WorldWideScience

Sample records for humid air effects

  1. Environmental dust effects on aluminum surfaces in humid air ambient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilbas, Bekir Sami; Hassan, Ghassan; Ali, Haider; Al-Aqeeli, Nasser

    2017-04-01

    Environmental dusts settle on surfaces and influence the performance of concentrated solar energy harvesting devices, such as aluminum troughs. The characteristics of environmental dust and the effects of mud formed from the dust particles as a result of water condensing in humid air conditions on an aluminum wafer surface are examined. The dissolution of alkaline and alkaline earth compounds in water condensate form a chemically active mud liquid with pH 8.2. Due to gravity, the mud liquid settles at the interface of the mud and the aluminum surface while forming locally scattered patches of liquid films. Once the mud liquid dries, adhesion work to remove the dry mud increases significantly. The mud liquid gives rise to the formation of pinholes and local pit sites on the aluminum surface. Morphological changes due to pit sites and residues of the dry mud on the aluminum surface lower the surface reflection after the removal of the dry mud from the surface. The characteristics of the aluminum surface can address the dust/mud-related limitations of reflective surfaces and may have implications for the reductions in the efficiencies of solar concentrated power systems.

  2. Effect of Air Relative Humidity Harvest on Soil Moisture Content under Moroccan Climatic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Khadir Lakhal

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we aim to analyse the effect of the harvest of air relative humidity on soil water content. Some experiments were conducted on hilly areas with various hypsographic and microclimatic conditions greatly affecting daily fluctuations of air relative humidity. The metrological data’s were obtained by using a Campbell Scientific equipments station recorder on data loggers every half hour. Time Domain Reflectometers (TDR is used for calculating water content at different soil layers. The effect of many parameters such as: minimal and maximal air atmospheric humidity, potential of soil water and minimal temperature of air on harvesting air relative humidity is also discussed. The experimental results indicate that soil moisture content in the upper soil layer fluctuates with the same manner to diurnal fluctuation of relative air humidity. These fluctuations due to the harvest of relative air humidity decreased with increasing soil depth and daily amplitude of relative air humidity. The water adsorbed according to this phenomenon increased with increasing maximal relative and decreasing minimal temperature. The contribution of this soil water collected is about 40% of losses due to evaporation process. The correlation between principal climatic data and soil water adsorption by harvest relative air humidity is presented in this paper in order to incorporate it in the total water balance during water infiltration.

  3. Effect of Humidity in Air on Performance and Long-Term Durability of SOFCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Anke; Chen, Ming; Neufeld, Kai

    2009-01-01

    Anode supported SOFCs based on Ni-YSZ anodes, YSZ electrolytes, and LSM-YSZ cathodes were studied with respect to durability in humid air (~4%) over typically 1500 hours. Operating temperature and current density were varied between 750 and 850 oC and 0.25-0.75 A/cm2, respectively. It was found...... that the introduction of humidity affected the cell voltage under polarization of the cell and that this effect was (at least partly) reversible upon switching off the humidity, probably related to a segregation of impurities towards the three phase boundary in the presence of humidity. Generally, the studied cells...... were successfully operated in humid air under technologically relevant conditions. Improvements at the cathode/electrolyte interface made it possible to obtain highly stable cells, which can be operated under high current density and at 750 oC in humid air - conditions that are known to cause...

  4. Effect of Humidity in Air on Performance and Long-Term Durability of SOFCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Anke; Neufeld, Kai; Liu, Yi-Lin

    2010-01-01

    Anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) based on Ni–yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) anodes, YSZ electrolytes, and lanthanum strontium manganite (LSM)–YSZ cathodes were studied with respect to durability in humid air (~4%) typically over 1500 h. Operating temperature and current density were...... varied between 750 and 850°C and 0.25–0.75 A/cm2, respectively. The introduction of humidity affected the cell voltage under polarization of the cell, and this effect was (at least partly) reversible upon switching off the humidity. Generally, the studied cells were operated in humid air under...... technologically relevant conditions over more than 1500 h. Improvements at the cathode/electrolyte interface made it possible to obtain highly stable cells, which can be operated under high current density and at 750°C in humid air, conditions that cause significant cell voltage degradation in dry air on cells...

  5. Season and humidity dependence of the effects of air pollution on COPD hospitalizations in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Hong; Yu, Ignatius Tak Sun; Wang, Xiaorong; Tian, Linwei; Tse, Lap Ah; Wong, Tze Wai

    2013-09-01

    Associations between ambient pollution and respiratory morbidity including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have been confirmed. Weather factors, such as temperature, season and relative humidity (RH), may modify the effects of air pollution. This time series study was conducted to examine whether the effects of air pollution on emergency COPD hospital admissions in Hong Kong varied across seasons and RH levels, and explore the possible joint modification of season and RH on the effects of pollution. Data of daily air pollution concentrations mean temperature and RH, and COPD hospital admissions from 1998 to 2007 were collected. Generalized additive Poisson models with interaction terms were used to estimate the effects of pollution across seasons and RH levels. We observed an increase in the detrimental effects of air pollution in the cool season and on low humidity days. On the cool and dry days, a 10 μg m-3 increment of lag03 exposure was associated with an increase in emergency COPD admissions by 1.76% (95%CI: 1.19-2.34%), 3.43% (95%CI: 2.80-4.07%), and 1.99% (95%CI: 0.90-3.09%) for nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), and sulfur dioxide (SO2), respectively, all of which were statistically significantly higher than those on the other days. No consistent modification of weather factors was found for the effects of particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm (PM10). The results suggested that season and RH jointly modified the effects of gaseous pollutants, resulting in increased emergency COPD hospitalizations on the cool and dry days.

  6. Effects of Ambient Humidity on Plant Growth Enhancement by Atmospheric Air Plasma Irradiation to Plant Seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarinont, Thapanut; Amano, Takaaki; Koga, Kazunori; Shiratani, Masaharu

    2015-09-01

    Humidity is an important factor for plasma-bio applications because composition of species generated by atmospheric pressure plasmas significantly depends on the humidity. Here we have examined effects of humidity on the growth enhancement to study the mechanism. Experiments were carried out with a scalable DBD device. 10 seeds of Raphanus sativus L. were set for x = 5 mm and y = 3 mm below the electrodes. The humidity Hair was 10 - 90 %Rh. The ratio of length of plants with plasma irradiation to that of control increases from 1.2 for Hair = 10 %Rh to 2.5 for Hair = 50 %Rh. The ratio is 2.5 for Hair = 50-90 %Rh. This humidity dependence is similar to the humidity dependence of O2+-H2O,H3O*, NO2--H2Oand NO3--H2Odensities, whereas it is different from that of other species such as O3, NO, and so on. The similarity gives information on key species for the growth enhancement.

  7. Air humidity and water pressure effects on the performance of air-cathode microbial fuel cell cathodes

    KAUST Repository

    Ahn, Yongtae

    2014-02-01

    To better understand how air cathode performance is affected by air humidification, microbial fuel cells were operated under different humidity conditions or water pressure conditions. Maximum power density decreased from 1130 ± 30 mW m-2 with dry air to 980 ± 80 mW m -2 with water-saturated air. When the cathode was exposed to higher water pressures by placing the cathode in a horizontal position, with the cathode oriented so it was on the reactor bottom, power was reduced for both with dry (1030 ± 130 mW m-2) and water-saturated (390 ± 190 mW m-2) air. Decreased performance was partly due to water flooding of the catalyst, which would hinder oxygen diffusion to the catalyst. However, drying used cathodes did not improve performance in electrochemical tests. Soaking the cathode in a weak acid solution, but not deionized water, mostly restored performance (960 ± 60 mW m-2), suggesting that there was salt precipitation in the cathode that was enhanced by higher relative humidity or water pressure. These results showed that cathode performance could be adversely affected by both flooding and the subsequent salt precipitation, and therefore control of air humidity and water pressure may need to be considered for long-term MFC operation. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Air humidity requirements for human comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Fanger, Povl Ole

    1999-01-01

    Upper humidity limits for the comfort zone determined from two recently presented models for predicting discomfort due to skin humidity and insufficient respiratory cooling are proposed. The proposed limits are compared with the maximum permissible humidity level prescribed in existing standards...... for the thermal indoor environment. The skin humidity model predicts discomfort as a function of the relative humidity of the skin, which is determined by existing models for human heat and moisture transfer based on environmental parameters, clothing characteristics and activity level. The respiratory model...... predicts discomfort as a function of the driving forces for heat loss from the respiratory tract, namely the air temperature and humidity of the surrounding air. An upper humidity limit based on a relative skin humidity of 0.54, corresponding to 20% dissatisfied, results in a maximum permissible humidity...

  9. Resuspension of biological particles from indoor surfaces: Effects of humidity and air swirl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimifard, Parichehr; Rim, Donghyun; Gomes, Carlos; Kremer, Paul; Freihaut, James D

    2017-04-01

    Human exposure to airborne particles can lead to adverse health outcomes such as respiratory and allergic symptoms. Understanding the transport mechanism of respirable particles in occupied spaces is a first step towards assessing inhalation exposure. Several studies have contributed to the current knowledge of particle resuspension from indoor surfaces; however, few published studies are available on resuspension of biological particles from indoor surfaces. The objective of this study is to investigate the impacts of humidity and air swirl on resuspension of biological particles from floor and duct surfaces. Controlled laboratory experiments were conducted under varying degrees of humidity and airflow conditions. Resuspension rates of five types of particles (quartz, dust mite, cat fur, dog fur, and bacterial spore-Bacillus thuringiensis as an anthrax simulant) were determined for two types of floor surface (carpet and linoleum) and a duct surface (galvanized sheet metal). The results show that the particle property of being hydrophilic or hydrophobic plays an important role in particle resuspension rate. Resuspension rates of hydrophilic dust mite particles increase up to two orders of magnitude as relative humidity (RH) decreased from 80% to 10% at 25°C. However, resuspension rates of cat fur and dog fur particles that are hydrophobic are within the measurement error range (±15%) over 10-80% RH. With regard to resuspension of bacterial spores (Bacillus thuringiensis) from a duct surface, the resuspension rates are substantially affected by air swirl velocity and particle size. However, no discernible increase in particle resuspension was observed with duct vibration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. 40 CFR 89.326 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.326 Engine intake air humidity measurement. (a) Humidity conditioned air supply. Air that has had its absolute humidity altered is considered humidity- conditioned air. For this...

  11. The effects of different air velocities on heat storage and body temperature in humans cycling in a hot, humid environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, A G; Dugas, J P; Tucker, R; Lambert, M I; Noakes, T D

    2005-03-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine (i) the effects of different facing air velocities on body temperature and heat storage during exercise in hot environmental conditions and (ii) the effects of ingesting fluids at two different rates on thermoregulation during exercise in hot conditions with higher air velocities. On five occasions nine subjects cycled for 2 h at 33.0 +/- 0.4 degrees C with a relative humidity of 59 +/- 3%. Air velocity was maintained at 0.2 km h(-1) (0 WS), 9.9 +/- 0.3 km h(-1) (10 WS), 33.3 +/-2.2 km h(-1) (100 WS) and 50.1 +/- 3.2 km h(-1) (150 WS) while subjects replaced 58.8 +/- 6.8% of sweat losses. In the fifth condition, air velocity was maintained at 33.7 +/- 2.2 km h(-1) and subjects replaced 80.0 +/- 6.8% of sweat losses (100.80 WS). Heat storage, body temperature and rating of perceived exertion were higher in 0 and 10 WS compared with all other conditions. There were no differences in any measured variable between 100 and 150 WS, or between 100 and 100.80 WS. Thus, the evaporative capacity of the environment is increased with higher air velocities, reducing heat storage and body temperature. At higher air velocities, a higher rate of fluid ingestion did not influence heat storage, body temperature or sweat rate. The finding of previous laboratory studies showing a beneficial effect of high rates of fluid ingestion on thermoregulation during exercise in hot, humid, windstill conditions cannot be extrapolated to out-of-doors exercise in which facing air velocities are seldom lower than the athlete's rate of forward progression.

  12. 40 CFR 91.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement... Provisions § 91.310 Engine intake air humidity measurement. This section refers to engines which are supplied... air, the ambient testcell humidity measurement may be used. (a) Humidity conditioned air supply. Air...

  13. Determining the long-term effects of H₂S concentration, relative humidity and air temperature on concrete sewer corrosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guangming; Keller, Jurg; Bond, Philip L

    2014-11-15

    Many studies of sewer corrosion are performed in accelerated conditions that are not representing the actual corrosion processes. This study investigated the effects of various factors over 3.5 years under controlled conditions simulating the sewer environment. Concrete coupons prepared from precorroded sewers were exposed, both in the gas phase and partially submerged in wastewater, in laboratory controlled corrosion chambers. Over the 45 month exposure period, three environmental factors of H2S concentration, relative humidity and air temperature were controlled at different levels in the corrosion chambers. A total of 36 exposure conditions were investigated to determine the long term effects of these factors by regular retrieval of concrete coupons for detailed analysis of surface pH, corrosion layer sulfate levels and concrete loss. Corrosion rates were also determined for different exposure periods. It was found that the corrosion rate of both gas-phase and partially-submerged coupons was positively correlated with the H2S concentration in the gas phase. Relative humidity played also a role for the corrosion activity of the gas-phase coupons. However, the partially-submerged coupons were not affected by humidity as the surfaces of these coupons were saturated due to capillary suction of sewage on the coupon surface. The effect of temperature on corrosion activity varied and possibly the acclimation of corrosion-inducing microbes to temperature mitigated effects of that factor. It was apparent that biological sulfide oxidation was not the limiting step of the overall corrosion process. These findings provide real insights into the long-term effects of these key environmental factors on the sewer corrosion processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of occupant behavior and air-conditioner controls on humidity in typical and high-efficiency homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler, Jon; Munk, Jeffrey; Woods, Jason

    2018-04-01

    Increasing insulation levels and improved windows are reducing sensible cooling loads in high-efficiency homes. This trend raises concerns that the resulting shift in the balance of sensible and latent cooling loads may result in higher indoor humidity, occupant discomfort, and stunted adoption of high-efficiency homes. This study utilizes established moisture-buffering and air-conditioner latent degradation models in conjunction with an approach to stochastically model internal gains. Building loads and indoor humidity levels are compared for simulations of typical new construction homes and high-efficiency homes in 10 US cities. The sensitivity of indoor humidity to changes in cooling set point, air-conditioner capacity, and blower control parameters are evaluated. The results show that high-efficiency homes in humid climates have cooling loads with a higher fraction of latent loads than the typical new construction home, resulting in higher indoor humidity. Reducing the cooling set point is the easiest method to reduce indoor humidity, but it is not energy efficient, and overcooling may lead to occupant discomfort. Eliminating the blower operation at the end of cooling cycles and reducing the cooling airflow rate also reduce indoor humidity and with a smaller impact on energy use and comfort.

  15. Upper limits for air humidity based on human comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Fanger, Povl Ole; Jørgensen, Anette S.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to verify the hypothesis that insufficient respiratory cooling and a high level of skin humidity are two reasons for thermal discomfort at high air humidities, and to prescribe upper limits for humidity based on discomfort due to elevated skin humidity and insufficient...... respiratory cooling. Human subjects perceived the condition of their skin to be less acceptable with increasing skin humidity. Inhaled air was rated warmer, more stuffy and less acceptable with increasing air humidity and temperature. Based on the subjects' comfort responses, new upper limits for air humidity...... are proposed. The limits relating to respiratory requirements are much more stringent than those relating to skin humidity....

  16. 40 CFR 90.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.310 Engine intake air humidity measurement. This section refers to... for the engine intake air, the ambient test cell humidity measurement may be used. (a) Humidity...

  17. Impact of individually controlled facially applied air movement on perceived air quality at high humidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skwarczynski, Mariusz; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Kaczmarczyk, J.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of facially applied air movement on perceived air quality (PAQ) at high humidity was studied. Thirty subjects (21 males and 9 females) participated in three, 3-h experiments performed in a climate chamber. The experimental conditions covered three combinations of relative humidity...

  18. Enhancement of the deposition of ultrafine secondary organic aerosols by the negative air ion and the effect of relative humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kuo-Pin

    2012-11-01

    Deposition is an important process for the removal of aerosol particles. Negative air ion (NAI) generators can charge the ultrafine airborne particles and enhance their deposition rate. However, many NAI generators may also emit ozone and increase the concentration of particles in the presence of biogenic volatile organic compounds owing to the secondary organic aerosol (SOA) production. To validate the effectiveness of NAI generator the authors investigated the enhancement effect of an NAI generator on the deposition of the ultrafine SOAs generated from the ozonolysis of d-limonene in a test chamber under controlled ventilation rate and relative humidity (RH). The experimental results demonstrated that compared with other effects, including the gravity, particle eddy diffusion, and the Brownian diffusion, the effect of NAIs is the most dominate one on the deposition of SOA particles onto the wall surface in the near-wall region (generator could efficiently enhance the deposition rate by an enhancement factor ranging from 8.17 +/- 0.38 to 25.3 +/- 1.1, with a low ozone production rate. This NAI generator had better performance on the deposition of the SOAs with smaller particle sizes and it performed even better under higher RH. The enhancement effect of the NAI generator was related to its high NAI production and electric field strength.

  19. The effect of ambient ozone and humidity on the performance of nylon and Teflon filters used in ambient air monitoring filter-pack systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    PE Padgett

    2010-01-01

    Nylon and Teflon filter media are frequently used for monitoring ambient air pollutants. These media are subject to many environmental factors that may influence adsorption and retention of particulate and gaseous nitrogenous pollutants. This study evaluated the effects of ozone and humidity on the efficacy of nylon and Teflon filters used in the US dry deposition...

  20. Self-consistent plasma chemistry model for surface microdischarge in humid air including effects of ohmic heating and gas flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Changho; Yoon, Sung-Young; Eom, Sangheum; Park, Seungil; Kim, Seong Bong; Ryu, Seungmin; Yoo, Suk Jae

    2017-10-01

    A numerical model is presented for surface microdischarges (SMDs) in flowing humid air at atmospheric pressure, to investigate the effects of the direct ohmic heating of gases in the discharge layer, and the transports of heat and particles by gas flow. Using a simplified configuration of heat transfer and gas flow, the proposed model calculated not only the densities of neutral species but also the temperatures of gases as time dependent variables. The calculated dynamics for various reactive oxygen and nitrogen species showed reasonable agreement with the experimental results obtained by Fourier transformed infrared absorption spectroscopy, while the calculated dynamics without ohmic heating of gases in the discharge layer showed significant disagreement. These results imply that local ohmic heating of the thin discharge layer by the microdischarge itself considerably affected the rate constants of the temperature dependent chemical reactions. The dynamics of the neutral species were also affected by gas flow, both directly through particle transport, and indirectly through cooling. Accordingly, to properly simulate the dynamics of reactive neutral species in SMDs, plasma chemistry models should treat plasmas as sources of both particles and heat which can be deliberately transported by gas flow.

  1. Effects of ambient air temperature, humidity and rainfall on annual survival of adult little penguins Eudyptula minor in southeastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganendran, L B; Sidhu, L A; Catchpole, E A; Chambers, L E; Dann, P

    2016-08-01

    Seabirds are subject to the influences of local climate variables during periods of land-based activities such as breeding and, for some species, moult; particularly if they undergo a catastrophic moult (complete simultaneous moult) as do penguins. We investigated potential relationships between adult penguin survival and land-based climate variables (ambient air temperature, humidity and rainfall) using 46 years of mark-recapture data of little penguins Eudyptula minor gathered at a breeding colony on Phillip Island in southeastern Australia. Our results showed that adult penguin survival had a stronger association with land-based climate variables during the moult period, when birds were unable to go to sea for up to 3 weeks, than during the breeding period, when birds could sacrifice breeding success in favour of survival. Annual adult survival probability was positively associated with humidity during moult and negatively associated with rainfall during moult. Prolonged heat during breeding and moult had a negative association with annual adult survival. Local climate projections suggest increasing days of high temperatures, fewer days of rainfall which will result in more droughts (and by implication, lower humidity) and more extreme rainfall events. All of these predicted climate changes are expected to have a negative impact on adult penguin survival.

  2. Effects of ambient air temperature, humidity and rainfall on annual survival of adult little penguins Eudyptula minor in southeastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganendran, L. B.; Sidhu, L. A.; Catchpole, E. A.; Chambers, L. E.; Dann, P.

    2016-08-01

    Seabirds are subject to the influences of local climate variables during periods of land-based activities such as breeding and, for some species, moult; particularly if they undergo a catastrophic moult (complete simultaneous moult) as do penguins. We investigated potential relationships between adult penguin survival and land-based climate variables (ambient air temperature, humidity and rainfall) using 46 years of mark-recapture data of little penguins Eudyptula minor gathered at a breeding colony on Phillip Island in southeastern Australia. Our results showed that adult penguin survival had a stronger association with land-based climate variables during the moult period, when birds were unable to go to sea for up to 3 weeks, than during the breeding period, when birds could sacrifice breeding success in favour of survival. Annual adult survival probability was positively associated with humidity during moult and negatively associated with rainfall during moult. Prolonged heat during breeding and moult had a negative association with annual adult survival. Local climate projections suggest increasing days of high temperatures, fewer days of rainfall which will result in more droughts (and by implication, lower humidity) and more extreme rainfall events. All of these predicted climate changes are expected to have a negative impact on adult penguin survival.

  3. Calculation principles of humid air in a reversed Brayton cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backman, J. [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland). Dept. of Energy Technology

    1997-12-31

    The article presents a calculation method for reversed Brayton cycle that uses humid air as working medium. The reversed Brayton cycle can be employed as an air dryer, a heat pump or a refrigerating machine. In this research the use of humid air as a working fluid has an environmental advantage, as well. In this method especially the expansion process in the turbine is important because of the condensation of the water vapour in the humid air. This physical phenomena can have significant effects on the level of performance of the application. The expansion process differs physically from the compression process, when the water vapour in the humid air begins to condensate. In the thermodynamic equilibrium of the flow, the water vapour pressure in humid air cannot exceed the pressure of saturated water vapour in corresponding temperature. Expansion calculation during operation around the saturation zone is based on a quasistatic expansion, in which the system after the turbine is in thermodynamical equilibrium. The state parameters are at every moment defined by the equation of state, and there is no supercooling in the vapour. Following simplifications are used in the calculations: The system is assumed to be adiabatic. This means that there is no heat transfer to the surroundings. This is a common practice, when the temperature differences are moderate as here; The power of the cooling is omitted. The cooling construction is very dependent on the machine and the distribution of the losses; The flow is assumed to be one-dimensional, steady-state and homogenous. The water vapour condensing in the turbine can cause errors, but the errors are mainly included in the efficiency calculation. (author) 11 refs.

  4. Acoustic method for measuring air temperature and humidity in rooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanev, N. G.

    2014-05-01

    A method is proposed to determine air temperature and humidity in rooms with a system of sound sources and receivers, making it possible to find the sound velocity and reverberation time. Nomograms for determining the air temperature and relative air humidity are constructed from the found sound velocity and time reverberation values. The required accuracy of measuring these parameters is estimated.

  5. Water Collection from Air Humidity in Bahrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahman. Nidal A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Kingdom of Bahrain falls geographically in one of the driest regions in the world. Conventional fresh surface water bodies, such as rivers and lakes, are nonexistent and for water consumption, Bahrain prominently relies on the desalination of sea water. This paper presents an ongoing project that is being pursued by a group of student and their advising professors to investigate the viability of extracting water from air humidity. Dehumidifiers have been utilized as water extraction devices. Those devices have been distributed on six areas that were selected based on a rigorous geospatial modeling of historical meteorological data. The areas fall in residential and industrial neighborhoods that are located in the main island and the island of Muharraq. Water samples have been collected three times every week since May of 2016 and the collection process will continue until May of 2017. The collected water samples have been analyzed against numerous variables individually and in combinations including: amount of water collected per hour versus geographical location, amount of water collected per hour versus meteorological factors, suitability of collected water for potable human consumption, detection of air pollution in the areas of collection and the economy of this method of water collection in comparison to other nonconventional methods. An overview of the completed analysis results is presented in this paper.

  6. Research of the Temperature and Humidity Processes in the Air Conditioning Apparatus Varying Air Ion Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchenko V. G.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To create comfortable conveniences for people in the room, we have to process the indoor air in the AC apparatus. Depending on given air parameters in the room, the air processing comprises the next steps: heating, cooling, wetting, drying. Except the compliance of the temperature and humidity parameters of air, we must control its ionic composition. Thereby, the experimental analysis of the air preparing in the AC apparatus is given in this article. Thank to that analysis, we can estimate the ionic and deionic impact on the air space in the specific processes of the air preparing. According to the results of experiments, we have identified, that the air temperature varying does not have significant effect on the ionic concentration. The ionic increasing after electric heater is not associated with air temperature. It is the consequence of the electron extrication from the surface of the heating element. Reducing ion moving the high air humidity decreases the concentration of the lightweight ions. The increasing of the ions in the spray-type air washers is explained by ballo-electric effect of spraying water drops, but not the air humidity rising.

  7. A physically based analytical spatial air temperature and humidity model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang Yang; Theodore A. Endreny; David J. Nowak

    2013-01-01

    Spatial variation of urban surface air temperature and humidity influences human thermal comfort, the settling rate of atmospheric pollutants, and plant physiology and growth. Given the lack of observations, we developed a Physically based Analytical Spatial Air Temperature and Humidity (PASATH) model. The PASATH model calculates spatial solar radiation and heat...

  8. 40 CFR 1065.670 - NOX intake-air humidity and temperature corrections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... temperature corrections. 1065.670 Section 1065.670 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... NOX intake-air humidity and temperature corrections. See the standard-setting part to determine if you may correct NOX emissions for the effects of intake-air humidity or temperature. Use the NOX intake...

  9. Numerical Modelling Of Humid Air Flow Around A Porous Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohojło-Wiśniewska Aneta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an example of humid air flow around a single head of Chinese cabbage under conditions of complex heat transfer. This kind of numerical simulation allows us to create a heat and humidity transfer model between the Chinese cabbage and the flowing humid air. The calculations utilize the heat transfer model in porous medium, which includes the temperature difference between the solid (vegetable tissue and fluid (air phases of the porous medium. Modelling and calculations were performed in ANSYS Fluent 14.5 software.

  10. [Effect of air humidity on traditional Chinese medicine extract of spray drying process and prediction of its powder stability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yan; Xie, Yin; Zheng, Long-jin; Liu, Wei; Rao, Xiao-yong; Luo, Xiao-jian

    2015-02-01

    In order to solve the adhesion and the softening problems of traditional Chinese medicine extract during spray drying, a new method of adding dehumidified air into spray drying process was proposed, and the storage stability conditions of extract powder could be predicted. Kouyanqing extract was taken as model drug to investigate on the wet air (RH = 70%) and dry air conditions of spray drying. Under the dry air condition, the influence of the spray drying result with different air compression ratio and the spray-dried powder properties (extract powder recovery rate, adhesion percentage, water content, angle of repose, compression ratio, particle size and distribution) with 100, 110, 120, 130, 140 °C inlet temperature were studied. The hygroscopic investigation and Tg value with different moisture content of ideal powder were determined. The water activity-equilibrium moisture content (aw-EMC) and the equilibrium moisture content-Tg (EMC-Tg) relationships were fitted by GAB equation and Gordon-Taylor model respectively, and the state diagram of kouyanqing powder was obtained to guide the rational storage conditions. The study found that in the condition of dry air, the extract powder water content decreased with the increase of air compression ratio and the spray drying effect with air compression ratio of 100% was the best performance; in the condition of wet air, the extract powder with high water content and low yield, and the value were 4.26% and 16.73 °C, while, in the dry air condition the values were 2.43% and 24.86 °C with the same other instru- ment parameters. From the analysis of kouyanqing powder state diagram, in order to keep the stability, the critical water content of 3.42% and the critical water content of 0.188. As the water decreased Tg value of extract powder is the major problem of causing adhesion and softening during spray drying, it is meaningful to aid dehumidified air during the process.

  11. Effect of High Temperature Storage in Vacuum, Air, and Humid Conditions on Degradation of Gold/Aluminum Wire Bonds in PEMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teverovsky, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    Microcircuits encapsulated in three plastic package styles were stored in different environments at temperatures varying from 130 C to 225 C for up to 4,000 hours in some cases. To assess the effect of oxygen, the parts were aged at high temperatures in air and in vacuum chambers. The effect of humidity was evaluated during long-term highly accelerated temperature and humidity stress testing (HAST) at temperatures of 130 C and 150 C. High temperature storage testing of decapsulated microcircuits in air, vacuum, and HAST chambers was carried out to evaluate the role of molding compounds in the environmentally-induced degradation and failure of wire bonds (WB). This paper reports on accelerating factors of environment and molding compound on WB failures. It has been shown that all environments, including oxygen, moisture, and the presence of molding compounds reduce time-to-failures compared to unencapsulated devices in vacuum conditions. The mechanism of the environmental effect on KB degradation is discussed.

  12. HUMID AIR TURBINE CYCLE TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard Tuthill

    2002-07-18

    The Humid Air Turbine (HAT) Cycle Technology Development Program focused on obtaining HAT cycle combustor technology that will be the foundation of future products. The work carried out under the auspices of the HAT Program built on the extensive low emissions stationary gas turbine work performed in the past by Pratt & Whitney (P&W). This Program is an integral part of technology base development within the Advanced Turbine Systems Program at the Department of Energy (DOE) and its experiments stretched over 5 years. The goal of the project was to fill in technological data gaps in the development of the HAT cycle and identify a combustor configuration that would efficiently burn high moisture, high-pressure gaseous fuels with low emissions. The major emphasis will be on the development of kinetic data, computer modeling, and evaluations of combustor configurations. The Program commenced during the 4th Quarter of 1996 and closed in the 4th Quarter of 2001. It teamed the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) with P&W, the United Technologies Research Center (UTRC), and a subcontractor on-site at UTRC, kraftWork Systems Inc. The execution of the program started with bench-top experiments that were conducted at UTRC for extending kinetic mechanisms to HAT cycle temperature, pressure, and moisture conditions. The fundamental data generated in the bench-top experiments was incorporated into the analytical tools available at P&W to design the fuel injectors and combustors. The NETL then used the hardware to conduct combustion rig experiments to evaluate the performance of the combustion systems at elevated pressure and temperature conditions representative of the HAT cycle. The results were integrated into systems analysis done by kraftWork to verify that sufficient understanding of the technology had been achieved and that large-scale technological application and demonstration could be undertaken as follow-on activity. An optional program extended the

  13. The effects of excessive humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R B

    1998-06-01

    Humidification devices and techniques can expose the airway mucosa to a wide range of gas temperatures and humidities, some of which are excessive and may cause injury. Humidified gas is a carrier of both water and energy. The volume of water in the gas stream depends on whether the water is in a molecular form (vapor), particulate form (aerosol), or bulk form (liquid). The energy content of gas stream is the sum of the sensible heat (temperature) of the air and any water droplets in it and the heat of vaporization (latent energy) of any water vapor present. Latent heat energy is much larger than sensible heat energy, so saturated air contains much more energy than dry air. Thus every breath contains a water volume and energy (thermal) challenge to the airway mucosa. When the challenge exceeds the homeostatic mechanisms airway dysfunction begins, starting at the cellular and secretion level and progressing to whole airway function. A large challenge will result in quick progression of dysfunction. Early dysfunction is generally reversible, however, so large challenges with short exposure times may not cause irreversible injury. The mechanisms of airway injury owing to excess water are not well studied. The observation of its effects lends itself to some general conclusions, however. Alterations in the ventilation-perfusion ratio, decrease in vital capacity and compilance, and atelectasis are suggestive of partial or full occlusion of small airways. Changes in surface tension and alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient are consistent with flooding of alveoli. There also may be osmotic challenges to mucosal cell function as evidenced by the different reaction rates with hyper- and hypotonic saline. The reaction to nonisotonic saline also may partly explain increases in specific airway resistance. Aerosolized water and instilled water may be hazardous because of their demonstrated potential for delivering excessive water to the airway. Their use for airway humidification or

  14. Modeling Validation and Control Analysis for Controlled Temperature and Humidity of Air Conditioning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jing-Nang; Lin, Tsung-Min

    2014-01-01

    This study constructs an energy based model of thermal system for controlled temperature and humidity air conditioning system, and introduces the influence of the mass flow rate, heater and humidifier for proposed control criteria to achieve the controlled temperature and humidity of air conditioning system. Then, the reliability of proposed thermal system model is established by both MATLAB dynamic simulation and the literature validation. Finally, the PID control strategy is applied for controlling the air mass flow rate, humidifying capacity, and heating, capacity. The simulation results show that the temperature and humidity are stable at 541 sec, the disturbance of temperature is only 0.14°C, 0006 kgw/kgda in steady-state error of humidity ratio, and the error rate is only 7.5%. The results prove that the proposed system is an effective controlled temperature and humidity of an air conditioning system. PMID:25250390

  15. Modeling validation and control analysis for controlled temperature and humidity of air conditioning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jing-Nang; Lin, Tsung-Min; Chen, Chien-Chih

    2014-01-01

    This study constructs an energy based model of thermal system for controlled temperature and humidity air conditioning system, and introduces the influence of the mass flow rate, heater and humidifier for proposed control criteria to achieve the controlled temperature and humidity of air conditioning system. Then, the reliability of proposed thermal system model is established by both MATLAB dynamic simulation and the literature validation. Finally, the PID control strategy is applied for controlling the air mass flow rate, humidifying capacity, and heating, capacity. The simulation results show that the temperature and humidity are stable at 541 sec, the disturbance of temperature is only 0.14 °C, 0006 kg(w)/kg(da) in steady-state error of humidity ratio, and the error rate is only 7.5%. The results prove that the proposed system is an effective controlled temperature and humidity of an air conditioning system.

  16. Modeling Validation and Control Analysis for Controlled Temperature and Humidity of Air Conditioning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Nang Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study constructs an energy based model of thermal system for controlled temperature and humidity air conditioning system, and introduces the influence of the mass flow rate, heater and humidifier for proposed control criteria to achieve the controlled temperature and humidity of air conditioning system. Then, the reliability of proposed thermal system model is established by both MATLAB dynamic simulation and the literature validation. Finally, the PID control strategy is applied for controlling the air mass flow rate, humidifying capacity, and heating, capacity. The simulation results show that the temperature and humidity are stable at 541 sec, the disturbance of temperature is only 0.14°C, 0006 kgw/kgda in steady-state error of humidity ratio, and the error rate is only 7.5%. The results prove that the proposed system is an effective controlled temperature and humidity of an air conditioning system.

  17. Significance of air humidity and air velocity for fungal spore release into the air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasanen, A.-L.; Pasanen, P.; Jantunen, M. J.; Kalliokoski, P.

    Our previous field studies have shown that the presence of molds in buildings does not necessarily mean elevated airborne spore counts. Therefore, we investigated the release of fungal spores from cultures of Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium sp. and Cladosporium sp. at different air velocities and air humidities. Spores of A. fumigatus and Penicillium sp. were released from conidiophores already at air velocity of 0.5 ms -1, whereas Cladosporium spores required at least a velocity of 1.0 ms -1. Airborne spore counts of A. fumigatus and Penicillium sp. were usually higher in dry than moist air, being minimal at relative humidities (r.h.) above 70%, while the effect of r.h. on the release of Cladosporium sp. was ambivalent. The geometric mean diameter of released spores increased when the r.h. exceeded a certain level which depends on fungal genus. Thus, spores of all three fungi were hygroscopic but the hygroscopicity of various spores appeared at different r.h.-ranges. This study indicates that spore release is controlled by external factors and depends on fungal genus which can be one reason for considerable variation of airborne spore counts in buildings with mold problems.

  18. Ambient humidity and the skin: the impact of air humidity in healthy and diseased states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goad, N; Gawkrodger, D J

    2016-08-01

    Humidity, along with other climatic factors such as temperature and ultraviolet radiation, can have an important impact on the skin. Limited data suggest that external humidity influences the water content of the stratum corneum. An online literature search was conducted through Pub-Med using combinations of the following keywords: skin, skin disease, humidity, dermatoses, dermatitis, eczema, and mist. Publications included in this review were limited to (i) studies in humans or animals, (ii) publications showing relevance to the field of dermatology, (iii) studies published in English and (iv) publications discussing humidity as an independent influence on skin function. Studies examining environmental factors as composite influences on skin health are only included where the impact of humidity on the skin is also explored in isolation of other environmental factors. A formal systematic review was not feasible for this topic due to the heterogeneity of the available research. Epidemiological studies indicated an increase in eczema with low internal (indoors) humidity and an increase in eczema with external high humidity. Other studies suggest that symptoms of dry skin appear with low humidity internal air-conditioned environments. Murine studies determined that low humidity caused a number of changes in the skin, including the impairment of the desquamation process. Studies in humans demonstrated a reduction in transepidermal water loss (TEWL) (a measure of the integrity of the skin's barrier function) with low humidity, alterations in the water content in the stratum corneum, decreased skin elasticity and increased roughness. Intervention with a humidifying mist increased the water content of the stratum corneum. Conversely, there is some evidence that low humidity conditions can actually improve the barrier function of the skin. Ambient relative humidity has an impact on a range of parameters involved in skin health but the literature is inconclusive. Further

  19. Drying southern pine at 240°F. -- effects of air velocity and humidity, board thickness and density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Koch

    1972-01-01

    Kiln time to each 10 percent moisture content was shortened by circulating air at high velocity, but was little affected by board specific gravity. A wet-bulb depression of 80oF. provided faster drying than depressions of 40 or 115oF. At 80 depression and with air circulated at 930 f.p.m., kiln time was directly...

  20. Effects of thermal mass, window size, and night-time ventilation on peak indoor air temperature in the warm-humid climate of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos-Abanyie, S; Akuffo, F O; Kutin-Sanwu, V

    2013-01-01

    Most office buildings in the warm-humid sub-Saharan countries experience high cooling load because of the predominant use of sandcrete blocks which are of low thermal mass in construction and extensive use of glazing. Relatively, low night-time temperatures are not harnessed in cooling buildings because office openings remain closed after work hours. An optimization was performed through a sensitivity analysis-based simulation, using the Energy Plus (E+) simulation software to assess the effects of thermal mass, window size, and night ventilation on peak indoor air temperature (PIAT). An experimental system was designed based on the features of the most promising simulation model, constructed and monitored, and the experimental data used to validate the simulation model. The results show that an optimization of thermal mass and window size coupled with activation of night-time ventilation provides a synergistic effect to obtain reduced peak indoor air temperature. An expression that predicts, indoor maximum temperature has been derived for models of various thermal masses.

  1. Effects of Thermal Mass, Window Size, and Night-Time Ventilation on Peak Indoor Air Temperature in the Warm-Humid Climate of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Amos-Abanyie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Most office buildings in the warm-humid sub-Saharan countries experience high cooling load because of the predominant use of sandcrete blocks which are of low thermal mass in construction and extensive use of glazing. Relatively, low night-time temperatures are not harnessed in cooling buildings because office openings remain closed after work hours. An optimization was performed through a sensitivity analysis-based simulation, using the Energy Plus (E+ simulation software to assess the effects of thermal mass, window size, and night ventilation on peak indoor air temperature (PIAT. An experimental system was designed based on the features of the most promising simulation model, constructed and monitored, and the experimental data used to validate the simulation model. The results show that an optimization of thermal mass and window size coupled with activation of night-time ventilation provides a synergistic effect to obtain reduced peak indoor air temperature. An expression that predicts, indoor maximum temperature has been derived for models of various thermal masses.

  2. Study on heat and mass transfer characteristics of humid air-flow in a fin bundle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong-Hwi [Air-Conditioner Research Laboratory, LG Electronics, Seoul 153-082 (Korea); Koyama, Shigeru; Kuwahara, Ken [Department of Energy and Environmental Engineering, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Kwon, Jeong-Tae [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hoseo University, Asan, Chungnam 336-795 (Korea); Park, Byung-Duck [School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Sangju, Gyeongbuk 742-711 (Korea)

    2010-11-15

    This paper deals with the heat and mass transfer characteristics of humid air-flow under frosting conditions. A slit fin bundle was used for the simulation of fins of a heat exchanger. The effects of the cooling block temperature, air humidity and air velocity on the frosting characteristics were experimentally investigated. The frosted mass was affected considerably by the cooling block temperature and air humidity. However, the effect of air velocity on it was not so large. The pressure drop was affected remarkably by all experimental parameters in this study. Local heat flux distribution and frost thickness distribution on each fin were predicted from the measured fin temperatures and the mass and energy conservation equations on the frost surface and inside the frost layer. (author)

  3. Influence of Air Temperature and Humidity on Dehydration Equilibria and Kinetics of Theophylline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira Touil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of hygrothermal conditions (air temperature and relative humidity on the dehydration of theophylline monohydrate was investigated. Firstly, the equilibrium states of theophylline were investigated. The data from gravimetric analysis at constant temperature and humidity were reported as desorption isotherms. The PXRD analysis was used to identify the different polymorphic forms of theophylline: the monohydrate, the metastable anhydrate, and the stable anhydrate. Solid-solid phase diagrams for two processing times were proposed. Secondly, the dehydration kinetics were studied. The water content evolutions with time were recorded at several temperatures from 20°C to 80°C and several relative humidities from 4% to 50%. Different mathematical models were used to fit the experimental data. The spatially averaged solution of 2D Fickian transient diffusion equation best represented the water mass loss versus time experimental relationship. The dehydration rate constant was found to increase exponentially with air temperature and to decrease exponentially with air relative humidity.

  4. The impact of humidity on evaporative cooling in small desert birds exposed to high air temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerson, Alexander R; Smith, Eric Krabbe; Smit, Ben; McKechnie, Andrew E; Wolf, Blair O

    2014-01-01

    Environmental temperatures that exceed body temperature (Tb) force endothermic animals to rely solely on evaporative cooling to dissipate heat. However, evaporative heat dissipation can be drastically reduced by environmental humidity, imposing a thermoregulatory challenge. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of humidity on the thermoregulation of desert birds and to compare the sensitivity of cutaneous and respiratory evaporation to reduced vapor density gradients. Rates of evaporative water loss, metabolic rate, and Tb were measured in birds exposed to humidities ranging from ∼2 to 30 g H2O m(-3) (0%-100% relative humidity at 30°C) at air temperatures between 44° and 56°C. In sociable weavers, a species that dissipates heat primarily through panting, rates of evaporative water loss were inhibited by as much as 36% by high humidity at 48°C, and these birds showed a high degree of hyperthermia. At lower temperatures (40°-44°C), evaporative water loss was largely unaffected by humidity in this species. In Namaqua doves, which primarily use cutaneous evaporation, increasing humidity reduced rates of evaporative water loss, but overall rates of water loss were lower than those observed in sociable weavers. Our data suggest that cutaneous evaporation is more efficient than panting, requiring less water to maintain Tb at a given temperature, but panting appears less sensitive to humidity over the air temperature range investigated here.

  5. Effect of air temperature, relative humidity and growth stage on rimsulfuron tolerance in selected field maize hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuentes Cilia L.

    2002-12-01

    " SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" QFormat="true" Name="Subtle Emphasis" />

    The effect of temperature (T, relative humidity (RH, and growth stage (GS of six field maize hybrids on the level of tolerance to rimsulfuron [N-((4,6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-yl aminocarbonyl-3-(ethylsulfonyl-2-pyridincsulfonamide] applied at 20, 40 and 60 g a.i ha-l were evaluated. The hybríds tested are adapted to three

  6. High-speed sterilization technique using dielectric barrier discharge plasmas in atmospheric humid air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamae, M.; Kikuchi, Y.; Fukumoto, N.; Nagata, M.

    2010-11-01

    The inactivation of Bacillus atrophaeus spores by a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma produced by an ac voltage application of 1 kHz in atmospheric humid air was investigated in order to develop low-temperature, low-cost and high-speed plasma sterilization technique. The biological indicators covered with a Tyvek sheet were set just outside the DBD plasma region, where the air temperature and humidity as a discharge gas were precisely controlled by an environmental test chamber. The results show that the inactivation of Bacillus atrophaeus spores was found to be dependent strongly on the humidity, and was completed within 15 min at a relative humidity of 90 % and a temperature of 30 C. The treatment time for sterilization is shorter than those of conventional sterilization methods using ethylene oxide gas and dry heat treatment. It is considered that reactive species such as hydroxyl radicals that are effective for the inactivation of Bacillus atrophaeus spores could be produced by the DBD plasma in the humid air. Repetitive micro-pulsed discharge plasmas in the humid air will be applied for the sterilization experiment to enhance the sterilization efficiency.

  7. Effect of (Changes in) Air Humidity on Transpiration and (Adaptation of) Stomatal Closure of Tradescantia Leaves during Water Stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeteren, van U.; Rezaei Nejad, A.; Harbinson, J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarises our recent research on the physiological effects of prolonged high RH during growth on stomatal function and we discuss possibilities that arise from this work for reducing postharvest quality problems in cut flowers. Chlorophyll fluorescence imaging was used to measure

  8. Energy efficient air inlet humidity control; Energiezuinige inblaasvochtregeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gielen, J.H. [C Point, DLV Plant, Horst (Netherlands)

    2005-03-15

    This project report describes the results of research conducted on the control of the inlet, humidification and dehumidification, based on the air inlet humidity rate. The project was carried out at a mushroom cultivation business in Heijen, the Netherlands [Dutch] Deze projectrapportage geeft de resultaten van het onderzoek naar het regelen van de luchtklep, bevochtiging en ontvochtiging, op basis van het inblaasvochtgehalte. Het project werd uitgevoerd op een champignonkwekerij in Heijen.

  9. Ionic composition of a humid air plasma under ionizing radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippov, A. V.; Derbenev, I. N.; Dyatko, N. A.; Kurkin, S. A.; Lopantseva, G. B.; Pal', A. F.; Starostin, A. N.

    2017-08-01

    A kinetic model is proposed for ion-molecular processes involving charged particles of a humid air plasma produced by a fast electron beam. The model includes more than 600 processes involving electrons and 41 positive and 14 negative ions, including hydrated ions H3O+ (H2O) n and O 2 - (H2O) n with n = 1, 2, …, 12. The energy costs of production of electron-ion pairs and electronic and vibrational (for water molecules, also rotational) excitation of molecules are calculated in nitrogen, oxygen, water vapor, air, and humid air. A method is proposed for calculating the energy costs in mixtures by the calculation data in pure gases. The evolution of the plasma composition is studied by the numerical solution of a system of 56 time-dependent balance equations for the number of charged particles of plasma by the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. The steady-state composition of plasma is determined by solving nonlinear steady-state balance equations for the ionization rates of humid air from 10 to 1016 cm-3/s and the fraction of water molecules from 10-3% to 1.5%. It is established that, for water vapor content (the ratio of the number density of water molecules to the total number density of air molecules) of 0.015-1.5% in air at atmospheric pressure and room temperature, the main ion species are two types of positive ions H3O+ (H2O) n with the number of water molecules n = 5, 6 and three species of negative ions O 2 - (H2O) n with n = 5, 8, 9.

  10. Air movement preferences observed in naturally ventilated buildings in humid subtropical climate zone in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Zhang, Guoqiang

    2009-11-01

    Occupants' preferences for air movement in naturally ventilated buildings have been extracted from a database of three thermal comfort surveys conducted in the humid subtropical climate zone in China, during winter, spring, and summer seasons. The distribution of draft sensation shows that only 25.7, 38.5, and 28.7% of the subjects in winter, spring, and summer, respectively, felt that the available air movement was just right, suggesting that indoor air velocity may be a big problem in naturally ventilated buildings in humid subtropical China. Air movement preferences show that 15.8, 61.3, and 80.6% of subjects in winter, spring, and summer, respectively, wanted more air movement. Only a handful of subjects wanted less air movement than they were actually experiencing in any season, suggesting that draft was not much of an issue for thermal comfort. Occupants' preference for air movement is strongly related to thermal sensation, showing that people want to control air movement as a means of improving their comfort. The demand for less air movement under cool sensation is much smaller than the overwhelming demand for more air movement when the sensation was warm. The above results indicate that air movement might have a significant influence over the respondents' comfort sensation and that people required a high level of air movement in order to be comfortable during the summer season. Thus, one efficient way to improve the thermal environment in summer in humid subtropical China could be to provide occupants with effective natural ventilation and allow personal control of the air movement. Our findings are also applicable to other buildings, to encourage designers to provide air movement as a low energy cooling strategy and to ensure that sufficient levels of air movement are available.

  11. Influence of relative humidity on VOC concentrations in indoor air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowicz, Pawel; Larsson, Lennart

    2015-04-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) may be emitted from surfaces indoors leading to compromised air quality. This study scrutinized the influence of relative humidity (RH) on VOC concentrations in a building that had been subjected to water damage. While air samplings in a damp room at low RH (21-22%) only revealed minor amounts of 2-ethylhexanol (3 μg/m(3)) and 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol diisobutyrate (TXIB, 8 μg/m(3)), measurements performed after a rapid increase of RH (to 58-75%) revealed an increase in VOC concentrations which was 3-fold for 2-ethylhexanol and 2-fold for TXIB. Similar VOC emission patterns were found in laboratory analyses of moisture-affected and laboratory-contaminated building materials. This study demonstrates the importance of monitoring RH when sampling indoor air for VOCs in order to avoid misleading conclusions from the analytical results.

  12. Equipment for Measuring Air Flow, Air Temperature, Relative Humidity, and Carbon Dioxide in Schools. Technical Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Bruce W.

    Information on equipment and techniques that school facility personnel may use to evaluate IAQ conditions are discussed. Focus is placed on the IAQ parameters of air flow, air temperature, relative humidity, as well as carbon dioxide and the equipment used to measure these factors. Reasons for measurement and for when the measurement of these…

  13. Humidity effects on wire insulation breakdown strength.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appelhans, Leah

    2013-08-01

    Methods for the testing of the dielectric breakdown strength of insulation on metal wires under variable humidity conditions were developed. Two methods, an ASTM method and the twisted pair method, were compared to determine if the twisted pair method could be used for determination of breakdown strength under variable humidity conditions. It was concluded that, although there were small differences in outcomes between the two testing methods, the non-standard method (twisted pair) would be appropriate to use for further testing of the effects of humidity on breakdown performance. The dielectric breakdown strength of 34G copper wire insulated with double layer Poly-Thermaleze/Polyamide-imide insulation was measured using the twisted pair method under a variety of relative humidity (RH) conditions and exposure times. Humidity at 50% RH and below was not found to affect the dielectric breakdown strength. At 80% RH the dielectric breakdown strength was significantly diminished. No effect for exposure time up to 140 hours was observed at 50 or 80%RH.

