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Sample records for hummingbirds calypte anna

  1. Hovering performance of Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna) in ground effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Erica J; Wolf, Marta; Ortega-Jimenez, Victor Manuel; Cheng, Stanley H; Dudley, Robert

    2014-09-06

    Aerodynamic performance and energetic savings for flight in ground effect are theoretically maximized during hovering, but have never been directly measured for flying animals. We evaluated flight kinematics, metabolic rates and induced flow velocities for Anna's hummingbirds hovering at heights (relative to wing length R = 5.5 cm) of 0.7R, 0.9R, 1.1R, 1.7R, 2.2R and 8R above a solid surface. Flight at heights less than or equal to 1.1R resulted in significant reductions in the body angle, tail angle, anatomical stroke plane angle, wake-induced velocity, and mechanical and metabolic power expenditures when compared with flight at the control height of 8R. By contrast, stroke plane angle relative to horizontal, wingbeat amplitude and wingbeat frequency were unexpectedly independent of height from ground. Qualitative smoke visualizations suggest that each wing generates a vortex ring during both down- and upstroke. These rings expand upon reaching the ground and present a complex turbulent interaction below the bird's body. Nonetheless, hovering near surfaces results in substantial energetic benefits for hummingbirds, and by inference for all volant taxa that either feed at flowers or otherwise fly close to plant or other surfaces. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  2. Neuromuscular control of wingbeat kinematics in Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altshuler, Douglas L; Welch, Kenneth C; Cho, Brian H; Welch, Danny B; Lin, Amy F; Dickson, William B; Dickinson, Michael H

    2010-07-15

    Hummingbirds can maintain the highest wingbeat frequencies of any flying vertebrate - a feat accomplished by the large pectoral muscles that power the wing strokes. An unusual feature of these muscles is that they are activated by one or a few spikes per cycle as revealed by electromyogram recordings (EMGs). The relatively simple nature of this activation pattern provides an opportunity to understand how motor units are recruited to modulate limb kinematics. Hummingbirds made to fly in low-density air responded by moderately increasing wingbeat frequency and substantially increasing the wing stroke amplitude as compared with flight in normal air. There was little change in the number of spikes per EMG burst in the pectoralis major muscle between flight in normal and low-density heliox (mean=1.4 spikes cycle(-1)). However the spike amplitude, which we take to be an indication of the number of active motor units, increased in concert with the wing stroke amplitude, 1.7 times the value in air. We also challenged the hummingbirds using transient load lifting to elicit maximum burst performance. During maximum load lifting, both wing stroke amplitude and wingbeat frequency increased substantially above those values during hovering flight. The number of spikes per EMG burst increased to a mean of 3.3 per cycle, and the maximum spike amplitude increased to approximately 1.6 times those values during flight in heliox. These results suggest that hummingbirds recruit additional motor units (spatial recruitment) to regulate wing stroke amplitude but that temporal recruitment is also required to maintain maximum stroke amplitude at the highest wingbeat frequencies.

  3. Muscle activation patterns and motor anatomy of Anna's hummingbirds Calypte anna and zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Edward R; Keeney, Brooke K; Kung, Eric; Makan, Sirish; Wild, J Martin; Altshuler, Douglas L

    2013-01-01

    Flying animals exhibit profound transformations in anatomy, physiology, and neural architecture. Although much is known about adaptations in the avian skeleton and musculature, less is known about neuroanatomy and motor unit integration for bird flight. Hummingbirds are among the most maneuverable and specialized of vertebrate fliers, and two unusual neuromuscular features have been previously reported: (1) the pectoralis major has a unique distribution pattern of motor end plates (MEPs) compared with all other birds and (2) electromyograms (EMGs) from the hummingbird's pectoral muscles, the pectoralis major and the supracoracoideus, show activation bursts composed of one or a few spikes that appear to have a very consistent pattern. Here, we place these findings in a broader context by comparing the MEPs, EMGs, and organization of the spinal motor neuron pools of flight muscles of Anna's hummingbird Calypte anna, zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata, and, for MEPs, several other species. The previously shown MEP pattern of the hummingbird pectoralis major is not shared with its closest taxonomic relative, the swift, and appears to be unique to hummingbirds. MEP arrangements in previously undocumented wing muscles show patterns that differ somewhat from other avian muscles. In the parallel-fibered strap muscles of the shoulder, MEP patterns appear to relate to muscle length, with the smallest muscles having fibers that span the entire muscle. MEP patterns in pennate distal wing muscles were the same regardless of size, with tightly clustered bands in the middle portion of the muscle, not evenly distributed bands over the muscle's entire length. Muscle activations were examined during slow forward flight in both species, during hovering in hummingbirds, and during slow ascents in zebra finches. The EMG bursts of a wing muscle, the pronator superficialis, were highly variable in peak number, size, and distribution across wingbeats for both species. In the pectoralis

  4. Dietary protein level affects iridescent coloration in Anna's hummingbirds, Calypte anna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Melissa G; Roudybush, Thomas E; McGraw, Kevin J

    2012-08-15

    Many animal displays involve colorful ornamental traits that signal an individual's quality as a mate or rival. Brilliant iridescent ornaments are common, but little is currently known about their production cost and signaling value. One potential cost of colorful ornaments is the acquisition of limited dietary resources that may be involved, directly or indirectly, in their production. Protein, the primary component of bird feathers and of many nanostructural components of iridescent traits, is naturally restricted in hummingbird diets (comprised mostly of sugars), suggesting that iridescent coloration may be especially challenging to produce in these animals. In this study, we experimentally investigated the effect of dietary protein availability during molt on iridescent color expression in male Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna). We fed captive birds either a 6% (high) or a 3% (low) protein diet and stimulated molt by plucking half the gorget and crown ornaments on each bird as well as the non-ornamental iridescent green tail feathers. We found that birds receiving more protein grew significantly more colorful crown feathers (higher red chroma and redder hue) than those fed the low-protein diet. Diet did not affect gorget coloration, but regrowth of feathers in captivity affected both gorget and crown coloration. Additionally, birds on the high-protein diet grew yellower (higher hue) green tail feathers than birds on the low-protein diet. These results indicate that iridescent ornamental feathers are sensitive to diet quality and may serve as honest signals of nutrition to mates or rivals. Further, because both ornamental and non-ornamental iridescent coloration were affected by conditions during their growth, iridescent color in these birds appears to be generally condition dependent.

  5. Wingbeat kinematics and motor control of yaw turns in Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altshuler, Douglas L; Quicazán-Rubio, Elsa M; Segre, Paolo S; Middleton, Kevin M

    2012-12-01

    The biomechanical and neuromuscular mechanisms used by different animals to generate turns in flight are highly variable. Body size and body plan exert some influence, e.g. birds typically roll their body to orient forces generated by the wings whereas insects are capable of turning via left-right wingbeat asymmetries. Turns are also relatively brief and have low repeatability, with almost every wingbeat serving a different function throughout the change in heading. Here we present an analysis of Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna) as they fed continuously from an artificial feeder revolving around the outside of the animal. This setup allowed for examination of sustained changes in yaw without requiring any corresponding changes in pitch, roll or body position. Hummingbirds sustained yaw turns by expanding the wing stroke amplitude of the outer wing during the downstroke and by altering the deviation of the wingtip path during both downstroke and upstroke. The latter led to a shift in the inner-outer stroke plane angle during the upstroke and shifts in the elevation of the stroke plane and in the deviation of the wingtip path during both strokes. These features are generally more similar to how insects, as opposed to birds, turn. However, time series analysis also revealed considerable stroke-to-stroke variation. Changes in the stroke amplitude and the wingtip velocity were highly cross-correlated, as were changes in the stroke deviation and the elevation of the stroke plane. As was the case for wingbeat kinematics, electromyogram recordings from pectoral and wing muscles were highly variable, but no correlations were found between these two features of motor control. The high variability of both kinematic and muscle activation features indicates a high level of wingbeat-to-wingbeat adjustments during sustained yaw. The activation timing of the muscles was more repeatable than the activation intensity, which suggests that the former may be constrained by harmonic

  6. Clinical findings and normative ocular data for free-living Anna's (Calypte anna) and Black-chinned (Archilochus alexandri) Hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Bret A; Maggs, David J; Kim, Soohyun; Motta, Monica J; Bandivadekar, Ruta; Tell, Lisa A; Murphy, Christopher J

    2018-02-20

    To estimate the prevalence of ocular disease and obtain normative ocular data for free-living hummingbirds. Two hundred and sixty-three free-living, adult Hummingbirds from coastal and inland central California were studied, including Anna's (Calypte anna, n = 186) and Black-chinned (Archilochus alexandri; n = 77) hummingbirds. Slit lamp biomicroscopy and indirect ophthalmoscopy were performed on all individuals. Rebound tonometry, measurement of horizontal palpebral fissure length, and streak retinoscopy were performed on select individuals. Five conscious Anna's Hummingbirds underwent ocular imaging including fundus photography, digital slit lamp photography, and anterior segment and retinal optical coherence tomography. The prevalence of ocular disease in this population was 2.28%. Ocular imaging revealed a thin cornea, shallow anterior chamber, large lens, and a single central, deep convexiclivate fovea. Mean ± SD intraocular pressure was 11.21 ± 2.23 mm Hg. Mean ± SD eyelid length was 2.59 ± 0.19 mm. All eyes were emmetropic or mildly hyperopic with a mean (range) ± SD refractive error of +0.32 (-0.25 to +1) ± 0.33 diopters. Consistent with previous reports, these data suggest that hummingbirds have visual characteristics found in predatory and prey species, as well as a low prevalence of spontaneous ocular disease. This work provides a set of reference values and clinical findings that can be used in the future research on hummingbird vision and ocular disease. It also provides representative diagnostic images of normal birds and demonstrates that advanced ocular imaging can be performed on manually restrained hummingbirds without pharmacologic dilation. © 2018 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  7. Structure of the vortex wake in hovering Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna).

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    Wolf, M; Ortega-Jimenez, V M; Dudley, R

    2013-12-22

    Hummingbirds are specialized hoverers for which the vortex wake has been described as a series of single vortex rings shed primarily during the downstroke. Recent findings in bats and birds, as well as in a recent study on Anna's hummingbirds, suggest that each wing may shed a discrete vortex ring, yielding a bilaterally paired wake. Here, we describe the presence of two discrete rings in the wake of hovering Anna's hummingbirds, and also infer force production through a wingbeat with contributions to weight support. Using flow visualization, we found separate vortices at the tip and root of each wing, with 15% stronger circulation at the wingtip than at the root during the downstroke. The upstroke wake is more complex, with near-continuous shedding of vorticity, and circulation of approximately equal magnitude at tip and root. Force estimates suggest that the downstroke contributes 66% of required weight support, whereas the upstroke generates 35%. We also identified a secondary vortex structure yielding 8-26% of weight support. Lift production in Anna's hummingbirds is more evenly distributed between the stroke phases than previously estimated for Rufous hummingbirds, in accordance with the generally symmetric down- and upstrokes that characterize hovering in these birds.

  8. Evaluation of Proctophyllodes huitzilopochtlii on feathers from Anna's (Calypte anna) and Black-chinned (Archilochus alexandri) Hummingbirds: Prevalence assessment and imaging analysis using light and tabletop scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Youki K; Graves, Emily E; Houston, Robin S; OConnor, Barry M; Kysar, Patricia E; Straub, Mary H; Foley, Janet E; Tell, Lisa A

    2018-01-01

    Proctophyllodes huitzilopochtlii Atyeo & Braasch 1966 (Acariformes: Astigmata: Proctophyllodidae), a feather mite, was found on feathers collected from five hummingbird species in California. This mite has not been previously documented on feathers from Anna's (Calypte anna [Lesson 1829]) or Black-chinned (Archilochus alexandri [Bourcier & Mulsant 1846]) Hummingbirds. A total of 753 hummingbirds were evaluated for the presence of mites by species (Allen's n = 112; Anna's n = 500; Black-chinned n = 122; Rufous n = 18; Calliope n = 1), sex (males n = 421; females n = 329; 3 unidentified), and age (juvenile n = 199; after-hatch-year n = 549; 5 unidentified). Of these 753 hummingbirds evaluated, mites were present on the rectrices of 40.9% of the birds. Significantly more Anna's Hummingbirds were positive for rectricial mites (59.2%) compared with 8.2% of Black-chinned, 0.9% of Allen's, 5.6% of Rufous Hummingbirds, and 0% for Calliope (p-value hummingbird species, male hummingbirds (44.9%) had a higher prevalence of rectricial mites compared to female hummingbirds (36.2%; p-value = 0.004), while juvenile hummingbirds (46.2%) had a non-significantly higher prevalence compared to after-hatch-year hummingbirds (39.0%; p-value = 0.089). On average, the percentage of the long axis of the rachis occupied by mites for the outer rectrices (R4 and R5) was 19%, compared to 11% for inner rectrices (R1 and R2), a significant difference (p-value = hummingbird-feather mite relationship is not well understood, but the specialized TSEM technique may be especially useful in examining natural positioning and developmental aspects of the mites since it allows in situ feather examination of live mites.

  9. Evaluation of Proctophyllodes huitzilopochtlii on feathers from Anna's (Calypte anna and Black-chinned (Archilochus alexandri Hummingbirds: Prevalence assessment and imaging analysis using light and tabletop scanning electron microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youki K Yamasaki

    Full Text Available Proctophyllodes huitzilopochtlii Atyeo & Braasch 1966 (Acariformes: Astigmata: Proctophyllodidae, a feather mite, was found on feathers collected from five hummingbird species in California. This mite has not been previously documented on feathers from Anna's (Calypte anna [Lesson 1829] or Black-chinned (Archilochus alexandri [Bourcier & Mulsant 1846] Hummingbirds. A total of 753 hummingbirds were evaluated for the presence of mites by species (Allen's n = 112; Anna's n = 500; Black-chinned n = 122; Rufous n = 18; Calliope n = 1, sex (males n = 421; females n = 329; 3 unidentified, and age (juvenile n = 199; after-hatch-year n = 549; 5 unidentified. Of these 753 hummingbirds evaluated, mites were present on the rectrices of 40.9% of the birds. Significantly more Anna's Hummingbirds were positive for rectricial mites (59.2% compared with 8.2% of Black-chinned, 0.9% of Allen's, 5.6% of Rufous Hummingbirds, and 0% for Calliope (p-value < 0.0001. Across all hummingbird species, male hummingbirds (44.9% had a higher prevalence of rectricial mites compared to female hummingbirds (36.2%; p-value = 0.004, while juvenile hummingbirds (46.2% had a non-significantly higher prevalence compared to after-hatch-year hummingbirds (39.0%; p-value = 0.089. On average, the percentage of the long axis of the rachis occupied by mites for the outer rectrices (R4 and R5 was 19%, compared to 11% for inner rectrices (R1 and R2, a significant difference (p-value = <0.0001. There was a marginal lack of significance for symmetrical distribution of tail mites with the mean left side percentage of long axis of the rachis occupied by mites being 16% and very close to the mean right side score of 18% (p-value = 0.003. The identification of the feather mite species was based on light microscopic morphometry, and mite distribution on feathers was further evaluated using tabletop scanning electron microscopy (TSEM. The hummingbird-feather mite relationship is not well understood

  10. Evaluation of Proctophyllodes huitzilopochtlii on feathers from Anna’s (Calypte anna) and Black-chinned (Archilochus alexandri) Hummingbirds: Prevalence assessment and imaging analysis using light and tabletop scanning electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Youki K.; Graves, Emily E.; Kysar, Patricia E.; Straub, Mary H.

    2018-01-01

    Proctophyllodes huitzilopochtlii Atyeo & Braasch 1966 (Acariformes: Astigmata: Proctophyllodidae), a feather mite, was found on feathers collected from five hummingbird species in California. This mite has not been previously documented on feathers from Anna’s (Calypte anna [Lesson 1829]) or Black-chinned (Archilochus alexandri [Bourcier & Mulsant 1846]) Hummingbirds. A total of 753 hummingbirds were evaluated for the presence of mites by species (Allen’s n = 112; Anna’s n = 500; Black-chinned n = 122; Rufous n = 18; Calliope n = 1), sex (males n = 421; females n = 329; 3 unidentified), and age (juvenile n = 199; after-hatch-year n = 549; 5 unidentified). Of these 753 hummingbirds evaluated, mites were present on the rectrices of 40.9% of the birds. Significantly more Anna’s Hummingbirds were positive for rectricial mites (59.2%) compared with 8.2% of Black-chinned, 0.9% of Allen’s, 5.6% of Rufous Hummingbirds, and 0% for Calliope (p-value hummingbird species, male hummingbirds (44.9%) had a higher prevalence of rectricial mites compared to female hummingbirds (36.2%; p-value = 0.004), while juvenile hummingbirds (46.2%) had a non-significantly higher prevalence compared to after-hatch-year hummingbirds (39.0%; p-value = 0.089). On average, the percentage of the long axis of the rachis occupied by mites for the outer rectrices (R4 and R5) was 19%, compared to 11% for inner rectrices (R1 and R2), a significant difference (p-value = hummingbird–feather mite relationship is not well understood, but the specialized TSEM technique may be especially useful in examining natural positioning and developmental aspects of the mites since it allows in situ feather examination of live mites. PMID:29444089

  11. Hovering and forward flight energetics in Anna's and Allen's hummingbirds.

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    Clark, Christopher James; Dudley, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Aerodynamic theory predicts that the mechanical costs of flight are lowest at intermediate flight speeds; metabolic costs of flight should trend similarly if muscle efficiency is constant. We measured metabolic rates for nine Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna) and two male Allen's hummingbirds (Selasphorus sasin) feeding during flight from a free-standing mask over a range of airspeeds. Ten of 11 birds exhibited higher metabolic costs during hovering than during flight at intermediate airspeeds, whereas one individual exhibited comparable costs at hovering and during forward flight up to speeds of approximately 7 m s(-1). Flight costs of all hummingbirds increased at higher airspeeds. Relative to Anna's hummingbirds, Allen's hummingbirds exhibited deeper minima in the power curve, possibly due to higher wing loadings and greater associated costs of induced drag. Although feeding at a mask in an airstream may reduce body drag and, thus, the contributions of parasite power to overall metabolic expenditure, these results suggest that hummingbird power curves are characterized by energetic minima at intermediate speeds relative to hovering costs.

  12. Flying in the rain: hovering performance of Anna's hummingbirds under varied precipitation.

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    Ortega-Jimenez, Victor Manuel; Dudley, Robert

    2012-10-07

    Flight in rain represents a greater challenge for smaller animals because the relative effects of water loading and drop impact are greater at reduced scales given the increased ratios of surface area to mass. Nevertheless, it is well known that small volant taxa such as hummingbirds can continue foraging even in extreme precipitation. Here, we evaluated the effect of four rain intensities (i.e. zero, light, moderate and heavy) on the hovering performance of Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna) under laboratory conditions. Light-to-moderate rain had only a marginal effect on flight kinematics; wingbeat frequency of individuals in moderate rain was reduced by 7 per cent relative to control conditions. By contrast, birds hovering in heavy rain adopted more horizontal body and tail positions, and also increased wingbeat frequency substantially, while reducing stroke amplitude when compared with control conditions. The ratio between peak forces produced by single drops on a wing and on a solid surface suggests that feathers can absorb associated impact forces by up to approximately 50 per cent. Remarkably, hummingbirds hovered well even under heavy precipitation (i.e. 270 mm h(-1)) with no apparent loss of control, although mechanical power output assuming perfect and zero storage of elastic energy was estimated to be about 9 and 57 per cent higher, respectively, compared with normal hovering.

  13. Aerial shaking performance of wet Anna's hummingbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Jimenez, Victor Manuel; Dudley, Robert

    2012-01-01

    External wetting poses problems of immediate heat loss and long-term pathogen growth for vertebrates. Beyond these risks, the locomotor ability of smaller animals, and particularly of fliers, may be impaired by water adhering to the body. Here, we report on the remarkable ability of hummingbirds to perform rapid shakes in order to expel water from their plumage even while in flight. Kinematic performance of aerial versus non-aerial shakes (i.e. those performed while perching) was compared. Oscillation frequencies of the head, body and tail were lower in aerial shakes. Tangential speeds and accelerations of the trunk and tail were roughly similar in aerial and non-aerial shakes, but values for head motions in air were twice as high when compared with shakes while perching. Azimuthal angular amplitudes for both aerial and non-aerial shakes reached values greater than 180° for the head, greater than 45° for the body trunk and slightly greater than 90° for the tail and wings. Using a feather on an oscillating disc to mimic shaking motions, we found that bending increased average speeds by up to 36 per cent and accelerations of the feather tip up to fourfold relative to a hypothetical rigid feather. Feather flexibility may help to enhance shedding of water and reduce body oscillations during shaking. PMID:22072447

  14. Dietary protein level affects iridescent coloration in Anna's hummingbirds, Calypte anna

    OpenAIRE

    Meadows, Melissa G.; Roudybush, Thomas E.; McGraw, Kevin J.

    2012-01-01

    Many animal displays involve colorful ornamental traits that signal an individual's quality as a mate or rival. Brilliant iridescent ornaments are common, but little is currently known about their production cost and signaling value. One potential cost of colorful ornaments is the acquisition of limited dietary resources that may be involved, directly or indirectly, in their production. Protein, the primary component of bird feathers and of many nanostructural components of iridescent traits,...

  15. Leukocyte Reference Intervals for Free-Ranging Hummingbirds in Northern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safra, Noa; Christopher, Mary M; Ernest, Holly B; Bandivadekar, Ruta; Tell, Lisa A

    2018-04-04

    Hummingbirds are specialized nectarivores and important ecological pollinators that are the focus of conservation efforts as well as scientific investigations of metabolism and flight dynamics. Despite their importance, basic information is lacking about hummingbird blood cells. We aimed to establish reference intervals for total and differential leukocyte counts from healthy free-ranging hummingbirds in northern California. Hummingbirds were captured in five counties in spring and summer of 2012. A drop of blood was used to prepare smears for total white blood cell estimate and 200-cell differential leukocyte counts. Reference Value Advisor was used for descriptive statistics and calculation of reference intervals. Blood smears from 42 Anna's Hummingbirds ( Calypte anna) and 33 Black-chinned Hummingbirds ( Archilochus alexandri) were included. The only significant differences in leukocyte counts were due to age, and juvenile hummingbirds had significantly higher lymphocyte counts than adult hummingbirds ( Phummingbirds.

  16. Burst muscle performance predicts the speed, acceleration, and turning performance of Anna's hummingbirds.

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    Segre, Paolo S; Dakin, Roslyn; Zordan, Victor B; Dickinson, Michael H; Straw, Andrew D; Altshuler, Douglas L

    2015-11-19

    Despite recent advances in the study of animal flight, the biomechanical determinants of maneuverability are poorly understood. It is thought that maneuverability may be influenced by intrinsic body mass and wing morphology, and by physiological muscle capacity, but this hypothesis has not yet been evaluated because it requires tracking a large number of free flight maneuvers from known individuals. We used an automated tracking system to record flight sequences from 20 Anna's hummingbirds flying solo and in competition in a large chamber. We found that burst muscle capacity predicted most performance metrics. Hummingbirds with higher burst capacity flew with faster velocities, accelerations, and rotations, and they used more demanding complex turns. In contrast, body mass did not predict variation in maneuvering performance, and wing morphology predicted only the use of arcing turns and high centripetal accelerations. Collectively, our results indicate that burst muscle capacity is a key predictor of maneuverability.

  17. Hummingbirds rely on both paracellular and carrier-mediated intestinal glucose absorption to fuel high metabolism

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    McWhorter, Todd J; Bakken, Bradley Hartman; Karasov, William H; del Rio, Carlos Martínez

    2005-01-01

    Twenty years ago, the highest active glucose transport rate and lowest passive glucose permeability in vertebrates were reported in Rufous and Anna's hummingbirds (Selasphorus rufus, Calypte anna). These first measurements of intestinal nutrient absorption in nectarivores provided an unprecedented physiological foundation for understanding their foraging ecology. They showed that physiological processes are determinants of feeding behaviour. The conclusion that active, mediated transport accounts for essentially all glucose absorption in hummingbirds influenced two decades of subsequent research on the digestive physiology and nutritional ecology of nectarivores. Here, we report new findings demonstrating that the passive permeability of hummingbird intestines to glucose is much higher than previously reported, suggesting that not all sugar uptake is mediated. Even while possessing the highest active glucose transport rates measured in vertebrates, hummingbirds must rely partially on passive non-mediated intestinal nutrient absorption to meet their high mass-specific metabolic demands. PMID:17148346

  18. Detection and prevalence of Haemoproteus archilochus (Haemosporida, Haemoproteidae) in two species of California hummingbirds.

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    Bradshaw, A C; Tell, L A; Ernest, H B; Bahan, S; Carlson, J; Sehgal, R N M

    2017-07-01

    Haemosporidian blood parasites are transmitted to a wide range of avian hosts via blood-sucking dipteran vectors. Microscopy has revealed an impressive diversity of avian haemosporidia with more than 250 species described. Moreover, PCR and subsequent sequence analyses have suggested a much greater diversity of haemosporidia than morphological analyses alone. Given the importance of these parasites, very few studies have focused on the charismatic hummingbirds. To date, three Haemoproteus species (Haemoproteus archilochus, Haemoproteus trochili, and Haemoproteus witti) and one Leucocytozoon species (Leucocytozoon quynzae) have been described in blood samples taken from hummingbirds (Trochilidae). Unconfirmed Plasmodium lineages have also been detected in hummingbirds. Here, we report the detection of H. archilochus in two hummingbird species (Calypte anna and Archilochus alexandri) sampled in Northern California and perform a phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome b (cyt b) gene lineages. A total of 261 hummingbirds (157 C. anna, 104 A. alexandri) were sampled and screened for blood parasites using PCR and microscopy techniques. Combining both methods, 4 (2.55%) haemosporidian infections were detected in C. anna and 18 (17.31%) haemosporidian infections were detected in A. alexandri. Molecular analyses revealed four distinct H. archilocus cyt b lineages, which clustered as a monophyletic clade. No species of Plasmodium or Leucocytozoon were detected in this study, raising the possibility of specific vector associations with hummingbirds. These results provide resources for future studies of haemosporidian prevalence, diversity, and pathogenicity in California hummingbird populations.

  19. Electrostatic Charge on Flying Hummingbirds and Its Potential Role in Pollination.

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    Marc Badger

    Full Text Available Electrostatic phenomena are known to enhance both wind- and insect-mediated pollination, but have not yet been described for nectar-feeding vertebrates. Here we demonstrate that wild Anna's Hummingbirds (Calypte anna can carry positive charges up to 800 pC while in flight (mean ± s.d.: 66 ± 129 pC. Triboelectric charging obtained by rubbing an isolated hummingbird wing against various plant structures generated charges up to 700 pC. A metal hummingbird model charged to 400 pC induced bending of floral stamens in four plants (Nicotiana, Hemerocallis, Penstemon, and Aloe spp., and also attracted falling Lycopodium spores at distances of < 2 mm. Electrostatic forces may therefore influence pollen transfer onto nectar-feeding birds.

  20. Electrostatic Charge on Flying Hummingbirds and Its Potential Role in Pollination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badger, Marc; Ortega-Jimenez, Victor Manuel; von Rabenau, Lisa; Smiley, Ashley; Dudley, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Electrostatic phenomena are known to enhance both wind- and insect-mediated pollination, but have not yet been described for nectar-feeding vertebrates. Here we demonstrate that wild Anna's Hummingbirds (Calypte anna) can carry positive charges up to 800 pC while in flight (mean ± s.d.: 66 ± 129 pC). Triboelectric charging obtained by rubbing an isolated hummingbird wing against various plant structures generated charges up to 700 pC. A metal hummingbird model charged to 400 pC induced bending of floral stamens in four plants (Nicotiana, Hemerocallis, Penstemon, and Aloe spp.), and also attracted falling Lycopodium spores at distances of < 2 mm. Electrostatic forces may therefore influence pollen transfer onto nectar-feeding birds.

  1. Hovering hummingbird wing aerodynamics during the annual cycle. I. Complete wing.

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    Achache, Yonathan; Sapir, Nir; Elimelech, Yossef

    2017-08-01

    The diverse hummingbird family (Trochilidae) has unique adaptations for nectarivory, among which is the ability to sustain hover-feeding. As hummingbirds mainly feed while hovering, it is crucial to maintain this ability throughout the annual cycle-especially during flight-feather moult, in which wing area is reduced. To quantify the aerodynamic characteristics and flow mechanisms of a hummingbird wing throughout the annual cycle, time-accurate aerodynamic loads and flow field measurements were correlated over a dynamically scaled wing model of Anna's hummingbird ( Calypte anna ). We present measurements recorded over a model of a complete wing to evaluate the baseline aerodynamic characteristics and flow mechanisms. We found that the vorticity concentration that had developed from the wing's leading-edge differs from the attached vorticity structure that was typically found over insects' wings; firstly, it is more elongated along the wing chord, and secondly, it encounters high levels of fluctuations rather than a steady vortex. Lift characteristics resemble those of insects; however, a 20% increase in the lift-to-torque ratio was obtained for the hummingbird wing model. Time-accurate aerodynamic loads were also used to evaluate the time-evolution of the specific power required from the flight muscles, and the overall wingbeat power requirements nicely matched previous studies.

  2. Winter range expansion of a hummingbird is associated with urbanization and supplementary feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Eric M.

    2017-01-01

    Anthropogenic changes to the landscape and climate cause novel ecological and evolutionary pressures, leading to potentially dramatic changes in the distribution of biodiversity. Warm winter temperatures can shift species' distributions to regions that were previously uninhabitable. Further, urbanization and supplementary feeding may facilitate range expansions and potentially reduce migration tendency. Here we explore how these factors interact to cause non-uniform effects across a species's range. Using 17 years of data from the citizen science programme Project FeederWatch, we examined the relationships between urbanization, winter temperatures and the availability of supplementary food (i.e. artificial nectar) on the winter range expansion (more than 700 km northward in the past two decades) of Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna). We found that Anna's hummingbirds have colonized colder locations over time, were more likely to colonize sites with higher housing density and were more likely to visit feeders in the expanded range compared to the historical range. Additionally, their range expansion mirrored a corresponding increase over time in the tendency of people to provide nectar feeders in the expanded range. This work illustrates how humans may alter the distribution and potentially the migratory behaviour of species through landscape and resource modification. PMID:28381617

  3. Hovering hummingbird wing aerodynamics during the annual cycle. II. Implications of wing feather moult

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapir, Nir; Elimelech, Yossef

    2018-01-01

    Birds usually moult their feathers in a particular sequence which may incur aerodynamic, physiological and behavioural implications. Among birds, hummingbirds are unique species in their sustained hovering flight. Because hummingbirds frequently hover-feed, they must maintain sufficiently high flight capacities even when moulting their flight feathers. A hummingbird wing consists of 10 primary flight feathers whose absence during moult may strongly affect wing performance. Using dynamic similarity rules, we compared time-accurate aerodynamic loads and flow field measurements over several wing geometries that follow the natural feather moult sequence of Calypte anna, a common hummingbird species in western North America. Our results suggest a drop of more than 20% in lift production during the early stages of the moult sequence in which mid-wing flight feathers are moulted. We also found that the wing's ability to generate lift strongly depended on the morphological integrity of the outer primaries and leading-edge. These findings may explain the evolution of wing morphology and moult attributes. Specifically, the high overlap between adjacent wing feathers, especially at the wing tip, and the slow sequential replacement of the wing feathers result in a relatively small reduction in wing surface area during moult with limited aerodynamic implications. We present power and efficiency analyses for hover flight during moult under several plausible scenarios, suggesting that body mass reduction could be a compensatory mechanism that preserves the energetic costs of hover flight. PMID:29515884

  4. Eye Morphology and Retinal Topography in Hummingbirds (Trochilidae: Aves).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisney, Thomas J; Wylie, Douglas R; Kolominsky, Jeffrey; Iwaniuk, Andrew N

    2015-01-01

    Hummingbirds are a group of small, highly specialized birds that display a range of adaptations to their nectarivorous lifestyle. Vision plays a key role in hummingbird feeding and hovering behaviours, yet very little is known about the visual systems of these birds. In this study, we measured eye morphology in 5 hummingbird species. For 2 of these species, we used stereology and retinal whole mounts to study the topographic distribution of neurons in the ganglion cell layer. Eye morphology (expressed as the ratio of corneal diameter to eye transverse diameter) was similar among all 5 species and was within the range previously documented for diurnal birds. Retinal topography was similar in Amazilia tzacatl and Calypte anna. Both species had 2 specialized retinal regions of high neuron density: a central region located slightly dorso-nasal to the superior pole of the pecten, where densities reached ∼ 45,000 cells · mm(-2), and a temporal area with lower densities (38,000-39,000 cells · mm(-2)). A weak visual streak bridged the two high-density areas. A retina from Phaethornis superciliosus also had a central high-density area with a similar peak neuron density. Estimates of spatial resolving power for all 3 species were similar, at approximately 5-6 cycles · degree(-1). Retinal cross sections confirmed that the central high-density region in C. anna contains a fovea, but not the temporal area. We found no evidence of a second, less well-developed fovea located close to the temporal retina margin. The central and temporal areas of high neuron density allow for increased spatial resolution in the lateral and frontal visual fields, respectively. Increased resolution in the frontal field in particular may be important for mediating feeding behaviors such as aerial docking with flowers and catching small insects. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Backward flight in hummingbirds employs unique kinematic adjustments and entails low metabolic cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapir, Nir; Dudley, Robert

    2012-10-15

    Backward flight is a frequently used transient flight behavior among members of the species-rich hummingbird family (Trochilidae) when retreating from flowers, and is known from a variety of other avian and hexapod taxa, but the biomechanics of this intriguing locomotor mode have not been described. We measured rates of oxygen uptake (V(O2)) and flight kinematics of Anna's hummingbirds, Calypte anna (Lesson), within a wind tunnel using mask respirometry and high-speed videography, respectively, during backward, forward and hovering flight. We unexpectedly found that in sustained backward flight is similar to that in forward flight at equivalent airspeed, and is about 20% lower than hovering V(O2). For a bird that was measured throughout a range of backward airspeeds up to a speed of 4.5 m s(-1), the power curve resembled that of forward flight at equivalent airspeeds. Backward flight was facilitated by steep body angles coupled with substantial head flexion, and was also characterized by a higher wingbeat frequency, a flat stroke plane angle relative to horizontal, a high stroke plane angle relative to the longitudinal body axis, a high ratio of maximum:minimum wing positional angle, and a high upstroke:downstroke duration ratio. Because of the convergent evolution of hummingbird and some hexapod flight styles, flying insects may employ similar kinematics while engaged in backward flight, for example during station keeping or load lifting. We propose that backward flight behavior in retreat from flowers, together with other anatomical, physiological, morphological and behavioral adaptations, enables hummingbirds to maintain strictly aerial nectarivory.

  6. Oxygen consumption rates in hovering hummingbirds reflect substrate-dependent differences in P/O ratios: carbohydrate as a 'premium fuel'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Kenneth C; Altshuler, Douglas L; Suarez, Raul K

    2007-06-01

    The stoichiometric relationship of ATP production to oxygen consumption, i.e. the P/O ratio, varies depending on the nature of the metabolic substrate used. The latest estimates reveal a P/O ratio approximately 15% higher when glucose is oxidized compared with fatty acid oxidation. Because the energy required to produce aerodynamic lift for hovering is independent of the metabolic fuel oxidized, we hypothesized that the rate of oxygen consumption, VO2, should decline as the respiratory quotient, RQ (VCO2/VO2), increases from 0.71 to 1.0 as hummingbirds transition from a fasted to a fed state. Here, we show that hovering VO2 values in rufous (Selasphorus rufus) and Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna) are significantly greater when fats are metabolized (RQ=0.71) than when carbohydrates are used (RQ=1.0). Because hummingbirds gained mass during our experiments, making mass a confounding variable, we estimated VO2 per unit mechanical power output. Expressed in this way, the difference in VO2 when hummingbirds display an RQ=0.71 (fasted) and an RQ=1.0 (fed) is between 16 and 18%, depending on whether zero or perfect elastic energy storage is assumed. These values closely match theoretical expectations, indicating that a combination of mechanical power estimates and ;indirect calorimetry', i.e. the measurement of rates of gas exchange, enables precise estimates of ATP turnover and metabolic flux rates in vivo. The requirement for less oxygen when oxidizing carbohydrate suggests that carbohydrate oxidation may facilitate hovering flight in hummingbirds at high altitude.

  7. Wake patterns of the wings and tail of hovering hummingbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altshuler, Douglas L.; Princevac, Marko; Pan, Hansheng; Lozano, Jesse

    The flow fields of slowly flying bats and fasterflying birds differ in that bats produce two vortex loops during each stroke, one per wing, and birds produce a single vortex loop per stroke. In addition, the circulation at stroke transition approaches zero in bats but remains strong in birds. It is unknown if these difference derive from fundamental differences in wing morphology or are a consequence of flight speed. Here, we present an analysis of the horizontal flow field underneath hovering Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna) to describe the wake of a bird flying at zero forward velocity. We also consider how the hummingbird tail interacts with the wake generated by the wings. High-speed image recording and analysis from three orthogonal perspectives revealed that the wing tips reach peak velocities in the middle of each stroke and approach zero velocity at stroke transition. Hummingbirds use complex tail kinematic patterns ranging from in phase to antiphase cycling with respect to the wings, covering several phase shifted patterns. We employed particle image velocimetry to attain detailed horizontal flow measurements at three levels with respect to the tail: in the tail, at the tail tip, and just below the tail. The velocity patterns underneath the wings indicate that flow oscillates along the ventral-dorsal axis in response to the down- and up-strokes and that the sideways flows with respect to the bird are consistently from the lateral to medial. The region around the tail is dominated by axial flows in dorsal to ventral direction. We propose that these flows are generated by interaction between the wakes of the two wings at the end of the upstroke, and that the tail actively defects flows to generate moments that contribute to pitch stability. The flow fields images also revealed distinct vortex loops underneath each wing, which were generated during each stroke. From these data, we propose a model for the primary flow structures of hummingbirds that more

  8. Hummingbirds generate bilateral vortex loops during hovering: evidence from flow visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pournazeri, Sam; Segre, Paolo S.; Princevac, Marko; Altshuler, Douglas L.

    2013-01-01

    Visualization of the vortex wake of a flying animal provides understanding of how wingbeat kinematics are translated into the aerodynamic forces for powering and controlling flight. Two general vortex flow patterns have been proposed for the wake of hovering hummingbirds: (1) The two wings form a single, merged vortex ring during each wing stroke; and (2) the two wings form bilateral vortex loops during each wing stroke. The second pattern was proposed after a study with particle image velocimetry that demonstrated bilateral source flows in a horizontal measurement plane underneath hovering Anna's hummingbirds ( Calypte anna). Proof of this hypothesis requires a clear perspective of bilateral pairs of vortices. Here, we used high-speed image sequences (500 frames per second) of C. anna hover feeding within a white plume to visualize the vortex wake from multiple perspectives. The films revealed two key structural features: (1) Two distinct jets of downwards airflow are present under each wing; and (2) vortex loops around each jet are shed during each upstroke and downstroke. To aid in the interpretation of the flow visualization data, we analyzed high-speed kinematic data (1,000 frames per second) of wing tips and wing roots as C. anna hovered in normal air. These data were used to refine several simplified models of vortex topology. The observed flow patterns can be explained by either a single loop model with an hourglass shape or a bilateral model, with the latter being more likely. When hovering in normal air, hummingbirds used an average stroke amplitude of 153.6° (range 148.9°-164.4°) and a wingbeat frequency of 38.5 Hz (range 38.1-39.1 Hz). When hovering in the white plume, hummingbirds used shallower stroke amplitudes ( bar{x} = 129.8°, range 116.3°-154.1°) and faster wingbeat frequencies ( bar{x} = 41.1 Hz, range 38.5-44.7 Hz), although the bilateral jets and associated vortices were observed across the full kinematic range. The plume did not

  9. Trace element contamination in feather and tissue samples from Anna’s hummingbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikoni, Nicole A.; Poppenga, Robert H.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Foley, Janet E.; Hazlehurst, Jenny; Purdin, Güthrum; Aston, Linda; Hargrave, Sabine; Jelks, Karen; Tell, Lisa A.

    2017-01-01

    Trace element contamination (17 elements; Be, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Cd, Ba, Hg, Tl, and Pb) of live (feather samples only) and deceased (feather and tissue samples) Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna) was evaluated. Samples were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS; 17 elements) and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (Hg only). Mean plus one standard deviation (SD) was considered the benchmark, and concentrations above the mean + 1 SD were considered elevated above normal. Contour feathers were sampled from live birds of varying age, sex, and California locations. In order to reduce thermal impacts, minimal feathers were taken from live birds, therefore a novel method was developed for preparation of low mass feather samples for ICP-MS analysis. The study found that the novel feather preparation method enabled small mass feather samples to be analyzed for trace elements using ICP-MS. For feather samples from live birds, all trace elements, with the exception of beryllium, had concentrations above the mean + 1 SD. Important risk factors for elevated trace element concentrations in feathers of live birds were age for iron, zinc, and arsenic, and location for iron, manganese, zinc, and selenium. For samples from deceased birds, ICP-MS results from body and tail feathers were correlated for Fe, Zn, and Pb, and feather concentrations were correlated with renal (Fe, Zn, Pb) or hepatic (Hg) tissue concentrations. Results for AA spectrophotometry analyzed samples from deceased birds further supported the ICP-MS findings where a strong correlation between mercury concentrations in feather and tissue (pectoral muscle) samples was found. These study results support that sampling feathers from live free-ranging hummingbirds might be a useful, non-lethal sampling method for evaluating trace element exposure and provides a sampling alternative since their small body size limits traditional sampling of blood and tissues. The

  10. Anna Mani

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    National Congress adopted complete independence as its goal, Anna Mani became increasingly drawn to nationalist ... college, Anna Mani obtained a scholarship to do research in physics at the Indian Institute of. Science. ... Anna Mani returned to Independent India in 1948, and she joined the Indian Meteorological.

  11. Hooked on Hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Kim

    2002-01-01

    Describes several hummingbird adaptations and suggests ways of attracting hummingbirds to schoolyards and including them in the curriculum. Provides hummingbird feeder tips along with a list of ideas for designing inquiry-based activities related to hummingbird behavior. Also provides a hummingbird quiz, two instructional games, and a listing of…

  12. Hummingbirds Visit the Playground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ard, Linda; Wilkerson, Kristen

    1996-01-01

    Tells how hummingbirds can serve as a source of information and fun for children, including a rationale for attracting and teaching about hummingbirds and the outdoors. Explains that children need first-hand knowledge of nature and gives details on attracting hummingbirds and selecting safe plants for a hummingbird garden. (BGC)

  13. Anna Mani

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    also instilled in her a fierce desire for personal freedom for which she was willing to fight. Thus ... single-authored papers on luminescence of diamonds and ruby. ... It is no surprise that Anna Mani is a success story to which few women (or.

  14. Design a Hummingbird Flower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Kim

    2002-01-01

    Presents an activity that engages students in designing and making an artificial flower adapted for pollination by hummingbirds. Students work in teams to design flowers that maximize the benefit from attracting hummingbirds. Examines characteristics of real flowers adapted to pollination by hummingbirds. (DLH)

  15. Hummingbird Citizen Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givot, Rima; O'Connell, Kari; Hadley, Adam S.; Betts, Matthew G.

    2015-01-01

    The decline in hummingbird populations and shifts in their movements may adversely affect their role as pollinators and, in turn, plant biodiversity (Allen-Wardell et al. 1998). For example, Hadley et al. (2014) discovered that larger fragments of forest correlated with larger hummingbird populations and more seeds of "H. tortuosa" being…

  16. How hummingbirds hum: acoustic holography of hummingbirds during maneuvering flight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hightower, B.; Wijnings, P.W.A.; Ingersoll, R.; Chin, D.; Scholte, R.; Lentink, D.

    2017-01-01

    Hummingbirds make a characteristic humming sound when they flap their wings. The physics and the biological significance of hummingbird aeroacoustics is still poorly understood. We used acoustic holography and high-speed cameras to determine the acoustic field of six hummingbirds while they either

  17. AIR POLLUTION AND HUMMINGBIRDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A multidisciplinary team of EPA-RTP ORD pulmonary toxicologists, engineers, ecologists, and statisticians have designed a study of how ground-level ozone and other air pollutants may influence feeding activity of the ruby-throated hummingbird (Archilochus colubris). Be...

  18. The conquering of North America: dated phylogenetic and biogeographic inference of migratory behavior in bee hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licona-Vera, Yuyini; Ornelas, Juan Francisco

    2017-06-05

    Geographical and temporal patterns of diversification in bee hummingbirds (Mellisugini) were assessed with respect to the evolution of migration, critical for colonization of North America. We generated a dated multilocus phylogeny of the Mellisugini based on a dense sampling using Bayesian inference, maximum-likelihood and maximum parsimony methods, and reconstructed the ancestral states of distributional areas in a Bayesian framework and migratory behavior using maximum parsimony, maximum-likelihood and re-rooting methods. All phylogenetic analyses confirmed monophyly of the Mellisugini and the inclusion of Atthis, Calothorax, Doricha, Eulidia, Mellisuga, Microstilbon, Myrmia, Tilmatura, and Thaumastura. Mellisugini consists of two clades: (1) South American species (including Tilmatura dupontii), and (2) species distributed in North and Central America and the Caribbean islands. The second clade consists of four subclades: Mexican (Calothorax, Doricha) and Caribbean (Archilochus, Calliphlox, Mellisuga) sheartails, Calypte, and Selasphorus (incl. Atthis). Coalescent-based dating places the origin of the Mellisugini in the mid-to-late Miocene, with crown ages of most subclades in the early Pliocene, and subsequent species splits in the Pleistocene. Bee hummingbirds reached western North America by the end of the Miocene and the ancestral mellisuginid (bee hummingbirds) was reconstructed as sedentary, with four independent gains of migratory behavior during the evolution of the Mellisugini. Early colonization of North America and subsequent evolution of migration best explained biogeographic and diversification patterns within the Mellisugini. The repeated evolution of long-distance migration by different lineages was critical for the colonization of North America, contributing to the radiation of bee hummingbirds. Comparative phylogeography is needed to test whether the repeated evolution of migration resulted from northward expansion of southern sedentary

  19. How hummingbirds hum: Acoustic holography of hummingbirds during maneuvering flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hightower, Ben; Wijnings, Patrick; Ingersoll, Rivers; Chin, Diana; Scholte, Rick; Lentink, David

    2017-11-01

    Hummingbirds make a characteristic humming sound when they flap their wings. The physics and the biological significance of hummingbird aeroacoustics is still poorly understood. We used acoustic holography and high-speed cameras to determine the acoustic field of six hummingbirds while they either hovered stationary in front of a flower or maneuvered to track flower motion. We used a robotic flower that oscillated either laterally or longitudinally with a linear combination of 20 different frequencies between 0.2 and 20 Hz, a range that encompasses natural flower vibration frequencies in wind. We used high-speed marker tracking to dissect the transfer function between the moving flower, the head, and body of the bird. We also positioned four acoustic arrays equipped with 2176 microphones total above, below, and in front of the hummingbird. Acoustic data from the microphones were back-propagated to planes adjacent to the hummingbird to create the first real-time holograms of the pressure field a hummingbird generates in vivo. Integration of all this data offers insight into how hummingbirds modulate the acoustic field during hovering and maneuvering flight.

  20. Mani, Miss Anna Modayil

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Fellowship. Fellow Profile. Elected: 1960 Section: Earth & Planetary Sciences. Mani, Miss Anna Modayil A.I.I.Sc., FNA 1971-79; Secretary 1977-79. Date of birth: 23 August 1918. Date of death: 16 August 2001. Specialization: Atmospheric Physics and Instrumentation Last known address: c/o Mr K.T. Chandy, 14, ...

  1. Hummingbird Comet Nucleus Analysis Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojiro, Daniel; Carle, Glenn C.; Lasher, Larry E.

    2000-01-01

    Hummingbird is a highly focused scientific mission, proposed to NASA s Discovery Program, designed to address the highest priority questions in cometary science-that of the chemical composition of the cometary nucleus. After rendezvous with the comet, Hummingbird would first methodically image and map the comet, then collect and analyze dust, ice and gases from the cometary atmosphere to enrich characterization of the comet and support landing site selection. Then, like its namesake, Hummingbird would carefully descend to a pre-selected surface site obtaining a high-resolution image, gather a surface material sample, acquire surface temperature and then immediately return to orbit for detailed chemical and elemental analyses followed by a high resolution post-sampling image of the site. Hummingbird s analytical laboratory contains instrumentation for a comprehensive molecular and elemental analysis of the cometary nucleus as well as an innovative surface sample acquisition device.

  2. Hummingbird tongues are elastic micropumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico-Guevara, Alejandro; Fan, Tai-Hsi; Rubega, Margaret A.

    2015-01-01

    Pumping is a vital natural process, imitated by humans for thousands of years. We demonstrate that a hitherto undocumented mechanism of fluid transport pumps nectar onto the hummingbird tongue. Using high-speed cameras, we filmed the tongue–fluid interaction in 18 hummingbird species, from seven of the nine main hummingbird clades. During the offloading of the nectar inside the bill, hummingbirds compress their tongues upon extrusion; the compressed tongue remains flattened until it contacts the nectar. After contact with the nectar surface, the tongue reshapes filling entirely with nectar; we did not observe the formation of menisci required for the operation of capillarity during this process. We show that the tongue works as an elastic micropump; fluid at the tip is driven into the tongue's grooves by forces resulting from re-expansion of a collapsed section. This work falsifies the long-standing idea that capillarity is an important force filling hummingbird tongue grooves during nectar feeding. The expansive filling mechanism we report in this paper recruits elastic recovery properties of the groove walls to load nectar into the tongue an order of magnitude faster than capillarity could. Such fast filling allows hummingbirds to extract nectar at higher rates than predicted by capillarity-based foraging models, in agreement with their fast licking rates. PMID:26290074

  3. Hummingbirds have a greatly enlarged hippocampal formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Brian J; Day, Lainy B; Wilkening, Steven R; Wylie, Douglas R; Saucier, Deborah M; Iwaniuk, Andrew N

    2012-08-23

    Both field and laboratory studies demonstrate that hummingbirds (Apodiformes, Trochilidae) have exceptional spatial memory. The complexity of spatial-temporal information that hummingbirds must retain and use daily is probably subserved by the hippocampal formation (HF), and therefore, hummingbirds should have a greatly expanded HF. Here, we compare the relative size of the HF in several hummingbird species with that of other birds. Our analyses reveal that the HF in hummingbirds is significantly larger, relative to telencephalic volume, than any bird examined to date. When expressed as a percentage of telencephalic volume, the hummingbird HF is two to five times larger than that of caching and non-caching songbirds, seabirds and woodpeckers. This HF expansion in hummingbirds probably underlies their ability to remember the location, distribution and nectar content of flowers, but more detailed analyses are required to determine the extent to which this arises from an expansion of HF or a decrease in size of other brain regions.

  4. Neurons Responsive to Global Visual Motion Have Unique Tuning Properties in Hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaede, Andrea H; Goller, Benjamin; Lam, Jessica P M; Wylie, Douglas R; Altshuler, Douglas L

    2017-01-23

    Neurons in animal visual systems that respond to global optic flow exhibit selectivity for motion direction and/or velocity. The avian lentiformis mesencephali (LM), known in mammals as the nucleus of the optic tract (NOT), is a key nucleus for global motion processing [1-4]. In all animals tested, it has been found that the majority of LM and NOT neurons are tuned to temporo-nasal (back-to-front) motion [4-11]. Moreover, the monocular gain of the optokinetic response is higher in this direction, compared to naso-temporal (front-to-back) motion [12, 13]. Hummingbirds are sensitive to small visual perturbations while hovering, and they drift to compensate for optic flow in all directions [14]. Interestingly, the LM, but not other visual nuclei, is hypertrophied in hummingbirds relative to other birds [15], which suggests enhanced perception of global visual motion. Using extracellular recording techniques, we found that there is a uniform distribution of preferred directions in the LM in Anna's hummingbirds, whereas zebra finch and pigeon LM populations, as in other tetrapods, show a strong bias toward temporo-nasal motion. Furthermore, LM and NOT neurons are generally classified as tuned to "fast" or "slow" motion [10, 16, 17], and we predicted that most neurons would be tuned to slow visual motion as an adaptation for slow hovering. However, we found the opposite result: most hummingbird LM neurons are tuned to fast pattern velocities, compared to zebra finches and pigeons. Collectively, these results suggest a role in rapid responses during hovering, as well as in velocity control and collision avoidance during forward flight of hummingbirds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. An RFID Based Smart Feeder for Hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra, Vicente; Araya-Salas, Marcelo; Tang, Yu-ping; Park, Charlie; Hyde, Anthony; Wright, Timothy F; Tang, Wei

    2015-12-16

    We present an interdisciplinary effort to record feeding behaviors and control the diet of a hummingbird species (Phaethornis longirostris, the long-billed hermit or LBH) by developing a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) based smart feeder. The system contains an RFID reader, a microcontroller, and a servo-controlled hummingbird feeder opener; the system is presented as a tool for studying the cognitive ability of the LBH species. When equipped with glass capsule RFID tags (which are mounted on the hummingbird), the smart feeder can provide specific diets for predetermined sets of hummingbirds at the discretion of biologists. This is done by reading the unique RFID tag on the hummingbirds and comparing the ID number with the pre-programmed ID numbers stored in the smart feeder. The smart feeder records the time and ID of each hummingbird visit. The system data is stored in a readily available SD card and is powered by two 9 V batteries. The detection range of the system is approximately 9-11 cm. Using this system, biologists can assign the wild hummingbirds to different experimental groups and monitor their diets to determine if they develop a preference to any of the available nectars. During field testing, the smart feeder system has demonstrated consistent detection (when compared to detections observed by video-recordings) of RFID tags on hummingbirds and provides pre-designed nectars varying water and sugar concentrations to target individuals. The smart feeder can be applied to other biological and environmental studies in the future.

  6. Molecular phylogenetics and the diversification of hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Jimmy A; Witt, Christopher C; Remsen, J V; Corl, Ammon; Rabosky, Daniel L; Altshuler, Douglas L; Dudley, Robert

    2014-04-14

    The tempo of species diversification in large clades can reveal fundamental evolutionary mechanisms that operate on large temporal and spatial scales. Hummingbirds have radiated into a diverse assemblage of specialized nectarivores comprising 338 species, but their evolutionary history has not, until now, been comprehensively explored. We studied hummingbird diversification by estimating a time-calibrated phylogeny for 284 hummingbird species, demonstrating that hummingbirds invaded South America by ∼22 million years ago, and subsequently diversified into nine principal clades (see [5-7]). Using ancestral state reconstruction and diversification analyses, we (1) estimate the age of the crown-group hummingbird assemblage, (2) investigate the timing and patterns of lineage accumulation for hummingbirds overall and regionally, and (3) evaluate the role of Andean uplift in hummingbird speciation. Detailed analyses reveal disparate clade-specific processes that allowed for ongoing species diversification. One factor was significant variation among clades in diversification rates. For example, the nine principal clades of hummingbirds exhibit ∼15-fold variation in net diversification rates, with evidence for accelerated speciation of a clade that includes the Bee, Emerald, and Mountain Gem groups of hummingbirds. A second factor was colonization of key geographic regions, which opened up new ecological niches. For example, some clades diversified in the context of the uplift of the Andes Mountains, whereas others were affected by the formation of the Panamanian land bridge. Finally, although species accumulation is slowing in all groups of hummingbirds, several major clades maintain rapid rates of diversification on par with classical examples of rapid adaptive radiation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The flight of the Rufus hummingbird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocanegra-Evans, Humberto; Pena, Jeremy; Hightower, Scott; Tobalske, Bret; Allen, James

    2007-11-01

    This paper will present preliminary experimental data for the flow field around a robotic model hummingbird ``flying'' in the New Mexico State large water channel. The Rufus hummingbird, which fly's with a wing beat frequency of 45Hz, in the Reynolds number range of 8,000 and a Strouhal number of 0.3 is mimicked by a two degree of freedom mechanical model operating in a large water channel. Phase locked PIV data and flow visualization results for hovering and relatively slow forward flight will be presented. Non-intrusive techniques will be used to estimate the hummingbirds lift and drag.

  8. An RFID Based Smart Feeder for Hummingbirds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Ibarra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We present an interdisciplinary effort to record feeding behaviors and control the diet of a hummingbird species (Phaethornis longirostris, the long-billed hermit or LBH by developing a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID based smart feeder. The system contains an RFID reader, a microcontroller, and a servo-controlled hummingbird feeder opener; the system is presented as a tool for studying the cognitive ability of the LBH species. When equipped with glass capsule RFID tags (which are mounted on the hummingbird, the smart feeder can provide specific diets for predetermined sets of hummingbirds at the discretion of biologists. This is done by reading the unique RFID tag on the hummingbirds and comparing the ID number with the pre-programmed ID numbers stored in the smart feeder. The smart feeder records the time and ID of each hummingbird visit. The system data is stored in a readily available SD card and is powered by two 9 V batteries. The detection range of the system is approximately 9–11 cm. Using this system, biologists can assign the wild hummingbirds to different experimental groups and monitor their diets to determine if they develop a preference to any of the available nectars. During field testing, the smart feeder system has demonstrated consistent detection (when compared to detections observed by video-recordings of RFID tags on hummingbirds and provides pre-designed nectars varying water and sugar concentrations to target individuals. The smart feeder can be applied to other biological and environmental studies in the future.

  9. Take-off mechanics in hummingbirds (Trochilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobalske, Bret W; Altshuler, Douglas L; Powers, Donald R

    2004-03-01

    Initiating flight is challenging, and considerable effort has focused on understanding the energetics and aerodynamics of take-off for both machines and animals. For animal flight, the available evidence suggests that birds maximize their initial flight velocity using leg thrust rather than wing flapping. The smallest birds, hummingbirds (Order Apodiformes), are unique in their ability to perform sustained hovering but have proportionally small hindlimbs that could hinder generation of high leg thrust. Understanding the take-off flight of hummingbirds can provide novel insight into the take-off mechanics that will be required for micro-air vehicles. During take-off by hummingbirds, we measured hindlimb forces on a perch mounted with strain gauges and filmed wingbeat kinematics with high-speed video. Whereas other birds obtain 80-90% of their initial flight velocity using leg thrust, the leg contribution in hummingbirds was 59% during autonomous take-off. Unlike other species, hummingbirds beat their wings several times as they thrust using their hindlimbs. In a phylogenetic context, our results show that reduced body and hindlimb size in hummingbirds limits their peak acceleration during leg thrust and, ultimately, their take-off velocity. Previously, the influence of motivational state on take-off flight performance has not been investigated for any one organism. We studied the full range of motivational states by testing performance as the birds took off: (1) to initiate flight autonomously, (2) to escape a startling stimulus or (3) to aggressively chase a conspecific away from a feeder. Motivation affected performance. Escape and aggressive take-off featured decreased hindlimb contribution (46% and 47%, respectively) and increased flight velocity. When escaping, hummingbirds foreshortened their body movement prior to onset of leg thrust and began beating their wings earlier and at higher frequency. Thus, hummingbirds are capable of modulating their leg and

  10. Ecological and distributional notes on hummingbirds from Bolivian lowland forests

    OpenAIRE

    Abrahamczyk, S; Kessler, M

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the distribution, ecology and behaviour of hummingbirds in the Andean foothills of Bolivia, where many lowland hummingbird species reach their south-western distributional limits. In November 2007 – October 2008, we surveyed hummingbirds at six sites along a 660-km transect, from tropical Amazonian humid forest to subtropical spiny forest of the Gran Chaco. In total, we found 21 hummingbird species. For ten of these, we provide new information on latitudinal and eleva...

  11. Interview with Dr Anna Matamala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucinea Marcelino Villela

    2016-09-01

    In this interview, which took place in June 2016, Dr Anna Matamala described some details about her long professional experience in Audiovisual Translation, especially in dubbing from English into Catalan, and we talked about many other things like her interest in lexicography, her point of view on some contemporary topics in Audiovisual Translation Studies: the use of technology, the relation between AVT and Accessibility Studies, AVT and Filmmaking fields, the importance of keeping in touch with other countries and even continents outside Europe, and she also gave some advice to the new generation of Translation students.

  12. Interview with Dr Anna Matamala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucinea Marcelino Villela

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this interview, which took place in June 2016, Dr Anna Matamala described some details about her long professional experience in Audiovisual Translation, especially in dubbing from English into Catalan, and we talked about many other things like her interest in lexicography, her point of view on some contemporary topics in Audiovisual Translation Studies: the use of technology, the relation between AVT and Accessibility Studies, AVT and Filmmaking fields, the importance of keeping in touch with other countries and even continents outside Europe, and she also gave some advice to the new generation of Translation students.

