Csáth's wife and victim, Olga Jonás (1884-1919; Anna Borgos’ study, Nemek között: Nőtörténet, szexualitástörténet ['Between the Sexes: Women’s History, Sexuality History'] (2013, examines the Csáth affair within an inclusive analysis of women’s positions, roles and sexuality in the Hungarian culture of the last century. In this article Chmurski traces the ways in which both authors reread the lives and tragic marriage of Csáth and Jonás.

  10. Ne/zhenskii put karjerõ / Anna Litvinjuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Litvinjuk, Anna

    2007-01-01

    Termin "glass ceiling" (klaaslagi) võeti kasutusele USA-s umbes paarkümmend aastat tagasi, nii nimetasid uurijad kunstlikult loodud nähtamatut, kuid läbimatut takistust karjääriredelil liikujaile. Sagedamini kasutatakse terminit, kui juttu tuleb ühiskonnas ja äris eksisteerivast diskrimineerimisest soolise või rahvusliku tunnuse järgi. Eestis astutakse esimesi samme soolise võrdsuse tagamiseks, 2004. aastal läbi viidud uuringu tulemustest

  11. Estonian Leader's Freedom Call Creates Storm / Anna Smolchenko

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Smolchenko, Anna

    2008-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilvese esinemisest soome-ugri rahvaste maailmakongressil Hantõ-Mansiiskis, kohtumisest Venemaa presidendi Dmitri Medvedeviga, Eesti delegatsiooni saalist väljamarssimisest Venemaa riigiduuma väliskomisjoni esimehe Konstantin Kossatshovi sõnavõtu ajal. Ilmunud ka: St. Petersburg Times 1. juuli 2008, pealk.: Estonian Leader's Freedom Call Creates Controversy (lüh.). Vabariigi President töövisiidil Venemaal 27.-30.06.2008

  12. Eugenia Rico: The Black Cat / Translated by Anna Rosen Guercio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rosen Guercio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available You can close your eyes but you can’t close your ears.In the darkness, I keep hearing the screams. I don’t know who’s screaming. I squeeze my eyes tighter and realize that I’m the one who’s screaming. In the darkness, there is no hate. There’s a strange smell and it isn’t me. In another time and another place, someone would have known why all this was happening, someone would have been able to give a name to everything that seems so inexplicable to me, but which does have an explanation. It has to. It won’t be a logical explanation.In another life, I tried to find causes and effects until I came to understand that nothing that happened to me had them. I believed that I thought with my head. I believed that I thought.In the darkness, I don’t think with my heart or with my head. I don’t have any. Others will come and they’ll tell my story. It’ll sound different from their lips.I’ve never been different than everyone else. All my life I endeavored to stay in the middle of the road, not to be too high or too low, too smart or too dumb. I didn’t want to stand out in any way and, in the end, that was the thing that made me stand out, the thing my husband fell in love with.

  13. Kui hoolid keskkonnast, anna sellest ka teistele teada / Liina Joller

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Joller, Liina

    2008-01-01

    Turundusharu, mis kasutab peamise argumendina just keskkonnasõbralikkust, on hakatud kutsuma roheliseks turunduseks (green marketing). Vt. samas: Vastutustundliku ettevõtluse ja rohelise turunduse seosed; E-dokumendid - lihtne viis keskkonda hoida

  14. Ne/zhenskii put karjerõ / Anna Litvinjuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Litvinjuk, Anna

    2007-01-01

    Termin "glass ceiling" (klaaslagi) võeti kasutusele USA-s umbes paarkümmend aastat tagasi, nii nimetasid uurijad kunstlikult loodud nähtamatut, kuid läbimatut takistust karjääriredelil liikujaile. Sagedamini kasutatakse terminit, kui juttu tuleb ühiskonnas ja äris eksisteerivast diskrimineerimisest soolise või rahvusliku tunnuse järgi. Eestis astutakse esimesi samme soolise võrdsuse tagamiseks, 2004. aastal läbi viidud uuringu tulemustest

  15. Vain osuuskauppa viihtyy Virossa / Sami Lotila, Anna-Liisa Lilius

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lotila, Sami

    2006-01-01

    Soome Kesko Food müüs oma osaluse kaubandusketis Rimi Baltic Rootsi kontsernile ICA, mis on nüüd firma ainuomanik. Laiendavad ka Baltimaade jaekaubandusturu teised osalised Selver, SOK ja Leedu VP

  16. Estonian Leader's Freedom Call Creates Storm / Anna Smolchenko

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Smolchenko, Anna

    2008-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilvese esinemisest soome-ugri rahvaste maailmakongressil Hantõ-Mansiiskis, kohtumisest Venemaa presidendi Dmitri Medvedeviga, Eesti delegatsiooni saalist väljamarssimisest Venemaa riigiduuma väliskomisjoni esimehe Konstantin Kossatshovi sõnavõtu ajal. Ilmunud ka: St. Petersburg Times 1. juuli 2008, pealk.: Estonian Leader's Freedom Call Creates Controversy (lüh.). Vabariigi President töövisiidil Venemaal 27.-30.06.2008

  17. Abdulovu ne hvatajet deneg na sjomki? / Anna Veligzhanina, Andrei Veligzhanin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Veligzhanina, Anna

    2007-01-01

    Vene näitleja võitleb finantsküsimuste ja halveneva tervisega, üritades teha mängufilmi Aleksei Tolstoi romaanist "Insener Garini hüperboloid", olles ise selle stsenarist, produtsent, režissöör ja peaosatäitja

  18. Islam ja terror samas lauses? / Iivi Anna Masso

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Masso, Iivi Anna, 1967-

    2011-01-01

    Seostest islami ja islamistlike terroristide vahel. Araabia maailma raputavatest rahutustest. Terrosimiaktidest Venemaal. Autori hinnangul aitaks suhtumine islamisse terve kriitikaga paremini mõista muslimitest libaraale

  19. Kaardistajaid kaardistamas / Anna Hints, Marja-Liisa Plats

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hints, Anna, 1982-

    2006-01-01

    Autorid toovad ära Tartu kunstigümnaasiumi õpilaste hinnangud projekt-näituse "Kunstnik kaardil" tööde ja Kalev Vapperi installatsiooni "Kaunistagem Eesti kojad Savisaare pildiga" kohta. Näitused toimusid Y-galeriis ja Rael Artel Gallery's Tartus

  20. Vratshi i medsestrõ... za bortom peregovorov / Anna Litvinjuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Litvinjuk, Anna

    2007-01-01

    Eesti Arstide Liit ja Eesti Keskastme Tervishoiutöötajate Kutseliit ei kiida heaks lepingut, mis kehtib vaid Haiglate Liidu liikmetele ja jätab palgatõusust ilma terve rea tervishoiutöötajaid. Tervishoiutöötajad pöörduvad kohtusse. Vt. samas: Kokkuvõtteks; Kommenteerivad: Eesti Arstide Liit, sotsiaalminister Jaak Aab, riiklik lepitaja Henn Pärn

  1. Ettevaatust! Nüüdistants / Anna-Liisa Villmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Villmann, Anna-Liisa

    2010-01-01

    11. Augusti Tantsufestivalist Tallinnas. Lühidalt Ele Viskuse etendusest "Taidlusrühm Rähn", Liis Ilula etendusest "Älis mnimedemaal", Henri Hüti etendusest "The reader", Mihkel Ernitsa vabaõhuetendusest "Kehanäppajad". Brüsseli nüüdistantsu kooli P.A.R.T.S. etendustest. Samas 14.-28. augustini kestva festivali kavast

  2. Osvjashtshenõ kolokola Hrama na granitse / Anna Orshanskaja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Orshanskaja, Anna

    2006-01-01

    Vene riigitegelasest ja töösturist parun Aleksandr Stieglitzist. Mälestustseremoonial pühitseti perekond Stieglitz'ite matmispaiga Ivangorodi Püha Kolmainsuse kiriku uued tornikellad. Kirikuhoonest ja selle rekonstrueerimisest

  3. Kui hoolid keskkonnast, anna sellest ka teistele teada / Liina Joller

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Joller, Liina

    2008-01-01

    Turundusharu, mis kasutab peamise argumendina just keskkonnasõbralikkust, on hakatud kutsuma roheliseks turunduseks (green marketing). Vt. samas: Vastutustundliku ettevõtluse ja rohelise turunduse seosed; E-dokumendid - lihtne viis keskkonda hoida

