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Sample records for humid pampa treated

  1. Agriculturization in the Argentinean Northern Humid Pampas: the Impact on Soil Structure and Runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasal, M. C.; Léonard, J.; Andriulo, A.; Wilson, M. G.

    2012-04-01

    Argentina is among the countries with the largest cropped area under no-tillage (NT). No tillage was adopted in the northern Humid Pampas to reduce the widespread soil degradation by water erosion. With the advent of genetically modified soybean varieties, NT has developed exponentially. This evolution, combined with the influence of the international market trend, has resulted in large changes in crop sequence composition toward the disappearance of pastures and the expansion of soybean monoculture. The aim of this work was to evaluate the long-term consequences of these changes on the topsoil structure and the way in which the evolution of soil structure relates to the simplification of the crop sequence and to runoff at a regional scale. We analyzed the topsoil structure of 25 sites with Argiudolls having 4 to 29 consecutive years of NT using the cultural profile approach. An intensification sequence index (ISI) was calculated as the ratio between the length of the growth period and the length of the year. Fifteen natural-rainfall runoff plots (100 m2) with 3.5% slope were used to analyze the relationship between soil structural state, crop sequence and runoff for four years. Four types of soil structures were identified and a general pattern of vertical soil structure organization was revealed. The top centimeters of 72% of the sites were dominated by a granular structure. Platy soil structure development was omnipresent: all sites exhibited a horizontal platy structure (wheat/soybean double crop (ISI=0.83) could limit soil structure degradation and reduce runoff and the associated environmental risks.

  2. SOIL ORGANIC CARBON FRACTIONS AS INFLUENCED BY SOYBEAN CROPPING IN THE HUMID PAMPA OF ARGENTINA

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    Marta E. Conti

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The sustainability of continuous cropping systems depends heavily on the years of intensive agricultural production and the choice of crop sequence that alters the fractions of soil organic matter. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of continuous soybean cultivation on fractions of organic carbon in the vertic Argiudolls of the Argentinean Pampas. Total organic carbon (TOC, particulate organic carbon (POC , fulvic acids (FA, humic acids (HA, humin (H and carbon produced by microbial respiration (Cresp were assessed in plots with continuous production of soybean for over 15 years (SP and grassland plots that were considered the change control (GP. A significant reduction of TOC and POC variables in cultured soybean SP plots, relative to grassland GP, was observed. The POC / TOC and Cresp / TOC ratios were significantly lower in soybean plots than in grasslands used as controls. These ratios were interpreted as a preferential tendency to maintain high rates of mineralization of labile carbon forms and increased biological stability of humified forms in cultured soybean plots. The shapes of the humic fractions of less complexity, FA and HA, were significantly reduced in the latter plots compared with grasslands, while no significant changes occurred in the more stable and recalcitrant forms of carbon, such as humin, in either plot type.

  3. Dissipation of 2,4-D in soils of the Humid Pampa region, Argentina: a microcosm study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merini, Luciano J; Cuadrado, Virginia; Flocco, Cecilia G; Giulietti, Ana M

    2007-06-01

    Phenoxy herbicides like 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) are widely used in agricultural practices. Although its half life in soil is 7-14d, the herbicide itself and its first metabolite 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) could remain in the soil for longer periods, as a consequence of its intensive use. Microcosms assays were conducted to study the influence of indigenous microflora and plants (alfalfa) on the dissipation of 2,4-D from soils of the Humid Pampa region, Argentina, with previous history of phenoxy herbicides application. Results showed that 2,4-D was rapidly degraded, and the permanence of 2,4-DCP in soil depended on the presence of plants and soil microorganisms. Regarding soil microbial community, the presence of 2,4-D degrading bacteria was detected even in basal conditions in this soil, possibly due to the adaptation of the microflora to the herbicide. There was an increment of two orders of magnitude in herbicide degraders after 15d from 2,4-D addition, both in planted and unplanted microcosms. Total heterotrophic bacteria numbers were about 1x10(8) CFUg(-1) dry soil and no significant differences were found between different treatments. Overall, the information provided by this work indicates that the soil under study has an important intrinsic degradation capacity, given by a microbial community adapted to the presence of phenoxy herbicides.

  4. Integral Study of Atrazine Behaviour in Field Lysimeters in Argentinean Humid Pampas Soils Estudio Integral del Comportamiento de Atrazina en Lisímetros de Campo en Suelos de la Pampa Húmeda Argentina

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    Susana Hang

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Atrazine behavior during crop maize (Zea mays L. production in soils of Argentine humid pampas was investigated. Lysimeters (3.3 x 3.3 x 1.4 m with a Typic Argiudoll (Pergamino and others with a Typic Hapludoll (Junín were monitored for drainage water content and atrazine concentrations in soil and water. Soil profiles were sampled in four depths in three dates, and water drainage pooled in four periods. Most of atrazine loss in drainage occurred within 30 d of atrazine application being 0.13% and 0.03% of the total atrazine applied for Pergamino and Junín, respectively. Under laboratory conditions half-life average in both profiles was 16 d. Atrazine extractable residues (AER in lysimeters showed differences in quantity and distribution between both profiles. Extractable residues were 25.7 (Pergamino and 69.4 g ha-1 (Junín. At the 30th day of application, AER represented 25% of total AER in Junín and 88% in Pergamino in the first 30 cm. Occurrence of preferential flow through the Bt horizon (Pergamino may explain differences detected. High proportion of AER in Junín profile suggests low atrazine affinity and should be followed through time in order to evaluate actual stability of these residues and if they constitute a potential risk for aquifers.Se estudió el comportamiento de atrazina durante el ciclo de un cultivo de maíz (Zea mays L. en suelos de la pampa húmeda Argentina. Se monitoreó el total de agua drenada y la concentración de atrazina en suelo y agua, mediante el uso de seis lisímetros (3.3 x 3.3 x 1.4 m tres de ellos llenados con un Argiudoll Típico (Pergamino y otros tres con un Hapludoll Típico (Junín. Se tomaron muestras de cuatro horizontes en cada perfil de suelo en tres fechas y el agua drenada se agrupó en cuatro períodos. La mayor parte de las pérdidas de atrazina en el drenaje ocurrieron dentro de los primeros 30 días desde la aplicación de atrazina. Los porcentajes recuperados respecto de la cantidad

  5. Sediment and Phosphorus losses by Surface Runoff from a Catchment in the Humid Pampa Landscape, Argentina Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez M., A.; Díaz E., L.; Lenzi M., L.; Lado, M.; Vidal-Vázquez, E.

    2015-04-01

    The estimation of sediment and phosphorus transfers from soil into watersheds as a result of agricultural activity is a key aspect for characterizing the sustainability of current land use systems. The objective of the present study was to quantify the temporal evolution of suspended sediment and dissolved phosphorus losses from the upper basin of the Gualeguaychú River. The studied catchment has an area of 483 Km2 and is located in the Entre Ríos province, Argentina Republic. The climate is subtropical humid with average annual rainfall of 1200 mm. Soils are characterized by very low infiltration rates. Land use was assessed by remote sensing and GIS tools, and consists of: 31% abandoned rice fields, 20% naturalized fields, 20% soybean (second cycle), 10% soybean (first cycle), 7% rice, 4% Pasture, and the remaining 7% is devoted to civil and road works, native forests and other crops. Low soil infiltration capacity, together with landscape geomorphological traits of the studied landscape and zonal rainfall regime, typically originates periods with high surface runoff volumes, mainly in autumn, spring and summer months. The study was conducted during a period of eight years. Instantaneous water flow measurements (discharge) were estimated in a control section of Gualeguaychú River from hydrometer reading and the rating curve of height-flow. In addition, 134 water samples of 2000 cm3 were collected during the study period to analyze the concentration of suspended sediments and dissolved phosphorus. The instantaneous flow was estimated with the hydrometer reading and the application of curve of height - flow. The discharge range was from 0.14 to 128 m3/sec, indicating a high variability in the response of the catchment to seasonal rainfall. On average suspended sediment and dissolved phosphorus losses of the experimental catchment were 1.42 Mg and 0.335 Kg per hectare/year, respectively. It was also shown that few events of high rainfall that generate excess

  6. Derrida en las pampas

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    Analía Gerbaudo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1984-784X.2011v11n16p16 En el año 2003 Mariano Ben Plotkin publica Freud en las pampas. Orígenes y desarrollo de una cultura psicoanalítica en la Argentina (1910-1983: un estudio minucioso de la recepción y difusión del psicoanálisis que recupero tanto en sus aspectos metodológicos como en sus conjeturas sobre la relación que los intelectuales argentinos suelen entablar con el pensamiento europeo (tesis que se refuerzan si se las lee en conjunción con las desarrolladas respecto de lo que ha acontecido en el campo de los estudios literarios en nuestro país entre la segunda mitad del siglo XX hasta la fecha –cf. Gerbaudo, 2006a, 2007a, 2007b-. Plotkin pone la descripción de la masiva difusión del psicoanálisis en Argentina en el corte temporal seleccionado al servicio del estudio de los factores culturales, sociales y políticos que hicieron lugar a esa acogida.

  7. Pampa Húmeda, Argentina

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    Néstor C. Di Leo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La radiación fotosintéticamente activa (PAR es importante como variable de entrada de energía en diversos procesos biológicos y su evaluación temporal tiene particular interés en el monitoreo de cultivos. Los datos de reflectancia espectral, obtenidos mediante sensores remotos, son adecuados para proporcionar observaciones de fenómenos que se relacionan con aspectos ecofisiológicos de las cubiertas vegetales, incluyendo a la productividad primaria neta (NPP. Ésta constituye una de las pocas fuentes de información acerca de los procesos del ciclo del carbono en escalas regionales o globales. La NPP se relaciona con la eficiencia del uso de la luz a través de la radiación fotosintéticamente activa absorbida (APAR y representa un indicador agroecológico de utilidad para valorar la utilización productiva del territorio. El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar un aporte metodológico a la agroecología, mediante las caracterizaciones de la NPP y la APAR, en tres situaciones geográficas y productivas de la Pampa Húmeda, Argentina.

  8. Pampas Grass - Orange Co. [ds351

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This dataset provides the known distribution of pampas grass (Cortaderia selloana) in southern Orange County. The surveys were conducted from May to June, 2007 and...

  9. Quality of cowpea seeds treated with chemicals and stored in controlled and uncontrolled temperature and humidity conditions

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    Lucicléia Mendes de Oliveira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The cowpea is a Fabaceae originated in Africa cultivated in the northern and northeastern of Brazil, where stands out as the main source of protein for the population. For the establishment of culture, seeds are treated to control and prevent pest attacks and diseases, can also attach nutrients to the seeds which will be available for plant development. The objective of the research was to evaluate the performance of cowpea seeds treated with chemical products and stored in controlled and uncontrolled temperature and humidity conditions. The following seeds treatments were applied: control (no treatment; micronutrient Comol 118, insecticide thiamethoxam, fipronil and pyraclostrobin+thiophanate-methyl and imidacloprid+thiodicarb were then stored in a cold environment and natural. The assessment of physiological seed quality was made initially and every 45 days through the germination and vigor. Among all products used, the imidacloprid + thiodicarb and fipronil + pyraclostrobin + thiophanate methyl provides stimulating effect on seed performance; seeds treated with thiamethoxam were less affected by storage than the untreated seeds; seeds treated with micronutrients exhibits similar behavior to untreated seeds and storage in a controlled environment better preserves the seed physiological quality.

  10. Corrosion rates of fasteners in treated wood exposed to 100% relative humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka; Douglas R. Rammer

    2009-01-01

    In the past, gravimetric corrosion data for fasteners exposed to treated wood has been reported as a percent weight loss. Although percent weight loss is a valid measure of corrosion for comparing identical fasteners, it can distort the corrosion performance of fasteners with different geometries and densities. This report reevaluates a key report on the corrosiveness...

  11. The Brazilian Pampa: A Fragile Biome

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    Valdir Marcos Stefenon

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity is one of the most fundamental properties of Nature. It underpins the stability of ecosystems, provides vast bioresources for economic use, and has important cultural significance for many people. The Pampa biome, located in the southernmost state of Brazil, Rio Grande do Sul, illustrates the direct and indirect interdependence of humans and biodiversity. The Brazilian Pampa lies within the South Temperate Zone where grasslands scattered with shrubs and trees are the dominant vegetation. The soil, originating from sedimentary rocks, often has an extremely sandy texture that makes them fragile—highly prone to water and wind erosion. Human activities have converted or degraded many areas of this biome. In this review we discuss our state-of-the-art knowledge of the diversity and the major biological features of this regions and the cultural factors that have shaped it. Our aim is to contribute toward a better understanding of the current status of this special biome and to describe how the interaction between human activities and environment affects the region, highlighting the fragility of the Brazilian Pampa.

  12. Behaviour of enzymatic activities and root elongation in Argiudoll soils from the Argentine Humid Pampa treated with biosolids Comportamiento de actividades enzimáticas y elongación de raíces en suelos Argiudoles de la Pampa Húmeda, Argentina, tratados con biosólidos

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    E.B.R. Perotti

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The incorporation of biosolids to soil is a strategy aiming at the re-location of these materials in the environment with a useful end: soil fertilization. In this work, the response of two Argiudoll soils (one with more than 100 years of agriculture and the other, a virgin one to biosolid incorporation was studied under laboratory conditions. To measure this response, soil enzymatic biodescriptors, such as dehydrogenase and urease activities, and tests related to plant physiology (the root elongation test were employed. The addition of the biosolid to both soils had a stimulating effect though different on each soil according to the added dose. Adjustment of the regression line for dehydrogenase activity with root elongation was positive and statistically significant (pLa incorporación de biosólidos al suelo es una estrategia que tiene como objetivo la reubicación de estos materiales en el ambiente con un fin útil, como es la fertilización del suelo. En este trabajo se estudió, en condiciones controladas de laboratorio, la respuesta de dos suelos Argiudoles (uno con más de 100 años de agricultura y otro virgen frente a la perturbación físico-química y biótica que genera la incorporación de un biosólido. Para medir esta respuesta se emplearon dos biodescriptores edáficos (las actividades deshidrogenasa y ureasa y un tercero referido a la fisiología vegetal, la prueba de elongación de raíces. La incorporación del biosólido en ambos suelos, en general no deprimió el funcionamiento de las actividades enzimáticas estudiadas; contrariamente, según la dosis aportada tuvo un efecto estimulante, aunque diferente, entre ambos suelos. El ajuste de la recta de regresión de la actividad deshidrogenasa con la elongación de las plántulas fue positivo y altamente significativo, lo que indica la complementaridad de ambos descriptores. Los resultados obtenidos sugieren que los biodescriptores empleados resultaron aptos para estudiar el impacto que produce la incorporación de biosólidos a suelos agrícolas.

  13. Preparing for floods on Argentina's Pampas | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-05-04

    May 4, 2016 ... Climate change is expected to bring more frequent extreme weather events to the region. ... improve the prediction and management of floods on the Pampas. This article, featured in the May 2011 issue of Ecohydrology, ...

  14. Seasonal patterns of horse fly richness and abundance in the Pampa biome of southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Rodrigo Ferreira; Krolow, Tiago Kütter

    2015-12-01

    Fluctuations in seasonal patterns of horse fly populations were examined in rainforests of tropical South America, where the climate is seasonal. These patterns were evaluated with robust analytical models rather than identifying the main factors that influenced the fluctuations. We examined the seasonality of populations of horse flies in fields and lowland areas of the Pampa biome of southern Brazil with generalized linear models. We also investigated the diversity of these flies and the sampling effort of Malaise traps in this biome over two years. All of the 29 species had clear seasonality with regard to occurrence and abundance, but only seven species were identified as being influenced by temperature and humidity. The sampling was sufficient and the estimated diversity was 10% more than observed. Seasonal trends were synchronized across species and the populations were most abundant between September and March and nearly zero in other months. While previous studies demonstrated that seasonal patterns in population fluctuations are correlated with climatic conditions in horse fly assemblages in South America rainforests, we show a clear effect of each factor on richness and abundance and the seasonality in the prevalence of horse fly assemblages in localities of the Pampa biome. © 2015 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  15. Crosslinking studies in gelatin capsules treated with formaldehyde and in capsules exposed to elevated temperature and humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofner, C M; Zhang, Y E; Jobeck, V C; Bowman, B J

    2001-01-01

    Incomplete in vitro capsule shell dissolution and subsequent drug release problems have recently received attention. A modified USP dissolution method was used to follow capsule shell dissolution, and a 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) assay was used to follow loss of epsilon-amino groups to study this shell dissolution problem postulated to be due to gelatin crosslinking. The dissolution problems were simulated using hard gelatin capsule (HGC) shells previously treated with formaldehyde to crosslink the gelatin. These methods were also used to study the effect of uncrosslinked HGC stored under stressed conditions (37 degrees C and 81% RH) with or without the presence of soft gelatin capsule shells (SGC). A 120 ppm formaldehyde treatment reduced gelatin shell dissolution to 8% within 45 min in water at 37 degrees C. A 200 ppm treatment reduced gelatin epsilon-amino groups to 83% of the original uncrosslinked value. The results also support earlier reports of non-amino group crosslinking by formaldehyde in gelatin. Under stressed conditions, HGC stored alone showed little change over 21 weeks. However, by 12 to 14 weeks, the HGC exposed to SGC showed a 23% decrease in shell dissolution and an 8% decrease in the number of epsilon-amino groups. These effects on the stressed HGC are ascribed to a volatile agent from SGC shells, most likely formaldehyde, that crosslinked nearby HGC shells. This report also includes a summary of the literature on agents that reduce gelatin and capsule shell dissolution and the possible mechanisms of this not-so-simple problem. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmaceutical Association J Pharm Sci 90: 79-88, 2001

  16. Reproductive biology of the pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus: a review

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    Olazabal Daniel

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus is a South American grazing deer which is in extreme danger of extinction. Very little is known about the biology of the pampas deer. Moreover, most information has not been published in peer-reviewed scientific journals, and is only available in local publications, theses, etc. Therefore, our aim was to update and summarize the available information regarding the reproductive biology of the pampas deer. Moreover, in most sections, we have also included new, unpublished information. Detailed descriptions are provided of the anatomy of both the female and the male reproductive tract, puberty onset, the oestrous cycle and gestational length. Birthing and the early postpartum period are described, as are maternal behaviour and early fawn development, seasonal distribution of births, seasonal changes in male reproduction and antler cycle, reproductive behaviour, semen collection, and cryopreservation. Finally, an overview is given and future directions of research are proposed.

  17. Aspectos de los sobrenatural en Pampas-La Florida (Chancay

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    Isabelle Lausent

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available La Pacarina del pueblo de "San Salvador del Mundo" de Pampas (valle de Chancay es el cerro Mango. Las repetidas Extirpaciones de Idolatría que sufrieron "sus hijos", el mestizaje y el transcurso del tiempo han, poco a poco, hecho desaparecer los mitos que frataban del Mango. La tradición oral de Pampas que da mucha importercia al mundo de lo sobrenatural sigue, sin embargo, ofreciendo numerosos cuentos y leyendas mencionando este cerro ya no como pacarina sino como una mina fuente de riqueza y lugar de encanto.El análisis que sigue ha sido realizado a partir de Ics cuentos recopilados por Jorgc Osterling durante la Semana Santa del año de 1980 en el rnismo Pampas La Florida.

  18. EDITORIAL: Humidity sensors Humidity sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regtien, Paul P. L.

    2012-01-01

    All matter is more or less hygroscopic. The moisture content varies with vapour concentration of the surrounding air and, as a consequence, most material properties change with humidity. Mechanical and thermal properties of many materials, such as the tensile strength of adhesives, stiffness of plastics, stoutness of building and packaging materials or the thermal resistivity of isolation materials, all decrease with increasing environmental humidity or cyclic humidity changes. The presence of water vapour may have a detrimental influence on many electrical constructions and systems exposed to humid air, from high-power systems to microcircuits. Water vapour penetrates through coatings, cable insulations and integrated-circuit packages, exerting a fatal influence on the performance of the enclosed systems. For these and many other applications, knowledge of the relationship between moisture content or humidity and material properties or system behaviour is indispensable. This requires hygrometers for process control or test and calibration chambers with high accuracy in the appropriate temperature and humidity range. Humidity measurement methods can roughly be categorized into four groups: water vapour removal (the mass before and after removal is measured); saturation (the air is brought to saturation and the `effort' to reach that state is measured); humidity-dependent parameters (measurement of properties of humid air with a known relation between a specific property and the vapour content, for instance the refractive index, electromagnetic spectrum and acoustic velocity); and absorption (based on the known relation between characteristic properties of non-hydrophobic materials and the amount of absorbed water from the gas to which these materials are exposed). The many basic principles to measure air humidity are described in, for instance, the extensive compilations by Wexler [1] and Sonntag [2]. Absorption-type hygrometers have small dimensions and can be

  19. Notas sobre el paisaje de Huánuco Pampa

    OpenAIRE

    Román Godines, Oscar; Ministerio de Cultura

    2013-01-01

    El complejo arqueológico Huánuco Pampa se encuentra ubicado en la provincia Dos de Mayo en el departamento de Huánuco y en la actualidad es quizás el principal vestigio de la cosmovisión y la planificación urbana inca.

  20. Moessbauer and magnetic studies of parent material from argentine pampas soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bidegain, J. C.; Bartel, A. A.; Sives, F. R.; Mercader, R. C.

    2007-01-01

    In order to establish a correlation between the different types of soils using hyperfine and magnetic parameters as climatic and environmental proxies, we have studied the differentiation of soil developed around 38.5 o south latitude, in the central Pampas of Argentina, by means of Moessbauer spectroscopy and environmental magnetism. The soils transect (climosequence) investigated stretches from the drier west (around 64 o W) to the more humid east (at around 59 o W) in the Buenos Aires Province, covering a distance of 600 km. The soils studied developed during recent Holocene geologic times in a landscape characterized by small relict plateaus, slopes and depressions, dunes and prairies. The parent material consists of eolian sandy silts overlying calcrete layers. The low mean annual precipitation in the western parts of the region gives rise to soils without B-horizons, which limits the agricultural use of land. The preliminary results show an increase of the paramagnetic Fe 3+ relative concentration from west to east in the soils investigated. Magnetite is probably mainly responsible for the observed enhancement in the susceptibility values. The magnetic response of the parent material is similar to that of the loess part of the previously investigated loess-paleosol sequences of the Argentine loess plateau.

  1. A Study on the Quality and Identity of Brazilian Pampa Biome Honey: Evidences for Its Beneficial Effects against Oxidative Stress and Hyperglycemia

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    L. C. Cruz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We characterized, for the first time, the quality and identity of Brazilian Pampa biome honey and its antioxidant properties in vitro (FRAP, DDPH and ABTS. The potential protective effect of honey against oxidative stress induced by iron (Fe and paraquat, (PQ in a Drosophila melanogaster model (in vivo was also tested. The results indicated that all honey samples tested showed antioxidant activity in vitro. Flies treated with honey showed increased lifespan and were protected against oxidative stress induced by Fe and PQ. Despite the high concentration of sugars in honey (approximately 70–80%, our results demonstrate a hypoglycemic-like effect of honey in Drosophila. Thus, this study demonstrates the high quality of Brazilian Pampa biome honey as well as its significant antioxidant activity in vitro and in vivo, pointing to the potential use of this natural product as an alternative in the therapy of oxidative stress-associated diseases.

  2. A Study on the Quality and Identity of Brazilian Pampa Biome Honey: Evidences for Its Beneficial Effects against Oxidative Stress and Hyperglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, L C; Batista, J E S; Zemolin, A P P; Nunes, M E M; Lippert, D B; Royes, L F F; Soares, F A; Pereira, A B; Posser, T; Franco, J L

    2014-01-01

    We characterized, for the first time, the quality and identity of Brazilian Pampa biome honey and its antioxidant properties in vitro (FRAP, DDPH and ABTS). The potential protective effect of honey against oxidative stress induced by iron (Fe) and paraquat, (PQ) in a Drosophila melanogaster model (in vivo) was also tested. The results indicated that all honey samples tested showed antioxidant activity in vitro. Flies treated with honey showed increased lifespan and were protected against oxidative stress induced by Fe and PQ. Despite the high concentration of sugars in honey (approximately 70-80%), our results demonstrate a hypoglycemic-like effect of honey in Drosophila. Thus, this study demonstrates the high quality of Brazilian Pampa biome honey as well as its significant antioxidant activity in vitro and in vivo, pointing to the potential use of this natural product as an alternative in the therapy of oxidative stress-associated diseases.

  3. Arsenic contamination of natural waters in San Juan and La Pampa, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, J; Watts, M J; Shaw, R A; Marcilla, A L; Ward, N I

    2010-12-01

    Arsenic (As) speciation in surface and groundwater from two provinces in Argentina (San Juan and La Pampa) was investigated using solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridge methodology with comparison to total arsenic concentrations. A third province, Río Negro, was used as a control to the study. Strong cation exchange (SCX) and strong anion exchange (SAX) cartridges were utilised in series for the separation and preservation of arsenite (As(III)), arsenate (As(V)), monomethylarsonic acid (MA(V)) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA(V)). Samples were collected from a range of water outlets (rivers/streams, wells, untreated domestic taps, well water treatment works) to assess the relationship between total arsenic and arsenic species, water type and water parameters (pH, conductivity and total dissolved solids, TDS). Analysis of the waters for arsenic (total and species) was performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in collision cell mode. Total arsenic concentrations in the surface and groundwater from Encon and the San José de Jáchal region of San Juan (north-west Argentina within the Cuyo region) ranged from 9 to 357 μg l(-1) As. Groundwater from Eduardo Castex (EC) and Ingeniero Luiggi (LU) in La Pampa (central Argentina within the Chaco-Pampean Plain) ranged from 3 to 1326 μg l(-1) As. The pH range for the provinces of San Juan (7.2-9.7) and La Pampa (7.0-9.9) are in agreement with other published literature. The highest total arsenic concentrations were found in La Pampa well waters (both rural farms and pre-treated urban sources), particularly where there was high pH (typically > 8.2), conductivity (>2,600 μS cm(-1)) and TDS (>1,400 mg l(-1)). Reverse osmosis (RO) treatment of well waters in La Pampa for domestic drinking water in EC and LU significantly reduced total arsenic concentrations from a range of 216-224 μg l(-1) As to 0.3-0.8 μg l(-1) As. Arsenic species for both provinces were predominantly As(III) and As(V). As

  4. Arsenic in Water Resources of the Southern Pampa Plains, Argentina

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    Juan D. Paoloni

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Confronted with the need for accessible sources of good quality water and in view of the fact that the threat to public health posed by arsenic occurs mainly through the ingestion of contaminated drinking water, the presence and distribution of arsenic was evaluated in the southern Pampa Plains of Bahía Blanca district in Argentina. The findings show variable concentrations of arsenic in a complex distribution pattern. Complementary information is provided on the behavior of the groundwater resource and its salinity in terms of dissolved ions. Groundwater is the most severely affected, 97% of the samples exceeding the guideline value for arsenic in drinking water as recommended by the WHO (Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality, 2004. and showing maximum concentrations of up to 0.30 mg/L. Informing those responsible for preventive medicine and alerting the community at large will facilitate measures to mitigate exposure and ensure the safety of drinking water.

  5. Arsenic in Water Resources of the Southern Pampa Plains, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoloni, Juan D.; Sequeira, Mario E.; Espósito, Martín E.; Fiorentino, Carmen E.; Blanco, María del C.

    2009-01-01

    Confronted with the need for accessible sources of good quality water and in view of the fact that the threat to public health posed by arsenic occurs mainly through the ingestion of contaminated drinking water, the presence and distribution of arsenic was evaluated in the southern Pampa Plains of Bahía Blanca district in Argentina. The findings show variable concentrations of arsenic in a complex distribution pattern. Complementary information is provided on the behavior of the groundwater resource and its salinity in terms of dissolved ions. Groundwater is the most severely affected, 97% of the samples exceeding the guideline value for arsenic in drinking water as recommended by the WHO (Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality, 2004). and showing maximum concentrations of up to 0.30 mg/L. Informing those responsible for preventive medicine and alerting the community at large will facilitate measures to mitigate exposure and ensure the safety of drinking water. PMID:19936127

  6. Arsenic in Water Resources of the Southern Pampa Plains, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paoloni, J.D.; Sequeira, M.E.; Esposito, M.E.; Fiorentino, C.E.; Blanco, M.D.C.

    2010-01-01

    Confronted with the need for accessible sources of good quality water and in view of the fact that the threat to public health posed by arsenic occurs mainly through the ingestion of contaminated drinking water, the presence and distribution of arsenic was evaluated in the southern Pampa Plains of Bahia Blanca district in Argentina. The findings show variable concentrations of arsenic in a complex distribution pattern. Complementary information is provided on the behavior of the groundwater resource and its salinity in terms of dissolved ions. Groundwater is the most severely affected, 97% of the samples exceeding the guideline value for arsenic in drinking water as recommended by the Who (Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality, 2004). and showing maximum concentrations of up to 0.30 mg/L. Informing those responsible for preventive medicine and alerting the community at large will facilitate measures to mitigate exposure and ensure the safety of drinking water.

  7. Changes in Average Annual Precipitation in Argentina’s Pampa Region and Their Possible Causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Pérez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in annual rainfall in five sub-regions of the Argentine Pampa Region (Rolling, Central, Mesopotamian, Flooding and Southern were examined for the period 1941 to 2010 using data from representative locations in each sub-region. Dubious series were adjusted by means of a homogeneity test and changes in mean value were evaluated using a hydrometeorological time series segmentation method. In addition, an association was sought between shifts in mean annual rainfall and changes in large-scale atmospheric pressure systems, as measured by the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO and the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI. The results indicate that the Western Pampas (Central and Southern are more vulnerable to abrupt changes in average annual rainfall than the Eastern Pampas (Mesopotamian, Rolling and Flooding. Their vulnerability is further increased by their having the lowest average rainfall. The AMO showed significant negative correlations with all sub-regions, while the PDO and SOI showed significant positive and negative correlations respectively with the Central, Flooding and Southern Pampa. The fact that the PDO and AMO are going through the phases of their cycles that tend to reduce rainfall in much of the Pampas helps explain the lower rainfall recorded in the Western Pampas sub-regions in recent years. This has had a significant impact on agriculture and the environment.

  8. Redescripción de la obrera de Myrmelachista gallicola (Hymenoptera: Formicidae y primera cita para la provincia de La Pampa (Argentina Redescription of the worker of Myrmelachista gallicola (Hymenoptera: Formicidae and first record from La Pampa (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estela M. Quirán

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se redescribe la obrera de Myrmelachista gallicola Mayr y se cita por primera vez para la provincia de La Pampa (Argentina. El material estudiado está compuesto por obreras y fue recolectado sobre Prosopis caldenia Burkart (Fabaceae, dentro de las agallas de Tetradiplosis sp. (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae, en la periferia de la ciudad de Santa Rosa, provincia de La Pampa.The worker of Myrmelachista gallicola Mayr is redescribed and mentioned for the first time for La Pampa province (Argentina. The material studied was integrated by workers and was collected on Prosopis caldenia Burkart (Fabaceae at Santa Rosa, La Pampa within galls of Tetradiplosis sp. (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae.

  9. Humidity Sensing in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enjin, Anders; Zaharieva, Emanuela E; Frank, Dominic D; Mansourian, Suzan; Suh, Greg S B; Gallio, Marco; Stensmyr, Marcus C

    2016-05-23

    Environmental humidity influences the fitness and geographic distribution of all animals [1]. Insects in particular use humidity cues to navigate the environment, and previous work suggests the existence of specific sensory mechanisms to detect favorable humidity ranges [2-5]. Yet, the molecular and cellular basis of humidity sensing (hygrosensation) remains poorly understood. Here we describe genes and neurons necessary for hygrosensation in the vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster. We find that members of the Drosophila genus display species-specific humidity preferences related to conditions in their native habitats. Using a simple behavioral assay, we find that the ionotropic receptors IR40a, IR93a, and IR25a are all required for humidity preference in D. melanogaster. Yet, whereas IR40a is selectively required for hygrosensory responses, IR93a and IR25a mediate both humidity and temperature preference. Consistent with this, the expression of IR93a and IR25a includes thermosensory neurons of the arista. In contrast, IR40a is excluded from the arista but is expressed (and required) in specialized neurons innervating pore-less sensilla of the sacculus, a unique invagination of the third antennal segment. Indeed, calcium imaging showed that IR40a neurons directly respond to changes in humidity, and IR40a knockdown or IR93a mutation reduced their responses to stimuli. Taken together, our results suggest that the preference for a specific humidity range depends on specialized sacculus neurons, and that the processing of environmental humidity can happen largely in parallel to that of temperature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Relatedness and social organization of coypus in the Argentinean pampas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunez, J.I.; Guichon, M.L.; Centron, D.; Henderson, A.P.; Callahan, C.; Cassini, M.H.

    2009-01-01

    Behavioural and trapping studies of the social organization of coypus have suggested the occurrence of kin groups and a polygynous mating system. We used 16 microsatellite markers to analyse parentage and relatedness relationships in two populations (J??uregui and Villa Ruiz) in the Argentinean Pampas. At J??uregui, a dominant male monopolized most paternities, leading to a high variance in reproductive success between males and a high level of polygyny. At Villa Ruiz, variance in reproductive success was low among resident males and males were the fathers of zero to four offspring each. For females, no significant differences were found. Two different social groups in each study site were used to assess genetic relatedness within and between groups. These groups were neighbouring at J??uregui but not at Villa Ruiz. At Villa Ruiz, coypus were significantly more related within than between groups, suggesting that behavioural groups were also genetic ones, and adult females were more related within than between groups, as should be expected for kin groups. This relationship was not found at J??uregui. Our results provide support to previous studies based on behavioural and trapping data, which indicate that coypus form social groups and have a polygynous mating system. However, we found differences in social organization between the two populations. This is the first study to determine parentage and/or relatedness in coypus. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  11. Utilization of satellite images to understand the dynamics of Pampas shallow lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Aliaga

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze satellite images of different spatial resolutions to interpret the morphometric behavior of six shallow lakes of the Pampas, Argentina. These are characterized by having different rainfall regimes. Morphometric response considering each location, site conditions and dry and wet extreme events is analyzed. Standardized Precipitation Index (IEP for determination of wet, dry and normal years was used. This analysis showed that the Pampas shallow lakes do not behave in the same way to the rainfall events. Its origin, socio-economic use and rainfall patterns affect their spatiotemporal variation and morphometric.

  12. Prevalence and spatial distribution of bovine brucellosis in San Luis and La Pampa, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznar, M N; Linares, F J; Cosentino, B; Sago, A; La Sala, L; León, E; Duffy, S; Perez, A

    2015-08-15

    Bovine brucellosis (BB) is a zoonotic disease caused by Brucella abortus. BB is endemic in Argentina, where vaccination with Brucella abortus strain 19 is compulsory for 3-to-8 month-old heifers. The objectives of this study were to quantify the prevalence of BB and to identify factors associated with its occurrence, along with the spatial distribution of the disease, in the provinces of La Pampa and San Luis. A two-stage random sampling design was used to sample 8,965 cows (3,513 in La Pampa and 5,452 in San Luis) from 451 farms (187 in La Pampa and 264 in San Luis). Cow and herd prevalence were 1.8 % (95 % CI: 1.3-2.2; n = 157) and 19.7 % (95 % CI: 17.0-22.4; n = 89), respectively. Both cow-level and herd-level prevalence in La Pampa (2.4 and 26.0 %, respectively) were significantly higher than in San Luis (1.4 and 15.5 %, respectively). There were not differences between the proportions of reactive cattle compared to that obtained in a survey conducted in 2005. However, herd prevalence in La Pampa was significantly (P < 0.05) higher compared to that study. Disease was found to be spatially clustered in west La Pampa. The lower the bovine density and the calf/cow ratio, the higher odds of belonging to the cluster. The increase of farm prevalence in the last five years suggests that the disease is spreading and that control measures should be applied in the region. The cluster of infected farms was located in the west region of La Pampa. There, farms have lower animal densities and smaller cow/calf indices compared to the rest of the province. Although western La Pampa has more infected herds, within-farm prevalence was not higher, which suggests that the control program has been relatively successful in controlling the disease at the farm level, and/or that low animal density inherently results in low disease prevalence. Our results provide baseline information on the epidemiology of BB and its potential pattern of transmission in Argentina, which will ultimately

  13. Controlled humidity gas circulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruner, S.M.

    1981-01-01

    A programmable circulator capable of regulating the humidity of a gas stream over a wide range of humidity is described. An optical dew-point hygrometer is used as a feedback element to control the addition or removal of water vapor. Typical regulation of the gas is to a dew-point temperature of +- 0.2 0 C and to an accuracy limited by the dew-point hygrometer

  14. Humidity Sensor Based on Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube Thin Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, C.L.; Hu, C.G.; Fang, L.; Wang, S.X.; Cao, C.L.; Tian, Y.S.; Pan, C.Y.

    2009-01-01

    The properties of the humidity sensors made of chemically treated and untreated multi-walled carbon nano tube (MWCNT) thin films are investigated systematically. It shows that both the chemically treated and untreated MWCNT thin films demonstrate humidity sensitive properties, but the former have stronger sensitivity than the latter. In the range of 11%-98% relative humidity (RH), the resistances of the chemically treated and untreated MWCNT humidity sensors increase 120% and 28%, respectively. Moreover, the treated humidity sensors showed higher sensitivity and better stability. In addition, the response and recover properties, and stabilization of the humidity sensors are measured, and the humidity sensitive mechanisms of the sensors are analyzed. The humidity sensitivity of carbon nano tube thin films indicates it promise as a kind of humidity sensitive material

  15. Water balance in paired watersheds with eucalyptus and degraded grassland in Pampa biome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangelands of the Pampa biome, which cover regions of Argentina, Uruguay and Brazil (176,496 km2 – 2.07% of Brazilian territory and 63% of Rio Grande do Sul State territory, southern region of Brazil) in South America (total area of 750,000 km2), are being substituted by crops and commercial eucalyp...

  16. Mulher, Pampa e natureza: um olhar através de contos puebleros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Corrêa Pereira Schlee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho é um estudo em andamento que se detém nos contos puebleros para deslocar o olhar sobre a mulher, o Pampa e a natureza. Assim, busco a Educação Ambiental, como campo de saber importante e potente para a análise de mundo que temos em seu processo de construção cultural moderno. Entendendo a literatura como pedagogia cultural para problematizar como nos constituímos mulher no Pampa e como nos relacionamos com o discurso de natureza. O Pampa para pensar além de um território geográfico, mas como um lugar que é constituído pelos diversos atravessamentos: biológicos, geográficos, culturais, econômicos, políticos. Modos de ver o mundo, viver e narrar a natureza. Fabricações  histórica e socialmente constituídos em diferentes culturas e em diferentes épocas. É preciso pensar sobre as universalidades de ser mulher, assim como suas relações com a natureza e o pampa.

  17. Nuevos centros de almacenamiento inca en Huánuco Pampa

    OpenAIRE

    Ordóñez Inga, Carlo José Alonso

    2013-01-01

    Se proporcionan nuevos alcances sobre la identificación y el estudio de nuevos lugares de almacenamiento o colcas asociados al Centro Administrativo Inca de Huánuco Pampa, los mismos que no fueron reconocidos por otros investigadores que trabajaron en la zona.

  18. A new species of Andocaeculus (Acari, Caeculidae) from the Pampa biome, southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Paula Ott; Ricardo Ott

    2014-01-01

    A new caeculid species Andocaeculus caioi sp. nov. is described from Pampa biome in south Brazil. The species of this family are usually large and strong sclerotized mites with robust and spinulose legs I and II. Until now records of species for South America were known only from Chile and Argentina.

  19. Rickettsia parkeri in Amblyomma dubitatum ticks in a spotted fever focus from the Brazilian Pampa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weck, Bárbara; Dall'Agnol, Bruno; Souza, Ugo; Webster, Anelise; Stenzel, Bárbara; Klafke, Guilherme; Martins, João Ricardo; Reck, José

    2017-07-01

    Spotted fever is an acute febrile illness, which is considered severely underreported and misdiagnosed in the Brazilian Pampa, caused by tick-borne Rickettsiae. Here, we report an eco-epidemiological investigation of Rickettsia spp. in ticks from a spotted fever focus in Toropi, southern Brazil. Ticks were collected from capybara carcasses and processed individually to obtain genomic DNA. Rickettsia was investigated using PCR that amplified the rickettsial fragments of the gltA, ompA and htrA genes. DNA from Rickettsia parkeri was found in four of 14 Amblyomma dubitatum ticks collected from capybara carcasses in Toropi and the nearby municipality of Quevedos. We also tested 210A. dubitatum ticks obtained from road-killed capybaras of other localities from the Pampa biome; none of them were positive for Rickettsiae. Thus, in Rio Grande do Sul, two Rickettsia species can be potentially associated to spotted fever: Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic Rainforest, associated with Amblyomma ovale ticks in the Atlantic Rainforest biome, and R. parkeri, associated both with Amblyomma tigrinum and A. dubitatum ticks in the Pampa biome. Our results reinforce that R. parkeri may be the agent associated with spotted fever in the Brazilian Pampa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Land use change and ecosystem service provision in Pampas and Campos grasslands of southern South America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Modernel Hristoff, Pablo; Rossing, W.A.H.; Corbeels, M.; Dogliotti, S.; Picasso, V.; Tittonell, P.

    2016-01-01

    New livestock production models need to simultaneously meet the increasing global demand for meat and preserve biodiversity and ecosystem services. Since the 16th century beef cattle has been produced on the Pampas and Campos native grasslands in southern South America, with only small amounts of

  1. Examining Basin-Scale Water and Climate Relations across the Pampa del Tamarugal, Atacama Desert through Spatial Analysis of Hydrogen, Carbon and Oxygen Isotopes in Tree Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, E. J.; Dodd, J. P.; Rivera, M. A.

    2016-12-01

    Arid regions are extremely sensitive to variations hydroclimate. However, our understanding of past hydroclimate variations in these regions is often limited by a paucity of spatially resolved proxy data. The Atacama Desert of northern Chile is one of the driest regions on Earth, and hydroclimatic processes in the Atacama Desert may be a useful proxy for understanding the implications of expanding global aridity. In order to assess the ability of tree-ring isotope studies to record changes in hydrology and terrestrial climate in the Atacama Desert, oxygen (δ18O), carbon (δ13C) and hydrogen (δ2H) isotope values in tree rings of Prosopis tamarugo are analyzed for the modern period (1954-2014) when anthropogenic change to regional groundwater levels have been most notable. Samples of wood cellulose were collected throughout the Pampa del Tamarugal basin from 14 individuals and used to create an interpolated surface of isotope variations. The isotope data were then compared to groundwater depth from well monitoring data provided by the Dirección de General de Agua of Chile. There is a significant correlation between groundwater level and isotope values with best agreement occurring during the past two decades for δ18O (r = 0.58), δ13C (r = 0.55), and δ2H (r = 0.66) values. This spatial correlation analysis reveals that tree ring a-cellulose isotope values are a suitable proxy for reconstructing groundwater depth in the Pampa del Tamarugal Basin. A stepwise multiregression analysis between δ18O values of cellulose and several other environmental variables including groundwater level, relative humidity, and temperature suggest that groundwater depth is the dominate control of variation in the modern δ18O tree ring record. The response of tree cellulose to the hydroclimate in this region suggests that tree ring isotope variations may be used to reconstruct past hydroclimate conditions in arid regions throughout the globe.

  2. Social wasps (Polistinae from Pampa Biome: South Brazil, Northeastern Argentina and Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Somavilla

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. This study aimed to determine social wasps’ species from Pampa Biome. Were examined samples of social wasps from south-central of Rio Grande do Sul state (Brazil, parts of Buenos Aires, Entre Rios, Corrientes, Cordoba, Santa Fé and La Pampa provinces (Argentina and in Uruguay maintained in the Coleção Entomológica de Santa Cruz do Sul (Santa Cruz do Sul-Brazil, American Museum of Natural History (USA, Natural History Museum (London-United Kingdom and Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle (Paris-France. Thirty species were recorded: Agelaia (01, Brachygastra (01, Mischocyttarus (04, Polistes (15, Polybia (08 and Protonectarina (01. Vespas sociais do Bioma Pampa: sul do Brasil, nordeste da Argentina e Uruguai. Resumo. Este estudo objetivou determinar as espécies de vespas sociais provenientes do Bioma Pampa. Foram examinadas vespas sociais provenientes de coletas da região centro-sul do Rio Grande do Sul (Brasil, parte das províncias de Buenos Aires, Entre Rios, Corrientes, Cordoba, Santa Fé e La Pampa (Argentina e Uruguai depositadas na Coleção Entomológica de Santa Cruz do Sul (Santa Cruz do Sul-Brasil, American Museum of Natural History (Nova Iorque-USA, Natural History Museum (Londres-Reino Unido e Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle (Paris-França. Trinta espécies foram registradas: Agelaia (01, Brachygastra (01, Mischocyttarus (04, Polistes (15, Polybia (08 e Protonectarina (01.

  3. Teresa Zweifel, Medir lo inconmensurable. Los cambios en los procedimientos para relevar la pampa anterior (1796-1895

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Szir

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Reseña bibliográfica del libro de Teresa Zweifel, Medir lo inconmensurable. Los cambios en los procedimientos para relevar la pampa anterior (1796-1895, Rosario, Prohistoria Ediciones, 2014, 191 pp.

  4. Hands-on Humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankiewicz, Philip R.

    1992-01-01

    Presents five hands-on activities that allow students to detect, measure, reduce, and eliminate moisture. Students make a humidity detector and a hygrometer, examine the effects of moisture on different substances, calculate the percent of water in a given food, and examine the absorption potential of different desiccants. (MDH)

  5. Low Humidity Characteristics of Polymer-Based Capacitive Humidity Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Majewski Jacek

    2017-01-01

    Polymer-based capacitive humidity sensors emerged around 40 years ago; nevertheless, they currently constitute large part of sensors’ market within a range of medium (climatic and industrial) humidity 20−80%RH due to their linearity, stability and cost-effectiveness. However, for low humidity values (0−20%RH) that type of sensor exhibits increasingly nonlinear characteristics with decreasing of humidity values. This paper presents the results of some experimental trials of CMOS polymer-based ...

  6. Temperature, humidity and time. Combined effects on radiochromic film dosimeters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdel-Fattah, A.A.; Miller, A.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of both relative humidity and temperature during irradiation on the dose response of FWT-60-00 and Riso B3 radiochromic film dosimeters have been investigated in the relative humidity (RH) range 11-94% and temperature range 20-60 degrees C for irradiation by Co-60 photons and 10-Me......V electrons. The results show that humidity and temperature cannot be treated as independent variables, rather there appears to be interdependence between absorbed dose, temperature, and humidity. Dose rate does not seem to play a significant role. The dependence of temperature during irradiation is +0.......25 +/- 0.1% per degrees C for the FWT-60-00 dosimeters and +0.5 +/- 0.1% per degrees C For Riso B3 dosimeters at temperatures between 20 and 50 degrees C and at relative humidities between 20 and 53%. At extreme conditions both with respect to temperature and to humidity, the dosimeters show much stronger...

  7. Methods of humidity determination Part II: Determination of material humidity

    OpenAIRE

    Rübner, Katrin; Balköse, Devrim; Robens, E.

    2008-01-01

    Part II covers the most common methods of measuring the humidity of solid material. State of water near solid surfaces, gravimetric measurement of material humidity, measurement of water sorption isotherms, chemical methods for determination of water content, measurement of material humidity via the gas phase, standardisation, cosmonautical observations are reviewed.

  8. Strategies for humidity control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgarth, S

    1987-01-01

    Humidity and temperature control in air-conditioning systems mostly involves coupled closed-loop control circuits. The author discusses their uncoupling and resulting consequences as well as energy-optimized control of recirculation air flaps or enthalpy recovering systems (h-x control) in detail. Special reference is made of the application of the DDC technology and its scope, limits and preconditions. In conclusions, the author presents pertinent measurement results. (orig.).

  9. EL ROSTRO OCULTO DE ESPÍRITU PAMPA, VILCABAMBA, CUSCO (Avance/Advance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Fonseca Santa Cruz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent archaeological studies carried out in the Vilcabamba region, northwest of Cusco, resulted in the unprecedented discovery of an elite Wari burial at the site of Espíritu Pampa. This finding is unique in many respects: first, rich burials belonging to the Wari State have not been excavated scientifically; second, this is the first tangible evidence for the existence of high rank individuals within the Wari State; and third, this finding is the first of its kind coming from the tropical rain forest region. In this report, I describe the main finding coming from Espíritu Pampa, thus making available the new data to the scientific community.

  10. BIOMA PAMPA: TEMA GERADOR EM UMA ATIVIDADE INTERDISCIPLINAR PARA EDUCAÇÃO AMBIENTAL

    OpenAIRE

    Delabary, Barési Freitas; Guerra, Rafael Sanches; Garcia, Taís da Silva; Bastiani, Tânia Mara de

    2011-01-01

    A fim de mostrar que é possível ter uma atividade interdisciplinar com áreas de conhecimento diferentes, este trabalho tem como objetivo principal abordar o bioma pampa dentro de quatro áreas distintas visando contribuir para a Educação Ambiental. Cada profissional descreverá tendo por base a pesquisa bibliográfica, como é possível trabalhar o bioma pampa dentro da sua área de atuação. O biólogo abordará o bioma sob a perspectiva descritiva (localização, extensão, tipo de fauna, flora, animai...

  11. Historical balance of nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur of the Argentine Pampas

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez, Roberto; Steinbach, Haydee S; de Paepe, Josefina L

    2016-01-01

    A surface balance for nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and sulfur (S) was performed for the Argentine Pampas during the 1870-2010 time interval, comprising the agricultural expansion period in the region. Nitrogen inputs accounted in the balance were atmospheric deposition, symbiotic fixation, and fertilization. Outputs included were grain harvest and livestock products. P and S balances included atmospheric deposition and fertilization as inputs and the same outputs than in the case of N balanc...

  12. Record of the Buff-fronted Owl (Aegolius harrisii in the Pampa Biome, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marluci Müller Rebelato

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We present the second record of the Buff-fronted Owl (Aegolius harrisii in the Pampa Biome, South Brazil. On 17 January 2010 an adult male was found dead at the roadside along the BR-290, São Gabriel municipality, center-east of Rio Grande do Sul state. The specimen probably collided with a car when using the area for foraging. The record reported here agrees with the suggestion that A. harrisii can use disturbed and open areas.

  13. Model to the evolution of the organic matter in the pampa's soil. Relation with cultivation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andriulo, Adrian; Mary, Bruno; Guerif, Jerome; Balesdent, Jerome

    1996-08-01

    The objective of the work is to present a model to describe the evolution of the organic matter in soils of the Argentine's pampa. This model can be utilised to evaluate the evolution of the soil's fertility in the agricultural production at this moment. Three kinds of assay were done. The determination of organic carbon made possible to prove the Henin-Dupuis model and a derived model

  14. Use of fertilizer nitrogen by wheat in semiarid region of the pampa, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazzari, M.A.; Laurent, G.C.

    1984-01-01

    The efficiency of nitrogen utilization by wheat (Buck Pucara cultivar) in semiarid region of the Argentina Pampas is studied. A single-treatment-fertility-experimet is used, and in this method all treatments, as far as the plant, soil or environment are concerned, are identical. The only difference is the occurrence of the 15 N label within a given subtreatment. (M.A.C.) [pt

  15. Human Rights in the Training of Teachers. Paradigmatic Femicides in the Province of La Pampa, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Siderac

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article gives an account of the experiment carried out on the basis of the photographic exhibition “The violence in focus. Three paradigmatic femicides in La Pampa" that was carried out in the interior of the educational community of the Faculty of Sciences at the National University of La Pampa (UNLPam, together with the feminist organization "Women for Solidarity" in the framework of a cultural program of the Ministry of Culture and Extension of the UNLPam. The people who took part in this activity were teachers of the Faculty of Sciences and students from various undergraduate courses. The objectives of the sample were to build an educational space in relation with human rights, to make visible the three femicides of Pampa society, to work in a collaborative manner by bringing together social actors of the university and the community, and to make this experience an instance for pedagogical training. A qualitative-designed methodology was implemented, and by means of pictures, university students from undergraduate courses worked with the theoretical categories of gender violence and different types of gender violence, compromise, and femicide; they worked in conjunction with high school students. The objective of this work was to carry out an experience that would integrate the university functions of teaching, research and extension on the basis of a so sensitive social issue such as the femicides in Argentina.

  16. Desempenho de bovinos simulado pelo modelo Pampa Corte e obtido por experimentação Animal performance simulated by Pampa Corte model with experimental records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naíme de Barcellos Trevisan

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivo verificar a confiabilidade do Modelo Pampa Corte na predição de desempenho de bovinos de corte, em sistemas de pastejo. Para tanto, foram confrontados os valores preditos pelo modelo com dados disponíveis na literatura. Foram verificados coeficientes de correlação acima de 90% entre os dados reais e os simulados em todas as alternativas testadas. O banco de dados do Modelo precisa ser ampliado em termos de alternativas de produtividade das forrageiras, em diferentes condições climáticas. Os parâmetros qualitativos degradabilidade da proteína bruta e fibra em detergente neutro da consorciação aveia preta e azevém necessitam ainda ser pesquisados, assim como o desempenho de animais em pastagens singulares de aveia ou azevém.This study had the objective to evaluate Pampa Corte Model’s reliability in predicting beef cattle performance in grazing systems. For this purpose, model’s predicted values were compared to available data base of published papers. Correlation coefficients above 90 % were obtained between simulated and real data in all tested alternatives. Model’s data base should be enlarged by forage productivity data in different climatic conditions. Mixtures of Italian ryegrass and oat need more studies to obtain qualitative parameters (crude protein degradability and neutral detergent fiber, as well, animal performance in the single pastures of oat or Italian ryegrass.

  17. Redescripción de la obrera de Myrmelachista gallicola (Hymenoptera: Formicidae y primera cita para la provincia de La Pampa (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estela M. QUIRÁN

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se redescribe la obrera de Myrmelachista gallicola Mayr y se cita por primera vez para la provincia de La Pampa (Argentina. El material estudiado está compuesto por obreras y fue recolectado sobre Prosopis caldenia Burkart (Fabaceae, dentro de las agallas de Tetradiplosis sp. (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae, en la periferia de la ciudad de Santa Rosa, provincia de La Pampa.

  18. De Collquiri a la Bruja o dos cuentos sobre la sexualidad en Pampas - La Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available Les grandes transformations du monde andin ont pénétré sa tradition orale et les communautés, comme celle de Pampas-La Florida, ont depuis longtemps cessé d'être des univers à part, refermés sur eux-mêmes, devenant selon José Maria Caballero (IEP, 1981, 387 'les fours où s'est fondue la nouvelle culture andine'. Ce processus qui tente de faire la synthèse entre l'andin et l'hispanique est en même temps un processus de résistance et d'adaptation il donne lieu à une réélaboration culturelle. La tradition orale de Pampas-La Florida en est un exemple. Elle divise l'univers communal en trois mondes: celui du surnaturel, celui des animaux -qui fera l'objet d'un prochain article- et celui des humains, dans lequel les thèmes de la mort, la guerre, l'amour et enfin la sexualité, sont toujours abordés avec un fatalisme et une ironie qui les dédramatisent. C'est ainsi que la Bruja, vieille gardienne du pont de Pampas (qui n'existe pas n'est plus que l'incarnation parodique d'un être mythique. La tradición oral no es impermeable a las transformaciones que desde hace mucho tiempo experimenta el mundo andino. Las comunidades campesinas como la de Pampas-La Florida, desde largo tiempo atrás, dejaron de ser un universo aparte, cerrado sobre sí mismo, para constituirse, según las palabras de José María Caballero (IEP, 1981, 387, en 'los hornos donde se acrisoló la nueva cultura andina'. Este proceso de síntesis entre lo hispánico y lo andino ha dado lugar a un proceso de resistencia y adaptación y a una reelaboración cultural. Tal es como aparece en la tradición oral de Pampas-La Florida. Esta divide el universo comunal en tres mundos: el sobrenatural, el de los animales -del cual trataremos en otro artículo- y el de los humanos en el cual temas como los de la muerte, de la guerra, del amor y en fin de la sexualidad son siempre tratados con fatalismo e ironía, lo que les desdramatiza. Así llega a ser la Bruja, vieja guardiana

  19. Adaptation to Interannual and Interdecadal Climate Variability in Agricultural Production Systems of the Argentine Pampas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podestá, G. P.; Bert, F.; Weber, E.; Laciana, C.; Rajagopalan, B.; Letson, D.

    2007-05-01

    Agricultural ecosystems play a central role in world food production and food security, and involve one of the most climate-sensitive sectors of society-agriculture. We focus on crop production in the Argentine Pampas, one of the world's major agricultural regions. Climate of the Pampas shows marked variability at both interannual and decadal time scales. We explored the scope for adaptive management in response to climate information on interannual scales. We show that different assumptions about what decision makers are trying to achieve (i.e., their objective functions) may change what actions are considered as "optimal" for a given climate context. Optimal actions also were used to estimate the economic value of forecasts of an ENSO phase. Decision constraints (e.g., crop rotations) have critical influence on value of the forecasting system. Gaps in knowledge or misconceptions about climate variability were identified in open-ended "mental model" interviews. Results were used to design educational interventions. A marked increase in precipitation since the 1970s, together with new production technologies, led to major changes in land use patterns in the Pampas. Continuous cropping has widely replaced agriculture-pasture rotations. Nevertheless, production systems that evolved partly in response to increased rainfall may not be viable if climate reverts to a drier epoch. We use historical data to define a range of plausible climate trajectories 20-30 years hence. Regional scenarios are downscaled using semi-parametric weather generators to produce multiple realizations of daily weather consistent with decadal scenarios. Finally, we use the synthetic climate, crop growth models, and realistic models of decision-making under risk to compute risk metrics (e.g., probability of yields or profits being below a threshold). Climatically optimal and marginal locations show differential responses: probabilities of negative economic results are much higher in currently

  20. A rapid method for assessing the environmental performance of commercial farms in the Pampas of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viglizzo, E F; Frank, F; Bernardos, J; Buschiazzo, D E; Cabo, S

    2006-06-01

    The generation of reliable updated information is critical to support the harmonization of socio-economic and environmental issues in a context of sustainable development. The agro-environmental assessment and management of agricultural systems often relies on indicators that are necessary to make sound decisions. This work aims to provide an approach to (a) assess the environmental performance of commercial farms in the Pampas of Argentina, and (b) propose a methodological framework to calculate environmental indicators that can rapidly be applied to practical farming. 120 commercial farms scattered across the Pampas were analyzed in this study during 2002 and 2003. Eleven basic indicators were identified and calculation methods described. Such indicators were fossil energy (FE) use, FE use efficiency, nitrogen (N) balance, phosphorus (P) balance, N contamination risk, P contamination risk, pesticide contamination risk, soil erosion risk, habitat intervention, changes in soil carbon stock, and balance of greenhouse gases. A model named Agro-Eco-Index was developed on a Microsoft-Excel support to incorporate on-farm collected data and facilitate the calculation of indicators by users. Different procedures were applied to validate the model and present the results to the users. Regression models (based on linear and non-linear models) were used to validate the comparative performance of the study farms across the Pampas. An environmental dashboard was provided to represent in a graphical way the behavior of farms. The method provides a tool to discriminate environmentally friendly farms from those that do not pay enough attention to environmental issues. Our procedure might be useful for implementing an ecological certification system to reward a good environmental behavior in society (e.g., through tax benefits) and generate a commercial advantage (e.g., through the allocation of green labels) for committed farmers.

  1. Gross Anatomy of Pampas Deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus, Linnaeus 1758) Mouth and Pharynx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, W; Vazquez, N; Ungerfeld, R

    2017-04-01

    The aims of this study were to describe the anatomy of the mouth and pharynx of the pampas deer, and to consider its evolutionary feeding niche according to those characteristics. Gross dissections of the mouth and pharynx were performed in 15 animals, 10 adult females and five young animals under 1 year (three males and two females), all dead by causes unrelated to this anatomical region. The upper lip entered in the constitution of a pigmented nasolabial plane. The masseter muscles weighed 43.8 ± 3.5 g and represented 0.23% of body weight, which corresponds to ruminants of feeders intermediate to grazers and browsers. Parotid glands represented 0.08% of the body weight, characteristic that also categorize the pampas deer as belonging to the intermediate feeding group. The dental formula was the same of the domestic ruminants. The upper incisors and canines were absent, and instead of them, there was a dental pad (Pulvinus dentalis). The upper canine teeth were present only in the deciduous dentition. The existence of a brachydont dentition turns Ozotoceros very vulnerable to continuous use as there is no compensatory teeth growth. The particular anatomy of the mouth and lips of this animal was adapted to a very selective feeding, taking highly nutritious sprouts beyond plant category. In conclusion and in addition to previous studies of anatomy of the digestive organs in this species, pampas deer may be categorized as belonging to the intermediate type of feeding. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. El surgimiento de los comedores escolares en la Pampa en crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Billorou

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo busca examinar el surgimiento de una red de instituciones, los comedores escolares en el Territorio Nacional de La Pampa en la década de 1930, cuyo accionar se basó en la protección y la defensa de la infancia más vulnerable. El análisis de este proceso, permite develar el protagonismo de los distintos agentes estatales, las relaciones suscitadas entre las diferentes jurisdicciones –nacional, provincial y municipal– así como el papel de la comunidad en la ejecu - ción concreta de políticas públicas.

  3. Human Rights in the Training of Teachers. Paradigmatic Femicides in the Province of La Pampa, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Siderac; Ana Claudia Páez

    2017-01-01

    Este artículo da cuenta de la experiencia llevada a cabo a partir de la muestra fotográfica: “La violencia en foco. Tres feminicidios paradigmáticos pampeanos” que fue realizada en el interior de la comunidad educativa de la Facultad de Ciencias Humanas de la Universidad Nacional de La Pampa, en forma conjunta con la organización feminista “Mujeres por la Solidaridad” en el marco de un programa cultural de la Secretaría de Cultura y Extensión de la UNLPam. Las personas integrantes de esta act...

  4. Moessbauer spectroscopy of some volcanic glasses from the Pampa Region, Cordoba, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saragovi-Badler, C.; Labenski, F.

    1987-01-01

    Moessbauer spectroscopy was applied to the study of volcanic glasses and closely associated clay minerals which were carefully separated from the sediments of the Pampa Region. The parameters of volcanic glass samples show the presence of a high content of Fe 2+ in octahedral coordination and some Fe 3+ in tetrahedral and octahedral coordination. No remarcable difference was found comparing with a 'pure' volcanic glass sample taken as a reference. In the clay samples the only clay mineral found was illite. (author) 7 refs

  5. Structure of Drosophilidae Assemblage (Insecta, Diptera in Pampa Biome (São Luiz Gonzaga, RS

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    Jean Lucas Poppe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Pampa (the southernmost end of the country is currently a highly modified environment because of increasing agricultural activities. In many places, only small parts of grasslands remain inside an agricultural landscape. Drosophilidae (Diptera have been widely used as a potential bioindicators to monitor the effects of anthropogenic changes in natural environments. However, the fauna of Drosophilidae in the Pampa Biome from natural and disturbed environments, still remains largely unknown. The present study represents one of the first attempts to fill this gap, showing results from monthly collections in the municipality of São Luiz Gonzaga (28º24'28"S, 54º57'39"W, in the Brazilian Pampa. A species inventory was carried out in two contrasting environments, an urban zone and a forest remnant (rural zone. In both areas banana-baited traps were used to capture adult drosophilids. The identification was made using external morphology and male terminalia. In total, 13,379 drosophilids were analyzed (rural zone: N = 8,812 and Sobs = 25; urban zone: N = 4,567 and Sobs = 16. In the present study, 16 (60% out of 26 species were found exclusively or preferentially in the forest. The period of highest richness was between the months of June to November (roughly winter and spring, and the period of lowest richness was from December to May (roughly summer and autumn. An analysis of cluster by the Coefficient of Jaccard showed that species composition slightly changes when the period of the year with higher temperatures (from January to May is compared with the period with lower temperatures (from June to October. The species abundances were also highly affected by seasonality, as revealed by the Morisita Index, since the samples clustered into similar groups in consecutive periods and in the same season, showing the seasonal preference of some species. The time component was a determinant in the diversity of the assemblage, surpassing the

  6. EL ROSTRO OCULTO DE ESPÍRITU PAMPA, VILCABAMBA, CUSCO (Avance/Advance)

    OpenAIRE

    Javier Fonseca Santa Cruz

    2011-01-01

    Recent archaeological studies carried out in the Vilcabamba region, northwest of Cusco, resulted in the unprecedented discovery of an elite Wari burial at the site of Espíritu Pampa. This finding is unique in many respects: first, rich burials belonging to the Wari State have not been excavated scientifically; second, this is the first tangible evidence for the existence of high rank individuals within the Wari State; and third, this finding is the first of its kind coming from the tropical r...