  13. Seeing things by Anna Margolin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francuz Aleksandra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available If we recall the most important words for the poetry, we should begin the story with the stones, lily, hands and blood, which, if you look at them with the philological accuracy, are interrelated: situate themselves clearly on opposite banks of the creative process. They talk about the construction of the building consisting of perceptions about their own strength and weakness, ecstasy and congealing in what for centuries the classics poets have tried to fathom: the harmony and clarity, driven by the hope that in life they should above all stick to be beauty. And in addition, they ought to go further than discipline, practice eye and expand the field of view, should not shun from the gusts of the heart, because the heart grows more powerful due to great ideas, passions. Spacious becomes the vision of writing, it is the weave of contradictions - this is how one of the most important twentieth-century poets, who wrote in Yiddish, Anna Margolin sees it. Margolin’s poetry is a clear return towards neoclassicism, building up topics, theses, allusions, ideas taken from ideologically close to her artists of great individuality, Anna Akhmatova (from whom she took her name, Osip Mandelstam, Rainer Maria Rilke, Ezra Pound.

  14. Burst muscle performance predicts the speed, acceleration, and turning performance of Anna’s hummingbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segre, Paolo S; Dakin, Roslyn; Zordan, Victor B; Dickinson, Michael H; Straw, Andrew D; Altshuler, Douglas L

    2015-01-01

    Despite recent advances in the study of animal flight, the biomechanical determinants of maneuverability are poorly understood. It is thought that maneuverability may be influenced by intrinsic body mass and wing morphology, and by physiological muscle capacity, but this hypothesis has not yet been evaluated because it requires tracking a large number of free flight maneuvers from known individuals. We used an automated tracking system to record flight sequences from 20 Anna's hummingbirds flying solo and in competition in a large chamber. We found that burst muscle capacity predicted most performance metrics. Hummingbirds with higher burst capacity flew with faster velocities, accelerations, and rotations, and they used more demanding complex turns. In contrast, body mass did not predict variation in maneuvering performance, and wing morphology predicted only the use of arcing turns and high centripetal accelerations. Collectively, our results indicate that burst muscle capacity is a key predictor of maneuverability. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11159.001 PMID:26583753

  15. Outperforming hummingbirds' load-lifting capability with a lightweight hummingbird-like flapping-wing mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leys, Frederik; Reynaerts, Dominiek; Vandepitte, Dirk

    2016-08-15

    The stroke-cam flapping mechanism presented in this paper closely mimics the wing motion of a hovering Rufous hummingbird. It is the only lightweight hummingbird-sized flapping mechanism which generates a harmonic wing stroke with both a high flapping frequency and a large stroke amplitude. Experiments on a lightweight prototype of this stroke-cam mechanism on a 50 mm-long wing demonstrate that a harmonic stroke motion is generated with a peak-to-peak stroke amplitude of 175° at a flapping frequency of 40 Hz. It generated a mass lifting capability of 5.1 g, which is largely sufficient to lift the prototype's mass of 3.39 g and larger than the mass-lifting capability of a Rufous hummingbird. The motor mass of a hummingbird-like robot which drives the stroke-cam mechanism is considerably larger (about five times) than the muscle mass of a hummingbird with comparable load-lifting capability. This paper presents a flapping wing nano aerial vehicle which is designed to possess the same lift- and thrust-generating principles of the Rufous hummingbird. The application is indoor flight. We give an overview of the wing kinematics and some specifications which should be met to develop an artificial wing, and also describe the applications of these in the mechanism which has been developed in this work. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  16. Biogeography and taxonomy of racket-tail hummingbirds (Aves: Trochilidae: Ocreatus): evidence for species delimitation from morphology and display behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuchmann, Karl-L; Weller, André-A; Jürgens, Dietmar

    2016-11-27

    We analyzed geographic variation, biogeography, and intrageneric relationships of racket-tail hummingbirds Ocreatus (Aves, Trochilidae). Presently, the genus is usually considered monospecific, with O. underwoodii including eight subspecies (polystictus, discifer, underwoodii, incommodus, melanantherus, peruanus, annae, addae), although up to three species have been recognized by some authors. In order to evaluate the current taxonomy we studied geographic variation in coloration, mensural characters, and behavioral data of all Ocreatus taxa. We briefly review the taxonomic history of the genus. Applying the Biological Species Concept, species delimitation was based on a qualitative-quantitative criteria analysis including an evaluation of character states. Our results indicate that the genus should be considered a superspecies with four species, the monotypic Ocreatus addae, O. annae, and O. peruanus, and the polytypic O. underwoodii (including the subspecies underwoodii, discifer, incommodus, melanantherus, polystictus). In this taxonomic treatment, O. annae becomes an endemic species to Peru and O. addae is endemic to Bolivia. We recommend additional sampling of distributional, ethological, and molecular data for an improved resolution of the evolutionary history of Ocreatus.

  17. The Orientation of Visual Space from the Perspective of Hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrrell, Luke P; Goller, Benjamin; Moore, Bret A; Altshuler, Douglas L; Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

    2018-01-01

    Vision is a key component of hummingbird behavior. Hummingbirds hover in front of flowers, guide their bills into them for foraging, and maneuver backwards to undock from them. Capturing insects is also an important foraging strategy for most hummingbirds. However, little is known about the visual sensory specializations hummingbirds use to guide these two foraging strategies. We characterized the hummingbird visual field configuration, degree of eye movement, and orientation of the centers of acute vision. Hummingbirds had a relatively narrow binocular field (~30°) that extended above and behind their heads. Their blind area was also relatively narrow (~23°), which increased their visual coverage (about 98% of their celestial hemisphere). Additionally, eye movement amplitude was relatively low (~9°), so their ability to converge or diverge their eyes was limited. We confirmed that hummingbirds have two centers of acute vision: a fovea centralis , projecting laterally, and an area temporalis , projecting more frontally. This retinal configuration is similar to other predatory species, which may allow hummingbirds to enhance their success at preying on insects. However, there is no evidence that their temporal area could visualize the bill tip or that eye movements could compensate for this constraint. Therefore, guidance of precise bill position during the process of docking occurs via indirect cues or directly with low visual acuity despite having a temporal center of acute vision. The large visual coverage may favor the detection of predators and competitors even while docking into a flower. Overall, hummingbird visual configuration does not seem specialized for flower docking.

  18. Phylogenetic structure in tropical hummingbird communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graham, Catherine H; Parra, Juan L; Rahbek, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    How biotic interactions, current and historical environment, and biogeographic barriers determine community structure is a fundamental question in ecology and evolution, especially in diverse tropical regions. To evaluate patterns of local and regional diversity, we quantified the phylogenetic...... composition of 189 hummingbird communities in Ecuador. We assessed how species and phylogenetic composition changed along environmental gradients and across biogeographic barriers. We show that humid, low-elevation communities are phylogenetically overdispersed (coexistence of distant relatives), a pattern...... that is consistent with the idea that competition influences the local composition of hummingbirds. At higher elevations communities are phylogenetically clustered (coexistence of close relatives), consistent with the expectation of environmental filtering, which may result from the challenge of sustaining...

  19. Official portrait of Astronaut Anna L. Fisher

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Official portrait of Astronaut Anna L. Fisher. Fisher is posing with her helmet on the table in front of her and the American flag appears over the opposite shoulder (34357); Posing with an empty table in front of her and the American flag behind her (34358).

  20. Anna Mani – A Student Remembers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    Developing an Indian ozonesonde was her pet project, assigned to her by K R Ramanathan, ... Her scientific career began with C V Raman at the Indian Institute of ... Independent India was full of opportunities and Anna Mani seized the ...

  1. A Teacher's Guide for "Anna Karenina."

    Science.gov (United States)

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    In 1870, after the successful publication of "War and Peace," Leo Tolstoy began imagining a story about a high-born society woman, "Anna Karenina," who destroys her life by having an adulterous affair. By presenting his adulteress as a sympathetic character, Tolstoy aimed to expose injustices in such Russian institutions as…

  2. Kerjav kunstnik / Anna Hints, Maria Rõhu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hints, Anna, 1982-

    2011-01-01

    Tallinna Linnagaleriis oli 17.03.-10.04.2011 avatud Anna Hintsi ja Maria Rõhu näitus "Nälg". Autorid näituse taotlusest, raha taotlemisest, aktsioonist "Kerjav kunstnik", külastajate suhtumisest sellesse. Näituse aruanne

  3. Eesti goes St. Etienne / Anna Roomet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Roomet, Anna

    2006-01-01

    Näitus Eesti Kunstiakadeemia tootedisaini osakonna magistrantide viimase kahe aasta projektide paremikust esindas Eestit disainibiennaalil St. Etiennis Prantsusmaal. Näituse panid üles Pent Talvet ja Pavel Sidorenko, näitusel osalejad: Anna-Maria Einla, Kätlin Kangur, Triin Kuusler, Andri Laidre, Veiko Liis, Liina-Kai Raivet, P. Sidorenko, P. Talvet, Ingela Viks, Triin Voss

  4. The Orientation of Visual Space from the Perspective of Hummingbirds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke P. Tyrrell

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Vision is a key component of hummingbird behavior. Hummingbirds hover in front of flowers, guide their bills into them for foraging, and maneuver backwards to undock from them. Capturing insects is also an important foraging strategy for most hummingbirds. However, little is known about the visual sensory specializations hummingbirds use to guide these two foraging strategies. We characterized the hummingbird visual field configuration, degree of eye movement, and orientation of the centers of acute vision. Hummingbirds had a relatively narrow binocular field (~30° that extended above and behind their heads. Their blind area was also relatively narrow (~23°, which increased their visual coverage (about 98% of their celestial hemisphere. Additionally, eye movement amplitude was relatively low (~9°, so their ability to converge or diverge their eyes was limited. We confirmed that hummingbirds have two centers of acute vision: a fovea centralis, projecting laterally, and an area temporalis, projecting more frontally. This retinal configuration is similar to other predatory species, which may allow hummingbirds to enhance their success at preying on insects. However, there is no evidence that their temporal area could visualize the bill tip or that eye movements could compensate for this constraint. Therefore, guidance of precise bill position during the process of docking occurs via indirect cues or directly with low visual acuity despite having a temporal center of acute vision. The large visual coverage may favor the detection of predators and competitors even while docking into a flower. Overall, hummingbird visual configuration does not seem specialized for flower docking.

  5. Professor dr hab. Anna Maria Bujakiewicz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kujawa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the biography and scientific achievements of Professor Anna Bujakiewicz. After receiving her master’s degree and doctorate in biology and mycology from Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Professor Bujakiewicz continued her exciting research and teaching on mycology at her Alma Mater Posnaniensis for more than 50 years. Her publications in this field include many books, articles, and other scholarly reports.

  6. First observed roost site of Vervain Hummingbird (mellisuga minima)

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.B. Hamel

    2012-01-01

    An observation of a roost site of a male Vervain Hummingbird in the Dominican Republic on 7 November 2010 is the first for this species. The bird chose an entirely exposed position on a very thin twig,

  7. Hummingbirds control hovering flight by stabilizing visual motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goller, Benjamin; Altshuler, Douglas L

    2014-12-23

    Relatively little is known about how sensory information is used for controlling flight in birds. A powerful method is to immerse an animal in a dynamic virtual reality environment to examine behavioral responses. Here, we investigated the role of vision during free-flight hovering in hummingbirds to determine how optic flow--image movement across the retina--is used to control body position. We filmed hummingbirds hovering in front of a projection screen with the prediction that projecting moving patterns would disrupt hovering stability but stationary patterns would allow the hummingbird to stabilize position. When hovering in the presence of moving gratings and spirals, hummingbirds lost positional stability and responded to the specific orientation of the moving visual stimulus. There was no loss of stability with stationary versions of the same stimulus patterns. When exposed to a single stimulus many times or to a weakened stimulus that combined a moving spiral with a stationary checkerboard, the response to looming motion declined. However, even minimal visual motion was sufficient to cause a loss of positional stability despite prominent stationary features. Collectively, these experiments demonstrate that hummingbirds control hovering position by stabilizing motions in their visual field. The high sensitivity and persistence of this disruptive response is surprising, given that the hummingbird brain is highly specialized for sensory processing and spatial mapping, providing other potential mechanisms for controlling position.

  8. The smallest avian genomes are found in hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, T Ryan; Andrews, Chandler B; McGuire, Jimmy A; Witt, Christopher C

    2009-11-07

    It has often been suggested that the genome sizes of birds are constrained relative to other tetrapods owing to the high metabolic demands of powered flight and the link between nuclear DNA content and red blood cell size. This hypothesis predicts that hummingbirds, which engage in energy-intensive hovering flight, will display especially constrained genomes even relative to other birds. We report genome size measurements for 37 species of hummingbirds that confirm this prediction. Our results suggest that genome size was reduced before the divergence of extant hummingbird lineages, and that only minimal additional reduction occurred during hummingbird diversification. Unlike in some other avian taxa, the small amount of variation observed within hummingbirds is not explained by variation in respiratory and flight-related parameters. Unexpectedly, genome size appears to have increased in four unrelated hummingbird species whose distributions are centred on humid forests of the upper-tropical elevational zone on the eastern slope of the Andes. This suggests that the secondary expansion of the genome may have been mediated by biogeographical and demographic effects.

  9. Floral resources and habitat affect the composition of hummingbirds at the local scale in tropical mountaintops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LC Rodrigues

    Full Text Available Hummingbird communities tend to respond to variation in resources, having a positive relationship between abundance and diversity of food resources and the abundance and/or diversity of hummingbirds. Here we examined the influence of floral resource availability, as well as seasonality and type of habitat on the composition of hummingbird species. The study was carried out in two habitats of eastern Brazilian mountaintops. A gradient representative of the structure of hummingbird community, based on species composition, was obtained by the ordination of samples using the method of non-metric multidimensional scaling. The composition of hummingbird species was influenced by the type of habitat and floral resource availability, but not by seasonality. Hummingbird communities differ between habitats mainly due to the relative abundance of hummingbird species. The variation in composition of hummingbird species with the variation in floral resource availability may be related to differences in feeding habits of hummingbirds. Hummingbird species with the longest bills visited higher proportions of ornithophilous species, while hummingbirds with shorter bills visited higher proportions of non-ornithophilous species. The results demonstrate that at local-scale the composition of hummingbird species is affected by the type of habitat and floral resources availability, but not by seasonality.

  10. Floral resources and habitat affect the composition of hummingbirds at the local scale in tropical mountaintops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, L C; Rodrigues, M

    2015-01-01

    Hummingbird communities tend to respond to variation in resources, having a positive relationship between abundance and diversity of food resources and the abundance and/or diversity of hummingbirds. Here we examined the influence of floral resource availability, as well as seasonality and type of habitat on the composition of hummingbird species. The study was carried out in two habitats of eastern Brazilian mountaintops. A gradient representative of the structure of hummingbird community, based on species composition, was obtained by the ordination of samples using the method of non-metric multidimensional scaling. The composition of hummingbird species was influenced by the type of habitat and floral resource availability, but not by seasonality. Hummingbird communities differ between habitats mainly due to the relative abundance of hummingbird species. The variation in composition of hummingbird species with the variation in floral resource availability may be related to differences in feeding habits of hummingbirds. Hummingbird species with the longest bills visited higher proportions of ornithophilous species, while hummingbirds with shorter bills visited higher proportions of non-ornithophilous species. The results demonstrate that at local-scale the composition of hummingbird species is affected by the type of habitat and floral resources availability, but not by seasonality.

  11. Hummingbird conservation: discovering diversity patterns in southwest U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan M. Wethington; George C. West; Barbara A. Carlson

    2005-01-01

    Using data obtained in 2002 and 2003 from sites in the Hummingbird Monitoring Network, we investigated the effect of geographic factors—latitude, longitude, and elevation—and year on hummingbird diversity patterns in Southwestern U.S.A. In California, none of these factors affected hummingbird richness but elevation significantly affected abundance. In southeastern...

  12. Field Flight Dynamics of Hummingbirds during Territory Encroachment and Defense.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine M Sholtis

    Full Text Available Hummingbirds are known to defend food resources such as nectar sources from encroachment by competitors (including conspecifics. These competitive intraspecific interactions provide an opportunity to quantify the biomechanics of hummingbird flight performance during ecologically relevant natural behavior. We recorded the three-dimensional flight trajectories of Ruby-throated Hummingbirds defending, being chased from and freely departing from a feeder. These trajectories allowed us to compare natural flight performance to earlier laboratory measurements of maximum flight speed, aerodynamic force generation and power estimates. During field observation, hummingbirds rarely approached the maximal flight speeds previously reported from wind tunnel tests and never did so during level flight. However, the accelerations and rates of change in kinetic and potential energy we recorded indicate that these hummingbirds likely operated near the maximum of their flight force and metabolic power capabilities during these competitive interactions. Furthermore, although birds departing from the feeder while chased did so faster than freely-departing birds, these speed gains were accomplished by modulating kinetic and potential energy gains (or losses rather than increasing overall power output, essentially trading altitude for speed during their evasive maneuver. Finally, the trajectories of defending birds were directed toward the position of the encroaching bird rather than the feeder.

  13. Field Flight Dynamics of Hummingbirds during Territory Encroachment and Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholtis, Katherine M; Shelton, Ryan M; Hedrick, Tyson L

    2015-01-01

    Hummingbirds are known to defend food resources such as nectar sources from encroachment by competitors (including conspecifics). These competitive intraspecific interactions provide an opportunity to quantify the biomechanics of hummingbird flight performance during ecologically relevant natural behavior. We recorded the three-dimensional flight trajectories of Ruby-throated Hummingbirds defending, being chased from and freely departing from a feeder. These trajectories allowed us to compare natural flight performance to earlier laboratory measurements of maximum flight speed, aerodynamic force generation and power estimates. During field observation, hummingbirds rarely approached the maximal flight speeds previously reported from wind tunnel tests and never did so during level flight. However, the accelerations and rates of change in kinetic and potential energy we recorded indicate that these hummingbirds likely operated near the maximum of their flight force and metabolic power capabilities during these competitive interactions. Furthermore, although birds departing from the feeder while chased did so faster than freely-departing birds, these speed gains were accomplished by modulating kinetic and potential energy gains (or losses) rather than increasing overall power output, essentially trading altitude for speed during their evasive maneuver. Finally, the trajectories of defending birds were directed toward the position of the encroaching bird rather than the feeder.

  14. Hummingbirds fuel hovering flight with newly ingested sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Kenneth C; Bakken, Bradley Hartman; Martinez del Rio, Carlos; Suarez, Raul K

    2006-01-01

    We sought to characterize the ability of hummingbirds to fuel their energetically expensive hovering flight using dietary sugar by a combination of respirometry and stable carbon isotope techniques. Broadtailed hummingbirds (Selasphorus platycercus) were maintained on a diet containing beet sugar with an isotopic composition characteristic of C3 plants. Hummingbirds were fasted and then offered a solution containing cane sugar with an isotopic composition characteristic of C4 plants. By monitoring the rates of CO2 production and O2 consumption, as well as the stable carbon isotope composition of expired CO2, we were able to estimate the relative contributions of carbohydrate and fat, as well as the absolute rate at which dietary sucrose was oxidized during hovering. The combination of respirometry and carbon isotope analysis revealed that hummingbirds initially oxidized endogenous fat following a fast and then progressively oxidized proportionately more carbohydrates. The contribution from dietary sources increased with each feeding bout, and by 20 min after the first meal, dietary sugar supported approximately 74% of hovering metabolism. The ability of hummingbirds to satisfy the energetic requirements of hovering flight mainly with recently ingested sugar is unique among vertebrates. Our finding provides an example of evolutionary convergence in physiological and biochemical traits among unrelated nectar-feeding animals.

  15. Modeling of Transient Nectar Flow in Hummingbird Tongues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico-Guevara, Alejandro; Fan, Tai-Hsi; Rubega, Margaret

    2015-11-01

    We demonstrate that hummingbirds do not pick up floral nectar via capillary action. The long believed capillary rise models were mistaken and unable to predict the dynamic nectar intake process. Instead, hummingbird's tongue acts as an elastic micropump. Nectar is drawn into the tongue grooves during elastic expansion after the grooves are squeezed flat by the beak. The new model is compared with experimental data from high-speed videos of 18 species and tens of individuals of wild hummingbirds. Self-similarity and transitions of short-to-long time behaviours have been resolved for the nectar flow driven by expansive filling. The transient dynamics is characterized by the relative contributions of negative excess pressure and the apparent area modulus of the tongue grooves.

  16. The biomechanical origin of extreme wing allometry in hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skandalis, Dimitri A; Segre, Paolo S; Bahlman, Joseph W; Groom, Derrick J E; Welch, Kenneth C; Witt, Christopher C; McGuire, Jimmy A; Dudley, Robert; Lentink, David; Altshuler, Douglas L

    2017-10-19

    Flying animals of different masses vary widely in body proportions, but the functional implications of this variation are often unclear. We address this ambiguity by developing an integrative allometric approach, which we apply here to hummingbirds to examine how the physical environment, wing morphology and stroke kinematics have contributed to the evolution of their highly specialised flight. Surprisingly, hummingbirds maintain constant wing velocity despite an order of magnitude variation in body weight; increased weight is supported solely through disproportionate increases in wing area. Conversely, wing velocity increases with body weight within species, compensating for lower relative wing area in larger individuals. By comparing inter- and intraspecific allometries, we find that the extreme wing area allometry of hummingbirds is likely an adaptation to maintain constant burst flight capacity and induced power requirements with increasing weight. Selection for relatively large wings simultaneously maximises aerial performance and minimises flight costs, which are essential elements of humming bird life history.

  17. Elastic instability model of rapid beak closure in hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M L; Yanega, G M; Ruina, A

    2011-08-07

    The hummingbird beak, specialized for feeding on floral nectars, is also uniquely adapted to eating flying insects. During insect capture the beak often appears to close at a rate that cannot be explained by direct muscular action alone. Here we show that the lower jaw of hummingbirds has a shape and compliance that allows for a controlled elastic snap. Furthermore, hummingbirds have the musculature needed to independently bend and twist the sides of the lower jaw. According to both our simple physical model and our elastic instability calculation, the jaw can be smoothly opened and then snapped closed through an appropriate sequence of bending and twisting actions by the muscles of the lower jaw. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Do rufous hummingbirds (Selasphorus rufus) use visual beacons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurly, T Andrew; Franz, Simone; Healy, Susan D

    2010-03-01

    Animals are often assumed to use highly conspicuous features of a goal to head directly to that goal ('beaconing'). In the field it is generally assumed that flowers serve as beacons to guide pollinators. Artificial hummingbird feeders are coloured red to serve a similar function. However, anecdotal reports suggest that hummingbirds return to feeder locations in the absence of the feeder (and thus the beacon). Here we test these reports for the first time in the field, using the natural territories of hummingbirds and manipulating flowers on a scale that is ecologically relevant to the birds. We compared the predictions from two distinct hypotheses as to how hummingbirds might use the visual features of rewards: the distant beacon hypothesis and the local cue hypothesis. In two field experiments, we found no evidence that rufous hummingbirds used a distant visual beacon to guide them to a rewarded location. In no case did birds abandon their approach to the goal location from a distance; rather they demonstrated remarkable accuracy of navigation by approaching to within about 70 cm of a rewarded flower's original location. Proximity varied depending on the size of the training flower: birds flew closer to a previously rewarded location if it had been previously signalled with a small beacon. Additionally, when provided with a beacon at a new location, birds did not fly directly to the new beacon. Taken together, we believe these data demonstrate that these hummingbirds depend little on visual characteristics to beacon to rewarded locations, but rather that they encode surrounding landmarks in order to reach the goal and then use the visual features of the goal as confirmation that they have arrived at the correct location.

  19. Sugar Metabolism in Hummingbirds and Nectar Bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Raul K; Welch, Kenneth C

    2017-07-12

    Hummingbirds and nectar bats coevolved with the plants they visit to feed on floral nectars rich in sugars. The extremely high metabolic costs imposed by small size and hovering flight in combination with reliance upon sugars as their main source of dietary calories resulted in convergent evolution of a suite of structural and functional traits. These allow high rates of aerobic energy metabolism in the flight muscles, fueled almost entirely by the oxidation of dietary sugars, during flight. High intestinal sucrase activities enable high rates of sucrose hydrolysis. Intestinal absorption of glucose and fructose occurs mainly through a paracellular pathway. In the fasted state, energy metabolism during flight relies on the oxidation of fat synthesized from previously-ingested sugar. During repeated bouts of hover-feeding, the enhanced digestive capacities, in combination with high capacities for sugar transport and oxidation in the flight muscles, allow the operation of the "sugar oxidation cascade", the pathway by which dietary sugars are directly oxidized by flight muscles during exercise. It is suggested that the potentially harmful effects of nectar diets are prevented by locomotory exercise, just as in human hunter-gatherers who consume large quantities of honey.

  20. Tropical deforestation alters hummingbird movement patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Adam S.; Betts, Matthew G.

    2009-01-01

    Reduced pollination success, as a function of habitat loss and fragmentation, appears to be a global phenomenon. Disruption of pollinator movement is one hypothesis put forward to explain this pattern in pollen limitation. However, the small size of pollinators makes them very difficult to track; thus, knowledge of their movements is largely speculative. Using tiny radio transmitters (0.25 g), we translocated a generalist tropical ‘trap-lining’ hummingbird, the green hermit (Phaethornis guy), across agricultural and forested landscapes to test the hypothesis that movement is influenced by patterns of deforestation. Although, we found no difference in homing times between landscape types, return paths were on average 459±144 m (±s.e.) more direct in forested than agricultural landscapes. In addition, movement paths in agricultural landscapes contained 36±4 per cent more forest than the most direct route. Our findings suggest that this species can circumvent agricultural matrix to move among forest patches. Nevertheless, it is clear that movement of even a highly mobile species is strongly influenced by landscape disturbance. Maintaining landscape connectivity with forest corridors may be important for enhancing movement, and thus in facilitating pollen transfer. PMID:19158031

  1. Sugar Metabolism in Hummingbirds and Nectar Bats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul K. Suarez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hummingbirds and nectar bats coevolved with the plants they visit to feed on floral nectars rich in sugars. The extremely high metabolic costs imposed by small size and hovering flight in combination with reliance upon sugars as their main source of dietary calories resulted in convergent evolution of a suite of structural and functional traits. These allow high rates of aerobic energy metabolism in the flight muscles, fueled almost entirely by the oxidation of dietary sugars, during flight. High intestinal sucrase activities enable high rates of sucrose hydrolysis. Intestinal absorption of glucose and fructose occurs mainly through a paracellular pathway. In the fasted state, energy metabolism during flight relies on the oxidation of fat synthesized from previously-ingested sugar. During repeated bouts of hover-feeding, the enhanced digestive capacities, in combination with high capacities for sugar transport and oxidation in the flight muscles, allow the operation of the “sugar oxidation cascade”, the pathway by which dietary sugars are directly oxidized by flight muscles during exercise. It is suggested that the potentially harmful effects of nectar diets are prevented by locomotory exercise, just as in human hunter-gatherers who consume large quantities of honey.

  2. Kundnöjdheten i Hotel Anna

    OpenAIRE

    Boije, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    I dagens läge värderas kundrelationer högt inom marknadsföringen. Kundnöjdhet förknippas med lönsamhet och ses som en långsiktig investering. Hotel Anna är ett litet hotell i centrala Helsingfors och fungerar som min uppdragsgivare. Syftet med detta arbete är att utreda kundnöjdheten samt hur kundbetjäning och kvalitet upplevs i hotellet. Delsyftet är också att hitta kundnöjdhets förbättringsförslag för hotellet. Den teoretiska referensramen består av teori som behandlar tjänster, kvalitet, k...

  3. Evaluation of Calypte AWARE HIV-1/2 OMT antibody test as a screening test in an Indian setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingole N

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Integrated counselling and testing centres (ICTC provide counselling and blood testing facilities for HIV diagnosis. Oral fluid tests provide an alternative for people whodo not want blood to be drawn. Also, it avoids the risk of occupational exposure. The goal of this study was to evaluate the utility of Calypte AWARE HIV-1/2 OMT antibody test as a screening test in an Indian setting. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out after ethics committee approval in 250 adult ICTC clients. Blood was collected and tested from these clients for HIV diagnosis as per routine policy and the results were considered as the gold standard. Also, after another written informed consent, oral fluid was collected from the clients and tested for the presence of HIV antibodies. Twenty five clients who had and 25 clients who had not completed their secondary school education (Group A and Group B, respectively were also asked to perform and interpret the test on their own and their findings and experiences were noted. Result: The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of the oral fluid antibody test were 100%, 98.51%, 94.11% and 100%, respectively. Seventy six percent of clients preferred oral fluid testing. Group B found it difficult to perform the test as compared to Group A and this difference was statistically significant (P ≤ 0.05. Conclusion: Oral fluid testing can be used as a screening test for HIV diagnosis; however, confirmation of reactive results by blood-based tests is a must.

  4. Western armament and tactics in the writings of Anna Komnene

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    Drašković Marko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, first we reconstructed and commented the western horseman's armament witch Anna Komnene had known (long spear, cross-bow, chain mail "Norman" shield, solarets. Afterwards, we established that Anne knew four types of western horseman's attack (attack in full gallop, attack from back slow march, attack from flank and three types of their battle formation (strewn formation, congested formation, formation of two columns. Also, we commented Anna's knowledge of western siege engines (battering-ram, tortoise catapult, siege tower; we established that Anne knew five types of western siege tower. In the end, we commented several fragments witch show Anna Komnene's knowledge of the western siege tactics.

  5. Mechanical Constraints on Flight at High Elevation Decrease Maneuvering Performance of Hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segre, Paolo S; Dakin, Roslyn; Read, Tyson J G; Straw, Andrew D; Altshuler, Douglas L

    2016-12-19

    High-elevation habitats offer ecological advantages including reduced competition, predation, and parasitism [1]. However, flying organisms at high elevation also face physiological challenges due to lower air density and oxygen availability [2]. These constraints are expected to affect the flight maneuvers that are required to compete with rivals, capture prey, and evade threats [3-5]. To test how individual maneuvering performance is affected by elevation, we measured the free-flight maneuvers of male Anna's hummingbirds in a large chamber translocated to a high-elevation site and then measured their performance at low elevation. We used a multi-camera tracking system to identify thousands of maneuvers based on body position and orientation [6]. At high elevation, the birds' translational velocities, accelerations, and rotational velocities were reduced, and they used less demanding turns. To determine how mechanical and metabolic constraints independently affect performance, we performed a second experiment to evaluate flight maneuvers in an airtight chamber infused with either normoxic heliox, to lower air density, or nitrogen, to lower oxygen availability. The hypodense treatment caused the birds to reduce their accelerations and rotational velocities, whereas the hypoxic treatment had no significant effect on maneuvering performance. Collectively, these experiments reveal how aerial maneuvering performance changes with elevation, demonstrating that as birds move up in elevation, air density constrains their maneuverability prior to any influence of oxygen availability. Our results support the hypothesis that changes in competitive ability at high elevations are the result of mechanical limits to flight performance [7]. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Flight mechanics and control of escape manoeuvres in hummingbirds. I. Flight kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Bo; Tobalske, Bret W; Powers, Donald R; Hedrick, Tyson L; Wethington, Susan M; Chiu, George T C; Deng, Xinyan

    2016-11-15

    Hummingbirds are nature's masters of aerobatic manoeuvres. Previous research shows that hummingbirds and insects converged evolutionarily upon similar aerodynamic mechanisms and kinematics in hovering. Herein, we use three-dimensional kinematic data to begin to test for similar convergence of kinematics used for escape flight and to explore the effects of body size upon manoeuvring. We studied four hummingbird species in North America including two large species (magnificent hummingbird, Eugenes fulgens, 7.8 g, and blue-throated hummingbird, Lampornis clemenciae, 8.0 g) and two smaller species (broad-billed hummingbird, Cynanthus latirostris, 3.4 g, and black-chinned hummingbirds Archilochus alexandri, 3.1 g). Starting from a steady hover, hummingbirds consistently manoeuvred away from perceived threats using a drastic escape response that featured body pitch and roll rotations coupled with a large linear acceleration. Hummingbirds changed their flapping frequency and wing trajectory in all three degrees of freedom on a stroke-by-stroke basis, likely causing rapid and significant alteration of the magnitude and direction of aerodynamic forces. Thus it appears that the flight control of hummingbirds does not obey the 'helicopter model' that is valid for similar escape manoeuvres in fruit flies. Except for broad-billed hummingbirds, the hummingbirds had faster reaction times than those reported for visual feedback control in insects. The two larger hummingbird species performed pitch rotations and global-yaw turns with considerably larger magnitude than the smaller species, but roll rates and cumulative roll angles were similar among the four species. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. How neotropical hummingbird versus bat species generate lift to hover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, Rivers; Lentink, David

    2017-11-01

    Both hummingbirds and nectar bats evolved the ability to hover in front of flowers providing them access to energy rich nectar. Hummingbirds have been found to generate more than a quarter of their weight support during the upstroke by inverting their wings-much more than generalist birds during slow hovering flight. In contrast to hummingbirds, bats have membrane wings which they partially fold during the upstroke. It has been hypothesized that bats generate some vertical lift force during the upstroke although the complex wake structures make it hard to quantify upstroke function through flow measurement. To compare the kinematics and aerodynamic forces generated by both groups, we caught and trained over 100 individuals spanning 18 hummingbird and 3 bat species in Coto Brus, Costa Rica. We used 3D calibrated high-speed cameras to measure wingbeat kinematics and a novel aerodynamic force platform to measure the instantaneous vertical lift force in vivo. This data gives us new insight into how ecology shapes the evolution of hovering flight across taxa in the same ecosystem. This research is supported by NSF CAREER Award 1552419 and the KACST Center of Excellence for Aeronautics and Astronautics at Stanford.

  8. Premigratory fat metabolism in hummingbirds: A rumsfeldian approach

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    Raul K. SUAREZ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Hummingbird migration is a remarkable feat, given the small body sizes of migratory species, their high metabolic rates during flight and the long distances traveled using fat to fuel the effort. Equally remarkable is the ability of premigratory hummingbirds in the wild to accumulate fat, synthesized from sugar, at rates as high as 10% of body mass per day. This paper summarizes, using Rumsfeldian terminology, “known knowns” concerning the energetics of hummingbird migration and premigratory fattening. Energy metabolism during hover-feeding on floral nectar is fueled directly by dietary sugar through the pathway recently named the “sugar oxidation cascade”. However, flight without feeding for more than a few minutes requires shifting to fat as a fuel. It is proposed that behavior and metabolic fuel choice are coadapted to maximize the rate of fat deposition during premigratory fattening. The hummingbird liver appears to possess extraordinarily high capacities for fatty acid synthesis. The analysis of “known knowns” leads to identification of “known unknowns”, e.g., the fates of dietary glucose and fructose, the regulation of fat metabolism and metabolic interactions between liver and adipose tissue. The history of science behooves recognition of “unknown unknowns” that, when discovered serendipitously, might shed new light on fundamental mechanisms as well as human pathological conditions [Current Zoology 59 (3: 371–380, 2013].

  9. Postnatal Growth Rates of Hummingbirds : Review and New Records

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freymann, Bernd P.; Schuchmann, Karl-Ludwig

    2008-01-01

    We review the published information on postnatal growth rates of hummingbirds (13 species), and report previously unpublished records for nine additional trochilid species. The allometric relationship based on the log(10)-transformed data of K (logistic growth rate constant) and body mass has a

  10. Visual Neuroscience: Unique Neural System for Flight Stabilization in Hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibbotson, M R

    2017-01-23

    The pretectal visual motion processing area in the hummingbird brain is unlike that in other birds: instead of emphasizing detection of horizontal movements, it codes for motion in all directions through 360°, possibly offering precise visual stability control during hovering. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Wild hummingbirds can use the geometry of a flower array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornsby, Mark A W; Healy, Susan D; Hurly, T Andrew

    2017-06-01

    Animals use cues from their environment to orient in space and to navigate their surroundings. Geometry is a cue whose informational content may originate from the metric properties of a given environment, and its use has been demonstrated in the laboratory in nearly every species of animal tested. However, it is not clear whether geometric information, used by animals typically tested in small, rectangular boxes, is directly relevant to animals in their natural environment. Here we present the first data that confirm the use of geometric cues by a free-living animal in the wild. We trained rufous hummingbirds to visit a rectangular array of four artificial flowers, one of which was rewarded. In some trials a conspicuous landmark cued the reward. Following array translocation and rotation, we presented hummingbirds with three tests. When trained and tested with the landmark, or when trained and tested without it, hummingbirds failed to show geometric learning. However, when trained with a landmark but tested without it, hummingbirds produced the classic geometric response, showing that they had learned the geometric relationships (distance and direction) of several non-reward visual elements of the environment. While it remains that the use of geometry to relocate a reward may be an experimental artefact, its use is not confined to the laboratory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Relating form to function in the hummingbird feeding apparatus

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    Alejandro Rico-Guevara

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A complete understanding of the feeding structures is fundamental in order to study how animals survive. Some birds use long and protrusible tongues as the main tool to collect their central caloric source (e.g., woodpeckers and nectarivores. Hummingbirds are the oldest and most diverse clade of nectarivorous vertebrates, being a perfect subject to study tongue specializations. Their tongue functions to intraorally transport arthropods through their long bills and enables them to exploit the nectarivorous niche by collecting small amounts of liquid, therefore it is of vital importance to study its anatomy and structure at various scales. I focused on the portions of the hummingbird tongue that have been shown to be key for understanding their feeding mechanisms. I used histology, transmission and scanning electron microscopy, microCT, and ex-vivo experiments in order to advance the comprehension of the morphology and functioning of the hummingbird feeding apparatus. I found that hummingbird tongues are composed mainly of thin cornified epithelium, lack papillae, and completely fill the internal cast of the rostral oropharyngeal cavity. Understanding this puzzle-piece match between bill and tongue will be essential for the study of intraoral transport of nectar. Likewise, I found that the structural composition and tissue architecture of the tongue groove walls provide the rostral portion of the tongue with elastic properties that are central to the study of tongue-nectar interactions during the feeding process. Detailed studies on hummingbirds set the basis for comparisons with other nectar-feeding birds and contribute to comprehend the natural solutions to collecting liquids in the most efficient way possible.

  13. Relating form to function in the hummingbird feeding apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    A complete understanding of the feeding structures is fundamental in order to study how animals survive. Some birds use long and protrusible tongues as the main tool to collect their central caloric source (e.g., woodpeckers and nectarivores). Hummingbirds are the oldest and most diverse clade of nectarivorous vertebrates, being a perfect subject to study tongue specializations. Their tongue functions to intraorally transport arthropods through their long bills and enables them to exploit the nectarivorous niche by collecting small amounts of liquid, therefore it is of vital importance to study its anatomy and structure at various scales. I focused on the portions of the hummingbird tongue that have been shown to be key for understanding their feeding mechanisms. I used histology, transmission and scanning electron microscopy, microCT, and ex-vivo experiments in order to advance the comprehension of the morphology and functioning of the hummingbird feeding apparatus. I found that hummingbird tongues are composed mainly of thin cornified epithelium, lack papillae, and completely fill the internal cast of the rostral oropharyngeal cavity. Understanding this puzzle-piece match between bill and tongue will be essential for the study of intraoral transport of nectar. Likewise, I found that the structural composition and tissue architecture of the tongue groove walls provide the rostral portion of the tongue with elastic properties that are central to the study of tongue-nectar interactions during the feeding process. Detailed studies on hummingbirds set the basis for comparisons with other nectar-feeding birds and contribute to comprehend the natural solutions to collecting liquids in the most efficient way possible. PMID:28607842

  14. Anna Pavlova, danzatrice eurasiana? (I parte

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    Silvia Mei

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract – IT Prima diva nella costellazione di nuove star dello spettacolo novecentesco, Anna Pavlova visse unicamente nello spirito e nella missione della danza come forma d’arte e stile di vita. Senza temere i rischi del solipsismo, si lancia nell’avventura di una compagnia tutta sua dopo il clamore parigino dei Ballets Russes. Il suo coraggio, la sua curiosità, il suo genio artistico la portano a viaggiare per i cinque continenti senza sosta, a scoprire danze tradizionali, a praticarle essa stessa, come quelle kabuki, apprese non senza sofferenze in Giappone nel 1922. Presentata nella vulgata come paladina della tradizione classicoaccademica, Pavlova può ostentare una biografia degna delle grandi danzatrici moderne a lei contemporanee, come una Duncan o una Ruth St. Denis (con quest’ultima in rapporto di competizione a distanza intorno al soggetto di Radha. Insieme ad una figura controversa e intrigante come quella del danzatore indiano Uday Shankar, crea un trittico di danze di ispirazione orientale all’insegna del rigore filologico e dell’integrazione linguistica, traccia della sua apertura e del rispetto di tradizioni teatrali altre. Abstract – EN Anna Pavlova, the first diva within the stars firmament of the 20th century, spent her life exclusively in the spirit of dance, intended as an art form and a life style, as if it were a mission. She threw herself into the adventure of leading her own company, after the Ballets Russes' European acclaim. Her courage, curiosity and artistic genius took her through five continents, endlessly searching for traditional dances that she learned with tremendous physical suffering, as in Japan with kabuki in 1922. She’s not simply a paladin of the academic tradition. She can in fact claim a biography and dance practice worthy of the most famous modern dancers who lived in her age, such as Duncan and St. Denis (with whom she was in a special competition, though after years, on the subject

  15. Visual guidance of forward flight in hummingbirds reveals control based on image features instead of pattern velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakin, Roslyn; Fellows, Tyee K; Altshuler, Douglas L

    2016-08-02

    Information about self-motion and obstacles in the environment is encoded by optic flow, the movement of images on the eye. Decades of research have revealed that flying insects control speed, altitude, and trajectory by a simple strategy of maintaining or balancing the translational velocity of images on the eyes, known as pattern velocity. It has been proposed that birds may use a similar algorithm but this hypothesis has not been tested directly. We examined the influence of pattern velocity on avian flight by manipulating the motion of patterns on the walls of a tunnel traversed by Anna's hummingbirds. Contrary to prediction, we found that lateral course control is not based on regulating nasal-to-temporal pattern velocity. Instead, birds closely monitored feature height in the vertical axis, and steered away from taller features even in the absence of nasal-to-temporal pattern velocity cues. For vertical course control, we observed that birds adjusted their flight altitude in response to upward motion of the horizontal plane, which simulates vertical descent. Collectively, our results suggest that birds avoid collisions using visual cues in the vertical axis. Specifically, we propose that birds monitor the vertical extent of features in the lateral visual field to assess distances to the side, and vertical pattern velocity to avoid collisions with the ground. These distinct strategies may derive from greater need to avoid collisions in birds, compared with small insects.

  16. Evolution of sweet taste perception in hummingbirds by transformation of the ancestral umami receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Maude W.; Toda, Yasuka; Nakagita, Tomoya; O'Connell, Mary J.; Klasing, Kirk C.; Misaka, Takumi; Edwards, Scott V.; Liberles, Stephen D.

    2015-01-01

    Sensory systems define an animal's capacity for perception and can evolve to promote survival in new environmental niches. We have uncovered a noncanonical mechanism for sweet taste perception that evolved in hummingbirds since their divergence from insectivorous swifts, their closest relatives. We observed the widespread absence in birds of an essential subunit (T1R2) of the only known vertebrate sweet receptor, raising questions about how specialized nectar feeders such as hummingbirds sense sugars. Receptor expression studies revealed that the ancestral umami receptor (the T1R1-T1R3 heterodimer) was repurposed in hummingbirds to function as a carbohydrate receptor. Furthermore, the molecular recognition properties of T1R1-T1R3 guided taste behavior in captive and wild hummingbirds. We propose that changing taste receptor function enabled hummingbirds to perceive and use nectar, facilitating the massive radiation of hummingbird species. PMID:25146290

  17. Sensory biology. Evolution of sweet taste perception in hummingbirds by transformation of the ancestral umami receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Maude W; Toda, Yasuka; Nakagita, Tomoya; O'Connell, Mary J; Klasing, Kirk C; Misaka, Takumi; Edwards, Scott V; Liberles, Stephen D

    2014-08-22

    Sensory systems define an animal's capacity for perception and can evolve to promote survival in new environmental niches. We have uncovered a noncanonical mechanism for sweet taste perception that evolved in hummingbirds since their divergence from insectivorous swifts, their closest relatives. We observed the widespread absence in birds of an essential subunit (T1R2) of the only known vertebrate sweet receptor, raising questions about how specialized nectar feeders such as hummingbirds sense sugars. Receptor expression studies revealed that the ancestral umami receptor (the T1R1-T1R3 heterodimer) was repurposed in hummingbirds to function as a carbohydrate receptor. Furthermore, the molecular recognition properties of T1R1-T1R3 guided taste behavior in captive and wild hummingbirds. We propose that changing taste receptor function enabled hummingbirds to perceive and use nectar, facilitating the massive radiation of hummingbird species. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  18. Anna Politkovskaya: Rússlands Pútíns

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    Pétur Berg Matthíasson

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Í umsögn gagnrýnanda kemur meðal annars eftirfarandi fram: Fram kemur í lok bókarinnar að Anna hafi illan bifur á Pútín. Það kemur lesandanum í sjálfu sér ekki á óvart enda bókin upptalning á skelfilegum atburðum sem lýsa hvers konar stjórnvöldum hann fer fyrir, fyrir utan það að Pútín gerir lítið sem ekkert til að breyta því til hins betra. Þessi bók er nauðsynleg fyrir alla þá sem vilja skyggnast bak við tjöldin og sjá Rússland eins og það er í raun og veru.

  19. Paediatrics and psychoanalysis--Miss Anna Freud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Miss Anna Freud died during the winter at the age of 86. She had been a pioneer in the understanding of children through psychoanalysis and a great champion of the rights of children. Her life began in Vienna as the youngest child of Sigmund Freud, and her early work with children was in Austria. In 1938, because of the Nazi régime and even though she was nursing her father during his terminal illness, she had to escape with him to London. Her work with homeless children and with those in residential nurseries in London during the second world war is well known, as is her work on child development and psychopathology in the postwar years. But one less well known aspect of her life that was of immense importance to a few fortunate British paediatricians was the 'paediatric group' that she ran for over a quarter of a century and which Dr Christine Cooper recalled at the memorial meeting in London earlier this year. PMID:6344806

  20. The hummingbird tongue is a fluid trap, not a capillary tube

    OpenAIRE

    Rico-Guevara, Alejandro; Rubega, Margaret A.

    2011-01-01

    Hummingbird tongues pick up a liquid, calorie-dense food that cannot be grasped, a physical challenge that has long inspired the study of nectar-transport mechanics. Existing biophysical models predict optimal hummingbird foraging on the basis of equations that assume that fluid rises through the tongue in the same way as through capillary tubes. We demonstrate that the hummingbird tongue does not function like a pair of tiny, static tubes drawing up floral nectar via capillary action. Instea...

  1. Adipose energy stores, physical work, and the metabolic syndrome: lessons from hummingbirds

    OpenAIRE

    Hargrove, James L

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Hummingbirds and other nectar-feeding, migratory birds possess unusual adaptive traits that offer important lessons concerning obesity, diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. Hummingbirds consume a high sugar diet and have fasting glucose levels that would be severely hyperglycemic in humans, yet these nectar-fed birds recover most glucose that is filtered into the urine. Hummingbirds accumulate over 40% body fat shortly before migrations in the spring and autumn. Despite hyperglycemia...

  2. Pollination syndromes ignored: importance of non-ornithophilous flowers to Neotropical savanna hummingbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Pietro K.; Oliveira, Genilda M.; Ferreira, Carolina; Dalsgaard, Bo; Oliveira, Paulo E.

    2013-11-01

    Generalization prevails in flower-animal interactions, and although animal visitors are not equally effective pollinators, most interactions likely represent an important energy intake for the animal visitor. Hummingbirds are nectar-feeding specialists, and many tropical plants are specialized toward hummingbird-pollination. In spite of this, especially in dry and seasonal tropical habitats, hummingbirds may often rely on non-ornithophilous plants to meet their energy requirements. However, quantitative studies evaluating the relative importance of ornithophilous vs. non-ornithophilous plants for hummingbirds in these areas are scarce. We here studied the availability and use of floral resources by hummingbirds in two different areas of the Cerrado, the seasonal savannas in Central Brazil. Roughly half the hummingbird visited plant species were non-ornithophilous, and these contributed greatly to increase the overall nectar availability. We showed that mean nectar offer, at the transect scale, was the only parameter related to hummingbird visitation frequency, more so than nectar offer at single flowers and at the plant scale, or pollination syndrome. Centrality indices, calculated using hummingbird-plant networks, showed that ornithophilous and non-ornithophilous plants have similar importance for network cohesion. How this foraging behaviour affects reproduction of non-ornithophilous plants remains largely unexplored and is probably case specific, however, we suggest that the additional energy provided by non-ornithophilous plants may facilitate reproduction of truly ornithophilous flowers by attracting and maintaining hummingbirds in the area. This may promote asymmetric hummingbird-plant associations, i.e., pollination depends on floral traits adapted to hummingbird morphology, but hummingbird visitation is determined more by the energetic "reward" than by pollination syndromes.

  3. Plant-hummingbird interactions and temporal nectar availability in arestinga from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LORENA C.N. FONSECA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Hummingbirds are the most important and specialized group of pollinating birds in the Neotropics and their interactions with plants are key components to many communities. In the present study we identified the assemblage of plants visited by hummingbirds and investigated the temporal availability of floral resources in an area of restinga, sandy plain coastal vegetation associated with the Atlantic forest, in Southeastern Brazil. We recorded flower and nectar features, flowering phenology and interactions between plants and hummingbirds and estimated the amount of calories produced per hectare from June 2005 to August 2006. Ten plant species were visited by two hummingbirds,Amazilia fimbriata and Eupetomena macroura. Resource availability was highly variable among plant species and over time. Nectar volume and concentration per flower were similar to other Neotropical hummingbird-visited plant assemblages. The estimated nectar resource availability between months varied from 0.85 to 5.97 Kcal per hectare/day, demanding an area between one and 6.8 ha to support a single hummingbird. Our study reports an unusual tropical setting where almost all interactions between hummingbirds and plants were performed by a single hummingbird species,A. fimbriata. Hence, the variable nectar availability is probably influencing hummingbird movements, its foraging area, and consequently plant pollination.

  4. Plant-hummingbird interactions and temporal nectar availability in a restinga from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Lorena C N; Vizentin-Bugoni, Jeferson; Rech, André R; Alves, Maria Alice S

    2015-01-01

    Hummingbirds are the most important and specialized group of pollinating birds in the Neotropics and their interactions with plants are key components to many communities. In the present study we identified the assemblage of plants visited by hummingbirds and investigated the temporal availability of floral resources in an area of restinga, sandy plain coastal vegetation associated with the Atlantic forest, in Southeastern Brazil. We recorded flower and nectar features, flowering phenology and interactions between plants and hummingbirds and estimated the amount of calories produced per hectare from June 2005 to August 2006. Ten plant species were visited by two hummingbirds, Amazilia fimbriata and Eupetomena macroura. Resource availability was highly variable among plant species and over time. Nectar volume and concentration per flower were similar to other Neotropical hummingbird-visited plant assemblages. The estimated nectar resource availability between months varied from 0.85 to 5.97 Kcal per hectare/day, demanding an area between one and 6.8 ha to support a single hummingbird. Our study reports an unusual tropical setting where almost all interactions between hummingbirds and plants were performed by a single hummingbird species, A. fimbriata. Hence, the variable nectar availability is probably influencing hummingbird movements, its foraging area, and consequently plant pollination.

  5. The hummingbird community and their floral resources in an urban forest remnant in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LC. Rodrigues

    Full Text Available The temporal and spatial resource use among hummingbirds was studied over 13 months in an urban forest remnant (Prosa State Park: PSP in Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Hummingbird visitation was recorded at three ornithophilous and eleven non-ornithophilous species. Flower density was roughly constant during the study period, with the density of non-ornithophilous flowers being higher than that of ornithophilous ones. Mean values of nectar volume and concentration were similar between ornithophilous and non-ornithophilous species. Eight hummingbird species were observed at PSP: Amazilia fimbriata, Anthracothorax nigricollis, Chlorostilbon lucidus, Eupetomena macroura, Hylocharis chrysura, Florisuga fusca, Thalurania furcata and an unidentified species. Hummingbird visit frequencies to ornithophilous and non-ornithophilous flowers were similar. However, some non-ornithophilous species received a higher number of visits, which seems to be related to their large number of open flowers per plant per day. The number of feedings bouts of hummingbirds increased with the total number of flowers observed per focal plant. All recorded species of hummingbirds visited non-ornithophilous flowers, predominantly melittophilous and generalised entomophilous flowers. Hummingbird species recorded at PSP may be viewed as generalists, visiting a large number of non-ornithophilous species. Despite being an urban forest, PSP is relatively rich in hummingbird species, suggesting that it provides important shelter and foraging sites for hummingbirds in such an environment.

  6. Sugar and protein digestion in flowerpiercers and hummingbirds: a comparative test of adaptive convergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schondube, J E; Martinez del Rio, C

    2004-04-01

    Flowerpiercers are the most specialized nectar-feeding passerines in the Neotropics. They are nectar robbers that feed on the sucrose-rich diet of hummingbirds. To test the hypothesis that flowerpiercers have converged with hummingbirds in digestive traits, we compared the activity of intestinal enzymes and the gut nominal area of cinnamon-bellied flowerpiercers (Diglossa baritula) with those of eleven hummingbird species. We measured sucrase, maltase, and aminopeptidase-N activities. To provide a comparative context, we also compared flowerpiercers and hummingbirds with 29 species of passerines. We analyzed enzyme activity using both standard allometric analyses and phylogenetically independent contrasts. Both approaches revealed the same patterns. With the exception of sucrase activity, hummingbirds' digestive traits were indistinguishable from those of passerines. Sucrase activity was ten times higher in hummingbirds than in passerines. Hummingbirds and passerines also differed in the relationship between intestinal maltase and sucrase activities. Maltase activity was two times higher per unit of sucrase activity in passerines than in hummingbirds. The sucrase activity of D. baritula was much lower than that of hummingbirds, and not unlike that expected for a passerine of its body mass. With the exception of aminopeptidase-N activity, the digestive traits of D. baritula were not different from those of other passerines. Copyright 2004 Springer-Verlag

  7. Avoidance of achromatic colours by bees provides a private niche for hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunau, Klaus; Papiorek, Sarah; Eltz, Thomas; Sazima, Marlies

    2011-05-01

    That hummingbird-pollinated plants predominantly have red flowers has been known for decades, but well-investigated research studies are still rare. Preference tests have shown that hummingbirds do not have an innate preference for red colours. In addition, hummingbirds do not depend solely upon red flowers, because white-flowered hummingbird-pollinated plants are also common and temporarily abundant. Here we show that both white and red hummingbird-pollinated flowers differ from bee-pollinated flowers in their reflection properties for ultraviolet (UV) light. Hummingbird-pollinated red flowers are on average less UV reflective, and white hummingbird-pollinated flowers are more UV reflective than the same coloured bee-pollinated ones. In preference tests with artificial flowers, neotropical orchid bees prefer red UV-reflecting artificial flowers and white UV-nonreflecting flowers over red and white flowers with the opposite UV properties. By contrast, hummingbirds showed no preference for any colour in the same tests. Plotting floral colours and test stimuli into the honeybees' perceptual colour space suggests that the less attractive colours are achromatic for bees and therefore more difficult to detect against the background. This underlying colour preference in bees might provide hummingbirds with a private niche that is not attractive to bees.

  8. The hummingbird community and their floral resources in an urban forest remnant in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, L C; Araujo, A C

    2011-08-01

    The temporal and spatial resource use among hummingbirds was studied over 13 months in an urban forest remnant (Prosa State Park: PSP) in Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Hummingbird visitation was recorded at three ornithophilous and eleven non-ornithophilous species. Flower density was roughly constant during the study period, with the density of non-ornithophilous flowers being higher than that of ornithophilous ones. Mean values of nectar volume and concentration were similar between ornithophilous and non-ornithophilous species. Eight hummingbird species were observed at PSP: Amazilia fimbriata, Anthracothorax nigricollis, Chlorostilbon lucidus, Eupetomena macroura, Hylocharis chrysura, Florisuga fusca, Thalurania furcata and an unidentified species. Hummingbird visit frequencies to ornithophilous and non-ornithophilous flowers were similar. However, some non-ornithophilous species received a higher number of visits, which seems to be related to their large number of open flowers per plant per day. The number of feedings bouts of hummingbirds increased with the total number of flowers observed per focal plant. All recorded species of hummingbirds visited non-ornithophilous flowers, predominantly melittophilous and generalised entomophilous flowers. Hummingbird species recorded at PSP may be viewed as generalists, visiting a large number of non-ornithophilous species. Despite being an urban forest, PSP is relatively rich in hummingbird species, suggesting that it provides important shelter and foraging sites for hummingbirds in such an environment.

  9. Partei tuhandete ja enda kommiraha eest 462 häält / Anna-Maria Galojan ; interv. Rainer Kerge

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Galojan, Anna-Maria, 1982-

    2007-01-01

    Intervjuu parlamendivalimistel osalenud politoloogiamagistrant Anna-Maria Galojaniga tema osalemisest valimistel. Vt. samas: Kes on Anna-Maria Galojan? Küsimustele vastab Reformierakonna kampaaniajuht Arto Aas

  10. Parasite specialization in a unique habitat: hummingbirds as reservoirs of generalist blood parasites of Andean birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moens, Michaël A J; Valkiūnas, Gediminas; Paca, Anahi; Bonaccorso, Elisa; Aguirre, Nikolay; Pérez-Tris, Javier

    2016-09-01

    Understanding how parasites fill their ecological niches requires information on the processes involved in the colonization and exploitation of unique host species. Switching to hosts with atypical attributes may favour generalists broadening their niches or may promote specialization and parasite diversification as the consequence. We analysed which blood parasites have successfully colonized hummingbirds, and how they have evolved to exploit such a unique habitat. We specifically asked (i) whether the assemblage of Haemoproteus parasites of hummingbirds is the result of single or multiple colonization events, (ii) to what extent these parasites are specialized in hummingbirds or shared with other birds and (iii) how hummingbirds contribute to sustain the populations of these parasites, in terms of both prevalence and infection intensity. We sampled 169 hummingbirds of 19 species along an elevation gradient in Southern Ecuador to analyse the host specificity, diversity and infection intensity of Haemoproteus by molecular and microscopy techniques. In addition, 736 birds of 112 species were analysed to explore whether hummingbird parasites are shared with other birds. Hummingbirds hosted a phylogenetically diverse assemblage of generalist Haemoproteus lineages shared with other host orders. Among these parasites, Haemoproteus witti stood out as the most generalized. Interestingly, we found that infection intensities of this parasite were extremely low in passerines (with no detectable gametocytes), but very high in hummingbirds, with many gametocytes seen. Moreover, infection intensities of H. witti were positively correlated with the prevalence across host species. Our results show that hummingbirds have been colonized by generalist Haemoproteus lineages on multiple occasions. However, one of these generalist parasites (H. witti) seems to be highly dependent on hummingbirds, which arise as the most relevant reservoirs in terms of both prevalence and

  11. Hummingbirds at artificial flowers made to resemble ornithophiles versus melittophiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wyndee A. Guzman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Certain floral characteristics are associated with specific pollinators. Hummingbird-pollinated flowers are usually red, lack a landing platform, lack nectar guides, and contain a high amount of dilute sucrose-rich nectar. Here we test hypotheses concerning the reasons for these characters to the extent that they involve hummingbird responses. An array was set up of 16 artificial plants, each with five artificial flowers. (1 Flowers made to differ only in colour elicited a slight preference for red. (2 When colour was associated with nectar offerings, and birds generally learned to visit flowers that provided much more nectar but did not associatively learn differences as little as 2 µL. (3 Birds were offered 8 µL of 12% sucrose versus 2 µL of 48% hexose, and they did not prefer the dilute nectar; they showed no evidence of discerning sucrose from hexose; however, they preferred 48% over 12% sucrose when both were offered in the same quantity. (4 Birds preferred flowers that lacked landing platforms over those with landing platforms. (5 Birds were offered flowers with nectar guides, associated with differing nectar volumes, and they did not associate the higher nectar reward with either flower type. In summary, the feedback from hummingbirds reflects some of the differences between bird- and bee-adapted flowers, but nectar seemed less predictive than expected. Factors other than the behavioural proclivities of hummingbirds, such as adaptation to discourage bees, are discussed as additional causes for the differences between the syndromes. We also discuss significance testing for field experiments involving one unreplicated array.