  4. Gorod nagrazhdajet teh, kto ego ukrasil / Anna Orshanskaja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Orshanskaja, Anna

    2006-01-01

    Konkursi "Kaunis Eesti kodu 2006" võitjate autasustamisest Narva lossis. Konkursist. أKodu kauniksؤ (käesolevast aastast uue nimega أKaunis Eesti koduؤ) liikumise taastas 1997. aastal president Lennart Meri

  5. Animalistliku skulptuuri festival - kas viimane? / Anna-Magdaleena Kangro

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kangro, Anna-Magdaleena

    2006-01-01

    Läänemeremaade animalistliku skulptuuri festivalist Tallinna Loomaaias. Osa võttis 10 skulptorit Venemaalt, Leedust, Rootsist, Taanist ja Eestist. Nimed. Nimetatud žürii koosseis ja auhinnatööd

  6. Hispaania kuningapaar ärritas Marokot / Anna-Maria Penu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Penu, Anna-Maria, 1978-

    2007-01-01

    Hispaania kuningas Juan Carlos I ja kuninganna Sofia käisid esimest korda Aafrika pinnal asuvates Hispaania enklaavides Ceutas ja Melillas, mis kutsus esile Maroko meelepaha. Lisa: Peaminister soovib lõppu okupatsioonile

  7. Blog.tr.ee ei anna alla / Raigo Neudorf

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Neudorf, Raigo

    2007-01-01

    Veebikeskkonna blog.tr.ee arengust ja majandamisest räägivad keskkonna looja Andris Reinmann ja firma OÜ Tr.ee osaniku Mobi Solutions'i esindaja Rain Rannu. Vt. samas: Mis on blog.tr.ee; Kaljundi: blog.tr.ee on hobiprojekt. Kommenteerib nagi.ee juhataja Jüri Kaljundi. Lisatud joonis: Blog.tr.ee unikaalsete külastajate arv nädalas

  8. Osvjashtshenõ kolokola Hrama na granitse / Anna Orshanskaja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Orshanskaja, Anna

    2006-01-01

    Vene riigitegelasest ja töösturist parun Aleksandr Stieglitzist. Mälestustseremoonial pühitseti perekond Stieglitz'ite matmispaiga Ivangorodi Püha Kolmainsuse kiriku uued tornikellad. Kirikuhoonest ja selle rekonstrueerimisest

  9. Premija znamenitogo Sinebrjuhhova dostalas Russkomu dramatitsheskomu teatru / Anna Litvinjuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Litvinjuk, Anna

    2000-01-01

    14. jaanuaril anti kolmandat korda firma "Sinebrychoff Eesti AS" auhinnad eesti kultuuritegelastele. Seekord said auhinna filmirežissöör Hardi Volmer ja Vene Draamateatri näitlejad Larissa Savankova, Tamara Solodnikova ja Nikolai Hrustaljov

  10. Premija znamenitogo Sinebrjuhhova dostalas Pusskomu dramatitsheskomu teatru / Anna Litvinjuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Litvinjuk, Anna

    2000-01-01

    14. jaan anti üle kolmandat korda firma "Sinebrychoff Eesti AS" auhinnad eesti kultuuritegelastele. Seekord said auhinna filmirežissöör Hardi Volmer ja Vene Draamateatri näitlejad Larissa Savankova, Tamara Solodnikova ja Nikolai Hrustaljov

  11. V semju - po rebjonku i grazhdanstvo za zaslugi / Anna Litvinjuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Litvinjuk, Anna

    2005-01-01

    Rahvastikuminister Paul-Eerik Rummo tegi kokkuvõtteid möödunud aastast. Perekond traditsioonilises mõistes ja vabaabielus sündinud lapsed, kasvab Eestist lahkuvate noorte naiste arv, suureneb naturalisatsiooni kaudu kodakondsuse saanute arv

  12. Blog.tr.ee ei anna alla / Raigo Neudorf

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Neudorf, Raigo

    2007-01-01

    Veebikeskkonna blog.tr.ee arengust ja majandamisest räägivad keskkonna looja Andris Reinmann ja firma OÜ Tr.ee osaniku Mobi Solutions'i esindaja Rain Rannu. Vt. samas: Mis on blog.tr.ee; Kaljundi: blog.tr.ee on hobiprojekt. Kommenteerib nagi.ee juhataja Jüri Kaljundi. Lisatud joonis: Blog.tr.ee unikaalsete külastajate arv nädalas

  13. Kodumaise ruladisaini uuestisünd / Anna-Liisa Villmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Villmann, Anna-Liisa

    2010-01-01

    Elukutselise rulasõitja, neljakordse Soome meistri Kristel Orasmäe loodud kaubamärgist High Fly, mille kujunduse tegi Eesti Kunstiakadeemias graafilise disaini osakonnas õppiv Taavi Drell. Toodang tellitakse välismaisest tehasest. High Fly rulakomplekti rahvusvahelisele turule viimise plaanidest, kevadel avatud rulakoolist, mille tulu läheb uue rulapargi rajamiseks

  14. Islam ja terror samas lauses? / Iivi Anna Masso

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Masso, Iivi Anna, 1967-

    2011-01-01

    Seostest islami ja islamistlike terroristide vahel. Araabia maailma raputavatest rahutustest. Terrosimiaktidest Venemaal. Autori hinnangul aitaks suhtumine islamisse terve kriitikaga paremini mõista muslimitest libaraale

  15. Ja polagaju, tshto vsjo sledujet shit! / Anna Korjakina

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Korjakina, Anna

    2005-01-01

    31.03-3.04 toimus Riias moenädal - Riga Fashion Show. Oma töid demonstreerisid Läti, Eesti, Leedu, Venemaa ja Prantsusmaa moeloojad. Eestist Oksana Tandit ja Triinu Pungits. Pikemalt Masha Tsigali kollektsioonist (Venemaa)

  16. Nezemnõje mirõ Olega Võssotskogo / Anna Litvinjuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Litvinjuk, Anna

    2006-01-01

    Tallinnas elava kunstniku Oleg Võssotski kosmoseteemalisest loomingust. Tema maalinäitus "Terra Indigo" avati Vene Draamateatri galerii praeguses näitusepaigas juveeligaleriis Bindes. Autor enda loomeprotsessist

  17. Keelekontaktid, laenatavus ja verbi kopeerimine eestivene keelevariandis / Anna Verschik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Verschik, Anna, 1968-

    2007-01-01

    Vaadeldakse eestivene verbikopeerimise markantsemaid juhtumeid. Tutvustatakse ka mitmesuguseid laenatavuse hierarhiaid, kognitiiv-pragmaatilisi ja semantilisi lähenemisi ning koodikopeerimise mudelit.

  18. Kak zhurnalistõ vidjat Estoniju / Anna Litvinjuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Litvinjuk, Anna

    2006-01-01

    2005. aasta parimate pressifotode näitusest Vaal-galeriis Tallinnas. Parima uudisfoto autor on üleriiklikus kategoorias Andras Kralla ja parima olemusfoto autor Raul Mee. Maakonnalehtede parimad on vastavalt Margus Ansu ja Sille Annuk. Kujundusauhinnad said suures kategoorias SL Õhtuleht ja väikeses kategoorias Järva Teataja

  19. Sisseminekuks : [luuletused] / Anna Haava ; [Impressioonid]: Viiu Härm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Haava, Anna, pseud., 1864-1957