  7. Humidity Graphs for All Seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmael, F.

    1982-01-01

    In a previous article in this journal (Vol. 17, p358, 1979), a wet-bulb depression table was recommended for two simple experiments to determine relative humidity. However, the use of a graph is suggested because it gives the relative humidity directly from the wet and dry bulb readings. (JN)

  8. Humidity requirements in WSCF Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop and document a position on Relative Humidity (RH) requirements in the WSCF Laboratories. A current survey of equipment vendors for Organic, Inorganic and Radiochemical laboratories indicate that 25% - 80% relative humidity may meet the environmental requirements for safe operation and protection of all the laboratory equipment

  9. Soil-borne bacterial structure and diversity does not reflect community activity in Pampa biome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupatini, Manoeli; Suleiman, Afnan Khalil Ahmad; Jacques, Rodrigo Josemar Seminoti; Antoniolli, Zaida Inês; Kuramae, Eiko Eurya; de Oliveira Camargo, Flávio Anastácio; Roesch, Luiz Fernando Würdig

    2013-01-01

    The Pampa biome is considered one of the main hotspots of the world's biodiversity and it is estimated that half of its original vegetation was removed and converted to agricultural land and tree plantations. Although an increasing amount of knowledge is being assembled regarding the response of soil bacterial communities to land use change, to the associated plant community and to soil properties, our understanding about how these interactions affect the microbial community from the Brazilian Pampa is still poor and incomplete. In this study, we hypothesized that the same soil type from the same geographic region but under distinct land use present dissimilar soil bacterial communities. To test this hypothesis, we assessed the soil bacterial communities from four land-uses within the same soil type by 454-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene and by soil microbial activity analyzes. We found that the same soil type under different land uses harbor similar (but not equal) bacterial communities and the differences were controlled by many microbial taxa. No differences regarding diversity and richness between natural areas and areas under anthropogenic disturbance were detected. However, the measures of microbial activity did not converge with the 16S rRNA data supporting the idea that the coupling between functioning and composition of bacterial communities is not necessarily correlated.

  10. Presence of antibodies against Leptospira serovars in Chaetophractus villosus (Mammalia, Dasypodidae), La Pampa province, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kin, Marta S; Brihuega, Bibiana; Fort, Marcelo; Delgado, Fernando; Bedotti, Daniel; Casanave, Emma B

    2015-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonosis of worldwide distribution. The aim of this study was to examine the presence of antibodies against 21 Leptospira reactive serovars in Chaetophractus villosus in La Pampa province, Argentina, using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Pathologic changes compatible with leptospirosis and in situ detection of the agent by immunohistochemistry were studied in 24 and 3 individuals respectively. Only 35/150 (23.3%) serum samples had antibodies against Leptospira sp. Six percent of the samples reacted with serovar Canicola, 4.7% with serovar Castellonis, 1.3% with serovar Icterohemorrhagieae and 0.7% with serovar Hardjo. Sixteen (10.6%) serum samples agglutinated with Castellonis-Icterohemorrhagiae and Canicola-Castellonis serovars, both with 4.7%, and Canicola-Hardjo and Castellonis-Canicola-Icterohemorrhagiae both with 0.6%. Fourteen animals had variable degrees of lesions, which were more severe in animals with higher serological titers (3200), and Leptospira sp. was detected in 3 animals by immunohistochemistry. These results represent the first record of the presence of Leptospira in C. villosus in La Pampa. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Temporal profiles of vegetation indices for characterizing grazing intensity on natural grasslands in Pampa biome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Heemann Junges

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Pampa biome is an important ecosystem in Brazil that is highly relevant to livestock production. The objective of this study was to analyze the potential use of vegetation indices to discriminate grazing intensities on natural grasslands in the Pampa biome. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI images from Jan to Dec, 2000 to 2013 series, were analyzed for natural grassland experimental units managed under high (forage allowance of 5 ± 2 % live weight – LW, moderate (13 ± 5 % LW and low grazing intensity (19 ± 7 % LW. Regardless of intensity, the temporal profiles showed lower NDVI and EVI during winter, increased values in spring because of summer species regrowth, slightly decreased values in summer, especially in years when there is a water deficit, and increased values in the fall associated with the beginning of winter forage development. The average temporal profiles of moderate grazing intensity exhibited greater vegetation index values compared with low and high grazing intensities. The temporal profiles of less vegetation index were associated with lower green biomass accumulation caused by the negative impact of stocking rates on the leaf area index under high grazing intensity and a floristic composition with a predominance of tussocks under low grazing intensity. Vegetation indices can be used for distinguishing moderate grazing intensity from low and high intensities. The average EVI values can discriminate moderate grazing intensity during any season, and the NDVI values can discriminate moderate grazing intensity during spring and winter.

  12. NDVI and meteorological data as indicators of the Pampa biome natural grasslands growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Cybis Fontana

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present study aimed to characterize the dynamics of NDVI and meteorological conditions, relating both to the annual dynamics of biomass accumulation in natural pastures of the Pampa biome as a way of subsidizing growth modeling. Forage accumulation rate data from a long-term experiment, NDVI data from the MODIS images, and meteorological data measured at the surface were used. We verify that the agrometeorological element associated to the accumulation of forage in the natural grasslands is different according to the season, which is typical of the subtropical climate. Winter is the critical season for livestock production due to the lower forage accumulation rate and lower values of NDVI, conditioned by the decrease of solar radiation and air temperature. In the summer, the limiting factor to forage accumulation is the hydric condition. It was also verified that the variability in the growth of grasslands can be associated with the ENSO phenomenon, being the El Niño favorable and the La Niña unfavorable, especially in the spring-summer period. Considering the verified associations, spectral indices combined with agrometeorological elements are recommended to the adjustment of models of forage accumulation in the Pampa biome natural grasslands.

  13. COMPREENSÃO DA PAISAGEM DO ALTO CAMAQUÃ: debate ambiental sobre o Bioma Pampa

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    Adriano Severo Figueiró

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente articulo trata de la confi guración del paisaje de la subcuenca del Alto Camaquã/RS, bien como la evolución de determinados elementos naturales y la historia de las culturas que tornaran esta una de las más bellas e intrigantes paisajes que componen el territorio gaucho y el denominado Bioma Pampa. Este recorte de estudio fue determinado en función de su importancia para la conservación y protección de este bioma brasilero amenazado por la introducción de formas de "desarrollo exógeno" actualmente aprobadasy que no están de acuerdo con las particularidades socioeconómicas, culturales y ambientales de la región.En este sentido, el documento analiza las particularidades existentes y condicionamiento que los elementos naturales de este paisaje representan para el proceso de propiedad y planifi cación territorial del Pampa.

  14. Morphology of the testes and epididymal ducts in the pampas cat Leopardus colocolo (Molina, 1782

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    Mahmoud Mehanna

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The pampas cat Leopardus colocolo (Molina, 1782 is a species of the Felidae family, widely distributed in South America, included on CITES Appendix II and classified as Near Threatened on the IUCN Red List, with population trend decreasing. Based on this information, the objective of this study is to describe morphologically the testes and epididymal ducts of pampas cat. The animal, coming from the Federal University of Mato Grosso Zoo, Brazil, had died after anesthesia procedure and the male reproductive system was dissected to collect the testicles. The samples taken were fragmented and histologically examined. From the microscopic analysis of the testes were identified: vaginal and tunica albuginea, formed by dense connective tissue modeled with large amount of collagen fibers. The tunica albuginea fibrous septa emits into the body. The seminiferous tubules are coiled and coated internally by spermatogenic epithelium consisting of Sertoli cells, surrounded by a basement membrane in the presence of myoid cells. The interstitial tissue between the seminiferous tubules, is composed of loose connective tissue, blood and lymph vessels, and Leydig cells in polyhedral shape. The epididymal ducts showed pseudostratified columnar epithelium with secretory cells of which stereocilia design, situated on a basement membrane filled by myoid cells. This epithelium has principal and basal cells, the main cell design stereocilia toward the lumen of the epididymal duct.

  15. Multiscale Trend Analysis for Pampa Grasslands Using Ground Data and Vegetation Sensor Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando C. Scottá

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate changes in the aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP of grasslands in the Pampa biome by using experimental plots and changes in the spectral responses of similar vegetation communities obtained by remote sensing and to compare both datasets with meteorological variations to validate the transition scales of the datasets. Two different geographic scales were considered in this study. At the local scale, an analysis of the climate and its direct influences on grassland ANPP was performed using data from a long-term experiment. At the regional scale, the influences of climate on the grassland reflectance patterns were determined using vegetation sensor imagery data. Overall, the monthly variations of vegetation canopy growth analysed using environmental changes (air temperature, total rainfall and total evapotranspiration were similar. The results from the ANPP data and the NDVI data showed the that variations in grassland growth were similar and independent of the analysis scale, which indicated that local data and the relationships of local data with climate can be considered at the regional scale in the Pampa biome by using remote sensing.

  16. Ornamental Eudicotyledons from grasslands of Pampa biome in Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana De Araújo Carrion

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims at investigating the group of Eudicotyledons native plants with ornamental potential of grasslands from the Pampa biome in the south of Brazil. The Pampa presents a high level of biodiversity; however, it requires studies related to the richness of vascular plants and its biological and ecological knowledge. The purpose of this work is to elaborate a preliminary inventory of this group of plants, analyzing the ornamental potential of each specie and indicating those that could be considered as being priorities for the purpose of sustainable use with this objective. Some grassland species were selected through the search for information in herbarium registers, national and international works about decorative plants, floristic surveys, besides the authors´ practical knowledge. Some parameters and values were associated, aiming at reducing the subjectivity of the choice. The survey resulted in a list of 177 species distributed in 36 families and 101 genera. Among these species, ten presented high ornamental potential. These data show that the richness of the grassland native ornamental flora is high, even though its use is poorly known. The use of these plants, if in a sustainable manner, can produce economic and ecological benefits.

  17. Potential biocontrol actinobacteria: Rhizospheric isolates from the Argentine Pampas lowlands legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solans, Mariana; Scervino, Jose Martin; Messuti, María Inés; Vobis, Gernot; Wall, Luis Gabriel

    2016-11-01

    Control of fungal plant diseases by using naturally occurring non-pathogenic microorganisms represents a promising approach to biocontrol agents. This study reports the isolation, characterization, and fungal antagonistic activity of actinobacteria from forage soils in the Flooding Pampa, Argentina. A total of 32 saprophytic strains of actinobacteria were obtained by different isolation methods from rhizospheric soil of Lotus tenuis growing in the Salado River Basin. Based on physiological traits, eight isolates were selected for their biocontrol-related activities such as production of lytic extracellular enzymes, siderophores, hydrogen cyanide (HCN), and antagonistic activity against Cercospora sojina, Macrophomia phaseolina, Phomopsis sp., Fusarium oxysporum, and Fusarium verticilloides. These actinobacteria strains were characterized morphologically, physiologically, and identified by using molecular techniques. The characterization of biocontrol-related activities in vitro showed positive results for exoprotease, phospholipase, fungal growth inhibition, and siderophore production. However, none of the strains was positive for the production of hydrogen cyanide (HCN). Streptomyces sp. MM140 presented the highest index for biocontrol, and appear to be promising pathogenic fungi biocontrol agents. These results show the potential capacity of actinobacteria isolated from forage soils in the Argentine Pampas lowlands as promising biocontrol agents, and their future agronomic applications. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Modeling distribution of Schinus molle L. in the Brazilian Pampa: insights on vegetation dynamics and conservation of the biome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.P.M. Lemos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural establishment of forests in the Brazilian Pampa biome should occur due to soil, hydrology and climate conditions, although no significant forest expansion over grassland has been noticed, precluded mainly by human interference and lack of environmental management. In this study, we used niche-modeling distribution of the tree species Schinus molle L. based on climatic variables to access the vegetation dynamics of the Brazilian Pampa and to develop strategies that assure the conservation of this biome, concerning both grassland and forest formations. Here we show that a large area of the Brazilian Pampa is suitable for expansion of S. molle populations, supporting the forest expansion over grassland as a natural process in this biome. We propose that the current absence of tree species expansion over the grassland in these areas is a result of the resilience of the grassland and of human interferences through expansion of agriculture, ranching and forestry with exotic species. Therefore, conservationist actions should focus on establishing preservation unities that include forest populations and grassland, while environmental management should be applied just in farming areas with historical human interference. Such actions will respect the ecological dynamics of the Pampa and value the forest formations in this grassland-dominated environment.

  19. Molecular detection and identification of hemoparasites in pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus Linnaeus, 1758) from the Pantanal Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Júlia A G; Rabelo, Elida M L; Lacerda, Ana C R; Borges, Paulo A L; Tomás, Walfrido M; Pellegrin, Aiesca O; Tomich, Renata G P; Ribeiro, Múcio F B

    2013-06-01

    Hemoparasites were surveyed in 60 free-living pampas deer Ozotoceros bezoarticus from the central area of the Pantanal, known as Nhecolândia, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, through the analysis of nested PCR assays and nucleotide sequencing. Blood samples were tested for Babesia/Theileria, Anaplasma spp., and Trypanosoma spp. using nPCR assays and sequencing of the 18S rRNA, msp4, ITS, and cathepsin L genes. The identity of each sequence was confirmed by comparison with sequences from GenBank using BLAST software. Forty-six (77%) pampas deer were positive for at least one hemoparasite, according to PCR assays. Co-infection occurred in 13 (22%) animals. Based on the sequencing results, 29 (48%) tested positive for A. marginale. Babesia/Theileria were detected in 23 (38%) samples, and according to the sequencing results 52% (12/23) of the samples were similar to T. cervi, 13% (3/23) were similar to Babesia bovis, and 9% (2/23) were similar to B. bigemina. No samples were amplified with the primers for T. vivax, while 11 (18%) were amplified with the ITS primers for T. evansi. The results showed pampas deer to be co-infected with several hemoparasites, including species that may cause serious disease in cattle. Pampas deer is an endangered species in Brazil, and the consequences of these infections to their health are poorly understood. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Close relationship of Plasmodium sequences detected from South American pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus to Plasmodium spp. in North American white-tailed deer

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    Masahito Asada

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We report, for the first time, the presence of ungulate malaria parasites in South America. We conducted PCR-based surveys of blood samples of multiple deer species and water buffalo from Brazil and detected Plasmodium sequences from pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus samples. Phylogenic analysis revealed that the obtained sequences are closely related to the Plasmodium odocoilei clade 2 sequence from North American white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus. Nucleotide differences suggest that malaria parasites in South American pampas deer and North American P. odocoilei clade 2 branched more recently than the Great American Interchange. Keywords: Malaria, Pampas deer, South America, Plasmodium odocoilei, Brazil

  1. Temperature, humidity and time., Combined effects on radiochromic film dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Fattah, A.A.; Miller, A.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of both relative humidity and temperature during irradiation on the dose response of FWT-60-00 and Riso B3 radiochromic film dosimeters have been investigated in the relative humidity (RH) range 11-94% and temperature range 20-60 o C for irradiation by 60 Co photons and 10-MeV electrons. The results show that humidity and temperature cannot be treated as independent variables, rather there appears to be interdependence between absorbed dose, temperature, and humidity. Dose rate does not seem to play a significant role. The dependence of temperature during irradiation is + 0.25 ± 0.1% per o C for the FWT-60-00 dosimeters and +0.5 ± 0.1% per o C for Riso B3 dosimeters at temperatures between 20 and 50 o C and at relative humidities between 20 and 53%. At extreme conditions both with respect to temperature and to humidity, the dosimeters show much stronger dependences. Whenever possible one should use dosimeters sealed in pouches under controlled intermediate humidity conditions (30-50%) or, if that is impractical, one should maintain conditions of calibration as close as possible to the conditions of use. Without that precaution, severe dosimetry errors may result. (author)

  2. Lead Oxide- PbO Humidity Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sk. Khadeer Pasha

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol thermal route has been used to synthesize nanocrystalline PbO at a low temperature of 75 oC using lead acetate. The synthesized PbO (P75 was annealed in the temperatures ranging from 200-500 oC for 2 h to study the effect of crystal structure and phase changes and were labeled as P200, P300, P400 and P500, respectively. X-Ray diffraction and FT-IR spectroscopy were carried out to identify the structural phases and vibrational stretching frequencies respectively. The TEM images revealed the porous nature of P75 sample which is an important criterion for the humidity sensor. The dc resistance measurements were carried out in the relative humidity (RH range 5-98 %. Among the different prepared, P75 possessed the highest humidity sensitivity of 6250, while the heat treated sample P500 have a low sensitivity of 330. The response and recovery characteristics of the maximum sensitivity sample P75 were 170 s and 40 s respectively.

  3. Prevalencia de teniosis y seroprevalencia de cisticercosis humana en Pampa Cangallo, Ayacucho, Perú 2008 Taeniosis prevalence and human cysticercosis seroprevalence in Pampa Cangallo, Ayacucho, Peru 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avelino Cordero

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Para estimar la prevalencia de teniosis y la seroprevalencia de cisticercosis humana en la población del distrito de Pampa Cangallo, en la sierra central de Perú (Ayacucho; se realizó un estudio transversal en el año 2008, con 368 personas de 5 a 70 años de edad. El diagnóstico de teniosis se efectuó mediante la prueba coproparasitológica (sedimentación rápida mientras que para el diagnóstico de cisticercosis se realizó un tamizaje con la prueba de ELISA, y los casos positivos fueron confirmados por inmunoblot. Se encontró cinco casos positivos a huevos de Taenia sp, lo que representa una prevalencia de teniosis de 1,4% (IC95%: 0,2 - 2,5%, siendo los individuos entre los 20 a 49 años los que presentan la mayor proporción. Se encontró una seroprevalencia de cisticercosis de 3,3% (IC95%: 1,4 - 5,1% por 12 casos positivos, siendo más frecuente en mujeres. No se encontró asociación con ninguno de los factores estudiados. Si bien la prevalencia es baja, se confirma la existencia de la teniosis y cisticercosis en esta población, por lo que se sugiere el establecimiento de estrategias de prevención y control, con énfasis en la educación comunitaria.To estimate the taeniosis prevalence and human cysticercosis seroprevalence in a rural town from the Peruvian central Andes (Pampa Cangallo, Ayacucho, we performed a cross sectional study in 2008, included 368 people between 5 and 70 years. Fast sedimentation technique and direct examination of stool samples were used to taeniosis diagnosis, and ELISA are used as screening test to cysticercosis, positives cases were confirmed with immunoblot. We found five positives cases to Taenia sp. eggs, which represents a 1.4% (95%CI: 0.2 - 2.5% of a taeniosis prevalence, being individuals between the 20 to 49 years those which presented high proportion. We found 3.3% (95%CI: 1.5 - 5.1% of cysticercosis prevalence for 12 positives cases, being most frequent in women. No association with evaluated

  4. Land use change and ecosystem service provision in Pampas and Campos grasslands of southern South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modernel, P.; Rossing, W. A. H.; Corbeels, M.; Dogliotti, S.; Picasso, V.; Tittonell, P.

    2016-11-01

    New livestock production models need to simultaneously meet the increasing global demand for meat and preserve biodiversity and ecosystem services. Since the 16th century beef cattle has been produced on the Pampas and Campos native grasslands in southern South America, with only small amounts of external inputs. We synthesised 242 references from peer-reviewed and grey literature published between 1945 and mid-2015 and analysed secondary data to examine the evidence on the ecosystem services provided by this grassland biodiversity hotspot and the way they are affected by land use changes and their drivers. The analysis followed the requirements of systematic review from the PRISMA statement (Moher et al 2009 Acad. Clin. Ann. Intern. Med. 151 264-9). The Pampas and Campos provide feed for 43 million heads of cattle and 14 million sheep. The biome is habitat of 4000 native plant species, 300 species of birds, 29 species of mammals, 49 species of reptiles and 35 species of amphibians. The soils of the region stock 5% of the soil organic carbon of Latin America on 3% of its area. Driven by high prices of soybean, the soybean area increased by 210% between 2000 and 2010, at the expense of 2 million ha (5%) of native grassland, mostly in the Pampas. Intensification of livestock production was apparent in two spatially distinct forms. In subregions where cropping increased, intensification of livestock production was reflected in an increased use of grains for feed as part of feedlots. In subregions dominated by native grasslands, stocking rates increased. The review showed that land use change and grazing regimes with low forage allowances were predominantly associated with negative effects on ecosystem service provision by reducing soil organic carbon stocks and the diversity of plants, birds and mammals, and by increasing soil erosion. We found little quantitative information on changes in the ecosystem services water provision, nutrient cycling and erosion control

  5. Large-Scale Agricultural Management and Soil Meso- and Macrofauna Conservation in the Argentine Pampas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Camilo Bedano

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Soil is the most basic resource for sustainable agricultural production; it promotes water quality, is a key component of the biogeochemical cycles and hosts a huge diversity of organisms. However, we are not paying enough attention to soil degradation produced by land use. Modern agriculture has been successful in increasing yields but has also caused extensive environmental damage, particularly soil degradation. In the Argentine Pampas, agriculturization reached a peak with the generalized use of the no-till technological package: genetically modified soybeans tolerant to glyphosate, no-till, glyphosate, and inorganic fertilizers. This phenomenon has been widely spread in the country; the no-till package has been applied in large areas and has been used by tenants in a 60%–70% of cultivated lands. Thus, those who were involved in developing management practices may not be the same as those who will face degradation issues related to those practices. Indeed, most evidence reviewed in this paper suggests that the most widely distributed practices in the Pampas region are actually producing severe soil degradation. Biological degradation is particularly important because soil biota is involved in numerous soil processes on which soil functioning relies, affecting soil fertility and productivity. For example, soil meso- and macrofauna are especially important in nutrient cycling and in soil structure formation and maintenance, and they are key components of the network that links microbial process to the scale of fields and landscapes where ecosystem services are produced. However, the knowledge of the impact of different agricultural managements on soil meso- and macrofauna in Pampas agroecosystems is far from conclusive at this stage. The reason for this lack of definite conclusions is that this area has been given less attention than in other parts of the world; the response of soil fauna to agricultural practices is complex and taxa

  6. History of a modern place: Clorindo Testa and the Santa Rosa Civic Center, La Pampa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Costa Cabral

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Santa Rosa, capital of the young province of La Pampa, was founded in 1892 at the end of the military campaigns that annihilated the indigenous people and ensured republican control over the Patagonia region. In 1955, the city held a design competition for the construction of its Civic Center. This was not a current infill operation intended to renew the core of the city, since it was not just a matter of raising a new facade along one of the four sides of the main square. The task implied designing, almost from scratch, a new part of city. Competitors were supposed to organize new buildings and public spaces within an area of nine hectares standing between the existing city and the surrounding pampas. Clorindo Testa won the competition by proposing that it be built as a piece of a modern city. Situated in the middle of Argentinean pampas, the Santa Rosa Civic Center has been less extensively discussed than other of Testa’s great contemporary works, such as the London Bank (1959 and the National Library (1962, both in Buenos Aires, even in the South American context. The Government Building, the Bus Station and the covered central space were built before 1963. Testa finished the Legislature Building in 1976, and even though in 2006 he was able to conclude the little Legislature Library, half of the Civic Center area still remains as open space. Nevertheless, as a living piece of the never-completed modern project installed in the far south, La Pampa’s case seems to pose relevant urban questions. This paper explores the case from two complementary perspectives. One focuses on the results of the first competition, recognizing an original contribution to the relationship between modernity, monument, and place. The second discusses the unfinished condition of the Civic Center as constitutive to modern tradition in the very modern sense of the city as a never-completed work.

  7. MASCULINIDADE, MEMÓRIA E TRABALHO: UM ESTUDO ETNOGRÁFICO COM HOMENS CAMPEIROS DO PAMPA SUL-RIO-GRANDENSE EM PROCESSOS DE MOBILIDADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liza Bilhalva Martins da Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the establishment of the first signs of livestock in southern south region of the Pampa of the Rio Grande do Sul transformations were present. Landscapes, men, animals, and objects are constantly involved in the process that articulates convention and invention in the pace of everyday life. This article aims to present, from the migration of male workers in the countryside to the cities of the Pampas, strategies for construction of masculinity and restoring social dynamics.

  8. Evaluation of the Membrane Permeability (PAMPA and Skin) of Benzimidazoles with Potential Cannabinoid Activity and their Relation with the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS)

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez-Figueroa, M. Javiera; Pessoa-Mahana, C. David; Palavecino-González, M. Elisa; Mella-Raipán, Jaime; Espinosa-Bustos, Cristián; Lagos-Muñoz, Manuel E.

    2011-01-01

    The permeability of five benzimidazole derivates with potential cannabinoid activity was determined in two models of membranes, parallel artificial membrane permeability assay (PAMPA) and skin, in order to study the relationship of the physicochemical properties of the molecules and characteristics of the membranes with the permeability defined by the Biopharmaceutics Classification System. It was established that the PAMPA intestinal absorption method is a good predictor for classifying thes...

  9. Environmental assessment of agriculture at a regional scale in the Pampas of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viglizzo, E F; Pordomingo, A J; Castro, M G; Lertora, F A

    2003-09-01

    Governments need good information to design policies. However, in the Argentine Pampas there are neither sufficient knowledge on environmental issues, nor clear perception of environmental alterations across space and time. The general objective of this work was to provide decision makers with a scientifically sound set of indicators aiming at the assessment of current status and future trends in the rural environment of this sensitive region. As driving criteria to select indicators, we assumed that they had to be sound, simple to calculate, easy to understand, and easily applicable by decision makers. They are related closely to significant ecological structures and functions. Twelve basic indicators were identified: (1) land use, (2) fossil energy use, (3) fossil energy use efficiency, (4) nitrogen (N) balance, (5) phosphorus (P) balance, (6) nitrogen contamination risk, (7) phosphorus contamination risk, (8) pesticide contamination, (9) soil erosion risk, (10) habitat intervention, (11) changes in soil carbon stock, and (12) balance of greenhouse gases. Indicators were geographically referenced using a geographic information system (GIS). The strength of this study is not in the absolute value of environmental indicators, but rather in the conceptualization of indicator and the identification of changing patterns, gradients and trends in space and time. According to our results, we can not definitely say that agriculture in the Pampas, as a whole, tends to be sustainable or not. While some indicators tend to improve, others keep stable, and the rest worsen. The relative importance among indicators must also be considered. The indicators that showed a negative net change are key to the identification of critical problems that will require special attention in the close future.

  10. Prevalencia de disfonía en profesores del distrito de Pampas - Tayacaja- Huancavelica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willy Alfredo Salas Sanchez

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de disfonía en la población de profesores de educación primaria y secundaria en el distrito de Pampas-Tayacaja-Huancavelica. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un estudio prospectivo descriptivo de corte transversal en los profesores del distrito de Pampas; utilizando como instrumento de estudio una entrevista tipo cuestionario dirigida por los investigadores durante los meses de junio, julio y agosto del 2003. Resultados: Se entrevistó a 75 profesores. La edad promedio fue: 36.8 años. Treintados (42.5% fueron mujeres y 43 (57.5% hombres. La prevalencia de disfonía acumulada durante el tiempo que vienen trabajando como docente fue: 44%. El 68% de los entrevistados indicaron no haber recibido capacitación para el adecuado uso de su voz. El 74.7% dicta clases por más de 15 horas por semana. 53.3% indicó estar expuesto al polvo proveniente de la tiza. 37.3% mencionó que el ruido ambiental dificulta la comunicación durante el dictado de clases. Conclusión: La prevalencia de disfonía en la población de profesores es alta al compararlo con otros estudios. Asimismo es alta la frecuencia de factores de riesgo para el desarrollo de disfonía en la población estudiada. (Rev Med Hered 2004;15:125-130.

  11. [Diversity and distribution of grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acridoidea) in grasslands of the Southern Pampas region, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariottini, Yanina; De Wysiecki, María Laura; Lange, Carlos Ernesto

    2013-03-01

    In Argentina, the grasslands of Pampas region comprise approximately 15% of the country. As in other grasslands of the world, grasshoppers are among the most important native herbivores. Their economic importance has been recognized in Argentina since the mid to late nineteenth century, since outbreaks of different species have become recurrent phenomena. Therefore, the main objective of this work was to study their diversity and distribution in grasslands of the Southern Pampas region (Laprida county, Buenos Aires province), as one of the most affected areas. The study was conducted during five seasons (2005-10). Sampling sites were represented by the most common plant communities in this area, classified in four categories: native grasslands, disturbed grasslands, implanted pastures and halophilous grasslands. The samplings were conducted from mid-spring to early autumn, with five or six samples per season. We estimated the following population descriptors: species richness (S), eveness (E), dominance (J), and diversity index (H'). In order to evaluate the similitude of the grasshopper communities present in the different plant communities, we used qualitative and quantitative coefficients of similitude. A total of 22 species of grasshoppers were collected, of which 21 belong to the family Acrididae. The subfamily Melanoplinae was the most diverse with eight species. The largest species richness was recorded in native grasslands (18). The different communities of grasshoppers had similar indices of evenness and dominance (p>0.05). Considering all plant communities, the average value of Shannon-Wiener index was 1.58+/-0.075. There was a positive correlation between evenness index and species richness (pgrasshoppers species richness, and diversity of grasshoppers. According to the qualitative indices applied, the similitude between different grasshopper communities was higher than 60%. In general, the species that had a higher frequency of occurrence showed greater

  12. Ultrahigh humidity sensitivity of graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Hengchang; Yin, Kuibo; Xie, Xiao; Ji, Jing; Wan, Shu; Sun, Litao; Terrones, Mauricio; Dresselhaus, Mildred S

    2013-01-01

    Humidity sensors have been extensively used in various fields, and numerous problems are encountered when using humidity sensors, including low sensitivity, long response and recovery times, and narrow humidity detection ranges. Using graphene oxide (G-O) films as humidity sensing materials, we fabricate here a microscale capacitive humidity sensor. Compared with conventional capacitive humidity sensors, the G-O based humidity sensor has a sensitivity of up to 37800% which is more than 10 times higher than that of the best one among conventional sensors at 15%-95% relative humidity. Moreover, our humidity sensor shows a fast response time (less than 1/4 of that of the conventional one) and recovery time (less than 1/2 of that of the conventional one). Therefore, G-O appears to be an ideal material for constructing humidity sensors with ultrahigh sensitivity for widespread applications.

  13. A method for high accuracy determination of equilibrium relative humidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, O.M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper treats a new method for measuring equilibrium relative humidity and equilibrium dew-point temperature of a material sample. The developed measuring device is described – a Dew-point Meter – which by means of so-called Dynamic Dew-point Analysis permits quick and very accurate...

  14. Humidity level In psychrometric processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mojsovski, Filip

    2008-01-01

    When a thermal engineer needs to control, rather than merely moderate humidity, he must focus on the moisture level as a separate variable - not simply an addition of temperature control. Controlling humidity generally demands a correct psychrometric approach dedicated to that purpose [1].Analysis of the humidity level in psychrometric thermal processes leads to relevant data for theory and practice [2]. This paper presents: (1) the summer climatic curve for the Skopje region, (2) selected results of investigation on farm dryers made outside laboratories. The first purpose of such activity was to examine relations between weather conditions and drying conditions. The estimation of weather condition for the warmest season of the year was realized by a summer climatic curve. In the science of drying, basic drying conditions are temperature, relative humidity and velocity of air, thickness of dried product and dryer construction. The second purpose was to realize correct prediction of drying rates for various psychrometrics drying processes and local products. Test runs with the dryer were carried out over a period of 24 h, using fruits and vegetables as experimental material. Air flow rate through the dryer of 150 m3/h, overall drying rate of 0.04 kg/h and air temperature of 65 oC were reached. Three types of solar dryers, were exploited in the research.

  15. Spatial and temporal constraints on regional-scale groundwater flow in the Pampa del Tamarugal Basin, Atacama Desert, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayne, Richard S.; Pollyea, Ryan M.; Dodd, Justin P.; Olson, Elizabeth J.; Swanson, Susan K.

    2016-12-01

    Aquifers within the Pampa del Tamarugal Basin (Atacama Desert, northern Chile) are the sole source of water for the coastal city of Iquique and the economically important mining industry. Despite this, the regional groundwater system remains poorly understood. Although it is widely accepted that aquifer recharge originates as precipitation in the Altiplano and Andean Cordillera to the east, there remains debate on whether recharge is driven primarily by near-surface groundwater flow in response to periodic flood events or by basal groundwater flux through deep-seated basin fractures. In addressing this debate, the present study quantifies spatial and temporal variability in regional-scale groundwater flow paths at 20.5°S latitude by combining a two-dimensional model of groundwater and heat flow with field observations and δ18O isotope values in surface water and groundwater. Results suggest that both previously proposed aquifer recharge mechanisms are likely influencing aquifers within the Pampa del Tamarugal Basin; however, each mechanism is operating on different spatial and temporal scales. Storm-driven flood events in the Altiplano readily transmit groundwater to the eastern Pampa del Tamarugal Basin through near-surface groundwater flow on short time scales, e.g., 100-101 years, but these effects are likely isolated to aquifers in the eastern third of the basin. In addition, this study illustrates a physical mechanism for groundwater originating in the eastern highlands to recharge aquifers and salars in the western Pampa del Tamarugal Basin over timescales of 104-105 years.

  16. Air humidity requirements for human comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Fanger, Povl Ole

    1999-01-01

    level near 100% rh. For respiratory comfort are the requirements much more stringent and results in lower permissible indoor air humidities. Compared with the upper humidity limit specified in existing thermal comfort standards, e.g. ASHRAE Addendum 55a, the humidity limit based on skin humidity......Upper humidity limits for the comfort zone determined from two recently presented models for predicting discomfort due to skin humidity and insufficient respiratory cooling are proposed. The proposed limits are compared with the maximum permissible humidity level prescribed in existing standards...... for the thermal indoor environment. The skin humidity model predicts discomfort as a function of the relative humidity of the skin, which is determined by existing models for human heat and moisture transfer based on environmental parameters, clothing characteristics and activity level. The respiratory model...

  17. High temperature humidity sensing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, P.P.; Tanase, S.; Greenblatt, M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on new proton conducting materials prepared and characterized for potential applications in humidity sensing at temperatures higher than 100 degrees C by complex impedance or galvanic cell type techniques. Calcium metaphosphate, β-Ca(PO 3 ) 2 as a galvanic cell type sensor material yields reproducible signals in the range from 5 to 200 mm Hg water vapor pressure at 578 degrees C, with short response time (∼ 30 sec). Polycrystalline samples of α-Zr(HPO 4 ) 2 and KMo 3 P 5.8 Si 2 O 25 , and the gel converted ceramic, 0.10Li 2 O-0.25P 2 O 5 -0.65SiO 2 as impedance sensor materials show decreases in impedance with increasing humidity in the range from 9 mm Hg to 1 atm water vapor pressure at 179 degrees C

  18. Humidity and Buildings. Technical Paper No. 188.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutcheon, N. B.

    Modified and controlled relative humidity in buildings for certain occupancies is discussed. New criteria are used in determining the needs, desirability and problems associated with humidities in a building. Severe winter climate requires that special attention be given to the problems associated with increased indoor humidities during cold…

  19. Paleogenetical study of pre-Columbian samples from Pampa Grande (Salta, Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnese, Fransisco R; Mendisco, Fanny; Keyser, Christine; Dejean, Cristina B; Dugoujon, Jean-Michel; Bravi, Claudio M; Ludes, Bertrand; Crubézy, Eric

    2010-03-01

    Ancient DNA recovered from 21 individuals excavated from burial sites in the Pampa Grande (PG) region (Salta province) of North-Western Argentina (NWA) was analyzed using various genetic markers (mitochondrial DNA, autosomal STRs, and Y chromosomal STRs). The results were compared to ancient and modern DNA from various populations in the Andean and North Argentinean regions, with the aim of establishing their relationships with PG. The mitochondrial haplogroup frequencies described (11% A, 47% B, and 42% D) presented values comparable to those found for the ancient Andean populations from Peru and San Pedro de Atacama. On the other hand, mitochondrial and Y chromosomal haplotypes were specific to PG, as they did not match any other of the South American populations studied. The described genetic diversity indicates homogeneity in the genetic structure of the ancient Andean populations, which was probably facilitated by the intense exchange network in the Andean zone, in particular among Tiwanaku, San Pedro de Atacama, and NWA. The discovery of haplotypes unique to PG could be due to a loss of genetic diversity caused by recent events affecting the autochthonous populations (establishment of the Inca Empire in the region, colonization by the Europeans).

  20. Analysis and steps for the socioeconomic improvement of the producers from the west pampas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Cuello

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A rural population of 6,845 inhabitants -9 of the population of the province, and with a density of 0.2 inhabitants per square kilometer- inhabits the five central and western departments in the province of La Pampa. These take up 38 of the territory of the province and are in the area comprised between 300 mm and 500 mm isohyets belonging to the phytographic province of Monte. Their economy is based on natural fields with bovine, ovine, caprine and equine cattle. The population is scattered widely in the said territory and remains considerably isolated from more populated centers. The objective -to change the living conditions of the "breeders"- makes it necessary to follow steps which allow for the transformation of these subsistence economies into small cattle undertakings with acceptable profitability indexes, through more efficient use of the environment and its resources. This productive structure will foster a more helpful relationship among cattle breeders, greater freedom when making decisions, and greater economic independence. This project's stable consolidation and the achievement of its goals will result in better ecosystem management and a marked improvement in the quality of life of these remote rural producers.

  1. Summer periphyton community in two streams of the Pampa Plain, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esquius Karina Soledad

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available During summer 2001, periphytic algae associated to the giant bulrush Schoenoplectus californicus (Cyperaceae were studied in Los Padres and La Tapera streams (Pampa Plain, Argentina. One hundred and seven taxa were determined, being 76 of them common to both sampling sites. Diversity, total number of taxa and abundance of periphytic algae were greater in stems from the effl uent (La Tapera Stream. Diatoms were the most important group in both streams, according to their richness and abundance. Periphyton from the infl uent (Los Padres Stream was characterized by the dominance of the diatom Navicula cryptocephala and the codominance of another three algae. In contrast in La Tapera Stream, not any species could be recognized as dominant. Periphyton community architecture was more complex in the effl uent, with a high development of fi ve physiognomic groups. In conclusion, algal community attached to S. californicus differs in terms of diversity, abundance and community complexity, possibly due to the diffe rences registered in certain abiotic parameters, mainly in water transparency and velocity.

  2. Wetlands of the central region of the Pampa, Argentina: study and territorial planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carballo, O.; Sbrocco, J.; Sotorres, E.; Del Ponti, O.; Marani, J.; Calmels, A.; Miglianelli, C.

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays, it's evident that wet lands favour a dynamic equilibrium keeping key ecologic processes and services, however, as part of a global tendency, and stimulated by the settlement and the expansion of economy, the pressure over the environment, and more particularly the wet lands, it's quickly increasing. This work puts forward the realization of an environmental characterization and a proposal of territorial planning of wet lands Urre Lauquen located in La Pampa province, Argentina, so as to attain a rational exploitation of the sources related to it. The used methodology was Gomez Orea (1993), which was adapted to the studied area.. This methodology consisted, on the one hand, in the realization of an area characterization in order to provide basic information about the different environmental factors like: geomorphology, lands, vegetation, climate, hydrology and socio-economic aspects, which were added physics and chemistry analysis. According to the obtained information, it was elaborated a territorial planning proposal where were determined which were the accurate activities to be implemented in the studied area. (author)

  3. Pathways towards to improve the feasibility of dairy pastoral system in La Pampa (Argentine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Angón

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, pastoral systems have been intensified in response to an increasing demand for meat and milk, by generating environmental and social problems due to its high dependence on external inputs. The objective of this research was to analyze the economic feasibility of dairy pastoral system in La Pampa (Argentina. The main successful factors were identified through technical efficiency analysis, and subsequently improvement actions were suggested. The technique data envelopment analysis creates efficiency indexes by comparing the performance of each farm with the best practice, which defines the production frontier. The farms were classified attending to two criteria: first, the level of efficiency, second, the regular use of supplementation feed. The results showed that about 40% of the farms were efficient and the efficiency rate of the farms without supplementary feed was 80%. A 70% of the farms uses their own grassland resources adjusting milk yield to the capacity of the pasture. The technical efficiency for this group is 14% higher than the rest. Inefficient farms can adopt different strategies to enhance by practicing benchmarking. One of the examples studied shows two ways to do it: on the one hand the extensification by producing at a minimum cost; on the other hand, the technification, linked to the increase of stocking rate and the use of strategic supplementation. Finally, small changes in the management of the farms positively impact on performance, use of resources, and the sustainability of the system.

  4. Microbial quality of soil from the Pampa biome in response to different grazing pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael S. Vargas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of different grazing pressures on the activity and diversity of soil bacteria. We performed a long-term experiment in Eldorado do Sul, southern Brazil, that assessed three levels of grazing pressure: high pressure (HP, with 4% herbage allowance (HA, moderate pressure (MP, with 12% HA, and low pressure (LP, with 16% HA. Two reference areas were also assessed, one of never-grazed native vegetation (NG and another of regenerated vegetation after two years of grazing (RG. Soil samples were evaluated for microbial biomass and enzymatic (β-glucosidase, arylsulfatase and urease activities. The structure of the bacterial community and the population of diazotrophic bacteria were evaluated by RFLP of the 16S rRNA and nifH genes, respectively. The diversity of diazotrophic bacteria was assessed by partial sequencing of the 16S rDNA gene. The presence of grazing animals increased soil microbial biomass in MP and HP. The structures of the bacterial community and the populations of diazotrophic bacteria were altered by the different grazing managements, with a greater diversity of diazotrophic bacteria in the LP treatment. Based on the characteristics evaluated, the MP treatment was the most appropriate for animal production and conservation of the Pampa biome.

  5. Phylogeographic analyses of the pampas cat (Leopardus colocola; Carnivora, Felidae) reveal a complex demographic history

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Santos, Anelisie; Trigo, Tatiane Campos; de Oliveira, Tadeu Gomes; Silveira, Leandro

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The pampas cat is a small felid that occurs in open habitats throughout much of South America. Previous studies have revealed intriguing patterns of morphological differentiation and genetic structure among its populations, as well as molecular evidence for hybridization with the closely related L. tigrinus. Here we report phylogeographic analyses encompassing most of its distribution (focusing particularly on Brazilian specimens, which had been poorly sampled in previous studies), using a novel dataset comprising 2,143 bp of the mitogenome, along with previously reported mtDNA sequences. Our data revealed strong population strutucture and supported a west-to-east colonization process in this species’ history. We detected two population expansion events, one older (ca. 200 thousand years ago [kya]) in western South America and another more recent (ca. 60-50 kya) in eastern areas, coinciding with the expansion of savanna environments in Brazil. Analyses including L. tigrinus individuals bearing introgressed mtDNA from L. colocola showed a complete lack of shared haplotypes between species, indicating that their hybridization was ancient. Finally, we observed a close relationship between Brazilian/Uruguayan L. colocola haplotypes and those sampled in L. tigrinus, indicating that their hybridization was likely related to the demographic expansion of L. colocola into eastern South America. PMID:29668017

  6. PAMPA--a drug absorption in vitro model. 5. Unstirred water layer in iso-pH mapping assays and pKa(flux)--optimized design (pOD-PAMPA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruell, Jeffrey A; Tsinman, Konstantin L; Avdeef, Alex

    2003-12-01

    Iso-pH mapping unstirred parallel artificial membrane permeability assay (PAMPA) was used to measure the effective permeability, P(e), as a function of pH from 3 to 10, of five weak monoprotic acids (ibuprofen, naproxen, ketoprofen, salicylic acid, benzoic acid), an ampholyte (piroxicam), five monoprotic weak bases (imipramine, verapamil, propranolol, phenazopyridine, metoprolol), and a diprotic weak base (quinine). The intrinsic permeability, P(o), the unstirred water layer (UWL) permeability, P(u), and the apparent pK(a) (pK(a)(flux)) were determined from the pH dependence of logP(e). The underlying permeability-pH equations were derived for multiprotic weak acids, weak bases and ampholytes. The average thickness of the unstirred water layer on each side of the membrane was estimated to be nearly 2000 microm, somewhat larger than that found in Caco-2 permeability assays (unstirred). Since the UWL thickness in the human intestine is believed to be about forty times smaller, it is critical to correct the in vitro permeability data for the effect of the UWL. Without such correction, the in vitro permeability coefficient of lipophilic molecules would be indicative only of the property of water. In single-pH PAMPA (e.g. pH 7.4), the uncertainty of the UWL contribution can be minimized if a specially-selected pH (possibly different from 7.4) were used in the assay. From the analysis of the shapes of the log P(e)-pH plots, a method to improve the selection of the assay pH, called pK(a)(flux)-optimized design (pOD-PAMPA), was described and tested. From an optimally-selected assay pH, it is possible to estimate P(o), as well as the entire membrane permeability-pH profile.

  7. Abigeato, control estatal y relaciones de poder en el Territorio Nacional de La Pampa en las primeras décadas del siglo XX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Moroni

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the characteristics of cattle raiding in La Pampa during the first decades of the 20th century. The main objective of this research was to recognize the spread of social values regarding cattle theft in the fields of justice and press. We analyze the mechanisms of the state to control cattle theft and the social actors involved in stealing, commercializing, and transporting cattle, to make more complex the interpretations that only associate this crime to subordinate sectors of the society of La Pampa

  8. VAB Temperature and Humidity Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, John E.; Youngquist, Robert C.; Muktarian, Edward; Nurge, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, 17 data loggers were placed in the VAB to measure temperature and humidity at 10-minute intervals over a one-year period. In 2013, the data loggers were replaced with an upgraded model and slight adjustments to their locations were made to reduce direct solar heating effects. The data acquired by the data loggers was compared to temperature data provided by three wind towers located around the building. It was found that the VAB acts as a large thermal filter, delaying and reducing the thermal oscillations occurring outside of the building. This filtering is typically more pronounced at higher locations in the building, probably because these locations have less thermal connection with the outside. We surmise that the lower elevations respond more to outside temperature variations because of air flow through the doors. Temperatures inside the VAB rarely exceed outdoor temperatures, only doing so when measurements are made directly on a surface with connection to the outside (such as a door or wall) or when solar radiation falls directly on the sensor. A thermal model is presented to yield approximate filter response times for various locations in the building. Appendix A contains historical thermal and humidity data from 1994 to 2009.

  9. Characterization of spacecraft humidity condensate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muckle, Susan; Schultz, John R.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1994-01-01

    When construction of Space Station Freedom reaches the Permanent Manned Capability (PMC) stage, the Water Recovery and Management Subsystem will be fully operational such that (distilled) urine, spent hygiene water, and humidity condensate will be reclaimed to provide water of potable quality. The reclamation technologies currently baselined to process these waste waters include adsorption, ion exchange, catalytic oxidation, and disinfection. To ensure that the baseline technologies will be able to effectively remove those compounds presenting a health risk to the crew, the National Research Council has recommended that additional information be gathered on specific contaminants in waste waters representative of those to be encountered on the Space Station. With the application of new analytical methods and the analysis of waste water samples more representative of the Space Station environment, advances in the identification of the specific contaminants continue to be made. Efforts by the Water and Food Analytical Laboratory at JSC were successful in enlarging the database of contaminants in humidity condensate. These efforts have not only included the chemical characterization of condensate generated during ground-based studies, but most significantly the characterization of cabin and Spacelab condensate generated during Shuttle missions. The analytical results presented in this paper will be used to show how the composition of condensate varies amongst enclosed environments and thus the importance of collecting condensate from an environment close to that of the proposed Space Station. Although advances were made in the characterization of space condensate, complete characterization, particularly of the organics, requires further development of analytical methods.

  10. Population Genetic Structure of Cnesterodon decemmaculatus (Poeciliidae): A Freshwater Look at the Pampa Biome in Southern South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Fregonezi, Aline M C; Malabarba, Luiz R; Fagundes, Nelson J R

    2017-01-01

    The Pampas is a Neotropical biome formed primarily by low altitude grasslands and encompasses the southernmost portion of Brazil, Uruguay, and part of Argentina. Despite the high level of endemism, and its significant environmental heterogeneity, Pampean species are underrepresented in phylogeographic studies, especially aquatic organisms. The Pampean hydrological system resulted from a long history of tectonism, climate, and sea level changes since the Neogene. In this study, we examined the population genetic structure of Cnesterodon decemmaculatus , a freshwater fish species that occurs throughout most of the Pampa biome. We characterized mitochondrial and autosomal genetic lineages in populations sampled from Southern Brazil and Uruguay to investigate (1) the correspondence between current drainage systems and evolutionary lineages, (2) the demographic history for each genetic lineage, and (3) the temporal depth of these lineages. Overall, we found that the major evolutionary lineages in this species are strongly related to the main Pampean drainage systems, even though stream capture events may have affected the distribution of genetic lineages among drainages. There was evidence for recent population growth in the lineages occupying drainages closest to the shore, which may indicate the effect of quaternary sea-level changes. In general, divergence time estimates among evolutionary lineages were shallow, ranging from 20,000 to 800,000 years before present, indicating a geologically recent history for this group, as previously reported in other Pampean species. A Bayesian phylogeographical reconstruction suggested that an ancestral lineage probably colonized the Uruguay River Basin, and then expanded throughout the Pampas. This evolutionary scenario may represent useful starting models for other freshwater species having a similar distribution.

  11. Assessment of the SWAT model to simulate a watershed with limited available data in the Pampas region, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romagnoli, Martín; Portapila, Margarita; Rigalli, Alfredo; Maydana, Gisela; Burgués, Martín; García, Carlos M

    2017-10-15

    Argentina has been among the world leaders in the production and export of agricultural products since the 1990s. The Carcarañá River Lower Basin (CRLB), a cropland of the Pampas region supplied by extensive rainfall, is located in an area with few streamgauging and other hydrologic/water-quality stations. Therefore, limited hydrologic data are available resulting in limited water-resources assessment. This work explores the application of Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model to the CRLB in the Santa Fe province of the Pampas region. The analysis of field and remote-sensing data characterizing hydrology, water quality, soil types, land use/land cover, management practices, and crop yield, guarantee a comprehensive SWAT modeling approach. A combined manual and automated calibration and validation process incorporating sensitivity and uncertainty analysis is performed using information concerning interior watershed processes. Eleven N/P fertilizer rates are selected to simulate the impact of N fertilizer on crop yield, plant uptake, as well as runoff and leaching losses. Different indices (partial factor productivity, agronomic efficiency, apparent crop recovery efficiency of applied nutrient, internal utilization efficiency, and physiological efficiency) are considered to assess nitrogen-use efficiency. The overall quality of the fit is satisfactory considering the input data limitations. This work provides, for the first time in Argentina, a reliable tool to simulate yield response to soil quality and water availability capable to meet defined environmental targets to support decision making on planning public policies and private activities on the Pampas region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Population Genetic Structure of Cnesterodon decemmaculatus (Poeciliidae: A Freshwater Look at the Pampa Biome in Southern South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline M. C. Ramos-Fregonezi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Pampas is a Neotropical biome formed primarily by low altitude grasslands and encompasses the southernmost portion of Brazil, Uruguay, and part of Argentina. Despite the high level of endemism, and its significant environmental heterogeneity, Pampean species are underrepresented in phylogeographic studies, especially aquatic organisms. The Pampean hydrological system resulted from a long history of tectonism, climate, and sea level changes since the Neogene. In this study, we examined the population genetic structure of Cnesterodon decemmaculatus, a freshwater fish species that occurs throughout most of the Pampa biome. We characterized mitochondrial and autosomal genetic lineages in populations sampled from Southern Brazil and Uruguay to investigate (1 the correspondence between current drainage systems and evolutionary lineages, (2 the demographic history for each genetic lineage, and (3 the temporal depth of these lineages. Overall, we found that the major evolutionary lineages in this species are strongly related to the main Pampean drainage systems, even though stream capture events may have affected the distribution of genetic lineages among drainages. There was evidence for recent population growth in the lineages occupying drainages closest to the shore, which may indicate the effect of quaternary sea-level changes. In general, divergence time estimates among evolutionary lineages were shallow, ranging from 20,000 to 800,000 years before present, indicating a geologically recent history for this group, as previously reported in other Pampean species. A Bayesian phylogeographical reconstruction suggested that an ancestral lineage probably colonized the Uruguay River Basin, and then expanded throughout the Pampas. This evolutionary scenario may represent useful starting models for other freshwater species having a similar distribution.

  13. Perception of climate variability, information use and strategies of the agents in front of risk. Characterizing mental models in decision-making of agriculturalists from Argentine pampas Percepción de variabilidad climática, uso de información y estrategias de los agentes frente al riesgo. Análisis de esquemas decisionales en agricultores de la región pampeana argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Barsky

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the elements that are considered by Pampean producers when making production decisions considering the climate as a factor. The article focuses on how producers perceive climate variability and on the type of information they manage when it comes to mid-term perspectives. During 2005, interviews were held with 60 producers, who were selected from two different zones of the Pampa region with different physical characteristics, thirty of them belonging to the central humid pampas in Buenos Aires province and the other thirty belonging toborder semiarid pampas located at Cordoba province. The results of the analysis help characterize the mental models behind the decision-making process in the individuals' perceptions, bearing in mind that their activity entails exposure to risk. The research's main objective is to propose communication measures that may help improve the use of climate forecasts by the social agents, assuming this is an available tool with significant potential to provide a more scientific support to the procedures of the production agents and to -improve economic earnings performance.Este artículo indaga acerca de qué elementos de análisis están presentes en las estrategias de los agricultores de las pampas argentinas a la hora de tomar decisiones de producción considerando el factor climático. El énfasis está puesto en cómo perciben la variabilidad climática y qué información manejan acerca de sus perspectivas a mediano plazo. Durante 2005 se entrevistaron a 60 productores, seleccionados de dos zonas pampeanas de diferentes características físicas. 30 personas correspondieron al área central húmeda y 30 personas a un área marginal semiárida. Los resultados del estudio apuntan a caracterizar los esquemas decisionales presentes en las percepciones de los individuos, teniendo en cuenta que su actividad supone una exposición al riesgo. El objetivo de fondo del trabajo de investigación es

  14. The belt of metagabbros of La Pampa: Lower Paleozoic back-arc magmatism in south-central Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernicoff, Carlos J.; Zappettini, Eduardo O.; Villar, Luisa M.; Chemale, Farid, Jr.; Hernández, Laura

    2009-12-01

    Combined geological, geochronological, geochemical and geophysical studies have led to identification of a large (˜300 km long, ˜5 km wide) N-S trending belt of metagabbros in the province of La Pampa, south-central Argentina. This belt, though only poorly exposed in the localities of Valle Daza and Sierra de Lonco Vaca, stands out in the geophysical data (aeromagnetics and gravity). Modeling of the aeromagnetic data permits estimation of the geometry of the belt of metagabbros and surrounding rocks. The main rock type exposed is metagabbros with relict magmatic nucleii where layering is preserved. A counterclockwise P-T evolution affected these rocks, i.e., during the Middle Ordovician the protolith reached an initial granulite facies of metamorphism (M1), evolving to amphibolite facies (M2). During the Upper Devonian, a retrograde, greenschist facies metamorphism (M3) partially affected the metagabbros. The whole-rock Sm-Nd data suggest a juvenile source from a depleted mantle, with model ages ranging from 552 to 574 Ma, and positive Epsilon values of 6.51-6.82. A crystallization age of 480 Ma is based on geological considerations, i.e. geochronological data of the host rocks as well as comparisons with the Las Aguilas mafic-ultramafic belt of Sierra de San Luis (central Argentina). The geochemical studies indicate an enriched MORB and back-arc signature. The La Pampa metagabbros are interpreted to be originated as a result of the extension that took place in a back-arc setting coevally with the Famatinian magmatic arc (very poorly exposed in the western part of the study area). The extensional event was 'aborted' by the collision of the Cuyania terrane with Pampia-Gondwana in the Middle Ordovician, causing deformation and metamorphism throughout the arc-back-arc region. The similarities between the La Pampa metagabbros and the mafic-ultramafic Las Aguilas belt of the Sierra de San Luis are very conspicuous, for example, the age (Lower Paleozoic), geochemical

  15. Influence of weather variables and plant communities on grasshopper density in the Southern Pampas, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wysiecki, María Laura; Arturi, Marcelo; Torrusio, Sandra; Cigliano, María Marta

    2011-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the influence of weather (precipitation and temperature) and plant communities on grasshopper density over a 14-year period (1996-2009) in Benito Juárez County, Southern Pampas, Argentina. Total density strongly varied among plant communities. Highest values were registered in 2001 and 2003 in highly disturbed pastures and in 2002 and 2009 in halophilous grasslands. Native grasslands had the lowest density values. Seasonal precipitation and temperature had no significant effect on total grasshopper density. Dichroplus elongatus (Giglio-Tos) (Orthoptera: Acridoidea), Covasacris pallidinota (Bruner), Dichroplus pratensis Bruner, Scotussa lemniscata Stål, Borellia bruneri (Rehn) and Dichroplus maculipennis (Blanchard) comprised, on average, 64% of the grasshopper assemblages during low density years and 79% during high density years. Dichroplus elongatus, S. lemniscata and C. pallidinota were the most abundant species in 2001, 2002 and 2003, while D. elongatus, B. brunneri and C. pallidinota in 2009. Dichroplus elongatus and D. pratensis, mixed feeders species, were positively affected by summer rainfall. This suggests that the increase in summer precipitation had a positive effect on the quantity and quality forage production, affecting these grasshopper populations. Scotussa lemniscata and C. pallidinota were negatively affected by winter and fall temperature, possibly affecting the embryonic development before diapause and hatching. Dichroplus elongatus and D. pratensis were associated with highly disturbed pastures, S. lemniscata with pastures and B. bruneri and D. maculipennis with halophilous grasslands. Covasacris pallidinota was closely associated with halophilous grasslands and moderately disturbed pastures. Weather conditions changed over the years, with 2001, 2002 and 2003 having excessive rainfall while 2008 and 2009 were the driest years since the study started. We suggest that although seasonal precipitation and

  16. [Detection of Chlamydia abortus in bovine reproductive losses in the province of La Pampa, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, María Del C; Fort, Marcelo; Bettermann, Simone; Entrocassi, Carolina; Costamagna, Sixto R; Sachse, Konrad; Rodríguez Fermepin, Marcelo

    2018-01-16

    Reproductive losses linked to an infectious etiology in bovine cattle are a major economic concern worldwide. In Argentina, more than 50% of abortion cases have unknown causes. Species belonging to Chlamydiaceae family are frequent etiologic agents of abortion around the world; however, there is yet no information on their prevalence in Argentina. The objective of this work was to identify Chlamydia spp., and particularly C. abortus in reproductive losses from bovine cattle in La Pampa, Argentina. Real time PCR targeting Chlamydiaceae-specific DNA fragments was performed on 251 samples obtained from bovine abortions and stillborns, and ArrayTube was used for species identification on positive samples. Chlamydiaceae DNA was detected in 12 samples of aborted fetuses (4.78%), 83.33% (10/12) accounting for abortions and 16.66% (2/12) for stillborns. C. abortus was detected by ArrayTube in 5 cases (1.99% of all samples, and 41.67% of Chlamydiaceae positive samples). This study shows the first detection of Chlamydiaceae and C. abortus DNA on reproductive losses of bovine cattle in Argentina, and the described prevalence value (4.78%) should be taken as baseline value due to the type of samples analyzed. Detection of genetic material from Chlamydiaceae not matching any of the studied species could be due to intraspecies variants or local species not yet described. Further research on Chlamydia infections in bovine cattle in Argentina is imperative to describe their range, to analyze their economic and zoonotic implications and to make recommendations about prevention and control measures. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Long-lasting floods buffer the thermal regime of the Pampas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houspanossian, Javier; Kuppel, Sylvain; Nosetto, Marcelo; Di Bella, Carlos; Oricchio, Patricio; Barrucand, Mariana; Rusticucci, Matilde; Jobbágy, Esteban

    2018-01-01

    The presence of large water masses influences the thermal regime of nearby land shaping the local climate of coastal areas by the ocean or large continental lakes. Large surface water bodies have an ephemeral nature in the vast sedimentary plains of the Pampas (Argentina) where non-flooded periods alternate with flooding cycles covering up to one third of the landscape for several months. Based on temperature records from 17 sites located 1 to 700 km away from the Atlantic coast and MODIS land surface temperature data, we explore the effects of floods on diurnal and seasonal thermal ranges as well as temperature extremes. In non-flooded periods, there is a linear increase of mean diurnal thermal range (DTR) from the coast towards the interior of the region (DTR increasing from 10 to 16 K, 0.79 K/100 km, r 2 = 0.81). This relationship weakens during flood episodes when the DTR of flood-prone inland locations shows a decline of 2 to 4 K, depending on surface water coverage in the surrounding area. DTR even approaches typical coastal values 500 km away from the ocean in the most flooded location that we studied during the three flooding cycles recorded in the study period. Frosts-free periods, a key driver of the phenology of both natural and cultivated ecosystems, are extended by up to 55 days during floods, most likely as a result of enhanced ground heat storage across the landscape ( 2.7 fold change in day-night heat transfer) combined with other effects on the surface energy balance such as greater night evaporation rates. The reduced thermal range and longer frost-free periods affect plant growth development and may offer an opportunity for longer crop growing periods, which may not only contribute to partially compensating for regional production losses caused by floods, but also open avenues for flood mitigation through higher plant evapotranspirative water losses.

  18. Preparation and Humidity Sensing Properties of KCl/MCM-41 Composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Liu; Lian-Yuan, Wang; Wei, Li; Li-Ying, Kou; Zhi-Cheng, Zhong; Li-Fang, Liu

    2010-01-01

    KCl/mobil composition of matter-41 (MCM-41) composite has been synthesized via a heat-treating process and characterized by x-ray diffraction, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, and nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms. In contrast with pure MCM-41, KCl/MCM-41 composite exhibits improved humidity sensing properties within the relative humidity range of 11–95%. The impedance of KCl/MCM-41 composite changes by about four orders of magnitude over the whole humidity range with the response time and the recovery times are about 30 s and 35 s, respectively. Small humidity hysteresis and good stability are also observed based on our product. These results make our product a good candidate in fabricating humidity sensors with high performances and low synthetic complexity

  19. Shallow Land Burial Technology - Humid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, E.C.; Spalding, B.P.; Lee, S.Y.

    1983-01-01

    The Shallow Land Burial Technology - Humid Project is being conducted for the Department of Energy Low-Level Waste Management Program with the objective of identifying and demonstrating improved technology for disposing of low-level solid waste in humid environments. Two improved disposal techniques are currently being evaluated using nine demonstration trenches at the Engineered Test Facility (ETF). The first is use of a cement-bentonite grout applied as a waste backfill material prior to trench closure and covering. The second is complete hydrologic isolation of waste by emplacement in a trench that is lined on all four sides, top and bottom using synthetic impermeable lining material. An economic analysis of the trench grouting and lining demonstration favored the trench lining operation ($1055/demonstration trench) over trench grouting ($1585/demonstration trench), with the cost differential becoming even greater (as much as a factor of 6 in favor of lining for typical ORNL trenches) as trench dimensions increase and trench volumes exceed those of the demonstration trenches. In addition to the evaluation of trench grouting and lining, major effort has centered on characterization of the ETF site. Though only a part of the overall study, characterization is an extremely important component of the site selection process; it is during these activities that potential problems, which may obviate the site from further consideration, are found. Characterization of the ETF has included studies of regional and site-specific geology, the physical and chemical properties of the soils in which the demonstration trenches are located, and hydrology of the small watershed of which the ETF is a part. 12 references, 6 figures, 2 tables

  20. Passive Wireless SAW Humidity Sensors, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal describes the preliminary development of passive wireless surface acoustic wave (SAW) based humidity sensors for NASA application to distributed...