  14. Effects of ambient air temperature, humidity, and wind speed on seminal traits in Braford and Nellore bulls at the Brazilian Pantanal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menegassi, Silvio Renato Oliveira; Pereira, Gabriel Ribas; Bremm, Carolina; Koetz, Celso; Lopes, Flávio Guiselli; Fiorentini, Eduardo Custódio; McManus, Concepta; Dias, Eduardo Antunes; da Rocha, Marcela Kuczynski; Lopes, Rubia Branco; Barcellos, Júlio Otávio Jardim

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioclimatic thermal stress assessed by Equivalent Temperature Index (ETI) and Temperature Humidity Index (THI) on Braford and Nellore bulls sperm quality during the reproductive seasons at the tropical region in the Brazilian Pantanal. We used 20 bulls aged approximately 24 months at the beginning of the study. Five ejaculates per animal were collected using an electroejaculator. Temperature, air humidity, and wind speed data were collected every hour from the automatic weather station at the National Institute of Meteorology. Infrared thermography images data were collected to assess the testicular temperature gradient in each animal. Data were analyzed with ANOVA using MIXED procedure of SAS and means were compared using Tukey's HSD test. The THI and ETI at 12 days (epididymal transit) were higher in January (89.7 and 28.5, respectively) and February (90.0 and 29.0, respectively) compared to other months (P < 0.01). Total seminal defects differ only in Bradford bulls between the months of November and February. Nellore bulls had lower major defects (MaD) and total defects (TD) compared to Braford. Nellore bulls showed correlation between minor defects (MiD) and THI for 30 days (0.90) and 18 days (0.88; P < 0.05). Braford bulls showed correlation for MaD (0.89) in ETI for 12 days (P < 0.05). Infrared thermography showed no difference between animals. Reproductive response to environmental changes is a consequence of Nellore and Braford adaptation to climate stress conditions. Both THI and ETI environmental indexes can be used to evaluate the morphological changes in the seminal parameters in Nellore or Braford bulls; however, more experiments should be performed focusing on larger sample numbers and also in reproductive assessment during the consecutive years to assess fertility potential.

  15. Effects of ambient air temperature, humidity, and wind speed on seminal traits in Braford and Nellore bulls at the Brazilian Pantanal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menegassi, Silvio Renato Oliveira; Pereira, Gabriel Ribas; Bremm, Carolina; Koetz, Celso; Lopes, Flávio Guiselli; Fiorentini, Eduardo Custódio; McManus, Concepta; Dias, Eduardo Antunes; da Rocha, Marcela Kuczynski; Lopes, Rubia Branco; Barcellos, Júlio Otávio Jardim

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioclimatic thermal stress assessed by Equivalent Temperature Index (ETI) and Temperature Humidity Index (THI) on Braford and Nellore bulls sperm quality during the reproductive seasons at the tropical region in the Brazilian Pantanal. We used 20 bulls aged approximately 24 months at the beginning of the study. Five ejaculates per animal were collected using an electroejaculator. Temperature, air humidity, and wind speed data were collected every hour from the automatic weather station at the National Institute of Meteorology. Infrared thermography images data were collected to assess the testicular temperature gradient in each animal. Data were analyzed with ANOVA using MIXED procedure of SAS and means were compared using Tukey's HSD test. The THI and ETI at 12 days (epididymal transit) were higher in January (89.7 and 28.5, respectively) and February (90.0 and 29.0, respectively) compared to other months ( P < 0.01). Total seminal defects differ only in Bradford bulls between the months of November and February. Nellore bulls had lower major defects (MaD) and total defects (TD) compared to Braford. Nellore bulls showed correlation between minor defects (MiD) and THI for 30 days (0.90) and 18 days (0.88; P < 0.05). Braford bulls showed correlation for MaD (0.89) in ETI for 12 days ( P < 0.05). Infrared thermography showed no difference between animals. Reproductive response to environmental changes is a consequence of Nellore and Braford adaptation to climate stress conditions. Both THI and ETI environmental indexes can be used to evaluate the morphological changes in the seminal parameters in Nellore or Braford bulls; however, more experiments should be performed focusing on larger sample numbers and also in reproductive assessment during the consecutive years to assess fertility potential.

  16. Sterilization of soybean powder with plasma treatment in atmospheric humid air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwami, R.; Kikuchi, Y.; Fukumoto, N.; Nagata, M.; Nakayama, A.; Nakagawa, K.

    2013-10-01

    Sterilization of foods has been performed by conventional methods such as heat, steam and chemical solutions. However, these sterilization techniques could cause damages to the food material. It is considered that plasma sterilization at atmospheric pressure is one of the promising alternative methods because of the low temperature process. In our previous study, the inactivation of Bacillus atrophaeusspores by a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma produced in atmospheric humid air was investigated in order to develop low-temperature, low-cost and high-speed plasma sterilization technique. The results showed that the inactivation of Bacillus atrophaeusspores was found to be dependent strongly on the humidity. In the present study, the plasma treatment technique in humid air is applied to sterilization of soybean powder. Effects of plasma sterilization were successfully confirmed by a colony counting method. It was found that the sterilization efficiency was increased by using the humid air as the discharge gas. In the conference, an improvement of the plasma treatment system to enhance the sterilization efficiency will be shown.

  17. Humidity and aggregate content correction factors for air-coupled ultrasonic evaluation of concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berriman, J; Purnell, P; Hutchins, D A; Neild, A

    2005-02-01

    This paper describes the use of non-contact ultrasound for the evaluation of concrete. Micromachined capacitance transducers are used to transmit ultrasonic longitudinal chirp signals through concrete samples using air as the coupling medium, and a pulse compression technique is then employed for measurement of time of flight through the sample. The effect on the ultrasonic wave speed of storing concrete samples, made with the same water/cement ratio, at different humidity levels is investigated. It is shown that there is a correlation between humidity and speed of sound, allowing a correction factor for humidity to be derived. A strong positive linear correlation between aggregate content and speed of sound was then observed; there was no obvious correlation between compressive strength and speed of sound. The results from the non-contact system are compared with that from a contact system, and conclusions drawn concerning coupling of energy into the samples.

  18. A Physically Based Spatial Expansion Algorithm for Surface Air Temperature and Humidity

    OpenAIRE

    Hongbo Su; Jing Tian; Renhua Zhang; Shaohui Chen; Yongmin Yang; Yuan Rong; Sujuan Mi; Jianwei Qi

    2013-01-01

    An algorithm was developed to expand the surface air temperature and air humidity to a larger spatial domain, based on the fact that the variation of surface air temperature and air humidity is controlled jointly by the local turbulence and the horizontal advection. This study proposed an algorithm which considers the advective driving force outside the thermal balance system and the turbulent driving force and radiant driving force inside the thermal balance system. The surface air temperatu...

  19. The impact of temperature and humidity on perception and emission of indoor air pollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Lei; Clausen, Geo; Fanger, Povl Ole

    1996-01-01

    Sensory response to air polluted by five building materials under different combinations of temperature and humidity in the ranges 18°C-28°C and 30%-70% was studied in the laboratory. The experiments were designed to study separately the impact of temperature and humidity on the perception of air...... polluted by materials, and on the emission of pollutants from the materials. At all tested pollution levels of the five materials, the air was perceived significantly less acceptable with increasing temperature and humidity, and the impact of temperature and humidity on perception decreased with increasing...... pollution level. A significant linear correlation between acceptability and enthalpy of the air was found to describe the influence of temperature and humidity on perception. The impact of temperature and humidity on sensory emission was less significant than the impact on perception; however, the sensory...

  20. Air-Stable Humidity Sensor Using Few-Layer Black Phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Jinshui; Cai, Le; Zhang, Suoming; Nah, Junghyo; Yeom, Junghoon; Wang, Chuan

    2017-03-22

    As a new family member of two-dimensional layered materials, black phosphorus (BP) has attracted significant attention for chemical sensing applications due to its exceptional electrical, mechanical, and surface properties. However, producing air-stable BP sensors is extremely challenging because BP atomic layers degrade rapidly in ambient conditions. In this study, we explored the humidity sensing properties of BP field-effect transistors fully encapsulated by a 6 nm-thick Al2O3 encapsulation layer deposited by atomic layer deposition. The encapsulated BP sensors exhibited superior ambient stability with no noticeable degradation in sensing response after being stored in air for more than a week. Compared with the bare BP devices, the encapsulated ones offered long-term stability with a trade-off in slightly reduced sensitivity. Capacitance-voltage measurement results further reveal that instead of direct charge transfer, the electrostatic gating effect on BP flakes arising from the dipole moment of adsorbed water molecules is the basic mechanism governing the humidity sensing behavior of both bare and encapsulated BP sensors. This work demonstrates a viable approach for achieving air-stable BP-based humidity or chemical sensors for practical applications.

  1. Effects of thermal mass, window size, and night-time ventilation on peak indoor air temperature in the warm-humid climate of Ghana

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Amos-Abanyie, S; Akuffo, F O; Kutin-Sanwu, V

    2013-01-01

    Most office buildings in the warm-humid sub-Saharan countries experience high cooling load because of the predominant use of sandcrete blocks which are of low thermal mass in construction and extensive use of glazing...

  2. Effects of Thermal Mass, Window Size, and Night-Time Ventilation on Peak Indoor Air Temperature in the Warm-Humid Climate of Ghana

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Amos-Abanyie, S; Akuffo, F. O; Kutin-Sanwu, V

    2013-01-01

    Most office buildings in the warm-humid sub-Saharan countries experience high cooling load because of the predominant use of sandcrete blocks which are of low thermal mass in construction and extensive use of glazing...

  3. Estimation of potential evapotranspiration from extraterrestrial radiation, air temperature and humidity to assess future climate change effects on the vegetation of the Northern Great Plains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, David A.; Bachelet, Dominique M.; Symstad, Amy J.; Ferschweiler, Ken; Hobbins, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The potential evapotranspiration (PET) that would occur with unlimited plant access to water is a central driver of simulated plant growth in many ecological models. PET is influenced by solar and longwave radiation, temperature, wind speed, and humidity, but it is often modeled as a function of temperature alone. This approach can cause biases in projections of future climate impacts in part because it confounds the effects of warming due to increased greenhouse gases with that which would be caused by increased radiation from the sun. We developed an algorithm for linking PET to extraterrestrial solar radiation (incoming top-of atmosphere solar radiation), as well as temperature and atmospheric water vapor pressure, and incorporated this algorithm into the dynamic global vegetation model MC1. We tested the new algorithm for the Northern Great Plains, USA, whose remaining grasslands are threatened by continuing woody encroachment. Both the new and the standard temperature-dependent MC1 algorithm adequately simulated current PET, as compared to the more rigorous PenPan model of Rotstayn et al. (2006). However, compared to the standard algorithm, the new algorithm projected a much more gradual increase in PET over the 21st century for three contrasting future climates. This difference led to lower simulated drought effects and hence greater woody encroachment with the new algorithm, illustrating the importance of more rigorous calculations of PET in ecological models dealing with climate change.

  4. [Effects of urban river width on the temperature and humidity of nearby green belts in summer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Peng; Zhu, Chun-Yang; Li, Shu-Hua

    2012-03-01

    As an important part of urban ecosystem, urban river plays a vital role in improving urban ecological environment. By the methods of small scale quantitative measurement, this paper analyzed the effects of seven urban rivers with different widths along the Third to Fifth Ring in Beijing on the air temperature and relative humidity of nearby green belts. The results showed that urban river width was the main factor affecting the temperature and humidity of nearby green belts. When the river had a width of 8 m, it had no effects in decreasing temperature but definite effects in increasing humidity; when the river width was 14-33 m, obvious effects were observed in decreasing temperature and increasing humidity; when the river had a width larger than 40 m, the effects in decreasing temperature and increasing humidity were significant and tended to be stable. There existed significant differences in the temperature and humidity between the green belts near the seven rivers and the corresponding controls. The critical width of urban river for the obvious effects in decreasing temperature and increasing humidity was 44 m. The regression equation of the temperature (x) and humidity (y) for the seven green belts nearby the urban rivers in summer was y = 173.191-3.247x, with the relative humidity increased by 1.0% when the air temperature decreased by about 0.3 degrees C.

  5. Evaluating fluid flow and thermal effects for fuel cell humidity sensor design

    OpenAIRE

    Reitz, S.; Wilde, A.; Bretschneider, J.; Sager, K.; Richter, G.; Woschech, S.

    2010-01-01

    Modern fuel cells require high relative humidity (RH) of about 90% of the reactant gases hydrogen and oxygen/air in a temperature range of 70°C-90°C for optimum efficiency. Especially RH must be kept within tight tolerances, as condensed water would reduce effective area of the fuel cell electrodes, while lower humidity would dry out the fuel cell's membrane and lead to permanent damage. Humidity sensors should enable effective measurement and control of the reactants' relative humidity. Howe...

  6. Effects of Humidity and Surface on Photoalignment of Brilliant Yellow

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-14

    b) Photograph of spin - coater area covered with a plastic bag filled with nitrogen gas and humid air to control the humidity. c) Schematic of four...coating (humidity at stage II), the spin - coater (Special Coating System model P6700) was tightly covered with a plastic bag (volume = 50L) filled with...of: substrate storage before coating; during the spin -coating process; between film coating and exposure; and after exposure. Surprising results

  7. AIR HUMIDITY AND EVAPORATION CONDITIONS IN POLAND IN RELATION TO ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION PATTERNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. WYPYCH

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The issue describing the amount of water vapour in the atmosphere and its backgrounds seems to be very important because of water vapour role among meteorological processes which are taking place within the atmosphere. The principal aim of this study is to examine the atmospheric circulation conditionings of evaporation and air humidity differentiation in Poland. Research was based on data for the period 1981-2010. The temporal and spatial differentiation of evaporation and air humidity in relation to atmospheric circulation patterns were examined by analysis of evaporation, evapotranspiration as well as specific humidity and saturation deficit values. The circulation factor was determined by a local atmospheric circulation calendar by Niedzwiedz. The results showed that atmospheric circulation is an important factor for humidity and evaporation conditions with the most significant: water vapour content and air mass temperature. Both air humidity and evaporation report temporal and spatial differentiation modified by particular synoptic situations. It is proved mainly by the extremes.

  8. Effect of relative humidity on fungal colonization of fiberglass insulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeonu, I M; Noble, J A; Simmons, R B; Price, D L; Crow, S A; Ahearn, D G

    1994-06-01

    Fiberglass duct liners and fiberglass duct boards from eight buildings whose occupants complained of unacceptable or moldy odors in the air were found to be heavily colonized by fungi, particularly by Aspergillus versicolor. Unused fiberglass was found to be susceptible to fungal colonization in environmental chambers dependent upon relative humidity. No colonization was observed at relative humidities below 50%.

  9. Effect of relative humidity on fungal colonization of fiberglass insulation.

    OpenAIRE

    Ezeonu, I M; Noble, J A; Simmons, R B; D. L. Price; Crow, S A; Ahearn, D G

    1994-01-01

    Fiberglass duct liners and fiberglass duct boards from eight buildings whose occupants complained of unacceptable or moldy odors in the air were found to be heavily colonized by fungi, particularly by Aspergillus versicolor. Unused fiberglass was found to be susceptible to fungal colonization in environmental chambers dependent upon relative humidity. No colonization was observed at relative humidities below 50%.

  10. The effect of wind velocity, air temperature and humidity on NH 3 and SO 2 transfer into bean leaves ( phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hove, L. W. A.; Vredenberg, W. J.; Adema, E. H.

    The influence of wind velocity, air temperature and vapour pressure deficit of the air (VPD) on NH 3 and SO 2 transfer into bean leaves ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) was examined using a leaf chamber. The measurements suggested a transition in the properties of the leaf boundary layer at a wind velocity of 0.3-0.4 ms -1 which corresponds to a Recrit value of about 2000. At higher wind velocities the leaf boundary layer resistance ( rb) was 1.5-2 times lower than can be calculated from the theory. Nevertheless, the assessed relationships between rb and wind velocity appeared to be similar to the theoretical derived relationship for rb. The NH 3 flux and in particular the SO 2 flux into the leaf strongly increased at a VPD decline. The increase of the NH 3 flux could be attributed to an increase of the stomatal conductance ( gs). However, the increase of the SO 2 flux could only partly be explained by an increase of gs. An apparent additional uptake was also observed for the NH 3 uptake at a low temperature and VPD. The SO 2 flux was also influenced by air temperature which could be explained by a temperature effect on gs. The results suggest that calculation of the NH 3 and SO 2 flux using data of gs gives a serious understimation of the real flux of these gases into leaves at a low temperature and VPD.

  11. Effect of relative humidity on solar potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soezen, Adnan [Gazi Univ., Mechanical Education Dept., Ankara (Turkey); Arcaklioglu, Erol [Kirikkale Univ., Mechanical Engineering Dept., Kirikkale (Turkey)

    2005-12-01

    In this study, the effect of relative humidity on solar potential is investigated using artificial neural-networks. Two different models are used to train the neural networks. Meteorological and geographical data (latitude, longitude, altitude, month, mean sunshine-duration, and mean temperature) are used in the input layer of the network (Model 1). But, relative humidity values are added to one network in model (Model 2). In other words, the only difference between the models is relative humidity. New formulae based on meteorological and geographical data, have been developed to determine the solar energy potential in Turkey using the networks' weights for both models. Scaled conjugate gradient (SCG) and Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) learning algorithms and a logistic sigmoid transfer-function were used in the network. The best approach was obtained by the SCG algorithm with nine neurons for both models. Meteorological data for the four years, 2000-2003, for 18 cities (Artvin, Cesme, Bozkurt, Malkara, Florya, Tosya, Kizilcahamam, Yenisehir, Edremit, Gediz, Kangal, Solhan, Ergani, Selcuk, Milas, Seydisehir, Siverek and Kilis) spread over Turkey have been used as data in order to train the neural network. Solar radiation is in output layer. One month for each city was used as test data, and these months have not been used for training. The maximum mean absolute percentage errors (MAPEs) for Tosya are 2.770394% and 2.8597% for Models 1 and 2, respectively. The minimum MAPEs for Seydisehir are 1.055205% and 1.041% with R2 (99.9862%, 99.9842%) for Models 1 and 2, respectively, in the SCG algorithm with nine neurons. The best value of R{sup 2} for Models 1 and 2 are for Seydisehir. The minimum value of R{sup 2} for Model 1 is 99.8855% for Tosya, and the value for Model 2 is 99.9001% for Yenisehir. Results show that the humidity has only a negligible effect upon the prediction of solar potential using artificial neural-networks. (Author)

  12. Efficient and stable perovskite solar cells prepared in ambient air irrespective of the humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Qidong; You, Peng; Sang, Hongqian; Liu, Zhike; Hu, Chenglong; Chan, Helen L. W.; Yan, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Poor stability of organic–inorganic halide perovskite materials in humid condition has hindered the success of perovskite solar cells in real applications since controlled atmosphere is required for device fabrication and operation, and there is a lack of effective solutions to this problem until now. Here we report the use of lead (II) thiocyanate (Pb(SCN)2) precursor in preparing perovskite solar cells in ambient air. High-quality CH3NH3PbI3−x(SCN)x perovskite films can be readily prepared even when the relative humidity exceeds 70%. Under optimized processing conditions, we obtain devices with an average power conversion efficiency of 13.49% and the maximum efficiency over 15%. In comparison with typical CH3NH3PbI3-based devices, these solar cells without encapsulation show greatly improved stability in humid air, which is attributed to the incorporation of thiocyanate ions in the crystal lattice. The findings pave a way for realizing efficient and stable perovskite solar cells in ambient atmosphere. PMID:27033249

  13. Effects of Temperature and Humidity on Major League Baseballs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstman, Victoria; Raue, Brian

    2003-11-01

    In a study inspired by the famous humidor of the Colorado Rockies of Major League Baseball, we have measured the effects of temperature and humidity on the elasticity of official Major League baseballs. The elasticity, e, also referred to as the coefficient of restitution (COR), of the baseballs was determined by dropping the balls from a fixed height onto a concrete floor and determining the speed of the ball after the initial impact. Corrections for air drag were made to the measured COR. Measurements were done for baseballs stored under a wide variety of conditions that included storage in the freezer compartment of a household refrigerator, storage in an 80^rcC oven with varying humidity conditions, and storage in a crude humidor. The balls were tested over a period of several hours after removal to nominal conditions. Our results show a linear increase of the COR with increasing temperature, as well as a nearly linear decrease in the COR as water mass is increased. Using the results of our measurements, we have determined the effects of temperature and humidity on batted-ball speeds and flight distances at the Rockies' home field.

  14. Does the increased air humidity affect soil respiration and carbon stocks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukumägi, Mai; Celi, Luisella; Said-Pullicino, Daniel; Kupper, Priit; Sõber, Jaak; Lõhmus, Krista; Kutti, Sander; Ostonen, Ivika

    2013-04-01

    Climate manipulation experiments at ecosystem-scale enable us to simulate, investigate and predict changes in carbon balance of forest ecosystems. Considering the predicted increase in air humidity and precipitation for northern latitudes, this work aimed at investigating the effect of increased air humidity on soil respiration, distribution of soil organic matter (SOM) among pools having different turnover times, and microbial, fine root and rhizome biomass. The study was carried out in silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.) and hybrid aspen (Populus tremula L. × P. tremuloides Michx.) stands in a Free Air Humidity Manipulation (FAHM) experimental facility containing three humidified (H; on average 7% above current ambient levels since 2008) and three control (C) plots. Soil respiration rates were measured monthly during the growing season using a closed dynamic chamber method. Density fractionation was adopted to separate SOM into two light fractions (free and aggregate-occluded particulate organic matter, fPOM and oPOM respectively), and one heavy fraction (mineral-associated organic matter, MOM). The fine root and rhizome biomass and microbial data are presented for silver birch stands only. In 2011, after 4 growing seasons of humidity manipulation soil organic carbon contents were significantly higher in C plots than H plot (13.5 and 12.5 g C kg-1, respectively), while soil respiration tended to be higher in the latter. Microbial biomass and basal respiration were 13 and 14% higher in H plots than in the C plots, respectively. Twice more fine roots of trees were estimated in H plots, while the total fine root and rhizome biomass (tree + understory) was similar in C and H plots. Fine root turnover was higher for both silver birch and understory roots in H plots. Labile SOM light fractions (fPOM and oPOM) were significantly smaller in H plots with respect to C plots (silver birch and hybrid aspen stands together), whereas no differences were observed in the

  15. Insect hygroreceptor responses to continuous changes in humidity and air pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichy, H.; Kallina, W.

    2011-01-01

    The most favored model of humidity transduction views the cuticular wall of insect hygroreceptive sensilla as a hygromechanical transducer. Hygroscopic swelling or shrinking alters the geometry of the wall, deforming the dendritic membranes of the moist and dry cells. The small size the sensilla and their position surrounded by elevated structures creates technical difficulties to mechanically stimulate them by direct contact. The present study investigated hygroreceptors on the antennae of the cockroach and the stick insect. Accurately controlled, homogeneous mechanical input was delivered by modulating air pressure. Both the moist and dry cells responded not only to changes in air pressure, but also in the opposite direction, as observed during changes in air humidity. The moist-cell’s excitatory response to increasing humidity and increasing air pressure implies that swelling of the hygroscopic cuticle compresses the dendrites, and the dry-cell’s excitatory response to decreasing humidity and decreasing air pressure implies that shrinking of the hygroscopic cuticle expands the dendrites. The moist and dry cells of the stick insect are more sensitive to pressure changes than those of the cockroach, but the responses to air pressure are generally weaker than to humidity. Therefore, the hygroreceptive sensilla differ in their physical properties and constitutions. Furthermore, the mechanical parameters associated with homogeneous changes in air pressure on the sensillum surface can only partially account for the responses of the moist and dry cells of both species to humidity stimulation. PMID:20375249

  16. The influence of air temperature and relative humidity on dynamics of water potential in Betula pendula (Betulaceae trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Тikhova

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Linear multiple models were developed to describe diurnal and seasonal dynamics of water potential (Ψ of the foliated shoots in the plants of Betula genus related to air temperature and relative humidity in the middle taiga (southern Karelia. The results of the study revealed unidirectional changes, but different effect strength of air temperature and relative humidity on Ψ of the foliated shoots of common silver birch (Betula pendula Roth and curly (Karelian birch (Betula pendula Roth var. carelica. It was shown that increasing air temperature 1°С results in similar decreasing of Ψ value equal to 0.037–0.038 MPa in both of the birches (p > 0.05. Since the diurnal air temperature range achieves 10–15 °С, the contribution of this factor may be up to 0.57 MPa. On the contrary, the contribution of relative air humidity to Ψ value differs significantly in distinct birch forms (p < 0.05. In this case the change range of Ψ value in silver birch and curly birch may be up to 0.46 (0.015 MPa/1 % RH and 0.52 МПа (0.017 MPa/1 % RH, respectively. The results indicate that curly birch responds to the increase of relative air humidity with higher magnification of Ψ in comparison with common silver birch.

  17. Temperature and humidity independent control (THIC) of air-conditioning system

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xiaohua; Zhang, Tao

    2014-01-01

    This book presents the main components of the Temperature and Humidity Independent Control (THIC) of air-conditioning systems, including dehumidification devices, high-temperature cooling devices and indoor terminal devices.

  18. Delayed crack propagation in barium titanate single crystals in humid air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bing; Bai, Yang; Cao, Jiang-Li; Su, Yanjing; Shi, San-Qiang; Chu, Wuyang; Qiao, Lijie

    2008-06-01

    Domain witching of ferroelectrics under mechanical or electric load in vacuum or dry air has been intensively studied. However, the effects of environments on the domain switching in ferroelectrics have not been well understood. Here, we demonstrate that domain configurations in BaTiO3 single crystal under sustained load can be significantly affected by the humidity due to the decrease in surface energy and electrostatic energy upon adsorption of polar water molecules. Consequently, the crack propagation behaviors of the ferroelectrics under sustained load can be remarkably altered.

  19. Afterglow chemistry of atmospheric-pressure helium-oxygen plasmas with humid air impurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Tomoyuki; Niemi, Kari; Gans, Timo; O'Connell, Deborah; Graham, William G.

    2014-04-01

    The formation of reactive species in the afterglow of a radio-frequency-driven atmospheric-pressure plasma in a fixed helium-oxygen feed gas mixture (He+0.5%O2) with humid air impurity (a few hundred ppm) is investigated by means of an extensive global plasma chemical kinetics model. As an original objective, we explore the effects of humid air impurity on the biologically relevant reactive species in an oxygen-dependent system. After a few milliseconds in the afterglow environment, the densities of atomic oxygen (O) decreases from 1015 to 1013 cm-3 and singlet delta molecular oxygen (O2(1D)) of the order of 1015 cm-3 decreases by a factor of two, while the ozone (O3) density increases from 1014 to 1015 cm-3. Electrons and oxygen ionic species, initially of the order of 1011 cm-3, recombine much faster on the time scale of some microseconds. The formation of atomic hydrogen (H), hydroxyl radical (OH), hydroperoxyl (HO2), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), nitric oxide (NO) and nitric acid (HNO3) resulting from the humid air impurity as well as the influence on the afterglow chemistry is clarified with particular emphasis on the formation of dominant reactive oxygen species (ROS). The model suggests that the reactive species predominantly formed in the afterglow are major ROS O2(1D) and O3 (of the order of 1015 cm-3) and rather minor hydrogen- and nitrogen-based reactive species OH, H2O2, HNO3 and NO2/NO3, of which densities are comparable to the O-atom density (of the order of 1013 cm-3). Furthermore, the model quantitatively reproduces the experimental results of independent O and O3 density measurements.

  20. Humidity evolution (breathing effect) in enclosures with electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hygum, Morten Arnfeldt; Popok, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    of the dangerous parameters is high humidity of air. Moisture can inevitable reach the electronics either due to diffusion through the wall of an enclosure or small holes, which are designed for electrical or other connections. A driving force for humid air movement is the temperature difference between...... the operating electronics and the surrounding environment. This temperature, thus, gives rise to a natural convection, which we also refer to as breathing. Robust and intelligent enclosure designs must account for this breathing as it can significantly change the humidity distribution in the enclosure....... The approach is verified by measuring the temperature and humidity profiles in a test setup (container) while also considering the moisture flux outside the container. The test setup is a vertical cylinder enabling to simplify the modeling to 2D case. The experimental measurements are compared to simulations...

  1. Quantifying the effects of altering ambient humidity on ionic composition of vocal fold surface fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivasankar, M Preeti; Carroll, Thomas L; Kosinski, Aaron M; Rosen, Clark A

    2013-07-01

    Vocal fold surface fluid (VFSF) is important in hydration and defense of underlying epithelial cells. The objective of this study was to quantify changes in the ionic composition of VFSF after altering the humidity of inhaled air. We tested the hypothesis that low humidity exposure would increase the concentration of VFSF sodium (Na(+)) and chloride (Cl(-)) ions but that high humidity exposure would decrease the concentration of VFSF Na(+) and Cl(-) ions as compared to the low humidity challenge. Prospective design. Eighteen healthy adults participated in this study. VFSF was collected from each subject at baseline and following exposure to low humidity and high humidity environments. VFSF Na(+) concentration was assessed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. VFSF Cl(-) concentration was measured with indirect potentiometry. All analyses were completed by personnel blinded to the hypothesis being tested. The low humidity environment increased Na(+) concentration in the majority of the subjects. Data for changes in Cl(-) concentrations were variable. Overall the data did not reach statistical significance (P > .05). Subjective impressions suggested that VFSF collection was more difficult in low humidity as compared to the high humidity and baseline conditions. This study is the first attempt to measure the ionic concentration of VFSF. The results from the current study have important implications for future programmatic research quantifying the effects of pollutants and laryngopharyngeal reflux on VFSF composition, epithelial hydration, and vocal fold defense. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  2. Mean air surface temperature anomalies in the humid south – south ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concept of regional climate is very important in understanding global climate change. Changes in surface air temperature are primary measures of global climate change. In this work, the analyses of the mean air surface temperature dynamics from 1901 to 2000 in six cities located in the South- South humid zone of ...

  3. Research on Using the Naturally Cold Air and the Snow for Data Center Air-conditioning, and Humidity Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Kunikazu; Tano, Shunichi; Ichino, Junko

    To lower power consumption has becomes a worldwide concern. It is also becoming a bigger area in Computer Systems, such as reflected by the growing use of software-as-a-service and cloud computing whose market has increased since 2000, at the same time, the number of data centers that accumulates and manages the computer has increased rapidly. Power consumption at data centers is accounts for a big share of the entire IT power usage, and is still rapidly increasing. This research focuses on the air-conditioning that occupies accounts for the biggest portion of electric power consumption by data centers, and proposes to develop a technique to lower the power consumption by applying the natural cool air and the snow for control temperature and humidity. We verify those effectiveness of this approach by the experiment. Furthermore, we also examine the extent to which energy reduction is possible when a data center is located in Hokkaido.

  4. Design Point Performance and Optimization of Humid Air Turbine Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni D. Brighenti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available With the recent drive towards higher thermal efficiencies and lower emission levels in the power generation market, advanced cycle power plants have become an increasingly appealing option. Among these systems, humid air turbines have been previously identified as promising candidates to deliver high efficiency and power output with notably low overall system volume, weight and emissions footprint. This paper investigates the performance of an advanced humid air turbine power cycle and aims to identify the dependencies between key cycle design variables, thermal performance, weight and cost by means of a parametric design optimization approach. Designs of the main heat exchangers are generated, aiming to ascertain the relationship between their technology level and the total weight and acquisition cost of them. The research outcomes show that the recuperator and the intercooler are the two components with the largest influence on the thermal efficiency and the total cost. The total weight of the power system is driven by the technology level of the recuperator and the economizer. Finally, the effectiveness of the aftercooler seems to have the greatest impact in reducing the total acquisition cost of the system with minimum penalty on its thermal efficiency.

  5. Temperature, humidity and time. Combined effects on radiochromic film dosimeters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdel-Fattah, A.A.; Miller, A.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of both relative humidity and temperature during irradiation on the dose response of FWT-60-00 and Riso B3 radiochromic film dosimeters have been investigated in the relative humidity (RH) range 11-94% and temperature range 20-60 degrees C for irradiation by Co-60 photons and 10-Me......V electrons. The results show that humidity and temperature cannot be treated as independent variables, rather there appears to be interdependence between absorbed dose, temperature, and humidity. Dose rate does not seem to play a significant role. The dependence of temperature during irradiation is +0.......25 +/- 0.1% per degrees C for the FWT-60-00 dosimeters and +0.5 +/- 0.1% per degrees C For Riso B3 dosimeters at temperatures between 20 and 50 degrees C and at relative humidities between 20 and 53%. At extreme conditions both with respect to temperature and to humidity, the dosimeters show much stronger...

  6. The effect of changing ambient humidity on moisture condition in timber elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hozjan, Tomaž; Turk, Goran; Srpcic, Stanislav

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the effect of the changing ambient humidity on moisture conditions in timber elements. The naturally varying humidity is possible to model as a relative combination of different harmonic cycles, with different periods and amplitudes. For the determination of the moisture field...... fully coupled transport model including a model for the influential sorption hysteresis of wood is used. The coupled model accounts for both vapor transport in pores and bound water transport in wood tissue. Moisture state history influences relationship between moisture state of wood and air humidity...

  7. Hydrochloric acid aerosol formation by the interaction of hydrogen chloride with humid air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhein, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    The conditions in which hydrochloric acid aerosol is predicted by the interaction of hydrogen chloride gas with the water vapor in humid air are analyzed. The liquid gas phase equilibrium for the HCL-H2O system is expressed in terms of relative humidity and hydrogen chloride concentration as parts per million, units commonly used in pollution studies. Presented are the concentration (wt %) of HC1 in the aerosol and the concentration of aerosol (ppm) predicted.

  8. Exergy analysis of air cooling systems in buildings in hot humid climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alpuche, M.G. [UNAM, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico). Posgrado en Ingenieria; Heard, C. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico DF (Mexico); Best, R.; Rojas, J. [UNAM, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico). Centro de Investigacion en Energia

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the influence of using air cooling desiccant systems on reaching thermal comfort conditions in the interior of a building, supposing this to be an open system. Exergy analysis has been carried out for the different design temperatures and relative humidity conditions within those established for ASHRAE summer thermal comfort conditions. The climatic conditions of a hot humid climate such as Villahermosa, Tabasco, Mexico, are used as an example. A novel reference state has been used for the exergy analysis, since this varies according to the fluctuation of the ambient temperature and humidity. (author)

  9. The effects of lithographic residues and humidity on graphene field ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Recently, unknown-manner changes in charge neutrality point (CNP) positioning were ascribed to humidity at graphene field effect transistors (GFETs). While the exactmeans of humidity interacting with hydrophobicgraphene remains unknown, this work examines pristine and lithographic-process-applied graphene ...

  10. Interaction of temperature, humidity, driver preferences, and refrigerant type on air conditioning compressor usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, C; Younglove, T; Barth, M

    2000-10-01

    Recent studies have shown large increases in vehicle emissions when the air conditioner (AC) compressor is engaged. Factors that affect the compressor-on percentage can have a significant impact on vehicle emissions and can also lead to prediction errors in current emissions models if not accounted for properly. During 1996 and 1997, the University of California, Riverside, College of Engineering-Center for Environmental Research and Technology (CE-CERT) conducted a vehicle activity study for the California Air Resources Board (CARB) in the Sacramento, CA, region. The vehicles were randomly selected from all registered vehicles in the region. As part of this study, ten vehicles were instrumented to collect AC compressor on/off data on a second-by-second basis in the summer of 1997. Temperature and humidity data were obtained and averaged on an hourly basis. The ten drivers were asked to complete a short survey about AC operational preferences. This paper examines the effects of temperature, humidity, refrigerant type, and driver preferences on air conditioning compressor activity. Overall, AC was in use in 69.1% of the trips monitored. The compressor was on an average of 64% of the time during the trips. The personal preference settings had a significant effect on the AC compressor-on percentage but did not interact with temperature. The refrigerant types, however, exhibited a differential response across temperature, which may necessitate separate modeling of the R12 refrigerant-equipped vehicles from the R134A-equipped vehicles. It should be noted that some older vehicles do get retrofitted with new compressors that use R134A; however, none of the vehicles in this study had been retrofitted.

  11. Experimental research on the indoor temperature and humidity fields in radiant ceiling air-conditioning system under natural ventilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tao; Xiang, Yutong; Wang, Yonghong

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, the indoor temperature and humidity fields of the air in a metal ceiling radiant panel air conditioning system with fresh air under natural ventilation were researched. The temperature and humidity distributions at different height and different position were compared. Through the computation analysis of partial pressure of water vapor, the self-recovery characteristics of humidity after the natural ventilation was discussed.

  12. Calculating osmotic pressure of xylitol solutions from molality according to UNIFAC model and measuring it with air humidity osmometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lan; Zhan, Tingting; Zhan, Xiancheng; Wei, Guocui; Tan, Xiaoying; Wang, Xiaolan; Li, Chengrong

    2014-11-01

    The osmotic pressure of xylitol solution at a wide concentration range was calculated according to the UNIFAC model and experimentally determined by our newly reported air humidity osmometry. The measurements from air humidity osmometry were compared with UNIFAC model calculations from dilute to saturated solution. Results indicate that air humidity osmometry measurements are comparable to UNIFAC model calculations at a wide concentration range by two one-sided test and multiple testing corrections. The air humidity osmometry is applicable to measure the osmotic pressure and the osmotic pressure can be calculated from the concentration.

  13. Temperature and Humidity Effects on Hospital Morbidity in Darwin, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldie, James; Sherwood, Steven C; Green, Donna; Alexander, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have explored the relationship between temperature and health in the context of a changing climate, but few have considered the effects of humidity, particularly in tropical locations, on human health and well-being. To investigate this potential relationship, this study assessed the main and interacting effects of daily temperature and humidity on hospital admission rates for selected heat-relevant diagnoses in Darwin, Australia. Univariate and bivariate Poisson generalized linear models were used to find statistically significant predictors and the admission rates within bins of predictors were compared to explore nonlinear effects. The analysis indicated that nighttime humidity was the most statistically significant predictor (P humidity (P humidity effect appeared to be strongly nonlinear: Hot days appeared to have higher admission rates when they were preceded by high nighttime humidity. From this analysis, we suggest that heat-health policies in tropical regions similar to Darwin need to accommodate the effects of temperature and humidity at different times of day. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Temperature-modulated graphene oxide resistive humidity sensor for indoor air quality monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, A; Santra, S; Ghosh, R; Ali, S Z; Gardner, J W; Guha, P K; Udrea, F

    2016-02-28

    In this paper we present a temperature-modulated graphene oxide (GO) resistive humidity sensor that employs complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) micro-electro-mechanical-system (MEMS) micro-hotplate technology for the monitoring and control of indoor air quality (IAQ). GO powder is obtained by chemical exfoliation, dispersed in water and deposited via ink-jet printing onto a low power micro-hotplate. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) show the typical layered and wrinkled morphology of the GO. Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy indicate that the GO flakes possess a significant number of oxygen containing functional groups (epoxy, carbonyl, hydroxyl) extremely attractive for humidity detection. Electro-thermal characterisation of the micro-hotplates shows a thermal efficiency of 0.11 mW per °C, resulting in a sensor DC power consumption of only 2.75 mW at 50 °C. When operated in an isothermal mode, the sensor response is detrimentally affected by significant drift, hysteretic behaviour, slow response/recovery times and hence poor RH level discrimination. Conversely, a temperature modulation technique coupled with a differential readout methodology results in a significant reduction of the sensor drift, improved linear response with a sensitivity of 0.14 mV per %, resolution below 5%, and a maximum hysteresis of ±5%; response and recovery times equal to 189 ± 49 s and 89 ± 5 s, respectively. These performance parameters satisfy current IAQ monitoring requirements. We have thus demonstrated the effectiveness of integrating GO on a micro-hotplate CMOS-compatible platform enabling temperature modulation schemes to be easily applied in order to achieve compact, low power, low cost humidity IAQ monitoring.

  15. Humid air corrosion of YMP waste package candidate material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gdowski, G.E.

    1998-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project is evaluating candidate materials for high level nuclear waste containers (Waste Packages) for a potential deep geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The potential repository is located above the water table in the unsaturated zone. The rock contains nominally 10% by volume water and gas pressure in the emplacement drifts of the repository is expected to remain near the ambient atmospheric pressure. The heat generated by the radioactive decay of the waste will raise the temperature of the waste packages and the surrounding rock. Waste Package temperatures above the ambient boiling point of water are anticipated for the waste emplacement scenarios. Because the repository emplacement drifts are expected to remain at the ambient atmospheric pressure, the maximum relative humidity obtainable decreases above the boiling point of water. Temperatures of the Waste Packages and the surrounding rock are expected to reach maximum temperature within 100`s of years and then gradually decrease with time. Episodic liquid water contact with the WPs is also expected; this will result in the deposition of salts and mineral scale.

  16. Air humidity as key determinant of morphogenesis and productivity of the rare temperate woodland fern Polystichum braunii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwerbrock, R; Leuschner, C

    2016-07-01

    (1) Most ferns are restricted to moist and shady habitats, but it is not known whether soil moisture or atmospheric water status are decisive limiting factors, or if both are equally important. (2) Using the rare temperate woodland fern Polystichum braunii, we conducted a three-factorial climate chamber experiment (soil moisture (SM) × air humidity (RH) × air temperature (T)) to test the hypotheses that: (i) atmospheric water status (RH) exerts a similarly large influence on the fern's biology as soil moisture, and (ii) both a reduction in RH and an increase in air temperature reduce vigour and growth. (3) Nine of 11 morphological, physiological and growth-related traits were significantly influenced by an increase in RH from 65% to 95%, leading to higher leaf conductance, increased above- and belowground productivity, higher fertility, more epidermal trichomes and fewer leaf deformities under high air humidity. In contrast, soil moisture variation (from 66% to 70% in the moist to ca. 42% in the dry treatment) influenced only one trait (specific leaf area), and temperature variation (15 °C versus 19 °C during daytime) only three traits (leaf conductance, root/shoot ratio, specific leaf area); RH was the only factor affecting productivity. (4) This study is the first experimental proof for a soil moisture-independent air humidity effect on the growth of terrestrial woodland ferns. P. braunii appears to be an air humidity hygrophyte that, whithin the range of realistic environmental conditions set in this study, suffers more from a reduction in RH than in soil moisture. A climate warming-related increase in summer temperatures, however, seems not to directly threaten this endangered species. © 2016 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  17. High Humidity Aerodynamic Effects Study on Offshore Wind Turbine Airfoil/Blade Performance through CFD Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weipeng Yue

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Damp air with high humidity combined with foggy, rainy weather, and icing in winter weather often is found to cause turbine performance degradation, and it is more concerned with offshore wind farm development. To address and understand the high humidity effects on wind turbine performance, our study has been conducted with spread sheet analysis on damp air properties investigation for air density and viscosity; then CFD modeling study using Fluent was carried out on airfoil and blade aerodynamic performance effects due to water vapor partial pressure of mixing flow and water condensation around leading edge and trailing edge of airfoil. It is found that the high humidity effects with water vapor mixing flow and water condensation thin film around airfoil may have insignificant effect directly on airfoil/blade performance; however, the indirect effects such as blade contamination and icing due to the water condensation may have significant effects on turbine performance degradation. Also it is that found the foggy weather with microwater droplet (including rainy weather may cause higher drag that lead to turbine performance degradation. It is found that, at high temperature, the high humidity effect on air density cannot be ignored for annual energy production calculation. The blade contamination and icing phenomenon need to be further investigated in the next study.

  18. Method for determining air humidity in wind tunnels using a neutron emitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chegorian, M. A.; Moskalev, V. M.; Ignatov, Iu. A.; Zhuravlev, V. N.

    The paper presents a theoretical analysis of a neutron-hygrometer technique for determining the humidity of an air jet in a wind tunnel. Formulas are presented for calculating the activity of the neutron emitter. Results are presented for a Pu-239 neutron source.

  19. Co3O4 as p-Type Material for CO Sensing in Humid Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Vladimirova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nanocrystalline cobalt oxide Co3O4 has been prepared by precipitation and subsequent thermal decomposition of a carbonate precursor, and has been characterized in detail using XRD, transmission electron microscopy, and FTIR spectroscopy. The sensory characteristics of the material towards carbon monoxide in the concentration range 6.7–20 ppm have been examined in both dry and humid air. A sensor signal is achieved in dry air at sufficiently low temperatures T = 80–120 °C, but the increase in relative humidity results in the disappearance of sensor signal in this temperature range. At temperatures above 200 °C the inversion of the sensor signal in dry air was observed. In the temperature interval 180–200 °C the sensor signal toward CO is nearly the same at 0, 20 and 60% r.h. The obtained results are discussed in relation with the specific features of the adsorption of CO, oxygen, and water molecules on the surface of Co3O4. The independence of the sensor signal from the air humidity combined with a sufficiently short response time at a moderate operating temperature makes Co3O4 a very promising material for CO detection in conditions of variable humidity.

  20. Stomatal response characteristics of Tradescantia virginiana grown at high relative air humidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rezaei Nejad, A.; Meeteren, van U.

    2005-01-01

    Plants produced at high relative air humidity (RH) show poor control of water loss after transferring to low RH, a phenomenon which is thought to be due to their stomatal behaviour. The stomatal anatomy and responses of moderate (55%) and high (90%) RH grown Tradescantia virginiana plants to

  1. Moderate salinity improves stomatal functioning in rose plants grown at high relative air humidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, Dália R.A.; Vasconcelos, Marta W.; Lee, Sang; Vreugdenhil, Dick; Heuvelink, Ep; Pinto de Carvalho, Susana

    2017-01-01

    Plants grown at high relative air humidity (RH ≥ 85%) show hampered stomatal closure in response to closing stimuli. We hypothesized that a moderate salinity during growth could trigger a stress response and stimulate stomatal functioning due to an increased leaf abscisic acid concentration ([ABA]).

  2. The effect of changing ambient humidity on moisture condition in timber elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hozjan, Tomaẑ; Turk, Goran; Srpĉiĉ, Stanislav

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the effect of the changing ambient humidity on moisture conditions in timber elements. The naturally varying humidity is possible to model as a relative combination of different harmonic cycles, with different periods and amplitudes. For the determination of the moisture field...... a fully coupled transport model including a model for the influential sorption hysteresis of wood is used. The coupled model accounts for both vapor transport in pores and bound water transport in wood tissue. Moisture state history influences relationship between moisture state of wood and air humidity......, it must therefore be taken into account. In order to include history dependency, a hysteresis model is used here. Results from numerical calculations for timber specimen exposed to combined daily and annually cyclic variation of outside humidity are presented. Copyright © (2012) by WCTE 2012 Committee....

  3. Elevated air humidity affects hydraulic traits and tree size but not biomass allocation in young silver birches (Betula pendula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne eSellin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available As changes in air temperature, precipitation, and air humidity are expected in the coming decades, studies on the impact of these environmental shifts on plant growth and functioning are of major importance. Greatly understudied aspects of climate change include consequences of increasing air humidity on forest ecosystems, predicted for high latitudes. The main objective of this study was to find a link between hydraulic acclimation and shifts in trees’ resource allocation in silver birch (Betula pendula Roth in response to elevated air relative humidity (RH. A second question was whether the changes in hydraulic architecture depend on tree size. Two years of application of increased RH decreased the biomass accumulation in birch saplings, but the biomass partitioning among aboveground parts (leaves, branches, and stems remained unaffected. Increased stem Huber values (xylem cross-sectional area to leaf area ratio observed in trees under elevated RH did not entail changes in the ratio of non-photosynthetic to photosynthetic tissues. The reduction of stem-wood density is attributable to diminished mechanical load imposed on the stem, since humidified trees had relatively shorter crowns. Growing under higher RH caused hydraulic conductance of the root system (KR to increase, while KR (expressed per unit leaf area decreased and leaf hydraulic conductance increased with tree size. Saplings of silver birch acclimate to increasing air humidity by adjusting plant morphology (live crown length, slenderness, specific leaf area, and fine-root traits and wood density rather than biomass distribution among aboveground organs. The treatment had a significant effect on several hydraulic properties of the trees, while the shifts were largely associated with changes in tree size but not in biomass allocation.

  4. Effects of some humidity and IBA hormone dose applicatýons on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, softwood cuttings were taken from M9 dwarf apple rootstocks in early June. Different indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) concentrations [0 (control), 500, 1500, 2500 and 3500 ppm], different air humidity levels (85 - 90%, 95-100%) and rooting media of perlite effects on rooting capability and root formation of M9 apple ...

  5. Effects of humidity during photoprocessing on thin film metallization adhesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norwood, D.P.

    1980-03-01

    Humidity effects during photoprocessing on tantalum/chromium/gold thin film networks (TFNs) were investigated. Humidity conditions at various process steps were controlled by placing either desiccant or water in handling containers for the TFNs. The TFNs photoprocessed in humid conditions had a much higher occurrence of metallization failures compared to TFNs processed in dry conditions. Ceramic surface defects were shown to cause pores in the thin films, and these pores enhanced corrosion susceptibility for the films. This study resulted in a desiccated storage process for production of TFNs.

  6. Acoustic Humidity Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakkottai, Parthasarathy; Kwack, Eug Y.; Venkateshan, Shakkottai

    1990-01-01

    Industrial humidity sensor measures volume fraction of water in air via its effect on speed of sound. Only portion of sensor exposed to sensed atmosphere is pair of stainless-steel tubes, one containing dry air and other containing moist air. Counters measure intervals between reflected pulses. Sensor rugged enough for use in harsh environments like those used to control drying of paper in paper mills, where most humidity sensors do not survive.

  7. Hygroscopic slaking of lime with steam or humid air. New energy effective lime slaking technology in kraft pulping; Hygroskopisk slaeckning av kalk med aanga eller fuktig luft. Ny energieffektiv teknik foer slaeckning av mesakalk i sulfatmassaindustrin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundqvist, Roland

    2005-12-15

    Lime stone is widely used in chemical recovery for regeneration of white liquor in kraft pulping. Slaked (hydrated) lime is used to convert (causticize) sodium carbonate into sodium hydroxide, whereby lime mud (calcium carbonate) precipitates from the solution. Lime mud is dried and reburned in a lime kiln, where burned lime (calcium oxide) is formed. The circle is closed when lime is slaked (hydrated) in green liquor in an exotherm reaction. Problems with traditional slaking method is that heat is recovered at low temperatures. With the method described in this report there is potential to increase heat recovery in the causticizing plant. The forecasted method means that lime is slaked with steam or humid air, for example combined with a lime mud drier and a lime kiln. The task has included slaking of burned lime with steam or humid hot air, on purpose to test a specific machine equipment in pilote scale, and to investigate temperatures and hydratization rates able to reach. Also the lime slaked with steam/humid air should be compared with burned lime slaked in green liquor when green liquor is causticized, and to investigate the dewatering properties of formed lime mud. The target group is pulp and paper industry using the kraft process. The tests have been performed at SMA Svenska Mineral AB plant (lime burning) at Sandarne Sweden in years 2004-2005. Hydrated lime of varying slaking rates has been produced at temperatures up to 270 deg C. Caustizicing being performed show that dewatering properties of lime mud formed is quite up to the standard of lime mud from burned lime slaked in green liquor. The apprehension, that the hygroscopic slaked lime should result in lime mud difficult to dewater, has not become true. Important experiences have come out which could be used as a base in further investigations.