    2004-01-01

    Sisu: Sisseminekuks ; Kartus ; Ööbikule ; Käokene, kuldalindu ; Mis sa tahad, kevade? ; Ei tule uni ; Hoia ennast; Tuksuv süda ; Sina oled kelm ; Hinge hellal' igatsusel' ; Kõik kallile ; Soov ; Unes nägin ; Võin ; Sinu silmad ; Sinu silmist pilk ; Kallis, sul on kuldne süda ; Sa kõige armsam mulle ; Oh võiksin ; Lill ; Nõmmelill ; Meie Mihkel ; Koidulale ; Ehitage rahukojad ; Emakeel ; Isamaja ; Väsinud ; Oh kuhu ma lähen? ; Ööbiku surm ; Ei saa mitte vaiki olla ; Ma olen näinud ; Südameta ; Sellepärast ; See oli ilusal õiekuul; Esimese lume ajal ; Mina vaat'sin muru pääle ; Ikka kurjalt sa mind vaatad ; Oh ma isegi ei tea ; Mis on luule paljalt sõnas? ; Oh oleksin ära surnud ; Lee ääres ; Sinu nimi ; Hoia vahest aken lahti ; Jumalaga jättes vaat'sid ; Ma laulan ; Ei oma õnne peita ; Küll oli ilus mu õieke ; Oh ära sa küsi ; Ei tule luule tuulest ; Köögis seisab ; Järv leegib eha paistel ; Sinu vanaema ; Nii ta on ; Tead küll, mu kuldkallis ; Ma lähen üle nõmme ; Lenda, lepatriinuke ; Vesi voolab, vesi kohab ; Üks ainus kord ; Oh kevade, oh õie-aeg ; Suur kontsert ; Kuupaistel ; Mets kohiseb ; Lind läks magama ; Kui sa tuled, too mull' lilli ; Sinilillekesed ; Ei ole sina minu ingel ; Ei mina õnne usu ; Viimast laulu ei saa laulda ; Kõige ilusam luule ; Üks on minul püham koda! ; Sa oled suurem kui su saatus ; Mu kodumaa, kus oled sa? ; Eest ära! ; Kui kandlekeeled katkevad ; Ma kõnnin koiduvalgel ; Mu mured kõik matsin ma maha ; Kui ma sulle armas olen ; Kas tahad tulla minuga? ; Sa vaata ette, süda! ; Truus sõpruses ma tahan ; Su silmade sügavuses ; Siis mine! ; See oli siis ; Mu süda usub ; Sind teretame, kuldapäike ; Mind jumalaga jätsid ; Sääl kord kasvab kaunis kodu ; Me oleme põhjamaa lapsed ; Hilised lilled ; Sa küsid, kus mu kodu ; külm ; Sina vaikiv, sügav öö ; Ju õitsvad kõik hellerheinad ; Öösünges kohab ; Kui saaks mullegi kord kodu ; On püha mulle mu kodumaa muld ; Oma hind vaid vaba hoida ; Selles eluunenäos ; Kuid kuis taevad kõrged-suured ; Millest see?

  20. Ettevaatust! Nüüdistants / Anna-Liisa Villmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Villmann, Anna-Liisa

    2010-01-01

    11. Augusti Tantsufestivalist Tallinnas. Lühidalt Ele Viskuse etendusest "Taidlusrühm Rähn", Liis Ilula etendusest "Älis mnimedemaal", Henri Hüti etendusest "The reader", Mihkel Ernitsa vabaõhuetendusest "Kehanäppajad". Brüsseli nüüdistantsu kooli P.A.R.T.S. etendustest. Samas 14.-28. augustini kestva festivali kavast

  1. Ja polagaju, tshto vsjo sledujet shit! / Anna Korjakina

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Korjakina, Anna

    2005-01-01

    31.03-3.04 toimus Riias moenädal - Riga Fashion Show. Oma töid demonstreerisid Läti, Eesti, Leedu, Venemaa ja Prantsusmaa moeloojad. Eestist Oksana Tandit ja Triinu Pungits. Pikemalt Masha Tsigali kollektsioonist (Venemaa)

  2. Frau Dr Anna Weber—van Bosse, neunzig Jahre

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerdijk, Johanna

    1942-01-01

    In Eerbeek, in einem der schön gelegenen Dörfer der Provinz Gelderland, steht ein altes Schloss, von der Verkehrsstrasse weit entfernt, und am Bach entlang zu erreichen. Es ist das sogenannte ”Huis Eerbeek“, das Haus der Frau Dr. Weber, die Herrin im wahren Sinne des Wortes. Da können wir heute der

  3. Gorod nagrazhdajet teh, kto ego ukrasil / Anna Orshanskaja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Orshanskaja, Anna

    2006-01-01

    Konkursi "Kaunis Eesti kodu 2006" võitjate autasustamisest Narva lossis. Konkursist. أKodu kauniksؤ (käesolevast aastast uue nimega أKaunis Eesti koduؤ) liikumise taastas 1997. aastal president Lennart Meri

  4. Ivanom Vassiljevitshem mog stat Nikulin, a Miloslavskim - Mironov / Anna Veligzhanina

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Veligzhanina, Anna

    2003-01-01

    Proovivõtetest, mille tulemusena said rollid Leonid Gaidai Mihhail Bulgakovi ainetel filmitud komöödias "Ivan Vassiljevitsh vahetab elukutset" (1973) Juri Jakovlev, Leonid Kuravljov, Natalja Seleznova... Tsensuuri kärpeid ja filmist rahva hulka läinud lendlauseid

  5. Most mezhdu Rossijei i JeS / Anna Litvinjuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Litvinjuk, Anna

    2004-01-01

    Euroopa Liidu mõju laienemisega kaasneb eurooplastel kartus võimaliku sotsiaalse kaitse vähenemise ja elatustaseme languse ees. Euroopa Parlamendi presidendi Pat Coxi sõnul on Baltimaad koos Põhjamaadega sillaks Euroopa Liidu ja Venemaa vahel

  6. Most mezhdu Rossijei i JeS / Anna Litvinjuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Litvinjuk, Anna

    2004-01-01

    Euroopa Liidu mõju laienemisega kaasneb eurooplastel kartus võimaliku sotsiaalse kaitse vähenemise ja elatustaseme languse ees. Euroopa Parlamendi presidendi Pat Coxi sõnul on Baltimaad koos Põhjamaadega sillaks Euroopa Liidu ja Venemaa vahel

  7. Vratshi i medsestrõ... za bortom peregovorov / Anna Litvinjuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Litvinjuk, Anna

    2007-01-01

    Eesti Arstide Liit ja Eesti Keskastme Tervishoiutöötajate Kutseliit ei kiida heaks lepingut, mis kehtib vaid Haiglate Liidu liikmetele ja jätab palgatõusust ilma terve rea tervishoiutöötajaid. Tervishoiutöötajad pöörduvad kohtusse. Vt. samas: Kokkuvõtteks; Kommenteerivad: Eesti Arstide Liit, sotsiaalminister Jaak Aab, riiklik lepitaja Henn Pärn

  8. Roman "Lolita" i poslevojennoje emigrantskoje soznanije / Anna Brodskaja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brodskaja, Anna

    1999-01-01

    Inglise k. kogumikus "Kultura russkoi diasporõ: Vladimir Nabokov 100" (Tallinn, 2000). V. Nabokovi romaanist "Lolita" (1955). Ka Theodor Adorno ja Hannah Arendti Ameerika ühiskonna sotsioloogilised kirjeldused. Ettekanne kirjandusteaduslikul konverentsil "Vene diasporaa kultuur: Vladimir Nabokov 100" (toimus 1999 a. jaan. Tallinnas ja Tartus)

  9. Anna-Maria Galojan : Välispoliitika puudutab igaüht meist / Anna-Maria Galojan ; interv. Kalev Kallemets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Galojan, Anna-Maria, 1982-

    2005-01-01

    Reformierakonna noortekogu välissekretär vastab küsimustele, mida Reformierakonna noored soovivad lähiajal välissuhtluses saavutada, kas on plaanis ka riigisiseselt midagi välispoliitika vallas teha, milline tähtsus on sündmustel Ukrainas Eesti vene ja ukraina kogukonnale

  10. Anna-Maria Galojan : Välispoliitika puudutab igaüht meist / Anna-Maria Galojan ; interv. Kalev Kallemets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Galojan, Anna-Maria, 1982-

    2005-01-01

    Reformierakonna noortekogu välissekretär vastab küsimustele, mida Reformierakonna noored soovivad lähiajal välissuhtluses saavutada, kas on plaanis ka riigisiseselt midagi välispoliitika vallas teha, milline tähtsus on sündmustel Ukrainas Eesti vene ja ukraina kogukonnale

  11. Field evaluation of Calypte's AWARE blood serum plasma (BSP) and oral mucosal transudate (OMT) rapid tests for detecting antibodies to HIV-1 and 2 in plasma and oral fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemnji, George A; Ngulefac, Gisele A; Ndumbe, Peter M; Asonganyi, Tazoacha