  1. Land-use change and soil type are drivers of fungal and archaeal communities in the Pampa biome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupatini, Manoeli; Jacques, Rodrigo Josemar Seminoti; Antoniolli, Zaida Inês; Suleiman, Afnan Khalil Ahmad; Fulthorpe, Roberta R; Roesch, Luiz Fernando Würdig

    2013-02-01

    The current study aimed to test the hypothesis that both land-use change and soil type are responsible for the major changes in the fungal and archaeal community structure and functioning of the soil microbial community in Brazilian Pampa biome. Soil samples were collected at sites with different land-uses (native grassland, native forest, Eucalyptus and Acacia plantation, soybean and watermelon field) and in a typical toposequence in Pampa biome formed by Paleudult, Albaqualf and alluvial soils. The structure of soil microbial community (archaeal and fungal) was evaluated by ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis and soil functional capabilities were measured by microbial biomass carbon and metabolic quotient. We detected different patterns in microbial community driven by land-use change and soil type, showing that both factors are significant drivers of fungal and archaeal community structure and biomass and microbial activity. Fungal community structure was more affected by land-use and archaeal community was more affected by soil type. Irrespective of the land-use or soil type, a large percentage of operational taxonomic unit were shared among the soils. We accepted the hypothesis that both land-use change and soil type are drivers of archaeal and fungal community structure and soil functional capabilities. Moreover, we also suggest the existence of a soil microbial core.

  2. Graphene based humidity-insensitive films

    KAUST Repository

    Tai, Yanlong; Lubineau, Gilles

    2017-01-01

    A humidity nonsensitive material based on reduced-graphene oxide (r-GO) and methods of making the same are provided, in an embodiment, the materia! has a resistance/humidity variation of about -15% to 15% based on different sintering time

  3. Temperature and Humidity Control in Livestock Stables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael; Andersen, Palle; Nielsen, Kirsten M.

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes temperature and humidity control of a livestock stable. It is important to have a correct air flow pattern in the livestock stable in order to achieve proper temperature and humidity control as well as to avoid draught. In the investigated livestock stable the air flow...

  4. Humidity detection using chitosan film based sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, T. I.; Nainggolan, I.; Dalimunthe, D.; Balyan, M.; Cuana, R.; Khanifah, S.

    2018-02-01

    A humidity sensor made of the natural polymer chitosan has been successfully fabricated in the film form by a solution casting method. Humidity testing was performed by placing a chitosan film sensor in a cooling machine room, model KT-2000 Ahu. The testing results showed that the output voltage values of chitosan film sensor increased with the increase in humidity percentage. For the increase in humidity percentage from 30 to 90% showed that the output voltage of chitosan film sensor increased from 32.19 to 138.75 mV. It was also found that the sensor evidenced good repeatability and stability during the testing. Therefore, chitosan has a great potential to be used as new sensing material for the humidity detection of which was cheaper and environmentally friendly.

  5. Graphene based humidity-insensitive films

    KAUST Repository

    Tai, Yanlong

    2017-09-08

    A humidity nonsensitive material based on reduced-graphene oxide (r-GO) and methods of making the same are provided, in an embodiment, the materia! has a resistance/humidity variation of about -15% to 15% based on different sintering time or temperature. In an aspect, the resistance variation to humidity can be close to zero or -0.5% to 0.5%, showing a humidity non sensitivity property. In an embodiment, a humidity nonsensitive material based on the r-GO and carbon nanotube (CNT) composites is provided, wherein the ratio of CNT to r-GO is adjusted. The ratio can be adjusted based on the combined contribution of carbon nanotube (positive resistance variation) and reduced- graphene oxide (negative resistance variation) behaviors.

  6. Humid Heat Waves at different warming levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, S.; Sillmann, J.; Sterl, A.

    2017-12-01

    The co-occurrence of consecutive hot and humid days during a heat wave can strongly affect human health. Here, we quantify humid heat wave hazard in the recent past and at different levels of global warming.We find that the magnitude and apparent temperature peak of heat waves, such as the ones observed in Chicago in 1995 and China in 2003, have been strongly amplified by humidity. Climate model projections suggest that the percentage of area where heat wave magnitude and peak are amplified by humidity increases with increasing warming levels. Considering the effect of humidity at 1.5o and 2o global warming, highly populated regions, such as the Eastern US and China, could experience heat waves with magnitude greater than the one in Russia in 2010 (the most severe of the present era).The apparent temperature peak during such humid-heat waves can be greater than 55o. According to the US Weather Service, at this temperature humans are very likely to suffer from heat strokes. Humid-heat waves with these conditions were never exceeded in the present climate, but are expected to occur every other year at 4o global warming. This calls for respective adaptation measures in some key regions of the world along with international climate change mitigation efforts.

  7. Humidity control device in a reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aizawa, Motohiro; Igarashi, Hiroo; Osumi, Katsumi; Kimura, Takashi.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a device capable of maintaining the inside of a container under high humidity circumstantial conditions causing less atmospheric corrosions, in order to prevent injuries due to atmospheric corrosions to smaller diameter stainless steel pipeways in the reactor container. Constitution: Stress corrosion cracks (SCC) to the smaller diameter stainless steel pipeways are caused dependent on the relative humidity and it is effective as the countermeasure against SCC to maintain the relative humidity at a low level less than 30 % or high level greater than 60 %. Based on the above findings, a humidity control device is disposed so as to maintain the relative humidity for the atmosphere within a reactor core on a higher humidity region. The device is adapted such that recycling gas in the dry-well coolant circuit is passed through an orifice to atomize the water introduced from feedwater pipe and introduce into a reactor core or such that the recycling gases in the dry-well cooling circuit are bubbled into water to remove chlorine gas in the reactor container gas thereby increasing the humidity in the reactor container. (Kamimura, M.)

  8. La textura del suelo como factor regulador de la adsorción de Escherichia coli en una cuenca de la Pampa Ondulada (Argentina Soil texture as a regulating factor of Escherichia coli adsorption in a Rolling Pampa basin (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Behrends Kraemer

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El aumento de la carga animal vacuna en la Pampa Ondulada asociado a áreas frágiles supone un importante riesgo de contaminación biológica. Dicha contaminación está regulada por variables edáficas, como la textura, que controlan el transporte de contaminantes biológicos hacia los cuerpos de agua. En el presente trabajo se correlacionó la adsorción bacteriana del suelo con distintos tamaños de partículas individuales correspondientes a 27 suelos provenientes de una cuenca de la Pampa Ondulada. Para ello se utilizó una técnica de centrifugación lenta. Los valores de adsorción bacteriana, empleando en la determinación Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, variaron entre 25,3% y 73,3%, y el tamaño de partícula que mejor se correlacionó con esta propiedad fue el correspondiente a la fracción de arcillas (R² = 0,6. Esta correlación mejoró al considerar conjuntamente a todas las partículas menores de 3 µm (R² = 0,64, lo que resalta la capacidad de los limos muy finos en el fenómeno de adsorción. La curva de ajuste elaborada con los datos experimentales se comparó con la obtenida de acuerdo con el modelo propuesto por Ling et al. (2002. Se encontraron similitudes en la pendiente, no así en la ordenada al origen. Esta diferencia desapareció al emplear en la determinación una cepa autóctona aislada de deyecciones animales provenientes de la cuenca estudiada, dado que dicha cepa evidenció una adsorción 48% superior a la observada con la cepa de colección.

  9. Clinker mineral hydration at reduced relative humidities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Hansen, Per Freiesleben; Lachowski, Eric E.

    1999-01-01

    and experimental data are presented showing that C(3)A can hydrate at lower humidities than either C3S or C2S. It is suggested that the initiation of hydration during exposure to water vapour is nucleation controlled. When C(3)A hydrates at low humidity, the characteristic hydration product is C(3)AH(6......Vapour phase hydration of purl cement clinker minerals at reduced relative humidities is described. This is relevant to modern high performance concrete that may self-desiccate during hydration and is also relevant to the quality of the cement during storage. Both the oretical considerations...

  10. Laboratory setup for temperature and humidity measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Eimre, Kristjan

    2015-01-01

    In active particle detectors, the temperature and humidity conditions must be under constant monitoring and control, as even small deviations from the norm cause changes to detector characteristics and result in a loss of precision. To monitor the temperature and humidity, different kinds of sensors are used, which must be calibrated beforehand to ensure their accuracy. To calibrate the large number of sensors that are needed for the particle detectors and other laboratory work, a calibration system is needed. The purpose of the current work was to develop a laboratory setup for temperature and humidity sensor measurements and calibration.

  11. VARIACIONES EN BAJA FRECUENCIA DE LA PRECIPITACIÓN ESTACIONAL EN LA REGIÓN PAMPA AMARILLA Y POSIBLES FORZANTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Russián

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudia el ciclo anual de precipitación en la región Pampa Amarilla (RPA. La mayor parte de la RPA presenta máximo en marzo, seguido de noviembre y diciembre, y mínimo en invierno. El acumulado octubre-marzo (verano resulta significativamente distinto al acumulado abril- septiembre (invierno. Se analizan las variaciones, tendencias y cambios de las series temporales en verano e invierno. Las series más largas seleccionadas sobre el centro y norte de La Pampa, muestran cambio positivo y significativo por tendencia lineal, del orden del 44% de la media regional en verano. Tras una prolongada sequía (1930-1950 el cambio estival irrumpe en la década de los setenta (centro-norte de La Pampa, y en la década de los sesenta (centro-este de La Pampa. Este cambio brusco ha producido una larga fase húmeda extendida hasta comienzos de los dos mil. El cambio de la década del setenta puede estar asociado al cambio de las condiciones medias de la Temperatura superficial del mar (TSM del Pacífico central ecuatorial. Para el período de prolongada fase húmeda (1969-2009 en el sector centro y norte de la RPA hay un aumento (disminución de las precipitaciones de verano (invierno mientras que hacia el centro-sudoeste de la RPA, los cambios son negativos y significativos. La exploración de la circulación troposférica y la TSM revela que la variabilidad interanual de la precipitación está modulada por teleconexiones remotas trópico-extratrópico. Se descarta cualquier posible relación con el Modo Anular del Sur. En verano, el mecanismo de interacción es la modulación de la corriente en chorro subtropical en el Pacífico Sur hacia Sudamérica, generada por anomalías en la circulación de la celda de Hadley sobre el Pacifico ecuatorial central. El mecanismo podría estar asociado a la baja y la alta frecuencia del fenómeno El Niño. En invierno, la teleconexión está dada por la propagación de ondas cuasi estacionarias de Rossby desde la

  12. Eolian depositional phases during the past 50 ka and inferred climate variability for the Pampean Sand Sea, western Pampas, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripaldi, Alfonsina; Forman, Steven L.

    2016-05-01

    The Pampean Sand Sea, which occurs from the Argentinian Pampas to the eastern Andean piedmont, hosts presently stabilized dune fields spanning the late Quaternary. This study integrates previous results and presents new geomorphic, stratigraphic, sedimentological, and chronologic data for nineteen >2 m-thick eolian successions for the San Luis paleo-dune field, western Pampas, to better constrain the depositional history. Six eolian depositional phases are identified spanning the past 50 ka, interposed with paleosols and/or bounded by erosive surfaces. Age control was from 61 OSL ages of small aliquots of quartz grains from eolian stratigraphic units. The inferred timing of eolian phases are at ca. 70 ± 10 yr, 190 ± 20 yr, 12 to 1 ka, 22 to 17 ka, 29 to 24 ka, and 40 to 32 ka. A maximum span for periods of pedogenesis at ca. 12 to 17 ka, 22 to 24 ka, and 29 to 32 ka was provided by bounding OSL ages, which broadly overlap with high stands of pluvial lakes and glacier advances in the central Andes. We infer that the added precipitation may reflect expansion of the Southern Hemisphere monsoon, associated with Northern Hemisphere Heinrich events, leading to episodes of significantly wetter conditions (>350 mm MAP) to at least 35° S. Most of the Holocene (12 ka to 0.8 ka) was characterized by sand sheet deposit under drier than present conditions (100-450 mm MAP), associated with Monte-type vegetation (shrub steppe). The latest two eolian depositional phases, occurred at ca. 190 and 70 yr ago, during the historic period with European settlement and are related to anthropogenic landscape disturbance, though the youngest phase was concomitant with 1930s drought. Wet conditions dominated since ca. AD 1970 with new lakes and rivers forming across this eolian terrain; an incongruous environmental response in reference to drier conditions for most of the Holocene.

  13. Insights into Andean slope hydrology: reservoir characteristics of the thermal Pica spring system, Pampa del Tamarugal, northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheihing, Konstantin W.; Moya, Claudio E.; Tröger, Uwe

    2017-09-01

    The thermal Pica springs, at ˜1,400 m above sea level (asl) in the Pampa del Tamarugal (Chile), represent a low-saline spring system at the eastern margin of the hyper-arid Atacama Desert, where groundwater resources are scarce. This study investigates the hydrogeological and geothermal characteristics of their feed reservoir, fostered by the interpretation of a 20-km east-west-heading reflection-seismic line in the transition zone from the Andean Precordillera to the Pampa del Tamarugal. Additional hydrochemical, isotope and hydrologic time-series data support the integrated analysis. One of the main factors that enabled the development of the spring-related vertical fracture system at Pica, is a disruption zone in the Mesozoic Basement caused by intrusive formations. This destabilized the younger Oligocene units under the given tectonic stress conditions; thus, the respective groundwater reservoir is made up of fractured Oligocene units of low to moderate permeability. Groundwater recharge takes place in the Precordillera at ˜3,800 m asl. From there groundwater flow covers a height difference of ˜3,000 m with a maximum circulation depth of ˜800-950 m, where the waters obtain their geothermal imprint. The maximal expected reservoir temperature, as confirmed by geothermometers, is ˜55 °C. Corrected mean residence times of spring water and groundwater plot at 1,200-4,300 years BP and yield average interstitial velocities of 6.5-22 m/year. At the same time, the hydraulic head signal, as induced by recharge events in the Precordillera, is transmitted within 20-24 months over a distance of ˜32 km towards the Andean foothills at Pica and Puquio Nunez.

  14. The Importance of Humidity in the Relationship between Heat and Population Mental Health: Evidence from Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ning; Berry, Helen L; Bennett, Charmian M

    2016-01-01

    Despite many studies on the effects of heat on mental health, few studies have examined humidity. In order to investigate the relationship among heat, humidity and mental health, we matched data from the Social, Economic and Environmental Factors (SEEF) project with gridded daily temperature and water vapour pressure data from the Australian Bureau of Meteorology. Logit models were employed to describe the associations among heat (assessed using temperature, °C), humidity (assessed using vapour pressure, hPa) and two measures of mental health, (i) high or very high distress (assessed using K10 scores ≥ 22) and (ii) having been treated for depression or anxiety. We found a one-unit increase in temperature and vapour pressure was associated with an increase in the occurrence of high or very high distress by 0.2% (p humidity rose to the 99th percentile of the sample, the estimated marginal effect of heat was more than doubled (0.5%, p humidity was related to having been treated for depression or anxiety in the last month. Humidity compounds the negative association between hot weather and mental health and thus should be taken into account when reforming the health care system to respond to the challenge of climate change.

  15. Humidity Response of Polyaniline Based Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamta PANDEY

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper presents hitherto unreported humidity sensing capacity of emeraldine salt form of polyaniline. Humidity plays a major role in different processes in industries ranging from food to electronic goods besides human comfort and therefore its monitoring is an essential requirement during various processes. Polyaniline has a wide use for making sensors as it can be easily synthesized and has long stability. Polyaniline is synthesized here by chemical route and is found to sense humidity as it shows variation in electrical resistance with variation in relative humidity. Results are presented here for a range of 15 to 90 RH%. The resistance falls from 5.8 to 0.72 Giga ohms as RH varies from 15 to 65 % and then falls to 13.9 Mega ohms as RH approaches 90 %. The response and recovery times are also measured.

  16. Humidity measurements in the precast concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurez, M.

    1986-01-01

    The precast concrete industry manufactures requires a good knowledge and control of the humidity factor: during the manufacturing process, in order to regulate the water content of aggregates, or the fresh concrete workability: during the quality control of the product characteristics. The principles of measurements: conductivity, dielectric characteristics and neutron moisture meters are compared for cost, humidity range, accuracy, temperature dependence, interfering elements, density dependence, grain size and shape [fr

  17. Study on the Correlation between Humidity and Material Strains in Separable Micro Humidity Sensor Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Yuan Chang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Incidents of injuries caused by tiles falling from building exterior walls are frequently reported in Taiwan. Humidity is an influential factor in tile deterioration but it is more difficult to measure the humidity inside a building structure than the humidity in an indoor environment. Therefore, a separable microsensor was developed in this study to measure the humidity of the cement mortar layer with a thickness of 1.5–2 cm inside the external wall of a building. 3D printing technology is used to produce an encapsulation box that can protect the sensor from damage caused by the concrete and cement mortar. The sensor is proven in this study to be capable of measuring temperature and humidity simultaneously and the measurement results are then used to analyze the influence of humidity on external wall tile deterioration.

  18. Evaluation of the membrane permeability (PAMPA and skin) of benzimidazoles with potential cannabinoid activity and their relation with the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Figueroa, M Javiera; Pessoa-Mahana, C David; Palavecino-González, M Elisa; Mella-Raipán, Jaime; Espinosa-Bustos, Cristián; Lagos-Muñoz, Manuel E

    2011-06-01

    The permeability of five benzimidazole derivates with potential cannabinoid activity was determined in two models of membranes, parallel artificial membrane permeability assay (PAMPA) and skin, in order to study the relationship of the physicochemical properties of the molecules and characteristics of the membranes with the permeability defined by the Biopharmaceutics Classification System. It was established that the PAMPA intestinal absorption method is a good predictor for classifying these molecules as very permeable, independent of their thermodynamic solubility, if and only if these have a Log P(oct) value permeability is conditioned on the solubility of the molecule so that it can only serve as a model for classifying the permeability of molecules that possess high solubility (class I: high solubility, high permeability; class III: high solubility, low permeability).

  19. Evaluation of a treatment system wastewater prebeneficiado of coffee (Coffea arabica implemented in the community Carmen Pampa province of Nor Yungas of La Paz Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvarez Javier

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted in prebeneficiadora coffee plant of UAC-CP, located in the community of Carmen Pampa, Coroico Municipality, Nor Yungas of La Paz department. The objective was to determine the efficiency of wastewater treatment prebeneficiado coffee because it is not known to be effective in reducing the level of contamination of treated wastewater, and according to the results to correct and / or validate directly model system in place. For their study was established seven sampling points within the system of treatment and four replications were made at different times and with different amounts of coffee cherry. We evaluated the parameters of temperature, pH, settleable solids, total suspended solids, fixed and volatile, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand and dissolved oxygen. The temperature of wastewater entering the system has recorded 16.5 o C, increasing during the treatment process at 17.5 °C and record the output is 16.5 ºC. The pH increased from 4.51 to 6.04 which occurred at the last two gaps oxygenation and not in the neutralization tank. Settleable solids (SS increased from 0.1 mg / L to 0.15 mg / L, which was recorded at the lakes of oxygen, is attributed to the drag of fine gravel. Total suspended solids (TSS have been reduced from 1927.5 mg / L to 299 mg / L gradually throughout the treatment process. Fixed suspended solids (SSF were reduced from 137.5 mg / L to 58.5 mg / L. Volatile suspended solids (VSS were reduced from 1790 mg / L to 240.5 mg / L. Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD was reduced from 6102.5 mg O2 / L to 1245 mg O2 / L. The chemical oxygen demand (COD was reduced from 9800 mg O2 / L to 1658.75 mg O2 / L. Dissolved oxygen (DO increased from 0 to 2.4 mg O2 / L, in the last two gaps in oxygenation, due to the reduction of solids and chemical oxygen demand and biochemical oxygen. Of the nine parameters measured, six meet the maximum permissible values for download in source receptor (stream

  20. Abigeato, control estatal y relaciones de poder en el Territorio Nacional de La Pampa en las primeras décadas del siglo XX

    OpenAIRE

    Marisa Moroni

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the characteristics of cattle raiding in La Pampa during the first decades of the 20th century. The main objective of this research was to recognize the spread of social values regarding cattle theft in the fields of justice and press. We analyze the mechanisms of the state to control cattle theft and the social actors involved in stealing, commercializing, and transporting cattle, to make more complex the interpretations that only associate this crime to subordinate sec...

  1. Medium- and large-sized mammals in a steppic savanna area of the Brazilian Pampa: survey and conservation issues of a poorly known fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, C C; Galiano, D; Kubiak, B B; Marinho, J R

    2016-02-01

    The wildlife of the Brazilian Pampa is threatened by large-scale habitat loss, due in particular to the expansion of soybean cultivation and the conversion of grasslands areas into extensive areas of silviculture. It is essential to study how the mammal fauna copes with the highly fragmented, human-influenced, non-protected landscape. Our study presents the results of a survey of the large- and medium-sized mammals of a typical human-influenced steppic savanna area of the Pampa biome. The survey was conducted exclusively with the use of camera traps over a period of 16 months. The relative frequencies of species in the area were evaluated. We recorded 18 species, some of them locally threatened (Tamandua tetradactyla, Alouatta caraya, Leopardus colocolo, Leopardus geoffroyi, Leopardus wiedii, Puma yagouaroundi, Mazama gouazoubira and Cuniculus paca). Several species were found to thrive in the area; however, many species were considered rare, and undoubtedly new species could be recorded if we continued the sampling. Our results contribute to the knowledge of faunal diversity in the Pampa biome and associated habitats, warn about threats and provide support for conservation measures.

  2. Medium- and large-sized mammals in a steppic savanna area of the Brazilian Pampa: survey and conservation issues of a poorly known fauna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C. Espinosa

    Full Text Available Abstract The wildlife of the Brazilian Pampa is threatened by large-scale habitat loss, due in particular to the expansion of soybean cultivation and the conversion of grasslands areas into extensive areas of silviculture. It is essential to study how the mammal fauna copes with the highly fragmented, human-influenced, non-protected landscape. Our study presents the results of a survey of the large- and medium-sized mammals of a typical human-influenced steppic savanna area of the Pampa biome. The survey was conducted exclusively with the use of camera traps over a period of 16 months. The relative frequencies of species in the area were evaluated. We recorded 18 species, some of them locally threatened (Tamandua tetradactyla, Alouatta caraya, Leopardus colocolo, Leopardus geoffroyi, Leopardus wiedii, Puma yagouaroundi, Mazama gouazoubira and Cuniculus paca. Several species were found to thrive in the area; however, many species were considered rare, and undoubtedly new species could be recorded if we continued the sampling. Our results contribute to the knowledge of faunal diversity in the Pampa biome and associated habitats, warn about threats and provide support for conservation measures.

  3. Assessment of water pollution in the Brazilian Pampa biome by means of stress biomarkers in tadpoles of the leaf frog Phyllomedusa iheringii (Anura: Hylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TG Santos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Pampa biome is currently under constant threat due to increase of agriculture and improper management of urban effluents. Studies with a focus on the assessment of impacts caused by human activities in this biome are scarce. In the present study, we measured stress-related biomarkers in tadpoles of the leaf frog Phyllomedusa iheringii, an endemic species to the Pampa biome, and tested its suitability as a bioindicator for the assessment of potential aquatic contamination in selected ponds (S1 and S2 nearby agricultural areas in comparison to a reference site. A significant decrease in acetylcholinesterase activity was observed in S2 when compared to S1 and reference. The levels of total-hydroperoxides were increased in S2 site. In parallel, increased activity of the antioxidant enzymes catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione S-transferase were observed in S2 when compared to S1 and reference. Further studies are necessary in order to correlate the changes observed here with different chemical stressors in water, as well as to elucidate mechanisms of toxicity induced by pesticides in amphibian species endemic to the Pampa biome. Nevertheless, our study validates Phyllomedusa iheringii as a valuable bioindicator in environmental studies.

  4. Assessment of water pollution in the Brazilian Pampa biome by means of stress biomarkers in tadpoles of the leaf frog Phyllomedusa iheringii (Anura: Hylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, T G; Melo, R; Costa-Silva, D G; Nunes, Mem; Rodrigues, N R; Franco, J L

    2015-01-01

    The Brazilian Pampa biome is currently under constant threat due to increase of agriculture and improper management of urban effluents. Studies with a focus on the assessment of impacts caused by human activities in this biome are scarce. In the present study, we measured stress-related biomarkers in tadpoles of the leaf frog Phyllomedusa iheringii, an endemic species to the Pampa biome, and tested its suitability as a bioindicator for the assessment of potential aquatic contamination in selected ponds (S1 and S2) nearby agricultural areas in comparison to a reference site. A significant decrease in acetylcholinesterase activity was observed in S2 when compared to S1 and reference. The levels of total-hydroperoxides were increased in S2 site. In parallel, increased activity of the antioxidant enzymes catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione S-transferase were observed in S2 when compared to S1 and reference. Further studies are necessary in order to correlate the changes observed here with different chemical stressors in water, as well as to elucidate mechanisms of toxicity induced by pesticides in amphibian species endemic to the Pampa biome. Nevertheless, our study validates Phyllomedusa iheringii as a valuable bioindicator in environmental studies.

  5. Análisis de los escurrimientos de una microcuenca de Pampa Ondulada bajo diferentes sistemas de labranza Runoff analysis of a watershed belonging to the rolling Pampa under different tillage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario G. Castiglioni

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available La tasa de escurrimiento del agua juega un rol crítico en la determinación de la pérdida de suelo en las tierras agrícolas. En la última década la siembra directa se ha difundido en la Pampa Ondulada en forma considerable, siendo escasos los estudios a nivel microcuenca en los cuales se analice sus efectos sobre los escurrimientos respecto a otros sistemas de labranza. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue comparar distintos parámetros correspondientes a la respuesta hidrológica superficial de una microcuenca de la Pampa Ondulada, ante cambios en los sistemas de labranza empleados. La microcuenca bajo estudio posee una superficie de 300 ha y está ubicada en la vertiente norte de la cuenca media del Arroyo del Tala, San Pedro, provincia de Bs. As. Los suelos presentes corresponden a la serie Ramallo (Argiudol vértico y sus fases por erosión. Se confeccionaron los hidrogramas y hietogramas correspondientes a las distintas tormentas ocurridas durante el período 1995-2002, analizándose los escurrimientos en forma global y los tramos ascendentes y descendentes de los caudales de agua obtenidos en forma separada. El sistema de labranza siembra directa originó valores de curva número mayores respecto al sistema convencional. La duración de los escurrimientos fue mayor bajo siembra directa debido a un alargamiento de la fase descendente de los hidrogramas. Los caudales de escurrimiento generados por unidad de lluvia caída fueron siempre menores bajo el sistema de siembra directa respecto al sistema de labranza convencional. Los milímetros escurridos durante la fase descendente de los hidrogramas no fue diferente entre sistemas de labranza ya que el menor caudal registrado bajo la siembra directa fue compensado por una mayor duración de este período en dicho sistema de labranza.The runoff rate constitutes a key factor in the determination of soil losses in arable lands. In the last decade, no tillage system became widespread in the

  6. Número de curva de escurrimiento para una microcuenca de Pampa Ondulada bajo labranza convencional y siembra directa Runoff curve number for a Rolling Pampa watershed under conventional and no-tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celio I Chagas

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue estudiar la aplicabilidad del método de Número de Curva (CN del USDA para una microcuenca agrícola de 300 ha de Pampa Ondulada, bajo labranza convencional (LC durante el período 1994-1998 y posteriormente bajo siembra directa (SD durante el período 1999-2004 a partir del análisis de lluvias y escurrimientos medidos in situ. El uso de la tierra consistió predominantemente en cultivos anuales, siendo la soja el cultivo más frecuente. De las 583 lluvias analizadas, tan solo el 11% provocó escurrimientos registrables. La mayoría de los escurrimientos ocurrió bajo condición antecedente de humedad (AMC I, situación que fue definida por la lluvia caída los 5 días anteriores al evento considerado, lo cual muestra un aspecto de discusión crítica para el uso de esta metodología. A través del análisis de la serie ordenada de datos, se observó que LC y SD presentaban valores prácticamente coincidentes entre sí tanto para AMC II (CN 82 como para AMC III (CN 96. Sin embargo, al considerar AMC I (correspondiente al 10% inferior de dicha serie, la labranza convencional presentó una tendencia a generar menores escurrimientos que siembra directa (CN 56 y 68, respectivamente particularmente durante el período otoño invernal, época en que se realizaron las labores primarias de remoción del suelo que dejaron el suelo rugoso y por ende, con alta capacidad de infiltración.The aim of this paper was to study the applicability of the Curve Number method (CN, USDA for a small arable watershed of 300 ha belonging to the Rolling Pampa under conventional tillage from 1994 to 1998 and subsequently under no tillage until 2004. This analysis was performed by studying rainfall and runoff paired data recorded in situ. Land use consisted mainly of annual crops, particularly soybean. Considering a data pool of 583 rainfall events, only 11% produced appreciable surface runoff. Most of the runoff occurred under

  7. Movimiento del agua en Argiudoles de la Pampa Ondulada con diferente mineralogía de arcillas Water movement in some Argiudolls of the rolling Pampa differing in their clay mineralogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Guillermo Castiglioni

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Los suelos zonales de la Pampa Ondulada son Argiudoles Típicos y Vérticos los cuales se diferencian en la composición mineralógica de su fracción arcilla. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue analizar las vinculaciones entre la tasa de movimiento del agua edáfica con algunos atributos relacionados con la composición mineralógica de la fracción arcilla, en distintos suelos representativos de la región mencionada. Se tomaron muestras de los horizontes A, BA/BE, Bt y BC de dos Argiudoles Típicos y de un Argiudol Vértico, realizando sobre las mismas determinaciones relacionadas con la cantidad y tipo de las arcillas presentes. A su vez mediante diferentes técnicas se evaluaron el sistema poroso del suelo y el movimiento de agua edáfica. En los horizontes Bt, aquellos parámetros que integran el tipo y el contenido de arcillas, como el COLE y la CIC, mostraron estar mejor vinculados con el movimiento de agua edáfica que cuando se consideró únicamente el porcentaje de arcilla. La distinta porosidad estructural generada dentro de los agregados de los horizontes Bt, originó diferencias en su difusividad y conductividad hidráulica no saturada, a contenidos de humedad por encima del 50% de saturación. En aquellos horizontes con mayor actividad biológica y menor contenido de arcilla, el movimiento de agua se realizó en forma independiente de las características de las arcillas presentes.Typic and Vertic Argiudolls, which differ in the composition of their clay fraction, are the zonal soils in the Rolling Pampa of Argentina. The aim of this work has been to analize the relationship between water movement and diverse soil properties in some representative soils of the Rolling Pampa, differing in their clay mineralogy. The A, BA/ BE, Bt and BC horizons of two Typic and one Vertic Argiudolls were sampled and a number of properties related with clay content and clay type were measured. Soil porosity and soil water movement were also

  8. Humidity effects on wire insulation breakdown strength.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appelhans, Leah

    2013-08-01

    Methods for the testing of the dielectric breakdown strength of insulation on metal wires under variable humidity conditions were developed. Two methods, an ASTM method and the twisted pair method, were compared to determine if the twisted pair method could be used for determination of breakdown strength under variable humidity conditions. It was concluded that, although there were small differences in outcomes between the two testing methods, the non-standard method (twisted pair) would be appropriate to use for further testing of the effects of humidity on breakdown performance. The dielectric breakdown strength of 34G copper wire insulated with double layer Poly-Thermaleze/Polyamide-imide insulation was measured using the twisted pair method under a variety of relative humidity (RH) conditions and exposure times. Humidity at 50% RH and below was not found to affect the dielectric breakdown strength. At 80% RH the dielectric breakdown strength was significantly diminished. No effect for exposure time up to 140 hours was observed at 50 or 80%RH.

  9. 40 CFR 89.326 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.326 Engine intake air humidity measurement. (a) Humidity conditioned air... type of intake air supply, the humidity measurements must be made within the intake air supply system...

  10. 40 CFR 91.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement... Provisions § 91.310 Engine intake air humidity measurement. This section refers to engines which are supplied... air, the ambient testcell humidity measurement may be used. (a) Humidity conditioned air supply. Air...

  11. 40 CFR 90.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.310 Engine intake air humidity measurement. This section refers to... for the engine intake air, the ambient test cell humidity measurement may be used. (a) Humidity...

  12. Flora apícola primaveral en la región del Monte de la Provincia de La Pampa (Argentina Springtime beekeeping flora in the Monte region of La Pampa province (Argentine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofelia Naab

    Full Text Available Con el fin de evaluar la flora utilizada por Apis mellifera L. fueron analizadas muestras de miel inmadura y cargas corbiculares de dos apiarios demostradores ubicados en la Provincia Fitogeográfica del Monte, Provincia de La Pampa. Las muestras se extrajeron periódicamente durante la primavera y fueron analizadas aplicando las técnicas melisopalinológicas convencionales. La vegetación arbustiva nativa presentó la mayor abundancia y el mayor número de especies en óptima floración en noviembre. Las familias más representadas en los espectros polínicos de mieles inmaduras y de cargas corbiculares fueron: Zygophyllaceae ( Larrea divaricata Cav., Rhamnaceae ( Condalia microphylla Cav., Solanaceae ( Lycium sp., Asteraceae ( Senecio subulatus Don ex Hook. & Arn. y Verbenaceae ( Glandularia sp. - Junellia sp. - Verbena sp.. Los análisis polínicos evidenciaron que las especies nativas ofrecieron al mismo tiempo recursos nectaríferos y poliníferos sin embargo se observó una alta selección de pocos recursos florales. La oferta floral produjo mieles monoflorales de L. divaricata , C. microphylla y Lycium sp. Ambos apiarios pudieron diferenciarse teniendo en cuenta la diversidad de tipos polínicos y la presencia de ciertos taxones en las categorías de polen dominante y secundario.In order to evaluate the utilized flora by Apis mellifera L. we analized inmmature honey samples and corbicular pollen loads from two demonstrative apiaries located in the Monte Phytogeographical Province of La Pampa. The samples were periodically collected during springtime and were analyzed using the conventional melissopalynological techniques. The native flora presented the major abundance and the highest number of species at an optimum flowering level in november. The most represented families in the pollen spectrum of immature honeys and corbicular loads were: Zygophyllaceae ( Larrea divaricata Cav., Rhamnaceae ( Condalia microphylla Cav., Solanaceae

  13. ¿Existen relaciones entre los factores ambientales rurales y la salud reproductiva en la Pampa Húmeda Argentina? Is there any relationship between rural environmental factors and reproductive health in the Pampa Humeda in Argentina?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Oliva

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available La relación entre factores ambientales y salud es un hecho reconocido. La influencia de ambientes rurales sobre la salud reproductiva ha sido fehacientemente probada en diferentes regiones del mundo, tanto en la fauna como en humanos. En América Latina pocas investigaciones han sido realizadas en este campo. El presente proyecto se establece sobre la base de la describir las relaciones entre salud reproductiva y factores ambientales en poblaciones rurales, caracterizada por aspectos ambientales particulares. Tres variables han sido evaluadas: relación de nacimientos masculinos/femeninos; incidencia de malformaciones uro-genitales masculinas (hipospadias y criptorquidias; e incidencia de cánceres hormono-dependientes. Se seleccionaron cinco comunidades rurales de la Pampa Húmeda de Argentina, comparándose los datos obtenidos con medias nacionales. Los datos bio-médicos y las fuentes ambientales de riesgo fueron relacionados entre sí a través de un sistema de geo-referenciación. La relación de nacimientos no mostró significación. Las malformaciones presentaron una muy significativa incidencia. Los cánceres hormono-dependientes presentaron incidencia mayores a las medias nacionales, particularmente en algunas de las comunidades estudiadas. Se concluye que existe una relación entre condiciones de salud reproductiva y factores ambientales en esta región.The relationship between environmental factors and health is well known. Rural environmental influences on reproductive health have been properly proved, both in animals and humans. In Latin America, few studies have been conducted in this area. The current project is based on the description of relationships between reproductive health and environmental factors in rural populations, characterized by specific environmental characteristics. Three variables were evaluated: male-to-female birth ratio, male urogenital malformations (cryptorchidism and hypospadias, and endocrine

  14. Upper limits for air humidity based on human comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Fanger, Povl Ole; Jørgensen, Anette S.

    1998-01-01

    respiratory cooling. Human subjects perceived the condition of their skin to be less acceptable with increasing skin humidity. Inhaled air was rated warmer, more stuffy and less acceptable with increasing air humidity and temperature. Based on the subjects' comfort responses, new upper limits for air humidity......The purpose of this study was to verify the hypothesis that insufficient respiratory cooling and a high level of skin humidity are two reasons for thermal discomfort at high air humidities, and to prescribe upper limits for humidity based on discomfort due to elevated skin humidity and insufficient...

  15. All-Optical Graphene Oxide Humidity Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weng Hong Lim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The optical characteristics of graphene oxide (GO were explored to design and fabricate a GO-based optical humidity sensor. GO film was coated onto a SU8 polymer channel waveguide using the drop-casting technique. The proposed sensor shows a high TE-mode absorption at 1550 nm. Due to the dependence of the dielectric properties of the GO film on water content, this high TE-mode absorption decreases when the ambient relative humidity increases. The proposed sensor shows a rapid response (<1 s to periodically interrupted humid air flow. The transmission of the proposed sensor shows a linear response of 0.553 dB/% RH in the range of 60% to 100% RH.

  16. All-optical graphene oxide humidity sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Weng Hong; Yap, Yuen Kiat; Chong, Wu Yi; Ahmad, Harith

    2014-12-17

    The optical characteristics of graphene oxide (GO) were explored to design and fabricate a GO-based optical humidity sensor. GO film was coated onto a SU8 polymer channel waveguide using the drop-casting technique. The proposed sensor shows a high TE-mode absorption at 1550 nm. Due to the dependence of the dielectric properties of the GO film on water content, this high TE-mode absorption decreases when the ambient relative humidity increases. The proposed sensor shows a rapid response (<1 s) to periodically interrupted humid air flow. The transmission of the proposed sensor shows a linear response of 0.553 dB/% RH in the range of 60% to 100% RH.

  17. Influence of air humidity on polymeric microresonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, S; Kühne, S; Hierold, C

    2009-01-01

    The influence of air humidity on polymeric microresonators is investigated by means of three different resonator types. SU-8 microbeams, SU-8 microstrings and a silicon micromirror with SU-8 hinges are exposed to relative humidities between 3% and 60%. The shifts of the resonant frequencies as a function of the relative humidity (RH) are explained based on mechanical models which are extended with water absorption models in polymer materials. The dominant effect causing the resonant frequency change is evaluated for each structure type. The eigenfrequency of the microstrings and the micromirror in the out-of-plane mode, which both mainly are defined by the pre-stress of the polymeric structures, are found to be highly sensitive to changes of air humidity. The humidity-induced (hygrometric) volume expansion reversibly reduces the pre-stress which results in relative frequency changes of up to 0.78%/%RH for the microstrings. A maximum coefficient of humidity-induced volume expansion for SU-8 of α hyg = 52.3 ppm/%RH is evaluated by fitting the data with the analytical model. It was found that microstrings that were stored at 150 °C over 150 h are more moisture sensitive compared to structures that were stored at room temperature. For the SU-8 microbeams and the micromirror in the tilt mode, the eigenfrequency is mainly defined by the modulus of the polymer material. The measured relative resonant frequency changes were below 1% for the given RH range. For low RH values, antiplasticization is observed (the modulus increases) followed by a plasticization for increasing RH values

  18. Bond Strength of Resin Composite to Dentin with Different Adhesive Systems: Influence of Relative Humidity and Application Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsler, Fabienne; Peutzfeldt, Anne; Lussi, Adrian; Flury, Simon

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the influence of relative humidity and application time on bond strength to dentin of different classes of adhesive systems. A total of 360 extracted human molars were ground to mid-coronal dentin. The dentin specimens were treated with one of six adhesive systems (Syntac Classic, OptiBond FL, Clearfil SE Bond, AdheSE, Xeno Select, or Scotchbond Universal), and resin composite (Filtek Z250) was applied to the treated dentin surface under four experimental conditions (45% relative humidity/application time according to manufacturers' instructions; 45% relative humidity/reduced application time; 85% relative humidity/application time according to manufacturers' instructions; 85% relative humidity/reduced application time). After storage (37°C, 100% humidity, 24 h), shear bond strength (SBS) was measured and data analyzed with nonparametric ANOVA followed by Kruskal-Wallis tests and Mann-Whitney U-tests with Bonferroni-Holm correction for multiple testing (level of significance: α = 0.05). Increased relative humidity and reduced application time had no effect on SBS for Clearfil SE Bond and Scotchbond Universal (p = 1.00). For Syntac Classic, OptiBond FL, AdheSE, and Xeno Select there was no effect on SBS of reduced application time of the adhesive system (p ≥ 0.403). However, increased relative humidity significantly reduced SBS for Syntac Classic, OptiBond FL, and Xeno Select irrespective of application time (p ≤ 0.003), whereas for AdheSE, increased relative humidity significantly reduced SBS at recommended application time only (p = 0.002). Generally, increased relative humidity had a detrimental effect on SBS to dentin, but reduced application time had no effect.

  19. Humidity fluctuations in the marine boundary layer measured at a coastal site with an infrared humidity sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sempreviva, A.M.; Gryning, Sven-Erik

    1996-01-01

    An extensive set of humidity turbulence data has been analyzed from 22-m height in the marine boundary layer. Fluctuations of humidity were measured by an ''OPHIR'', an infrared humidity sensor with a 10 Hz scanning frequency and humidity spectra were produced. The shapes of the normalized spectra...... follow the established similarity functions. However the 10-min time averaged measurements underestimate the value of the absolute humidity. The importance of the humidity flux contribution in a marine environment in calculating the Obukhov stability length has been studied. Deviations from Monin......-Obukhov similarity theory seem to be connected to a low correlation between humidity and temperature....

  20. Methodology for risk characterization in contamination site. Abra Pampa case (Jujuy-Argentina Metodología para caracterizar el riesgo en sitio contaminado. Caso Abra Pampa (Jujuy-Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Ana Rojas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the main regions of mining activity of the Argentine Northwest is the aride land of Jujuy. There it Abra Pampa grew like center of concentration of resources and people. One of its main establishments of mineral processing was the Smeltery Metal Huasi. Great amounts of dreg of the metallurgical processes were accumulated after decades of operation, which, after the dismantling of the factory, at the beginning of the ninety, stayed as environmental liabilities in the center of the city. The negative effects for the health of these residues just were related to a situation of risk in the middle of the present decade. The Group of Investigation INQA elaborated, in collaboration with other centers, an intervention strategy, that was based on a methodology of identification and evaluation of risk in contaminated sites and it began with the recognition and determination of physical samples, until the measurement of the lead levels in blood in the exhibited infantile population. Their results would be integrated in a scheme of Evaluation of the Risk. The study was complemented with clinical analyses, neuroconductuales tests in the group under study, consultations and interchange with the community, besides qualification with local educative actors. Like main result, it was confirmed to Abra Pampa like a contaminated site, with an elevated level of the infantile population affected by the exhibition and with the challenge to undertake his remediación. Still with the study in phase to complete the complete categorisation of the risk, the Province advanced in the removal and transfer of dregs, procedure whose impact will have to be put under new evaluations in terms of health of the population and the atmosphere.Una de las principales regiones de actividad minera del Noroeste Argentino es la Puna de Jujuy. Abra Pampa creció allí como centro de concentración de recursos y personas. Uno de sus principales establecimientos de procesamiento de

  1. Humidity sensing characteristics of hydrotungstite thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The electrical conductivity of the films is observed to vary with humidity and selectively show high sensitivity to moisture at room temperature. In order to understand the mechanism of sensing, the films were examined by X-ray diffraction at elevated temperatures and in controlled atmospheres. Based on these observations ...

  2. Soil erosion in humid regions: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel J. Holz; Karl W.J. Williard; Pamela J. Edwards; Jon E. Schoonover

    2015-01-01

    Soil erosion has significant implications for land productivity and surface water quality, as sediment is the leading water pollutant worldwide. Here, erosion processes are defined. The dominant factors influencing soil erosion in humid areas are reviewed, with an emphasis on the roles of precipitation, soil moisture, soil porosity, slope steepness and length,...

  3. Biochars as Innovative Humidity Sensing Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Ziegler

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, biochar-based humidity sensors were prepared by drop-coating technique. Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP was added as an organic binder to improve the adhesion of the sensing material onto ceramic substrates having platinum electrodes. Two biochars obtained from different precursors were used. The sensors were tested toward relative humidity (RH at room temperature and showed a response starting around 5 RH%, varying the impedance of 2 orders of magnitude after exposure to almost 100% relative humidity. In both cases, biochar materials are behaving as p-type semiconductors under low amounts of humidity. On the contrary, for higher RH values, the impedance decreased due to water molecules adsorption. When PVP is added to SWP700 biochar, n-p heterojunctions are formed between the two semiconductors, leading to a higher sensitivity at low RH values for the sensors SWP700-10% PVP and SWP700-20% PVP with respect to pure SWP700 sensor. Finally, response and recovery times were both reasonably fast (in the order of 1 min.

  4. Recent Developments in Fiber Optics Humidity Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascorbe, Joaquin; Corres, Jesus M; Arregui, Francisco J; Matias, Ignacio R

    2017-04-19

    A wide range of applications such as health, human comfort, agriculture, food processing and storage, and electronic manufacturing, among others, require fast and accurate measurement of humidity. Sensors based on optical fibers present several advantages over electronic sensors and great research efforts have been made in recent years in this field. The present paper reports the current trends of optical fiber humidity sensors. The evolution of optical structures developed towards humidity sensing, as well as the novel materials used for this purpose, will be analyzed. Well-known optical structures, such as long-period fiber gratings or fiber Bragg gratings, are still being studied towards an enhancement of their sensitivity. Sensors based on lossy mode resonances constitute a platform that combines high sensitivity with low complexity, both in terms of their fabrication process and the equipment required. Novel structures, such as resonators, are being studied in order to improve the resolution of humidity sensors. Moreover, recent research on polymer optical fibers suggests that the sensitivity of this kind of sensor has not yet reached its limit. Therefore, there is still room for improvement in terms of sensitivity and resolution.

  5. Ambient humidity and the skin: the impact of air humidity in healthy and diseased states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goad, N; Gawkrodger, D J

    2016-08-01

    Humidity, along with other climatic factors such as temperature and ultraviolet radiation, can have an important impact on the skin. Limited data suggest that external humidity influences the water content of the stratum corneum. An online literature search was conducted through Pub-Med using combinations of the following keywords: skin, skin disease, humidity, dermatoses, dermatitis, eczema, and mist. Publications included in this review were limited to (i) studies in humans or animals, (ii) publications showing relevance to the field of dermatology, (iii) studies published in English and (iv) publications discussing humidity as an independent influence on skin function. Studies examining environmental factors as composite influences on skin health are only included where the impact of humidity on the skin is also explored in isolation of other environmental factors. A formal systematic review was not feasible for this topic due to the heterogeneity of the available research. Epidemiological studies indicated an increase in eczema with low internal (indoors) humidity and an increase in eczema with external high humidity. Other studies suggest that symptoms of dry skin appear with low humidity internal air-conditioned environments. Murine studies determined that low humidity caused a number of changes in the skin, including the impairment of the desquamation process. Studies in humans demonstrated a reduction in transepidermal water loss (TEWL) (a measure of the integrity of the skin's barrier function) with low humidity, alterations in the water content in the stratum corneum, decreased skin elasticity and increased roughness. Intervention with a humidifying mist increased the water content of the stratum corneum. Conversely, there is some evidence that low humidity conditions can actually improve the barrier function of the skin. Ambient relative humidity has an impact on a range of parameters involved in skin health but the literature is inconclusive. Further

  6. Conservation implications of the mating system of the Pampa Hermosa landrace of peach palm analyzed with microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picanço-Rodrigues, Doriane; Astolfi-Filho, Spartaco; Lemes, Maristerra R; Gribel, Rogerio; Sebbenn, Alexandre M; Clement, Charles R

    2015-03-01

    Peach palm (Bactris gasipaes) is cultivated by many indigenous and traditional communities from Amazonia to Central America for its edible fruits, and is currently important for its heart-of-palm. The objective of this study was to investigate the mating system of peach palm, as this is important for conservation and breeding. Eight microsatellite loci were used to genotype 24 open-pollinated progenies from three populations of the Pampa Hermosa landrace maintained in a progeny trial for genetic improvement. Both the multi-locus outcrossing rates (0.95 to 0.99) and the progeny level multi-locus outcrossing rates (0.9 to 1.0) were high, indicating that peach palm is predominantly allogamous. The outcrossing rates among relatives were significantly different from zero (0.101 to 0.202), providing evidence for considerable biparental inbreeding within populations, probably due to farmers planting seeds of a small number of open-pollinated progenies in the same plot. The correlations of paternity estimates were low (0.051 to 0.112), suggesting a large number of pollen sources (9 to 20) participating in pollination of individual fruit bunches. Effective population size estimates suggest that current germplasm collections are insufficient for long-term ex situ conservation. As with most underutilized crops, on farm conservation is the most important component of an integrated conservation strategy.

  7. A GIS-based assessment of groundwater suitability for irrigation purposes in flat areas of the wet Pampa plain, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanelli, Asunción; Lima, María Lourdes; Quiroz Londoño, Orlando Mauricio; Martínez, Daniel Emilio; Massone, Héctor Enrique

    2012-09-01

    The Pampa in Argentina is a large plain with a quite obvious dependence on agriculture, water availability and its quality. It is a sensitive environment due to weather changes and slope variations. Supplementary irrigation is a useful practice for compensating the production in the zone. However, potential negative impacts of this type of irrigation in salinization and sodification of soils are evident. Most conventional methodologies for assessing water irrigation quality have difficulties in their application in the region because they do not adjust to the defined assumptions for them. Consequently, a new GIS-based methodology integrating multiparametric data was proposed for evaluating and delineating groundwater suitability zones for irrigation purposes in flat areas. Hydrogeological surveys including water level measurements, groundwater samples for chemical analysis and electrical conductivity (EC) measurements were performed. The combination of EC, sodium adsorption ratio, residual sodium carbonate, slopes and hydraulic gradient parameters generated an irrigation water index (IWI). With the integration of the IWI 1 to 3 classes (categories of suitable waters for irrigation) and the aquifer thickness the restricted irrigation water index (RIWI) was obtained. The IWI's index application showed that 61.3 % of the area has "Very high" to "Moderate" potential for irrigation, while the 31.4 % of it has unsuitable waters. Approximately, 46 % of the tested area has high suitability for irrigation and moderate groundwater availability. This proposed methodology has advantages over traditional methods because it allows for better discrimination in homogeneous areas.

  8. Linking in situ bioassays and population dynamics of macroinvertebrates to assess agricultural contamination in streams of the Argentine pampa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jergentz, S; Pessacq, P; Mugni, H; Bonetto, C; Schulz, R

    2004-10-01

    The two local crustacean species Hyalella curvispina and Macrobrachium borelli were chosen for assessment of agricultural contamination in two streams (Horqueta and Maguire) in the Argentine pampa. In parallel with in situ bioassays of both species, the population dynamics and the organismic drift of H. curvispina were investigated throughout the main period of insecticide application, from December 2001 to March 2002. In Maguire none of the current-use insecticides (chlorpyrifos, alpha-cypermethrin, and endosulfan) in question were detected throughout the sampling period. During 1-week intervals with no contamination by insecticides the survival rate of H. curvispina varied between 77 +/- 6% (+/- SE, n = 4) and 85 +/- 3%. In Horqueta during a week with a peak insecticide contamination of 64 microg/kg chlorpyrifos in the suspended particles, a mortality of 100% was observed in the in situ bioassays for both species, H. curvispina and M. borelli. At the same time, in Maguire H. curvispina showed reduced survival rates of 23 +/- 5% and 25 +/- 18% at the two sites, while the survival rate of M. borelli was 60 +/- 11% upstream and 93 +/- 5% downstream, below a wetland. During the period with 100% mortality of H. curvispina in Horqueta, the population density of this species decreased correspondingly, from 106 +/- 26 to 0 individuals/m(2). We conclude that in situ bioassays can be successfully linked to in-stream population dynamics for the same species and that this link is very useful for interpreting causal exposure-effect relationships.

  9. Activity pattern of medium and large sized mammals and density estimates of Cuniculus paca (Rodentia: Cuniculidae in the Brazilian Pampa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Leuchtenberger

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Between July 2014 and April 2015, we conducted weekly inventories of the circadian activity patterns of mammals in Passo Novo locality, municipality of Alegrete, southern Brazil. The vegetation is comprised by a grassy-woody steppe (grassland. We used two camera traps alternately located on one of four 1 km transects, each separated by 1 km. We classified the activity pattern of species by the percentage of photographic records taken in each daily period. We identify Cuniculus paca individuals by differences in the patterns of flank spots. We then estimate the density 1 considering the area of riparian forest present in the sampling area, and 2 through capture/recapture analysis. Cuniculus paca, Conepatus chinga and Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris were nocturnal, Cerdocyon thous had a crepuscular/nocturnal pattern, while Mazama gouazoubira was cathemeral. The patterns of circadian activity observed for medium and large mammals in this Pampa region (southern grasslands may reflect not only evolutionary, biological and ecological affects, but also human impacts not assessed in this study. We identified ten individuals of C. paca through skin spot patterns during the study period, which were recorded in different transects and months. The minimum population density of C. paca was 3.5 individuals per km2 (resident animals only and the total density estimates varied from 7.1 to 11.8 individuals per km2, when considering all individuals recorded or the result of the capture/recapture analysis, respectively.

  10. Activity pattern of medium and large sized mammals and density estimates of Cuniculus paca (Rodentia: Cuniculidae) in the Brazilian Pampa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuchtenberger, C; de Oliveira, Ê S; Cariolatto, L P; Kasper, C B

    2018-02-22

    Between July 2014 and April 2015, we conducted weekly inventories of the circadian activity patterns of mammals in Passo Novo locality, municipality of Alegrete, southern Brazil. The vegetation is comprised by a grassy-woody steppe (grassland). We used two camera traps alternately located on one of four 1 km transects, each separated by 1 km. We classified the activity pattern of species by the percentage of photographic records taken in each daily period. We identify Cuniculus paca individuals by differences in the patterns of flank spots. We then estimate the density 1) considering the area of riparian forest present in the sampling area, and 2) through capture/recapture analysis. Cuniculus paca, Conepatus chinga and Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris were nocturnal, Cerdocyon thous had a crepuscular/nocturnal pattern, while Mazama gouazoubira was cathemeral. The patterns of circadian activity observed for medium and large mammals in this Pampa region (southern grasslands) may reflect not only evolutionary, biological and ecological affects, but also human impacts not assessed in this study. We identified ten individuals of C. paca through skin spot patterns during the study period, which were recorded in different transects and months. The minimum population density of C. paca was 3.5 individuals per km2 (resident animals only) and the total density estimates varied from 7.1 to 11.8 individuals per km2, when considering all individuals recorded or the result of the capture/recapture analysis, respectively.

  11. Conservation implications of the mating system of the Pampa Hermosa landrace of peach palm analyzed with microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doriane Picanço-Rodrigues

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Peach palm (Bactris gasipaes is cultivated by many indigenous and traditional communities from Amazonia to Central America for its edible fruits, and is currently important for its heart-of-palm. The objective of this study was to investigate the mating system of peach palm, as this is important for conservation and breeding. Eight microsatellite loci were used to genotype 24 open-pollinated progenies from three populations of the Pampa Hermosa landrace maintained in a progeny trial for genetic improvement. Both the multi-locus outcrossing rates (0.95 to 0.99 and the progeny level multi-locus outcrossing rates (0.9 to 1.0 were high, indicating that peach palm is predominantly allogamous. The outcrossing rates among relatives were significantly different from zero (0.101 to 0.202, providing evidence for considerable biparental inbreeding within populations, probably due to farmers planting seeds of a small number of open-pollinated progenies in the same plot. The correlations of paternity estimates were low (0.051 to 0.112, suggesting a large number of pollen sources (9 to 20 participating in pollination of individual fruit bunches. Effective population size estimates suggest that current germplasm collections are insufficient for long-term ex situ conservation. As with most underutilized crops, on farm conservation is the most important component of an integrated conservation strategy.

  12. Groundwater contamination with arsenic and other trace elements in an area of the Pampa, province of Cordoba, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolli, H.B.; Suriano, J.M.; Gomez Peral, M.A.; Ferpozzi, L.H.; Baleani, O.A.

    1989-01-01

    A geochemical study of the groundwater of the pampa in the province of Cordoba, Argentina, is reported. Physical-chemical parameters, dissolved solids, and seven trace elements were determined in 60 selected water samples. Systematic and accurate measurements of arsenic, fluorine, and vanadium were performed for the first time. The geographic distribution of the seven trace elements was mapped and its correlation with the anion-cation composition of the water was studied. Eighty-four percent of the water analyzed showed arsenic contents over 0.05 mg/l. The maxima for arsenic, fluorine, vanadium, and uranium contents were found in the western part of the study area, in waters dominated by alkali metal cations. Maximum selenium and antimony contents were found in the eastern part of the areas, whereas molybdenum distribution showed no relationship to the other groups. The movements of the subsoil have disturbed surface and subsurface drainage, thus influencing the water salinity and trace element contents. To investigate the origin of contamination, 54 loess samples were collected at wells in depths ranging from the surface down to the water table. This loess, which has a high proportion of volcanic components, mainly rhyolitic glass, exhibits a chemical composition corresponding to that of a dacite. The loess and volcanic glass show anomalous contents of all contaminant trace elements, mainly arsenic and selenium. For this reason, loess is considered to be the most important source of contamination of this ground water area. 30 refs., 6 figs., 9 tab

  13. Dactylogyrid monogeneans parasitising Cyphocharax voga (Hensel) (Teleostei: Curimatidae) from the Pampas region, Argentina: new and previously described species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossin, María Alejandra; Timi, Juan Tomás

    2016-09-01

    Most studies on dactylogyrid monogeneans in Argentina have been carried out during 1980s and 1990s. Many of these species have been later synonymised and other remain under a confusing taxonomic status, particularly those parasitising Cyphocharax voga (Hensel) (Teleostei: Curimatidae). In order to clarify the identity of dactylogyrids, new material was collected from fishes in Lake Chascomús, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. A total of four species was found in the gills of C. voga. Two known species, Curvianchoratus singularis (Suriano, 1980) Suriano, 1986 and Palombitrema triangulum (Suriano, 1981) Suriano, 1997, are redescribed and their generic and specific status discussed, and two new species are described. Urocleidoides surianoae n. sp. can be distinguished from its congeners by having an anterior medial projection in the ventral bar and a laminar ligament connecting the base of the male copulatory organ and accessory piece. Annulotrematoides bonaerensis n. sp. differs from its congeners principally by having a ventral bar with an anterior medial projection. The diversity of dactylogyrids harboured by C. voga indicates the need of further studies in the Pampas region, which will provide interesting and valuable sources of evidence for future zoogeographical and evolutionary research on dactylogyrids in the Neotropics.

  14. Effect of Continuous Agriculture of Grassland Soils of the Argentine Rolling Pampa on Soil Organic Carbon and Nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. Milesi Delaye

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term soil organic carbon (SOC and soil organic nitrogen (SON following cultivation of grassland soils (100/120-year tillage (T + 20/30-year no tillage (NT of the Rolling Pampa were studied calibrating the simple AMG model coupled with the natural 13C abundance measurements issued from long-term experiments and validating it on a data set obtained by a farmer survey and by long-term NT experiments. The multisite survey and NT trials permitted coverage of the history of the 140 years with agriculture. The decrease in SOC and SON storage that occurred during the first twenty years by a loss through biological activity was 27% for SOC and 32% for SON. The calibrated model described the SOC storage evolution very well and permitted an accurate simultaneous estimation of their three parameters. The validated model simulated well SOC and SON evolution. Overall, the results analyzed separately for the T and NT period indicated that the active pool has a rapid turnover (MRT ~9 and 13 years, resp. which represents 50% of SOC in the native prairie soil and 20% of SOC at equilibrium after NT period. NT implementation on soils with the highest soil organic matter reserves will continue to decrease (17% for three decades later under current annual addition.

  15. Areal changes of lentic water bodies within an agricultural basin of the Argentinean pampas. Disentangling land management from climatic causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booman, Gisel Carolina; Calandroni, Mirta; Laterra, Pedro; Cabria, Fabián; Iribarne, Oscar; Vázquez, Pablo

    2012-12-01

    Wetland loss is a frequent concern for the environmental management of rural landscapes, but poor disentanglement between climatic and land management causes frequently constrains both proper diagnoses and planning. The aim of this study is to address areal changes induced by non-climatic factors on lentic water bodies (LWB) within an agricultural basin of the Argentinean Pampas, and the human activities that might be involved. The LWB of the Mar Chiquita basin (Buenos Aires province, Argentina) were mapped using Landsat images from 1998-2008 and then corrected for precipitation variability by considering the regional hydrological status on each date. LWB areal changes were statistically and spatially analyzed in relation to land use changes, channelization of streams, and drainage of small SWB in the catchment areas. We found that 12 % of the total LWB in the basin had changed (P climatic causes. During the evaluated decade, 30 % of the LWB that changed size had decreased while 70 % showed steady increases in area. The number of altered LWB within watersheds lineally increased or decreased according to the proportion of grasslands replaced by sown pastures, or the proportion of sown pastures replaced by crop fields, respectively. Drainage and channelization do not appear to be related to the alteration of LWB; however some of these hydrologic modifications may predate 1998, and thus earlier effects cannot be discarded. This study shows that large-scale changes in land cover (e.g., grasslands reduction) can cause a noticeable loss of hydrologic regulation at the catchment scale within a decade.

  16. The influence of humidity fluxes on offshore wind speed profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthelmie, Rebecca Jane; Sempreviva, Anna Maria; Pryor, Sara

    2010-01-01

    extrapolation from lower measurements. With humid conditions and low mechanical turbulence offshore, deviations from the traditional logarithmic wind speed profile become significant and stability corrections are required. This research focuses on quantifying the effect of humidity fluxes on stability corrected...... wind speed profiles. The effect on wind speed profiles is found to be important in stable conditions where including humidity fluxes forces conditions towards neutral. Our results show that excluding humidity fluxes leads to average predicted wind speeds at 150 m from 10 m which are up to 4% higher...... than if humidity fluxes are included, and the results are not very sensitive to the method selected to estimate humidity fluxes....

  17. Fast humidity sensors based on CeO2 nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, X Q; Wang, C; Yu, H C; Wang, Y G; Wang, T H

    2007-01-01

    Fast humidity sensors are reported that are based on CeO 2 nanowires synthesized by a hydrothermal method. Both the response and recovery time are about 3 s, and are independent of the humidity. The sensitivity increases gradually as the humidity increases, and is up to 85 at 97% RH. The resistance decreases exponentially with increasing humidity, implying ion-type conductivity as the humidity sensing mechanism. A model based on the morphology and surface energy of the nanowires is given to explain these results further. Our experimental results indicate a pathway to improving the performance of humidity sensors

  18. Wireless sensor for temperature and humidity measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drumea, Andrei; Svasta, Paul

    2010-11-01

    Temperature and humidity sensors have a broad range of applications, from heating and ventilation of houses to controlled drying of fruits, vegetables or meat in food industry. Modern sensors are integrated devices, usually MEMS, factory-calibrated and with digital output of measured parameters. They can have power down modes for reduced energy consumption. Such an integrated device allows the implementation of a battery powered wireless sensor when coupled with a low power microcontroller and a radio subsystem. A radio sensor can work independently or together with others in a radio network. Presented paper focuses mainly on measurement and construction aspects of sensors for temperature and humidity designed and implemented by authors; network aspects (communication between two or more sensors) are not analyzed.