  8. Effects of temperature and relative humidity on DNA methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bind, Marie-Abele; Zanobetti, Antonella; Gasparrini, Antonio; Peters, Annette; Coull, Brent; Baccarelli, Andrea; Tarantini, Letizia; Koutrakis, Petros; Vokonas, Pantel; Schwartz, Joel

    2014-07-01

    Previous studies have found relationships between DNA methylation and various environmental contaminant exposures. Associations with weather have not been examined. Because temperature and humidity are related to mortality even on non-extreme days, we hypothesized that temperature and relative humidity may affect methylation. We repeatedly measured methylation on long interspersed nuclear elements (LINE-1), Alu, and 9 candidate genes in blood samples from 777 elderly men participating in the Normative Aging Study (1999-2009). We assessed whether ambient temperature and relative humidity are related to methylation on LINE-1 and Alu, as well as on genes controlling coagulation, inflammation, cortisol, DNA repair, and metabolic pathway. We examined intermediate-term associations of temperature, relative humidity, and their interaction with methylation, using distributed lag models. Temperature or relative humidity levels were associated with methylation on tissue factor (F3), intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), toll-like receptor 2 (TRL-2), carnitine O-acetyltransferase (CRAT), interferon gamma (IFN-γ), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and glucocorticoid receptor, LINE-1, and Alu. For instance, a 5°C increase in 3-week average temperature in ICAM-1 methylation was associated with a 9% increase (95% confidence interval: 3% to 15%), whereas a 10% increase in 3-week average relative humidity was associated with a 5% decrease (-8% to -1%). The relative humidity association with ICAM-1 methylation was stronger on hot days than mild days. DNA methylation in blood cells may reflect biological effects of temperature and relative humidity. Temperature and relative humidity may also interact to produce stronger effects.

  9. The Effect of Humidity on the Knock Behavior in a Medium BMEP Lean-Burn High-Speed Gas Engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Essen, Vincent Martijn; Gersen, Sander; van Dijk, Gerco; Mundt, Torsten; Levinsky, Howard

    2016-01-01

    The effects of air humidity on the knock characteristics of fuels are investigated in a lean-burn, high-speed medium BMEP engine fueled with a CH4 + 4.7 mole% C3H8 gas mixture. Experiments are carried out with humidity ratios ranging from 4.3 to 11 g H2O/kg dry air. The measured pressure profiles at

  10. Thermal conductivity coefficient of cement-based mortars as air relative humidity function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siwińska, A.; Garbalińska, H.

    2011-09-01

    This paper presents results of tests and research conducted on three cement-based mortars. At first, moisture sorption was measured at 20°C and six relative humidity levels of the air. The tests were completed with a mathematical description of obtained sorption isotherms. Then, thermal conductivity coefficients λ were measured with stationary and non-stationary techniques on samples of various moisture degree. A linear dependence between coefficient λ and material moisture was determined. Component results of these two stages of research helped determine a mathematical dependence of the thermal conductivity coefficient upon the relative humidity of the tested materials.

  11. Electro-Hydrodynamics and Kinetic Modeling of Dry and Humid Air Flows Activated by Corona Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. Sarrette, J.; Eichwald, O.; Marchal, F.; Ducasse, O.; Yousfi, M.

    2016-05-01

    The present work is devoted to the 2D simulation of a point-to-plane Atmospheric Corona Discharge Reactor (ACDR) powered by a DC high voltage supply. The corona reactor is periodically crossed by thin mono filamentary streamers with a natural repetition frequency of some tens of kHz. The study compares the results obtained in dry air and in air mixed with a small amount of water vapour (humid air). The simulation involves the electro-dynamics, chemical kinetics and neutral gas hydrodynamics phenomena that influence the kinetics of the chemical species transformation. Each discharge lasts about one hundred of a nanosecond while the post-discharge occurring between two successive discharges lasts one hundred of a microsecond. The ACDR is crossed by a lateral dry or humid air flow initially polluted with 400 ppm of NO. After 5 ms, the time corresponding to the occurrence of 50 successive discharge/post-discharge phases, a higher NO removal rate and a lower ozone production rate are found in humid air. This change is due to the presence of the HO2 species formed from the H primary radical in the discharge zone.

  12. Impact Analysis of Temperature and Humidity Conditions on Electrochemical Sensor Response in Ambient Air Quality Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Peng; Ning, Zhi; Ye, Sheng; Sun, Li; Yang, Fenhuan; Wong, Ka Chun; Westerdahl, Dane; Louie, Peter K K

    2018-01-23

    The increasing applications of low-cost air sensors promises more convenient and cost-effective systems for air monitoring in many places and under many conditions. However, the data quality from such systems has not been fully characterized and may not meet user expectations in research and regulatory uses, or for use in citizen science. In our study, electrochemical sensors (Alphasense B4 series) for carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO₂), and oxidants (O x ) were evaluated under controlled laboratory conditions to identify the influencing factors and quantify their relation with sensor outputs. Based on the laboratory tests, we developed different correction methods to compensate for the impact of ambient conditions. Further, the sensors were assembled into a monitoring system and tested in ambient conditions in Hong Kong side-by-side with regulatory reference monitors, and data from these tests were used to evaluate the performance of the models, to refine them, and validate their applicability in variable ambient conditions in the field. The more comprehensive correction models demonstrated enhanced performance when compared with uncorrected data. One over-arching observation of this study is that the low-cost sensors may promise excellent sensitivity and performance, but it is essential for users to understand and account for several key factors that may strongly affect the nature of sensor data. In this paper, we also evaluated factors of multi-month stability, temperature, and humidity, and considered the interaction of oxidant gases NO₂ and ozone on a newly introduced oxidant sensor.

  13. Effect of relative humidity on foliar absorption of P and Rb by Chrysanthemum and Pilea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szczepan Marczyński

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Air humidity differentially affected the foliar absorption of 33P and 86Rb by Chrysanthemum morifolium 'Giant # 4 Indianapolis White' and Pilea cardierei. As the relative humidity increased from 47 to 80% in most cases, there was in increase in uptake. Further raising of humidity to 92% increased uptake of Rb and P by Chrysanthemum leaves only when guttation did not occure . Air humidity influenced most strongly the uptake of calcium phosphate probably due to its low solubility.

  14. Effects of humidity on shear behavior of bamboo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Askarinejad

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo is a naturally occurring biological composite, however its microstructure and hence its properties are very complex compared to the manmade composites. Due to optimization, it can be assumed that the variation in properties along the thickness of the culm be a smooth transition for better bonding strength between layers and to prevent non uniformity in stress concentration. As a consequence, biological structures are complicated and functionally graded. Hence, a realistic model that can capture the mechanical performance of bamboo is valuable in future design of robust multifunctional composites. This paper presents the results of experimental and numerical studies on the torsional (shear properties of bamboo. The hierarchical and multi-scale structure of bamboo and the distribution of micro-scale fibers are revealed via laser scanning and atomic force microscopy. This information was incorporated into a finite element model to analyze the mechanical behavior of bamboo under torsion and to estimate the shear modulus of bamboo along the fibers. Moreover, the effects of humidity and therefore water content on the mechanical properties of bamboo were evaluated by performing torsion tests on samples maintained in environments with different humidities. Increasing the humidity does not cause a drop in the shear modulus, however, a jump in the shear modulus did occur at around 60% humidity. Results of this study indicate that the highest strength values in samples occurred in environments with humidity levels between 60% and 80% and undergo a significant drop after that. In higher humidities, the samples behave more ductile.

  15. Investigation of Interfacial Phenomena During Condensation of Humid Air on a Horizontal Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiwari Akhilesh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The condensation phenomenon of humid air on solid substrates can occur in many applications, and it is known as one of the most difficult problem to deal with for the improvement of the quality of air in a closed environment. The present study was motivated by the investigation of the coupling between ventilation and condensation inside controlled ecological life support systems (CELSS, as it has an important role for higher plants growth in greenhouses and living conditions in manned spacecraft cabins, particularly in long duration space flights or in future space bases. It is well known that the enhancement of the gas exchange with leaves and the growth of plants are dependent on the organoleptic and/or the surrounding thermo-physical factors. Insufficient air movement around plants and condensation on plant leaves generally limit their growth by suppressing the gas diffusion in the leaf boundary-layer thereby decreasing photosynthetic and transpiration rates. Thus, the optimization of a CELSS will require the control of the airflow and concomitant gas/liquid transfer at the plant surfaces. The experimental and theoretical modeling of CELSS requires a comprehensive understanding of the micro to the macro levels of liquid gas phase transfer. Hence, an experimental set-up was developed at 1-g to evaluate the mass transfer coefficients due to condensation of humid air on specific geometries in well controlled environmental conditions. The goal was to establish correlations between the fluxes of mass and heat, the relative humidity and the mean flow for the development of theoretical models based on local transfer coefficients. The experiments were performed at ambient temperature, with a relative humidity between 35-70% and for a velocity range of 1.0-3.0 m.s−1.

  16. Is the perception of clean, humid air indeed affected by cooling the respiratory tract?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burek, Rudolf; Polednik, Bernard; Guz, Łukasz

    2017-07-01

    The study aims at determining exposure-response relationships after short exposure to clean air and long exposure to air polluted by people. The impact of water vapor content in the indoor air on its acceptability (ACC) was assessed by the occupants after a short exposure to clean air and an hour-long exposure to increasingly polluted air. The study presents a critical analysis pertaining to the stimulation of olfactory sensations by the air enthalpy suggested in previous models and proposes a new model based on the Weber-Fechner law. Our assumption was that water vapor is the stimulus of olfactory sensations. The model was calibrated and verified in field conditions, in a mechanically ventilated and air conditioned auditorium. Measurements of the air temperature, relative humidity, velocity and CO2 content were carried out; the acceptability of air quality was assessed by 162 untrained students. The subjective assessments and the measurements of the environmental qualities allowed for determining the Weber coefficients and the threshold concentrations of water vapor, as well as for establishing the limitations of the model at short and long exposure to polluted indoor air. The results are in agreement with previous studies. The standard error equals 0.07 for immediate assessments and 0.17 for assessments after adaptation. Based on the model one can predict the ACC assessments of trained and untrained participants.

  17. Experimental Study of Underground Irrigation by Condensation of Humid Air in Perforated Pipes

    OpenAIRE

    Lindblom, Jenny; Nordell, Bo

    2012-01-01

    A small scale Condensation Irrigation (CI) system was constructed to investigate the flow patterns of water, air and heat in the soil surrounding a perforated pipe from which water, heat and humid air was transferred. A 0.2 m long cross-section of sand and pipe was used to emulate a two-dimensional section of a CI system. Under these downscaled conditions, the mean irrigation rate in the sand box was 1.03 mm d-1. The major heat transfer mechanism in the sand profile was gas advection, which g...

  18. Thermal comfort in air-conditioned buildings in hot and humid climates--why are we not getting it right?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhar, S C

    2016-02-01

    While there are plenty of anecdotal experiences of overcooled buildings in summer, evidence from field studies suggests that there is indeed an issue of overcooling in tropical buildings. The findings suggest that overcooled buildings are not a consequence of occupant preference but more like an outcome of the HVAC system design and operation. Occupants' adaptation in overcooled indoor environments through additional clothing cannot be regarded as an effective mitigating strategy for cold thermal discomfort. In the last two decades or so, several field studies and field environmental chamber studies in the tropics provided evidence for occupants' preference for a warmer temperature with adaptation methods such as elevated air speeds. It is important to bear in mind that indoor humidity levels are not compromised as they could have an impact on the inhaled air condition that could eventually affect perceived air quality. This review article has attempted to track significant developments in our understanding of the thermal comfort issues in air-conditioned office and educational buildings in hot and humid climates in the last 25 years, primarily on occupant preference for thermal comfort in such climates. The issue of overcooled buildings, by design intent or otherwise, is discussed in some detail. Finally, the article has explored some viable adaptive thermal comfort options that show considerable promise for not only improving thermal comfort in tropical buildings but are also energy efficient and could be seen as sustainable solutions. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. [Impact of canopy structural characteristics on inner air temperature and relative humidity of Koelreuteria paniculata community in summer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zhong; Li, Zhan-dong; Cheng, Fang-yun; Sha, Hai-feng

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the diurnal variation of the correlations between the cooling and humidifying effects and canopy structural characteristics of the Koelreuteria paniculata community, the measurements of air temperature, relative humidity, canopy density, leaf area index (LAI) and mean leaf angle (MLA) were performed on calm sunny summer days in the community in Beijing Olympic Forest Park, China. There were significant correlations between the canopy density, LAI and MLA, which affected the cooling and humidifying effects together. The cooling effect reached its maximum by 12:00, whereas the humidifying effect reached its peak at 10:00. Compared with the control open space site, the community appeared to lower the air temperature by 0.43 to 7.53 °C and to increase the relative humidity by 1%-22% during the daytime. However, the cooling and humidifying effects seem to be not effective during the night. The canopy density and LAI were better for determining the cooling and humidifying effects from 9:00 to 12:00. However, these effects were largely controlled only by the canopy density from 12:00 to 14:00 and were significantly correlated with the canopy density and LAI afterwards until 18:00.

  20. Effect of environmental humidity on static foam stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xueliang; Karakashev, Stoyan I; Evans, Geoffrey M; Stevenson, Paul

    2012-03-06

    The quality of foaming products (such as beer and shampoo) and the performance of industrial processes that harness foam (such as the froth flotation of minerals or the foam fractionation of proteins) depend upon foam stability. In this study, experiments are performed to study the effect of environmental humidity on the collapse of static foams. The dependency of the rate at which a foam collapses upon humidity is demonstrated, and we propose a hypothesis for bubble bursting due to Marangoni instability induced by nonuniform evaporation to help explain the dependency. This hypothesis is supported by direct experimental observations of the bursting process of isolated bubbles by high speed video recording and the thinning of isolated foam films under different values of humidity and temperature by microinterferometric methods.

  1. Design of evaporative-cooling roof for decreasing air temperatures in buildings in the humid tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindangen, Jefrey I.; Umboh, Markus K.

    2017-03-01

    This subject points to assess the benefits of the evaporative-cooling roof, particularly for buildings with corrugated zinc roofs. In Manado, many buildings have roofed with corrugated zinc sheets; because this material is truly practical, easy and economical application. In general, to achieve thermal comfort in buildings in a humid tropical climate, people applying cross ventilation to cool the air in the room and avoid overheating. Cross ventilation is a very popular path to achieve thermal comfort; yet, at that place are other techniques that allow reducing the problem of excessive high temperature in the room in the constructions. This study emphasizes applications of the evaporative-cooling roof. Spraying water on the surface of the ceiling has been executed on the test cell and the reuse of water after being sprayed and cooled once more by applying a heat exchanger. Initial results indicate a reliable design and successfully meet the target as an effective evaporative-cooling roof technique. Application of water spraying automatic and cooling water installations can work optimally and can be an optimal model for the cooling roof as one of the green technologies. The role of heat exchangers can lower the temperature of the water from spraying the surface of the ceiling, which has become a hot, down an average of 0.77° C. The mass flow rate of the cooling water is approximately 1.106 kg/h and the rate of heat flow is around 515 Watt, depend on the site.

  2. Nanosecond pulsed dielectric barrier discharge plasma-catalytic removal of HCHO in humid air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuai; Wang, Wenchun; Zhang, Li; Zhao, Zilu; Yang, Dezheng

    2017-05-01

    Non-thermal plasma (NTP) has been regarded as a promising method for the removal of a wide range of low concentration volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In this paper, nanosecond pulsed and alternating current dielectric barrier discharge plasmas synergistic catalyst are utilized for removal of formaldehyde (HCHO) in humid air. Working gas is 1% H2O/21% O2/78% N2 with 154 ppm HCHO over total flow rate of 50 mL/min. Specific energy density (SED) are 32.5 JL-1, 35.8 JL-1 and 1069.2 JL-1 at power consumption of 0.325 W, 0.3 W, 8.9 W for removal of 67%, 63.8% and 73.8% HCHO when using bipolar nanosecond pulsed, unipolar nanosecond pulsed and AC dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma, respectively. The removal efficiencies of HCHO using nanosecond pulsed DBD plasma increase approximately 10 20% when the packed-bed Al2O3 pellets exist and can reach up to almost 100% when TiO2 nanoparticles are used while the effect of CeO2 nanoparticles is a bit poor. Analysis indicate that OH radical and O atom play main role for removal HCHO and the gas temperature is a significant factor for its influence on rate constants of HCHO with active particles.

  3. Effects of Single Film, Packaging Methods and Relative Humidity on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to determine the effect of single film packaging and relative humidity (RH) on the moisture content and water activity of Kilishi during storage. Polypropylene (PP) and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) films were used for the packaging. Kilishi was prepared by trimming off blood vessels, fat and ...

  4. Effects of temperature and relative humidity on the egg laying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of temperature and relative humidity on the egg laying pattern of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Koch, 1844) infesting sheep in semi-arid region of Nigeria. ... The pre-oviposition days under belljar conditions (11.1±9.15) was significantly shorter (p<0.05) than ambient conditions (14.5±14.9 days), each having post ...

  5. Statistical analysis of the effects of relative humidity and temperature ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Meteorological data from the Department of Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring (CMSAF), DWD Germany have been used to study and investigate the effect of relative humidity and temperature on refractivity in twenty six locations grouped into for climatic regions aloft Nigeria (Coastal, Guinea savannah, ...

  6. Bias Correction for Assimilation of Retrieved AIRS Profiles of Temperature and Humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenship, Clay; Zavodsky, Brad; Blackwell, William

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a hyperspectral radiometer aboard NASA's Aqua satellite designed to measure atmospheric profiles of temperature and humidity. AIRS retrievals are assimilated into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model over the North Pacific for some cases involving "atmospheric rivers". These events bring a large flux of water vapor to the west coast of North America and often lead to extreme precipitation in the coastal mountain ranges. An advantage of assimilating retrievals rather than radiances is that information in partly cloudy fields of view can be used. Two different Level 2 AIRS retrieval products are compared: the Version 6 AIRS Science Team standard retrievals and a neural net retrieval from MIT. Before assimilation, a bias correction is applied to adjust each layer of retrieved temperature and humidity so the layer mean values agree with a short-term model climatology. WRF runs assimilating each of the products are compared against each other and against a control run with no assimilation. This paper will describe the bias correction technique and results from forecasts evaluated by validation against a Total Precipitable Water (TPW) product from CIRA and against Global Forecast System (GFS) analyses.

  7. Bias Correction for Assimilation of Retrieved AIRS Profiles of Temperature and Humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakenship, Clay; Zavodsky, Bradley; Blackwell, William

    2014-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a hyperspectral radiometer aboard NASA's Aqua satellite designed to measure atmospheric profiles of temperature and humidity. AIRS retrievals are assimilated into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model over the North Pacific for some cases involving "atmospheric rivers". These events bring a large flux of water vapor to the west coast of North America and often lead to extreme precipitation in the coastal mountain ranges. An advantage of assimilating retrievals rather than radiances is that information in partly cloudy fields of view can be used. Two different Level 2 AIRS retrieval products are compared: the Version 6 AIRS Science Team standard retrievals and a neural net retrieval from MIT. Before assimilation, a bias correction is applied to adjust each layer of retrieved temperature and humidity so the layer mean values agree with a short-term model climatology. WRF runs assimilating each of the products are compared against each other and against a control run with no assimilation. Forecasts are against ERA reanalyses.

  8. Root-to-shoot ABA signaling does not contribute to genotypic variation in stomatal functioning induced by high relative air humidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, Dália R.A.; Fanourakis, D.; Correia, M.J.; Monteiro, J.A.; Araújo-Alves, J.P.L.; Vasconcelos, M.W.; Almeida, D.P.F.; Heuvelink, E.; Pinto de Carvalho, S.

    2016-01-01

    High relative air humidity (RH ≥85%) during leaf expansion hampers stomatal responsiveness to closing stimuli, a genotype-dependent effect. Genotypes with reduced stomatal closure in response to closing stimuli (i.e., sensitive genotypes) show low bulk leaf abscisic acid concentration ([ABA]). We

  9. CORRELATION BETWEEN CONCENTRATION OF AIR POLLUTANTS AND OCCURRENCE OF CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS IN A REGION WITH HUMID CONTINENTAL CLIMATE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knezović, Marijana; Pintarić, Sanja; Jelavić, Marko Mornar; Nesek, Višnja; Krstačić, Goran; Vrsalović, Mislav; Šikić, Aljoša; Zeljković, Ivan; Pintarić, Hrvoje

    2017-03-01

    In this study, we investigated the correlation of air temperature, pressure and concentration of air pollutants with the rate of admissions for cardiac arrhythmias at two clinical centers in the area with a humid continental climate. This retrospective study included 3749 patients with arrhythmias admitted to emergency department (ED). They were classified into four groups: supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), ventricular tachycardia (VT), atrial fibrillation/undulation (Afib/Aund), and palpitations (with no ECG changes, or with sinus tachycardia and extrasystoles). The number of patients, values of meteorological parameters (average daily values of air temperature, pressure and relative humidity) and concentrations of air pollutants (particles of dimensions ~10 micrometers or less (PM(10)), ozone (O(3)) and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2))) were collected during a two-year period ( July 2008-June 2010). There were 1650 (44.0%), 1525 (40.7%), 451 (12.0%) and 123 (3.3%) patients with palpitations, Afib/Aund, SVT and VT, respectively. Spearman’s correlation yielded positive correlation between the occurrence of arrhythmias and air humidity on the day (r=0.07), and 1 (r=0.08), 2 (r=0.09) and 3 days before (r=0.09), and NO(2) particles on the day (r=0.08) of ED admission; palpitations and air humidity on the day (r=0.11), and 1 (r=0.09), 2 (r=0.07) and 3 days before (r=0.10), and PM(10) (r=0.11) and NO(2) (r=0.08) particles on the day of ED admission; and Afi b/Aund and air humidity 2 days before (r=0.08) ED admission (pcardiac arrhythmias with air humidity and concentration of air pollutants in the region with a humid continental climate.

  10. Impact of temperature and humidity on acceptability of indoor air quality during immediate and longer whole-body exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Lei; Clausen, Geo; Fanger, Povl Ole

    1997-01-01

    Acceptability of clean air and air polluted by building materials was studied in climate chambers with different levels of air temperature and humidity in the ranges 18-28°C and 30-70%. The immediate acceptability after entering a chamber and the acceptability during a 20-minute whole-body exposure......-minute exposure, i.e. no adaptation took place. Both the immediate assessment of acceptability and the assessments during the 20-minute exposure were independent of the air temperature and humidity to which the subjects were exposed before entering the chamber....

  11. Effect of Temperature and Relative Humidity on the Growth of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of temperature and relative humidity on the growth of Helminthosporium fulvum were investigated. Various temperature regimes of 10oC, 15oC, 20oC, 25oC, 30oC, 35oC and 40¢ªC were used to determine the temperature effect on the growth of H. fulvum. Maximum growth of H. fulvum was obtained at 25¢ªC ...

  12. Effect of Temperature and Relative Humidity on the Growth of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT: The effects of temperature and relative humidity on the growth of Helminthosporium fulvum were investigated. Various temperature regimes of 10oC, 15oC, 20oC, 25oC, 30oC, 35oC and 40˚C were used to determine the temperature effect on the growth of H. fulvum. Maximum growth of H. fulvum was obtained ...

  13. Recent Improvements in Retrieving Near-Surface Air Temperature and Humidity Using Microwave Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, J. Brent

    2010-01-01

    Detailed studies of the energy and water cycles require accurate estimation of the turbulent fluxes of moisture and heat across the atmosphere-ocean interface at regional to basin scale. Providing estimates of these latent and sensible heat fluxes over the global ocean necessitates the use of satellite or reanalysis-based estimates of near surface variables. Recent studies have shown that errors in the surface (10 meter)estimates of humidity and temperature are currently the largest sources of uncertainty in the production of turbulent fluxes from satellite observations. Therefore, emphasis has been placed on reducing the systematic errors in the retrieval of these parameters from microwave radiometers. This study discusses recent improvements in the retrieval of air temperature and humidity through improvements in the choice of algorithms (linear vs. nonlinear) and the choice of microwave sensors. Particular focus is placed on improvements using a neural network approach with a single sensor (Special Sensor Microwave/Imager) and the use of combined sensors from the NASA AQUA satellite platform. The latter algorithm utilizes the unique sampling available on AQUA from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) and the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU-A). Current estimates of uncertainty in the near-surface humidity and temperature from single and multi-sensor approaches are discussed and used to estimate errors in the turbulent fluxes.

  14. Adaptive Thermal Comfort in Japanese Houses during the Summer Season: Behavioral Adaptation and the Effect of Humidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hom B. Rijal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to clarify effect of humidity on the room temperatures reported to be comfortable, an occupant thermal comfort and behavior survey was conducted for five summers in the living rooms and bedrooms of residences in the Kanto region of Japan. We have collected 13,525 thermal comfort votes from over 239 residents of 120 homes, together with corresponding measurements of room temperature and humidity of the air. The residents were generally well-satisfied with the thermal environment of their houses, with or without the use of air-conditioning, and thus were well-adapted to their thermal conditions. The humidity was found to have very little direct effect on the comfort temperature. However, the comfort temperature was strongly related to the reported skin moisture. Behavioral adaptation such as window opening and fan use increase air movement and improve thermal comfort.

  15. Influence of sample temperature and environmental humidity on measurements of benzene in ambient air by transportable GC-PID

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Trigueros, Cristina; Doval Miñarro, Marta; González Duperón, Esther; González Ferradás, Enrique

    2017-10-01

    Calibration of in situ analysers of air pollutants is usually done with dry standards. In this paper, the influence of sample temperature and environmental humidity on benzene measurements by gas chromatography coupled with a photoionisation detector (GC-PID) is studied. Two reference gas mixtures (40 and 5 µg m-3 nominal concentration benzene in air) were subjected to two temperature cycles (20/5/20 °C and 20/35/20 °C) and measured with two identical GC-PIDs. The change in sample temperature did not produce any significant change in readings. Regarding ambient humidity, the chromatographs were calibrated for benzene with dry gases and subjected to measure reference standards with humidity (20 and 80 % at 20 °C). When measuring a concentration of 0.5 µg m-3 benzene in air, the levels of humidity tested did not produce any significant interference in measurements taken with any of the analysers. However, when measuring a concentration of 40 µg m-3, biases in measurements of 18 and 21 % for each respective analyser were obtained when the relative humidity of the sample was 80 % at 20 °C. Further tests were carried out to study the nature of this interference. Results show that humidity interference depends on both the amount fractions of water vapour and benzene. If benzene concentrations in an area are close to its annual limit value (5 µg m-3), biases of 2.2 % can be expected when the absolute humidity is 8.6 g cm-3 - corresponding to a relative humidity of 50 % at 20 °C. This can be accounted for in the uncertainty budget of measurements with no need for corrections. If benzene concentrations are above the annual limit value, biases become higher. Thus, in these cases, actions should be taken to reduce the humidity interference, as an underestimation of benzene concentrations may cause a mismanagement of air quality in these situations.

  16. A calibration facility to provide traceable calibration to upper air humidity measuring sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuccaro, Rugiada; Rosso, Lucia; Smorgon, Denis; Beltramino, Giulio; Fernicola, Vito

    2017-04-01

    Accurate knowledge and high quality measurement of the upper air humidity and of its profile in atmosphere is essential in many areas of the atmospheric research, for example in weather forecasting, environmental pollution studies and research in meteorology and climatology. Moving from the troposphere to the stratosphere, the water vapour amount varies between some percent to few part per million. For this reason, through the years, several methods and instruments have been developed for the measurement of the humidity in atmosphere. Among the instruments used for atmospheric sounding, radiosondes, airborne and balloon-borne chilled mirror hygrometer (CMH) and tunable diode laser absorption spectrometers (TDLAS) play a key role. To avoid the presence of unknown biases and systematic errors and to obtain accurate and reliable humidity measurements, these instruments need a SI-traceable calibration, preferably carried out in conditions similar to those expected in the field. To satisfy such a need, a new calibration facility has been developed at INRIM. The facility is based on a thermodynamic-based frost-point generator designed to achieve a complete saturation of the carrier gas with a single passage through an isothermal saturator. The humidity generator covers the frost point temperature range between -98 °C and -20 °C and is able to work at any controlled pressure between 200 hPa and 1000 hPa (corresponding to a barometric altitude between ground level and approximately 12000 m). The paper reports the work carried out to test the generator performances, discusses the results and presents the evaluation of the measurement uncertainty. The present work was carried out within the European Joint Research Project "MeteoMet 2 - Metrology for Essential Climate Variables" co-funded by the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP). The EMRP is jointly funded by the EMRP participating countries within EURAMET and the European Union.

  17. New approach to resolve the humidity problem in VOC determination in outdoor air samples using solid adsorbent tubes followed by TD-GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maceira, Alba; Vallecillos, Laura; Borrull, Francesc; Marcé, Rosa Maria

    2017-12-01

    This study describes the humidity effect in the sampling process by adsorbent tubes followed by thermal desorption and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) for the determination of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air samples and evaluates possible solutions to this problem. Two multi-sorbent bed tubes, Tenax TA/Carbograph 1TD and Carbotrap B/Carbopack X/Carboxen 569, were tested in order to evaluate their behaviour in the presence of environmental humidity. Humidity problems were demonstrated with carbon-based tubes, while Tenax-based tubes did not display any influence. Silica gel, a molecular sieve and CaCl2 were tried out as materials for drying tube to remove air humidity, placed prior to the sampling tube to prevent water from entering. The pre-tubes filled with 0.5g of CaCl2 showed the best results with respect to their blanks, the analytes recoveries and their ability to remove ambient humidity. To avoid the possible agglomeration of CaCl2 during the sampling process in high relative humidity atmospheres, 0.1g of diatomaceous earth were mixed with the desiccant agent. The applicability of the CaCl2 pre-tube as drying agent prior to Carbotrap B/Carbopack X/Carboxen 569 tubes was tested in urban and industrial locations with samplings of air at high relative humidity. In addition, the results were compared with those obtained using Tenax TA/Carbograph 1TD tubes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Ozone Production With Dielectric Barrier Discharge: Effects of Power Source and Humidity

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xuming

    2016-08-24

    Ozone synthesis in air dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) was studied with an emphasis on the effects of power sources and humidity. Discharge characteristics were investigated to understand the physical properties of plasma and corresponding system performance. It was found that 10-ns pulsed DBD produced a homogeneous discharge mode, while ac DBD yielded an inhomogeneous pattern with many microdischarge channels. At a similar level of the energy density (ED), decreasing the flowrate is more effective in the production of ozone for the cases of the ac DBD, while increased voltage is more effective for the pulsed DBD. Note that the maximum ozone production efficiency (110 g/kWh) was achieved with the pulsed DBD. At the ED of ∼ 85 J/L, the ozone concentrations with dry air were over three times higher than those with the relative humidity of 100% for both the ac DBD and pulsed DBD cases. A numerical simulation was conducted using a global model to understand a detailed chemical role of water vapor to ozone production. It was found HO and OH radicals from water vapor significantly consumed O atoms, resulting in a reduction in ozone production. The global model qualitatively captured the experimental trends, providing further evidence that the primary effect of humidity on ozone production is chemical in nature.

  19. Upper Tropospheric Humidity And Its Sensitivity To Changes Of Local Air Temperature And Sea Surface Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, H. G. J.; Kley, D.; Nawrath, S.

    Whether upper tropospheric humidity (UTH) is under thermodynamic or dynamic control is still one of the unresolved questions regarding climate feedback, important for a better understanding and prediction of the global temperature changes. Interac- tion of UTH content with local air and sea surface temperature play an important role in climate feedback. We report on UTH-measurements over the Atlantic ocean as a function of seasonally varying upper tropospheric and sea surface temperature. We use a comprehensive five year climatology of data from the MOZAIC (Measurement of Ozone and Water Va- por by Airbus In-Service Aircraft) project in which UTH and local temperature are measured since 1994 from board five Airbus A340 passenger aircraft during sched- uled flight operation. Corresponding sea surface temperature is taken from satellite observations. We will discuss the seasonal variations of UTH-content (relative and specific humid- ity) in combination with local air temperature and sea surface temperature under typi- cal mid-latitude, sub-tropical and tropical conditions, respectively. The discussion will focus on the temperature sensitivity of UTH-content in terms of dynamic or thermo- dynamic control and its implications for climate feedback.

  20. The Microclimate in Protective Fire Fighter Footwear: Foot Temperature and Air Temperature and Relative Humidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irzmańska Emilia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study material consisted of two models of protective firefighter footwear. The tests were conducted on subjects in a laboratory using an ergometric treadmill. The parameters of footwear microclimate were continuously recorded using T/RH sensors. For the leather footwear, the highest foot temperature was recorded in the 50th minute of the experiment (35.8°C in the dorsal region and 37.3°C in the plantar region and for the polymer footwear in the 60th minute of the experiment (35.4°C in the dorsal region and 37.0°C in the plantar region. In the leather footwear, the temperature of the air surrounding the feet rose from 31.0°C to 35.4°C, and then declined, but did not return to the initial level during the rest period. In turn, in the polymer footwear, the temperature rose from 29.0 to 34.7°C, and then decreased to 33.7°C following the rest period. The highest relative air humidity was recorded in the polymer footwear (96.6%, while in the leather footwear it amounted to 91%. Testing the dynamics of the microclimate during footwear use provides complete information about changes in the temperature of the skin of the foot and the temperature and relative humidity of the footwear microclimate.

  1. Solar-Powered, Liquid-Desiccant Air Conditioner for Low-Electricity Humidity Control: Report and Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, J.; Kozubal, E.; Herrmann, L.; Miller, J.; Lowenstein, A.; Barker, G.; Slayzak, S.

    2012-11-01

    The primary objective of this project was to demonstrate the capabilities of a new high-performance, liquid-desiccant dedicated outdoor air system (DOAS) to enhance cooling efficiency and comfort in humid climates while substantially reducing electric peak demand at Tyndall Air Force Base (AFB), which is 12 miles east of Panama City, Florida.

  2. Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Design Strategy for a Hot-Humid Production Builder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerrigan, P. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Building Science Corporation (BSC) worked directly with the David Weekley Homes - Houston division to develop a cost-effective design for moving the HVAC system into conditioned space. In addition, BSC conducted energy analysis to calculate the most economical strategy for increasing the energy performance of future production houses in preparation for the upcoming code changes in 2015. This research project addressed the following questions: 1. What is the most cost effective, best performing and most easily replicable method of locating ducts inside conditioned space for a hot-humid production home builder that constructs one and two story single family detached residences? 2. What is a cost effective and practical method of achieving 50% source energy savings vs. the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code for a hot-humid production builder? 3. How accurate are the pre-construction whole house cost estimates compared to confirmed post construction actual cost?

  3. Cloud-induced uncertainties in AIRS and ECMWF temperature and specific humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Sun; Fetzer, Eric J.; Schreier, Mathias; Manipon, Gerald; Fishbein, Evan F.; Kahn, Brian H.; Yue, Qing; Irion, Fredrick W.

    2015-03-01

    The uncertainties of the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) Level 2 version 6 specific humidity (q) and temperature (T) retrievals are quantified as functions of cloud types by comparison against Integrated Global Radiosonde Archive radiosonde measurements. The cloud types contained in an AIRS/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit footprint are identified by collocated Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer retrieved cloud optical depth (COD) and cloud top pressure. We also report results of similar validation of q and T from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) forecasts (EC) and retrievals from the AIRS Neural Network (NNW), which are used as the initial state for AIRS V6 physical retrievals. Differences caused by the variation in the measurement locations and times are estimated using EC, and all the comparisons of data sets against radiosonde measurements are corrected by these estimated differences. We report in detail the validation results for AIRS GOOD quality control, which is used for the AIRS Level 3 climate products. AIRS GOOD quality q reduces the dry biases inherited from the NNW in the middle troposphere under thin clouds but enhances dry biases in thick clouds throughout the troposphere (reaching -30% at 850 hPa near deep convective clouds), likely because the information contained in AIRS retrievals is obtained in cloud-cleared areas or above clouds within the field of regard. EC has small moist biases (~5-10%), which are within the uncertainty of radiosonde measurements, in thin and high clouds. Temperature biases of all data are within ±1 K at altitudes above the 700 hPa level but increase with decreasing altitude. Cloud-cleared retrievals lead to large AIRS cold biases (reaching about -2 K) in the lower troposphere for large COD, enhancing the cold biases inherited from the NNW. Consequently, AIRS GOOD quality T root-mean-squared errors (RMSEs) are slightly smaller than the NNW errors in thin clouds (1.5-2.5 K) but

  4. Roller compaction: Effect of relative humidity of lactose powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Chalak S; Dhenge, Ranjit M; Palzer, Stefan; Hounslow, Michael J; Salman, Agba D

    2016-09-01

    The effect of storage at different relative humidity conditions, for various types of lactose, on roller compaction behaviour was investigated. Three types of lactose were used in this study: anhydrous lactose (SuperTab21AN), spray dried lactose (SuperTab11SD) and α-lactose monohydrate 200M. These powders differ in their amorphous contents, due to different manufacturing processes. The powders were stored in a climatic chamber at different relative humidity values ranging from 10% to 80% RH. It was found that the roller compaction behaviour and ribbon properties were different for powders conditioned to different relative humidities. The amount of fines produced, which is undesirable in roller compaction, was found to be different at different relative humidity. The minimum amount of fines produced was found to be for powders conditioned at 20-40% RH. The maximum amount of fines was produced for powders conditioned at 80% RH. This was attributed to the decrease in powder flowability, as indicated by the flow function coefficient ffc and the angle of repose. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was also applied to determine the velocity of primary particles during ribbon production, and it was found that the velocity of the powder during the roller compaction decreased with powders stored at high RH. This resulted in less powder being present in the compaction zone at the edges of the rollers, which resulted in ribbons with a smaller overall width. The relative humidity for the storage of powders has shown to have minimal effect on the ribbon tensile strength at low RH conditions (10-20%). The lowest tensile strength of ribbons produced from lactose 200M and SD was for powders conditioned at 80% RH, whereas, ribbons produced from lactose 21AN at the same condition of 80% RH showed the highest tensile strength. The storage RH range 20-40% was found to be an optimum condition for roll compacting three lactose powders, as it resulted in a minimum amount of fines in the

  5. The effect of humidity on annealing of polymer optical fibre bragg gratings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woyessa, Getinet; Nielsen, Kristian; Bang, Ole

    2015-01-01

    The effect of humidity on annealing of PMMA based microstructured polymer optical fiber (mPOF) Bragg gratings is studied. Polymer optical fibers (POFs) are annealed in order to release stress formed during the fabrication process. Un-annealed fibers will have high hysteresis and low sensitivity...... to humidity, particularly when operated at high temperature. Typically annealing of PMMA POFs is done at 80oC in an oven with no humidity control and therefor at low humidity. The response to humidity of PMMA FBGs annealed at different levels of humidity at the same temperature has also been studied. PMMA...... FBGs annealed at high humidity have response with no hysteresis and an improved sensitivity which are independent of temperature compared to FBGs annealed at the same temperature but at lower humidity. In addition, PMMA FBG annealed at high humidity showed a permanent blue shift more than 200nm, which...

  6. Barbados Cloud Observatory: Raman Lidars for air temperature, humidity, aerosols and cloud characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serikov, Ilya; Linné, Holger; Brügmann, Björn; Kiliani, Johannes; Stevens, Bjorn

    2017-04-01

    Processes governing the development and evolution of shallow cumulus clouds in trades remain a large uncertainty in climate studies. To enrich the experimental database, Max Planck Institute for Meteorology in cooperation with Caribbean Institute for Meteorology and Hydrology have established and maintain since April 2010 the Barbados Cloud Observatory (13.1627 N, 59.4289 W) equipped among other instrumentation with multi-channel Raman lidar to profile routinely the cloud stratification, aerosol properties, air temperature and humidity. More than six years of operation with nearly continuous data flow resulted in quite extensive and statistically representative dataset. In this presentation we describe and evaluate three generations of Raman lidars that have been or are begin deployed at the observatory. Focusing primarily on our first lidar initially deployed on the site, an EARLI system (the MPI-M Raman lidar originally designed for EARLINET, the European Aerosol Research LIdar NETwork) that gave us most of the lidar data collected, we compare it to the presently deployed instrument, the LICHT system (LIdar for Clouds, Humidity and Temperature) designed to extend the observation with daytime measurements of water vapor. Third-generation lidar, a high power Raman lidar component of the upcoming CORAL system (Cloud Observation with RAdar and Lidar) developed for high resolution water vapor measurement is being prepared for deployment and will be described conceptually. Giving an overview on the technique implemented, we touch briefly the lidar calibration algorithms, some aspects of quality assurance, and present the data available with a particular focus on the ability of the instruments to measure atmospheric humidity and extinction.

  7. Thermal comfort in naturally ventilated and air-conditioned buildings in humid subtropical climate zone in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Zhang, Guoqiang

    2008-05-01

    A thermal comfort field study has been carried out in five cities in the humid subtropical climate zone in China. The survey was performed in naturally ventilated and air-conditioned buildings during the summer season in 2006. There were 229 occupants from 111 buildings who participated in this study and 229 questionnaire responses were collected. Thermal acceptability assessment reveals that the indoor environment in naturally ventilated buildings could not meet the 80% acceptability criteria prescribed by ASHRAE Standard 55, and people tended to feel more comfortable in air-conditioned buildings with the air-conditioned occupants voting with higher acceptability (89%) than the naturally ventilated occupants (58%). The neutral temperatures in naturally ventilated and air-conditioned buildings were 28.3 degrees C and 27.7 degrees C, respectively. The range of accepted temperature in naturally ventilated buildings (25.0-31.6 degrees C) was wider than that in air-conditioned buildings (25.1-30.3 degrees C), which suggests that occupants in naturally ventilated buildings seemed to be more tolerant of higher temperatures. Preferred temperatures were 27.9 degrees C and 27.3 degrees C in naturally ventilated and air-conditioned buildings, respectively, both of which were 0.4 degrees C cooler than neutral temperatures. This result suggests that people of hot climates may use words like "slightly cool" to describe their preferred thermal state. The relationship between draught sensation and indoor air velocity at different temperature ranges indicates that indoor air velocity had a significant influence over the occupants' comfort sensation, and air velocities required by occupants increased with the increasing of operative temperatures. Thus, an effective way of natural ventilation which can create the preferred higher air movement is called for. Finally, the indoor set-point temperature of 26 degrees C or even higher in air-conditioned buildings was confirmed as making

  8. Predicting Indian Summer Monsoon onset through variations of surface air temperature and relative humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolbova, Veronika; Surovyatkina, Elena; Kurths, Jurgen

    2015-04-01

    Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) rainfall has an enormous effect on Indian agriculture, economy, and, as a consequence, life and prosperity of more than one billion people. Variability of the monsoonal rainfall and its onset have a huge influence on food production, agricultural planning and GDP of the country, which on 22% is determined by agriculture. Consequently, successful forecasting of the ISM onset is a big challenge and large efforts are being put into it. Here, we propose a novel approach for predictability of the ISM onset, based on critical transition theory. The ISM onset is defined as an abrupt transition from sporadious rainfall to spatially organized and temporally sustained rainfall. Taking this into account, we consider the ISM onset as is a critical transition from pre-monsoon to monsoon, which take place in time and also in space. It allows us to suggest that before the onset of ISM on the Indian subcontinent should be areas of critical behavior where indicators of the critical transitions can be detected through an analysis of observational data. First, we identify areas with such critical behavior. Second, we use detected areas as reference points for observation locations for the ISM onset prediction. Third, we derive a precursor for the ISM onset based on the analysis of surface air temperature and relative humidity variations in these reference points. Finally, we demonstrate the performance of this precursor on two observational data sets. The proposed approach allows to determine ISM onset in advance in 67% of all considered years. Our proposed approach is less effective during the anomalous years, which are associated with weak/strong monsoons, e.g. El-Nino, La-Nina or positive Indian Ocean Dipole events. The ISM onset is predicted for 23 out of 27 normal monsoon years (85%) during the past 6 decades. In the anomalous years, we show that time series analysis in both areas during the pre-monsoon period reveals indicators whether the

  9. Effects of humid heat exposure in later sleep segments on sleep stages and body temperature in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto-Mizuno, Kazue; Tsuzuki, Kazuyo; Mizuno, Koh

    2005-03-01

    This study sought to investigate the effects of humid heat exposure in later sleep segments on sleep stages and body temperature in humans. The subjects were eight healthy males, from whom informed consent had been obtained. The experiments were carried out under three different sets of conditions: a control climate [air temperature (Ta)=26°C, relative humidity (RH)=50%] (C); a humid heat climate (Ta=32°C, RH=80%) (H); and a humid heat exposure in later sleep segments (C for the first 3 h 45 min, followed by a 30-min transition to H, which was then maintained for the last 3 h 45 min) (C H). Electroencephalogram, EOG, and mental electromyogram, rectal temperature (Tre), and skin temperature (Tsk) were continuously measured. The total amount of wakefulness was significantly increased in H compared to C H or C. Compared to C, wakefulness in C H and H was significantly increased during later sleep segments. Tre and mean Tsk were significantly higher in H than in C H or C. In C H, Tsk and Tre increased to levels equal to those observed in H after Ta and RH increase. Whole body sweat loss was significantly lower in C H and C than in H. These results suggest that humid heat exposure in the later sleep segment reduces thermal load as compared to full-night humid heat exposure. In daily life, the use of air conditioning in the initial sleep hours can protect sleep and thermoregulation.

  10. Observation on Responsive OCV Variation od Zinc-Air Cell with Relative Humidity Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanisah Manshor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available 0 0 1 64 371 International Islamic University 3 1 434 14.0 96 800x600 Normal 0 false false false EN-US JA X-NONE Zinc/MCM-41/air cell, in its dry form without the electrolyte,demonstrates humidity sensing property. A good linear correlation between the cell's open circuit voltage (OCV and the relative humidity content is observed. The systempossesses the potential to be developed into a low cost microhumidity sensor. An ultra thin cell of thickness not more than 40 μm has been fabricated and its use as a humiditysensor is substantiated.ABSTRAK: Sel zinc/MCM-41/udara, dalam keadaan kering tanpa elektrolit, menunjukkan sifat pencirian kelembapan. Voltan litar terbuka sel didapati menunjukkan korelasi linear yang baik terhadap kandungan kelembapan relatif. Sistem ini berpotensi untuk dibangunkan menjadi penciri kelembapan mikro yang murah. Sel yang amat nipis dengan ketebalan tidak melebihi 40 μm telah difabrikasi and kegunaannya sebagai penciri kelembapan dibuktikan.

  11. Test methods and response surface models for hot, humid air decontamination of materials contaminated with dirty spores of Bacillus anthracis ∆Sterne and Bacillus thuringiensis Al Hakam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhr, T L; Young, A A; Barnette, H K; Minter, Z A; Kennihan, N L; Johnson, C A; Bohmke, M D; DePaola, M; Cora-Laó, M; Page, M A

    2015-11-01

    To develop test methods and evaluate survival of Bacillus anthracis ∆Sterne or Bacillus thuringiensis Al Hakam on materials contaminated with dirty spore preparations after exposure to hot, humid air using response surface modelling. Spores (>7 log10 ) were mixed with humic acid + spent sporulation medium (organic debris) or kaolin (dirt debris). Spore samples were then dried on five different test materials (wiring insulation, aircraft performance coating, anti-skid, polypropylene, and nylon). Inoculated materials were tested with 19 test combinations of temperature (55, 65, 75°C), relative humidity (70, 80, 90%) and time (1, 2, 3 days). The slowest spore inactivation kinetics was on nylon webbing and/or after addition of organic debris. Hot, humid air effectively decontaminates materials contaminated with dirty Bacillus spore preparations; debris and material interactions create complex decontamination kinetic patterns; and B. thuringiensis Al Hakam is a realistic surrogate for B. anthracis. Response surface models of hot, humid air decontamination were developed which may be used to select decontamination parameters for contamination scenarios including aircraft. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  12. Effects of airflow on body temperatures and sleep stages in a warm humid climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuzuki, Kazuyo; Okamoto-Mizuno, Kazue; Mizuno, Koh; Iwaki, Tatsuya

    2008-03-01

    Airflow is an effective way to increase heat loss-an ongoing process during sleep and wakefulness in daily life. However, it is unclear whether airflow stimulates cutaneous sensation and disturbs sleep or reduces the heat load and facilitates sleep. In this study, 17 male subjects wearing short pyjamas slept on a bed with a cotton blanket under two of the following conditions: (1) air temperature (Ta) 26 degrees C, relative humidity (RH) 50%, and air velocity (V) 0.2 m s(-1); (2) Ta 32 degrees C, RH 80%, V 1.7 m s(-1); (3) Ta 32 degrees C; RH 80%, V 0.2 m s(-1) (hereafter referred to as 26/50, 32/80 with airflow, and 32/80 with still air, respectively). Electroencephalograms, electrooculograms, and mental electromyograms were obtained for all subjects. Rectal (Tre) and skin (Ts) temperatures were recorded continuously during the sleep session, and body-mass was measured before and after the sleep session. No significant differences were observed in the duration of sleep stages between subjects under the 26/50 and 32/80 with airflow conditions; however, the total duration of wakefulness decreased significantly in subjects under the 32/80 with airflow condition compared to that in subjects under the 32/80 with still air condition (Pwarm humid condition.