  12. Heat dissipation during hovering and forward flight in hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Donald R; Tobalske, Bret W; Wilson, J Keaton; Woods, H Arthur; Corder, Keely R

    2015-12-01

    Flying animals generate large amounts of heat, which must be dissipated to avoid overheating. In birds, heat dissipation is complicated by feathers, which cover most body surfaces and retard heat loss. To understand how birds manage heat budgets during flight, it is critical to know how heat moves from the skin to the external environment. Hummingbirds are instructive because they fly at speeds from 0 to more than 12 m s(-1), during which they transit from radiative to convective heat loss. We used infrared thermography and particle image velocimetry to test the effects of flight speed on heat loss from specific body regions in flying calliope hummingbirds (Selasphorus calliope). We measured heat flux in a carcass with and without plumage to test the effectiveness of the insulation layer. In flying hummingbirds, the highest thermal gradients occurred in key heat dissipation areas (HDAs) around the eyes, axial region and feet. Eye and axial surface temperatures were 8°C or more above air temperature, and remained relatively constant across speeds suggesting physiological regulation of skin surface temperature. During hovering, birds dangled their feet, which enhanced radiative heat loss. In addition, during hovering, near-body induced airflows from the wings were low except around the feet (approx. 2.5 m s(-1)), which probably enhanced convective heat loss. Axial HDA and maximum surface temperature exhibited a shallow U-shaped pattern across speeds, revealing a localized relationship with power production in flight in the HDA closest to the primary flight muscles. We conclude that hummingbirds actively alter routes of heat dissipation as a function of flight speed.

  13. Anna Karenina, the 'English novel'.Towards the study of anglomania in Leo Tolstoy 's novel Anna Karenina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Sarana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with one storyline of the novel Anna Karenina that stands as the key for the re-search into the significance of Anglomania in the novel. The 1850-1870s in Russian culture is the time of a most intensive formation of the image of the UK as a highly complex combination of real and mythological elements. The novel Anna Karenina, which Tolstoy himself called the novel about modern life, sets forth the fashion for everything ‘English’ in Russian high society in the 1870s with almost documentary precision. The episode the article deals with is Anna Karenina's reading of an English novel. The article looks at different theories of the origin of the novel and suggests a particular novel as the source for the English novel in Anna Karenina. Article argues that the knowledge of the particular English novel contributes not only to the re-search of Anglomania in Anna Karenina and other Tolstoy's works but also gives a significant in-sight into the study of the characters in the novel.

  14. Wing-pitching mechanism of hovering Ruby-throated hummingbirds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jialei; Luo, Haoxiang; Hedrick, Tyson L

    2015-01-01

    In hovering flight, hummingbirds reverse the angle of attack of their wings through pitch reversal in order to generate aerodynamic lift during both downstroke and upstroke. In addition, the wings may pitch during translation to further enhance lift production. It is not yet clear whether these pitching motions are caused by the wing inertia or actuated through the musculoskeletal system. Here we perform a computational analysis of the pitching dynamics by incorporating the realistic wing kinematics to determine the inertial effects. The aerodynamic effect is also included using the pressure data from a previous three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics simulation of a hovering hummingbird. The results show that like many insects, pitch reversal of the hummingbird is, to a large degree, caused by the wing inertia. However, actuation power input at the root is needed in the beginning of pronation to initiate a fast pitch reversal and also in mid-downstroke to enable a nose-up pitching motion for lift enhancement. The muscles on the wing may not necessarily be activated for pitching of the distal section. Finally, power analysis of the flapping motion shows that there is no requirement for substantial elastic energy storage or energy absorption at the shoulder joint. (paper)

  15. Self-adaptive Bioinspired Hummingbird-wing Stimulated Triboelectric Nanogenerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Abdelsalam; Hassan, Islam; Song, Peiyi; Gamaleldin, Mohamed; Radhi, Ali; Panwar, Nishtha; Tjin, Swee Chuan; Desoky, Ahmed Y; Sinton, David; Yong, Ken-Tye; Zu, Jean

    2017-12-07

    Bio-inspired technologies have remarkable potential for energy harvesting from clean and sustainable energy sources. Inspired by the hummingbird-wing structure, we propose a shape-adaptive, lightweight triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) designed to exploit the unique flutter mechanics of the hummingbird for small-scale wind energy harvesting. The flutter is confined between two surfaces for contact electrification upon oscillation. We investigate the flutter mechanics on multiple contact surfaces with several free-standing and lightweight electrification designs. The flutter driven-TENGs are deposited on simplified wing designs to match the electrical performance with variations in wind speed. The hummingbird TENG (H-TENG) device weighed 10 g, making it one of the lightest TENG harvesters in the literature. With a six TENG network, the hybrid design attained a 1.5 W m -2 peak electrical output at 7.5 m/s wind speed with an approximately linear increase in charge rate with the increased number of TENG harvesters. We demonstrate the ability of the H-TENG networks to operate Internet of Things (IoT) devices from sustainable and renewable energy sources.

  16. Wing-pitching mechanism of hovering Ruby-throated hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jialei; Luo, Haoxiang; Hedrick, Tyson L

    2015-01-19

    In hovering flight, hummingbirds reverse the angle of attack of their wings through pitch reversal in order to generate aerodynamic lift during both downstroke and upstroke. In addition, the wings may pitch during translation to further enhance lift production. It is not yet clear whether these pitching motions are caused by the wing inertia or actuated through the musculoskeletal system. Here we perform a computational analysis of the pitching dynamics by incorporating the realistic wing kinematics to determine the inertial effects. The aerodynamic effect is also included using the pressure data from a previous three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics simulation of a hovering hummingbird. The results show that like many insects, pitch reversal of the hummingbird is, to a large degree, caused by the wing inertia. However, actuation power input at the root is needed in the beginning of pronation to initiate a fast pitch reversal and also in mid-downstroke to enable a nose-up pitching motion for lift enhancement. The muscles on the wing may not necessarily be activated for pitching of the distal section. Finally, power analysis of the flapping motion shows that there is no requirement for substantial elastic energy storage or energy absorption at the shoulder joint.

  17. Phoretic mites identified on andean hummingbirds (Trochilidae of Caldas, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia López-Orozco

    Full Text Available Within the bird-plant-mite system, the relationship between hummingbirds, flowers, and mites remains poorly understood. In this study, we evaluated the degree of association between nasal mites and eight species of Andean hummingbirds in Colombia (Amazilia saucerrottei,A. tzacatl, Chalybura buffonii,Chlorostilbon mellisugus, Florisuga mellivora, Glaucis hirsutus, Phaethornis guy and P. striigularis. Over a five-month period (trapping effort 360 hours/month, a total of 178 birds were captured, from which 81 mite specimens were collected and identified as belonging to three genera (Proctolaelaps, Rhinoseius andTropicoseius spanning eleven species. This is the first report of its kind from Colombia on the identification of the mite speciesP. rabulatus, R. luteyni, R. rafinskii, T. berryi, T. colwelli, T. erro and T. uniformisand the first record of P. guy as phoretic host forProctolaelaps rabulatus. Morphological characteristics (length of the dorsal plate, width of the dorsal plate and setae z5 length alone failed to distinguish between mite species. The ecologic impact of this relationship on flowers with respect to nectar and pollen availability and the effect of mites on pollination by hummingbirds needs to be determined.

  18. Colour cues facilitate learning flower refill schedules in wild hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Michael; Hurly, T Andrew; Healy, Susan D

    2014-11-01

    Free-living hummingbirds can learn the refill schedules of individual experimental flowers but little is known about what information they use to do this. Colour cues, in particular, may be important to hummingbirds when learning about rewarded flower properties. We investigated, therefore, whether colour cues facilitated the learning of flower refill schedules in wild, free-living rufous hummingbirds (Selasphorus rufus). In the Cued condition, we presented birds with an array of six flowers, three of one colour, each of which were refilled 10min after being emptied by the bird and three of a different colour, which were refilled 20min after being emptied. In the Uncued condition we presented birds with six flowers of the same colour, three of which were refilled after 10min and three of which were refilled after 20min as for the birds in the Cued condition. In the second part of the experiment, we moved the array 2m and changed the shape of the array. Across both phases, birds in the Cued condition learned to discriminate between 10 and 20-min flowers more quickly than did the birds in the Uncued condition. The Cued birds were also better at discriminating between the two distinct refill intervals. Colour cues can, therefore, facilitate learning the refill schedules of experimental flowers in these birds. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cognition in the wild. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Phoretic mites identified on Andean hummingbirds (Trochilidae) of Caldas, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Orozco, Natalia; Cañón-Franco, William Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Within the bird-plant-mite system, the relationship between hummingbirds, flowers, and mites remains poorly understood. In this study, we evaluated the degree of association between nasal mites and eight species of Andean hummingbirds in Colombia (Amazilia saucerrottei, A. tzacatl, Chalybura buffonii, Chlorostilbon mellisugus, Florisuga mellivora, Glaucis hirsutus, Phaethornis guy and P. striigularis). Over a five-month period (trapping effort 360 hours/month), a total of 178 birds were captured, from which 81 mite specimens were collected and identified as belonging to three genera (Proctolaelaps, Rhinoseius and Tropicoseius) spanning eleven species. This is the first report of its kind from Colombia on the identification of the mite species P. rabulatus, R. luteyni, R. rafinskii, T. berryi, T. colwelli, T. erro and T. uniformis and the first record of P. guy as phoretic host for Proctolaelaps rabulatus. Morphological characteristics (length of the dorsal plate, width of the dorsal plate and setae z5 length) alone failed to distinguish between mite species. The ecologic impact of this relationship on flowers with respect to nectar and pollen availability and the effect of mites on pollination by hummingbirds needs to be determined.

  20. Hummingbird pollination and the diversification of angiosperms: an old and successful association in Gesneriaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Serrano, Martha Liliana; Rolland, Jonathan; Clark, John L; Salamin, Nicolas; Perret, Mathieu

    2017-04-12

    The effects of specific functional groups of pollinators in the diversification of angiosperms are still to be elucidated. We investigated whether the pollination shifts or the specific association with hummingbirds affected the diversification of a highly diverse angiosperm lineage in the Neotropics. We reconstructed a phylogeny of 583 species from the Gesneriaceae family and detected diversification shifts through time, inferred the timing and amount of transitions among pollinator functional groups, and tested the association between hummingbird pollination and speciation and extinction rates. We identified a high frequency of pollinator transitions, including reversals to insect pollination. Diversification rates of the group increased through time since 25 Ma, coinciding with the evolution of hummingbird-adapted flowers and the arrival of hummingbirds in South America. We showed that plants pollinated by hummingbirds have a twofold higher speciation rate compared with plants pollinated by insects, and that transitions among functional groups of pollinators had little impact on the diversification process. We demonstrated that floral specialization on hummingbirds for pollination has triggered rapid diversification in the Gesneriaceae family since the Early Miocene, and that it represents one of the oldest identified plant-hummingbird associations. Biotic drivers of plant diversification in the Neotropics could be more related to this specific type of pollinator (hummingbirds) than to shifts among different functional groups of pollinators. © 2017 The Author(s).

  1. Hummingbird wing efficacy depends on aspect ratio and compares with helicopter rotors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruyt, J.W.; Quicazan Rubio, E.M.; Heijst, van G.J.F.; Altshuler, D.L.; Lentink, D.

    2014-01-01

    Hummingbirds are the only birds that can sustain hovering. This unique flight behaviour comes, however, at high energetic cost. Based on helicopter and aeroplane design theory, we expect that hummingbird wing aspect ratio (AR), which ranges from about 3.0 to 4.5, determines aerodynamic efficacy.

  2. Predominance of self-compatibility in hummingbird-pollinated plants in the Neotropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolowski, Marina; Saad, Carolina Farias; Ashman, Tia-Lynn; Freitas, Leandro

    2013-01-01

    Both plant traits and plant-pollinator interactions are thought to influence plant mating systems. For hummingbird-pollinated plants, foraging strategy (territorial or traplining) is also expected to influence plant mating. We hypothesize that the traplining behavior of hermits promotes outcrossing, whereas the behavior of non-hermits favours self-incompatibility. Thus, selection is expected to maintain self-incompatibility in plants pollinated by non-hermits. We explore the incidence of self-incompatibility in Neotropical hummingbird-pollinated plants and its association with hummingbird behavior and plant traits. We conducted a literature review (56 species) and performed hand-pollination experiments in 27 hummingbird-pollinated plants in an Atlantic rainforest. We found that self-incompatibility (measured as hummingbird-pollinated plants. The interaction of hummingbird and habit type affected ISI, as did phylogenetic relationships. Specifically, herbs pollinated by non-hermits had higher ISI than woody plants pollinated by non-hermits, and herbs pollinated by both hermits and non-hermits. For the Atlantic rainforest plant guild, 30 % of the species were self-incompatible. ISI was higher in herbs than in woody species and increased with plant aggregation but was not dependent on foraging behavior, plant density, or floral display. Although hummingbirds differ in their foraging strategies, these behavioral differences seem to have only a minor influence on the incidence of self-incompatibility. Phylogenetic relatedness seems to be the strongest determinant of mating system in Neotropical hummingbird-pollinated plants.

  3. Frugivory by the hummingbird Chlorostilbon notatus (Apodiformes: Trochilidae in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Angeli Ruschi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Hummingbirds rely solely on nectar as the main source of energy to supply their high physiological demands. Exceptions to their nectarivorous diet are few. The present work describes for the first time the consumption of fruit by hummingbirds.

  4. Generalist bees pollinate red-flowered Penstemon eatonii: Duality in the hummingbird pollination syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    James H. Cane; Rick. Dunne

    2014-01-01

    The red tubular flowers of Penstemon eatonii (Plantaginaceae) typify the classic pollination syndrome for hummingbirds. Bees are thought to diminish its seed siring potential, but we found that foraging female generalist bees (Apis, Anthophora) deposited substantial amounts of conspecific pollen on P. eatonii stigmas. In the absence of hummingbirds, bee pollination of...

  5. Effects of flight speed upon muscle activity in hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobalske, Bret W; Biewener, Andrew A; Warrick, Douglas R; Hedrick, Tyson L; Powers, Donald R

    2010-07-15

    Hummingbirds have the smallest body size and highest wingbeat frequencies of all flying vertebrates, so they represent one endpoint for evaluating the effects of body size on sustained muscle function and flight performance. Other bird species vary neuromuscular recruitment and contractile behavior to accomplish flight over a wide range of speeds, typically exhibiting a U-shaped curve with maxima at the slowest and fastest flight speeds. To test whether the high wingbeat frequencies and aerodynamically active upstroke of hummingbirds lead to different patterns, we flew rufous hummingbirds (Selasphorus rufus, 3 g body mass, 42 Hz wingbeat frequency) in a variable-speed wind tunnel (0-10 m s(-1)). We measured neuromuscular activity in the pectoralis (PECT) and supracoracoideus (SUPRA) muscles using electromyography (EMG, N=4 birds), and we measured changes in PECT length using sonomicrometry (N=1). Differing markedly from the pattern in other birds, PECT deactivation occurred before the start of downstroke and the SUPRA was deactivated before the start of upstroke. The relative amplitude of EMG signal in the PECT and SUPRA varied according to a U-shaped curve with flight speed; additionally, the onset of SUPRA activity became relatively later in the wingbeat at intermediate flight speeds (4 and 6 m s(-1)). Variation in the relative amplitude of EMG was comparable with that observed in other birds but the timing of muscle activity was different. These data indicate the high wingbeat frequency of hummingbirds limits the time available for flight muscle relaxation before the next half stroke of a wingbeat. Unlike in a previous study that reported single-twitch EMG signals in the PECT of hovering hummingbirds, across all flight speeds we observed 2.9+/-0.8 spikes per contraction in the PECT and 3.8+/-0.8 spikes per contraction in the SUPRA. Muscle strain in the PECT was 10.8+/-0.5%, the lowest reported for a flying bird, and average strain rate was 7.4+/-0.2 muscle

  6. Reproductive biology of the violet-chested hummingbird in Venezuela and comparisons with other tropical and temperate hummingbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro-Calderon, Karolina; Martin, T.E.

    2007-01-01

    We provide details on the breeding biology of the Violet-chested Hummingbird (Sternoclyta cyanopectus) based on 67 nests studied in Yacambu?? National Park, Venezuela, from 2002 through 2006. Clutch size was two white eggs, usually laid every other day. Fresh egg mass (0.95 ?? 0.14 g) was 15% of female mass. Incubation and nestling periods were 20.4 ?? 0.3 and 26.0 ?? 0.4 days, respectively. Nest attentiveness increased from 60% in early incubation to 68% in late incubation. The female spent 50% of her time brooding young nestlings, but ceased brooding by 13 days of age. Only the female fed the young, with a low rate of nest visitation (3.3 trips per hour) that did not increase with age of the young. Growth rate based on nestling mass (K = 0.28) was slow. Daily predation rates decreased across stages and were 0.064 ?? 0.044, 0.033 ?? 0.008, and 0.020 ?? 0.006 during the egg-laying, incubation, and nestling periods, respectively. Most, but not all, life history traits of the Violet-chested Hummingbird were similar to those reported for other tropical and temperate hummingbirds, providing further evidence that this family shows a relatively narrow range of life history variation. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2007.

  7. Anna Louropoulou: 'Peri-implantitis vraagt om eenduidige behandelafspraken'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louropoulou, A.

    2015-01-01

    Het aantal geplaatste implantaten neemt toe, maar in de meeste gevallen ontbreekt een adequate nazorg. De NVvP nam het initiatief tot de ontwikkeling van een richtlijn perio-implantitis en zocht hiervoor de samenwerking met de NVOI. Parodontoloog/promovenda Anna Louropoulou: "De richtlijn is

  8. Anna Politkovskaja mälestus Euroopas / Marianne Mikko

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mikko, Marianne, 1961-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Virumaa Teataja, 18. sept. 2007, lk. 11; Põhjarannik, 18. sept. 2007, lk. 4; Severnoje Poberezhje, 18. sept. 2007, lk. 4; Sakala, 21. sept. 2007, lk. 2. Euroopa Parlamendi saadik toetas ideed anda Euroopa Parlamendi pressiruumile Anna Politkovskaja nimi, sellega antakse Venemaale ka teada, mida europarlament arvab Vene võimude tegevusest Tšetšeenias

  9. Astronaut Anna Fisher demonstrates sleep restraints on shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Astronaut Anna L. Fisher demonstrates the versatility of shuttle sleep restraints to accommodate the preference of crewmembers as she appears to have configured hers in a horizontal hammock mode. Stowage lockers, one of the middeck walls, another sleep restraint, a jury-rigged foot and hand restraint are among other items in the frame.

  10. Kõrkjasaar Põlvas = Bulrush Island in Põlva / Anna-Liisa Unt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Unt, Anna-Liisa, 1982-

    2004-01-01

    Põlvas 2003. a. korraldatud ideevõistluste tulemused: keskpargi võistlus: II preemia - OÜ Kaunimad Aiad, III - Mart Mets; paisjärve kujunduse konkurss: II - Anna-Liisa Unt, III - Mart Mets. A.-L. Undi realiseeritud võistlustööst, paisjärve saare valguskujundusest. 4 ill

  11. Anna Dziemianko: User-friendliness of Verb Syntax in Pedagogical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Anna Dziemianko. User-friendliness of Verb Syntax in Pedagogical Dictionaries of English. 2006, XII + 229 pp. ISBN-13: 978-3-484-39130-7. ISBN- 10: 3-484-39130-8. Lexicographica. Series Maior 130. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer. Price: €124.

  12. Reclassification of Theileria annae as Babesia vulpes sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baneth, Gad; Florin-Christensen, Monica; Cardoso, Luís; Schnittger, Leonhard

    2015-04-08

    Theileria annae is a tick-transmitted small piroplasmid that infects dogs and foxes in North America and Europe. Due to disagreement on its placement in the Theileria or Babesia genera, several synonyms have been used for this parasite, including Babesia Spanish dog isolate, Babesia microti-like, Babesia (Theileria) annae, and Babesia cf. microti. Infections by this parasite cause anemia, thrombocytopenia, and azotemia in dogs but are mostly subclinical in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes). Furthermore, high infection rates have been detected among red fox populations in distant regions strongly suggesting that these canines act as the parasite's natural host. This study aims to reassess and harmonize the phylogenetic placement and binomen of T. annae within the order Piroplasmida. Four molecular phylogenetic trees were constructed using a maximum likelihood algorithm based on DNA alignments of: (i) near-complete 18S rRNA gene sequences (n = 76 and n = 93), (ii) near-complete and incomplete 18S rRNA gene sequences (n = 92), and (iii) tubulin-beta gene sequences (n = 32) from B. microti and B. microti-related parasites including those detected in dogs and foxes. All phylogenetic trees demonstrate that T. annae and its synonyms are not Theileria parasites but are most closely related with B. microti. The phylogenetic tree based on the 18S rRNA gene forms two separate branches with high bootstrap value, of which one branch corresponds to Babesia species infecting rodents, humans, and macaques, while the other corresponds to species exclusively infecting carnivores. Within the carnivore group, T. annae and its synonyms from distant regions segregate into a single clade with a highly significant bootstrap value corroborating their separate species identity. Phylogenetic analysis clearly shows that T. annae and its synonyms do not pertain to Theileria and can be clearly defined as a separate species. Based on the facts that T. annae and its synonyms have not been

  13. Temporal-spatial segregation among hummingbirds foraging on honeydew in a temperate forest in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos LARA, Vanessa MARTÍNEZ-GARCÍA, Raúl ORTIZ-PULIDO, Jessica BRAVO-CADENA, Salvador LORANCA, Alex CÓRDOBA-AGUILAR

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Spatial and temporal variation in interactions between hummingbirds and plants have often been examined, and hummingbirds and insects are known to indirectly interact in networks of nectar plants. In a highland temperate forest in Hidalgo, Mexico some oak trees were heavily infested by honeydew-producing insects (family Margarodidae, tribe Xylococcini, genus Strigmacoccus and the honeydew was consumed by hummingbirds. Here using survival analysis we investigate how the honeydew produced by dense populations of these margarodids is temporally and spatially partitioned by hummingbirds. We also measured the availability and quality of honeydew exudates, and then we recorded the time until a bird visited and used such resources. Four hummingbird species consumed this resource (Atthis eloisa, Hylocharis leucotis, Colibri thalassinus and Eugenes fulgens. Data from 294 hours of observation on seven focal trees suggested temporal and spatial segregation among visiting birds according to body size and territorial behavior during the most honeydew-limited time. Hummingbird species differed in the daily times they foraged, as well as in the location where honeydew-producing insects were visited on the trees. Temporal and spatial segregation among hummingbird species is interpreted as an adaptation to reduce the risk of aggressive encounters. This may facilitate multispecies coexistence and allow these birds to exploit honeydew more effectively [Current Zoology 57 (1: 56–62, 2011].

  14. The community of hummingbirds (Aves: Trochilidae and the assemblage of flowers in a Caatinga vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FMG Las-Casas

    Full Text Available We studied hummingbirds and their food plants in an area of caatinga vegetation. We specifically examined their seasonal use of this habitat, migratory and non-migratory status, their foraging strategies and community roles The study was conducted in an area of arboreal-shrub caatinga, located in the Serra do Pará, municipality of Santa Cruz do Capibaribe, state of Pernambuco in northeastern Brazil. Field work was undertaken during 12 expeditions on a monthly basis between June, 2007 and May, 2008. Five species of hummingbirds were recorded visiting flowers in the community studied. Three were considered residents: Chlorostilbon lucidus (Shaw, 1812, Eupetomena macroura (Gmelin, 1788, and Heliomaster squamosus (Temminck, 1823. Hummingbirds visited 31 species of plants, of which only five presented attributes related to ornithophily. C. lucidus visited 29 plant species, including all ornithophilous species, and it was the most aggressive, defending territories. Among hummingbirds, C. lucidus may be considered the principal pollinator. Hummingbirds may also be acting as pollen vectors for some of the plant species not identified as ornithophilous. The hummingbird guilds varied among the plant species used as floral resources, as well as in their frequency of visits. Differences in plant species abundance, hummingbird preference, competitive exclusion or flowering seasonality are factors likely to influence those variations.

  15. Hovering in the heat: effects of environmental temperature on heat regulation in foraging hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Donald R; Langland, Kathleen M; Wethington, Susan M; Powers, Sean D; Graham, Catherine H; Tobalske, Bret W

    2017-12-01

    At high temperature (greater than 40°C) endotherms experience reduced passive heat dissipation (radiation, conduction and convection) and increased reliance on evaporative heat loss. High temperatures challenge flying birds due to heat produced by wing muscles. Hummingbirds depend on flight for foraging, yet inhabit hot regions. We used infrared thermography to explore how lower passive heat dissipation during flight impacts body-heat management in broad-billed ( Cynanthus latirostris , 3.0 g), black-chinned ( Archilochus alexandri , 3.0 g), Rivoli's ( Eugenes fulgens , 7.5 g) and blue-throated ( Lampornis clemenciae , 8.0 g) hummingbirds in southeastern Arizona and calliope hummingbirds ( Selasphorus calliope , 2.6 g) in Montana. Thermal gradients driving passive heat dissipation through eye, shoulder and feet dissipation areas are eliminated between 36 and 40°C. Thermal gradients persisted at higher temperatures in smaller species, possibly allowing them to inhabit warmer sites. All species experienced extended daytime periods lacking thermal gradients. Broad-billed hummingbirds lacking thermal gradients regulated the mean total-body surface temperature at approximately 38°C, suggesting behavioural thermoregulation. Blue-throated hummingbirds were inactive when lacking passive heat dissipation and hence might have the lowest temperature tolerance of the four species. Use of thermal refugia permitted hummingbirds to tolerate higher temperatures, but climate change could eliminate refugia, forcing distributional shifts in hummingbird populations.

  16. The community of hummingbirds (Aves: Trochilidae) and the assemblage of flowers in a Caatinga vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Las-Casas, F M G; Azevedo Júnior, S M; Dias Filho, M M

    2012-02-01

    We studied hummingbirds and their food plants in an area of caatinga vegetation. We specifically examined their seasonal use of this habitat, migratory and non-migratory status, their foraging strategies and community roles The study was conducted in an area of arboreal-shrub caatinga, located in the Serra do Pará, municipality of Santa Cruz do Capibaribe, state of Pernambuco in northeastern Brazil. Field work was undertaken during 12 expeditions on a monthly basis between June, 2007 and May, 2008. Five species of hummingbirds were recorded visiting flowers in the community studied. Three were considered residents: Chlorostilbon lucidus (Shaw, 1812), Eupetomena macroura (Gmelin, 1788), and Heliomaster squamosus (Temminck, 1823). Hummingbirds visited 31 species of plants, of which only five presented attributes related to ornithophily. C. lucidus visited 29 plant species, including all ornithophilous species, and it was the most aggressive, defending territories. Among hummingbirds, C. lucidus may be considered the principal pollinator. Hummingbirds may also be acting as pollen vectors for some of the plant species not identified as ornithophilous. The hummingbird guilds varied among the plant species used as floral resources, as well as in their frequency of visits. Differences in plant species abundance, hummingbird preference, competitive exclusion or flowering seasonality are factors likely to influence those variations.

  17. Flowers visited by hummingbirds in the open habitats of the southeastern Brazilian mountaintops: species composition and seasonality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, L C; Rodrigues, M

    2014-08-01

    The hummingbird-visited plant community located on the open-habitat mountaintop of the Espinhaço Range was studied for two years (from August 2007 to July 2009) in Serra do Cipó National Park, Southeastern Brazil (19° 15' S and 43° 31' W). The floral characteristics and flowering period of the hummingbird-visited plants was monthly recorded along trails located in three vegetation types: (1) typical campos rupestres (TCR), (2) open fields (OPF), and (3) capões de mata (CAM). Hummingbird visitation was observed in 51 plant species, 22 ornithophilous and 29 non-ornithophilous species. The TCR showed the greatest number of species visited (N = 38), followed by the OPF (N = 18) and CAM (N = 17). Six species of hummingbirds were recorded visiting flowers: Augastes scutatus, Campylopterus largipennis, Colibri serrirostris, Chlorostilbon lucidus, Eupetomena macroura and Phaethornis pretrei. This study demonstrates that the species richness and the number of ornithophilous species visited by the hummingbirds at the study site are more similar to hummingbird-plant communities of the Atlantic Forest than to those of the Cerrado communities and other Brazilian highland open-habitat communities. The plant families most visited by hummingbirds were Bromeliaceae and Asteraceae. Although the Asteraceae family is rarely used as a food resource for hummingbirds in other high and lowland communities, in the study site this family is used mainly by the endemic hummingbird Augastes scutatus. We found a large overlap of flowering throughout the year among the species visited by the hummingbirds. Thus, the nectar availability supports these resident hummingbirds. The present study also showed that the studied hummingbird-plant community is composed of many species endemic to the campos rupestres of the Espinhaço Range, some of which are considered to be in danger of extinction, thus constituting a unique and threatened community. Thus, understanding hummingbird-plant pollination

  18. Flowers visited by hummingbirds in the open habitats of the southeastern brazilian mountaintops: species composition and seasonality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LC Rodrigues

    Full Text Available The hummingbird-visited plant community located on the open-habitat mountaintop of the Espinhaço Range was studied for two years (from August 2007 to July 2009 in Serra do Cipó National Park, Southeastern Brazil (19° 15′ S and 43° 31′ W. The floral characteristics and flowering period of the hummingbird-visited plants was monthly recorded along trails located in three vegetation types: (1 typical campos rupestres (TCR, (2 open fields (OPF, and (3 capões de mata(CAM. Hummingbird visitation was observed in 51 plant species, 22 ornithophilous and 29 non-ornithophilous species. The TCR showed the greatest number of species visited (N = 38, followed by the OPF (N = 18 and CAM (N = 17. Six species of hummingbirds were recorded visiting flowers: Augastes scutatus, Campylopterus largipennis, Colibri serrirostris, Chlorostilbon lucidus, Eupetomena macroura and Phaethornis pretrei. This study demonstrates that the species richness and the number of ornithophilous species visited by the hummingbirds at the study site are more similar to hummingbird-plant communities of the Atlantic Forest than to those of the Cerrado communities and other Brazilian highland open-habitat communities. The plant families most visited by hummingbirds were Bromeliaceae and Asteraceae. Although the Asteraceae family is rarely used as a food resource for hummingbirds in other high and lowland communities, in the study site this family is used mainly by the endemic hummingbird Augastes scutatus. We found a large overlap of flowering throughout the year among the species visited by the hummingbirds. Thus, the nectar availability supports these resident hummingbirds. The present study also showed that the studied hummingbird-plant community is composed of many species endemic to the campos rupestres of the Espinhaço Range, some of which are considered to be in danger of extinction, thus constituting a unique and threatened community. Thus, understanding hummingbird

  19. Imperatrix Bulgariae Anna-Neda (1277-c.1346

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gjuzelev Vassil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Si è fato il tentanivo di presentare dettagliatamente la vita di Anna-Neda, la celebre imperatrice bulgara di origine serba. Si è ribadito sulle sue attività e le relazioni con vari personaggi dell’epoca a partire dal matrimonio con Michail III Šišman Asen, despota di Vidin, fino alla morte di lei, probabilmente avvenuta nel 1346 a Dubrovnik. Parole chiave: Impero bulgaro, Vidin, Tǎrnovo, Regno di Napoli. In this article an effort is made to present in detail the life of Anna-Neda, famous Bulgarian empress of Serbian origine. The accent is put on her activities and relations with various characters from the period after her marriage with Michail III Asen Šišman, despot of Vidin, until her death, which probably occurred in 1346 in Dubrovnik.

  20. Optic flow stabilizes flight in ruby-throated hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, Ivo G; Biewener, Andrew A

    2016-08-15

    Flying birds rely on visual cues for retinal image stabilization by negating rotation-induced optic flow, the motion of the visual panorama across the retina, through corrective eye and head movements. In combination with vestibular and proprioceptive feedback, birds may also use visual cues to stabilize their body during flight. Here, we test whether artificially induced wide-field motion generated through projected visual patterns elicits maneuvers in body orientation and flight position, in addition to stabilizing vision. To test this hypothesis, we present hummingbirds flying freely within a 1.2 m cylindrical visual arena with a virtual surround rotated at different speeds about its vertical axis. The birds responded robustly to these visual perturbations by rotating their heads and bodies with the moving visual surround, and by adjusting their flight trajectories, following the surround. Thus, similar to insects, hummingbirds appear to use optic flow cues to control flight maneuvers as well as to stabilize their visual inputs. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. Physical and geometrical parameters of ANNA critical assemblies. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malewski, S.; Dabrowski, C.

    1973-01-01

    An extended analysis of four critical configurations of ANNA Assembly has been performed. Diffusion parameters of the thermal group and of one or three epithermal groups have been determined. Using these data the critical calculations have been carried out and the main neutron density distributions presented. The role of some neutron processes in these systems and their influence on integral parameters has been considered. The calculated quantities have been compared with the available experimental data. (author)

  2. [Anna Hamilton (1864-1935), the excellence of nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diebolt, Évelyne

    2017-12-01

    A Frenchwoman, Anna Hamilton (1864-1935), daughter of a Franco-English couple, reads with passion the works of Florence Nightingale and takes an interest in nursing. In order to practice it, she first passes the equivalent of a bachelor’s degree in self-education and registers at the Marseille medical school. She wants to prepare a medical thesis on the nursing staff in the hospitals in Europe and is conducting an investigation throughout Europe. She passed her thesis on June 15, 1900 entitled “Considerations on hospital nurses”. This work is immediately published. That same year, she took up a post at the “Maison de santé protestante” in Bordeaux (MSP), founded in 1863. Without managerial staff, she is forced to recruit them abroad. She publishes a professional journal : “La Garde-Malade hospitalière” (1906-1914). Then the war turned the MSP into a military hospital, but the institution continued to receive local paying patients. She was given permission to call the school of nurses : Florence Nightingale School. Anna Hamilton is working with American women to create a medical and social service in Aisne. A graduate, Antoinette Hervey, then opened a medical-social service in Rouen, which would employ up to 30 visiting nurses. In 1916, the MSP received a donation from the domain of Bagatelle. The board of directors wants to sell it, but Anna Hamilton manages to finance a hospital-school thanks to families bereaved by the war and a subscription announced in the “Journal of Nursing”. Other establishments created by former students of the MSP opened : the School-hospital Ambroise Paré in Lille, a nursing home for nurses in Chambon-sur-Lignon in 1927 (the Edith-Seltzer foundation) and a sanatorium in Briançon. After a busy life, Anna Hamilton died of cancer in 1935 and is buried in Bordeaux.

  3. Generalist bees pollinate red-flowered Penstemon eatonii: duality in the hummingbird pollination syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    The red tubular flowers of Penstemon eatonii (Plantaginaceae, formerly Scrophulariaceae) conform to the classic pollination syndrome for hummingbirds. This could be problematic when farming this wildflower for rangeland restoration seed. By some models and experiments with nectaring bumblebees at ...

  4. Treating hummingbirds as feathered bees: a case of ethological cross-pollination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, D J; Tello Ramos, M C; Muth, F; Healy, S D

    2017-12-01

    Hummingbirds feed from hundreds of flowers every day. The properties of these flowers provide these birds with a wealth of information about colour, space and time to guide how they forage. To understand how hummingbirds might use this information, researchers have adapted established laboratory paradigms for use in the field. In recent years, however, experimental inspiration has come less from other birds, and more from looking at other nectar-feeders, particularly honeybees and bumblebees, which have been models for foraging behaviour and cognition for over a century. In a world in which the cognitive abilities of bees regularly make the news, research on the influence of ecology and sensory systems on bee behaviour is leading to novel insights in hummingbird cognition. As methods designed to study insects in the laboratory are being applied to hummingbirds in the field, converging methods can help us identify and understand convergence in cognition, behaviour and ecology. © 2017 The Author(s).

  5. Evolution of sweet taste perception in hummingbirds by transformation of the ancestral umami receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Baldwin, Maude Wheeler; Toda, Y.; Nakagita, T.; O'Connell, Mary J.; Klasing, Kirk C.; Misaka, T.; Edwards, Scott V.; Liberles, Stephen D

    2014-01-01

    Sensory systems define an animal's capacity for perception and can evolve to promote survival in new environmental niches. We have uncovered a noncanonical mechanism for sweet taste perception that evolved in hummingbirds since their divergence from insectivorous swifts, their closest relatives. We observed the widespread absence in birds of an essential subunit (T1R2) of the only known vertebrate sweet receptor, raising questions about how specialized nectar feeders such as hummingbirds sens...

  6. Adipose energy stores, physical work, and the metabolic syndrome: lessons from hummingbirds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hargrove James L

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hummingbirds and other nectar-feeding, migratory birds possess unusual adaptive traits that offer important lessons concerning obesity, diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. Hummingbirds consume a high sugar diet and have fasting glucose levels that would be severely hyperglycemic in humans, yet these nectar-fed birds recover most glucose that is filtered into the urine. Hummingbirds accumulate over 40% body fat shortly before migrations in the spring and autumn. Despite hyperglycemia and seasonally elevated body fat, the birds are not known to become diabetic in the sense of developing polyuria (glucosuria, polydipsia and polyphagia. The tiny (3–4 g Ruby-throated hummingbird has among the highest mass-specific metabolic rates known, and loses most of its stored fat in 20 h by flying up to 600 miles across the Gulf of Mexico. During the breeding season, it becomes lean and maintains an extremely accurate energy balance. In addition, hummingbirds can quickly enter torpor and reduce resting metabolic rates by 10-fold. Thus, hummingbirds are wonderful examples of the adaptive nature of fat tissue, and may offer lessons concerning prevention of metabolic syndrome in humans.

  7. Adipose energy stores, physical work, and the metabolic syndrome: lessons from hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargrove, James L

    2005-12-13

    Hummingbirds and other nectar-feeding, migratory birds possess unusual adaptive traits that offer important lessons concerning obesity, diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. Hummingbirds consume a high sugar diet and have fasting glucose levels that would be severely hyperglycemic in humans, yet these nectar-fed birds recover most glucose that is filtered into the urine. Hummingbirds accumulate over 40% body fat shortly before migrations in the spring and autumn. Despite hyperglycemia and seasonally elevated body fat, the birds are not known to become diabetic in the sense of developing polyuria (glucosuria), polydipsia and polyphagia. The tiny (3-4 g) Ruby-throated hummingbird has among the highest mass-specific metabolic rates known, and loses most of its stored fat in 20 h by flying up to 600 miles across the Gulf of Mexico. During the breeding season, it becomes lean and maintains an extremely accurate energy balance. In addition, hummingbirds can quickly enter torpor and reduce resting metabolic rates by 10-fold. Thus, hummingbirds are wonderful examples of the adaptive nature of fat tissue, and may offer lessons concerning prevention of metabolic syndrome in humans.

  8. Outperforming hummingbirds’ load-lifting capability with a lightweight hummingbird-like flapping-wing mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederik Leys

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The stroke-cam flapping mechanism presented in this paper closely mimics the wing motion of a hovering Rufous hummingbird. It is the only lightweight hummingbird-sized flapping mechanism which generates a harmonic wing stroke with both a high flapping frequency and a large stroke amplitude. Experiments on a lightweight prototype of this stroke-cam mechanism on a 50 mm-long wing demonstrate that a harmonic stroke motion is generated with a peak-to-peak stroke amplitude of 175° at a flapping frequency of 40 Hz. It generated a mass lifting capability of 5.1 g, which is largely sufficient to lift the prototype's mass of 3.39 g and larger than the mass-lifting capability of a Rufous hummingbird. The motor mass of a hummingbird-like robot which drives the stroke-cam mechanism is considerably larger (about five times than the muscle mass of a hummingbird with comparable load-lifting capability. This paper presents a flapping wing nano aerial vehicle which is designed to possess the same lift- and thrust-generating principles of the Rufous hummingbird. The application is indoor flight. We give an overview of the wing kinematics and some specifications which should be met to develop an artificial wing, and also describe the applications of these in the mechanism which has been developed in this work.

  9. Morphology, muscle capacity, skill, and maneuvering ability in hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakin, Roslyn; Segre, Paolo S; Straw, Andrew D; Altshuler, Douglas L

    2018-02-09

    How does agility evolve? This question is challenging because natural movement has many degrees of freedom and can be influenced by multiple traits. We used computer vision to record thousands of translations, rotations, and turns from more than 200 hummingbirds from 25 species, revealing that distinct performance metrics are correlated and that species diverge in their maneuvering style. Our analysis demonstrates that the enhanced maneuverability of larger species is explained by their proportionately greater muscle capacity and lower wing loading. Fast acceleration maneuvers evolve by recruiting changes in muscle capacity, whereas fast rotations and sharp turns evolve by recruiting changes in wing morphology. Both species and individuals use turns that play to their strengths. These results demonstrate how both skill and biomechanical traits shape maneuvering behavior. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  10. Visual Sensory Signals Dominate Tactile Cues during Docked Feeding in Hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goller, Benjamin; Segre, Paolo S; Middleton, Kevin M; Dickinson, Michael H; Altshuler, Douglas L

    2017-01-01

    Animals living in and interacting with natural environments must monitor and respond to changing conditions and unpredictable situations. Using information from multiple sensory systems allows them to modify their behavior in response to their dynamic environment but also creates the challenge of integrating different, and potentially contradictory, sources of information for behavior control. Understanding how multiple information streams are integrated to produce flexible and reliable behavior is key to understanding how behavior is controlled in natural settings. Natural settings are rarely still, which challenges animals that require precise body position control, like hummingbirds, which hover while feeding from flowers. Tactile feedback, available only once the hummingbird is docked at the flower, could provide additional information to help maintain its position at the flower. To investigate the role of tactile information for hovering control during feeding, we first asked whether hummingbirds physically interact with a feeder once docked. We quantified physical interactions between docked hummingbirds and a feeder placed in front of a stationary background pattern. Force sensors on the feeder measured a complex time course of loading that reflects the wingbeat frequency and bill movement of feeding hummingbirds, and suggests that they sometimes push against the feeder with their bill. Next, we asked whether the measured tactile interactions were used by feeding hummingbirds to maintain position relative to the feeder. We created two experimental scenarios-one in which the feeder was stationary and the visual background moved and the other where the feeder moved laterally in front of a white background. When the visual background pattern moved, docked hummingbirds pushed significantly harder in the direction of horizontal visual motion. When the feeder moved, and the background was stationary, hummingbirds generated aerodynamic force in the opposite

  11. Individual differences in decision making by foraging hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Kate V; Hurly, T Andrew; Healy, Susan D

    2014-11-01

    For both humans and animals preference for one option over others can be influenced by the context in which the options occur. In animals, changes in preference could be due to comparative decision-making or to changes in the energy state of the animal when making decisions. We investigated which of these possibilities better explained the response of wild hummingbirds to the addition of a decoy option to a set of two options by presenting Rufous hummingbirds (Selasphorus rufus) with a foraging experiment with two treatments. In each treatment the birds were presented with a binary choice between two options and a trinary choice with three options. In treatment one the binary choice was between a volume option and a concentration option, whereas in treatment two the same volume option was presented alongside an alternative concentration option. In the trinary choice, birds were presented with the same options as in the binary choice plus one of two inferior options. Birds changed their preferences when a poorer option was added to the choice set: birds increased their preference for the same option when in the presence of either decoy. Which option differed across individuals and the changes in preference were not readily explained by either energy maximisation or the decoy effect. The consistency in response within individuals, however, would suggest that the individual itself brings an extra dimension to context-dependent decision-making. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cognition in the wild. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Land use change has stronger effects on functional diversity than taxonomic diversity in tropical Andean hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinoco, Boris A; Santillán, Vinicio E; Graham, Catherine H

    2018-03-01

    Land use change modifies the environment at multiple spatial scales, and is a main driver of species declines and deterioration of ecosystem services. However, most of the research on the effects of land use change has focused on taxonomic diversity, while functional diversity, an important predictor of ecosystem services, is often neglected. We explored how local and landscape scale characteristics influence functional and taxonomic diversity of hummingbirds in the Andes Mountains in southern Ecuador. Data was collected in six landscapes along a land use gradient, from an almost intact landscape to one dominated by cattle pastures. We used point counts to sample hummingbirds from 2011 to 2012 to assessed how local factors (i.e., vegetation structure, flowering plants richness, nectar availability) and landscape factors (i.e., landscape heterogeneity, native vegetation cover) influenced taxonomic and functional diversity. Then, we analyzed environment - trait relationships (RLQ test) to explore how different hummingbird functional traits influenced species responses to these factors. Taxonomic and functional diversity of hummingbirds were positively associated with landscape heterogeneity but only functional diversity was positively related to native vegetation coverage. We found a weak response of taxonomic and functional diversity to land use change at the local scale. Environment-trait associations showed that body mass of hummingbirds likely influenced species sensitivity to land use change. In conclusion, landscape heterogeneity created by land use change can positively influence hummingbird taxonomic and functional diversity; however, a reduction of native vegetation cover could decrease functional diversity. Given that functional diversity can mediate ecosystem services, the conservation of native vegetation cover could play a key role in the maintenance of hummingbird pollination services in the tropical Andes. Moreover, there are particular functional

  13. Anna-Maria Galojan: jah-liikumisega võivad liituda kõik soovijad / Anna-Maria Galojan ; interv. Ishtvan Ban

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Galojan, Anna-Maria, 1982-

    2003-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Severnoje Poberezhje : Subbota 2. aug. lk. 1. Eesti Euroopa liikumise Ida-Virumaa tugikeskuse piirkondlik koordinaator Anna-Maria Galojan oma organisatsioonist, noorte vabatahtlike tööst

  14. Eluloofilmide põud paneb rääkima Anna Chapmanist / Andres Laasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laasik, Andres, 1960-2016

    2010-01-01

    Ameerika ajalehede käivitatud diskussioonist eluloofilmist, mille võiks vändata spiooniafääriga kuulsaks saanud Anna Chapmanist (Anna Kuštšenko). USA-s, Suurbritannias, Indias ja Soomes valmivatest eluloofilmidest. Austraalia filmist "Mao viimane tantsija"

  15. [O rzeczach minionych, scripta rerum historicarum annae rutkowska-plachcińska oblata] / Risto Pullat

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pullat, Raimo, 1935-

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus: O rzeczach minionych, scripta rerum historicarum annae rutkowska-plachcińska oblata. (Pod redakeja Marty Mlynarskiej-Kaletynowej i Jerzego Kruppe. Studia i materaly z historii kultury materialney pod redakeja Jerzego Kruppe). Warszawa, 2006. Sisukast ja mitmekülgsest Anna Rutkowska-Plachcinska juubelikogumikust

  16. Effect of artificial feeders on pollen loads of the hummingbirds of Cerro de La Muerte, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Avalos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Although sugar-water feeders are commonly used by enthusiasts to attract hummingbirds, little is known about how they affect hummingbird behavior and flower use. We studied the highland hummingbird assemblage of Cerro de La Muerte, Costa Rica, both at a site with permanent feeders (La Georgina Restaurant and further from it. We examined how feeder use and monopolization affected seasonal changes in pollen loads during four sampling periods, including dry and wet seasons, from 2003-2005. We expected that species monopolizing the feeders would carry little or no pollen whatsoever, and would have pollen loads characterized by low floral diversity, in contrast with species less dependent on feeders. We obtained pollen samples from 183 individuals of four hummingbird species captured around the feeders using mist nets, which were compared with a pollen reference collection of plants with a pollination syndrome by hummingbirds. The same methods were implemented at a site 3km away from the feeders. Feeder usage was quantified by counting the number of times hummingbirds drank from the feeders in periods of 4min separated by 1min. The effects of hummingbird species and season on pollen load categories were assessed using a nominal logistic regression. The alpha species at the site, the Fiery-throated Hummingbird (Panterpe insignis, dominated the feeders during the dry season. Meanwhile, in the wet season, feeder usage was more evenly distributed across species, with the exception of the Volcano Hummingbird, Selasphorus flammula, which occupies the last place in the dominance hierarchy. Pollen loads of hummingbirds captured near feeders were low in abundance (more than 50% of captured individuals had zero or low pollen loads, and low in species richness (96% of the hummingbirds with pollen from only one plant genus, Centropogon. Overall pollen loads increased during the dry season coinciding with peaks in flower availability, although the majority of

  17. Effect of artificial feeders on pollen loads of the hummingbirds of Cerro de la Muerte, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avalos, Gerardo; Soto, Alejandra; Alfaro, Willy

    2012-03-01

    Although sugar-water feeders are commonly used by enthusiasts to attract hummingbirds, little is known about how they affect hummingbird behavior and flower use. We studied the highland hummingbird assemblage of Cerro de La Muerte, Costa Rica, both at a site with permanent feeders (La Georgina Restaurant) and further from it. We examined how feeder use and monopolization affected seasonal changes in pollen loads during four sampling periods, including dry and wet seasons, from 2003-2005. We expected that species monopolizing the feeders would carry little or no pollen whatsoever, and would have pollen loads characterized by low floral diversity, in contrast with species less dependent on feeders. We obtained pollen samples from 183 individuals of four hummingbird species captured around the feeders using mist nets, which were compared with a pollen reference collection of plants with a pollination syndrome by hummingbirds. The same methods were implemented at a site 3km away from the feeders. Feeder usage was quantified by counting the number of times hummingbirds drank from the feeders in periods of 4min separated by 1min. The effects of hummingbird species and season on pollen load categories were assessed using a nominal logistic regression. The alpha species at the site, the Fiery-throated Hummingbird (Panterpe insignis), dominated the feeders during the dry season. Meanwhile, in the wet season, feeder usage was more evenly distributed across species, with the exception of the Volcano Hummingbird, Selasphorus flammula, which occupies the last place in the dominance hierarchy. Pollen loads of hummingbirds captured near feeders were low in abundance (more than 50% of captured individuals had zero or low pollen loads), and low in species richness (96% of the hummingbirds with pollen from only one plant genus, Centropogon). Overall pollen loads increased during the dry season coinciding with peaks in flower availability, although the majority of captured

  18. Respiratory evaporative water loss during hovering and forward flight in hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Donald R; Getsinger, Philip W; Tobalske, Bret W; Wethington, Susan M; Powers, Sean D; Warrick, Douglas R

    2012-02-01

    Hummingbirds represent an end point for small body size and water flux in vertebrates. We explored the role evaporative water loss (EWL) plays in management of their large water pool and its use in dissipating metabolic heat. We measured respiratory evaporative water loss (REWL) in hovering hummingbirds in the field (6 species) and over a range of speeds in a wind tunnel (1 species) using an open-circuit mask respirometry system. Hovering REWL during the active period was positively correlated with operative temperature (T(e)) likely due to some combination of an increase in the vapor-pressure deficit, increase in lung ventilation rate, and reduced importance of dry heat transfer at higher T(e). In rufous hummingbirds (Selasphorus rufus; 3.3g) REWL during forward flight at 6 and 10 m/s was less than half the value for hovering. The proportion of total dissipated heat (TDH) accounted for by REWL during hovering at T(e)> 40°C was hummingbirds is a relatively small component of the water budget compared with other bird species (hummingbirds. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Wild, free-living rufous hummingbirds do not use geometric cues in a spatial task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornsby, Mark A W; Hurly, T Andrew; Hamilton, Caitlin E; Pritchard, David J; Healy, Susan D

    2014-10-01

    In the laboratory, many species orient themselves using the geometric properties of an enclosure or array and geometric information is often preferred over visual cues. Whether animals use geometric cues when relocating rewarded locations in the wild, however, has rarely been investigated. We presented free-living rufous hummingbirds with a rectangular array of four artificial flowers to investigate learning of rewarded locations using geometric cues. In one treatment, we rewarded two of four flowers at diagonally opposite corners. In a second treatment, we provided a visual cue to the rewarded flower by connecting the flowers with "walls" consisting of four dowels (three white, one blue) laid on the ground connecting each of the flowers. Neither treatment elicited classical geometry results; instead, hummingbirds typically chose one particular flower over all others. When we exchanged that flower with another, hummingbirds tended to visit the original flower. These results suggest that (1) hummingbirds did not use geometric cues, but instead may have used a visually derived cue on the flowers themselves, and (2) using geometric cues may have been more difficult than using visual characteristics. Although hummingbirds typically prefer spatial over visual information, we hypothesize that they will not use geometric cues over stable visual features but that they make use of small, flower-specific visual cues. Such cues may play a more important role in foraging decisions than previously thought. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Do hummingbirds use a different mechanism than insects to flip and twist their wings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jialei; Luo, Haoxiang; Hedrick, Tyson

    2014-11-01

    Hovering hummingbirds flap their wings in an almost horizontal stroke plane and flip the wings to invert the angle of attack after stroke reversal, a strategy also utilized by many hovering insects such as fruit flies. However, unlike insects whose wing actuation mechanism is only located at the base, hummingbirds have a vertebrate musculoskeletal system and their wings contain bones and muscles and thus, they may be capable of both actively flipping and twisting their wings. To investigate this issue, we constructed a hummingbird wing model and study its pitching dynamics. The wing kinematics are reconstructed from high-speed imaging data, and the inertial torques are calculated in a rotating frame of reference using mass distribution data measured from dissections of hummingbird wings. Pressure data from a previous CFD study of the same wing kinematics are used to calculate the aerodynamic torque. The results show that like insect wings, the hummingbird wing pitching is driven by its own inertia during reversal, and the aerodynamic torque is responsible for wing twist during mid-stroke. In conclusion, our study suggests that their wing dynamics are very similar even though their actuation systems are entirely different. This research was supported by the NSF.

  1. Trait evolution, resource specialization and vulnerability to plant extinctions among Antillean hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalsgaard, Bo; Kennedy, Jonathan D; Simmons, Benno I; Baquero, Andrea C; Martín González, Ana M; Timmermann, Allan; Maruyama, Pietro K; McGuire, Jimmy A; Ollerton, Jeff; Sutherland, William J; Rahbek, Carsten

    2018-03-28

    Species traits are thought to predict feeding specialization and the vulnerability of a species to extinctions of interaction partners, but the context in which a species evolved and currently inhabits may also matter. Notably, the predictive power of traits may require that traits evolved to fit interaction partners. Furthermore, local abiotic and biotic conditions may be important. On islands, for instance, specialized and vulnerable species are predicted to be found mainly in mountains, whereas species in lowlands should be generalized and less vulnerable. We evaluated these predictions for hummingbirds and their nectar-food plants on Antillean islands. Our results suggest that the rates of hummingbird trait divergence were higher among ancestral mainland forms before the colonization of the Antilles. In correspondence with the limited trait evolution that occurred within the Antilles, local abiotic and biotic conditions-not species traits-correlate with hummingbird resource specialization and the vulnerability of hummingbirds to extinctions of their floral resources. Specifically, hummingbirds were more specialized and vulnerable in conditions with high topographical complexity, high rainfall, low temperatures and high floral resource richness, which characterize the Antillean Mountains. These findings show that resource specialization and species vulnerability to extinctions of interaction partners are highly context-dependent. © 2018 The Author(s).

  2. The Fast and Non-capillary Fluid Filling Mechanism in the Hummingbird's Tongue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico-Guevara, Alejandro; Fan, Tai-Hsi; Rubega, Margaret

    2014-03-01

    Hummingbirds gather nectar by inserting their beaks inside flowers and cycling their tongues at a frequency of up to 20 Hz. It is unclear how they achieve efficiency at this high licking rate. Ever since proposed in 1833, it has been believed that hummingbird tongues are a pair of tiny straws filled with nectar by capillary rise. Our discoveries are very different from this general consensus. The tongue does not draw up floral nectar via capillary action under experimental conditions that resemble natural ones. Theoretical models based on capillary rise were mistaken and unsuitable for estimating the fluid intake rate and to support foraging theories. We filmed (up to 1265 frames/s) the fluid uptake in 20 species of hummingbirds that belong to 7 out of the 9 main hummingbird clades. We found that the fluid filling within the portions of the tongue that remain outside the nectar is about five times faster than capillary filling. We present strong evidence to rule out the capillarity model. We introduce a new fluid-structure interaction and hydrodynamic model and compare the results with field experimental data to explain how hummingbirds actually extract fluid from flowers at the lick level.

  3. Evaluating broad scale patterns among related species using resource experiments in tropical hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Ben G; Graham, Catherine H

    2016-08-01

    A challenge in community ecology is connecting biogeographic patterns with local scale observations. In Neotropical hummingbirds, closely related species often co-occur less frequently than expected (overdispersion) when compared to a regional species pool. While this pattern has been attributed to interspecific competition, it is important to connect these findings with local scale mechanisms of coexistence. We measured the importance of the presence of competitors and the availability of resources on selectivity at experimental feeders for Andean hummingbirds along a wide elevation gradient. Selectivity was measured as the time a bird fed at a feeder with a high sucrose concentration when presented with feeders of both low and high sucrose concentrations. Resource selection was measured using time-lapse cameras to identity which floral resources were used by each hummingbird species. We found that the increased abundance of preferred resources surrounding the feeder best explained increased species selectivity, and that related hummingbirds with similar morphology chose similar floral resources. We did not find strong support for direct agonism based on differences in body size or phylogenetic relatedness in predicting selectivity. These results suggest closely related hummingbird species have overlapping resource niches, and that the intensity of interspecific competition is related to the abundance of those preferred resources. If these competitive interactions have negative demographic effects, our results could help explain the pattern of phylogenetic overdispersion observed at regional scales. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  4. Metabolic substrate use and the turnover of endogenous energy reserves in broad-tailed hummingbirds (Selasphorus platycercus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carleton, Scott A; Bakken, Bradley Hartman; Del Rio, Carlos Martínez

    2006-07-01

    We fed broad-tailed hummingbirds (Selasphorus platycercus) diets of contrasting carbon isotope composition and measured changes in the delta(13)C of expired breath through time. By measuring the delta(13)C in the breath of fed and fasted birds we were able to quantify the fraction of metabolism fueled by assimilated sugars and endogenous energy reserves. These measurements also allowed us to estimate the fractional turnover of carbon in the hummingbirds' energy reserves. When hummingbirds were feeding, they fueled their metabolism largely ( approximately 90%) with assimilated sugars. The rate of carbon isotope incorporation into the energy reserves of hummingbirds was higher when birds were gaining as opposed to losing body mass. The average residence time of a carbon atom in the hummingbirds' energy reserves ranged from 1 to 2 days.

  5. Superciliums in white-eared hummingbirds as badges of status signaling dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-García, Juan Manuel; Lara, Carlos; Quesada, Javier; Chávez-Zichinelli, Carlos A; Serrano-Meneses, Martín A

    2018-04-03

    The role of badges as indicators of contest ability has been previously described. In hummingbirds, the exhibition of a badge is expected to save energy expenditure in agonistic interactions and to favor energy intake. Here, we investigate whether variable supercilium size in the white-eared hummingbird has a role in dominance status signaling. Firstly, 45 hummingbird males were captured and their superciliums were photographed to investigate variation in size and any possible allometric relationships. Secondly, 42 male birds were used to analyze whether the supercilium has a role in dominance status signaling in a dyadic contest. We found that supercilium size varied continuously but that despite variability between individuals, there was no relationship between supercilium size and body size. However, our dyad experiment indicated that birds with larger badges were able to make more visits to the feeders than individuals with smaller badges. We suggest a status signaling function of the supercilium.

  6. Neural specialization for hovering in hummingbirds: hypertrophy of the pretectal nucleus Lentiformis mesencephali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaniuk, Andrew N; Wylie, Douglas R W

    2007-01-10

    Hummingbirds possess an array of morphological and physiological specializations that allow them hover such that they maintain a stable position in space for extended periods. Among birds, this sustained hovering is unique to hummingbirds, but possible neural specializations underlying this behavior have not been investigated. The optokinetic response (OKR) is one of several behaviors that facilitates stabilization. In birds, the OKR is generated by the nucleus of the basal optic root (nBOR) and pretectal nucleus lentiformis mesencephali (LM). Because stabilization during hovering is dependent on the OKR, we predicted that nBOR and LM would be significantly enlarged in hummingbirds. We examined the relative size of nBOR, LM, and other visual nuclei of 37 species of birds from 13 orders, including nine hummingbird species. Also included were three species that hover for short periods of time (transient hoverers; a kingfisher, a kestrel, and a nectarivorous songbird). Our results demonstrate that, relative to brain volume, LM is significantly hypertrophied in hummingbirds compared with other birds. In the transient hoverers, there is a moderate enlargement of the LM, but not to the extent found in the hummingbirds. The same degree of hypertrophy is not, however, present in nBOR or the other visual nuclei measured: nucleus geniculatus lateralis, pars ventralis, and optic tectum. This selective hypertrophy of LM and not other visual nuclei suggests that the direction-selective optokinetic neurons in LM are critical for sustained hovering flight because of their prominent role in the OKR and gaze stabilization. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Structural resonance and mode of flutter of hummingbird tail feathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Christopher J; Elias, Damian O; Girard, Madeline B; Prum, Richard O

    2013-09-15

    Feathers can produce sound by fluttering in airflow. This flutter is hypothesized to be aeroelastic, arising from the coupling of aerodynamic forces to one or more of the feather's intrinsic structural resonance frequencies. We investigated how mode of flutter varied among a sample of hummingbird tail feathers tested in a wind tunnel. Feather vibration was measured directly at ~100 points across the surface of the feather with a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer (SLDV), as a function of airspeed, Uair. Most feathers exhibited multiple discrete modes of flutter, which we classified into types including tip, trailing vane and torsional modes. Vibratory behavior within a given mode was usually stable, but changes in independent variables such as airspeed or orientation sometimes caused feathers to abruptly 'jump' from one mode to another. We measured structural resonance frequencies and mode shapes directly by measuring the free response of 64 feathers stimulated with a shaker and recorded with the SLDV. As predicted by the aeroelastic flutter hypothesis, the mode shape (spatial distribution) of flutter corresponded to a bending or torsional structural resonance frequency of the feather. However, the match between structural resonance mode and flutter mode was better for tip or torsional mode shapes, and poorer for trailing vane modes. Often, the 3rd bending structural harmonic matched the expressed mode of flutter, rather than the fundamental. We conclude that flutter occurs when airflow excites one or more structural resonance frequencies of a feather, most akin to a vibrating violin string.