  19. Aplicación del modelo hidrológico-swat-en una microcuenca agrícola de La Pampa ondulada Application of the hydrologic model - swat - on a micro agricultural basin of the rolling Pampa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Behrends Kraemer

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available El modelado hidrológico es a menudo el primer paso en el desarrollo de sistemas de decisión espacial para identificaráreas vulnerables a la contaminación por nutrientes, pesticidas así como también a contaminantes biológicos. En este sentido el SWAT (Soil and Water Assesment Tool fue desarrollado para predecir impactos de las prácticas de manejo de las tierras en las aguas, sedimentos y agroquímicos en cuencas hidrográficas con diferentes suelos, usos y prácticas en largos períodos de tiempo. Aunque el mismo está siendo aplicado en todo el mundo, todavía no esta difundido su uso en la Argentina, no encontrándose al momento reportes al respecto. Este modelo se utilizó en una microcuenca agrícola de la Pampa Ondulada (Argentina y fue calibrado y validado utilizando los valores de escurrimientos medidos in situ. Se encontraron buenas eficiencias a escala diaria (R²: 0,55; R² ENS: 0,52 y pobres a escala mensual (R²: 0,34; R² ENS: 0,04. En la calibración, los escurrimientos fueron sobreestimados en un 31,8% y 32,6% para la escala mensual y diaria respectivamente, mientras que en la validación se sobreestimó un 42,5% para los valores mensuales y un 41,2% para los diarios. La aplicación del SWAT en esta microcuenca agrícola resultó auspiciosa y conduce a la inclusión de dicho modelo en futuros trabajos.A hydrological model is often the first step for the development of spatial decision systems in order to identify vulnerable areas to the pollution by nutrients, pesticides as well as biological contaminants. The SWAT model was developed to predict the impact of land management on water, agrochemicals and sediments in hydrographical basins with different soils, land uses and practices for long time periods. This model is being used all over the world but it has not been applied in Argentina until present. The SWAT model was used in an agricultural microbasin in the Rolling Pampa (Argentina and was calibrated and validated

  20. Lotus tenuis Seedling Establishment and Biomass Production in Flooding Pampa Grasslands (Buenos Aires , Argentina Establecimiento de Plántulas y Producción de Biomasa de Lotus tenuis en Pastizales de la Pampa Deprimida (Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo R Vignolio

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Biomass and plant density of Lotus tenuis Waldst. & Kit. ex Willd. have been reported in decreasing in grasslands and pastures. Our objective was to determine if L. tenuis biomass and plant density can be increased in grassland through seed addition. Two separated experiments under cattle grazing exclusion were conducted in three paddocks of a Flooding Pampa grassland. The first experiment was from autumn 2004 to autumn 2006 and the second from autumn 2005 to autumn 2007. Different L. tenuis seed additions (0, 57, 229, 917 and 1833 seeds m-² were broadcast into experimental plots. In the second experiment, besides seed additions there was a reseeding of approximately 900 seed m-² from seed rain produced by plants of grassland. Seed density explained the 81% and 19% of the variation in seedling density and L. tenuis biomass, respectively. Seedling emergence occurred mainly between autumn and early spring, while seedling mortality was mainly between late spring and early summer. Lotus tenuis adult plant density and biomass production increased with seed additions. Total biomass production in the plant community varied between 589.94 ± 26.89 and 1042.44 ± 54.39 g m-² yr-1 and the differences were principally attributed to precipitations. Lotus tenuis biomass contribution was of approximately 10%. The results suggest that L. tenuis seedling and plant establishment and biomass production can be increased through seed addition and/or seed rain through grazing exclusion during reproductive period.En pastizales y pasturas ha sido documentada la reducción de la densidad de plantas y de la biomasa de Lotus tenuis Waldst. & Kit. ex Willd. Nuestro objetivo fue determinar si su densidad de plantas y su producción de biomasa pueden ser incrementadas en un pastizal mediante la adición de semillas. Dos experimentos sin pastoreo fueron realizados en tres potreros de un pastizal de la Pampa Deprimida. El primer experimento fue realizado entre otoño 2004

  1. Uso e Conservação de florestas de galeria do bioma Pampa Brasileiro Anthropogenic use of gallery forests in the Brazilian Pampa - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v35i2.13458

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir Marcos Stefenon

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Como efeito do crescimentop demográfico, muitas cidades no Sul do Brasil experimentaram, na última década, um processo de degradação de áreas de preservação ambiental. O planejamento de programas de recuperação de florestas depende de conhecimento estruturado sobre a utilização de espécies vegetais pelas comunidades locais. Entrevistas semi-estruturadas e inventários fitossociológicos foram empregados para acessar o efeito do uso antropogênico de espécies arbóreas de matas de galeria em áreas do Pampa brasileiro. Oitenta e quatro informantes foram entrevistados e listaram um total de 43 espécies, pertencentes a 23 famílias botânicas. Quatro categorias de uso foram identificadas para as espécies citadas: lenha, medicamento, alimento e madeira. As três espécies mais importantes foram Blepharocalyx salicifolius, Eugenia uniflora e Salix babilonica. O inventário fitossociológico sugere que a exploração antropogênica da mata de galeria está levando algumas espécies a extinção e/ou ameaça local. Com o objetivo de preservar as matas de galeria, sugere-se a re-avaliação das atitudes das comunidades locais, visando um uso sustentável das matas e o reflorestamento das margens de rios com espécies nativas produtoras de frutos comestíveis, possibilitando a exploração de produtos não-madeireiros, assim como o estabelecimento de animais nestes ambientes.As effect of demographic growth in the last decades, many cities in Southern Brazil experienced a degradation process of conservation areas. In this study, semi-structured interviews and a phytosociological inventory were employed to assess the effect of anthropogenic use of tree species of the gallery forest in the Brazilian Pampa. Eighty-four informants were interviewed and listed a total of 43 tree species, belonging to 23 botanical families. Four categories of use were identified for the referenced species: firewood, medicinal, food and timber. The three most

  2. Calibration of Relative Humidity Sensors using a Dew Point Generator

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks, Milo

    2010-01-01

    A relative humidity sensor can be calibrated using a dew point generator to continuously supply an air stream of known constant humidity and a temperature chamber to control the dew point and ambient temperature.

  3. Humidity Detection Using Metal Organic Framework Coated on QCM

    KAUST Repository

    Kosuru, Lakshmoji; Bouchaala, Adam M.; Jaber, Nizar; Younis, Mohammad I.

    2016-01-01

    of a quartz crystal microbalance. The resonance frequencies of these sensors with varying relative humidity (RH) from 22% RH to 69% RH are measured using impedance analysis method. The sensitivity, humidity hysteresis, response, and recovery times

  4. Clinker mineral hydration at reduced relative humidities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    1998-01-01

    This report deals with gas phase hydration of pure cement clinker minerals at reduced relative humidities. This is an important subject in relation to modern high performance concrete which may self-desiccate during hydration. In addition the subject has relevance to storage stability where...... prehydration may occur. In the report both theoretical considerations and experimental data are presented. It is suggested that the initiation of hydration during water vapour exposure is nucleation controlled....

  5. Effect of relative humidity on solar potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soezen, Adnan; Arcaklioglu, Erol

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the effect of relative humidity on solar potential is investigated using artificial neural-networks. Two different models are used to train the neural networks. Meteorological and geographical data (latitude, longitude, altitude, month, mean sunshine-duration, and mean temperature) are used in the input layer of the network (Model 1). But, relative humidity values are added to one network in model (Model 2). In other words, the only difference between the models is relative humidity. New formulae based on meteorological and geographical data, have been developed to determine the solar energy potential in Turkey using the networks' weights for both models. Scaled conjugate gradient (SCG) and Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) learning algorithms and a logistic sigmoid transfer-function were used in the network. The best approach was obtained by the SCG algorithm with nine neurons for both models. Meteorological data for the four years, 2000-2003, for 18 cities (Artvin, Cesme, Bozkurt, Malkara, Florya, Tosya, Kizilcahamam, Yenisehir, Edremit, Gediz, Kangal, Solhan, Ergani, Selcuk, Milas, Seydisehir, Siverek and Kilis) spread over Turkey have been used as data in order to train the neural network. Solar radiation is in output layer. One month for each city was used as test data, and these months have not been used for training. The maximum mean absolute percentage errors (MAPEs) for Tosya are 2.770394% and 2.8597% for Models 1 and 2, respectively. The minimum MAPEs for Seydisehir are 1.055205% and 1.041% with R 2 (99.9862%, 99.9842%) for Models 1 and 2, respectively, in the SCG algorithm with nine neurons. The best value of R 2 for Models 1 and 2 are for Seydisehir. The minimum value of R 2 for Model 1 is 99.8855% for Tosya, and the value for Model 2 is 99.9001% for Yenisehir. Results show that the humidity has only a negligible effect upon the prediction of solar potential using artificial neural-networks

  6. Procedure for drying humidity-containing bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.R.

    1976-01-01

    The invention concerns a decontamination process for extracting impurities, in particular humidity and gases, from nuclear fuel rods before they are sealed and inserted into the reactor. The fuel rod, which has a small drilling hole, is placed in a low pressure container. The container is filled with a liquid drying agent which washes out the impurities. A dry inert gas (nitrogen, noble gases) is used for rinsing. Alcohols, ketones, methanol, acetone are named as drying agents. (UWI) [de

  7. Relative Humidity in the Tropopause Saturation Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selkirk, H. B.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Pfister, L.; Thornberry, T. D.; Bui, T. V.

    2017-12-01

    The tropical tropopause separates two very different atmospheric regimes: the stable lower stratosphere where the air is both extremely dry and nearly always so, and a transition layer in the uppermost tropical troposphere, where humidity on average increases rapidly downward but can undergo substantial temporal fluctuations. The processes that control the humidity in this layer below the tropopause include convective detrainment (which can result in either a net hydration or dehydration), slow ascent, wave motions and advection. Together these determine the humidity of the air that eventually passes through the tropopause and into the stratosphere, and we refer to this layer as the tropopause saturation layer or TSL. We know from in situ water vapor observations such as Ticosonde's 12-year balloonsonde record at Costa Rica that layers of supersaturation are frequently observed in the TSL. While their frequency is greatest during the local rainy season from June through October, supersaturation is also observed in the boreal winter dry season when deep convection is well south of Costa Rica. In other words, local convection is not a necessary condition for the presence of supersaturation. Furthermore, there are indications from airborne measurements during the recent POSIDON campaign at Guam that if anything deep convection tends to `reset' the TSL locally to a state of just-saturation. Conversely, it may be that layers of supersaturation are the result of slow ascent. To explore these ideas we take Ticosonde water vapor observations from the TSL, stratify them on the basis of relative humidity and report on the differences in the the history of upstream convective influence between supersaturated parcels and those that are not.

  8. Factors controlling upper tropospheric relative humidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kärcher

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Factors controlling the distribution of relative humidity in the absence of clouds are examined, with special emphasis on relative humidity over ice (RHI under upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric conditions. Variations of temperature are the key determinant for the distribution of RHI, followed by variations of the water vapor mixing ratio. Multiple humidity modes, generated by mixing of different air masses, may contribute to the overall distribution of RHI, in particular below ice saturation. The fraction of air that is supersaturated with respect to ice is mainly determined by the distribution of temperature. The nucleation of ice in cirrus clouds determines the highest relative humdity that can be measured outside of cirrus clouds. While vertical air motion and ice microphysics determine the slope of the distributions of RHI, as shown in a separate study companion (Haag et al., 2003, clouds are not required to explain the main features of the distributions of RHI below the ice nucleation threshold. Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (pressure, density and temperature; troposphere – composition and chemistry; general or miscellaneous

  9. Factors controlling upper tropospheric relative humidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kärcher

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Factors controlling the distribution of relative humidity in the absence of clouds are examined, with special emphasis on relative humidity over ice (RHI under upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric conditions. Variations of temperature are the key determinant for the distribution of RHI, followed by variations of the water vapor mixing ratio. Multiple humidity modes, generated by mixing of different air masses, may contribute to the overall distribution of RHI, in particular below ice saturation. The fraction of air that is supersaturated with respect to ice is mainly determined by the distribution of temperature. The nucleation of ice in cirrus clouds determines the highest relative humdity that can be measured outside of cirrus clouds. While vertical air motion and ice microphysics determine the slope of the distributions of RHI, as shown in a separate study companion (Haag et al., 2003, clouds are not required to explain the main features of the distributions of RHI below the ice nucleation threshold.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (pressure, density and temperature; troposphere – composition and chemistry; general or miscellaneous

  10. Humidity effects on hydrophilic film dosimeter systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehringer, P.; Eschweiler, H.; Proksch, E.

    1979-11-01

    At dose-rates typical for 60 Co-gamma irradiation sources the radiation response of hexahydroxyethyl pararosanilin cyanide/50μm nylon radachromic films is dependent upon dose-rate as well as upon the moisture content of the film. Under equilibrium moisture conditions, the response measured at 606 nm 24 hours after end of irradiation shows its highest dose-rate dependence at about 32 % r.h. A decrease in dose-rate from 2.8 to 0.039 Gy.s -1 results in decrease in response by 17%. At higher humidities, the sensitivity of the film as well as the rate dependence decreases and at 86% r.h. no discernible dose-rate effect could be found. At nominal 0 % r.h. a second absorption band at 412 nm appears which is converted completely to an additional 606 nm absorption by exposure to a humid atmosphere. After that procedure the resultant response is somewhat lower but shows almost the same dose-rate dependence as at 32% r.h. Preliminary results concerning the influence of humidity on the response of Blue Cellophane are given, too. (author)

  11. Ordenamento Territorial Ambiental Sustentável no Bioma Pampa: Estudo de Caso, São Francisco de Assis – RS, Brasil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mg. Arq. Amélia Simões Schwertner

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O Bioma Pampa, tombado pela UNESCO (2008 se estende desde o Sul do Brasil aos países vizinhos Uruguai e Argentina. São Francisco de Assis, município da Metade Sul do Rio Grande do Sul, possui em seu território uma área de importante fragilidade ambiental: a zona de amortecimento entre a Mata Atlântica e o Bioma Pampa. Na sede urbana de São Francisco de Assis aconteceu um caso inusitado: um bando de bugios fez da sua praça central seu habitat. Adotados, a população urbana tomou para si a identidade «Querência do Bugio». Este fato levou os Planejadores Urbanos a questionar-se do por que estes animais não permaneciam nas matas, seu local de origem -o desmatamento a degradação ambiental. Ao redor do sítio urbano, ao longo de três mananciais hídricos foi criado o Parque Municipal do Bugio e por prolongamentos destes mananciais aos bosques mais distantes na zona rural, corredores ecológicos. Propostas de ordenamento territorial determinaram diretrizes para reposição florestal, recuperação das matas ciliares e de inúmeras voçorocas que provocavam degradação do solo e um crescente processo de arenização. A presença de bugios na praça desencadeou um processo de recuperação e consciência ambiental na preservação do Bioma Pampa e identidade local

  12. Agricultural producers, undulated pampa and edaphic problems. A study of case in the Buenos Aires north-east Productores agropecuarios, pampa ondulada y problemáticas edáficas. Un estudio de caso en el noreste bonaerense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Tsakoumagkos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Social, economic and production diversity of agriculturalization is evident in the various types of producers of the Wet Pampa. Agriculturalization is associated with changes in land quality, socio-productive structure, applied production strategies and forms of soil usage. Often arises, however, that the problems associated with that agriculturization, are the result of the implementation of relatively uniform technological packages, regardless of the different types of producers are carried out. Our hypothesis is, however, that deterioration in Argiudolls typical Pampas is the result, given different positions of the relief, complex combinations of various production strategies adopted by different types of producers. We worked in the locality of Luján. We typified producers by taking into consideration their capitalization levels (capitalized and non-capitalized and work organization (family, non-family. We defined five production strategies (4 agricultural strategies: one or two crops a year, no-till or conventional tillage; and 1 livestock production strategy and two environments (hill and low land. Based on the municipal land registry, we surveyed a statistically representative stratified sample by location and plot size. A sampling allowed us to analyze the following parameters: horizon depth, apparent density, organic matter, acidity, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. We calculated the content of organic matter and nitrogen by hectare, and the relative deterioration. We carried out a hypothesis test of comparison of mean values, test F and test t, and finally calculated the relative deteriorations. We used the organic matter content by hectare as indicator, due to its higher sensitivity towards changes in soil conditions. According to two of our main findings, firstly, when sowing in hill with no-till technique, all types of producers evidenced the lowest relative deterioration values, except for non capitalized family producers who

  13. Evaluación Rápida del Ecosistema Marino Desarrollado en la Zona de Carga de la Planta Pampa Melchorita de Perú LNG.

    OpenAIRE

    Chamorro, Alan; Contreras, Christian; Raschio, Giancarlo

    2014-01-01

    La Planta Pampa Melchorita de Perú LNG se establece sobre un ecosistema costero árido el cual limita por el oeste con un acantilado rocoso y cuyas condiciones ambientales corresponden a un ecosistema marino con playas, un litoral rocoso y una zona pelágica; las tres sub-unidades han sufrido modificaciones físicas, donde estas modificaciones podrían haber generado variaciones en la biodiversidad local. El principal objetivo del presente estudio es describir las principales características b...

  14. Variación de la recarga entre La Plata y Santa Isabel (provincias de Buenos Aires y La Pampa - Argentina) : Propuesta metodológica

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández, Mario Alberto; Giai, Santiago B.

    1996-01-01

    Se analiza la recarga potencial de aguas subterráneas sobre un perfil entre La Plata y Santa Isabel (Buenos Aires y La Pampa). El mismo tiene la particularidad de ser perpendicular a las isohietas, extendiéndose desde una zona húmeda lindante con el río de la Plata, hasta otra de fuerte aridez y continentalidad, unos 900 km al Oeste. Algunos de los factores influyentes en el monto de la recarga tienen el mismo valor en todo el perfil, alcanzando su intervención igual peso en todas las local...

  15. Comparación de métodos para estimar el tamaño poblacional del venado de las pampas (Ozotoceros bezoarticus)

    OpenAIRE

    Antúnez Gómez, Berta

    2017-01-01

    Evalua diferentes métodos para estimar la abundancia poblacional del venado de las pampas (Ozotoceros bezoarticus) reintroducido en la Reserva Natural Iberá, provincia de Corrientes, Argentina, evaluando la precisiòn y los errores asociados a cada uno de ellos. Los métodos considerados fueron: 1. transectos lineales de ancho variable basado en distancias (método de distancias) 2. marca-reavistamiento 3. conteo completo en mosaicos obtenidos con un vehículo aéreo no tripulado (dron) 4. conteo ...

  16. For an ecology of scientific work: science, politics and the case of streams Pampa and Luiz Rau in Novo Hamburgo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Meirelles

    Full Text Available If, like Weber writes, every knowledge is objective in terms of evolving the interests of researchers and the agencies, in this article, we investigate that, which has been researched about two streams: Pampa and Luiz Rau. In doing so, in addition to highlighting what has caught the researchers' attention, this paper manages to point out a few gaps and fruitful fields of study which extend beyond the hard sciences. This study is, therefore, characterized as an essay review paper that sets out to use anthropology of science to think about the limitations and advances the studies about the two streams have achieved, as well as their social impact.

  17. For an ecology of scientific work: science, politics and the case of streams Pampa and Luiz Rau in Novo Hamburgo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meirelles, M; Pedde, V; Figueiredo, J A S

    2015-12-01

    If, like Weber writes, every knowledge is objective in terms of evolving the interests of researchers and the agencies, in this article, we investigate that, which has been researched about two streams: Pampa and Luiz Rau. In doing so, in addition to highlighting what has caught the researchers' attention, this paper manages to point out a few gaps and fruitful fields of study which extend beyond the hard sciences. This study is, therefore, characterized as an essay review paper that sets out to use anthropology of science to think about the limitations and advances the studies about the two streams have achieved, as well as their social impact.

  18. 7 CFR 28.301 - Measurement: humidity; temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Measurement: humidity; temperature. 28.301 Section 28... for Length of Staple § 28.301 Measurement: humidity; temperature. The length of staple of any cotton... its fibers under a relative humidity of the atmosphere of 65 percent and a temperature of 70° F. ...

  19. A Standard CMOS Humidity Sensor without Post-Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Nizhnik, Oleg; Higuchi, Kohei; Maenaka, Kazusuke

    2011-01-01

    A 2 ?W power dissipation, voltage-output, humidity sensor accurate to 5% relative humidity was developed using the LFoundry 0.15 ?m CMOS technology without post-processing. The sensor consists of a woven lateral array of electrodes implemented in CMOS top metal, a Intervia Photodielectric 8023?10 humidity-sensitive layer, and a CMOS capacitance to voltage converter.

  20. Interactive effects of large- and small-scale sources of feral honey-bees for sunflower in the Argentine Pampas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Sáez

    Full Text Available Pollinators for animal pollinated crops can be provided by natural and semi-natural habitats, ranging from large vegetation remnants to small areas of non-crop land in an otherwise highly modified landscape. It is unknown, however, how different small- and large-scale habitat patches interact as pollinator sources. In the intensively managed Argentine Pampas, we studied the additive and interactive effects of large expanses (up to 2200 ha of natural habitat, represented by untilled isolated "sierras", and narrow (3-7 m wide strips of semi-natural habitat, represented by field margins, as pollinator sources for sunflower (Helianthus annus. We estimated visitation rates by feral honey-bees, Apis mellifera, and native flower visitors (as a group at 1, 5, 25, 50 and 100 m from a field margin in 17 sunflower fields 0-10 km distant from the nearest sierra. Honey-bees dominated the pollinator assemblage accounting for >90% of all visits to sunflower inflorescences. Honey-bee visitation was strongly affected by proximity to the sierras decreasing by about 70% in the most isolated fields. There was also a decline in honey-bee visitation with distance from the field margin, which was apparent with increasing field isolation, but undetected in fields nearby large expanses of natural habitat. The probability of observing a native visitor decreased with isolation from the sierras, but in other respects visitation by flower visitors other than honey-bees was mostly unaffected by the habitat factors assessed in this study. Overall, we found strong hierarchical and interactive effects between the study large and small-scale pollinator sources. These results emphasize the importance of preserving natural habitats and managing actively field verges in the absence of large remnants of natural habitat for improving pollinator services.

  1. Interactive effects of large- and small-scale sources of feral honey-bees for sunflower in the Argentine Pampas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez, Agustín; Sabatino, Malena; Aizen, Marcelo A

    2012-01-01

    Pollinators for animal pollinated crops can be provided by natural and semi-natural habitats, ranging from large vegetation remnants to small areas of non-crop land in an otherwise highly modified landscape. It is unknown, however, how different small- and large-scale habitat patches interact as pollinator sources. In the intensively managed Argentine Pampas, we studied the additive and interactive effects of large expanses (up to 2200 ha) of natural habitat, represented by untilled isolated "sierras", and narrow (3-7 m wide) strips of semi-natural habitat, represented by field margins, as pollinator sources for sunflower (Helianthus annus). We estimated visitation rates by feral honey-bees, Apis mellifera, and native flower visitors (as a group) at 1, 5, 25, 50 and 100 m from a field margin in 17 sunflower fields 0-10 km distant from the nearest sierra. Honey-bees dominated the pollinator assemblage accounting for >90% of all visits to sunflower inflorescences. Honey-bee visitation was strongly affected by proximity to the sierras decreasing by about 70% in the most isolated fields. There was also a decline in honey-bee visitation with distance from the field margin, which was apparent with increasing field isolation, but undetected in fields nearby large expanses of natural habitat. The probability of observing a native visitor decreased with isolation from the sierras, but in other respects visitation by flower visitors other than honey-bees was mostly unaffected by the habitat factors assessed in this study. Overall, we found strong hierarchical and interactive effects between the study large and small-scale pollinator sources. These results emphasize the importance of preserving natural habitats and managing actively field verges in the absence of large remnants of natural habitat for improving pollinator services.

  2. Aboveground and belowground biomass allocation in native Prosopis caldenia Burkart secondaries woodlands in the semi-arid Argentinean pampas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risio, Lucia; Herrero, Celia; Bogino, Stella M.; Bravo, Felipe

    2014-01-01

    The woodlands in the south-west of the Argentinean pampas are dominated by Prosopis Caldenia Burkart (calden). The current deforestation rate of this woodlands is 0.82% per year. Different compensation initiatives have begun that recognize the role of forests as environmental service providers. The financial incentives they offer make it necessary to quantify the amount of carbon stored in the forest biomass. A model for estimating calden biomass was developed. Thirty-eight trees were selected, felled and divided into sections. An equation system was fitted using joint generalized regression to ensure the additivity property. A weighted regression was used to avoid heteroscedasticity. In these woodlands fire is the main disturbance and it can modify tree allometry, due this all models included the area of the base of the stem and tree height as independent variables since it indirectly collects this variability. Total biomass and the stem fraction had the highest R2 A dj. values (0.75), while branches with a diameter less than 7 cm had the lowest (0.58). Tree biomass was also analyzed by partitioning into the basic fractions of stem, crown, roots, and the root/shoot ratio. Biomass allocation was greatest in the crown fraction and the mean root/shoot ratio was 0.58. The carbon stock of the caldenales considering only calden tree biomass is 20.2 Mg ha −1 . While the overall carbon balance of the region is negative (deforestation and biomass burning, the remnant forested area has increased their calden density and in an indirect way his carbon sequestration capacity could also be increased. - Highlights: • A model for estimating aboveground and belowground Prosopis caldenia biomass was developed. • Biomass allocation into the tree and the root/shoot ratio were analyzed. • The equation systems presented had made it possible to more accurately estimate the biomass stored in calden woodlands

  3. Glyphosate and AMPA, "pseudo-persistent" pollutants under real-world agricultural management practices in the Mesopotamic Pampas agroecosystem, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primost, Jezabel E; Marino, Damián J G; Aparicio, Virginia C; Costa, José Luis; Carriquiriborde, Pedro

    2017-10-01

    In the Pampas, public concern has strongly risen because of the intensive use of glyphosate for weed control and fallow associated with biotech crops. The present study was aimed to evaluate the occurrence and concentration of the herbicide and its main metabolite (AMPA) in soil and other environmental compartments of the mentioned agroecosystem, including groundwater, in relation to real-world agricultural management practices in the region. Occurrence was almost ubiquitous in solid matrices (83-100%) with maximum concentrations among the higher reported in the world (soil: 8105 and 38939; sediment: 3294 and 7219; suspended particulate matter (SPM): 584 and 475 μg/kg of glyphosate and AMPA). Lower detection frequency was observed in surface water (27-55%) with maximum concentrations in whole water of 1.80 and 1.90 μg/L of glyphosate and AMPA, indicating that SPM analysis would be more sensitive for detection in the aquatic ecosystem. No detectable concentrations of glyphosate or AMPA were observed in groundwater. Glyphosate soil concentrations were better correlated with the total cumulative dose and total number of applications than the last spraying event dose, and an increment of 1 mg glyphosate/kg soil every 5 spraying events was estimated. Findings allow to infer that, under current practices, application rates are higher than dissipation rates. Hence, glyphosate and AMPA should be considered "pseudo-persistent" pollutants and a revisions of management procedures, monitoring programs, and ecological risk for soil and sediments should be also recommended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Determination of equilibrium humidities using temperature and humidity controlled X-ray diffraction (RH-XRD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linnow, Kirsten; Steiger, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Confined growth of crystals in porous building materials is generally considered to be a major cause of damage. We report on the use of X-ray diffraction under controlled conditions of temperature and relative humidity (RH-XRD) for the investigation of potentially deleterious phase transition reactions. An improved procedure based on rate measurements is used for the accurate and reproducible determination of equilibrium humidities of deliquescence and hydration reactions. The deliquescence humidities of NaCl (75.4 ± 0.5% RH) and Ca(NO 3 ) 2 .4H 2 O (50.8 ± 0.7% RH) at 25 deg. C determined with this improved RH-XRD technique are in excellent agreement with available literature data. Measurement of the hydration of anhydrous Ca(NO 3 ) 2 to form Ca(NO 3 ) 2 .2H 2 O revealed an equilibrium humidity of 10.2 ± 0.3%, which is also in reasonable agreement with available data. In conclusion, dynamic X-ray diffraction measurements are an appropriate method for the accurate and precise determination of equilibrium humidities with a number of interesting future applications

  5. Effect of humidity on radon exhalation rate from concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanishi, Hirokuni; Obayashi, Haruo; Tsuji, Naruhito; Nakayoshi, Hisao

    1998-01-01

    The objective of the present study is evaluation of seasonal humidity effect on radon exhalation rate from concrete. Three concrete pieces have been placed in three different fixed humidity circumstances for about a year. The three fixed humidities are selected 3, 10, 25 g m -3 in absolute humidity, those correspond to dry condition as control, winter and summer, respectively. Radon exhalation rate from each concrete piece is measured every one month during humidity exposure. Under the lower humidity, radon exhalation rate from concrete is small. On the contrary, radon exhalation rate is large in the higher humidity circumstance. This trend is consistent with the seasonal variation of indoor air radon concentration in low air-exchange-rate room. (author)

  6. Reversible adhesion switching of porous fibrillar adhesive pads by humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Longjian; Kovalev, Alexander; Dening, Kirstin; Eichler-Volf, Anna; Eickmeier, Henning; Haase, Markus; Enke, Dirk; Steinhart, Martin; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2013-01-01

    We report reversible adhesion switching on porous fibrillar polystyrene-block-poly(2-vinyl pyridine) (PS-b-P2VP) adhesive pads by humidity changes. Adhesion at a relative humidity of 90% was more than nine times higher than at a relative humidity of 2%. On nonporous fibrillar adhesive pads of the same material, adhesion increased only by a factor of ~3.3. The switching performance remained unchanged in at least 10 successive high/low humidity cycles. Main origin of enhanced adhesion at high humidity is the humidity-induced decrease in the elastic modulus of the polar component P2VP rather than capillary force. The presence of spongelike continuous internal pore systems with walls consisting of P2VP significantly leveraged this effect. Fibrillar adhesive pads on which adhesion is switchable by humidity changes may be used for preconcentration of airborne particulates, pollutants, and germs combined with triggered surface cleaning.

  7. The Use of Ambient Humidity Conditions to Improve Influenza Forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaman, J. L.; Kandula, S.; Yang, W.; Karspeck, A. R.

    2017-12-01

    Laboratory and epidemiological evidence indicate that ambient humidity modulates the survival and transmission of influenza. Here we explore whether the inclusion of humidity forcing in mathematical models describing influenza transmission improves the accuracy of forecasts generated with those models. We generate retrospective forecasts for 95 cities over 10 seasons in the United States and assess both forecast accuracy and error. Overall, we find that humidity forcing improves forecast performance and that forecasts generated using daily climatological humidity forcing generally outperform forecasts that utilize daily observed humidity forcing. These findings hold for predictions of outbreak peak intensity, peak timing, and incidence over 2- and 4-week horizons. The results indicate that use of climatological humidity forcing is warranted for current operational influenza forecast and provide further evidence that humidity modulates rates of influenza transmission.

  8. Sensitivity of honeybee hygroreceptors to slow humidity changes and temporal humidity variation detected in high resolution by mobile measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichy, Harald; Kallina, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    The moist cell and the dry cell on the antenna of the male honeybee were exposed to humidities slowly rising and falling at rates between -1.5%/s and +1.5%/s and at varying amplitudes in the 10 to 90% humidity range. The two cells respond to these slow humidity oscillations with oscillations in impulse frequency which depend not only on instantaneous humidity but also on the rate with which humidity changes. The impulse frequency of each cell was plotted as a function of these two parameters and regression planes were fitted to the data points of single oscillation periods. The regression slopes, which estimate sensitivity, rose with the amplitude of humidity oscillations. During large-amplitude oscillations, moist and dry cell sensitivity for instantaneous humidity and its rate of change was high. During small-amplitude oscillations, their sensitivity for both parameters was low, less exactly reflecting humidity fluctuations. Nothing is known about the spatial and temporal humidity variations a honeybee may encounter when flying through natural environments. Microclimatic parameters (absolute humidity, temperature, wind speed) were measured from an automobile traveling through different landscapes of Lower Austria. Landscape type affected extremes and mean values of humidity. Differences between peaks and troughs of humidity fluctuations were generally smaller in open grassy fields or deciduous forests than in edge habitats or forest openings. Overall, fluctuation amplitudes were small. In this part of the stimulus range, hygroreceptor sensitivity is not optimal for encoding instantaneous humidity and the rate of humidity change. It seems that honeybee's hygroreceptors are specialized for detecting large-amplitude fluctuations that are relevant for a specific behavior, namely, maintaining a sufficiently stable state of water balance. The results suggest that optimal sensitivity of both hygroreceptors is shaped not only by humidity oscillation amplitudes but also

  9. The role of phytophysiognomies and seasonality on the structure of ground-dwelling anuran (Amphibia) in the Pampa biome, Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maragno, Franciéle P; Santos, Tiago G; Cechin, Sonia Z

    2013-09-01

    Considering that habitat use by amphibians is related both with climate and environmental features, we tested the hypothesis that anuran assemblages found in different phytophysiognomies and in different seasons vary in structure. Additionally, we searched for species which can be indicators of habitat and seasons. The study was conducted in the Pampa biome, southern Brazil. Sampling was done through pitfall traps placed in three phytophysiognomies: grassland, ecotone grassland/forest; and forest. The seasonality factor was created by grouping months in warn and cold seasons. Sixteen species were found and the assemblages were influenced both by phytophysiognomies and climatic seasonality. In a paired comparison, the three phytophysiognomies differed in structure of assemblage from each other. Physalaemus henselii, P. riograndensis, Pseudopaludicola falcipes and Pseudis minuta were indicators of ecotone. Leptodactylus gracilis and Physalaemus biligonigerus were indicators of grassland. None species was indicator of forest. Most of the species were indicators of warm season: Elachistocleis bicolor, Leptodactylus fuscus, L. gracilis, L. latinasus, L. latrans, L. mystacinus, Physalaemus biligonigerus, P. cuvieri and Pseudis minuta. None species was indicator of cold season. We found that even for species of open areas, as Pampa, heterogeneous phytophysiognomies are important for maintaining abundance and constancy of populations of anuran.

  10. So far away, yet so close: strong genetic structure in Homonota uruguayensis (Squamata, Phyllodactylidae, a species with restricted geographic distribution in the Brazilian and Uruguayan Pampas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica F Felappi

    Full Text Available The Pampas is a biologically rich South American biome, but is poorly represented in phylogeographic studies. While the Pleistocene glacial cycles may have affected the evolutionary history of species distributed in forested biomes, little is known about their effects on the habitats that remained stable through glacial cycles. The South American Pampas have been covered by grasslands during both glacial and interglacial periods and therefore represent an interesting system to test whether the genetic structure in such environments is less pronounced. In this study, we sampled Pampean populations of Homonota uruguayensis from Southern Brazil and Uruguay to assess the tempo and mode of population divergence, using both morphological measurements and molecular markers. Our results indicate that, in spite of its narrow geographic distribution, populations of H. uruguayensis show high levels of genetic structure. We found four major well-supported mtDNA clades with strong geographic associations. Estimates of their divergence times fell between 3.16 and 1.82 million years before the present. Populations from the central portion of the species distribution, on the border between Uruguay and Brazil, have high genetic diversity and may have undergone a population expansion approximately 250,000 years before the present. The high degree of genetic structure is reflected in the analyses of morphological characters, and most individuals could be correctly assigned to their parental population based on morphology alone. Finally, we discuss the biogeographic and conservation implications of these findings.

  11. Reprint of "Survey and first molecular characterization of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (G1) in Pampas fox (Lycalopex gymnocercus) in Buenos Aires province, Argentina".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scioscia, Nathalia Paula; Petrigh, Romina Sandra; Beldomenico, Pablo Martín; Fugassa, Martín; Denegri, Guillermo María

    2017-01-01

    Echinococcosis is a zoonosis caused by tapeworms of the genus Echinococcus. Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s. l.) has a world-wide distribution and its transmission is primarily maintained in a synanthropic cycle with dogs as definitive hosts and livestock species as intermediate hosts. However, many wild canids also function as definitive hosts for E. granulosus s. l. Echinococcosis in humans is mainly caused by E. granulosus sensu stricto (s. s.) G1 genotype. In the present work, we expanded the epidemiological study on echinococcosis reported cases in Pampas fox (Lycalopex gymnocercus) to provide a prevalence estimate for rural areas of southern Buenos Aires province, Argentina. Ninety-five whole intestines were analyzed using the sedimentation and counting technique with a result of 83 foxes (87.37%) harboring at least one helminth species. E. granulosus s. l. adults were found in one Pampas fox (1.05%). These adult helminthes were E. granulosus s. s. (G1) according to the genotyping analysis of a 450-bp region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. NUEVOS APORTES AL CONOCIMIENTO DE LA HERPETOFAUNA DE LA FORMACIÓN CERRO AZUL (MIOCENO SUPERIOR, PROVINCIA DE LA PAMPA, ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGUSTÍN SCANFERLA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMENSe describen nuevos materiales fósiles de anfibios y reptiles hallados en sedimentos referidos a la Formación Cerro Azul (Mioceno Superior, procedentes de numerosas localidades de la provincia de La Pampa, Argentina. Los nuevos registros se basan en un resto craneano de anuro asignado al géneroCeratophrys, restos de caparazón de tortugas terrestres del géneroChelonoidis, vértebras asignables al lagarto de la familia TeiidaeTupinambis, y una vértebra troncal de serpiente comparable al género de colubroideos actualesPhilodryas. Tanto los registros terciarios previos de géneros actuales de anfibios y reptiles en América del Sur, como así también la asociación recuperada en el Mioceno Superior de La Pampa sugieren que la mayoría de los géneros que componen la herpetofauna Neotropical estaban presentes en el Mioceno, patrón similar al observado en otras regiones del mundo.

  13. Effects of environmental conditions, human activity, reproduction, antler cycle and grouping on fecal glucocorticoids of free-ranging Pampas deer stags (Ozotoceros bezoarticus bezoarticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Pereira, Ricardo José; Barbanti Duarte, José Maurício; Negrão, João Alberto

    2006-01-01

    In this study, a commercial enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was validated in detecting glucocorticoids in Pampas deer feces, in order to investigate the influence of several factors on the adrenocortical function. Fecal samples, behavioral data and information concerning male grouping and antlers status were collected at a monthly basis during a 1 year period from free-ranging stags living at Emas National Park, Brazil (18 degrees S/52 degrees W). The results revealed that concentrations of fecal glucocorticoids in winter were significantly higher than those corresponding to spring and summer. In addition, dry season data presented higher levels than during the wet season. Significant difference was found between fecal levels of breeding stags in summer and nonbreeding stags, whereas no difference was observed between breeding stags in winter and nonbreeding stags. On the other hand, males from areas with frequent human disturbance exhibited higher glucocorticoid concentrations and flight distances than individuals from areas of lower human activity. Males with antlers in velvet had elevated levels compared with animals in hard antler or antler casting. Also, we found that glucocorticoid levels were higher in groups with three or more males than in groups with only one male. The flight distances showed positive correlation with fecal glucocorticoid. These data indicate that fecal glucocorticoid provides a useful approach in the evaluation of physiological effects of environment, inter-individuals relationship and human-induced stressors on free-ranging Pampas deer stags.

  14. Climate-vegetation relationship: adaptations of jarillal community to the semiarid climate. Lihué Calel National Park, province of La Pampa, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Soledad Duval

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of vegetation from the Geography perspective focuses on the analysis of the spatial distribution and on the factors affecting it. One of these factors is the climate, which determines the characteristics of the vegetation and, on a larger scale, of the communities. The aim of this paper is to analyze the climate-vegetation relationship by studying adaptations of the jarillal community regarding the semiarid climate in the Lihué Calel National Park, Argentina. Therefore, this contribution is concerned with the knowledge of the characteristics of the environment in order to understand how vegetation responds to certain phenomena, so management of protected areas will be more suitable. Lihué Calel National Park is a national protected area located in the south-center of La Pampa province, Argentina. According to Cabrera (1976 the area belongs to the floristic province of “monte” and the climate is warm and dry. In the interest to achieve the goals of this paper, Thornthwaite and Mather´s water balance was done. The data was collected from a weather station that belongs to the national park, for the period 1995-2010. Emberger›s pluviothermic coefficient, Lang´s rainfall index, De Martonne´s aridity index and Currey´s continentality index were analyzed. In addition, ten stands or plots of vegetation were placed to determine the floristic composition and the vegetation physiognomy. Then, plants species were identified as individuals and their adaptive responses were also analyzed. In conclusion, the survey verified that semi-arid climate conditions determine the morphology and the appearance of jarillal. Climate analysis shows that for the period 1995-2010 the average annual temperature is 16.2° C and reveals that thermal summers and winters are well differentiated. Large water deficit is defined, because water balance indicates that the evapotranspiration exceeds precipitation during every month of the year. According to

  15. Treating water-reactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lussiez, G.W.

    1993-01-01

    Some compounds and elements, such as lithium hydride, magnesium, sodium, and calcium react violently with water to generate much heat and produce hydrogen. The hydrogen can ignite or even form an explosive mixture with air. Other metals may react rapidly only if they are finely divided. Some of the waste produced at Los Alamos National Laboratory includes these metals that are contaminated with radioactivity. By far the greatest volume of water-reactive waste is lithium hydride contaminated with depleted uranium. Reactivity of the water-reactive wastes is neutralized with an atmosphere of humid nitrogen, which prevents the formation of an explosive mixture of hydrogen and air. When we adjust the temperature of the nitrogen and the humidifier, the nitrogen can be more or less humid, and the rate of reaction can be adjusted and controlled. Los Alamos has investigated the rates of reaction of lithium hydride as a function of the temperature and humidity, and, as anticipated, they in with in temperature and humidity. Los Alamos will investigate other variables. For example, the nitrogen flow will be optimized to conserve nitrogen and yet keep the reaction rates high. Reaction rates will be determined for various forms of lithium waste, from small chips to powder. Bench work will lead to the design of a skid-mounted process for treating wastes. Other water-reactive wastes will also be investigated

  16. Humidity Testing for Human Rated Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Gary B.

    2009-01-01

    Determination that equipment can operate in and survive exposure to the humidity environments unique to human rated spacecraft presents widely varying challenges. Equipment may need to operate in habitable volumes where the atmosphere contains perspiration, exhalation, and residual moisture. Equipment located outside the pressurized volumes may be exposed to repetitive diurnal cycles that may result in moisture absorption and/or condensation. Equipment may be thermally affected by conduction to coldplate or structure, by forced or ambient air convection (hot/cold or wet/dry), or by radiation to space through windows or hatches. The equipment s on/off state also contributes to the equipment s susceptibility to humidity. Like-equipment is sometimes used in more than one location and under varying operational modes. Due to these challenges, developing a test scenario that bounds all physical, environmental and operational modes for both pressurized and unpressurized volumes requires an integrated assessment to determine the "worst-case combined conditions." Such an assessment was performed for the Constellation program, considering all of the aforementioned variables; and a test profile was developed based on approximately 300 variable combinations. The test profile has been vetted by several subject matter experts and partially validated by testing. Final testing to determine the efficacy of the test profile on actual space hardware is in the planning stages. When validation is completed, the test profile will be formally incorporated into NASA document CxP 30036, "Constellation Environmental Qualification and Acceptance Testing Requirements (CEQATR)."

  17. A Trial Intercomparison of Humidity Generators at Extremes of Range Using Relative Humidity Transmitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, M.; Benyon, R.; Bell, S. A.; Vicente, T.

    2008-10-01

    In order to effectively implement the Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA) of the International Committee for Weights and Measures (CIPM), national metrology institutes (NMIs) are required to support their claims of calibration and measurement capability (CMC) with a quality system compliant with ISO/IEC 17025, and with suitable evidence of participation in key or supplementary comparisons. The CMC review process, both at regional and inter-regional levels, uses criteria that combine the provisions mentioned above, together with additional evidence demonstrating scientific and technical competence of the institutes. For dew-point temperatures, there are key comparisons in progress under the Consultative Committee for Thermometry (CCT) and under the European regional metrology organisation (EUROMET), together with information available on past regional supplementary comparisons. However, for relative humidity there are, to date, no such comparisons available to support CMC entries. This paper presents and discusses the results of a preliminary investigation of the use of relative humidity and temperature transmitters in order to determine their suitability for the intercomparison of standard humidity generators in support of CMC claims for the calibration of relative humidity instruments. The results of a recent bilateral comparison between 2 NMIs at the extremes of the range up to 98%rh at 70 °C, and down to 1%rh at -40 °C are reported. Specific precautions and recommendations on the use of the devices as transfer standards are presented.

  18. Pollen deposition in tauber traps and surface soil samples in the Mar Chiquita coastal lagoon area, pampa grasslands (Argentina

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    Fabiana Latorre

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Estimations of airborne pollen loadings deposited in Tauber traps were studied in a coastal lagoon from south-eastern Pampa grasslands, Argentina, in order to assess their relationship with surface samples and to interpret the representativeness of local, regional and extraregional vegetation. Three different environments were considered: a coastal dune barrier with a psammophytic community, a salt marsh with a halophytic community in Mar Chiquita lagoon, and a freshwater community at Hinojales freshwater lake. Based on a record of surface samples taken from a previous paper, a parametric model was built to classify Tauber samples gathered from the natural vegetation communities of the study area. Results revealed that just like their surface counterparts, Tauber trap records qualitatively reflect the predominant vegetation types, although ecological groups feature different quantitative representations depending on the record type. Pollen loadings showed that airborne pollen transport was predominantly of local range, in accordance with previous results from the same study area. Airborne - surface samples relationships enrich our knowledge of the present environment that could be useful to improve paleoecological interpretations of the area.Se estimó el depósito polínico atmosférico de trampas Tauber en una laguna costera del sudeste de la estepa pampeana argentina, con el objetivo de analizar su relación con muestras de polen superficial e interpretar la representatividad de la vegetación local, regional y extraregional. Se consideraron tres ambientes diferentes: una barrera costera de dunas con vegetación psamofítica, la marisma de la laguna costera Mar Chiquita, con vegetación halofítica, y la laguna continental Hinojales, con vegetación hidrofítica. En base a las muestras de superficie y análisis de un trabajo previo, se construyó un modelo paramétrico para clasificar las muestras Tauber tomadas en la vegetación natural del

  19. Effect of Conversion from Natural Grassland to Arable Land on Soil Carbon Reserve in the Argentinean Rolling Pampas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriulo, A. E.; Irizar, A. B.; Mary, B.; Wilson, M. G.

    2012-04-01

    (3.5 and 3.3 Mg ha-1 corresponding to 31Y and 80Y, respectively). The lower loss of carbon in 80Y compared to 30Y can be explained by the accumulation of stable SOC fractions produced by the burnt stubble. We conclude that current agricultural systems of the Rolling Pampas are not sustainable.

  20. Contracción de agregados de Argiudoles de la Pampa Ondulada diferenciados en su mineralogía de arcillas Shrinkage of soil aggregates from rolling Pampa Argiudolls differentiated by their clay mineralogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Guillermo Castiglioni

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available La contracción y expansión del suelo afecta su comportamiento físico y químico. Mc Garry & Malafant desarrollaron un modelo en el que se separan tres zonas de contracción y a través del cual es posible estimar parámetros que tienen significado físico, siendo estos de utilidad para diferenciar a distintos suelos. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar que propiedades y características de algunos Argiudoles de la Pampa Ondulada, diferenciados en su mineralogía de arcillas, influyen en los parámetros del modelo de expansión-contracción de Mc Garry & Malafant. Con la finalidad de determinar el cambio de volumen específico del suelo, a partir de variaciones en su contenido hídrico, se utilizaron agregados de distintos horizontes de tres suelos no disturbados. Se hicieron análisis de correlación entre los parámetros estimados del modelo de tres líneas con diferentes propiedades y características de los suelos analizados. El distinto comportamiento en el cambio de volumen de los horizontes argílicos con mineralogías contrastantes, fue principalmente a bajos contenidos de agua, mientras que el contenido de arcilla incidió sobre la pendiente de la zona normal de contracción y sobre algunos parámetros del modelo que se estiman a altos contenidos de agua edáfica. Independientemente del tipo de arcilla presente, el punto de entrada de aire de los horizontes argílicos fue registrado a contenidos de agua difíciles de ser hallados a campo. En los horizontes BC y C la acción conjunta de la CIC y del contenido de arcilla mostró una mejor correlación con la pendiente de la zona residual de contracción, respecto al efecto de estos dos parámetros tomados en forma separada. En los horizontes A y BA la CIC resultó ser el mejor estimador de la pendiente residual de contracción. Analizando en forma conjunta el comportamiento de los horizontes A, BA, BC y C, la humedad equivalente y la densidad de partícula fueron las

  1. Distribuição temporal e espacial de anuros em área de Pampa, Santa Maria, RS Temporal and spatial distribution of anurans in the Pampa Region (Santa Maria, RS

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    Tiago Gomes dos Santos

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo determinar a riqueza, a constância de ocorrência, os modos reprodutivos, o padrão de distribuição da abundância, a temporada de vocalização e testar a correlação das variáveis climáticas sobre a atividade de vocalização dos anuros em uma região do Bioma Pampa, Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul. Durante o período de novembro de 2001 a outubro de 2002 foram realizadas coletas mensais empregando o método de ‘busca em sítio de reprodução’ e exame de exemplares depositados na Coleção Herpetológica do Setor de Zoologia da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (ZUFSM. Foi registrada a ocorrência de 25 espécies de anuros. A anurofauna registrada corresponde a 30% das espécies encontradas no Rio Grande do Sul e normalmente está associada a áreas abertas encontradas no estado e em países vizinhos. Foram registrados quatro modos reprodutivos: modo 1 (14 espécies; 58,3%; modos 11 e 30 (nove espécies; 37,5% e modo 24 (uma espécie; 4,2%. A baixa diversificação de modos reprodutivos provavelmente está relacionada à homogeneidade do hábitat primariamente campestre. A maior parte das espécies mostrou-se constante ou acessória na área estudada e o padrão de distribuição da abundância das espécies apresentou ajuste aos modelos Broken Stick e Log-normal, caracterizados pela homogeneidade na distribuição da abundância das espécies. A maioria das espécies apresentou grande plasticidade na ocupação de hábitats, mas poucas foram plásticas no uso dos sítios de vocalização. Houve correlação positiva, ainda que fraca, da riqueza de espécies com a precipitação mensal acumulada e da abundância com a temperatura média máxima. As correlações obtidas indicaram que na área estudada a temperatura parece atuar mais sobre a abundância de machos em atividade de vocalização e a precipitação sobre a riqueza, apesar da riqueza de espécies ser significativamente maior durante o per

  2. Atributos del suelo y paisaje asociados a la variabilidad de rendimientos de maíz en la pampa arenosa Soil attributes associated to corn yield variability in the sandy pampas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Urricariet

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available La variabilidad espacial de las propiedades de los suelos y su asociación con la posición en el paisaje es requerida en la aplicación de tecnología manejo sitio-específico. Los rendimientos de los cultivos son altamente variables dentro de un lote como resultado de complejas interacciones entre topografía, atributos del suelo y prácticas de manejo. Los objetivos del trabajo fueron: caracterizar la distribución espacial de la capacidad de agua disponible utilizando funciones de edafotransferencia e identificar los atributos de suelo asociados a la variabilidad de rendimientos de maíz a escala de lote en suelos de la Pampa Arenosa. En dos lotes de producción de maíz, se delimitaron parcelas de 8 ha y 10 ha obteniéndose a cosecha el mapa de rendimiento. Previo a la siembra del cultivo, se realizó un muestreo de suelos georreferenciado con un diseño en grilla. Se tomaron 32 muestras en el Sitio 1 (8 ha y 42 muestras en el Sitio 2 (10 ha y se determinó CO y composición granulométrica. Mediante funciones de edafotransferencia se estimó la capacidad de agua disponible (CAD. En tres perfiles representativos de los suelos presentes (Hapludol Típico, Hapludol Éntico y Hapludol Éntico, fase convexa se determinó el agua retenida a -33 kPa y -1.500 kPa, composición granulométrica y CO para seleccionar la función de edafotransferencia de mayor ajuste. Se utilizaron procedimientos geoestadísticos para el análisis de los resultados. La CAD del perfil hasta un metro de profundidad fue de 121 mm para el Hapludol Típico y 78-79 mm para ambos Hapludoles Énticos. El Sitio 1 presentó mayor variabilidad entre posiciones topográficas en el contenido de arena (40 a 81% que el Sitio 2 (43 a 73% mostrando moderada asociación espacial de los resultados. La CAD presentó asociación espacial moderada en el Sitio 1 mientras que en el Sitio 2 no se observó comportamiento espacial. En el Sitio 1 los rendimientos presentaron fuerte dependencia

  3. The use of ambient humidity conditions to improve influenza forecast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Shaman

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory and epidemiological evidence indicate that ambient humidity modulates the survival and transmission of influenza. Here we explore whether the inclusion of humidity forcing in mathematical models describing influenza transmission improves the accuracy of forecasts generated with those models. We generate retrospective forecasts for 95 cities over 10 seasons in the United States and assess both forecast accuracy and error. Overall, we find that humidity forcing improves forecast performance (at 1-4 lead weeks, 3.8% more peak week and 4.4% more peak intensity forecasts are accurate than with no forcing and that forecasts generated using daily climatological humidity forcing generally outperform forecasts that utilize daily observed humidity forcing (4.4% and 2.6% respectively. These findings hold for predictions of outbreak peak intensity, peak timing, and incidence over 2- and 4-week horizons. The results indicate that use of climatological humidity forcing is warranted for current operational influenza forecast.

  4. The sensitivity to humidity of radon monitoring instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmied, H.

    1984-01-01

    In a project funded by the Swedish Building Research Council (BFR) a continuous radon monitoring instrument (RGA-400 EDA Instr. Inc.) with electrostatic field collection has been calibrated. The original calibration factor gave no reliable radon readings and was therefore corrected for relative humidity by EDA. From four calibrations in the radon chamber at the Swedish Radiation Protection Board (SSI) it was clear that the instrument was sensitive to absolute humidity, which gave better agreement than relative humidity or temperature. Sensitivity to humidity for this principle of measure ment has been presented in various papers without presenting any combined influence with temperature, which can lead to the wrong conclusions, especially when the temperature levels differ. Some laboratories use humidity absorbants to overcome this humidity dependence. In this paper the calibration results for the FGA-400 radon readings only, are presented. (Author)

  5. A CMOS Humidity Sensor for Passive RFID Sensing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Fangming; He, Yigang; Zhang, Chaolong; Feng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a low-cost low-power CMOS humidity sensor for passive RFID sensing applications. The humidity sensing element is implemented in standard CMOS technology without any further post-processing, which results in low fabrication costs. The interface of this humidity sensor employs a PLL-based architecture transferring sensor signal processing from the voltage domain to the frequency domain. Therefore this architecture allows the use of a fully digital circuit, which can operate on ultra-low supply voltage and thus achieves low-power consumption. The proposed humidity sensor has been fabricated in the TSMC 0.18 μm CMOS process. The measurements show this humidity sensor exhibits excellent linearity and stability within the relative humidity range. The sensor interface circuit consumes only 1.05 μW at 0.5 V supply voltage and reduces it at least by an order of magnitude compared to previous designs. PMID:24841250

  6. Effect of relative humidity on growth of sodium oxide aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundarajan, A.R.; Mitragotri, D.S.; Mukunda Rao, S.R.

    1982-01-01

    Behavior of aerosol resulting from sodium fires in a closed vessel is investigated and the changes in the particle size distribution of the aerosol due to coagulation and humidity have been studied. The initial mass concentration is in the range of 80 -- 500 mg/m 3 and the relative humidity is varied between 50 to 98%. The initial size of the released aerosol is found to be 0.9 μm. Equilibrium diameters of particles growing in humid air have been computed for various humidity levels using water activity of sodium hydroxide. Both theoretical and experimental results have yielded growth ratios of about 3 at about 95% relative humidity. It is recommended that the computer codes dealing with aerosol coagulation behavior in reactor containment should include an appropriate humidity-growth function. (author)

  7. A CMOS Humidity Sensor for Passive RFID Sensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangming Deng

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a low-cost low-power CMOS humidity sensor for passive RFID sensing applications. The humidity sensing element is implemented in standard CMOS technology without any further post-processing, which results in low fabrication costs. The interface of this humidity sensor employs a PLL-based architecture transferring sensor signal processing from the voltage domain to the frequency domain. Therefore this architecture allows the use of a fully digital circuit, which can operate on ultra-low supply voltage and thus achieves low-power consumption. The proposed humidity sensor has been fabricated in the TSMC 0.18 μm CMOS process. The measurements show this humidity sensor exhibits excellent linearity and stability within the relative humidity range. The sensor interface circuit consumes only 1.05 µW at 0.5 V supply voltage and reduces it at least by an order of magnitude compared to previous designs.

  8. A CMOS humidity sensor for passive RFID sensing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Fangming; He, Yigang; Zhang, Chaolong; Feng, Wei

    2014-05-16

    This paper presents a low-cost low-power CMOS humidity sensor for passive RFID sensing applications. The humidity sensing element is implemented in standard CMOS technology without any further post-processing, which results in low fabrication costs. The interface of this humidity sensor employs a PLL-based architecture transferring sensor signal processing from the voltage domain to the frequency domain. Therefore this architecture allows the use of a fully digital circuit, which can operate on ultra-low supply voltage and thus achieves low-power consumption. The proposed humidity sensor has been fabricated in the TSMC 0.18 μm CMOS process. The measurements show this humidity sensor exhibits excellent linearity and stability within the relative humidity range. The sensor interface circuit consumes only 1.05 µW at 0.5 V supply voltage and reduces it at least by an order of magnitude compared to previous designs.

  9. The use of ambient humidity conditions to improve influenza forecast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaman, Jeffrey; Kandula, Sasikiran; Yang, Wan; Karspeck, Alicia

    2017-11-01

    Laboratory and epidemiological evidence indicate that ambient humidity modulates the survival and transmission of influenza. Here we explore whether the inclusion of humidity forcing in mathematical models describing influenza transmission improves the accuracy of forecasts generated with those models. We generate retrospective forecasts for 95 cities over 10 seasons in the United States and assess both forecast accuracy and error. Overall, we find that humidity forcing improves forecast performance (at 1-4 lead weeks, 3.8% more peak week and 4.4% more peak intensity forecasts are accurate than with no forcing) and that forecasts generated using daily climatological humidity forcing generally outperform forecasts that utilize daily observed humidity forcing (4.4% and 2.6% respectively). These findings hold for predictions of outbreak peak intensity, peak timing, and incidence over 2- and 4-week horizons. The results indicate that use of climatological humidity forcing is warranted for current operational influenza forecast.

  10. PRÁCTICAS DE CONSUMO DE BEBIDAS ETÍLICAS EN UNA “CASA DE NEGOCIOS” PAMPEANA DE FINES DEL SIGLO XIX. ANÁLISIS DE PRECINTOS DE PLOMO Y DE FRAGMENTOS VÍTREOS (POSTA EL CALDÉN, DEPARTAMENTO DE REALICÓ, LA PAMPA / Alcohol consumption practices at a pampa´s ge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Pineau

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available En el marco del proyecto Ubacyt F 095 que tiene como parte de sus objetivos estudiar y comprender el poblamiento del norte de la provincia de La Pampa posterior a las campañas militares de fines del siglo XIX, se presenta el análisis de los precintos de plomo y fragmentos vítreos provenientes del sitio Posta el Caldén (sección I, fracción A, lote 24. Dicho sitio se trata de una posta de caminos y casa de negocios ocupada hacia fines del siglo XIX. La misma pertenecía a una línea de postas entre las ciudades de Victorica (Provincia de La Pampa y General Villegas (Provincia de Buenos Aires. Se realizarán análisis morfológico – funcional, metalográfico mediante microscopia óptica (LM y electrónica de barrido (SEM y químico utilizando espectroscopia de rayos X dispersiva en energía (EDS de las piezas bajo estudio. El objetivo fue determinar tipos de bebidas alcohólicas consumidas y procedencia de las mismas. Se identificaron diversos tipos y marcas de bebidas de tenor etílico, se determinó que el material de confección de los precintos era de plomo recubierto con estaño típico de la técnica de confección denominada roll bonding. Esta información será de utilidad a la hora de estudiar las prácticas sociales de estos nuevos grupos de inmigrantes en combinación con las fuentes escritas y la historia oral.   Palabras Clave: Bebidas alcohólicas, Siglo XIX, La Pampa.     Abstract Within the framework of Ubacyt F 095 project that has as part of its aims to study the settlement of the northern province of La Pampa after the military campaigns of the late nineteenth century. We present the analysis of lead seals and fragments vitreous from the site Posta Caldén (Section I, Dept A, lot 24. This site is a crossroad post and a grocery store in the late nineteenth century. It belonged to a line of posts between the cities of Victorica (Province of La Pampa and General Villegas (Province of Buenos Aires. Morphological and

  11. Photoelectron spectroscopy of surfaces under humid conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluhm, Hendrik

    2010-01-01

    The interaction of water with surfaces plays a major role in many processes in the environment, atmosphere and technology. Weathering of rocks, adhesion between surfaces, and ionic conductance along surfaces are among many phenomena that are governed by the adsorption of molecularly thin water layers under ambient humidities. The properties of these thin water films, in particular their thickness, structure and hydrogen-bonding to the substrate as well as within the water film are up to now not very well understood. Ambient pressure photoelectron spectroscopy (APXPS) is a promising technique for the investigation of the properties of thin water films. In this article we will discuss the basics of APXPS as well as the particular challenges that are posed by investigations in water vapor at Torr pressures. We will also show examples of the application of APXPS to the study of water films on metals and oxides.

  12. Thermal Comfort and Optimum Humidity Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Jokl

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrothermal microclimate is the main component in indoor comfort. The optimum hydrothermal level can be ensured by suitable changes in the sources of heat and water vapor within the building, changes in the environment (the interior of the building and in the people exposed to the conditions inside the building. A change in the heat source and the source of water vapor involves improving the heat - insulating properties and the air permeability of the peripheral walls and especially of the windows. The change in the environment will bring human bodies into balance with the environment. This can be expressed in terms of an optimum or at least an acceptable globe temperature, an adequate proportion of radiant heat within the total amount of heat from the environment (defined by the difference between air and wall temperature, uniform cooling of the human body by the environment, defined a by the acceptable temperature difference between head and ankles, b by acceptable temperature variations during a shift (location unchanged, or during movement from one location to another without a change of clothing. Finally, a moisture balance between man and the environment is necessary (defined by acceptable relative air humidity. A change for human beings means a change of clothes which, of course, is limited by social acceptance in summer and by inconvenient heaviness in winter. The principles of optimum heating and cooling, humidification and dehumidification are presented in this paper.Hydrothermal comfort in an environment depends on heat and humidity flows (heat and water vapors, occurring in a given space in a building interior and affecting the total state of the human organism.

  13. Thermal Comfort and Optimum Humidity Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Jokl

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrothermal microclimate is the main component in indoor comfort. The optimum hydrothermal level can be ensured by suitable changes in the sources of heat and water vapor within the building, changes in the environment (the interior of the building and in the people exposed to the conditions inside the building. A change in the heat source and the source of water vapor involves improving the heat - insulating properties and the air permeability of the peripheral walls and especially of the windows. The change in the environment will bring human bodies into balance with the environment. This can be expressed in terms of an optimum or at least an acceptable globe temperature, an adequate proportion of radiant heat within the total amount of heat from the environment (defined by the difference between air and wall temperature, uniform cooling of the human body by the environment, defined a by the acceptable temperature difference between head and ankles, b by acceptable temperature variations during a shift (location unchanged, or during movement from one location to another without a change of clothing. Finally, a moisture balance between man and the environment is necessary (defined by acceptable relative air humidity. A change for human beings means a change of clothes which, of course, is limited by social acceptance in summer and by inconvenient heaviness in winter. The principles of optimum heating and cooling, humidification and dehumidification are presented in this paper.Hydrothermal comfort in an environment depends on heat and humidity flows (heat and water vapors, occurring in a given space in a building interior and affecting the total state of the human organism.

  14. Climate change, humidity, and mortality in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreca, Alan I.

    2014-01-01

    This paper estimates the effects of humidity and temperature on mortality rates in the United States (c. 1973–2002) in order to provide an insight into the potential health impacts of climate change. I find that humidity, like temperature, is an important determinant of mortality. Coupled with Hadley CM3 climate-change predictions, I project that mortality rates are likely to change little on the aggregate for the United States. However, distributional impacts matter: mortality rates are likely to decline in cold and dry areas, but increase in hot and humid areas. Further, accounting for humidity has important implications for evaluating these distributional effects. PMID:25328254

  15. Attribution of observed surface humidity changes to human influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, Katharine M; Gillett, Nathan P; Jones, Philip D; Thorne, Peter W

    2007-10-11

    Water vapour is the most important contributor to the natural greenhouse effect, and the amount of water vapour in the atmosphere is expected to increase under conditions of greenhouse-gas-induced warming, leading to a significant feedback on anthropogenic climate change. Theoretical and modelling studies predict that relative humidity will remain approximately constant at the global scale as the climate warms, leading to an increase in specific humidity. Although significant increases in surface specific humidity have been identified in several regions, and on the global scale in non-homogenized data, it has not been shown whether these changes are due to natural or human influences on climate. Here we use a new quality-controlled and homogenized gridded observational data set of surface humidity, with output from a coupled climate model, to identify and explore the causes of changes in surface specific humidity over the late twentieth century. We identify a significant global-scale increase in surface specific humidity that is attributable mainly to human influence. Specific humidity is found to have increased in response to rising temperatures, with relative humidity remaining approximately constant. These changes may have important implications, because atmospheric humidity is a key variable in determining the geographical distribution and maximum intensity of precipitation, the potential maximum intensity of tropical cyclones, and human heat stress, and has important effects on the biosphere and surface hydrology.