    2009-03-19

    As programs to prevent and care for HIV-infected persons are scaled-up in Africa, there is the need for continuous evaluation of the performance of test kits that could best support these programs. The present study evaluated the sensitivity, specificity, ease of use, and cost of AWARE Blood Serum Plasma (BSP) and Oral Mucosal Transudate (OMT) Rapid HIV-1/2 test kits using real-time and archived samples of HIV-infected persons from Cameroon. Matched whole blood and OMT specimens were collected prospectively from HIV-positive and HIV-negative persons from different regions of Cameroon and tested using the AWARE BSP and OMT test kits, respectively. These results were compared to the gold standard that included a combination of Determine HIV-1/2 and Enzygnost HIV-1/2. The BSP Rapid test kit was further evaluated using well characterized panels of HIV-2 and HIV-1 group O samples. Cost and end-user analysis of the OMT test kit was done by comparing its actual cost, consumables, safety, bench time and manipulation with other test kits. Of the 732 matched samples, 412 (56.3%) and 320 (43.7%) were from females and males, respectively. Of these samples, 23 (3.1%) gave discordant results between Determine HIV-1/2 and Enzygnost HIV1/2 and were excluded from the analysis. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of the AWARE BSP were 100%. The AWARE OMT had 98.8% sensitivity, 98.9% specificity, 98.0% PPV and 99.4% NPV. The results of a well-characterized archived panel of HIV-2 (n=7) and HIV-1 group O (n=3) samples using the AWARE BSP Rapid test kit gave 100% concordance. Total per patient cost of the AWARE OMT rapid test kit was US dollars 4.72 compared to a mean cost of US dollars 7.33 +/- 0.11 for the other test kits. Both the AWARE BSP and OMT Rapid test kits demonstrated high sensitivities and specificities on all samples tested and were well adapted for use in resource-constrained settings with high HIV heterogeneity such as Cameroon. The AWARE HIV-1/2 OMT Rapid test kit appears to be the cheapest, safest and easiest to use compared with other available test kits.

  12. High proportion of smaller ranged hummingbird species coincides with ecological specialization across the Americas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Jesper; Martín González, Ana M.; Maruyama, Pietro K.

    2016-01-01

    Ecological communities that experience stable climate conditions have been speculated to preserve more specialized interspecific associations and have higher proportions of smaller ranged species (SRS). Thus, areas with disproportionally large numbers of SRS are expected to coincide geographicall...

  13. 78 FR 59 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the Honduran Emerald Hummingbird

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    .... mail or hand-delivery: Public Comments Processing, Attn: FWS-R9-ES-2009-0094, Division of Policy and... plantation agriculture such as banana and oil palm plantations (World Wildlife Fund 2008, p. 11; Anderson... breeding, feeding, and nesting. Palm Oil Production Palm oil plantations in the Agu n River Basin...

  14. Robotic hummingbird: Design of a control mechanism for a hovering flapping wing micro air vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Karasek, Matej

    2014-01-01

    The use of drones, also called unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), is increasing every day. These aircraft are piloted either remotely by a human pilot or completely autonomously by an on-board computer. UAVs are typically equipped with a video camera providing a live video feed to the operator. While they were originally developed mainly for military purposes, many civil applications start to emerge as they become more affordable.Micro air vehicles are a subgroup of UAVs with a size and weight ...

  15. A cryptic new species of hummingbird of the Campylopterus largipennis complex (Aves: Trochilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Leonardo Esteves; Vasconcelos, Marcelo Ferreira DE; Gonzaga, Luiz Pedreira

    2017-05-15

    A new species of Campylopterus sabrewing is described from eastern Brazilian tropical dry forests occurring below 900 m asl. Its holotype (MZUSP 99024) is an adult female from Sítio Duboca (16°43'19''S, 43°58'20''W, elevation 840 m), municipality of Montes Claros, state of Minas Gerais. A taxonomic revision based on more than 1,000 museum specimens revealed that the new taxon, together with C. largipennis, C. diamantinensis and C. obscurus (with C. aequatorialis considered as a subjective junior synonym) should be ranked as species. We provide a key to permit easy identification of the four species. The new species is very similar to the parapatric C. diamantinensis of high altitude "campos rupestres" above 1,000 m asl, differing from it by its smaller size and longer light tail tips, as well as by sternum measurements. Given the several threats faced by the habitat to which the new species is endemic, we propose to consider it as Vulnerable under the IUCN criteria.

  16. Detection of macro-ecological patterns in South American hummingbirds is affected by spatial scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek, Carsten; Graves, Gary R.

    2000-01-01

    Scale is widely recognized as a fundamental conceptual problem in biology, but the question of whether species-richness patterns vary with scale is often ignored in macro-ecological analyses, despite the increasing application of such data in international conservation programmes. We tested for s...... peaks, decreasing the power of statistical tests to discriminate the causal agents of regional richness gradients. Ideally, the scale of analysis should be varied systematically to provide the optimal resolution of macro-ecological pattern....

  17. Hummingbird - A Very Low Cost, High Delta V Spacecraft for Solar System Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Based on Microcosm's development of a high delta-V small Earth observation spacecraft called NanoEye, with a planned recurring cost of $2 million, Microcosm will...

  18. Song Variation and Persistence of Song Neighborhoods in a Lekking Hummingbird

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clementina González; Juan Francisco Ornelas

    2009-01-01

    .... Here we report song variation among territorial males at one lek over 4 years. Despite variation in syllable composition, cluster analyses classified songs of territorial males into three groups (“song neighborhoods...

  19. Effect of gust on force generation around a robotic hummingbird wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez, Eloy; Tian, Ruijun; Shu, Fangjun

    2012-11-01

    Among the computational, theoretical and experimental studies on the high efficiency flapping flight, many are focused on the mystery of hovering. Most of these studies were conducted under steady in flow conditions. However, real-life ornithopters in the field have to routinely tackle gust and directional changes of the wind. These sudden perturbations could produce significant effect on humming bird hovering due to the small Reynolds numbers. Our experimental work was performed in a water channel using a two degree-of-freedom humming bird model. The dynamic response of the hovering motion to gust from different directions was investigated. PIV was used to measure the effect of the gust on the surrounding flow field including vortex evolution. In addition, a six-component force/torque sensor was used to measure the real-time lift and drag forces generated by the wing with and without gust. Results show that gust changes the magnitude of lift force in one stroke. However, the time-averaged lift force keeps approximately constant. Supported by Army High Performance Computing Center.

  20. Acquisition, Design Modification, Assembly, and Ground Test of NPS hummingbird Remotely Piloted Helicopter

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    included. A vaetn For OTIC TSB eiUnannounced 13 Justification D’stributlon l Availability Codes Dit Avail and/ or • .•Special TABLE OF CONTENTS I...Astronautics Laboratory Manager Pat Hickey also deserves my profound appreciation for providing vital sanity checks, and improvements when necessary, to...Chord (in) M Bade Tip Veloit (fps) 1 ~300 & 400 ~40 100s *55 w@ +Jo 3 Mslded Polar Systeem Reynolds Numbers P.+ Figure 2. Figure of Merit and Reynolds

  1. Low-frequency vibration isolation in six degrees of freedom: the Hummingbird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijnveld, N.; Braber, R. van den; Fraanje, P.R.; Dool, T.C. van den

    2010-01-01

    TNO Science and Industry and MECAL have developed a six degree of freedom vibration isolation system that suppresses both floor vibrations and direct forces on a table top. The achieved reduction of transmissibility and compliance is 40 dB between 1 and 50 Hz in vertical direction, and 30 dB between

  2. Students̀ interest to studying English in a higher institution / Anna Artamonova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Artamonova, Anna

    2001-01-01

    Läti Ülikooli inglise keele osakonnas korraldati 2001.a. sept.-s kaugõppe üliõpilaste küsitlus. Küsitlustulemuste analüüsist selgus, et üliõpilastel on tugev saavutusmotivatsioon, st. nad soovivad omandada sügavaid teadmisi inglise keelest, saada kõrge kvalifikatsiooniga spetsialistiks, kuid ei ole samas huvitatud inglise kirjandusest kui erialast, soovides töötad teistel erialadel

  3. Carl Linnaeus, Erasmus Darwin and Anna Seward: Botanical Poetry and Female Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Sam

    2014-01-01

    This article will explore the intersection between "literature" and "science" in one key area, the botanical poem with scientific notes. It reveals significant aspects of the way knowledge was gendered in the Enlightenment, which is relevant to the present-day education of girls in science. It aims to illustrate how members of…