  13. Air temperature optimisation for humidity-controlled cold storage of the predatory mites Neoseiulus californicus and Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazy, Noureldin Abuelfadl; Suzuki, Takeshi; Amano, Hiroshi; Ohyama, Katsumi

    2014-03-01

    Humidity-controlled cold storage, in which the water vapour pressure is saturated, can prolong the survival of the predatory mites Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor) and Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae). However, information on the optimum air temperature for long-term storage by this method is limited. The authors evaluated the survival of mated adult females of N. californicus and P. persimilis at 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 and 12.5 °C under saturated water vapour condition (vapour pressure deficit 0.0 kPa). N. californicus showed a longer survival time than P. persimilis at all the air temperatures. The longest mean survival time of N. californicus was 11 weeks at 7.5 °C, whereas that of P. persimilis was 8 weeks at 5.0 °C. After storage at 7.5 °C for 8 weeks, no negative effect on post-storage oviposition was observed in N. californicus, whereas the oviposition of P. persimilis stored at 5.0 °C for 8 weeks was significantly reduced. The interspecific variation in the response of these predators to low air temperature might be attributed to their natural habitat and energy requirements. These results may be useful for the long-term storage of these predators, which is required for cost-effective biological control. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Effects of humidity on the mechanical properties of gecko setae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prowse, Michael S; Wilkinson, Matt; Puthoff, Jonathan B; Mayer, George; Autumn, Kellar

    2011-02-01

    We tested the hypothesis that an increase in relative humidity (RH) causes changes in the mechanical properties of the keratin of adhesive gecko foot hairs (setae). We measured the effect of RH on the tensile deformation properties, fracture, and dynamic mechanical response of single isolated tokay gecko setae and strips of the smooth lamellar epidermal layer. The mechanical properties of gecko setae were strongly affected by RH. The complex elastic modulus (measured at 5 Hz) of a single seta at 80% RH was 1.2 GPa, only 39% of the value when dry. An increase in RH reduced the stiffness and increased the strain to failure. The loss tangent increased significantly with humidity, suggesting that water absorption produces a transition to a more viscous type of deformation. The influence of RH on the properties of the smooth epidermal layer was comparable with that of isolated seta, with the exception of stress at rupture. These values were two to four times greater for the setae than for the smooth layer. The changes in mechanical properties of setal keratin were consistent with previously reported increases in contact forces, supporting the hypothesis that an increase in RH softens setal keratin, which increases adhesion and friction. Copyright © 2010 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Physical activity profile of 2014 FIFA World Cup players, with regard to different ranges of air temperature and relative humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmura, Paweł; Konefał, Marek; Andrzejewski, Marcin; Kosowski, Jakub; Rokita, Andrzej; Chmura, Jan

    2017-04-01

    The present study attempts to assess changes in soccer players' physical activity profiles under the simultaneous influence of the different combinations of ambient temperature and relative humidity characterising matches of the 2014 FIFA World Cup hosted by Brazil. The study material consisted of observations of 340 players representing 32 national teams taking part in the tournament. The measured indices included total distances covered; distances covered with low, moderate, or high intensity; numbers of sprints performed, and peak running speeds achieved. The analysis was carried out using FIFA official match data from the Castrol Performance Index system. Ultimately, consideration was given to a combination of three air temperature ranges, i.e. below 22 °C, 22-28 °C, and above 28 °C; and two relative humidity ranges below 60 % and above 60 %. The greatest average distance recorded (10.54 ± 0.91 km) covered by players at an air temperature below 22 °C and a relative humidity below 60 %, while the shortest (9.83 ± 1.08 km) characterised the same air temperature range, but conditions of relative humidity above 60 % (p ≤ 0.001). Two-way ANOVA revealed significant differences (p ≤ 0.001) in numbers of sprints performed by players, depending on whether the air temperature range was below 22 °C (40.48 ± 11.17) or above 28 °C (30.72 ± 9.40), but only where the relative humidity was at the same time below 60 %. Results presented indicate that the conditions most comfortable for physical activity on the part of players occur at 22 °C, and with relative humidity under 60 %.

  16. Physical activity profile of 2014 FIFA World Cup players, with regard to different ranges of air temperature and relative humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmura, Paweł; Konefał, Marek; Andrzejewski, Marcin; Kosowski, Jakub; Rokita, Andrzej; Chmura, Jan

    2017-04-01

    The present study attempts to assess changes in soccer players' physical activity profiles under the simultaneous influence of the different combinations of ambient temperature and relative humidity characterising matches of the 2014 FIFA World Cup hosted by Brazil. The study material consisted of observations of 340 players representing 32 national teams taking part in the tournament. The measured indices included total distances covered; distances covered with low, moderate, or high intensity; numbers of sprints performed, and peak running speeds achieved. The analysis was carried out using FIFA official match data from the Castrol Performance Index system. Ultimately, consideration was given to a combination of three air temperature ranges, i.e. below 22 °C, 22-28 °C, and above 28 °C; and two relative humidity ranges below 60 % and above 60 %. The greatest average distance recorded (10.54 ± 0.91 km) covered by players at an air temperature below 22 °C and a relative humidity below 60 %, while the shortest (9.83 ± 1.08 km) characterised the same air temperature range, but conditions of relative humidity above 60 % ( p ≤ 0.001). Two-way ANOVA revealed significant differences ( p ≤ 0.001) in numbers of sprints performed by players, depending on whether the air temperature range was below 22 °C (40.48 ± 11.17) or above 28 °C (30.72 ± 9.40), but only where the relative humidity was at the same time below 60 %. Results presented indicate that the conditions most comfortable for physical activity on the part of players occur at 22 °C, and with relative humidity under 60 %.

  17. Humidity Effects on Fragmentation in Plasma-Based Ambient Ionization Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsome, G Asher; Ackerman, Luke K; Johnson, Kevin J

    2016-01-01

    Post-plasma ambient desorption/ionization (ADI) sources are fundamentally dependent on surrounding water vapor to produce protonated analyte ions. There are two reports of humidity effects on ADI spectra. However, it is unclear whether humidity will affect all ADI sources and analytes, and by what mechanism humidity affects spectra. Flowing atmospheric pressure afterglow (FAPA) ionization and direct analysis in real time (DART) mass spectra of various surface-deposited and gas-phase analytes were acquired at ambient temperature and pressure across a range of observed humidity values. A controlled humidity enclosure around the ion source and mass spectrometer inlet was used to create programmed humidity and temperatures. The relative abundance and fragmentation of molecular adduct ions for several compounds consistently varied with changing ambient humidity and also were controlled with the humidity enclosure. For several compounds, increasing humidity decreased protonated molecule and other molecular adduct ion fragmentation in both FAPA and DART spectra. For others, humidity increased fragment ion ratios. The effects of humidity on molecular adduct ion fragmentation were caused by changes in the relative abundances of different reagent protonated water clusters and, thus, a change in the average difference in proton affinity between an analyte and the population of water clusters. Control of humidity in ambient post-plasma ion sources is needed to create spectral stability and reproducibility.

  18. Postharvest water relations in cut rose cultivars with contrasting sensivity to high relative air humidity during growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fanourakis, D.; Carvalho, S.M.P.; Almeida, D.P.F.; Kooten, van O.; Doorn, van der T.; Heuvelink, E.

    2012-01-01

    A constant high relative air humidity (RH) during cultivation can strongly reduce the vase life in some cut rose cultivars. We studied three contrasting cultivars in their tolerance to high RH in order to analyse in detail the water relations during postharvest and better understand this genotypic

  19. Dynamics of spatial heterogeneity of stomatal closure in Tradescantia virginiana altered by growth at high relative air humidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rezaei Nejad, A.; Harbinson, J.; Meeteren, van U.

    2006-01-01

    The spatial heterogeneity of stomatal closure in response to rapid desiccation of excised well-watered Tradescantia virginiana leaves grown at moderate (55%) or high (90%) relative air humidity (RH) was studied using a chlorophyll fluorescence imaging system under non-photorespiratory conditions.

  20. Effect of relative humidity on the deposition and coagulation of aerosolized SiO2 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Youfeng; Chen, Lan; Chen, Rui; Tian, Guolan; Li, Dexing; Chen, Chunying; Ge, Xiujie; Ge, Guanglu

    2017-09-01

    The temporal evolution of aerosolized SiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) released into an environmental test chamber has been investigated to interrogate the effect of relative humidity (RH) on the deposition and coagulation of the nanoparticles. The size-resolved deposition rate and Brownian coagulation coefficient for the particles at RH of 10%, 27%, 40%, 54%, and 64% are estimated. The results show that the effect of RH on the deposition rate is size-dependent; for particle diameter (Dp) 70 nm, it grows as the RH rises. Generally, both low and high RH tends to enhance the deposition rate, and the minimum rate appears at moderate RH ( 54%). Electrostatic repulsion is probable for the inter-particles interaction at the low RH while the surface roughness due to water molecular adsorption is a main reason for the particle-wall interaction at higher RH. The increasing coagulation coefficient at high humidity correlates to the strong inter-particle adhesion, which may be caused by the water molecular adsorption on the hydrophilic surfaces of the SiO2 NPs due to the formation of nanometer-thick water film. This study suggests that air humidity plays unignorable roles in particle deposition and coagulation.

  1. Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Design Strategy for a Hot-Humid Production Builder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerrigan, P. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-03-01

    BSC worked directly with the David Weekley Homes - Houston division to redesign three floor plans in order to locate the HVAC system in conditioned space. The purpose of this project is to develop a cost effective design for moving the HVAC system into conditioned space. In addition, BSC conducted energy analysis to calculate the most economical strategy for increasing the energy performance of future production houses. This is in preparation for the upcoming code changes in 2015. The builder wishes to develop an upgrade package that will allow for a seamless transition to the new code mandate. The following research questions were addressed by this research project: 1. What is the most cost effective, best performing and most easily replicable method of locating ducts inside conditioned space for a hot-humid production home builder that constructs one and two story single family detached residences? 2. What is a cost effective and practical method of achieving 50% source energy savings vs. the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code for a hot-humid production builder? 3. How accurate are the pre-construction whole house cost estimates compared to confirmed post construction actual cost? BSC and the builder developed a duct design strategy that employs a system of dropped ceilings and attic coffers for moving the ductwork from the vented attic to conditioned space. The furnace has been moved to either a mechanical closet in the conditioned living space or a coffered space in the attic.

  2. Tribology of Si/SiO2 in humid air: transition from severe chemical wear to wearless behavior at nanoscale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; He, Hongtu; Wang, Xiaodong; Kim, Seong H; Qian, Linmao

    2015-01-13

    Wear at sliding interfaces of silicon is a main cause for material loss in nanomanufacturing and device failure in microelectromechanical system (MEMS) applications. However, a comprehensive understanding of the nanoscale wear mechanisms of silicon in ambient conditions is still lacking. Here, we report the chemical wear of single crystalline silicon, a material used for micro/nanoscale devices, in humid air under the contact pressure lower than the material hardness. A transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of the wear track confirmed that the wear of silicon in humid conditions originates from surface reactions without significant subsurface damages such as plastic deformation or fracture. When rubbed with a SiO2 ball, the single crystalline silicon surface exhibited transitions from severe wear in intermediate humidity to nearly wearless states at two opposite extremes: (a) low humidity and high sliding speed conditions and (b) high humidity and low speed conditions. These transitions suggested that at the sliding interfaces of Si/SiO2 at least two different tribochemical reactions play important roles. One would be the formation of a strong "hydrogen bonding bridge" between hydroxyl groups of two sliding interfaces and the other the removal of hydroxyl groups from the SiO2 surface. The experimental data indicated that the dominance of each reaction varies with the ambient humidity and sliding speed.

  3. Desiccation Stress and the Effect of Humidity in Mosses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aina Arinola FAJUKE

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Mosses show fair degree of structural adaptations to different environmental conditions. The effects caused by desiccation were determined in the shoots of six moss species, collected from various locations of the Obafemi Awolowo University Ile-Ife campus, Osun State, Nigeria. Using 0.1 g of fresh weights, desiccation of moss species over time at 0%, 52%, and 100% relative humidity, were determined by putting the shoots into desiccators and reweighing at intervals of 15 min, 30 min, 1 hr and on the 8th day. It was concluded that the locations of the moss species, and the fact that the cell walls of all the mosses were thick, were regarded as the adaptations which helped these mosses survived desiccation stress.

  4. Energy-Efficient Supermarket Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning in Humid Climates in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Supermarkets are energy-intensive buildings that consume the greatest amount of electricity per square foot of building of any building type in the United States and represent 5% of total U.S. commercial building primary energy use (EIA 2005). Refrigeration and heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems are responsible for a large proportion of supermarkets’ total energy use. These two systems sometimes work together and sometimes compete, but the performance of one system always affects the performance of the other. To better understand these challenges and opportunities, the Commercial Buildings team at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory investigated several of the most promising strategies for providing energy-efficient HVAC for supermarkets and quantified the resulting energy use and costs using detailed simulations. This research effort was conducted on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) (Baechler et al. 2012; Parrish et al. 2013; Antonopoulos et al. 2014; Hirsch et al. 2014). The goal of CBP was to reduce energy use in the commercial building sector by creating, testing, and validating design concepts on the pathway to net zero energy commercial buildings. Several CBP partners owned or operated buildings containing supermarkets and were interested in optimizing the energy efficiency of supermarket HVAC systems in hot-humid climates. These partners included Walmart, Target, Whole Foods Market, SUPERVALU, and the Defense Commissary Agency.

  5. THE IMPACT OF LABORATORY AIR TEMPERATURE AND RELATIVE HUMIDITY ON BENTONITE WATER ABSORPTION CAPACITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Strgar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Bentonite, which is a mineral component of geosynthetic clay liners, has important physical and chemical properties that ensure very small hydraulic permeability. The main component of bentonite is a clay mineral called sodium montmorillonite whose very low permeability is due to its ability to swell. The deposits of bentonite are spread all over the world, however, only a very small number of those deposits satisfies all the quality and durability demands that must be met if the bentonite is to be used in the sealing barriers. Depending on the location of installation and their purpose, geosynthetic clay liners must meet certain requirements. Their compatibility with the prescribed criterion is confirmed through various laboratory procedures. Amongst them are tests examining the index indicators (free swell index, fluid loss index, and water absorption capacity. This paper presents results regarding the impact of laboratory air temperature and relative humidity of the testing area on the water absorption capacity. This is one of the criteria that bentonite must satisfy during the quality and durability control of the mineral component of geosynthetic clay liner (the paper is published in Croatian.

  6. Temperature, humidity and air flow in the emplacement drifts using convection and dispersion transport models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danko, G.; Birkholzer, J.T.; Bahrami, D.; Halecky, N.

    2009-10-01

    A coupled thermal-hydrologic-airflow model is developed, solving for the transport processes within a waste emplacement drift and the surrounding rockmass together at the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Natural, convective air flow as well as heat and mass transport in a representative emplacement drift during post-closure are explicitly simulated, using the MULTIFLUX model. The conjugate, thermal-hydrologic transport processes in the rockmass are solved with the TOUGH2 porous-media simulator in a coupled way to the in-drift processes. The new simulation results show that large-eddy turbulent flow, as opposed to small-eddy flow, dominate the drift air space for at least 5000 years following waste emplacement. The size of the largest, longitudinal eddy is equal to half of the drift length, providing a strong axial heat and moisture transport mechanism from the hot to the cold drift sections. The in-drift results are compared to those from simplified models using a surrogate, dispersive model with an equivalent dispersion coefficient for heat and moisture transport. Results from the explicit, convective velocity simulation model provide higher axial heat and moisture fluxes than those estimated from the previously published, simpler, equivalent-dispersion models, in addition to showing differences in temperature, humidity and condensation rate distributions along the drift length. A new dispersive model is also formulated, giving a time- and location-variable function that runs generally about ten times higher in value than the highest dispersion coefficient currently used in the Yucca Mountain Project as an estimate for the equivalent dispersion coefficient in the emplacement drift. The new dispersion coefficient variation, back-calculated from the convective model, can adequately describe the heat and mass transport processes in the emplacement drift example.

  7. Annual variation in canopy openness, air temperature and humidity inthe understory of three forested sites in southern Bahia State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marayana Prado Pinheiro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at contributing to the knowledge of physical factors affecting community structure in Atlantic Forest remnants of southern Bahia state, Brazil, we analyzed the annual variation in the understory microclimate of a hillside forest fragment in the ‘Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural Serra do Teimoso’ (RST and a rustic cacao agroforestry system (Cabruca, located nearby the RST. Canopy openness (CO, air temperature (Ta, air relative humidity (RH and vapor pressure deficit (VPD data were collected between April, 2005 and April, 2006 at the base (RSTB, 340 m and the top (RSTT, 640 m of the RST and at the Cabruca (CB, 250 m. Data of rainfall, Ta, RH and VPD were also collected in an open area (OA, 270 m. The highest rainfalls (> 100 mm occurred in November, 2005 and April, 2006, whereas October, 2005 was the driest month (< 20 mm. CO ranged between 2.5 % in the CB (April, 2006 and 7.7 % in the RST (October, 2005. Low rainfall in October, 2005 affected VPDmax in all sites. Those effects were more pronounced in OA, followed by CB, RSTB and RSTT. During the period of measurements, the values of Ta, RH and VPD in CB were closer to the values measured in OA than to the values measured inside the forest.

  8. High resolution dynamical downscaling of air temperature and relative humidity: performance assessment of WRF for Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Isilda; Pereira, Mário; Moreira, Demerval; Carvalheiro, Luís; Bugalho, Lourdes; Corte-Real, João

    2017-04-01

    Air temperature and relative humidity are two of the atmospheric variables with higher impact on human and natural systems, contributing to define the stress/comfortable conditions, affecting the productivity and health of the individuals as well as diminishing the resilience to other environmental hazards. Atmospheric regional models, driven by large scale forecasts from global circulation models, are the best way to reproduce such environmental conditions in high space-time resolution. This study is focused on the performance assessment of the WRF mesoscale model to perform high resolution dynamical downscaling for Portugal with three two-way nested grids, at 60 km, 20 km and 5 km horizontal resolution. The simulations of WRF models were produced with different initial and boundary forcing conditions. The NCEP-FNL Operational Global Analysis data available on 1-degree by 1-degree grid every six hours and ERA-Interim reanalyses dataset were used to drive the models. Two alternative configurations of the WRF model, including planetary boundary, layer schemes, microphysics, land-surface models, radiation schemes, were used and tested within the 5 km spatial resolution domain. Simulations of air temperature and relative humidity were produced for January and July of 2016 and compared with the observed datasets provided by the Instituto Português do Mar e da Atmosfera (IPMA) for 83 weather stations. Different performance measures of bias, precision, and accuracy were used, namely normalized bias, standard deviation, mean absolute error, root mean square error, bias of root mean square error as well as correlation based measures (e.g., coefficient of determination) and goodness of fit measures (index of agreement). Main conclusions from the obtained results reveal: (i) great similarity between the spatial patterns of the simulated and observed fields; (ii) only small differences between simulations produced with ERA-Interim and NCEP-FNL, in spite of some differences

  9. Dynamics of adaptation of stomatal behaviour to moderate or high relative air humidity in Tradescantia virginiana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rezaei Nejad, A.; Meeteren, van U.

    2008-01-01

    Chlorophyll fluorescence imaging was used to measure stomatal closure in response to desiccation of Tradescantia virginiana leaves grown under high (90%) and moderate (55%) relative humidities (RHs), or transferred between these humidities. Stomata in leaves grown at high RH were less responsive to

  10. Humidity effects on scanning polarization force microscopy imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Yue, E-mail: shenyue@isl.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Comprehensive and Highly Efficient Utilization of Salt Lake Resources, Key Laboratory of Salt Lake Resources Chemistry of Qinghai Province, Qinghai Institute of Salt Lakes, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xining, Qinghai 810008 (China); Key Laboratory of Interfacial Physics and Technology of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Zhou, Yuan, E-mail: zhouy@isl.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Comprehensive and Highly Efficient Utilization of Salt Lake Resources, Key Laboratory of Salt Lake Resources Chemistry of Qinghai Province, Qinghai Institute of Salt Lakes, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xining, Qinghai 810008 (China); Sun, Yanxia; Zhang, Lijuan [Key Laboratory of Comprehensive and Highly Efficient Utilization of Salt Lake Resources, Key Laboratory of Salt Lake Resources Chemistry of Qinghai Province, Qinghai Institute of Salt Lakes, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xining, Qinghai 810008 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang, Ying; Hu, Jun; Zhang, Yi [Key Laboratory of Interfacial Physics and Technology of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2017-08-01

    Highlights: • The humidity dramatically affects the contrast of scanning polarization force microscopy (SPFM) imaging on mica surface. • This influence roots in the sensitive dielectric constant of mica surface to the humidity change. • A strategy of controllable and repeatable imaging the local dielectric properties of nanomaterials with SPFM is proposed. - Abstract: Scanning polarization force microscopy (SPFM) is a useful surface characterization technique to visually characterize and distinguish nanomaterial with different local dielectric properties at nanometer scale. In this paper, taking the individual one-atom-thick graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets on mica as examples, we described the influences of environmental humidity on SPFM imaging. We found that the apparent heights (AHs) or contrast of SPFM imaging was influenced significantly by relative humidity (RH) at a response time of a few seconds. And this influence rooted in the sensitive dielectric constant of mica surface to the RH change. While dielectric properties of GO and rGO sheets were almost immune to the humidity change. In addition, we gave the method to determine the critical humidity at which the contrast conversion happened under different conditions. And this is important to the contrast control and repeatable imaging of SPFM through RH adjusting. These findings suggest a strategy of controllable and repeatable imaging the local dielectric properties of nanomaterials with SPFM, which is critically important for further distinguishment, manipulation, electronic applications, etc.

  11. Effect of land use on water discharge in humid regions: An example ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of land use on water discharge is one of the most important environmental problems of our times, particularly in the humid regions. However, there exists controversy over the hydrological effects of land use in the humid tropics. This paper therefore examines the effect of land use on water discharge in southern ...

  12. The effect of relative humidity on binary gas diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astrath, Nelson G C; Shen, Jun; Song, Datong; Rohling, Jurandir H; Astrath, Francine B G; Zhou, Jianqin; Navessin, Titichai; Liu, Zhong Sheng Simon; Gu, Caikang E; Zhao, Xinsheng

    2009-06-18

    The dependence of diffusion coefficient of O2-N2 mixture in the presence of water vapor was experimentally determined as a function of relative humidity (RH) with different temperatures using an in-house made Loschmidt diffusion cell. The experimental results showed that O2-N2 diffusion coefficient increased more than 17% when RH increased from 0% to 80% at 79 degrees C. In the experiments, the RH in both top and bottom chambers of the diffusion cell were the same, and the pressure inside the diffusion cell was kept as ambient pressure (1 atm.). Maxwell-Stefan theory was employed to analyze the mass transport in the diffusion cell, and found that there was no effective water vapor diffusion taking place, indicating that the gas diffusion in this ternary (O2-N2-water vapor) system could be considered binary gas (O2-N2) diffusion. The Fuller, Schettler, and Giddings (FSG) empirical equation of the kinetic theory of gases was generalized to accommodate the dependence of the binary diffusion coefficient on the RH. The prediction of the generalized equation was found to be consistent with experimental results with the difference of less than 1.5%, showing that the generalized equation could be applied to calculate the diffusion coefficients of the binary gaseous mixture with different temperature and RH values. The effect of water vapor on the increase of O2-N2 diffusion coefficient was discussed using molecule theory.

  13. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Cooling Vest in a Hot and Humid Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Wen; Zhao, Yijie; Chan, Albert P C

    2017-05-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a newly designed hybrid cooling vest for construction workers in alleviating heat stress. Two types of cooling vests, namely, a commonly worn Vest A and a newly designed Vest B, were tested in a climatic chamber environment (34.0°C temperature, 60% relative humidity, and 0.4 m s-1 air velocity) using a sweating thermal manikin. Four test scenarios were included: fan off with no phase change materials (PCMs) (Fan-off), fan on with no PCMs (Fan-on), fan off with completely solidified PCMs (PCM + Fan-off), and fan on with completely solidified PCMs (PCM + Fan-on). Test results showed that Vests A and B provided a continuous cooling effect during the 3-h test. The average cooling power for the torso region of Vest B was 67 W, which was higher than that of Vest A (56 W). The addition of PCMs offered a cooling effect of approximately 60 min. Ventilation fans considerably improved the evaporative heat loss compared with the Fan-off condition. The newly designed hybrid cooling vest (Vest B) may be an effective means to reduce heat strain and enhance work performance in a hot and humid environment.

  14. Seasonal Variations of Indoor Microbial Exposures and Their Relation to Temperature, Relative Humidity, and Air Exchange Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankel, Mika; Bekö, Gabriel; Timm, Michael

    2012-01-01

    with temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rates in Danish homes. Airborne inhalable dust was sampled in five Danish homes throughout the four seasons of 1 year (indoors, n = 127; outdoors, n = 37). Measurements included culturable fungi and bacteria, endotoxin, N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase, total...... inflammatory potential, particles (0.75 to 15 μm), temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rates. Significant seasonal variation was found for all indoor microbial exposures, excluding endotoxin. Indoor fungi peaked in summer (median, 235 CFU/m3) and were lowest in winter (median, 26 CFU/m3). Indoor...... bacteria peaked in spring (median, 2,165 CFU/m3) and were lowest in summer (median, 240 CFU/m3). Concentrations of fungi were predominately higher outdoors than indoors, whereas bacteria, endotoxin, and inhalable dust concentrations were highest indoors. Bacteria and endotoxin correlated with the mass...

  15. Contamination, potential bias and humidity effects on electrical performance and corrosion reliability of electronic devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piotrowska, Kamila; Verdingovas, Vadimas; Jellesen, Morten S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the interactions between flux contamination, humidity and po-tential bias and their effect on corrosion reliability. Water layer formation on laminate surfaces and behavior of different solder flux chemistries with humid conditions have been studied, together......-sponse of electronics is estimated as a function of contamination type under cycling humid conditions. The results show the correlation between the ionic contamination type and water layer formation on surfaces in the presence of the flux residue....

  16. Effects of humidity and temperature on the optical properties of wet sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingcai; Zhang, Beidou

    2017-11-01

    Prediction method for the effect of air humidity and temperature on the optical properties of wet aerosol particles is a key research point on the atmospheric science, earth science, and so on. This paper firstly discussed the effect of moisture, salinity, and temperature on the particle's dielectric constant, and then analyzed the effect of these parameters on the electromagnetic scattering properties of wet sand. The results showed that with the increasing of the temperature, the real part of the permittivity of sand decreased, but its imaginary part increased, and the variation on the real part was much smaller than the imaginary part. With the increasing of the humidity, the equivalent permittivity of wet sand increased, and the difference of permittivity between the sand covered by pure water and the saline sand became obvious. In addition, the extinction efficiency, the scattering efficiency, the back-scattering efficiency and the asymmetry factor of dry sand particle are smaller than those of the wet sand, and with the increasing of the wavelength of electromagnetic wave, the scattering efficiency, the back-scattering efficiency and the asymmetry factor of the dry and wet sand particle are all exponential increased, but the extinction efficiency showed a different changing rule.

  17. The effect of mold sensitization and humidity upon allergic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Don; Jhaveri, Manan A; Mannino, David M; Strawbridge, Heather; Temprano, James

    2013-04-01

    Humidity is commonly associated with increased airway hyperresponsiveness in asthma. To examine mold sensitization in patients with allergic asthma or allergic rhinitis and self-reports of humidity as exacerbating factors of clinical symptoms. A retrospective, cross-sectional study at a University hospital outpatient allergy and asthma clinic was performed. A total of 106 patients with either allergic asthma or allergic rhinitis completed standard prick-puncture skin testing with 17 allergens and controls and completed standardized forms addressing trigger factors for clinical symptoms. Allergic asthmatics sensitized to Cladosporium were more likely to have a more severe asthma severity class (odds ratio = 4.26, confidence interval = 1.30-16.93). Sensitization to Alternaria, Cladosporium, Helminthosporium, Aspergillus and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus in asthma was associated with higher likelihood for previous hospitalization, while sensitization to Cladosporium, Helminthosporium, Aspergillus, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and cockroach in asthma was associated with higher likelihood of having reduced pulmonary function based on forced expiratory volume in 1s. Furthermore, allergic asthmatics more commonly reported humidity as an exacerbating factor of symptoms than did patients only with allergic rhinitis (68.42% vs 42.86%, respectively; P Mold sensitization is highly associated with more severe asthma, while humidity is more of an exacerbating factor in patients with allergic asthma as compared with allergic rhinitis alone. Further delineation between mold sensitization and humidity is needed to determine whether these are independent factors in asthma. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. The effect of environmental humidity and temperature on skin barrier function and dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engebretsen, K A; Johansen, J D; Kezic, S

    2016-01-01

    existing dermatoses. We searched the literature for studies that evaluated the mechanisms behind this phenomenon. Commonly used meteorological terms such as absolute humidity, relative humidity and dew point are explained. Furthermore, we review the negative effect of low humidity, low temperatures...... and different seasons on the skin barrier and on the risk of dermatitis. We conclude that low humidity and low temperatures lead to a general decrease in skin barrier function and increased susceptible towards mechanical stress. Since pro-inflammatory cytokines and cortisol are released by keratinocytes...

  19. Accurate measurements of carbon monoxide in humid air using the cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Chen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Accurate measurements of carbon monoxide (CO in humid air have been made using the cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS technique. The measurements of CO mole fractions are determined from the strength of its spectral absorption in the near-infrared region (~1.57 μm after removing interferences from adjacent carbon dioxide (CO2 and water vapor (H2O absorption lines. Water correction functions that account for the dilution and pressure-broadening effects as well as absorption line interferences from adjacent CO2 and H2O lines have been derived for CO2 mole fractions between 360–390 ppm and for reported H2O mole fractions between 0–4%. The line interference corrections are independent of CO mole fractions. The dependence of the line interference correction on CO2 abundance is estimated to be approximately −0.3 ppb/100 ppm CO2 for dry mole fractions of CO. Comparisons of water correction functions from different analyzers of the same type show significant differences, making it necessary to perform instrument-specific water tests for each individual analyzer. The CRDS analyzer was flown on an aircraft in Alaska from April to November in 2011, and the accuracy of the CO measurements by the CRDS analyzer has been validated against discrete NOAA/ESRL flask sample measurements made on board the same aircraft, with a mean difference between integrated in situ and flask measurements of −0.6 ppb and a standard deviation of 2.8 ppb. Preliminary testing of CRDS instrumentation that employs improved spectroscopic model functions for CO2, H2O, and CO to fit the raw spectral data (available since the beginning of 2012 indicates a smaller water vapor dependence than the models discussed here, but more work is necessary to fully validate the performance. The CRDS technique provides an accurate and low-maintenance method of monitoring the atmospheric dry mole fractions of CO in humid air streams.

  20. EDITORIAL: Humidity sensors Humidity sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regtien, Paul P. L.

    2012-01-01

    All matter is more or less hygroscopic. The moisture content varies with vapour concentration of the surrounding air and, as a consequence, most material properties change with humidity. Mechanical and thermal properties of many materials, such as the tensile strength of adhesives, stiffness of plastics, stoutness of building and packaging materials or the thermal resistivity of isolation materials, all decrease with increasing environmental humidity or cyclic humidity changes. The presence of water vapour may have a detrimental influence on many electrical constructions and systems exposed to humid air, from high-power systems to microcircuits. Water vapour penetrates through coatings, cable insulations and integrated-circuit packages, exerting a fatal influence on the performance of the enclosed systems. For these and many other applications, knowledge of the relationship between moisture content or humidity and material properties or system behaviour is indispensable. This requires hygrometers for process control or test and calibration chambers with high accuracy in the appropriate temperature and humidity range. Humidity measurement methods can roughly be categorized into four groups: water vapour removal (the mass before and after removal is measured); saturation (the air is brought to saturation and the `effort' to reach that state is measured); humidity-dependent parameters (measurement of properties of humid air with a known relation between a specific property and the vapour content, for instance the refractive index, electromagnetic spectrum and acoustic velocity); and absorption (based on the known relation between characteristic properties of non-hydrophobic materials and the amount of absorbed water from the gas to which these materials are exposed). The many basic principles to measure air humidity are described in, for instance, the extensive compilations by Wexler [1] and Sonntag [2]. Absorption-type hygrometers have small dimensions and can be

  1. Effects of drying temperature and relative humidity on the mechanical properties of amaranth flour films plasticized with glycerol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Tapia-Blácido

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Biofilms are made of biopolymers. In the casting technique, biofilms are obtained by the drying of a polymer suspension in the final stage of processing. The aim of the present paper was to analyze the effect of this drying process on the mechanical properties of films produced with amaranth flour. Variables considered include glycerol content (30, 35 and 40%, g/g dry flour and air-drying conditions (air temperatures of 30, 40 and 50ºC and relative humidities of 40, 55 and 70%. As amaranth flour films constitute a complex mixture of amylopectin and amylose as well as native protein and lipid, certain unexpected results were obtained. The toughest films were obtained at the lowest temperature and the lowest relative humidity (30ºC, 40%.

  2. High relative air humidity influences mineral accumulation and growth in iron deficient soybean plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roriz, Mariana; Carvalho, Susana M P; Vasconcelos, Marta W

    2014-01-01

    Iron (Fe) deficiency chlorosis (IDC) in soybean results in severe yield losses. Cultivar selection is the most commonly used strategy to avoid IDC but there is a clear interaction between genotype and the environment; therefore, the search for quick and reliable tools to control this nutrient deficiency is essential. Several studies showed that relative humidity (RH) may influence the long distance transport of mineral elements and the nutrient status of plants. Thus, we decided to analyze the response of an "Fe-efficient" (EF) and an "Fe-inefficient" (INF) soybean accession grown under Fe-sufficient and deficient conditions under low (60%) and high (90%) RH, evaluating morphological, and physiological parameters. Furthermore, the mineral content of different plant organs was analyzed. Our results showed beneficial effects of high RH in alleviating IDC symptoms as seen by increased SPAD values, higher plant dry weight (DW), increased plant height, root length, and leaf area. This positive effect of RH in reducing IDC symptoms was more pronounced in the EF accession. Also, Fe content in the different plant organs of the EF accession grown under deficient conditions increased with RH. The lower partitioning of Fe to roots and stems of the EF accessions relative to dry matter also supported our hypothesis, suggesting a greater capacity of this accession in Fe translocation to the aerial parts under Fe deficient conditions, when grown under high RH.

  3. CFD Modeling of LNG Spill: Humidity Effect on Vapor Dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannissi, S. G.; Venetsanos, A. G.; Markatos, N.

    2015-09-01

    The risks entailed by an accidental spill of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) should be indentified and evaluated, in order to design measures for prevention and mitigation in LNG terminals. For this purpose, simulations are considered a useful tool to study LNG spills and to understand the mechanisms that influence the vapor dispersion. In the present study, the ADREA-HF CFD code is employed to simulate the TEEX1 experiment. The experiment was carried out at the Brayton Fire Training Field, which is affiliated with the Texas A&M University system and involves LNG release and dispersion over water surface in open- obstructed environment. In the simulation the source was modeled as a two-phase jet enabling the prediction of both the vapor dispersion and the liquid pool spreading. The conservation equations for the mixture are solved along with the mass fraction for natural gas. Due to the low prevailing temperatures during the spill ambient humidity condenses and this might affect the vapor dispersion. This effect was examined in this work by solving an additional conservation equation for the water mass fraction. Two different models were tested: the hydrodynamic equilibrium model which assumes kinetic equilibrium between the phases and the non hydrodynamic equilibrium model, in order to assess the effect of slip velocity on the prediction. The slip velocity is defined as the difference between the liquid phase and the vapor phase and is calculated using the algebraic slip model. Constant droplet diameter of three different sizes and a lognormal distribution of the droplet diameter were applied and the results are discussed and compared with the measurements.

  4. The Impact of Upper Tropospheric Humidity from Microwave Limb Sounder on the Midlatitude Greenhouse Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hua; Liu, W. Timothy

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of upper tropospheric humidity, as measured by the Microwave Limb Sounder, and the impact of the humidity on the greenhouse effect in the midlatitudes. Enhanced upper tropospheric humidity and an enhanced greenhouse effect occur over the storm tracks in the North Pacific and North Atlantic. In these areas, strong baroclinic activity and the large number of deep convective clouds transport more water vapor to the upper troposphere, and hence increase greenhouse trapping. The greenhouse effect increases with upper tropospheric humidity in areas with a moist upper troposphere (such as areas over storm tracks), but it is not sensitive to changes in upper tropospheric humidity in regions with a dry upper troposphere, clearly demonstrating that there are different mechanisms controlling the geographical distribution of the greenhouse effect in the midlatitudes.

  5. Nanoscale mechanochemical wear of phosphate laser glass against a CeO{sub 2} particle in humid air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Jiaxin, E-mail: yujiaxin@swust.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Testing Technology for Manufacturing Process, Ministry of Education, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China); He, Hongtu; Zhang, Yafeng [Key Laboratory of Testing Technology for Manufacturing Process, Ministry of Education, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China); Hu, Hailong [Analysis and Testing Center, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Friction components of phosphate glass/CeO{sub 2} pair in humid air were quantified to understand the friction mechanism. • Severe nanoscale wear was directly observed by AFM topography on both phosphate glass and CeO{sub 2} particle in humid air. • The wearless behaviors of phosphate glass in vacuum were confirmed by the AFM phase image. • Capillary water bridge induced corrosion plays an important role in the mechanochemical wear of phosphate glass in air. - Abstract: Using an atomic force microscope, the friction and wear of phosphate laser glass against a CeO{sub 2} particle were quantitatively studied both in humid air and in vacuum, to reveal the water molecules induced mechanochemical wear mechanism of phosphate laser glass. The friction coefficient of the glass/CeO{sub 2} pair in air was found to be 5–7 times higher than that in vacuum due to the formation of a capillary water bridge at the friction interface, with a contribution of the capillary-related friction to the total friction coefficient as high as 65–79%. The capillary water bridge further induced a serious material removal of glass and CeO{sub 2} particle surfaces, while supplying both a local liquid water environment to corrode the glass surface and a high shearing force to assist the stretching of the Ce−O−P bond, accelerating the reaction between water and the glass/CeO{sub 2} pair. In vacuum, however, no discernable wear phenomena were observed, but the phase images captured by AFM tapping mode suggested the occurrence of potential strain hardening in the friction area of the glass surface.

  6. Sick building syndrome in relation to air exchange rate, CO(2), room temperature and relative air humidity in university computer classrooms: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbäck, Dan; Nordström, Klas

    2008-10-01

    To study the effects of ventilation and temperature changes in computer classrooms on symptoms in students. Technical university students participated in a blinded study. Two classrooms had higher air exchange (4.1-5.2 ac/h); two others had lower (2.3-2.6 ac/h) air exchange. After 1 week, ventilation conditions were interchanged between the rooms. The students reported symptoms during the last hour, on a seven-step rating scale. Room temperature, relative air humidity (RH) carbon dioxide (CO(2)), PM10 and ultra-fine particles (UFP) were measured simultaneously (1 h). Illumination, air velocity, operative temperature, supply air temperature, formaldehyde, NO(2) and O(3) were measured. Multiple logistic regression was applied in cross-sectional analysis of the first answer (N = 355). Those participating twice (N = 121) were analysed longitudinally. Totally 31% were females, 2.9% smokers and 3.8% had asthma. Mean CO(2) was 993 ppm (674-1,450 ppm), temperature 22.7 degrees C (20-25 degrees C) and RH 24% (19-35%). Lower and higher air exchange rates corresponded to a personal outdoor airflow of 7 l/s*p and 10-13 L/s*P, respectively. Mean PM10 was 20 microg/m(3) at lower and 15 microg/m(3) at higher ventilation flow. Ocular, nasal and throat symptoms, breathlessness, headache and tiredness were significantly more common at higher CO(2) and temperature. After mutual adjustment, ocular (OR = 1.52 per 1 degrees C), nasal (OR = 1.62 per 1 degrees C) and throat symptoms (OR = 1.53 per 1 degrees C), headache (OR = 1.51 per 1 degrees C) and tiredness (OR = 1.54 per 1 degrees C) were significantly associated with temperature; headache was associated only with CO(2) (OR = 1.19 per 100 ppm CO(2)). Longitudinal analysis demonstrated that increased room temperature was related to tiredness (P < 0.05). Computer classrooms may have CO(2) above 1,000 ppm and temperatures above 22 degrees C. Increased temperature and CO(2) may affect mucosal membrane symptoms, headaches and tiredness

  7. Effects of humidity and dew on the early growth of jatropha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the effects of Humidity and Dew on the early growth of Jatropha curcas seedlings in Kano, Nigeria. The experiment was conducted between 20 April, 2014 and 14 July, 2014. Humidity and Dew values were recorded using two Lascar EL- USB data loggers one at each of the two treatments (shade and ...

  8. The effects of temperature and relative humidity on the growth of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of temperature and relative humidity on the growth of three isolated fungi from rice ( Oryza sativa L.) seedlings in Dadin Kowa Irrigation Scheme, Dadin Kowa, Gombe. ... There were significant differences (P≤0.05) in the growth of these fungi at different temperature and relative humidity regimes. Keywords: ...

  9. Effect of compression force, humidity and disintegrant concentration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ac-Di-Sol® was an efficient disintegrant for furosomide tablets at low concentrations of 1.25% - 10% because it rapidly released the hydrophobic drug particles from tablets. However, tablets containing 10 % disintegrant must be protected from atmospheric moisture because storage at 60-70 % relative humidity led to ...

  10. Humidity effects on scanning polarization force microscopy imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yue; Zhou, Yuan; Sun, Yanxia; Zhang, Lijuan; Wang, Ying; Hu, Jun; Zhang, Yi

    2017-08-01

    Scanning polarization force microscopy (SPFM) is a useful surface characterization technique to visually characterize and distinguish nanomaterial with different local dielectric properties at nanometer scale. In this paper, taking the individual one-atom-thick graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets on mica as examples, we described the influences of environmental humidity on SPFM imaging. We found that the apparent heights (AHs) or contrast of SPFM imaging was influenced significantly by relative humidity (RH) at a response time of a few seconds. And this influence rooted in the sensitive dielectric constant of mica surface to the RH change. While dielectric properties of GO and rGO sheets were almost immune to the humidity change. In addition, we gave the method to determine the critical humidity at which the contrast conversion happened under different conditions. And this is important to the contrast control and repeatable imaging of SPFM through RH adjusting. These findings suggest a strategy of controllable and repeatable imaging the local dielectric properties of nanomaterials with SPFM, which is critically important for further distinguishment, manipulation, electronic applications, etc.

  11. Effects of relative humidity on banana fruit drop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saengpook, C.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2007-01-01

    Commercial ripening of banana fruit occurs at high relative humidity (RH), which prevents browning of damaged skin areas. In experiments with ripening at high RH (94 ± 1%) the individual fruit (fingers) of `Sucrier¿ (Musa acuminata, AA Group) banana exhibited a high rate of drop. The falling off of

  12. Thermal management in closed incubators: New software for assessing the impact of humidity on the optimal incubator air temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delanaud, Stéphane; Decima, Pauline; Pelletier, Amandine; Libert, Jean-Pierre; Durand, Estelle; Stephan-Blanchard, Erwan; Bach, Véronique; Tourneux, Pierre

    2017-08-01

    Low-birth-weight (LBW) neonates are nursed in closed incubators to prevent transcutaneous water loss. The RH's impact on the optimal incubator air temperature setting has not been studied. On the basis of a clinical cohort study, we modelled all the ambient parameters influencing body heat losses and gains. The algorithm quantifies the change in RH on the air temperature, to maintain optimal thermal conditions in the incubator. Twenty-three neonates (gestational age (GA): 30.0 [28.9-31.6] weeks) were included. A 20% increase and a 20% decrease in the RH induced a change in air temperature of between -1.51 and +1.85°C for a simulated 650g neonate (GA: 26 weeks), between -1.66 and +1.87°C for a 1000g neonate (GA: 31 weeks), and between -1.77 and +1.97°C for a 2000g neonate (GA: 33 weeks) (pair temperature=a+b relative humidity +c age +d weight (p<0.001). We have developed new mathematical equations for calculating the optimal temperature for the incubator air as a function of the latter's relative humidity. The software constitutes a decision support tool for improving patient care in routine clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Kinetics of the photolytic production of aerosols from SO2 and NH3 in humid air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Seier; Wedel, Stig; Livbjerg, Hans

    1994-01-01

    a strong catalytic effect on the photolytic oxidation of SO2 and surprisingly high values of the quantum yield are observed with NH3 concentration in the range of 20-400 ppm. The reaction rate increases with decreasing temperature. An overall mechanism for the formation of aerosol particles is proposed......The reaction of SO2 and NH3 in humid air to produce an aerosol of ammonium sulfate is studied in a photolytic laboratory reactor. The reaction is shown to be controlled by ultraviolet irradiation in the wavelength range of 240-330 nm and is initiated by excitation of SO2. It is found that NH3 has...

  14. Formaldehyde measurements by Proton transfer reaction – Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS: correction for humidity effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vlasenko

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Formaldehyde measurements can provide useful information about photochemical activity in ambient air, given that HCHO is formed via numerous oxidation processes. Proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS is an online technique that allows measurement of VOCs at the sub-ppbv level with good time resolution. PTR-MS quantification of HCHO is hampered by the humidity dependence of the instrument sensitivity, with higher humidity leading to loss of PTR-MS signal. In this study we present an analytical, first principles approach to correct the PTR-MS HCHO signal according to the concentration of water vapor in sampled air. The results of the correction are validated by comparison of the PTR-MS results to those from a Hantzsch fluorescence monitor which does not have the same humidity dependence. Results are presented for an intercomparison made during a field campaign in rural Ontario at Environment Canada's Centre for Atmospheric Research Experiments.

  15. Effect of Three-Dimensional Printed Personalized Moisture Chamber Spectacles on the Periocular Humidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Hee Moon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To assess the effect of three-dimensional (3D printed personalized moisture chamber spectacles (PMCS on the periocular humidity. Methods. Facial computed tomography (CT scanning was conducted on 10 normal subjects. PMCS was designed based on volume rendered CT images and produced using a 3D printer. Periocular humidity of PMCS and commercially available uniformed moisture chamber spectacles (UMCS were measured for 30 minutes via microhydrometer. Results. The mean ambient humidity was 15.76±1.18%. The mean periocular humidity was 52.14±3.00% in PMCS and 37.67±8.97% in UMCS. The difference was significant (P<0.001. Additionally, PMCS always demonstrated lower humidity than dew points. Conclusion. PMCS made by 3D printer provides appropriate fitness for the semiclosed humid chamber. PMCS showed higher performance than UMCS. The wearing of PMCS would be an effective method to provide high enough periocular humidity in low humidity environment.

  16. Analysis of humidity effects on growth and production of glasshouse fruit vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    Air humidity is a climate factor that can modify final yield and quality of crops through its impact on processes with a short as well as with a long response time. This thesis primarily deals with the long term responses of growth and production of glasshouse cucumber, tomato, sweet pepper

  17. Induced Air Movement for Wide-Span Schools in Humid Asia. Educational Building Digest 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

    Schools in the hot and humid zones of the Asian region are narrow to ensure good ventilation. The purpose of this report is to show that it is possible, through appropriate design, to obtain sufficient breeze for thermal comfort in buildings as wide as 15 meters. Some of the conclusions of a study of the subject are summarized. The summary is…

  18. Synergistic effects of temperature and humidity on the symptoms of COPD patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Zhe; Chen, Pei-Li; Geng, Fu-Hai; Ren, Lei; Gu, Wen-Chao; Ma, Jia-Yun; Peng, Li; Li, Qing-Yun

    2017-11-01

    This panel study investigates how temperature, humidity, and their interaction affect chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients' self-reported symptoms. One hundred and six COPD patients from Shanghai, China, were enrolled, and age, smoking status, St. George Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) score, and lung function index were recorded at baseline. The participants were asked to record their indoor temperature, humidity, and symptoms on diary cards between January 2011 and June 2012. Altogether, 82 patients finished the study. There was a significant interactive effect between temperature and humidity ( p COPD patients. When the indoor humidity was low, moderate, and high, the indoor temperature ORs were 0.969 (95% CI 0.922 to 1.017), 0.977 (0.962 to 0.999), and 0.920 (95% CI 0.908 to 0.933), respectively. Low temperature was a risk factor for COPD patients, and high humidity enhanced its risk on COPD. The indoor temperature should be kept at least on average at 18.2 °C, while the humidity should be less than 70%. This study demonstrates that temperature and humidity were associated with COPD patients' symptoms, and high humidity would enhance the risk of COPD due to low temperature.

  19. Stomatal characteristics and desiccation response of leaves of cut chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium) flowers grown at high air humidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aliniaeifard, S.; Meeteren, Van Uulke

    2016-01-01

    Although it is well known that, as a short-term response, stomata close at low relative humidity (RH) (high Vapour Pressure Deficit) and open at high RH (low Vapour Pressure Deficit), effects of long-term exposure to different Vapour Pressure Deficits (VPD's) have only been studied in a few

  20. Effect of feed-gas humidity on nitrogen atmospheric-pressure plasma jet for biological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Karl D; McLean, Robert J C; DeLeon, Gian; Melnikov, Vadim

    2016-11-14

    We investigate the effect of feed-gas humidity on the oxidative properties of an atmospheric-pressure plasma jet using nitrogen gas. Plasma jets operating at atmospheric pressure are finding uses in medical and biological settings for sterilization and other applications involving oxidative stress applied to organisms. Most jets use noble gases, but some researchers use less expensive nitrogen gas. The feed-gas water content (humidity) has been found to influence the performance of noble-gas plasma jets, but has not yet been systematically investigated for jets using nitrogen gas. Low-humidity and high-humidity feed gases were used in a nitrogen plasma jet, and the oxidation effect of the jet was measured quantitatively using a chemical dosimeter known as FBX (ferrous sulfate-benzoic acid-xylenol orange). The plasma jet using high humidity was found to have about ten times the oxidation effect of the low-humidity jet, as measured by comparison with the addition of measured amounts of hydrogen peroxide to the FBX dosimeter. Atmospheric-pressure plasma jets using nitrogen as a feed gas have a greater oxidizing effect with a high level of humidity added to the feed gas.

  1. Modelling of the humidity effect on the barrier height in SnO{sub 2} varistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuratovsky, I. [Department of Radioelectronics, Dniepropetrovsk National University, Dniepropetrovsk 49050 (Ukraine); Glot, A. [Division de Estudios de Posgrado, Universidad Tecnologica de la Mixteca, Huajuapan de Leon, Oaxaca 69000 (Mexico)]. E-mail: alexglot@mixteco.utm.mx; Traversa, E. [Dip. di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche, Universita di Roma ' Tor Vergata' , Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 00133 Rome (Italy)

    2006-03-15

    Tin dioxide based SnO{sub 2}-Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}-Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} ceramic device with combined varistor and humidity-sensitive properties is studied. This varistor-sensor has high humidity sensitivity coefficient of about 420 at low electric field and high non-linearity coefficient of about 50 at electric field 3500 V cm{sup -1}. Current-voltage characteristics of the samples with separate electrodes for the central and the peripheral parts are studied in air with different relative humidity. It is shown that current through the peripheral part of a sample is increased much stronger than through the central part. The observed increase of low-field current on relative humidity is explained by the decrease of the barrier height. The estimations of the lowering of the barrier height in a humid air is performed using the suggested models.

  2. Within-Crop Air Temperature and Humidity Outcomes on Spatio-Temporal Distribution of the Key Rose Pest Frankliniella occidentalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hicham Fatnassi

    Full Text Available Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande is a key pest of various crops worldwide. In this study, we analyse the dependence of the infestation of this pest on spatially distributed micro climatic factors in a rose greenhouse. Despite the importance of this subject, the few existing studies have been realized in laboratory rather than in greenhouse conditions. However, recent progress on greenhouse microclimate characterisation has highlighted the strong indoor climate heterogeneity that may influence the within-crop pest distribution. In this study, both microclimate (air temperature and humidity and thrips distribution were simultaneously mapped in a rose greenhouse. The measurements were sensed in a horizontal plane situated at mid-height of the rose crop inside the greenhouse. Simultaneously, thrips population dynamics were assessed after an artificial and homogeneous infestation of the rose crop. The spatio-temporal distribution of climate and thrips within the greenhouse were compared, and links between thrips infestation and climatic conditions were investigated. A statistical model was used to define the favourable climate conditions for thrips adults and larvae. Our results showed that (i the air temperature and air humidity were very heterogeneously distributed within the crop, (ii pest populations aggregated in the most favourable climatic areas and (iii the highest population density of thrips adults and larvae were recorded at 27°C and 22°C for temperature and 63% and 86% for humidity, respectively. These findings confirm, in real rose cropping conditions, previous laboratory studies on the F. occidentalis climatic optimum and provide a solid scientific support for climatic-based control methods against this pest.