  16. Do honeybees, Apis mellifera scutellata, regulate humidity in their nest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human, Hannelie; Nicolson, Sue W.; Dietemann, Vincent

    2006-08-01

    Honeybees are highly efficient at regulating the biophysical parameters of their hive according to colony needs. Thermoregulation has been the most extensively studied aspect of nest homeostasis. In contrast, little is known about how humidity is regulated in beehives, if at all. Although high humidity is necessary for brood development, regulation of this parameter by honeybee workers has not yet been demonstrated. In the past, humidity was measured too crudely for a regulation mechanism to be identified. We reassess this issue, using miniaturised data loggers that allow humidity measurements in natural situations and at several places in the nest. We present evidence that workers influence humidity in the hive. However, there are constraints on potential regulation mechanisms because humidity optima may vary in different locations of the nest. Humidity could also depend on variable external factors, such as water availability, which further impair the regulation. Moreover, there are trade-offs with the regulation of temperature and respiratory gas exchanges that can disrupt the establishment of optimal humidity levels. As a result, we argue that workers can only adjust humidity within sub-optimal limits.

  17. Miniature Flexible Humidity Sensitive Patches for Space Suits, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced space suit technologies demand improved, simplified, long-life regenerative sensing technologies, including humidity sensors, that exceed the performance of...

  18. Energy-Efficient Management of Mechanical Ventilation and Relative Humidity in Hot-Humid Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Withers, Jr., Charles R. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2016-12-01

    In hot and humid climates, it is challenging to energy-efficiently maintain indoor RH at acceptable levels while simultaneously providing required ventilation, particularly in high performance low cooling load homes. The fundamental problem with solely relying on fixed capacity central cooling systems to manage moisture during low sensible load periods is that they are oversized for cooler periods of the year despite being 'properly sized' for a very hot design cooling day. The primary goals of this project were to determine the impact of supplementing a central space conditioning system with 1) a supplemental dehumidifier and 2) a ductless mini-split on seasonal energy use and summer peak power use as well as the impact on thermal distribution and humidity control inside a completely furnished lab home that was continuously ventilated in accordance with ASHRAE 62.2-2013.

  19. [Campylobacter spp.: prevalence and pheno-genotypic characterization of isolates recovered from patients suffering from diarrhea and their pets in La Pampa Province, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamborini, Ana L; Casabona, Luis M; Viñas, María R; Asato, Valeria; Hoffer, Alicia; Farace, María I; Lucero, María C; Corso, Alejandra; Pichel, Mariana

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was investigated in 327 patients suffering from diarrhea and in 36 animals (dogs, cats and chickens) owned by the patients that presented infection by Campylobacter in Santa Rosa, La Pampa, Argentina. Campylobacter spp. was isolated in 50/327 patients and in 12/36 animals, being Campylobacter jejuni the most common species. Resistance to ciprofloxacin (65 %) and tetracycline (32 %) was found among 35 isolates of human origin studied. Seven genetic subtypes were observed among 13 C. jejuni isolates by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Two subtypes grouped isolates belonging to patients and their respective dogs whereas another subtype grouped one isolate of human origin and two isolates from the patient's chickens. The results of this investigation highlight the need to strengthen surveillance of Campylobacter spp. not only in poultry, which is recognized as the main reservoir, but also in pets, which were shown to be asymptomatic carriers of the pathogen.

  20. Preliminary results of ERTS-investigations by W-German investigations. [multidisciplinary geoscientific experiments in central Germany and hydrogeology of Argentina Pampas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlfeld, R.

    1974-01-01

    Results are presented of West German investigations into multidisciplinary geoscientific experiments in central Germany and the Alps, and hydrogeological investigations in the Pampa of Argentina based on ERTS-1 data. The main goals of the investigation were achieved. The studies have given a good idea of the possibilities and limitations of ERTS imagery depending on the objectives in question and on the geographical conditions of the areas under investigation. Even in the well known region of central Europe, ERTS has proven its ability of improving present knowledge. In fields such as pollution monitoring and regional planning the satellite techniques should have distinct practical value. For any regional study of less known areas, the value of ERTS imagery can hardly be overestimated.

  1. Oxidative stress markers in fish (Astyanax sp. and Danio rerio) exposed to urban and agricultural effluents in the Brazilian Pampa biome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Silva, D G; Nunes, M E M; Wallau, G L; Martins, I K; Zemolin, A P P; Cruz, L C; Rodrigues, N R; Lopes, A R; Posser, T; Franco, J L

    2015-10-01

    Aquatic ecosystems are under constant risk due to industrial, agricultural, and urban activities, compromising water quality and preservation of aquatic biota. The assessment of toxicological impacts caused by pollutants to aquatic environment using biomarker measurements in fish can provide reliable data to estimate sublethal effects posed by chemicals in contaminated areas. In this study, fish (Astyanax sp. and Danio rerio) exposed to agricultural and urban effluents at the Vacacaí River, Brazil, were tested for potential signs of aquatic contamination. This river comprehends one of the main watercourses of the Brazilian Pampa, a biome with a large biodiversity that has been neglected in terms of environmental and social-economic development. Sites S1 and S2 were chosen by their proximity to crops and wastewater discharge points, while reference site was located upstream of S1 and S2, in an apparently non-degraded area. Fish muscle and brain tissues were processed for determination of acetylcholinesterase as well as oxidative stress-related biomarkers. The results showed signs of environmental contamination, hallmarked by significant changes in cholinesterase activity, expression of metallothionein, antioxidant enzymes, glutathione levels, and activation of antioxidant/cell stress response signaling pathways in fish exposed to contaminated sites when compared to reference. Based on these results, it is evidenced that urban and agricultural activities are posing risk to the environmental quality of water resources at the studied area. It is also demonstrated that cell stress biomarkers may serve as important tools for biomonitoring and development of risk assessment protocols in the Pampa biome.

  2. Effect of the californian red worm (Eisenia foetida during the composteo and vermicomposteo in properties of the Experimental Station of the Academic Rural Unit Carmen Pampa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paco Gabriel

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to evaluate the biotransformación of the organic residuals, of kitchen (Rc remains, pulp of coffee (Pc and cardboard (C by means of compostaje methods and vermicompostaje. The investigation was taken I end up in the Experimental Station, module of lombricultura of the Career of Agronomic Engineering of Carmen Pampa Unit Academic Campesina, located in the community of Carmen Pampa of the Municipality of Coroico Department of La Paz, Bolivia. The used design was totally at random with 3 treatments and 3 repetitions, to compare among obtaining methods in quality it used the test of fixed effects and it stops quantity the test "t" of Student. The quantity of initial sustrato studied in compostaje was of 1m3 and 0,02m3 vermicompostaje ending up culminating the investigation in 120 days. The results in decomposition are obtained in smaller time by means of the method vermicompostaje in Pc in advance of three months of 98.33% continued by C and Rc; while in compostaje it was the treatment with Rc of 3 months with 3 weeks with 90.40% of decomposition, continued by Pc and C. In quantity, starting from 1m3 of initial sustrato bigger bioabono was obtained with Pc 271.62 kg, 465.83 kg, Rc 249.71 kg, 446.00 kg and C 212.48 kg, 404.00 kg, in compost and vermicompost respectively. The chemical composition of the bioabonos of Rc, Pc, C in N and P is tipificados like first floor, high K, Ca in low compost and half vermicompost, half Mg, MO under and lightly alkaline pH to neuter in the two obtaining methods.

  3. Nanoemulsion for improving solubility and permeability of Vitex agnus-castus extract: formulation and in vitro evaluation using PAMPA and Caco-2 approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazzini, Vieri; Monteforte, Elena; Luceri, Cristina; Bigagli, Elisabetta; Bilia, Anna Rita; Bergonzi, Maria Camilla

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop new formulation for an improved oral delivery of Vitex agnus-castus (VAC) extract. After the optimization and validation of analytical method for quali-quantitative characterization of extract, nanoemulsion (NE) was selected as lipid-based nanocarrier. The composition of extract-loaded NE resulted in triacetin as oil phase, labrasol as surfactant, cremophor EL as co-surfactant and water. NE contains until 60 mg/mL of extract. It was characterized by DLS and TEM analyses and its droplets appear dark with an average diameter of 11.82 ± 0.125 nm and a polydispersity index (PdI) of 0.117 ± 0.019. The aqueous solubility of the extract was improved about 10 times: the extract is completely soluble in the NE at the concentration of 60 mg/mL, while its solubility in water results less than 6 mg. The passive intestinal permeation was tested by using parallel artificial membrane permeation assay (PAMPA) and the permeation across Caco-2 cells after preliminary cytotoxicity studies were also evaluated. NE shows a good solubilizing effect of the constituents of the extract, compared with aqueous solution. The total amount of constituents permeated from NE to acceptor compartment is greater than that permeated from saturated aqueous solution. Caco-2 test confirmed PAMPA results and they revealed that NE was successful in increasing the permeation of VAC extract. This formulation could improve oral bioavailability of extract due to enhanced solubility and permeability of phytocomplex.

  4. Procesos de subalternización de la población indígena en Argentina: los ranqueles en La Pampa, 1870-1970

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomón Tarquini, Claudia

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the military campaigns of 1878-1885, known in Argentina as “The Conquest of the Desert”, the indigenous populations tried different strategies to face the adverse conditions and the policies that sought their subalternization and invisibilization. This work explores the peculiarities of the process carried out by the ranquel ethnic group, in the Pampa (initially a National Territory that later became a province in 1952 from the last years of their autonomy up until the 1970s. The study is based on the cross-checking of different sources that, reducing the range of the analysis uses the trajectory of the groups that were tied to the cacique Ramon Cabral, El Platero, as an example of such processes.A partir de las campañas militares de 1878-1885, conocidas en Argentina como «Conquista del Desierto», las poblaciones indígenas ensayaron distintas estrategias para enfrentar las condiciones adversas y las políticas que pretendían su subalternización e invisibilización. Este trabajo explora las particularidades del proceso protagonizado por el grupo étnico ranquel en La Pampa (primero Territorio Nacional y luego provincia a partir de 1952 desde los últimos años de su autonomía y hasta la década de 1970. El estudio se basa en una triangulación de fuentes de diverso tipo que, reduciendo la escala de análisis, toma como ejemplo la trayectoria de las agrupaciones ligadas al cacique Ramón Cabral, El Platero.

  5. The effects of lithographic residues and humidity on graphene field ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    humidity at graphene field effect transistors (GFETs). While the exact means of humidity interacting with hydropho- bic graphene remains unknown, this work examines pristine and lithographic-process-applied graphene surfaces with surface ... temperature quantum Hall effect, linear electron dispersion at the vicinity of the ...

  6. A physically based analytical spatial air temperature and humidity model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang Yang; Theodore A. Endreny; David J. Nowak

    2013-01-01

    Spatial variation of urban surface air temperature and humidity influences human thermal comfort, the settling rate of atmospheric pollutants, and plant physiology and growth. Given the lack of observations, we developed a Physically based Analytical Spatial Air Temperature and Humidity (PASATH) model. The PASATH model calculates spatial solar radiation and heat...

  7. On the Humidity Sensitivity of Hot-Wire Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Søren Ejling; Busch, N. E.

    1980-01-01

    The influence of humidity changes on hot-wire measurements is discussed. Indications are that the humidity sensitivity parameters obtained by the authors in an earlier paper should be changed. This means, however, that the agreement between predicted and measured sensitivities ceases to exist...

  8. Relationship between relative humidity and the dew point ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was aimed at determining the relationship between relative humidity and the dew point temperature in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. The dew point temperature was approximated from the measured air temperature and relative humidity with the aid of a currently self-designed weather monitoring system.

  9. Modeling of humidity-related reliability in enclosures with electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hygum, Morten Arnfeldt; Popok, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Reliability of electronics that operate outdoor is strongly affected by environmental factors such as temperature and humidity. Fluctuations of these parameters can lead to water condensation inside enclosures. Therefore, modelling of humidity distribution in a container with air and freely exposed...

  10. Overview of humidity driven reliability issues of electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambat, Rajan

    2017-01-01

    Electronic control units, power modules, and consumer electronics are used today in a wide variety of varying climatic conditions. Varying external climatic conditions of temperature and humidity can cause an uncontrolled local climate inside the device enclosure. Uncontrolled humidity together w...

  11. Possible stretched exponential parametrization for humidity absorption in polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacinliyan, A; Skarlatos, Y; Sahin, G; Atak, K; Aybar, O O

    2009-04-01

    Polymer thin films have irregular transient current characteristics under constant voltage. In hydrophilic and hydrophobic polymers, the irregularity is also known to depend on the humidity absorbed by the polymer sample. Different stretched exponential models are studied and it is shown that the absorption of humidity as a function of time can be adequately modelled by a class of these stretched exponential absorption models.

  12. New calculation method for thermodynamic properties of humid air in humid air turbine cycle – The general model and solutions for saturated humid air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zidong; Chen, Hanping; Weng, Shilie

    2013-01-01

    The article proposes a new calculation method for thermodynamic properties (i.e. specific enthalpy, specific entropy and specific volume) of humid air in humid air turbine cycle. The research pressure range is from 0.1 MPa to 5 MPa. The fundamental behaviors of dry air and water vapor in saturated humid air are explored in depth. The new model proposes and verifies the relationship between total gas mixture pressure and gas component pressures. This provides a good explanation of the fundamental behaviors of gas components in gas mixture from a new perspective. Another discovery is that the water vapor component pressure of saturated humid air equals P S , always smaller than its partial pressure (f·P S ) which was believed in the past researches. In the new model, “Local Gas Constant” describes the interaction between similar molecules. “Improvement Factor” is proposed for the first time by this article, and it quantitatively describes the magnitude of interaction between dissimilar molecules. They are combined to fully describe the real thermodynamic properties of humid air. The average error of Revised Dalton's Method is within 0.1% compared to experimentally-based data. - Highlights: • Our new model is suitable to calculate thermodynamic properties of humid air in HAT cycle. • Fundamental behaviors of dry air and water vapor in saturated humid air are explored in depth. • Local-Gas-Constant describes existing alone component and Improvement Factor describes interaction between different components. • The new model proposes and verifies the relationship between total gas mixture pressure and component pressures. • It solves saturated humid air thoroughly and deviates from experimental data less than 0.1%

  13. Incidence and control of bovine gastrointestinal nematodes in the East of the Province of La Pampa, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LORDI, L.V

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional survey including 350 stocking farms and bovine establishments that operate the full cycle (FC as well as fattening operations (IN was carried out in the East of the Province of La Pampa to record cases of verminous gastroenteritis (VGE as well as control and management practices applied by the farmers.Farms were stratified by herd size into three categories: more than 900 (G, 900-500 (M and 500-300 (P bovines. Samples from each category were collected at random. 33% of the farmers surveyed indicated that their animals had been affected by clinical cases of VGE with morbidity and mortality rates between 11.2% and 0.42%, respectively. More cases of VEG (P<0.004, X2 8.33 occurred in herds on FC establishments (37% that on fattening farms (IN (21%; the relative risk (RR was 1.77 (95%; IC 1.18 – 2.74 but no differences were noted between categories. Ninety-four percent of the farmers use avermectins alone (AVM (71% or combined with benzimidazole (BZD, 20% or levamisole (3%; 6% use BZD alone. The percentage of use of other drugs in addition to AVM increases (P<0.005, X2 7.80 with larger herds (G: 32%, M: 21%, P: 15%. Of the treatments, 95.2% include avermectins alone in injectable form (82.6% or combined with oral (16.5% or intraruminal (0.9% forms. Approximately 2.42 treatments per year are performed and are more prevalent (P<0.01 in G and IN farms (2.7 treatments. 35% of the farmers deworm twice a year, in the fall (between March and July and in late winter-spring (between August and October-, 16% deworm only once (between February and April and 12% twice (between late summer and early winter. 18% of the farmers (G: 24%, M: 18%; P: 13% prevent VGE losses by administering treatment at a specific time of the year. 60% of the farmers consult the veterinarian although only 29% perform an egg count (hpg although differences (P<0.001 between herd sizes were noted: G: 41%, M: 26%; P 19%. 12% (FC 10%; IN 16%. 12% of the farmers (FC 10

  14. Incidencia y control de los nematodes gastrointestinales bovinos en el Este de la provincia de La Pampa, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LORDI, L

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Se efectuó una encuesta transversal en 350 establecimientos de ciclo completo y cría (CC e invernada (IN bovina, ubicados el este de la provincia de La Pampa con la finalidad de registrar los casos de gastroenteritis verminosa (GEV y las prácticas de control y manejo utilizadas por los ganaderos. La muestra fueron tomadas al azar a partir de 3 estratos de acuerdo al número de existencias bovinas: productores con más de 900 (G, de entre 900-500 (M y de 500 a 300 (P bovinos. El 33 % de los productores encuestados declaró haber tenido casos clínicos de GEV con una morbilidad y mortalidad del 11.2% y 0.42% respectivamente. Se registraron más casos de GEV (P<0.004, X2 8.33 en rodeos de CC (37% que en los de IN (21% con un resigo relativo (RR 1.77 (95%; IC 1.18 – 2.74, pero no se registraron diferencias entre estratos. El 94% de los encuestados utiliza avermectinas (AVM como droga única (71% o combinada con benzimidazoles (BZD, 20% o levamisol (3% y el 6% utiliza BZD únicamente. A mayor número de ganado (G: 32%, M: 21%, P: 15% la proporción del uso de las otras drogas además de AVM se incrementa (P<0.005, X2 7.80. El 95.2% se suministran en forma inyectable ya sea en forma única (82.6% o combinados con orales (16.5% o intrarruminales (0.9%. Se realizan en promedio 2,42 tratamientos anuales, siendo los productores G y los sistemas de IN (2.7 trat., los que más (P<0.01 tratamientos aplican. El 35% desparasita a su hacienda dos veces al año en el otoño (entre marzo y julio y a fines de invierno-primavera (entre agosto y octubre, mientras que el 16% lo hace una sola vez entre febrero y abril, y otro 12% trata dos veces desde fines de verano a principios de invierno. El 18% de los encuestados (G: 24%, M: 18%; P 13% previene pérdidas por GEV mediante un estrategia de tratamientos fijos en el tiempo. Un 60% de los productores consultan al veterinario, pero sólo el 29% realiza diagnóstico coprológico (hpg, existiendo diferencias (P<0

  15. Summer feeding ecology of Great Pampa-finches, Embernagra platensis at Laguna de Guaminí, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M. Ferman

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assemble data on the summer feeding ecology of the Great Pampa-finch, Embernagra platensis at the Laguna de Guaminí, Buenos Aires, Argentina, and to explore the differences related to the dietary patterns for each sex between winter and summer when possible. The stomach contents of 43 birds were analyzed. The animal fraction was composed of Hymenoptera (45.1%, Coleoptera (32.4%, Lepidoptera (6.0%, Araneae (5% and Orthoptera (3.2%. The application of the index of relative importance (IRI resulted in 1490.4 for Coleoptera, 428.5 for Hymenoptera and 162.5 for Lepidoptera caterpillars. The vegetal fraction consisted of Triticum aestivum (26.9%, Cyperaceous (25%, Poaceae (Gramineae (19.3% and Panicum sp. (11.2%. The IRI values were 893.8 for Triticum aestivum, 174.5 for Gramineae, 126.5 for Panicum sp. and 112.8 for Scirpus sp. The food niche width was 0.33 for both sexes; the diversity index resulted in 1.06 for females and 1.33 for males and specific diversity ranged from 1.87 to 2.84. A canonical component analysis (CCA was performed on environmental and morphometric variables, and a Monte Carlo test confirmed the canonical correlations. A t-test showed that some birds harmonized with a logarithmic model and some with a geometric curve. During the summer, Embernagra platensis ingests Hymenoptera and Coleoptera more often than seeds, suggesting that two biological mechanisms could be taking place in this bird.O objetivo deste estudo foi reunir dados referentes à ecologia alimentar do Sabiá-do-banhado, Embernagra platensis, na laguna de Guaminí, Buenos Aires, Argentina, e explorar as diferenças relacionadas aos padrões dietéticos para cada sexo entre inverno e verão, quando possível. O conteúdo estomacal de 43 pássaros foi analisado. A fração animal foi composta por Hymenoptera (45,1%, Coleoptera (32,4%, Lepidoptera(6,0%, Araneae (5% e Orthoptera (3,2%. A aplicação do índice de importância relativa (IRI

  16. Indoor air humidity, air quality, and health - An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkoff, Peder

    2018-04-01

    There is a long-standing dispute about indoor air humidity and perceived indoor air quality (IAQ) and associated health effects. Complaints about sensory irritation in eyes and upper airways are generally among top-two symptoms together with the perception "dry air" in office environments. This calls for an integrated analysis of indoor air humidity and eye and airway health effects. This overview has reviewed the literature about the effects of extended exposure to low humidity on perceived IAQ, sensory irritation symptoms in eyes and airways, work performance, sleep quality, virus survival, and voice disruption. Elevation of the indoor air humidity may positively impact perceived IAQ, eye symptomatology, and possibly work performance in the office environment; however, mice inhalation studies do not show exacerbation of sensory irritation in the airways by low humidity. Elevated humidified indoor air appears to reduce nasal symptoms in patients suffering from obstructive apnea syndrome, while no clear improvement on voice production has been identified, except for those with vocal fatigue. Both low and high RH, and perhaps even better absolute humidity (water vapor), favors transmission and survival of influenza virus in many studies, but the relationship between temperature, humidity, and the virus and aerosol dynamics is complex, which in the end depends on the individual virus type and its physical/chemical properties. Dry and humid air perception continues to be reported in offices and in residential areas, despite the IAQ parameter "dry air" (or "wet/humid air") is semantically misleading, because a sensory organ for humidity is non-existing in humans. This IAQ parameter appears to reflect different perceptions among other odor, dustiness, and possibly exacerbated by desiccation effect of low air humidity. It is salient to distinguish between indoor air humidity (relative or absolute) near the breathing and ocular zone and phenomena caused by moisture

  17. Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) - First Results of Relative Humidity Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genzer, Maria; Harri, Ari-Matti; Kemppinen, Osku; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Renno, Nilton; Savijärvi, Hannu; Schmidt, Walter; Polkko, Jouni; Rodríquez-Manfredi, Jose Antonio; de la Torre Juárez, Manuel; Mischna, Michael; Martín-Torres, Javier; Haukka, Harri; Paz Zorzano-Mier, Maria; Rafkin, Scott; Paton, Mark; MSL Science Team

    2013-04-01

    The Mars Science laboratory (MSL) called Curiosity made a successful landing at Gale crater early August 2012. MSL has an environmental instrument package called the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) as a part of its scientific payload. REMS comprises instrumentation for the observation of atmospheric pressure, temperature of the air, ground temperature, wind speed and direction, relative humidity, and UV measurements. The REMS instrument suite is described at length in [1]. We concentrate on describing the first results from the REMS relative humidity observations and comparison of the measurements with modeling results. The REMS humidity device is provided by the Finnish Meteorological Institute. It is based on polymeric capacitive humidity sensors developed by Vaisala Inc. The humidity device makes use of one transducer electronics section placed in the vicinity of the three (3) humidity sensor heads. The humidity device is mounted on the REMS boom 2 providing ventilation with the ambient atmosphere through a filter protecting the device from airborne dust. The absolute accuracy of the humidity device is temperature dependent, and is of the order of 2% at the temperature range of -30 to -10 °C, and of the order of 10% at the temperature range of -80 to -60 °C. This enables the investigations of atmospheric humidity variations of both diurnal and seasonal scale. The humidity device measurements will have a lag, when a step-wise change in humidity is taking place. This lag effect is increasing with decreasing temperature, and it is of the order of a few hours at the temperature of -75 °C. To compensate for the lag effect we used an algorithm developed by Mäkinen [2]. The humidity observations were validated after tedious efforts. This was needed to compensate for the artifacts of the transducer electronics. The compensation process includes an assumption that the relative humidity at Mars in the temperature range of 0 to -30 °C is about zero. The

  18. Effects of oxygen plasma treatment power on Aramid fiber III/BMI composite humidity resistance properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Shi, Chen; Feng, Jiayue; Long, Xi; Meng, Lingzhi; Ren, Hang

    2018-01-01

    The effects of oxygen plasma treatment power on Aramid Fiber III chemical structure and its reinforced bismaleimides (BMI) composite humidity resistance properties were investigated in this work. The aramid fiber III chemical structure under different plasma treatment power were measured by FTIR. The composite bending strength and interlinear shear strength with different plasma treatment power before and after absorption water were tested respectively. The composite rupture morphology was observed by SEM. The FTIR results showed that oxygen plasma treatment do not change the fiber bulk chemical structure. The composite humidity resistance of bending strength and interlinear shear strength are similar for untreated and plasma treated samples. The retention rate of composite bending strength and interlinear shear strength are about 75% and 94%, respectively. The composite rupture mode turns to be the fiber failure after water absorption.

  19. The effect of humidity on the detection of radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Money, M.; Heaton, B.

    1976-01-01

    As part of the investigation into the performance of a radon monitoring system the effect of altering the humidity on the levels of radon detected by the system whilst attempting to keep other factors constant, has been investigated. The variations in the levels of radon detected in four experiments, as the humidity of the surrounding atmosphere was artificially raised, are shown graphically together with the variations in temperature and water vapour pressure, as calculated from the relative humidity and saturation vapour pressure. In each case a general rise and fall in radon detected follows a similar rise and fall in humidity, but temperature rise has only a small effect on the radon emanation rate. As the levels of humidity do not alter the rate of emanation it is assumed that the efficiency of collection is altered in some way. Mechanisms are discussed. (U.K.)

  20. On the distribution of relative humidity in cirrus clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Spichtinger

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We have analysed relative humidity statistics from measurements in cirrus clouds taken unintentionally during the Measurement of OZone by Airbus In-service airCraft project (MOZAIC. The shapes of the in-cloud humidity distributions change from nearly symmetric in relatively warm cirrus (warmer than −40°C to considerably positively skew (i.e. towards high humidities in colder clouds. These results are in agreement to findings obtained recently from the INterhemispheric differences in Cirrus properties from Anthropogenic emissions (INCA campaign (Ovarlez et al., 2002. We interprete the temperature dependence of the shapes of the humidity distributions as an effect of the length of time a cirrus cloud needs from formation to a mature equilibrium stage, where the humidity is close to saturation. The duration of this transitional period increases with decreasing temperature. Hence cold cirrus clouds are more often met in the transitional stage than warm clouds.

  1. Effect of humidity on thoron adsorption in activated charcoal bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudeep Kumara, K.; Karunakara, N.; Yashodhara, I.; Sapra, B.K.; Sahoo, B.K.; Gaware, J.J.; Kanse, S.D.; Mayya, Y.S.

    2014-01-01

    Activated charcoal is a well-known adsorber of 222 Rn and 220 Rn gases. This property can be effectively used for remediation of these gases in the workplaces of uranium and thorium processing facilities. However, the adsorption on charcoal is sensitive to variation in temperature and humidity. The successful designing and characterization of adsorption systems require an adequate understanding of these sensitivities. The study has been carried out towards this end, to delineate the effect of relative humidity on the efficacy of 220 Rn mitigations in a charcoal bed. Air carrying 220 Rn from a Pylon source was passed through a column filled with coconut shell-based granular activated charcoal. The relative humidity of the air was controlled, and the transmission characteristics were examined at relative humidity varying from 45% to 60%. The mitigation factor was found to decrease significantly with an increase of humidity in the air. (author)

  2. A high sensitivity nanomaterial based SAW humidity sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, T-T; Chou, T-H [Institute of Applied Mechanics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Chen, Y-Y [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tatung University, Taipei 104, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: wutt@ndt.iam.ntu.edu.tw

    2008-04-21

    In this paper, a highly sensitive humidity sensor is reported. The humidity sensor is configured by a 128{sup 0}YX-LiNbO{sub 3} based surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonator whose operating frequency is at 145 MHz. A dual delay line configuration is realized to eliminate external temperature fluctuations. Moreover, for nanostructured materials possessing high surface-to-volume ratio, large penetration depth and fast charge diffusion rate, camphor sulfonic acid doped polyaniline (PANI) nanofibres are synthesized by the interfacial polymerization method and further deposited on the SAW resonator as selective coating to enhance sensitivity. The humidity sensor is used to measure various relative humidities in the range 5-90% at room temperature. Results show that the PANI nanofibre based SAW humidity sensor exhibits excellent sensitivity and short-term repeatability.

  3. Water Collection from Air Humidity in Bahrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahman. Nidal A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Kingdom of Bahrain falls geographically in one of the driest regions in the world. Conventional fresh surface water bodies, such as rivers and lakes, are nonexistent and for water consumption, Bahrain prominently relies on the desalination of sea water. This paper presents an ongoing project that is being pursued by a group of student and their advising professors to investigate the viability of extracting water from air humidity. Dehumidifiers have been utilized as water extraction devices. Those devices have been distributed on six areas that were selected based on a rigorous geospatial modeling of historical meteorological data. The areas fall in residential and industrial neighborhoods that are located in the main island and the island of Muharraq. Water samples have been collected three times every week since May of 2016 and the collection process will continue until May of 2017. The collected water samples have been analyzed against numerous variables individually and in combinations including: amount of water collected per hour versus geographical location, amount of water collected per hour versus meteorological factors, suitability of collected water for potable human consumption, detection of air pollution in the areas of collection and the economy of this method of water collection in comparison to other nonconventional methods. An overview of the completed analysis results is presented in this paper.

  4. The effects of topical diclofenac, topical flurbiprofen, and humidity on corneal sensitivity in normal dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorbandt, Daniel M; Labelle, Amber L; Mitchell, Mark A; Hamor, Ralph E

    2017-03-01

    To determine the immediate and chronic effects of topical 0.1% diclofenac and 0.03% flurbiprofen on corneal sensitivity in normal canine eyes. Eighteen normal, nonbrachycephalic dogs. A prospective, randomized, masked, crossover study was performed. To determine the immediate effects associated with treatment, the study drug was instilled into the eye every 5 min for five doses, and corneal sensitivity of treated and untreated eyes was obtained prior to treatment and every 15 min post-treatment for 60 min. To determine the chronic effects, the study drug was instilled every 12 h for 30 days, and corneal sensitivity of treated and untreated eyes was obtained prior to treatment on days 0 and 30. A washout period of at least 30 days occurred between drug crossover. Ambient temperature and humidity were measured throughout the study. After multiple instillations, there was no difference in corneal sensitivity between eyes over time for diclofenac (P = 0.67) or flurbiprofen (P = 0.54), with a median sensitivity of 25 mm (1.8 g/mm 2 ). After chronic dosing, there was no difference in corneal sensitivity between eyes over time for diclofenac (P = 0.82) or flurbiprofen (P = 0.56), with a median sensitivity of 35 mm (1.0 g/mm 2 ). Decreasing ambient humidity was associated with an increase in sensitivity measurements (P = 0.0001). Neither diclofenac nor flurbiprofen had an effect on corneal sensitivity after multiple-drops or twice-daily dosing for 30 days. Ambient humidity may have an effect on corneal sensitivity measurements, with a longer filament length eliciting a blink response at lower humidity. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  5. Tricky Treats

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Tricky Treats shows children the difference between healthy snacks and sweet treats.

  6. Searching Jesuit´s footsteps in the Argentinean pampas: the misión “Nuestra Señora de la Purísima Concepción de los Indios Pampas” (1740-1753

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Pedrotta

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In may 1740, Jesuits Querini and Strobel started the mission “Nuestra Señora de la Purísima Concepción de los Indios Pampas”, at the mouth of the Salado River in the Argentinean pampas, thus beginning an ambitious evangelizer project for the indigenous groups that inhabited in the Pampa and Patagonia lands. Within a few years, the new town had to be moved to a nearby site, where settled until 1753. This paper presents the analysis of the document database collected in the context of archaeological investigations that we began in 1998, focused on aspects related to the mission geographical environment, its initial population, buildings and layout, as well as the information about the current location of the two settlements that consecutively formed it.

  7. Humidity sorption on natural building stone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzen, C.; Mirwald, P.

    2003-04-01

    processes, physical, chemical or biological, depend on the presence of water. Like most porous materials building stone respond on humidity by water uptake. The sorption isotherm represents the equilibrium moisture, specific for each material. The determination of the isotherm for stone of low and small porosity like marble is difficult. With the help of a newly developed water sorption analysis chamber [2], which allows the simultaneous measurement of 11 samples, good results on stone/rock samples have been obtained. Even at marble species with pore volumes lower than 0.4 % isotherms are measured. This analytical method offers new insights in the pore behaviour of low porosity materials. The advantages of this technique which supplements other techniques (e.g. BET, Hg-porosimetry) are: i) the testing agent is identical to the weathering agent, water; ii) the atmospheric parameters at the measurement reflect the natural conditions - thus no changes to the material properties have to be considered; iii) due to the small diameter of the water molecule (~0.28 nm), smaller pores are reached than e.g. with N2 (~0.31 nm). Sorption isotherms of sandstone (Baumberg, Obernkirchen, Groeden), granite (Brixen), and marble (Sterzing, Laas) are presented. Particular as to marbles the resolution is considerably higher. A previously observed negative hysteresis [3] seems an effect due to limited data resolution. [1] Snethlage, R. (1984) Steinkonservierung, Bayer. LA Denkmalpflege, Ah. 22, 203 S. [2] Griesser, U.J., Dillenz, J. (2002) Neuartiges, vollautomatisches Feuchtesorptionsprüfgerät mit hohem Probendurchsatz, Feuchtetag 2002, Weimar, 85-93. [3] Fimmel, R. (1996) Verwitterungsverhalten der alpinen Marmore von Laas und Sterzing, Diss. Univ. Ibk, 116 S.

  8. Is Obsidian Hydration Dating Affected by Relative Humidity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, I.; Trembour, F.W.; Smith, G.I.; Smith, F.L.

    1994-01-01

    Experiments carried out under temperatures and relative humidities that approximate ambient conditions show that the rate of hydration of obsidian is a function of the relative humidity, as well as of previously established variables of temperature and obsidian chemical composition. Measurements of the relative humidity of soil at 25 sites and at depths of between 0.01 and 2 m below ground show that in most soil environments, at depths below about 0.25 m, the relative humidity is constant at 100%. We have found that the thickness of the hydrated layer developed on obsidian outcrops exposed to the sun and to relative humidities of 30-90% is similar to that formed on other portions of the outcrop that were shielded from the sun and exposed to a relative humidity of approximately 100%. Surface samples of obsidian exposed to solar heating should hydrate more rapidly than samples buried in the ground. However, the effect of the lower mean relative humidity experiences by surface samples tends to compensate for the elevated temperature, which may explain why obsidian hydration ages of surface samples usually approximate those derived from buried samples.

  9. Roles of inter-SWCNT junctions in resistive humidity response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Kang; Zou, Jianping; Zhang, Qing

    2015-01-01

    As a promising chemiresistor for gas sensing, the single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) network has not yet been fully utilized for humidity detection. In this work, it is found that as humidity increases from 10% to 85%, the resistance of as-grown SWCNT networks first decreases and then increases. This non-monotonic resistive response to humidity limits their sensing capabilities. The competition between SWCNT resistance and inter-tube junction resistance changes is then found to be responsible for the non-monotonic resistive humidity responses. Moreover, creating sp"3 scattering centers on the SWCNT sidewall by monovalent functionalization of four-bromobenzene diazonium tetrafluoroborate is shown to be capable of eliminating the influence from the inter-tube junctions, resulting in a continuous resistance drop as humidity increases from 10% to 85%. Our results revealed the competing resistive humidity sensing process in as-grown SWCNT networks, which could also be helpful in designing and optimizing as-grown SWCNT networks for humidity sensors and other gas sensors. (paper)

  10. Mars Science Laboratory relative humidity observations: Initial results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, A-M; Genzer, M; Kemppinen, O; Gomez-Elvira, J; Haberle, R; Polkko, J; Savijärvi, H; Rennó, N; Rodriguez-Manfredi, J A; Schmidt, W; Richardson, M; Siili, T; Paton, M; Torre-Juarez, M De La; Mäkinen, T; Newman, C; Rafkin, S; Mischna, M; Merikallio, S; Haukka, H; Martin-Torres, J; Komu, M; Zorzano, M-P; Peinado, V; Vazquez, L; Urqui, R

    2014-09-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) made a successful landing at Gale crater early August 2012. MSL has an environmental instrument package called the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) as a part of its scientific payload. REMS comprises instrumentation for the observation of atmospheric pressure, temperature of the air, ground temperature, wind speed and direction, relative humidity (REMS-H), and UV measurements. We concentrate on describing the REMS-H measurement performance and initial observations during the first 100 MSL sols as well as constraining the REMS-H results by comparing them with earlier observations and modeling results. The REMS-H device is based on polymeric capacitive humidity sensors developed by Vaisala Inc., and it makes use of transducer electronics section placed in the vicinity of the three humidity sensor heads. The humidity device is mounted on the REMS boom providing ventilation with the ambient atmosphere through a filter protecting the device from airborne dust. The final relative humidity results appear to be convincing and are aligned with earlier indirect observations of the total atmospheric precipitable water content. The water mixing ratio in the atmospheric surface layer appears to vary between 30 and 75 ppm. When assuming uniform mixing, the precipitable water content of the atmosphere is ranging from a few to six precipitable micrometers. Atmospheric water mixing ratio at Gale crater varies from 30 to 140 ppmMSL relative humidity observation provides good dataHighest detected relative humidity reading during first MSL 100 sols is RH75.

  11. A Novel Passive Wireless Sensor for Concrete Humidity Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shuangxi; Deng, Fangming; Yu, Lehua; Li, Bing; Wu, Xiang; Yin, Baiqiang

    2016-09-20

    This paper presents a passive wireless humidity sensor for concrete monitoring. After discussing the transmission of electromagnetic wave in concrete, a novel architecture of wireless humidity sensor, based on Ultra-High Frequency (UHF) Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology, is proposed for low-power application. The humidity sensor utilizes the top metal layer to form the interdigitated electrodes, which were then filled with polyimide as the humidity sensing layer. The sensor interface converts the humidity capacitance into a digital signal in the frequency domain. A two-stage rectifier adopts a dynamic bias-voltage generator to boost the effective gate-source voltage of the switches in differential-drive architecture. The clock generator employs a novel structure to reduce the internal voltage swing. The measurement results show that our proposed wireless humidity can achieve a high linearity with a normalized sensitivity of 0.55% %RH at 20 °C. Despite the high losses of concrete, the proposed wireless humidity sensor achieves reliable communication performances in passive mode. The maximum operating distance is 0.52 m when the proposed wireless sensor is embedded into the concrete at the depth of 8 cm. The measured results are highly consistent with the results measured by traditional methods.

  12. A Novel Passive Wireless Sensor for Concrete Humidity Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuangxi Zhou

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a passive wireless humidity sensor for concrete monitoring. After discussing the transmission of electromagnetic wave in concrete, a novel architecture of wireless humidity sensor, based on Ultra-High Frequency (UHF Radio Frequency Identification (RFID technology, is proposed for low-power application. The humidity sensor utilizes the top metal layer to form the interdigitated electrodes, which were then filled with polyimide as the humidity sensing layer. The sensor interface converts the humidity capacitance into a digital signal in the frequency domain. A two-stage rectifier adopts a dynamic bias-voltage generator to boost the effective gate-source voltage of the switches in differential-drive architecture. The clock generator employs a novel structure to reduce the internal voltage swing. The measurement results show that our proposed wireless humidity can achieve a high linearity with a normalized sensitivity of 0.55% %RH at 20 °C. Despite the high losses of concrete, the proposed wireless humidity sensor achieves reliable communication performances in passive mode. The maximum operating distance is 0.52 m when the proposed wireless sensor is embedded into the concrete at the depth of 8 cm. The measured results are highly consistent with the results measured by traditional methods.

  13. Deformation of high performance concrete plate under humid tropical weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niken, C.; Elly, T.; Supartono, FX; Laksmi, I.

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents the relationship between surrounding relative humidity and temperature on deformation behavior of one sample concrete plate with compressive strength of 60MPa. This research was done in Indonesia that is in humid tropical weather. A specimens measuring 3000 mm × 1600 mm × 150 mm were used. The behavior was obtained by using four embedded vibrating wire strain gauges (VWESG). As a result there is a very strong relationship between humidity and deformation at the age range of 7 until 21 days. The largest deformation occurs in the corner and the fluctuation of deformation in side position is larger than in the corner and in the middle. The peaks of surrounding relative humidity were fully followed by the deepest valley of deformation on time in the corner, while in another position the range delay time was 8 - 11 hours. There is a strong relationship between surrounding temperature and deformation at the range of 7 until 14 days. The influenced of surrounding relative humidity to concrete behavior is faster and longer than surrounding temperature. The influence of surrounding temperature in humid tropical weather was shorter than in non-humid tropical weather.

  14. Temperature and Humidity Effects on Hospital Morbidity in Darwin, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldie, James; Sherwood, Steven C; Green, Donna; Alexander, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have explored the relationship between temperature and health in the context of a changing climate, but few have considered the effects of humidity, particularly in tropical locations, on human health and well-being. To investigate this potential relationship, this study assessed the main and interacting effects of daily temperature and humidity on hospital admission rates for selected heat-relevant diagnoses in Darwin, Australia. Univariate and bivariate Poisson generalized linear models were used to find statistically significant predictors and the admission rates within bins of predictors were compared to explore nonlinear effects. The analysis indicated that nighttime humidity was the most statistically significant predictor (P < 0.001), followed by daytime temperature and average daily humidity (P < 0.05). There was no evidence of a significant interaction between them or other predictors. The nighttime humidity effect appeared to be strongly nonlinear: Hot days appeared to have higher admission rates when they were preceded by high nighttime humidity. From this analysis, we suggest that heat-health policies in tropical regions similar to Darwin need to accommodate the effects of temperature and humidity at different times of day. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A Novel Passive Wireless Sensor for Concrete Humidity Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shuangxi; Deng, Fangming; Yu, Lehua; Li, Bing; Wu, Xiang; Yin, Baiqiang

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a passive wireless humidity sensor for concrete monitoring. After discussing the transmission of electromagnetic wave in concrete, a novel architecture of wireless humidity sensor, based on Ultra-High Frequency (UHF) Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology, is proposed for low-power application. The humidity sensor utilizes the top metal layer to form the interdigitated electrodes, which were then filled with polyimide as the humidity sensing layer. The sensor interface converts the humidity capacitance into a digital signal in the frequency domain. A two-stage rectifier adopts a dynamic bias-voltage generator to boost the effective gate-source voltage of the switches in differential-drive architecture. The clock generator employs a novel structure to reduce the internal voltage swing. The measurement results show that our proposed wireless humidity can achieve a high linearity with a normalized sensitivity of 0.55% %RH at 20 °C. Despite the high losses of concrete, the proposed wireless humidity sensor achieves reliable communication performances in passive mode. The maximum operating distance is 0.52 m when the proposed wireless sensor is embedded into the concrete at the depth of 8 cm. The measured results are highly consistent with the results measured by traditional methods. PMID:27657070

  16. Effects of temperature and relative humidity on DNA methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bind, Marie-Abele; Zanobetti, Antonella; Gasparrini, Antonio; Peters, Annette; Coull, Brent; Baccarelli, Andrea; Tarantini, Letizia; Koutrakis, Petros; Vokonas, Pantel; Schwartz, Joel

    2014-07-01

    Previous studies have found relationships between DNA methylation and various environmental contaminant exposures. Associations with weather have not been examined. Because temperature and humidity are related to mortality even on non-extreme days, we hypothesized that temperature and relative humidity may affect methylation. We repeatedly measured methylation on long interspersed nuclear elements (LINE-1), Alu, and 9 candidate genes in blood samples from 777 elderly men participating in the Normative Aging Study (1999-2009). We assessed whether ambient temperature and relative humidity are related to methylation on LINE-1 and Alu, as well as on genes controlling coagulation, inflammation, cortisol, DNA repair, and metabolic pathway. We examined intermediate-term associations of temperature, relative humidity, and their interaction with methylation, using distributed lag models. Temperature or relative humidity levels were associated with methylation on tissue factor (F3), intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), toll-like receptor 2 (TRL-2), carnitine O-acetyltransferase (CRAT), interferon gamma (IFN-γ), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and glucocorticoid receptor, LINE-1, and Alu. For instance, a 5°C increase in 3-week average temperature in ICAM-1 methylation was associated with a 9% increase (95% confidence interval: 3% to 15%), whereas a 10% increase in 3-week average relative humidity was associated with a 5% decrease (-8% to -1%). The relative humidity association with ICAM-1 methylation was stronger on hot days than mild days. DNA methylation in blood cells may reflect biological effects of temperature and relative humidity. Temperature and relative humidity may also interact to produce stronger effects.

  17. Behavior of HEPA filters under high humidity airflows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricketts, C.I.

    1992-10-01

    To help determine and improve the safety margins of High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter units in nuclear facilities under possible accident conditions, the structural limits and failure mechanisms of filter in high-humidity airflows were established and the fundamental physical phenomena underlying filter failure or malfunction in humid air were identified. Empirical models for increases in filter pressure drop with time in terms of the relevant airstream parameters were also developed. The weaknesses of currently employed humidity countermeasures used in filter protection are discussed and fundamental explanations for reported filter failures in normal service are given. (orig./DG) [de

  18. Changes of pressure and humidity affect olfactory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, Michael; Welsch, Heiko; Zahnert, Thomas; Hummel, Thomas

    2008-03-01

    The present study aimed at investigating the question whether olfactory function changes in relation to barometric pressure and humidity. Using climate chambers, odor threshold and discrimination for butanol were tested in 75 healthy volunteers under hypobaric and hyperbaric, and different humidity conditions. Among other effects, olfactory sensitivity at threshold level, but not suprathreshold odor discrimination, was impaired in a hypobaric compared to a hyperbaric milieu, and thresholds were lower in humid, compared to relatively dry conditions. In conclusion, environmental conditions modulate the sense of smell, and may, consecutively, influence results from olfactory tests.

  19. Influence of humidity on the graphene band gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakaryan, H.A.; Aroutiounian, V.M.

    2015-01-01

    Influences of the humidity on graphene properties are studied and comparisons of graphene and polymer humidity sensors are carried out. Graphene sensors have remarkable response compare to nanoporous polymer membranes. The resistance of polymer sensors is 150 GOhm and decreases in 7.5 times at 60 per cent of the relative humidity. For graphene, resistance drops 4 times starting from ~100 kOhm. This is connected with the extension of graphene band gap. The reason of this is adsorbed water, which can create defects in the lattice or can transfer charge which depends on relative position of HOMO/LUMO of water and Dirac point of graphene

  20. Humidity sensing in insects-from ecology to neural processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enjin, Anders

    2017-12-01

    Humidity is an omnipresent climatic factor that influences the fitness, reproductive behavior and geographic distribution of animals. Insects in particular use humidity cues to navigate the environment. Although the sensory neurons of this elusive sense were first described more than fifty years ago, the transduction mechanism of humidity sensing (hygrosensation) remains unknown. Recent work has uncovered some of the key molecules involved, opening up for novel approaches to study hygrosensory transduction. In this review, I will discuss this progress made toward understanding hygrosensation in insects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Dynamics of electrostatically driven granular media: Effects of humidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, D. W.; Aronson, Igor S.; Crabtree, G. W.

    2001-01-01

    We performed experimental studies of the effect of humidity on the dynamics of electrostatically driven granular materials. Both conducting and dielectric particles undergo a phase transition from an immobile state (granular solid) to a fluidized state (granular gas) with increasing applied field. Spontaneous precipitation of solid clusters from the gas phase occurs as the external driving is decreased. The clustering dynamics in conducting particles is primarily controlled by screening of the electric field but is aided by cohesion due to humidity. It is shown that humidity effects dominate the clustering process with dielectric particles

  2. Study of some Mg-based ferrites as humidity sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezlescu, N; Rezlescu, E; Doroftei, C; Popa, P D

    2005-01-01

    The micostructure and humidity sensitivity of MgFe 2 O 4 + CaO, Mg 0.5 Cu 0.5 Fe 1.8 Ga 0.2 O 4 , Mg 0.5 Zn 0.5 Fe 2 O 4 + KCl and MgMn 0.2 Fe 1.8 O 4 ferrites were investigated. We have found that the humidity sensitivity largely depends on composition, crystallite size, surface area and porosity. The best results concerning humidity sensitivity were obtained for MgMn 0.2 Fe 1.8 O 4 ferrite

  3. Numerical Modelling Of Humid Air Flow Around A Porous Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohojło-Wiśniewska Aneta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an example of humid air flow around a single head of Chinese cabbage under conditions of complex heat transfer. This kind of numerical simulation allows us to create a heat and humidity transfer model between the Chinese cabbage and the flowing humid air. The calculations utilize the heat transfer model in porous medium, which includes the temperature difference between the solid (vegetable tissue and fluid (air phases of the porous medium. Modelling and calculations were performed in ANSYS Fluent 14.5 software.

  4. A comparison between atmospheric/humidity and vacuum cyanoacrylate fuming of latent fingermarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrugia, Kevin J; Fraser, Joanna; Friel, Lauren; Adams, Duncan; Attard-Montalto, Nicola; Deacon, Paul

    2015-12-01

    A number of pseudo-operational trials were set up to compare the atmospheric/humidity and vacuum cyanoacrylate fuming processes on plastic carrier bags. The fuming processes were compared using two-step cyanoacrylate fuming with basic yellow 40 (BY40) staining and a one-step fluorescent cyanoacrylate fuming, Lumicyano 4%. Preliminary work using planted fingermarks and split depletions were performed to identify the optimum vacuum fuming conditions. The first pseudo-operational trial compared the different fuming conditions (atmospheric/humidity vs. vacuum) for the two-step process where an additional 50% more marks were detected with the atmospheric/humidity process. None of the marks by the vacuum process could be observed visually; however, a significant number of marks were detected by fluorescence after BY40 staining. The second trial repeated the same work in trial 1 using the one-step cyanoacrylate process, Lumicyano at a concentration of 4%. Trial 2 provided comparable results to trial 1 and all the items were then re-treated with Lumicyano 4% at atmospheric/humidity conditions before dyeing with BY40 to provide the sequences of process A (Lumicyano 4% atmospheric-Lumicyano 4% atmospheric-BY40) and process B (Lumicyano 4% vacuum-Lumicyano 4% atmospheric-BY40). The number of marks (visual and fluorescent) was counted after each treatment with a substantial increase in the number of detected marks in the second and third treatments of the process. The increased detection rate after the double Lumicyano process was unexpected and may have important implications. Trial 3 was performed to investigate whether the amount of cyanoacrylate and/or fuming time had an impact on the results observed in trial 2 whereas trial 4 assessed if the double process using conventional cyanoacrylate, rather than Lumicyano 4%, provided an increased detection rate. Trials 3 and 4 confirmed that doubling the amount of Lumicyano 4% cyanoacrylate and fuming time produced a lower

  5. Humidity Sensing Behaviour of Nanocrystalline α-PbO Synthesized by Alcohol Thermal Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sk. Khadeer Pasha

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol thermal route has been used to synthesize meta stable nanocrystalline α-PbO at a relatively low temperature of 75 oC using lead acetate. The synthesized α-PbO (P75 was subjected to different heat treatment with temperatures ranging from 200-500 oC for 2 h to study the effect of crystallinity and phase changes and were labeled as P200, P300, P400 and P500, respectively. X-Ray diffraction and FT-IR spectroscopy were carried out to identify the structural phases and vibrational stretching frequencies respectively. The TEM images revealed the porous nature of P75 sample which is an important criterion for the humidity sensor. All the samples were subjected to different humidity levels (5 – 98 %. Among the different composites prepared, P75 possessed the highest humidity sensitivity of 5000, while the heat treated sample P500 possessed a low sensitivity of 127. The response and recovery characteristics of the maximum sensitivity sample P75 were 210 s and 140 s respectively.

  6. Humidity measurement in industrial and non-industrial processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinze, D.

    1990-01-01

    The article presents a concise survey of continuous measuring techniques for determination of humidity or moisture contents in gases or solids, including techniques that apply neutron sources and the neutron slowing-down effect. (HP) [de

  7. NOS CO-OPS Meteorological Data, Relative Humidity, 6-Minute

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has Relative Humidity data from NOAA NOS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (CO-OPS). WARNING: These preliminary data have not...

  8. Passive Wireless SAW Humidity Sensors and System, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Phase I demonstrated the technical feasibility of creating surface acoustic wave (SAW) based humidity sensors that respond rapidly (under 0.5 second) and reversibly...

  9. Bacterial pleomorphism and competition in a relative humidity gradient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Goffau, Marcus C.; Yang, Xiaomei; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Harmsen, Hermie J. M.

    The response of different bacterial species to reduced water availability was studied using a simple relative humidity gradient technique. Interestingly, distinct differences in morphology and growth patterns were observed between populations of the same species growing at different relative

  10. Searching for new solutions Humidity measurements in the environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianina Creţu

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available More attention is nowadays being paid to thequality of the air we breathe, resulting in an increasingneed for humidity measurements in the home and officeenvironments. Maintaining the proper level of relativehumidity is also necessary to avoid conditions of extremehumidity condensation in buildings.The facts that construction problems and excessive waterand humidity often go together is well-known around theworld today. Moisture and water damage is a wellknown problem in construction in many countries.Problems of all construction are caused by humidity and50 per cent of all buildings have some kind of moisturerelatedproblems. Growing awareness of percentages suchas these has led to greater attention being paid toconstruction humidity and its measurement throughoutthe world in recent years.This paper presents a condensed review of nowadayshumidity sensors technology, problem implicated andsome modern tendencies.

  11. Nanostructured Humidity Sensor for Spacecraft Life Support Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Humidity is a critical variable for monitoring and control on extended duration missions because it can affect the operation and efficiency of closed loop life...

  12. Desiccant wheel thermal performance modeling for indoor humidity optimal control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Nan; Zhang, Jiangfeng; Xia, Xiaohua

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • An optimal humidity control model is formulated to control the indoor humidity. • MPC strategy is used to implement the optimal operation solution. • Practical applications of the MPC strategy is illustrated by the case study. - Abstract: Thermal comfort is an important concern in the energy efficiency improvement of commercial buildings. Thermal comfort research focuses mostly on temperature control, but humidity control is an important aspect to maintain indoor comfort too. In this paper, an optimal humidity control model (OHCM) is presented. Model predictive control (MPC) strategy is applied to implement the optimal operation of the desiccant wheel during working hours of a commercial building. The OHCM is revised to apply the MPC strategy. A case is studied to illustrate the practical applications of the MPC strategy

  13. Fabrication and Characterization of Polyaniline/PVA Humidity Microsensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Zhi Yang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the fabrication and characterization of a humidity microsensor that consists of interdigitated electrodes and a sensitive film. The area of the humidity microsensor is about 2 mm2. The sensitive film is polyaniline doping polyvinyl alcohol (PVA that is prepared by the sol-gel method, and the film has nanofiber and porous structures that help increase the sensing reaction. The commercial 0.35 mm Complimentary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS process is used to fabricate the humidity microsensor. The sensor needs a post-CMOS process to etch the sacrificial layer and to coat the sensitive film on the interdigitated electrodes. The sensor produces a change in resistance as the polyaniline/PVA film absorbs or desorbs vapor. Experimental results show that the sensitivity of the humidity sensor is about 12.6 kΩ/%RH at 25 °C.

  14. Preparation of an efficient humidity indicating silica gel from rice ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Department of Ceramic Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela 769 008, ... An efficient humidity indicating silica gel was prepared using rice husk ash as a raw material via ... white or colourless and shows no changes of colour.

  15. Multi-channel fiber optic dew and humidity sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limodehi, Hamid E.; Mozafari, Morteza; Amiri, Hesam; Légaré, François

    2018-03-01

    In this article, we introduce a multi-channel fiber optic dew and humidity sensor which works using a novel method based on relation between surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and water vapor condensation. The proposed sensor can instantly detect moisture or dew formation through its fiber optic channels, separately situated in different places. It enables to simultaneously measure the ambient Relative Humidity (RH) and dew point temperature of several environments with accuracy of 5%.

  16. Analysis of air temperature and relative humidity: study of microclimates

    OpenAIRE

    Elis Dener Lima Alves; Marcelo Sacardi Biudes

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the variability of climate elements in time and space is fundamental to the knowledge of the dynamics of microclimate. Thus, the objective was to analyze the variability of air temperature and relative humidity on the Cuiabá campus of the Federal University of Mato Grosso, and, through the clustering technique, to analyze the formation of groups to propose a zoning microclimate in the area study. To this end, collection data of air temperature and relative humidity at 15 points ...

  17. Enhancement of humidity sensitivity of graphene through functionalization with polyethylenimine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Aziza, Zeineb; Zhang, Kang; Baillargeat, Dominique; Zhang, Qing

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we show that the sensing performance of graphene based humidity sensors can be largely improved through polymer functionalization. Chemical vapor deposited graphene is functionalized with amine rich polymer, leading to electron transfer from amine groups in the polymer to graphene. The functionalized graphene humidity sensor has demonstrated good sensitivity, recovery, and repeatability. Charge transfer between the functionalized graphene and water molecules and the sensing mechanism are studied systemically using field effect transistor geometry and scanning Kelvin probe microscopy

  18. Humidity Sensors Printed on Recycled Paper and Cardboard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matija Mraović

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Research, design, fabrication and results of various screen printed capacitive humidity sensors is presented in this paper. Two types of capacitive humidity sensors have been designed and fabricated via screen printing on recycled paper and cardboard, obtained from the regional paper and cardboard industry. As printing ink, commercially available silver nanoparticle-based conductive ink was used. A considerable amount of work has been devoted to the humidity measurement methods using paper as a dielectric material. Performances of different structures have been tested in a humidity chamber. Relative humidity in the chamber was varied in the range of 35%–80% relative humidity (RH at a constant temperature of 23 °C. Parameters of interest were capacitance and conductance of each sensor material, as well as long term behaviour. Process reversibility has also been considered. The results obtained show a mainly logarithmic response of the paper sensors, with the only exception being cardboard-based sensors. Recycled paper-based sensors exhibit a change in value of three orders of magnitude, whereas cardboard-based sensors have a change in value of few 10s over the entire scope of relative humidity range (RH 35%–90%. Two different types of capacitor sensors have been investigated: lateral (comb type sensors and modified, perforated flat plate type sensors. The objective of the present work was to identify the most important factors affecting the material performances with humidity, and to contribute to the development of a sensor system supported with a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID chip directly on the material, for use in smart packaging applications. Therefore, the authors built a passive and a battery-supported wireless module based on SL900A smart sensory tag’s IC to achieve UHF-RFID functionality with data logging capability.

  19. Low-cost personal cooling in hot humid offices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsen, Lars Bo; Santos, A.

    This report presents a low cost solution to avoid heat stress in a hot and humid environment based on a solar powered drying of supply air. The air drying facilities and a validation of the benefits through comprehensive human exposure studies are described. The study represents an example...... of applied participative research performed in a developing country. The report may be used as a background for the improvement of the indoor climate in poor, hot and humid regions without increased use of electricity....

  20. The Design of Temperature and Humidity Chamber Monitor and Controller

    OpenAIRE

    Tibebu, Simachew

    2016-01-01

    The temperature and humidity chamber, (climate chamber) is a device located at the Technobothnia Education and Research Center that simulates different climate conditions. The simulated environment is used to test the capabilities of electrical equipment in different temperature and humidity conditions. The climate chamber, among other things houses a dedicated computer, the control PC, and a control software running in it which together are responsible for running and control-ling these simu...

  1. The Effect of Humidity and Oxygen Partial Pressure on LSM–YSZ Cathode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knöfel, Christina; Chen, Ming; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2011-01-01

    Two series of anode supported solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) were prepared, one with a composite cathode layer of lanthanum strontium manganite (LSM) and yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) on top and the other further has a LSM current collector layer on top. The fuel cells were heat treated at 1...... of manganese concentration and strontium enrichment on the surface of the materials. Formation of monoclinic zirconia and zirconate phases was also observed. These results give a closer insight into possible degradation mechanisms of SOFC composite cathode materials in dependence of humidity and oxygen partial...

  2. Variations of relative humidity in relation to meningitis in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seefeldt, M. W.; Hopson, T. M.

    2011-12-01

    The meningitis belt is a region covering Sub-Saharan Africa from the Sahel of West Africa eastward to western Ethiopia. The region is prone to meningitis epidemics during the dry season extending from approximately January to May, depending on the region. Relative humidity has been found to be a critical environmental factor indicating the susceptibility of a region to meningitis epidemics. This study evaluates the variation of relative humidity across West Africa over 30 dry-seasons (1979 - 2009) using the NASA-MERRA dataset. The method of self-organizing maps is employed to characterize the changes in relative humidity patterns across the region within a given dry season as well as changes over the 30 years. A general pattern of changes in relative humidity is indicated as the rainbelt retreats to the south at the onset of the dry season and then returns to the region at the end of the dry season. Within each dry season there is a unique pattern. The climatological conditions of relative humidity at the onset of the dry season provide an indication of the moisture environment for the entire dry season. Year to year variation in the relative humidity patterns are found to be gradual. Future applications involve using the results from the SOM evaluation to be used for future decisions involving prevention of meningitis epidemics.

  3. A Humidity Sensing Organic-Inorganic Composite for Environmental Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khasan S. Karimov

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the effect of varying humidity levels on the electrical parameters and the multi frequency response of the electrical parameters of an organic-inorganic composite (PEPC+NiPc+Cu2O-based humidity sensor. Silver thin films (thickness ~200 nm were primarily deposited on plasma cleaned glass substrates by the physical vapor deposition (PVD technique. A pair of rectangular silver electrodes was formed by patterning silver film through standard optical lithography technique. An active layer of organic-inorganic composite for humidity sensing was later spun coated to cover the separation between the silver electrodes. The electrical characterization of the sensor was performed as a function of relative humidity levels and frequency of the AC input signal. The sensor showed reversible changes in its capacitance with variations in humidity level. The maximum sensitivity ~31.6 pF/%RH at 100 Hz in capacitive mode of operation has been attained. The aim of this study was to increase the sensitivity of the previously reported humidity sensors using PEPC and NiPc, which has been successfully achieved.

  4. Humidity correction in the standard measurement of exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibaraki, Yasuyuki; Katoh, Akira

    1980-01-01

    This paper deals with the humidity correction to be made in the standard measurement of the exposure to the measured ionization current in the humid air for the purpose of excluding the influence of the water vapour that is not included in the definition of the exposure. First, formulae giving the humidity correction factors for a parallel plate free air chamber and a cavity chamber have been derived respectively in the case where the contributions of air and water vapour to the ionization are independent. Next, in the case where the contributions are not independent, i.e., the Jesse effect is taken into account, a formula to obtain the W-value for humid air has been derived on the basis of the Niatel's experimental result. Using this formula, formulae to obtain the humidity correction factors for the free air chamber and the cavity chamber are derived. The humidity calculated by the latter formulae show good agreements with the results by Niatel and Guiho, respectively. (author)

  5. Humidity effects on scanning polarization force microscopy imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Yue, E-mail: shenyue@isl.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Comprehensive and Highly Efficient Utilization of Salt Lake Resources, Key Laboratory of Salt Lake Resources Chemistry of Qinghai Province, Qinghai Institute of Salt Lakes, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xining, Qinghai 810008 (China); Key Laboratory of Interfacial Physics and Technology of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Zhou, Yuan, E-mail: zhouy@isl.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Comprehensive and Highly Efficient Utilization of Salt Lake Resources, Key Laboratory of Salt Lake Resources Chemistry of Qinghai Province, Qinghai Institute of Salt Lakes, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xining, Qinghai 810008 (China); Sun, Yanxia; Zhang, Lijuan [Key Laboratory of Comprehensive and Highly Efficient Utilization of Salt Lake Resources, Key Laboratory of Salt Lake Resources Chemistry of Qinghai Province, Qinghai Institute of Salt Lakes, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xining, Qinghai 810008 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang, Ying; Hu, Jun; Zhang, Yi [Key Laboratory of Interfacial Physics and Technology of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2017-08-01

    Highlights: • The humidity dramatically affects the contrast of scanning polarization force microscopy (SPFM) imaging on mica surface. • This influence roots in the sensitive dielectric constant of mica surface to the humidity change. • A strategy of controllable and repeatable imaging the local dielectric properties of nanomaterials with SPFM is proposed. - Abstract: Scanning polarization force microscopy (SPFM) is a useful surface characterization technique to visually characterize and distinguish nanomaterial with different local dielectric properties at nanometer scale. In this paper, taking the individual one-atom-thick graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets on mica as examples, we described the influences of environmental humidity on SPFM imaging. We found that the apparent heights (AHs) or contrast of SPFM imaging was influenced significantly by relative humidity (RH) at a response time of a few seconds. And this influence rooted in the sensitive dielectric constant of mica surface to the RH change. While dielectric properties of GO and rGO sheets were almost immune to the humidity change. In addition, we gave the method to determine the critical humidity at which the contrast conversion happened under different conditions. And this is important to the contrast control and repeatable imaging of SPFM through RH adjusting. These findings suggest a strategy of controllable and repeatable imaging the local dielectric properties of nanomaterials with SPFM, which is critically important for further distinguishment, manipulation, electronic applications, etc.