  8. Quantifying the dynamic wing morphing of hovering hummingbird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Masateru; Nakata, Toshiyuki; Kitamura, Ikuo; Tanaka, Hiroto; Liu, Hao

    2017-09-01

    Animal wings are lightweight and flexible; hence, during flapping flight their shapes change. It has been known that such dynamic wing morphing reduces aerodynamic cost in insects, but the consequences in vertebrate flyers, particularly birds, are not well understood. We have developed a method to reconstruct a three-dimensional wing model of a bird from the wing outline and the feather shafts (rachides). The morphological and kinematic parameters can be obtained using the wing model, and the numerical or mechanical simulations may also be carried out. To test the effectiveness of the method, we recorded the hovering flight of a hummingbird ( Amazilia amazilia ) using high-speed cameras and reconstructed the right wing. The wing shape varied substantially within a stroke cycle. Specifically, the maximum and minimum wing areas differed by 18%, presumably due to feather sliding; the wing was bent near the wrist joint, towards the upward direction and opposite to the stroke direction; positive upward camber and the 'washout' twist (monotonic decrease in the angle of incidence from the proximal to distal wing) were observed during both half-strokes; the spanwise distribution of the twist was uniform during downstroke, but an abrupt increase near the wrist joint was found during upstroke.

  9. Contrasting patterns of phylogenetic assemblage structure along the elevational gradient for major hummingbird clades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parra, Juan L.; Rahbek, Carsten; McGuire, Jimmy A.

    2011-01-01

    Aim We evaluated the hypothesis that, given niche conservatism, relatedness of co-occurring hummingbird species of a given clade will increase at greater distances from the elevation where it originated. We also used prior knowledge of flight biomechanics and feeding specialization of hummingbird...... specialization (hermits and brilliants) always included a vegetation-related variable as an important predictor of change in phylogenetic structure. Main conclusions We found no overall support for the conservatism and zone of origin hypotheses. Knowledge of each clade’s natural history proved useful...

  10. Speciose opportunistic nectar-feeding avifauna in Cuba and its association to hummingbird island biogeography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Bo; Baquero, Andrea C.; Rahbek, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Island organisms often have wider feeding niches than mainland organisms, and migratory birds breeding on continents often widen their niches when overwintering on islands. Cuba's low hummingbird richness has puzzled ornithologists for decades. Here, we show that the Cuban hummingbird fauna is less...... rich than expected based on Cuba's elevation, when compared to the rest of the West Indian islands. Thereafter, we report nectar-feeding behaviour by 26 non-Trochilidae bird species in Cuba, encompassing pigeons/doves, woodpeckers and passerines, and endemic, resident and migratory species. We discuss...

  11. Analisis Simbolik Kyrie Eleison Karya Anna Wahyu Prasetyowati

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RINA MARTIARA

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Symbolic Analysis of Kyrie Eleison of Anna Wahyu Prasetyowati’s Work. This paper describes and interpretsthe Kyrie Eleison as a performing arts. Kyrie Eleison text is read through choreography elements that shape thethemes, motion, musical accompaniment, fashion makeup, fl oor pattern, form and stage layout. This paper useshermeneutic approach. Based on the research it can be concluded that this work has a deep meaning. The story ofJesus Christ journey in teaching the word with great passion until his death on the Cross is fi xated religious valuesthat serve as an example for mankind. This work also contains the values of humanity that every human being mustbe having a miserable, suffering, and death. Humans must be steadfast and strong in the face of every temptationthat comes when he/she want to achieve the highest inner awareness and understanding of divine truth.

  12. Between practice and theory: Melanie Klein, Anna Freud and the development of child analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, G

    1996-04-01

    An examination of the early history of child analysis in the writings of Melanie Klein and Anna Freud reveals how two different and opposing approaches to child analysis arose at the same time. The two methods of child analysis are rooted in a differential emphasis on psychoanalytic theory and practice. The Kleinian method derives from the application of technique while the Anna Freudian method is driven by theory. Furthermore, by holding to the Freudian theory of child development Anna Freud was forced to limit the scope of child analysis, while Klein's application of Freudian practice has led to new discoveries about the development of the infant psyche.

  13. Diagnoses of hybrid hummingbirds (Aves: Trochilidae). 17. Documentation of the intrageneric hybrid (Archilochus colubris × Archilochus alexandri)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graves, Gary R.; Dittmann, Donna L.; Cardiff, Steven W.

    2016-01-01

    Although the breeding ranges of Archilochus alexandri (Black-chinned Hummingbird) and Archilochus colubris (Ruby throated Hummingbird) are narrowly parapatric in central Texas and central and southern Oklahoma, there have been few reports of hybridization in the literature and no well......-documented hybrid specimens. Here we provide a comprehensive assessment of two male hybrids collected, respectively, in Grayson County, Texas, and East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana. As has been the pattern in other hummingbird hybrids, both specimens exhibit a blended mosaic of plumage characters of the parental...

  14. Pollination and breeding system of Canna paniculata(Cannaceae in a montane Atlantic Rainforest: asymmetric dependence on a hermit hummingbird

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Kiyoshi Maruyama

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We studied the pollination biology of Canna paniculata (Cannaceae, a plant species common in the Atlantic Rainforest of southeastern Brazil. The species presents specialized ornithophilous flowers, which in our study area are solely pollinated by the hermit hummingbird Phaethornis eurynome. Although C. paniculata is capable of bearing fruit after self-pollination, it requires pollinators for reproduction. We discuss the importance of hermit hummingbirds for the reproduction of specialized ornithophilous plants such as C. paniculata, including their asymmetric dependence on hermit hummingbirds - core pollinators in Neotropical forest ecosystems.

  15. Intertekstualiteit en die Bose in Kroniek van Perdepoort (Anna M. Louw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Linde

    1986-05-01

    Patrick White is also an author of religious literature to whom Anna M. Louw is attracted by her own admission. His novels. The solid Mandala and Riders in the Chariot are studied, and similarities with Kroniek van Perdepoort indicated.

  16. Astronaut Anna Fisher practices control of the RMS in a trainer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Astronaut Anna Lee Fisher, mission specialist for 51-A, practices control of the remote manipulator system (RMS) at a special trainer at JSC. Dr. Fisher is pictured in the manipulator development facility (MDF) of JSC's Shuttle mockup and integration laboratory.

  17. The hummingbird tongue is a fluid trap, not a capillary tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico-Guevara, Alejandro; Rubega, Margaret A

    2011-06-07

    Hummingbird tongues pick up a liquid, calorie-dense food that cannot be grasped, a physical challenge that has long inspired the study of nectar-transport mechanics. Existing biophysical models predict optimal hummingbird foraging on the basis of equations that assume that fluid rises through the tongue in the same way as through capillary tubes. We demonstrate that the hummingbird tongue does not function like a pair of tiny, static tubes drawing up floral nectar via capillary action. Instead, we show that the tongue tip is a dynamic liquid-trapping device that changes configuration and shape dramatically as it moves in and out of fluids. We also show that the tongue-fluid interactions are identical in both living and dead birds, demonstrating that this mechanism is a function of the tongue structure itself, and therefore highly efficient because no energy expenditure by the bird is required to drive the opening and closing of the trap. Our results rule out previous conclusions from capillarity-based models of nectar feeding and highlight the necessity of developing a new biophysical model for nectar intake in hummingbirds. Our findings have ramifications for the study of feeding mechanics in other nectarivorous birds, and for the understanding of the evolution of nectarivory in general. We propose a conceptual mechanical explanation for this unique fluid-trapping capacity, with far-reaching practical applications (e.g., biomimetics).

  18. 78 FR 59 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the Honduran Emerald Hummingbird

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    ... used by another hummingbird species to travel between suitable habitats indicate that gaps in suitable..., agricultural cooperatives are raising citrus fruits, corn (maize), rice, and African palm for oil (WWF 2008, p... agricultural plantations. Pesticides and Fertilizers WWF notes that production yield level can only be...

  19. Memory for location and visual cues in white-eared hummingbirds Hylocharis leucotis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo PÉREZ, Carlos LARA, José VICCON-PALE, Martha SIGNORET-POILLON

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In nature hummingbirds face floral resources whose availability, quality and quantity can vary spatially and temporally. Thus, they must constantly make foraging decisions about which patches, plants and flowers to visit, partly as a function of the nectar reward. The uncertainty of these decisions would possibly be reduced if an individual could remember locations or use visual cues to avoid revisiting recently depleted flowers. In the present study, we carried out field experiments with white-eared hummingbirds Hylocharis leucotis, to evaluate their use of locations or visual cues when foraging on natural flowers Penstemon roseus. We evaluated the use of spatial memory by observing birds while they were foraging between two plants and within a single plant. Our results showed that hummingbirds prefer to use location when foraging in two plants, but they also use visual cues to efficiently locate unvisited rewarded flowers when they feed on a single plant. However, in absence of visual cues, in both experiments birds mainly used the location of previously visited flowers to make subsequent visits. Our data suggest that hummingbirds are capable of learning and employing this flexibility depending on the faced environmental conditions and the information acquired in previous visits [Current Zoology 57 (4: 468–476, 2011].

  20. Review: The Shadow of the Hummingbird | Krüger | Tydskrif vir ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author: Athol Fugard. Book Title: The Shadow of the Hummingbird. Cape Town: Human & Rousseau, 2015. 96 pp. ISBN: 978-0-7981-6993-6. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/tvl.v53i1.30 · AJOL African Journals ...

  1. Nest site selection in native and exotic trees by Black-chinned Hummingbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch; Jeffrey Kelly

    2002-01-01

    We studied nest site selection and nesting success in Black-chinned Hummingbirds (Archilochus alexandri) along the middle Rio Grande, New Mexico. The study was conducted in association with an exotic woody plant removal program to determine whether the removal of exotic plants would affect wildlife populations and nesting success, either positively or negatively. Point...

  2. Residency in white-eared hummingbirds (Hylocharis leucotis and its effect in territorial contest resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Mendiola-Islas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Territory owners usually defeat intruders. One explanation for this observation is the uncorrelated asymmetry hypothesis which argues that contests might be settled by an arbitrary convention such as “owners win.” We studied the effect of territorial residency on contest asymmetries in the white-eared hummingbird (Hylocharis leucotis in a fir forest from central Mexico. Methods Twenty white-eared male adult hummingbird territories were monitored during a winter season, recording the territorial behavior of the resident against intruding hummingbirds. The size and quality of the territory were related to the probability that the resident would allow the use of flowers by the intruder. Various generalized models (logistical models were generated to describe the probabilities of victory for each individual resident depending on the different combinations of three predictor variables (territory size, territory quality, and intruder identity. Results In general, small and low quality territory owners tend to prevent conspecific intruders from foraging at a higher rate, while they frequently fail to exclude heterospecific intruders such as the magnificent hummingbird (Eugenes fulgens or the green violetear hummingbird (Colibri thalassinus on any territory size. Our results showed that the identity of the intruder and the size and quality of the territory determined the result of the contests, but not the intensity of defense. Discussion Initially, the rule that “the resident always wins” was supported, since no resident was expelled from its territory during the study. Nevertheless, the resident-intruder asymmetries during the course of a day depended on different factors, such as the size and quality of the territory and, mainly, the identity of the intruders. Our results showed that flexibility observed in contest tactics suggests that these tactics are not fixed but are socially plastic instead and they can be adjusted to

  3. Residency in white-eared hummingbirds (Hylocharis leucotis) and its effect in territorial contest resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendiola-Islas, Verónica; Lara, Carlos; Corcuera, Pablo; Valverde, Pedro Luis

    2016-01-01

    Territory owners usually defeat intruders. One explanation for this observation is the uncorrelated asymmetry hypothesis which argues that contests might be settled by an arbitrary convention such as "owners win." We studied the effect of territorial residency on contest asymmetries in the white-eared hummingbird ( Hylocharis leucotis ) in a fir forest from central Mexico. Twenty white-eared male adult hummingbird territories were monitored during a winter season, recording the territorial behavior of the resident against intruding hummingbirds. The size and quality of the territory were related to the probability that the resident would allow the use of flowers by the intruder. Various generalized models (logistical models) were generated to describe the probabilities of victory for each individual resident depending on the different combinations of three predictor variables (territory size, territory quality, and intruder identity). In general, small and low quality territory owners tend to prevent conspecific intruders from foraging at a higher rate, while they frequently fail to exclude heterospecific intruders such as the magnificent hummingbird ( Eugenes fulgens ) or the green violetear hummingbird ( Colibri thalassinus ) on any territory size. Our results showed that the identity of the intruder and the size and quality of the territory determined the result of the contests, but not the intensity of defense. Initially, the rule that "the resident always wins" was supported, since no resident was expelled from its territory during the study. Nevertheless, the resident-intruder asymmetries during the course of a day depended on different factors, such as the size and quality of the territory and, mainly, the identity of the intruders. Our results showed that flexibility observed in contest tactics suggests that these tactics are not fixed but are socially plastic instead and they can be adjusted to specific circumstances.

  4. Solid radwaste characterization at surry and North Anna Power Stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippard, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes a characterization of the solid radwaste generated at Virginia Power's North Anna and Surry power stations. The primary focus of this characterization was dry active waste (DAW). The characterization, covering the 21-month period from January 1985 through September 1986, was based on information in the station's health physics procurement records, radwaste shipping records, and from interviews with station personnel. The procurement records were the principal source of information for DAW. They were reviewed to determine the quantities of various materials, purchased during the study period, that were expected to become DAW. This provides an upper limit on the quantity in the waste for several major DAW components and a basis for the total amount of other components in the waste. The approach to characterizing DAW discussed in this paper could be implemented and regularly updated by utilizing a computerized procurement records system. If a use code (i.e., contaminated or noncontaminated) is associated with each stock requisition, a characterization could be performed by a computer run. This approach would help track minimization effort effectiveness and would refine the characterization of DAW considerably

  5. Astronaut Anna Fisher Suits Up for NBS Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a cooperative program of the European Space Agency (ESA) and the National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) to operate a long-lived space-based observatory. It was the flagship mission of NASA's Great Observatories program. The HST program began as an astronomical dream in the 1940s. During the 1970s and 1980s, the HST was finally designed and built becoming operational in the 1990s. The HST was deployed into a low-Earth orbit on April 25, 1990 from the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31). The design of the HST took into consideration its length of service and the necessity of repairs and equipment replacement by making the body modular. In doing so, subsequent shuttle missions could recover the HST, replace faulty or obsolete parts and be re-released. Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS) served as the test center for shuttle astronauts training for Hubble related missions. Shown is astronaut Anna Fisher suiting up for training on a mockup of a modular section of the HST for an axial scientific instrument change out.

  6. Astronaut Anna Fisher Suiting Up For NBS Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a cooperative program of the European Space Agency (ESA) and the National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) to operate a long-lived space-based observatory. It was the flagship mission of NASA's Great Observatories program. The HST program began as an astronomical dream in the 1940s. During the 1970s and 1980s, the HST was finally designed and built becoming operational in the 1990s. The HST was deployed into a low-Earth orbit on April 25, 1990 from the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31). The design of the HST took into consideration its length of service and the necessity of repairs and equipment replacement by making the body modular. In doing so, subsequent shuttle missions could recover the HST, replace faulty or obsolete parts and be re-released. Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS) served as the test center for shuttle astronauts training for Hubble related missions. Shown is astronaut Anna Fisher suiting up for training on a mockup of a modular section of the HST for an axial scientific instrument change out.

  7. Astronaut Anna Fisher Suited Up For NBS Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a cooperative program of the European Space Agency (ESA) and the National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) to operate a long-lived space-based observatory. It was the flagship mission of NASA's Great Observatories program. The HST program began as an astronomical dream in the 1940s. During the 1970s and 1980s, the HST was finally designed and built becoming operational in the 1990s. The HST was deployed into a low-Earth orbit on April 25, 1990 from the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31). The design of the HST took into consideration its length of service and the necessity of repairs and equipment replacement by making the body modular. In doing so, subsequent shuttle missions could recover the HST, replace faulty or obsolete parts and be re-released. Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS) served as the test center for shuttle astronauts training for Hubble related missions. Shown is astronaut Anna Fisher suited up for training on a mockup of a modular section of the HST for an axial scientific instrument change out.

  8. Astronaut Anna Fisher in NBS Training For Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a cooperative program of the European Space Agency (ESA) and the National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) to operate a long-lived space-based observatory. It was the flagship mission of NASA's Great Observatories program. The HST program began as an astronomical dream in the 1940s. During the 1970s and 1980s, the HST was finally designed and built becoming operational in the 1990s. The HST was deployed into a low-Earth orbit on April 25, 1990 from the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31). The design of the HST took into consideration its length of service and the necessity of repairs and equipment replacement by making the body modular. In doing so, subsequent shuttle missions could recover the HST, replace faulty or obsolete parts and be re-released. Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS) served as the test center for shuttle astronauts training for Hubble related missions. Shown is astronaut Anna Fisher training on a mock-up of a modular section of the HST for an axial scientific instrument change out.

  9. Anna Freud and the Holocaust: mourning and survival guilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, John J

    2014-12-01

    This article explores the period of Anna Freud's life after she was informed of the deaths of her aunts in Nazi concentration camps during World War II. Understanding of this period may be enhanced by consideration of the role of the Holocaust in her complicated mourning process. A series of her dreams is re-examined from the point of view of survivor guilt and the complicated mourning of her father in the context of the Holocaust. It is argued that unconscious reproaches against her father led to an identification with him that included his 'decision' to leave his sisters in Vienna. Survivor guilt in relation to her aunts' murders is seen as one of the complicating factors in the mourning process. In addition the article discusses the possible role of this period, particularly her work with child concentration camp survivors, in her post-war writing. The noted duality in her work between innovation and conservatism is explored in terms of an outcome of the mourning process of this period. It is argued that her views on mourning, trauma, attachment, and the widening scope of indications for psychoanalysis were influenced by the outcome of her mourning process. Finally, an irony is noted in the fact that her attitude about altruism never changed despite the role of the altruism of others in her rescue from the Nazis. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  10. Feeding behavior by hummingbirds (Aves: Trochilidae in artificial food patches in an Atlantic Forest remnant in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas L. Lanna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT During flight, hummingbirds achieve the maximum aerobic metabolism rates within vertebrates. To meet such demands, these birds have to take in as much energy as possible, using strategies such as selecting the best food resources and adopting behaviors that allow the greatest energy gains. We tested whether hummingbirds choose sources that have higher sugar concentrations, and investigated their behaviors near and at food resources. The study was conducted at Atlantic forest remnant in Brazil, between June and December 2012. Four patches were provided with artificial feeders, containing sucrose solutions at concentrations of 5%, 15%, 25% and 35% weight/volume. Hummingbird behaviors were recorded using the ad libitum method with continuous recording of behaviors. The following species were observed: the Brazilian ruby Clytolaema rubricauda (Boddaert, 1783, Violet-capped woodnymph Thalurania glaucopis (Gmelin, 1788, Scale-throated hermit Phaethornis eurynome (Lesson, 1832, White-throated hummingbird Leucochloris albicollis (Vieillot, 1818, Versicoloured emerald Amazilia versicolor (Vieillot, 1818, Glittering-bellied emerald Chlorostilbon lucidus (Shaw, 1812 and other Phaethornis spp. C. rubricauda, P. eurynome and Phaethornis spp. visited the 35%-sucrose feeders more often, while the T. glaucopis visited the 25%-sucrose feeders more often. L. albicollis and A. versicolor visited more often solutions with sugar concentration of 15%. C. lucidus visited all patches equally. Three behavioral strategies were observed: 1 C. rubricauda and T. glaucopis exhibited interspecific and intraspecific dominance; 2 the remaining species exhibited subordinance to the dominant hummingbirds, and 3 P. eurynome and Phaethornis spp. adopted a hide-and-wait strategy to the dominant hummingbird species. The frequency of aggressive behaviors was correlated with the time the hummingbird spent feeding, and bird size. Our results showed that hummingbirds can adopt

  11. Anna-Maria Galojan - värske hääl poliitikas / Anna-Maria Galojan ; interv. Toomas Verrev

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Galojan, Anna-Maria, 1982-

    2007-01-01

    Transiidifirma Transgroup Invest arendusdirektor, Eesti Välispoliitika Instituudi töötaja Anna-Maria Galojan, kes kandideerib Riigikogu valimistel Reformierakonna nimekirjas, räägib oma haridusteest, karjäärist ja poliitilistest eesmärkidest

  12. Revista Annaes de Enfermagem: publicações de enfermeiras sobre pediatria (1932-1941 Revista Annaes de Enfermagem: publicaciones de enfermeras sobre pediatria (1932-1941 Revista Annaes de Enfermagem: nurses' publications about pediatrics (1932-1941

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Silva Fontes

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Estudo histórico-social que tem como objeto a produção intelectual de enfermeiras e estudantes de enfermagem relativas à enfermagem pediátrica na revista Annaes de Enfermagem, no período entre 1932-1941. A fonte primária refere-se aos números da revista Annaes de Enfermagem pertencentes ao recorte temporal do estudo, além de relatórios e correspondências. As fontes secundárias estão constituídas de livros, artigos, dissertações e teses relativas à história do Brasil e da enfermagem. A análise dos dados teve o apoio das fontes secundárias e do pensamento do sociólogo francês Pierre Bourdieu. Os resultados evidenciam que a revista Annaes de Enfermagem publicou e divulgou temas importantes sobre a assistência de enfermagem à criança e contribuiu para a visibilidade da enfermeira brasileira junto à comunidade científica.Estudio de naturaleza historico-social que tiene como objeto la producción intelectual de las enfermeras y estudiantes de enfermería relativos a la enfermería pediátrica en el periodico Annaes de Enfermagem, en el período 1932-1941. Las fuentes primarias se refieren a los números de la Revista Annaes de Enfermagem pertenecientes al recorte temporal del estudio, además de los informes y correspondencia. Las fuentes secundarias están compuestas de libros, artículos, tesis y disertaciones sobre la historia de la enfermería de Brasil. El análisis de datos cuenta con el apoyo de fuentes secundarias y el pensamiento del sociólogo francés Pierre Bourdieu. Los resultados muestran que el periodico Annaes de Enfermería publicó sobre las importantes cuestiones de la asistencia de enfermería para el niño y ha contribuydo con la visibilidad de la enfermera brasileña en la comunidad científica.Historic-social study whose object was the intellectual production of nurses and students about pediatric nursing in the journal Annaes de Enfermagem, in the period 1932-1941. The primary source refers to the

  13. Characterization of ten microsatellite loci in the Broad-tailed hummingbird (Selasphorus platycercus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Fike, Jennifer A.; Talley-Farnham, Tiffany; Engelman, Tena; Engelman, Fred

    2011-01-01

    The Broad-tailed Hummingbird (Selaphorus platycercus) breeds at higher elevations in the central and southern Rockies, eastern California, and Mexico and has been studied for 8 years in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado. Questions regarding the relatedness of Broad-tailed Hummingbirds banded together and then recaptured in close time proximity in later years led us to isolate and develop primers for 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci. In a screen of 25 individuals from a population in Rocky Mountain National Park, the 10 loci were found to have levels of variability ranging from two to 16 alleles. No loci were found to depart from linkage disequilibrium, although two loci revealed significant departures from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium. These 10 microsatellite loci will be applicable for population genetic analyses, investigation of mating systems and relatedness, and may help gain insight into the migration timing and routes for this species.

  14. Trait-mediated trophic cascade creates enemy-free space for nesting hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeney, Harold F; Meneses, M Rocio; Hamilton, Chris E; Lichter-Marck, Eli; Mannan, R William; Snyder, Noel; Snyder, Helen; Wethington, Susan M; Dyer, Lee A

    2015-09-01

    The indirect effects of predators on nonadjacent trophic levels, mediated through traits of intervening species, are collectively known as trait-mediated trophic cascades. Although birds are important predators in terrestrial ecosystems, clear examples of trait-mediated indirect effects involving bird predators have almost never been documented. Such indirect effects are important for structuring ecological communities and are likely to be negatively impacted by habitat fragmentation, climate change, and other factors that reduce abundance of top predators. We demonstrate that hummingbirds in Arizona realize increased breeding success when nesting in association with hawks. An enemy-free nesting space is created when jays, an important source of mortality for hummingbird nests, alter their foraging behavior in the presence of their hawk predators.

  15. Black Jacobin hummingbirds vocalize above the known hearing range of birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Christopher R; Fernández-Vargas, Marcela; Portfors, Christine V; Mello, Claudio V

    2018-03-05

    Hummingbirds are a fascinating group of birds, but some aspects of their biology are poorly understood, such as their highly diverse vocal behaviors. We show here that the predominant vocalization of black jacobins (Florisuga fusca), a hummingbird prevalent in the mountains of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, consists of a triplet of syllables with high fundamental frequency (mean F0 ∼11.8 kHz), rapid frequency oscillations and strong ultrasonic harmonics and no detectable elements below ∼10 kHz. These are the most common vocalizations of these birds, and their frequency range is above the known hearing range of any bird species recorded to date, including hearing specialists such as owls. These observations suggest that black jacobins either have an atypically high frequency hearing range, or alternatively their primary vocalization has a yet unknown function unrelated to vocal communication. Black jacobin vocalizations challenge current notions about vocal communication in birds. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Infantile sexuality: Its place in the conceptual developments of Anna Freud and Donald W. Winnicott.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Angela

    2016-06-01

    This essay explores the place of infantile sexuality in the theories of Anna Freud and Donald W Winnicott. Both Anna Freud and D.W. Winnicott incorporated and at the same time changed the classical psychoanalytic account of infantile sexuality and the instinctual drives. Whilst Anna Freud remained closer to her father's original conceptualization, she developed a multidimensional model of development which gave the drives a foundational status whist also maintaining their significance in giving meaning and texture to children's subjective experience. Winnicott also retained much of S. Freud's original theorizing except that in a fundamental way he turned it on its head when considering earliest development. For him the establishment of the self was paramount, and the drives and infantile sexuality merely served to give substance to that self. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  17. [Revista Annaes de Enfermagem: nurses' publications about pediatrics (1932-1941)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, Aline Silva; Santos, Tânia Cristina Franco; Oliveira, Alexandre Barbosa de

    2009-01-01

    Historic-social study whose object was the intellectual production of nurses and students about pediatric nursing in the journal Annaes de Enfermagem, in the period 1932-1941. The primary source refers to the issues of the journal Annaes de Enfermagem considering the established time limits for the study, as well as reports and correspondences. The secondary sources are constituted by books, articles, dissertations and thesis on the Brazilian history of nursing. On data analysis it was used the thought of the French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu. The results show that the journal Annaes de Enfermagem published important issues of nursing care to the child and contributed to the visibility of Brazilian nurses among the scientific community.

  18. Flight mechanics and control of escape manoeuvres in hummingbirds. II. Aerodynamic force production, flight control and performance limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Bo; Tobalske, Bret W; Powers, Donald R; Hedrick, Tyson L; Wang, Yi; Wethington, Susan M; Chiu, George T-C; Deng, Xinyan

    2016-11-15

    The superior manoeuvrability of hummingbirds emerges from complex interactions of specialized neural and physiological processes with the unique flight dynamics of flapping wings. Escape manoeuvring is an ecologically relevant, natural behaviour of hummingbirds, from which we can gain understanding into the functional limits of vertebrate locomotor capacity. Here, we extend our kinematic analysis of escape manoeuvres from a companion paper to assess two potential limiting factors of the manoeuvring performance of hummingbirds: (1) muscle mechanical power output and (2) delays in the neural sensing and control system. We focused on the magnificent hummingbird (Eugenes fulgens, 7.8 g) and the black-chinned hummingbird (Archilochus alexandri, 3.1 g), which represent large and small species, respectively. We first estimated the aerodynamic forces, moments and the mechanical power of escape manoeuvres using measured wing kinematics. Comparing active-manoeuvring and passive-damping aerodynamic moments, we found that pitch dynamics were lightly damped and dominated by the effect of inertia, while roll dynamics were highly damped. To achieve observed closed-loop performance, pitch manoeuvres required faster sensorimotor transduction, as hummingbirds can only tolerate half the delay allowed in roll manoeuvres. Accordingly, our results suggested that pitch control may require a more sophisticated control strategy, such as those based on prediction. For the magnificent hummingbird, we estimated that escape manoeuvres required muscle mass-specific power 4.5 times that during hovering. Therefore, in addition to the limitation imposed by sensorimotor delays, muscle power could also limit the performance of escape manoeuvres. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. Glucose transporter expression in an avian nectarivore: the ruby-throated hummingbird (Archilochus colubris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth C Welch

    Full Text Available Glucose transporter (GLUT proteins play a key role in the transport of monosaccharides across cellular membranes, and thus, blood sugar regulation and tissue metabolism. Patterns of GLUT expression, including the insulin-responsive GLUT4, have been well characterized in mammals. However, relatively little is known about patterns of GLUT expression in birds with existing data limited to the granivorous or herbivorous chicken, duck and sparrow. The smallest avian taxa, hummingbirds, exhibit some of the highest fasted and fed blood glucose levels and display an unusual ability to switch rapidly and completely between endogenous fat and exogenous sugar to fuel energetically expensive hovering flight. Despite this, nothing is known about the GLUT transporters that enable observed rapid rates of carbohydrate flux. We examined GLUT (GLUT1, 2, 3, & 4 expression in pectoralis, leg muscle, heart, liver, kidney, intestine and brain from both zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata and ruby-throated hummingbirds (Archilochus colubris. mRNA expression of all four transporters was probed using reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR. In addition, GLUT1 and 4 protein expression were assayed by western blot and immunostaining. Patterns of RNA and protein expression of GLUT1-3 in both species agree closely with published reports from other birds and mammals. As in other birds, and unlike in mammals, we did not detect GLUT4. A lack of GLUT4 correlates with hyperglycemia and an uncoupling of exercise intensity and relative oxidation of carbohydrates in hummingbirds. The function of GLUTs present in hummingbird muscle tissue (e.g. GLUT1 and 3 remain undescribed. Thus, further work is necessary to determine if high capillary density, and thus surface area across which cellular-mediated transport of sugars into active tissues (e.g. muscle occurs, rather than taxon-specific differences in GLUT density or kinetics, can account for observed rapid rates of sugar flux into these

  20. ENGAGING ELEMENTARY AND MIDDLE SCHOOL STUDENTS IN ROBOTICS THROUGH HUMMINGBIRD KIT WITH SNAP! VISUAL PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Newley; Hasan Deniz; Erdogan Kaya; Ezgi Yesilyurt

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe how Hummingbird robotics kit with Snap! programing language was used to introduce basics of robotics to elementary and middle school students. Each student in the robotics program built a robot. The robot building process was open ended. Any specific robotics challenge was not provided to the students. Students’ knowledge about robots and programming language were measured through pre, post, and delayed posttests. Results indicated that students improv...

  1. Myosin heavy-chain isoforms in the flight and leg muscles of hummingbirds and zebra finches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velten, Brandy P; Welch, Kenneth C

    2014-06-01

    Myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform complement is intimately related to a muscle's contractile properties, yet relatively little is known about avian MHC isoforms or how they may vary with fiber type and/or the contractile properties of a muscle. The rapid shortening of muscles necessary to power flight at the high wingbeat frequencies of ruby-throated hummingbirds and zebra finches (25-60 Hz), along with the varied morphology and use of the hummingbird hindlimb, provides a unique opportunity to understand how contractile and morphological properties of avian muscle may be reflected in MHC expression. Isoforms of the hummingbird and zebra finch flight and hindlimb muscles were electrophoretically separated and compared with those of other avian species representing different contractile properties and fiber types. The flight muscles of the study species operate at drastically different contraction rates and are composed of different histochemically defined fiber types, yet each exhibited the same, single MHC isoform corresponding to the chicken adult fast isoform. Thus, despite quantitative differences in the contractile demands of flight muscles across species, this isoform appears necessary for meeting the performance demands of avian powered flight. Variation in flight muscle contractile performance across species may be due to differences in the structural composition of this conserved isoform and/or variation within other mechanically linked proteins. The leg muscles were more varied in their MHC isoform composition across both muscles and species. The disparity in hindlimb MHC expression between hummingbirds and the other species highlights previously observed differences in fiber type composition and thrust production during take-off. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Aiamängud vormi ja värviga / Anna-Liisa Unt ; interv. Victoria Parmas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Unt, Anna-Liisa, 1982-

    2006-01-01

    Eesti Maaülikoolis ja Rootsi Põllumajandusülikoolis maastikuarhitektuuri õppinud Anna-Liisa Unt (sünd. 1982) endast, oma aiakujundustest, tüüpilisest eestlase aiast tänapäeval jm. Anna-Liisa Undi tööde loetelu

  3. The Rufous Hummingbird in hovering flight -- full-body 3D immersed boundary simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira de Sousa, Paulo; Luo, Haoxiang; Bocanegra Evans, Humberto

    2009-11-01

    Hummingbirds are an interesting case study for the development of micro-air vehicles since they combine the high flight stability of insects with the low metabolic power per unit of body mass of bats, during hovering flight. In this study, simulations of a full-body hummingbird in hovering flight were performed at a Reynolds number around 3600. The simulations employ a versatile sharp-interface immersed boundary method recently enhanced at our lab that can treat thin membranes and solid bodies alike. Implemented on a Cartesian mesh, the numerical method allows us to capture the vortex dynamics of the wake accurately and efficiently. The whole-body simulation will allow us to clearly identify the three general patterns of flow velocity around the body of the hummingbird referred in Altshuler et al. (Exp Fluids 46 (5), 2009). One focus of the current study is to understand the interaction between the wakes of the two wings at the end of the upstroke, and how the tail actively defects the flow to contribute to pitch stability. Another focus of the study will be to identify the pair of unconnected loops underneath each wing.

  4. Wild rufous hummingbirds use local landmarks to return to rewarded locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, David J; Scott, Renee D; Healy, Susan D; Hurly, Andrew T

    2016-01-01

    Animals may remember an important location with reference to one or more visual landmarks. In the laboratory, birds and mammals often preferentially use landmarks near a goal ("local landmarks") to return to that location at a later date. Although we know very little about how animals in the wild use landmarks to remember locations, mammals in the wild appear to prefer to use distant landmarks to return to rewarded locations. To examine what cues wild birds use when returning to a goal, we trained free-living hummingbirds to search for a reward at a location that was specified by three nearby visual landmarks. Following training we expanded the landmark array to test the extent that the birds relied on the local landmarks to return to the reward. During the test the hummingbirds' search was best explained by the birds having used the experimental landmarks to remember the reward location. How the birds used the landmarks was not clear and seemed to change over the course of each test. These wild hummingbirds, then, can learn locations in reference to nearby visual landmarks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Three-dimensional space: locomotory style explains memory differences in rats and hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Abreu, I Nuri; Hurly, T Andrew; Ainge, James A; Healy, Susan D

    2014-06-07

    While most animals live in a three-dimensional world, they move through it to different extents depending on their mode of locomotion: terrestrial animals move vertically less than do swimming and flying animals. As nearly everything we know about how animals learn and remember locations in space comes from two-dimensional experiments in the horizontal plane, here we determined whether the use of three-dimensional space by a terrestrial and a flying animal was correlated with memory for a rewarded location. In the cubic mazes in which we trained and tested rats and hummingbirds, rats moved more vertically than horizontally, whereas hummingbirds moved equally in the three dimensions. Consistent with their movement preferences, rats were more accurate in relocating the horizontal component of a rewarded location than they were in the vertical component. Hummingbirds, however, were more accurate in the vertical dimension than they were in the horizontal, a result that cannot be explained by their use of space. Either as a result of evolution or ontogeny, it appears that birds and rats prioritize horizontal versus vertical components differently when they remember three-dimensional space.

  6. The sugar oxidation cascade: aerial refueling in hummingbirds and nectar bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Raul K; Herrera M, L Gerardo; Welch, Kenneth C

    2011-01-15

    Most hummingbirds and some species of nectar bats hover while feeding on floral nectar. While doing so, they achieve some of the highest mass-specific V(O(2)) values among vertebrates. This is made possible by enhanced functional capacities of various elements of the 'O(2) transport cascade', the pathway of O(2) from the external environment to muscle mitochondria. Fasted hummingbirds and nectar bats fly with respiratory quotients (RQs; V(CO(2))/V(O(2))) of ~0.7, indicating that fat fuels flight in the fasted state. During repeated hover-feeding on dietary sugar, RQ values progressively climb to ~1.0, indicating a shift from fat to carbohydrate oxidation. Stable carbon isotope experiments reveal that recently ingested sugar directly fuels ~80 and 95% of energy metabolism in hover-feeding nectar bats and hummingbirds, respectively. We name the pathway of carbon flux from flowers, through digestive and cardiovascular systems, muscle membranes and into mitochondria the 'sugar oxidation cascade'. O(2) and sugar oxidation cascades operate in parallel and converge in muscle mitochondria. Foraging behavior that favours the oxidation of dietary sugar avoids the inefficiency of synthesizing fat from sugar and breaking down fat to fuel foraging. Sugar oxidation yields a higher P/O ratio (ATP made per O atom consumed) than fat oxidation, thus requiring lower hovering V(O(2)) per unit mass. We propose that dietary sugar is a premium fuel for flight in nectarivorous, flying animals.

  7. Numerical analysis of the three-dimensional aerodynamics of a hovering rufous hummingbird ( Selasphorus rufus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Songyuan; Zhang, Weiping

    2015-12-01

    Hummingbirds have a unique way of hovering. However, only a few published papers have gone into details of the corresponding three-dimensional vortex structures and transient aerodynamic forces. In order to deepen the understanding in these two realms, this article presents an integrated computational fluid dynamics study on the hovering aerodynamics of a rufous hummingbird. The original morphological and kinematic data came from a former researcher's experiments. We found that conical and stable leading-edge vortices (LEVs) with spanwise flow inside their cores existed on the hovering hummingbird's wing surfaces. When the LEVs and other near-field vortices were all shed into the wake after stroke reversals, periodically shed bilateral vortex rings were formed. In addition, a strong downwash was present throughout the flapping cycle. Time histories of lift and drag were also obtained. Combining the three-dimensional flow field and time history of lift, we believe that high lift mechanisms (i.e., rotational circulation and wake capture) which take place at stroke reversals in insect flight was not evident here. For mean lift throughout a whole cycle, it is calculated to be 3.60 g (104.0 % of the weight support). The downstroke and upstroke provide 64.2 % and 35.8 % of the weight support, respectively.

  8. Unpredictability of nectar nicotine promotes outcrossing by hummingbirds in Nicotiana attenuata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Danny; Bhattacharya, Samik; Diezel, Celia; Rothe, Eva; Gase, Klaus; Schöttner, Matthias; Baldwin, Ian T

    2012-08-01

    Many plants use sophisticated strategies to maximize their reproductive success via outcrossing. Nicotiana attenuata flowers produce nectar with nicotine at concentrations that are repellent to hummingbirds, increasing the number of flowers visited per plant. In choice tests using native hummingbirds, we show that these important pollinators learn to tolerate high-nicotine nectar but prefer low-nicotine nectar, and show no signs of nicotine addiction. Nectar nicotine concentrations, unlike those of other vegetative tissues, are unpredictably variable among flowers, not only among populations, but also within populations, and even among flowers within an inflorescence. To evaluate whether variations in nectar nicotine concentrations increase outcrossing, polymorphic microsatellite markers, optimized to evaluate paternity in native N. attenuata populations, were used to compare outcrossing in plants silenced for expression of a biosynthetic gene for nicotine production (Napmt1/2) and in control empty vector plants, which were antherectomized and transplanted into native populations. When only exposed to hummingbird pollinators, seeds produced by flowers with nicotine in their nectar had a greater number of genetically different sires, compared to seeds from nicotine-free flowers. As the variation in nectar nicotine levels among flowers in an inflorescence decreased in N. attenuata plants silenced in various combinations of three Dicer-like (DCL) proteins, small RNAs are probably involved in the unpredictable variation in nectar nicotine levels within a plant. © 2012 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Hummingbirds control turning velocity using body orientation and turning radius using asymmetrical wingbeat kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Tyson J G; Segre, Paolo S; Middleton, Kevin M; Altshuler, Douglas L

    2016-03-01

    Turning in flight requires reorientation of force, which birds, bats and insects accomplish either by shifting body position and total force in concert or by using left-right asymmetries in wingbeat kinematics. Although both mechanisms have been observed in multiple species, it is currently unknown how each is used to control changes in trajectory. We addressed this problem by measuring body and wingbeat kinematics as hummingbirds tracked a revolving feeder, and estimating aerodynamic forces using a quasi-steady model. During arcing turns, hummingbirds symmetrically banked the stroke plane of both wings, and the body, into turns, supporting a body-dependent mechanism. However, several wingbeat asymmetries were present during turning, including a higher and flatter outer wingtip path and a lower more deviated inner wingtip path. A quasi-steady analysis of arcing turns performed with different trajectories revealed that changes in radius were associated with asymmetrical kinematics and forces, and changes in velocity were associated with symmetrical kinematics and forces. Collectively, our results indicate that both body-dependent and -independent force orientation mechanisms are available to hummingbirds, and that these kinematic strategies are used to meet the separate aerodynamic challenges posed by changes in velocity and turning radius. © 2016 The Author(s).

  10. Hummingbird with modern feathering: an exceptionally well-preserved Oligocene fossil from southern France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louchart, Antoine; Tourment, Nicolas; Carrier, Julie; Roux, Thierry; Mourer-Chauviré, Cécile

    2008-02-01

    Hummingbirds (Trochilidae) today have an exclusively New World distribution, but their pre-Pleistocene fossil record comes from Europe only. In this study, we describe an exceptionally preserved fossil hummingbird from the early Oligocene of southeastern France. The specimen is articulated, with a completely preserved beak and feathering. Osteological characters allow to identify it as Eurotrochilus sp. This genus is a stem group representative of Trochilidae and was recently described from the early Oligocene of southern Germany. The new fossil reveals that these European Trochilidae were remarkably modern in size, skeletal proportions and the shape of the wing, tail and beak and hyoid bones. These features confirm the early acquisition of the abilities of hovering and nectarivory in hummingbirds, probably before the Oligocene. In several morphological characteristics, they resemble members of the ‘true hummingbirds’ (subfamily Trochilinae) and differ from hermits (Phaethornithinae). These features, which include a short and square tail and a moderately long, almost straight beak, appear to be primitive within the family Trochilidae.

  11. Characterization of solid radwaste generated at Virginia Power's Surry and North Anna stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippard, D.W.; Elguindy, H.; Nelson, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a study on characterization of the major constituents of the solid radwaste generated at Virginia Power's North Anna and Surry Power Stations. The characterization consisted of identifying the individual constituents of the dry active waste (DAW) and estimating the fraction of the total DAW (both weight and volume) made up by each constituent. The analysis of the characterization of solid waste streams generated at both North Anna and Surry stations has lead to recommending techniques for both source minimization and waste volume reduction

  12. Molecular detection of Theileria annae and Hepatozoon canis in foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezdek, Danko; Vojta, Lea; Curković, Snjezana; Lipej, Zoran; Mihaljević, Zeljko; Cvetnić, Zeljko; Beck, Relja

    2010-09-20

    An epizootiological field study on tick-borne protozoan infections in foxes (Vulpes vulpes) was carried out in different parts of Croatia. Spleen samples of 191 carcasses of red foxes killed in sanitary hunting, were examined for the presence of hematozoa by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and subsequent sequencing. The investigation revealed four species of hematozoa in 57 foxes (30%), namely Theileria annae, Theileria sp. 3182/05 and Hepatozoon canis. T. annae was found in 10 foxes (5%), Theileria sp. 3182/05 in a single animal (1%), H. canis in 44 (23%) and Hepatozoon sp. was detected in two foxes (1%). T. annae and H. canis were distributed through all the studied regions, while Theileria sp. 3182/05 and Hepatozoon sp. were restricted to the Zagreb and Zagorje, and Istria regions, respectively. Detection of T. annae in all regions of Croatia indicates the presence of the natural cycle of the parasite and raises the possibility of other vectors other than the proposed Ixodes hexagonus.

  13. Anna Groundwater, The Scottish Middle March 1573-1625: Power, Kinship, Allegiance

    OpenAIRE

    Janine van Vliet

    2011-01-01

    Anna Groundwater. The Scottish Middle March 1573-1625: Power, Kinship, Allegiance. Royal Historical Society Studies in History, New Series. Woodbridge, UK: The Boydell Press, 2010. Pp. 236. ISBN 978-0-86193-307-5. £50.00; US$90.00.

  14. Anna Groundwater, The Scottish Middle March 1573-1625: Power, Kinship, Allegiance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine van Vliet

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Anna Groundwater. The Scottish Middle March 1573-1625: Power, Kinship, Allegiance. Royal Historical Society Studies in History, New Series. Woodbridge, UK: The Boydell Press, 2010. Pp. 236. ISBN 978-0-86193-307-5. £50.00; US$90.00.

  15. Abjeção em textos de André Sant’Anna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Salgueirinho

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de uma leitura de textos do escritor André Sant’Anna a partir da problematização que, em The Return of the Real (1986, o crítico de arte norte-americano Hal Foster faz da noção de abjeto e da dita abject art.

  16. The "Matchbox School" (1927-1932): Anna Freud and the Idea of a "Psychoanalytically Informed Education"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midgley, Nick

    2008-01-01

    Of all the applications of psychoanalysis to various fields, perhaps none has been as important--or as fraught--as the application of psychoanalytic insights to education. This paper re-constructs some of the early debates around psychoanalysis and pedagogy that Anna Freud engaged with during the 1920s in Vienna, when the whole question of what…

  17. African American Women Scholars and International Research: Dr. Anna Julia Cooper's Legacy of Study Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Stephanie Y.

    2009-01-01

    EIn this article, the author presents a little-known but detailed history of Black women's tradition of study abroad. Specifically, she situates Dr. Anna Julia Cooper within the landscape of historic African American students who studied in Japan, Germany, Jamaica, England, Italy, Haiti, India, West Africa, and Thailand, in addition to France. The…

  18. Specialization in plant-hummingbird networks is associated with species richness, contemporary precipitation and quaternary climate-change velocity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Bo; Magård, Else; Fjeldså, Jon

    2011-01-01

    patterns of contemporary biotic specialization and its drivers, we use network analysis to determine the degree of specialization in plant-hummingbird mutualistic networks sampled at 31 localities, spanning a wide range of climate regimes across the Americas. We found greater biotic specialization at lower...... latitudes, with latitude explaining 20-22% of the spatial variation in plant-hummingbird specialization. Potential drivers of specialization--contemporary climate, Quaternary climate-change velocity, and species richness--had superior explanatory power, together explaining 53-64% of the variation...... specialization. These results suggest that both ecological and evolutionary processes at Quaternary time scales can be important in driving large-scale geographical patterns of contemporary biotic specialization, at least for co-evolved systems such as plant-hummingbird networks....

  19. Functional connectivity experiments reflect routine movement behavior of a tropical hummingbird species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Noelia L; Hadley, Adam S; Robinson, W Douglas; Betts, Matthew G

    Translocation experiments, in which researchers displace animals and then monitor their movements to return home, are commonly used as tools to assess functional connectivity of fragmented landscapes. Such experiments are purported to have important advantages of being time efficient and of standardizing “motivation” to move across individuals. Yet, we lack tests of whether movement behavior of translocated birds reflects natural behavior of unmanipulated birds. We compared the routine movement behavior of a tropical hummingbird, the Green Hermit (Phaethornis guy), to that of experimentally translocated individuals. We tested for differences in site selection patterns during movement at two spatial scales (point and path levels). We also compared movement rates between treatments. Behaviors documented during translocation experiments reflected those observed during routine movements. At the point level, both translocated and non-translocated birds showed similar levels of preference for mature tropical forest. At the path level, step selection functions showed both translocated and non-translocated hummingbirds avoiding movement across non-forested matrix and selecting streams as movement corridors. Movement rates were generally higher during translocation experiments. However, the negative influence of forest cover on movement rates was proportionately similar in translocation and routine movement treatments. We report the first evidence showing that movement behavior of birds during translocation experiments is similar to their natural movement behavior. Therefore, translocation experiments may be reliable tools to address effects of landscape structure on animal movement. We observed consistent selection of landscape elements between translocated and non-translocated birds, indicating that both routine and translocation movement studies lead to similar conclusions regarding the effect of landscape structure and forest composition on functional connectivity

  20. The potential indirect effects among plants via shared hummingbird pollinators are structured by phenotypic similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamo, Pedro Joaquim; Wolowski, Marina; Maruyama, Pietro Kiyoshi; Vizentin-Bugoni, Jeferson; Carvalheiro, Luísa G; Sazima, Marlies

    2017-07-01

    Plant species within communities may overlap in pollinators' use and influence visitation patterns of shared pollinators, potentially engaging in indirect interactions (e.g., facilitation or competition). While several studies have explored the mechanisms regulating insect-pollination networks, there is a lack of studies on bird-pollination systems, particularly in species-rich tropical areas. Here, we evaluated if phenotypic similarity, resource availability (floral abundance), evolutionary relatedness and flowering phenology affect the potential for indirect effects via shared pollinators in hummingbird-pollinated plant species within four communities in the Brazilian Atlantic forest. Among the evaluated factors, phenotypic similarity (corolla length and anther height) was the most important variable, while resource availability (floral abundance) had a secondary importance. On the other hand, evolutionary relatedness and flowering phenology were less important, which altogether highlights the relevance of convergent evolution and that the contribution of a plant to the diet of the pollinators of another plant is independent of the level of temporal overlap in flowering in this tropical system. Interestingly, our findings contrast with results from multiple insect-pollinated plant communities, mostly from temperate regions, in which floral abundance was the most important driver, followed by evolutionary relatedness and phenotypic similarity. We propose that these contrasting results are due to high level of specialization inherent to tropical hummingbird-pollination systems. Moreover, our results demonstrated that factors defining linkage rules of plant-hummingbird networks also determinate plant-plant potential indirect effects. Future studies are needed to test if these findings can be generalized to other highly specialized systems. Overall, our results have important implications for the understanding of ecological processes due resource sharing in

  1. Peter Heller's a Child Analysis with Anna Freud: the significance of the case for the history of child psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midgley, Nick

    2012-02-01

    A Child Analysis with Anna Freud, a collection of Anna Freud's detailed case notes of her treatment of the young Peter Heller between 1929 and 1932, was first published in English in 1990. Not only does this work give us direct access to Anna Freud's ways of thinking and working at a crucial period in the early history of child analysis; it is also one of the few records of an adult reflecting in depth on the experience of being in analysis as a child. Yet to date this work has received little attention in the psychoanalytic literature. In an attempt to redress this neglect, the Heller case study is placed in the context of Anna Freud's emerging ideas about child analysis. In particular, its significance in the development of her psychoanalytic thinking is investigated in the light of her 1927 book, The Technique of Child Analysis.

  2. Kahevahel : Kui hajusad on kultuuriruumi piirid? / Anna Verschik, Tiina Kirss, Mikko Lagerspetz ; intervjueerinud Daniele Monticelli, Merle Karro-Kalberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Verschik, Anna, 1968-

    2015-01-01

    Kultuurist, kultuuriruumist, kultuuris olemisest ja sealt pärinemisest arutlevad TLÜ professori Daniele Monticelli eestvõttel TLÜ professorid Anna Verschik ja Tiina Kirss ning Turu Åbo Akadeemia professor Mikko Lagerspetz

  3. Limitations of rotational manoeuvrability in insects and hummingbirds: evaluating the effects of neuro-biomechanical delays and muscle mechanical power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pan; Cheng, Bo

    2017-07-01

    Flying animals ranging in size from fruit flies to hummingbirds are nimble fliers with remarkable rotational manoeuvrability. The degrees of manoeuvrability among these animals, however, are noticeably diverse and do not simply follow scaling rules of flight dynamics or muscle power capacity. As all manoeuvres emerge from the complex interactions of neural, physiological and biomechanical processes of an animal's flight control system, these processes give rise to multiple limiting factors that dictate the maximal manoeuvrability attainable by an animal. Here using functional models of an animal's flight control system, we investigate the effects of three such limiting factors, including neural and biomechanical (from limited flapping frequency) delays and muscle mechanical power, for two insect species and two hummingbird species, undergoing roll, pitch and yaw rotations. The results show that for animals with similar degree of manoeuvrability, for example, fruit flies and hummingbirds, the underlying limiting factors are different, as the manoeuvrability of fruit flies is only limited by neural delays and that of hummingbirds could be limited by all three factors. In addition, the manoeuvrability also appears to be the highest about the roll axis as it requires the least muscle mechanical power and can tolerate the largest neural delays. © 2017 The Author(s).

  4. Evolution of sexual dimorphism in bill size and shape of hermit hummingbirds (Phaethornithinae): a role for ecological causation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temeles, Ethan J; Miller, Jill S; Rifkin, Joanna L

    2010-04-12

    Unambiguous examples of ecological causation of sexual dimorphism are rare, and the best evidence involves sexual differences in trophic morphology. We show that moderate female-biased sexual dimorphism in bill curvature is the ancestral condition in hermit hummingbirds (Phaethornithinae), and that it is greatly amplified in species such as Glaucis hirsutus and Phaethornis guy, where bills of females are 60 per cent more curved than bills of males. In contrast, bill curvature dimorphism is lost or reduced in a lineage of short-billed hermit species and in specialist Eutoxeres sicklebill hermits. In the hermits, males tend to be larger than females in the majority of species, although size dimorphism is typically small. Consistent with earlier studies of hummingbird feeding performance, both raw regressions of traits and phylogenetic independent contrasts supported the prediction that dimorphism in bill curvature of hermits is associated with longer bills. Some evidence indicates that differences between sexes of hermit hummingbirds are associated with differences in the use of food plants. We suggest that some hermit hummingbirds provide model organisms for studies of ecological causation of sexual dimorphism because their sexual dimorphism in bill curvature provides a diagnostic clue for the food plants that need to be monitored for studies of sexual differences in resource use.

  5. Asynchronous changes in phenology of migrating Broad-tailed Hummingbirds and their early-season nectar resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Amy M; CaraDonna, Paul J; Inouye, David W; Barr, Billy; Bertelsen, C David; Waser, Nickolas M

    2012-09-01

    Phenological advancements driven by climate change are especially pronounced at higher latitudes, so that migrants from lower latitudes may increasingly arrive at breeding grounds after the appearance of seasonal resources. To explore this possibility, we compared dates of first arrival of Broad-tailed Hummingbirds (Selasphorus platycercus) to dates of flowering of plants they visit for nectar. Near the southern limit of the breeding range, neither hummingbird arrival nor first flowering dates have changed significantly over the past few decades. At a nearby migration stopover site, first flowering of a major food plant has advanced, but peak flowering has not. Near the northern limit of the breeding range, first and peak flowering of early-season food plants have shifted to earlier dates, resulting in a shorter interval between appearance of first hummingbirds and first flowers. If phenological shifts continue at current rates, hummingbirds will eventually arrive at northern breeding grounds after flowering begins, which could reduce their nesting success. These results support the prediction that migratory species may experience the greatest phenological mismatches at the poleward limits of their migration. A novel hypothesis based on these results posits that the poleward limit for some species may contract toward lower latitudes under continued warming.

  6. Improved waste water polishing in the North Anna clarifier using Durasil ion exchange media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hensley, M.C.; Sutter, H.G.

    1986-01-01

    On December 26, 1985, forty-one cubic feet of ion exchange media provided by Duratek was loaded into the North Anna clarifier demineralizer. As of the writing of this manuscript (February 6, 1986), processing using this single loading has continued for 42 straight days without breakthrough. To date, some 5.89 million gallons have been processed at an average flow rate of 140,200 gal/day. Throughputs are 143,700 gal/cu.ft. and still climbing. These figures represent improvements of a factor 20 over the run times experienced with organic resins immediately prior to the introduction of the new materials. This paper describes the testing program of Durasil ion exchange media carried out at North Anna by Duratek which lead to this dramatic improvement in performance

  7. [Participation of the Anna Nery School in the Constitutionalist Revolution of 1932].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida Filho, Antonio José; Santos, Tânia Cristina Franco

    2003-01-01

    This is a historical-social research project. The main objective is to present the participation of the Anna Nery Nursing School in the medical assistance positions in the state of Sao Paulo during the Constitutionalist Revolution of 1932. The objective of the present investigation is to describe how the teachers and students of the Anna Nery Nursing School participated in the different operation fronts during this war and to analyse the implications of the performance of nurses and students of this School. Our main documental resource were written and photographical documents that belong to the Centre of Documentation of the EEA/UFRJ. The secondary source were articles and books that about the history of Brazil and Brazilian nursing. This investigation evidenced the importance of the nurse's work during times of crisis and it also made possible for the EEAN to earn symbolic profits.

  8. Melanie Klein and Anna Freud: the discourse of the early dispute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viner, R

    1996-01-01

    Divisions in the field of the psychoanalysis of children can be traced to a dispute over the infantile super-ego between the theorists Melanie Klein and Anna Freud beginning in 1927. These divisions are understood within the analytic world as the result of scientific disputation between alternative valid theories. An examination of the language, claims, and epistemology of Klein's and Freud's publications in 1927 that marked the public commencement of the conflict, reveals a personalized discourse in which authority was derived from the allegiance, experience, and personal analytic standing of the contestants as much as from theoretical insight. The structure and rhetoric of the debate suggest that, rather than terminating the dispute, the publications of 1927 served to encourage professionalization in child analysis and establish Anna Freud and Melanie Klein as authoritative alternative theorists.

  9. Vos, Faust, Voss: raakpunte tussen Vos deur Anna M. Louw en enkele ander tekste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. John

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Vos, Faust, Voss: Points of contact between Vos by Anna M. Louw and selected other texts This article explores points of contact between “Vos” by Anna M. Louw and a number of related texts, including the following: the book “Job” from the Christian Bible, “Faust” by Goethe, “Voss” by Patrick White and texts forming part of the Gnostic tradition. The analysis describes similarities and differences, arguing that the implication of the points of contact between the various texts is that Vos suggests that the heritage of the Christian Reformation is not adequate for an understanding of life in South Africa, and it has to be supplemented with perspectives from other traditions.

  10. Different foraging preferences of hummingbirds on artificial and natural flowers reveal mechanisms structuring plant-pollinator interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglianesi, María A; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Schleuning, Matthias

    2015-05-01

    In plant-pollinator networks, the floral morphology of food plants is an important determinant of the interaction niche of pollinators. Studies on foraging preferences of pollinators combining experimental and observational approaches may help to understand the mechanisms behind patterns of interactions and niche partitioning within pollinator communities. In this study, we tested whether morphological floral traits were associated with foraging preferences of hummingbirds for artificial and natural flower types in Costa Rica. We performed field experiments with artificial feeders, differing in length and curvature of flower types, to quantify the hummingbirds' interaction niche under unlimited nectar resources. To quantify the interaction niche under real-world conditions of limited nectar resources, we measured foraging preferences of hummingbirds for a total of 34 plant species. Artificial feeders were visited by Eupherusa nigriventris and Phaethornis guy in the pre-montane forest, and Lampornis calolaemus in the lower montane forest. Under experimental conditions, all three hummingbird species overlapped their interaction niches and showed a preference for the short artificial flower type over the long-straight and the long-curved flower types. Under natural conditions, the two co-occurring hummingbird species preferred to feed on plant species with floral traits corresponding to their bill morphology. The short-billed hummingbird E. nigriventris preferred to feed on short and straight flowers, whereas the long- and curved-billed P. guy preferred long and curved natural flowers. The medium-size billed species L. calolaemus preferred to feed on flowers of medium length and did not show preferences for plant species with specific corolla curvature. Our results show that floral morphological traits constrain access by short-billed hummingbird species to nectar resources. Morphological constraints, therefore, represent one important mechanism structuring trophic

  11. Fragmentation of CagA Reduces Hummingbird Phenotype Induction by Helicobactor pylori.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Chi Chang

    Full Text Available Infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori has been linked to various gastro-intestinal diseases; nevertheless it remains to be clarified why only a minority of infected individuals develop illness. Studies from the West have indicated that the cagA gene and the associated EPIYA genotype of H. pylori is closely linked to the development of severe gastritis and gastric carcinoma; however, as yet no consistent correlation has been found among the bacteria from East Asia. In addition to genotype variation, the CagA protein undergoes fragmentation; however, the functional significance of fragmentation with respect to H. pylori infection remains unknown. In this study, we isolated 594 H. pylori colonies from 99 patients and examined the fragmentation patterns of CagA protein using immunoblotting. By analyzing the ability of the isolates to induce the host cell morphological transition to the highly invasive hummingbird phenotype, we demonstrated that H. pylori colonies with substantial CagA fragmentation are less potent in terms of causing this morphological transition. Our results uncovered a functional role for CagA fragmentation with respect to H. pylori-induced hummingbird phenotype formation and these findings suggest the possibility that the post-translational processing of CagA may be involved in H. pylori infection pathogenesis.