  3. Within-Crop Air Temperature and Humidity Outcomes on Spatio-Temporal Distribution of the Key Rose Pest Frankliniella occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatnassi, Hicham; Pizzol, Jeannine; Senoussi, Rachid; Biondi, Antonio; Desneux, Nicolas; Poncet, Christine; Boulard, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) is a key pest of various crops worldwide. In this study, we analyse the dependence of the infestation of this pest on spatially distributed micro climatic factors in a rose greenhouse. Despite the importance of this subject, the few existing studies have been realized in laboratory rather than in greenhouse conditions. However, recent progress on greenhouse microclimate characterisation has highlighted the strong indoor climate heterogeneity that may influence the within-crop pest distribution. In this study, both microclimate (air temperature and humidity) and thrips distribution were simultaneously mapped in a rose greenhouse. The measurements were sensed in a horizontal plane situated at mid-height of the rose crop inside the greenhouse. Simultaneously, thrips population dynamics were assessed after an artificial and homogeneous infestation of the rose crop. The spatio-temporal distribution of climate and thrips within the greenhouse were compared, and links between thrips infestation and climatic conditions were investigated. A statistical model was used to define the favourable climate conditions for thrips adults and larvae. Our results showed that (i) the air temperature and air humidity were very heterogeneously distributed within the crop, (ii) pest populations aggregated in the most favourable climatic areas and (iii) the highest population density of thrips adults and larvae were recorded at 27°C and 22°C for temperature and 63% and 86% for humidity, respectively. These findings confirm, in real rose cropping conditions, previous laboratory studies on the F. occidentalis climatic optimum and provide a solid scientific support for climatic-based control methods against this pest.

  4. Humidity coefficient correction in the calculation equations of air refractive index by He-Ne laser based on phase step interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qianghua; Liu, Jinghai; He, Yongxi; Luo, Huifu; Luo, Jun; Wang, Feng

    2015-02-10

    The refractive index of air (RIA) is an important parameter in precision measurement. The revisions to Edlen's equations by Boensch and Potulski [Metrologia 35, 133 (1998)] are mostly used to calculate the RIA at present. Since the humidity correction coefficients in the formulas were performed with four wavelengths of a Cd(114) lamp (644.0, 508.7, 480.1, and 467.9 nm) and at the temperature range of 19.6°C-20.1°C, the application is restricted when an He-Ne laser is used as the light source, which is mostly applied in optical precision measurement, and the environmental temperature is far away from 20°C as well. To solve this problem, a measurement system based on phase step interferometry for measuring the effect of the humidity to the RIA is presented, and a corresponding humidity correction equation is derived. The analysis and comparison results show that the uncertainty of the presented equation is better than that of Boensch and Potulski's. It is more suitable in present precision measurements by He-Ne laser, and the application temperature range extends to 14.6°C-24.0°C as well.

  5. Quantitative Ethylene Measurements with MOx Chemiresistive Sensors at Different Relative Air Humidities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matic Krivec

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of two commercial metal oxide (MOx sensors to ethylene is tested at different relative humidities. One sensor (MiCS-5914 is based on tungsten oxide, the other (MQ-3 on tin oxide. Both sensors were found to be sensitive to ethylene concentrations down to 10 ppm. Both sensors have significant response times; however, the tungsten sensor is the faster one. Sensor models are developed that predict the concentration of ethylene given the sensor output and the relative humidity. The MQ-3 sensor model achieves an accuracy of ±9.2 ppm and the MiCS-5914 sensor model predicts concentration to ±7.0 ppm. Both sensors are more accurate for concentrations below 50 ppm, achieving ±6.7 ppm (MQ-3 and 5.7 ppm (MiCS-5914.

  6. Quantitative Ethylene Measurements with MOx Chemiresistive Sensors at Different Relative Air Humidities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivec, Matic; Mc Gunnigle, Gerald; Abram, Anže; Maier, Dieter; Waldner, Roland; Gostner, Johanna M.; Überall, Florian; Leitner, Raimund

    2015-01-01

    The sensitivity of two commercial metal oxide (MOx) sensors to ethylene is tested at different relative humidities. One sensor (MiCS-5914) is based on tungsten oxide, the other (MQ-3) on tin oxide. Both sensors were found to be sensitive to ethylene concentrations down to 10 ppm. Both sensors have significant response times; however, the tungsten sensor is the faster one. Sensor models are developed that predict the concentration of ethylene given the sensor output and the relative humidity. The MQ-3 sensor model achieves an accuracy of ±9.2 ppm and the MiCS-5914 sensor model predicts concentration to ±7.0 ppm. Both sensors are more accurate for concentrations below 50 ppm, achieving ±6.7 ppm (MQ-3) and 5.7 ppm (MiCS-5914). PMID:26561812

  7. Breathing hot humid air induces airway irritation and cough in patients with allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi, Mehdi; Collins, Paul B; Lin, Ruei-Lung; Hayes, Don; Smith, Jaclyn A; Lee, Lu-Yuan

    2014-07-01

    We studied the respiratory responses to an increase in airway temperature in patients with allergic rhinitis (AR). Responses to isocapnic hyperventilation (40% of maximal voluntary ventilation) for 4min of humidified hot air (HA; 49°C) and room air (RA; 21°C) were compared between AR patients (n=7) and healthy subjects (n=6). In AR patients, cough frequency increased pronouncedly from 0.10±0.07 before to 2.37±0.73 during, and 1.80±0.79coughs/min for the first 8min after the HA challenge, but not during the RA challenge. In contrast, neither HA nor RA had any significant tussive effect in healthy subjects. The HA challenge also caused respiratory discomfort (mainly throat irritation) measured by the handgrip dynamometry in AR patients, but not in healthy subjects. Bronchoconstriction was not detected after the HA challenge in either group of subjects. In conclusion, hyperventilation of HA triggered vigorous cough response and throat irritation in AR patients, indicating the involvement of sensory nerves innervating upper airways. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of chemical and physical defects on the humidity sensitivity of graphene surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Young Jun; Chun, Kyoung-Yong; Kim, Jun-Sik; Lee, Jong-Heun; Han, Chang-Soo

    2017-12-01

    We investigate the effect of the chemical and physical defects on the humidity sensitivity of graphene. For this we apply reactive ion etching for physical defects and the poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) coating for chemical defects to the CVD graphene. The tendency of humidity sensing is hardly found by the physical defects while the distinct changes are observed with chemical defects by control of the thickness and the coverage area of the PMMA on the graphene surface. The graphenes covered with thinner or smaller area of PMMA show an enhanced humidity sensitivity, indicating the possibility of H2O sensing.

  9. Microbes at Surface-Air Interfaces: The Metabolic Harnessing of Relative Humidity,Surface Hygroscopicity and Oligotrophy or Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Stone

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The human environment is predominantly not aqueous, and microbes are ubiquitous at the surface-air interfaces with which we interact. Yet microbial studies at surface-air interfaces are largely survival-oriented, whilst microbial metabolism has overwhelmingly been investigated from the perspective of liquid saturation. This study explored microbial survival and metabolism under desiccation, particularly the influence of relative humidity, surface hygroscopicity, and nutrient availability on the interchange between these two types of behavior. The combination of a hygroscopic matrix (i.e., clay or 4,000 MW polyethylene glycol and high relative humidity (RH resulted in persistent measurable microbial metabolism during desiccation. In contrast, no microbial metabolism was detected at (a hygroscopic interfaces at low RH, and (b less hygroscopic interfaces (ie., sand and plastic/glass at high or low RH. Cell survival was conversely inhibited at high RH and promoted at low RH, irrespective of surface hygroscopicity. Based on this demonstration of metabolic persistence and survival inhibition at high relative humidity, it was proposed that biofilm metabolic rates might inversely influence whole-biofilm resilience, with ‘resilience’ defined in this study as a biofilm’s capacity to recover from desiccation. The concept of whole-biofilm resilience being promoted by oligotrophy was supported in desiccation-tolerant Arthrobacter spp. biofilms, but not in desiccation-sensitive Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. The ability of microbes to interact with surfaces to harness water vapor during desiccation was demonstrated, and potentially to harness oligotrophy (the most ubiquitous natural condition facing microbes for adaptation to desiccation.

  10. Control of Relative Air Humidity as a Potential Means to Improve Hygiene on Surfaces: A Preliminary Approach with Listeria monocytogenes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Zoz

    Full Text Available Relative air humidity fluctuations could potentially affect the development and persistence of pathogenic microorganisms in their environments. This study aimed to characterize the impact of relative air humidity (RH variations on the survival of Listeria monocytogenes, a bacterium persisting on food processing plant surfaces. To assess conditions leading to the lowest survival rate, four strains of L. monocytogenes (EGDe, CCL500, CCL128, and LO28 were exposed to different RH conditions (75%, 68%, 43% and 11% with different drying kinetics and then rehydrated either progressively or instantaneously. The main factors that affected the survival of L. monocytogenes were RH level and rehydration kinetics. Lowest survival rates between 1% and 0.001% were obtained after 3 hours of treatment under optimal conditions (68% RH and instantaneous rehydration. The survival rate was decreased under 0.001% after prolonged exposure (16h of cells under optimal conditions. Application of two successive dehydration and rehydration cycles led to an additional decrease in survival rate. This preliminary study, performed in model conditions with L. monocytogenes, showed that controlled ambient RH fluctuations could offer new possibilities to control foodborne pathogens in food processing environments and improve food safety.

  11. A complexity measure based method for studying the dependance of 222Rn concentration time series on indoor air temperature and humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihailovic, D T; Udovičić, V; Krmar, M; Arsenić, I

    2014-02-01

    We have suggested a complexity measure based method for studying the dependence of measured (222)Rn concentration time series on indoor air temperature and humidity. This method is based on the Kolmogorov complexity (KL). We have introduced (i) the sequence of the KL, (ii) the Kolmogorov complexity highest value in the sequence (KLM) and (iii) the KL of the product of time series. The noticed loss of the KLM complexity of (222)Rn concentration time series can be attributed to the indoor air humidity that keeps the radon daughters in air. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Effect of vulcanization temperature and humidity on the properties of RTV silicone rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xutao; Li, Xiuguang; Hao, Lu; Wen, Xishan; Lan, Lei; Yuan, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Qingping

    2017-06-01

    In order to study the difference in performance of room temperature vulcanized (RTV) silicone rubber in vulcanization environment with different temperature and humidity, static contact angle method, FTIR and TG is utilized to depict the properties of hydrophobicity, transfer of hydrophobicity, functional groups and thermal stability of RTV silicone rubber. It is found that different vulcanization conditions have effects on the characteristics of RTV silicone rubber, which shows that the hydrophobicity of RTV silicone rubber changes little with the vulcanization temperature but a slight increase with the vulcanization humidity. Temperature and humidity have obvious effects on the hydrophobicity transfer ability of RTV silicone rubber, which is better when vulcanization temperature is 5°C or vulcanization humidity is 95%. From the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, it can be concluded that humidity and temperature of vulcanization conditions have great effect on the functional groups of silicone rubber, and vulcanization conditions also have effect on thermal stability of RTV silicone rubber. When vulcanization temperature is 5°C or vulcanization humidity is 15% or 95%, the thermal stability of silicone rubber becomes worse.

  13. Coupled effects of the temperature and the relative humidity on gecko adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhilong; Yang, Yazheng; Chen, Shaohua

    2017-08-01

    To explain the inconsistent results of experiments on temperature-dependent gecko adhesion, a theoretical peeling model is established wherein a nano-thin film is adopted to simulate a gecko spatula. The model considers not only the respective effects of temperature and environmental humidity on the peel-off force but also the coupled effect of both factors. Increasing temperature is found to lead to a decreasing peel-off force if the environmental humidity is uncontrolled. However, if the environmental humidity is constant, the peel-off force is insensitive to the temperature and remains almost constant. The synthetic theoretical analysis demonstrates that the seemingly contradictory results of temperature-dependent gecko adhesion experiments are actually consistent under their respective experimental conditions. This inconsistency is mainly due to the environmental humidity, which varies with the changing temperature if it is not artificially controlled. The results cannot only reasonably explain the different experimental results for the effect of temperature on gecko adhesion but can also facilitate the design of temperature-controlled or humidity-controlled adhesion sensors by tuning the environmental humidity or temperature.

  14. Concentrations of Staphylococcus species in indoor air as associated with other bacteria, season, relative humidity, air change rate, and S. aureus-positive occupants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Anne Mette; Moslehi-Jenabian, Saloomeh; Islam, Md Zohorul; Frankel, Mika; Spilak, Michal; Frederiksen, Margit W

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain knowledge about concentrations of Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA (methicillin-resistant S. aureus), and other Staphylococcus species in indoor air in Greater Copenhagen and about factors affecting the concentrations. The effects of season, temperature, relative humidity, air change rate (ACR), other bacterial genera, area per occupant, and presence of S. aureus-positive occupants were studied. In samples from 67 living rooms, S. hominis, S. warneri, S. epidermidis, and S. capitis were found in 13-25%; S. saprophyticus, S. cohnii, and S. pasteuri in 5-10%; and S. lugdunensis, S. haemolyticus, S. caprae, S. equorum, S. kloosii, S. pettenkoferi, S. simulans, and S. xylosus in less than 3%. Staphylococcus aureus were found in two of 67 living rooms: spa type t034 (an MRSA) was recovered from a farmhouse, while spa type t509 was found in an urban home. Two species, S. equorum and S. kloosii, were found only in the farmhouse. Staphylococcus was significantly associated with season with lowest concentration and richness in winter. Genera composition was associated with ACR with smaller fractions of Staphylococcus at higher ACR, while richness was significantly and negatively associated with area per occupant. Concentration of Staphylococcus correlated positively with the total concentration of bacteria, but negatively with the total concentration of other bacteria. The concentration of Staphylococcus was not significantly associated with concentrations of the other abundant genera Bacillus, Kocuria, and Micrococcus. In offices with S. aureus-positive occupants, airborne S. aureus was not found. In conclusion, Staphylococcus species constitute a considerable proportion of the airborne bacteria in the studied homes and offices. However, both S. aureus and MRSA had very low prevalence during all seasons. Thus, transmission of S. aureus and MRSA through the air in living rooms in Copenhagen is expected to be limited. The negative associations

  15. Influence of Temperature, Relative Humidity, and Soil Properties on the Soil-Air Partitioning of Semivolatile Pesticides: Laboratory Measurements and Predictive Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davie-Martin, Cleo L; Hageman, Kimberly J; Chin, Yu-Ping; Rougé, Valentin; Fujita, Yuki

    2015-09-01

    Soil-air partition coefficient (Ksoil-air) values are often employed to investigate the fate of organic contaminants in soils; however, these values have not been measured for many compounds of interest, including semivolatile current-use pesticides. Moreover, predictive equations for estimating Ksoil-air values for pesticides (other than the organochlorine pesticides) have not been robustly developed, due to a lack of measured data. In this work, a solid-phase fugacity meter was used to measure the Ksoil-air values of 22 semivolatile current- and historic-use pesticides and their degradation products. Ksoil-air values were determined for two soils (semiarid and volcanic) under a range of environmentally relevant temperature (10-30 °C) and relative humidity (30-100%) conditions, such that 943 Ksoil-air measurements were made. Measured values were used to derive a predictive equation for pesticide Ksoil-air values based on temperature, relative humidity, soil organic carbon content, and pesticide-specific octanol-air partition coefficients. Pesticide volatilization losses from soil, calculated with the newly derived Ksoil-air predictive equation and a previously described pesticide volatilization model, were compared to previous results and showed that the choice of Ksoil-air predictive equation mainly affected the more-volatile pesticides and that the way in which relative humidity was accounted for was the most critical difference.

  16. Effect of relative humidity on lipid oxidation in freezedried emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinachoti, P.

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stability was studied in a freeze-dried emulsion consisting of linoleic acid (LA, Tween-20, sucrose and maltodextrin in the presence of a catalyst (FeSO4/ascorbic acid. Changes in residual LA and conjugated dienes as a function of time were monitored at 0, 32, 43 and 75% relative humidities (RH. Based on GC analyses, LA oxidation was more significant in the surface fraction than the entrapped. The loss of surface oil upon storage may also be due to partial entrapment. However faster oxidation of the surface oil was confirmed by measurement of diene conjugation. Oxidation was more rapid at the lower relative humidities (0 and 32% RH and decreased with increasing RH. At high moisture, physical modifications in the sample were observed, including reduced porosity, structural collapse, reduction of the surface oil and coalescence of oil droplets triggered by sucrose crystallization. These may be responsible for the decreased oxidation. Sucrose crystallization at the higher humidities inhibited oxidation. In addition, while samples with similar glass transition temperature (Tg range behaved differently, samples with different glass transition range showed similar oxidative behaviour. Microstructural changes leading to oil entrapment and oil droplet coalescence were found to be significant, in this case.Se ha estudiado la estabilidad oxidativa en una emulsión liofilizada compuesta de ácido linoleico (LA, Tween-20, sacarosa y maltodextrina en presencia de un catalizador (FeSO4/ácido ascórbico. Los cambios en ácido linoleico remanente (LA y dienos conjugados en función del tiempo fueron monitorizados a humedades relativas (RH del 0, 32, 43 y 75%. Basado en análisis por cromatografía gaseosa, la oxidación de LA fue más significativa en la fracción superficial que en la encapsulada. La pérdida de aceite superficial con el almacenamiento puede deberse también al encapsulado parcial. Sin embargo, la más rápida oxidación del aceite

  17. Statistical analysis of the effects of relative humidity and temperature ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isreal

    propagation of radio waves has been studied from the beginning of radio wave technology (Kerr, 1987). It has been established that the refraction of electromagnetic waves due to inhomogeneous spatial distribution of the refractive index of air ..... Water Over Some West African Stations During The Special. Observation ...

  18. Passenger evaluation of the optimum balance between fresh air supply and humidity from 7-h exposures in a simulated aircraft cabin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm-Tejsen, Peter; Wyon, David Peter; Lagercrantz, Love Per

    2007-01-01

    A 21-seat section of an aircraft cabin with realistic pollution sources was built inside a climate chamber capable of providing fresh outside air at very low humidity. Maintaining a constant 200 l/s rate of total air supply, i.e. recircu-lated and make-up air, to the cabin, experiments simulating......, and claustrophobia, due to the increased level of con-taminants....

  19. Temperature and Humidity Control in Air-Conditioned Buildings with lower Energy Demand and increased Indoor Air Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paul, Joachim; Martos, E. T.

    2003-01-01

    ambient air enthalpies and lower for high ambient air enthalpies. The cooling demand can be reduced up to 50% and the energy demand of the refrigeration plant is also affected positively. When using Binary Ice the annual operating costs, including depreciation of the investment, are ultimately lower...

  20. Study and realization of a new humid air generator; towards the definition of a dew temperature reference; Etude et realisation d'un nouveau generateur d'air humide; vers la definition d'une reference en temperature de rosee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanquart, B.

    2001-03-01

    The air humidity is an important parameter for several biological and physico-chemical processes. The aim of this thesis is the direct determination of the dew temperature without any link with the gravimetric reference. This document presents the realization and adjusting of a new humid air generator for the -80 deg. C to +15 deg. C range and the uncertainty linked with the dew temperature of the humid air generated. The first chapter recalls the definitions of humid air related data and the principles of the apparatuses used for the measurement of air humidity. The second chapter deals with temperature measurements while chapter 3 describes the new humid air generator built around an 'ideal' cell based on the theoretical definition of the dew temperature. Technical constraints due to temperature measurement and to hygrometers calibration are progressively integrated and introduced and lead to the practical realization of the device. Differences between the ideal cell and the prototype are estimated using a theoretical approach of mass and heat exchanges coupled with experimental results obtained with a previous prototype. Chapter 4 presents a first status of the device uncertainties with some possibilities of reduction of these uncertainties. (J.S.)

  1. Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Network Field Effect Transistor as a Humidity Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasantha R. Mudimela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Single-walled carbon nanotube network field effect transistors were fabricated and studied as humidity sensors. Sensing responses were altered by changing the gate voltage. At the open channel state (negative gate voltage, humidity pulse resulted in the decrease of the source-drain current, and, vice versa, the increase in the source-drain current was observed at the positive gate voltage. This effect was explained by the electron-donating nature of water molecules. The operation speed and signal intensity was found to be dependent on the gate voltage polarity. The positive or negative change in current with humidity pulse at zero-gate voltage was found to depend on the previous state of the gate electrode (positive or negative voltage, respectively. Those characteristics were explained by the charge traps in the gate dielectric altering the effective gate voltage, which influenced the operation of field effect transistor.

  2. Effects of Humidity and Surfaces on the Melt Crystallization of Ibuprofen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Il Won Kim

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Melt crystallization of ibuprofen was studied to understand the effects of humidity and surfaces. The molecular self-assembly during the amorphous-to-crystal transformation was examined in terms of the nucleation and growth of the crystals. The crystallization was on Al, Au, and self-assembled monolayers with –CH3, –OH, and –COOH functional groups. Effects of the humidity were studied at room temperature (18–20 °C with relative humidity 33%, 75%, and 100%. Effects of the surfaces were observed at −20 °C (relative humidity 36% to enable close monitoring with slower crystal growth. The nucleation time of ibuprofen was faster at high humidity conditions probably due to the local formation of the unfavorable ibuprofen melt/water interface. The crystal morphologies of ibuprofen were governed by the nature of the surfaces, and they could be associated with the growth kinetics by the Avrami equation. The current study demonstrated the effective control of the melt crystallization of ibuprofen through the melt/atmosphere and melt/surface interfaces.

  3. Health Effects of Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and your health: Green living Sun Water Air Health effects of air pollution How to protect yourself from air pollution Chemicals Noise Quizzes Links to more information girlshealth glossary girlshealth. ...

  4. Temperature Effect on Capacitive Humidity Sensors and its Compensation Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarikul ISLAM

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents the study of the effect of temperature on different capacitive humidity sensors used in practice. Capacitance of the humidity sensor, which is a function of concentration of water vapor, also depends on ambient temperature. This variation of ambient temperature causes error in the performance of sensor outputs and its compensation is essential. In this paper, we have used an artificial neural network to compensate the effect of ambient temperature error. The proposed artificial neural network technique is based on inverse model of the sensor. The technique is applicable for compensation of linear or nonlinear temperature effect of humidity sensor. It can also compensate the nonlinearity of the capacitive humidity response which is an issue for all most all types of humidity sensor. Our simulation studies show the sensor output and artificial neural network model output matches closely. Even though sensor characteristics change with temperature, the proposed model performs well irrespective of any change in temperature. It can be extended for the temperature compensation of other sensors. The maximum error for nonlinearity using the ANN technique are 0.2 % and temperature error of 0.08 % for temperature range between 10 0C to 60 0C of Sensor 3 and 0.01 % for temperature range between 25 0C to 85 0C of Sensor 4 respectively.

  5. Climatic Reliability of Electronics: Early Prediction and Control of Contamination and humidity effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdingovas, Vadimas

    This PhD project is motivated by the demand for the deeper understanding of the effects of humidity and contamination on corrosion related issues and overall reliability of electronic devices. The information available today is limited and incoherent, thus the directions for the research subtopics...... were to a significant extent guided by the climatic reliability issues the electronic companies are currently facing. The research in this thesis is focused on the synergistic effects of process related contamination, humidity, potential bias, and PCBA design related aspects, while various tests...... methods suitable for electrical measurements are attempted and compared with standardized test methods. The focus is also placed on the methods for corrosion prediction on a PCBA layout with the aim of profiling corrosion prone regions or simulating the possible humidity effects on a circuit design...

  6. Effect of ambient temperature and humidity on emissions of an idling gas turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, C. W.

    1977-01-01

    The effects of inlet pressure, temperature, and humidity on the oxides of nitrogen produced by an engine operating at takeoff power setting were investigated and numerous correction factors were formulated. The effect of ambient relative humidity on gas turbine idle emissions was ascertained. Experimentally, a nonvitiating combustor rig was employed to simulate changing combustor inlet conditions as generated by changing ambient conditions. Emissions measurements were made at the combustor exit. For carbon monoxide, a reaction kinetic scheme was applied within each zone of the combustor where initial species concentrations reflected not only local combustor characteristics but also changing ambient conditions.

  7. Effects of Ce doping and humidity on UV sensing properties of electrospun ZnO nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan-Jie; Zhang, Hong-Di; Zhang, Jun; Li, Shuo; Zhang, Jun-Cheng; Zhu, Jian-Wei; Gong, Mao-Gang; Wang, Xiao-Xiong; Long, Yun-Ze

    2017-09-01

    Pure ZnO and Ce-doped ZnO nanofibers were synthesized via electrospinning-calcination technique. The morphology, composition, structure, humidity sensing and photoelectric properties were characterized. The field-effect curves showed that a single pure ZnO nanofiber is an n-type semiconductor and an individual Ce-ZnO nanofiber is a p-type semiconductor. The Ce doping and humidity have strong influence on the UV sensing properties of ZnO-based nanofibers. In the dark, the responses [(IVarious RH - I43% RH)/I43% RH] of pure ZnO increased gradually with the increase of humidity, while the responses of Ce-doped ZnO nanofibers decreased. When exposed to UV radiation, the response of pure ZnO nanofibers decreased with increasing humidity, while that of Ce-doped ZnO increased. And the highest responses are around 88.44 and 683.67 at 97% humidity for pure ZnO and Ce-ZnO nanofibers under UV irradiation. In addition, the UV response of Ce-ZnO with good stability and repeatability increases by two orders of magnitude than that of pure ZnO. The sensing mechanism relevant to oxygen and water-related conduction was discussed briefly. These results exhibit that the application prospects of p-type Ce-ZnO nanofibers are promising in the field of photoelectric devices.

  8. Performance analysis of a bio-gasification based combined cycle power plant employing indirectly heated humid air turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, S., E-mail: sankha.deepp@gmail.com; Mondal, P., E-mail: mondal.pradip87@gmail.com; Ghosh, S., E-mail: sudipghosh.becollege@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur, Howrah – 711103, West Bengal (India)

    2016-07-12

    Rapid depletion of fossil fuel has forced mankind to look into alternative fuel resources. In this context, biomass based power generation employing gas turbine appears to be a popular choice. Bio-gasification based combined cycle provides a feasible solution as far as grid-independent power generation is concerned for rural electrification projects. Indirectly heated gas turbine cycles are promising alternatives as they avoid downstream gas cleaning systems. Advanced thermodynamic cycles have become an interesting area of study to improve plant efficiency. Water injected system is one of the most attractive options in this field of applications. This paper presents a theoretical model of a biomass gasification based combined cycle that employs an indirectly heated humid air turbine (HAT) in the topping cycle. Maximum overall electrical efficiency is found to be around 41%. Gas turbine specific air consumption by mass is minimum when pressure ratio is 6. The study reveals that, incorporation of the humidification process helps to improve the overall performance of the plant.

  9. Effects of High-Humidity Aging on Platinum, Palladium, and Gold Loaded Tin Oxide—Volatile Organic Compound Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiko Nishibori

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study is an investigation of high-humidity aging effects on the total volatile organic compound (T–VOC gas-sensing properties of platinum, palladium, and gold-loaded tin oxide (Pt,Pd,Au/SnO2 thick films. The sensor responses of the high-humidity aged Pt,Pd,Au/SnO2, a non-aged Pt,Pd,Au/SnO2, and a high-humidity aged Pt/SnO2 to T–VOC test gas have been measured. The high-humidity aging is an effective treatment for resistance to humidity change for the Pt,Pd,Au/SnO2 but not effective for the Pt/SnO2. The mechanism of the high-humidity aging effects is discussed based on the change of surface state of the SnO2 particles.

  10. Energy saving screen materials : measurement method of radiation exchange, air permeability and humidity transport and a calculation method for energy saving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemming, Silke; Baeza Romero, Esteban; Mohammadkhani, Vida; Breugel, van Bram

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of the project were the quantifi cation of the greenhouse screen properties (emissivity and transmissivity for thermal infrared radiation, air permeability and humidity transport) and the determination of the total energy saving under defi ned conditions in order to be able to compare

  11. Occupant evaluation of 7-hour exposures in a simulated aircraft cabin - Part 1: Optimum balance between fresh air supply and humidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm-Tejsen, Peter; Wyon, David Peter; Lagercrantz, Love Per

    2005-01-01

    Low humidity in the aircraft cabin environment has been identified as a possible cause of symptoms experienced during long flights. A mock-up of a 21-seat section of an aircraft cabin with realistic pollution sources was built inside a climate chamber, capable of providing fresh outside air at ve......, and intensified headache, dizziness and claustrophobia....

  12. The role of abscisic and acid in disturbed stomatal response characteristics of tradescantia virginiana during growth at high relative air humidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rezaei Nejad, A.; Meeteren, van U.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the role of abscisic acid (ABA) in altered stomatal responses of Tradescantia virginiana leaves grown at high relative air humidity (RH) was investigated. A lower ABA concentration was found in leaves grown at high RH compared with leaves grown at moderate RH. As a result of a daily

  13. Data set: 31 years of spatially distributed air temperature, humidity, precipitation amount and precipitation phase from a mountain catchment in the rain-snow transition zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirty one years of spatially distributed air temperature, relative humidity, dew point temperature, precipitation amount, and precipitation phase data are presented for the Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed. The data are spatially distributed over a 10m Lidar-derived digital elevation model at ...

  14. Solar-Powered, Liquid-Desiccant Air Conditioner for Low-Electricity Humidity Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    design because of the necessary pump size to transfer desiccant this distance. Future designs should reduce the distance from the regenerator and...variable-frequency drive (VFD) is designed to provide 3,000 cfm of treated air to the building. Two fractional (1/4) hp pumps circulate ~ 3 gal per...hp) Power (W) VFD Conditioner Supply Pump Centrifugal 0.25 186.5 No Return Pump Vertical 0.25 186.5 No Process Fan Motorized Impeller 3.45

  15. Relative effect of solder flux chemistry on the humidity related failures in electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdingovas, Vadimas; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    2015-01-01

    was studied by quartz crystal microbalance, while corrosive effects were studied by leakage current and impedance measurements on standard test boards. The measurements were performed as a function of relative humidity (RH) in the range from 60 to ~99 per cent at 25°C. The corrosiveness of solder flux systems...... of printed circuit boards under humid conditions. Originality/value - The classification of solder flux systems according to IPC J-STD-004 standard does not specify the WOAs in the flux; however, ranking of the flux systems based on the hygroscopic property of activators would be useful information when...... selecting no-clean flux systems for electronics with applications in humid conditions....

  16. Effects of Humidity On the Flow Characteristics of PS304 Plasma Spray Feedstock Powder Blend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Malcolm K.; DellaCorte, Christopher

    2002-01-01

    The effects of environmental humidity on the flow characteristics of PS304 feedstock have been investigated. Angular and spherical BaF2-CaF2 powder was fabricated by comminution and by atomization, respectively. The fluorides were added incrementally to the nichrome, chromia, and silver powders to produce PS304 feedstock. The powders were dried in a vacuum oven and cooled to a Tom temperature under dry nitrogen. The flow of the powder was studied from 2 to 100 percent relative humidity (RH) The results suggest that the feedstock flow is slightly degraded with increasing humidity below 66 percent RH and is more affected above 66 percent RH. There was no flow above 88 percent RH. Narrower particle size distributions of the angular fluorides allowed flow up to 95 percent RH. These results offer guidance that enhances the commercial potential for this material system.

  17. Study on effect of temperature and humidity on the CO2 concentration measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, YuLiang; Ni, Xiang; Wu, YuanXi; Zhang, Wei

    2017-08-01

    In the application of non dispersive infrared (NDIR) carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration measurement, we need avoid the interference factors (such as temperature, pressure, gas, fluctuation of the light source and dust pollution etc.). In the past experiments only single factor, such as temperature, is often emphasized to the influence on the measurement results, without considering the effect of multiple factors. In order to study the change of gas concentration with measurement parameters, we constructs a CO2 detecting device with a BM530 gas detecting module, TMD10 temperature and humidity sensor. The experimental results show that: there is a correlation between the two interference factors: temperature and humidity. With the decreasing temperature, gas concentration measurement value decreases too. In developing process of instruments, we can make correction of the concentration- temperature instead of that of the measurement results under different temperature and humidity conditions.

  18. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Humidity Effect on Performance of PEM Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liso, Vincenzo; Al Shakhshir, Saher; Nielsen, Mads Pagh

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a single proton exchange membrane fuel cell electrical performance is tested and modelled. The aim is to investigate the effect of reactants and membrane humidity on cell electrical performance. We discuss cell performance in terms of various variables affecting water transport...... in the membrane, such as electro-osmotic drag, water diffusion and ionic conductivity. The experimental results show that membrane hydration mainly affects ohmic losses and especially when humidity at cathode side is reduced. The developed model can estimate the contribution of different overpotentials...

  19. Effect of Diluent and Relative Humidity on Apparent Viability of Airborne Pasteurella pestis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, William D.; Ross, Harold

    1966-01-01

    Airborne Pasteurella pestis (A-1122) at low humidities [20 to 50% relative humidity (RH)] exhibited exponential decay when either 1% peptone or Heart Infusion Broth (HIB) was used as the diluent in the viable assay system. At higher RH values (65 and 87%), however, the 1% peptone diluent adversely affected the viability assay. In contrast, HIB as diluent was remarkably effective in demonstrating a higher number of viable cells in aerosols held at high RH values. Similarly, with HIB as diluent, aerosols were shown to contain viable cells during 90 min of observation; with 1% peptone, viability was not detectable after 20 min in the airborne state. PMID:5970462

  20. Effect of diluent and relative humidity on apparent viability of airborne Pasteurella pestis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, W D; Ross, H

    1966-09-01

    Airborne Pasteurella pestis (A-1122) at low humidities [20 to 50% relative humidity (RH)] exhibited exponential decay when either 1% peptone or Heart Infusion Broth (HIB) was used as the diluent in the viable assay system. At higher RH values (65 and 87%), however, the 1% peptone diluent adversely affected the viability assay. In contrast, HIB as diluent was remarkably effective in demonstrating a higher number of viable cells in aerosols held at high RH values. Similarly, with HIB as diluent, aerosols were shown to contain viable cells during 90 min of observation; with 1% peptone, viability was not detectable after 20 min in the airborne state.

  1. Humidity Effects on Soluble Core Mechanical and Thermal Properties (Polyvinyl Alcohol/Microballoon Composite)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This document constitutes the final report for the study of humidity effects and loading rate on soluble core (PVA/MB composite material) mechanical and thermal properties. This report describes test results, procedures employed, and any unusual occurrences or specific observations associated with this test program.

  2. Effects of storage temperature and humidity on shelf life and quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of storage temperature and humidity on shelf life and quality of African pear (Dacryodes edulis) fruits. ... Nigerian Food Journal ... However, the quality losses as well as microbiological growths were drastically reduced when the fruits were stored at the lowest storage temperature (50C) and under three relative ...

  3. The effect of relative humidity on output performance of inclined and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The set-up of 70 Watts solar panel was inclined stationary at 150 for maximum solar reception while the set-up of 80 Watts solar panel had automatic solar tracker for effective capturing of solar radiation. For 70 Watts solar panel, the maximum power output of 59.99 Watt was obtained when the relative humidity was 30%.

  4. Cotton properties: relative humidity and its effect on flat bundle strength elongation and fracture morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of the relative humidity (RH) of testing conditions on stelometer cotton flat bundle strength and elongation measurements, and on the morphology of fiber fractures will be discussed in this talk. We observed a trend for stelometer strength and elongations measurements. Testing in conditi...

  5. Cotton fiber properties: relative humidity and its effect on flat bundle strength, elongation, and fracture morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is well known that cotton fibers readily exchange moisture content with their surrounding atmosphere. As moisture exchange progresses, several physical properties of the fiber are significantly affected. In this study, the effects of relative humidity (RH), a factor that affects the atmospheric m...

  6. Effects and control of humidity and particle mixing in fluid-bed granulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, SH; Kossen, NWF; Mos, MT; Blauw, L; Hoffmann, AC

    The novel technique of spraying binder liquid in pulses of short duration on a bubbling fluidized bed was used to study the effect liquid distribution, mixing, and relative humidity has on granule growth. Two important mixing zones in the fluid-bed granulation process are identified. First, the

  7. Nanosecond pulsed humid Ar plasma jet in air: shielding, discharge characteristics and atomic hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatom, Shurik; Luo, Yuchen; Xiong, Qing; Bruggeman, Peter J.

    2017-10-01

    Gas phase non-equilibrium plasmas jets containing water vapor are of growing interest for many applications. In this manuscript, we report a detailed study of an atmospheric pressure nanosecond pulsed Ar  +  0.26% H2O plasma jet. The plasma jet operates in an atmospheric pressure air surrounding but is shielded with a coaxial argon flow to limit the air diffusion into the jet effluent core. The jet impinges on a metal plate electrode and produces a stable plasma filament (transient spark) between the needle electrode in the jet and the metal plate. The stable plasma filament is characterized by spatially and time resolved electrical and optical diagnostics. This includes Rayleigh scattering, Stark broadening of the hydrogen Balmer lines and two-photon absorption laser induced fluorescence (TaLIF) to obtain the gas temperature, the electron density and the atomic hydrogen density respectively. Electron densities and atomic hydrogen densities up to 5 × 1022 m-3 and 2 × 1022 m-3 have been measured. This shows that atomic hydrogen is one of the main species in high density Ar-H2O plasmas. The gas temperature does not exceed 550 K in the core of the plasma. To enable in situ calibration of the H TaLIF at atmospheric pressure a previously published O density calibration scheme is extended to include a correction for the line profiles by including overlap integrals as required by H TaLIF. The line width of H TaLIF, due to collision broadening has the same trend as the neutral density obtained by Rayleigh scattering. This suggests the possibility to use this technique to in situ probe neutral gas densities.

  8. Temperature and Humidity Profiles in the TqJoint Data Group of AIRS Version 6 Product for the Climate Model Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Feng; Fang, Fan; Hearty, Thomas J.; Theobald, Michael; Vollmer, Bruce; Lynnes, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) mission is entering its 13th year of global observations of the atmospheric state, including temperature and humidity profiles, outgoing long-wave radiation, cloud properties, and trace gases. Thus AIRS data have been widely used, among other things, for short-term climate research and observational component for model evaluation. One instance is the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) which uses AIRS version 5 data in the climate model evaluation. The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) is the home of processing, archiving, and distribution services for data from the AIRS mission. The GES DISC, in collaboration with the AIRS Project, released data from the version 6 algorithm in early 2013. The new algorithm represents a significant improvement over previous versions in terms of greater stability, yield, and quality of products. The ongoing Earth System Grid for next generation climate model research project, a collaborative effort of GES DISC and NASA JPL, will bring temperature and humidity profiles from AIRS version 6. The AIRS version 6 product adds a new "TqJoint" data group, which contains data for a common set of observations across water vapor and temperature at all atmospheric levels and is suitable for climate process studies. How different may the monthly temperature and humidity profiles in "TqJoint" group be from the "Standard" group where temperature and water vapor are not always valid at the same time? This study aims to answer the question by comprehensively comparing the temperature and humidity profiles from the "TqJoint" group and the "Standard" group. The comparison includes mean differences at different levels globally and over land and ocean. We are also working on examining the sampling differences between the "TqJoint" and "Standard" group using MERRA data.

  9. The effect of ambient humidity and metabolic rate on the gas-exchange pattern of the semi-aquatic insect Aquarius remigis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Heidy L; Bradley, Timothy J

    2011-04-01

    We have examined the effects of temperature on metabolic rate and respiratory pattern in the water strider Aquarius remigis. As temperature was increased from 10 to 30°C, the metabolic rate of the insects increased and the respiratory pattern transitioned from discontinuous, to cyclic, to continuous. The discontinuous gas-exchange cycle (DGC) was observed even in insects standing on water when the respirometry chamber was being perfused with humid (>95% relative humidity) air. Comparisons of insects at 20°C in humid and dry air showed no statistically significant differences in metabolic rate or respiratory pattern (P>0.05). The proportion of time that the spiracles were closed was greater at 10°C than at 20°C (Ppatterns of insects are determined by the relationship between oxygen supply and oxygen demand. There was no evidence in this insect that humidity had any effect on the respiratory pattern. The results are discussed in the context of the ongoing discussion in the literature of the origin, maintenance and adaptive significance of the DGC in insects.

  10. Investigating the effect of gas flow rate, inlet ozone concentration and relative humidity on the efficacy of catalytic ozonation process in the removal of xylene from waste airstream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.R. MokaramI

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and aimsThe catalytic ozonation is an efficient process for the degradation of volatile organic compounds from contaminated air stream. This study was aimed at investigating the efficacy of catalytic ozonation process in removal of xylene from the polluted air stream andthe influence of retention time (gas flow rate, inlet ozone dose and relative humidity on this performanceMethodsthe catalytic ozonation of xylene was conducted using a bench scale set-up consisted of a syringe pump,an air pump, an ozone generator, and a glass reactor packed with activated carbon. Several experimental run was defined to investigate the influence of the selectedoperational variables.ResultsThe results indicated that the efficiency of catalytic ozonation was greater than that of single adsorption in removal of xylene under similar inlet concentration and relative humidity. We found a significant catalytic effect for activated carbon when used in combination with ozonation process, leading to improvement of xylene removal percentage. In addition, the elimination capacity of the system improved with the increase of inlet ozone dose as well as gas flow rate. The relative humidity showed a positive effect of the xylene removal at the range of 5 to 50%, while the higher humidity (more than 50% resulted in reduction of the performance.ConclusionThe findings of the present work revealed that the catalytic ozonation process can be an efficient technique for treating the air streams containing industrial concentrations of xylene. Furthermore, there is a practical potential to retrofit the present adsorption systems intothe catalytic ozonation simply by coupling them with the ozonation system. the catalytic ozonation of xylene was conducted using a bench scale set-up consisted of a syringe pump,an air pump, an ozone generator, and a glass reactor packed with activated carbon. Several experimental run was defined to investigate the influence of the selected

  11. Humidity Build-Up in a Typical Electronic Enclosure Exposed to Cycling Conditions and Effect on Corrosion Reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conseil, Helene; Gudla, Visweswara Chakravarthy; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl

    2016-01-01

    The design of electronic device enclosures plays a major role in determining the humidity build-up inside the device as a response to the varying external humidity. Therefore, the corrosion reliability of electronic devices has direct connection to the enclosure design. This paper describes...... the internal humidity build-up in a typical enclosure prescribed for electronic applications as a function of external humidity conditions and enclosure-related parameters. Investigated parameters include external temperature and humidity conditions, the temperature and time of the internal heating cycle......, thermal mass, and port/opening size. The effect of the internal humidity build-up on corrosion reliability has been evaluated by measuring the leakage current (LC) on interdigitated test comb patterns, which are precontaminated with sodium chloride and placed inside the enclosure. The results showed...

  12. Effect of relative humidity on the migration of benzophenone from paperboard into the food simulant Tenax and modelling hereof

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnkob, Line Lundbæk; Petersen, Jens Højslev

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of relative humidity on the migration of benzophenone from paperboard into the food simulant Tenax®. Kinetic migration investigations were carried out with three relative humidities in the interval between 39% and >73%. All investigations were...... carried out at a constant temperature of 34°C. It was found that the migration of benzophenone after more than 30 days was 4.8 times higher at a relative humidity of 64%-71%, and 7.3 times higher at a relative humidity of >73%, compared with that at a relative humidity of 39%-49%. Diffusion and partition...... coefficients were derived from the results by using a software for modelling migration in multilayer materials. Both the diffusion coefficient and the partition coefficient, between paperboard and Tenax®, decrease with increasing relative humidity. The experimental results were correctly modelled only when...

  13. The construction of ventilation turrets in Atta vollenweideri leaf-cutting ants: Carbon dioxide levels in the nest tunnels, but not airflow or air humidity, influence turret structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halboth, Florian; Roces, Flavio

    2017-01-01

    Nest ventilation in the leaf-cutting ant Atta vollenweideri is driven via a wind-induced mechanism. On their nests, workers construct small turrets that are expected to facilitate nest ventilation. We hypothesized that the construction and structural features of the turrets would depend on the colony's current demands for ventilation and thus might be influenced by the prevailing environmental conditions inside the nest. Therefore, we tested whether climate-related parameters, namely airflow, air humidity and CO2 levels in the outflowing nest air influenced turret construction in Atta vollenweideri. In the laboratory, we simulated a semi-natural nest arrangement with fungus chambers, a central ventilation tunnel providing outflow of air and an aboveground building arena for turret construction. In independent series, different climatic conditions inside the ventilation tunnel were experimentally generated, and after 24 hours, several features of the built turret were quantified, i.e., mass, height, number and surface area (aperture) of turret openings. Turret mass and height were similar in all experiments even when no airflow was provided in the ventilation tunnel. However, elevated CO2 levels led to the construction of a turret with several minor openings and a larger total aperture. This effect was statistically significant at higher CO2 levels of 5% and 10% but not at 1% CO2. The construction of a turret with several minor openings did not depend on the strong differences in CO2 levels between the outflowing and the outside air, since workers also built permeated turrets even when the CO2 levels inside and outside were both similarly high. We propose that the construction of turrets with several openings and larger opening surface area might facilitate the removal of CO2 from the underground nest structure and could therefore be involved in the control of nest climate in leaf-cutting ants.

  14. Pinch technology in theory and its application to a biomass integrated gasification and humid air turbine process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, B.L.

    1998-03-01

    The Pinch Technology has become a powerful tool for the optimization of the design of heat exchanger networks during the last 20 years. In this work, the different aspects of the methodology have been studied both in a theoretical way and in a practical approach. The first part of the work is a systematic analysis of the pinch technology: what it is, how it works, what are its advantages and disadvantages. There is also a brief discussion about the pinch method and other methods which handle energy recovery problems. Once the philosophy of the pinch technology has been theoretically studied, the second part of the work is its application to two different processes. The first process analyzed is a relatively simple but realistically practical problem based on a two distillation columns system. The knowledge gained during the calculations of this process is used in the second and more complex one. This second process is an integrated biomass gasification and humid air turbine (IGHAT) which has been already optimized by a heat balance program. The application of the pinch technology to this process shows the huge potential for improvements that this technology can provide in order to save energy. All the calculations are handled by the pinch technology software program `SuperTarget`. This program is evaluated along the work. In spite of some shortcomings that have been noticed, the usefulness of the program can be claimed 26 refs, 28 figs, 7 tabs

  15. Mesocosmic study on autogenous shrinkage of concrete with consideration of effects of temperature and humidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan HAI

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A study on the autogenous shrinkage (AS of concrete from a mesocosmic perspective was carried out using numerical simulation technology. The temperature history and the autogenous relative humidity (ARH, two factors that have been shown to have occasional influence on this process in previous studies, were introduced into this study. According to these concepts, a program for simulation of the temperature field, humidity field, and stress field based on the equivalent age method and a fully automatic aggregate modeling tool were used. With the help of these programs, the study of a small concrete specimen provided some useful conclusions: the aggregate and the matrix show distinct distribution properties in the temperature field, humidity field, and stress field; the aggregate-matrix interface has a high possibility of becoming the location of the initial cracking caused by AS of concrete; the distribution of random aggregates is extremely important for mesoscopical analysis; and the temperature history is the main factor affecting the AS of concrete. On the whole, inherent mechanisms and cracking mechanisms of AS of concrete can be explained more reasonably and realistically only by considering the different characteristics of material phases and the effects of temperature and humidity.

  16. Rapid and long-term effects of water deficit on gas exchange and hydraulic conductance of silver birch trees grown under varying atmospheric humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellin, Arne; Niglas, Aigar; Õunapuu-Pikas, Eele; Kupper, Priit

    2014-03-24

    Effects of water deficit on plant water status, gas exchange and hydraulic conductance were investigated in Betula pendula under artificially manipulated air humidity in Eastern Estonia. The study was aimed to broaden an understanding of the ability of trees to acclimate with the increasing atmospheric humidity predicted for northern Europe. Rapidly-induced water deficit was imposed by dehydrating cut branches in open-air conditions; long-term water deficit was generated by seasonal drought. The rapid water deficit quantified by leaf (ΨL) and branch water potentials (ΨB) had a significant (P gas exchange parameters, while inclusion of ΨB in models resulted in a considerably better fit than those including ΨL, which supports the idea that stomatal openness is regulated to prevent stem rather than leaf xylem dysfunction. Under moderate water deficit (ΨL≥-1.55 MPa), leaf conductance to water vapour (gL), transpiration rate and leaf hydraulic conductance (KL) were higher (P < 0.05) and leaf temperature lower in trees grown in elevated air humidity (H treatment) than in control trees (C treatment). Under severe water deficit (ΨL<-1.55 MPa), the treatments showed no difference. The humidification manipulation influenced most of the studied characteristics, while the effect was to a great extent realized through changes in soil water availability, i.e. due to higher soil water potential in H treatment. Two functional characteristics (gL, KL) exhibited higher (P < 0.05) sensitivity to water deficit in trees grown under increased air humidity. The experiment supported the hypothesis that physiological traits in trees acclimated to higher air humidity exhibit higher sensitivity to rapid water deficit with respect to two characteristics - leaf conductance to water vapour and leaf hydraulic conductance. Disproportionate changes in sensitivity of stomatal versus leaf hydraulic conductance to water deficit will impose greater risk of desiccation-induced hydraulic

  17. Improving Stack Effect in Hot Humid Building Interiors with Hybrid Turbine Ventilator(s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rifa Radia Tashkina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural ventilation strategies have been applied through the ages to offer thermal comfort. At present, these techniques could be employed as one of the methods to overcome the electric consumption that comes from the burning of disproportionate fossil fuel to operate air conditioners. This air conditioning process is the main contributor of CO2 emissions. This paper focuses on the efficiency of stack ventilation which is one of the natural ventilation strategies, and at the same time attempts to overcome the problem of erratic wind flow and the low indoor/outdoor temperature difference in the hot, humid Malaysian climate. Wind flow and sufficient pressure difference are essential for stack ventilation, and as such the irregularity can be overcome with the use of the Hybrid Turbine Ventilator (HTV which extracts hot air from the interior of the building via the roof level. The extraction of hot air is constant and consistent throughout the day time as long as there is sunlight falling on the solar panel for solar electricity. The aim of this paper is to explore the different HTV strategies and find out which building dimensions is most expected to reduce maximum indoor air temperature of a given room in a real weather condition.

  18. Effects of Temperature and Humidity on the Characterization of C-4 Explosive Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C. J.; Yoder, T. S.