  6. A CMOS smart temperature and humidity sensor with combined readout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, Clemens; Valente, Virgilio; Donaldson, Nick; Demosthenous, Andreas

    2014-09-16

    A fully-integrated complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) sensor for combined temperature and humidity measurements is presented. The main purpose of the device is to monitor the hermeticity of micro-packages for implanted integrated circuits and to ensure their safe operation by monitoring the operating temperature and humidity on-chip. The smart sensor has two modes of operation, in which either the temperature or humidity is converted into a digital code representing a frequency ratio between two oscillators. This ratio is determined by the ratios of the timing capacitances and bias currents in both oscillators. The reference oscillator is biased by a current whose temperature dependency is complementary to the proportional to absolute temperature (PTAT) current. For the temperature measurement, this results in an exceptional normalized sensitivity of about 0.77%/°C at the accepted expense of reduced linearity. The humidity sensor is a capacitor, whose value varies linearly with relative humidity (RH) with a normalized sensitivity of 0.055%/% RH. For comparison, two versions of the humidity sensor with an area of either 0.2 mm2 or 1.2 mm2 were fabricated in a commercial 0.18 μm CMOS process. The on-chip readout electronics operate from a 5 V power supply and consume a current of approximately 85 µA.

  7. Tricky Treats

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-08-04

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Tricky Treats shows children the difference between healthy snacks and sweet treats.  Created: 8/4/2008 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 8/5/2008.

  8. HPTLC-profiling of eleutherosides, mechanism of antioxidative action of eleutheroside E1, the PAMPA test with LC/MS detection and the structure–activity relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Załuski

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Human body is constantly generating free radicals, which causes oxidative stress. Despite naturally occurring antioxidant systems in human body, free radicals cause lipid, proteins and DNA oxidation. New antioxidants are still urgent as well as their mechanisms of action should be explained. In this study, we investigated the mechanism by which eleutherosides B, E and E1 may act as antioxidants, identified eleutherosides in Eleutherococcus lasiogyne and Eleutherococcus giraldii, and explained in vitro the absorption of eleutheroside E1 based on passive transport. The DPPH∗ and DB-HPTLC tests were used to assess the antioxidant activity. Of the three eleutherosides, only eleutheroside E1 exhibited a strong anti-DPPH∗ activity (EC50 37.03 μg/mL; 63 mMol compared to the raw extracts (EC50 170 and 180 μg/mL for E. lasiogyne and E. giraldii. This activity was also confirmed by the DB-HPTLC autography technique. According to Załuski’s hypothesis, the antioxidant mechanism of eleutheroside E1 is based on the complexation of DPPH∗ molecule with its aryl radical. During this reaction, the aryl radical of eleutheroside E1 (E1∗ and DPPHH are created. Next, the aryl radical (E1∗ is complexed with another DPPH∗ molecule. Additionally, the aryl radical can be stabilized by the presence of the methoxy groups in the aromatic ring, which increases its antioxidative action. The HPTLC-identification of extracts showed the presence of eleutherosides B, E and E1 in both species. The PAMPA test coupled with LC/MS detection showed a low permeability of eleutheroside E1 across artificial membrane. Because eleutherosides belong to the polyphenols, the TPC and TFC were quantified. The TPC and TFC varied from 51.4 to 49.3 mg/g dry extract for TPC, and from 5.73 to 4.91 mg/g dry extract for TFC, for E. giraldii and E. lasiogyne, respectively. In conclusion, eleutheroside E1 in its pure form could be a chemopreventive ingredient of new pharmacological

  9. Development of Smart Ventilation Control Algorithms for Humidity Control in High-Performance Homes in Humid U.S. Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Less, Brennan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ticci, Sara [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-04-11

    Past field research and simulation studies have shown that high performance homes experience elevated indoor humidity levels for substantial portions of the year in humid climates. This is largely the result of lower sensible cooling loads, which reduces the moisture removed by the cooling system. These elevated humidity levels lead to concerns about occupant comfort, health and building durability. Use of mechanical ventilation at rates specified in ASHRAE Standard 62.2-2013 are often cited as an additional contributor to humidity problems in these homes. Past research has explored solutions, including supplemental dehumidification, cooling system operational enhancements and ventilation system design (e.g., ERV, supply, exhaust, etc.). This project’s goal is to develop and demonstrate (through simulations) smart ventilation strategies that can contribute to humidity control in high performance homes. These strategies must maintain IAQ via equivalence with ASHRAE Standard 62.2-2013. To be acceptable they must not result in excessive energy use. Smart controls will be compared with dehumidifier energy and moisture performance. This work explores the development and performance of smart algorithms for control of mechanical ventilation systems, with the objective of reducing high humidity in modern high performance residences. Simulations of DOE Zero-Energy Ready homes were performed using the REGCAP simulation tool. Control strategies were developed and tested using the Residential Integrated Ventilation (RIVEC) controller, which tracks pollutant exposure in real-time and controls ventilation to provide an equivalent exposure on an annual basis to homes meeting ASHRAE 62.2-2013. RIVEC is used to increase or decrease the real-time ventilation rate to reduce moisture transport into the home or increase moisture removal. This approach was implemented for no-, one- and two-sensor strategies, paired with a variety of control approaches in six humid climates (Miami

  10. Impacts of Present and Future Climate Variability On Agriculture and Forestry in the Humid and Sub-Humid Tropics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Y.; Wang, C.; Wang, S.; Tibig, Lourdes V.

    2005-01-01

    Although there are different results from different studies, most assessments indicate that climate variability would have negative effects on agriculture and forestry in the humid and sub-humid tropics. Cereal crop yields would decrease generally with even minimal increases in temperature. For commercial crops, extreme events such as cyclones, droughts and floods lead to larger damages than only changes of mean climate. Impacts of climate variability on livestock mainly include two aspects; impacts on animals such as increase of heat and disease stress-related death, and impacts on pasture. As to forestry, climate variability would have negative as well as some positive impacts on forests of humid and sub-humid tropics. However, in most tropical regions, the impacts of human activities such as deforestation will be more important than climate variability and climate change in determining natural forest cover

  11. Fabrication and Characterization of a CMOS-MEMS Humidity Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, John-Ojur; Ahmed, Abdelaziz-Yousif; Khir, Mohd-Haris

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the fabrication and characterization of a Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor-Microelectromechanical System (CMOS-MEMS) device with embedded microheater operated at relatively elevated temperatures (40 °C to 80 °C) for the purpose of relative humidity measurement. The sensing principle is based on the change in amplitude of the device due to adsorption or desorption of humidity on the active material layer of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles deposited on the moving plate, which results in changes in the mass of the device. The sensor has been designed and fabricated through a standard 0.35 µm CMOS process technology and post-CMOS micromachining technique has been successfully implemented to release the MEMS structures. The sensor is operated in the dynamic mode using electrothermal actuation and the output signal measured using a piezoresistive (PZR) sensor connected in a Wheatstone bridge circuit. The output voltage of the humidity sensor increases from 0.585 mV to 30.580 mV as the humidity increases from 35% RH to 95% RH. The output voltage is found to be linear from 0.585 mV to 3.250 mV as the humidity increased from 35% RH to 60% RH, with sensitivity of 0.107 mV/% RH; and again linear from 3.250 mV to 30.580 mV as the humidity level increases from 60% RH to 95% RH, with higher sensitivity of 0.781 mV/% RH. On the other hand, the sensitivity of the humidity sensor increases linearly from 0.102 mV/% RH to 0.501 mV/% RH with increase in the temperature from 40 °C to 80 °C and a maximum hysteresis of 0.87% RH is found at a relative humidity of 80%. The sensitivity is also frequency dependent, increasing from 0.500 mV/% RH at 2 Hz to reach a maximum value of 1.634 mV/% RH at a frequency of 12 Hz, then decreasing to 1.110 mV/% RH at a frequency of 20 Hz. Finally, the CMOS-MEMS humidity sensor showed comparable response, recovery, and repeatability of measurements in three cycles as compared to a standard sensor that directly

  12. Fabrication and Characterization of a CMOS-MEMS Humidity Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, John-Ojur; Ahmed, Abdelaziz-Yousif; Khir, Mohd-Haris

    2015-07-10

    This paper reports on the fabrication and characterization of a Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor-Microelectromechanical System (CMOS-MEMS) device with embedded microheater operated at relatively elevated temperatures (40 °C to 80 °C) for the purpose of relative humidity measurement. The sensing principle is based on the change in amplitude of the device due to adsorption or desorption of humidity on the active material layer of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles deposited on the moving plate, which results in changes in the mass of the device. The sensor has been designed and fabricated through a standard 0.35 µm CMOS process technology and post-CMOS micromachining technique has been successfully implemented to release the MEMS structures. The sensor is operated in the dynamic mode using electrothermal actuation and the output signal measured using a piezoresistive (PZR) sensor connected in a Wheatstone bridge circuit. The output voltage of the humidity sensor increases from 0.585 mV to 30.580 mV as the humidity increases from 35% RH to 95% RH. The output voltage is found to be linear from 0.585 mV to 3.250 mV as the humidity increased from 35% RH to 60% RH, with sensitivity of 0.107 mV/% RH; and again linear from 3.250 mV to 30.580 mV as the humidity level increases from 60% RH to 95% RH, with higher sensitivity of 0.781 mV/% RH. On the other hand, the sensitivity of the humidity sensor increases linearly from 0.102 mV/% RH to 0.501 mV/% RH with increase in the temperature from 40 °C to 80 °C and a maximum hysteresis of 0.87% RH is found at a relative humidity of 80%. The sensitivity is also frequency dependent, increasing from 0.500 mV/% RH at 2 Hz to reach a maximum value of 1.634 mV/% RH at a frequency of 12 Hz, then decreasing to 1.110 mV/% RH at a frequency of 20 Hz. Finally, the CMOS-MEMS humidity sensor showed comparable response, recovery, and repeatability of measurements in three cycles as compared to a standard sensor that directly

  13. Uncertainly Analysis of Two Types of Humidity Sensors by a Humidity Generator with a Divided-Flow System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ling-Hsi; Chen, Chiachung

    2018-02-21

    Humidity measurement is an important technique for the agricultural, foods, pharmaceuticals, and chemical industries. For the sake of convenience, electrical relative humidity (RH) sensors have been widely used. These sensors need to be calibrated to ensure their accuracy and the uncertainty measurement of these sensors has become a major concern. In this study, a self-made divided-flow generator was established to calibrate two types of electrical humidity sensors. The standard reference humidity was calculated from dew-point temperature and air dry-bulb temperature measured by a chilled mirror monitor. This divided-flow generator could produce consistent result of RH measurement results. The uncertainty of the reference standard increased with the increase of RH values. The combined uncertainty with the adequate calibration equations were ranged from 0.82% to 1.45% RH for resistive humidity sensors and 0.63% to 1.4% for capacitive humidity sensors, respectively. This self-made, divided-flow generator, and calibration method are cheap, time-saving, and easy to be used. Thus, the proposed approach can easily be applied in research laboratories.

  14. Uncertainly Analysis of Two Types of Humidity Sensors by a Humidity Generator with a Divided-Flow System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ling-Hsi

    2018-01-01

    Humidity measurement is an important technique for the agricultural, foods, pharmaceuticals, and chemical industries. For the sake of convenience, electrical relative humidity (RH) sensors have been widely used. These sensors need to be calibrated to ensure their accuracy and the uncertainty measurement of these sensors has become a major concern. In this study, a self-made divided-flow generator was established to calibrate two types of electrical humidity sensors. The standard reference humidity was calculated from dew-point temperature and air dry-bulb temperature measured by a chilled mirror monitor. This divided-flow generator could produce consistent result of RH measurement results. The uncertainty of the reference standard increased with the increase of RH values. The combined uncertainty with the adequate calibration equations were ranged from 0.82% to 1.45% RH for resistive humidity sensors and 0.63% to 1.4% for capacitive humidity sensors, respectively. This self-made, divided-flow generator, and calibration method are cheap, time-saving, and easy to be used. Thus, the proposed approach can easily be applied in research laboratories. PMID:29466313

  15. Humidity dependence of adhesion for silane coated microcantilevers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Boer, Maarten P.; Mayer, Thomas M.; Carpick, Robert W.; Michalske, Terry A.; Srinivasan, U.; Maboudian, R.

    1999-01-01

    This study examines adhesion between silane-coated micromachined surfaces that are exposed to humid conditions. Our quantitative values for interfacial adhesion energies are determined from an in-situ optical measurement of deformations in partly-adhered cantilever beams. We coated micromachined cantilevers with either ODTS (C(sub 18)H(sub 37)SiCl(sub 3)) or FDTS (C(sub 8)F(sub 17)C(sub 2)H(sub 4)SiCl(sub 3)) with the objective of creating hydrophobic surfaces whose adhesion would be independent of humidity. In both cases, the adhesion energy is significantly lower than for uncoated, hydrophilic surfaces. For relative humidities (RH) less than 95% (ODTS) and 80% (FDTS) the adhesion energy was extremely low and constant. In fact, ODTS-coated beams exposed to saturated humidity conditions and long (48 hour) exposures showed only a factor of two increase in adhesion energy. Surprisingly, FDTS coated beams, which initially have a higher contact angle (115(degree)) with water than do ODTS coated beams (112(degree)), proved to be much more sensitive to humidity. The FDTS coated surfaces showed a factor of one hundred increase in adhesion energy after a seven hour exposure to 90% RH. Atomic force microscopy revealed agglomerated coating material after exposed to high RH, suggesting a redistribution of the monolayer film. This agglomeration was more prominent for FDTS than ODTS. These findings suggest a new mechanism for uptake of moisture under high humidity conditions. At high humidities, the silane coatings can reconfigure from a surface to a bulk phase leaving behind locally hydrophilic sites which increase the average measured adhesion energy. In order for the adhesion increase to be observed, a significant fraction of the monolayer must be converted from the surface to the bulk phase

  16. Influence of fine water droplets to temperature and humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafidzal, M. H. M.; Hamzah, A.; Manaf, M. Z. A.; Saadun, M. N. A.; Zakaria, M. S.; Roslizar, A.; Jumaidin, R.

    2015-05-01

    Excessively dry air can cause dry skin, dry eyes and exacerbation of medical conditions. Therefore, many researches have been done in order to increase humidity in our environment. One of the ways is by using water droplets. Nowadays, it is well known in market stand fan equipped with water mister in order to increase the humidity of certain area. In this study, the same concept is applied to the ceiling fan. This study uses a model that combines a humidifier which functions as cooler, ceiling fan and scaled down model of house. The objective of this study is to analyze the influence of ceiling fan humidifier to the temperature and humidity in a house. The mechanism of this small model uses batteries as the power source, connected to the fan and the humidifier. The small water tank's function is to store and supply water to the humidifier. The humidifier is used to cool the room by changing water phase to fine water droplets. Fine water droplets are created from mechanism of the humidifier, which is by increasing the kinetic energy of water molecule using high frequency vibration that overcome the holding force between water molecules. Thus, the molecule of water will change to state of gas or mist. The fan is used to spread out the mist of water to surrounding of the room in order to enhance the humidity. Thermocouple and humidity meter are used to measure temperature and humidity in some period of times. The result shows that humidity increases and temperature decreases with time. This application of water droplet can be applied in the vehicles and engine in order to decrease the temperature.

  17. First record of a Late Holocene fauna associated with an ephemeral fluvial sequence in La Pampa Province, Argentina. Taphonomy and paleoenvironment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalvo, Claudia I.; Fernández, Fernando J.; Bargo, M. Susana; Tomassini, Rodrigo L.; Mehl, Adriana

    2017-07-01

    The first Late Holocene mammal assemblage (mainly micromammals) of La Pampa Province was found in Quehué paleontological site, associated with an ephemeral fluvial sequence. Taphonomical features of the collected materials were evaluated in order to increase the knowledge of the ancient vertebrate communities of this area and to interpret the origin of the assemblages. Field data and taphonomic analysis of the specimens, suggested the recognition of three assemblages with different taphonomic histories: 1) large to medium sized mammals; 2) micromammals found inside burrows or associated with them; and 3) discrete accumulations of micromammals and other microvertebrates (amphibians, reptiles and birds). Additionally, the paleoenvironmental analysis based mainly on the record of small mammals reflected the predominance of semi-arid conditions associated with a mosaic of open shrub steppe, grasslands and xerophytic forests of Espinal, similar to the present one in the Quehué valley area. However, the presence of Lestodelphys halli in the Quehué site during the Late Holocene (∼1.2 ky BP), suggests a more heterogeneous environment and perhaps relative colder and drier than current times, which are featured by more mesic conditions and anthropic activities, mainly agriculture and livestock during the last centuries.

  18. Infection with a Hepatozoon sp. closely related to Hepatozoon felis in a wild Pampas gray fox (Lycalopex -Pseudalopex -gymnocercus) co-infected with canine distemper virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannitti, Federico; Diab, Santiago S; Uzal, Francisco A; Fresneda, Karina; Rossi, Daniel; Talmi-Frank, Dalit; Baneth, Gad

    2012-05-25

    A species of Hepatozoon closely related to Hepatozoon felis found in the skeletal and cardiac muscle of a wild Pampas gray fox (Lycalopex gymnocercus) is described. The fox was euthanized after showing severe incoordination. On necropsy and histopathology there was bilateral, diffuse, severe, sub-acute, necrotizing bronchointerstitial pneumonia, with intracytoplasmic and intranuclear eosinophilic inclusion bodies. Canine distemper virus was detected by immunohistochemistry in the bronchiolar epithelium, syncytial cells, alveolar macrophages and pneumocytes. The skeletal muscle and myocardium contained multiple round to oval protozoan cysts ranging from 64 μm × 75 μm to 98 μm × 122 μm, with a central eosinophilic meront-like core surrounded by concentric rings of mucinous material resembling Hepatozoon americanum cysts but smaller in size. Macrophages within rare pyogranulomas and monocytes/macrophages in adjacent sinusoidal blood vessels in the skeletal muscle contained intracytoplasmic round protozoa consistent with merozoites or developing gamonts of Hepatozoon. Hepatozoon sp. infection was confirmed by PCR of skeletal muscle and the sequenced 18S rRNA PCR product was found to be 99% identical to H. felis by BLAST analysis and deposited in GenBank as accession number HQ020489. It clustered together in the phylogenetic analysis with published H. felis sequences and separately from H. canis, H. americanum and other Hepatozoon species. However, the close relatedness of the fox Hepatozoon to H. felis does not rule out infection with a different and possibly unknown Hepatozoon species. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Genetic divergence among populations and accessions of the spineless peach palm from Pampa Hermosa landrace used in the heart-of-palm agribusiness in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves-Pereira, Alessandro; Clement, Charles R; Picanço-Rodrigues, Doriane

    2012-04-01

    Although originally domesticated for its fruit, exploitation of the peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) in the production of gourmet heart-of-palm has also become an important activity, hence the need for improved material for large-scale production, on employing the Pampa Hermosa landrace as the seed source. In this study 11 microsatellite markers were used to evaluate genetic divergence among 96 elite plants representing four populations of spineless peach palm from the above cited source. Genetic variability was high (H(T) = 0.82). The low levels of divergence [F(ST) (0.023), G(ST)' (0.005)] and the high number of migrants (Nm - 3.8 to 52.2) indicated significant interpopulation gene flow. Some of the plants presented high levels of genetic divergence, but the plants were grouped independently of their geographic origins. When combined with morpho-agronomic evaluation, the results found could substantially contribute towards mounting an efficient tool for obtaining superior genotypes with wide genetic variability for improvement programs.

  20. Genetic divergence among populations and accessions of the spineless peach palm from Pampa Hermosa landrace used in the heart-of-palm agribusiness in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Alves-Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although originally domesticated for its fruit, exploitation of the peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth in the production of gourmet heart-of-palm has also become an important activity, hence the need for improved material for large-scale production, on employing the Pampa Hermosa landrace as the seed source. In this study 11 microsatellite markers were used to evaluate genetic divergence among 96 elite plants representing four populations of spineless peach palm from the above cited source. Genetic variability was high (H T = 0.82. The low levels of divergence [F ST (0.023, G ST' (0.005] and the high number of migrants (Nm -3.8 to 52.2 indicated significant interpopulation gene flow. Some of the plants presented high levels of genetic divergence, but the plants were grouped independently of their geographic origins. When combined with morpho-agronomic evaluation, the results found could substantially contribute towards mounting an efficient tool for obtaining superior genotypes with wide genetic variability for improvement programs.

  1. Observations on the macroscopic anatomy of the intestinal tract and its mesenteric folds in the pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus, Linnaeus 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, W; Clauss, M; Ungerfeld, R

    2008-08-01

    We described the macroscopic anatomy of the intestines and their peritoneal folds of five adult pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus), a cervid species considered to ingest a high proportion of grass in its natural diet. The mean (+/-SD) body weight was 17 (+/-2) kg. The small intestine and the caecocolon measured 495 (+/-37) cm and 237 (+/-24) cm in length, respectively, with an average ratio (small intestine:caecocolon) of 1.9 (+/-0.1). The ascending colon had two and a half centripetal gyri, a central flexure and two centrifugal gyri. The spiral ansa, which was similar to an ellipse, was fixed to the whole left face of the mesenterium. Apart from the peritoneal folds described in the Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria, three additional, hitherto not described folds were found: a fold that fixed the caecum to the proximal ansa of the ascending colon, one that joined the terminal part of the proximal ansa to the last centrifugal gyrus of the spiral ansa of the ascending colon, and one that linked the ascending duodenum to the proximal ansa of the ascending colon. When compared with published data from other cervids of different feeding niches, it appears that, among cervids, the ratio of small intestine to the caecocolon length does not reflect the natural diet.

  2. Hf isotope study of Palaeozoic metaigneous rocks of La pampa province and implications for the occurrence of juvenile early Neoproterozoic (Tonian) magmatism in south-central Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernicoff, C. J.; Zappettini, E. O.; Santos, J. O. S.; Belousova, E.; McNaughton, N. J.

    2011-12-01

    On a global scale, juvenile Tonian (Early Neoproterozoic) magmatic rocks are associated with the extensional events that lead to the breakup of the Rodinia supercontinent. In Argentina, no geological record is available for this time interval, lasting from 1000 to 850 Ma. We present indirect evidence for the existence of Tonian extension in Argentina, as supported by Hf and Nd isotope determinations on Phanerozoic magmatic and sedimentary rocks. We mainly focus on our own Hf isotope determinations carried out on U-Pb SHRIMP dated zircons from Palaeozoic metaigneous rocks of La Pampa province, south-central Argentina, i.e. metagabbros of Valle Daza, dioritic orthogneiss of Estancia Lote 8, and metadiorite of Estancia El Carancho, having found that these rocks were derived from sources of ca. 920 to ca 880 Ma, with ɛHf values between +6.83 and + 9.59. Inherited zircons of this age and character identified in these rocks also point to the same source. We also compile additional Hf and Nd studies from previous work on Phanerozoic magmatic and sedimentary rocks. We preliminarily compare the age of the juvenile Tonian sources referred to in our work with that of two extensional events identified in the São Francisco craton, Brazil.

  3. Arqueología de las sociedades prehispánicas de la provincia de La Pampa. Manejo de recursos culturales y puesta en valor de historias regionales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Alejandra Berón

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El conocimiento científico sobre el pasado prehispánico de la provincia de La Pampa, por diferentes motivos, estuvo relegado a un segundo plano hasta hace pocos años. Revertida esta situación, hoy disponemos de un panorama amplio de su prehistoria, desde los momentos más tempranos del poblamiento de la región, hasta la co- existencia indígena con la sociedad hispanocriolla. Para llegar a este conocimiento se debe destacar el trabajo de diversos profesionales y estudiantes, pero sobre todo el trabajo pionero de Carlos Gradin. En este artículo se reseñaran los avances en las investigaciones arqueoló- gicas en el Centro- Sur pampeano. Además de la investigación básica, nuevos acercamientos en nuestra disciplina imponen el trabajo parti- cipativo con las comunidades locales, así como la decisión conjunta acerca del destino de los resultados del trabajo de investigación y de los restos materiales que constituyen parte del patrimonio arqueológi- co local.

  4. La incorporación de los territorios nacionales en el proceso de consolidación del estado argentino. El caso del territorio de la Pampa Central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Moroni

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En la mayoría de los escritos de la élite letrada argentina del XIX, se identificó a la civilización como una manifestación de la identidad nacional, supuesto que las llevó a legitimar su función civilizadora y a impulsar el proceso de consolidación del Estado que requería la ocupación total del territorio, aún en manos de los indígenas a los que se responsabilizaba, junto con los caudillos, del fracaso de la unificación nacional. Desde las estructuras del poder estatal, se definió a los nuevos territorios como espacios vírgenes con infinitas posibilidades y ventajas económicas para explotar. Este argumento político atrajo pobladores -nacionales y extranjeros- que ocuparon y encaminaron la organización productiva de las futuras provincias. En este trabajo se realiza una aproximación al proceso de incorporación y posterior organización institucional de las tierras fronterizas incorporadas con la "Conquista al Desierto". En particular, se analiza la estructura político-administrativa del Territorio Nacional de la Pampa Central, constituido como tal en 1884, con el establecimiento de las primeras autoridades militares destinadas a fundar poblaciones y administrarlas políticamente.

  5. Species diversity and morphometrics of tardigrades from a medium-size city in the Neotropical Region: Santa Rosa (La Pampa, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peluffo, J. R.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Tardigrade diversity was studied in a medium-sized city in the Neotropical Region: Santa Rosa (La Pampa, Argentina. Samples were collected between February 1999 and January 2000 from lichens and mosses growing on sidewalk trees of the urban and periurban area. Five species of tardigrades were found, i.e., Echiniscus rufoviridis du Bois-Reymond Marcus, 1944, Macrobiotus areolatus Murray, 1907, Ramazzottius oberhaeuseri (Doyère, 1840, Milnesium cf. tardigradum and a non-described species of Macrobiotus. Only one species, M. cf. tardigradum, was found in areas with high levels of vehicle traffic. Results are compared with those from cities in the Nearctic and Palearctic regions. Measurements and pt index values (percentage ratios between the length of the structure considered and the buccal tube length are provided for M. areolatus, R. oberhaeuseri and M. cf. tardigradum. Amongst the characters considered, the pt index for the stylet support insertion shows the least intraspecific variation. This character is also independent from body length and buccal-tube length.

  6. Identidad y fantasma: situando las nuevas prácticas de libertad del movimiento indígena en La Pampa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Lazzari

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo sostengo que el actual reconocimiento de los Rankülche reproduce, en el nuevo marco de una identidad provincial pluralista, patrones de (invisibilización análogos a los que en el pa- sado determinaron el desvanecimiento de esta identidad y, por ende, grupo indígena. Esta (invisibilización también alcanza a las propias estrategias de identidad de los Rankülche pero, sin embargo, éstas señalan prácticas intersticiales de libertad que intentan reapropiar con fi- nes diferentes los modos oficiales del reconocimiento pluralista. Estos problemas son investigados en el dispositivo de Desvanecimiento del Ranquel , que se inicia a fines del siglo XIX, y el dispositivo de Retorno del Rankülche que aparece en los años noventa. El objetivo general es doble. Por una parte, detectar los “fantasmas” que ayer minaban la inscripción del Ranquel como identidad aborigen en proceso de des- aparición y que hoy socavan la representación del Rankülche como identidad que retorna. Por la otra, se trata de identificar cómo dichas fallas representacionales anuncian el espacio donde hoy se desenvuel- ven prácticas de libertad que hacen al proyecto de autonomía cultural y política de los indígenas en La Pampa.

  7. Opposing effects of humidity on rhodochrosite surface oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Chongzheng; Tang, Yuanzhi; Wang, Haitao; Martin, Scot T

    2015-03-03

    Rhodochrosite (MnCO3) is a model mineral representing carbonate aerosol particles containing redox-active elements that can influence particle surface reconstruction in humid air, thereby affecting the heterogeneous transformation of important atmospheric constituents such as nitric oxides, sulfur dioxides, and organic acids. Using in situ atomic force microscopy, we show that the surface reconstruction of rhodochrosite in humid oxygen leads to the formation and growth of oxide nanostructures. The oxidative reconstruction consists of two consecutive processes with distinctive time scales, including a long waiting period corresponding to slow nucleation and a rapid expansion phase corresponding to fast growth. By varying the relative humidity from 55 to 78%, we further show that increasing humidity has opposing effects on the two processes, accelerating nucleation from 2.8(±0.2) × 10(-3) to 3.0(±0.2) × 10(-2) h(-1) but decelerating growth from 7.5(±0.3) × 10(-3) to 3.1(±0.1) × 10(-3) μm(2) h(-1). Through quantitative analysis, we propose that nanostructure nucleation is controlled by rhodochrosite surface dissolution, similar to the dissolution-precipitation mechanism proposed for carbonate mineral surface reconstruction in aqueous solution. To explain nanostructure growth in humid oxygen, a new Cabrera-Mott mechanism involving electron tunneling and solid-state diffusion is proposed.

  8. Effect of humidity on the filter pressure drop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vendel, J.; Letourneau, P.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of humidity on the filter pressure drop have been reported in some previous studies in which it is difficult to draw definite conclusions. These studies show contradictory effects of humidity on the pressure drop probably due to differences in the hygroscopicity of the test aerosols. The objective of this paper is to present experimental results on the evolution of the filter pressure drop versus mass loading, for different test aerosols and relative humidities. Present results are compared to those found in various publication. An experimental device has been designed to measure filter pressure drop as the function of the areal density for relative humidity varying in the range of 9 % to 85 %. Experiments have been conducted with hygroscopic: (CsOH) and nonhygroscopic aerosols (TiO 2 ). Cesium hydroxyde (CsOH) of size of 2 μ M AMMD has been generated by an ultrasonic generator and the 0.7 μm AMMD titanium oxyde has been dispersed by a open-quotes turn-tableclose quotes generator. As it is noted in the BISWAS'publication [3], present results show, in the case of nonhygroscopic aerosols, a linear relationship of pressure drop to mass loading. For hygroscopic aerosols two cases must be considered: for relative humidity below the deliquescent point of the aerosol, the relationship of pressure drop to mass loading remains linear; above the deliquescent point, the results show a sudden increase in the pressure drop and the mass capacity of the filter is drastically reduced

  9. Fabrication of Porous Silicon Based Humidity Sensing Elements on Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tero Jalkanen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A roll-to-roll compatible fabrication process of porous silicon (pSi based sensing elements for a real-time humidity monitoring is described. The sensing elements, consisting of printed interdigitated silver electrodes and a spray-coated pSi layer, were fabricated on a coated paper substrate by a two-step process. Capacitive and resistive responses of the sensing elements were examined under different concentrations of humidity. More than a three orders of magnitude reproducible decrease in resistance was measured when the relative humidity (RH was increased from 0% to 90%. A relatively fast recovery without the need of any refreshing methods was observed with a change in RH. Humidity background signal and hysteresis arising from the paper substrate were dependent on the thickness of sensing pSi layer. Hysteresis in most optimal sensing element setup (a thick pSi layer was still noticeable but not detrimental for the sensing. In addition to electrical characterization of sensing elements, thermal degradation and moisture adsorption properties of the paper substrate were examined in connection to the fabrication process of the silver electrodes and the moisture sensitivity of the paper. The results pave the way towards the development of low-cost humidity sensors which could be utilized, for example, in smart packaging applications or in smart cities to monitor the environment.

  10. Humidity-insensitive water evaporation from molecular complex fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Jean-Baptiste; Doumenc, Frédéric; Guerrier, Béatrice

    2017-09-01

    We investigated theoretically water evaporation from concentrated supramolecular mixtures, such as solutions of polymers or amphiphilic molecules, using numerical resolutions of a one-dimensional model based on mass transport equations. Solvent evaporation leads to the formation of a concentrated solute layer at the drying interface, which slows down evaporation in a long-time-scale regime. In this regime, often referred to as the falling rate period, evaporation is dominated by diffusive mass transport within the solution, as already known. However, we demonstrate that, in this regime, the rate of evaporation does not also depend on the ambient humidity for many molecular complex fluids. Using analytical solutions in some limiting cases, we first demonstrate that a sharp decrease of the water chemical activity at high solute concentration leads to evaporation rates which depend weakly on the humidity, as the solute concentration at the drying interface slightly depends on the humidity. However, we also show that a strong decrease of the mutual diffusion coefficient of the solution enhances considerably this effect, leading to nearly independent evaporation rates over a wide range of humidity. The decrease of the mutual diffusion coefficient indeed induces strong concentration gradients at the drying interface, which shield the concentration profiles from humidity variations, except in a very thin region close to the drying interface.

  11. Effect of humidity on the filter pressure drop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vendel, J.; Letourneau, P. [Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1995-02-01

    The effects of humidity on the filter pressure drop have been reported in some previous studies in which it is difficult to draw definite conclusions. These studies show contradictory effects of humidity on the pressure drop probably due to differences in the hygroscopicity of the test aerosols. The objective of this paper is to present experimental results on the evolution of the filter pressure drop versus mass loading, for different test aerosols and relative humidities. Present results are compared to those found in various publication. An experimental device has been designed to measure filter pressure drop as the function of the areal density for relative humidity varying in the range of 9 % to 85 %. Experiments have been conducted with hygroscopic: (CsOH) and nonhygroscopic aerosols (TiO{sub 2}). Cesium hydroxyde (CsOH) of size of 2 {mu} M AMMD has been generated by an ultrasonic generator and the 0.7 {mu}m AMMD titanium oxyde has been dispersed by a {open_quotes}turn-table{close_quotes} generator. As it is noted in the BISWAS`publication [3], present results show, in the case of nonhygroscopic aerosols, a linear relationship of pressure drop to mass loading. For hygroscopic aerosols two cases must be considered: for relative humidity below the deliquescent point of the aerosol, the relationship of pressure drop to mass loading remains linear; above the deliquescent point, the results show a sudden increase in the pressure drop and the mass capacity of the filter is drastically reduced.

  12. Performance limit of daytime radiative cooling in warm humid environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Suichi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Daytime radiative cooling potentially offers efficient passive cooling, but the performance is naturally limited by the environment, such as the ambient temperature and humidity. Here, we investigate the performance limit of daytime radiative cooling under warm and humid conditions in Okayama, Japan. A cooling device, consisting of alternating layers of SiO2 and poly(methyl methacrylate on an Al mirror, is fabricated and characterized to demonstrate a high reflectance for sunlight and a selective thermal radiation in the mid-infrared region. In the temperature measurement under the sunlight irradiation, the device shows 3.4 °C cooler than a bare Al mirror, but 2.8 °C warmer than the ambient of 35 °C. The corresponding numerical analyses reveal that the atmospheric window in λ = 16 ∼ 25 μm is closed due to a high humidity, thereby limiting the net emission power of the device. Our study on the humidity influence on the cooling performance provides a general guide line of how one can achieve practical passive cooling in a warm humid environment.

  13. Humidity Testing of PME and BME Ceramic Capacitors with Cracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teverovsky, Alexander A.; Herzberger, Jaemi

    2014-01-01

    Cracks in ceramic capacitors are one of the major causes of failures during operation of electronic systems. Humidity testing has been successfully used for many years to verify the absence of cracks and assure quality of military grade capacitors. Traditionally, only precious metal electrode (PME) capacitors were used in high reliability applications and the existing requirements for humidity testing were developed for this type of parts. With the advance of base metal electrode (BME) capacitors, there is a need for assessment of the applicability of the existing techniques for the new technology capacitors. In this work, variety of different PME and BME capacitors with introduced cracks were tested in humid environments at different voltages and temperatures. Analysis of the test results indicates differences in the behavior and failure mechanisms for BME and PME capacitors and the need for different testing conditions.

  14. Humidity insensitive TOPAS polymer fiber Bragg grating sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Scott Wu; Khan, Lutul; Webb, David J.

    2011-01-01

    We report the first experimental demonstration of a humidity insensitive polymer optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG), as well as the first FBG recorded in a TOPAS polymer optical fiber in the important low loss 850nm spectral region. For the demonstration we have fabricated FBGs with resonance...... wavelength around 850 nm and 1550 nm in single-mode microstructured polymer optical fibers made of TOPAS and the conventional poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). Characterization of the FBGs shows that the TOPAS FBG is more than 50 times less sensitive to humidity than the conventional PMMA FBG in both...... wavelength regimes. This makes the TOPAS FBG very appealing for sensing applications as it appears to solve the humidity sensitivity problem suffered by the PMMA FBG....

  15. Humidity evolution (breathing effect) in enclosures with electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hygum, Morten Arnfeldt; Popok, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Packaging and enclosures used for protecting power electronics operating outdoors are designed to withstand the local climatic and environmental changes. Hermetic enclosures are expensive and therefore other solutions for protecting the electronics from a harsh environment are required. One...... of the dangerous parameters is high humidity of air. Moisture can inevitable reach the electronics either due to diffusion through the wall of an enclosure or small holes, which are designed for electrical or other connections. A driving force for humid air movement is the temperature difference between...... the operating electronics and the surrounding environment. This temperature, thus, gives rise to a natural convection, which we also refer to as breathing. Robust and intelligent enclosure designs must account for this breathing as it can significantly change the humidity distribution in the enclosure...

  16. Microwave Determination of Water Mole Fraction in Humid Gas Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuccaro, R.; Gavioso, R. M.; Benedetto, G.; Madonna Ripa, D.; Fernicola, V.; Guianvarc'h, C.

    2012-09-01

    A small volume (65 cm3) gold-plated quasi-spherical microwave resonator has been used to measure the water vapor mole fraction x w of H2O/N2 and H2O/air mixtures. This experimental technique exploits the high precision achievable in the determination of the cavity microwave resonance frequencies and is particularly sensitive to the presence of small concentrations of water vapor as a result of the high polarizability of this substance. The mixtures were prepared using the INRIM standard humidity generator for frost-point temperatures T fp in the range between 241 K and 270 K and a commercial two-pressure humidity generator operated at a dew-point temperature between 272 K and 291 K. The experimental measurements compare favorably with the calculated molar fractions of the mixture supplied by the humidity generators, showing a normalized error lower than 0.8.

  17. Effects of air humidity on ionization chamber response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meger, C.; DeLuca, P.M. Jr.; Pearson, D.W.; Venci, R.

    1983-01-01

    A study of the effect of air humidity on four different ionization chamber cap materials verified earlier studies (Kristensen and Sundbom, 1981; Mijnheer et al., 1983) and extended our understanding of the problem. We found nylon and A-150 plastic caps swell as they absorb water from the air. This accounts for as much as 2.5% increase in ionization response. Graphite chambers readily absorb and desorb water from the air. This creates a problem in maintaining dry air in a wet graphite chamber. Humid air has a different density and W value than dry air (Niatel, 1969, 1975). This decreases the charge collected in a wet graphite chamber. We observe a decrease in response of approximately 2%, a value greater than can be accounted for by these effects alone. Polyethylene chambers are unaffected by humid air. 4 refs., 9 figs

  18. Humidity Data for 9975 Shipping Packages with Softwood Fiberboard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-01-12

    The 9975 surveillance program is developing a technical basis to support extending the storage period of 9975 packages in K-Area Complex beyond the currently approved 15 years. A key element of this effort is developing a better understanding of degradation of the fiberboard assembly under storage conditions. This degradation is influenced greatly by the moisture content of the fiberboard, which is not well characterized on an individual package basis. Direct measurements of humidity and fiberboard moisture content have been made on two test packages with softwood fiberboard and varying internal heat levels from 0 up to 19W. Comparable measurements with cane fiberboard have been reported previously. With an internal heat load, a temperature gradient in the fiberboard assembly leads to varying relative humidity in the air around the fiberboard. However, the absolute humidity tends to remain approximately constant throughout the package, especially at lower heat loads.

  19. Exposure testing of fasteners in preservative treated wood : gravimetric corrosion rates and corrosion product analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka; Rebecca J. Sichel; Donald S. Stone

    2010-01-01

    Research was conducted to determine the corrosion rates of metals in preservative treated wood and also understand the mechanism of metal corrosion in treated wood. Steel and hot-dip galvanized steel fasteners were embedded in wood treated with one of six preservative treatments and exposed to 27oC at 100% relative humidity for 1 year. The...

  20. Characterization of Modified Tapioca Starch in Atmospheric Argon Plasma under Diverse Humidity by FTIR Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeyai, P.; Suphantharika, M.; Wongsagonsup, R.; Dangtip, S.

    2013-01-01

    Tapioca is economical crop grown in Thailand and continues to be one of the major sources of starch. Nowadays, tapioca starch has been widely used in industrial applications, however the native form of starch has limited the applications. Thus scientists try to modify the properties of starch for increasing the stability of the granules, pastes to low pH, heat, and shear during the food process. We modify the tapioca starch by plasma treatment under an argon atmosphere. The degree of modification is determined by following water content in the starch granules. The tablet samples of native starch are also prepared and compared with the plasma treated starch. Before plasma treatment, the starch tablets are stored under three different relative humilities (RH) including 11%, 68%, and 78%RH, respectively. The samples are characterized using FTIR spectroscopy associated with the degree of cross-linking. The results show that the water molecules are engulfed into the starch structure in two ways, a tight bond and a weak absorption of water molecules which is represented at two wave number of 1630 cm-1 and 3272 cm-1, respectively. The degree of cross-linking can be identified from the relative intensity of these two peaks with the C—O—H peak at 993 cm-1. The results show that the degree of cross-linking increase in the plasma treated starch. The degree of cross-linking of the treated starch with high relative humidity is less than that of the treated starch with low relative humidity.

  1. Characterization of Modified Tapioca Starch in Atmospheric Argon Plasma under Diverse Humidity by FTIR Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deeyai, P.; Suphantharika, M.; Wongsagonsup, R.; Dangtip, S.

    2013-01-01

    Tapioca is economical crop grown in Thailand and continues to be one of the major sources of starch. Nowadays, tapioca starch has been widely used in industrial applications, however the native form of starch has limited the applications. Thus scientists try to modify the properties of starch for increasing the stability of the granules, pastes to low pH, heat, and shear during the food process. We modify the tapioca starch by plasma treatment under an argon atmosphere. The degree of modification is determined by following water content in the starch granules. The tablet samples of native starch are also prepared and compared with the plasma treated starch. Before plasma treatment, the starch tablets are stored under three different relative humilities (RH) including 11%, 68%, and 78%RH, respectively. The samples are characterized using FTIR spectroscopy associated with the degree of cross-linking. The results show that the water molecules are engulfed into the starch structure in two ways, a tight bond and a weak absorption of water molecules which is represented at two wave number of 1630 cm −1 and 3272 cm −1 , respectively. The degree of cross-linking can be identified from the relative intensity of these two peaks with the C—O—H peak at 993 cm −1 . The results show that the degree of cross-linking increase in the plasma treated starch. The degree of cross-linking of the treated starch with high relative humidity is less than that of the treated starch with low relative humidity

  2. Humidity data for 9975 shipping packages with cane fiberboard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The 9975 surveillance program is developing a technical basis to support extending the storage period of 9975 packages in K-Area Complex beyond the currently approved 15 years. A key element of this effort is developing a better understanding of degradation of the fiberboard assembly under storage conditions. This degradation is influenced greatly by the moisture content of the fiberboard, which is not well characterized on an individual package basis. Direct measurements of humidity and fiberboard moisture content have been made on two test packages with cane fiberboard and varying internal heat levels from 0 up to 19W. With an internal heat load, a temperature gradient in the fiberboard assembly leads to varying relative humidity in the air around the fiberboard. However, the absolute humidity tends to remain approximately constant throughout the package. The moisture content of fiberboard varies under the influence of several phenomena. Changes in local fiberboard temperature (from an internal heat load) can cause fiberboard moisture changes through absorption or evaporation. Fiberboard degradation at elevated temperature will produce water as a byproduct. And the moisture level within the package is constantly seeking equilibrium with that of the surrounding room air, which varies on a daily and seasonal basis. One indicator of the moisture condition within a 9975 package might be obtained by measuring the relative humidity in the upper air space, by inserting a humidity probe through a caplug hole. However, the data indicate that for the higher internal heat loads (15 and 19 watts), a large variation in internal moisture conditions produces little or no variation in the air space relative humidity. Therefore, this approach does not appear to be sensitive to fiberboard moisture variations at the higher heat loads which are of most interest to maintaining fiberboard integrity.

  3. Humidity Responsive Photonic Sensor based on a Carboxymethyl Cellulose Mechanical Actuator

    OpenAIRE

    Hartings, Matthew; Douglass, Kevin O.; Neice, Claire; Ahmed, Zeeshan

    2017-01-01

    We describe an intuitive and simple method for exploiting humidity-driven volume changes in carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) to fabricate a humidity responsive actuator on a glass fiber substrate. We optimize this platform to generate a photonic-based humidity sensor where CMC coated on a fiber optic containing a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) actuates a mechanical strain in response to humidity changes. The humidity-driven mechanical deformation of the FBG results in a large lin...

  4. Fiber optic humidity sensor using water vapor condensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limodehi, Hamid E; Légaré, François

    2017-06-26

    The rate of vapor condensation on a solid surface depends on the ambient relative humidity (RH). Also, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) on a metal layer is sensitive to the refractive index change of its adjacent dielectric. The SPR effect appears as soon as a small amount of moisture forms on the sensor, resulting in a decrease in the amount of light transmitted due to plasmonic loss. Using this concept, we developed a fiber optic humidity sensor based on SPR. It can measure the ambient RH over a dynamic range from 10% to 85% with an accuracy of 3%.

  5. Influence of Temperature and Humidity on Bakelite Resistivity

    CERN Document Server

    Arnaldi, R; Barret, V; Bastid, N; Blanchard, G; Chiavassa, E; Cortese, P; Crochet, Philippe; Dellacasa, G; De Marco, N; Dupieux, P; Espagnon, B; Fargeix, J; Ferretti, A; Gallio, M; Lamoine, L; Luquin, Lionel; Manso, F; Mereu, P; Métivier, V; Musso, A; Oppedisano, C; Piccotti, A; Rahmani, A; Royer, L; Roig, O; Scalas, E; Scomparin, E; Vercellin, Ermanno

    1999-01-01

    Presentation made at RPC99 and submitted to Elsevier PreprintThe use of phenolic or melaminic bakelite as RPC electrodes is widespread. The electrode resistivity is an important parameter for the RPC performance. As recent studies have pointed out, the bakelite resistivity changes with temperature and is influenced by humidity. In order to gain a quantitative understanding on the influence of temperature and humidity on RPC electrodes, we assembled an apparatus to measure resistivity in well-controlled conditions. A detailed description of the experimental set-up as well as the first resistivity measurements for various laminates in different environmental conditions are presented.

  6. Ground calibration of DREAMS-H relative humidity device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komu, M.; Genzer, M.; Nikkanen, T.; Schmidt, W.; Haukka, H.; Kemppinen, O.; Harri, A.-M.

    2014-04-01

    DREAMS (Dust Characterization, Risk Assessment and Environmental Analyzer on the Martian Surface) instrument suite is to be launched as part of ESA ExoMars 2016/Entry, Descent and Landing Demonstration Module (EDM). DREAMS consists of an environmental package for monitoring temperature, pressure, relative humidity, winds and dust opacity, as well as atmospheric electricity of Martian atmosphere. DREAMS instruments and scientific goals are described in [1]. Here we describe ground calibration of the relative humidity device, DREAMS-H, provided to DREAMS payload by Finnish Meteorological Institute and based on proprietary technology of Vaisala, Inc. Same kind of device is part of REMS instrument package onboard MSL Curiosity Rover [2][3].

  7. Temperature-dependent deliquescence relative humidities and water activities using humidity controlled thermogravimetric analysis with application to malonic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Keith D; Schroeder, Jason R; Kissinger, Jared A

    2014-04-03

    We utilize a new experimental technique, humidity-controlled thermogravimetric analysis (HTGA), to determine temperature-dependent deliquescence relative humidities (DRH) and to determine the equilibrium concentration of a solution at a given temperature and relative humidity. To that end, we have investigated the malonic acid/water system determining the DRH and concentration/RH relationship in the temperature range 303-278 K. Excellent agreement is found with literature values for the DRH of malonic acid as a function of temperature and for the concentration/RH relationship at several temperatures. Thus, we extend the DRH and concentration/RH relationship to a broader temperature range and are using the HTGA experiments to investigate other organic acids.

  8. Diversidade de anfíbios anuros de uma área de Pampa no município de São Gabriel, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria R. Bolzan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Considerado um bioma ameaçado, o Pampa possui um dos menores percentuais de área legalmente protegida. Além disso, o conhecimento sobre comunidades de anuros neste bioma ainda é escasso. Nesse contexto, o objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a composição de anuros em uma área de Pampa no sul do Brasil. Entre janeiro de 2009 e fevereiro de 2010 foi realizado um inventário na Fundação Estadual de Pesquisa Agropecuária do município de São Gabriel, Rio Grande do Sul. A procura dos exemplares foi realizada em poças permanentes, semi-permanentes e temporárias pelo método de levantamento em sítio de reprodução. Foram registradas 21 espécies pertencentes a cinco famílias, o que corresponde a aproximadamente 20% das espécies do estado e 42% das espécies conhecidas para a ecorregião Savana Uruguaia. Dez espécies foram consideradas frequentes, sete comuns e quatro foram raras. Foram registrados três modos reprodutivos, sendo que 57% das espécies utilizam o modo 1, que parece estar relacionado à homogeneidade da área. A análise de agrupamento comparando a composição de anuros de quatro localidades distintas mostrou maior similaridade com o município de Candiota (região da Campanha. As espécies presentes na área de estudo são associadas a formações campestres do estado e países vizinhos e podem ser consideradas típicas do bioma Pampa.

  9. Recuperación y cierre de áreas degradadas por residuos sólidos en las Pampas de Reque: estudio de impacto ambiental - distrito de Reque, Lambayeque 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Mejía Sánchez, Segundo Néstor

    2012-01-01

    El presente Estudio de investigación, consistió en revisar la normatividad referente a la formulación de Estudios de Impacto Ambiental del proyectos de cierre y recuperación de áreas degradadas por contaminación de residuos sólidos; para proponer el Estudio de Impacto Ambiental (EIA) del proyecto de inversión Pública denominado "Recuperación y Cierre de Áreas Degradadas por Residuos Sólidos en las Pampas de Reque", formulado a nivel de perfil, en su fase de pre inversión. El problema de la pr...

  10. Programa de Habilidades Sociale, Basado en la Teoría de Clima Institucional de Rensis Likert , para Fortalecer la Gestión en la Institución Educativa N° 11504 de Pampa Grande Chongoyape - 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Acosta Vásquez, Alci; Alvines Vilchez, José Armando

    2017-01-01

    l desarrollo de la investigación PROGRAMA DE HABILIDADES SOCIALES, BASADO EN LA TEORÍA DE CLIMA INSTITUCIONAL DE RENSIS LIKERT, PARA FORTALECER LA GESTIÓN EN LA INSTITUCIÓN EDUCATIVA N° 11504 DE PAMPA GRANDE-CHONGOYAPE. 2015, acorde con el diseño es descriptiva-propositiva. Efectuado el proceso de investigación se pudo determinar entre los docentes de la Institución antes citada, aún falta por desarrollar las habilidades sociales de Asertividad, Resolución de Problemas y Comunicación. Asim...

  11. Humidity affects the performance of von Frey monofilaments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, M U; Nielsen, Per Rotbøll; Ellehuus-Hilmersson, C

    2011-01-01

    Assessment of tactile and nociceptive thresholds of the skin with calibrated polyamide monofilaments is an established testing method both in animal and in human research. It is known that changes in relative humidity may affect the physical properties of the monofilaments. As this effect has onl...

  12. Small-scale variability in tropical tropopause layer humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, E. J.; Ueyama, R.; Pfister, L.; Karcher, B.; Podglajen, A.; Diskin, G. S.; DiGangi, J. P.; Thornberry, T. D.; Rollins, A. W.; Bui, T. V.; Woods, S.; Lawson, P.

    2016-12-01

    Recent advances in statistical parameterizations of cirrus cloud processes for use in global models are highlighting the need for information about small-scale fluctuations in upper tropospheric humidity and the physical processes that control the humidity variability. To address these issues, we have analyzed high-resolution airborne water vapor measurements obtained in the Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment over the tropical Pacific between 14 and 20 km. Using accurate and precise 1-Hz water vapor measurements along approximately-level aircraft flight legs, we calculate structure functions spanning horizontal scales ranging from about 0.2 to 50 km, and we compare the water vapor variability in the lower (about 14 km) and upper (16-19 km) Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL). We also compare the magnitudes and scales of variability inside TTL cirrus versus in clear-sky regions. The measurements show that in the upper TTL, water vapor concentration variance is stronger inside cirrus than in clear-sky regions. Using simulations of TTL cirrus formation, we show that small variability in clear-sky humidity is amplified by the strong sensitivity of ice nucleation rate to supersaturation, which results in highly-structured clouds that subsequently drive variability in the water vapor field. In the lower TTL, humidity variability is correlated with recent detrainment from deep convection. The structure functions indicate approximately power-law scaling with spectral slopes ranging from about -5/3 to -2.

  13. Humidity Sensors Principle, Mechanism, and Fabrication Technologies: A Comprehensive Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahani, Hamid; Wagiran, Rahman; Hamidon, Mohd Nizar

    2014-01-01

    Humidity measurement is one of the most significant issues in various areas of applications such as instrumentation, automated systems, agriculture, climatology and GIS. Numerous sorts of humidity sensors fabricated and developed for industrial and laboratory applications are reviewed and presented in this article. The survey frequently concentrates on the RH sensors based upon their organic and inorganic functional materials, e.g., porous ceramics (semiconductors), polymers, ceramic/polymer and electrolytes, as well as conduction mechanism and fabrication technologies. A significant aim of this review is to provide a distinct categorization pursuant to state of the art humidity sensor types, principles of work, sensing substances, transduction mechanisms, and production technologies. Furthermore, performance characteristics of the different humidity sensors such as electrical and statistical data will be detailed and gives an added value to the report. By comparison of overall prospects of the sensors it was revealed that there are still drawbacks as to efficiency of sensing elements and conduction values. The flexibility offered by thick film and thin film processes either in the preparation of materials or in the choice of shape and size of the sensor structure provides advantages over other technologies. These ceramic sensors show faster response than other types. PMID:24784036

  14. Hydration behaviour of synthetic saponite at variable relative humidity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hydration behaviour of synthetic saponite was examined by X-ray powder diffraction simulation at various relative humidities (RH). The basal spacing of the Ca-saponite increased stepwise with increase in RH. The (00) reflections observed reflect single or dual hydration states of smectite. Quasi-rational, intermediate, or ...

  15. Thermal Effectiveness of Wall Indoor Fountain in Warm Humid Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seputra, J. A. P.

    2018-03-01

    Nowadays, many buildings wield indoor water features such as waterfalls, fountains, and water curtains to improve their aesthetical value. Despite the provision of air cooling due to water evaporation, this feature also has adverse effect if applied in warm humid climate since evaporation might increase air humidity beyond the comfort level. Yet, there are no specific researches intended to measure water feature’s effect upon its thermal condition. In response, this research examines the influence of evaporative cooling on indoor wall fountain toward occupant’s thermal comfort in warm humid climate. To achieve this goal, case study is established in Waroeng Steak Restaurant’s dining room in Surakarta-Indonesia. In addition, SNI 03-6572-2001 with comfort range of 20.5–27.1°C and 40-60% of relative humidity is utilized as thermal criterion. Furthermore, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is employed to process the data and derive conclusions. Research variables are; feature’s height, obstructions, and fan types. As results, Two Bumps Model (ToB) is appropriate when employs natural ventilation. However, if the room is mechanically ventilated, Three Bumps Model (TeB) becomes the best choice. Moreover, application of adaptive ventilation is required to maintain thermal balance.

  16. Hydrological drought and wildfire in the humid tropics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taufik, Muh

    2017-01-01

    Drought is a recurrent hazard, which has happened throughout human history, and it is anticipated to become more severe in multiple regions across the world. Drought occurs in all climate regimes from humid to dry and from hot to cold. Drought is often viewed through its impact on environment and

  17. Effects of relative humidity on banana fruit drop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saengpook, C.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2007-01-01

    Commercial ripening of banana fruit occurs at high relative humidity (RH), which prevents browning of damaged skin areas. In experiments with ripening at high RH (94 ± 1%) the individual fruit (fingers) of `Sucrier¿ (Musa acuminata, AA Group) banana exhibited a high rate of drop. The falling off of

  18. Investigating atrium in hot and humid climate and providing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Atrium has thermal comfort space since the old time by two methods of greenhouse effect and chimney effect. Now these questions are raised: What impact does atrium have in terms of performance in reducing energy consumption in buildings and how is the performance of atrium in the hot and humid climate, and how it ...

  19. Humidity Sensors Principle, Mechanism, and Fabrication Technologies: A Comprehensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Farahani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Humidity measurement is one of the most significant issues in various areas of applications such as instrumentation, automated systems, agriculture, climatology and GIS. Numerous sorts of humidity sensors fabricated and developed for industrial and laboratory applications are reviewed and presented in this article. The survey frequently concentrates on the RH sensors based upon their organic and inorganic functional materials, e.g., porous ceramics (semiconductors, polymers, ceramic/polymer and electrolytes, as well as conduction mechanism and fabrication technologies. A significant aim of this review is to provide a distinct categorization pursuant to state of the art humidity sensor types, principles of work, sensing substances, transduction mechanisms, and production technologies. Furthermore, performance characteristics of the different humidity sensors such as electrical and statistical data will be detailed and gives an added value to the report. By comparison of overall prospects of the sensors it was revealed that there are still drawbacks as to efficiency of sensing elements and conduction values. The flexibility offered by thick film and thin film processes either in the preparation of materials or in the choice of shape and size of the sensor structure provides advantages over other technologies. These ceramic sensors show faster response than other types.

  20. Effect of varying relative humidity on the rancidity of cashew ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Post harvest deterioration by microbes due to improper storage condition is considered to be the major cause of spoilage and rancidity of most oil-bearing seeds like cashew nuts through lipolytic action of lipase enzyme. Roasted cashew nuts were subjected to four different storage conditions with different relative humidity ...

  1. Semmes-Weinstein Monofilaments: Influence of Temperature, Humidity, and Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haloua, Max H.; Sierevelt, Inger; Theuvenet, Willem J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether the buckling force of Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments is influenced by changes in temperature, humidity, and aging. Methods: We tested 16 Semmes-Weinstein monofflaments from North Coast Medical, varying in age from new to 12 years old. From each kit, we used the

  2. Design of a Humidity Sensor Tag for Passive Wireless Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiang; Deng, Fangming; Hao, Yong; Fu, Zhihui; Zhang, Lihua

    2015-10-07

    This paper presents a wireless humidity sensor tag for low-cost and low-power applications. The proposed humidity sensor tag, based on radio frequency identification (RFID) technology, was fabricated in a standard 0.18 μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process. The top metal layer was deposited to form the interdigitated electrodes, which were then filled with polyimide as the humidity sensing layer. A two-stage rectifier adopts a dynamic bias-voltage generator to boost the effective gate-source voltage of the switches in differential-drive architecture, resulting in a flat power conversion efficiency curve. The capacitive sensor interface, based on phase-locked loop (PLL) theory, employs a simple architecture and can work with 0.5 V supply voltage. The measurement results show that humidity sensor tag achieves excellent linearity, hysteresis and stability performance. The total power-dissipation of the sensor tag is 2.5 μW, resulting in a maximum operating distance of 23 m under 4 W of radiation power of the RFID reader.

  3. Whey protein concentrate storage at elevated temperature and humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dairy processors are finding new export markets for whey protein concentrate (WPC), a byproduct of cheesemaking, but they need to know if full-sized bags of this powder will withstand high temperature and relative humidity (RH) levels during unrefrigerated storage under tropical conditions. To answ...

  4. Statistical analysis of the effects of relative humidity and temperature ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Meteorological data from the Department of Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring (CMSAF), DWD Germany have been used to study and investigate the effect of relative humidity and temperature on refractivity in twenty six locations grouped into for climatic regions aloft Nigeria (Coastal, Guinea savannah, ...

  5. Humidity sensing behaviour of polyaniline/magnesium chromate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The decrease in electrical resistance was observed when the polymer composites were exposed to the broad range of relative humidity (ranging between 20 and 95% RH). This decrease is due to increase in surface electrical conductivity resulting from moisture absorption and due to capillary condensation of water causing ...

  6. Adsorption of moisture on molecular sieve adsorbents at low humidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, V.P.; Ruthven, D.M.

    1984-07-01

    This report summarizes the results and conclusions of a contractor's study on the performance of 4A molecular sieve under very low humidity conditions, e.g., as expected in fusion reactor plants. The results suggest that: (a) very efficient regeneration of the sieve to low residual moisture contents ( 2 O/4A sieve system

  7. Urban-Rural Humidity Contrasts in Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jáuregui, E.; Tejeda, A.

    1997-02-01

    Data from one pair of urban-suburban (Tacubaya and Airport) andone pair of urban-rural (School of Mines and Plan Texcoco) temperature and humidity measuring stations were used to illustrate specific humidity(q) contrasts in Mexico City. Results show a marked seasonal variation of q from around 7.9 g kg-1 during the dry months to 10 g kg-1 in the wet season (May-October) on both urban and suburban sites. The mean monthly contrasts for this pair of stations, albeit small, show that the city air is somewhat drier during the first half of the year. Comparison of urban and rural q on an hourly basis shows that although urban air is more humid at night the reverse is true during the afternoon. Areal distribution of q shows two centres of maximum humidity over the city at night and a corresponding minimum during the afternoon. On average the urban-rural contrasts in q were found to be somewhat smaller than the estimated uncertainty. The above results are in agreement with mid-latitude experience.

  8. Polymer-embedded stannic oxide nanoparticles as humidity sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatamie, Shadie; Dhas, Vivek; Kale, B.B.; Mulla, I.S.; Kale, S.N.

    2009-01-01

    Stannic oxide (SnO 2 ) nanoparticles have been suspended in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix in different PVA:SnO 2 molar ratios ranging from 1:1 to 1:5 using simple chemical route. This suspension was deposited on ceramic substrate and upon drying was carefully detached from the substrate. SnO 2 -embedded self-standing, transparent and flexible thin films were hence synthesized. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques show the rutile tetragonal structure of SnO 2 with particle size ∼ 5 nm. UV-Visible spectroscopy demonstrates the band gap of 3.9 eV, which does not alter when embedded in polymer. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) reveals that the properties of SnO 2 do not modify due to incorporation in the PVA matrix. The structures work as excellent humidity sensors at room temperature. For a critical PVA:SnO 2 molar ratio of 1:3, the resistance changes to five times of magnitude in 92% humidity within fraction of second when compared with resistance at 11% humidity. The sample regains its original resistance almost instantaneously after being removed from humid chamber. Nanodimensions of SnO 2 particles and percolation mechanism related to transport through polymer matrix and water molecule as a carrier has been used to understand the mechanism.

  9. Humidity distribution affected by freely exposed water surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hygum, Morten Arnfeldt; Popok, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    evolution of relative humidity based on statistical rate theory and computational fluid dynamics is developed. In our approach we use short-term steady-state steps to simulate the slowly evolving evaporation in the system. Experiments demonstrate considerably good agreement with the computer modeling...

  10. Stable and Selective Humidity Sensing Using Stacked Black Phosphorus Flakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasaei, Poya; Behranginia, Amirhossein; Foroozan, Tara; Asadi, Mohammad; Kim, Kibum; Khalili-Araghi, Fatemeh; Salehi-Khojin, Amin

    2015-10-27

    Black phosphorus (BP) atomic layers are known to undergo chemical degradation in humid air. Yet in more robust configurations such as films, composites, and embedded structures, BP can potentially be utilized in a large number of practical applications. In this study, we explored the sensing characteristics of BP films and observed an ultrasensitive and selective response toward humid air with a trace-level detection capability and a very minor drift over time. Our experiments show that the drain current of the BP sensor increases by ∼4 orders of magnitude as the relative humidity (RH) varies from 10% to 85%, which ranks it among the highest ever reported values for humidity detection. The mechanistic studies indicate that the operation principle of the BP film sensors is based on the modulation in the leakage ionic current caused by autoionization of water molecules and ionic solvation of the phosphorus oxoacids produced on moist BP surfaces. Our stability tests reveal that the response of the BP film sensors remains nearly unchanged after prolonged exposures (up to 3 months) to ambient conditions. This study opens up the route for utilizing BP stacked films in many potential applications such as energy generation/storage systems, electrocatalysis, and chemical/biosensing.