  4. Moldova nõrk majandus hirmutab Transnistriat / Anna-Maria Galojan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Galojan, Anna-Maria, 1982-

    2006-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Paremad Uudised okt. nr. 7 lk. 8. Autori sõnul tooks Transnistria probleemile lahenduse piiri panek salakaubandusele ja Moldova majanduse jaluleaitamine. Kaart. Lisad: Lapsed kasvavad vanemateta; Transnistria rahvahääletusel valiti Venemaa

  5. EU Common Energy Policy: A Trojan Horse for Member States? / Anna-Maria Galojan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Galojan, Anna-Maria, 1982-

    2009-01-01

    Euroopa Liidu ja Venemaa suhetest energeetika valdkonnas. Autor leiab, et Eesti peaks aktiivselt osalema Euroopa Liidu ühise energiapoliitika väljatöötamisel ning mõstma, et see on osa välis- ja kaitsepoliitikast

  6. 76 FR 23846 - Virginia Electric Power Company, LLC, North Anna Power Station, Unit No. 1; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-28

    ... licensee described elements of their fire protection program that provide their justification that the... source is effectively eliminated. In addition, guidance in the ``Station Lubrication Manual'' outlines... Lubrication Manual is procedurally controlled and requires authorization to be changed. With the exception...

  7. Kes ei anna e-piletit, seda pole varsti olemas / Villu Zirnask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Zirnask, Villu, 1966-

    2007-01-01

    Ülemaailmse lennundusorganisatsiooni IATA teatel minnakse üle e-piletitele lennunduses 1. juuniks 2008. Vt. samas lühiintervjuud Estonian Airi e-kommertsi ja turundusdirektori Enn Lambiga; Kommenteerib Estonian Airi lendude teenindamise direktor Erki Teras; Transport: maailma suurimad lennukompaniid; E-pilet

  8. Anna Łebkowska, Empatia. O literackich narracjach przełomu XX i XXI wieku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Suchańska

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Empathie. À propos des narrations littéraires au tournant des XXe et XXIe siècles est le premier essai polonais qui analyse la prose à travers le prisme de l’empathie. Les travaux antérieurs consacrés à cette thématique (à l’instar de ceux de Michał Głowiński ou de Jarosław Płuciennik ne s’intéressent pas à l’empathie comme catégorie littéraire indépendante. Ils ne montrent pas les contextes possibles de sa compréhension ni les mécanismes empathiques sur fond de prose contemporaine. Le livre...

  9. Nurse clowns in the OR. An interview with Barbara Ann D'Anna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Anna, B A

    1993-01-01

    1. There is always some degree of stress in the OR. The trick is to play up the eustress (positive, motivating energy) and alleviate the distress (negative/draining energy). Eustress is characterized by smiles, chatter, purposeful movement, and an OR that hums with efficiency. Distress can be assessed by unhappy faces, loud grumbling, dragging feet, and an OR that grinds to a halt. 2. Humor relaxes people and situations. It allows creative juices to flow and enhances what people take away from meetings by facilitating the creative process. The staff members feel good about themselves and what they are doing, and they become more productive. 3. The OR can be both a wonderful (eustress) and a horrible (distress) place in which to work. We need to savor the wonderful--and season the horrible with humor to make it palatable. As directors use humor to reduce staff stress levels, they should remember to bring laughter and humor into their own lives as well.

  10. Remote Search and Seizure in Domestic Criminal Procedure: Estonian Case Study / Anna-Maria Osula

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Osula, Anna-Maria, 1984-

    2016-01-01

    Euroopa Nõukogu arvutikuritegevusvastase konventsiooni artiklitest, mis on seotud kaugläbiotsimisega, artikli (32)b tõlgendamisraskustest. Erinevate riikide s.h. Eesti kaugläbiotsimise regulatsioonide võrdlus

  11. Tänapäevased liikursuurtükid / Anna Kern

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kern, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Riigikaitse arengukavas (a. 2013-2022) on ette nähtud võimalused 1. jalaväebrigaadile hankida tänapäevased liikursuurtükid. Ülevaade liikursuurtükkide loomisest, kasutamisest sõdades ja tänapäevase liikursuurtüki iseloomustus. Näiteid erinevtest liikursuurtükkidest: Archer (Rootsi), Panzerhaubitze 2000 (Saksamaa), Caesar (Prantsusmaa), M777 (USA). Lisatud tabel tehniliste andmetega

  12. Cultural traits of the Vends in the archaeological material from the Salaspils Laukskola cemetary / Anna Zariạ

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Zariạ, Anna

    2006-01-01

    Väina-äärse liivi kalmistu leiud näitavad, et liivlaste kultuurile on jätnud jälje ka vendid (Kuramaa lännemeresoomlastest asukad). Vendid, kes 10. 12. saj. Põhja-Kuramaalt välja rändasid, võisid elama asuma Daugavaalamjooksule Laukskola külla. Vendide kultuurile iseloomulikust rõivakaunistusviisist

  13. Field Report : Anna Plains and Roebuck Bay Benthic Invertebrate Mapping 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piersma, Theunis; Pearson, Grant B.; Lavaleye, Marc S. S.; Hickey, Robert; Rogers, Danny; Holthuijsen, Sander; Estrella, Sora-Marin; de Goeij, Petra; Findlay, Naomi; Storey, Andrew W.

    2016-01-01

    This project has been funded by the Department of Parks and Wildlife partnership with BHP Billiton “Eighty Mile Beach and Walyarta Conservation Program”, with in-kind support from NIOZ and Wetland Research & Management This report was produced at the Broome Bird Observatory in late October 2016. Abs

  14. Die Weiterverbreitung digitaler Güter / Jochen Marly, Anna-Lena Wirz

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Marly, Jochen

    2017-01-01

    Autoriõigusega kaitstud digitaalse materjaliga seotud probleemidest, Euroopa Kohtu lahendist 174/15, mis käsitleb küsimust, kas raamatukogudel on lubatud laenata autoriõigustega kaitstud digitaalset E-raamatut samamoodi nagu paberkandjal raamatut. Vt. ka lk. 20-23

  15. Aegumatu Rootsi klaas ja tundmatute disainerite kummalised ideed / Anna-Liisa Soomann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soomann, Anna-Liisa

    2007-01-01

    Göteborgi disainipoodidest ja tuntud disaineritest nagu Josef Frank (1885-1967), Carl Malmsten (1888-1972), Bruno Mathsson (1907-1988), Jonas Bohlin (1953), Marten Claesson (1970), Eero Koivisto (1958), Ola Rune (1963), Pia Wallen (1957), Thomas Sandell (1959) ja Pia Törnell (1963)

  16. Red card for EU member-states? / Anna-Maria Galojan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Galojan, Anna-Maria, 1982-

    2010-01-01

    Saksamaa kantsler Angela Merkel ütles Saksamaa parlamendile, et Euroopa Liidus kehtivad reeglid pole piisavalt tugevad, et tulevikus vajab Euroopa Liit oma lepingus sätet, mis võimaldaks viimase hädaabinõuna arvata riik euroalast välja. Autor leiab, et Baltimaad võiks arvestada sellega, et reeglite täitmine võib rahvale keeruline olla

  17. Ühe tõlke ebaõnnestumise põhjustest / Anna Verschik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Verschik, Anna, 1968-

    2000-01-01

    Bibl. joonealustes märkustes. Jidishi kirjanik Dovid Bergelsoni (1884-1952) romaanist "Kui kõik on läbi" ("Nox alemen", 1913, eesti k. 1999, tlk. A. Verschik). Autor peab ebaõnnestunuks romaani tõlget vene keelde (1947, tlk. J. Blaginina)

  18. Bundin við annað: BDSM sem umlykjandi áhugamál

    OpenAIRE

    Eyþór Kamban Þrastarson 1991

    2015-01-01

    Í þessari rannsókn er fjallað um samfélag BDSM iðkenda á Íslandi sem umlykjandi áhugamál (Serious leisure). Rannsóknin er eigindleg viðtalsrannsókn þar sem talað var við iðkendur BDSM á Íslandi og leitast við að varpa ljósi á þau hlutverk sem samfélag BDSM iðkenda hefur. Niðurstöður sína að BDSM er ekki aðeins kynferðislegt krydd heldur er það betur skilið sem ákveðinn sjálfsskilningur og áhugamál honum tengt. Hlutverk samfélagsins er fyrst og fremst að búa til vettvang þar sem fólk getur afl...