    2012-06-01

    were examined using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy in an attempt to determine how the explosive was bound to the substrate. This is the second article in a series on the effects of temperature and relative humidity on trace explosive threats.

  19. Degradation mechanism of CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} perovskite materials upon exposure to humid air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirayama, Masaki; Kato, Masato; Fujiseki, Takemasa; Hara, Shota; Kadowaki, Hideyuki; Murata, Daisuke; Fujiwara, Hiroyuki, E-mail: fujiwara@gifu-u.ac.jp [Department of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Miyadera, Tetsuhiko; Sugita, Takeshi; Chikamatsu, Masayuki [Research Center for Photovoltaics, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Central 5, 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan)

    2016-03-21

    Low stability of organic-inorganic perovskite (CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3}) solar cells in humid air environments is a serious drawback which could limit practical application of this material severely. In this study, from real-time spectroscopic ellipsometry characterization, the degradation mechanism of ultra-smooth CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} layers prepared by a laser evaporation technique is studied. We present evidence that the CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} degradation in humid air proceeds by two competing reactions of (i) the PbI{sub 2} formation by the desorption of CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}I species and (ii) the generation of a CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} hydrate phase by H{sub 2}O incorporation. In particular, rapid phase change occurs in the near-surface region and the CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} layer thickness reduces rapidly in the initial 1 h air exposure even at a low relative humidity of 40%. After the prolonged air exposure, the CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} layer is converted completely to hexagonal platelet PbI{sub 2}/hydrate crystals that have a distinct atomic-scale multilayer structure with a period of 0.65 ± 0.05 nm. We find that conventional x-ray diffraction and optical characterization in the visible region, used commonly in earlier works, are quite insensitive to the surface phase change. Based on results obtained in this work, we discuss the degradation mechanism of CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} in humid air.

  20. High relative air humidity influences mineral accumulation and growth in iron deficient soybean plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana eRoriz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Iron (Fe deficiency chlorosis (IDC in soybean results in severe yield losses. Cultivar selection is the most commonly used strategy to avoid IDC but there is a clear interaction between genotype and the environment; therefore, the search for quick and reliable tools to control this nutrient deficiency is essential. Several studies showed that relative humidty (RH may influence the long distance transport of mineral elements and the nutrient status of plants. Thus, we decided to analyze the response of an ‘Fe-efficient’ (EF and an ‘Fe-inefficient’ (INF soybean accession grown under Fe-sufficient and deficient conditions under low (60% and high (90% RH, evaluating morphological and physiological parameters. Furthermore, the mineral content of different plant organs was analyzed. Our results showed beneficial effects of high RH in alleviating IDC symptoms as seen by increased SPAD values, higher plant dry weight, increased plant height, root length and leaf area. This positive effect of RH in reducing IDC symptoms was more pronounced in the EF accession. Also, Fe content in the different plant organs of the EF accession grown under deficient conditions increased with RH. The lower partitioning of Fe to roots and stems of the EF accessions relative to dry matter also supported our hypothesis, suggesting a greater capacity of this accession in Fe translocation to the aerial parts under Fe deficient conditions, when grown under high RH.

  1. The interaction effects of temperature and humidity on emergency room visits for respiratory diseases in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Qin; Liu, Hongsheng; Yuan, Xiaoling; Xiao, Yan; Zhang, Xian; Sun, Rongju; Dang, Wei; Zhang, Jianbo; Qin, Yuhong; Men, Baozhong; Zhao, Xiaodong

    2014-11-01

    Few epidemiological studies have been reported as to whether there was any interactive effect between temperature and humidity on respiratory morbidity, especially in Asian countries. The present study used time-series analysis to explore the modification effects of humidity on the association between temperature and emergency room (ER) visits for respiratory, upper respiratory tract infection (URI), pneumonia, and bronchitis in Beijing between 2009 and 2011. Results showed that an obvious joint effect of temperature and humidity was revealed on ER visits for respiratory, URI, pneumonia, and bronchitis. Below temperature threshold, the temperature effect was stronger in low humidity level and presented a trend fall with humidity level increase. The effect estimates per 1 °C increase in temperature in low humidity level were -2.88 % (95 % confidence interval (CI) -3.08, -2.67) for all respiratory, -3.24 % (-3.59, -2.88) for URI, -1.48 % (-1.93, -1.03) for pneumonia, and -3.79 % (-4.37, -3.21) for bronchitis ER visits, respectively. However, above temperature threshold, temperature effect was greater in high humidity level and trending upward with humidity level increasing. In high humidity level, a 1 °C increase in temperature, the effect estimates were 1.84 % (1.55, 2.13) for all respiratory, 1.76 % (1.41, 2.11) for URI, and 7.48 % (4.41, 10.65) for bronchitis ER visits. But, there was no statistically significant for pneumonia. This suggests that the modifying effects of the humidity should be considered when analyzing health impacts of temperature.

  2. Effect of humidity on the a.c. impedance of CH3NH3SnCl3 hybrid films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosca, R.; Ferro, P.; Besagni, T.; Calestani, D.; Chiarella, F.; Licci, F.

    2011-09-01

    Impedance spectroscopy measurements show that complex conductivity of thermally ablated CH3NH3SnCl3 films is strongly enhanced when humidity increases. Coplanar two-electrode test devices are modeled through an equivalent circuit comprising one resistance and two constant phase elements. It is shown that the influence of ambient humidity is mainly resistive. The dynamic responses of the devices to humidification/dehumidification cycles point out that the a.c. current varies by more than three orders of magnitude when humidity is varied between dry air and 80% relative humidity. The rise times are few hundred seconds while fall times are as short as few tens of seconds. This observation suggests that impedance variations are determined by mechanisms involving loosely bound water molecules physisorbed at the surface of the hybrid film. The results obtained are discussed in terms of protonic conduction.

  3. Continuous Droplet Removal upon Dropwise Condensation of Humid Air on a Hydrophobic Micropatterned Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Combination of two physical phenomena, capillary pressure gradient and wettability gradient, allows a simple two-step fabrication process that yields a reliable hydrophobic self-cleaning condenser surface. The surface is fabricated with specific microscopic topography and further treatment with a chemically inert low-surface-energy material. This process does not require growth of nanofeatures (nanotubes) or hydrophilic–hydrophobic patterning of the surface. Trapezoidal geometry of the microfeatures facilitates droplet transfer from the Wenzel to the Cassie state and reduces droplet critical diameter. The geometry of the micropatterns enhances local coalescence and directional movement for droplets with diameter much smaller than the radial length of the micropatterns. The hydrophobic self-cleaning micropatterned condenser surface prevents liquid film formation and promotes continuous dropwise condensation cycle. Upon dropwise condensation, droplets follow a designed wettability gradient created with micropatterns from the most hydrophobic to the least hydrophobic end of the surface. The surface has higher condensation efficiency, due to its directional self-cleaning property, than a plain hydrophobic surface. We explain the self-actuated droplet collection mechanism on the condenser surface and demonstrate experimentally the creation of an effective wettability gradient over a 6 mm radial distance. In spite of its fabrication simplicity, the fabricated surface demonstrates self-cleaning property, enhanced condensation performance, and reliability over time. Our work enables creation of a hydrophobic condenser surface with the directional self-cleaning property that can be used for collection of biological (chemical, environmental) aerosol samples or for condensation enhancement. PMID:25073014

  4. The effects of topical diclofenac, topical flurbiprofen, and humidity on corneal sensitivity in normal dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorbandt, Daniel M; Labelle, Amber L; Mitchell, Mark A; Hamor, Ralph E

    2017-03-01

    To determine the immediate and chronic effects of topical 0.1% diclofenac and 0.03% flurbiprofen on corneal sensitivity in normal canine eyes. Eighteen normal, nonbrachycephalic dogs. A prospective, randomized, masked, crossover study was performed. To determine the immediate effects associated with treatment, the study drug was instilled into the eye every 5 min for five doses, and corneal sensitivity of treated and untreated eyes was obtained prior to treatment and every 15 min post-treatment for 60 min. To determine the chronic effects, the study drug was instilled every 12 h for 30 days, and corneal sensitivity of treated and untreated eyes was obtained prior to treatment on days 0 and 30. A washout period of at least 30 days occurred between drug crossover. Ambient temperature and humidity were measured throughout the study. After multiple instillations, there was no difference in corneal sensitivity between eyes over time for diclofenac (P = 0.67) or flurbiprofen (P = 0.54), with a median sensitivity of 25 mm (1.8 g/mm2 ). After chronic dosing, there was no difference in corneal sensitivity between eyes over time for diclofenac (P = 0.82) or flurbiprofen (P = 0.56), with a median sensitivity of 35 mm (1.0 g/mm2 ). Decreasing ambient humidity was associated with an increase in sensitivity measurements (P = 0.0001). Neither diclofenac nor flurbiprofen had an effect on corneal sensitivity after multiple-drops or twice-daily dosing for 30 days. Ambient humidity may have an effect on corneal sensitivity measurements, with a longer filament length eliciting a blink response at lower humidity. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  5. [Spatiotempaoral distribution patterns of photosynthetic photon flux density, air temperature, and relative air humidity in forest gap of Pinus koraiensis-dominated broadleaved mixed forest in Xi-ao Xing' an Mountains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Duan, Wen-biao; Chen, Li-xin

    2009-12-01

    A continuous measurement of photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD), air temperature, and relative air humidity was made in the forest gap in primary Pinus koraiensis-dominated broadleaved mixed forest in Xiao Xing' an Mountains to compare the spatiotemporal distribution patterns of the parameters. The diurnal maximum PPFD in the forest gap appeared between 11:00 and 13:00 on sunny and overcast days. On sunny days, the maximum PPFD during various time periods did not locate in fixed locations, the diurnal maximum PPFD occurred in the canopy edge of northern part of the gap; while on overcast days, it always occurred in the center of the gap. The mean monthly PPFD in the gap was the highest in June and the lowest in September, with the largest range observed in July. The maximum air temperature happened between 9:00 and 15:00 on sunny days, between 15:00 and 19:00 on overcast days, the locations were 8 m in the southern part of gap center both on sunny and overcast days. From 5:00 to 9:00, the air temperature at measured positions in the gap was higher on overcast days than on sunny days; but from 9:00 to 19:00, it was opposite. The mean monthly air temperature was the highest in June, and the lowest in September. The maximum relative humidity appeared between 5:00 and 9:00 on sunny and overcast days, and occurred in the canopy border of western part of the gap, with the relative air humidity on overcast days being always higher than that on sunny days. The mean monthly relative humidity was the highest in July, and the lowest in June. The heterogeneity of PPFD was higher on sunny days than on overcast days, but the heterogeneities of air temperature and relative humidity were not obvious. The maximum PPFD, air temperature, and relative humidity were not located in the same positions among different months during growing season. For mean monthly PPFD and air temperature, their variation gradient was higher in and around the center of gap; while for mean monthly

  6. Effectiveness of a newly designed construction uniform for heat strain attenuation in a hot and humid environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Wen; Chan, Albert P C; Wong, Francis K W; Wong, Del P

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a newly designed construction uniform in combating heat stress. Ten male volunteers performed treadmill running in a climatic chamber maintained at 34.5 °C temperature, 75% relative humidity, 0.3 m/s air velocity, and solar radiation of 450 W/m(2) that simulates typical summer working environment of construction sites in Hong Kong. The participants were tested while wearing two kinds of construction uniforms: a commonly worn uniform A, or a newly designed uniform B. It was found during exercise that Tc (38.34 ± 0.14 vs 38.45 ± 0.11 °C, p = 0.03), Tsk (36.01 ± 0.36 vs 36.27 ± 0.34 °C, p = 0.03), HR (162.7 ± 10.1 vs 172.5 ± 9.2 bpm, p construction uniform could reduce thermoregulatory and cardiovascular strain, and improve thermal comfort while exercising in a hot and humid environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of climate change on outdoor thermal comfort in humid climates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosa, José A; Costa, Angel M; Rodríguez-Fernández, Angel; Roshan, Gholamreza

    2014-02-11

    Galicia, in northwest Spain, experiences warm summers and winters. However, the higher relative humidity that prevails the whole year through and the location of the summer hot points are related to real weather heat stroke in the hottest season. However, Planet Global Heating was recently analyzed for the climate in Galicia. Climate change was found to be able to trigger effects that involve a new situation with new potential regions of risk. In this paper, 50 weather stations were selected to sample the weather conditions in this humid region, over the last 10 years. From these results, new regions with a potential for heat stroke risk in the next 20 years were identified using the humidex index. Results reveal that during the last 10 years, the winter season presents more comfortable conditions, whereas the summer season presents the highest humidex value. Further, the higher relative humidity throughout the whole year reveals that the humidex index clearly depends upon the outdoor temperature. Global Planet Heating shows a definite effect on the outdoor comfort conditions reaching unbearable degrees in the really hottest zones. Therefore, this effect will clearly influence tourism and risk prevention strategies in these areas.

  8. Organic Insulation Materials, the Effect on Indoor Humidity, and the Necessity of a Vapor Barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten

    1998-01-01

    Examples of organic insulation products are cellulose fiber, other plant fiber, and animal wool. These materials, which are all very hygroscopic, are associated with certain assertions about their building physical behavior that need to be verified.Examples of such assertions are: "A vapor barrier...... is not needed when using organic insulation materials" and "Organic insulation materials have a stabilizing effect on the indoor humidity".The paper presents some numerical analyses of the hygrothermal behavior of wall constructions and the occupied spaces they surround when an organic insulation material...... is used. The following two main problems are analyzed:· The risk of interstitial condensation in typical building constructions with different vapor retarders when either conventional or organic insulation materials are used.· The influence on diurnal and seasonal indoor humidity variations when using...

  9. Effect of Relative Humidity on Adsorption Breakthrough of CO2 on Activated Carbon Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chun Chiang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Microporous activated carbon fibers (ACFs were developed for CO2 capture based on potassium hydroxide (KOH activation and tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA amination. The material properties of the modified ACFs were characterized using several techniques. The adsorption breakthrough curves of CO2 were measured and the effect of relative humidity in the carrier gas was determined. The KOH activation at high temperature generated additional pore networks and the intercalation of metallic K into the carbon matrix, leading to the production of mesopore and micropore volumes and providing access to the active sites in the micropores. However, this treatment also resulted in the loss of nitrogen functionalities. The TEPA amination has successfully introduced nitrogen functionalities onto the fiber surface, but its long-chain structure blocked parts of the micropores and, thus, made the available surface area and pore volume limited. Introduction of the power of time into the Wheeler equation was required to fit the data well. The relative humidity within the studied range had almost no effects on the breakthrough curves. It was expected that the concentration of CO2 was high enough so that the impact on CO2 adsorption capacity lessened due to increased relative humidity.

  10. Measured Cooling Season Results Relating the Impact of Mechanical Ventilation on Energy, Comfort, and Indoor Air Quality in Humid Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Eric; Amos, Bryan; McIlvaine, Janet; Chasar, David; Widder, Sarah H.; Fonorow, Ken

    2014-08-22

    Conference Paper for ACEEE Summer Study in Buildings discussing results to date of a project evaluating the impact of ventialtion on energy use, comfort, durability, and cost in the hot humid climate.

  11. Effects of Surfactants on the Performance of CeO2 Humidity Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunjie Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanosized CeO2 powders were synthesized via hydrothermal method with different types of surfactants (polyethylene glycol (PEG, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB, and sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS. X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy were utilized to characterize the phase structures and morphologies of the products. The sample with CTAB as surfactant (CeO2-C has the largest specific surface area and the smallest particle size among these three samples. The humidity sensor fabricated by CeO2-C shows higher performance than those used CeO2-P and CeO2-S. The impedance of the CeO2-C sensor decreases by about five orders of magnitude with relative humidity (RH changing from 15.7 to 95%. The response and recovery time are 7 and 7 s, respectively. These results indicate that the performance of CeO2 humidity sensors can be improved effectively by the addition of cationic surfactant.

  12. Effect of particle size variation of Ag nanoparticles in Polyaniline composite on humidity sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuke, Madhavi V; Kanitkar, Prajakta; Kulkarni, Milind; Kale, B B; Aiyer, R C

    2010-04-15

    The results of synthesis of Ag-Polyaniline nanocomposite along with an investigation of optical fiber based humidity sensor using evanescent wave absorption spectroscopy are discussed. The sensor was fabricated using Ag-Polyaniline nanocomposite deposited on an optical fiber clad and tested in the range of 5-95% relative humidity (RH). Optimization of clad length (2-8mm) was done and then particle size (15-30 nm) variation of silver nanoparticles in Polyaniline composite was studied for better performance of sensor. The effect of particle size on sensing humidity was investigated. The reduction of particle size, leads to a dramatic improvement in sensitivity and speed of response. The optimized clad length of 6mm exhibits the better results for 15 nm particle size of Ag nanoparticles dispersed in Polyaniline. The sensor response is fully reversible having almost 1% of standard deviation. Response time of the sensor is 30s with a slow recovery of 90 s. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Influence of air pressure, humidity, solar radiation, temperature, and wind speed on ambulatory visits due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Bavaria, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Uta; Exner, Teresa; Wanka, Eva R.; Bergemann, Christoph; Meyer-Arnek, Julian; Hildenbrand, Beate; Tufman, Amanda; Heumann, Christian; Huber, Rudolf M.; Bittner, Michael; Fischer, Rainald

    2012-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in the world. The disease is often aggravated by periods of increased symptoms requiring medical attention. Among the possible triggers for these exacerbations, meteorological factors are under consideration. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of various meteorological factors on the health status of patients with COPD. For this purpose, the daily number of ambulatory care visits due to COPD was analysed in Bavaria, Germany, for the years 2006 and 2007. The meteorological factors were provided by the model at the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF). For the multivariate analysis, a generalised linear model was used. In Bavaria, an increase of 1% of daily consultations (about 103 visits per day) was found to be associated with a change of 0.72 K temperature, 209.55 of log air surface pressure in Pa, and a decrease of 1% of daily consultations with 1,453,763 Ws m2 of solar radiation. There also seem to be regional differences between north and south Bavaria; for instance, the effect of wind speed and specific humidity with a lag of 1 day were only significant in the north. This study could contribute to a tool for the prevention of exacerbations. It also serves as a model for the further evaluation of the impact of meteorological factors on health, and could easily be applied to other diseases or other regions.

  14. Effect of humidity on domain switching behaviors of BaTiO 3 single crystal under sustained load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, B.; Bai, Y.; Chu, W. Y.; Shi, S. Q.; Qiao, L. J.; Su, Y. J.

    2008-06-01

    Domain switching behaviors of BaTiO 3 single crystal in humidity conditions were studied by polarized light microscopy (PLM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results showed that the low humidity has no effect on both a- b domain configuration and a- c domain configuration under sustained load. However, the high humidity can promote a domain switching to c domain under sustained load. The difference of energy reduction induced by H 2O molecules between c domains and a( b) domains leads to this phenomenon.

  15. The effect of flying and low humidity on the admittance of the tympanic membrane and middle ear system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Robert Peter

    2013-10-01

    Many passengers experience discomfort during flight because of the effect of low humidity on the skin, eyes, throat, and nose. In this physiological study, we have investigated whether flight and low humidity also affect the tympanic membrane. From previous studies, a decrease in admittance of the tympanic membrane through drying might be expected to affect the buffering capacity of the middle ear and to disrupt automatic pressure regulation. This investigation involved an observational study onboard an aircraft combined with experiments in an environmental chamber, where the humidity could be controlled but could not be made to be as low as during flight. For the flight study, there was a linear relationship between the peak compensated static admittance of the tympanic membrane and relative humidity with a constant of proportionality of 0.00315 mmho/% relative humidity. The low humidity at cruise altitude (minimum 22.7 %) was associated with a mean decrease in admittance of about 20 % compared with measures in the airport. From the chamber study, we further found that a mean decrease in relative humidity of 23.4 % led to a significant decrease in mean admittance by 0.11 mmho [F(1,8) = 18.95, P = 0.002], a decrease of 9.4 %. The order of magnitude for the effect of humidity was similar for the flight and environmental chamber studies. We conclude that admittance changes during flight were likely to have been caused by the low humidity in the aircraft cabin and that these changes may affect the automatic pressure regulation of the middle ear during descent.

  16. Effect of humidity on the composition of isoprene photooxidation secondary organic aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. B. Nguyen

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of relative humidity (RH on the composition and concentrations of gas-phase products and secondary organic aerosol (SOA generated from the photooxidation of isoprene under high-NOx conditions was investigated. Experiments were performed with hydrogen peroxide as the OH precursor and in the absence of seed aerosol. The relative yields of most gas-phase products were the same regardless of initial water vapor concentration with exception of hydroxyacetone and glycolaldehyde, which were considerably affected by RH. A significant change was observed in the SOA composition, with many unique condensed-phase products formed under humid (90 % RH vs. dry (<2 % RH conditions, without any detectable effect on the rate and extent of the SOA mass growth. There is a 40 % reduction in the number and relative abundance of distinct particle-phase nitrogen-containing organic compounds (NOC detected by high resolution mass spectrometry. The suppression of condensation reactions, which produce water as a product, is the most important chemical effect of the increased RH. For example, the total signal from oligomeric esters of 2-methylglyceric acid was reduced by about 60 % under humid conditions and the maximum oligomer chain lengths were reduced by 7–11 carbons. Oligomers formed by addition mechanisms, without direct involvement of water, also decreased at elevated RH but to a much smaller extent. The observed reduction in the extent of condensation-type oligomerization at high RH may have substantial impact on the phase characteristics and hygroscopicity of the isoprene aerosol. The reduction in the amount of organic nitrates in the particle phase has implications for understanding the budget of NOC compounds.

  17. Experimental study of humidity distribution inside electronic enclosure and effect of internal heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conseil, Helene; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    2016-01-01

    of temperature, humidity and corrosion accelerating species in the atmosphere. Moreover the surface region of printed circuit board assemblies is often contaminated by various aggressive chemical species.This study describes the overall effect of the exposure to severe climate conditions and internal heat cycles...... tested by measuring the leakage current on inter-digitated test comb patterns which are pre-contaminated with sodium chloride and placed inside the enclosure.Results showed that exposure to cycling temperature leads to a significant change of internal water vapour concentration, where the maximum value...

  18. PYR/RCAR Receptors Contribute to Ozone-, Reduced Air Humidity-, Darkness-, and CO2-Induced Stomatal Regulation1[C][W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merilo, Ebe; Laanemets, Kristiina; Hu, Honghong; Xue, Shaowu; Jakobson, Liina; Tulva, Ingmar; Gonzalez-Guzman, Miguel; Rodriguez, Pedro L.; Schroeder, Julian I.; Broschè, Mikael; Kollist, Hannes

    2013-01-01

    Rapid stomatal closure induced by changes in the environment, such as elevation of CO2, reduction of air humidity, darkness, and pulses of the air pollutant ozone (O3), involves the SLOW ANION CHANNEL1 (SLAC1). SLAC1 is activated by OPEN STOMATA1 (OST1) and Ca2+-dependent protein kinases. OST1 activation is controlled through abscisic acid (ABA)-induced inhibition of type 2 protein phosphatases (PP2C) by PYRABACTIN RESISTANCE/REGULATORY COMPONENTS OF ABA RECEPTOR (PYR/RCAR) receptor proteins. To address the role of signaling through PYR/RCARs for whole-plant steady-state stomatal conductance and stomatal closure induced by environmental factors, we used a set of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants defective in ABA metabolism/signaling. The stomatal conductance values varied severalfold among the studied mutants, indicating that basal ABA signaling through PYR/RCAR receptors plays a fundamental role in controlling whole-plant water loss through stomata. PYR/RCAR-dependent inhibition of PP2Cs was clearly required for rapid stomatal regulation in response to darkness, reduced air humidity, and O3. Furthermore, PYR/RCAR proteins seem to function in a dose-dependent manner, and there is a functional diversity among them. Although a rapid stomatal response to elevated CO2 was evident in all but slac1 and ost1 mutants, the bicarbonate-induced activation of S-type anion channels was reduced in the dominant active PP2C mutants abi1-1 and abi2-1. Further experiments with a wider range of CO2 concentrations and analyses of stomatal response kinetics suggested that the ABA signalosome partially affects the CO2-induced stomatal response. Thus, we show that PYR/RCAR receptors play an important role for the whole-plant stomatal adjustments and responses to low humidity, darkness, and O3 and are involved in responses to elevated CO2. PMID:23703845

  19. Humidity sensor and ultraviolet photodetector based on carrier trapping effect and negative photoconductivity in graphene quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, ShenDong; Chen, Yan; Zhang, WeiChao; Chen, Zhuo; Wang, ZhenLin

    2018-01-01

    We report on the experimental realization of a graphene quantum dots (GQD)-based humidity sensor and ultraviolet (UV) photodetector. We demonstrate that the conductance of the GQD increases linearly with increasing relative humidity (RH) of the surrounding environment due to the carrier trapping effect, which forms the basis of a humidity sensor. When the sensor is operated in the dark state, the sensitivity can reach as high as 0.48 nS RH -1. The GQD are also found to exhibit light intensity dependent negative photoconductivity under the UV irradiation, which can be exploited for UV detection. As a result of these carrier trapping and de-trapping processes, the performance of the photodetector can be significantly improved with the increasing RH, and the photoresponsivity can reach a high value of -418.1 μA W-1 in the high humid state of RH=90%.

  20. Effect of High-Humidity Testing on Material Parameters of Flexible Printed Circuit Board Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahokallio, Sanna; Saarinen, Kirsi; Frisk, Laura

    2013-09-01

    The tendency of polymers to absorb moisture impairs especially their electrical and mechanical properties. These are important characteristics for printed circuit board (PCB) materials, which should provide mechanical support as well as electrical insulation in many different environments in order to guarantee safe operation for electrical devices. Moreover, the effects of moisture are accelerated at increased temperatures. In this study, three flexible PCB dielectric materials, namely polyimide (PI), fluorinated ethylene-propylene (FEP), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET), were aged over different periods of time in a high-humidity test, in which the temperature was 85°C and relative humidity 85%. After aging, the changes in the structure of the polymers were studied by determining different material parameters such as modulus of elasticity, glass-transition temperature, melting point, coefficient of thermal expansion, water absorption, and crystallinity, and changes in the chemical structure with several techniques including thermomechanical analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, moisture analysis, and a precision scale. The results showed that PI was extremely stable under the aging conditions and therefore an excellent choice for electrical applications under harsh conditions. Similarly, FEP proved to be relatively stable under the applied aging conditions. However, its crystallinity increased markedly during aging, and after 6000 h of aging the results indicated oxidation. PET suffered from hydrolysis during the test, leading to its embrittlement after 2000 h of aging.

  1. Effect of relative humidity on the electrostatic charge properties of dry powder inhaler aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Philip Chi Lip; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2008-02-01

    At present, there is no published data examining the effect of relative humidity on the electrostatic charges of dry powder inhaler aerosols. The charging behaviour of two commercial products, Pulmicort and Bricanyl Turbuhalers, were investigated using an electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI). ELPI was successfully modified to disperse the aerosols at 60 l/min. Four doses from each new inhaler were sampled at 15, 40, 65, and 90% RH. Particles deposited on the impactor stages according to their aerodynamic diameters and their charges were measured simultaneously by the electrometers. The drug in each size fraction was quantified using HPLC. Both products generated bipolar charges. The charging behaviour of the two types of inhaler showed different humidity dependence although the mass output was not significantly affected. The absolute specific charge of budesonide fine particles from Pulmicort was the lowest at 40% RH but increased at lower and higher RHs. In contrast, the terbutaline sulfate fine particles from Bricanyl followed the expected trend of charge reduction with increasing RH. The distinct trends of charging of aerosols from Pulmicort and Bricanyl Turbuhalers was explained by differences in hygroscopicity and other physicochemical factors between the two drugs.

  2. The effect of Co-doping on the humidity sensing properties of ordered mesoporous TiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhong; Haidry, Azhar Ali; Gao, Bin; Wang, Tao; Yao, ZhengJun

    2017-08-01

    Monitoring of humidity is of utmost importance as it is essential part of almost every process in our life. Many commercial humidity sensors based on metal oxide semiconductors are available in the market, but there is still need to synthesize low-cost, fast and highly sensitive humidity sensors with no interference from background environment. The aim of this work was to fabricate the ordered mesoporous un-doped and Co-doped TiO2 (0.1-5 mol% Co) and to analyze its humidity sensing properties at room temperatures. The ordered mesoporous powders with high specific surface area (SSA) were prepared by multicomponent self-assembly procedure and then spray-coated onto the sensor substrates with interdigitated gold electrodes. The sensors exhibited excellent stability and reproducible resistance change under various relative humidity percentages (9-90% RH) with negligible effect of background environment. For instance, the response to 90% RH at room temperature was about five orders of magnitude (∼1.39 × 105) and the response time (Tres) was ∼24 s. The reaction/recovery times of the sensors were compared with commercial humidity sensor to show that the reaction times in this work are not given by the surface reaction of water vapor on the sensor surfaces, rather these are mainly influenced by the experimental setup. The sensor response increased up to 3 mol% Co-contents and then decreased for 5 mol% Co-contents. Based on the experimental results, the surface reaction of humidity is discussed related to specific surface area, average grain size and cobalt contents to understand the humidity sensing mechanism.

  3. A Life Cycle Assessment Case Study of Coal-Fired Electricity Generation with Humidity Swing Direct Air Capture of CO2 versus MEA-Based Postcombustion Capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Giesen, Coen; Meinrenken, Christoph J; Kleijn, René; Sprecher, Benjamin; Lackner, Klaus S; Kramer, Gert Jan

    2017-01-17

    Most carbon capture and storage (CCS) envisions capturing CO2 from flue gas. Direct air capture (DAC) of CO2 has hitherto been deemed unviable because of the higher energy associated with capture at low atmospheric concentrations. We present a Life Cycle Assessment of coal-fired electricity generation that compares monoethanolamine (MEA)-based postcombustion capture (PCC) of CO2 with distributed, humidity-swing-based direct air capture (HS-DAC). Given suitable temperature, humidity, wind, and water availability, HS-DAC can be largely passive. Comparing energy requirements of HS-DAC and MEA-PCC, we find that the parasitic load of HS-DAC is less than twice that of MEA-PCC (60-72 kJ/mol versus 33-46 kJ/mol, respectively). We also compare other environmental impacts as a function of net greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation: To achieve the same 73% mitigation as MEA-PCC, HS-DAC would increase nine other environmental impacts by on average 38%, whereas MEA-PCC would increase them by 31%. Powering distributed HS-DAC with photovoltaics (instead of coal) while including recapture of all background GHG, reduces this increase to 18%, hypothetically enabling coal-based electricity with net-zero life-cycle GHG. We conclude that, in suitable geographies, HS-DAC can complement MEA-PCC to enable CO2 capture independent of time and location of emissions and recapture background GHG from fossil-based electricity beyond flue stack emissions.

  4. Experimental investigation of air relative humidity (RH) cycling tests on MEA/cell aging in PEMFC. Pt. I. Study of high RH cycling test with air RH at 62%/100%

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, B.T.; Chatillon, Y.; Bonnet, C.; Lapicque, F. [Laboratoire Reactions et Genie des Procedes, CNRS-Nancy University, Nancy (France); Leclerc, S. [Laboratoire d' Energetique et de Mecanique Theorique et Appliquee, CNRS-Nancy University, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Hinaje, M.; Rael, S. [Groupe de Recherche en Electrotechnique et Electronique de Nancy, CNRS-Nancy University, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    2012-06-15

    The effect of high air relative humidity (RH) cycling (RH{sub C} 62%/100%) on the degradation mechanisms of a single (5 x 5 cm{sup 2}) proton exchange membrane fuel cells was investigated. The cell performance was compared to a cell operated at constant humidification (RH{sub C} = 62%). Runs were conducted over approximately 1,500 h at 0.3 A cm{sup -2}. The overall loss in cell performance for the high RH cycling test was 12 {mu}V h{sup -1} whereas it was at 3 {mu}V h{sup -1} under constant humidification. Impedance spectroscopy reveals that the ohmic and charge transfer resistances were little modified in both runs. H{sub 2} crossover measurement indicated that both high RH cycling and constant RH test did not promote serious effect on gas permeability. The electroactive surface loss for anode and cathode during high air RH cycling was more significant than at constant RH operation. The water uptake determined by {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance within the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) after high RH cycling was reduced by 12% in comparison with a fresh MEA. Transmission electron microscopy showed bubbles and pinholes formation in the membrane, catalyst particles agglomeration (also observed by X-ray diffraction), catalyst particles migration in the membrane and thickness reduction of the catalytic layers. Scanning electron microscopy was conducted to observe the changes in morphology of gas diffusion layers after the runs. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Reversible Humidity Sensitive Clothing for Personal Thermoregulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Ying; Zhang, Fenghua; Wang, Meng; Gardner, Calvin J.; Kim, Gunwoo; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong; Jin, Sungho; Chen, Renkun

    2017-03-01

    Two kinds of humidity-induced, bendable smart clothing have been designed to reversibly adapt their thermal insulation functionality. The first design mimics the pores in human skin, in which pre-cut flaps open to produce pores in Nafion sheets when humidity increases, as might occur during human sweating thus permitting air flow and reducing both the humidity level and the apparent temperature. Like the smart human sweating pores, the flaps can close automatically after the perspiration to keep the wearer warm. The second design involves thickness adjustable clothes by inserting the bent polymer sheets between two fabrics. As the humidity increases, the sheets become thinner, thus reducing the gap between the two fabrics to reduce the thermal insulation. The insulation layer can recover its original thickness upon humidity reduction to restore its warmth-preservation function. Such humidity sensitive smart polymer materials can be utilized to adjust personal comfort, and be effective in reducing energy consumption for building heating or cooling with numerous smart design.

  6. Stability of whey protein hydrolysate powders: effects of relative humidity and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Peng; Liu, Dasong; Chen, Xiaoxia; Chen, Yingjia; Labuza, Theodore P

    2014-05-01

    Whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) is now considered as an important and special dairy protein ingredient for its nutritional and functional properties. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the effect of environmental relative humidity (RH) and storage temperature on the physicochemical stability of three WPH powders with hydrolysis degrees (DH) of 5.2%, 8.8% and 14.9%, respectively. The water sorption isotherms of the three WPH powders fitted the Guggenheim-Andersson-DeBoer model well. An increase in water content leaded to a decrease in glass transition temperature (Tg), following a linear Tg vs log water content relationship. Moreover, an increase in DH caused the decrease in Tg at the same water content. Changes in microstructure and colour occurred significantly when the WPH powders were stored at high environmental RH or temperature, especially for those with high DH. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Sensitivity of aerosol optical thickness and aerosol direct radiative effect to relative humidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bian

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a sensitivity study of the effects of spatial and temporal resolution of atmospheric relative humidity (RH on calculated aerosol optical thickness (AOT and the aerosol direct radiative effects (DRE in a global model. We carry out different modeling experiments using the same aerosol fields simulated in the Global Modeling Initiative (GMI model at a resolution of 2° latitude by 2.5° longitude, using time-averaged fields archived every three hours by the Goddard Earth Observation System Version 4 (GEOS-4, but we change the horizontal and temporal resolution of the relative humidity fields. We find that, on a global average, the AOT calculated using RH at a 1°×1.25° horizontal resolution is 11% higher than that using RH at a 2°×2.5° resolution, and the corresponding DRE at the top of the atmosphere is 8–9% and 15% more negative (i.e., more cooling for total aerosols and anthropogenic aerosol alone, respectively, in the finer spatial resolution case. The difference is largest over surface escarpment regions (e.g. >200% over the Andes Mountains where RH varies substantially with surface terrain. The largest zonal mean AOT difference occurs at 50–60° N (16–21%, where AOT is also relatively larger. A similar impact is also found when the time resolution of RH is increased. This increase of AOT and aerosol cooling with the increase of model resolution is due to the highly non-linear relationship between RH and the aerosol mass extinction efficiency (MEE at high RH (>80%. Our study is a specific example of the uncertainty in model results highlighted by multi-model comparisons such as AeroCom, and points out one of the many inter-model differences that can contribute to the overall spread among models.

  8. Effects of humidity and filter material on diffusive sampling of isocyanates using reagent-coated filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henneken, H.; Vogel, M.; Karst, U.

    2006-01-01

    Diffusive sampling of methyl isocyanate (MIC) on 4-nitro-7-piperazinobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole (NBDPZ)-coated glass fibre (GF) filters is strongly affected by high relative humidity (RH) conditions. It is shown that the humidity interference is a physical phenomenon, based on displacement of reagent

  9. Effect of relative humidity on crack propagation in barrier films for flexible electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vellinga, W. P.; De Hosson, J. Th M.; Bouten, P. C. P.

    2012-01-01

    A set of propagating cracks in a SiN barrier film on poly ethylene naphthalate (PEN) were subjected to differing levels of relative humidity. It was observed that the propagation speed of the cracks increased for increasing levels of relative humidity. This was shown using two independent,

  10. The effect of relative humidity on germination of Sporangia of Phytophthora ramorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sporangia of three isolates of P. ramorum representing three different clonal lineages were subjected to relative humidity (RH) levels between 80 and 100% for exposure periods ranging from 1 to 24 h at 20°C in darkness. Airtight snap-lid plastic containers (21.5 x 14.5 x 5 cm) were used as humidity ...

  11. Effects of some humidity and IBA hormone dose applicatıons on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-04-26

    Apr 26, 2010 ... ratio of cutting callus formation was found in control group (58%) in 95 - 100% humidity level and 2500 ppm IBA hormone dose ... Key words: M9, sooftwood top cutting, misting system, humidity, hormone, rooting. INTRODUCTION. Anatolia ... Turkey produced about 6 million pieces of apple saplings in 2007 ...

  12. Cardiovascular effects of air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdrel, Thomas; Bind, Marie-Abèle; Béjot, Yannick; Morel, Olivier; Argacha, Jean-François

    2017-11-01

    Air pollution is composed of particulate matter (PM) and gaseous pollutants, such as nitrogen dioxide and ozone. PM is classified according to size into coarse particles (PM 10 ), fine particles (PM 2.5 ) and ultrafine particles. We aim to provide an original review of the scientific evidence from epidemiological and experimental studies examining the cardiovascular effects of outdoor air pollution. Pooled epidemiological studies reported that a 10μg/m 3 increase in long-term exposure to PM 2.5 was associated with an 11% increase in cardiovascular mortality. Increased cardiovascular mortality was also related to long-term and short-term exposure to nitrogen dioxide. Exposure to air pollution and road traffic was associated with an increased risk of arteriosclerosis, as shown by premature aortic and coronary calcification. Short-term increases in air pollution were associated with an increased risk of myocardial infarction, stroke and acute heart failure. The risk was increased even when pollutant concentrations were below European standards. Reinforcing the evidence from epidemiological studies, numerous experimental studies demonstrated that air pollution promotes a systemic vascular oxidative stress reaction. Radical oxygen species induce endothelial dysfunction, monocyte activation and some proatherogenic changes in lipoproteins, which initiate plaque formation. Furthermore, air pollution favours thrombus formation, because of an increase in coagulation factors and platelet activation. Experimental studies also indicate that some pollutants have more harmful cardiovascular effects, such as combustion-derived PM 2.5 and ultrafine particles. Air pollution is a major contributor to cardiovascular diseases. Promotion of safer air quality appears to be a new challenge in cardiovascular disease prevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of humidity and temperature on the survival of Listeria monocytogenes on surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redfern, J; Verran, J

    2017-04-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a pathogenic bacterium, with human disease and infection linked to dairy products, seafood, ready-to-eat meat and raw & undercooked meats. Stainless steel is the most common food preparation surface and therefore, it is important to understand how food storage conditions such as surface materials, temperature and relative humidity can affect survival of L. monocytogenes. In this study, survival of L. monocytogenes on stainless steel was investigated at three temperatures (4, 10 and 21°C), each approx. 11, 50 and 85% humidity. Results indicate that the lower the temperature, the more cells were recovered in all three humidity environments, while medium humidity enhances survival, irrespective of temperature. Lower humidity decreases recovery at all temperatures. These data support the guidance noted above that humidity control is important, and that lower humidity environments are less likely to support retention of viable L. monocytogenes on a stainless steel surface. Understanding survival of potential food-borne pathogens is essential for the safe production and preparation of food. While it has long been 'common knowledge' that relative humidity can affect the growth and survival of micro-organisms, this study systematically describes the survival of L. monocytogenes on stainless steel under varying humidity and temperatures for the first time. The outcomes from this paper will allow those involved with food manufacture and preparation to make informed judgement on environmental conditions relating to humidity control, which is lacking in the food standards guidelines. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Effects of Temperature, Relative Humidity, and DEN-2 Virus Transovarial Infection on Viability of Aedes aegypti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Baskoro T. Satoto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Environmental changes influenced survival life and virus transmission of dengue virus (DEN in a mosquito. The purpose of the present study was to define DEN-2 virus transmission dynamic and effect of temperature, relative humidity (RH, and DEN-2 virus infection on viability of Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti. This experimental study with pretest-posttest control group design was conducted at the Laboratory of Center for Tropical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Gadjah Mada University (UGM, Yogyakarta. Seventh daysold female Ae.aegypti (F0 were infected DEN-2 viaoral membrane and kept until F2 generation by transovarial transmission, number of eggs produced and hatched was recorded. After 14-day incubation was found that trans ovarial transmission rate of DEN-2 virus infection in F0 and F1 were 93.3% and 82.2%, respectivel y. Egg production, hatchingrates from infected and uninfected mosquitoes F0 were 68% and 85%; and F1 were 72.6% and 76%, respectivel y. At defined room condition tests, 7 day adult mosquitoes in dark and humid environment produced highest number of eggs, compared normal environment and in incubated without CO 2. In fourteenth day oldmosquitoesat dark and humid produced highest number of eggs, compare normal environment condition, and in incubated without CO2. DEN-2 virus was able to infect Ae.aegypti by transovarial transmission where the infection rate in F0 was higher than F1 generation. Temperature and humidity affected the abilityof Ae. aegypti eggs to live and grow to adulthood. Perubahan lingkungan memengaruhi hidup dan transmisi virus dengue dalam tubuh nyamuk. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui pengaruh suhu, kelembaban udara(RH, terhadap transmisi virus DEN-2 pada nyamuk Aedes aegypti. Studi eksperimental dengan desain pre dan post tes control group dilakukan di laboratorium pusat kedokteran tropis, Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta. Penelitian ini dilakukan pada kelompok Ae. aegypti betina umur 7

  15. Imaging the Spatial Evolution of Degradation in Perovskite/Si Tandem Solar Cells After Exposure to Humid Air

    KAUST Repository

    Song, Zhaoning

    2017-09-14

    Monolithically integrated two-terminal perovskite/Si tandem solar cells promise to achieve high power conversion efficiency. However, there is a concern that the stability of the perovskite top cell will limit the long-term performance of tandem devices. To investigate the impact of perovskite cell degradation on the photocurrent generation and collection in the individual subcells, we employed light beam induced current mapping to spatially resolve the photocurrent under controlled humidity conditions. The evolution of the device behavior is consistent with the formation of an optically transparent hydrated perovskite phase that allows the bottom Si cell to continue to generate photocurrent at the probing wavelength (532 nm). Additional measurements were performed on perovskite thin films on glass substrates to verify the interpretation.

  16. The Effect of Air Velocity on the Prevention of Heat Stress in Iranian Veiled Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Some environmental factors such as the ambient temperature, radiant temperature, humidity and air velocity as well as clothing and activity level are effective to induce heat strain on the workers. Objectives The current study aimed to evaluate the effect of air velocity on Iranian veiled females at various exercise intensities and climatic conditions. Methods The current experimental study was conducted on 51 healthy veiled females with Islamic clothing (n = 30 in two hot-dry climatic chambers (wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT = 32 ± 0.1°C and WBGT = 30 ± 0.1°C, 40% relative humidity (RH without air velocity and (n = 21 with air velocity 0.31 m/s in sitting and light workload conditions, respectively, for 60 minutes. The WBGT, oral temperature and heart rate were measured simultaneously every five minutes during the heat exposure and resting state. Data were analyzed using correlation and line regression by SPSS ver. 16. Results In both groups, oral temperature and heart rate increased during heat exposure. The increase of oral temperature and heart rate were larger in the group with air velocity (sitting position, 37.05 ± 0.20°C, 98.30 ± 7.79 bpm, light workload, 37.34 ± 0.24°C, 124.08 ± 6.09 bpm compared those of the group without air velocity (sitting position, 36.70 ± 0.36°C, 69.74 ± 0.98 bpm, light workload, 36.71 ± 0.27°C, 110.78 ± 17.9 bpm. The difference in physiological strain index (PSI between resting and low workload were higher in with air velocity group than those of the group without air velocity. Conclusions The results showed that the heat stress increased by increasing air velocity and humidity in both groups. The air velocity with high humidity can be considered as a positive factor in the occurrence of heat strain. Therefore, the incidence of heat stress decreases with the increase of humidity and reduction of air velocity or with increase of air velocity and reduction of humidity in Iranian veiled

  17. Effect of Steel Framing for Securing Drywall Panels on Thermal and Humidity Parameters of the Outer Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Major Maciej

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the effect of steel framing used to secure drywall panels on thermal and humidity properties of outer walls. In the practice of building a light structure, the most popular components are steel and wood studs. They are used to obtain framing for building a wall (an outer wall in this study. Analysis presented in this study concerned the corner of the outer wall build using the technology of light steel framing. Computer simulation was used to perform thermal and humidity analysis for the joint of the outer wall.

  18. Effect of Steel Framing for Securing Drywall Panels on Thermal and Humidity Parameters of the Outer Walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Maciej; Kosiń, Mariusz

    2017-12-01

    The paper analyses the effect of steel framing used to secure drywall panels on thermal and humidity properties of outer walls. In the practice of building a light structure, the most popular components are steel and wood studs. They are used to obtain framing for building a wall (an outer wall in this study). Analysis presented in this study concerned the corner of the outer wall build using the technology of light steel framing. Computer simulation was used to perform thermal and humidity analysis for the joint of the outer wall.

  19. Effect of Steel Framing for Securing Drywall Panels on Thermal and Humidity Parameters of the Outer Walls

    OpenAIRE

    Major Maciej; Kosiń Mariusz

    2017-01-01

    The paper analyses the effect of steel framing used to secure drywall panels on thermal and humidity properties of outer walls. In the practice of building a light structure, the most popular components are steel and wood studs. They are used to obtain framing for building a wall (an outer wall in this study). Analysis presented in this study concerned the corner of the outer wall build using the technology of light steel framing. Computer simulation was used to perform thermal and humidity a...

  20. Health Effects of Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Education Report and Newsletter, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Summarizes health hazards associated with air pollution, highlighting the difficulty in establishing acceptable thresholds of exposure. Respiratory disease, asthma, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and other problems are addressed. Indicates that a wide range of effects from any one chemical exists and that there are differences in sensitivity to…

  1. The Effects of the Heat and Moisture Exchanger on Humidity, Airway Temperature, and Core Body Temperature

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Delventhal, Mary

    1999-01-01

    Findings from several studies have demonstrated that the use of a heat and moisture exchanger increases airway humidity, which in turn increases mean airway temperature and prevents decreases in core body temperature...

  2. Ventilation System Effectiveness and Tested Indoor Air Quality Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, Armin [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Bergey, Daniel [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2014-02-01

    In this project, Building America research team Building Science Corporation tested the effectiveness of ventilation systems at two unoccupied, single-family, detached lab homes at the University of Texas - Tyler. Five ventilation system tests were conducted with various whole-building ventilation systems. Multizone fan pressurization testing characterized building and zone enclosure leakage. PFT testing showed multizone air change rates and interzonal airflow. Cumulative particle counts for six particle sizes, and formaldehyde and other Top 20 VOC concentrations were measured in multiple zones. The testing showed that single-point exhaust ventilation was inferior as a whole-house ventilation strategy. This was because the source of outside air was not direct from outside, the ventilation air was not distributed, and no provision existed for air filtration. Indoor air recirculation by a central air distribution system can help improve the exhaust ventilation system by way of air mixing and filtration. In contrast, the supply and balanced ventilation systems showed that there is a significant benefit to drawing outside air from a known outside location, and filtering and distributing that air. Compared to the exhaust systems, the CFIS and ERV systems showed better ventilation air distribution and lower concentrations of particulates, formaldehyde and other VOCs. System improvement percentages were estimated based on four system factor categories: balance, distribution, outside air source, and recirculation filtration. Recommended system factors could be applied to reduce ventilation fan airflow rates relative to ASHRAE Standard 62.2 to save energy and reduce moisture control risk in humid climates. HVAC energy savings were predicted to be 8-10%, or $50-$75/year.

  3. Ventilation System Effectiveness and Tested Indoor Air Quality Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, Armin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bergey, Daniel [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Ventilation system effectiveness testing was conducted at two unoccupied, single-family, detached lab homes at the University of Texas - Tyler. Five ventilation system tests were conducted with various whole-building ventilation systems. Multizone fan pressurization testing characterized building and zone enclosure leakage. PFT testing showed multizone air change rates and interzonal airflow. Cumulative particle counts for six particle sizes, and formaldehyde and other Top 20 VOC concentrations were measured in multiple zones. The testing showed that single-point exhaust ventilation was inferior as a whole-house ventilation strategy. It was inferior because the source of outside air was not direct from outside, the ventilation air was not distributed, and no provision existed for air filtration. Indoor air recirculation by a central air distribution system can help improve the exhaust ventilation system by way of air mixing and filtration. In contrast, the supply and balanced ventilation systems showed that there is a significant benefit to drawing outside air from a known outside location, and filtering and distributing that air. Compared to the Exhaust systems, the CFIS and ERV systems showed better ventilation air distribution and lower concentrations of particulates, formaldehyde and other VOCs. System improvement percentages were estimated based on four System Factor Categories: Balance, Distribution, Outside Air Source, and Recirculation Filtration. Recommended System Factors could be applied to reduce ventilation fan airflow rates relative to ASHRAE Standard 62.2 to save energy and reduce moisture control risk in humid climates. HVAC energy savings were predicted to be 8-10%, or $50-$75/year.

  4. Effect of relative humidity on migration of BP from paperboard into a food simulant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnkob, Line Lundbæk; Petersen, Jens Højslev

    In the scientific literature it is obligatory to control and report the test time and temperature applied when testing migration but it is not current practice to either control or report the relative humidity (RH).......In the scientific literature it is obligatory to control and report the test time and temperature applied when testing migration but it is not current practice to either control or report the relative humidity (RH)....

  5. Effect of particulate matter, atmospheric gases, temperature, and humidity on respiratory and circulatory diseases’ trends in Lisbon, Portugal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freitas, M.C.; Pacheco, A.M.G.; Verburg, T.G.; Wolterbeek, H.T.