  12. Inflorescence and floral traits of the Colombian species of Tristerix (Loranthaceae related to hummingbird pollination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favio González

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Floral diversification in Loranthaceae reaches its highest peak in the Andes. The flowers of the exclusively Andean genus Tristerix exhibit tubular and vividly coloured flowers pollinated by hummingbirds. We studied inflorescence and flower morphoanatomy of the two Colombian species, T. longebracteatus and the highly endangered T. secundus. Both species have terminal racemes with up to 26 ebracteolate flowers, of which the proximal one opens and sets fruits first. The slightly irregular calyx initiation is followed by the simultaneous initiation of petals and the successive initiation of stamens. Anthesis is fenestrate, explosive, and triggered by the tension of the style against the abaxial petals, a mode so far not reported in Loranthaceae. Anthetic petals spread symmetrically in T. longebracteatus and asymmetrically in T. secundus. Nectar is produced by a supraovarial disk and by the petal mesophyll. Floral lifespan lasts up to 20 days. The hummingbirds Eriocnemis vestita and Pterophanes cyanopterus are the likely pollinators of T. secundus. Morphological traits are inconclusive to support one of the two competing sister group relationships that involve Tristerix, as the lack of cataphylls in renewal shoots links Ligaria and Tristerix, whereas the terminal inflorescences support its relationship with Desmaria and Tupeia.

  13. Bimodal pollination system of the bromeliad Aechmea nudicaulis involving hummingbirds and bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, S; Schmid, V S; Zillikens, A; Harter-Marques, B; Steiner, J

    2011-01-01

    In order to compare the effectiveness of birds and insects as pollinators, we studied the floral biology of the bromeliad Aechmea nudicaulis (L.) Grisebach in the biome of the Atlantic rain forest, southern Brazil. On Santa Catarina Island, flowering extends from mid-September to the end of December, with diurnal anthesis. The reproductive system is obligatory xenogamy, thus pollinator-dependent. Flowers secrete 31.84 μl of nectar per day, with a mean sugar concentration of 23.2%. Highest nectar volume and sugar concentration occur at the beginning of anthesis. Most floral traits are characteristic for ornithophily, and nectar production appears to be adapted to the energy demand of hummingbirds. Continued secretion of the sucrose-dominated nectar attracts and binds visitors to inflorescences, strengthening trapline foraging behaviour. Experiments assessing seed set after single flower visits were performed with the most frequent visitors, revealing the hummingbird Thalurania glaucopis as the most effective pollen vector. In addition, bees are also functional pollinators, as substantiated by their high visitation frequency. We conclude that this pollination system is bimodal. Thus, there is redundancy in the pollination service provided by birds and bees, granting a high probability of successful reproduction in Ae. nudicaulis. © 2010 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  14. Toward understanding the mechanics of hovering in insects, hummingbirds and bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vejdani, Hamid; Boerma, David; Swartz, Sharon; Breuer, Kenneth

    2016-11-01

    We present results on the dynamical characteristics of two different mechanisms of hovering, corresponding to the behavior of hummingbirds and bats. Using a Lagrangian formulation, we have developed a dynamical model of a body (trunk) and two rectangular wings. The trunk has 3 degrees of freedom (x, z and pitch angle) and each wing has 3 modes of actuation: flapping, pronation/supination, and wingspan extension/flexion (only present for bats). Wings can be effectively massless (hummingbird and insect wings) or relatively massive (important in the case of bats). The aerodynamic drag and lift forces are calculated using a quasi-steady blade-element model. The regions of state space in which hovering is possible are computed by over an exhaustive range of parameters. The effect of wing mass is to shrink the phase space available for viable hovering and, in general, to require higher wingbeat frequency. Moreover, by exploring hovering energy requirements, we find that the pronation angle of the wings also plays a critical role. For bats, who have relatively heavy wings, we show wing extension and flexion is critical in order to maintain a plausible hovering posture with reasonable power requirements. Comparisons with biological data show good agreement with our model predictions.

  15. Wild hummingbirds rely on landmarks not geometry when learning an array of flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurly, T Andrew; Fox, Thomas A O; Zwueste, Danielle M; Healy, Susan D

    2014-09-01

    Rats, birds or fish trained to find a reward in one corner of a small enclosure tend to learn the location of the reward using both nearby visual features and the geometric relationships of corners and walls. Because these studies are conducted under laboratory and thereby unnatural conditions, we sought to determine whether wild, free-living rufous hummingbirds (Selasphorus rufus) learning a single reward location within a rectangular array of flowers would similarly employ both nearby visual landmarks and the geometric relationships of the array. Once subjects had learned the location of the reward, we used test probes in which one or two experimental landmarks were moved or removed in order to reveal how the birds remembered the reward location. The hummingbirds showed no evidence that they used the geometry of the rectangular array of flowers to remember the reward. Rather, they used our experimental landmarks, and possibly nearby, natural landmarks, to orient and navigate to the reward. We believe this to be the first test of the use of rectangular geometry by wild animals, and we recommend further studies be conducted in ecologically relevant conditions in order to help determine how and when animals form complex geometric representations of their local environments.

  16. Wing, tail, and vocal contributions to the complex acoustic signals of courting Calliope hummingbirds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher James CLARK

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Multi-component signals contain multiple signal parts expressed in the same physical modality. One way to identify individual components is if they are produced by different physical mechanisms. Here, I studied the mechanisms generating acoustic signals in the courtship displays of the Calliope hummingbird Stellula calliope. Display dives consisted of three synchronized sound elements, a high-frequency tone (hft, a low frequency tone (lft, and atonal sound pulses (asp, which were then followed by a frequency-modulated fall. Manipulating any of the rectrices (tail-feathers of wild males impaired production of the lft and asp but not the hft or fall, which are apparently vocal. I tested the sound production capabilities of the rectrices in a wind tunnel. Single rectrices could generate the lft but not the asp, whereas multiple rectrices tested together produced sounds similar to the asp when they fluttered and collided with their neighbors percussively, representing a previously unknown mechanism of sound production. During the shuttle display, a trill is generated by the wings during pulses in which the wingbeat frequency is elevated to 95 Hz, 40% higher than the typical hovering wingbeat frequency. The Calliope hummingbird courtship displays include sounds produced by three independent mechanisms, and thus include a minimum of three acoustic signal components. These acoustic mechanisms have different constraints and thus potentially contain different messages. Producing multiple acoustic signals via multiple mechanisms may be a way to escape the constraints present in any single mechanism [Current Zoology 57 (2: 187–196, 2011].

  17. One-trial spatial learning: wild hummingbirds relocate a reward after a single visit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Abreu, I Nuri; Hurly, T Andrew; Healy, Susan D

    2012-07-01

    Beaconing to rewarded locations is typically achieved by visual recognition of the actual goal. Spatial recognition, on the other hand, can occur in the absence of the goal itself, relying instead on the landmarks surrounding the goal location. Although the duration or frequency of experiences that an animal needs to learn the landmarks surrounding a goal have been extensively studied with a variety of laboratory tasks, little is known about the way in which wild vertebrates use them in their natural environment. Here, we allowed hummingbirds to feed once only from a rewarding flower (goal) before it was removed. When we presented a similar flower at a different height in another location, birds frequently returned to the location the flower had previously occupied (spatial recognition) before flying to the flower itself (beaconing). After experiencing three rewarded flowers, each in a different location, they were more likely to beacon to the current visible flower than they were to return to previously rewarded locations (without a visible flower). These data show that hummingbirds can encode a rewarded location on the basis of the surrounding landmarks after a single visit. After multiple goal location manipulations, however, the birds changed their strategy to beaconing presumably because they had learned that the flower itself reliably signalled reward.

  18. Automatic analysis and characterization of the hummingbird wings motion using dense optical flow features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez, Fabio; Romero, Eduardo; Manzanera, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    A new method for automatic analysis and characterization of recorded hummingbird wing motion is proposed. The method starts by computing a multiscale dense optical flow field, which is used to segment the wings, i.e., pixels with larger velocities. Then, the kinematic and deformation of the wings were characterized as a temporal set of global and local measures: a global angular acceleration as a time function of each wing and a local acceleration profile that approximates the dynamics of the different wing segments. Additionally, the variance of the apparent velocity orientation estimates those wing foci with larger deformation. Finally a local measure of the orientation highlights those regions with maximal deformation. The approach was evaluated in a total of 91 flight cycles, captured using three different setups. The proposed measures follow the yaw turn hummingbird flight dynamics, with a strong correlation of all computed paths, reporting a standard deviation of 0.31 rad/frame 2 and 1.9 (rad/frame) 2 for the global angular acceleration and the global wing deformation respectively. (paper)

  19. Complex coevolution of wing, tail, and vocal sounds of courting male bee hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Christopher J; McGuire, Jimmy A; Bonaccorso, Elisa; Berv, Jacob S; Prum, Richard O

    2018-03-01

    Phenotypic characters with a complex physical basis may have a correspondingly complex evolutionary history. Males in the "bee" hummingbird clade court females with sound from tail-feathers, which flutter during display dives. On a phylogeny of 35 species, flutter sound frequency evolves as a gradual, continuous character on most branches. But on at least six internal branches fall two types of major, saltational changes: mode of flutter changes, or the feather that is the sound source changes, causing frequency to jump from one discrete value to another. In addition to their tail "instruments," males also court females with sound from their syrinx and wing feathers, and may transfer or switch instruments over evolutionary time. In support of this, we found a negative phylogenetic correlation between presence of wing trills and singing. We hypothesize this transference occurs because wing trills and vocal songs serve similar functions and are thus redundant. There are also three independent origins of self-convergence of multiple signals, in which the same species produces both a vocal (sung) frequency sweep, and a highly similar nonvocal sound. Moreover, production of vocal, learned song has been lost repeatedly. Male bee hummingbirds court females with a diverse, coevolving array of acoustic traits. © 2018 The Author(s). Evolution © 2018 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  20. Wingbeat kinematics and energetics during weightlifting in hovering hummingbirds across an elevational gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groom, Derrick J E; Toledo, M Cecilia B; Welch, Kenneth C

    2017-01-01

    Hummingbirds differentially modify flight kinematics in response to the type of challenge imposed. Weightlifting is associated with increases in stroke amplitude (the angle swept by the wings) to increase the angular velocity of the wings and generate the requisite lift, but only up to 160°. Conversely, flight in hypodense air is accomplished by increasing the angular velocity of the wing through increases in wingbeat frequency and stroke amplitudes, with larger increases in amplitude than seen in weightlifting flight. The kinematic differences between these two challenges may be facilitated by the lower energetic costs associated with overcoming drag and inertial forces over the wing during hypodense flight. Thus, we hypothesized that energetic expenditure is what limits the kinematics of weightlifting flight, with lower air densities permitting increases in angular velocity at comparatively lower costs. To explore the kinematic and energetic effects of air density and weightlifting on hovering flight performance, video and respirometric recordings of weightlifting were performed on four species of hummingbirds across an elevational gradient. Contrary to our hypothesis, wingbeat frequency did not vary due to elevation. Instead, wingbeat frequency seems to increase depending on the power requirements for sustaining hovering flight. Furthermore, metabolic rates during hovering increased with angular velocity alone, independent of elevation. Thus, it appears that the differential responses to flight challenges are not driven by variation in the flight media.

  1. Repeated elevational transitions in hemoglobin function during the evolution of Andean hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Projecto-Garcia, Joana; Natarajan, Chandrasekhar; Moriyama, Hideaki; Weber, Roy E; Fago, Angela; Cheviron, Zachary A; Dudley, Robert; McGuire, Jimmy A; Witt, Christopher C; Storz, Jay F

    2013-12-17

    Animals that sustain high levels of aerobic activity under hypoxic conditions (e.g., birds that fly at high altitude) face the physiological challenge of jointly optimizing blood-O2 affinity for O2 loading in the pulmonary circulation and O2 unloading in the systemic circulation. At high altitude, this challenge is especially acute for small endotherms like hummingbirds that have exceedingly high mass-specific metabolic rates. Here we report an experimental analysis of hemoglobin (Hb) function in South American hummingbirds that revealed a positive correlation between Hb-O2 affinity and native elevation. Protein engineering experiments and ancestral-state reconstructions revealed that this correlation is attributable to derived increases in Hb-O2 affinity in highland lineages, as well as derived reductions in Hb-O2 affinity in lowland lineages. Site-directed mutagenesis experiments demonstrated that repeated evolutionary transitions in biochemical phenotype are mainly attributable to repeated amino acid replacements at two epistatically interacting sites that alter the allosteric regulation of Hb-O2 affinity. These results demonstrate that repeated changes in biochemical phenotype involve parallelism at the molecular level, and that mutations with indirect, second-order effects on Hb allostery play key roles in biochemical adaptation.

  2. The Hummingbird GC-IMS: In Situ Analysis of a Cometary Nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojiro, Daniel R.; Carle, Glenn C.; Cohen, Martin J.; Wernlund, Roger F.; Stimac, Robert M.; Takeuchi, Norishige; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Comets are of enormous scientific interest for many reasons. They are primitive bodies that date back to the earliest stages of solar system formation and, because of their small size and because they have been stored in the outer reaches of the solar system, their pristine nature has been preserved better than for any other class of body. They are extremely rich in highly volatile elements, many in the form of ices, and are richer in organic matter than any other known solar system body. It is strongly suspected that in addition to their content of primordial solar nebular material, they also incorporate unprocessed matter from the interstellar medium. Impacts by comets occur onto all the planets and satellites, often with major consequences (e.g., the dinosaur extinction event at the KIT boundary), or sometimes just providing a spectacular cosmic event (e.g., the collision of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 with Jupiter). A mission to analyze a cometary nucleus must be capable of detecting and identifying over 30 molecular species among several different chemical groups. The Hummingbird Mission will rendezvous with, orbit, characterize, and make multiple descents to the nucleus of a comet. Hummingbird will employ a Gas Chromatograph - Ion Mobility Spectrometer (GC-IMS) as part-of a suite of sophisticated instruments for a comprehensive in situ elemental, molecular, and isotopic analysis of the comet.

  3. Clinical Holistic Medicine: The Case Story of Anna. II. Patient Diary as a Tool in Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sören Ventegodt

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of extreme childhood sexual and violent abuse, a 22-year-old young woman, Anna, healed during holistic existential therapy. New and highly confrontational therapeutic tools were developed and used to help this patient (like acceptance through touch and acupressure through the vagina. Her vulva and introitus were scarred from repeated brutal rape, as was the interior of her mouth. During therapy, these scars were gently contacted and the negative emotional contents released. The healing was in accordance with the advanced holistic medical toolbox that uses (1 love, (2 trust, (3 holding, and (4 helping the patient to process and integrate old traumas.The case story clearly revealed the philosophical adjustments that Anna made during treatment in response to the severe childhood abuse. These adjustments are demonstrated by her diary, where sentences contain both the feelings and thoughts of the painful present (the gestalt at the time of the abuse, thus containing the essence of the traumas, making the repression of the painful emotions possible through the change in the patient’s philosophical perspective. Anna's case gives a unique insight into the process of traumatization (pathogenesis and the process of healing (salutogenesis. At the end of the healing, Anna reconnected her existence to the outer world in a deep existential, suicidal crisis and faced her choice of life or death. She decided to live and, in this process, assumed existential responsibility, which made her able to step out of her mental disease. The advanced holistic toolbox seems to help patients heal even from the worst childhood abuse. In spite of the depth of the existential crisis, holistic existential therapy seems to support existential responsibility well and thus safe for the patients.

  4. A comparison of Zircaloy oxide thicknesses on Millstone-3 and North Anna-1 PWR fuel cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polley, M.V.; Evans, H.E.

    1993-08-01

    High concentrations of lithium in the coolant may enhance the corrosion rate of Zircaloy fuel cladding. In the present work, oxide thicknesses on fuel cladding from the Millstone 3 PWR were compared with those from the North Anna 1 PWR. The intention was to identify whether the higher lithium levels (up to 3.5 ppM) in the Millstone 3 primary coolant during cycles 2 and 3 led to significantly greater oxidation rates than in North Anna 1 which operated generally with lithium levels lower than 2.2 ppM. The comparisons were made by comparing the measurements with code predictions of Zircaloy oxidation in order to factor out the effect of operational variables on the oxide thicknesses achieved. Overall, Millstone 3 oxide thicknesses were found to be approximately 14% greater than North Anna 1 values. However, approximately 29% lower oxide thicknesses were found on reload Millstone 3 rods exposed to one cycle of elevated lithium chemistry than on Millstone 3 initial fuel exposed to one cycle of normal lithium chemistry during cycle 1. Furthermore, oxide thicknesses on Millstone 3 rods exposed to two cycles of elevated lithium chemistry were approximately 36% lower than on Millstone 3 rods exposed to one cycle of normal lithium chemistry plus one cycle of elevated lithium chemistry. Therefore, it cannot be concluded that elevated lithium operation in Millstone 3 led to enhanced Zircaloy fuel clad corrosion

  5. Temporal migration patterns between natal locations of ruby-throated hummingbirds (Archilochus colubris) and their Gulf Coast stopover site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenzal, Theodore J; Contina, Andrea J; Kelly, Jeffrey F; Moore, Frank R

    2018-01-01

    Autumn latitudinal migrations generally exhibit one of two different temporal migration patterns: type 1 where southern populations migrate south before northern populations, or type 2 where northern populations overtake southern populations en route . The ruby-throated hummingbird ( Archilochus colubris ) is a species with an expansive breeding range, which allows opportunities to examine variation in the timing of migration. Our objective was to determine a relationship between natal origin of ruby-throated hummingbirds and arrival at a Gulf coast stopover site; and if so, what factors, such as differences in body size across the range as well as the cost of migration, might drive such a pattern. To carry out our objectives, we captured hummingbirds at a coastal stopover site during autumn migration, at which time we collected feathers from juveniles for analysis of hydrogen stable isotopes. Using the hydrogen stable isotope gradient of precipitation across North America and published hydrogen isotope values of feathers from populations of breeding ruby-throated hummingbirds, we assigned migrants to probable natal latitudes. Our results confirm that individuals from across the range (30-50° N) stopover along the Gulf of Mexico and there is a positive relationship between arrival day and latitude, suggesting a type 1 migration pattern. We also found no relationship between fuel load (proxy for migration cost) or fat-free body mass (proxy for body size) and natal latitude. Our results, coupled with previous work on the spatial migration patterns of hummingbirds, show a type 1 chain migration pattern. While the mechanisms we tested do not seem to influence the evolution of migratory patterns, other factors such as resource availability may play a prominent role in the evolution of this migration system.

  6. Effect of artificial feeders on pollen loads of the hummingbirds of Cerro de La Muerte, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Avalos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Although sugar-water feeders are commonly used by enthusiasts to attract hummingbirds, little is known about how they affect hummingbird behavior and flower use. We studied the highland hummingbird assemblage of Cerro de La Muerte, Costa Rica, both at a site with permanent feeders (La Georgina Restaurant and further from it. We examined how feeder use and monopolization affected seasonal changes in pollen loads during four sampling periods, including dry and wet seasons, from 2003-2005. We expected that species monopolizing the feeders would carry little or no pollen whatsoever, and would have pollen loads characterized by low floral diversity, in contrast with species less dependent on feeders. We obtained pollen samples from 183 individuals of four hummingbird species captured around the feeders using mist nets, which were compared with a pollen reference collection of plants with a pollination syndrome by hummingbirds. The same methods were implemented at a site 3km away from the feeders. Feeder usage was quantified by counting the number of times hummingbirds drank from the feeders in periods of 4min separated by 1min. The effects of hummingbird species and season on pollen load categories were assessed using a nominal logistic regression. The alpha species at the site, the Fiery-throated Hummingbird (Panterpe insignis, dominated the feeders during the dry season. Meanwhile, in the wet season, feeder usage was more evenly distributed across species, with the exception of the Volcano Hummingbird, Selasphorus flammula, which occupies the last place in the dominance hierarchy. Pollen loads of hummingbirds captured near feeders were low in abundance (more than 50% of captured individuals had zero or low pollen loads, and low in species richness (96% of the hummingbirds with pollen from only one plant genus, Centropogon. Overall pollen loads increased during the dry season coinciding with peaks in flower availability, although the majority of

  7. Physiatrie and German maternal feminism: Dr. Anna Fischer-Dückelmann critiques academic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Paulette

    2006-01-01

    Alternative medicine and reform strategies made Anna Fischer-Dückelmann a most controversial, notorious, and widely read women doctor before World War I. She published a dozen titles in 13 languages asserting that national well-being depended on maternal prowess. To her critics, Fischer-Dückelmann's commitment to medical self-help and practices of Physiatrie amounted to medical quackery. Her career has been largely unexamined, yet her feminist critiques and social concerns are not far removed from modern social medicine. For this pioneering doctor, treating physical and emotional ills and promoting the health of families were first steps toward healing the divisions of a world at war.

  8. [Questions and worries. On the correspondence of Grete Bibring and Anna Freud 1949-1975].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakman, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Grete Bibring (1899 - 1977) was a representative of the second generation of analysts. Having emigrated from Vienna to London in 1938, she left for Boston in 1942 where she made a remarkable career. 1946 she became head of the department of psychiatry at the Beth-Israel hospital in Harvard and from 1961 the first woman professor of medicine there. She maintained a connection with European psychoanalysis in the person of Anna Freud with whom she corresponded regularly. Their letters contain an interesting exchange of ideas about psychoanalytic institutions (e.g. the American Psychoanalytical Association) and papers (e.g. on pregnancy). It is also the testimony of an exceptional friendship.

  9. Harmonic hopping, and both punctuated and gradual evolution of acoustic characters in Selasphorus hummingbird tail-feathers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher James Clark

    Full Text Available Models of character evolution often assume a single mode of evolutionary change, such as continuous, or discrete. Here I provide an example in which a character exhibits both types of change. Hummingbirds in the genus Selasphorus produce sound with fluttering tail-feathers during courtship. The ancestral character state within Selasphorus is production of sound with an inner tail-feather, R2, in which the sound usually evolves gradually. Calliope and Allen's Hummingbirds have evolved autapomorphic acoustic mechanisms that involve feather-feather interactions. I develop a source-filter model of these interactions. The 'source' comprises feather(s that are both necessary and sufficient for sound production, and are aerodynamically coupled to neighboring feathers, which act as filters. Filters are unnecessary or insufficient for sound production, but may evolve to become sources. Allen's Hummingbird has evolved to produce sound with two sources, one with feather R3, another frequency-modulated sound with R4, and their interaction frequencies. Allen's R2 retains the ancestral character state, a ∼1 kHz "ghost" fundamental frequency masked by R3, which is revealed when R3 is experimentally removed. In the ancestor to Allen's Hummingbird, the dominant frequency has 'hopped' to the second harmonic without passing through intermediate frequencies. This demonstrates that although the fundamental frequency of a communication sound may usually evolve gradually, occasional jumps from one character state to another can occur in a discrete fashion. Accordingly, mapping acoustic characters on a phylogeny may produce misleading results if the physical mechanism of production is not known.

  10. Flower morphology, nectar features, and hummingbird visitation to Palicourea crocea (Rubiaceae) in the Upper Paraná River floodplain, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Mendonça, Luciana B.; Anjos, Luiz dos

    2006-01-01

    We investigated flower morphology, nectar features, and hummingbird visitation to Palicourea crocea (Rubiaceae), a common ornithophilous shrub found in the riparian forest understory in the Upper Paraná River floodplain, Brazil. Flowers are distylous and the style-stamen dimorphism is accompanied by other intermorph dimorphisms in corolla length, anther length, and stigma lobe length and form. We did not observe strict reciprocity in the positioning of stigma and anthers between floral morphs...

  11. Five new feather mites of the subfamily Pterodectinae (Acariformes: Astigmata: Proctophyllodidae) from passerines and hummingbirds (Aves) of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandes, Fabio Akashi; Pedroso, Luiz Gustavo A; Oniki-Willis, Yoshika

    2016-09-06

    Five new species of feather mites (Proctophyllodidae: Pterodectinae) are described from passerines and hummingbirds of Brazil: Amerodectes longifuscus sp. nov. from Poospiza lateralis (Nordmann, 1835) (Passeriformes: Emberizidae), A. vireonis sp. nov. from Vireo olivaceus (Linnaeus, 1766) (Passeriformes: Vireonidae), Tyrannidectes synallaxis sp. nov. from Synallaxis ruficapilla Vieillot, 1819 (Passeriformes: Furnariidae), Trochilodectes willisi sp. nov. from Phaethornis eurynome (Lesson, 1832) (Apodiformes: Trochilidae), and Xynonodectes phaethornis sp. nov. from Ph. pretrei (Lesson & Delattre, 1839) (Apodiformes: Trochilidae).

  12. Genetic architecture of pollination syndrome transition between hummingbird-specialist and generalist species in the genus Rhytidophyllum (Gesneriaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermine Alexandre

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation to pollinators is a key factor of diversification in angiosperms. The Caribbean sister genera Rhytidophyllum and Gesneria present an important diversification of floral characters. Most of their species can be divided in two major pollination syndromes. Large-open flowers with pale colours and great amount of nectar represent the generalist syndrome, while the hummingbird-specialist syndrome corresponds to red tubular flowers with a less important nectar volume. Repeated convergent evolution toward the generalist syndrome in this group suggests that such transitions rely on few genes of moderate to large effect. To test this hypothesis, we built a linkage map and performed a QTL detection for divergent pollination syndrome traits by crossing one specimen of the generalist species Rhytidophyllum auriculatum with one specimen of the hummingbird pollinated R. rupincola. Using geometric morphometrics and univariate traits measurements, we found that floral shape among the second-generation hybrids is correlated with morphological variation observed between generalist and hummingbird-specialist species at the genus level. The QTL analysis showed that colour and nectar volume variation between syndromes involve each one major QTL while floral shape has a more complex genetic basis and rely on few genes of moderate effect. Finally, we did not detect any genetic linkage between the QTLs underlying those traits. This genetic independence of traits could have facilitated evolution toward optimal syndromes.

  13. Fossil evidence of wing shape in a stem relative of swifts and hummingbirds (Aves, Pan-Apodiformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksepka, Daniel T; Clarke, Julia A; Nesbitt, Sterling J; Kulp, Felicia B; Grande, Lance

    2013-06-22

    A feathered specimen of a new species of Eocypselus from the Early Eocene Green River Formation of Wyoming provides insight into the wing morphology and ecology in an early part of the lineage leading to extant swifts and hummingbirds. Combined phylogenetic analysis of morphological and molecular data supports placement of Eocypselus outside the crown radiation of Apodiformes. The new specimen is the first described fossil of Pan-Apodiformes from the pre-Pleistocene of North America and the only reported stem taxon with informative feather preservation. Wing morphology of Eocypselus rowei sp. nov. is intermediate between the short wings of hummingbirds and the hyper-elongated wings of extant swifts, and shows neither modifications for the continuous gliding used by swifts nor modifications for the hovering flight style used by hummingbirds. Elongate hindlimb elements, particularly the pedal phalanges, also support stronger perching capabilities than are present in Apodiformes. The new species is the smallest bird yet described from the Green River Formation, and supports the hypothesis that a decrease in body size preceded flight specializations in Pan-Apodiformes. The specimen also provides the first instance of melanosome morphology preserved in association with skeletal remains from the Green River Formation.

  14. Does intraspecific behavioural variation of pollinator species influence pollination? A quantitative study with hummingbirds and a Neotropical shrub.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, P K; Justino, D G; Oliveira, P E

    2016-11-01

    Floral visitors differ in their efficacy as pollinators, and the impact of different pollinator species on pollen flow and plant reproduction has been frequently evaluated. In contrast, the impact of intraspecific behavioural changes on their efficacy as pollinators has seldom been quantified. We studied a self-incompatible shrub Palicourea rigida (Rubiaceae) and its hummingbird pollinators, which adjust their behaviour according to floral resource availability. Fluorescence microscopy was used to access pollen tube growth and incompatibility reaction in pistils after a single visit of territorial or intruder hummingbirds in two populations. To characterise the plant populations and possible differences in resource availability between areas we used a three-term quadrat variance method to detect clusters of floral resources. Within-species variation in foraging behaviour, but not species identity, affected pollinator efficacy. Effectively, hummingbirds intruding into territories deposited more compatible pollen grains on P. rigida stigmas than territory holders in both study areas. Additionally, territory holders deposited more incompatible than compatible pollen grains. Our results imply that intraspecific foraging behaviour variation has consequences for pollination success. Quantifying such variation and addressing the implications of intraspecific variability contribute to a better understanding of the dynamics and consequences of plant-pollinator interactions. © 2016 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  15. Implications of inflorescence clustering for the visitation rate by hummingbirds and fruit production by Heliconia bihai (L. L. (Heliconiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio César Corrêa Missagia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant spatial distribution can influence the activity of floral visitors. Flower clustering in patches may be more attractive to visitors and it supposedly influences the fruit production. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that in Heliconia bihai (L. L. (Heliconiaceae the inflorescence clustering size positively influences the visitation rate and fruit production by the species. The study was conducted at a stretch of Atlantic Forest, in Rio de Janeiro city, Brazil. Five hummingbird species were registered as floral visitors. The average visitation rate (± standard deviation of hummingbirds was 2 (± 0.56 visits per hour per clustering. The amount of inflorescences per clustering positively influenced the visitation rate of hummingbirds, but it negatively influenced the amount of fruits produced per inflorescence. According to the results obtained, we suggest that the density of inflorescences in a clustering may negatively influence the number of flowers visited per inflorescence, due to an increased amount of inflorescences included in the foraging routes.

  16. Scale-4 analysis of pressurized water reactor critical configurations: Volume 5, North Anna Unit 1 Cycle 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, S.M.; Suto, T.

    1996-10-01

    ANSI/ANS 8.1 requires that calculational methods for away-from- reactor (AFR) criticality safety analyses be validated against experiment. This report summarizes part of the ongoing effort to benchmark AFR criticality analysis methods using selected critical configurations from commercial PWRs. Codes and data in the SCALE-4 code system were used. This volume documents the SCALE system analysis of one reactor critical configuration for North Anna Unit 1 Cycle 5. The KENO V.a criticality calculations for the North Anna 1 Cycle 5 beginning-of-cycle model yielded a value for k eff of 1. 0040±0.0005

  17. Patronage in the dispute over child analysis between Melanie Klein and Anna Freud--1927-1932.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguayo, J

    2000-08-01

    The author investigates the role of patrons and advocates for Melanie Klein's clinical ideas at the British Psycho-Analytical Society against the backdrop of her theoretical and technical differences with Anna Freud from 1927 to 1932. He also outlines the development of Klein and Anna Freud's theories and techniques within the nascent discipline of child psychoanalysis. The London and Viennese patrons/advocates contributed to polarising what initially were clinical differences about how to analyse pre-latency and latency-age children and which technical processes might best facilitate successful treatment. While the author speculates that a diversity of motivations and agendas may have driven the London group's support for Klein--personal and politicised enthusiasm (Jones), genuine conviction (Riviere) and attempts at theoretical rapprochement between the London and Vienna schools (Glover)--he also argues that Freud's diagnosis with cancer in 1923 and suspicion of patricidal son-successors necessitated the choice of a female successor with unquestioning loyalty to his doctrines. From 1932, when Klein's clinical authority was established, her first group of English supporters began to splinter, as she went on to become a training analyst, mentor and patron in her own right to a succeeding generation of adherents who defended her views during the Controversial Discussions.

  18. Auxiliary feedwater system risk-based inspection guide for the North Anna nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickolaus, J.R.; Moffitt, N.E.; Gore, B.F.; Vo, T.V.

    1992-10-01

    In a study sponsored by the US Nuclear regulatory Commission (NRC), Pacific Northwest Laboratory has developed and applied a methodology for deriving plant-specific risk-based inspection guidance for the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system at pressurized water reactors that have not undergone probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). This methodology uses existing PRA results and plant operating experience information. Existing PRA-based inspection guidance information recently developed for the NRC for various plants was used to identify generic component failure modes. This information was then combined with plant-specific and industry-wide component information and failure data to identify failure modes and failure mechanisms for the AFW system at the selected plants. North Anna was selected as a plant for study. The product of this effort is a prioritized listing of AFW failures which have occurred at the plant and at other PWRs. This listing is intended for use by the NRC inspectors in preparation of inspection plans addressing AFW risk important components at the North Anna plant

  19. North Anna Power Station - Unit 1: Overview of steam generator replacement project activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gettler, M.W.; Bayer, R.K.; Lippard, D.W.

    1993-01-01

    The original steam generators at Virginia Electric and Power Company's (Virginia Power) North Anna Power Station (NAPS) Unit 1 have experienced corrosion-related degradation that require periodic inspection and plugging of steam generator tubes to ensure their continued safe and reliable operation. Despite improvements in secondary water chemistry, continued tube degradation in the steam generators necessitated the removal from service of approximately 20.3 percent of the tubes by plugging, (18.6, 17.3, and 25.1 for steam generators A, B, and C, respectively). Additionally, the unit power was limited to 95 % during, its last cycle of operation. Projections of industry and Virginia Power experience indicated the possibility of mid-cycle inspections and reductions in unit power. Therefore, economic considerations led to the decision to repair the steam generators (i.e., replace the steam generator lower assemblies). Three new Model 51F Steam Generator lower assembly units were ordered from Westinghouse. Virginia Power contracted Bechtel Power Corporation to provide the engineering and construction support to repair the Unit 1 steam generators. On January 4, 1993, after an extended coastdown period, North Anna Unit 1 was brought off-line and the 110 day (breaker-to-breaker) Steam Generator Replacement Project (SGRP) outage began. As of this paper, the outage is still in progress

  20. Influence of canopy form on growth, flowering, and storage potential of ,anna, apple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahran, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    this study was carried out during the two successive seasons of 1997 and 1998. two years old anna apple trees (budded on M.M. 106 semi - dwarfing root - stocks) planted in El Khattatbah, Monoufiah Governorate were used in this investigation. this study aimed to evaluate the influence of two different tree canopy forms (central leaders and vase) and tipping treatment on the yield and some fruit quality characteristics of anna apple fruits and the effect of irradiation on some of these characteristics during a limited period under cold storage. results revealed improved light conditions in trained trees compared to untrained controls. open vase trained trees produce less fruits which where bigger, softer, with more T.S.S. and sugar content, and less acidity, compared to central leader harvested fruits.it was also found that tipping application resulted in excessive vegetative growth and reduced fruit numbers which were bigger, softer, and contained more T.S.S., and sugars, and less acidity, compared to fruits harvested from untipped trees

  1. Restart Testing Program for piping following steam generator replacement at North Anna Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bain, R.A.; Bayer, R.K.

    1993-01-01

    In order to provide assurance that the effects of performing steam generator replacement (SGR) at North Anna unit 1 had no adverse impact on plant piping systems, a cold functional verification restart testing program was developed. This restart testing program was implemented in lieu of a hot functional testing program normally used during the initial startup of a nuclear plant. A review of North Anna plant-specific and generic U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission requirements for restart testing was performed to ensure that no mandatory hot functional testing was required. This was determined to be the case, and the development of a cold functional test program was initiated. The cold functional test had inherent advantages as compared to the hot functional testing, while still providing assurance of piping system adequacy. The advantages of the cold verification program included reducing risk to personnel from hot piping, increasing the accuracy of measurements with the improvement in work conditions, eliminating engineering activities during the heatup process, and being able to record measurements as construction work was completed allowing for rework or repair of components if required. To ensure the effectiveness of the cold verification program, a project procedure was generated to identify the personnel, equipment, and measurement requirements. An engineering calculation was issued to document the scope of the restart test program, and an additional calculation was developed to provide acceptance criteria for the critical commodity measurements

  2. Study On In Vitro Variation Generation Of Cymbidium Labell Anna Belle By Gamma Co-60 Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Huynh Phuong Uyen; Vo Thi Thu Ha; Le Quang Luan

    2011-01-01

    Radiation ionization is one of useful methods for mutation breeding of plants. In this study, γ-ray (Co-60) was used for generating morphological variations of Cymbidium Labell Anna Belle. The lethal doses of 50% samples (LD 50 ) after 4 months cultivation were determined at 35.0 Gy for protocorm like bodies (PLBs), 37.4 Gy for in vitro shoot bubs and 70.1 Gy for plantlets. PLBs were found as suitable samples for generation of variation of mentioned Cymbidium. The dose range from 20 to 50 Gy was determined with a high ability of variation on C. Labell Anna Belle. The highest frequency of variation was obtained ca. 3.82 x 10 -3 at the dose of 30 Gy. 157 in vitro variant plantlets were selected in M 1 V 1 generation, among variations, the variations were mainly found with 5 following types: removal of chlorophyll (8 plantlets), the leaves become shorter (64 plantlets), the leaves become longer (64 plantlets), increase of leaf number (11 plantlets) and the colour of pericardium was changed from green into violet (10 plantlets). Twenty one variant lines were selected in M 1 V 2 generation. (author)

  3. Flower morphology, nectar features, and hummingbird visitation to Palicourea crocea (Rubiaceae in the Upper Paraná River floodplain, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana B. Mendonça

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated flower morphology, nectar features, and hummingbird visitation to Palicourea crocea (Rubiaceae, a common ornithophilous shrub found in the riparian forest understory in the Upper Paraná River floodplain, Brazil. Flowers are distylous and the style-stamen dimorphism is accompanied by other intermorph dimorphisms in corolla length, anther length, and stigma lobe length and form. We did not observe strict reciprocity in the positioning of stigma and anthers between floral morphs. Flowering occurred during the rainy season, October to December. Nectar standing crop per flowerwas relatively constant throughout the day, which apparently resulted in hummingbirds visiting the plant throughout the day. Energetic content of the nectar in each flower (66.5J and that required daily by hummingbird visitors (up to 30kJ would oblige visits to hundreds of flowers each day, and thus movements between plants that should result in pollen flow. Three hummingbird species visited the flowers: the Gilded Sapphire (Hylocharis chrysura, the Black-throated Mango (Anthracothorax nigricollis, and the Glittering-bellied Emerald (Chlorostilbon aureoventris. The frequency of hummingbird visitation, nectar features, and the scarcity of other hummingbird-visited flowers in the study area, indicate that P. crocea is an important nectar resource for short-billed hummingbirds in the study site.Investigamos a morfologia floral, as características do néctar e a visita de beija-flores a Palicourea crocea (Rubiaceae, uma espécie ornitófila arbustiva comumente encontrada no sub-bosque da vegetação ripária na planície de inundação do Alto Rio Paraná, Brasil. As flores são distílicas, sendo o dimorfismo estilete-estames acompanhado por outras variações morfológicas no comprimento da corola, altura das anteras, comprimento das anteras e comprimento e forma das papilas estigmáticas. Não foi observada reciprocidade estrita na posição dos estigmas e

  4. Historical and current introgression in a Mesoamerican hummingbird species complex: a biogeographic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Alicia Jiménez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of geologic and Pleistocene glacial cycles might result in morphological and genetic complex scenarios in the biota of the Mesoamerican region. We tested whether berylline, blue-tailed and steely-blue hummingbirds, Amazilia beryllina, Amazilia cyanura and Amazilia saucerottei, show evidence of historical or current introgression as their plumage colour variation might suggest. We also analysed the role of past and present climatic events in promoting genetic introgression and species diversification. We collected mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA sequence data and microsatellite loci scores for populations throughout the range of the three Amazilia species, as well as morphological and ecological data. Haplotype network, Bayesian phylogenetic and divergence time inference, historical demography, palaeodistribution modelling, and niche divergence tests were used to reconstruct the evolutionary history of this Amazilia species complex. An isolation-with-migration coalescent model and Bayesian assignment analysis were assessed to determine historical introgression and current genetic admixture. mtDNA haplotypes were geographically unstructured, with haplotypes from disparate areas interdispersed on a shallow tree and an unresolved haplotype network. Assignment analysis of the nuclear genome (nuDNA supported three genetic groups with signs of genetic admixture, corresponding to: (1 A. beryllina populations located west of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec; (2 A. cyanura populations between the Isthmus of Tehuantepec and the Nicaraguan Depression (Nuclear Central America; and (3 A. saucerottei populations southeast of the Nicaraguan Depression. Gene flow and divergence time estimates, and demographic and palaeodistribution patterns suggest an evolutionary history of introgression mediated by Quaternary climatic fluctuations. High levels of gene flow were indicated by mtDNA and asymmetrical isolation-with-migration, whereas the microsatellite analyses

  5. Historical and current introgression in a Mesoamerican hummingbird species complex: a biogeographic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Rosa Alicia

    2016-01-01

    The influence of geologic and Pleistocene glacial cycles might result in morphological and genetic complex scenarios in the biota of the Mesoamerican region. We tested whether berylline, blue-tailed and steely-blue hummingbirds, Amazilia beryllina, Amazilia cyanura and Amazilia saucerottei, show evidence of historical or current introgression as their plumage colour variation might suggest. We also analysed the role of past and present climatic events in promoting genetic introgression and species diversification. We collected mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence data and microsatellite loci scores for populations throughout the range of the three Amazilia species, as well as morphological and ecological data. Haplotype network, Bayesian phylogenetic and divergence time inference, historical demography, palaeodistribution modelling, and niche divergence tests were used to reconstruct the evolutionary history of this Amazilia species complex. An isolation-with-migration coalescent model and Bayesian assignment analysis were assessed to determine historical introgression and current genetic admixture. mtDNA haplotypes were geographically unstructured, with haplotypes from disparate areas interdispersed on a shallow tree and an unresolved haplotype network. Assignment analysis of the nuclear genome (nuDNA) supported three genetic groups with signs of genetic admixture, corresponding to: (1) A. beryllina populations located west of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec; (2) A. cyanura populations between the Isthmus of Tehuantepec and the Nicaraguan Depression (Nuclear Central America); and (3) A. saucerottei populations southeast of the Nicaraguan Depression. Gene flow and divergence time estimates, and demographic and palaeodistribution patterns suggest an evolutionary history of introgression mediated by Quaternary climatic fluctuations. High levels of gene flow were indicated by mtDNA and asymmetrical isolation-with-migration, whereas the microsatellite analyses found evidence

  6. Review Essay: John Pratt and Anna Eriksson (2013 'Contrasts in Punishment: An Explanation of Anglophone Excess and Nordic Exceptionalism'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Brown

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This review essay combines the comments made by David Brown, Russell Hogg and Mark Finanne at the Crime, Justice and Social Democracy: 2nd International Conference July 2013. It is followed by a rejoinder by the two authors John Pratt and Anna Eriksson.

  7. Anna Freud: the Hampstead War Nurseries and the role of the direct observation of children for psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midgley, Nick

    2007-08-01

    The psychoanalytic tradition of direct observation of children has a long history, going back to the early 20th century, when psychoanalysis and the emerging field of 'child studies' came into fruitful contact in Freud's Vienna. As a leading figure in the attempted integration of direct observation with the new psychoanalytic knowledge emerging from the consulting room, Anna Freud played a crucial role in the emergence of this field. But her major contribution to the theory and practice of observing children came during the Second World War, when she founded the Hampstead War Nurseries. The author describes in detail this important period of Anna Freud's career, and discusses the impact it had on later work. He explores the theoretical contribution that Anna Freud made in the post-war years to the debate about the place of direct observation in psychoanalysis, and concludes that Anna Freud's 'double approach' (direct observation plus analytic reconstruction) still has a great deal to offer as a method of both psychoanalytic research and education.

  8. Education and Access to Christian Thought in the Writing of Harriet Beecher Stowe and Anna Julia Cooper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magno, JoJo

    2009-01-01

    In attempting to climb past the racist and sexist barriers which existed in nineteenth-century America, women could look to writers such as Harriet Beecher Stowe and Anna Julia Cooper. Their works not only reflect the conditions of women and African-American women in particular, but also call for access to educational opportunities for these women…

  9. Studi Komunikasi Interpersonal Antara Perawat Dengan Lansia Di Panti Lansia Santa Anna Teluk Gong Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mela Cristanty

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses the interpersonal communication between the nurses with elderly who were living in a nursing home. Establishment of a nursing home is one of the government's efforts to address the issue of social welfare for the elderly. Like the other nursing homes Nursing Home “Santa Anna” also have nurses on duty to take care the elderly living at home. In order to perform their duties the nurses need to perform an effective interpersonal communication with the elderly. Interpersonal communication activities have influence in building a relationship with the elderly in order to provide guidance, supervision and encouragement to the elderly. The theory used in this research is theory of communication, interpersonal communication, social penetration theory, concept of nurses, the elderly and nursing homes. This study used descriptive qualitative method and authors conducted in-depth interviews with four informants, namely two nurses and two elderly people, also made observation and doing literature study. The results of this study reveals that the closeness of interpersonal relations between nurses and elderly in Nursing Home “Santa Anna” can be seen through five general quality that are openness, positive behavior, supportive behavior, empathy, and equality. These five factors mentioned above is run entirely by nurses in the Nursing Home “Santa Anna” in terms of communicating and forming relationships with the elderly who live in institutions. Penelitian ini membahas mengenai komunikasi antarpribadi yang dilakukan antara perawat dengan lansia yang tinggal di panti jompo. Pendirian panti jompo merupakan salah satu usaha pemerintah dalam menangani masalah kesejahteraan sosial untuk para lansia. Seperti panti-panti jompo lainnya Panti Lansia Santa Anna juga memiliki perawat-perawat yang bertugas untuk merawat, mengurus, dan mengasuh para lansia yang tinggal di panti. Untuk dapat menjalankan tugas serta perannya perawat perlu

  10. Genetic, ecological and morphological divergence between populations of the endangered Mexican Sheartail hummingbird (Doricha eliza.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuyini Licona-Vera

    Full Text Available The Mexican Sheartail (Doricha eliza, an endangered hummingbird, is endemic to Mexico where two populations have a disjunct distribution. One population is distributed along the northern tip of the Yucatan Peninsula whereas the other is mostly restricted to central Veracruz. Despite their disjunct distribution, previous work has failed to detect morphological or behavioral differences between these populations. Here we use variation in morphology, mtDNA and nuDNA sequences to determine the degree of morphological and molecular divergence between populations, their divergence time, and historical demography. We use species distribution modeling and niche divergence tests to infer the relative roles of vicariance and dispersal in driving divergence in the genus. Our Bayesian and maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses revealed that Doricha eliza populations form a monophyletic clade and support their sister relationship with D. enicura. We found marked genetic differentiation, with reciprocal monophyly of haplotypes and highly restricted gene flow, supporting a history of isolation over the last 120,000 years. Genetic divergence between populations is consistent with the lack of overlap in environmental space and slight morphological differences between males. Our findings indicate that the divergence of the Veracruz and Yucatan populations is best explained by a combination of a short period of isolation exacerbated by subsequent divergence in climate conditions, and that rather than vicariance, the two isolated ranges of D. eliza are the product of recent colonization and divergence in isolation.

  11. Nectar regulation in Euphorbia tithymaloides L., a hummingbird-pollinated Euphorbiaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga Blanco, T; Galetto, L; Machado, I C

    2013-09-01

    Floral sexual phases can differ in nectar production and might be under selective pressure by pollinators. We studied Euphorbia tithymaloides, which has inflorescences that are initially female and then hermaphroditic. Volume and concentration of nectar were measured in both stages. Nectar production and the effect of extractions were determined using sets of bagged inflorescences; inflorescences in the hermaphroditic phase had higher values of nectar concentration, volume and sugar mass than inflorescences in the female phase. Nectar resorption was detected in senescent inflorescences. To test for homeostatic nectar regulation, artificial nectar was added and the response assessed after 24 h. The experiments showed that concentration and sugar mass are regulated within a narrow range, and the homeostatic points differ between the two sexual phases. These differences in nectar can be detected by hummingbirds, which prefer the female stage. Resorption and secretion seem to be part of a homeostatic mechanism by which nectar attributes are maintained to optimise sugar recovery. © 2012 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  12. Cognitive ecology in hummingbirds: the role of sexual dimorphism and its anatomical correlates on memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina L González-Gómez

    Full Text Available In scatter-hoarding species, several behavioral and neuroanatomical adaptations allow them to store and retrieve thousands of food items per year. Nectarivorous animals face a similar scenario having to remember quality, location and replenishment schedules of several nectar sources. In the green-backed firecrown hummingbird (Sephanoides sephanoides, males are territorial and have the ability to accurately keep track of nectar characteristics of their defended food sources. In contrast, females display an opportunistic strategy, performing rapid intrusions into males territories. In response, males behave aggressively during the non-reproductive season. In addition, females have higher energetic demands due to higher thermoregulatory costs and travel times. The natural scenario of this species led us to compared cognitive abilities and hippocampal size between males and females. Males were able to remember nectar location and renewal rates significantly better than females. However, the hippocampal formation was significantly larger in females than males. We discuss these findings in terms of sexually dimorphic use of spatial resources and variable patterns of brain dimorphisms in birds.

  13. Computational modeling of aerodynamics in the fast forward flight of hummingbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jialei; Luo, Haoxiang; Tobalske, Bret; Hedrick, Tyson

    2015-11-01

    Computational models of the hummingbird at flight speed 8.3 m/s is built based on high-speed imaging of the real bird flight in the wind tunnel. The goal is to understand the lift and thrust production of the wings at the high advance ratio (flight speed to the average wingtip speed) around 1. Both the full 3D CFD model based on an immersed-boundary method and the blade-element model based on quasi-steady flow assumption were adopted to analyze the aerodynamics. The result shows that while the weight support is generated during downstroke, little negative weight support is produced during upstroke. On the other hand, thrust is generated during both downstroke and upstroke, which allows the bird to overcome drag induced at fast flight. The lift and thrust characteristics are closely related to the instantaneous wing position and motion. In addition, the flow visualization shows that the leading-edge vortex is stable during most of the wing-beat, which may have contributed to the lift and thrust enhancement. NSF CBET-0954381.

  14. Claiming justice: knowing mental illness in the public art of Anna Schuleit's 'Habeas Corpus' and 'Bloom'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Susan E

    2011-05-01

    This study investigates two public art performances by artist Anna Schuleit in the early 2000s commemorating the life and history of two state hospitals ('asylums') in Massachusetts and the people who built, worked, and were patients in them. Public art is made for and sited in the public domain, outside, freely accessible, frequently collaborative, and often ephemeral. This study addresses a series of questions: What can public art 'do' for understanding mental illness? What use is a public art project for those living with (and caring for those who live with) mental illness? How can a public work of art sustain and portray meaning in an expressive way, open up a shared discursive space, and demand witness through embodiment?

  15. Non-destructive and destructive examination of the retired North Anna 2 Reactor Pressure Vessel Head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahluwalia, Kawaljit; Barnes, Robert; Rao, Gutti; Cattant, Francois; Peat, Noel

    2006-09-01

    Stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 600 and nickel-based weld materials has been the single biggest challenge facing the PWR industry. A fundamental and thorough knowledge was needed to properly explain this phenomenon and develop appropriate mitigation strategies. Non Destructive Examination (NDE) of the North Anna Unit 2 Reactor Vessel Head (RVH) during the 2002 fall outage identified widespread crack indications in the Alloy 600 CRDM penetrations and associated Alloy 182 and 82 J-groove attachment welds. When the Utility decided to replace the RVH, a rare opportunity was provided to the industry to undertake in-depth studies of representative defective CRDM penetrations from a retired RVH. Accordingly, the Materials Reliability Program, undertook a two-phase program on the retired North Anna 2 Alloy 600 RVH. The first phase involved selection and removal of six penetrations from the RVH and penetration decontamination, replication and laboratory NDE. The second phase consisted of a detailed destructive examination of penetration number 54. This paper provides a summary of work undertaken during this program. Criteria for selection of penetrations for removal and procedures used in removal of the penetrations are described. Extreme care was undertaken in decontamination of the penetrations to facilitate laboratory NDE. Penetration number 54 was then subjected to destructive examination to establish a correlation between NDE findings (from both field and laboratory inspections) and actual flaws. Additional objectives of the destructive examination included mechanistic assessment of defect formation and investigation of the annulus environment and wastage characterization. Data obtained from these studies is invaluable in validating safety assessment statements by developing the correlation between field NDE and actual defects. In addition, information gathered from non-destructive and destructive examinations is used to assess accuracy of the NDE techniques

  16. Detection of Babesia annae DNA in lung exudate samples from Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartley, Paul M; Hamilton, Clare; Wilson, Cari; Innes, Elisabeth A; Katzer, Frank

    2016-02-12

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of Babesia species DNA in lung exudate samples collected from red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from across Great Britain. Babesia are small piroplasmid parasites which are mainly transmitted through the bite of infected ticks of the family Ixodidae. Babesia can cause potentially fatal disease in a wide-range of mammalian species including humans, dogs and cattle, making them of significant economic importance to both the medical and veterinary fields. DNA was extracted from lung exudate samples of 316 foxes. A semi-nested PCR was used to initially screen samples, using universal Babesia-Theileria primers which target the 18S rRNA gene. A selection of positive PCR amplicons were purified and sequenced. Subsequently specific primers were designed to detect Babesia annae and used to screen all 316 DNA samples. Randomly selected positive samples were purified and sequenced (GenBank accession KT580786). Clones spanning a 1717 bp region of the 18S rRNA gene were generated from 2 positive samples, the resultant consensus sequence was submitted to GenBank (KT580785). Sequence KT580785 was used in the phylogenetic analysis Babesia annae DNA was detected in the fox samples, in total 46/316 (14.6%) of samples tested positive for the presence of Babesia annae DNA. The central region of England had the highest prevalence at 36.7%, while no positive samples were found from Wales, though only 12 samples were tested from this region. Male foxes were found to have a higher prevalence of Babesia annae DNA than females in all regions of Britain. Phylogenetic and sequence analysis of the GenBank submissions (Accession numbers KT580785 and KT580786) showed 100% identity to Babesia sp.-'Spanish Dog' (AY534602, EU583387 and AF188001). This is the first time that Babesia annae DNA has been reported in red foxes in Great Britain with positive samples being found across England and Scotland indicating that this parasite is well established within the

  17. Die Zitruskultur am Hofe Ferdinands I. und Anna Jagiellos. Import und Anbau von Südfrüchten in Prag 1526–1564

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dobalová, Sylva; Hausenblasová, J.

    -, č. 15 (2015), s. 9-36 ISSN 1213-5372 Institutional support: RVO:68378033 Keywords : Ferdinand I * Anna of Jagiello * orange fruit * renaissance gardens * trade * residence Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  18. Mida teeb Narva kutseõppekeskus teie arvates Narva linna heaks? / Burkina, Irina; Patlep, Kaarel; Kaalik, Ljubov; Dolgovskaja, Tatjana; Ibragimov, Muret; Vorobjova, Anna

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Vastavad Narva Kutseõppekeskuse kutseõpetajad Irina Burkina, Tatjana Dolgovskaja ja Murat Ibragimov ning autovaldkonna juht Kaarel Patlep, projektijuht Ljubov Kaalik ja PR-spetsialist Anna Vorobjova

  19. Chromatic signals control proboscis movements during hovering flight in the hummingbird hawkmoth Macroglossum stellatarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyret, Joaquín; Kelber, Almut

    2012-01-01

    Most visual systems are more sensitive to luminance than to colour signals. Animals resolve finer spatial detail and temporal changes through achromatic signals than through chromatic ones. Probably, this explains that detection of small, distant, or moving objects is typically mediated through achromatic signals. Macroglossum stellatarum are fast flying nectarivorous hawkmoths that inspect flowers with their long proboscis while hovering. They can visually control this behaviour using floral markings known as nectar guides. Here, we investigate whether this is mediated by chromatic or achromatic cues. We evaluated proboscis placement, foraging efficiency, and inspection learning of naïve moths foraging on flower models with coloured markings that offered either chromatic, achromatic or both contrasts. Hummingbird hawkmoths could use either achromatic or chromatic signals to inspect models while hovering. We identified three, apparently independent, components controlling proboscis placement: After initial contact, 1) moths directed their probing towards the yellow colour irrespectively of luminance signals, suggesting a dominant role of chromatic signals; and 2) moths tended to probe mainly on the brighter areas of models that offered only achromatic signals. 3) During the establishment of the first contact, naïve moths showed a tendency to direct their proboscis towards the small floral marks independent of their colour or luminance. Moths learned to find nectar faster, but their foraging efficiency depended on the flower model they foraged on. Our results imply that M. stellatarum can perceive small patterns through colour vision. We discuss how the different informational contents of chromatic and luminance signals can be significant for the control of flower inspection, and visually guided behaviours in general.

  20. Pollinator-mediated selection in a specialized hummingbird-Heliconia system in the Eastern Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temeles, E J; Rah, Y J; Andicoechea, J; Byanova, K L; Giller, G S J; Stolk, S B; Kress, W J

    2013-02-01

    Phenotypic matches between plants and their pollinators often are interpreted as examples of reciprocal selection and adaptation. For the two co-occurring plant species, Heliconia bihai and H. caribaea in the Eastern Caribbean, we evaluated for five populations over 2 years the strength and direction of natural selection on corolla length and number of bracts per inflorescence. These plant traits correspond closely to the bill lengths and body masses of their primary pollinators, female or male purple-throated carib hummingbirds (Eulampis jugularis). In H. bihai, directional selection for longer corollas was always significant with the exception of one population in 1 year, whereas selection on bract numbers was rare and found only in one population in 1 year. In contrast, significant directional selection for more bracts per inflorescence occurred in all three populations of the yellow morph and in two populations of the red morph of H. caribaea, whereas significant directional selection on corolla length occurred in only one population of the red morph and one population of the yellow morph. Selection for longer corollas in H. bihai may result from better mechanical fit, and hence pollination, by the long bills of female E. jugularis, their sole pollinator. In contrast, competition between males of E. jugularis for territories may drive selection for more bracts in H. caribaea. Competitive exclusion of female E. jugularis by territorial males also implicates pollinator competition as a possible ecological mechanism for trait diversification in these plants. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2012 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  1. Resource defense and monopolization in a marked population of ruby-throated hummingbirds (Archilochus colubris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseu, François; Charette, Yanick; Bélisle, Marc

    2014-03-01

    Resource defense behavior is often explained by the spatial and temporal distribution of resources. However, factors such as competition, habitat complexity, and individual space use may also affect the capacity of individuals to defend and monopolize resources. Yet, studies frequently focus on one or two factors, overlooking the complexity found in natural settings. Here, we addressed defense and monopolization of nectar feeders in a population of free-ranging ruby-throated hummingbirds marked with passive integrated transponder (PIT tags). Our study system consisted of a 44 ha systematic grid of 45 feeders equipped with PIT tag detectors recording every visit made at feeders. We modeled the number of visits by competitors (NVC) at feeders in response to space use by a focal individual potentially defending a feeder, number of competitors, nectar sucrose concentration, and habitat visibility. Individuals who were more concentrated at certain feeders on a given day and who were more stable in their use of the grid throughout the season gained higher exclusivity in the use of those feeders on that day, especially for males competing against males. The level of spatial concentration at feeders and its negative effect on NVC was, however, highly variable among individuals, suggesting a continuum in resource defense strategies. Although the apparent capacity to defend feeders was not affected by competition or nectar sucrose concentration, the level of monopolization decreased with increasing number of competitors and higher nectar quality. Defense was enhanced by visibility near feeders, but only in forested habitats. The reverse effect of visibility in open habitats was more difficult to interpret as it was probably confounded by perch availability, from which a bird can defend its feeder. Our study is among the first to quantify the joint use of food resource by overlapping individuals unconstrained in their use of space. Our results show the importance of

  2. Black-chinned hummingbird nest-site selection and nest survival in response to fuel reduction in a southwestern riparian forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Max Smith; Deborah M. Finch; David L. Hawksworth

    2009-01-01

    Despite widespread efforts to avert wildfire by reducing the density of flammable vegetation, little is known about the effects of this practice on the reproductive biology of forest birds. We examined nest-site selection and nest survival of the Black-chinned Hummingbird (Archilochus alexandri) in New Mexico riparian forests treated or not for fuel...