  11. System analysis of membrane facilitated water generation from air humidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmair, D.; Metz, S.J.; Lange, de H.C.; Steenhoven, van A.A.

    2014-01-01

    The use of water vapor selective membranes can reduce the energy requirement for extracting water out of humid air by more than 50%. We performed a system analysis of a proposed unit, that uses membranes to separate water vapor from other atmospheric gases. This concentrated vapor can then be

  12. Pressure and Relative Humidity Measurement Devices for Mars 2020 Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieta, M.; Genzer, M.; Nikkanen, T.; Haukka, H.; Harri, A.-M.; Polkko, J.; Rodriguez-Manfredi, J. A.

    2017-09-01

    One of the scientific payloads onboard the NASA Mars 2020 rover mission is Mars Environmental Dynamic Analyzer (MEDA): a set of environmental sensors for Mars surface weather measurements. Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) provides a pressure measurement device (MEDA PS) and a relative humidity measurement device (MEDA HS) for MEDA.

  13. Cubic mesoporous Ag@CN: a high performance humidity sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomer, Vijay K; Thangaraj, Nishanthi; Gahlot, Sweta; Kailasam, Kamalakannan

    2016-12-01

    The fabrication of highly responsive, rapid response/recovery and durable relative humidity (%RH) sensors that can precisely monitor humidity levels still remains a considerable challenge for realizing the next generation humidity sensing applications. Herein, we report a remarkably sensitive and rapid %RH sensor having a reversible response using a nanocasting route for synthesizing mesoporous g-CN (commonly known as g-C 3 N 4 ). The 3D replicated cubic mesostructure provides a high surface area thereby increasing the adsorption, transmission of charge carriers and desorption of water molecules across the sensor surfaces. Owing to its unique structure, the mesoporous g-CN functionalized with well dispersed catalytic Ag nanoparticles exhibits excellent sensitivity in the 11-98% RH range while retaining high stability, negligible hysteresis and superior real time %RH detection performances. Compared to conventional resistive sensors based on metal oxides, a rapid response time (3 s) and recovery time (1.4 s) were observed in the 11-98% RH range. Such impressive features originate from the planar morphology of g-CN as well as unique physical affinity and favourable electronic band positions of this material that facilitate water adsorption and charge transportation. Mesoporous g-CN with Ag nanoparticles is demonstrated to provide an effective strategy in designing high performance %RH sensors and show great promise for utilization of mesoporous 2D layered materials in the Internet of Things and next generation humidity sensing applications.

  14. Using relative humidity to predict spotfire probability on prescribed burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Weir

    2007-01-01

    Spotfires have and always will be a problem that burn bosses and fire crews will have to contend with on prescribed burns. Weather factors (temperature, wind speed and relative humidity) are the main variables burn bosses can use to predict and monitor prescribed fire behavior. At the Oklahoma State University Research Range, prescribed burns are conducted during...

  15. A physically based analytical spatial air temperature and humidity model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Endreny, Theodore A.; Nowak, David J.

    2013-09-01

    Spatial variation of urban surface air temperature and humidity influences human thermal comfort, the settling rate of atmospheric pollutants, and plant physiology and growth. Given the lack of observations, we developed a Physically based Analytical Spatial Air Temperature and Humidity (PASATH) model. The PASATH model calculates spatial solar radiation and heat storage based on semiempirical functions and generates spatially distributed estimates based on inputs of topography, land cover, and the weather data measured at a reference site. The model assumes that for all grids under the same mesoscale climate, grid air temperature and humidity are modified by local variation in absorbed solar radiation and the partitioning of sensible and latent heat. The model uses a reference grid site for time series meteorological data and the air temperature and humidity of any other grid can be obtained by solving the heat flux network equations. PASATH was coupled with the USDA iTree-Hydro water balance model to obtain evapotranspiration terms and run from 20 to 29 August 2010 at a 360 m by 360 m grid scale and hourly time step across a 285 km2 watershed including the urban area of Syracuse, NY. PASATH predictions were tested at nine urban weather stations representing variability in urban topography and land cover. The PASATH model predictive efficiency R2 ranged from 0.81 to 0.99 for air temperature and 0.77 to 0.97 for dew point temperature. PASATH is expected to have broad applications on environmental and ecological models.

  16. Effect of Temperature and Relative Humidity on the Growth of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    were used to determine the temperature effect on the growth of H. fulvum. Maximum growth of H. ... The fungus showed maximum growth at 92.5 and 100% relative humidity. .... recommended that fruits and vegetables should be stored at low ...

  17. Influence of relative humidity on tensile and compressive creep of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents an experimental study on the influence of ambient relative humidity on tensile creep of plain concrete amended with Ground Granulated Blast - furnace Slag and compares it with its influence on compressive creep. Tensile and compressive creep tests were carried out on concrete specimens of 34.49 ...

  18. Asimetría en el postcráneo de poblaciones humanas prehispánicas de Pampa y Patagonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béguelin, Marien

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se evaluó el patrón de asimetría bilateral de muestras esqueletales de poblaciones cazadoras-recolectoras de Pampa y Patagonia (n=161 en el marco de una investigación centrada en la variación geográfica de la morfología postcraneal. Se analizaron tanto la presencia como el grado de asimetría observado en los huesos largos de los miembros superiores e inferiores (húmero, radio, fémur, tibia. Se examinó también el dimorfismo sexual y la variación interpoblacional. Los análisis se basaron en los porcentajes direccional y absoluto de asimetría. El primero de ellos considera tanto la magnitud de la asimetría como la lateralidad en tanto el segundo se concentra en la magnitud. Se encontró un patrón general de asimetría en todas las muestras, siendo más marcado en los miembros superiores que en los inferiores, y hacia el lado derecho. Los miembros inferiores evidencian una asimetría muy leve, y el fémur mostró una tendencia hacia la izquierda en todas sus dimensiones (fenómeno conocido como asimetría cruzada. Las asimetrías de longitud son mucho menos pronunciadas que las de diámetros de diáfisis. En todas las muestras los grupos masculinos presentan un grado mayor de asimetría que los femeninos. Se discutirán alternativas en torno a la influencia de distintos factores, a saber sexo, tipo de medida (longitud o diámetro y diferencias interpoblacionales sobre el tipo y grado de asimetría.

  19. Energy use in cropping systems: A regional long-term exploratory analysis of energy allocation and efficiency in the Inland Pampa (Argentina)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraro, Diego Omar

    2012-01-01

    As agricultural system comprises natural processes that are ruled by thermodynamics, the energy utilization is well suited for assessing the sustainability in the management of natural resources. The goals of this paper are 1) to assess the energy use efficiency of the main crops during the 1992–2005 period in Inland Pampa (Argentina); 2) to evaluate the database structure in terms of energy allocation; 3) to assess the changes in technical efficiency using frontier analysis and 4) to identify the best explanatory variables for energy efficiency variability. Results showed an upward trend in productivity per unit area in the crops analyzed (excluding sunflower). Summer soybean and sunflower showed higher energy efficiency values by the end of time series. The main shift in the energy use pattern was the reduction of the energy allocated to tillage. The overall performance of the wheat and soybean crops in the study area appears to be closer to the energy usage pattern shown by the top 5% energy use efficiency crop fields. The exploratory analysis using classification and regression trees (CART) revealed that the energy allocation to tillage; and the crop specie were the attributes that mainly explained the energy efficiency changes. -- Highlights: ► Energy use efficiency (EUE) of main Pampean crops (Argentina) in the 1992–2005 period was analyzed. ► An upward trend in productivity per unit area was observed with the exception of sunflower crop. ► Summer soybean and sunflower showed higher energetic efficiencies by the end of the time series analyzed. ► Average wheat and soybean EUE were closer to the energy usage pattern of the top 5% EUE crop fields. ► Tillage energy and crop specie were the attributes that most strongly explain the EUE changes.

  20. Calculation principles of humid air in a reversed Brayton cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backman, J [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland). Dept. of Energy Technology

    1998-12-31

    The article presents a calculation method for reversed Brayton cycle that uses humid air as working medium. The reversed Brayton cycle can be employed as an air dryer, a heat pump or a refrigerating machine. In this research the use of humid air as a working fluid has an environmental advantage, as well. In this method especially the expansion process in the turbine is important because of the condensation of the water vapour in the humid air. This physical phenomena can have significant effects on the level of performance of the application. The expansion process differs physically from the compression process, when the water vapour in the humid air begins to condensate. In the thermodynamic equilibrium of the flow, the water vapour pressure in humid air cannot exceed the pressure of saturated water vapour in corresponding temperature. Expansion calculation during operation around the saturation zone is based on a quasistatic expansion, in which the system after the turbine is in thermodynamical equilibrium. The state parameters are at every moment defined by the equation of state, and there is no supercooling in the vapour. Following simplifications are used in the calculations: The system is assumed to be adiabatic. This means that there is no heat transfer to the surroundings. This is a common practice, when the temperature differences are moderate as here; The power of the cooling is omitted. The cooling construction is very dependent on the machine and the distribution of the losses; The flow is assumed to be one-dimensional, steady-state and homogenous. The water vapour condensing in the turbine can cause errors, but the errors are mainly included in the efficiency calculation. (author) 11 refs.

  1. Coexistence of Dunes and Humid Conditions at Titan's Tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radebaugh, Jani; Lorenz, R. D.; Lunine, J. I.; Kirk, R. L.; Ori, G. G.; Farr, T. G.; Malaska, M.; Le Gall, A.; Liu, Z. Y. C.; Encrenaz, P. J.; Paillou, P.; Hayes, A.; Lopes, R. M. C.; Turtle, E. P.; Wall, S. D.; Stofan, E. R.; Wood, C. A.; Cassini RADAR Team

    2012-10-01

    At Titan's equatorial latitudes there are tens of thousands of dunes, a landform typical of desert environments where sand does not become anchored by vegetation or fluids. Model climate simulations predict generally dry conditions at the equator and humid conditions near the poles of Titan, where lakes of methane/ethane are found. However, moderate relative methane humidity was observed at the Huygens landing site, recent rainfall was seen by Cassini ISS near the Belet Sand Sea, and a putative transient lake in Shangri-La was observed by Cassini VIMS, all of which indicate abundant fluids may be present, at least periodically, at Titan's equatorial latitudes. Terrestrial observations and studies demonstrate dunes can exist and migrate in conditions of high humidity. Active dunes are found in humid climates, indicating the movement of sand is not always prohibited by the presence of fluids. Sand mobility is related to precipitation, evaporation and wind speed and direction. If dune surfaces become wetted by rainfall or rising subsurface fluids, they can become immobilized. However, winds can act to dry the uppermost layers, freeing sands for saltation and enabling dune migration in wet conditions. Active dunes are found in tropical NE Brazil and NE Australia, where there are alternating dry and wet periods, a condition possible for Titan's tropics. Rising and falling water levels lead to the alteration of dune forms, mainly from being anchored by vegetation, but also from cementation by carbonates or clays. Studies of Titan's dunes, which could undergo anchoring of organic sediments by hydrocarbon fluids, could inform the relative strength of vegetation vs. cementation at humid dune regions on Earth. Furthermore, a comprehensive survey of dune morphologies near regions deemed low by SARTopo and stereo, where liquids may collect in wet conditions, could reveal if bodies of liquid have recently existed at Titan's tropics.

  2. Calculation principles of humid air in a reversed Brayton cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backman, J. [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland). Dept. of Energy Technology

    1997-12-31

    The article presents a calculation method for reversed Brayton cycle that uses humid air as working medium. The reversed Brayton cycle can be employed as an air dryer, a heat pump or a refrigerating machine. In this research the use of humid air as a working fluid has an environmental advantage, as well. In this method especially the expansion process in the turbine is important because of the condensation of the water vapour in the humid air. This physical phenomena can have significant effects on the level of performance of the application. The expansion process differs physically from the compression process, when the water vapour in the humid air begins to condensate. In the thermodynamic equilibrium of the flow, the water vapour pressure in humid air cannot exceed the pressure of saturated water vapour in corresponding temperature. Expansion calculation during operation around the saturation zone is based on a quasistatic expansion, in which the system after the turbine is in thermodynamical equilibrium. The state parameters are at every moment defined by the equation of state, and there is no supercooling in the vapour. Following simplifications are used in the calculations: The system is assumed to be adiabatic. This means that there is no heat transfer to the surroundings. This is a common practice, when the temperature differences are moderate as here; The power of the cooling is omitted. The cooling construction is very dependent on the machine and the distribution of the losses; The flow is assumed to be one-dimensional, steady-state and homogenous. The water vapour condensing in the turbine can cause errors, but the errors are mainly included in the efficiency calculation. (author) 11 refs.

  3. Campylobacter spp.: prevalencia y caracterización feno-genotípica de aislamientos de pacientes con diarrea y de sus mascotas en la provincia de La Pampa, Argentina Campylobacter spp.: prevalence and pheno-genotypic characterization of isolates recovered from patients suffering from diarrhea and their pets in La Pampa Province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L Tamborini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Se investigó la prevalencia de Campylobacter spp. en 327 pacientes con diarrea y en 36 animales (perros, gatos y pollos que convivían con pacientes en los que se detectó este patógeno; el estudio se llevó a cabo en Santa Rosa, La Pampa, Argentina. Se aisló Campylobacter spp. en 50/327 pacientes y en 12/36 animales, Campylobacter jejuni fue la especie más frecuente. Se detectó resistencia a ciprofoxacina (65 % y a tetraciclina (32 % en una selección de 35 aislamientos de origen humano. En el análisis por electroforesis de campo pulsado de 13 aislamientos de C. jejuni se identificaron siete subtipos genéticos. Dos subtipos agruparon aislamientos de pacientes y de sus respectivos perros, y un tercer subtipo agrupó 1 aislamiento humano y 2 de pollos de ese paciente. Si bien las aves son reconocidas como el principal reservorio, es importante fortalecer la vigilancia de Campylobacter spp. en mascotas, las cuales pueden ser portadores asintomáticos del patógeno.The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was investigated in 327 patients suffering from diarrhea and in 36 animals (dogs, cats and chickens owned by the patients that presented infection by Campylobacter in Santa Rosa, La Pampa, Argentina. Campylobacter spp. was isolated in 50/327 patients and in 12/36 animals, being Campylobacter jejuni the most common species. Resistance to ciprofoxacin (65 % and tetracycline (32 % was found among 35 isolates of human origin studied. Seven genetic subtypes were observed among 13 C. jejuni isolates by pulsed feld gel electrophoresis. Two subtypes grouped isolates belonging to patients and their respective dogs whereas another subtype grouped one isolate of human origin and two isolates from the patient´s chickens. The results of this investigation highlight the need to strengthen surveillance of Campylobacter spp. not only in poultry, which is recognized as the main reservoir, but also in pets, which were shown to be asymptomatic carriers of the

  4. Movimiento superficial de contaminantes biológicos de origen ganadero en la red de drenaje de una cuenca de Pampa Ondulada Surface movement of cattle-borne biological contaminants in the drainage network of a basin of the Rolling Pampas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celio I Chagas

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la concentración de indicadores de contaminación biológica en pequeñas depresiones ubicadas en vías de escurrimiento que atraviesan tierras dedicadas a la ganadería donde se acumulan aguas y sedimentos generados por la actividad agropecuaria de la Pampa Ondulada argentina. La carga animal de los lotes ubicados en la cuenca del Tala donde se encontraban las depresiones, se relacionó estrechamente con su carga de microorganismos. La intensidad de las lluvias previas al muestreo (en el caso de los coliformes totales y el lapso de tiempo entre el último escurrimiento significativo y el muestreo (para enterococos y estreptococos fecales resultaron variables sensibles para predecir la dinámica de la concentración de dichos grupos de microorganismos en los sitios de acumulación. Los resultados obtenidos corroboran la estrecha asociación que existe entre los procesos de escurrimiento y erosión hídrica y la contaminación biológica de las aguas acumuladas en las depresiones estudiadas. Estos elementos, sumados a los resultados de trabajos previos realizados en la región, permitieron elaborar un modelo conceptual sencillo de entradas y salidas de potenciales contaminantes físicos y biológicos en las depresiones estudiadas que podrá servir de base para el diseño de alertas tempranas de contaminación de los cursos de agua a nivel regional.Runoff water and sediments from crop and cattle production fields of the Rolling Pampas accumulate in small depressions along the drainage network. We studied the concentration of biological contamination indicators in these small sinks located in bottomlands devoted to cattle production of the Tala River basin. The stocking rate was closely related to the concentration of microorganisms in the depressions. The intensity of rainfall events previous to each sampling date and the time between the last significant runoff event and each sampling date proved to be sensible variables for

  5. The effect of humidity on annealing of polymer optical fibre bragg gratings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woyessa, Getinet; Nielsen, Kristian; Bang, Ole

    2015-01-01

    The effect of humidity on annealing of PMMA based microstructured polymer optical fiber (mPOF) Bragg gratings is studied. Polymer optical fibers (POFs) are annealed in order to release stress formed during the fabrication process. Un-annealed fibers will have high hysteresis and low sensitivity...... to humidity, particularly when operated at high temperature. Typically annealing of PMMA POFs is done at 80oC in an oven with no humidity control and therefor at low humidity. The response to humidity of PMMA FBGs annealed at different levels of humidity at the same temperature has also been studied. PMMA...

  6. Regional and site-specific absolute humidity data for use in tritium dose calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etnier, E.L.

    1980-01-01

    Due to the potential variability in average absolute humidity over the continental U.S., and the dependence of atmospheric 3 H specific activity on absolute humidity, availability of regional absolute humidity data is of value in estimating the radiological significance of 3 H releases. Most climatological data are in the form of relative humidity, which must be converted to absolute humidity for dose calculations. Absolute humidity was calculated for 218 points across the U.S., using the 1977 annual summary of U.S. Climatological Data, and is given in a table. Mean regional values are shown on a map. (author)

  7. Highly Sensitive and Fast Response Colorimetric Humidity Sensors Based on Graphene Oxides Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Hong; Liu, Yan Jun; Wang, FuKe; He, Chaobin

    2015-09-16

    Uniform graphene oxide (GO) film for optical humidity sensing was fabricated by dip-coating technique. The resulting GO thin film shows linear optical shifts in the visible range with increase of humidity in the whole relative humidity range (from dry state to 98%). Moreover, GO films exhibit ultrafast sensing to moisture within 250 ms because of the unique atomic thinness and superpermeability of GO sheets. The humidity sensing mechanism was investigated using XRD and computer simulation. The ultrasensitive humidity colorimetric properties of GOs film may enable many potential applications such as disposable humidity sensors for packaging, health, and environmental monitoring.

  8. A multi-channel humidity control system based on LabVIEW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Aiwu; Xie Yuguang; Liu Hongbang; Liu Yingbiao; Cai Xiao; Yu Boxiang; Lu Junguang; Zhou Li

    2011-01-01

    A real time multi-channel humidity control system was designed based on LabVIEW, using the dry air branch of BESⅢ drying system. The hardware of this control system consist of mini humidity and temperature sensors, intelligent collection module, switch quantity controller and electromagnetic valves. The humidity can be controlled at arbitrary value from air humidity to 3% with accuracy better than 2%. Multi microenvironment with different humidity can be easily controlled and monitored in real time by this system. It can also be extended to hybrid control of multi channel humidity and temperature. (authors)

  9. Change in radiosensitivity of seeds depending on their humidity data and methods of moistening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savin, B.N.; Labrada, A.R.

    1980-01-01

    Investigated was the change in readiosensitivity of maize seeds depending on their humidity, method of moistening and initial humidity before moistening. Maize seeds of Krasnodarskaya 303 TV breed were irradiated with γ-rays. It was shown that seeds of the same humidity had different radiosensitivity depending on the method of moistening. When moistening seeds in water, they had the highest radiostability at 20-24% humidity but when moistening them in exsiccator, this index was the highest at 15% humidity. Along with the method of moistening initial humidity before moistening also effected the radiosensitivity. The necessity to take this factor into account during presowing irradiation was noted

  10. Bacterial polyextremotolerant bioemulsifiers from arid soils improve water retention capacity and humidity uptake in sandy soil

    KAUST Repository

    Raddadi, Noura; Giacomucci, Lucia; Marasco, Ramona; Daffonchio, Daniele; Cherif, Ameur; Fava, Fabio

    2018-01-01

    Water stress is a critical issue for plant growth in arid sandy soils. Here, we aimed to select bacteria producing polyextremotolerant surface-active compounds capable of improving water retention and humidity uptake in sandy soils.From Tunisian desert and saline systems, we selected eleven isolates able to highly emulsify different organic solvents. The bioemulsifying activities were stable with 30% NaCl, at 4 and 120 °C and in a pH range 4-12. Applications to a sandy soil of the partially purified surface-active compounds improved soil water retention up to 314.3% compared to untreated soil. Similarly, after 36 h of incubation, the humidity uptake rate of treated sandy soil was up to 607.7% higher than untreated controls.Overall, results revealed that polyextremotolerant bioemulsifiers of bacteria from arid and desert soils represent potential sources to develop new natural soil-wetting agents for improving water retention in arid soils.

  11. Improvement of humidity resistance of water soluble core by precipitation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Long

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Water soluble core has been widely used in manufacturing complex metal components with hollow configurations or internal channels; however, the soluble core can absorb water easily from the air at room temperature. To improve the humidity resistance of the water soluble core and optimize the process parameters applied in manufacturing of the water soluble core, a precipitation method and a two-level-three-full factorial central composite design were used, respectively. The properties of the cores treated by the precipitation method were compared with that without any treatment. Through a systematical study by means of both an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM and an energy dispersive X-ray (EDX analyzer, the results indicate that the hygroscopicity can be reduced by 20% and the obtained optimal process conditions for three critical control factors affecting the hygroscopicity are 0.2 g·mL-1 calcium chloride concentration, 4% water concentration and 0 min ignition time. The porous surface coated by calcium chloride and the high humidity resistance products generated in the precipitation reaction between calcium chloride and potassium carbonate may contribute to the lower hygroscopicity.

  12. Bacterial polyextremotolerant bioemulsifiers from arid soils improve water retention capacity and humidity uptake in sandy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raddadi, Noura; Giacomucci, Lucia; Marasco, Ramona; Daffonchio, Daniele; Cherif, Ameur; Fava, Fabio

    2018-05-31

    Water stress is a critical issue for plant growth in arid sandy soils. Here, we aimed to select bacteria producing polyextremotolerant surface-active compounds capable of improving water retention and humidity uptake in sandy soils. From Tunisian desert and saline systems, we selected eleven isolates able to highly emulsify different organic solvents. The bioemulsifying activities were stable with 30% NaCl, at 4 and 120 °C and in a pH range 4-12. Applications to a sandy soil of the partially purified surface-active compounds improved soil water retention up to 314.3% compared to untreated soil. Similarly, after 36 h of incubation, the humidity uptake rate of treated sandy soil was up to 607.7% higher than untreated controls. Overall, results revealed that polyextremotolerant bioemulsifiers of bacteria from arid and desert soils represent potential sources to develop new natural soil-wetting agents for improving water retention in arid soils.

  13. Bacterial polyextremotolerant bioemulsifiers from arid soils improve water retention capacity and humidity uptake in sandy soil

    KAUST Repository

    Raddadi, Noura

    2018-05-31

    Water stress is a critical issue for plant growth in arid sandy soils. Here, we aimed to select bacteria producing polyextremotolerant surface-active compounds capable of improving water retention and humidity uptake in sandy soils.From Tunisian desert and saline systems, we selected eleven isolates able to highly emulsify different organic solvents. The bioemulsifying activities were stable with 30% NaCl, at 4 and 120 °C and in a pH range 4-12. Applications to a sandy soil of the partially purified surface-active compounds improved soil water retention up to 314.3% compared to untreated soil. Similarly, after 36 h of incubation, the humidity uptake rate of treated sandy soil was up to 607.7% higher than untreated controls.Overall, results revealed that polyextremotolerant bioemulsifiers of bacteria from arid and desert soils represent potential sources to develop new natural soil-wetting agents for improving water retention in arid soils.

  14. Humidity: A review and primer on atmospheric moisture and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Robert E; McGregor, Glenn R; Enfield, Kyle B

    2016-01-01

    Research examining associations between weather and human health frequently includes the effects of atmospheric humidity. A large number of humidity variables have been developed for numerous purposes, but little guidance is available to health researchers regarding appropriate variable selection. We examine a suite of commonly used humidity variables and summarize both the medical and biometeorological literature on associations between humidity and human health. As an example of the importance of humidity variable selection, we correlate numerous hourly humidity variables to daily respiratory syncytial virus isolates in Singapore from 1992 to 1994. Most water-vapor mass based variables (specific humidity, absolute humidity, mixing ratio, dewpoint temperature, vapor pressure) exhibit comparable correlations. Variables that include a thermal component (relative humidity, dewpoint depression, saturation vapor pressure) exhibit strong diurnality and seasonality. Humidity variable selection must be dictated by the underlying research question. Despite being the most commonly used humidity variable, relative humidity should be used sparingly and avoided in cases when the proximity to saturation is not medically relevant. Care must be taken in averaging certain humidity variables daily or seasonally to avoid statistical biasing associated with variables that are inherently diurnal through their relationship to temperature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of humidity on the quantitative determination of HCl, NOx, H2S, and NH3 using a three-stage filter pack with ion chromatography analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borek, T.T.; Wu, C.F.

    1993-01-01

    Low-level transuranic (TRU) waste to be stored underground at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) has the potential to generate low levels of reactive gases such as HCl, NO x H 2 S, and NH 3 through radiological, biological, and chemical (corrosion) processes. Because of the low levels of gas expected to be produced (< 1 ppM), a method was developed which includes the simultaneous sampling of gases using chemically treated filter papers and analysis of the extracted ions by ion chromatography. To determine the effects of humidification on the collection and determination of reactive gases, a humidification system was added to the trace gas generator system to produce a relative humidity approximately equal to that in the Humid Test Bin. This humidification system consisted of gas washing bottles filled with saturated brine (NaCl) that has been shown to produce a relative humidity of approximately 75% in the temperature range of 68 degree F to 86 degree

  16. Embedded DAQ System Design for Temperature and Humidity Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarique Rafique Memon

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we have proposed a cost effective DAQ (Data Acquisition system design useful for local industries by using user friendly LABVIEW (Laboratory Virtual Instrumentation Electronic Workbench. The proposed system can measure and control different industrial parameters which can be presented in graphical icon format. The system design is proposed for 8-channels, whereas tested and recorded for two parameters i.e. temperature and RH (Relative Humidity. Both parameters are set as per upper and lower limits and controlled using relays. Embedded system is developed using standard microcontroller to acquire and process the analog data and plug-in for further processing using serial interface with PC using LABVIEW. The designed system is capable of monitoring and recording the corresponding linkage between temperature and humidity in industrial unit's and indicates the abnormalities within the process and control those abnormalities through relays

  17. Toward a New Generation of Photonic Humidity Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolpakov, Stanislav A.; Gordon, Neil T.; Mou, Chengbo; Zhou, Kaiming

    2014-01-01

    This review offers new perspectives on the subject and highlights an area in need of further research. It includes an analysis of current scientific literature mainly covering the last decade and examines the trends in the development of electronic, acoustic and optical-fiber humidity sensors over this period. The major findings indicate that a new generation of sensor technology based on optical fibers is emerging. The current trends suggest that electronic humidity sensors could soon be replaced by sensors that are based on photonic structures. Recent scientific advances are expected to allow dedicated systems to avoid the relatively high price of interrogation modules that is currently a major disadvantage of fiber-based sensors. PMID:24577524

  18. Indoor swimming pools. Humidity caused problems and suggested solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    Reports have been received from across Canada on premature deterioration and other problems of indoor swimming pool buildings. This technical paper has been prepared to assist pool managers to solve these problems, which typically include leaking roofs, condensation on inside walls, peeling paint, efflorescence, rusting of metal elements, deterioration of concrete block structures, and high costs for pool heating. An effective insulation and vapor barrier system for a swimming pool roof is described, and the high relative humidity of the typical pool building is discussed as the primary cause of most problems. Proper sealing to cut down air infiltration is recommended, along with proper maintenance and painting. High energy costs are often due to low insulation values and to excessive ventilation used for decreasing the humidity. By using dehumidifiers capable of heat recovery, and by placing an insulating blanket on the pool after operating hours, it is shown that substantial cost savings are possible. 10 figs.

  19. Flight prototype CO2 and humidity control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudy, K. M.

    1979-01-01

    A regenerable CO2 and humidity control system is presently being developed for potential use on shuttle as an alternative to the baseline lithium hydroxide system. The system utilizes a sorbent material (designated HS-C) to adsorb CO2 and the latent heat load from the cabin atmosphere and desorb the CO2 and water vapor overboard when exposed to a space vacuum, thus reducing the overall vehicle heat rejection load. Continuous operation is achieved by utilizing two beds which are alternatively cycled between adsorption and desorption. The HS-C material process was verified. Design concepts for the auxiliary components for the HS-C prototype system were generated. Performance testing verified system effectiveness in controlling CO2 partial pressure and humidity.

  20. Hygroscopical behaviour of basic electrodes in a tropical humid climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valencia, E.; Galeano, N.J.

    1993-01-01

    The study of the wetting kynetics of basic electrodes in a tropical humid climate is very important since the water contained in them is the main source for the atomic hydrogen absorbed by the fused metal during electric arc welding. It is also the origin of multiple defects in the added metal. A calculating method is established for evaluating the kynetics of wetness incorporation to the coating of basic electrodes exposed to a humid tropical climate. The method is based on the Fick's diffusion equation for both adequate system geometry and boundary conditions, which allows the evaluation of the effective diffusion coefficient and critical times of exposure to the different environments, along with the packing and storage conditions of electrodes. (Author)

  1. Embedded DAQ System Design for Temperature and Humidity Measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, T.R.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we have proposed a cost effective DAQ (Data Acquisition) system design useful for local industries by using user friendly LABVIEW (Laboratory Virtual Instrumentation Electronic Workbench). The proposed system can measure and control different industrial parameters which can be presented in graphical icon format. The system design is proposed for 8-channels, whereas tested and recorded for two parameters i.e. temperature and RH (Relative Humidity). Both parameters are set as per upper and lower limits and controlled using relays. Embedded system is developed using standard microcontroller to acquire and process the analog data and plug-in for further processing using serial interface with PC using LABVIEW. The designed system is capable of monitoring and recording the corresponding linkage between temperature and humidity in industrial unit's and indicates the abnormalities within the process and control those abnormalities through relays. (author)

  2. Angle-tip Fiber Probe as Humidity Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pabitra NATH

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I present a simple fiber optic relative humidity sensor (FORHS using an angled-tip multimode optical fiber. The sensing region is fabricated by coating moisture sensitive Cobalt Chloride (CoCl2 doped polyvinyl alcohol (PVA film on the surface of fiber optic tip. Light signal introducing from flat-end of the fiber is back-reflected at the fiber tip-air interface by the effect of total internal refection. The change of relative humidity (RH in the outstanding medium affects of evanescent field absorption at the fiber tip-sensing film interface thus, modulates the back-reflected signal. With the present sensing investigation, RH ranging from 5 % to 95 % can be measured with high degree of repeatability and has a fast response time of about 2 seconds.

  3. A Smart Gas Sensor Insensitive to Humidity and Temperature Variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajmirzaheydarali, Mohammadreza; Ghafarinia, Vahid

    2011-01-01

    The accuracy of the quantitative sensing of volatile organic compounds by chemoresistive gas sensors suffers from the fluctuations in the background atmospheric conditions. This is caused by the drift-like terms introduced in the responses by these instabilities, which should be identified and compensated. Here, a mathematical model is presented for a specific chemoresistive gas sensor, which facilitates these identification and compensation processes. The resistive gas sensor was considered as a multi-input-single-output system. Along with the steady state value of the measured sensor resistance, the ambient humidity and temperature are the inputs to the system, while the concentration level of the target gas is the output. The parameters of the model were calculated based on the experimental database. The model was simulated by the utilization of an artificial neural network. This was connected to the sensor and could deliver the correct contamination level upon receiving the measured gas response, ambient humidity and temperature.

  4. Strontium-Doped Hematite as a Possible Humidity Sensing Material for Soil Water Content Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Grignani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to study the sensing behavior of Sr-doped hematite for soil water content measurement. The material was prepared by solid state reaction from commercial hematite and strontium carbonate heat treated at 900 °C. X-Ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and mercury intrusion porosimetry were used for microstructural characterization of the synthesized powder. Sensors were then prepared by uniaxially pressing and by screen-printing, on an alumina substrate, the prepared powder and subsequent firing in the 800–1,000 °C range. These sensors were first tested in a laboratory apparatus under humid air and then in an homogenized soil and finally in field. The results evidenced that the screen printed film was able to give a response for a soil matric potential from about 570 kPa, that is to say well below the wilting point in the used soil.

  5. Strontium-doped hematite as a possible humidity sensing material for soil water content determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulliani, Jean-Marc; Baroni, Chiara; Zavattaro, Laura; Grignani, Carlo

    2013-09-10

    The aim of this work is to study the sensing behavior of Sr-doped hematite for soil water content measurement. The material was prepared by solid state reaction from commercial hematite and strontium carbonate heat treated at 900 °C. X-Ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and mercury intrusion porosimetry were used for microstructural characterization of the synthesized powder. Sensors were then prepared by uniaxially pressing and by screen-printing, on an alumina substrate, the prepared powder and subsequent firing in the 800-1,000 °C range. These sensors were first tested in a laboratory apparatus under humid air and then in an homogenized soil and finally in field. The results evidenced that the screen printed film was able to give a response for a soil matric potential from about 570 kPa, that is to say well below the wilting point in the used soil.

  6. Combining the Converse Humidity/Resistance Response Behaviors of RGO Films for Flexible Logic Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Tai, Yanlong; Bera, Tushar Kanti; Lubineau, Gilles; Yang, Zhen-Guo

    2017-01-01

    Carbon nanomaterials have excellent humidity sensing performance. Here, we demonstrate that reduced-graphene-oxide- (rGO) based conductive films with different thermal reduction times have gradient and invertible humidity/electrical resistance

  7. Human-Finger Electronics Based on Opposing Humidity-Resistance Responses in Carbon Nanofilms

    KAUST Repository

    Tai, Yanlong; Lubineau, Gilles

    2017-01-01

    Carbon nanomaterials have excellent humidity sensing properties. Here, it is demonstrated that multiwalled carbon-nanotube (MWCNT)- and reduced-graphene-oxide (rGO)-based conductive films have opposite humidity/electrical resistance responses

  8. Retrieval of relative humidity from CSIR-NLC mobile LIDAR backscatter measurements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tesfaye, M

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available data was collected over 23 hours. The above data sets were used to determine the retrieved relative humidity and compared with Irene (near to Pretoria) weather balloon humidity measurements. The results of the comparative study are presented...

  9. The influence of humidity on strengths and durability of light guides fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimov, S.N.; Kuksenko, V.S.; Sultonov, U.; Abdumanonov, A.; Shamsidinov, M.I.

    1993-01-01

    Humidity influence on durability and light water durability fibres is studied are studied in this article. Humidity energy under influence of process destruction decreases activity, durability and durability decreases is shown

  10. Remote monitor system of temperature and humidity based on internet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Ting; Fang Fang; Zeng Zhijie

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces the system architecture and implement details of the remote and realtime monitor system of temperature and humidity. In this design, NiosII soft CPU core and peripheral's IP core are embedded in FPGA, while a MicroC/OS2 real-time operating system and lightweight IP protocol stack are porting thereon, to achieve a open system which hardware and software are all can be reconfigure. (authors)

  11. Energy efficient air inlet humidity control; Energiezuinige inblaasvochtregeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gielen, J.H. [C Point, DLV Plant, Horst (Netherlands)

    2005-03-15

    This project report describes the results of research conducted on the control of the inlet, humidification and dehumidification, based on the air inlet humidity rate. The project was carried out at a mushroom cultivation business in Heijen, the Netherlands [Dutch] Deze projectrapportage geeft de resultaten van het onderzoek naar het regelen van de luchtklep, bevochtiging en ontvochtiging, op basis van het inblaasvochtgehalte. Het project werd uitgevoerd op een champignonkwekerij in Heijen.

  12. Why alite stops hydrating below 80% relative humidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flatt, Robert J.; Scherer, George W.; Bullard, Jeffrey W.

    2011-01-01

    It has been observed that the hydration of cement paste stops when the relative humidity drops below about 80%. A thermodynamic analysis shows that the capillary pressure exerted at that RH shifts the solubility of tricalcium silicate, so that it is in equilibrium with water. This is a reflection of the chemical shrinkage in this system: according to Le Chatelier's principle, since the volume of the products is less than that of the reactants, a negative (capillary) pressure opposes the reaction.

  13. An active radon sampling device for high humidity places

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legarda, F. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Fluid Mechanics, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Alameda Urquijo s/n 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Idoeta, R., E-mail: raquel.idoeta@ehu.e [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Fluid Mechanics, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Alameda Urquijo s/n 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Alegria, N.; Herranz, M. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Fluid Mechanics, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Alameda Urquijo s/n 48013 Bilbao (Spain)

    2010-01-15

    An active radon measurement device has been developed to be used in workplaces with a relative humidity of 100% for spot measurements of radon concentration. A mathematical model based on the convective-diffusive transport equation is used in the design of this system, which has been used to measure the radon concentration in the Pozalagua cave (Biscay, at Northern of Spain). From the obtained radon values the public and workers doses have been obtained.

  14. Integrated CMOS dew point sensors for relative humidity measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savalli, Nicolo; Baglio, Salvatore; Castorina, Salvatore; Sacco, Vincenzo; Tringali, Cristina

    2004-07-01

    This work deals with the development of integrated relative humidity dew point sensors realized by adopting standard CMOS technology for applications in various fields. The proposed system is composed by a suspended plate that is cooled by exploiting integrated Peltier cells. The cold junctions of the cells have been spread over the plate surface to improve the homogeneity of the temperature distribution over its surface, where cooling will cause the water condensation. The temperature at which water drops occur, named dew point temperature, is a function of the air humidity. Measurement of such dew point temperature and the ambient temperature allows to know the relative humidity. The detection of water drops is achieved by adopting a capacitive sensing strategy realized by interdigited fixed combs, composed by the upper layer of the adopted process. Such a capacitive sensor, together with its conditioning circuit, drives a trigger that stops the cooling of the plate and enables the reading of the dew point temperature. Temperature measurements are achieved by means of suitably integrated thermocouples. The analytical model of the proposed system has been developed and has been used to design a prototype device and to estimate its performances. In such a prototype, the thermoelectric cooler is composed by 56 Peltier cells, made by metal 1/poly 1 junctions. The plate has a square shape with 200 μm side, and it is realized by exploiting the oxide layers. Starting from the ambient temperature a temperature variation of ΔT = 15 K can be reached in 10 ms thus allowing to measure a relative humidity greater than 40%.

  15. Compact Buried Ducts in a Hot-Humid Climate House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallay, Dave [Home Innovation Research Labs, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2016-01-07

    "9A system of compact, buried ducts provides a high-performance and cost-effective solution for delivering conditioned air throughout the building. This report outlines research activities that are expected to facilitate adoption of compact buried duct systems by builders. The results of this research would be scalable to many new house designs in most climates and markets, leading to wider industry acceptance and building code and energy program approval. The primary research question with buried ducts is potential condensation at the outer jacket of the duct insulation in humid climates during the cooling season. Current best practices for buried ducts rely on encapsulating the insulated ducts with closed-cell spray polyurethane foam insulation to control condensation and improve air sealing. The encapsulated buried duct concept has been analyzed and shown to be effective in hot-humid climates. The purpose of this project is to develop an alternative buried duct system that performs effectively as ducts in conditioned space - durable, energy efficient, and cost-effective - in a hot-humid climate (IECC warm-humid climate zone 3A) with three goals that distinguish this project: 1) Evaluation of design criteria for buried ducts that use common materials and do not rely on encapsulation using spray foam or disrupt traditional work sequences; 2) Establishing design criteria for compact ducts and incorporate those with the buried duct criteria to further reduce energy losses and control installed costs; 3) Developing HVAC design guidance for performing accurate heating and cooling load calculations for compact buried ducts.

  16. Effect of Temperature and Relative Humidity on the Growth of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of temperature and relative humidity on the growth of Helminthosporium fulvum were investigated. Various temperature regimes of 10oC, 15oC, 20oC, 25oC, 30oC, 35oC and 40¢ªC were used to determine the temperature effect on the growth of H. fulvum. Maximum growth of H. fulvum was obtained at 25¢ªC ...

  17. Impact of Ambient Humidity on Child Health: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jinghong; Sun, Yunzong; Lu, Yaogui; Li, Liping

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives Changes in relative humidity, along with other meteorological factors, accompany ongoing climate change and play a significant role in weather-related health outcomes, particularly among children. The purpose of this review is to improve our understanding of the relationship between ambient humidity and child health, and to propose directions for future research. Methods A comprehensive search of electronic databases (PubMed, Medline, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, OvidSP and EBSCO host) and review of reference lists, to supplement relevant studies, were conducted in March 2013. All identified records were selected based on explicit inclusion criteria. We extracted data from the included studies using a pre-designed data extraction form, and then performed a quality assessment. Various heterogeneities precluded a formal quantitative meta-analysis, therefore, evidence was compiled using descriptive summaries. Results Out of a total of 3797 identified records, 37 papers were selected for inclusion in this review. Among the 37 studies, 35% were focused on allergic diseases and 32% on respiratory system diseases. Quality assessment revealed 78% of the studies had reporting quality scores above 70%, and all findings demonstrated that ambient humidity generally plays an important role in the incidence and prevalence of climate-sensitive diseases among children. Conclusions With climate change, there is a significant impact of ambient humidity on child health, especially for climate-sensitive infectious diseases, diarrhoeal diseases, respiratory system diseases, and pediatric allergic diseases. However, some inconsistencies in the direction and magnitude of the effects are observed. PMID:25503413

  18. Relative humidity measurements with thermocouple psychrometer and capacitance sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Naihsien.

    1991-01-01

    The relative humidity is one of the important hydrological parameters affecting waste package performance. Water potential of a system is defined as the amount of work required to reversibly and isothermally move an infinitesimal quantity of water from a pool of pure water to that system at the same elevation. The thermocouple psychrometer, which acts as a wet-dry bulb instrument based on the Peltier effect, is used to measure water potential. The thermocouple psychrometer works only for relative humidity greater than 94 percent. Other sensors must be used for drier conditions. Hence, the author also uses a Vaisala Humicap, which measures the capacitance change due to relative humidity change. The operation range of the Humicap (Model HMP 135Y) is from 0 to 100 percent relative humidity and up to 160C (320F) in temperature. A psychrometer has three thermocouple junctions. Two copper-constantan junctions serve as reference temperature junctions and the constantan-chromel junction is the sensing junction. Current is passed through the thermocouple causing cooling of the sensing junction by the Peltier effect. When the temperature of the junction is below the dew point, water will condense upon the junction from the air. The Peltier current is discontinued and the thermocouple output is recorded as the temperature of the thermocouple returns to ambient. The temperature changes rapidly toward the ambient temperature until it reaches the wet bulb depression temperature. At this point, evaporation of the water from the junction produces a cooling effect upon the junction that offsets the heat absorbed from the ambient surroundings. This continues until the water is depleted and the thermocouple temperature returns to the ambient temperature (Briscoe, 1984). The datalogger starts to take data roughly at the wet bulb depression temperature

  19. Humidity Buildup in Electronic Enclosures Exposed to Constant Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conseil, Helene; Staliulionis, Zygimantas; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl

    2017-01-01

    Electronic components and devices are exposed to a wide variety of climatic conditions, therefore the protection of electronic devices from humidity is becoming a critical factor in the system design. The ingress of moisture into typical electronic enclosures has been studied with defined paramet....... The moisture buildup inside the enclosure has been simulated using an equivalent RC circuit consisting of variables like controlled resistors and capacitors to describe the diffusivity, permeability, and storage in polymers....

  20. Cross-Sensitivity Of Aethalometer Measurements To Relative Humidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannemann, A.; Baltensperger, U.; Weingartner, E.

    2005-03-01

    Absorptive light reduction by atmospheric aerosols is important with respect to their climate forcing. An instrument to measure light absorption is the aethalometer, which is routinely used to measure the attenuation of light transmitted through aerosol-laden fibre filters. Measurements have shown that the condensable gases require a correction for artefacts. We present the first corrections for hydrophobic Palas soot-laden filters for the whole humidity range, enhancing the accuracy of aethalometer datasets. (author)

  1. Performance Evaluation of a Hot-Humid Climate Community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osser, R.; Kerrigan, P.

    2012-02-01

    Project Home Again is a development in New Orleans, LA created to provide new homes to victims of Hurricane Katrina. Building Science Corporation acted as a consultant for the project, advocating design strategies for durability, flood resistance, occupant comfort, and low energy use while maintaining cost effectiveness. These techniques include the use of high density spray foam insulation, LoE3 glazing, and supplemental dehumidification to maintain comfortable humidity levels without unnecessary cooling.

  2. SAW Humidity Sensor Sensitivity Enhancement via Electrospraying of Silver Nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Sayar Irani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this research, we investigated the influence of the surface coatings of silver nanowires on the sensitivity of surface acoustic wave (SAW humidity sensors. Silver nanowires, with poly(vinylpyrrolidone (PVP, which is a hydrophilic capping agent, were chemically synthesized, with an average length of 15 µm and an average diameter of 60 nm. Humidity sensors, with 433 MHz frequency dual-port resonator Rayleigh-SAW devices, were coated by silver nanowires (AgNWs using the electrospray coating method. It was demonstrated that increasing thickness of coated AgNW on the surfaces of SAW devices results in increased sensitivity. The highest frequency shift (262 kHz in these SAW devices was obtained with an injection of 0.5 mL of the AgNW solution with a concentration of 0.5 mg/mL at an injection rate of 1 mL/h. It also showed the highest humidity sensitivity among the other prepared SAW devices.

  3. Humidity measurement using alpha-ray and beta-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Shigeaki; Kobayashi, Hisanobu

    1981-01-01

    Two new hygrometers using radioisotopes were proposed, and the results of tests are described. The one is a dew-point hygrometer utilizing the backscattering phenomena of beta-ray by dew, and the other is a hygrometer by measuring the variation of ionization current by alpha ray due to humidity. The backscattering of beta-ray depends on the atomic number of scatters and the energy of beta-ray. Therefore, the backscattering from dew on a gold plate is different from that from the gold itself. The temperature dependence of the backscattering intensity was measured with a GM counter. Decrease of the intensity was seen at the dew point. A control circuit was designed to measure the dew point automatically. The error of the measurement was within 1 degree C. An alpha-ray ionization hygrometer was constructed. The dependence of ionization current on humidity was measured with an operational amplifier. The resolution of humidity measurement was within 5 percent. (Kato, T.)

  4. Cropping Systems and Climate Change in Humid Subtropical Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ixchel M. Hernandez-Ochoa

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In the future, climate change will challenge food security by threatening crop production. Humid subtropical regions play an important role in global food security, with crop rotations often including wheat (winter crop and soybean and maize (summer crops. Over the last 30 years, the humid subtropics in the Northern Hemisphere have experienced a stronger warming trend than in the Southern Hemisphere, and the trend is projected to continue throughout the mid- and end of century. Past rainfall trends range, from increases up to 4% per decade in Southeast China to −3% decadal decline in East Australia; a similar trend is projected in the future. Climate change impact studies suggest that by the middle and end of the century, wheat yields may not change, or they will increase up to 17%. Soybean yields will increase between 3% and 41%, while maize yields will increase by 30% or decline by −40%. These wide-ranging climate change impacts are partly due to the region-specific projections, but also due to different global climate models, climate change scenarios, single-model uncertainties, and cropping system assumptions, making it difficult to make conclusions from these impact studies and develop adaptation strategies. Additionally, most of the crop models used in these studies do not include major common stresses in this environment, such as heat, frost, excess water, pests, and diseases. Standard protocols and impact assessments across the humid subtropical regions are needed to understand climate change impacts and prepare for adaptation strategies.

  5. Humidity Detection Using Metal Organic Framework Coated on QCM

    KAUST Repository

    Kosuru, Lakshmoji

    2016-06-28

    Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) coated with poly-4-vinylpyridine (PVP) and metal organic framework HKUST-1 are investigated and compared for humidity sensing. Drop casting method is employed to coat the PVP and HKUST-1 solutions onto the surface of a quartz crystal microbalance. The resonance frequencies of these sensors with varying relative humidity (RH) from 22% RH to 69% RH are measured using impedance analysis method. The sensitivity, humidity hysteresis, response, and recovery times of these sensors are studied. The sensitivities of uncoated, PVP, and HKUST-1 coated QCM sensors are 7 Hz, 48 Hz, and 720 Hz, respectively, in the range of 22% RH–69% RH. The extraction of desorption rate and adsorption energy associated with the adsorption and desorption of water molecules on these surfaces reveals that HKUST-1 has better sensing properties than PVP and uncoated QCM sensors. In this work, the HKUST-1 coated QCM is shown to be a promising material for moisture detection.

  6. Humidification tower for humid air gas turbine cycles: Experimental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traverso, A.

    2010-01-01

    In the HAT (humid air turbine) cycle, the humidification of compressed air can be provided by a pressurised saturator (i.e. humidification tower or saturation tower), this solution being known to offer several attractive features. This work is focused on an experimental study of a pressurised humidification tower, with structured packing. After a description of the test rig employed to carry out the measuring campaign, the results relating to the thermodynamic process are presented and discussed. The experimental campaign was carried out over 162 working points, covering a relatively wide range of possible operating conditions. It is shown that the saturator behaviour, in terms of air outlet humidity and temperature, is primarily driven by, in decreasing order of relevance, the inlet water temperature, the inlet water over inlet dry air mass flow ratio and the inlet air temperature. The exit relative humidity is consistently over 100%, which may be explained partially by measurement accuracy and droplet entrainment, and partially by the non-ideal behaviour of air-steam mixtures close to saturation. Experimental results have been successfully correlated using a set of new non-dimensional groups: such a correlation is able to capture the air outlet temperature with a standard deviation σ = 2.8 K.

  7. Radon measurements with charcoal canisters temperature and humidity considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živanović Miloš Z.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Radon testing by using open-faced charcoal canisters is a cheap and fast screening method. Many laboratories perform the sampling and measurements according to the United States Environmental Protection Agency method - EPA 520. According to this method, no corrections for temperature are applied and corrections for humidity are based on canister mass gain. The EPA method is practiced in the Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences with recycled canisters. In the course of measurements, it was established that the mass gain of the recycled canisters differs from mass gain measured by Environmental Protection Agency in an active atmosphere. In order to quantify and correct these discrepancies, in the laboratory, canisters were exposed for periods of 3 and 4 days between February 2015 and December 2015. Temperature and humidity were monitored continuously and mass gain measured. No significant correlation between mass gain and temperature was found. Based on Environmental Protection Agency calibration data, functional dependence of mass gain on humidity was determined, yielding Environmental Protection Agency mass gain curves. The results of mass gain measurements of recycled canisters were plotted against these curves and a discrepancy confirmed. After correcting the independent variable in the curve equation and calculating the corrected mass gain for recycled canisters, the agreement between measured mass gain and Environmental Protection Agency mass gain curves was attained. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III43009: New Technologies for Monitoring and Protection of Environment from Harmful Chemical Substances and Radiation Impact

  8. Humidity Detection Using Metal Organic Framework Coated on QCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmoji Kosuru

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM coated with poly-4-vinylpyridine (PVP and metal organic framework HKUST-1 are investigated and compared for humidity sensing. Drop casting method is employed to coat the PVP and HKUST-1 solutions onto the surface of a quartz crystal microbalance. The resonance frequencies of these sensors with varying relative humidity (RH from 22% RH to 69% RH are measured using impedance analysis method. The sensitivity, humidity hysteresis, response, and recovery times of these sensors are studied. The sensitivities of uncoated, PVP, and HKUST-1 coated QCM sensors are 7 Hz, 48 Hz, and 720 Hz, respectively, in the range of 22% RH–69% RH. The extraction of desorption rate and adsorption energy associated with the adsorption and desorption of water molecules on these surfaces reveals that HKUST-1 has better sensing properties than PVP and uncoated QCM sensors. In this work, the HKUST-1 coated QCM is shown to be a promising material for moisture detection.

  9. Influence of humidity on the thermal behavior of aluminum nanopowders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ying; Song Wulin; Xie Changsheng; Zeng Dawen; Wang Aihua; Hu Mulin

    2006-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) nanopowders have increasingly gained attention because of their potential incorporation in explosive and propellant mixtures. This paper reports on a qualitative study on influence of humidity on the thermal behavior of Al nanopowders and the oxidation of aluminum nanoparticles containing a passivating oxide coating. The thermal behaviors were identified by DSC-TG, and Al nanopowders were examined using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) to understand the stability of the oxide coating in aluminum nanoparticles. It was found that the diameter of Al nanoparticles was in range of 10-100 nm. The original Al nanoparticles were covered by a 3 nm thick compact amorphous oxide layer. After stored for 8 weeks, the oxide layer grew up to 5 nm thick, and the oxidation diffused to the interior of Al nanoparticles. The results indicate that the reactivity of Al nanopowders is deeply influenced by the environment, especially the humidity. The higher relative humidity would accelerate the aging of the Al nanopowders. The DSC-TG results show the oxidation of Al nanoparticles occurs at least in two steps

  10. Design of indoor temperature and humidity detection system based on single chip microcomputer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiuwei; Fu, Li; Ma, Tianhui

    2018-03-01

    The indoor temperature and humidity detection system based on STC15F2K60S2 is designed in this paper. The temperature and humidity sensor DHT22 to monitor the indoor temperature and humidity are used, and the temperature and humidity data to the user's handheld device are wirelessly transmitted, when the temperature reaches or exceeds the user set the temperature alarm value, and the system sound and light alarm, to remind the user.

  11. Humidity : a review and primer on atmospheric moisture and human health.

    OpenAIRE

    David, R.E.; McGregor, G.R.; Enfield, K.B.

    2016-01-01

    Research examining associations between weather and human health frequently includes the effects of atmospheric humidity. A large number of humidity variables have been developed for numerous purposes, but little guidance is available to health researchers regarding appropriate variable selection. We examine a suite of commonly used humidity variables and summarize both the medical and biometeorological literature on associations between humidity and human health. As an example of the importa...

  12. Temperature insensitive hysteresis free highly sensitive polymer optical fiber Bragg grating humidity sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woyessa, Getinet; Nielsen, Kristian; Stefani, Alessio

    2016-01-01

    The effect of humidity on annealing of poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) based microstructured polymer optical fiber Bragg gratings (mPOFBGs) and the resulting humidity responsivity are investigated. Typically annealing of PMMA POFs is done in an oven without humidity control around 80°C...

  13. The effect of environmental humidity and temperature on skin barrier function and dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engebretsen, K A; Johansen, J D; Kezic, S

    2016-01-01

    existing dermatoses. We searched the literature for studies that evaluated the mechanisms behind this phenomenon. Commonly used meteorological terms such as absolute humidity, relative humidity and dew point are explained. Furthermore, we review the negative effect of low humidity, low temperatures...

  14. 40 CFR 1065.670 - NOX intake-air humidity and temperature corrections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false NOX intake-air humidity and... NOX intake-air humidity and temperature corrections. See the standard-setting part to determine if you may correct NOX emissions for the effects of intake-air humidity or temperature. Use the NOX intake...

  15. Humidity Effects on Fragmentation in Plasma-Based Ambient Ionization Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsome, G Asher; Ackerman, Luke K; Johnson, Kevin J

    2016-01-01

    Post-plasma ambient desorption/ionization (ADI) sources are fundamentally dependent on surrounding water vapor to produce protonated analyte ions. There are two reports of humidity effects on ADI spectra. However, it is unclear whether humidity will affect all ADI sources and analytes, and by what mechanism humidity affects spectra. Flowing atmospheric pressure afterglow (FAPA) ionization and direct analysis in real time (DART) mass spectra of various surface-deposited and gas-phase analytes were acquired at ambient temperature and pressure across a range of observed humidity values. A controlled humidity enclosure around the ion source and mass spectrometer inlet was used to create programmed humidity and temperatures. The relative abundance and fragmentation of molecular adduct ions for several compounds consistently varied with changing ambient humidity and also were controlled with the humidity enclosure. For several compounds, increasing humidity decreased protonated molecule and other molecular adduct ion fragmentation in both FAPA and DART spectra. For others, humidity increased fragment ion ratios. The effects of humidity on molecular adduct ion fragmentation were caused by changes in the relative abundances of different reagent protonated water clusters and, thus, a change in the average difference in proton affinity between an analyte and the population of water clusters. Control of humidity in ambient post-plasma ion sources is needed to create spectral stability and reproducibility.

  16. Density of loose-fill insulation material exposed to cyclic humidity conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    the granulated loose-fill material is exposed to a climate that is characterised as cyclic humidity conditions (a constant temperature and a relative humidity alternating between two predetermined constant relative humidity levels). A better understanding of the behaviour of granulated loose-fill material...

  17. Calibration of a neutron probe for determining the humidity in deep alluvial soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrer, A.; Rivero, H.; Lopez, F.; Cantillo, O.

    1993-01-01

    Preliminary data for the calibration of a neutron probe in deep alluvial soils for determining the humidity are reported. Comparisons of Neutron flow behaviour with the depth of the land are established. A characteristic curve of amount of detected neutrons according to the humidity percentage (from 50 to 100 % of the field humidity) is obtained

  18. Temperature and relative humidity dependence of radiochromic film dosimeter response to gamma electron radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLaughlin, W.L.; Puhl, J.M.; Miller, A.

    1995-01-01

    on some earlier studies, their response functions have been reported to be dependent on the temperature and relative humidity during irradiation. The present study investigates differences in response over practical ranges of temperature, relative humidity, dose, and for different recent batches of films...... humidity) and should be calibrated under environmental conditions (temperature) at which they will be used routinely....

  19. Impact of individually controlled facially applied air movement on perceived air quality at high humidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skwarczynski, Mariusz; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Kaczmarczyk, J.

    2010-01-01

    and local air velocity under a constant air temperature of 26 degrees C, namely: 70% relative humidity without air movement, 30% relative humidity without air movement and 70% relative humidity with air movement under isothermal conditions. Personalized ventilation was used to supply room air from the front...

  20. Building America Case Study: Energy Efficient Management of Mechanical Ventilation and Relative Humidity in Hot-Humid Climates, Cocoa, Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-01-01

    In hot and humid climates, it is challenging to energy-efficiently maintain indoor RH at acceptable levels while simultaneously providing required ventilation, particularly in high performance low cooling load homes. The fundamental problem with solely relying on fixed capacity central cooling systems to manage moisture during low sensible load periods is that they are oversized for cooler periods of the year despite being 'properly sized' for a very hot design cooling day. The primary goals of this project were to determine the impact of supplementing a central space conditioning system with 1) a supplemental dehumidifier and 2) a ductless mini-split on seasonal energy use and summer peak power use as well as the impact on thermal distribution and humidity control inside a completely furnished lab home that was continuously ventilated in accordance with ASHRAE 62.2-2013.

  1. The ASSET intercomparison of stratosphere and lower mesosphere humidity analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. E. Thornton

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results from the first detailed intercomparison of stratosphere-lower mesosphere water vapour analyses; it builds on earlier results from the EU funded framework V "Assimilation of ENVISAT Data" (ASSET project. Stratospheric water vapour plays an important role in many key atmospheric processes and therefore an improved understanding of its daily variability is desirable. With the availability of high resolution, good quality Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS water vapour profiles, the ability of four different atmospheric models to assimilate these data is tested. MIPAS data have been assimilated over September 2003 into the models of the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF, the Belgian Institute for Space and Aeronomy (BIRA-IASB, the French Service d'Aéronomie (SA-IPSL and the UK Met Office. The resultant middle atmosphere humidity analyses are compared against independent satellite data from the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE, the Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement (POAM III and the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE II. The MIPAS water vapour profiles are generally well assimilated in the ECMWF, BIRA-IASB and SA systems, producing stratosphere-mesosphere water vapour fields where the main features compare favourably with the independent observations. However, the models are less capable of assimilating the MIPAS data where water vapour values are locally extreme or in regions of strong humidity gradients, such as the southern hemisphere lower stratosphere polar vortex. Differences in the analyses can be attributed to the choice of humidity control variable, how the background error covariance matrix is generated, the model resolution and its complexity, the degree of quality control of the observations and the use of observations near the model boundaries. Due to the poor performance of the Met Office analyses the results are not included in

  2. The ASSET intercomparison of stratosphere and lower mesosphere humidity analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, H. E.; Jackson, D. R.; Bekki, S.; Bormann, N.; Errera, Q.; Geer, A. J.; Lahoz, W. A.; Rharmili, S.

    2009-02-01

    This paper presents results from the first detailed intercomparison of stratosphere-lower mesosphere water vapour analyses; it builds on earlier results from the EU funded framework V "Assimilation of ENVISAT Data" (ASSET) project. Stratospheric water vapour plays an important role in many key atmospheric processes and therefore an improved understanding of its daily variability is desirable. With the availability of high resolution, good quality Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) water vapour profiles, the ability of four different atmospheric models to assimilate these data is tested. MIPAS data have been assimilated over September 2003 into the models of the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), the Belgian Institute for Space and Aeronomy (BIRA-IASB), the French Service d'Aéronomie (SA-IPSL) and the UK Met Office. The resultant middle atmosphere humidity analyses are compared against independent satellite data from the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE), the Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement (POAM III) and the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE II). The MIPAS water vapour profiles are generally well assimilated in the ECMWF, BIRA-IASB and SA systems, producing stratosphere-mesosphere water vapour fields where the main features compare favourably with the independent observations. However, the models are less capable of assimilating the MIPAS data where water vapour values are locally extreme or in regions of strong humidity gradients, such as the southern hemisphere lower stratosphere polar vortex. Differences in the analyses can be attributed to the choice of humidity control variable, how the background error covariance matrix is generated, the model resolution and its complexity, the degree of quality control of the observations and the use of observations near the model boundaries. Due to the poor performance of the Met Office analyses the results are not included in the intercomparison

  3. Roller compaction: Effect of relative humidity of lactose powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Chalak S; Dhenge, Ranjit M; Palzer, Stefan; Hounslow, Michael J; Salman, Agba D

    2016-09-01

    The effect of storage at different relative humidity conditions, for various types of lactose, on roller compaction behaviour was investigated. Three types of lactose were used in this study: anhydrous lactose (SuperTab21AN), spray dried lactose (SuperTab11SD) and α-lactose monohydrate 200M. These powders differ in their amorphous contents, due to different manufacturing processes. The powders were stored in a climatic chamber at different relative humidity values ranging from 10% to 80% RH. It was found that the roller compaction behaviour and ribbon properties were different for powders conditioned to different relative humidities. The amount of fines produced, which is undesirable in roller compaction, was found to be different at different relative humidity. The minimum amount of fines produced was found to be for powders conditioned at 20-40% RH. The maximum amount of fines was produced for powders conditioned at 80% RH. This was attributed to the decrease in powder flowability, as indicated by the flow function coefficient ffc and the angle of repose. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was also applied to determine the velocity of primary particles during ribbon production, and it was found that the velocity of the powder during the roller compaction decreased with powders stored at high RH. This resulted in less powder being present in the compaction zone at the edges of the rollers, which resulted in ribbons with a smaller overall width. The relative humidity for the storage of powders has shown to have minimal effect on the ribbon tensile strength at low RH conditions (10-20%). The lowest tensile strength of ribbons produced from lactose 200M and SD was for powders conditioned at 80% RH, whereas, ribbons produced from lactose 21AN at the same condition of 80% RH showed the highest tensile strength. The storage RH range 20-40% was found to be an optimum condition for roll compacting three lactose powders, as it resulted in a minimum amount of fines in the

  4. Autogenous Deformation and Change of the Relative Humidity in Silica Fume-Modified Cement Paste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole mejlhede; Hansen, Per Freiesleben

    1996-01-01

    Even during sealed curing and at a constant temperature a hardening cement paste will deform and the relative humidity within its pores will lower. This autogenous deformation and autogenous relative humidity change may be so significant that the cement paste cracks if the deformation is restrained....... This article focuses on the influence of silica fume addition on autogenous deformation and autogenous relative humidity change. Continuous measurement of autogenous deformation and autogenous relative humidity change for more than 1 year and 1« years, respectively, was performed. The investigations show...... thatsilica fume addition markedly increases the autogenous shrinkage as well as the autogenous relative humidity change....