    2009-01-01

    This study addresses the significant effects of both well-known contaminants (particles, gases) and less-studied variables (temperature, humidity) on serious, if relatively common, respiratory and circulatory diseases. The area of study is Lisbon, Portugal, and time series of health outcome (daily

  6. Modeling the effects of temperature and relative humidity on gas exchange of prickly pear cactus (Opuntia spp.) stems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guevara-Arauza, J.C.; Yahia, E.M.; Cedeno, L.; Tijskens, L.M.M.

    2006-01-01

    A model to estimate gas profile of modified atmosphere packaged (MAP) prickly pear cactus stems was developed and calibrated. The model describes the transient gas exchange taking in consideration the effect of temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH) on film permeability (FPgas), respiration rate

  7. Humidity effect on organic semiconductor NiPc films deposited at different gravity conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, N.; Ahmed, M. M.; Karimov, Kh. S.; Ahmedov, Kh.

    2016-08-01

    In this study, thin films of Nickel Phthalocyanine (NiPc) were deposited by centrifugation at high gravity (70g), and also at normal gravity (1g) conditions to fabricate humidity sensors. Ceramic alumina sheet, coated with silver electrodes, having interelectrode distance of 0.2l mm were used to assess the electrical properties of the sensors. Room temperature capacitance and impedance variations were measured as a function of relative humidity ranging from 25% ∼⃒ 95% at 1 kHz frequency. It was observed that sensors fabricated at 70g were more sensitive compared to sensors fabricated at 1g. Sensors fabricated at 70g exhibited 1.8 times decrease in their impedance and1.5 times increase in their capacitance at peak ambient humidity. SEM images showed more roughness for the films deposited at 70g compared to films deposited at 1g. It was assumed that surface irregularities might have increased active surface area of 70g sensors hence changed the electrical response. Impedance-humidity and capacitance-humidity relationships were modeled and a good agreement was observed between experimental and modeled data. Experimental data showed that NiPc films could be useful for instrumentation industry to fabricate organic humidity sensors.

  8. Effect of wind speed and relative humidity on atmospheric dust concentrations in semi-arid climates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csavina, Janae; Field, Jason; Félix, Omar; Corral-Avitia, Alba Y; Sáez, A Eduardo; Betterton, Eric A

    2014-07-15

    Atmospheric particulate have deleterious impacts on human health. Predicting dust and aerosol emission and transport would be helpful to reduce harmful impacts but, despite numerous studies, prediction of dust events and contaminant transport in dust remains challenging. In this work, we show that relative humidity and wind speed are both determinants in atmospheric dust concentration. Observations of atmospheric dust concentrations in Green Valley, AZ, USA, and Juárez, Chihuahua, México, show that PM10 concentrations are not directly correlated with wind speed or relative humidity separately. However, selecting the data for high wind speeds (>4m/s at 10 m elevation), a definite trend is observed between dust concentration and relative humidity: dust concentration increases with relative humidity, reaching a maximum around 25% and it subsequently decreases with relative humidity. Models for dust storm forecasting may be improved by utilizing atmospheric humidity and wind speed as main drivers for dust generation and transport. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of pharmaceutical excipients on the stability of trichlormethiazide tablets under humid conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teraoka, Reiko; Matsushima, Yuki; Sugimoto, Isao; Inoue, Kana; Morita, Shin-ya; Kitagawa, Shuji

    2009-12-01

    The stability of trichlormethiazide (TCM) and the drug in the nine products available on the market (the original tablet (B) and 8 generic tablets (G1-G8)) were investigated under humid conditions. TCM was non-hygroscopic and was not degraded under humid conditions. Drug degradation in aqueous ethanol was accelerated with increased water concentration, and the drug stability in buffer solution was improved with decreased pH. TCM decomposition was not detected in each unwrapped tablet at low relative humidity. However, rapid degradation was observed for products G1 and G2, while product B and G7 showed higher stability at high relative humidity. The stability of products G1 and G2 decreased with increasing humidity. The same results were observed for the tablets in press-through packages (PTP), but the degradation rate was much slower than tablets without PTP packages. These results suggested that the adsorbed moisture by excipients cause TCM degradation. Various pharmaceutical excipients are added to TCM tablets and these vary between different pharmaceutical companies. Intact drug and pharmaceutical excipients, including lactose, microcrystalline cellulose, corn starch, hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC), low substituted HPC (L-HPC), calcium stearate, and light anhydrous silicic acid, were mixed, and the sample mixtures were stored in humid conditions. It was found that the TCM content decreased significantly in a binary mixture of TCM/HPC 1 : 1.

  10. Identification and Analysis of C. annuum microRNAs by High-throughput Sequencing and Their Association with High Temperature and High Air Humidity Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-wan Xu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs play an important role in many developmental processes and stress responses in plants. In this study, tolerant hot pepper cultivar 'R597' (CaR and sensitive cultivar 'S590' (CaS were used to detected differentially expressed miRNAs under high temperatures and high air humidity. The length distribution of obtained small RNAs was significantly different between libraries. There were a total of 71 miRNA families identified in two genotypes, and 24 conserved miRNA families were detected in all four sRNA libraries. MIR166, MIR156/157, MIR167, MIR168, MIR2118, and MIR5301 were highly expressed in four libraries, and 93 miRNAs had a species-specific expression. Among them, 60 miRNAs were preferentially expressed in S590 leaves and 33 miRNAs were preferentially expressed in R597 leaves. Mostly miRNAs were less-conserved miRNAs. The most abundant miRNAs with different expressions between two pepper species was miR6149b, which exhibited a high level (read count 42,443 in CaSCK but no expressed in CaRCK. We found 650 (CaRCK, 1054 (CaRHH, 914 (CaSCK, 1045 (CaSHH potential targets for 92 (CaRCK, 124 (CaRHH, 128 (CaSCK, 117 (CaSHH hot pepper miRNAs, respectively. These findings facilitate in better understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying high temperature and high air humidity condition in different pepper genotypes.

  11. Short-term heart rate variability in asthmatic obese children: effect of exhaustive exercise and different humidity conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezvan, K; Dabidi Roshan, V; Mahmudi, S A

    2015-11-01

    Asthmatic obese children experience changes in functional capacity and autonomic control. Previous heart rate variability (HRV) studies were based on 24-hour recordings, little research has been conducted on the short-term HRV in asthmatic obese children, primarily during physical effort indifferent environmental humidity conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of aerobic activity on short-term HRV in asthmatic obese children under two different environmental humidity conditions. Ten obese boys with mild asthma as experimental group and 15 obese healthy boys with the same conditions were involved as a control group. Protocol included progressive and exhaustive aerobic activities on a calibrated ergometer pedal bicycle in two various environmental humidity 35±5% and 65±5%. HRV was measured by PADSY MEDSET Holter monitoring device during three phases; pre-test, mid-test and post-test. Then, short-term HRV was assessed from calculation of the mean R-R interval measured on HRV at each phases. HRV significantly decreased at mid-test and post-test among asthmatic and health children. However, the aforesaid changes were significantly higher in the asthmatic than health children following. Moreover, decrease of short-term HRV was significantly greater in the 35±5% than 65±5% environmental humidity. Our findings suggest from the autonomic standpoint, asthmatic and non-asthmatic children respond differently to exhaustive exercise induced stress. Aerobic exercise at an environment with high humidity compared with the low humidity appears to have additional benefits on short-term HRV in that it enhances the parasympathetic and autonomic modulation of the heart in asthmatic obese children.

  12. [Effect of humidity and temperature on filter and gravimetric measurement of ambient particulate matter in a balance room].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Wen-jin; Wang, Li-min; Weng, Shao-fan; Wang, Hai-jiao; Du, Li-li; Liu, Yue-wei; Yang, Lei; Chen, Wei-hong

    2008-04-01

    To assess the effects of the alteration of humidity and (or) temperature on weight of filters without and with ambient particulate matter in a balance room. The mass of blank dust sampling filters were weighed under (18 +/- 1) degrees C and (28 +/- 1) degrees C respectively, with the humidity varying from 35% relative humidity (RH) to 100% RH in a balance room. Then the blank filters were divided into two groups and were used to sample total dust and respirable dust. After sampling, the loaded filters were re-weighed under above conditions and the mass difference before and after the sampling were compared and analyzed. The vibration of the average mass of filters varied from 0.10 to 0.13 mg and from 0.06 to 0.09 mg under the temperatures of (18 +/- 1) degrees C and (28 +/- 1) degrees C respectively; When both the temperature and humidity changed, it varied from 0.12 to 0.16 mg. The deviation of average mass difference ranged from 0.07 to 0.10 mg and from 0.04 to 0.08 mg under the two temperatures mentioned above; When both the temperature and humidity changed, it varied from 0.09 to 0.14 mg. The average mass of blank filters and loaded filters were all positively correlated with the change of humidity (P balance room attributes to the deviation of the measurement of the mass of filters and thus affects the gravimetric measurements of ambient particulate matter.

  13. Aerosol radiative effect in UV, VIS, NIR, and SW spectra under haze and high-humidity urban conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Ma, Yingying; Gong, Wei; Wang, Lunche; Xia, Xiangao; Che, Huizheng; Hu, Bo; Liu, Boming

    2017-10-01

    Aerosol properties derived from sun-photometric observations at Wuhan during a haze period were analyzed and used as input in a radiative transfer model to calculate the aerosol radiative effect (ARE) in ultraviolet (UV), visible (VIS), near-infrared (NIR), and shortwave (SW) spectra. The results showed that the aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 440 nm increased from 0.32 under clear-air conditions to 0.85 during common haze and 1.39 during severe haze. An unusual inverse relationship was found between the Ångström exponent (AE) and AOD during the haze period at Wuhan. Under high-humidity conditions, the fine-mode median radius of aerosols increased from 0.113 μm to approximately 0.2-0.5 μm as a result of hygroscopic growth, which led to increases in the AOD and decreases in the AE simultaneously. These changes were responsible for the inverse relationship between AE and AOD at Wuhan. The surface ARE in the UV (AREUV), VIS (AREVIS), NIR (ARENIR), and SW (ARESW) spectra changed from -4.46, -25.37, -12.15, and -41.99 W/m2 under clear-air conditions to -9.48, -53.96, -29.81, and -93.25 W/m2 during common hazy days and -12.89, -80.16, -55.17, and -148.22 W/m2 during severe hazy days, respectively, and the percentages of AREUV, AREVIS, and ARENIR in ARESW changed from 11%, 61%, and 28%-9%, 54%, and 37%, respectively. Meanwhile, the ARE efficiencies (REE) in SW varied from -206.5 W/m2 under clear-air conditions to -152.94 W/m2 during the common haze period and -131.47 W/m2 during the severe haze period. The smallest decreasing rate of the REE in NIR was associated with the increase of ARENIR. The weakened REE values were related to the strong forward scattering and weak backward scattering of fine aerosol particles with increasing size resulting from hygroscopic growth, while the variation of the single scattering albedo showed less impact. Source region analysis by back trajectories and the concentration weighted trajectory (CWT) method showed that black carbon came

  14. Sensory and Physiological Effects on Humans of Combined Exposures to Air Temperatures and Volatile Organic Compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølhave, Lars; Liu, Zunyong; Jørgensen, Anne Hempel

    1993-01-01

    Ten healthy humans were exposed to combinations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and air temperature (0 mg/m3 and 10 mg/m3 of a mixture of 22 volatile organic compounds and 18, 22 and 26° C). Previously demonstrated effects of VOCs and thermal exposures were replicated. For the first time nasal...... cross-sectional areas and nasal volumes, as measured by acoustic rhinometry, were shown to decrease with decreasing temperature and increasing VOC exposure. Temperature and pollutant exposures affected air quality, the need for more ventilation, skin humidity on the forehead, sweating, acute sensory...... indoor air concentrations of VOCs should depend on room air temperature....

  15. In Situ Air Temperature and Humidity Measurements Over Diverse Land Covers in Greenbelt, Maryland, November 2013-November 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Mark L.; Brown, Molly E.; Wooten, Margaret R.; Donham, Joel E.; Hubbard, Alfred B.; Ridenhour, William B.

    2016-01-01

    As our climate changes through time there is an ever-increasing need to quantify how and where it is changing so that mitigation strategies can be implemented. Urban areas have a disproportionate amount of warming due, in part, to the conductive properties of concrete and asphalt surfaces, surface albedo, heat capacity, lack of water, etc. that make up an urban environment. The NASA Climate Adaptation Science Investigation working group at Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD, conducted a study to collect temperature and humidity data at 15 min intervals from 12 sites at the center. These sites represent the major surface types at the center: asphalt, building roof, grass field, forest, and rain garden. The data show a strong distinction in the thermal properties of these surfaces at the center and the difference between the average values for the center compared to a local meteorological station. The data have been submitted to Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center (ORNL-DAAC) for archival in comma separated value (csv) file format (Carroll et al.,2016) and can be found by following this link: http:daac.ornl.govcgi-bindsviewer.pl?ds_id1319.

  16. Fabrication and properties of polyvinyl alcohol/starch blend films: Effect of composition and humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Huafeng; Yan, Jiaan; Rajulu, A Varada; Xiang, Aimin; Luo, Xiaogang

    2017-03-01

    In this work, starch/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) blend films with different compositions were prepared by melt processing. The effect of the composition and relative humidity (RH) on the structure and properties of the resulting blends were investigated. OH groups on starch and PVA formed hydrogen bonding interactions, which could improve the compatibility of the two components. With the increase of starch, the degree of crystallinity of PVA component decreased. The fracture surface of the blend films exhibited rough surface, suggesting the tough fracture. With the increase of starch, the water uptake at equilibrium decreased. With the increase of RH, the water uptake at equilibrium of the resulting blends increased. The tensile strength, elongation at break and Young's modulus decreased with increasing content of starch. However, at 50% starch content, the flexibility of the blend films was still high, with the elongation at break more than 1000% and tensile strength of 9MPa, which was superior to the commonly LDPE package films. The tensile strength and Young's modulus decreased with the increase of RH, while the elongation at break was enhanced dramatically, indicating the improved flexibility. Therefore, these kinds of blend films exhibited wide application potentials as packaging materials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of Humidity Treatments on Porosity and Mechanical Integrity of Mesoporous Silica Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiaohong S.; Birnbaum, Jerome C.; Williford, Rick E.; Fryxell, Glen E.; Coyle, Christopher A.; Dunham, Glen C.; Baskaran, Suresh

    2003-05-15

    Porous ceramic and porous hybrid ceramic films are potentially useful as low dielectric constant interlayers in semiconductor interconnects (1-6). The hybrid ceramic films are generally defined as films that contain both organic and ceramic molecular components in the structure, as for example, organosilicate films. At present, the industry is in the process of inserting CVD and spin-coated films in the k= 2.6-3.0 range. Exploratory films with k= 2.2-2.5 are being evaluated within interconnects (7) for the next generation of devices. The silicate/organosilicate dielectric films with k 2.2 generally exhibit an elastic modulus 4.0 GPa. For future technology nodes (< 70 nm) in integrated circuits, that will require extremely low dielectric constants (.0) in high purity films (< 50 parts per billion metal impurities), one of the key challenges is designing low dielectric constants while maintaining high elastic modulus. This paper describes the usefulness of humidity treatments i n increasing mechanical integrity of porous films with minimal detrimental effect on film porosity or dielectric constant, and no change in film quality. The efficacy of such treatments is illustrated using surfactant-templated mesoporous silicate films as a model example. This method should be broadly applicable to any cross-linked ceramic or hybrid ceramic films, including silicate and organosilicate films, and especially highly porous forms of the films for low-dielectric constant applications

  18. Effect of different electrodes on the transport properties of ZnO nanofibers under humid environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Imran

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Relative humidity (RH sensing properties of zinc oxide nanofibers (ZNF, synthesized using electrospinning technique, were studied by impedance spectroscopy. RH sensors were fabricated with two different electrodes (Au and Ni using lithography on top of the nanofibers deposited on Si/SiO2 substrate. Compare with the Ni electrode sensor, Au electrode sensor exhibits larger sensitivity and quicker response/recovery. Capacitance, electrical conductivity and electrical modulus were studied at 40%-90% RH as a function of the frequency of the applied AC signal in the frequency range of 10−2-106 Hz. The corresponding response and recovery times are 3s and 5s for Au, and 6s and 10s for Ni electrode sensor, respectively. The sensors exhibited a reversible response with small hysteresis of less than 4% and 12% for Au and Ni electrodes respectively. Stability of the sensor device with Au electrode was confirmed by testing the device for 13 days. The excellent sensing characteristics and comparison of sensors with different electrode materials may offer an effective route for designing and optimizing RH sensors.

  19. The effect of humidity and temperature on visual outcomes after myopic corneal laser refractive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Christopher T; Shtein, Roni M; Veldheer, Daniel; Hussain, Munira; Niziol, Leslie M; Musch, David C; Mian, Shahzad I

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether procedure room environmental conditions are associated with outcomes after myopic laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) or laser-assisted keratomileusis (LASEK). Retrospective chart review. Eight hundred sixty-three eyes of 458 consecutive patients at a university-based academic practice. We reviewed the medical records of consecutive patients who underwent LASIK or LASEK over a 3-year period. Linear mixed regression models were used to investigate the association of laser room temperature and humidity with the outcomes of visual acuity and postoperative manifest spherical equivalent refraction. Repeated measures logistic regression models were used for the outcomes of diffuse lamellar keratitis (DLK) and need for enhancement surgery. Subjects were on an average 38.6 years old at the time of surgery (standard deviation [SD] =10.3) and the average spherical equivalent refraction of eyes was 3.8 diopters (SD =2.03). Regression models did not reveal a significant association between temperature and uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA) or corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), or between humidity and UDVA (P>0.05 for all). However, increased humidity was associated with a small but statistically significant improvement in CDVA after LASIK at 1 day, 1 month, 3 months, and 1 year postoperatively (Prefraction. While increased laser room humidity was consistently associated with small improvements in CDVA after myopic LASIK over time, variations in room temperature and humidity were not associated with UDVA, the need for enhancement, the incidence of DLK, or refraction after myopic LASIK or LASEK.

  20. Exploiting the igloo principle and greenhouse effect to regulate humidity and temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhu Karthick

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Toxic epidermal necrolysis can be fatal and nursing care with careful monitoring of temperature and humidity can improve survival rate. We adapted the greenhouse and igloo principle using a common hood to monitor the temperature and humidity. Methods: A small heater with a regulator was placed in a mini hood and temperature was recorded inside the uncovered hood and hood covered with green cloth and aluminium foil separately. The regular hood was placed over a volunteer and the temperature was measured inside the open hood and hood covered with green cloth and aluminium foil separately. The relative humidity was also monitored using Zeal mercury dry - wet bulb hygrometer. Results: Temperature increase was most marked in the foil-covered hood followed by cloth-covered hood, both with the heater and the volunteer. Similarly, in the volunteer study, the humidity was best maintained inside the aluminium foil-covered hood. Conclusion: We recommend the use of regular hood with suitable cover to monitor the humidity and temperature of patients with toxic epidermal necrolysis.

  1. 40 CFR 86.344-79 - Humidity calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Humidity calculations. 86.344-79... Humidity calculations. (a) The following abbreviations (and units) are used in this section: BARO = barometric pressure (Pa) H = specific humidity, (gm H2O/gm of dry air) K = 0.6220 gm H2O/gm dry air M air...

  2. Influence of the type of fat and air humidity on chosen properties of the lipid fraction in the process of baking shortbread pastries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miśkiewicz, K.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The results from his study reveal that the type of fat used during the baking of shortbreads had a noticeable influence on the properties of lipid fractions as well as the correlation among these properties (acid value, peroxide value, conjugated dienes and trienes contents. For low-trans fats, the correlation between acid value and peroxide value was inversely proportional; for transcontaining fats this correlation was directly proportional. An increase in air humidity during baking caused a decrease in the melting temperature of the fractions of fats used in the process, compared to fats from pastries baked in dry air. This may be indicative of a product with a high degree of unsaturation in the lipid fraction.

    Los resultados de este estudio demuestran que el tipo de grasa utilizada en el horneado de mantecadas tienen una influencia evidente en las propiedades de la fracción lipídica y una correlación entre estas propiedades (acidez, peróxidos, dienos y trienos conjugados. Para grasas bajas en trans la correlación entre la acidez y el índice de peróxido es inversamente proporcional, para grasas conteniendo trans esta correlación fue directamente proporcional. Un aumento de la humedad del aire durante el horneado causa una disminución de la temperatura de fusión de las fracciones de grasas utilizadas en el proceso, en comparación con las grasas de repostería horneadas en aire seco. Esto puede indicar la presencia de productos con alto grado de insaturación en las fracciones lipídicas.

  3. Humidity effects on soluble core mechanical and thermal properties (polyvinyl alcohol/microballoon composite) type CG extendospheres, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This document constitutes the final report for the study of humidity effects and loading rate on soluble core (PVA/MB composite material) mechanical and thermal properties under Contract No. 100345. This report describes test results procedures employed, and any unusual occurrences or specific observations associated with this test program. The primary objective of this work was to determine if cured soluble core filler material regains its tensile and compressive strength after exposure to high humidity conditions and following a drying cycle. Secondary objectives include measurements of tensile and compressive modulus, and Poisson's ratio, and coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) for various moisture exposure states. A third objective was to compare the mechanical and thermal properties of the composite using 'SG' and 'CG' type extendospheres. The proposed facility for the manufacture of soluble cores at the Yellow Creek site incorporates no capability for the control of humidity. Recent physical property tests performed with the soluble core filler material showed that prolonged exposure to high humidity significantly degradates in strength. The purpose of these tests is to determine if the product, process or facility designs require modification to avoid imparting a high risk condition to the ASRM.

  4. Effects of relative humidity on aerosol light scattering: results from different European sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Zieger

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of aerosol water uptake on the aerosol particle light scattering coefficient (σsp is described in this study by comparing measurements from five European sites: the Jungfraujoch, located in the Swiss Alps at 3580 m a.s.l.; Ny-Ålesund, located on Spitsbergen in the Arctic; Mace Head, a coastal site in Ireland; Cabauw, a rural site in the Netherlands; and Melpitz, a regional background site in Eastern Germany. These sites were selected according to the aerosol type usually encountered at that location. The scattering enhancement factor f(RH, λ is the key parameter to describe the effect of water uptake on the particle light scattering. It is defined as the σsp(RH at a certain relative humidity (RH and wavelength λ divided by its dry value. f(RH at the five sites varied widely, starting at very low values of f(RH = 85%, λ = 550 nm around 1.28 for mineral dust, and reaching up to 3.41 for Arctic aerosol. Hysteresis behavior was observed at all sites except at the Jungfraujoch (due to the absence of sea salt. Closure studies and Mie simulations showed that both size and chemical composition determine the magnitude of f(RH. Both parameters are also needed to successfully predict f(RH. Finally, the measurement results were compared to the widely used aerosol model, OPAC (Hess et al., 1998. Significant discrepancies were seen, especially at intermediate RH ranges; these were mainly attributed to inappropriate implementation of hygroscopic growth in the OPAC model. Replacement of the hygroscopic growth with values from the recent literature resulted in a clear improvement of the OPAC model.

  5. Detrimental effects of low atmospheric humidity and forest fire on a community of western Himalayan butterflies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Smetacek

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Compared to previous years, the period from October 2008 to March 2009 showed marked reductions in species number and population size in the butterfly community of the Maheshkhan Reserve Forest, Nainital District, Uttarakhand. Desiccation of pupae due to abnormally low atmospheric humidity after the failure of seasonal rains appears to have been a major cause of this reduction. The drop in humidity also appears to be linked to the unusual spread of fires affecting broadleaf forests, one of which in May 2009 wiped out the remaining Maheshkhan butterfly community.

  6. Effect of Firing Temperature on Humidity Sensing Properties of SnO2 Thick Film Resistor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Y. Borse

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Thick films of SnO2 were prepared using standard screen printing technique. The films were dried and fired at different temperatures. Tin-oxide is an n-type wide band gap semiconductor, whose resistance is described as a function of relative humidity. An increasing firing temperature on SnO2 film increases the sensitivity to humidity. The parameters such as sensitivity, response times and hysteresis of the SnO2 film sensors have been evaluated. The thick films were characterized by XRD, SEM and EDAX and grain size, composition of elements, relative phases are obtained.

  7. Effects of Heat and Moisture Exchangers and Exhaled Humidity on Aerosol Deposition in a Simulated Ventilator-Dependent Adult Lung Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ari, Arzu; Alwadeai, Khalid S; Fink, James B

    2017-05-01

    Many in vitro models report higher inhaled dose with dry versus heated humidity. Heat-and-moisture exchangers (HMEs) provide passive humidity in ventilator-dependent patients but act as a barrier to aerosol. The HMEs designed to allow aerosol delivery (HME-ADs) have not been well described. The purpose of this study is to determine the impact on aerosol deposition of HME-ADs with and without active exhaled humidity in a simulated ventilator-dependent adult model. We used an in vitro lung model consisting of an intubated teaching mannequin with an endotracheal tube of 8.0 mm inner diameter with bronchi directly attached to a collecting filter and passive rubber test lung to provide testing without active exhaled humidity. To simulate exhaled humidity, a Cascade humidifier (37°C and 100% relative humidity) was placed between the collecting filter and test lung, simulating body temperature and pressure saturated exhaled humidity at the bronchi. Albuterol sulfate (2.5 mg/3 mL) was administered with a mesh nebulizer (Aerogen Solo) placed in the inspiratory limb of the ventilator circuit at the Y-piece, with no HME in place (control) and with 3 HME-AD devices, including the CircuVent, Humid-Flo, and AirLife, with and without exhaled humidity. Drug was eluted from the collecting filter and analyzed with spectrophotometry. Student t tests and analysis of variance were used for data analysis ( P < .05). The percentage of drug dose delivered (mean ± SD) distal to the bronchi in the control experiments was greater than all of the HME-ADs without exhaled humidity 18 ± 0.7 and with active exhaled humidity 10.8 ± 0.2% ( P < .005). Without exhaled humidity, aerosol delivery with the CircuVent (12.6 ± 0.8), Humid-Flo (15.3 ± 0.8), and AirLife (12.0 ± 0.5) was less than control ( P < .001, P = .01 and P < .001, respectively). In contrast, with exhaled humidity, no difference was found between control and HME-ADs ( P = .89). Also, a greater variation between control and the 3

  8. Printed Circuit Board Surface Finish and Effects of Chloride Contamination, Electric Field, and Humidity on Corrosion Reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conseil, Helene; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    2017-01-01

    Corrosion reliability is a serious issue today for electronic devices, components, and printed circuit boards (PCBs) due to factors such as miniaturization, globalized manufacturing practices which can lead to process-related residues, and global usage effects such as bias voltage and unpredictable...... user environments. The investigation reported in this paper focuses on understanding the synergistic effect of such parameters, namely contamination, humidity, PCB surface finish, pitch distance, and potential bias on leakage current under different humidity levels, and electrochemical migration......Cl. Droplet tests on Cu comb patterns with varying pitch size showed that the initial BLC before dendrite formation increased with increasing NaCl contamination level, whereas electrochemical migration and the frequency of dendrite formation increased with bias voltage. The effect of different surface...

  9. Effects of Humidity and Temperature on Orange Dye-Based Organic Field Effect Transistors Fabricated at Different Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, N.; Ahmed, M. M.; Karimov, Kh. S.

    2017-11-01

    This study reports the fabrication of organic field effect transistors (OFETs) using 3-[ethyl[4-[(4-nitrophenyl)azo]phenyl]amino]propanenitrile, usually known as Orange-Dye 25 (OD) and its composite with sugar. The study investigated the heat- and humidity-dependent electrical characteristics of the fabricated devices. Fabrication was carried out from the aqueous solution of the materials using different gravity conditions, i.e., at positive (normal) gravity (+1 g) and at negative gravity (-1 g). A thin layer (10-15 μm) of OD or OD:sugar was deposited by drop-casting on pre-fabricated drain and source silver (Ag) electrodes having 30 μm separation and 2 mm length followed by aluminum (Al) thermal evaporation to achieve a Schottky barrier. Devices fabricated using OD at -1 g were more sensitive in capacitance-temperature and impedance-humidity relationships than those fabricated at +1 g. Moreover, OFETs fabricated at -1 g using OD:sugar offered capacitance-temperature sensitivity much higher than the devices fabricated at +1 g. It has been observed that, in the drop-casting method, the properties of OFETs are dependent upon gravity as well as the solution composition employed for channel definition.

  10. Responses of sap flow, leaf gas exchange and growth of hybrid aspen to elevated atmospheric humidity under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niglas, Aigar; Kupper, Priit; Tullus, Arvo; Sellin, Arne

    2014-05-15

    An increase in average air temperature and frequency of rain events is predicted for higher latitudes by the end of the 21st century, accompanied by a probable rise in air humidity. We currently lack knowledge on how forest trees acclimate to rising air humidity in temperate climates. We analysed the leaf gas exchange, sap flow and growth characteristics of hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × P. tremuloides) trees growing at ambient and artificially elevated air humidity in an experimental forest plantation situated in the hemiboreal vegetation zone. Humidification manipulation did not affect the photosynthetic capacity of plants, but did affect stomatal responses: trees growing at elevated air humidity had higher stomatal conductance at saturating photosynthetically active radiation (gs sat) and lower intrinsic water-use efficiency (IWUE). Reduced stomatal limitation of photosynthesis in trees grown at elevated air humidity allowed slightly higher net photosynthesis and relative current-year height increments than in trees at ambient air humidity. Tree responses suggest a mitigating effect of higher air humidity on trees under mild water stress. At the same time, trees at higher air humidity demonstrated a reduced sensitivity of IWUE to factors inducing stomatal closure and a steeper decline in canopy conductance in response to water deficit, implying higher dehydration risk. Despite the mitigating impact of increased air humidity under moderate drought, a future rise in atmospheric humidity at high latitudes may be disadvantageous for trees during weather extremes and represents a potential threat in hemiboreal forest ecosystems. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  11. Effects of ozone and relative humidity on fluorescence spectra of octapeptide bioaerosol particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yong-Le; Santarpia, Joshua L.; Ratnesar-Shumate, Shanna; Corson, Elizabeth; Eshbaugh, Jonathan; Hill, Steven C.; Williamson, Chatt C.; Coleman, Mark; Bare, Christopher; Kinahan, Sean

    2014-01-01

    The effects of ozone and relative humidity (RH) at common atmospheric levels on the properties of single octapeptide bioaerosol particles were studied using an improved rotating reaction chamber, an aerosol generator, an ultraviolet aerodynamic particle sizer (UVAPS), an improved single particle fluorescence spectrometer (SPFS), and equipments to generate, monitor and control the ozone and RH. Aerosol particles (mean diameter 2 μm) were generated from a slurry of octapeptide in phosphate buffered saline, injected into the rotating chamber, and kept airborne for hours. Bioaerosols were sampled from the chamber hourly for the measurements of particle-size distribution, concentration, total fluorescence excited at 355-nm, and single particle fluorescence spectra excited at 266-nm and 351-nm under different controlled RH (20%, 50%, or 80%) and ozone concentration (0 or 150 ppb). The results show that: (1) Particle size, concentration, and the 263-nm-excited fluorescence intensity decrease at different rates under different combinations of the RH and ozone concentrations used. (2) The 263-nm-excited UV fluorescence (280-400 nm) decreased more rapidly than the 263-nm-excited visible fluorescence (400-560 nm), and decreased most rapidly when ozone is present and RH is high. (3) The UV fluorescence peak near 340 nm slightly shifts to the shorter wavelength (blue-shift), consistent with a more rapid oxidation of tryptophan than tyrosine. (4) The 351/355-nm-excited fluorescence (430-580 nm/380-700 nm) increases when ozone is present, especially when the RH is high. (5) The 351/355-nm-excited fluorescence increase that occurs as the tryptophan emission in the UV decreases, and the observation that these changes occur more rapidly at higher RH with the present of ozone, are consistent with the oxidation of tryptophan by ozone and the conversion of the resulting ozonides to N-formyl kynurenine and kynurenine.

  12. Effect of drink temperature on core temperature and endurance cycling performance in warm, humid conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdon, Catriona; O'Connor, Helen; Gifford, Janelle; Shirreffs, Susan; Chapman, Phillip; Johnson, Nathan

    2010-09-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the effect of cold (4 °C) and thermoneutral (37 °C) beverages on thermoregulation and performance in the heat and to explore sensory factors associated with ingesting a cold stimulus. Seven males (age 32.8 ± 6.1 years, [V(.)]O(2peak) 59.4 ± 6.6 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) completed cold, thermoneutral, and thermoneutral + ice trials in randomized order. Participants cycled for 90 min at 65%[V(.)]O(2peak) followed by a 15-min performance test at 28 °C and 70% relative humidity. They ingested 2.3 ml x kg(-1) of a 7.4% carbohydrate-electrolyte solution every 10 min during the 90-min steady-state exercise including 30 ml ice puree every 5 min in the ice trial. Absolute changes in skin temperature (0.22 ± 1.1 °C vs. 1.14 ± 0.9 °C; P = 0.02), mean body temperature (1.2 ± 0.3 vs. 1.6 ± 0.3 °C; P = 0.03), and heat storage were lower across the 90-min exercise bout for the cold compared with the thermoneutral trial. Significant improvements (4.9 ± 2.4%, P cold but no significant differences were detected with ice. Consumption of cold beverages during prolonged exercise in the heat improves body temperature measures and performance. Consumption of ice did not reveal a sensory response, but requires further study. Beverages consumed by athletes exercising in the heat should perhaps be cold for performance and safety reasons.

  13. Ozone decomposition kinetics on alumina: effects of ozone partial pressure, relative humidity and repeated oxidation cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Sullivan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The room temperature kinetics of gas-phase ozone loss via heterogeneous interactions with thin alumina films has been studied in real-time using 254nm absorption spectroscopy to monitor ozone concentrations. The films were prepared from dispersions of fine alumina powder in methanol and their surface areas were determined by an in situ procedure using adsorption of krypton at 77K. The alumina was found to lose reactivity with increasing ozone exposure. However, some of the lost reactivity could be recovered over timescales of days in an environment free of water, ozone and carbon dioxide. From multiple exposures of ozone to the same film, it was found that the number of active sites is large, greater than 1.4x1014 active sites per cm2 of surface area or comparable to the total number of surface sites. The films maintain some reactivity at this point, which is consistent with there being some degree of active site regeneration during the experiment and with ozone loss being catalytic to some degree. The initial uptake coefficients on fresh films were found to be inversely dependent on the ozone concentration, varying from roughly 10-6 for ozone concentrations of 1014 molecules/cm3 to 10-5 at 1013 molecules/cm3. The initial uptake coefficients were not dependent on the relative humidity, up to 75%, within the precision of the experiment. The reaction mechanism is discussed, as well as the implications these results have for assessing the effect of mineral dust on atmospheric oxidant levels.

  14. Relative effects of temperature, light, and humidity on clinging behavior of metacercariae-infected ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Botnevik, C.F.; Malagocka, Joanna; Jensen, Annette Bruun

    2016-01-01

    . This behavior, hypothesized to involve cramping of the mandibular muscles in a state of tetany, was observed in naturally infected F. polyctena under controlled temperature, light, and humidity conditions. We found that low temperature significantly stimulated and maintained tetany in infected ants while light...

  15. Effects of humidity level and IBA dose application on the softwood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-18

    Aug 18, 2009 ... 1Department of Horticultural Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Selcuk, 42031, Konya, Turkey. ... cutting callus formation was found to be 2000 and 3000 ppm IBA doses (100%) from Type 1; the lowest ... Key words: Mulberry, sooftwood top cutting, misting system, humidity, hormone, rooting.

  16. The Effect of Humidity on the Physical and Chemical Stability of Spray-Dried Aluminum Hydroxycarbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock; Peck; Perry; White; Hem

    1996-11-10

    The moisture sorption isotherm of amorphous spray-dried aluminum hydroxycarbonate (SDAHC) at 25°C revealed that moisture sorption increased sharply when the relative humidity exceeded 80%. The physical and chemical stability of SDAHC was studied for 1 year at 25°C and 0, 11, 54, 84, or 100% RH. The results were interpreted to reveal that two mechanisms affect the properties of SDAHC at 25°C. The sample stored at 0% RH did not exhibit any significant changes during the 1-year study period. The surface area and rate of acid neutralization decreased when samples were stored at 11 or 54% RH, but the material remained amorphous. This change is believed to be due to aggregation and cementation of particles. Much larger changes in surface area and the rate of acid neutralization occurred in the samples aged at 84 or 100% RH. Under these humidity conditions, polymorphic transformations occurred in addition to aggregation and cementation. X-ray diffraction indicated that microcrystalline boehmite was an intermediate phase. The stable polymorph was bayerite, which is believed to form due to the high surface pH produced by water sorption at 84 or 100% RH. The moisture sorption isotherm was useful in identifying the humidity conditions which resulted in high moisture sorption. Polymorphic transformations were only detected when the SDAHC was aged under these humidity conditions.

  17. The effect of humidity and temperature on visual outcomes after myopic corneal laser refractive surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hood CT

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Christopher T Hood,1 Roni M Shtein,1 Daniel Veldheer,1,2 Munira Hussain,1 Leslie M Niziol,1 David C Musch,1,3 Shahzad I Mian1 1Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Michigan W.K. Kellogg Eye Center, Ann Arbor, MI, 2Department of Anesthesiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, 3Department of Epidemiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA Objective: To determine whether procedure room environmental conditions are associated with outcomes after myopic laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK or laser-assisted keratomileusis (LASEK. Design: Retrospective chart review. Participants: Eight hundred sixty-three eyes of 458 consecutive patients at a university-based academic practice. Methods: We reviewed the medical records of consecutive patients who underwent LASIK or LASEK over a 3-year period. Linear mixed regression models were used to investigate the association of laser room temperature and humidity with the outcomes of visual acuity and postoperative manifest spherical equivalent refraction. Repeated measures logistic regression models were used for the outcomes of diffuse lamellar keratitis (DLK and need for enhancement surgery. Results: Subjects were on an average 38.6 years old at the time of surgery (standard deviation [SD] =10.3 and the average spherical equivalent refraction of eyes was 3.8 diopters (SD =2.03. Regression models did not reveal a significant association between temperature and uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA or corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA, or between humidity and UDVA (P>0.05 for all. However, increased humidity was associated with a small but statistically significant improvement in CDVA after LASIK at 1 day, 1 month, 3 months, and 1 year postoperatively (P<0.05 for all. There was no significant association between temperature and humidity and the need for enhancement, the incidence of DLK, or postoperative manifest refraction. Conclusion: While increased laser

  18. Asthma morbidity and ambient air pollution: effect modification by residential traffic-related air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfino, Ralph J; Wu, Jun; Tjoa, Thomas; Gullesserian, Sevan K; Nickerson, Bruce; Gillen, Daniel L

    2014-01-01

    Ambient air pollution has been associated with asthma-related hospital admissions and emergency department visits (hospital encounters). We hypothesized that higher individual exposure to residential traffic-related air pollutants would enhance these associations. We studied 11,390 asthma-related hospital encounters among 7492 subjects 0-18 years of age living in Orange County, California. Ambient exposures were measured at regional air monitoring stations. Seasonal average traffic-related exposures (PM2.5, ultrafine particles, NOx, and CO) were estimated near subjects' geocoded residences for 6-month warm and cool seasonal periods, using dispersion models based on local traffic within 500 m radii. Associations were tested in case-crossover conditional logistic regression models adjusted for temperature and humidity. We assessed effect modification by seasonal residential traffic-related air pollution exposures above and below median dispersion-modeled exposures. Secondary analyses considered effect modification by traffic exposures within race/ethnicity and insurance group strata. Asthma morbidity was positively associated with daily ambient O3 and PM2.5 in warm seasons and with CO, NOx, and PM2.5 in cool seasons. Associations with CO, NOx, and PM2.5 were stronger among subjects living at residences with above-median traffic-related exposures, especially in cool seasons. Secondary analyses showed no consistent differences in association, and 95% confidence intervals were wide, indicating a lack of precision for estimating these highly stratified associations. Associations of asthma with ambient air pollution were enhanced among subjects living in homes with high traffic-related air pollution. This may be because of increased susceptibility (greater asthma severity) or increased vulnerability (meteorologic amplification of local vs. correlated ambient exposures).

  19. Effects of moisture controlled charcoal on indoor thermal and air environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Yokogoshi, Midori; Nabeshima, Yuki

    2017-10-01

    It is crucial to remove and control indoor moisture in Japan, especially in hot and humid summers, in order to improve thermal comfort and save energy in buildings. Charcoal for moisture control made from the waste of wood material has attracted attention among many control strategies to control indoor moisture, and it is beginning to be used in houses. However, the basic characteristics of the charcoal to control moisture and remove chemical compounds in indoor air have not been investigated sufficiently. The objective of this study is to clarify the effect of moisture control charcoal on indoor thermal and air environments by a long-term field measurement using two housing scale models with/without charcoal in Toyohashi, Japan. The comparative experiments to investigate the effect of the charcoal on air temperature and humidity for two models with/without charcoal were conducted from 2015 to 2016. Also, the removal performance of volatile organic compound (VOCs) was investigated in the summer of 2015. Four bags of packed charcoal were set on the floor in the attic for one model during the experiment. As a result of the experiments, a significant effect of moisture control was observed in hot and humid season, and the efficient effect of moisture adsorption was obtained by the periodic humidification experiment using a humidifier. Furthermore, the charcoal showed a remarkable performance of VOC removal from indoor air by the injection experiment of formaldehyde.

  20. Effects of Ambient Temperature and Relative Humidity on Subsurface Defect Detection in Concrete Structures by Active Thermal Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Quang Huy; Han, Dongyeob; Kang, Choonghyun; Haldar, Achintya; Huh, Jungwon

    2017-07-26

    Active thermal imaging is an effective nondestructive technique in the structural health monitoring field, especially for concrete structures not exposed directly to the sun. However, the impact of meteorological factors on the testing results is considerable and should be studied in detail. In this study, the impulse thermography technique with halogen lamps heat sources is used to detect defects in concrete structural components that are not exposed directly to sunlight and not significantly affected by the wind, such as interior bridge box-girders and buildings. To consider the effect of environment, ambient temperature and relative humidity, these factors are investigated in twelve cases of testing on a concrete slab in the laboratory, to minimize the influence of wind. The results showed that the absolute contrast between the defective and sound areas becomes more apparent with an increase of ambient temperature, and it increases at a faster rate with large and shallow delaminations than small and deep delaminations. In addition, the absolute contrast of delamination near the surface might be greater under a highly humid atmosphere. This study indicated that the results obtained from the active thermography technique will be more apparent if the inspection is conducted on a day with high ambient temperature and humidity.

  1. Effects of Ambient Temperature and Relative Humidity on Subsurface Defect Detection in Concrete Structures by Active Thermal Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quang Huy Tran

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Active thermal imaging is an effective nondestructive technique in the structural health monitoring field, especially for concrete structures not exposed directly to the sun. However, the impact of meteorological factors on the testing results is considerable and should be studied in detail. In this study, the impulse thermography technique with halogen lamps heat sources is used to detect defects in concrete structural components that are not exposed directly to sunlight and not significantly affected by the wind, such as interior bridge box-girders and buildings. To consider the effect of environment, ambient temperature and relative humidity, these factors are investigated in twelve cases of testing on a concrete slab in the laboratory, to minimize the influence of wind. The results showed that the absolute contrast between the defective and sound areas becomes more apparent with an increase of ambient temperature, and it increases at a faster rate with large and shallow delaminations than small and deep delaminations. In addition, the absolute contrast of delamination near the surface might be greater under a highly humid atmosphere. This study indicated that the results obtained from the active thermography technique will be more apparent if the inspection is conducted on a day with high ambient temperature and humidity.

  2. Humidity Bias and Effect on Simulated Aerosol Optical Properties during the Ganges Valley Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Yan; Cadeddu, M.; Kotamarthi, V. R.; Renju, R.; Suresh Raju, C.

    2016-07-10

    The radiosonde humidity profiles available during the Ganges Valley Experiment were compared to those simulated from the regional Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled with a chemistry module (WRF -Chern) and the global reanalysis datasets. Large biases were revealed. On a monthly mean basis at Nainital, located in northern India, the WRFChern model simulates a large moist bias in the free troposphere (up to +20%) as well as a large dry bias in the boundary layer (up to -30%). While the overall pattern of the biases is similar, the magnitude of the biases varies from time to time and from one location to another. At Thiruvananthapuram, the magnitude of the dry bias is smaller, and in contrast to Nainital, the higher-resolution regional WRF -Chern model generates larger moist biases in the upper troposphere than the global reanalysis data. Furthermore, the humidity biases in the upper troposphere, while significant, have little impact on the model estimation of column aerosol optical depth (AOD). The frequent occurrences of the dry boundary-layer bias simulated by the large-scale models tend to lead to the underestimation of AOD. It is thus important to quantify the humidity vertical profiles for aerosol simulations over South Asia.

  3. The wearing of hydrophilic contact lenses aboard a commercial jet aircraft: I. Humidity effects on fit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, W G; Harada, L K; Jagerman, L S

    1982-03-01

    The increasing use of hydrophilic (soft) lenses in the United States hs prompted interest in the clinical investigation of these lenses under various wearing conditions. Any factor causing lens dehydration during wear may affect lens performance and ultimately cause eye discomfort. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the environmental conditions in the aircraft cabin and to observe any changes in the fit of the hydrophilic lenses that might occur during flight. A "laboratory" for testing was set up aboard a World Airways DC-10 on a scheduled round trip between Oakland, California and Honolulu, Hawaii. A keratometer was used to assess lens fit of seven subjects who were wearing hydrophilic lenses. The efficacy of using a soft lens hydrating solution on the fit of the lens was evaluated, but will also be evaluated in a future paper. Atmospheric pressure, humidity, and temperature measurements were recorded throughout the inflight study. The results showed that a decline in cabin humidity from at least 47% to 11% occurred within 30 min of takeoff. Although previous reports have indicated that there are a number of environmental factors in the aircraft that contribute to eye discomfort for lens wearers, this study indicates that low cabin humidity is possibly the most significant factor.

  4. Hydration during exercise in warm, humid conditions: effect of a caffeinated sports drink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard-Stafford, Mindy L; Cureton, Kirk J; Wingo, Jonathan E; Trilk, Jennifer; Warren, Gordon L; Buyckx, Maxine

    2007-04-01

    Caffeine is regarded as a diuretic despite evidence that hydration is not impaired with habitual ingestion. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a caffeinated sports drink impairs fluid delivery and hydration during exercise in warm, humid conditions (28.5 degrees C, 60% relative humidity). Sixteen cyclists completed 3 trials: placebo (P), carbohydrate-electrolyte (CE), and caffeinated (195 mg/L) sports drink (CAF+CE). Subjects cycled for 120 min at 60-75%VO2max followed by 15 min of maximal-effort cycling. Heart rate and rectal temperature were similar until the final 15 min, when these responses and exercise intensity were higher with CAF+CE than with CE and P. Sweat rate, urine output, plasma- volume losses, serum electrolytes, and blood deuterium-oxide accumulation were not different. Serum osmolality was higher with CAF+CE vs. P but not CE. The authors conclude that CAF+CE appears as rapidly in blood as CE and maintains hydration and sustains cardiovascular and thermoregulatory function as well as CE during exercise in a warm, humid environment.

  5. Effect of relative humidity on oxidation of flaxseed oil in spray dried whey protein emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partanen, Riitta; Raula, Janne; Seppänen, Rauni; Buchert, Johanna; Kauppinen, Esko; Forssell, Pirkko

    2008-07-23

    Flaxseed oil was emulsified in whey protein isolate (WPI) and spray-dried. Powder characteristics and oxidative stability of oil at relative humidities (RH) from RH approximately 0% to RH 91% at 37 degrees C were analyzed. Oil droplets retained their forms in drying and reconstitution, but the original droplet size of the emulsion was not restored when the powder was dispersed in water. The particles seemed to be covered by a protein-rich surface layer as analyzed by electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA). Oxidation of flaxseed oil dispersed in the WPI matrix was retarded from that of bulk oil but followed the same pattern as bulk oil with respect to humidity. A high rate of oxidation was found for both low and high humidity conditions. The lowest rate of oxidation as followed by peroxide values was found at RH 75%, a condition that is likely to diverge significantly from the monolayer moisture value. A weak baseline transition observed for the WPI matrix in a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermogram suggested a glassy state of the matrix at all storage conditions. This was not consistent with the observed caking of the powder at RH 91%. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images revealed a considerable structural change in the WPI matrix in these conditions, which was suggested to be linked with a higher rate of oxygen transport. Possible mechanisms for oxygen transport in the whey protein matrix under variable RHs are discussed.

  6. Hands-on Humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankiewicz, Philip R.

    1992-01-01

    Presents five hands-on activities that allow students to detect, measure, reduce, and eliminate moisture. Students make a humidity detector and a hygrometer, examine the effects of moisture on different substances, calculate the percent of water in a given food, and examine the absorption potential of different desiccants. (MDH)

  7. Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and your health: Green living Sun Water Air Health effects of air pollution How to protect yourself from air pollution Chemicals Noise Quizzes Links to more information girlshealth glossary girlshealth. ...

  8. Manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieve K-OMS-2 as catalyst in post plasma-catalysis for trichloroethylene degradation in humid air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen Dinh, M T; Giraudon, J-M; Vandenbroucke, A M; Morent, R; De Geyter, N; Lamonier, J-F

    2016-08-15

    The total oxidation of trichloroethylene (TCE) in air at low relative humidity (RH=10%) in the presence of CO2 (520ppmv) was investigated in function of energy density using an atmospheric pressure negative DC luminescent glow discharge combined with a cryptomelane catalyst positioned downstream of the plasma reactor at a temperature of 150°C. When using Non-Thermal Plasma (NTP) alone, it is found a low COx (x=1-2) yield in agreement with the detection of gaseous polychlorinated by-products in the outlet stream as well as ozone which is an harmful pollutant. Introduction of cryptomelane enhanced trichloroethylene removal, totally inhibited plasma ozone formation and increased significantly the COx yield. The improved performances of the hybrid system were mainly ascribed to the total destruction of plasma generated ozone on cryptomelane surface to produce active oxygen species. Consequently these active oxygen species greatly enhanced the abatement of the plasma non-reacted TCE and completely destroyed the hazardous plasma generated polychlorinated intermediates. The facile redox of Mn species associated with oxygen vacancies and mobility as well as the textural properties of the catalyst might also contribute as a whole to the efficiency of the process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieve K-OMS-2 as catalyst in post plasma-catalysis for trichloroethylene degradation in humid air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen Dinh, M.T. [Université Lille, Sciences et Technologies, Unité de Catalyse et Chimie du Solide UMR CNRS UCCS 8181, 59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq (France); The University of Da-Nang, University of Science and Technology, 54, Nguyen Luong Bang, Da-Nang (Viet Nam); Giraudon, J.-M., E-mail: jean-marc.giraudon@univ-lille1.fr [Université Lille, Sciences et Technologies, Unité de Catalyse et Chimie du Solide UMR CNRS UCCS 8181, 59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq (France); Vandenbroucke, A.M.; Morent, R.; De Geyter, N. [Ghent University, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Department of Applied Physics, Research Unit Plasma Technology, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 41, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Lamonier, J.-F. [Université Lille, Sciences et Technologies, Unité de Catalyse et Chimie du Solide UMR CNRS UCCS 8181, 59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq (France)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Post plasma catalysis: negative DC glow discharge combined with a cryptomelane. • The α-MnO{sub 2} catalyst totally decomposes the NTP generated ozone. • Active oxygen oxidizes the end-up plasma VOC by-products. - Abstract: The total oxidation of trichloroethylene (TCE) in air at low relative humidity (RH = 10%) in the presence of CO{sub 2} (520 ppmv) was investigated in function of energy density using an atmospheric pressure negative DC luminescent glow discharge combined with a cryptomelane catalyst positioned downstream of the plasma reactor at a temperature of 150 °C. When using Non-Thermal Plasma (NTP) alone, it is found a low COx (x = 1–2) yield in agreement with the detection of gaseous polychlorinated by-products in the outlet stream as well as ozone which is an harmful pollutant. Introduction of cryptomelane enhanced trichloroethylene removal, totally inhibited plasma ozone formation and increased significantly the COx yield. The improved performances of the hybrid system were mainly ascribed to the total destruction of plasma generated ozone on cryptomelane surface to produce active oxygen species. Consequently these active oxygen species greatly enhanced the abatement of the plasma non-reacted TCE and completely destroyed the hazardous plasma generated polychlorinated intermediates. The facile redox of Mn species associated with oxygen vacancies and mobility as well as the textural properties of the catalyst might also contribute as a whole to the efficiency of the process.