  3. Ascid mites (Acari: Mesostigmata: Ascidae) from Costa Rican hummingbirds (Aves: Trochilidae), with description of three new species and a key to the Proctolaelaps belemensis species group

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dusbábek, František; Literák, I.; Čapek, Miroslav; Havlíček, M.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 1484, - (2007), s. 51-67 ISSN 1175-5326 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518; CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Hummingbird flower mites * Ascidae * Costa Rica Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.691, year: 2007 http://www.mapress.com/zootaxa/2007f/zt01484p068.pdf

  4. Flight muscle enzymes and metabolic flux rates during hovering flight of the nectar bat, Glossophaga soricina: further evidence of convergence with hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, R K; Welch, K C; Hanna, S K; Herrera M, L G

    2009-06-01

    Given their high metabolic rates, nectarivorous diet, and ability to directly fuel their energetically-expensive flight using recently-ingested sugar, we tested the hypothesis that Pallas long tongued nectar bats (Glossophaga soricina) possess flight muscles similar to those of hummingbirds with respect to enzymatic flux capacities in bioenergetic pathways. In addition, we compared these biochemical capacities with flux rates achieved in vivo during hovering flight. Rates of oxygen consumption (V(O(2))) were measured during hover-feeding and used to estimate rates of ATP turnover, glucose and long-chain fatty acid oxidation per unit mass of flight muscle. Enzyme V(max) values at key steps in glucose and fatty acid oxidation obtained in vitro from pectoralis muscle samples exceed those found in the locomotory muscles of other species of small mammals and resemble data obtained from hummingbird flight muscles. The ability of nectar bats and hummingbirds to hover in fed and fasted states, fueled almost exclusively by carbohydrate or fat, respectively, allowed the estimation of fractional velocities (v/V(max)) at both the hexokinase and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-2 steps in glucose and fatty acid oxidation, respectively. The results further support the hypothesis of convergent evolution in biochemical and physiological traits in nectar bats and hummingbirds.

  5. Pollination efficiency and effectiveness or bumble bees and hummingbirds visiting Delphinium nelsonii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waser, Nicholas M.

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available Delphinium nelsonii Greene is a spring-flowering perennial of the Rocky Mountains of North America. Its blue flowers conform to a classical «bee pollination syndrome», but in western Colorado they are visited by hummingbirds (mostly in the first half of the flowering season as well as bumble bee queens (mostly in the second half of the season. Experiments with potted plants showed that a bee deposits about 10 times as much pollen while visiting a flower as does a bird, and causes about la times as many seeds to be set. In contrast, bees and birds appear similar in the «quality» of pollen they deliver, e. g., in its outcrossing distance. At the level of entire pollinator populations, hummingbird visitation rates may be over 10 times as great as those or bumble bees, in part because birds visit flowers more quickly. Thus the two visitor classes should deliver similar pollen quantities overall, which is confirmed by similar pollen loads of flowers early and late in the season, and should contribute about equally to seed set, which is confirmed by several experiments and observations. Exact relative contributions probably depend on pollinator population sizes, which in the case of hummingbirds appear to have varied 2.5 fold across 14 years. The similar contributions or birds and bees lo seed set shows that individual pollination efficiency must be distinguished from population-level effectiveness. and that the «pollination syndrome» of a flower may not indicate present-day effectiveness of its visitors.

    [ca] Delphinium nelsonii Greene és una planta perenne de floració primaveral que creix a les Muntanyes Rocoses de Nordamèrica. Les seves flors blaves s'acorden a la clàssica (síndrome de pol-linització per abellots», però, a l'oest de Colorado, són visitades per colibrís (durant la primera meitat del període de floració així com per reines d'abellots (principalment durant la segona meitat del període. Els

  6. Accounting history and the feminine gender: The case Anna Jansen, Queen of Maranhão (19th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Silva Sampaio

    2017-07-01

    By analyzing the manuscripts and newspapers of the time it was concluded that Anna Jansen became the owner of one of the largest fortunes in the region after becoming the widow of her first husband, Coronel Izidoro Pereira, and through this fortune has achieved a prominent position in the Maranhão society. Her performance represents a breaking of paradigms that tend to cancel the participation of women in economic and political activities, and led to her recognition as a woman far ahead of the time in which she lived. Although it was not possible to find technical records kept by Anna Jansen throughout her life, it has been possible through primary documents to gain knowledge that she had great dexterity for the administration of her properties and assets.

  7. Bring your own camera to the trap: An inexpensive, versatile, and portable triggering system tested on wild hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico-Guevara, Alejandro; Mickley, James

    2017-07-01

    The study of animals in the wild offers opportunities to collect relevant information on their natural behavior and abilities to perform ecologically relevant tasks. However, it also poses challenges such as accounting for observer effects, human sensory limitations, and the time intensiveness of this type of research. To meet these challenges, field biologists have deployed camera traps to remotely record animal behavior in the wild. Despite their ubiquity in research, many commercial camera traps have limitations, and the species and behavior of interest may present unique challenges. For example, no camera traps support high-speed video recording. We present a new and inexpensive camera trap system that increases versatility by separating the camera from the triggering mechanism. Our system design can pair with virtually any camera and allows for independent positioning of a variety of sensors, all while being low-cost, lightweight, weatherproof, and energy efficient. By using our specialized trigger and customized sensor configurations, many limitations of commercial camera traps can be overcome. We use this system to study hummingbird feeding behavior using high-speed video cameras to capture fast movements and multiple sensors placed away from the camera to detect small body sizes. While designed for hummingbirds, our application can be extended to any system where specialized camera or sensor features are required, or commercial camera traps are cost-prohibitive, allowing camera trap use in more research avenues and by more researchers.

  8. What's a Nice Hummingbird Like You Doing at an AGU Meeting Like This? (or, Operation RubyThroat Meets The GLOBE Program)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, B.

    2003-12-01

    "Operation RubyThroat: The Hummingbird Project" is an international cross-disciplinary initiative that uses Ruby-throated Hummingbirds (Archilochus colubris) as a hook to excite K-12 students (and adults) about science learning. In 2002, Operation RubyThroat affiliated with The GLOBE Program as the first GLOBE protocol that involves animal behavior. Through Operation RubyThroat, students make observations about hummingbird phenology, behavior, and ecology and correlate their data against traditional GLOBE observations of atmosphere, climate, land cover, soils, hydrology, and phenology. Although Ruby-throated Hummingbirds (RTHUs) breed throughout the eastern half of the United States and southern Canada and may be the most common and most widely distributed of all 338 hummingbird species, little is known about how abiotic environmental factors affect their migration, nesting activities, and everyday behavior. Operation RubyThroat participants in the U.S. and Canada log early arrival dates of RTHUs during spring migration, note their presence throughout the breeding season, and report the last date RTHUs are seen in autumn. Conversely, participants in Mexico and all seven Central American countries (the region in which RTHUs spend their non-breeding months) watch for early arrivals in fall and late departures in spring. Participants also attempt to estimate numbers of RTHUs in local populations by counting the number of visits hummingbirds make to feeders and/or flowers in a 45-minute time block. Optional activities include observations of RTHU nesting behaviors and determining RTHU preferences for various species of native and exotic nectar sources. Participating schools are encouraged to establish Schoolyard Hummingbird Habitats in which to make their observations, but data may be collected in backyards or at local parks, nature centers, botanical gardens, and other sites where RTHUs occur. Adults not affiliated with K-12 schools are invited to become certified in

  9. Latin and knitting. Educational and biographical experiences in «My life» by Anna Franchi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucilla Gigli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The life and works of Anna Franchi remained undiscovered for a long time despite the writer desired to become part of history and to leave a trace both in the socialist and in the emancipa­tionist movements. In the literary production of Anna Franchi, autobiographical elements and fictions become an inseparable issue. Particularly in her biography La mia vita (My life pub­lished for the first time in 1940 the writer looked through her life searching for a deeper meaning. Franchi does not limit to describe events and characters but, through narration, she gives an interpretation of her own experience giving in the same time a meaning to it: from her childhood when she ab­sorbs and adopts the ideals of the Risorgimento and the love for art and literature to the long and extremely painful period of her marriage; from journalistic and artistic activities to the political commitment with the socialist party and the movement for women’s rights. Through her works, Franchi provides a political example of free woman Received: 27/05/2013 / Accepted: 20/06/2013 How to reference this article Gigli, L. (2014. Latino e calza. Educazione ed esperienze biografiche ne «La mia vita» di Anna Franchi. Espacio, Tiempo y Educación, 1(1, pp. 97-113. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.14516/ete.2014.001.001.005

  10. Phylogenetic systematics and biogeography of hummingbirds: Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses of partitioned data and selection of an appropriate partitioning strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Jimmy A; Witt, Christopher C; Altshuler, Douglas L; Remsen, J V

    2007-10-01

    Hummingbirds are an important model system in avian biology, but to date the group has been the subject of remarkably few phylogenetic investigations. Here we present partitioned Bayesian and maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses for 151 of approximately 330 species of hummingbirds and 12 outgroup taxa based on two protein-coding mitochondrial genes (ND2 and ND4), flanking tRNAs, and two nuclear introns (AK1 and BFib). We analyzed these data under several partitioning strategies ranging between unpartitioned and a maximum of nine partitions. In order to select a statistically justified partitioning strategy following partitioned Bayesian analysis, we considered four alternative criteria including Bayes factors, modified versions of the Akaike information criterion for small sample sizes (AIC(c)), Bayesian information criterion (BIC), and a decision-theoretic methodology (DT). Following partitioned maximum likelihood analyses, we selected a best-fitting strategy using hierarchical likelihood ratio tests (hLRTS), the conventional AICc, BIC, and DT, concluding that the most stringent criterion, the performance-based DT, was the most appropriate methodology for selecting amongst partitioning strategies. In the context of our well-resolved and well-supported phylogenetic estimate, we consider the historical biogeography of hummingbirds using ancestral state reconstructions of (1) primary geographic region of occurrence (i.e., South America, Central America, North America, Greater Antilles, Lesser Antilles), (2) Andean or non-Andean geographic distribution, and (3) minimum elevational occurrence. These analyses indicate that the basal hummingbird assemblages originated in the lowlands of South America, that most of the principle clades of hummingbirds (all but Mountain Gems and possibly Bees) originated on this continent, and that there have been many (at least 30) independent invasions of other primary landmasses, especially Central America.

  11. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS HUMMINGBIRD in the North Atlantic Ocean in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 1966-08-31 to 1966-09-04 (NODC Accession 6600182)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS HUMMINGBIRD in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected by US Navy; Ships of...

  12. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS HUMMINGBIRD in the North Atlantic Ocean in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 1963-09-19 to 1963-09-20 (NODC Accession 6300789)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS HUMMINGBIRD in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected by US Navy; Ships of...

  13. Babesia (Theileria) annae in a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) from Prince Edward Island, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancey, Noel; Horney, Barbara; Burton, Shelley; Birkenheuer, Adam; McBurney, Scott; Tefft, Karen

    2010-04-01

    A 4-6-mo-old female red fox (Vulpes vulpes) was presented to the Atlantic Veterinary College (AVC) Teaching Hospital, Prince Edward Island, Canada. On presentation, the fox was weak and had pale mucous membranes. A complete blood count and a serum biochemistry profile were performed. Blood smear examination revealed low numbers of erythrocytes containing centrally to paracentrally located, single, rarely multiple, approximately 1 x 2 microm, oval to round organisms with morphology similar to Babesia microti. Polymerase chain reaction testing and DNA sequencing of the Babesia species 18S rRNA gene were performed on DNA extracted from whole blood. Results were positive for a Babesia microti-like parasite genetically identical to Babesia (Theileria) annae. The fox was euthanized due to poor prognosis for recovery. Necropsy examination revealed multifocal to locally extensive subacute nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis, an eosinophilic broncho-pneumonia, a moderate diffuse vacuolar hepatopathy, and lesions associated with blunt trauma to the left abdominal region. This is the first reported case of a red fox in Canada infected with a piroplasm. It remains uncertain whether the presence of this hemoparasite in this fox was pathogenic or an incidental finding. The potential for competent vectors of Babesia species on Prince Edward Island, the potential for this Babesia microti-like parasite to infect other wild and domestic canids, and the significance of this parasite to the health of infected individuals are yet to be determined.

  14. Bohemia as the Homeland of the Soul in the Letters of Marina Tsvetaeva to Anna Teskova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Tria

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the letters sent by Marina Tsvetaeva to the translator and public figure Anna Teskova, who was one of the few poet’s Czech intimate friends, whom she met during her stay in Czechoslovakia (1922-1925. In the first part of the paper the Author focuses on the echoes of Prague and its culture in this specific correspondence, trying to ascertain to which extent Marina Tsvetaeva was acquainted with the cultural world she lived in: the lack of knowledge of the Czech language and the limited relationships with Prague intellectuals didn’t allow her to get a deep insight of the Czech cultural milieu. The textual analysis of the letters, though, on the basis of key concepts as “родной”, “родина”, “честь”, confirms the presence of a persistent feeling of Prague-homesickness in Tsvetaeva’s psycho- logical world, which brought her to develop an alternative model of Homeland, substitute to her native Russia and to Germany, which disappointed her after the rise of the Nazi Regime. Through this unique correspondence (including the first part of her Verses dedicated to Bohemia we gain the certainty that Tsvetaeva discovered in Prague and in the Czech lands an idealized model of a pacific, beautiful and faithful Homeland.

  15. Carl Linnaeus, Erasmus Darwin and Anna Seward: Botanical Poetry and Female Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Sam

    2014-03-01

    This article will explore the intersection between `literature' and `science' in one key area, the botanical poem with scientific notes. It reveals significant aspects of the way knowledge was gendered in the Enlightenment, which is relevant to the present-day education of girls in science. It aims to illustrate how members of the Lichfield Botanical Society (headed by Erasmus Darwin) became implicated in debates around the education of women in Linnaean botany. The Society's translations from Linnaeus inspired a new genre of women's educational writing, the botanical poem with scientific notes, which emerged at this time. It focuses in particular on a poem by Anna Seward and argues that significant problems regarding the representation of the Linnaean sexual system of botany are found in such works and that women in the culture of botany struggled to give voice to a subject which was judged improper for female education. The story of this unique poem and the surrounding controversies can teach us much about how gender impacted upon women's scientific writing in eighteenth century Britain, and how it shaped the language and terminology of botany in works for female education. In particular, it demonstrates how the sexuality of plants uncovered by Linnaeus is a paradigmatic illustration of how societal forces can simultaneously both constrict and stimulate women's involvement in science. Despite the vast changes to women's access in scientific knowledge of the present day, this `fair sexing' of botany illustrates the struggle that women have undergone to give voice to their botanical knowledge.

  16. Translating Anna Karenina - to the Question About the Pragmatics of Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Gurina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the stylistic peculiarities of the translations made by R. Pevear and L. Volokhonsky, L. and A. Maud, J. Carmichael of the novel Anna Karenina by L. Tolstoy on the basis of pragmastylistics and comparative analysis. It tries to analyze the text of the novel using the lingo-stylistic characteristics in accordance with the national bias in the way of thinking and individual creative preferences of every translator taking an attempt to introduce a foreign picture of the world to his countrymen. It underlines the impact of Tolstoy’s complicated attitude towards the customs and traditions of the Russian Orthodox church and the specific relationship of the author of the novel with God and its manifestation in the description of the heroes’ characters. In stresses how vital it may turn out to preserve the author’s ideostyle - lexis and syntax (the word order, the choice of them and the length of the sentences for the successful interpretation of the writer’s views and stance by the reader.

  17. Escritor-personagem e leitor cúmplice em Sérgio Sant'anna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Ximenes Graciano

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available As narrativas de Sérgio Sant’Anna sugerem, pela exposição recorrente dos bastidores da criação literária (aqui entendida como gesto literário, que o discurso ficcional extrapola o espaço da literatura, repercutindo as relações dos indivíduos no “mundo real”. Em sua prosa é evidente a tentativa dos narradores de aproximarem o leitor para suas perspectivas, quando a narrativa assemelha-se a um jogo em que o prêmio é a cumplicidade deste a quem ela se dirige. Com isso, estende-se uma via de mão-dupla entre vida e imaginário, de modo que uma constitui e é constituída pelo outro. Como afirma Carlos Santeiro, personagem de Um romance de geração, trata-se das “possibilidades possíveis” do texto para além do texto, uma vez que o acordo entre narrador romanesco e leitor – e que sustenta o acontecimento literário – carrega muito dos pressupostos das diversas instâncias discursivas entre indivíduos, ficcionais ou não.

  18. Influences of sampling effort on detected patterns and structuring processes of a Neotropical plant-hummingbird network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizentin-Bugoni, Jeferson; Maruyama, Pietro K; Debastiani, Vanderlei J; Duarte, L da S; Dalsgaard, Bo; Sazima, Marlies

    2016-01-01

    Virtually all empirical ecological interaction networks to some extent suffer from undersampling. However, how limitations imposed by sampling incompleteness affect our understanding of ecological networks is still poorly explored, which may hinder further advances in the field. Here, we use a plant-hummingbird network with unprecedented sampling effort (2716 h of focal observations) from the Atlantic Rainforest in Brazil, to investigate how sampling effort affects the description of network structure (i.e. widely used network metrics) and the relative importance of distinct processes (i.e. species abundances vs. traits) in determining the frequency of pairwise interactions. By dividing the network into time slices representing a gradient of sampling effort, we show that quantitative metrics, such as interaction evenness, specialization (H2 '), weighted nestedness (wNODF) and modularity (Q; QuanBiMo algorithm) were less biased by sampling incompleteness than binary metrics. Furthermore, the significance of some network metrics changed along the sampling effort gradient. Nevertheless, the higher importance of traits in structuring the network was apparent even with small sampling effort. Our results (i) warn against using very poorly sampled networks as this may bias our understanding of networks, both their patterns and structuring processes, (ii) encourage the use of quantitative metrics little influenced by sampling when performing spatio-temporal comparisons and (iii) indicate that in networks strongly constrained by species traits, such as plant-hummingbird networks, even small sampling is sufficient to detect their relative importance for the frequencies of interactions. Finally, we argue that similar effects of sampling are expected for other highly specialized subnetworks. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2015 British Ecological Society.

  19. Nectar robbery by a hermit hummingbird: association to floral phenotype and its influence on flowers and network structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Pietro Kiyoshi; Vizentin-Bugoni, Jeferson; Dalsgaard, Bo; Sazima, Ivan; Sazima, Marlies

    2015-07-01

    Interactions between flowers and their visitors span the spectrum from mutualism to antagonism. The literature is rich in studies focusing on mutualism, but nectar robbery has mostly been investigated using phytocentric approaches focused on only a few plant species. To fill this gap, we studied the interactions between a nectar-robbing hermit hummingbird, Phaethornis ruber, and the array of flowers it visits. First, based on a literature review of the interactions involving P. ruber, we characterized the association of floral larceny to floral phenotype. We then experimentally examined the effects of nectar robbing on nectar standing crop and number of visits of the pollinators to the flowers of Canna paniculata. Finally, we asked whether the incorporation of illegitimate interactions into the analysis affects plant-hummingbird network structure. We identified 97 plant species visited by P. ruber and found that P. ruber engaged in floral larceny in almost 30% of these species. Nectar robbery was especially common in flowers with longer corolla. In terms of the effect on C. paniculata, the depletion of nectar due to robbery by P. ruber was associated with decreased visitation rates of legitimate pollinators. At the community level, the inclusion of the illegitimate visits of P. ruber resulted in modifications of how modules within the network were organized, notably giving rise to a new module consisting of P. ruber and mostly robbed flowers. However, although illegitimate visits constituted approximately 9% of all interactions in the network, changes in nestedness, modularity, and network-level specialization were minor. Our results indicate that although a flower robber may have a strong effect on the pollination of a particular plant species, the inclusion of its illegitimate interactions has limited capacity to change overall network structure.

  20. Mito e realtà della letteratura ebraica al femminile in Germania: Anna Seghers e Mascha Kaléko

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Birge Gilardoni-Büch

    2014-04-01

    Both of them succeed in emigrating and surviving the destruction of the European Jews. Anna Seghers comes back in 1947 to the Soviet occupied zone and will later hold significant offices inside East Germany's cultural life. Mascha Kaléko will however come back only now and then to the German Federal Republic. Did their writing change after the Shoah? And if so, to what extent? Moreover, do the texts mirror the situation in which their authors found themselves? Aren’t they linked to a specific social condition, that of a woman? To what extent do specific female and Jewish experiences take shape in their works?

  1. Environmental Assessment: Target Upgrades on Leach Lake Tactical Range at the National Training Center, Fort Irwin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    base of the San Bernardino Moun- tains; in the southern San Joaquin Valley; and discontinuously in southern Nevada. Populations recorded in the...and migratory bird species. Approximately 120 species of birds pass through the study area during migration. Costa’s hummingbirds (Calypte costae

  2. Reproductive phenology and sharing of floral resource among hummingbirds (Trochilidae) in inflorescences of Dahlstedtia pinnata (Benth.) Malme. (Fabaceae) in the Atlantic forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missagia, Caio C C; Verçoza, Fábio C; Alves, Maria Alice S

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the reproductive phenology and sharing of floral resource (nectar) of Dahlstedtia pinnata (Benth.) Malme. (Fabaceae), endemic of Atlantic forest, among hummingbirds. For the phenology, we looked at the presence of reproductive structures in the plants, and for floral resource sharing, the frequency of potential pollinators and foraging behaviors were examined. This study was conducted in Pedra Branca State Park, in state of Rio de Janeiro, in a dense ombrophilous forest, between August 2010 and August 2011. Flowering occurred between December 2010 and March 2011, and fruiting between April and June 2011. Hummingbirds' foraging schedules differed significantly, with legitimate visits to the flowers occurring in the morning and illegitimate visits occurring during late morning and the afternoon. Five species visited flowers, three of which were legitimate visitors: Phaethornis ruber, P. pretrei, and Ramphodon naevius. Amazilia fimbriata and Thalurania glaucopis females only visited illegitimately. Phaethornis ruber robbed nectar (78% of illegitimate visits, n=337). Ramphodon naevius, with a territorial foraging behavior and a body size bigger than that of other observed hummingbird species, dominated the floral visits, which suggests that D. pinnata is an important nourishing resource for this endemic bird of the Atlantic forest, currently globally categorized as Near Threatened.

  3. Reproductive phenology and sharing of floral resource among hummingbirds (Trochilidae in inflorescences of Dahlstedtia pinnata (Benth. Malme. (Fabaceae in the Atlantic forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAIO C.C. MISSAGIA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the reproductive phenology and sharing of floral resource (nectar of Dahlstedtia pinnata (Benth. Malme. (Fabaceae, endemic of Atlantic forest, among hummingbirds. For the phenology, we looked at the presence of reproductive structures in the plants, and for floral resource sharing, the frequency of potential pollinators and foraging behaviors were examined. This study was conducted in Pedra Branca State Park, in state of Rio de Janeiro, in a dense ombrophilous forest, between August 2010 and August 2011. Flowering occurred between December 2010 and March 2011, and fruiting between April and June 2011. Hummingbirds' foraging schedules differed significantly, with legitimate visits to the flowers occurring in the morning and illegitimate visits occurring during late morning and the afternoon. Five species visited flowers, three of which were legitimate visitors: Phaethornis ruber, P. pretrei, and Ramphodon naevius. Amazilia fimbriata and Thalurania glaucopis females only visited illegitimately. Phaethornis ruber robbed nectar (78% of illegitimate visits, n=337. Ramphodon naevius, with a territorial foraging behavior and a body size bigger than that of other observed hummingbird species, dominated the floral visits, which suggests that D. pinnata is an important nourishing resource for this endemic bird of the Atlantic forest, currently globally categorized as Near Threatened.

  4. Final environmental statement related to the operation of North Anna Power Station, Units 1 and 2: (Docket Nos. 50-338 and 50-339)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-08-01

    The proposed action is the issuance of Operating Licenses to the Virginia Electric and Power Company for the startup and operation of the North Anna Power Station, Units No. 1 and 2, located on Lake Anna in Louisa County, 40 miles east of Charlottesville, Virginia. The information in this second addendum responds to the Commission's directive that the staff address in narrative form the environmental dose commitments and health effects from fuel cycle releases, fuel cycle socioeconomic impacts, and possible cumulative impacts pending further treatment by rulemaking

  5. Dr. Anna G. Jonasdottir: Acceptance Speech for Honorary Doctorate from Faculty of Political Science, University of Iceland. Given 18th of June, 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Anna G. Jónasdóttir

    2016-01-01

    On June 18th the Faculty of Political Science, University of Iceland, celebrated 100 years of women’s‘ voting rights in Iceland with a special conference, Power and democracy 100 years later. In association with the conference Dr. Anna Guðrún Jónasdóttir, Professor emerita at the University of Örebro, Sweden, was awarded an honorary doctorate at the Faculty of Political Science. Anna Guðrún was the first Icelandic woman to complete a doctorate in political science, in 1991, and also the first...

  6. ["Signs for the whole rest of the life". The house as symbol and autobiographical substrate in letters, dreams and literary texts by by Anna Freud].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spreitzer, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    The house as object and symbol preoccupied Anna Freud from childhood onwards. This article traces these ideas in letters, autobiographical documents and literary texts. It focuses on the phantasmal construction of a dream house; on the organisation, loss and later efforts to recover Hochrotherd; on casual birthday poems dedicated to Anna, praising the country house, as well as on the purchase of a weekend cottage in Walberswick reflected in dreams related to the process of inner detachment from the dead father. A fluent interchange between reality and imagination comes into focus, high- lighting the dimension of inwardness rather than that of biographical reality.

  7. KR’PTA. Samtidspoesin och Derrida : Spår och ärrbildningar hos Johannes Heldén, Ingrid Storholmen och Anna Hallberg

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Lisa

    2006-01-01

    Lisa Schmidt, KR’PTA. Samtidspoesin och Derrida. Spår och ärrbildningar hos Johannes Hel­dén, Ingrid Storholmen och Anna Hallberg. (CR’PT. Contemporary Poetry and Derrida: Traces and Scarring in the Poetry of Johannes Heldén, Ingrid Storholmen and Anna Hallberg.) Through the analyses of three contemporary Nordic poets whose work challenges the boun­daries of literature and even the laws of grammar, I draw attention to the term linguistic materialism. I also sketch an historical line between t...

  8. “Speaking German Like Nobody’s Business”: Anna May Wong, Walter Benjamin, and the Possibilities of Asian American Cosmopolitanism

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Shirley Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    In the summer of 1928 in Berlin, the noted German Jewish philosopher Walter Benjamin (1892–1940) and Chinese American actress Anna May Wong (1905–1961) shared an unlikely encounter that set in relief European and American conceptions of modernity as well as white European intellectual and American racial minority cosmopolitanisms. On July 6, 1928, Benjamin published the results as “Gespräch mit Anne May Wong” [“Speaking with Anna May Wong: A Chinoiserie from the Old West”] on the front page o...

  9. Hollandse zee- en scheepstermen in het Russisch: Anna Croiset van der Kop versus Reinder van der Meulen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja Louwerse

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Dutch nautical terms in Russian. Anna Croiset van der Kop versus Reinder van der Meulen This article explores the controversy in the beginning of the 20th century between de Dutch slavists Anna Croiset van der Kop and Reindert van der Meulen, author of the book De Hollandsche Zee- en Scheepstermen in het Russisch (Dutch Nautical Terms in Russian. After publication, she reacted with an undeniably negative and unusually elaborate review (72 pages!, written not in Dutch, but in Russian and published in one of the most leading, scientific series in Russia. Van der Meulen has never directly reacted to this review: in 1959 he published a supplement to his earlier work from 1909: Nederlandse woorden in het Russisch (Dutch words in Russian, not mentioning Croiset van der Kops name, nor her review. Obviously he felt hurt by her merciless criticism. The article focuses on the motives underlying her strong reaction. It will be argued that her severe criticism was not really inspired by Van der Meulen’s subject, but by his failing research methods. Furthermore, it will be pointed out that this review seemed to offer her an opportunity to measure up to her Dutch colleagues and to present herself internationally as a slavist. On the basis of the now available data it is hard to say, which motives really brought Croiset van der Kop to write her review. Investigation of her archives, preserved in St- Petersburg, and until now hardly studied, may perhaps reveal her real motives.

  10. Anna-Caterina Walk: Das Andere im Tatort. Migration und Integration im Fernsehkrimi. Marburg: Tectum Wissenschaftsverlag 2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Piberger

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Aus medien- und kulturwissenschaftlicher Perspektive widmet sich Anna-Caterina Walk in ihrer knappen Publikation der TV-Krimireihe ‚Tatort‘. Anhand von drei konkreten Folgen analysiert sie, wie das Andere in dieser Serie medial repräsentiert und konstruiert wird. Ihr Ziel ist es, die konkreten Darstellungen und deren Bedeutungen in ihrer Selbstverständlichkeit zu hinterfragen. Dabei sucht sie vor allem nach nicht-stereotypen oder destabilisierenden Bildern und fordert zugleich einen kritischeren Umgang mit Differenzkonstruktionen der Identität innerhalb der einzelnen ‚Tatort‘-Folgen. Zumal der Fokus der Autorin auf kulturellen Andersartigkeiten liegt, kommen Betrachtungen des_der geschlechtlich Anderen eine marginale Position zu und bleiben prinzipiell eher oberflächlich.In her concise publication, Anna-Caterina Walk dedicates herself to the TV crime series Tatort using a media studies and cultural studies perspective. Based on three specific episodes, she analyzes how the ‘other’ is medially represented and constructed in the series. She aims at questioning the self-evidence of specific representations and their meanings. In doing so, she searches, above all, for non-stereotypical or destabilizing images and, at the same time, demands a more critical approach to constructions of difference regarding identity within the individual Tatort episodes. Considerations of the gendered ‘other/s’ are treated only marginally and generally remain superficial, particularly since the author focuses on cultural otherness.

  11. THE FEMALE’S MASCULINITIES AGAINST SIAMESE PATRIARCHAL SYSTEMS IN ELIZABETH HAND’S ANNA AND THE KING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sriastuti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available By not giving voice and value to women‘s opinions, responses and writings, men have therefore suppressed the female, define what it means to be feminine, and therefore devoiced, devalued, and trivialized what it means to be a woman. As femininity is mostly related to women for women are labeled as extensions of men, mirrors of men, devices for showing men off, and also devices for helping men get what they want, women‘s position is inferior to men. This study discusses the female‘s masculinities through the portrayal and life experiences of the main female characteristics, Anna Leonowens, as her protests against the Siamese patriarchal systems that abundant her life as a career woman and also the oppressed lives of Siamese women in Elizabeth Hand‘s novel Anna and the King. Feminism and Deconstructions approaches will be applied to analyze Leonowens‘ actions and reactions regarding to what Siamese patriarchal systems claim to be parts of masculine traits. Leonowens‘ nationality, cultural and educational backgrounds as well as positions play significant roles in the novel. By opposing Leonowens‘ ways of thinking to the King who represents the patriarchal system of Siam, Hand gives a new identity to women in struggling for gender equality in Siam.

  12. Zwei Briefromane eines gewitzten böhmischen Frauenzimmers im Reprint: Maria Anna Sagers Beiträge zur frühen Frauenliteratur

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wögerbauer, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 2 (2015), s. 240-243. ISBN 978-3-8353-16-97-3. ISSN 0722-740X Institutional support: RVO:68378068 Keywords : enlightenment * prose * Sager, Maria Anna * female writer * German literature * Czech literature Subject RIV: AJ - Letters, Mass-media, Audiovision

  13. Selection and geographic isolation influence hummingbird speciation: genetic, acoustic and morphological divergence in the wedge-tailed sabrewing (Campylopterus curvipennis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ornelas Juan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mesoamerica is one of the most threatened biodiversity hotspots in the world, yet we are far from understanding the geologic history and the processes driving population divergence and speciation for most endemic taxa. In species with highly differentiated populations selective and/or neutral factors can induce rapid changes to traits involved in mate choice, promoting reproductive isolation between allopatric populations that can eventually lead to speciation. We present the results of genetic differentiation, and explore drift and selection effects in promoting acoustic and morphological divergence among populations of Campylopterus curvipennis, a lekking hummingbird with an extraordinary vocal variability across Mesoamerica. Results Analyses of two mitochondrial genes and ten microsatellite loci genotyped for 160 individuals revealed the presence of three lineages with no contemporary gene flow: C. c. curvipennis, C. c. excellens, and C. c. pampa disjunctly distributed in the Sierra Madre Oriental, the Tuxtlas region and the Yucatan Peninsula, respectively. Sequence mtDNA and microsatellite data were congruent with two diversification events: an old vicariance event at the Isthmus of Tehuantepec (c. 1.4 Ma, and a more recent Pleistocene split, isolating populations in the Tuxtlas region. Hummingbirds of the excellens group were larger, and those of the pampa group had shorter bills, and lineages that have been isolated the longest shared fewer syllables and differed in spectral and temporal traits of a shared syllable. Coalescent simulations showed that fixation of song types has occurred faster than expected under neutrality but the null hypothesis that morphological divergence resulted from drift was not rejected. Conclusions Our phylogeographic analyses uncovered the presence of three Mesoamerican wedge-tailed sabrewing lineages, which diverged at different time scales. These results highlight the importance of the

  14. Evaluation of Manual Ultrasonic Examinations Applied to Detect Flaws in Primary System Dissimilar Metal Welds at North Anna Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Michael T.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Doctor, Steven R.

    2012-01-01

    During a recent inservice inspection (ISI) of a dissimilar metal weld (DMW) in an inlet (hot leg) steam generator nozzle at North Anna Power Station Unit 1, several axially oriented flaws went undetected by the licensee's manual ultrasonic testing (UT) technique. The flaws were subsequently detected as a result of outside diameter (OD) surface machining in preparation for a full structural weld overlay. The machining operation uncovered the existence of two through-wall flaws, based on the observance of primary water leaking from the DMW. Further ultrasonic tests were then performed, and a total of five axially oriented flaws, classified as primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC), were detected in varied locations around the weld circumference.

  15. Risk management of the North Anna Power Station Service Water System Preservation Project using the IPE model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afzali, A.; Donovan, M.D.; Sartain, M.D.; Bankley, A.V.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of the North Anna Power Station Individual Plant Examination (IPE) models in PRA study of the Service Water System Preservation Project (SWSPP). The service water project involves repair and restoration of the Service Water System (SWS) piping and will require excavation of the buried SWS lines in addition to temporarily removing one of the two redundant SWS loops from operation. The SWSPP will be carried out with one or both units in normal operation. The objective of the PRA study was to quantify the risk impact (as measured by the change in Core Damage Frequency (ΔCDF)) of the SWSPP and to identify and evaluate countermeasures to reduce the risk impact of the project activities. The study concluded that the ΔCDF would be acceptable by undertaking preventative measures and by providing additional accident mitigating measures during performance of the SWSPP activities

  16. Produção de conhecimento na enfermagem em oncologia: contribuição da escola de enfermagem Anna Nery Producción de conocimiento en la enfermería en oncología: contribución de la escola de enfermagem anna nery (escuela de enfermería Anna Nery Production of knowledge in nursing in oncology: contribution of Anna Nery nursing school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marléa Chagas Moreira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O estudo teve como objetivos mapear as teses e dissertações produzidas no Programa de Pós-Graduação da Escola de Enfermagem Anna Nery com enfoque na enfermagem em oncologia e analisar as repercussões diante dos aspectos epistemológicos destacados. Estudo exploratório, descritivo, retrospectivo e bibliográfico de 59 estudos (45 dissertações e 14 teses produzidos de 1980 a 2009. O referencial teórico-metodológico foi a Metodologia de Categorização Epistemológica para a Pesquisa na Enfermagem. Os resultados indicam que a produção analisada é mais setorizada na área da oncologia clínica, com ênfase nos aspectos Gestão Saúde/Enfermagem, Saúde da Mulher e Fundamentos do Cuidado de Enfermagem. Houve predomínio de estudos na perspectiva sociológica com abordagem qualitativa. As repercussões demonstradas nos aspectos epistemológicos destacados possibilitam afirmar que o conhecimento produzido é consistente com a complexidade e as tentativas de explicação sobre a arte de cuidar dos clientes com câncer e com esforços de definir/ampliar critérios e padrões assistenciais. Enfermagem Oncológica. Pesquisa em Enfermagem. Educação de Pós-graduação em EnfermagemEl estudio tuvo como objetivo mapear las tesis y disertaciones del Programa de Posgraduado de la Escola de Enfermagem Anna Nery (Escuela de Enfermería Anna Nery con énfasis en la enfermería en oncología y analizar las repercusiones frente los aspectos epistemológicos señalados. Exploratorio, descriptivo, retrospectivo y documental de 59 estudios (45 disertaciones y 14 tesis producidos desde 1980 hasta 2009. El referencial teórico-metodológico fue la Metodología Epistemológica para la Investigación en Enfermería. Los resultados indican que la producción es la más sectorizada de la oncología clínica, con énfasis en Gestión de la Salud / Enfermería, Salud de la Mujer y Fundamentos de la Atención de Enfermería. Se detectó un predominio de los

  17. Use of mock-up training to reduce personnel exposure at the North Anna Unit 1 Steam Generator Replacement Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, H.G. [Virginia Power, Mineral, VA (United States); Reilly, B.P. [Bechtel Power Corp., Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    1995-03-01

    The North Anna Power Station is located on the southern shore of Lake Anna in Louisa County, approximately forty miles northwest of Richmond, Virginia. The two 910 Mw nuclear units located on this site are owned by Virginia Electric and Power Company (Virginia Power) and Old Dominion Electric Cooperative and operated by Virginia Power. Fuel was loaded into Unit 1 in December 1977, and it began commercial operation in June 1978. Fuel was loaded into Unit 2 in April 1980 and began commercial operation in December 1980. Each nuclear unit includes a three-coolant-loop pressurized light water reactor nuclear steam supply system that was furnished by Westinghouse Electric Corporation. Included within each system were three Westinghouse Model 51 steam generators with alloy 600, mill-annealed tubing material. Over the years of operation of Unit 1, various corrosion-related phenomena had occurred that affected the steam generators tubing and degraded their ability to fulfill their heat transfer function. Advanced inspection and repair techniques helped extend the useful life of the steam generators, but projections based on the results of the inspections indicated that the existing steam generators tubing and degraded their ability to fullfill their heat transfer function. Advanced inspection and repair techniques helped extend the useful life of the steam generators, but projections based on the results of the inspections indicated that the existing steam generators would not last their design life and must be repaired. To this end Virginia Power determined that a steam generator replacement (SGR) program was necessary to remove the old steam generator tube bundles and lower shell sections, including the channel heads (collectively called the lower assemblies), and replace them with new lower assemblies incorporating design features that will prevent the degradation problems that the old steam generators had experienced.

  18. Nest-location and nest-survival of black-chinned hummingbirds in New Mexico: A comparison between rivers with differing levels of regulation and invasion of nonnative plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Max Smith; Deborah M. Finch; Scott H. Stoleson

    2014-01-01

    We compared plants used as sites for nests and survival of nests of black-chinned hummingbirds (Archilochus alexandri) along two rivers in New Mexico. Along the free-flowing Gila River which was dominated by native plants, most nests were constructed in boxelder (Acer negundo). Along the flow-restricted Middle Rio Grande which was dominated by nonnative plants, most...

  19. Anna Lampérière, solidarité et citoyenneté féminine sous la Troisième République

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne R. Epstein

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Cet article examine les idées de l’institutrice Anna Lampérière, l’une des rares femmes à avoir contribué à la discussion théorique sur l’idéologie de la solidarité pendant la Troisième République. Vue dans le contexte de son parcours personnel et de son engagement civique, la pensée d’A. Lampérière offre un aperçu inédit d’un modèle solidariste de citoyenneté féminine sans droit de vote. Au sein d’une culture d’associations florissante au début du XXe siècle, elle participe à la création et au fonctionnement d’importantes associations mixtes qui, par l’éducation civique, visent la mise en place de l’idéologie solidariste de Léon Bourgeois. Se proclamant anti-féministe, Anna Lampérière se présente néanmoins comme une défenseuse de la cause des femmes et du progrès social et, comme beaucoup de ses contemporains, elle place la réforme scolaire au cœur de son projet républicain. Après une analyse de la vision sociale d’Anna Lampérière, l’article examine les pratiques civiques et la structure mixte selon les sexes de la Société pour l’éducation sociale, une association pour la promotion du solidarisme, dont elle a été Secrétaire générale. L’idéologie solidariste et sa pratique avaient un attrait pour des femmes républicaines comme Anna Lampérière qui avaient une vocation civique mais qui n’étaient pas attirées par un modèle égalitaire de la citoyenneté.Anna Lampérière, solidarité and female citizenship in the Third Republic This article explores the ideas of educator Anna Lampérière, one of the rare women to contribute significantly to the theoretical discussion about the ideology of solidarity during the Third Republic. Viewed in tandem with her own personal history and civic activism, Lampérière’s thought provides unique insight into a possible solidarist model of female citizenship without voting rights. Operating within the flourishing associational

  20. Dr. Anna G. Jonasdottir: Acceptance Speech for Honorary Doctorate from Faculty of Political Science, University of Iceland. Given 18th of June, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna G. Jónasdóttir

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available On June 18th the Faculty of Political Science, University of Iceland, celebrated 100 years of women’s‘ voting rights in Iceland with a special conference, Power and democracy 100 years later. In association with the conference Dr. Anna Guðrún Jónasdóttir, Professor emerita at the University of Örebro, Sweden, was awarded an honorary doctorate at the Faculty of Political Science. Anna Guðrún was the first Icelandic woman to complete a doctorate in political science, in 1991, and also the first to embark on an advanced academic career in political science and gender studies. It is therefore highly appropriate that Anna Guðrún should be awarded the first honorary doctorate at the Faculty of Political Science, where these disciplines are located. Her research covers a broad spectrum, including political science, sociology, economic history, psychology and gender studies. She was among the first to deal in a theoretical manner with gender, power and politics, which was considered rather provocative at the start of her academic career in the early 1970s. She is a pioneer in intertwining political research and gender studies and her most important research is in the field of power and personal gender relations. Anna Guðrún moved to Sweden at an early age but has kept in touch with the Icelandic research community. Below we publish her acceptance speech on the occasion when the honorary doctorate was awarded. It reflects clearly how her ideas have developed and her intimate sense for how personal and political factors bring politics and gender studies closer at the same time as she deepens and broadens both of their subjects.

  1. Two Austro-Hungarian Women Writers, Anna Tutsek and Terka Lux, Creating New Urban Identities in Early Twentieth-Century Budapest

    OpenAIRE

    Judit Kádár

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, I examine some literary texts of two turn-of-the century Hungarian women writers, Anna Tutsek and Terka Lux who left behind their childhood environment in remote regions of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy in order to move to Budapest, the capital of the eastern part of the Empire. Assuming that individuals hold multiple identities that are flexible and inevitably affected by environmental and social changes, my main focus is on the transformation of their ethnic, regional, occupa...

  2. Analysis of the feeding habits of the swallow-tailed hummingbird, Eupetomena macroura (Gmelin, 1788, in an urban park in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MCB. Toledo

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to observe and describe the feeding habits and available food resources of the swallow-tailed hummingbird, Eupetomena macroura. The study was carried out in a municipal park located in the city of Taubaté, in the state of São Paulo. The observations took place between December 2003 and October 2004, recording the following variables: 1 the plant species visited for feeding and territorial defense; 2 the kinds of food resources; and 3 the kinds of flight to procure and obtain food. E. macroura visited 12 plant species. For territorial defense, Mangifera indica was the most visited, whereas Malvaviscus arboreus was most visited for feeding. The foliage was the plant part that received the most frequent visits. In order to obtain nectar, the only species visited was M. arboreus; to obtain arthropods, the species most visited were Mangifera indica and Hymenaea stilbocarpa. In the dry season, the hummingbirds visited flowers, whereas in the rainy season they visited leaves to acquire food. The arthropod groups most frequently found on leafy branches were Homoptera and Psocoptera. Finally, the results of the type of flight analysis showed that flight used to capture food was more often observed than were flights to search for food. In conclusion, these observations suggest that E. macroura shows plasticity in feeding behavior, which can help it to persist in urban areas.

  3. Costos y rendimientos de producción de tres néctares de manzana (pyrusmalusl variedades Anna, Pensilvania y Winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darío Alberto Pinto Medina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available La agroindustria en Colombia se muestra como una alternativa para dar aprovechamiento eficiente a materias primas de origen agropecuario, especialmente aquellas que por parámetros de calidad, no salen al mercado y generan cuantiosas pérdidas a agricultores y ganaderos; esta investigación se basó principalmente en el aprovechamiento de la manzana (Pyrus malus L, se elaboró néctar con tres variedades producidas en el departamento de Boyacá, Colombia: Pensilvania, Anna y Winter y se evaluaron los rendimientos en extracción de pulpa, con pérdidas del 18,4% para Pensilvania 21,4%, para Anna y 30%en Winter. Se realizaron pruebas sensoriales para determinar el grado de aceptabilidad de los tres productos, observándose diferencias significativas en textura, y similitud en parámetros como olor, color y sabor; para dicho análisis se compararon las tres variedades con un néctar comercial. Se concluye que el costo de producción unitario para 900 ml de néctar de la variedad Pensilvania es de $4.999, Anna $5.100 y Winter $5.296 (pesos colombianos, esto se debe a mejores rendimientos en extracción de pulpa para la variedad Pensilvania, mostrando que los productos son competitivos en precio y calidad.

  4. Evaporative water loss and dehydration during the night in hummingbirds Pérdida de agua evaporativa y deshidratación nocturna en picaflores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRADLEY HARTMAN BAKKEN

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Nectar-feeding birds oscillate between avoiding overhydration when they are feeding and preventing dehydration during fasts. Here, we examined how resting rates of total evaporative water loss (TEWL and metabolic water production (MWP influence water balance in the green-backed firecrown (Sephanoides sephanoides, a Chilean hummingbird. We hypothesized that a circadian rhythm in TEWL would assuage the dehydration risk that hummingbirds face during the night. However, we did not find support for this idea. In resting hummingbirds, rates of TEWL during the day (54 ±6 µLh-1,n = 8 and night (65 ± 12 h-1, n = 5 were similar. Rates of MWP were also similar between the day (22 ±3 µL h-1, n = 8 and night (23 ± 2 µL h-1, n = 5. MWP rates were significantly lower than TEWL rates during both the day and night. Our findings both support the notion that hummingbirds dehydrate during extended fasts and illustrate that evaporative water loss is an important osmoregulatory consideration in hummingbirds. However, because the technique we used to estimate rates of TEWL and MWP at night was indirect, our findings should be interpreted cautiously until direct measurements are availableLas aves nectarívoras oscilan entre la sobrehidratación durante los períodos de alimentación y la prevención de la deshidratación durante el ayuno. Examinamos cómo las tasas de pérdida total de agua evaporativa (TEWL y la producción de agua metabólica (MWP durante el descanso influyen sobre el balance hídrico en el picaflor chileno (Sephanoides sephanoides. Hipotetizamos que el ritmo circadiano en la TEWL podría disminuir el riesgo de deshidratación que los picaflores enfrentan durante la noche. Sin embargo, no encontramos apoyo de esta hipótesis. En los picaflores en reposo, las tasas de TEWL durante el día (54 ± 6 µL h-1, n = 8 y la noche (65 ± 12 µL h-1, n = 5 fueron similares. Las tasas de MWP también fueron similares durante el día (22 ±3 µL h-1, n

  5. Beija-flores (Aves, Trochilidae e seus recursos florais em uma área urbana do Sul do Brasil Hummingbirds (Aves, Trochilidae and their flowers in an urban area of southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Baza Mendonça

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A assembléia de flores visitadas por beija-flores e a partilha de recursos entre estas aves foram estudadas em uma área urbana do sul do Brasil. Vinte e duas espécies de plantas, em sua maioria exóticas e/ou não-ornitófilas, receberam visitas dos beija-flores. As espécies de beija-flores registradas apresentaram diferentes combinações de características morfológicas (massa, comprimento do bico, comprimento da asa e relação bico/asa, que refletiram no conjunto de flores exploradas e no papel comunitário desempenhado por cada espécie. De um modo geral, beija-flores com nichos tróficos mais amplos foram também os mais freqüentes na área de estudo, indicando que o ambiente urbano pode ser mais favorável às espécies generalistas.The main purpose of this study was to identify the assemblage of flowers used by hummingbirds in an urban area of southern Brazil, as well as describe the patterns of resource partitioning among the hummingbird species. Twenty two plant species were recorded, which flowers are visited by ten hummingbird species. Most of these plants are exotics and regarded as non-ornithophilous. The hummingbirds displayed different combinations of morphological features (mass, bill length, wing length and relation bill/wing, which were reflected in the sets of flowers visited and the community role played by each species. In general, hummingbirds with largest niche breadths were also the most frequent ones, indicating that urban areas could be more suitable for generalist species.

  6. Analisando o conteúdo da seção "Página do Estudante" dos Annaes de Enfermagem Analisando el contenido de la sección "Pagina del Estudiante" de los Annaes de Enfermagem Analysing the content of the section Students' page of the Annaes de Enfermagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Nunes Morais Pereira

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A Revista Annaes Enfermagem foi um veiculo para retratar os problemas da saúde e evidenciar o exercício da profissão. A seção página do estudante foi criada para dar incentivo ao aluno, para expor suas idéias e focar pontos importantes na formação do enfermeiro da época. Este trabalho teve por objetivo analisar e descrever o conteúdo das publicações no período de 1932 a 1941. Trata-se de estudo de abordagem qualitativa pelo método histórico. Os principais elementos descritos na seção analisada estavam relacionados com os problemas de saúde, como escarlatina, tétano eclâmpsia. Conclui-se que o conteúdo do material analisado reflete que neste período existia uma preocupação com a preparação das alunas para suprir a necessidade vigente que o país atravessava.El periodico Annaes de Enfermagem ha sido el veiculo para discutir los problemas de salud y para evidenciar el professional rol. La sección "Pagina de estudiante" há sido creada para incentivar los estudiantes a exponer sus ideas y para focalisar en los puntos relevantes de formación del enfermero el aquelle tienpo . Esto estúdio objectivó describir y analisar el contenido de lo material publicado em el periodo de 1932 hasta 1941. Esto és um estudio con abordaje cualitativo usandoce el metodo historìco. Los principales elementos descriptos en la sección analisada estan relacionados a los problemas de salud colectiva como la escarlatina, tétano, eclampsia y tanbien a la ética. Se ha concluydo que el contenido del material analisado reflete que en el período analisado habia una preocupación com la preparación del studiante para atender a las necesidades de salud que el pais presentava.The journal Annaes de Enfermagem was a publishing vehicle to discuss health problems and to evidence the professional role. The section "Students Page" Was created for the motivation of students to expose their ideas and to focus in relevant points of the nurse education by

  7. The innovation of the subspecialty of Paediatric Virology: An interview with Research Professor of Molecular Virology Anna Kramvis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammas, Ioannis N; Spandidos, Demetrios A

    2017-10-01

    Professor Anna Kramvis, Research Professor of Molecular Virology at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, South Africa, talks about direct-acting antiviral treatments against hepatitis C virus (HCV), as well as the perspective of the development of an effective vaccine against HCV. She emphasises the necessity of vaccination against hepatitis B virus (HBV), highlighting that it is very important that vaccination should be administered at birth in order to prevent mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HBV. Professor Kramvis states that vaccination against HBV is safe and that HBV and HCV infections are not contraindications for breastfeeding. Regarding the challenge of Paediatric Virology, she believes that it is a field that during the last years is increasing exponentially, while she concurs that Paediatric Virology subspecialty will be a popular choice for infectious diseases subspecialists. In the context of the 3rd Workshop on Paediatric Virology, which will be held in Athens on October 7th, 2017, Professor Kramvis will give her key lecture on MTCT of HBV and HCV.

  8. Dones i violència a Catalunya a finals del franquisme: La terrorista desarmada d’Anna Vilaseca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Palau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Spain suffered under the climate of state terrorism from the dictatorship of 1939 until the 1970s, and during the period including the last years of General Franco’s life to the first years of the transition to democracy. Within this historical context and during the same period, Catalonia suffered more under state terrorism than under the violence of other armed groups. The result of this was that the literature on this subject is either minimal or was written much later. Moreover, the focus on women terrorists was also scarce. Even at present, in situations of armed conflict, women are still seen as victims or as booty – not as active participants in violence. It is the distance in time and context that marks the narrative discourse of La terrorista desarmada (The Unarmed Terrorist (2002 by Anna Vilaseca. The story is set at the end of the Franco regime and illustrates the pervading binaries defining women as submissive and peace-loving.

  9. Sensitivity of metrics of phylogenetic structure to scale, source of data and species pool of hummingbird assemblages along elevational gradients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián González-Caro

    Full Text Available Patterns of phylogenetic structure of assemblages are increasingly used to gain insight into the ecological and evolutionary processes involved in the assembly of co-occurring species. Metrics of phylogenetic structure can be sensitive to scaling issues and data availability. Here we empirically assess the sensitivity of four metrics of phylogenetic structure of assemblages to changes in (i the source of data, (ii the spatial grain at which assemblages are defined, and (iii the definition of species pools using hummingbird (Trochilidae assemblages along an elevational gradient in Colombia. We also discuss some of the implications in terms of the potential mechanisms driving these patterns. To explore how source of data influence phylogenetic structure we defined assemblages using three sources of data: field inventories, museum specimens, and range maps. Assemblages were defined at two spatial grains: coarse-grained (elevational bands of 800-m width and fine-grained (1-km(2 plots. We used three different species pools: all species contained in assemblages, all species within half-degree quadrats, and all species either above or below 2000 m elevation. Metrics considering phylogenetic relationships among all species within assemblages showed phylogenetic clustering at high elevations and phylogenetic evenness in the lowlands, whereas those metrics considering only the closest co-occurring relatives showed the opposite trend. This result suggests that using multiple metrics of phylogenetic structure should provide greater insight into the mechanisms shaping assemblage structure. The source and spatial grain of data had important influences on estimates of both richness and phylogenetic structure. Metrics considering the co-occurrence of close relatives were particularly sensitive to changes in the spatial grain. Assemblages based on range maps included more species and showed less phylogenetic structure than assemblages based on museum or field

  10. Cell size and basal metabolic rate in hummingbirds Tamaño celular y tasa metabólica basal en picaflores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C. Opazo

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Nucleotypic theory suggests that genome size play indirect roles in determining organismal fitness. Among endotherms this theory has been demonstrated by an inverse correlation between basal metabolic rate (BMR and genome size. Nonetheless, accumulation of variables, especially for some key groups of endotherms, involved in C-value enigma (e.g., cell size will fortify this theory. In this sense, hummingbird species are of particular interest because they are an energetic extreme in avian and endotherm evolution. Knowing that cell size is proportional to C-value, in this study we tested for a relationship between mean corpuscular volume of red blood cells and BMR in four species of hummingbirds ranging from 4 to 20 g. In comparison with other birds, our hummingbird data show higher BMR and the smallest mean corpuscular volumes, thereby providing further support for the nucleotypic theoryLa teoría nucleotípica sugiere que el tamaño del genoma juega un rol indirecto en la adecuación biológica, a través de las variables con las que se relaciona. En endotermos esta teoría ha sido demostrada por la relación inversa entre la tasa metabólica basal y el tamaño del genoma. La acumulación de variables, en grupos claves de endotermos, relacionadas con esta problemática (e.g., tamaño celular son ideales para poner a prueba esta teoría. En este sentido, los picaflores son de particular interés ya que son el extremo energético dentro de los endotermos. Sabiendo que el tamaño celular es proporcional al tamaño del genoma, en este trabajo ponemos a prueba la relación del volumen corpuscular medio y la tasa metabólica basal, e indirectamente el tamaño del genoma, en cuatro especies de picaflores con masas corporales que van desde 4 a 20 g. Los datos de metabolismo mostraron estar dentro de los mayores descritos para aves, asimismo, los tamaños de los eritrocitos fueron los más pequeños dentro de los valores reportados en la literatura

  11. Characterization techniques for nano-electronics, with emphasis to electron microscopy. The role of the European Project ANNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armigliato, A.

    2008-07-01

    , however, European laboratories with high-level expertise in materials characterization still operate in a largely independent way; this adversely affects the competitivity of European science and industry at the international level. For this reason the European Commission has started an Integrated Infrastructure Initiative (I3) in the sixth Framework Programme (now continuing in FP7) and funded a project called ANNA (2006-2010). This acronym stands for European Integrated Activity of Excellence and Networking for Nano and Micro- Electronics Analysis. The consortium includes 12 partners from 7 European countries and is coordinated by the Fondazione B.Kessler (FBK) in Trento (Italy); CNR-IMM is one of the 12 partners. Aim of ANNA is the onset of strong, long-term collaboration among the partners, so to form an integrated multi-site analytical facility, able to offer to the European community a wide variety of top-level analytical expertise and services in the field of micro- and nano-electronics. They include X-ray diffraction and scattering, SIMS, electron microscopy, medium-energy ion scattering, optical and electrical techniques. The project will be focused on three main activities: Networking (standardization of samples and methodologies, establishment of accredited reference laboratories), Transnational Access to laboratories located in the partners' premises to perform specific analytical experiments (an example is given by the two STEM methodologies discussed above) and Joint Research activity, which is targeted at the improvement and extension of the methodologies through a continuous instrumental and technical development. It is planned that the European joint analytical laboratory will continue its activity beyond the end of the project in 2010.

  12. Description of Leucocytozoon quynzae sp. nov. (Haemosporida, Leucocytozoidae) from hummingbirds, with remarks on distribution and possible vectors of leucocytozoids in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matta, Nubia E; Lotta, Ingrid A; Valkiūnas, Gediminas; González, Angie D; Pacheco, M Andreína; Escalante, Ananias A; Moncada, Ligia I; Rodríguez-Fandiño, Oscar A

    2014-02-01

    We describe Leucocytozoon quynzae sp. nov. (Haemosporida, Leucocytozoidae), which is the first Leucocytozoon parasite identified to species level in hummingbirds. It was found in the Amethyst-throated Sunangel (Heliangelus amethysticollis, Trochilidae, Apodiformes) captured in the Palacio Forest, which belongs to the damping zone of Chingaza National Natural Park, Cundinamarca, Colombia, at 2,900 m above sea level where the transmission occurs; the new species were found both in the high Andean forest and Paramo ecosystem. This parasite is described based on the morphology of its blood stages, a fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene, and the complete mitochondrial genome. Illustrations of blood stages of the new species are given, and the phylogenetic analysis places this lineage in a well-supported clade with other lineages of unidentified to species level leucocytozoids reported in the Trochilidae birds elsewhere. The new species possess gametocytes in roundish host cells; it can be readily distinguished from other similar leucocytozoids, primarily due to (1) a comma-like shape of the host cell nucleus, which extended one half or less of the circumference of the gametocyte and (2) a large number of prominent volutin granules in the cytoplasm. Identical mitochondrial cytochrome b sequence of Leucocytozoon quynzae was found in different hummingbird species at the type locality and also was reported in one passerine bird at the highlands of Peru. Leucocytozoon quynzae is the first leucocytozoid parasite described from South American birds; its transmission occurs both at low temperatures and high elevations. We discuss some patterns of distribution of avian leucocytozoids in South America and the role of Gigantodax spp. (Diptera, Simuliidae) as potential vectors of Leucocytozoon parasites in the Andean Region.

  13. Costos y rendimientos de producción de tres néctares de manzana (pyrusmalusl) variedades Anna, Pensilvania y Winter

    OpenAIRE

    Darío Alberto Pinto Medina; Yesenia Fernández Vargas; Efrain Martinez Quintero

    2016-01-01

    La agroindustria en Colombia se muestra como una alternativa para dar aprovechamiento eficiente a materias primas de origen agropecuario, especialmente aquellas que por parámetros de calidad, no salen al mercado y generan cuantiosas pérdidas a agricultores y ganaderos; esta investigación se basó principalmente en el aprovechamiento de la manzana (Pyrus malus L), se elaboró néctar con tres variedades producidas en el departamento de Boyacá, Colombia: Pensilvania, Anna y Winter y se evaluaron l...