  19. Hispaania otsib sõdurite hukkumise põhjust Afganistanis / Anna-Maria Penu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Penu, Anna-Maria, 1978-

    2005-01-01

    Hispaania peaminister Jose Luis Rodriguez katkestas seoses 17 Hispaania sõduri hukkumisega Afganistanis toimud kopteriõnnetuses oma puhkuse. Vasakpoolsed parteid nõuavad sõjaväe Afganistanist äratoomist. Afganistanis on praegu 850 Hispaania sõdurit, rahumissioonidel on neid kokku üle 2000. Vt. samas: Tugev tuul, tehniline rike või ikkagi mässuliste rünnak

  20. Baski terroristid on saavutanud suure võidu / Anna-Maria Penu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Penu, Anna-Maria, 1978-

    2005-01-01

    Hispaania peaministri Jose Luis Rodriquez Zapatero otsus alustada baski terroriorganisatsiooniga ETA läbirääkimisi ei leia mõistmist opositsioonis oleva Rahvapartei toetajate ja terroriohvrite omaste hulgas

  1. Kelle süül ikkagi nurjus Baskimaa rahuprotsess? / Anna-Maria Penu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Penu, Anna-Maria, 1978-

    2007-01-01

    Madridi lennujaama terminalis plahvatas pomm, riigi siseministri sõnul lõpetas see rahuprotsessi. Autori hinnangul eksis peaminister Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapatero, uskudes, et Baskimaa probleem on küpseks dialoogiks valmis. Lisa: Rahuvahendaja tekitas segadust

  2. Baski terroristid on saavutanud suure võidu / Anna-Maria Penu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Penu, Anna-Maria, 1978-

    2005-01-01

    Hispaania peaministri Jose Luis Rodriquez Zapatero otsus alustada baski terroriorganisatsiooniga ETA läbirääkimisi ei leia mõistmist opositsioonis oleva Rahvapartei toetajate ja terroriohvrite omaste hulgas

  3. Hispaania otsib sõdurite hukkumise põhjust Afganistanis / Anna-Maria Penu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Penu, Anna-Maria, 1978-

    2005-01-01

    Hispaania peaminister Jose Luis Rodriguez katkestas seoses 17 Hispaania sõduri hukkumisega Afganistanis toimud kopteriõnnetuses oma puhkuse. Vasakpoolsed parteid nõuavad sõjaväe Afganistanist äratoomist. Afganistanis on praegu 850 Hispaania sõdurit, rahumissioonidel on neid kokku üle 2000. Vt. samas: Tugev tuul, tehniline rike või ikkagi mässuliste rünnak

  4. Madalam latt : Anna oma jalgadele jõud isolatsiooniharjutuste, sangpommide ja õigete korduste seguga / David Barr

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Barr, David

    2009-01-01

    Vastused küsimustele: Mis on kang rinnal küki ja kang turjal küki vahe? Kas sangpommitreeningut peaks tegema pärast raskuste tõstmist või eraldi treeninguna? Mis on parim raskuste ja korduste suhe jalgade lihasmassi kasvatamiseks?

  5. "Notshnoi dozor" : Trofimov, Bortnik i Ahhedzhakova pobojalis igrat netshist / Anna Veligzhanina, Andrei Veligzhanin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Veligzhanina, Anna

    2004-01-01

    Venemaal suure menuga linastunud fantaasiafilm Moskva vampiiridest "Öine patrull" ("Notshnoi dozor"). Osatäitjatest, ka neist, kes ei läbinud proovivõtteid, kui ka neist, kes pelgasid musti jõude ja vampiire mängida

  6. Managing and reducing educators' resistance to change in Sediben-West (D8) / Anna Lebohang Molete

    OpenAIRE

    Molete, Anna Lebohang

    2004-01-01

    The following key words were used: resistance, change, renewal, conflict, change management, resistance management, restructuring. All economies, and especially an economy like that of The New South Africa, depend on a well-educated, adaptable and continuously teaching work force to generate and implement change and innovation in schools. This requires a high quality and standard of education. Furthermore, education has a critical role to play in attempts to develop and maintain successful de...

  7. Students̀ interest to studying English in a higher institution / Anna Artamonova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Artamonova, Anna

    2001-01-01

    Läti Ülikooli inglise keele osakonnas korraldati 2001.a. sept.-s kaugõppe üliõpilaste küsitlus. Küsitlustulemuste analüüsist selgus, et üliõpilastel on tugev saavutusmotivatsioon, st. nad soovivad omandada sügavaid teadmisi inglise keelest, saada kõrge kvalifikatsiooniga spetsialistiks, kuid ei ole samas huvitatud inglise kirjandusest kui erialast, soovides töötad teistel erialadel

  8. Hispaania peaministri välispoliitika hirmutab / Anna-Maria Penu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Penu, Anna-Maria, 1978-

    2005-01-01

    Väidetavalt käitub Hispaania peaminister Luis Rodriguez Zapatero tihti impulsiivselt ning läbimõtlematult ning on seejärel sunnitud vabandama. See aga ei jää rahvusvahelisel tasandil märkamata ega tagajärgedeta. Lisad: Koostöö Venezuelaga nafta nimel; USA suhted Hispaaniaga keerulised

  9. Carl Linnaeus, Erasmus Darwin and Anna Seward: Botanical Poetry and Female Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Sam

    2014-01-01

    This article will explore the intersection between "literature" and "science" in one key area, the botanical poem with scientific notes. It reveals significant aspects of the way knowledge was gendered in the Enlightenment, which is relevant to the present-day education of girls in science. It aims to illustrate how members of…

  10. Cultural traits of the Vends in the archaeological material from the Salaspils Laukskola cemetary / Anna Zariạ

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Zariạ, Anna

    2006-01-01

    Väina-äärse liivi kalmistu leiud näitavad, et liivlaste kultuurile on jätnud jälje ka vendid (Kuramaa lännemeresoomlastest asukad). Vendid, kes 10. 12. saj. Põhja-Kuramaalt välja rändasid, võisid elama asuma Daugavaalamjooksule Laukskola külla. Vendide kultuurile iseloomulikust rõivakaunistusviisist

  11. Odavlennufirma kalliks maksma läinud lennud / Anna-Maria Penu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Penu, Anna-Maria, 1978-

    2006-01-01

    Odavlennufirma Air Madrid lennuluba tühistati mitmepäevaste hilinemiste ja lendude ärajätmiste, samuti lennukite ebaturvalise seisukorra tõttu. Vt. samas: Odavalt saab lennata väiksema mugavuse eest

  12. Anna Madoeuf et Raffaele Cattedra (dir.), Lire les villes, Panoramas du monde urbain contemporain

    OpenAIRE

    Banaré, Eddy

    2013-01-01

    Il y a une Bahia pour Jorge Amado, une Chicago pour Saul Bellow, une Prague pour Kafka, un Fort-de-France pour Patrick Chamoiseau, Faulkner a inventé son Yoknapatawpha et Garcia-Marquez son Macondo ; il est impossible d’achever un inventaire qui montre que la littérature se fait avec et dans la ville, et surtout, y déploie un langage qu’il nous est indispensable d’entendre et d’interpréter. Pas uniquement lieu d’inspiration, la ville est d’abord le prétexte d’interrogations ; c’est là que l’a...