  5. Effect of fabric texture and material on perceived discomfort at high humidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Rasmussen, Leif W.; Mackeprang, Jørgen

    1999-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of material (cotton/polyester) and texture (woven/knitted) of the inner layer of a clothing ensemble on human discomfort at high skin humidity. No clear effect on discomfort of material and texture could be detected. However, acceptability of skin humidity de......-crea-sed with increasing relative skin humidity. A model was developed that predicts the percentage of persons dissatisfied due to humid skin as a function of relative skin humidity. The model applies for woven and knitted cot-ton and polyester materials and for activity levels typical for office work. Even at very high...

  6. Humidity effects on the electronic transport properties in carbon based nanoscale device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Jun; Chen, Ke-Qiu

    2012-01-01

    By applying nonequilibrium Green's functions in combination with the density functional theory, we investigate the effect of humidity on the electronic transport properties in carbon based nanoscale device. The results show that different humidity may form varied localized potential barrier, which is a very important factor to affect the stability of electronic transport in the nanoscale system. A mechanism for the humidity effect is suggested. -- Highlights: ► Electronic transport in carbon based nanoscale device. ► Humidity affects the stability of electronic transport. ► Different humidity may form varied localized potential barrier.

  7. The drosophilid fauna (Diptera, Drosophilidae of the transition between the Pampa and Atlantic Forest Biomes in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil: first records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleverton J.C. Hochmüller

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Although studies on drosophilid (Diptera, Drosophilidae assemblages have become relatively abundant in the past decades, many environments remain to be searched. The present study investigates the composition, the species abundances and the richness of the drosophilid assemblages in two localities of the municipality of Cruz Alta, northwestern region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, a point of contact between the biomes Atlantic Forest and Pampa: (i an urban area (2007, constituted by a domestic orchard with Citrus trees, and (ii a forested area, in Centro de Educação, Pesquisa e Proteção Ambiental - CEPPA (2008/2009, of Universidade de Cruz Alta, located in a fragment of riparian forest. Collections were conducted using fermented banana-baited traps and repeated periodically. A total of 7,428 individuals were caught, belonging to two subfamilies, six genera and 53 species. In the urban area, 22 species were found, from two genera (N = 2,421, while in the forested area 46 species were found, from six genera (N = 5,007. Six exotic species were found, markedly more abundant in the urban area, where they corresponded to 95% of the specimens, in comparison to 50% in the forest. Between the Neotropical species, the most common were Drosophila maculifrons Duda and D. polymorpha Dobzhansky & Pavan. Only D. simulans Sturtevant was captured in all samples in both localities. The present survey represents the first records for the state of Rio Grande do Sul of the D. canalinea and D. virilis species groups and the species D. arassari Cunha & Frota-Pessoa, D. fuscolineata Duda, D. nigricruria Patterson & Mainland, D. papei Bächli & Vilela, D. senei Vilela, D. trifilum Frota-Pessoa, D. virilis Sturtevant, Leucophenga maculosa (Coquillett and Rhinoleucophenga obesa (Loew. Furthermore, it also represents the first record for the state of the genera Amiota Loew, Leucophenga Mik and Rhinoleucophenga Hendel and of the subfamily Steganinae. So, the present

  8. Humidity sensation requires both mechanosensory and thermosensory pathways in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Joshua; Vidal-Gadea, Andrés G; Makay, Alex; Lanam, Carolyn; Pierce-Shimomura, Jonathan T

    2014-06-03

    All terrestrial animals must find a proper level of moisture to ensure their health and survival. The cellular-molecular basis for sensing humidity is unknown in most animals, however. We used the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to uncover a mechanism for sensing humidity. We found that whereas C. elegans showed no obvious preference for humidity levels under standard culture conditions, worms displayed a strong preference after pairing starvation with different humidity levels, orienting to gradients as shallow as 0.03% relative humidity per millimeter. Cell-specific ablation and rescue experiments demonstrate that orientation to humidity in C. elegans requires the obligatory combination of distinct mechanosensitive and thermosensitive pathways. The mechanosensitive pathway requires a conserved DEG/ENaC/ASIC mechanoreceptor complex in the FLP neuron pair. Because humidity levels influence the hydration of the worm's cuticle, our results suggest that FLP may convey humidity information by reporting the degree that subcuticular dendritic sensory branches of FLP neurons are stretched by hydration. The thermosensitive pathway requires cGMP-gated channels in the AFD neuron pair. Because humidity levels affect evaporative cooling, AFD may convey humidity information by reporting thermal flux. Thus, humidity sensation arises as a metamodality in C. elegans that requires the integration of parallel mechanosensory and thermosensory pathways. This hygrosensation strategy, first proposed by Thunberg more than 100 y ago, may be conserved because the underlying pathways have cellular and molecular equivalents across a wide range of species, including insects and humans.

  9. Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae as a parasite of pampas deer (Ozoctoceros bezoarticus and cattle in Brazil's Central Pantanal Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus como parasita de veado-campeiro (Ozoctoceros bezoarticus e do gado bovino no Pantanal Central do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Duarte Cançado

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In the Pantanal, domestic and wild animals share the same habitats; their parasites and environment interact in a complex and dynamic way. The Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus is the most important cattle tick in Brazil. In the past two decades, some traditional management practices are being replaced with the aim of intensifying cattle production. Forested areas are being replaced by exotic pasture and ranch owners are replacing Nelore for European breeds. The pampas deer (Ozoctoceros bezoarticus is a medium-sized cervid that occurs in grasslands of South America. Between December 2005 and January 2007, we captured and collected ticks from 15 pampas deer and 172 bovines. The abundance, intensity, and prevalence of ticks found in cattle were lower than those in pampas deer (p No Pantanal Brasileiro, onde animais domésticos e selvagens compartilham os mesmos habitats; hospedeiros, parasitas e ambientes encontram-se em interação complexa e dinâmica. Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus é o carrapato bovino mais importante no Brasil. Nas últimas duas décadas práticas de manejo vem sendo substituídas com objetivo de aumentar a produtividade. Áreas de florestas estão sendo substituídas por pastagens exóticas e os produtores começam a utilizar raças européias no lugar do Nelore. O veado-campeiro é um cervídeo que ocorre em áreas de campo na América do sul. Entre dezembro de 2005 e janeiro de 2007, foram coletados carrapatos de 20 veados-campeiros e 172 bovinos. Os valores de abundância, intensidade parasitária e prevalência de carrapatos no gado foram menores que os valores encontrados no veado-campeiro (p < 0,05, indicando que o veado-campeiro é mais susceptível que o bovino. O elevado número de fêmeas ingurgitadas coletadas, sua capacidade de ovipor e o percentual de eclosão indicam que a população veado-campeiro na região de estudo é suficiente para manter o R. (B. microplus, desta maneira participando na

  10. Sensor fabrication method for in situ temperature and humidity monitoring of light emitting diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chi-Yuan; Su, Ay; Liu, Yin-Chieh; Chan, Pin-Cheng; Lin, Chia-Hung

    2010-01-01

    In this work micro temperature and humidity sensors are fabricated to measure the junction temperature and humidity of light emitting diodes (LED). The junction temperature is frequently measured using thermal resistance measurement technology. The weakness of this method is that the timing of data capture is not regulated by any standard. This investigation develops a device that can stably and continually measure temperature and humidity. The device is light-weight and can monitor junction temperature and humidity in real time. Using micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), this study minimizes the size of the micro temperature and humidity sensors, which are constructed on a stainless steel foil substrate (40 μm-thick SS-304). The micro temperature and humidity sensors can be fixed between the LED chip and frame. The sensitivities of the micro temperature and humidity sensors are 0.06±0.005 (Ω/°C) and 0.033 pF/%RH, respectively.

  11. Study on radon concentration monitoring using activated charcoal canisters in high humidity environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuexing; Wang Haijun; Yang Yifang; Qin Sichang; Wang Zhentao; Zhang Zhenjiang

    2009-01-01

    The effects of humidity on the sensitivity using activated charcoal canisters for measuring radon concentrations in high humidity environments were studied. Every canister filled with 80 g of activated charcoal, and they were exposed to 48 h or 72 h in the relative humidity of 68%, 80%, 88% and 96% (28 degree C), respectively. The amount of radon absorbed in the canisters was determined by counting the gamma rays from 214 Pb and 214 Bi (radon progeny). The results showed that counts decreased with the increase of relative humidity. There was a negative linear relationship between count and humidity. In the relative humidity range of 68%-96%, the sensitivity of radon absorption decreased about 2.4% for every 1% (degree)rise in humidity. The results also showed that the exposure time of the activated charcoal canisters should be less than 3 days. (authors)

  12. Physiological and subjective responses to low relative humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunwoo, Yujin; Chou, Chinmei; Takeshita, Junko; Murakami, Motoko; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2006-01-01

    In order to investigate the influence of low relative humidity, we measured saccharin clearance time (SCT), frequency of blinking, heart rate (HR), blood pressure, hydration state of skin, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), recovery sebum level and skin temperature as physiological responses. We asked subjects to judge thermal, dryness and comfort sensations as subjective responses using a rating scale. Sixteen non-smoking healthy male students were selected. The pre-room conditions were maintained at an air temperature (Ta) of 25 degrees C and a relative humidity (RH) of 50%. The test room conditions were adjusted to provide a Ta of 25 degrees C and RH levels of 10%, 30% and 50%.RH had no effect on the activity of the sebaceous gland and on cardiovascular reactions like blood pressure and HR. However, it was obvious that low RH affects SCT, the dryness of the ocular mucosa and the stratum corneum of the skin and causes a decrease in mean skin temperature. Under 30% RH, the eyes and skin become dry, and under 10% RH the nasal mucous membrane becomes dry as well as the eyes and skin, and the mean skin temperature decreases. These findings suggested that to avoid dryness of the eyes and skin, it is necessary to maintain an RH greater than 30%, and to avoid dryness of the nasal mucous membrane, it is necessary to maintain an RH greater than 10%. Subjects felt cold immediately after a change in RH while they had only a slight perception of dryness at the change of humidity.

  13. Gelatin as a new humidity sensing material: Characterization and limitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapardanis, Steven [School of Engineering and Technology, Central Michigan University, Mt. Pleasant, Michigan, 48859 (United States); Hudpeth, Mathew [Department of Physics, Central Michigan University, Mt. Pleasant, Michigan, 48859 (United States); Kaya, Tolga, E-mail: kaya2t@cmich.edu [School of Engineering and Technology, Central Michigan University, Mt. Pleasant, Michigan, 48859 (United States); Science of Advanced Materials Program, Central Michigan University, Mt. Pleasant, Michigan, 48859 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    The goal of this work is to assert the utility of collagen and its denatured counterpart gelatin as cost-effective alternatives to existing sensing layers comprised of polymers. Rather than producing a material that will need to be discarded or recycled, collagen, as a by-product of the meat and leather industry, could be repurposed. This work examines the feasibility of using collagen as a sensing layer. Planar electrodes were patterned with lift-off process to work with the natural characteristics of gelatin by utilizing metal vapor deposition, spin coating, and photolithography. Characterization methods have also been optimized through the creation of specialized humidity chambers that isolate specific characteristics such as response time, accuracy, and hysteresis. Collagen-based sensors are found to have a sensitivity to moisture in the range of 0.065 pF/%RH. Diffusion characteristics were also analyzed with the diffusion coefficient found to be 2.5 × 10{sup −5} cm{sup 2}/s. Absorption and desorption times were found to be 20 seconds and 8 seconds, respectively. Hysteresis present in the data is attributed to temperature cross-sensitivity. Ultimately, the utility of collagen as a dielectric sensing material is, in part, due to its fibrous macrostructures as well its hydrophilic sites along the peptide chains. Gelatin was patterned between and below interdigitated copper electrodes and tested as a relative humidity sensor. This work shows that gelatin, which is inexpensive, widely available, and easy to process, can be an effective dielectric sensing polymer for capacitive-type relative humidity sensors.

  14. Gelatin as a new humidity sensing material: Characterization and limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Shapardanis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work is to assert the utility of collagen and its denatured counterpart gelatin as cost-effective alternatives to existing sensing layers comprised of polymers. Rather than producing a material that will need to be discarded or recycled, collagen, as a by-product of the meat and leather industry, could be repurposed. This work examines the feasibility of using collagen as a sensing layer. Planar electrodes were patterned with lift-off process to work with the natural characteristics of gelatin by utilizing metal vapor deposition, spin coating, and photolithography. Characterization methods have also been optimized through the creation of specialized humidity chambers that isolate specific characteristics such as response time, accuracy, and hysteresis. Collagen-based sensors are found to have a sensitivity to moisture in the range of 0.065 pF/%RH. Diffusion characteristics were also analyzed with the diffusion coefficient found to be 2.5 × 10−5 cm2/s. Absorption and desorption times were found to be 20 seconds and 8 seconds, respectively. Hysteresis present in the data is attributed to temperature cross-sensitivity. Ultimately, the utility of collagen as a dielectric sensing material is, in part, due to its fibrous macrostructures as well its hydrophilic sites along the peptide chains. Gelatin was patterned between and below interdigitated copper electrodes and tested as a relative humidity sensor. This work shows that gelatin, which is inexpensive, widely available, and easy to process, can be an effective dielectric sensing polymer for capacitive-type relative humidity sensors.

  15. Development testing of grouting and liner technology for humid sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaughan, N.D.

    1981-01-01

    Shallow land burial, although practiced for many years, has not always secured radionuclides from the biosphere in humid environments. To develop and demonstrate improved burial technology the Engineered Test Facility was implemented. An integral part of this experiment was site characterization, with geologic and hydrologic factors as major the components. Improved techniques for burial of low-level waste were developed and tested in the laboratory before being applied in the field. The two techniques studied were membrane trench liner and grouting void spaces

  16. Electrospinning onto Insulating Substrates by Controlling Surface Wettability and Humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, WooSeok; Kim, Geon Hwee; Shin, Jung Hwal; Lim, Geunbae; An, Taechang

    2017-11-01

    We report a simple method for electrospinning polymers onto flexible, insulating substrates by controlling the wettability of the substrate surface. Water molecules were adsorbed onto the surface of a hydrophilic polymer substrate by increasing the local humidity around the substrate. The adsorbed water was used as the ground electrode for electrospinning. The electrospun fibers were deposited only onto hydrophilic areas of the substrate, allowing for patterning through wettability control. Direct writing of polymer fiber was also possible through near-field electrospinning onto a hydrophilic surface.

  17. MOISTURE HUMIDITY EQUILIBRIUM OF WOOD CHIPS FROM ENERGETIC CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Barwicki

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Processes occurring during storage of wood chips for energetic or furniture industry purposes were presented. As a result of carried out investigations, dependences of temperature and relative humidity changes of surrounding air were shown. Modified Henderson equation can be utilized for computer simulation of storing and drying processes concerning wood chips for energetic and furniture industry purposes. It reflects also obtained results from experiments carried out with above mentioned material. Using computer simulation program we can examine different wood chips storing conditions to avoid overheating and loss problems.

  18. Humidity Control System In The Neutron Detector Of Guide Tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alibasya Harahap, Sentot

    2001-01-01

    The probable symptom neutron detector damage as cause decrease resistivity and corrosion in the electrical terminal, further more occasion to voltage failure and leak current in the isolation. The prevent of voltage failure in detector a needed humidity controller's with dry air supply to guide tube with 2 kg/cm exp.2 air pressure and 7 l/min, air flow as soon as continuity dryer process in the guide tube. Reactor shutdown and operation condition of diffusion rate is 0,476 cm exp.3/year and 6,46 cm exp.3/year

  19. Application of nano-structured conducting polymers to humidity sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Pilyeon

    Nanostructures, such as nanowires, nanocolumns, and nanotubes, have attracted a lot of attention because of their huge potential impact on a variety of applications. For sensor applications, nanostructures provide high surface area to volume ratios. The high surface area to volume ratio allows more reaction areas between target species and detection materials and also improves the detection sensitivity and response time. The main goal of this research was to exploit the advantages and develop innovative methods to accomplish the synthesis of nanowires and nano-coulmn conducting polymers used in humidity detection. To accomplish this, two fabrication methods are used. The first one utilizes the geometric confinement effect of a temporary nanochannel template to orient, precisely position, and assemble Polyaniline (PANI) nanowires as they are synthesized. The other approach is to simply spin-coat a polymer onto a substrate, and then oxygen plasma etch to generate a nano-columned Polyethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT) thin film. 200 nm silicon oxide coated wafers with embedded platinum electrodes are used as a substrate for both fabrication methods. The biggest advantage of this first method is that it is simple, requires a single-step, i.e., synthesizing and positioning procedures are carried out simultaneously. The second method is potentially manufacturable and economic yet environmentally safe. These two methods do not produce extra nano-building materials to discard or create a health hazard. Both PANI nanowires and nano-columned PEDOT films have been tested for humidity detection using a system designed and built for this research to monitor response (current changes) to moisture, To explain the surface to volume ratio effect, 200 nm PANI nanowires and 10 microm PANI wires were directly compared for detecting moisture, and it was shown that the PANI nanowire had a better sensitivity. It was found difficult to monitor the behaviors of the PEDOT reaction to varying

  20. Estimation of evaporation from equilibrium diurnal boundary layer humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvucci, G.; Rigden, A. J.; Li, D.; Gentine, P.

    2017-12-01

    Simplified conceptual models of the convective boundary layer as a well mixed profile of potential temperature (theta) and specific humidity (q) impinging on an initially stably stratified linear potential temperature profile have a long history in atmospheric sciences. These one dimensional representations of complex mixing are useful for gaining insights into land-atmosphere interactions and for prediction when state of the art LES approaches are infeasible. As previously shown (e.g. Betts), if one neglects the role of q in bouyancy, the framework yields a unique relation between mixed layer Theta, mixed layer height (h), and cumulative sensible heat flux (SH) throughout the day. Similarly assuming an initially q profile yields a simple relation between q, h, and cumulative latent heat flux (LH). The diurnal dynamics of theta and q are strongly dependent on SH and the initial lapse rates of theta (gamma_thet) and q (gamma q). In the estimation method proposed here, we further constrain these relations with two more assumptions: 1) The specific humidity is the same at the start of the period of boundary layer growth and at the collapse; and 2) Once the mixed layer reaches the LCL, further drying occurs proportionally to the deardorff convective velocity scale (omega) multiplied by q. Assumption (1) is based on the idea that below the cloud layer, there are no sinks of moisture within the mixed layer (neglecting lateral humidity divergence). Thus the net mixing of dry air aloft with evaporation from the surface must balance. Inclusion of the simple model of moisture loss above the LCL into the bulk-CBL model allows definition of an equilibrium humidity (q) condition at which the diurnal cycle of q repeats (i.e. additions of q from surface balance entrainment of dry air from above). Surprisingly, this framework allows estimation of LH from q, theta, and estimated net radiation by solving for the value of Evaporative Fraction (EF) for which the diurnal cycle of q

  1. The response of poly (vinyl alcohol) to humidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spindura, J.

    2000-01-01

    This thesis aims to investigate the effects of heat treatments, humidity and hydrogen bonding on thin film and fibre samples of poly (vinyl alcohol). A number of different techniques are utilised in order to analyse samples that have undergone a number of different treatments. The techniques include X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). From the XRD and DSC work the increase in crystallisation due to annealing time and temperature has been investigated and for dry samples the crystallinity was found to be dependant on both the temperature and also the heating method. For samples exposed to varying humidities and annealed in this wet environment two stages of crystallisation have been proposed. The crystals formed are of two types, those with small unit cell parameters and low melting points, and a second class of crystals with bigger unit cell parameters which, perhaps surprisingly, were found to have the higher melting points. The melting temperature was also not found to be significantly dependant on the amount of water take up or the degree of crystallinity. These changes have been explained in terms of the hydrogen bonding between the polymer chains and between the polymer and water molecules. Solubility and swelling experiments showed that as the crystallinity of the sample increases the amount of water the sample is able to absorb is reduced. This is because it is the amorphous region of the material that swells, although it has been shown that not all the amorphous material swells to the same extent. The glass transition temperature (T g ) could not be followed with DSC as the semicrystalline nature of the samples masked this transition and hence DMA was used to follow the changes in T g with both annealing and moisture content. A decrease in T g with increasing humidity was clearly observed. An interesting observation was the increase in T g for films exposed to humidity and then dried

  2. Stability of Ruddlesden-Popper-structured oxides in humid conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtimäki, M.; Yamauchi, H.; Karppinen, M.

    2013-08-01

    Some of layered transition-metal oxides are known to react with atmospheric humidity to form through topotactic intercalation reactions new water-containing layered structures. Here we investigate the influence of oxygen content (7-δ) of the Ruddlesden-Popper-structured Sr3FeMO7-δ (M=Ni, Mn, Ti) oxides on the water-intercalation reaction. It is found that their oxygen contents influence greatly the reactivity of the phases with water. Other factors possibly affecting the reactivity are discussed on the basis of the present data in combination with a comprehensive review of previous works on Ruddlesden-Popper and related layered oxide phases.

  3. Migration of heavy natural radionuclides in a humid climatic zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titaeva, N.A.; Alexakhin, R.M.; Taskaev, A.I.; Maslov, V.I.

    1980-01-01

    Regularities and biochemical peculiarities of the migrations of heavy natural radionuclides in the environment are examined, with special reference to two regions in a humid climatic zone representing natural patterns of radionuclide distribution and to four plots artificially contaminated with high levels of natural radioactivity more than 20 years previously. It was determined that the migration of thorium, uranium, and radium isotopes through the rock-water-soil-plant system is dependent on many physiochemical properties of these radionuclides, their compounds, and the local environment. Isotopic activity ratios provide a useful tool for studying the direction of radionuclide migration and its influence on observed distribution patterns

  4. Low-level radioactive waste disposal at a humid site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.W.

    1987-03-01

    Waste management in humid environments poses a continuing challenge because of the potential contamination of groundwater in the long term. Short-term needs for waste disposal, regulatory uncertainty, and unique site and waste characteristics have led to the development of a site-specific waste classification and management system proposed for the Oak Ridge Reservation. The overlying principle of protection of public health and safety is used to define waste classes compatible with generated waste types, disposal sites and technologies, and treatment technologies. 1 fig., 1 tab

  5. 40 CFR 86.344-79 - Humidity calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... = Web-bulb temperature (°K) B = − 12.150799 F 0 = − 8.49922(10)3 F 1 = − 7.4231865(10)3 F 2 = 96.1635147...). ER06OC93.088 Figure D79-5—Saturation Vapor Pressure Over Water (pascals) Temperature °C 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4... = barometric pressure (Pa) H = specific humidity, (gm H2O/gm of dry air) K = 0.6220 gm H2O/gm dry air M air...

  6. Mars MetNet Mission Pressure and Humidity Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haukka, H.; Harri, A.-M.; Schmidt, W.; Genzer, M.; Polkko, J.; Kemppinen, O.; Leinonen, J.

    2012-09-01

    A new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars is being developed in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission [1] is based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). MetBaro and MetHumi are part of the scientific payload of the MNL. Main scientific goal of both devices is to measure the meteorological phenomena (pressure and humidity) of the Martian atmosphere and complement the previous Mars mission atmospheric measurements (Viking and Phoenix) for better understanding of the Martian atmospheric conditions.

  7. Caracterização da estrutura da vegetação numa pastagem natural do Bioma Pampa submetida a diferentes estratégias de manejo da oferta de forragem Structural characterization of a natural pasture vegetation from Pampa Biome under different herbage allowance management strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Pereira Neves

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos neste trabalho foram descrever e investigar a dinâmica espaço-temporal de sítios alimentares em diferentes faixas de massa de forragem e altura do pasto, assim como o percentual de área efetivamente pastejada, a taxa de acúmulo de forragem e a produção de matéria seca de uma pastagem natural do Bioma Pampa. O delineamento utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso com duas repetições, com três ofertas de forragem fixas (8, 12 e 16% e três ofertas de forragem variáveis ao longo do ano (8-12%, 12-8% e 16-12%, com o primeiro valor correspondendo à primavera. Na oferta fixa de forragem de 8%, observou-se maior percentual de área efetivamente pastejada, porém os valores médios de altura e massa de forragem foram inferiores aos das demais ofertas. As maiores ofertas de forragem, 16 e 16-12%, apresentaram altura média do pasto superior, 9,0 cm e massa de forragem de 2.000 kg/ha de matéria seca, porém, com área efetivamente pastejada inferior às observadas nas ofertas de 8 e 8-12%. Mesmo estratégias de manejo tão distintas, aproximadamente 60 a 70% dos sítios alimentares ocorreram em faixas consideradas limitantes ao potencial de ingestão de forragem por bovinos, com exceção dos tratamentos 16% e 16-12%, nos quais se observou menor frequência de sítios alimentares na faixa inferior a 6,0 cm de altura. Os sítios alimentares, em geral, se concentraram em faixas com altura The objective of this trial was to investigate the spatio-temporal dynamics of feeding sites stratified by strips of herbage mass and sward height, and the percentage of effectively grazed area, herbage growth rate and dry matter yield of a natural pasture from Pampa Biome managed with different herbage allowance management strategies. A randomized block design with two replications was used with three fixed herbage allowance (8, 12 and 16% and three herbage allowance variables throughout the year (8-12%, 12-8%, and 16-12%, with first value

  8. Organismos edáficos como bioindicadores da recuperação de solos degradados por arenização no Bioma Pampa Edaphic organisms as bioindicators of restoration of degraded soils by arenização on the Bioma Pampa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Moreira Rovedder

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Os organismos edáficos, por sua sensibilidade a alterações no meio, têm sido utilizados como indicadores de modificações nos níveis de qualidade do solo, as quais podem ser promovidas por degradação ou agradação. Em Alegrete, Rio Grande do Sul, foram caracterizadas populações de organismos edáficos como bioindicadores dos efeitos da degradação por arenização e da recuperação por revegetação com Lupinus albescens Hook. & Arn., fabácea natural do Bioma Pampa. Os tratamentos constituíram-se de solo com cobertura natural de Lupinus albescens (TN, área arenizada que recebeu revegetação com Lupinus albescens há um ano (T1, área arenizada que recebeu revegetação com Lupinus albescens há três anos (T3, solo arenizado (SA e campo nativo (CN. As coletas foram feitas em fevereiro e maio de 2006, com armadilhas PROVID. Foram determinados os parâmetros: abundância de organismos em nível de Ordem, riqueza de organismos e índices de diversidade e igualdade de Shannon. A arenização reduziu o desenvolvimento das populações edáficas, enquanto a estratégia de revegetação mostrou efeitos positivos na recolonização da área. O grupo Collembola destacou-se como bioindicador dos efeitos dos processos de degradação e recuperação. O índice de diversidade de Shannon não foi adequado para a avaliação dos efeitos da arenização quando analisado isoladamente.Edaphic organisms are sensible to environment alterations and have been used as indicators of soil quality changes. These modifications can be promoted by degradation or agradation events. The study area is located in Alegrete, Rio Grande do Sul. It was analyzed the role of epigeic soil fauna as bioindicator of soil degradation by arenização and its restoration by revegetation with Lupinus albescens Hook. & Arn., a native fabaceous of Bioma Pampa. The treatments were constituted of soil under natural covering with Lupinus albescens, degraded area recovered with

  9. Detección de anticuerpos anti-Brucella spp. en cerdos mediante técnicas de aglutinación y ELISA indirecto en las provincias de Buenos Aires y La Pampa: Argentina Detection of anti-Brucella spp. antibodies in swine by agglutination techniques and indirect ELISA in the Buenos Aires and La Pampa provinces: Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. Castro

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available En nuestro país no existe un programa de control sobre brucelosis porcina y su verdadera situación epidemiológica es desconocida. El objetivo de nuestro trabajo fue detectar la presencia de anticuerpos anti-Brucella spp. en porcinos provenientes de criaderos del sudoeste de la provincia de Buenos Aires y del este de la provincia de La Pampa. La toma de muestras de sangre se realizó en el momento del faenado de los animales. La detección de anticuerpos se efectuó mediante las técnicas de aglutinación con antígeno tamponado en placa (BPA, seroaglutinación en tubo (SAT, aglutinación con 2-ME (2-ME y ELISA indirecto, con dos antígenos diferentes: el antígeno CYT (fracción citoplasmática de B. abortus S19 y el antígeno CP (extracto citoplasmático libre de lipopolisacárido. Del total de las muestras analizadas (n=325, el 17,8% fue positivo para BPA, el 13,8% fue positivo para SAT y sólo el 8,0% fue positivo para 2-ME. Mediante ELISA-CYT, este porcentaje se elevó a 21,0%, mientras que a través del ELISA-CP sólo se halló un 10,0% de muestras reactivas. Estos resultados son compatibles con los informados en los escasos reportes previos para todo el país y sugieren la necesidad de extender los estudios a otras zonas, donde sea habitual la cría de cerdos.Porcine brucellosis is one of the most important zoonoses in this country. Currently, there is no control program for porcine brucellosis in Argentina and the epidemiological situation is still unknown. The purpose of our study was to detect anti-Brucella spp. antibodies in swine in the southwest of the Buenos Aires province and the east of the La Pampa province. Blood samples were obtained when animals were slaughtered. The presence of anti-brucella antibodies was studied by the buffered plate agglutination test (BPA, the tube agglutination test (SAT, the 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME agglutination test and indirect ELISA tests, using the cytosolic fraction from Brucella abortus S19

  10. Indicadores de contaminación biológica asociados a la erosión hídrica en una cuenca de Pampa Ondulada Argentina Indicators of biological contamination associated with water erosion in basin belonging the rolling pampa, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celio I. Chagas

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available La producción agropecuaria utiliza el 70% de los recursos hídricos superficiales. Una parte de esa agua es consumida por la ganadería, principalmente en forma de bebida animal. Existe un importante riesgo de contaminación biológica del agua asociada a dicha actividad, debido a que los patógenos eliminados a través de las deyecciones y orinas animales pueden ser transportados a las vías de agua, a través del escurrimiento superficial. El presente trabajo se realizó en la cuenca del arroyo del Tala, ubicada en la Pampa Ondulada y sujeta a intensos procesos de escurrimiento y erosión hídrica. En la cuenca existen explotaciones ganaderas extensivas asociadas a suelos hidro-halomórficos cercanos a las vías de agua y una cantidad creciente de explotaciones intensivas del tipo "engorde a corral". El principal uso agropecuario del agua del arroyo y de sus tributarios es en forma de bebida animal directa. Los objetivos del presente trabajo han sido analizar mediante algunos indicadores biológicos, la posible contaminación de las aguas y sedimentos acumulados en sectores bajos representativos de la actividad pecuaria de dicha cuenca y determinar el origen de su contaminación: humana o animal. Las aguas analizadas presentaron concentraciones de indicadores biológicos del grupo de los estreptococos y enterococos fecales compatibles con procesos de contaminación fecal de origen animal pero no de origen humano. Se observó una estrecha asociación entre la concentración de coliformes totales y la presencia de sólidos sedimentables originada por erosión hídrica, en las aguas de diversos ambientes bajos de la cuenca. De esta manera se puso de manifiesto la potencialidad de los sedimentos para actuar como transportadores de bacterias, algunas de las cuales pueden ser altamente patogénicas como es el caso de Salmonella spp. Los procesos de escurrimiento, erosión hídrica y contaminación biológica han probado estar relacionados entre s

  11. Ethylene sensitivity and relative air humidity regulate root hydraulic properties in tomato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Polanco, Monica; Ibort, Pablo; Molina, Sonia; Ruiz-Lozano, Juan Manuel; Zamarreño, Angel María; García-Mina, Jose María; Aroca, Ricardo

    2017-11-01

    The effect of ethylene and its precursor ACC on root hydraulic properties, including aquaporin expression and abundance, is modulated by relative air humidity and plant sensitivity to ethylene. Relative air humidity (RH) is a main factor contributing to water balance in plants. Ethylene (ET) is known to be involved in the regulation of root water uptake and stomatal opening although its role on plant water balance under different RH is not very well understood. We studied, at the physiological, hormonal and molecular levels (aquaporins expression, abundance and phosphorylation state), the plant responses to exogenous 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC; precursor of ET) and 2-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB; inhibitor of ET biosynthesis), after 24 h of application to the roots of tomato wild type (WT) plants and its ET-insensitive never ripe (nr) mutant, at two RH levels: regular (50%) and close to saturation RH. Highest RH induced an increase of root hydraulic conductivity (Lp o ) of non-treated WT plants, and the opposite effect in nr mutants. The treatment with ACC reduced Lp o in WT plants at low RH and in nr plants at high RH. The application of AIB increased Lp o only in nr plants at high RH. In untreated plants, the RH treatment changed the abundance and phosphorylation of aquaporins that affected differently both genotypes according to their ET sensitivity. We show that RH is critical in regulating root hydraulic properties, and that Lp o is affected by the plant sensitivity to ET, and possibly to ACC, by regulating aquaporins expression and their phosphorylation status. These results incorporate the relationship between RH and ET in the response of Lp o to environmental changes.

  12. Biphilic Surfaces for Enhanced Water Collection from Humid Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkoski, Jason; Gerasopoulos, Konstantinos; Luedeman, William

    Surface wettability plays an important role in water recovery, distillation, dehumidification, and heat transfer. The efficiency of each process depends on the rate of droplet nucleation, droplet growth, and mass transfer. Unfortunately, hydrophilic surfaces are good at nucleation but poor at shedding. Hydrophobic surfaces are the reverse. Many plants and animals overcome this tradeoff through biphilic surfaces with patterned wettability. For example, the Stenocara beetle uses hydrophilic patches on a superhydrophobic background to collect fog from air. Cribellate spiders similarly collect fog on their webs through periodic spindle-knot structures. In this study, we investigate the effects of wettability patterns on the rate of water collection from humid air. The steady state rate of water collection per unit area is measured as a function of undercooling, angle of inclination, water contact angle, hydrophilic patch size, patch spacing, area fraction, and patch height relative to the hydrophobic background. We then model each pattern by comparing the potential and kinetic energy of a droplet as it rolls downwards at a fixed angle. The results indicate that the design rules for collecting fog differ from those for condensation from humid air. The authors gratefully acknowledge the Office of Naval Research for financial support through Grant Number N00014-15-1-2107.

  13. Sticky gecko feet: the role of temperature and humidity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter H Niewiarowski

    Full Text Available Gecko adhesion is expected to be temperature insensitive over the range of temperatures typically experienced by geckos. Previous work is limited and equivocal on whether this expectation holds. We tested the temperature dependence of adhesion in Tokay and Day geckos and found that clinging ability at 12 degrees C was nearly double the clinging ability at 32 degrees C. However, rather than confirming a simple temperature effect, our data reveal a complex interaction between temperature and humidity that can drive differences in adhesion by as much as two-fold. Our findings have important implications for inferences about the mechanisms underlying the exceptional clinging capabilities of geckos, including whether performance of free-ranging animals is based solely on a dry adhesive model. An understanding of the relative contributions of van der Waals interactions and how humidity and temperature variation affects clinging capacities will be required to test hypotheses about the evolution of gecko toepads and is relevant to the design and manufacture of synthetic mimics.

  14. Sticky gecko feet: the role of temperature and humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niewiarowski, Peter H; Lopez, Stephanie; Ge, Liehui; Hagan, Emily; Dhinojwala, Ali

    2008-05-14

    Gecko adhesion is expected to be temperature insensitive over the range of temperatures typically experienced by geckos. Previous work is limited and equivocal on whether this expectation holds. We tested the temperature dependence of adhesion in Tokay and Day geckos and found that clinging ability at 12 degrees C was nearly double the clinging ability at 32 degrees C. However, rather than confirming a simple temperature effect, our data reveal a complex interaction between temperature and humidity that can drive differences in adhesion by as much as two-fold. Our findings have important implications for inferences about the mechanisms underlying the exceptional clinging capabilities of geckos, including whether performance of free-ranging animals is based solely on a dry adhesive model. An understanding of the relative contributions of van der Waals interactions and how humidity and temperature variation affects clinging capacities will be required to test hypotheses about the evolution of gecko toepads and is relevant to the design and manufacture of synthetic mimics.

  15. Effects of humidity on the mechanical properties of gecko setae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prowse, Michael S; Wilkinson, Matt; Puthoff, Jonathan B; Mayer, George; Autumn, Kellar

    2011-02-01

    We tested the hypothesis that an increase in relative humidity (RH) causes changes in the mechanical properties of the keratin of adhesive gecko foot hairs (setae). We measured the effect of RH on the tensile deformation properties, fracture, and dynamic mechanical response of single isolated tokay gecko setae and strips of the smooth lamellar epidermal layer. The mechanical properties of gecko setae were strongly affected by RH. The complex elastic modulus (measured at 5 Hz) of a single seta at 80% RH was 1.2 GPa, only 39% of the value when dry. An increase in RH reduced the stiffness and increased the strain to failure. The loss tangent increased significantly with humidity, suggesting that water absorption produces a transition to a more viscous type of deformation. The influence of RH on the properties of the smooth epidermal layer was comparable with that of isolated seta, with the exception of stress at rupture. These values were two to four times greater for the setae than for the smooth layer. The changes in mechanical properties of setal keratin were consistent with previously reported increases in contact forces, supporting the hypothesis that an increase in RH softens setal keratin, which increases adhesion and friction. Copyright © 2010 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Limiting criteria for human exposure to low humidity indoors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wyon, David; Fang, Lei; Meyer, H.

    2002-01-01

    Thirty subjects (17 female) were exposed for 5 hours to clean air at 5%, 15%, 25% and 35% RH at 22 deg.C. Another 30 subjects (15 female) were similarly exposed to air polluted by carpet and linoleum at 18, 22 and 26 deg.C with humidity 2.4 g/kg dry air (=15% RH at 22 deg.C), and at 22 deg.C, 35......% RH. The subjects performed simulated office work throughout each exposure. Building Related Symptom (BRS) intensity was reported on visual-analogue scales. Tests of eye, nose and skin function were applied. In these short exposures subjective discomfort, though significantly increased by low humidity......, was very moderate even at 5% RH. However, tear film quality as indicated by the Mucous Ferning Test deteriorated significantly at RH22 deg.C, significantly more rapid blink rates were observed at 5% than at 35% RH, and skin became significantly more dry at 15% than at 35% RH....

  17. Temperature and humidity control in growing of greenhouse muskmelon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Tetsuji; Nakamura, shin' ichi; Toda, Mikihiko; Ozawa, Akihito

    1986-12-25

    At the Shizuoka Agricultural Experiment Station, a control test of muskmelon was carried out wherein the controlled night temperature was automatically lowered by 2 or 4 /sup 0/C from the present temperature when the sunlight level was below the standard, and the humidity was controlled either individually or in combination with the temperature. Concerning the influence of temperature, no bad effect was observed in the constant early half of midnight temperature (18 /sup 0/C) section which was tested from the viewpoint of energy saving. For the test range of 22 - 18 /sup 0/C (winter growing) and 24 - 18 /sup 0/C (autumn growing), there was no significant difference on the fruit weight and shape;but the content of suger was found better in the complex modified temperature section of 22 - 18 /sup 0/C (winter growing) and 24 - 22 /sup 0/C (autumn growing). As for the humidity-added section, the fruit grew bigger, but the sugar content was significantly reduced. Optimal target value of control was estimated at 80 +-5 % daytime and 90 % night-time. (2 figs, 11 tabs, 10 refs

  18. Four-channel temperature and humidity microwave scanning radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Pei-Yuan

    1994-06-01

    A compact four-channel microwave scanning radiometer for tropospheric remote sensing is being developed. A pair of 53.85 and 56.02 GHz and a pair of 23.87 and 31.65 GHz are adopted as temperature and humidity channels' frequencies respectively. For each pair of frequencies it has an offset reflector antenna and a Dicke-switching receiver. The pair of receivers is assembled in an enclosure, which is mounted on the rotating table of an azimuth mounting and the pair of antennas is connected with the rotating table of an azimuth mounting in the opposite side by a pair of elevation arms. Each antenna is composed of a 90 degree off-set paraboloid and a conical corrugated horn. Each antenna patterrn of four channels has nearly same HPBW, low side lobes, and low VSWR. The dual band humidity receiver is a time sharing type with 0.2K sensitivity at 1-sec integration time. The dual band temperature receiver is a band sharing type with 0.2K sensitivity at 10-sec integration time. The radiometer and observation are controlled by a single chip microcomputer to realize the unattended operation.

  19. Estimating surface solar radiation from upper-air humidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kun Yang [Telecommunications Advancement Organization of Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Koike, Toshio [University of Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2002-07-01

    A numerical model is developed to estimate global solar irradiance from upper-air humidity. In this model, solar radiation under clear skies is calculated through a simple model with radiation-damping processes under consideration. A sky clearness indicator is parameterized from relative humidity profiles within three atmospheric sublayers, and the indicator is used to connect global solar radiation under clear skies and that under cloudy skies. Model inter-comparisons at 18 sites in Japan suggest (1) global solar radiation strongly depends on the sky clearness indicator, (2) the new model generally gives better estimation to hourly-mean solar irradiance than the other three methods used in numerical weather predictions, and (3) the new model may be applied to estimate long-term solar radiation. In addition, a study at one site in the Tibetan Plateau shows vigorous convective activities in the region may cause some uncertainties to radiation estimations due to the small-scale and short life of convective systems. (author)

  20. Observational evidence for aerosols increasing upper tropospheric humidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Riuttanen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol–cloud interactions are the largest source of uncertainty in the radiative forcing of the global climate. A phenomenon not included in the estimates of the total net forcing is the potential increase in upper tropospheric humidity (UTH by anthropogenic aerosols via changes in the microphysics of deep convection. Using remote sensing data over the ocean east of China in summer, we show that increased aerosol loads are associated with an UTH increase of 2.2 ± 1.5 in units of relative humidity. We show that humidification of aerosols or other meteorological covariation is very unlikely to be the cause of this result, indicating relevance for the global climate. In tropical moist air such an UTH increase leads to a regional radiative effect of 0.5 ± 0.4 W m−2. We conclude that the effect of aerosols on UTH should be included in future studies of anthropogenic climate change and climate sensitivity.

  1. Improving stomatal functioning at elevated growth air humidity: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanourakis, Dimitrios; Bouranis, Dimitrios; Giday, Habtamu; Carvalho, Dália R A; Rezaei Nejad, Abdolhossein; Ottosen, Carl-Otto

    2016-12-01

    Plants grown at high relative air humidity (RH≥85%) are prone to lethal wilting upon transfer to conditions of high evaporative demand. The reduced survival of these plants is related to (i) increased cuticular permeability, (ii) changed anatomical features (i.e., longer pore length and higher stomatal density), (iii) reduced rehydration ability, (iv) impaired water potential sensitivity to leaf dehydration and, most importantly, (v) compromised stomatal closing ability. This review presents a critical analysis of the strategies which stimulate stomatal functioning during plant development at high RH. These include (a) breeding for tolerant cultivars, (b) interventions with respect to the belowground environment (i.e., water deficit, increased salinity, nutrient culture and grafting) as well as (c) manipulation of the aerial environment [i.e., increased proportion of blue light, increased air movement, temporal temperature rise, and spraying with abscisic acid (ABA)]. Root hypoxia, mechanical disturbance, as well as spraying with compounds mimicking ABA, lessening its inactivation or stimulating its within-leaf redistribution are also expected to improve stomatal functioning of leaves expanded in humid air. Available evidence leaves little doubt that genotypic and phenotypic differences in stomatal functioning following cultivation at high RH are realized through the intermediacy of ABA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Diffusion through Pig Gastric Mucin: Effect of Relative Humidity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Runnsjö

    Full Text Available Mucus covers the epithelium found in all intestinal tracts, where it serves as an important protecting barrier, and pharmaceutical drugs administrated by the oral, rectal, vaginal, ocular, or nasal route need to penetrate the mucus in order to reach their targets. Furthermore, the diffusion in mucus as well as the viscosity of mucus in the eyes, nose and throat can change depending on the relative humidity of the surrounding air. In this study we have investigated how diffusion through gels of mucin, the main protein in mucus, is affected by changes in ambient relative humidity (i.e. water activity. Already a small decrease in water activity was found to give rise to a significant decrease in penetration rate through the mucin gel of the antibacterial drug metronidazole. We also show that a decrease in water activity leads to decreased diffusion rate in the mucin gel for the fluorophore fluorescein. This study shows that it is possible to alter transport rates of molecules through mucus by changing the water activity in the gel. It furthermore illustrates the importance of considering effects of the water activity in the mucosa during development of potential pharmaceuticals.

  3. Comparisons of Upper Tropospheric Humidity Retrievals from TOVS and METEOSAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escoffier, C.; Bates, J.; Chedin, A.; Rossow, W. B.; Schmetz, J.

    1999-01-01

    Two different methods for retrieving Upper Tropospheric Humidities (UTH) from the TOVS (TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder) instruments aboard NOAA polar orbiting satellites are presented and compared. The first one, from the Environmental Technology Laboratory, computed by J. Bates and D. Jackson (hereafter BJ method), estimates UTH from a simplified radiative transfer analysis of the upper tropospheric infrared water vapor channel at wavelength measured by HIRS (6.3 micrometer). The second one results from a neural network analysis of the TOVS (HIRS and MSU) data developed at, the Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique (hereafter the 3I (Improved Initialization Inversion) method). Although the two methods give very similar retrievals in temperate regions (30-60 N and S), an absolute bias up to 16% appears in the convective zone of the tropics. The two datasets have also been compared with UTH retrievals from infrared radiance measurements in the 6.3 micrometer channel from the geostationary satellite METEOSAT (hereafter MET method). The METEOSAT retrievals are systematically drier than the TOVS-based results by an absolute bias between 5 and 25%. Despite the biases, the spatial and temporal correlations are very good. The purpose of this study is to explain the deviations observed between the three datasets. The sensitivity of UTH to air temperature and humidity profiles is analysed as are the clouds effects. Overall, the comparison of the three retrievals gives an assessment of the current uncertainties in water vapor amounts in the upper troposphere as determined from NOAA and METEOSAT satellites.

  4. Post-exercise cooling techniques in hot, humid conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barwood, Martin James; Davey, Sarah; House, James R; Tipton, Michael J

    2009-11-01

    Major sporting events are often held in hot and humid environmental conditions. Cooling techniques have been used to reduce the risk of heat illness following exercise. This study compared the efficacy of five cooling techniques, hand immersion (HI), whole body fanning (WBF), an air cooled garment (ACG), a liquid cooled garment (LCG) and a phase change garment (PCG), against a natural cooling control condition (CON) over two periods between and following exercise bouts in 31 degrees C, 70%RH air. Nine males [age 22 (3) years; height 1.80 (0.04) m; mass 69.80 (7.10) kg] exercised on a treadmill at a maximal sustainable work intensity until rectal temperature (T (re)) reached 38.5 degrees C following which they underwent a resting recovery (0-15 min; COOL 1). They then recommenced exercise until T (re) again reached 38.5 degrees C and then undertook 30 min of cooling with (0-15 min; COOL 2A), and without face fanning (15-30 min; COOL 2B). Based on mean body temperature changes (COOL 1), WBF was most effective in extracting heat: CON 99 W; WBF: 235 W; PCG: 141 W; HI: 162 W; ACG: 101 W; LCG: 49 W) as a consequence of evaporating more sweat. Therefore, WBF represents a cheap and practical means of post-exercise cooling in hot, humid conditions in a sporting setting.

  5. Using Relative Humidity Forecasts to Manage Meningitis in the Sahel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, R. E.; Adams-Forgor, A.; Akweogno, P.; Awine, T.; Dalaba, M.; Dukic, V.; Dumont, A.; Hayden, M.; Hodgson, A.; Hopson, T. M.; Hugonnet, S.; Yoksas, T. C.

    2012-12-01

    Meningitis epidemics in the Sahel occur quasi-regularly and with devastating impact. In 2008, for example, eighty-eight thousand people contracted meningitis and over five thousand died. Until very recently, the protection provided by the only available vaccine was so limited and short-lived that the only practical strategy for vaccination was reactive: waiting until an epidemic occurred in the region and then vaccinating in that region to prevent the epidemic's further growth. Even with that strategy, there were still times when demand outpaced available vaccine. While a new vaccine has recently been developed that is effective and inexpensive enough to be used more broadly and proactively, it is only effective against the strain of bacteria that causes the most common kind of bacterial meningitis. As a result, there will likely be continued need for reactive vaccination strategies. It is widely known that meningitis epidemics in the Sahel occur only in the dry season. Our project investigated this relationship, and several independent lines of evidence demonstrate a robust relationship between the onset of the rainy season, as marked by weekly average relative humidity above 40%, and the end of meningitis epidemics. These lines of evidence include statistical analysis of two years of weekly meningitis and weather data across the Sahel, cross-correlation of ten years of meningitis and weather data in the Upper East region of northern Ghana, and high-resolution weather simulations of past meningitis seasons to interpolate available weather data. We also adapted two techniques that have been successfully used in public health studies: generalized additive models, which have been used to relate air quality and health, and a linearized version of the compartmental epidemics model that has been used to understand MRSA. Based on these multiple lines of evidence, average weekly relative humidity forecast two weeks in advance appears consistently and strongly related to

  6. Thickness of the oligo-neogene sedimentary cover in the Central Depression, northern Chile (Pampa del Tamarugal, 20°45'-21°30'S), based on seismic reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, M.; Simicic, Y.; Contreras Reyes, E.; Charrier, R.

    2013-12-01

    The estimation of the Pampa de Tamarugal oligo-neogene sedimentary cover thickness from seismic interpretation is crucial for scientific and applied subjects, such as placing aquifers traps and Mesozoic-Paleogene basement top location for mining exploration drilling. The Chilean National Petroleum Company (ENAP) has explored hydrocarbon resources in the area, raising several reflection seismic lines and drilling some wells. Previous studies used the paper seismic data by determining the cover geometry and defining the basement-cover boundary. We have obtained directly SGY digital files, which allow a better definition and modeling of stratigraphy and cover thickness. This thickness was estimated by the travel time in the seismic reflection lines and the value of the p-wave propagation velocity (0.91 to 1.97 km/s for cover). The last value was obtained by density measurements of field samples, which resulted from 1,895 to 2,065 g/cm3. In the central-south part of the Pampa del Tamarugal, immediately south of Cerro Challacollo, the west-east-oriented 99_7 seismic line shows a 'basement high' whose top is at 100 m from the surface. The basement was uplift by a north-trend west-verging reverse fault and separates two sub-basins of 9.5 km and 13.8 km wide, and maximum cover thicknesses of 600 and 850 m, west and east respectively. To the north of Cerro Challacollo, the subparallel 99_6 line shows a similar geometry, and increasing the depth of the basement high top up to 350 m in the central part of the section. For seismic lines south of Cerro Challacollo, the basement high disappears and the cover thickness increases. To improve the accuracy of the cover thickness estimations, we will test directly measurements of p-wave propagation velocity in field samples of basement and cover (instead of approximations from the density measurements).

  7. Colorimetric humidity sensor based on liquid composite materials for the monitoring of food and pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgeman, Devon; Corral, Javier; Quach, Ashley; Xian, Xiaojun; Forzani, Erica

    2014-09-09

    Using supported ionic-liquid membrane (SILM)-inspired methodologies, we have synthesized, characterized, and developed a humidity sensor by coating a liquid composite material onto a hygroscopic, porous substrate. Similar to pH paper, the sensor responds to the environment's relative humidity and changes color accordingly. The humidity indicator is prepared by casting a few microliters of low-toxicity reagents on a nontoxic substrate. The sensing material is a newly synthesized liquid composite that comprises a hygroscopic medium for environmental humidity capture and a color indicator that translates the humidity level into a distinct color change. Sodium borohydride was used to form a liquid composite medium, and DenimBlu30 dye was used as a redox indicator. The liquid composite medium provides a hygroscopic response to the relative humidity, and DenimBlu30 translates the chemical changes into a visual change from yellow to blue. The borate-redox dye-based humidity sensor was prepared, and then Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and image analysis methods were used to characterize the chemical composition, optimize synthesis, and gain insight into the sensor reactivity. Test results indicated that this new sensing material can detect relative humidity in the range of 5-100% in an irreversible manner with good reproducibility and high accuracy. The sensor is a low-cost, highly sensitive, easy-to-use humidity indicator. More importantly, it can be easily packaged with products to monitor humidity levels in pharmaceutical and food packaging.

  8. Badlands in humid regions - redbed desertification in Nanxiong Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Luobin; Hua, Peng; Simonson, Scott

    2016-04-01

    The redbed badlands in Nanxiong City, China, well represent badlands in humid regions. The erosion rate in humid regions is much higher than that in arid regions and can reach 1 cm per month during the summer. The purpose of this study is to introduce the research of badlands in China, which have not been extensively studied so far, and to compare the badlands between arid and humid regions. Furthermore, the aim is to study the impact of mineralogical and chemical composition on the disintegration of soft rock in Nanxiong Basin badlands. For the purpose of this study field observations, sampling, and digging profiles were done. The mineralogical and chemical compositions of the Nanxiong Basin badland lithologies were determined by XRD, XRF and thin sections. Weathering resistance, process of weathering, and disintegration features were studied by weathering experiments under natural conditions. Weathering profiles can be easily divided into four layers: regolith, a strongly weathered layer, a poorly weathered layer, and an unweathered sediment. The depth of the weathering profile is influenced by the weathering resistance of the soft rock. Weathering resistance affects the erosion rate and evolution of landforms in badlands by influencing the rate from unweathered rock to regolith. Analyzed sediments have high content of illite and illite-smectite interstratifications. This composition of clay minerals together with poor sediment consolidation jointly leads to weathering prone sediment. The weathering and disintegration of soft rock in Nanxiong Basin badlands has a close relationship with rainfall. Sheet erosion, a kind of solid-liquid phase flow, formed in the regolith of the badland during rainfall events and can be the most instrumental to erosion. The mineral composition and liquidity plasticity index were also analyzed, and the results show that the regolith are low liquid limit silts with liquid limit of 21%-25%, plastic limit of 13%-18% and plasticity index

  9. Tack Measurements of Prepreg Tape at Variable Temperature and Humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Christopher; Palmieri, Frank L.; Forghani, Alireza; Hickmott, Curtis; Bedayat, Houman; Coxon, Brian; Poursartip, Anoush; Grimsley, Brian

    2017-01-01

    NASA’s Advanced Composites Project has established the goal of achieving a 30 percent reduction in the timeline for certification of primary composite structures for application on commercial aircraft. Prepreg tack is one of several critical parameters affecting composite manufacturing by automated fiber placement (AFP). Tack plays a central role in the prevention of wrinkles and puckers that can occur during AFP, thus knowledge of tack variation arising from a myriad of manufacturing and environmental conditions is imperative for the prediction of defects during AFP. A full design of experiments was performed to experimentally characterize tack on 0.25-inch slit-tape tow IM7/8552-1 prepreg using probe tack testing. Several process parameters (contact force, contact time, retraction speed, and probe diameter) as well as environmental parameters (temperature and humidity) were varied such that the entire parameter space could be efficiently evaluated. Mid-point experimental conditions (i.e., parameters not at either extrema) were included to enable prediction of curvature in relationships and repeat measurements were performed to characterize experimental error. Collectively, these experiments enable determination of primary dependencies as well as multi-parameter relationships. Slit-tape tow samples were mounted to the bottom plate of a rheometer parallel plate fixture using a jig to prevent modification of the active area to be interrogated with the top plate, a polished stainless steel probe, during tack testing. The probe surface was slowly brought into contact with the pre-preg surface until a pre-determined normal force was achieved (2-30 newtons). After a specified dwell time (0.02-10 seconds), during which the probe substrate interaction was maintained under displacement control, the probe was retracted from the surface (0.1-50 millimeters per second). Initial results indicated a clear dependence of tack strength on several parameters, with a particularly

  10. Study on absolute humidity influence of NRL-1 measuring apparatus for radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan Jian; Xiao Detao; Zhao Guizhi; Zhou Qingzhi; Liu Yan; Qiu Shoukang; Meng Yecheng; Xiong Xinming; Liu Xiaosong; Ma Wenrong

    2014-01-01

    The absolute humidity and temperature's effects on the NRL-1 measuring apparatus for radon were studied in this paper. By controlling the radon activity concentration of the radon laboratory in University of South China and improving the temperature and humidity adjust strategy, different correction factor values under different absolute humidities were obtained. Moreover, a correction curve between 1.90 and 14.91 g/m"3 was also attained. The results show that in the case of absolute humidity, when it is less than 2.4 g/m"3, collection efficiency of the NRL-1 measuring apparatus for radon tends to be constant, and the correction factor of the absolute humidity closes to 1. However, the correction factor increases nonlinearly along with the absolute humidity. (authors)

  11. Investigations of microelectronic humidity sensors made of composite oxides thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogossyan, A.S.; Arutyunyan, V.M.

    1996-01-01

    Basic characteristics (the moisture sensitivity, lag, hysteresis and stability) of humidity sensors made of Fe 2 O 3 thin films with different K 2 content, as well as CaSiO 3 and NaBiTi 2 O 6 films,-new materials for the humidity sensors, are investigated. A composition Fe 2 O 3 (K) is found to be optimal with respect to high moisture sensitivity, speed of response, and a linearity in a wide range of the relative humidity. A mechanism of the moisture-sensitivity of films investigated is discussed. Criteria for the design parameters of the high-impedance humidity sensors are defined with the aim to broadening of the working range of the relative humidity in a side way of low values of the humidity.10 refs

  12. Effect of Humidity in Air on Performance and Long-Term Durability of SOFCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Anke; Chen, Ming; Neufeld, Kai

    2009-01-01

    Anode supported SOFCs based on Ni-YSZ anodes, YSZ electrolytes, and LSM-YSZ cathodes were studied with respect to durability in humid air (~4%) over typically 1500 hours. Operating temperature and current density were varied between 750 and 850 oC and 0.25-0.75 A/cm2, respectively. It was found...... that the introduction of humidity affected the cell voltage under polarization of the cell and that this effect was (at least partly) reversible upon switching off the humidity, probably related to a segregation of impurities towards the three phase boundary in the presence of humidity. Generally, the studied cells...... were successfully operated in humid air under technologically relevant conditions. Improvements at the cathode/electrolyte interface made it possible to obtain highly stable cells, which can be operated under high current density and at 750 oC in humid air - conditions that are known to cause...

  13. Impact of individually controlled facially applied air movement on perceived air quality at high humidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skwarczynski, M.A. [Faculty of Environmental Engineering, Institute of Environmental Protection Engineering, Department of Indoor Environment Engineering, Lublin University of Technology, Lublin (Poland); International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Copenhagen (Denmark); Melikov, A.K.; Lyubenova, V. [International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Copenhagen (Denmark); Kaczmarczyk, J. [Faculty of Energy and Environmental Engineering, Department of Heating, Ventilation and Dust Removal Technology, Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice (Poland)

    2010-10-15

    The effect of facially applied air movement on perceived air quality (PAQ) at high humidity was studied. Thirty subjects (21 males and 9 females) participated in three, 3-h experiments performed in a climate chamber. The experimental conditions covered three combinations of relative humidity and local air velocity under a constant air temperature of 26 C, namely: 70% relative humidity without air movement, 30% relative humidity without air movement and 70% relative humidity with air movement under isothermal conditions. Personalized ventilation was used to supply room air from the front toward the upper part of the body (upper chest, head). The subjects could control the flow rate (velocity) of the supplied air in the vicinity of their bodies. The results indicate an airflow with elevated velocity applied to the face significantly improves the acceptability of the air quality at the room air temperature of 26 C and relative humidity of 70%. (author)

  14. The impact of temperature and humidity on perception and emission of indoor air pollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Lei; Clausen, Geo; Fanger, Povl Ole

    1996-01-01

    Sensory response to air polluted by five building materials under different combinations of temperature and humidity in the ranges 18°C-28°C and 30%-70% was studied in the laboratory. The experiments were designed to study separately the impact of temperature and humidity on the perception of air...... polluted by materials, and on the emission of pollutants from the materials. At all tested pollution levels of the five materials, the air was perceived significantly less acceptable with increasing temperature and humidity, and the impact of temperature and humidity on perception decreased with increasing...... pollution level. A significant linear correlation between acceptability and enthalpy of the air was found to describe the influence of temperature and humidity on perception. The impact of temperature and humidity on sensory emission was less significant than the impact on perception; however, the sensory...

  15. Development of La3+ Doped CeO2 Thick Film Humidity Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunjie Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The humidity sensitive characteristics of the sensor fabricated from 10 mol% La2O3 doped CeO2 nanopowders with particle size 17.26 nm synthesized via hydrothermal method were investigated at different frequencies. It was found that the sensor shows high humidity sensitivity, rapid response-recovery characteristics, and narrow hysteresis loop at 100 Hz in the relative humidity range from 11% to 95%. The impedance of the sensor decreases by about five orders of magnitude as relative humidity increases. The maximum humidity hysteresis is about 6% RH, and the response and recovery time is 12 and 13 s, respectively. These results indicate that the nanosized La2O3 doped CeO2 powder has potential application as high-performance humidity sensor.

  16. Conductivity at Low Humidity of Materials Derived from Ferroxane Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Lapina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Carboxylic-acid-stabilised γ-FeOOH particles (ferroxanes are synthesized using a precipitation from aqueous solution, and a following reaction with acetic acid. The materials produced with these powders are investigated by XRD, SEM, nitrogen adsorption-desorption, and impedance spectroscopy. Conductivity of both sintered and unsintered materials decreases strongly with a decrease in water partial pressure in the atmosphere during the test. The highest conductivity (7·10−3 S cm−1 is measured in air (pH2O = 0.037 atm at room temperature on sintered material. The conductivity values are compared with other works in the literature and the dependence of conductivity on surface area and pore size is discussed. It is suggested that both unsintered and sintered materials act as proton conductors at room temperature under moderate humidity conditions.

  17. Humidity Distributions in Multilayered Walls of High-rise Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamayunova, Olga; Musorina, Tatiana; Ishkov, Alexander

    2018-03-01

    The limitation of free territories in large cities is the main reason for the active development of high-rise construction. Given the large-scale projects of high-rise buildings in recent years in Russia and abroad and their huge energy consumption, one of the fundamental principles in the design and reconstruction is the use of energy-efficient technologies. The main heat loss in buildings occurs through enclosing structures. However, not always the heat-resistant wall will be energy-efficient and dry at the same time (perhaps waterlogging). Temperature and humidity distributions in multilayer walls were studied in the paper, and the interrelation of other thermophysical characteristics was analyzed.

  18. Humidity Sensing Behavior of Polyaniline / Strontium Arsenate Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machappa T.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The response of conducting Polyaniline (PANI / Ceramic (Sr3(AsO42 composites system to air moisture environment is studied. The conducting PANI and its composites are prepared by in situ polymerization technique. These prepared samples were characterized by XRD, FTIR & SEM, which confirms crystallinity, composite formation and porosity of the samples. The temperature dependent conductivity measurement shows the thermally activated behavior, where the conductivity increases with increase in temperature. The decrease in electrical resistance with change in relative humidity (RH over broad range (ranging between 20 to 95 % is due to the increase in surface electrical conductivity resulting from moisture absorption and due to capillary condensation of water causing increase in conductivity within the sensing materials.

  19. First stages of zinc runoff in humid tropical climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meraz, E.; Veleva, L.; Acosta, M.

    2007-01-01

    Frequently used metals in building application are Zinc and hot dip galvanized steel. The zinc has a relatively good atmospheric resistance, due to its oxidation in air and formation of protective layer. However, some of the zinc corrosion products can be dissolved by pluvial precipitations and water condensed on the metal surface. This process is called metal runoff. In order to estimate el zinc runoff in humid tropical climate, since its firs stages, samples of pure zinc and hot dip galvanized steel have been exposed during 2 years in outdoor atmosphere (rural and urban). The data reveal high annual values of zinc runoff (8,20-12,40±0.30 g/m''2 ano), being this process 80% of total mass loss of corroded zinc. The runoff and corrosion processes are more accelerated for zinc, than that of galvanized steel. The principal factors that control the runoff process are discussed. (Author) 48 refs

  20. Humidity Sensing Properties of Surface Modified Polyaniline Metal Oxide Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Nagaraju

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyaniline- (PANI praseodymium Oxide (Pr2O3 composites have been synthesized by in situ polymerization method with different weight percentages. The synthesized composites have been characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The temperature dependent conductivity shows that the conductivity is due to the hopping of polarons and bipolarons. These composites show negative thermal coefficient (α behavior as a function of temperature, which is characteristic behavior of semiconducting materials. Sensor studies have been carried out by two-probe method and found that the sensitivity increases with increase in % RH. It is noticed that stability increase is due to the presence of Pr2O3 in polyaniline up to 30 wt%. A fast recovery and response time along with high sensitivity make these composites suitable for humidity sensors.