  14. Abundancia de colibríes y uso de flores en un bosque templado del sureste de México Hummingbird abundance and flowers use in a template forest from Southeast Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Partida Lara

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La abundancia de los colibríes puede variar por la fenología de floración de las plantas de las que se alimentan. Sin embargo, la información sobre la interacción colibrí-flor es limitada en ambientes tropicales de montaña. En este estudio se evaluó la abundancia de colibríes con redes de niebla y se registró la fenología de floración mensual de las flores visitadas por los colibríes en tres ambientes (bosque de encino, de neblina y matorral en la Reserva Ecológica Huitepec, Chiapas, México de enero a agosto 2010. Cuatro especies de colibríes (Hylocharis leucotis, Lampornis amethystinus, Lamprolaima rhami y Eugenes fulgens se registraron y sus abundancias variaron entre ambientes (H3.8=14.8, p=0.001. Siete especies de plantas fueron visitadas por los colibríes, y presentaron una mayor floración formando parches durante la temporada de secas. En el matorral se concentró el mayor número de especies de plantas con flores. Fuchsia paniculata presentó el mayor periodo de floración aunque solo fue visitada por H. leucotis. Passiflora membranacea fue la única especie visitada por las cuatro especies de colibríes. La única asociación positiva fue la abundancia de E. fulgens con la floración de P. membranacea (rS=0.93, p=0.02. Las fluctuaciones de las abundancias de colibríes en este estudio están en cierta forma determinadas por las interacciones del recurso floral y su distribución en el ambienteHummingbird abundance varies with plant bloom phenology used for feeding. However, the information on hummingbird-flower interaction is limited for tropical mountain environments. We evaluated hummingbird abundance using mist nest and estimated monthly flowering phenology visited by hummingbirds in three different habitats (oak forest, cloud forest and bush from January to August 2010 in Huitepec Ecological Reserve. We recorded four hummingbird species (Hylocharis leucotis, Lampornis amethystinus, Lamprolaima rhami and Eugenes

  15. Seismic design margin evaluation of systems and equipment required for safe shutdown of North Anna, Units 1 and 2, following an SSE (safe-shutdown earthquake) event. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, K.D.

    1981-06-01

    The Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards recommended that the NRC staff review in detail the capability and available seismic design margin of fluid systems and equipment used in North Anna, Units 1 and 2 to achieve safe shutdown following a site-design safe-shutdown earthquake (SSE). The staff conducted a series of plant visits and meetings with the licensee to view and discuss the seismic design methodology used for systems, equipment and their supports. The report is a description and evaluation of the seismic design criteria, design conservatisms and seismic design margin for North Anna, Units 1 and 2

  16. Relación entre la variación de las condiciones ambientales y la temperatura interna de la yema del manzano 'Anna' Inner bud temperature of' Anna' apple trees in relation to varying environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casierra Posada Fannor

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available En Paipa (Colombia, se realizó un ensayo de campo con el fin de determinar el efecto de la variación de las condiciones ambientales sobre la temperatura interna de la yema del manzano 'Anna' cultivado en condiciones de altiplano tropical. Los registros se hicieron en un árbol de cuatro años, el cual se defolió manualmente y se podó pocas semanas después de la cosecha. Se midió la temperatura del aire y se comparó con la temperatura de una yema en el árbol. Para medir la temperatura de la yema se colocó un sensor digital muy delgado entre los catáfilos de la yema; la temperatura ambiente se registró con un termómetro de bulbo. Las mediciones se realizaron cada media hora entre las 7:00 y las 17:30 horas del día, durante 19 días, empezando el día en que el árbol fue defoliado hasta cuando la yema alcanzó el estado fenológico "green tip". Al tiempo con cada medición de temperatura se registró el fenómeno climático más sobresaliente (lluvia, tiempo soleado, viento, tiempo nublado, etc. y los datos se agruparon según cada fenómeno climático. Los resultados mostraron que la yema presentó una temperatura 1,49°C por encima de la temperatura del aire durante el transcurso del día, en la noche no hubo diferencia de temperatura. En condiciones de lluvia, la temperatura
    de la yema estuvo 0,57°C por encima de la temperatura
    del aire. Bajo cielo nublado la yema estuvo 0,56°C más cálida
    que el aire. En condiciones de viento la yema presentó una
    diferencia de 0,87°C sobre la temperatura del aire. En días
    soleados, la yema mantuvo una temperatura 2,3°C sobre la temperatura del aire. Las diferencias entre la temperatura del aire y la de la yema se discuten con base en la transpiración, la convección y la radiación.A field experiment was conducted in Paipa (Colombia to study the effect of environmental varying over inner bud temperature of an 'Anna' apple tree 4 years old growing in tropical

  17. Clinical holistic medicine: the case story of Anna. III. Rehabilitation of philosophy of life during holistic existential therapy for childhood sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventegodt, Søren; Clausen, Birgitte; Merrick, Joav

    2006-03-07

    When we experience life events with overwhelming emotional pain, we can escape this pain by making decisions (in our mind) that transfer responsibility from our existence to the surrounding world. By doing this, we slowly destroy the essence of our being, health, quality of life, and ability to function. The case of Anna is an excellent example of such a systematic destruction of self, done to survive the extreme pressure from childhood abuse and sexual abuse. The case study shows that the damage done to us by traumatic events is not on our body or soul, but rather our philosophy of life. The important consequence is that we can heal our existence by letting go of the negative decisions taken in the past painful and traumatic situations. By letting go of the life-denying sentences, we come back to life and take responsibility for our own life and existence. The healing of Anna's existence was done by existential holistic therapy. Although the processing did not always run smoothly, as she projected very charged material on the therapists on several occasions, the process resulted in full health and a good quality of life due to her own will to recover and heal completely. The case illustrates the inner logic and complexity of intensive holistic therapy at the most difficult moment, where only a combination of intensive medical, psychiatric, and sexological treatment could set her free. In the paper, we also present a meta-perspective on intensive holistic therapy and its most characteristic phases.

  18. Of Hummingbirds and Parrots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leander, Anna

    This paper looks at how the growing use of drones is re-producing the future orientation of law both expressed in the sense of law resting on precautionary, scenarios based thinking. It does this by focusing more specifically on how drones are actants in the creation of legal subjects, legal space...... and legal specialists that are based on a future orientation. As this indicates this paper is a very preliminary attempt to reach out to theories emphasizing on the role of technological actants (of which the drones are the example here)—as found e.g. in the context of the social studies of science...

  19. Beija-flores (Aves: Trochilidae e seus recursos florais em uma área de caatinga da Chapada Diamantina, Bahia, Brasil Hummingbirds (Aves: Trochilidae and their floral resources in an area of caatinga vegetation in the Chapada Diamantina, Bahia State, Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Graco Machado

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the species of hummingbird occurring in an area of caatinga vegetation, examining their seasonal activities, the assemblages of plants that they used, as well as the floral characteristics and flowering phenology of that vegetation. These surveys were performed in an area of arboreal caatinga in Chapada Diamantina, municipality of Mucugê, state of Bahia, Brazil, during 12 expeditions undertaken on a bi-monthly basis between October, 2005 and August, 2007. Field activities included observations made of the visiting hummingbird species, their behavior, and the frequency of their visits; as well as the plant species visited, their floral attributes, size, and the flowering phenophase evident on the occasion of each expedition. Seven species of hummingbirds were registered, including five residents. Phaethornis pretrei (Lesson & Delattre, 1839 acted as the organizer of this pollination guild. This species and Chlorostilbon lucidus (Shaw, 1812, these two species were considered the principal pollinators within the community. The hummingbirds visited a total of 29 plant species, of which only 12 are considered ornitophilous. The plant community presented a continuous flowering, with 19 species flowering in both the dry and the rainy season, permitting the year-round permanence of resident hummingbird species.

  20. Tsvetotshnaja skazka / Anna Litvinjuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Litvinjuk, Anna

    2003-01-01

    Tatjana Tridvornova organiseeritud lilleballist Tallinnas. Algas lillekleitide defileega Saku Suurhallis ja jätkus lillekleitide konkursiga klubis Opium. Žürii koosseis. Osalejad Eestist, Lätist ja Soomest. Võitja on läti florist Druvis Ciritis lillekleidiga "Puudutus"

  1. Vsepobezhdajushtshaja strast / Anna Litvinjuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Litvinjuk, Anna

    2003-01-01

    Professionaalsete lilleseadjate võistlusest "Lillekleit 2003" Tallinnas klubis Opium. Võitis läti lilleseadja Druvis Ciritise lillekleit "Puudutus", II koha sai Irmen Laving ja III koha Heiki Põder. Rikkalikult illustreeritud

  2. Rabotorgovlja protsvetajet / Anna Litvinjuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Litvinjuk, Anna

    2004-01-01

    India päritolu ameeriklanna Rania Hong, kes ise sattus lapsepõlves illegaalse inimkaubanduse ohvriks, tegeleb alates 1999. aastast selgitustööga ja ohvrite abistamisega rahvusvahelise organisatsiooni Shared Hope International töötajana

  3. Posvjashtshenije muzam / Anna Litvinjuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Litvinjuk, Anna

    2003-01-01

    Tallinna Vene Draamateatri galeriis avatakse maalinäitus "Pühendus teatrile". Kunstnikud A. Strahhov, S. Semerikov, S. ja V. Inkatovid, E. Sterpu, V. Voitsehhovitsh ja S. Minin oma teatrikogemustest ja töödest näitusel

  4. Anna Abridges "Masha."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crago, Hugh

    1989-01-01

    Examines a young girl's abridgment of Mara Kay's novel "Masha," focusing on the selection processes she used. Suggests that text selected for the abridgment had personal significance, while less significant or negative text was omitted. Concludes that the experience gave shape and meaning to the girl's own growing up. (MM)

  5. Sportivnaja gratsija / Anna Litvinjuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Litvinjuk, Anna

    2006-01-01

    Tallinna klubis Arctic Sport demonstreeritud firma Adidas uutest sügis-talviste spordirõivaste kollektsioonidest Adilibria ja Fuse naistele. Adilibria kollektsiooni loomisel kasutati moekunstnik Stella McCartney ideesid

  6. Fredericus Anna Jentink

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1913-01-01

    By his decease the Leyden Museum of Natural History has lost a Director, who during nearly thirty years has given all his energy to this Institution, has tried to extend and to complete its collections and to bring its internal arrangement more in agreement with modern views. In the first years of

  7. Milano 2006 / Anna Roomet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Roomet, Anna

    2006-01-01

    Sisekujunduse- ja mööblimessist I Saloni, mis tähistas oma 45. juubelit uues asupaigas Massimiliano Fuksase kavandite järgi ehitatud Fiera Milano Rho Pero messiavenüül 5.-10. aprillil. 36 värv. ill

  8. ‘The Good Terrorist(s’? Interrogating Gender and Violence in Ann Devlin’s ‘Naming the Names’ and Anna Burns’ No Bones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona McCann

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyse the depiction of IRA female volunteers in Ann Devlin’s “Naming the Names” (1986 and Anna Burns’ No Bones (2001 and to consider the relationship established between gender and violence in these texts. I investigate the extent to which the female terrorists portrayed conform to the “mother, monster, whore” paradigm identified by Laura Sjoberg and Caron Gentry (2007 in their study of women’s violence in global politics and consider what differences, if any, are established with these characters’ male counterparts. The ways in which both authors destabilise traditional gender stereotypes is also explored, as is the question of whether these texts might be considered as feminist fictions.

  9. Two Austro-Hungarian Women Writers, Anna Tutsek and Terka Lux, Creating New Urban Identities in Early Twentieth-Century Budapest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judit Kádár

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I examine some literary texts of two turn-of-the century Hungarian women writers, Anna Tutsek and Terka Lux who left behind their childhood environment in remote regions of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy in order to move to Budapest, the capital of the eastern part of the Empire. Assuming that individuals hold multiple identities that are flexible and inevitably affected by environmental and social changes, my main focus is on the transformation of their ethnic, regional, occupational and gender identity influenced by the disengagement from their birthplace. Within a context of Hungarian−Eastern-European women's social history, I investigate how migration had led them to reshape their original identities and create new ones and how these emigrant writers reacted to the loss of cultural and social norms in which they had previously lived.

  10. The influence of the fault zone width on land surface vibrations after the high-energy tremor in the "Rydułtowy-Anna" hard coal mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilecka, Elżbieta; Szwarkowski, Dariusz

    2018-04-01

    In the article, a numerical analysis of the impact of the width of the fault zone on land surface tremors on the area of the "Rydułtowy - Anna" hard coal mine was performed. The analysis covered the dynamic impact of the actual seismic wave after the high-energy tremor of 7 June 2013. Vibrations on the land surface are a measure of the mining damage risk. It is particularly the horizontal components of land vibrations that are dangerous to buildings which is reflected in the Mining Scales of Intensity (GSI) of vibrations. The run of a seismic wave in the rock mass from the hypocenter to the area's surface depends on the lithology of the area and the presence of fault zones. The rock mass network cut by faults of various widths influences the amplitude of tremor reaching the area's surface. The analysis of the impact of the width of the fault zone was done for three alternatives.

  11. Biblioteca escolar das escolas reunidas Sant’anna do Paranahyba/MT (1936-1945: contribuições para o estudo de sua história.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosimar Pires Alves

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste texto apresentam-se os resultados de pesquisa de mestrado vinculada ao Programa de Pós-Graduação em Educação da Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul (UEMS, Unidade Universitária de Paranaíba, sobre o tema história das bibliotecas escolares na escola primária urbana em Paranaíba/MT. A pesquisa é oriunda dos resultados do projeto “Memória da Escola Primária em Paranaíba/MS (1946-1971”, desenvolvido no âmbito do Grupo de Estudos e Pesquisas em História e Historiografia da Educação Brasileira (GEPHEB. No projeto verificou-se em alguns documentos escolares localizados, reunidos e selecionados sobre as Escolas Reunidas Sant‟Anna do Paranahyba – um dos primeiros núcleos de escolarização do município de Paranaíba –, a fundação e a organização de uma biblioteca escolar a partir do ano de 1936, o que levou à constituição do objeto de estudo. Com isso traçou-se como objetivo contribuir para a produção de uma história das bibliotecas escolares em Mato Grosso do Sul e no Brasil, a partir da história da primeira biblioteca escolar organizada nas Escolas Reunidas Sant‟Anna do Paranahyba, mediante localização, reunião, seleção, organização e análise de fontes documentais sobre a implantação, o acervo, as especificidades e os sujeitos envolvidos. O recorte temporal abrange o período de 1936 – início das atividades da biblioteca escolar – até 1945, quando as Escolas Reunidas Sant‟Anna do Paranahyba foram transformadas no Grupo Escolar José Garcia Leal. A pesquisa fundamentou-se na abordagem histórica, no campo da educação, na vertente da Nova História que apresenta um leque de possibilidades no que se refere à pesquisa histórica em educação, constituindo um campo produtivo de estudos. Assim, a pesquisa realizada permitiu compreender que a Biblioteca Escolar das Escolas Reunidas Sant‟Anna do Paranahyba não se mostrou aquém do movimento em prol da leitura e das bibliotecas

  12. THE IMPACT OF TRANSLATION TECHNIQUES AND SUBTITLING RULES TO THE EQUIVALENCE OF MEANING OF CULINARY TERMS IN THE FRESH WITH ANNA OLSON SEASON 1 SUBTITLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hetty Hartati Novita

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of cable TV in Indonesia has made this author interested in focusing on the topic of culinary terms translation in the subtitle of Fresh with Anna Olson Season 1 program broadcasted on Asian Food Channel station. In this paper, this author analyzes the translation techniques suggested by Molina and Albir used by the translators to create the more accurate, natural, and communicative subtitle even though there are subtitling rules to follow. The result is, most of the translated terms have equivalence in meaning between the ST and the TT, while the ones which are not equivalent are due to the application of two particular techniques, Discursive Creation and Adaptation.

  13. Corrosion of Zircaloy-clad fuel rods in high-temperature PWRs: Measurement of waterside corrosion in North Anna Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balfour, M.G.; Kilp, G.R.; Comstock, R.J.; McAtee, K.R.; Thornburg, D.R.

    1992-03-01

    Twenty-four peripheral rods and two interior rods from North Anna Unit 1, End-of-Cycle 7, were measured at poolside for waterside corrosion on four-cycle Region 6 assemblies F35 and F66, with rod average burnups of 60 GWD/MTU. Similar measurements were obtained on 24 two-cycle fuel rods from Region 8A assemblies H02 and H10 with average burnups of about 40 GWD/MTU. The Region 6 peripheral rods had been corrosion measured previously after three cycles, at 45 GWD/MTU average burnup. The four-cycle Region 6 fuel rods showed high corrosion, compared to only intermediate corrosion level after three cycles. The accelerated corrosion rate in the fourth cycle was accompanied by extensive laminar cracking and spalling of the oxide film in the thickest regions. The peak corrosion of the two-cycle region 8A rods was 32 μm to 53 μm, with some isolated incipient oxide spalling. In conjunction with the in-reactor corrosion measurements, extensive characterization tests plus long-term autoclave corrosion tests were performed on archive samples of the three major tubing lots represented in the North Anna measurements. The autoclave tests generally showed the same ordering of corrosion by tubing lot as in the reactor; the chief difference between the archive tubing samples was a lower tin content (1.38 percent) for the lot with the lowest corrosion rate compared with a higher tin content (1.58) for the lot with the highest corrosion rate. There was no indication in the autoclave tests of an accelerated rate of corrosion as observed in the reactor

  14. Qarṭaŷanna y Bāguh, cecas almohades, y la hipótesis de las

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vega Martín, Miguel

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available

    A huge hoard of Almohad (Muwaḥḥid coins was found in Priego de Cordoba (Cordoba, Spain in 1959. It contains several thousands of silver coins and is kept in the Archeological and Ethnological Museum of Cordoba. The hoard provides archeological evidences that Qarṭaŷanna and Bāguh, so far unregistered in Almohad coins, must be added to the list of Andalusi mints of that period. After identifying the two names of towns as Cartagena (Murcia, Spain and Priego de Cordoba, the hypothesis that the Almohad authorities issued series of coins as commemoration of relevant political or religious events is maintained.



    En el Museo Arqueológico y Etnológico de Córdoba se conserva un copioso tesorillo de monedas almohades de plata compuesto por varios millares de piezas, hallado en Priego de Córdoba en 1959. Algunas de ellas permiten la lectura de dos nuevas cecas: las de Qarṭaŷanna y Bāguh, que pueden identificarse con las localidades españolas actuales de Cartagena y Priego. La multiplicidad de cecas almohades recibe aquí una explicación hipotética: se trataría de acuñaciones conmemorativas de acontecimientos políticos o religiosos.

  15. Tematy, których nie da się uśpić. Z Jerzym Jedlickim rozmawia Anna Zawadzka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Zawadzka

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available On subjects that cannot be put to sleep. Anna Zawadzka in an interview with Jerzy Jedlicki The conversation with Jerzy Jedlicki is a part of series of interviews starting with the question about the subjects, that the interlocutors during his or her academical career were advised (by different persons and for different reasons not to pursue. Jedlicki mentions about three such issues: Poles and Jews during II World War period, Israel and Palestine, atheism and faith. He points out that nobody discouraged him from pursuing these subjects – it was himself, who refrained from being vocal on these matters. He clarifies why he used to censor himself, analyses how all the subjects work today in Polish public sphere and explains why he broke the silence several times.   Tematy, których nie da się uśpić. Z Jerzym Jedlickim rozmawia Anna Zawadzka Rozmowa z Jerzym Jedlickim przynależy do cyklu wywiadów, które rozpoczynają się pytaniem o tematy, które w toku kariery naukowej były rozmówcy z różnych przyczyn i przez różne osoby odradzane. Jedlicki wymienia trzy takie kwestie: Polacy i Żydzi w okresie okupacji, Izrael i Palestyna oraz ateizm i wiara. Zaznacza, że nikt mu nie odradzał ich podejmowania, a jedynie on sam powstrzymywał się przed zabieraniem publicznie głosu w tych sprawach. Wyjaśnia dlaczego się autocenzurował, analizuje, w jaki sposób wszystkie te trzy tematy funkcjonują dziś w polskiej sferze publicznej oraz tłumaczy, dlaczego kilkakrotnie przerwał jednak milczenie.

  16. Final Assessment of Manual Ultrasonic Examinations Applied to Detect Flaws in Primary System Dissimilar Metal Welds at North Anna Power Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Michael T.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Crawford, Susan L.; Prowant, Matthew S.; Doctor, Steven R.

    2014-03-24

    PNNL conducted a technical assessment of the NDE issues and protocols that led to missed detections of several axially oriented flaws in a steam generator primary inlet dissimilar metal weld at North Anna Power Station, Unit 1 (NAPS-1). This particular component design exhibits a significant outside-diameter (OD) taper that is not included as a blind performance demonstration mock-up within the industry’s Performance Demonstration Initiative, administered by EPRI. For this reason, the licensee engaged EPRI to assist in the development of a technical justification to support the basis for a site-specific qualification. The service-induced flaws at NAPS-1 were eventually detected as a result of OD surface machining in preparation for a full structural weld overlay. The machining operation uncovered the existence of two through-wall flaws, based on the observance of primary water leaking from the dissimilar metal weld. A total of five axially oriented flaws were detected in varied locations around the weld circumference. The field volumetric examination that was conducted at NAPS-1 was a non-encoded, real-time manual ultrasonic examination. PNNL conducted both an initial assessment, and subsequently, a more rigorous technical evaluation (reported here), which has identified an array of NDE issues that may have led to the subject missed detections. These evaluations were performed through technical reviews and discussions with NRC staff, EPRI NDE Center personnel, industry and ISI vendor personnel, and ultrasonic transducer manufacturers, and laboratory tests, to better understand the underlying issues at North Anna.

  17. Elementos do Projeto Político Profissional da Associação Nacional das Enfermeiras Diplomadas Brasileiras presentes nos Annaes de Enfermagem Elementos del Proyecto Politico Profesional de la Asociación Nacional de Enfermeras Graduadas Brasileras presentes en los Annaes de Enfermagem Elements of the Political Professional Project of the Brazilian Graduate Nurses National Association present in the Annaes de Enfermagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Liliane Gonçalves da Cruz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A revista Annaes de Enfermagem foi criada para publicar idéias, conceitos, resultados da produção científica, reflexões e, principalmente, o de expor e discutir o Projeto Político Profissional da Associação Nacional de Enfermeiras Diplomadas Brasileiras (ANEDB. Este estudo teve como objetivo descrever e caracterizar estes elementos presentes na referida revista no período de 1932 a 1941. Trata-se de um estudo de abordagem qualitativa pelo método histórico. Os principais elementos do projeto político compreendem os atributos desejáveis no enfermeiro como altruísmo, abnegação, patriotismo, senso humanitário, progresso profissional ligado à educação, arte, ideal, ética e componentes da religião cristã. Todos estes elementos fizeram parte de um projeto político que visava a integração da enfermagem no contexto de saúde nacional da época. (118 palavras.El periódico Annaes de Enfermagem fue creado para publicar ideas, conceptos, resultados de la producción cientifica, reflexiones y principalmente o de presentar y discutir el proyecto politico profesional de la Asociación Nacional de Enfermeras Graduadas Brasileras. Este estudio tuvo como objectivo decribir y caracterizar estos elementos presentes en este periódico en lo periodo de 1932 hasta 1941. Tratase de um estudio de abordaje cualitativa por lo metodo historico. Lo principales elementos del proyecto politico compreenden los atributos desejables en lo enfermero como el altruismo, abnegación, patriotismo, senso humaño, progreso profesional junto com la educación, arte, ideal, etica y componentes de la religión cristiana. Todos los elementos hicierón parte del proyecto politico que objectivó la integración de la enfermería en el contexto de salud en ámbito nacional a la epoca.The journal Annaes de Enfermagem was created to publish ideas, concepts, results of scientific production, reflections and, meanly to expose the Political Professional Project of the

  18. Cuphea melvilla Lindlay (Lythraceae: uma espécie do Cerrado polinizada por beija-flores Cuphea melvilla Lindlay (Lythraceae: a Cerrado species pollinated by hummingbirds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Flávia de Oliveira Melazzo

    2012-06-01

    melittophilous genus. Various aspects of the floral and reproductive biology of two groups of individuals, which occur on the edge of gallery forests on the Panga stream (in Uberlândia, southeastern Brazil, were studied. Observations were carried out during the flowering season of 1999. Cuphea melvilla is a shrub with floral features adapted to hummingbird pollination. It has a long flowering period, from January to July, but flowers the most during the rainy season. The flower tube of this species is of hypanthial origin, has a spur at the base, and accumulates nectar, which is produced by a nectary at the base of the ovary. The flowers were protandrous but different floral phases were present from the top to the bottom of the simple racemes. The species appears to be self-compatible but non-apomictic and needs active pollination to form fruits. Pheathornis pretrei, Amazilia fimbriata, Thalurania furcata, Eupetomena macroura and Chlorostilbon lucidus (female were the hummingbird species observed visiting and pollinating the C. melvilla flowers. Amazilia fimbriata and C. lucidus showed occasional territorial behaviour in relation to the C. melvilla populations, whereas P. pretrei seemed to be trapliner. Thalurania furcata and E. macroura visited the studied populations sporadically. Amazilia fimbriata, C. lucidus and P. pretrei were considered the main pollinators for the studied populations due to their frequency. The flower features of Cuphea melvilla that are related to hummingbird pollination appear to be derived within the genus, and bird pollination, within different sections of the genus, indicate a convergent adaptation.

  19. Kilkanaście sekund. Z Konstantym Gebertem rozmawiają Joanna Tokarska-Bakir, Elżbieta Janicka i Anna Zawadzka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Tokarska-Bakir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A few seconds. Konstanty Gebert in a conversation with Joanna Tokarska-Bakir, Elżbieta Janicka and Anna Zawadzka In 2012–2013, Poland was discussing ritual slaughter. Its adversaries claimed that the kind of animal slaughtering that makes the animal meat kosher and halal, causes extra suffering to animals and therefore should be banned. However, the postulate of banning ritual slaughter in Poland is not new and it goes back to the pre-war period. In the Studia Litteraria et Historica’s interview Konstanty Gebert talks about the history of Polish debate on the ritual slaughter, its anti-Semitic applications and about not an­ti-Semitic arguments risen in the discussion. He describes legal solutions for the ritual slaughter in other countries and addresses the issue of animal killing as a moral problem in Judaism. He also discusses the contemporary debate on the ritual slaughter: is it really in the name of the animal rights?   Kilkanaście sekund. Z Konstantym Gebertem rozmawiają Joanna Tokarska-Bakir, Elżbieta Janicka i Anna Zawadzka W latach 2012–2013 przez Polskę przetoczyła się dyskusja o uboju rytualnym. Jego przeciwnicy argumentowali, że taki sposób zabijania zwierząt, by mięso z ich ciał było koszerne i halal, przysparza zwie­rzętom dodatkowych cierpień, dlatego powinien być zakazany. Jednak postulat, by zakazać uboju rytualnego, nie jest w Polsce niczym nowym. Jego tradycja sięga okresu przedwojennego. W wywiadzie dla czasopisma „Studia Litteraria et Historica” Konstanty Gebert opowiada m.in. o historii polskiej debaty na temat uboju rytualnego, o antysemickich z niej użytkach i o nieantysemickich argumentach w niej podnoszonych, o roz­wiązaniach prawnych dotyczących uboju rytualnego w innych krajach, a także o zabijaniu zwierząt jako problemie moralnym w obrębie judaizmu. Zastanawia się także, czy współczesna debata o uboju rytualnym jest faktycznie w interesie zwierząt.

  20. Ultrasonic Phased Array Assessment of the Interference Fit and Leak Path of the North Anna Unit 2 Control Rod Drive Mechanism Nozzle 63 with Destructive Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, Susan L.; Cinson, Anthony D.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Hanson, Brady D.; Mathews, Royce

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the efficacy of ultrasonic testing (UT) for primary water leak path assessments of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) upper head penetrations. Operating reactors have experienced leakage when stress corrosion cracking of nickel-based alloy penetrations allowed primary water into the annulus of the interference fit between the penetration and the low-alloy steel RPV head. In this investigation, UT leak path data were acquired for an Alloy 600 control rod drive mechanism nozzle penetration, referred to as Nozzle 63, which was removed from the North Anna Unit 2 reactor when the RPV head was replaced in 2002. In-service inspection prior to the head replacement indicated that Nozzle 63 had a probable leakage path through the interference fit region. Nozzle 63 was examined using a phased-array UT probe with a 5.0-MHz, eight-element annular array. Immersion data were acquired from the nozzle inner diameter surface. The UT data were interpreted by comparing to responses measured on a mockup penetration with known features. Following acquisition of the UT data, Nozzle 63 was destructively examined to determine if the features identified in the UT examination, including leakage paths and crystalline boric acid deposits, could be visually confirmed. Additional measurements of boric acid deposit thickness and low-alloy steel wastage were made to assess how these factors affect the UT response. The implications of these findings for interpreting UT leak path data are described.

  1. Technical evaluation report on the seven main transformer failures at the North Anna Power Station, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-338, 50-339)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalton, K.J.; Kresser, J.V.; Savage, J.W.; Selan, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    This report documents technical evaluations on various aspects pertaining to the seven main transformer failures at the North Anna Power Station, Units 1 and 2. These reports cover the subjects of Probability Risk Assessment (PRA), Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA), Root Causes, Protection Systems, Modifications, Failure Statistics, and Generic Aspects. The PRA determined that the contribution from a main transformer failure affecting plant safety systems so as to increase the risk to the public health and safety is negligible. The FMEA determined that a main transformer failure can have primary and secondary effects on plant safety system operation. The evaluation of the Root Causes found that no single common cause contributed to the seven failures. Each failure was found to have specific circumstances for initiating the failure. Both the generator and transformer primary protection systems were found to perform correctly and were designed within industry standards and practices. The proposed modifications resulting from the analyses of the failures will improve system reliability and integrity, and will reduce potentially damaging effects. The failure statistic survey found very limited data bases from which a meaningful correlation could be ascertained. The statistical comparison found no appreciable anomalies with the NAPS failures. The evaluation of all the available information and the results of the separate reports on the main transformer failures found that several generic concerns exist

  2. Infantile anorexia, co-excitation and co-mastery in the parent/baby cathexis: The contribution of Sigmund and Anna Freud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascales, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Recent epidemiological studies show that 2% of babies in ordinary paediatric clinics suffer from infantile anorexia. In the first part of this paper we present a case study from our hospital clinical activity. Our framework combines clinical psychoanalytic sessions and perinatal videos. In the second part, we will focus on the concepts of instinct and excitation proposed by Sigmund Freud and the concept of mastery proposed by Anna Freud. In the third part, we will examine these concepts in the light of the case study. The fourth part is devoted to clinical recommendations from our hospital psychoanalytic practice. In conclusion, unlike other clinical settings, the psychoanalytic setting allows for the elaboration of the parental hatred included in the libidinal cathexis. Our psychoanalytic setting (sessions/videos) makes it possible to decontaminate parental intrapsychic elements overloaded with excitement, saturated with hate elements, and rendered sterile by the instinct for mastery. An initial part of the treatment process involves working through the intersubjective elements observed in the video. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  3. Hummingbirds and the plants they visit in the Tehuacán-Cuicatlán Biosphere Reserve, Mexico Colibríes y las plantas que visitan en la Reseva de la Biosfera Tehuacán-Cuicatlán, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Ortiz-Pulido

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe the relative abundance, plant species visited, and plant communities used by hummingbird species inhabiting the Tehuacán-Cuicatlán Biosphere Reserve, a semiarid area in South-central Mexico. We recorded 14 hummingbird species and 35 plant species distributed in 4 plant communities during our study. We found 86 different hummingbird-plant interactions. Amazilia violiceps and Cynanthus latirostris were the most common hummingbirds, while C. latirostris, A. violiceps, and Cynanthus sordidus were the hummingbirds that visited more plant species. Hummingbirds were distributed differentially between plant communities inside the reserve, with 12 species being present in the arboreal plant community of the lowlands, 11 both in cactus forest and perennial spine shrub plants, and 6 in perennial unarmed shrub plants. Cercidium praecox (Fabaceae was the plant species with the highest number of visiting hummingbird species (10 species. Cactus forest and perennial spine shrub plants were the plant communities with largest number of possible interactions (57 and 51, respectively. The mean connectance value of the interaction matrix was similar between plant communities (near to 22%, but lower than those reported previously in other places. In the Tehuacán-Cuicatlán Biosphere Reserve the hummingbird-plant interaction system will be preserved if the hummingbirds C. latirostris, A. violiceps, C. sordidus, and L. clemenciae, and the plants C. praecox, I. arborescens, E. chiotilla, and N. glauca, are protected.Describimos la abundancia relativa, especies de plantas visitadas y tipos de vegetación utilizados por los colibríes de la Reserva de la Biosfera Tehuacán-Cuicatlán, México. Durante nuestro de estudio registramos 14 especies de colibríes y 35 especies de plantas utilizadas por ellos dentro de cuatro tipos de vegetación, representando 86 diferentes interacciones colibrí-planta. Amazilia violiceps y Cynanthus latirostris fueron los

  4. Rec.: Anna Niepytalska-Osiecka, Socjolekt polskich alpinistów. Analiza leksykalno-semantyczna słownictwa, Wydawnictwo LIBRON – Filip Lohner, Kraków 2014, ss. 286

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Jarosz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Review: Anna Niepytalska-Osiecka, Socjolekt polskich alpinistów. Analiza leksykalnosemantyczna słownictwa, Wydawnictwo LIBRON – Filip Lohner, Kraków 2014, 286 pp. The article is a review of Anna Niepytalska-Osiecka’s book Socjolekt polskich alpinistów. Analiza leksykalno-semantyczna słownictwa (The sociolect of Polish mountaineers. A lexical and semantic analysis of the vocabulary. First, the text summarizes the subject matter of this monograph, devoted to a hitherto undescribed variety of the Polish language. It then goes on to characterize the composition of the book and its methodology. Finally, some problematic points are indicated – concerning, among other things, the classification of the language variety analyzed or the development of its vocabulary – and alternative lexical and semantic solutions are suggested.   Rec.: Anna Niepytalska-Osiecka, Socjolekt polskich alpinistów. Analiza leksykalno-semantyczna słownictwa, Wydawnictwo LIBRON – Filip Lohner, Kraków 2014, ss. 286 Artykuł stanowi recenzję książki Anny Niepytalskiej-Osieckiej pt. Socjolekt polskich alpinistów. Analiza leksykalno-semantyczna słownictwa. W tekście przybliżono zawartą w monografii problematykę poświęconą nieopisanemu dotychczas wariantowi polszczyzny oraz scharakteryzowano zastosowane rozwiązania kompozycyjne i analityczne. Wskazano również punkty dyskusyjne dotyczące m.in. klasyfikacji opisywanego wariantu polszczyzny czy procesu kształtowania się jego zasobu słownego, a także zasugerowano alternatywne rozstrzygnięcia leksykalno-semantyczne.

  5. Linguagem experimental: o discurso do consumo em Sexo, de André Sant'Anna, e o discurso da 'existencialidade' , em Lugar público, de José Agrippino de Paula

    OpenAIRE

    Romulo de Almeida Portella

    2006-01-01

    O objetivo principal desta dissertação é investigar as obras Sexo, de André SantAnna, e Lugar Público, de José Agrippino de Paula, a partir das noções que lidam com a vitalidade das formulações verbais, no que dizem respeito à elaboração da linguagem literária e a estruturação desta como conhecimento a ser apreendido. O trabalho contribui para um melhor entendimento da estética do experimentalismo, que é abordada em tais narrativas ficcionais. This dissertations main aim is to inves...

  6. When hummingbirds are the thieves: visitation effect on the reproduction of Neotropical snowbell Styrax ferrugineus Nees & Mart (Styracaceae Quando os beija-flores são os ladrões: efeito da visitação na reprodução de uma planta Neotropical Styrax ferrugineus Nees & Mart (Styracaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Kiyoshi Maruyama

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum of floral visitors associated with a particular plant is frequently larger than predicted by the traditional concept of floral syndromes and the role that unpredicted visitors play in plant reproduction deserves attention. Hummingbirds are frequently recorded visiting flowers with distinct floral syndromes, especially in some hummingbird flower poor ecosystem such as the Cerrado. In this study we investigated the effect of frequent hummingbird visits on the reproduction of melittophilous Styrax ferrugineus. The flowers were visited by many different insect groups and visits by hummingbirds were frequent, especially early in the morning when nectar availability was higher. Nectar parameters varied considerably during the flower life span, and was probably affected by the temperature variation during the day. Hummingbird exclusion experiments showed no effect in the fruit-set of the plant. The inability of hummingbirds to deplete all of the nectar produced in this mass-flowering plant, and the existence of another resource (pollen for the primary pollinator (large bees, are possible reasons why there was no perceptible hindrance of plant reproduction by the hummingbirds. Although no effect in the fruit-set was observed, the use of non-ornithophilous flowers must be important for hummingbirds, which are specialized nectar consumers.O espectro de visitantes florais associados a uma planta é frequentemente maior que o esperado pelo conceito tradicional de síndromes florais e o papel desses visitantes inesperados tem recebido mais atenção. Os beija-flores freqüentemente visitam flores com síndromes florais distintas, especialmente em alguns ecossistemas pobre em flores ornitófilas como o Cerrado. Investigamos aqui o efeito das visitas de beija-flores na reprodução de Styrax ferrugineus, uma espécie melitófila. As flores foram visitadas por diferentes grupos de insetos e as visitas por beija-flores foram frequentes

  7. Clinical Holistic Medicine: The Case Story of Anna. I. Long-Term Effect of Childhood Sexual Abuse and Incest with a Treatment Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The nervous breakdown of a 22-year-old, young woman was caused by severe sexual abuse in childhood, which was repressed over many years. During therapy, the patient accumulated resources to start the painful integration of these old traumas. Using holistic existential therapy in accordance with the life mission theory and the holistic process theory of healing, she finally was able to confront her old traumas and heal her existence. She seemingly recovered completely (including regaining full emotional range through holistic existential therapy, individually and in a group. The therapy took 18 months and more than 100 hours of intensive therapy. In the beginning of the therapy, the issues were her physical and mental health; in the middle of the therapy, the central issue was her purpose of life and her love life; and at the conclusion of the therapy, the issue was gender and sexuality. The strategy was to build up her strength for several months, mobilizing hidden resources and motivation for living, before the old traumas could be confronted and integrated. The therapy was based on quality of life philosophy, on the life mission theory, the theory of ego, the theory of talent, the theory of the evil side of man, the theory of human character, and the holistic process theory of healing. The clinical procedures included conversation, philosophical training, group therapeutic tools, extended use of therapeutic touch, holistic pelvic examination, and acceptance through touch was used to integrate the early traumas bound to the pelvis and scar tissue in the sexual organs. She was processed according to 10 levels of the advanced toolbox for holistic medicine and the general plan for clinical holistic psychiatry. The emotional steps she went through are well described by the scale of existential responsibility. The case story of Anna is an example of how even the most severely ill patient can recover fully with the support of holistic medical

  8. Clinical holistic medicine: the case story of Anna. I. Long-term effect of childhood sexual abuse and incest with a treatment approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventegodt, Søren; Clausen, Birgitte; Merrick, Joav

    2006-02-02

    The nervous breakdown of a 22-year-old, young woman was caused by severe sexual abuse in childhood, which was repressed over many years. During therapy, the patient accumulated resources to start the painful integration of these old traumas. Using holistic existential therapy in accordance with the life mission theory and the holistic process theory of healing, she finally was able to confront her old traumas and heal her existence. She seemingly recovered completely (including regaining full emotional range) through holistic existential therapy, individually and in a group. The therapy took 18 months and more than 100 hours of intensive therapy. In the beginning of the therapy, the issues were her physical and mental health; in the middle of the therapy, the central issue was her purpose of life and her love life; and at the conclusion of the therapy, the issue was gender and sexuality. The strategy was to build up her strength for several months, mobilizing hidden resources and motivation for living, before the old traumas could be confronted and integrated. The therapy was based on quality of life philosophy, on the life mission theory, the theory of ego, the theory of talent, the theory of the evil side of man, the theory of human character, and the holistic process theory of healing. The clinical procedures included conversation, philosophical training, group therapeutic tools, extended use of therapeutic touch, holistic pelvic examination, and acceptance through touch was used to integrate the early traumas bound to the pelvis and scar tissue in the sexual organs. She was processed according to 10 levels of the advanced toolbox for holistic medicine and the general plan for clinical holistic psychiatry. The emotional steps she went through are well described by the scale of existential responsibility. The case story of Anna is an example of how even the most severely ill patient can recover fully with the support of holistic medical treatment, making her feel

  9. Clinical Holistic Medicine: The Case Story of Anna. I. Long-Term Effect of Childhood Sexual Abuse and Incest with a Treatment Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventegodt, Søren; Clausen, Birgitte; Merrick, Joav

    2006-01-01

    The nervous breakdown of a 22-year-old, young woman was caused by severe sexual abuse in childhood, which was repressed over many years. During therapy, the patient accumulated resources to start the painful integration of these old traumas. Using holistic existential therapy in accordance with the life mission theory and the holistic process theory of healing, she finally was able to confront her old traumas and heal her existence. She seemingly recovered completely (including regaining full emotional range) through holistic existential therapy, individually and in a group. The therapy took 18 months and more than 100 hours of intensive therapy. In the beginning of the therapy, the issues were her physical and mental health; in the middle of the therapy, the central issue was her purpose of life and her love life; and at the conclusion of the therapy, the issue was gender and sexuality. The strategy was to build up her strength for several months, mobilizing hidden resources and motivation for living, before the old traumas could be confronted and integrated. The therapy was based on quality of life philosophy, on the life mission theory, the theory of ego, the theory of talent, the theory of the evil side of man, the theory of human character, and the holistic process theory of healing. The clinical procedures included conversation, philosophical training, group therapeutic tools, extended use of therapeutic touch, holistic pelvic examination, and acceptance through touch was used to integrate the early traumas bound to the pelvis and scar tissue in the sexual organs. She was processed according to 10 levels of the advanced toolbox for holistic medicine and the general plan for clinical holistic psychiatry. The emotional steps she went through are well described by the scale of existential responsibility. The case story of Anna is an example of how even the most severely ill patient can recover fully with the support of holistic medical treatment, making her feel

  10. An appreciation of Anna Mani

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lawrence

    time she was twelve, all the books in English. On her eighth birthday she ... insisted that lack of a Ph.D. degree made little difference in her life. She left for ... tailed knowledge of solar fluxes and wind patterns in different re- gions of India, and it ...

  11. Dostojevski bez nakipi / Anna Moleva

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Moleva, Anna

    2002-01-01

    Fjodor Dostojevski romaani "Idioot" järgi filmitud 10-osalise samanimelise Venemaa draamaseriaali valmimisest : režissöör Vladimir Bortko. Oma arvamust avaldavad produtsent Valeri Todorovski, näitlejad Oleg Basilashvili, Vladimir Mashkov, Jevgeni Mironov, Andrei Smirnov, Mihhail Bojarski, Maria Kisseljova, Sasha Lazarev

  12. Muzei rabotajet otlitshno! / Anna Mets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mets, Anna

    2006-01-01

    Peterburi Vene Muuseumi Kohtla-Järve virtuaalse filiaali "Vene muuseum : Virtuaalne filiaal" tööst rääkis oma ettekandes rahvusvahelisel muuseumide ümarlaual Peterburis filiaali juhataja Nadezhda Arikainen

  13. Peizazh v oprave / Anna Litvinjuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Litvinjuk, Anna

    2004-01-01

    Vene Draamateatri galerii avas teatri remondi tõttu hooaja juveelikeskuses Bindes Tartu mnt. 10. Maalinäitusel "Peizazh" osaleb 15 eesti kunstnikku. Nendest on mainitud V. Laur, V. Inkatov, S. Semerikov, A. Strahhov, E. Zentshik ja M. Leis. Avamisel näitas moekunstnik D. Denissova oma uut suvekollektsiooni

  14. Karikatura i meditatsija / Anna Litvinjuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Litvinjuk, Anna

    2003-01-01

    Aserbaidžaani kunstniku Rashid Sherifi tööde näitus Tallinnas Kodulinna Majas. Enne seda eksponeeriti Sherifi töid Ugala teatris, kus ta oli näidendi "Dekameron" külaliskunstnikuks. Kunstnik oma töödest

  15. Zdorovje - nash ressurss / Anna Litvinjuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Litvinjuk, Anna

    2005-01-01

    Ülemaailmse Tervishoiuorganisatsiooni (WHO) andmetel on keskmine eluiga Eestis tunduvalt lühem kui teistes EL-i riikides. Samuti on Eesti elanike tervis võrreldes teiste EL-i riikide elanike tervisega tunduvalt halvem. WHO toetusel toimunud tervisefoorumist Eestis. Diagramm

  16. Podcast - Interview with Anna Sfard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    During the 14th - 17th of November PhD Students and researchers from e-learning lab attended a PhD course called "Perspectives on Identity in Learning and Education Research". This course was co-organised by three local doctoral schools; The International Doctoral school of Technology and Science...

  17. Biologia floral e visitantes de Gaylussacia brasiliensis (Spr. Meissner (Ericaceae - uma espécie com anteras poricidas polinizada por beija-flores Floral biology and visitors of Gaylussacia brasiliensis (Spr. Meissner (Ericaceae - a poricidal anther species pollinated by hummingbirds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francielle Paulina de Araújo

    2011-06-01

    . brasiliensis were the hummingbirds: Chlorostlibon lucidus (Shaw, Amazilia fimbirata (Gmelin, Hylocharis chrysura (Shaw (Trochilinae and Phaethornis pretrei (Lesson & DeLattre (Phaethornithinae. G. brasiliensis has poricidal anthers with ample pores and the hummingbirds, while hovering with the bill inserted into the flowers to search for nectar, promote enough vibration in the anthers to permit pollen-grain release. Although presenting relatively low nectar volume and sugar content, the clusters of individuals with many flowers seem to attract territorial hummingbirds.

  18. Evaluación del uso de señales visuales y de localización por el colibrí cola-ancha (Selasphorus platycercus al visitar flores de Penstemon roseus Evaluation of the use of visual and location cues by the Broad-tailed hummingbird (Selasphorus platycercusforaging in flowers of Penstemon roseus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Pérez

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available En los colibríes la memoria espacial desempeña un papel importante durante el forrajeo. Éste se basa en el uso de señales específicas (visuales o en señales espaciales (localización de flores y plantas con néctar. Sin embargo, el uso de estas señales por los colibríes puede variar de acuerdo con la escala espacial que enfrentan cuando visitan flores de una o más plantas durante el forrajeo; ésto se puso a prueba con individuos del colibrí cola-ancha Selasphorus platycercus. Por otro lado, para evaluar la posible variación en el uso de las señales, se llevaron a cabo experimentos en condiciones semi-naturales utilizando flores de la planta Penstemon roseus, nativa del sitio de estudio. A través de la manipulación de la presencia/ausencia de una recompensa (néctar y señales visuales, evaluamos el uso de la memoria espacial durante el forrajeo entre 2 plantas (experimento 1 y dentro de una sola planta (experimento 2. Los resultados demostraron que los colibríes utilizaron la memoria de localización de la planta de cuyas flores obtuvieron recompensa, independientemente de la presencia de señales visuales. Por el contrario, en flores individuales de una sola planta, después de un corto periodo de aprendizaje los colibríes pueden utilizar las señales visuales para guiar su forrajeo y discriminar las flores sin recompensa. Asimismo, en ausencia de señales visuales los individuos basaron su forrajeo en la memoria de localización de la flor con recompensa visitada previamente. Estos resultados sugieren plasticidad en el comportamiento de forrajeo de los colibríes influenciada por la escala espacial y por la información adquirida en visitas previas.In hummingbirds spatial memory plays an important role during foraging. It is based in use of specific cues (visual or spatial cues (location of flowers and plants with nectar. However, use of these cues by hummingbirds may change according to the spatial scale they face when visit

  19. Dietary protein and carbohydrate affect feeding behavior and metabolic regulation in hummingbirds (Melanotrochilus fuscus Las proteínas y carbohidratos dietarios afectan la conducta de alimentación y la regulación metabólica en picaflores (Melanotrochilus fuscus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLAVIA P. ZANOTTO

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to link hummingbird feeding behavior with metabolic regulation and in addition to assess whether dietary composition would affect entrance into torpor. Hummingbirds were fed a combination of diets with contrasting amounts of protein and carbohydrate. The diets were composed of the following: 2.4 % protein (P - 12 % sucrose (S and 0.8 % protein (P - 36 % sucrose (S. The main findings showed that periods of feeding on each of the diets could be distinguished as separate bouts or feeding events. Hummingbirds presented to high protein-low carbohydrate diets (2.4P-12S ingested a larger volume of diet, fed for longer (both around 1.7x and increased the interval between feedings compared with hummingbirds fed diets 0.8P-36S. Physiological regulation between feeding events, on the other hand, was achieved through an increase in metabolic rate for low protein-high sugar diets (0.8P-36S. This response could probably be related to high sucrose assimilation rates through the digestive system of hummingbirds, a process already known to be very efficient in these birds. Additionally, there was a steeper decrease in oxygen consumption for hummingbirds fed diets 2.4P-12S during fasting and a suggestion of a higher torpor incidence in birds fed these dietsEl objetivo de este trabajo fue unir la conducta de alimentación de picaflores con su regulación metabólica y además determinar como la composición dietaria podría afectar la entrada en sopor. Los picaflores fueron alimentados con una combinación de dietas con cantidades contrastantes de proteínas y carbohidratos. La composición dietaria fue: 2,4 % proteína (P - 12 % sacarosa (S y 0.8 % proteína (P - 36 % (sacarosa (S. Se observó que para cada dieta, los períodos de alimentación se pueden distinguir como eventos separados de alimentación. Cuando se enfrentan a dietas de alta proteína-bajo carbohidratos (2,4P-12S, los picaflores ingieren grandes volúmenes de

  20. Monitoring breeding and migration of neotropical migratory birds at Point Loma, San Diego County, California, 5-year summary, 2011–15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Suellen; Madden, Melanie C.; Kus, Barbara E.

    2017-04-27

    species of conservation concern. Two of these species, Vireo bellii pusillus (least Bell’s vireo) and Empidonax traillii (willow flycatcher) are listed as State and (or) federally threatened or endangered.Except for Archilochus alexandri (black-chinned hummingbird) and Setophaga occidentalis (hermit warbler), which arrived later during the migratory season in latter years of our study, median arrival dates for migratory species tended to be earlier each year or did not change across 5 years. Of the five most common migratory species, white-crowned sparrow and rufous hummingbird arrived earlier in latter years of the study, but Pacific-slope flycatcher, warbling vireo, and Wilson’s warbler median arrival dates were variable and showed no trend.We captured 1,680 individuals of 66 species during the MAPS/breeding season (May through August) across the 5 years of our study, 72 percent (1,211) of which were newly banded, 10 percent (167) of which were recaptures, and 18 percent (302 hummingbirds and other birds that escaped prior to banding) of which we released unbanded. Bird capture rate averaged 0.65 ± 0.21 captures per net-hour (range 0.12–2.54). Species richness per day ranged from 9.80 ± 5.01 to 14.20 ± 4.57. Calypte anna (Anna’s hummingbird) was the most abundant breeding species captured, followed by Oreothlypis celata (orange-crowned warbler), Psaltriparus minimus (bushtit), Pipilo maculatus (spotted towhee), Thryomanes bewickii (Bewick’s wren), Melozone crissalis (California towhee), and Chamaea fasciata (wrentit). Fifty-one percent of known-sex captures were female, and 49 percent were male. Thirty-one percent of known-age captures were juveniles.Populations of bushtits and orange-crowned warbler decreased significantly over 5 years. Anna’s hummingbird abundance was high for 4 years, and then decreased in 2015. Bewick’s wren and wrentit populations were highest in 2015. There was no obvious pattern in spotted towhee and California towhee abundance

  1. Early Forming a Hummingbird-like Hovering Neural Network Circuitry Pattern with Reentrant Spatiotemporal Energy-Sensory Orientation Privileged to Avoid “Epilepsy” Based on a Biomimetic Acetylcholinesterase Memcapacitor Prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen T. Chen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The hummingbird’s significant asymmetry hovering flight with energy conservation pattern is remarkable among all vertebrates. However, little is known to human’s neuronal network circuitry current flow pattern for whether or not has this privilege during slow wave sleeping (SWS. What is the advantage in order to avoid diseases if we have this network pattern ? A memory device was developed with nanostructured biomimetic acetylcholinesterase (ACHE gorge membrane on gold chips as memcapacitor 1, served as a normal brain network prosthesis, compared with a mutated ACHE prosthesis as device 2, for evaluation of neuronal network circuitry integrity in the presence of Amyloid- beta (Ab under the conditions of free from tracers and antibodies in spiked NIST SRM 965A human serum. Three categories of Reentrant Energy-Sensory images are presented based on infused brain pulse energies in a matrix of “Sensory Biomarkers” having frequencies over 0.25-333 Hz at free and fixed Ab levels, respectively. Early non-symptomatic epilepsy was indentified and predicted by device 2 due to Pathological High Frequency Oscillation (pHFO and large areas of 38 µM Ab re-depositions. Device 1 sensitively “feels” Ab damage because of its Frequency Oscillation (HFO enhanced the hummingbird- like hovering pattern with higher reentrant energy sensitivity of 0.12 pj/bit/s/µm3 without Ab compared with Ab, 13 aj/bit/s/µm3/nM over 3.8-471 nM range over 0.003-4s. Device 1 reliably detected early CR dysfunction privileged to avoid epilepsy.

  2. Conformance to Generic Letter 83-28, Items 3.1.3 and 3.2.3, Beaver Valley, Unit No. 1, North Anna, Unit Nos. 1 and 2, Surry Unit Nos. 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-334, 50-338, 50-339, 50-280, and 50-281)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haroldsen, R.

    1985-09-01

    This report provides a review of the submittals for Beaver Valley, Unit No. 1, North Anna, Unit Nos. 1 and 2, and Surry, Unit Nos. 1 and 2, for conformance to Generic Letter 83-28, Items 3.1.3 and 3.2.3. The specific plants selected were reviewed as a group because of similarity in type and applicability of review items

  3. “L’arte differente: MOCAK al MAXXI”. Mostra a cura di Anna Maria Potocka, Roma, MAXXI - Museo nazionale delle arti del XXI secolo, 7 dicembre 2016 – 22 gennaio 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Smigiel

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a review of the exhibition entitled ”L’arte differente: MOCAK al MAXXI” hosted in the National Museum of 21st Century Arts in Rome between the 7th December 2016 and the 22nd January 2017. This art event is a part of the big MAXXI project, titled “Expanding the Horizon”. The aim is to present the collections from diverse institutions in order to give an opportunity to Italian and international visitors to come into direct contact with different cultural and artistic realities. The art exhibition is dedicated to the MOCAK collection (Museum of Contemporary Art in Krakow, which includes numerous works that show the history and actual status of contemporary art in Poland. As pointed out by the curator of the event and the Director of MOCAK, Anna Maria Potocka, it is not just a collection of works of art but rather of ideas.  This review describes several exhibited works and their accurate selection that reflects the curatorial strategy of the Cracovian museum.

  4. Feeding behavior of hummingbirds and perching birds on Erythrina speciosa Andrews (Fabaceae flowers in an urban area, Londrina, Paraná, Brazil Comportamento alimentar de beija-flores e Passeriformes nas flores de Erytrhina speciosa Andrews (Fabaceae em uma área urbana de Londrina, Paraná, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Baza Mendonça

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Nine species of birds - seven hummingbirds (Trochilidae and two Passeriformes - were observed visiting the flowers of Erythrina speciosa Andrews (Fabaceae, a hummingbird-pollinated species present on the campus of Londrina State University, Paraná State, Brazil. Nectar in bagged flowers bore little relationship with nectar in flowers opened to foragers either regarding quantity or diurnal pattern of availability. Birds were more frequent early in the morning and their activity on flowers further declined, apparently following the pattern of nectar availability. The manner to which birds probed the flowers and, in consequence, their role on pollination were greatly determined by morphological traits and approaching behavior of birds. E. speciosa seemed best suited for pollination by long-billed hummingbirds but some short to medium-billed species may play some role on its pollination.Nove espécies de aves - sete beija-flores (Trochilidae e duas aves Passeriformes - foram observados visitando as flores de Erythrina speciosa Andrews (Fabaceae, uma espécie polinizada por beija-flores presente no campus da Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Paraná, Brasil. O néctar em flores ensacadas apresentou pouca relação com aquele em flores expostas aos visitantes, tanto em termos de quantidade como em temos de padrão diurno de disponibilidade. As aves foram mais freqüentes de manhã e sua atividade nas flores diminuiu no transcorrer do dia, coincidindo com o padrão de disponibilidade de néctar. O comportamento de visita das aves e, em conseqüência, sua atuação na polinização da espécie foram em grande parte determinadas por características morfológicas e comportamentais destas. E. speciosa parece ser adaptada para polinização por beija-flores de bicos longos, embora espécies com bicos de comprimento curto a médio possam ter algum papel em sua polinização.

  5. Nectar robbery by a hermit hummingbird

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maruyama, Pietro K.; Vizentin-Bugoni, Jeferson; Dalsgaard, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between flowers and their visitors span the spectrum from mutualism to antagonism. The literature is rich in studies focusing on mutualism, but nectar robbery has mostly been investigated using phytocentric approaches focused on only a few plant species. To fill this gap, we studied ...

  6. Putin predlozhil Nikite rabotu / Anna Skvortsova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Skvortsova, Anna

    2001-01-01

    Moskva XXIII rahvusvahelise filmifestivali külaliseks olnud Hollywoodi kuulsused Jack Nicholson, Sean Penn ja mitmed teised tuntud vene ja välismaa filmiinimesed kohtusid Venemaa presidendi Vladimir Putiniga Nikita Mihhalkovi suvilas

  7. VITSH vlijajet na moral / Anna Litvinjuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Litvinjuk, Anna

    2006-01-01

    Vestlusest Eesti Seksuaaltervise Liidu noorte reproduktiivtervise alase nõustamise ja sugulisel teel levivate haiguste ennetamise programmi juhi Tiia Perteliga, kes osales hiljuti Torontos toimunud AIDSI-teemalisel rahvusvahelisel konverentsil

  8. Moekunstniku katsetused kinolinal / Anna-Liisa Soomann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soomann, Anna-Liisa

    2007-01-01

    Taani moekunstniku Mads Nırgaardi filmidebüüt Kopenhaageni moenädalal. Film tutvustab kunstniku moekollektsiooni, kaasa teevad taani supermodellid Freja Beha ja Eddie Merz, muusika DJ Djuna Barnes'ilt

  9. Die Zitate in der Alexias Anna Komnenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diether Roderich REINSCH

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available   Diether  Roderich  Reinch Τα  παραθέματα   στην   Ἀλεξιάδα της  Άννας ΚομνηνήςΤα τελευταία χρόνια η μελέτη των παραθεμάτων έχει δείξει την ανάγκη απεμπλοκής από την απλή ένδειξη των φιλολογικών παραλλήλων στο υπόμνημα πηγών, όπως αυτό παρατίθεται στις κριτικές εκδόσεις βυζαντινών κειμένων. Η ανάλυση παραθεμάτων από τον Όμηρο και την Καινή Διαθήκη που χρησιμοποιούνται από την Άννα Κομνηνή στην Ἀλεξιάδα υποδεικνύει ότι η συγγραφεύς χειρίζεται ελεύθερα τις πηγές της διασκευάζοντας, παραφράζοντας και προσαρμόζοντάς τις ανάλογα με τις αφηγηματικές ανάγκες του κειμένου της. Οι αποκλίσεις, επομένως, από το αυθεντικό κείμενο δεν μαρτυρούν σύγχυση, αλλά συνειδητή επεξεργασία.

  10. SÄSI konkurss / Anna Roomet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Roomet, Anna

    2006-01-01

    Konkursist, auhinnatseremooniast ja ekspositsioonist Arhitektuuri- ja Disainigaleriis, žürii koosseis. Intervjuu eesti parima noore disaineri preemia SÄSI pälvinud Pavel Sidorenko ning väikese SÄSI saanud Björn Koobi, Ülle Jehe ja Igor Volkoviga

  11. Ljubov nebessnaja i zemnaja / Anna Moleva

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Moleva, Anna

    2002-01-01

    Venemaa teleseriaali "Vene amatsoonid" ("Russkije amazonki") võtteplatsil vastavad küsimustele režissöör Isaak Fridberg, näitlejad Leonid Jakubovitsh, Juozas Budraitis, Aleksei Krivtshenko ja Irina Rozanova

  12. Indiana protiv KGB / Anna Fedina, Pjotr Obraztsov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Fedina, Anna

    2008-01-01

    Steven Spielbergi neljas Indiana Jones'i film Harrison Fordiga nimiosas "Indiana Jones ja kristallpealuu kuningriik" ("Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull") : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2008

  13. Anna Wintour: The Truth behind the Bob

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloeppel, Tara

    2011-01-01

    While her occupation, and the stereotypes associated with running a fashion magazine, may not initially seem to be worthy of scholastic attention, careful study of Wintour's influence reveals insight into the rhetorical tactics penetrating fashion culture in America, and perhaps more broadly, pop culture in America.