  13. Nastojashtsheje volshebstvo bõvajet ne tolko v skazkah / Anna Orshanskaja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Orshanskaja, Anna

    1999-01-01

    Juri Plenini kirjutatud ja lavastatud jõulunäidend lastele "Santa-Klausi kuldkelluke" Kultuurimajas "Rugodiv". Mängivad täiskasvanud ja lapsed stuudiotest "Shkola klounov", "Komiksõ" ja Natalja Mõttuse juhtimisel tegutsevast lastestuudiost "Jun-Osta"

  14. Endine Briti kaitseatašee Eestis : raiskajad tuleks vangi panna / Anna-Liisa Soomann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soomann, Anna-Liisa

    2007-01-01

    Aastaid Eestis Suurbritannia kaitseatašeena töötanud ning hiljem kaitseministeeriumi nõustanud kolonelleitnant Glen Grant kritiseeris pärast Eestist lahkumist siinsete kaitsejõudude ülesehitust ning ametkondades levivat ressursside raiskamist. Lisa: Glen Grant. Vt. samas: Holger Roonemaa intervjuu Ants Laaneotsaga

  15. Kiviõli ei anna oma tuhamäge Sondale / Gerli Romanovitsh

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Romanovitš, Gerli, 1977-

    2004-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Severnoje Poberezhje, 22. mai 2004, lk. 4. Kiviõli linnavolikogu otsusest lükata tagasi Sonda volikogu ettepanek omavalitsuste halduspiiride muutmiseks, mille tulemusel oleksid Kiviõli Keemiatööstuse karjäär ja koksimägi hakanud paiknema samas haldusüksuses

  16. Edgar Savisaar : Mina ei anna mitte mingit hinnangut / Edgar Savisaar ; interv. Dannar Leitmaa, Holger Roonemaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Savisaar, Edgar, 1950-

    2008-01-01

    Tallinna linnapea vastused linnavalitsuse pressikonverentsil küsimustele, mis puudutasid Keskerakonna suurrahastaja Oliver Kruuda omavolilist ehitamist Nõmmel. Vt. samas: Holger Roonemaa. Inspektorid ei pannud Kruuda tegevust tähele

  17. Õun. Minu kõige mõttetum ost : [jutt] / Anna Hints

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hints, Anna

    2006-01-01

    Sisu: Juuli 2004 ; August 2004 ; September 2004 ; September 2004, kuskil keskel ; September 2004, lõpus ; Oktoober 2004, 1. nädal ; Oktoober 2004, 2. nädal ; Oktoober 2004, 3. nädala alguses ; Oktoober 2004, 3. nädala lõpupoole ; Oktoober 2004, 4. nädal ; November 2004, 1. nädal ; November 2004, lõpp ; Jaanuar 2005, täna

  18. The generational relay race Boðhlaup kynslóðanna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gylfi Magnússon

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the development of private consumption, public consumption, national and domestic product in Iceland from 1870 to present times and projects likely changes for the next 50 years. It is established that the later people are born during this period the greater will their consumption be on average. The difference from one generation to the next is very large in the early part of the period analyzed here. It has since shrunk but is still substantial. Children born in the year 2010 can expect that their lifetime private consumption will be 22% larger than their parents and their consumption of public goods 78% larger. Both private and public consumption have increased substantially from one generation to the next but public consumption has grown faster. The article also estimates the value of the Icelandic economy based on its ability to create goods and services and finds that it was 51.100 billion ISK in the year 2011. That is sixty times greater than in the year 1870.Grein þessi fjallar um þróun einkaneyslu, samneyslu, þjóðar- og landsframleiðslu og eignir Íslendinga frá árinu 1870 og til vorra daga auk þess að spá líklegri þróun 50 ár fram í tímann. Í ljós kemur að því síðar sem fólk fæðist á þeim tíma sem skoðaður er þeim mun meiri verður neysla þeirra að jafnaði. Mjög mikill munur er á neyslu einstakra kynslóða framan af tímabilinu. Hann fer síðan minnkandi en er þó áfram talsverður. Þannig geta börn fædd árið 2010 vænst þess að samanlögð einkaneysla þeirra alla ævina verði um 22% meiri en foreldranna og samneysla 78% meiri. Bæði einkaneysla og samneysla hafa aukist verulega frá einni kynslóð til annarrar en þó samneysla hlutfallslega meira. Í greininni er jafnframt lagt mat á verðmæti íslenska hagkerfisins í ljósi framleiðslugetu þess og er niðurstaðan um 51.100 milljarðar árið 2011. Það er sextugföldun frá árinu 1870.

  19. Õun. Minu kõige mõttetum ost : [jutt] / Anna Hints

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hints, Anna

    2006-01-01

    Sisu: Juuli 2004 ; August 2004 ; September 2004 ; September 2004, kuskil keskel ; September 2004, lõpus ; Oktoober 2004, 1. nädal ; Oktoober 2004, 2. nädal ; Oktoober 2004, 3. nädala alguses ; Oktoober 2004, 3. nädala lõpupoole ; Oktoober 2004, 4. nädal ; November 2004, 1. nädal ; November 2004, lõpp ; Jaanuar 2005, täna

  20. Daniel Pipes: saabuvad kriisid näitavad Euroopa arengusuunda / Daniel Pipes ; interv. Iivi Anna Masso

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pipes, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Lähis-Ida uurija vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad Iisraeli mainet, Hamasi ja Fatahi konflikti, Iisraeli ja palestiinlaste konflikti, islami ja islamismi erinevust, islamofoobia mõistet, tema ennustust islami ja Euroopa suhete kohta, sõnavabadust, vaenlast terrorismivastases sõjas, uuskonservatiivsuse mõistet, Euroopa Liitu, USA tulevaste presidendivalimiste tulemuse mõju maailmale. Uurija on seisukohal, et Euroopa ja seal elavate muslimite vahelistes suhetes kriisi ärahoidmiseks peaks Euroopa muslimid tõeliselt integreerima

  1. Fabre Daniel, Iuso Anna, (Dir., Les monuments sont habités

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Rivière

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Un coup fumant en couverture ! Une pyramide pharaonique, au pied de laquelle un touriste a laissé sa twingo verte, laisse échapper d’une cheminée un joli panache. Hello, mon vieux Kheops !... Pilote de la recherche patrimoniale au Ministère de la Culture, C. Hottin énonce d’abord sa mission monumentale de sauvegarde de châteaux et cités en adoptant le point de vue de D. Fabre sur la dynamique : déclassement du stigmate – classement comme mémoire – sur-classement pour une glorification, ainsi ...

  2. Tänapäevased liikursuurtükid / Anna Kern

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kern, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Riigikaitse arengukavas (a. 2013-2022) on ette nähtud võimalused 1. jalaväebrigaadile hankida tänapäevased liikursuurtükid. Ülevaade liikursuurtükkide loomisest, kasutamisest sõdades ja tänapäevase liikursuurtüki iseloomustus. Näiteid erinevtest liikursuurtükkidest: Archer (Rootsi), Panzerhaubitze 2000 (Saksamaa), Caesar (Prantsusmaa), M777 (USA). Lisatud tabel tehniliste andmetega

  3. Sünnitades "Ema ja tütart" / Anna Hints

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hints, Anna, 1982-

    2010-01-01

    Tartu sünnitusmajale Toomemäel, naise eluringile ja põlvkondade järjepidevusele pühendatud "Ema ja tütar" kui koha, heli, foto ja rituaalse tegevuse koostoimel sündinud autori tajuvõrgustikku dekodeeriv pärimusliku ja isikliku taustaga kunstitöö

  4. EU Common Energy Policy: A Trojan Horse for Member States? / Anna-Maria Galojan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Galojan, Anna-Maria, 1982-

    2009-01-01

    Euroopa Liidu ja Venemaa suhetest energeetika valdkonnas. Autor leiab, et Eesti peaks aktiivselt osalema Euroopa Liidu ühise energiapoliitika väljatöötamisel ning mõstma, et see on osa välis- ja kaitsepoliitikast

  5. Film "Medvezhi potselui" prozvali "Proshtshalnõm potselujem" / Anna Veligzhanina, Andrei Veligzhanin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Veligzhanina, Anna

    2003-01-01

    Dresseerijad Natalja ja Juri Aleksandrovid jutustavad, kuidas toimusid Sergei Bodrovi mängufilmi "Karu suudlus" ("Medvezhi potselui") võtted, mis jäid viimaseks peaosatäitjale, traagiliselt hukkunud Sergei Bodrov jun-le

  6. Managing and reducing educators' resistance to change in Sediben-West (D8) / Anna Lebohang Molete

    OpenAIRE

    Molete, Anna Lebohang

    2004-01-01

    The following key words were used: resistance, change, renewal, conflict, change management, resistance management, restructuring. All economies, and especially an economy like that of The New South Africa, depend on a well-educated, adaptable and continuously teaching work force to generate and implement change and innovation in schools. This requires a high quality and standard of education. Furthermore, education has a critical role to play in attempts to develop and maintain successful de...