  14. Moda zajavljajet o sebe / Anna Korjakina

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Korjakina, Anna

    2005-01-01

    Balti Moeföderatsiooni organiseeritud Riia moenädalast, kus oma töid demonstreerisid Läti, Eesti, Leedu, Venemaa ja Prantsusmaa moeloojad. Eestist Oksana Tandit ja Triinu Pungits. Pikemalt Masha Tsigali kollektsioonist (Venemaa)

  15. Anna's Story of Life in Prison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boodle, Anna; Ellem, Kathy; Chenoweth, Lesley

    2014-01-01

    People with an intellectual disability in prison can be at increased risk of victimisation, segregation and isolation (Mullen ). Prison systems usually have very few resources to cater to this group's particular needs, and many people may re-enter the community with little or no rehabilitation, poor social connections, poor mental health and…

  16. Brodvei na gastroljah v Estonii / Anna Litvinjuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Litvinjuk, Anna

    2003-01-01

    26. apr. tähistab A. Ivashkevitshi stepptantsustuudio Duff-tap studio oma kümnendat tegevusaastat. Sel puhul on 26. ja 27. apr. Vene Draamateatris Jazz&Tapdance show, kuhu on kutsutud ka B. Duffy Ameerikast jt.

  17. Zhertvõ "Strastei" / Anna Fedina

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Fedina, Anna

    2004-01-01

    Mel Gibsoni mängufilmi "Kristuse kannatused" ("The Passion of Christ") seanssidel on saanud infarkti juba kaks vaatajat ning mõrva üles tunnistanud üks kurjategija. Kiirabi oli valves ka Iirimaa esilinastuse ajal. Südame atakke on juhtunud ka Lars von Trieri filmide näitamise ajal

  18. Ilvese aasta 2009 / Iivi Anna Masso

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Masso, Iivi, 1967-

    2009-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilvese kandideerimisest Euroopa Liidu Ülemkogu presidendi kohale, Eesti riigipea säravatest esinemistest välismaal, sõnavõttudest demokraatia, kodanikuühiskonna ja inimõiguste kaitsel, Eesti meedia kõrgendatud tähelepanust presidendi abikaasa tegemiste suhtes

  19. Trebujutsja Minin i Pozharski / Anna Hrustaljova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hrustaljova, Anna

    2004-01-01

    Vene filmifestival "Moskovskaja premjera" ja seal esile tõstetud filmid : "Shiza" ( režissöör Gulshad Omarova), "Pikk hüvastijätt" ("Dolgoje proshtshanije"), parima režissööri tiitli saanud Sergei Ursuljak)

  20. Anna Mouglalis kõikide vastu / Anna Mouglalis ; intervjueerinud Guillermo Espinosa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mouglalis, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Prantsuse moekunstniku Coco Chaneli ja vene helilooja Igor Stravinki armuloost rääkivas filmis "Coco Chanel & Igor Stravinski" mängib peaosa Chaneli moemaja modell ja reklaaminägu. Intervjuus endast ja oma rollidest

  1. „No i co z tego”. O dyskusji wokół "Kamieni na szaniec" Aleksandra Kamińskiego z Bożeną Keff, Magdą Szcześniak, Tomaszem Tomasikiem i Błażejem Warkockim rozmawia Anna Zawadzka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Zawadzka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available “So what?” Bożena Keff, Magda Szcześniak, Tomasz Tomasik & Błażej Warkocki in a conversation with Anna Zawadzka In April 2013, the Polish Press Agency published an article in which Elżbieta Janicka proposed a new interpretations of Stones on the barricades. She claimed i.a.: ”Since we are deliberating, placed in a ho-mophobic culture, where questioning someone’s heterosexual orientation is not an observation but a de­lation, I would compare Zośka and Rudy to Achilles and Patroclus, a pair of legendary warriors. […] I think that this is one of the most beautiful texts about love knowing no limits, whereas all we know about the main characters’ relations testifies to the unheard power and depth of this feeling”. Those words caused an avalanche of reactions, starting from polemics with Janicka or libels on her to violence threats against the scholar. In this conversation, Bożena Keff, Magda Szcześniak, Tomasz Tomasik, Błażej Warkocki and Anna Zawadzka are discussing Janicka’s proposition (developed in her book Festung Warschau, published prior to the quoted text to interpret Stones on the barricades as a text also on a romantic relationship between two men. They analyse social and political causes of the “scandal”, induced by the Polish mainstream media together with a part of the Polish academic milieu. This conversation took place in May 2013.   „No i co z tego”. O dyskusji wokół Kamieni na szaniec Aleksandra Kamińskiego z Bożeną Keff, Magdą Szcześniak, Tomaszem Tomasikiem i Błażejem Warkockim rozmawia Anna Zawadzka W kwietniu 2013 roku Polska Agencja Prasowa opublikowała artykuł, w którym Elżbieta Janicka proponowała nowe interpretacje Kamieni na szaniec. Janicka mówiła m.in.: „Ponieważ rozmawiamy w kulturze homofobicznej, gdzie zakwestionowanie czyjejś heteroseksualnej orientacji nie jest konstatacją, lecz denuncjacją, porównałabym Zośkę i Rudego do Achillesa i Patroklesa, pary

  2. The macroecology of phylogenetically structured hummingbird-plant networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    González, Ana M. Martín; Dalsgaard, Bo; Nogues, David Bravo

    2015-01-01

    Aim To investigate the association between hummingbird–plant network structure and species richness, phylogenetic signal on species' interaction pattern, insularity and historical and current climate. Location Fifty-four communities along a c. 10,000 km latitudinal gradient across the Americas (39...... approach, we examined the influence of species richness, phylogenetic signal, insularity and current and historical climate conditions on network structure (null-model-corrected specialization and modularity). Results Phylogenetically related species, especially plants, showed a tendency to interact...... with a similar array of mutualistic partners. The spatial variation in network structure exhibited a constant association with species phylogeny (R2 = 0.18–0.19); however, network structure showed the strongest association with species richness and environmental factors (R2 = 0.20–0.44 and R2 = 0...

  3. Into Turbulent Air: Hummingbird Aerodynamic Control in Unsteady Circumstances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-24

    face of continous and unpredictable perturbation, and illustrated size-dependence of variance in wing and body motions such that vortices large...code) 510-642-1555 Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 Adobe Professional 7.0 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8/98) Reset DISTRIBUTION A: Distribution approved...high compensatory capacity to maintain stable flight in the face of continous and unpredictable perturbation, and illustrated size-dependence of

  4. Female hummingbirds do not relocate rewards using colour cues

    OpenAIRE

    Tello Ramos, Maria Cristina; Hurly, T. Andrew; Healy, Susan D.

    2014-01-01

    This research was supported by CONACYT (The Mexican National Council for Science and Technology) grant number: 310717, the University of Lethbridge and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (grant number: RGPIN 121496-2003) and the University of St Andrew's Russell Trust Award. Males generally outperform females in spatial tasks. This difference in spatial performance may reflect differences in cue preference because males often use both spatial cues 9distance and...

  5. Cuphea melvilla Lindlay (Lythraceae): a Cerrado species pollinated by hummingbirds

    OpenAIRE

    Melazzo, Ana Flávia de Oliveira; Oliveira, Paulo Eugênio

    2012-01-01

    Cuphea melvilla é uma espécie peculiar dentro de um gênero majoritariamente melitófilo. Dois agrupamentos de indivíduos, em bordas das matas de galeria do Córrego do Panga, Uberlândia, MG, foram estudados com o objetivo de investigar o sistema de polinização e sistema de reprodução da espécie na região. O estudo foi realizado de janeiro a junho de 1999. Cuphea melvilla é uma espécie arbustiva com características morfológicas e eventos florais que confirmam sua adaptação à polinização por beij...

  6. Rotshild vernul Rossii dotsh Pavla I / Anna Selivanova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Selivanova, Anna

    2003-01-01

    Vene Muuseumi poolt 1941. a. koostatud rändnäituse "Vene maalikunsti arengu põhietapid" saatusest. Fjodor Bognevski "Suurvürstinna Aleksandra Pavlovna portree" ja Orest Kiprenski "Pjotr Basini portree" tagasisaamislood

  7. Vratshi i medsestrõ... za bortom peregovorov / Anna Litvinjuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Litvinjuk, Anna

    2007-01-01

    Eesti Arstide Liit ja Eesti Keskastme Tervishoiutöötajate Kutseliit ei kiida heaks lepingut, mis kehtib vaid Haiglate Liidu liikmetele ja jätab palgatõusust ilma terve rea tervishoiutöötajaid. Tervishoiutöötajad pöörduvad kohtusse. Vt. samas: Kokkuvõtteks; Kommenteerivad: Eesti Arstide Liit, sotsiaalminister Jaak Aab, riiklik lepitaja Henn Pärn

  8. Most mezhdu Rossijei i JeS / Anna Litvinjuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Litvinjuk, Anna

    2004-01-01

    Euroopa Liidu mõju laienemisega kaasneb eurooplastel kartus võimaliku sotsiaalse kaitse vähenemise ja elatustaseme languse ees. Euroopa Parlamendi presidendi Pat Coxi sõnul on Baltimaad koos Põhjamaadega sillaks Euroopa Liidu ja Venemaa vahel

  9. Kak zhurnalistõ vidjat Estoniju / Anna Litvinjuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Litvinjuk, Anna

    2006-01-01

    2005. aasta parimate pressifotode näitusest Vaal-galeriis Tallinnas. Parima uudisfoto autor on üleriiklikus kategoorias Andras Kralla ja parima olemusfoto autor Raul Mee. Maakonnalehtede parimad on vastavalt Margus Ansu ja Sille Annuk. Kujundusauhinnad said suures kategoorias SL Õhtuleht ja väikeses kategoorias Järva Teataja

  10. Sisseminekuks : [luuletused] / Anna Haava ; [Impressioonid]: Viiu Härm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Haava, Anna, pseud., 1864-1957

    2004-01-01

    Sisu: Sisseminekuks ; Kartus ; Ööbikule ; Käokene, kuldalindu ; Mis sa tahad, kevade? ; Ei tule uni ; Hoia ennast; Tuksuv süda ; Sina oled kelm ; Hinge hellal' igatsusel' ; Kõik kallile ; Soov ; Unes nägin ; Võin ; Sinu silmad ; Sinu silmist pilk ; Kallis, sul on kuldne süda ; Sa kõige armsam mulle ; Oh võiksin ; Lill ; Nõmmelill ; Meie Mihkel ; Koidulale ; Ehitage rahukojad ; Emakeel ; Isamaja ; Väsinud ; Oh kuhu ma lähen? ; Ööbiku surm ; Ei saa mitte vaiki olla ; Ma olen näinud ; Südameta ; Sellepärast ; See oli ilusal õiekuul; Esimese lume ajal ; Mina vaat'sin muru pääle ; Ikka kurjalt sa mind vaatad ; Oh ma isegi ei tea ; Mis on luule paljalt sõnas? ; Oh oleksin ära surnud ; Lee ääres ; Sinu nimi ; Hoia vahest aken lahti ; Jumalaga jättes vaat'sid ; Ma laulan ; Ei oma õnne peita ; Küll oli ilus mu õieke ; Oh ära sa küsi ; Ei tule luule tuulest ; Köögis seisab ; Järv leegib eha paistel ; Sinu vanaema ; Nii ta on ; Tead küll, mu kuldkallis ; Ma lähen üle nõmme ; Lenda, lepatriinuke ; Vesi voolab, vesi kohab ; Üks ainus kord ; Oh kevade, oh õie-aeg ; Suur kontsert ; Kuupaistel ; Mets kohiseb ; Lind läks magama ; Kui sa tuled, too mull' lilli ; Sinilillekesed ; Ei ole sina minu ingel ; Ei mina õnne usu ; Viimast laulu ei saa laulda ; Kõige ilusam luule ; Üks on minul püham koda! ; Sa oled suurem kui su saatus ; Mu kodumaa, kus oled sa? ; Eest ära! ; Kui kandlekeeled katkevad ; Ma kõnnin koiduvalgel ; Mu mured kõik matsin ma maha ; Kui ma sulle armas olen ; Kas tahad tulla minuga? ; Sa vaata ette, süda! ; Truus sõpruses ma tahan ; Su silmade sügavuses ; Siis mine! ; See oli siis ; Mu süda usub ; Sind teretame, kuldapäike ; Mind jumalaga jätsid ; Sääl kord kasvab kaunis kodu ; Me oleme põhjamaa lapsed ; Hilised lilled ; Sa küsid, kus mu kodu ; külm ; Sina vaikiv, sügav öö ; Ju õitsvad kõik hellerheinad ; Öösünges kohab ; Kui saaks mullegi kord kodu ; On püha mulle mu kodumaa muld ; Oma hind vaid vaba hoida ; Selles eluunenäos ; Kuid kuis taevad kõrged-suured ; Millest see?

  11. Hispaania kuningapaar ärritas Marokot / Anna-Maria Penu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Penu, Anna-Maria, 1978-

    2007-01-01

    Hispaania kuningas Juan Carlos I ja kuninganna Sofia käisid esimest korda Aafrika pinnal asuvates Hispaania enklaavides Ceutas ja Melillas, mis kutsus esile Maroko meelepaha. Lisa: Peaminister soovib lõppu okupatsioonile

  12. Islam ja terror samas lauses? / Iivi Anna Masso

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Masso, Iivi Anna, 1967-

    2011-01-01

    Seostest islami ja islamistlike terroristide vahel. Araabia maailma raputavatest rahutustest. Terrosimiaktidest Venemaal. Autori hinnangul aitaks suhtumine islamisse terve kriitikaga paremini mõista muslimitest libaraale

  13. Osvjashtshenõ kolokola Hrama na granitse / Anna Orshanskaja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Orshanskaja, Anna

    2006-01-01

    Vene riigitegelasest ja töösturist parun Aleksandr Stieglitzist. Mälestustseremoonial pühitseti perekond Stieglitz'ite matmispaiga Ivangorodi Püha Kolmainsuse kiriku uued tornikellad. Kirikuhoonest ja selle rekonstrueerimisest

  14. Ja polagaju, tshto vsjo sledujet shit! / Anna Korjakina

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Korjakina, Anna

    2005-01-01

    31.03-3.04 toimus Riias moenädal - Riga Fashion Show. Oma töid demonstreerisid Läti, Eesti, Leedu, Venemaa ja Prantsusmaa moeloojad. Eestist Oksana Tandit ja Triinu Pungits. Pikemalt Masha Tsigali kollektsioonist (Venemaa)

  15. Eugenia Rico: The Black Cat / Translated by Anna Rosen Guercio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rosen Guercio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available You can close your eyes but you can’t close your ears.In the darkness, I keep hearing the screams. I don’t know who’s screaming. I squeeze my eyes tighter and realize that I’m the one who’s screaming. In the darkness, there is no hate. There’s a strange smell and it isn’t me. In another time and another place, someone would have known why all this was happening, someone would have been able to give a name to everything that seems so inexplicable to me, but which does have an explanation. It has to. It won’t be a logical explanation.In another life, I tried to find causes and effects until I came to understand that nothing that happened to me had them. I believed that I thought with my head. I believed that I thought.In the darkness, I don’t think with my heart or with my head. I don’t have any. Others will come and they’ll tell my story. It’ll sound different from their lips.I’ve never been different than everyone else. All my life I endeavored to stay in the middle of the road, not to be too high or too low, too smart or too dumb. I didn’t want to stand out in any way and, in the end, that was the thing that made me stand out, the thing my husband fell in love with.

  16. talking back: biography as friendship in anna banti's artemisia1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Writing the life of another woman requires some of the same qualities ... marks Artemisia's second death; the first being the artist's prolonged absence from ..... has come under discussion again in a recent debate following the publication of monographs .... post-war Italy, the narrator recognises Artemisia's struggle and.

  17. Ettevaatust! Nüüdistants / Anna-Liisa Villmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Villmann, Anna-Liisa

    2010-01-01

    11. Augusti Tantsufestivalist Tallinnas. Lühidalt Ele Viskuse etendusest "Taidlusrühm Rähn", Liis Ilula etendusest "Älis mnimedemaal", Henri Hüti etendusest "The reader", Mihkel Ernitsa vabaõhuetendusest "Kehanäppajad". Brüsseli nüüdistantsu kooli P.A.R.T.S. etendustest. Samas 14.-28. augustini kestva festivali kavast

  18. Vzaimovõgodnõi dialog / Anna Belova ; interv. Mihhail Tuzhikov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Belova, Anna

    2004-01-01

    Moskvas toimus rahvusvaheline konverents "Venemaa ja Baltimaad Euroopas. Majanduslik dialoog: täna ja homme". Ettevõtte "Venemaa raudteed" asepresident raudtee-alasest integratsiooniprotsessist ning rahvusvahelistest transpordiprojektidest

  19. Anna Dziemianko. User-friendliness of Verb Syntax in Pedagogical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    Dziemianko questions the benefits of often oversophisticated and heavy code systems, especially for language users with limited dictionary skills. Statistical research has shown how cryptic the syntac- tic patterns presented by dictionaries can appear for the common user. The lack of standardisation between dictionaries is ...

  20. Ne/zhenskii put karjerõ / Anna Litvinjuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Litvinjuk, Anna

    2007-01-01

    Termin "glass ceiling" (klaaslagi) võeti kasutusele USA-s umbes paarkümmend aastat tagasi, nii nimetasid uurijad kunstlikult loodud nähtamatut, kuid läbimatut takistust karjääriredelil liikujaile. Sagedamini kasutatakse terminit, kui juttu tuleb ühiskonnas ja äris eksisteerivast diskrimineerimisest soolise või rahvusliku tunnuse järgi. Eestis astutakse esimesi samme soolise võrdsuse tagamiseks, 2004. aastal läbi viidud uuringu tulemustest

  1. Keelekontaktid, laenatavus ja verbi kopeerimine eestivene keelevariandis / Anna Verschik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Verschik, Anna, 1968-

    2007-01-01

    Vaadeldakse eestivene verbikopeerimise markantsemaid juhtumeid. Tutvustatakse ka mitmesuguseid laenatavuse hierarhiaid, kognitiiv-pragmaatilisi ja semantilisi lähenemisi ning koodikopeerimise mudelit.

  2. Nezemnõje mirõ Olega Võssotskogo / Anna Litvinjuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Litvinjuk, Anna

    2006-01-01

    Tallinnas elava kunstniku Oleg Võssotski kosmoseteemalisest loomingust. Tema maalinäitus "Terra Indigo" avati Vene Draamateatri galerii praeguses näitusepaigas juveeligaleriis Bindes. Autor enda loomeprotsessist

  3. Kodumaise ruladisaini uuestisünd / Anna-Liisa Villmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Villmann, Anna-Liisa

    2010-01-01

    Elukutselise rulasõitja, neljakordse Soome meistri Kristel Orasmäe loodud kaubamärgist High Fly, mille kujunduse tegi Eesti Kunstiakadeemias graafilise disaini osakonnas õppiv Taavi Drell. Toodang tellitakse välismaisest tehasest. High Fly rulakomplekti rahvusvahelisele turule viimise plaanidest, kevadel avatud rulakoolist, mille tulu läheb uue rulapargi rajamiseks

  4. Kui hoolid keskkonnast, anna sellest ka teistele teada / Liina Joller

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Joller, Liina

    2008-01-01

    Turundusharu, mis kasutab peamise argumendina just keskkonnasõbralikkust, on hakatud kutsuma roheliseks turunduseks (green marketing). Vt. samas: Vastutustundliku ettevõtluse ja rohelise turunduse seosed; E-dokumendid - lihtne viis keskkonda hoida

  5. Gorod nagrazhdajet teh, kto ego ukrasil / Anna Orshanskaja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Orshanskaja, Anna

    2006-01-01

    Konkursi "Kaunis Eesti kodu 2006" võitjate autasustamisest Narva lossis. Konkursist. أKodu kauniksؤ (käesolevast aastast uue nimega أKaunis Eesti koduؤ) liikumise taastas 1997. aastal president Lennart Meri

  6. Blog.tr.ee ei anna alla / Raigo Neudorf

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Neudorf, Raigo

    2007-01-01

    Veebikeskkonna blog.tr.ee arengust ja majandamisest räägivad keskkonna looja Andris Reinmann ja firma OÜ Tr.ee osaniku Mobi Solutions'i esindaja Rain Rannu. Vt. samas: Mis on blog.tr.ee; Kaljundi: blog.tr.ee on hobiprojekt. Kommenteerib nagi.ee juhataja Jüri Kaljundi. Lisatud joonis: Blog.tr.ee unikaalsete külastajate arv nädalas

  7. Estonian Leader's Freedom Call Creates Storm / Anna Smolchenko

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Smolchenko, Anna

    2008-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilvese esinemisest soome-ugri rahvaste maailmakongressil Hantõ-Mansiiskis, kohtumisest Venemaa presidendi Dmitri Medvedeviga, Eesti delegatsiooni saalist väljamarssimisest Venemaa riigiduuma väliskomisjoni esimehe Konstantin Kossatshovi sõnavõtu ajal. Ilmunud ka: St. Petersburg Times 1. juuli 2008, pealk.: Estonian Leader's Freedom Call Creates Controversy (lüh.). Vabariigi President töövisiidil Venemaal 27.-30.06.2008

  8. Long distance commutes by lesser long-nosed bats (Leptonycteris yerbabuenae) to visit residential hummingbird feeders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debbie C. Buecher; Ronnie. Sidner

    2013-01-01

    Each spring, thousands of female lesser long-nosed bats (Leptonycteris yerbabuenae) migrate from southern Mexico to northern Sonora and southern Arizona to have their young and take advantage of seasonably available forage resources, including nectar, pollen, and fruit of columnar cacti. Once the pups are volant, the population begins to disperse across the grasslands...

  9. High proportion of smaller ranged hummingbird species coincides with ecological specialization across the Americas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Jesper; Martín González, Ana M.; Maruyama, Pietro K.

    2016-01-01

    Ecological communities that experience stable climate conditions have been speculated to preserve more specialized interspecific associations and have higher proportions of smaller ranged species (SRS). Thus, areas with disproportionally large numbers of SRS are expected to coincide geographicall...

  10. Enzyme mechanisms for pyruvate-to-lactate flux attenuation: a study of Sherpas, Quechuas, and hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochachka, P W; Stanley, C; McKenzie, D C; Villena, A; Monge, C

    1992-10-01

    During incremental exercise to fatigue under hypobaric hypoxia, Andean Quechua natives form and accumulate less plasma lactate than do lowlanders under similar conditions. This phenomenon of low lactate accumulation despite hypobaric hypoxia, first discovered some half century ago, is known in Quechuas to be largely unaffected by acute exposure to hypoxia or by acclimatization to sea level conditions. Earlier Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and metabolic biochemistry studies suggest that closer coupling of energy demand and energy supply in Quechuas allows given changes in work rate with relatively modest changes in muscle adenylate and phosphagen concentrations, thus tempering the activation of glycolytic flux to pyruvate--a coarse control mechanism operating at the level of overall pathway flux. Later studies of enzyme activities in skeletal muscles of Quechuas and of Sherpas have identified a finely-tuned control mechanism which by adaptive modifications of a few key enzymes apparently serves to specifically attenuate pyruvate flux to lactate.

  11. Spatial segregation of the endemic versus non-endemic hummingbird on Robinson Crusoe Island, Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vizentin-Bugoni, Jeferson; Sonne, Jesper; Hodum, Peter

    2017-01-01

    , little attention has been given to the influence of interspecific competition for floral nectar resources. In this study, we investigated the existence of interspecific competition by testing for spatial segregation of the two species using point counts dispersed within their suitable habitats. We...

  12. Detection of macro-ecological patterns in South American hummingbirds is affected by spatial scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek, Carsten; Graves, Gary R.

    2000-01-01

    Scale is widely recognized as a fundamental conceptual problem in biology, but the question of whether species-richness patterns vary with scale is often ignored in macro-ecological analyses, despite the increasing application of such data in international conservation programmes. We tested for s...... peaks, decreasing the power of statistical tests to discriminate the causal agents of regional richness gradients. Ideally, the scale of analysis should be varied systematically to provide the optimal resolution of macro-ecological pattern....

  13. Hummingbird - A Very Low Cost, High Delta V Spacecraft for Solar System Exploration, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Based on Microcosm's development of a high delta-V small Earth observation spacecraft called NanoEye, with a planned recurring cost of $2 million, Microcosm will...

  14. MAXIMAL HORIZONTAL FLIGHT PERFORMANCE OF HUMMINGBIRDS: EFFECTS OF BODY MASS AND MOLT. (U915655)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  15. Collecting history of the hummingbird genera Chaetocercus Gray, 1855 and Lophornis Lesson, 1829

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freymann, B; Schuchmann, KL

    We examined the Chaetocercus and Lophornis holdings of 21 European, US and South American avian collections. Only skin specimens with exact (to the year) collecting dates and reliable locality data on their labels, which could be checked personally, were analysed. We located 466 Chaetocercus and 373

  16. Cultural traits of the Vends in the archaeological material from the Salaspils Laukskola cemetary / Anna Zariạ

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Zariạ, Anna

    2006-01-01

    Väina-äärse liivi kalmistu leiud näitavad, et liivlaste kultuurile on jätnud jälje ka vendid (Kuramaa lännemeresoomlastest asukad). Vendid, kes 10. 12. saj. Põhja-Kuramaalt välja rändasid, võisid elama asuma Daugavaalamjooksule Laukskola külla. Vendide kultuurile iseloomulikust rõivakaunistusviisist

  17. Prantsuse tippnäitleja Perrier mängib Anna Politkovskaja lugu / Andres Laasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laasik, Andres, 1960-2016

    2009-01-01

    20. ja 21. okt. näeb Tallinnas Katariina kirikus prantsuse näitlejanna Mireille Perrier` esituses monotükki "Parandamatu", mis põhineb itaallase Stefano Massini näidendil "Donna non rieducabile". Tallinnasse kutsus näitlejanna esinema Lembit Peterson

  18. Carl Linnaeus, Erasmus Darwin and Anna Seward: Botanical Poetry and Female Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Sam

    2014-01-01

    This article will explore the intersection between "literature" and "science" in one key area, the botanical poem with scientific notes. It reveals significant aspects of the way knowledge was gendered in the Enlightenment, which is relevant to the present-day education of girls in science. It aims to illustrate how members of…

  19. Oma ala meistriks saab igaüks isemoodi / Anna-Liisa Mets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mets, Anna-Liisa

    2014-01-01

    Selgusid kutsemeistrivõistluse "Noor meister 2014" parimad. Edukalt esinenud õppurid meisterkondiiter Helen Laht, ehituspuussepp Mirko Pruus, logistik Karl-Erik Maripuu, keskkonnatehnika lukksepp Robert Born, elektrik Tiit Talts ja müürsepp Sander Hindrikus räägivad oma ametiõpingutest ja tulevikuplaanidest

  20. Fabre Daniel, Iuso Anna, (Dir., Les monuments sont habités

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Rivière

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Un coup fumant en couverture ! Une pyramide pharaonique, au pied de laquelle un touriste a laissé sa twingo verte, laisse échapper d’une cheminée un joli panache. Hello, mon vieux Kheops !... Pilote de la recherche patrimoniale au Ministère de la Culture, C. Hottin énonce d’abord sa mission monumentale de sauvegarde de châteaux et cités en adoptant le point de vue de D. Fabre sur la dynamique : déclassement du stigmate – classement comme mémoire – sur-classement pour une glorification, ainsi ...

  1. Povjestvovanije iz onogo mira. Sjuzan Taubes: Divorcing i Marija Rybakova: Anna Grom i jeje prizrak

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ulbrechtová, Helena

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 82, 1/2 (2013), s. 225-234 ISSN 0037-6736. [Mezinárodní sjezd slavistů /15./. Minsk, 20.08.2013-27.08.2013] Grant - others:program interní podpory projektů mezinárodní spolupráce AV ČR(CZ) M300921201 Institutional support: RVO:68378017 Keywords : literature * gnosticism * Taubes, Susan * Rybakova, Maria Subject RIV: AJ - Letters, Mass-media, Audiovision

  2. Hispaania otsib sõdurite hukkumise põhjust Afganistanis / Anna-Maria Penu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Penu, Anna-Maria, 1978-

    2005-01-01

    Hispaania peaminister Jose Luis Rodriguez katkestas seoses 17 Hispaania sõduri hukkumisega Afganistanis toimud kopteriõnnetuses oma puhkuse. Vasakpoolsed parteid nõuavad sõjaväe Afganistanist äratoomist. Afganistanis on praegu 850 Hispaania sõdurit, rahumissioonidel on neid kokku üle 2000. Vt. samas: Tugev tuul, tehniline rike või ikkagi mässuliste rünnak

  3. Baski terroristid on saavutanud suure võidu / Anna-Maria Penu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Penu, Anna-Maria, 1978-

    2005-01-01

    Hispaania peaministri Jose Luis Rodriquez Zapatero otsus alustada baski terroriorganisatsiooniga ETA läbirääkimisi ei leia mõistmist opositsioonis oleva Rahvapartei toetajate ja terroriohvrite omaste hulgas

  4. Kelle süül ikkagi nurjus Baskimaa rahuprotsess? / Anna-Maria Penu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Penu, Anna-Maria, 1978-

    2007-01-01

    Madridi lennujaama terminalis plahvatas pomm, riigi siseministri sõnul lõpetas see rahuprotsessi. Autori hinnangul eksis peaminister Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapatero, uskudes, et Baskimaa probleem on küpseks dialoogiks valmis. Lisa: Rahuvahendaja tekitas segadust

  5. Anna Dziemianko. User-friendliness of Verb Syntax in Pedagogical Dictionaries of English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaël Abecassis

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available To be user-friendly, monolingual and bilingual dictionaries for foreign users must be both easy to use and easy to read. They are designed to help prospective users both encode and decode, and to facilitate the comprehension of some vocabulary items or particular grammatical constructions. However, it often happens in practice that dictionaries are not used fully because some users are not aware of the richness of their contents. In carrying out the redesign of their dictionaries, lexicographers have been helped greatly by the views, needs, and preferences of a wide range of language users, many of them, of course, from schools and universities as well as general language learners. Further adaptations always follow, based on the experience of using a new dictionary and for this purpose feedback is always of great importance. In the process of establishing a user-friendly dictionary, the changes, though extensive, remain modest but in the much longer term, more complex changes take place to incorporate revisions and give them new clarity and coherence across the many and expanding contexts in which they are used. Whether this redesign actually helps users is the subject of much research. Both traditional and electronic dictionaries have now included a large number of tools in the definition, such as IPA pronunciation, examples and syntactic information, often presented in the shape of codes which will enable users not only to understand a particular structure, but to be able to reuse it.

  6. Called to Teach: Percy and Anna Pennybacker's Contributions to Education in Texas, 1880-1899

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Kelley M.

    2012-01-01

    In 1879, with aid from the Peabody fund, Texas's first tax-supported teacher training institution, Sam Houston State Normal Institute (SHNI), opened on the site of the old Austin College in Huntsville (Richmond 1941, 37). The need for qualified educators in Texas was growing as the state struggled to make up for decades of neglect of and antipathy…

  7. Aegumatu Rootsi klaas ja tundmatute disainerite kummalised ideed / Anna-Liisa Soomann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soomann, Anna-Liisa

    2007-01-01

    Göteborgi disainipoodidest ja tuntud disaineritest nagu Josef Frank (1885-1967), Carl Malmsten (1888-1972), Bruno Mathsson (1907-1988), Jonas Bohlin (1953), Marten Claesson (1970), Eero Koivisto (1958), Ola Rune (1963), Pia Wallen (1957), Thomas Sandell (1959) ja Pia Törnell (1963)

  8. Johani ja Anna-Liisa vana valge / Agneta Land-Koskinen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Land-Koskinen, Agneta

    2007-01-01

    Renoveeritud vanas majas asuv korter, kus seinad on valged, mis on antiiksetele esemetele ja huvitavatele disainileidudele parimaks taustaks. Kultusobjektideks valgustid, nende hulgas ka Verner Pantoni ja Louis Poulseni loomingut

  9. Madalam latt : Anna oma jalgadele jõud isolatsiooniharjutuste, sangpommide ja õigete korduste seguga / David Barr

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Barr, David

    2009-01-01

    Vastused küsimustele: Mis on kang rinnal küki ja kang turjal küki vahe? Kas sangpommitreeningut peaks tegema pärast raskuste tõstmist või eraldi treeninguna? Mis on parim raskuste ja korduste suhe jalgade lihasmassi kasvatamiseks?

  10. North Anna Power Station, Unit 2, Technical specifications: Appendix ''A'' to License No. NPF-7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The document includes sections on definitions, safety limits and limiting safety systems settings, limiting conditions for operation and surveillance requirements, design features, and administrative controls

  11. Emociones y sensaciones en educación infantil: El monstruo de colores de Anna Llenas

    OpenAIRE

    García Torres, María Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Este TFG consta de una parte teórica en la que se aborda el concepto de cuento tradicional, siguiendo su evolución hasta llegar a la narrativa infantil actual en sus nuevos formatos de presentación: el álbum ilustrado y el novedoso pop-up. Por otro lado, mi estudio introductorio se complementa con la documentación sobre algunas compañías de teatro que centran su trabajo en la primera infancia y utilizan recursos basados también en la recepción sensorial y en el estímulo de la inteligencia em...

  12. Daniel Pipes: saabuvad kriisid näitavad Euroopa arengusuunda / Daniel Pipes ; interv. Iivi Anna Masso

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pipes, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Lähis-Ida uurija vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad Iisraeli mainet, Hamasi ja Fatahi konflikti, Iisraeli ja palestiinlaste konflikti, islami ja islamismi erinevust, islamofoobia mõistet, tema ennustust islami ja Euroopa suhete kohta, sõnavabadust, vaenlast terrorismivastases sõjas, uuskonservatiivsuse mõistet, Euroopa Liitu, USA tulevaste presidendivalimiste tulemuse mõju maailmale. Uurija on seisukohal, et Euroopa ja seal elavate muslimite vahelistes suhetes kriisi ärahoidmiseks peaks Euroopa muslimid tõeliselt integreerima

  13. Red card for EU member-states? / Anna-Maria Galojan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Galojan, Anna-Maria, 1982-

    2010-01-01

    Saksamaa kantsler Angela Merkel ütles Saksamaa parlamendile, et Euroopa Liidus kehtivad reeglid pole piisavalt tugevad, et tulevikus vajab Euroopa Liit oma lepingus sätet, mis võimaldaks viimase hädaabinõuna arvata riik euroalast välja. Autor leiab, et Baltimaad võiks arvestada sellega, et reeglite täitmine võib rahvale keeruline olla

  14. Sünnitades "Ema ja tütart" / Anna Hints

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hints, Anna, 1982-

    2010-01-01

    Tartu sünnitusmajale Toomemäel, naise eluringile ja põlvkondade järjepidevusele pühendatud "Ema ja tütar" kui koha, heli, foto ja rituaalse tegevuse koostoimel sündinud autori tajuvõrgustikku dekodeeriv pärimusliku ja isikliku taustaga kunstitöö

  15. Nastojashtsheje volshebstvo bõvajet ne tolko v skazkah / Anna Orshanskaja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Orshanskaja, Anna

    1999-01-01

    Juri Plenini kirjutatud ja lavastatud jõulunäidend lastele "Santa-Klausi kuldkelluke" Kultuurimajas "Rugodiv". Mängivad täiskasvanud ja lapsed stuudiotest "Shkola klounov", "Komiksõ" ja Natalja Mõttuse juhtimisel tegutsevast lastestuudiost "Jun-Osta"

  16. Õun. Minu kõige mõttetum ost : [jutt] / Anna Hints

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hints, Anna

    2006-01-01

    Sisu: Juuli 2004 ; August 2004 ; September 2004 ; September 2004, kuskil keskel ; September 2004, lõpus ; Oktoober 2004, 1. nädal ; Oktoober 2004, 2. nädal ; Oktoober 2004, 3. nädala alguses ; Oktoober 2004, 3. nädala lõpupoole ; Oktoober 2004, 4. nädal ; November 2004, 1. nädal ; November 2004, lõpp ; Jaanuar 2005, täna

  17. EU Common Energy Policy: A Trojan Horse for Member States? / Anna-Maria Galojan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Galojan, Anna-Maria, 1982-

    2009-01-01

    Euroopa Liidu ja Venemaa suhetest energeetika valdkonnas. Autor leiab, et Eesti peaks aktiivselt osalema Euroopa Liidu ühise energiapoliitika väljatöötamisel ning mõstma, et see on osa välis- ja kaitsepoliitikast

  18. Anna Maria Jordan: Entgeltdiskriminierung in Frauenberufen? Frankfurt am Main u.a.: Peter Lang Verlag 2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Jochmann-Döll

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Die Ursachen für die statistisch feststellbaren Entgeltunterschiede zwischen Frauen und Männern sieht Jordan überwiegend in autonomen Entscheidungen von Frauen, die zum Teil durch traditionelle familiäre Strukturen und alte Rollenmuster beeinflusst werden; hinzu kommen diskriminierende Tendenzen auf Seiten der Arbeitgeber. Zur Verringerung der Entgeltlücke werden die bestehenden familienpolitischen Maßnahmen des Staates und Initiativen zur Erweiterung des Berufswahlspektrums von Frauen und Männern begrüßt. Darüber hinaus schlägt Jordan allgemeine Mindestlöhne und Frauenquoten für gewerkschaftliche Führungspositionen vor. Eine gerichtliche Überprüfbarkeit des Prinzips des gleichen Entgelts für gleichwertige Arbeit wird jedoch abgelehnt, da sich der Wert von Arbeit nicht objektiv bestimmen lasse.Jordan sees the reasons for the statistically detectable differences in remuneration between women and men mainly in autonomous decisions by women, who are in parts influenced by traditional family structures and old role models, paired with discriminating tendencies on the employer side. Jordan appreciates the state’s existing family political measures as well as initiatives that aim at expanding the range of career choices of women and men. Furthermore, Jordan suggests general minimum wages and female quotas for union managerial positions. However, the author rejects a legal verifiability of the principle of equal pay for equal work since the value of work cannot be determined objectively.

  19. James Hurman "Sisuturundus ei anna kiiret lühiajalist efekti" / intervjueerinud Hando Sinisalu, Heidi Tiik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hurman, James

    2016-01-01

    Intervjuu Passwordi konverentsil ettekandega "Loovus ja äriedu: tõestus selle kohta, et loovad reklaamid suurendavad ärilist edukust" esineva James Hurmaniga edukatest kampaaniatest ja sisuturunduse efektiivsusest

  20. Uus näitlejapõlvkond endale armu ei anna / Margit Tõnson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tõnson, Margit, 1978-

    2010-01-01

    Eesti Muusika- ja Teatriakadeemia lavakunstikooli XXV lennu bakalaureuselavastus "Jumala narride Vennaskond" Tallinna Linnateatris. Lavastaja Elmo Nüganen, autor Peter Barnes. Juhan Ulfsaki lavastusest "Idioodid" Lars von Trieri samanimelise filmi järgi Von Krahli teatris. Mängivad TÜ Viljandi Kultuuriakadeemia teatrikunsti 8. lennu Von Krahli kursuslased

  1. Die Weiterverbreitung digitaler Güter / Jochen Marly, Anna-Lena Wirz

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Marly, Jochen

    2017-01-01

    Autoriõigusega kaitstud digitaalse materjaliga seotud probleemidest, Euroopa Kohtu lahendist 174/15, mis käsitleb küsimust, kas raamatukogudel on lubatud laenata autoriõigustega kaitstud digitaalset E-raamatut samamoodi nagu paberkandjal raamatut. Vt. ka lk. 20-23

  2. Edgar Savisaar : Mina ei anna mitte mingit hinnangut / Edgar Savisaar ; interv. Dannar Leitmaa, Holger Roonemaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Savisaar, Edgar, 1950-

    2008-01-01

    Tallinna linnapea vastused linnavalitsuse pressikonverentsil küsimustele, mis puudutasid Keskerakonna suurrahastaja Oliver Kruuda omavolilist ehitamist Nõmmel. Vt. samas: Holger Roonemaa. Inspektorid ei pannud Kruuda tegevust tähele

  3. The generational relay race Boðhlaup kynslóðanna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gylfi Magnússon

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the development of private consumption, public consumption, national and domestic product in Iceland from 1870 to present times and projects likely changes for the next 50 years. It is established that the later people are born during this period the greater will their consumption be on average. The difference from one generation to the next is very large in the early part of the period analyzed here. It has since shrunk but is still substantial. Children born in the year 2010 can expect that their lifetime private consumption will be 22% larger than their parents and their consumption of public goods 78% larger. Both private and public consumption have increased substantially from one generation to the next but public consumption has grown faster. The article also estimates the value of the Icelandic economy based on its ability to create goods and services and finds that it was 51.100 billion ISK in the year 2011. That is sixty times greater than in the year 1870.Grein þessi fjallar um þróun einkaneyslu, samneyslu, þjóðar- og landsframleiðslu og eignir Íslendinga frá árinu 1870 og til vorra daga auk þess að spá líklegri þróun 50 ár fram í tímann. Í ljós kemur að því síðar sem fólk fæðist á þeim tíma sem skoðaður er þeim mun meiri verður neysla þeirra að jafnaði. Mjög mikill munur er á neyslu einstakra kynslóða framan af tímabilinu. Hann fer síðan minnkandi en er þó áfram talsverður. Þannig geta börn fædd árið 2010 vænst þess að samanlögð einkaneysla þeirra alla ævina verði um 22% meiri en foreldranna og samneysla 78% meiri. Bæði einkaneysla og samneysla hafa aukist verulega frá einni kynslóð til annarrar en þó samneysla hlutfallslega meira. Í greininni er jafnframt lagt mat á verðmæti íslenska hagkerfisins í ljósi framleiðslugetu þess og er niðurstaðan um 51.100 milljarðar árið 2011. Það er sextugföldun frá árinu 1870.

  4. DOE ZERH Case Study: Charles Thomas Homes, Anna Model, Omaha, NE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2015-09-01

    Case study of a DOE 2015 Housing Innovation Award winning custom home in the cold climate that got a HERS 48 without PV, with 2x6 24” on center walls with R-23 blown fiberglass, ocsf at rim joists, basement with plus 2x4 stud walls with R-23 blown fiberglass, with R-20 around slab, R-38 under slab; a vented attic with R-100 blown cellulose; 95% AFUE furnace, 14 SEER AC, ERV; heat pump water heater.

  5. Lesnoi tsvetok : [luuletused] / Anna Haava ; lühibiograafia: O. K. [Oskar Kruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Haava, Anna, pseud., 1864-1957

    1999-01-01

    Sisu: Lesnoi tsvetok 1-2 / tlk. Bronislav Kezhun ; Net, stih ne vetrõ navevajut / tlk. Nora Javorskaja ; Odin lish raz ljubov bõvajet / tlk. B. Kezhun ; "Zabotõ svoi shoronila..." / tlk. Marina Tervonen ; Sodom i Gomorra / tlk. V. Sokolov ; Oh, rodina ; Vetra, tshto mansardu moju produvali / tlk. Nora Javorskaja. Orig.: Nõmmelill 1-2 ; Ei tule luule tuulest ; Üks ainus kord ; Mu mured kõik matsin ma maha ; Sina, Soodom ja Gomorra ; Oh kodumaa ; Kui puhus mu katusekambri tuul

  6. Field Report : Anna Plains and Roebuck Bay Benthic Invertebrate Mapping 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piersma, Theunis; Pearson, Grant B.; Lavaleye, Marc S. S.; Hickey, Robert; Rogers, Danny; Holthuijsen, Sander; Estrella, Sora-Marin; de Goeij, Petra; Findlay, Naomi; Storey, Andrew W.

    2016-01-01

    This project has been funded by the Department of Parks and Wildlife partnership with BHP Billiton “Eighty Mile Beach and Walyarta Conservation Program”, with in-kind support from NIOZ and Wetland Research & Management This report was produced at the Broome Bird Observatory in late October 2016.

  7. "Notshnoi dozor" : Trofimov, Bortnik i Ahhedzhakova pobojalis igrat netshist / Anna Veligzhanina, Andrei Veligzhanin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Veligzhanina, Anna

    2004-01-01

    Venemaal suure menuga linastunud fantaasiafilm Moskva vampiiridest "Öine patrull" ("Notshnoi dozor"). Osatäitjatest, ka neist, kes ei läbinud proovivõtteid, kui ka neist, kes pelgasid musti jõude ja vampiire mängida

  8. Endine Briti kaitseatašee Eestis : raiskajad tuleks vangi panna / Anna-Liisa Soomann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soomann, Anna-Liisa

    2007-01-01

    Aastaid Eestis Suurbritannia kaitseatašeena töötanud ning hiljem kaitseministeeriumi nõustanud kolonelleitnant Glen Grant kritiseeris pärast Eestist lahkumist siinsete kaitsejõudude ülesehitust ning ametkondades levivat ressursside raiskamist. Lisa: Glen Grant. Vt. samas: Holger Roonemaa intervjuu Ants Laaneotsaga

  9. Anna Łebkowska, Empatia. O literackich narracjach przełomu XX i XXI wieku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Suchańska

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Empathie. À propos des narrations littéraires au tournant des XXe et XXIe siècles est le premier essai polonais qui analyse la prose à travers le prisme de l’empathie. Les travaux antérieurs consacrés à cette thématique (à l’instar de ceux de Michał Głowiński ou de Jarosław Płuciennik ne s’intéressent pas à l’empathie comme catégorie littéraire indépendante. Ils ne montrent pas les contextes possibles de sa compréhension ni les mécanismes empathiques sur fond de prose contemporaine. Le livre...

  10. Students̀ interest to studying English in a higher institution / Anna Artamonova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Artamonova, Anna

    2001-01-01

    Läti Ülikooli inglise keele osakonnas korraldati 2001.a. sept.-s kaugõppe üliõpilaste küsitlus. Küsitlustulemuste analüüsist selgus, et üliõpilastel on tugev saavutusmotivatsioon, st. nad soovivad omandada sügavaid teadmisi inglise keelest, saada kõrge kvalifikatsiooniga spetsialistiks, kuid ei ole samas huvitatud inglise kirjandusest kui erialast, soovides töötad teistel erialadel

  11. 76 FR 23846 - Virginia Electric Power Company, LLC, North Anna Power Station, Unit No. 1; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-28

    ... Commission) now or hereafter in effect. The facility consists of a pressurized-water reactor located in... from all potential pressurized and unpressurized leakage sites in the reactor coolant pump lube oil... prevention, detection, control, extinguishment and preservation of safe shutdown capability is addressed for...

  12. Starõje kozõri v novoi igre / Anna Litvinjuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Litvinjuk, Anna

    2007-01-01

    Eesti arstkond on veendunud, et senise rahastamissüsteemiga jätkates pole edaspidi võimalik osutada samas mahus tervishoiuteenuseid ja 17. jaanuari tervishoiutöötajate streik on endiselt päevakorras

  13. I have to have a mask, a mad mask”. Polemicising with Maria Anna Potocka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Okołowicz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Polemicising with Maria A. Potocka’s view, the author reflects on the problem of mask and facial expression in the life and work of S.I. Witkiewicz. They appear here as an expression of philosophy of man, a specific feature of the personality of the author of Szewcy [The Shoemakers] whose whole life, artistic and philosophical activity was marked by “facial expression”. The article also reminds the unusually important texts of Stefan Szuman, Witkacy’s friend, who points to the essence of Witkacy’s portraits. The last question discussed in this article is the problem of ascribing to Witkacy of the authorship of most of the photographs in which he is presented (since they are a documentation of his artistic creations while actually the authors of these photographs are a dozen or so photographer friends of Witkacy.

  14. Tänapäevased liikursuurtükid / Anna Kern

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kern, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Riigikaitse arengukavas (a. 2013-2022) on ette nähtud võimalused 1. jalaväebrigaadile hankida tänapäevased liikursuurtükid. Ülevaade liikursuurtükkide loomisest, kasutamisest sõdades ja tänapäevase liikursuurtüki iseloomustus. Näiteid erinevtest liikursuurtükkidest: Archer (Rootsi), Panzerhaubitze 2000 (Saksamaa), Caesar (Prantsusmaa), M777 (USA). Lisatud tabel tehniliste andmetega

  15. Alaskan Native High School Dropouts: A Report Prepared for Project ANNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Desa

    Presented is a summary of the Alaskan Native high school dropouts. The data collected on 180 Native Alaskan high school dropouts was taken from the regional dormitories at Nome, Kodiak, Bethel and Boarding Home programs in Anchorage, Tok, Fairbanks, Dillingham, and Ketchikan. Students who terminated for academic reasons, failed to attend school,…

  16. Remote Search and Seizure in Domestic Criminal Procedure: Estonian Case Study / Anna-Maria Osula

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Osula, Anna-Maria, 1984-

    2016-01-01

    Euroopa Nõukogu arvutikuritegevusvastase konventsiooni artiklitest, mis on seotud kaugläbiotsimisega, artikli (32)b tõlgendamisraskustest. Erinevate riikide s.h. Eesti kaugläbiotsimise regulatsioonide võrdlus

  17. Optimization Study for Hovering Flapping Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocanegra Evans, Humberto; Allen, James J.; Balakumar, B. J.

    2009-11-01

    A scaled robotic hummingbird model was used to perform a flow analysis of hovering flight at a range of Reynolds numbers (1,750hummingbird hovers (Re 3600), which suggests that hummingbirds hover in a highly efficient manner.

  18. Generationen weiblicher Dichter um 1700 in Altenburg. Anna Carrdus legt eine sorgfältige Textedition vor Generations of Female Poets Around 1700 in Altenburg—Anna Carrdus Presents a Careful Edition of Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mechthilde Vahsen

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Es lässt sich nicht sagen, dass mit Margaretha Susanna von Kuntsch alles anfing, aber die in Altenburg um 1700 ansässige Frau ist intensiv mit dem geistigen und kulturellen Leben der aufstrebenden Stadt verbunden. Ebenso wie 16 andere Frauen, größtenteils aus ihrem Verwandten- und Freundeskreis. Sie alle zeichnen sich dadurch aus, dass sie Gedichte verfassen, die nun in einer hervorragend edierten und kommentierten Ausgabe vorliegen. Damit werden Werke von Autorinnen der Frühen Neuzeit der literarisch interessierten, breiten Öffentlichkeit wieder zugänglich gemacht: Ein existentiell wichtiger Beitrag zur Geschlechtergeschichte, der sich dem Werk und der Wiederentdeckung von Autorinnen widmet.It is impossible to claim that everything began with Margaretha Susanna von Kutsch, however this woman who lived in Altenburg around 1700 is integrally connected to the intellectual and cultural life of the aspiring city. This is also the case for 16 other women, the majority of whom were part of her family or circle of friends. Each of these women wrote poetry, which is now presented in an excellently edited and commented volume. Texts by female authors of the early modern period are thus now made accessible to a wide literary public. The volume is an important contribution to gender history that devotes itself to the work and rediscovery of female authors.

  19. Convergent evolution of sunbird pollination systems of Impatiens species in tropical Africa and hummingbird systems of the New World

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janeček, Štěpán; Bartoš, Michael; Njabo, K. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 115, č. 1 (2015), s. 127-133 ISSN 0024-4066 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP505/11/1617 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Cameroon * co-evolution * pollination Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.984, year: 2015

  20. 75 FR 9449 - Virginia Electric and Power Company; North Anna Power Station, Unit Nos. 1 and 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    ... requirements of this section through its Commission-approved Physical Security Plan, Training and Qualification Plan, Safeguards Contingency Plan, and Cyber Security Plan referred to collectively hereafter as...

  1. "Stay where you have been put!" : the use of spears as coffin nails in late iron age Finland / Anna Wickholm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Wickholm, Anna

    2006-01-01

    11. sajandi lõust 12. sajandi algusest on Hämest teada vanematesse kalmetesse kaevatud matused, mis on erilised selle poolest, et kirstukaaned on kinni naelutatud odade, mõõkade ja teiste terariistadega. Erilise matmisviisi võimalikest tõlgendustest

  2. 76 FR 59745 - Virginia Electric and Power Company; North Anna Power Station, Unit Nos. 1 and 2; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-27

    ... staff augmentation that can only be practically achieved through the use of work hours in excess of the... not have a significant effect on the quality of the human environment published in the Federal...

  3. Miks Milla? = Почему Милла? / Anna Fedina

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Fedina, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Hollandi režissöör Paul Verhoeven valis filmi "Lumekuninganna" Amalia Bežetskaja rolli Milla Jovovichi. Film vändatakse Boriss Akunini romaani "Azazel" / "The Winter Queen" järgi. Filmivõtete algus on planeeritud juuliks 2009 Peterburis

  4. [A transference from somewhere else: reevaluation of the controversies between Melanie Klein and Anna Freud (of noise and silence)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado de Oliveira, L E

    1995-01-01

    Starting from The Freud-Klein Controversies, the author explores the historical reality of these controversies and their transformations into myth which give them the appearance of titanic fights. The verification of the different periods, the description of the variations in themes and style of intervention of the principal actors of these debates show aspects of the way a psychoanalytic institute works and of the theoretical elaboration in psychoanalysis: these appear very different from what the myth suggests. The major function of myth is, as Freud noted and Strachey reminds us, to hide very trite, even shameful realities. History and myth, theoritical effort and institutional life are all organized from and around transference, a major axis of psychoanalytic thought. When we organize our psychoanalytic lives in societies, we have the pride or the vanity of participating in a great historical movement. This goes back to the work of transference in institutional life that involves primal objects in the crudeness of their sexuality. Such is the constraining strength of transference. Being fully conscious of it, like Stratchey or Balint show us, enables to alleviate its violence and stimulate creativity.

  5. Deutsche Bahn jätkab majanduskriisile vaatamata koostööprojekte Venemaal / Gebhard Hafer ; intervjueerinud Anna Nezhinskaya

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hafer, Gebhard

    2009-01-01

    Deutsche Bahni SRÜ riikide ja Ida-Euroopa rahvusvahelise osakonna direktor Gebhard Hafer vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad majanduskriisi mõju ettevõtte tegevusele, töötajate koondamisest hoidumisest, päevakorras olevaid Saksa-Venemaa projekte ning transiidi arengut Hiinast

  6. Täidesaatev jurisdiktsioon ja piiriülene kaugläbiotsimine / Anna-Maria Osula

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Osula, Anna-Maria, 1984-

    2017-01-01

    Täidesaatva jurisdiktsiooni piiritlemisest piiriülese kaugläbiotsimise puhul. Piiriülesest kaugläbiotsimisest ja teise riigi territoriaalse suveräänsuse võimalikust rikkumisest. Erinevate riikide kaugläbiotsimise regulatsioonide võrdlus

  7. Status Quo in Kadriorg (Presidential residence) or a coalition based on the "world view"? / Anna-Maria Galojan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Galojan, Anna-Maria, 1982-

    2011-01-01

    29. augustil 2011 Eestis toimuvatel presidendivalimistel peaks võitma praegune riigipea Toomas Hendrik Ilves, kuna Reformierakond, Isamaa ja Res Publica Liit ja Sotsiaaldemokraatlik Erakond on lubanud teda toetada. Autor kahtleb Eesti demokraatlikkuses

  8. Krediidiasutuse kohustused rahapesu tõkestamisel : [bakalaureusetöö] / Tuuli Tõnsau ; Tartu Ülikool, õigusteaduskond ; juhendaja Anna Markina

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tõnsau, Tuuli

    2010-01-01

    Rahapesu olemusest ja kujunemisest, olukorrast Eestis, regulatsioonist Eesti ja Euroopa Liidu õiguses, krediidiasutuste kohustustest ja vastutusest, pangasaladusest. Vastanduvatest kohustustest - rahapesu tõkestamisest ja pangasaladuse kaitsest

  9. Linguists and lawyers. Issues we confront : Arbeiten zu Sprache und Recht. Ed. by Jan Engberg, Anna Trosborg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Jan; Trosborg, Anna

    Bogen er et samleværk, der bygger på bidrag til en større international konference om sprog og jura, afholdt ved HHÅ i august 1994. Bidragene er skrevet dels af jurister, der arbejder med forbedring og effektivisering af sprogbrugen inden for det juridiske område, dels af lingvister, der arbejder...

  10. Laste jumalapilt ja usuõpetus usuvõõras kontekstis / Anna-Katharina Szagun ; tõlkinud Pille Valk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Szagun, Anna-Katharina

    2008-01-01

    Artikkel on kokkuvõte raamatus Dem sprachlosen Sprache verleihen. Rostocker Langzeitstudie zu Gottesverständis und Gottesbeziehung von Kindersm die in mehrheitlich konfessionslosem Kontext aufwachen (Paideia, 2006) publitseeritud uurimuse tulemustest

  11. 75 FR 76495 - Virginia Electric and Power Company North Anna Power Station, Unit Nos. 1 and 2 Surry Power...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ..., Supplement 1 and 2, ``Use of Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) 99-01, Methodology for Development of Emergency.... Environmental Impacts of the Proposed Action The NRC has completed its environmental assessment of the proposed... NRC concludes that there are no significant environmental impacts associated with the proposed action...

  12. 78 FR 46616 - Virginia Electric and Power Company; North Anna Power Station, Units 1 and 2; Surry Power Station...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) 99-01, Methodology for Development of Emergency Action Levels.'' The... readily accessible means available in the Control Room. Environmental Impacts of the Proposed Action The... that there are no significant environmental impacts associated with the proposed action. Environmental...

  13. Baltic 21 - an exiting and concrete co-operation for sustainable development / Anna Carin Thomer, Sven Sjögren

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Thomer, Anna Carin

    2002-01-01

    Läänemere Agenda 21 koostööga on seotud 11 riiki, 30 aasta perspektiivis pürgitakse säästva arengu poole, hõlmates kaheksat valdkonda: põllumajandust, energeetikat, kalandust, metsandust, tööstust, turismi, transporti ja haridust

  14. Franco surma-aastapäeval tuletati meelde diktaatori sünget võimuaega / Anna-Maria Penu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Penu, Anna-Maria, 1978-

    2005-01-01

    Hispaania diktaatorist kindral Francisco Francost, kelle surmast möödus 30 aastat. Franco-aegsest Hispaaniast. Lisa: Franco vastased unustati. Vt. samas: Franco maine 30 aastat hiljem: nostalgitsejaid siiski leidub

  15. 76 FR 17715 - Virginia Electric and Power Company North Anna Power Station, Units 1 and 2; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-30

    ... Optimized ZIRLO TM as a fuel cladding material based on: (1) Similarities with ZIRLO TM , (2) demonstrated... cladding material at NAPS. This change to the plant configuration has no relation to security issues... determined that the granting of this exemption will not have a significant effect on the quality of the human...

  16. A management strategy for principals for the career development of female teachers in primary schools / Anna Wilhelmina Fourie

    OpenAIRE

    Fourie, Anna Wilhelmina

    2012-01-01

    This research is focused on the development of a management strategy for the career development of female educators in primary schools in the Free State Province. The nature of career is conceptualised as multi-facetted influencing all aspects of life and pivotal for understanding the career trajectories of female educators (Theron, 2002:1-3). Career development, an ongoing lifelong dynamic process underpinned by career planning, is addressed by means of Human Resource Manageme...

  17. Hispaania nõuab immigrantide vastu võitlemiseks EL-i abi / Anna-Maria Penu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Penu, Anna-Maria, 1978-

    2006-01-01

    Üha suureneb Kanaaridele saabuvate Aafrika paadipõgenike hulk, Hispaania asepeaminister Maria Teresa Fernandez de la Vega tahab probleemi lahendamiseks EL-ilt kaasabi. Lisa: Nädalavahetus tõi üle 1000 põgeniku

  18. 75 FR 4591 - Virginia Electric and Power Company; North Anna Power Station, Unit Nos. 1 and 2; Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-28

    ... that effect radiation exposures to plant workers and members of the public. Therefore, no changes or... socioeconomic resources. Therefore, no changes to or different types of non-radiological environmental impacts...

  19. Intellectual Activism: The Praxis of Dr. Anna Julia Cooper as a Blueprint for Equity-Based Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulé, V. Thandi

    2013-01-01

    African Americans have historically championed education as a vehicle for community enrichment (Anderson "Education"; Cooper "Voice"; Giddings). Among African Americans, education has long served as a mechanism to facilitate societal transformation--the form of transformation that addresses social inequities. For many African…

  20. Kui lokaalne saab olla, et jääda globaalselt huvitavaks? / Lars Nittve ; interv. Anna Mustonen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nittve, Lars

    2005-01-01

    Stockholmi moodsa kunsti muuseumi Moderna Museeti direktor Lars Nittve räägib kaasaegse kunstimuuseumi kogumispoliitika väljakutsetest ja rahvuslikkuse aspektist. Lars Nittve eluloolisi andmeid, lühidalt Moderna Museet'ist