  7. Daniel Pipes: saabuvad kriisid näitavad Euroopa arengusuunda / Daniel Pipes ; interv. Iivi Anna Masso

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pipes, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Lähis-Ida uurija vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad Iisraeli mainet, Hamasi ja Fatahi konflikti, Iisraeli ja palestiinlaste konflikti, islami ja islamismi erinevust, islamofoobia mõistet, tema ennustust islami ja Euroopa suhete kohta, sõnavabadust, vaenlast terrorismivastases sõjas, uuskonservatiivsuse mõistet, Euroopa Liitu, USA tulevaste presidendivalimiste tulemuse mõju maailmale. Uurija on seisukohal, et Euroopa ja seal elavate muslimite vahelistes suhetes kriisi ärahoidmiseks peaks Euroopa muslimid tõeliselt integreerima

  8. Martin Luther jõuab ka Balti riikide lavadele / Anna-Liisa Vaher

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaher, Anna-Liisa

    2006-01-01

    Moskva ballettmeister Dmitri Bugajev tõi lavale balleti "Martin Luther". Ballett tugineb Johann Sebastian Bachi ja Gustav Mahleri muusikale. "Martin Lutherit" etendati Helsingi Aleksandri Teatris, tantsivad Moskva Suure Teatri, Maria Teatri ja teiste Venemaa balletiteatrite solistid

  9. Vabavara ei anna säästu kergelt kätte / Norbert Kaareste

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaareste, Norbert

    2007-01-01

    Riigi kulude kokkuhoiuvõimalustest seoses üleminekuga vabatarkvarale. Vt. samas: Täielik üleminek pole kasulik. Vabavarateemalist internetisaiti ülal pidav Siim Karus ei näe vabavara kasutamises suurt riigiraha kokkuhoidu; Hiina riigi üleminek vabavarale ebaõnnestus; Tallinna Ülikooli sotsiaalse ja vabatarkvara dotsent Kaido Kikkas soovitab

  10. ['Exotic bird" or "grande dame" of psychoanalysis? The atypical professional career of Anna Kattrin Kemper].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Füchtner, Hans

    2007-01-01

    A. K. Kemper's ascent from a life of poverty in Germany to a successful psychoanalytic practice in Brazil ran counter to all professional norms. With a minimum of formal training and a lot of willpower Kemper reached her professional goal, for which she felt she was destined because of her therapeutic talent. Her success was in no small measure due to the help of her husband, the psychoanalyst Werner Kemper, who had been invited to establish a psychoanalytic society in Rio de Janeiro. Some other German analysts also helped her to become an analyst and training analyst in a short period of time despite insufficient knowledge of psychoanalysis. However, her astonishing career caused considerable conflicts, which harmed her husband's reputation. While she remained controversial, she was respected by many and received numerous honours. The foundation of a social clinic for psychoanalysis counts among her most remarkable accomplishments.

  11. Oma ala meistriks saab igaüks isemoodi / Anna-Liisa Mets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mets, Anna-Liisa

    2014-01-01

    Selgusid kutsemeistrivõistluse "Noor meister 2014" parimad. Edukalt esinenud õppurid meisterkondiiter Helen Laht, ehituspuussepp Mirko Pruus, logistik Karl-Erik Maripuu, keskkonnatehnika lukksepp Robert Born, elektrik Tiit Talts ja müürsepp Sander Hindrikus räägivad oma ametiõpingutest ja tulevikuplaanidest

  12. Field Report: Anna Plains and Roebuck Bay Benthic Invertebrate Mapping 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Piersma, Theunis; Pearson, Grant B.; Marc S S Lavaleye; Hickey, Robert; Rogers, Danny; Holthuijsen, Sander; Estrella, Sora-Marin; de Goeij, Petra; Findlay, Naomi; Storey, Andrew W.

    2016-01-01

    This project has been funded by the Department of Parks and Wildlife partnership with BHP Billiton “Eighty Mile Beach and Walyarta Conservation Program”, with in-kind support from NIOZ and Wetland Research & Management This report was produced at the Broome Bird Observatory in late October 2016. Abstract 1. This is a report on repeat surveys on the state of the benthic invertebrates at two internationally important areas of intertidal mudflats in northwest Australia (Roebuck Bay and Eighty Mi...

  13. Edgar Savisaar : Mina ei anna mitte mingit hinnangut / Edgar Savisaar ; interv. Dannar Leitmaa, Holger Roonemaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Savisaar, Edgar, 1950-

    2008-01-01

    Tallinna linnapea vastused linnavalitsuse pressikonverentsil küsimustele, mis puudutasid Keskerakonna suurrahastaja Oliver Kruuda omavolilist ehitamist Nõmmel. Vt. samas: Holger Roonemaa. Inspektorid ei pannud Kruuda tegevust tähele

  14. Prantsuse tippnäitleja Perrier mängib Anna Politkovskaja lugu / Andres Laasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laasik, Andres, 1960-2016

    2009-01-01

    20. ja 21. okt. näeb Tallinnas Katariina kirikus prantsuse näitlejanna Mireille Perrier` esituses monotükki "Parandamatu", mis põhineb itaallase Stefano Massini näidendil "Donna non rieducabile". Tallinnasse kutsus näitlejanna esinema Lembit Peterson

  15. Die Weiterverbreitung digitaler Güter / Jochen Marly, Anna-Lena Wirz

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Marly, Jochen

    2017-01-01

    Autoriõigusega kaitstud digitaalse materjaliga seotud probleemidest, Euroopa Kohtu lahendist 174/15, mis käsitleb küsimust, kas raamatukogudel on lubatud laenata autoriõigustega kaitstud digitaalset E-raamatut samamoodi nagu paberkandjal raamatut. Vt. ka lk. 20-23

  16. Odavlennufirma kalliks maksma läinud lennud / Anna-Maria Penu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Penu, Anna-Maria, 1978-

    2006-01-01

    Odavlennufirma Air Madrid lennuluba tühistati mitmepäevaste hilinemiste ja lendude ärajätmiste, samuti lennukite ebaturvalise seisukorra tõttu. Vt. samas: Odavalt saab lennata väiksema mugavuse eest

  17. Nastojashtsheje volshebstvo bõvajet ne tolko v skazkah / Anna Orshanskaja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Orshanskaja, Anna

    1999-01-01

    Juri Plenini kirjutatud ja lavastatud jõulunäidend lastele "Santa-Klausi kuldkelluke" Kultuurimajas "Rugodiv". Mängivad täiskasvanud ja lapsed stuudiotest "Shkola klounov", "Komiksõ" ja Natalja Mõttuse juhtimisel tegutsevast lastestuudiost "Jun-Osta"

  18. Hispaania peaministri välispoliitika hirmutab / Anna-Maria Penu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Penu, Anna-Maria, 1978-

    2005-01-01

    Väidetavalt käitub Hispaania peaminister Luis Rodriguez Zapatero tihti impulsiivselt ning läbimõtlematult ning on seejärel sunnitud vabandama. See aga ei jää rahvusvahelisel tasandil märkamata ega tagajärgedeta. Lisad: Koostöö Venezuelaga nafta nimel; USA suhted Hispaaniaga keerulised

  19. ETA rahuprotsess ajas tülli Hispaania suurimad parteid / Anna-Maria Penu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Penu, Anna-Maria, 1978-

    2006-01-01

    Hispaania peaminister Luiz Rodriguez Zapatero teatas baski sotsialistide kavatsusest alustada läbirääkimisi ETA poliitilise esindajaga. Autori väitel on valitsuse ja opositsiooni suhted ETA-teema tõttu katkenud, peaministri ootamatud sammud ja reeglite muutmine ETA-ga seoses tekitavad ühiskonnas ebakindlust. Lisa: ETA on euroliidu nimekirjas

  20. Field Report : Anna Plains and Roebuck Bay Benthic Invertebrate Mapping 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piersma, Theunis; Pearson, Grant B.; Lavaleye, Marc S. S.; Hickey, Robert; Rogers, Danny; Holthuijsen, Sander; Estrella, Sora-Marin; de Goeij, Petra; Findlay, Naomi; Storey, Andrew W.

    2016-01-01

    This project has been funded by the Department of Parks and Wildlife partnership with BHP Billiton “Eighty Mile Beach and Walyarta Conservation Program”, with in-kind support from NIOZ and Wetland Research & Management This report was produced at the Broome Bird Observatory in late October 2016.