  10. Effects of Temperature and Humidity History on Brittleness of α-Sulfonated Fatty Acid Methyl Ester Salt Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hideaki; Morigaki, Atsunori; Kaneko, Yukihiro; Tobori, Norio; Aramaki, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    α-Sulfonated fatty acid methyl ester salts (MES), which were made from vegetable sources, are attractive candidates for eco-friendly washing detergents because they have various special features like excellent detergency, favorable biodegradability, and high stability against enzymes. To overcome some disadvantages of powder-type detergents like caking, sorting, and dusting, we studied how temperature and humidity history, as a model for long-term storage conditions, can affect crystalline structures and reduce the brittleness of MES powder. We characterized the crystalline structure of MES grains using small-angle X-ray scattering, wide-angle X-ray scattering, differential scanning calorimetry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy measurements and determined the yield values, which measure the brittleness of MES grains, in shear stress using dynamic viscoelasticity measurements. This study confirmed that MES crystals form three pseudo-polymorphs via thermal or humidity conditioning: metastable crystals (αsubcell), anhydrous crystals (β subcell), and dihydrate crystals (β' subcell). Further, we found that the yield value increases upon phase transition from the β subcell to the β' subcell and from the β' subcell to the αsubcell. Therefore, controlling the thermal and humidity conditioning of MES grains is an effective way to decrease the brittleness of MES powders and can be used to overcome the above mentioned disadvantages of powder-type detergents in the absence of co-surfactants.

  11. Assessment the Effects of Temperature and Humidity Control in Greenhouse Cucumber Productions in Jiroft and Kahnooj Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Momeni

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Temperature and humidity are two important parameters affecting the quality and quantity of greenhouse products so two double greenhouses were manufactured in 3.5, 40 and 11 m in height, length and width respectively in agricultural research center of jiroft and kahnooj to study these effects. Both of greenhouses are similar in materials, final height, gutter height, covering and field operation but in one of them one heating system, two ventilation fans and one wooden pad were assembled and temperature and humidity besides yield were registered in both of them. The results showed that temperature changing trend inside and outside of the unheated greenhouse were in same phase and this isn't suitable in cold night so the greenhouse with heating system had more yield and picking cucumber fruit numbers than another. Therefore it is necessary to be heated by artificial systems. Because of rapid relative humidity changing in outside of greenhouse in the end of the season, the efficiency of fan and pads cooling system is so low then using of evaporating cooling systems such as fans and pad wasn't proposed and recommend to optimize the temperature by ventilation and shading the greenhouse and in hot days production will be cut.

  12. Modeling indoor odor-odorant concentrations and the relative humidity effect on odor perception at a water reclamation plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tingting; Sattayatewa, Chakkrid; Venkatesan, Dhesikan; Noll, Kenneth E.; Pagilla, Krishna R.; Moschandreas, Demetrios J.

    2011-12-01

    Models formulated to associate odors and odorants in many industrial and agricultural fields ignore the potential effect of relative humidity on odor perception, and are not validated. This study addresses literature limitations by formulating a model that includes relative humidity and by validating the model. The model employs measured paired values, n = 102, of indoor odors and odorants from freshly dewatered biosolids in a post-digestion dewatering building of a Water Reclamation Plant (WRP). A random sub-sample of n = 32 is used to validate the model by associating predicted vs. measured values ( R2 = 0.90). The model is validated again with a smaller independent database from a second WRP ( R2 = 0.85). Moreover this study asserts that reduction of hydrogen sulfide concentrations, conventionally used as a surrogate of sewage odors, to acceptable levels does not assure acceptable odor levels. It is concluded that: (1) The addition of relative humidity results in a stronger association between odors and odorants than the use of H 2S alone; (2) the two step model validation indicates that the model is not simply site-specific but can be applied to similar facilities; and (3) the model is a promising tool for designing odor and odorant control strategies, the ultimate goal of engineering studies.

  13. The effects of temperature and humidity on the growth of tin whisker and hillock from Sn5Nd alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Cai-Fu [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Liu, Zhi-Quan, E-mail: zqliu@imr.ac.cn [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Shang, Jian-Ku [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tin whiskers and hillocks grow from Sn5Nd alloy due to oxidation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Temperature and humidity can affect the oxidation and the growth diversities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Growth models of whiskers and hillocks were proposed upon microstructural study. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The proposed models can explain the characteristics of whiskers and hillocks. - Abstract: The effects of exposure time, temperature and humidity on the growth of tin whisker and hillock from Sn5Nd alloy were investigated via scanning electron microscopy. It was found that tin whiskers grew from NdSn{sub 3} compound, while hillocks grew from the tin matrix around the NdSn{sub 3} compound, which was induced by the oxidation of NdSn{sub 3} compound by oxygen and water vapor in the ambient. More tin whiskers and/or hillocks were extruded from the substrate with longer exposure time, higher temperature and higher humidity. This resulted in the formation of various morphologies of tin extrusions at different storage conditions, including thread-like, spiral, flute-like, claw-like, sprout-like, chrysanthemum-like and rod-like whiskers, as well as hillocks. Tin whisker was extruded from the crack of the surface Nd(OH){sub 3} layer which serves as the mold of tin whisker growth. And the proposed growth models of tin whisker and hillock on Sn-Nd alloy can explain the diversity of the whisker morphology.

  14. Low-Cost Humidity Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laue, E. G.

    1986-01-01

    Electronic humidity sensor is simple, inexpensive, and produces output readily used by indicator or control circuits. Sensor operates at safe, low voltage and is relatively invulnerable to electrolysis effects. Sensor used to measure humidity in atmosphere, in soil, and industrial gases, for example.

  15. Recommended values of the humidity correction factor k{sub n} for determining exposure in an X-ray beam with free-air chambers; Valores recomendados del factor de correccion por humedad, k{sub h} para la determinacion de la exposicion en un haz de rayos X usando camaras de paredes de aire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Los Arcos, J.M.; Brosed, A.

    1983-07-01

    The experimental values stated by CCEMRI (Section I) concerning the humidity correction factor k{sub h} required for determining exposure in an X-ray beam with free-air chambers are commented and a method to estimate k{sub n} numerically, at any particular combination of relative humidity, pressure and temperature, la explained. A table of k{sub h}, calculated for relative humidity varying from 0% to 90%, for pressures in the range of 70 kPa to 104kPa and temperatures between 15 degree centigree and 30 degree centigree, is included. (Author) 10 refs.

  16. Formaldehyde Emissions from Urea-Formaldehyde- and no-added-formaldehyde-Bonded particleboard as Influenced by Temperature and Relative Humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart; James M. Wescott; Timothy L. Chaffee; Kyle M. Gonner

    2012-01-01

    It is well documented that temperature and humidity can influence formaldehyde emissions from composite panels that are produced using urea-formaldehyde (UF)–type adhesives. This work investigates the effect of temperature and humidity on newer commercial California Air Resources Board (CARB) phase II–compliant particleboard produced with UF-type adhesives. These...

  17. VAB Temperature and Humidity Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, John E.; Youngquist, Robert C.; Muktarian, Edward; Nurge, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, 17 data loggers were placed in the VAB to measure temperature and humidity at 10-minute intervals over a one-year period. In 2013, the data loggers were replaced with an upgraded model and slight adjustments to their locations were made to reduce direct solar heating effects. The data acquired by the data loggers was compared to temperature data provided by three wind towers located around the building. It was found that the VAB acts as a large thermal filter, delaying and reducing the thermal oscillations occurring outside of the building. This filtering is typically more pronounced at higher locations in the building, probably because these locations have less thermal connection with the outside. We surmise that the lower elevations respond more to outside temperature variations because of air flow through the doors. Temperatures inside the VAB rarely exceed outdoor temperatures, only doing so when measurements are made directly on a surface with connection to the outside (such as a door or wall) or when solar radiation falls directly on the sensor. A thermal model is presented to yield approximate filter response times for various locations in the building. Appendix A contains historical thermal and humidity data from 1994 to 2009.

  18. Effects of prenatal exposure to air pollution on preeclampsia in Shenzhen, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiong; Zhang, Huanhuan; Liang, Qianhong; Knibbs, Luke D; Ren, Meng; Li, Changchang; Bao, Junzhe; Wang, Suhan; He, Yiling; Zhu, Lei; Wang, Xuemei; Zhao, Qingguo; Huang, Cunrui

    2018-02-18

    The impact of ambient air pollution on pregnant women is a concern in China. However, little is known about the association between air pollution and preeclampsia and the potential modifying effects of meteorological conditions have not been assessed. This study aimed to assess the effects of prenatal exposure to air pollution on preeclampsia, and to explore whether temperature and humidity modify the effects. We performed a retrospective cohort study based on 1.21 million singleton births from the birth registration system in Shenzhen, China, between 2005 and 2012. Daily average measurements of particulate matter pollution and preeclampsia during the first and second trimesters, and during the entire pregnancy. In each time window, we observed a positive gradient of increasing preeclampsia risk with increasing quartiles of PM 10 and SO 2 exposure. When stratified by T and T d in three categories (95th percentile), we found a significant interaction between PM 10 and T d on preeclampsia; the adverse effects of PM 10 increased with T d . During the entire pregnancy, there was a null association between PM 10 and preeclampsia under T d   95th percentile. We also found that air pollution effects on preeclampsia in autumn/winter seasons were stronger than those in the spring/summer. This is the first study to address modifying effects of meteorological factors on the association between air pollution and preeclampsia. Findings indicate that prenatal exposure to PM 10 and SO 2 increase preeclampsia risk in Shenzhen, China, and the effects could be modified by humidity. Pregnant women should limit air pollution exposure, particularly during humid periods. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of water nanodroplets on skin moisture and viscoelasticity during air-conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Hideo; Nishimura, Naoki; Yamada, Kuniyuki; Shimizu, Yuuki; Iwase, Satoshi; Sugenoya, Junichi; Sato, Motohiko

    2013-11-01

    In air-conditioned rooms, dry air exacerbates some skin diseases, for example, senile xerosis, atopic dermatitis, and surface roughness. Humidifiers are used to improve air dryness, which often induces excess humidity and thermal discomfort. To address this issue, we investigated the effects of water nanodroplets (mist) on skin hydration, which may increase skin hydration by penetrating into the interstitial spaces between corneocytes of the stratum corneum (SC) without increasing air humidity. We examined biophysical parameters, including skin conductance and transepidermal water loss (TEWL), and biomechanical parameters of skin distension/retraction before and after suction at the forehead, lateral canthus, and cheek, with or without mist, in a testing environment (24°C, 35% relative humidity) for 120 min. In the group without mist, TEWL values significantly decreased at all the sites after 1 h compared with the initial values. However, in the presence of mist, TEWL values were maintained at the initial values through the test, yielding significant differences vs. the group without mist. There were no significant differences between mist and mist-free groups in terms of skin conductance. Skin distension was significantly increased in the group with mist compared with that in the group without mist at the forehead and cheek, suggesting a softening effect of mist. Skin deformation of the face was improved by mist, suggesting hydration of the SC by mist. The change in TEWL was influenced by mist, suggesting supply of water to the skin, particularly the SC, by mist. These data indicated that a mist of water nanodroplets played an important role in softening skin in an air-conditioned room without increasing excess humidity. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Relative Effects of Temperature, Light, and Humidity on Clinging Behavior of Metacercariae-Infected Ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botnevik, C F; Malagocka, J; Jensen, A B; Fredensborg, B L

    2016-10-01

    The lancet fluke, Dicrocoelium dendriticum, is perhaps the best-known example of parasite manipulation of host behavior, which is manifested by a radically changed behavior that leaves infected ants attached to vegetation at times when transmission to an herbivore host is optimal. Despite the publicity surrounding this parasite, curiously little is known about factors inducing and maintaining behavioral changes in its ant intermediate host. This study examined the importance of 3 environmental factors on the clinging behavior of red wood ants, Formica polyctena , infected with D. dendriticum . This behavior, hypothesized to involve cramping of the mandibular muscles in a state of tetany, was observed in naturally infected F. polyctena under controlled temperature, light, and humidity conditions. We found that low temperature significantly stimulated and maintained tetany in infected ants while light, humidity, ant size, and infection intensity had no influence on this behavior. Under none of the experimental conditions did uninfected ants attach to vegetation, demonstrating that tetany was induced by D. dendriticum . Temperature likely has a direct impact on the initiation of clinging behavior, but it may also serve as a simple but reliable indicator of the encounter rate between infected ants and ruminant definitive hosts. In addition, temperature-sensitive behavior manipulation may protect infected ants from exposure to temperatures in the upper thermal range of the host.

  1. Heterogeneous Reactions of Acetic Acid with Oxide Surfaces: Effects of Mineralogy and Relative Humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Mingjin; Larish, Whitney A; Fang, Yuan; Gankanda, Aruni; Grassian, Vicki H

    2016-07-21

    We have investigated the heterogeneous uptake of gaseous acetic acid on different oxides including γ-Al2O3, SiO2, and CaO under a range of relative humidity conditions. Under dry conditions, the uptake of acetic acid leads to the formation of both acetate and molecularly adsorbed acetic acid on γ-Al2O3 and CaO and only molecularly adsorbed acetic acid on SiO2. More importantly, under the conditions of this study, dimers are the major form for molecularly adsorbed acetic acid on all three particle surfaces investigated, even at low acetic acid pressures under which monomers are the dominant species in the gas phase. We have also determined saturation surface coverages for acetic acid adsorption on these three oxides under dry conditions as well as Langmuir adsorption constants in some cases. Kinetic analysis shows that the reaction rate of acetic acid increases by a factor of 3-5 for γ-Al2O3 when relative humidity increases from 0% to 15%, whereas for SiO2 particles, acetic acid and water are found to compete for surface adsorption sites.

  2. Temperature and Humidity Control in Livestock Stables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael; Andersen, Palle; Nielsen, Kirsten M.

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes temperature and humidity control of a livestock stable. It is important to have a correct air flow pattern in the livestock stable in order to achieve proper temperature and humidity control as well as to avoid draught. In the investigated livestock stable the air flow...... is controlled using wall mounted ventilation flaps. In the paper an algorithm for air flow control is presented meeting the needs for temperature and humidity while taking the air flow pattern in consideration. To obtain simple and realisable controllers a model based control design method is applied....... In the design dynamic models for temperature and humidity are very important elements and effort is put into deriving and testing the models. It turns out that non-linearities are dominating in both models making feedback linearization the natural design method. The air controller as well as the temperature...

  3. Effects of air pollution on meteorological parameters during Deepawali festival over an Indian urban metropolis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Upal; Talukdar, Shamitaksha; Jana, Soumyajyoti; Maitra, Animesh

    2014-12-01

    Atmospheric pollutants (NO2, SO2, PM10, BC, CO, surface O3), emitted during fireworks display, have significant effects on meteorological parameters like air temperature, relative humidity, lapse rate and visibility in air over Kolkata (22°65‧ N, 88°45‧ E), a metropolitan city near the land-ocean boundary, on the eve of Deepawali festival when extensive fireworks are burnt. Long-term trend (2005-2013), indicates that the yearly average concentrations of both primary and secondary air pollutants have increased, exceeding the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) limit, on the respective Deepawali days. Short-term study (2012-2013) during the festival shows that the average pollutant concentrations have increased too compared to normal days. This study also reveals the immediate effects of the increased air pollutants on the boundary layer meteorology. PM10 has been found to be the most dominant atmospheric pollutants during this period. As a result of an increase in atmospheric heat content with elevated surface air temperature, a significant increase in the environmental lapse rate bears a signature of the influence of pollutants on the boundary layer temperature profile. A change in the diurnal pattern of relative humidity as well as in the vertical temperature profile is due to the change of the lapse rate during the festival days. Thus, the atmospheric pollutants during this festival over the urban region have significant effect on the boundary layer meteorology with bearings on environmental hazards.

  4. A model on the effect of temperature and moisture on pollen longevity in air-dry storage environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hong, T.D.; Ellis, R.H.; Buitink, J.; Walters, J.; Hoekstra, F.A.; Crane, J.

    1999-01-01

    Data on the survival of pollen ofTypha latifoliaL. stored for up to 261 d over seven different saturated salt solutions (providing 0.5 to 66% relative humidity) and six different constant temperatures (from −5 to +45 °C) were analysed to quantify the effect of air-dry storage environment on pollen

  5. ABA induces H2O2 production in guard cells, but does not close the stomata on Vicia faba leaves developed at high air humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arve, Louise E; Carvalho, Dália RA; Olsen, Jorunn E; Torre, Sissel

    2014-01-01

    Plants developed under constant high (> 85%) relative air humidity (RH) have larger stomata that are unable to close completely. One of the hypotheses for the less responsive stomata is that the plants have reduced sensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA). Both ABA and darkness are signals for stomatal closure and induce the production of the secondary messenger hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In this study, the ability of Vicia faba plants developed in moderate or high RH to close the stomata in response to darkness, ABA and H2O2 was investigated. Moreover, the ability of the plants to produce H2O2 when treated with ABA or transferred to darkness was also assessed. Our results show that the ABA concentration in moderate RH is not increased during darkness even though the stomata are closing. This indicates that stomatal closure in V. faba during darkness is independent of ABA production. ABA induced both H2O2 production and stomatal closure in stomata formed at moderate RH. H2O2 production, as a result of treatment with ABA, was also observed in stomata formed at high RH, though the closing response was considerably smaller as compared with moderate RH. In either RH, leaf ABA concentration was not affected by darkness. Similarly to ABA treatment, darkness elicited both H2O2 production and stomatal closure following plant cultivation at moderate RH. Contrary to this, neither H2O2 production nor stomatal closure took place when stomata were formed at high RH. These results suggest that the reduced stomatal response in plants developed in continuous high RH is caused by one or more factors downstream of H2O2 in the signaling pathway toward stomatal closure. PMID:25763494

  6. ABA induces H2O2 production in guard cells, but does not close the stomata on Vicia faba leaves developed at high air humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arve, Louise E; Carvalho, Dália R A; Olsen, Jorunn E; Torre, Sissel

    2014-01-01

    Plants developed under constant high (> 85%) relative air humidity (RH) have larger stomata that are unable to close completely. One of the hypotheses for the less responsive stomata is that the plants have reduced sensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA). Both ABA and darkness are signals for stomatal closure and induce the production of the secondary messenger hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In this study, the ability of Vicia faba plants developed in moderate or high RH to close the stomata in response to darkness, ABA and H2O2 was investigated. Moreover, the ability of the plants to produce H2O2 when treated with ABA or transferred to darkness was also assessed. Our results show that the ABA concentration in moderate RH is not increased during darkness even though the stomata are closing. This indicates that stomatal closure in V. faba during darkness is independent of ABA production. ABA induced both H2O2 production and stomatal closure in stomata formed at moderate RH. H2O2 production, as a result of treatment with ABA, was also observed in stomata formed at high RH, though the closing response was considerably smaller as compared with moderate RH. In either RH, leaf ABA concentration was not affected by darkness. Similarly to ABA treatment, darkness elicited both H2O2 production and stomatal closure following plant cultivation at moderate RH. Contrary to this, neither H2O2 production nor stomatal closure took place when stomata were formed at high RH. These results suggest that the reduced stomatal response in plants developed in continuous high RH is caused by one or more factors downstream of H2O2 in the signaling pathway toward stomatal closure.

  7. Tensile behaviour of natural fibres. Effect of loading rate, temperature and humidity on the “accommodation” phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Placet V.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of natural fibres in high performance composite requires an accurate understanding of the mechanical behaviour of the fibres themselves. As for all biobased materials, the mechanical properties of natural fibres depend generally on the testing rate and on the environmental conditions. In addition, natural fibres as hemp for example exhibit a particular mechanism of stiffness increase and accommodation phenomena under cyclic loading. Loading rate, temperature and humidity effects on the viscoelastic properties of hemp fibres were investigated in this work. The collected results clearly emphasis the involvement of time-dependant and mechano-sorptive mechanisms.

  8. The effect of ambient temperature and humidity on the carbon monoxide emissions of an idling gas turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, C. W.; Subramaniam, A. K.

    1977-01-01

    Changes in ambient temperature and humidity affect the exhaust emissions of a gas turbine engine. The results of a test program employing a JT8D combustor are presented which quantize the effect of these changes on carbon monoxide emissions at simulated idle operating conditions. Analytical results generated by a kinetic model of the combustion process and reflecting changing ambient conditions are given. It is shown that for a complete range of possible ambient variations, significant changes do occur in the amount of carbon monoxide emitted by a gas turbine engine.

  9. Effects of street canyon design on pedestrian thermal comfort in the hot-humid area of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yufeng; Du, Xiaohan; Shi, Yurong

    2017-08-01

    The design characteristics of street canyons were investigated in Guangzhou in the hot-humid area of China, and the effects of the design factors and their interactions on pedestrian thermal comfort were studied by numerical simulations. The ENVI-met V4.0 (BASIC) model was validated by field observations and used to simulate the micrometeorological conditions and the standard effective temperature (SET) at pedestrian level of the street canyons for a typical summer day of Guangzhou. The results show that the micrometeorological parameters of mean radiant temperature (MRT) and wind speed play key roles in pedestrian thermal comfort. Street orientation has the largest contribution on SET at pedestrian level, followed by aspect ratio and greenery, while surface albedo and interactions between factors have small contributions. The street canyons oriented southeast-northwest or with a higher aspect ratio provide more shade, higher wind speed, and better thermal comfort conditions for pedestrians. Compared with the east-west-oriented street canyons, the north-south-oriented street canyons have higher MRTs and worse pedestrian thermal comfort due to their wider building spacing along the street. The effects of greenery change with the road width and the time of the day. Street canyon design is recommended to improve pedestrian thermal comfort. This study provides a better understanding of the effects of street canyon design on pedestrian thermal comfort and is a useful guide on urban design for the hot-humid area of China.

  10. Effect of relative humidity and product moisture on response of diapausing and nondiapausing Indianmeal moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae to low pressure treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J A

    2010-06-01

    Low pressure treatment in flexible polyvinyl chloride containers is a potential alternative to chemical fumigants for California tree nuts. Laboratory studies investigated the effect of relative humidity and product moisture on weight loss and mortality of diapausing and nondiapausing larvae of the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), exposed to 50 mmHg. Diapausing larvae were far more tolerant than nondiapausing larvae to low pressure; exposure times nearly twice those of nondiapausing larvae were required to obtain comparable weight loss or mortality levels in diapausing larvae. Relative humidity was found to have a large effect on both weight loss (assumed to be due to moisture loss) and mortality of both nondiapausing and diapausing larvae. Mortality and weight loss increased as humidity levels decreased. By controlling the relative humidity of the treatment chamber, product moisture also strongly affected weight loss and mortality. The results suggest that for tree nuts, product moisture levels may affect the efficacy of low pressure treatments.

  11. Numerical implementation and oceanographic application of the thermodynamic potentials of liquid water, water vapour, ice, seawater and humid air – Part 2: The library routines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Wright

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The SCOR/IAPSO1 Working Group 127 on Thermodynamics and Equation of State of Seawater has prepared recommendations for new methods and algorithms for numerical estimation of the the thermophysical properties of seawater. As an outcome of this work, a new International Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater (TEOS–10 was endorsed by IOC/UNESCO2 in June 2009 as the official replacement and extension of the 1980 International Equation of State, EOS-80. As part of this new standard a source code package has been prepared that is now made freely available to users via the World Wide Web. This package includes two libraries referred to as the SIA (Sea-Ice-Air library and the GSW (Gibbs SeaWater library. Information on the GSW library may be found on the TEOS-10 web site (http://www.TEOS-10.org. This publication provides an introduction to the SIA library which contains routines to calculate various thermodynamic properties as discussed in the companion paper. The SIA library is very comprehensive, including routines to deal with fluid water, ice, seawater and humid air as well as equilibrium states involving various combinations of these, with equivalent code developed in different languages. The code is hierachically structured in modules that support (i almost unlimited extension with respect to additional properties or relations, (ii an extraction of self-contained sub-libraries, (iii separate updating of the empirical thermodynamic potentials, and (iv code verification on different platforms and between different languages. Error trapping is implemented to identify when one or more of the primary routines are accessed significantly beyond their established range of validity. The initial version of the SIA library is available in Visual Basic and FORTRAN as a supplement to this publication and updates will be maintained on the TEOS-10 web site.

    1

  12. Numerical implementation and oceanographic application of the thermodynamic potentials of liquid water, water vapour, ice, seawater and humid air - Part 2: The library routines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, D. G.; Feistel, R.; Reissmann, J. H.; Miyagawa, K.; Jackett, D. R.; Wagner, W.; Overhoff, U.; Guder, C.; Feistel, A.; Marion, G. M.

    2010-07-01

    The SCOR/IAPSO1 Working Group 127 on Thermodynamics and Equation of State of Seawater has prepared recommendations for new methods and algorithms for numerical estimation of the the thermophysical properties of seawater. As an outcome of this work, a new International Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater (TEOS-10) was endorsed by IOC/UNESCO2 in June 2009 as the official replacement and extension of the 1980 International Equation of State, EOS-80. As part of this new standard a source code package has been prepared that is now made freely available to users via the World Wide Web. This package includes two libraries referred to as the SIA (Sea-Ice-Air) library and the GSW (Gibbs SeaWater) library. Information on the GSW library may be found on the TEOS-10 web site (http://www.TEOS-10.org). This publication provides an introduction to the SIA library which contains routines to calculate various thermodynamic properties as discussed in the companion paper. The SIA library is very comprehensive, including routines to deal with fluid water, ice, seawater and humid air as well as equilibrium states involving various combinations of these, with equivalent code developed in different languages. The code is hierachically structured in modules that support (i) almost unlimited extension with respect to additional properties or relations, (ii) an extraction of self-contained sub-libraries, (iii) separate updating of the empirical thermodynamic potentials, and (iv) code verification on different platforms and between different languages. Error trapping is implemented to identify when one or more of the primary routines are accessed significantly beyond their established range of validity. The initial version of the SIA library is available in Visual Basic and FORTRAN as a supplement to this publication and updates will be maintained on the TEOS-10 web site. 1SCOR/IAPSO: Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research/International Association for the Physical Sciences of the Oceans 2

  13. Climate Change and Air Pollution: Effects on Respiratory Allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, Gennaro; Pawankar, Ruby; Vitale, Carolina; Lanza, Maurizia; Molino, Antonio; Stanziola, Anna; Sanduzzi, Alessandro; Vatrella, Alessandro; D'Amato, Maria

    2016-09-01

    A body of evidence suggests that major changes involving the atmosphere and the climate, including global warming induced by anthropogenic factors, have impact on the biosphere and human environment. Studies on the effects of climate change on respiratory allergy are still lacking and current knowledge is provided by epidemiological and experimental studies on the relationship between allergic respiratory diseases, asthma and environmental factors, such as meteorological variables, airborne allergens, and air pollution. Urbanization with its high levels of vehicle emissions, and a westernized lifestyle are linked to the rising frequency of respiratory allergic diseases and bronchial asthma observed over recent decades in most industrialized countries. However, it is not easy to evaluate the impact of climate changes and air pollution on the prevalence of asthma in the general population and on the timing of asthma exacerbations, although the global rise in asthma prevalence and severity could also be an effect of air pollution and climate change. Since airborne allergens and air pollutants are frequently increased contemporaneously in the atmosphere, an enhanced IgE-mediated response to aeroallergens and enhanced airway inflammation could account for the increasing frequency of respiratory allergy and asthma in atopic subjects in the last 5 decades. Pollen allergy is frequently used to study the relationship between air pollution and respiratory allergic diseases, such as rhinitis and bronchial asthma. Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that urbanization, high levels of vehicle emissions, and westernized lifestyle are correlated with an increased frequency of respiratory allergy prevalently in people who live in urban areas in comparison with people living in rural areas. Climatic factors (temperature, wind speed, humidity, thunderstorms, etc.) can affect both components (biological and chemical) of this interaction.

  14. The effects of building-related factors on classroom relative humidity among North Carolina schools participating in the 'Free to Breathe, Free to Teach' study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelon-Gaetz, K A; Richardson, D B; Lipton, D M; Marshall, S W; Lamb, B; LoFrese, T

    2015-12-01

    Both high and low indoor relative humidity (RH) directly impact Indoor Air Quality (IAQ), an important school health concern. Prior school studies reported a high prevalence of mold, roaches, and water damage; however, few examined associations between modifiable classroom factors and RH, a quantitative indicator of dampness. We recorded RH longitudinally in 134 North Carolina classrooms (n = 9066 classroom-days) to quantify the relationships between modifiable classroom factors and average daily RH below, within, or above levels recommended to improve school IAQ (30-50% or 30-60% RH). The odds of having high RH (>60%) were 5.8 [95% Confidence Interval (CI): 2.9, 11.3] times higher in classrooms with annual compared to quarterly heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system maintenance and 2.5 (95% CI: 1.5, 4.2) times higher in classrooms with HVAC economizers compared to those without economizers. Classrooms with direct-expansion split systems compared to chilled water systems had 2.7 (95% CI: 1.7, 4.4) times higher odds of low RH (60%) of those without setbacks. This research suggests actionable decision points for school design and maintenance to prevent high or low classroom RH. This study combines longitudinal measurements of classroom relative humidity with school inspection data from several schools to describe the problem of relative humidity control in schools. Our findings on how maintenance and mechanical factors affect classroom humidity provide suggestions on building operations policies and heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) design considerations that may improve classroom relative humidity control. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Cool and dry weather enhances the effects of air pollution on emergency IHD hospital admissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Hong; Yu, Ignatius Tak-Sun; Wang, Xiaorong; Tian, Linwei; Tse, Lap Ah; Wong, Tze Wai

    2013-09-20

    Associations between ambient pollution and cardiovascular morbidity including ischemic heart disease (IHD) have been confirmed. Weather factors such as temperature, season and relative humidity (RH) may modify the effects of pollution. We conducted this study to examine the effects of air pollution on emergency IHD hospital admissions varied across seasons and RH levels, and to explore the possible joint modification of weather factors on pollution effects. Daily time series of air pollution concentrations, mean temperature and RH were collected from IHD hospital admissions from 1998 to 2007 in Hong Kong. We used generalized additive Poisson models with interaction term to estimate the pollution effects varied across seasons and RH levels, after adjusting for time trends, weather conditions, and influenza outbreaks. An increase in the detrimental effects of air pollution in cool season and on low humidity days was observed. In the cool and dry season, a 10 μg/m(3) increment of lag03 exposure was associated with an increase of emergency IHD admissions by 1.82% (95% CI: 1.24-2.40%), 3.89% (95% CI: 3.08-4.70%), and 2.19% (95% CI: 1.33-3.06%) for particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm (PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3), respectively. The effects of pollutants decreased greatly and lost statistical significance in the warm and humid season. We found season and RH jointly modified the associations between ambient pollution and IHD admissions, resulting in increased IHD admissions in the cool and dry season and reduced admissions in the warm and humid season. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of Sulfur Doping and Humidity on CO2 Capture by Graphite Split Pore: A Theoretical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaofang; Xue, Qingzhong; Chang, Xiao; Zhu, Lei; Ling, Cuicui; Zheng, Haixia

    2017-03-08

    By use of grand canonical Monte Carlo calculations, we study the effects of sulfur doping and humidity on the performance of graphite split pore as an adsorbent for CO2 capture. It is demonstrated that S doping can greatly enhance pure CO2 uptake by graphite split pore. For example, S-graphite split pore with 33.12% sulfur shows a 39.85% rise in pure CO2 uptake (51.001 mmol/mol) compared with pristine graphite split pore at 300 K and 1 bar. More importantly, it is found that S-graphite split pore can still maintain much higher CO2 uptake than that by pristine graphite split pore in the presence of water. Especially, uptake by 33.12% sulfur-doped S-graphite split pore is 51.963 mmol of CO2/mol in the presence of water, which is 44.34% higher than that by pristine graphite split pore at 300 K and 1 bar. In addition, CO2/N2 selectivity of S-graphite split pore increases with increasing S content, resulting from stronger interactions between CO2 and S-graphite split pore. Moreover, by use of density functional theory calculations, we demonstrate that S doping can enhance adsorption energy between CO2 molecules and S-graphene surface at different humidities and furthermore enhance CO2 uptake by S-graphite split pore. Our results indicate that S-graphite split pore is a promising adsorbent material for humid CO2 capture.

  17. Extended effects of air pollution on cardiopulmonary mortality in Vienna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberger, Manfred; Rabczenko, Daniel; Moshammer, Hanns

    BackgroundCurrent standards for fine particulates and nitrogen dioxide are under revision. Patients with cardiovascular disease have been identified as the largest group which need to be protected from effects of urban air pollution. MethodsWe sought to estimate associations between indicators of urban air pollution and daily mortality using time series of daily TSP, PM 10, PM 2.5, NO 2, SO 2, O 3 and nontrauma deaths in Vienna (Austria) 2000-2004. We used polynomial distributed lag analysis adjusted for seasonality, daily temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure and incidence of influenza as registered by sentinels. ResultsAll three particulate measures and NO 2 were associated with mortality from all causes and from ischemic heart disease and COPD at all ages and in the elderly. The magnitude of the effect was largest for PM 2.5 and NO 2. Best predictor of mortality increase lagged 0-7 days was PM 2.5 (for ischemic heart disease and COPD) and NO 2 (for other heart disease and all causes). Total mortality increase, lagged 0-14 days, per 10 μg m -3 was 2.6% for PM 2.5 and 2.9% for NO 2, mainly due to cardiopulmonary and cerebrovascular causes. ConclusionAcute and subacute lethal effects of urban air pollution are predicted by PM 2.5 and NO 2 increase even at relatively low levels of these pollutants. This is consistent with results on hospital admissions and the lack of a threshold. While harvesting (reduction of mortality after short increase due to premature deaths of most sensitive persons) seems to be of minor importance, deaths accumulate during 14 days after an increase of air pollutants. The limit values for PM 2.5 and NO 2 proposed for 2010 in the European Union are unable to prevent serious health effects.

  18. Effects of Thermal and Humidity Aging on the Interfacial Adhesion of Polyketone Fiber Reinforced Natural Rubber Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Ki Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyketone fiber is considered as a reinforcement of the mechanical rubber goods (MRG such as tires, automobile hoses, and belts because of its high strength and modulus. In order to apply it to those purposes, the high adhesion of fiber/rubber interface and good sustainability to aging conditions are very important. In this study, polyketone fiber reinforced natural rubber composites were prepared and they were subjected to thermal and humidity aging, to assess the changes of the interfacial adhesion and material properties. Also, the effect of adhesive primer treatment, based on the resorcinol formaldehyde resin and latex (RFL, of polyketone fiber for high interfacial adhesion was evaluated. Morphological and property changes of the rubber composites were analyzed by using various instrumental analyses. As a result, the rubber composite was aged largely by thermal aging at high temperature rather than humidity aging condition. Interfacial adhesion of the polyketone/NR composites was improved by the primer treatment and its effect was maintained in aging conditions.

  19. The Effects of Particle Size, Relative Humidity, and Sulfur Dioxide on Iron Solubility in Atmospheric Particulate Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartledge, B. T.; Marcotte, A.; Anbar, A. D.; Herckes, P.; Majestic, B. J.

    2014-12-01

    The current study focuses on studying how iron (Fe) solubility is affected by particle size, relative humidity, and exposure to sulfur dioxide (SO2). Fe, the most abundant transition metal in atmospheric particulate matter, plays a critical role in the atmospheric sulfur cycle and is a micronutrient for phytoplankton in remote regions of the ocean. To mimic oceanic particles, iron-containing minerals (hematite, magnetite, goethite, and illite) were resuspended with sodium chloride and size-segregated on Teflon filters into five different size fractions: 10-2.5 μm, 2.5-1.0 μm, 1.0-0.5 μm, 0.5-0.25 μm, and 80%) and arid environment humidity (24%). Trials with no SO2 ­were also performed as comparisons. Total Fe was determined by using microwave-assisted acid digestion and soluble Fe was determined by extracting the samples in a simulated cloud water buffer (pH 4.25, 0.5 mM acetate, 0.5 mM formate, and 0.2 mM ammonium nitrate). Both total and soluble Fe concentrations were determined via inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). We found that, as particle size decreased, Fe percent solubility increased for hematite, magnetite, and goethite. The percent solubility of Fe in these mineral phases steadily increased from 0.5-10% as particle size decreased. In contrast, the Fe percent solubility in illite was relatively constant for the largest four size fractions but increased dramatically in the smallest size fraction. The percent solubility of Fe in illite ranged from 5-20% as the particle size decreased. Additionally, increased Fe solubility was linked to increased relative humidity with higher percent solubility generally observed in all mineral phases for the samples exposed at the higher humidity. No correlation was observed for the effects of the SO2 on Fe percent solubility. The likely lack of Fe-SO2 interactions were also supported by synchrotron-based x-ray spectroscopy. These results help further the knowledge of how the solubilization of

  20. Thermal conductivity at different humidity conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Finn Harken; Rode, Carsten

    1999-01-01

    The thermal conductivity (the l-value) of several alternative insulation products and a traditional product is determined under different humidity conditions in a specially constructed hot plate apparatus.The hot plate apparatus is constructed with an air gap on each side of the test specimen where...... of the thermal conductivity is 3-8% because of the hygroscopic uptake of humidity from the ambient air....

  1. The anthropogenic influence on heat and humidity in the US Midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inda Diaz, H. A.; O'Brien, T. A.; Stone, D. A.

    2016-12-01

    Heatwaves, and extreme temperatures in general, have a wide range of negative impacts on society, and particularly on human health. In addition to temperature, humidity plays a key role in regulating human body temperature, with higher humidities tending to reduce the effectiveness of perspiration. There is recent theoretical and observational evidence that co-occurring extreme heat and humidity can potentially have a much more dramatic impact on human health than either extreme in isolation. There is an abundance of observational evidence indicating that anthropogenic increases in greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing have contributed to an increase in the intensity and frequency of temperature extremes on a global scale. However, aside from purely thermodynamically-driven increases in near-surface humidity, there is a paucity of similar evidence for anthropogenic impacts on humidity. Thermodynamic scaling would suggest that air masses originating from the ocean would be associated with higher specific humidity in a warmer world, and transpiration from irrigated crops could further increase humidity in warm air masses. In order to explore the role of anthropogenic GHG forcing on the co-occurrence of temperature and humidity extremes in the Midwestern United States (US), we evaluate a large ensemble of global climate model simulations with and without anthropogenic GHG forcing. In particular, we examine differences between the probability distributions of near-surface temperature, humidity, wet-bulb temperature, and the joint distribution of temperature and humidity in this ensemble. Finally, we explore augmenting this experimental framework with additional simulations to explore the role of anthropogenic changes in the land surface, and in particular irrigated crops, on co-occurring extreme heat and humidity.

  2. A Cost-Effective Relative Humidity Sensor Based on Side Coupling Induction Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingzi; Hou, Yulong; Liu, Wenyi; Zhang, Huixin; Zhang, Yanjun; Zhang, Zhidong; Guo, Jing; Liu, Jia; Zhang, Liang; Tan, Qiu-Lin

    2017-04-25

    A intensity-modulated optical fiber relative humidity (RH) sensor based on the side coupling induction technology (SCIT) is presented and experimentally demonstrated. The agarose gel and the twisted macro-bend coupling structure are first combined for RH sensing applications. The refractive index (RI) of the agarose gel increases with the increase of the RH and is in linear proportion from 20 to 80%RH. The side coupling power, which changes directly with the RI of the agarose gel, can strip the source noise from the sensor signal and improve the signal to noise ratio substantially. The experiment results show that the sensitivity of the proposed sensor increases while the bend radius decreases. When the bend radius is 8 mm, the sensor has a linear response from 40% to 80% RH with the sensitivity of 4.23 nW/% and the limit of detection of 0.70%. A higher sensitivity of 12.49 nW/% is achieved when RH raises from 80% to 90% and the limit of detection decreases to 0.55%. Furthermore, the proposed sensor is a low-cost solution, offering advantages of good reversibility, fast response time, and compensable temperature dependence.

  3. Combined effect of heat treatment and humidity on total polyphenol content of tartary buckwheat wholeflour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea BRUNORI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Minor crops are gaining new interest due to the high content of bioactive compounds available in their grain and the consequent opportunity to be employed as ingredients for the production of healthy foodstuff. Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn. grain is rich in flavonoids, the most important being represented by rutin, a compound possessing a high health value. When processing bakery products added with Tartary buckwheat whole flour, the key point is to prevent rutin from being hydrolysed to quercetin. In this view, a combination of heat treatment and controlled humidity level was applied for different lengths of time, in the attempt to deactivate the enzymes catalysing the reaction. Tartary buckwheat grain contains other polyphenols also capable to confer health properties. This class of compounds has been associated with the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, cancers, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, and osteoporosis. In this study it was observed how the physical treatments meant to preserve rutin would influence the overall content of polyphenols in Tartary buckwheat whole flour and dough.

  4. Objective and Subjective Responses to Low Relative Humidity in an Office Intervention Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagercrantz, Love Per; Wyon, David; Meyer, H. W.

    2003-01-01

    The impact of dry indoor air on comfort and health in winter was investigated in a crossover intervention study in two floors of an office building in northern Sweden. The indoor air humidity (normally 10-20% RH) was raised to 23-24% RH, one floor at a time, using steam humidifiers. Questionnaires...... and objective (clinical) measurements were applied. The following effects of increased humidity were significant, though small: the air was evaluated as less dry (though still on the dry side of neutral), eyes smarted less (by 10% of full scale) eye irritation decreased (by 11%), symptoms of dry throat, mouth...

  5. Air pollution: worldwide effects on mountain forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne M. Rosenthal; Andrzej Featured: Bytnerowicz

    2004-01-01

    Widespread forest decline in remote areas of the Carpathian Mountains has been linked to air pollution from urban and industrial regions. Besides injuring plant tissues directly, pollutants may deposit to soils and water, drastically changing susceptible ecosystems. Researcher Andrzej Bytnerowicz has developed effective methods for assessing air quality over wildlands...

  6. Biological effects of air pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosting, P.E.; Houten, J.G. ten

    1971-01-01

    Exposure of living organisms to sulphur dioxide, sulphuric acid, fly ash, other particulates, and oxides of nitrogen is discussed from the points of view of air pollution phenomenology, specific and nonspecific responses of plants, animals and man, and environmental and constitutional factors that

  7. Studies of air pollution effects on vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    The report consists of three parts which summarize pollutant-vegetation effects research studies. These include: oxidant effects of primary productivity in ponderosa pine in the San Bernardino National Forest; air pollution effects on vegetation related to geothermal power development; and regional assessment of air pollution impact on vegetation by mathematical modeling. A list of publications that report results of the studies is included in an appendix.

  8. Examining the influence of humidity on reference ionization chamber performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Malcolm R; Taank, Jaswinder

    2017-02-01

    International dosimetry protocols require measurements made with a vented ionization chamber to be corrected for the influence of air density by using the standard temperature-pressure correction factor. The effect of humidity, on the other hand, is generally ignored with the provision that the relative humidity (RH) is within certain limits (typically 20% to 80%). However, there is little experimental data in the published literature as to the true effect of humidity on modern reference-class ionization chambers. This investigation used two different radiation beams - a Co-60 irradiator and an Sr-90 check source - to examine the effect of humidity on several Farmer-type ionization chambers. An environmental cabinet controlled the humidity. For the Co-60 beam, the irradiation was external, whereas for the Sr-90 measurements, the source itself was placed within the cabinet. Extensive measurements were carried out to ensure that the experimental setup provided reproducible readings. Four chamber types were investigated: IBA FC65-G, IBA FC65-P, PTW 30013 and Exradin A19. The different wall materials provided potentially different mechanical responses (i.e., in terms of expansion/contraction) to the water content in the air. The relative humidity was varied between 8% and 98% and measurements were made with both increasing and decreasing humidity to investigate any possible hysteresis effects. Measurements in Co-60 were consistent with the published data obtained with primary standard cavity chambers in ICRU Report 31 (i.e., a very small variation 10%). The measurements in the Sr-90 field showed no dependence with the relative humidity, within the measurement uncertainties (0.05%, k = 1). Very good repeatability of the ionization current was obtained over successive wet/dry cycles, no hysteresis was observed, and there was no dependence on chamber type. These results indicate that humidity has no significant effect on these particular types of ionization chambers

  9. Pulmonary health effects of air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Ozlem Kar; Zhang, Jingjing; Pinkerton, Kent E

    2016-03-01

    Air pollution continues to be a major public health concern affecting nine out of 10 individuals living in urban areas worldwide. Exposure to air pollution is the ninth leading risk factor for cardiopulmonary mortality. The aim of this review is to examine the current literature for the most recent updates on health effects of specific air pollutants and their impact on asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, and respiratory infection. A total of 52 publications were reviewed to establish new insights as to how air pollution is associated with pulmonary morbidity and mortality. Considerable past evidence suggests that air pollution is an important factor that enhances pulmonary disease, while also causing greater harm in susceptible populations, such as children, the elderly, and those of low socio-economic status worldwide. Asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, and respiratory infections all seem to be exacerbated because of exposure to a variety of environmental air pollutants with the greatest effects because of particulate matter, ozone, and nitrogen oxides. New publications reviewed reaffirm these findings. Continued vigilance will be essential to lessen the effects of air pollution on human health and pulmonary disease. Cooperation at a multinational level will be required on the part of governments, industry, energy-based enterprises, and the public working together to solve our air quality issues at the local, national, and global level.

  10. Effect of temperature and relative humidity on the survival of foodborne viruses during food storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su Jin; Si, Jiyeon; Yun, Hyun Sun; Ko, GwangPyo

    2015-03-01

    Millions of people suffer from foodborne diseases throughout the world every year, and the importance of food safety has grown worldwide in recent years. The aim of this study was to investigate the survival of hepatitis A virus (HAV) and viral surrogates of human norovirus (HuNoV) (bacteriophage MS2 and murine norovirus [MNV]) in food over time. HAV, MNV, and MS2 were inoculated onto either the digestive gland of oysters or the surface of fresh peppers, and their survival on these food matrices was measured under various temperature (4°C, 15°C, 25°C, and 40°C) and relative humidity (RH) (50% and 70%) conditions. Inoculated viruses were recovered from food samples and quantified by a plaque assay at predetermined time points over 2 weeks (0, 1, 3, 7, 10, and 14 days). Virus survival was influenced primarily by temperature. On peppers at 40°C and at 50% RH, >4- and 6-log reductions of MNV and HAV, respectively, occurred within 1 day. All three viruses survived better on oysters. In addition, HAV survived better at 70% RH than at 50% RH. The survival data for HAV, MS2, and MNV were fit to three different mathematical models (linear, Weibull, and biphasic models). Among them, the biphasic model was optimum in terms of goodness of fit. The results of this study suggest that major foodborne viruses such as HAV and HuNoV can survive over prolonged periods of time with a limited reduction in numbers. Because a persistence of foodborne virus on contaminated foods was observed, precautionary preventive measures should be performed. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Development of Smart Ventilation Control Algorithms for Humidity Control in High-Performance Homes in Humid U.S. Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Less, Brennan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ticci, Sara [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-04-11

    , Orlando, Houston, Charleston, Memphis and Baltimore). The control options were compared to a baseline system that supplies outdoor air to a central forced air cooling (and heating) system (CFIS) that is often used in hot humid climates. Simulations were performed with CFIS ventilation systems operating on a 33% duty-cycle, consistent with 62.2-2013. The CFIS outside airflow rates were set to 0%, 50% and 100% of 62.2-2013 requirements to explore effects of ventilation rate on indoor high humidity. These simulations were performed with and without a dehumidifier in the model. Ten control algorithms were developed and tested. Analysis of outdoor humidity patterns facilitated smart control development. It was found that outdoor humidity varies most strongly seasonally—by month of the year—and that all locations follow the similar pattern of much higher humidity during summer. Daily and hourly variations in outdoor humidity were found to be progressively smaller than the monthly seasonal variation. Patterns in hourly humidity are driven by diurnal daily patterns, so they were predictable but small, and were unlikely to provide much control benefit. Variation in outdoor humidity between days was larger, but unpredictable, except by much more complex climate models. We determined that no-sensor strategies might be able to take advantage of seasonal patterns in humidity, but that real-time smart controls were required to capture variation between days. Sensor-based approaches are also required to respond dynamically to indoor conditions and variations not considered in our analysis. All smart controls face trade-offs between sensor accuracy, cost, complexity and robustness.

  12. Energy conservation in high-rise buildings: changes in air conditioning load induced by vertical temperature and humidity profile in Delhi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, S. [Institute of Social Forestry and Eco-rehabilitation, ICFRE, Allahabad (India); Kumar, Sanjay [Indian Inst. of Technology, Centre for Atmospheric Sciences, New Delhi (India); Kumar, N. [MIT, Civil Engineering Dept., Bihar (India)

    1998-12-31

    Temperature and humidity profiles in the upper atmosphere are different from those observed by ground level meteorological stations and used to design HVAC systems for high-rise buildings. There exist correlations among solar energy, atmospheric turbidity and pollutants in urban areas, affecting the temperature and humidity profiles with variation in height. In the present study, a theoretical model is developed considering these parameters, and the HVAC load is calculated. The results are compared with the HVAC load calculated from data obtained from the meteorological station, and the comparison showed that the results differ significantly (20%) for a hypothetical 200 m high office building. (Author)

  13. Secondary organic aerosol formation from the β-pinene+NO3 system: effect of humidity and peroxy radical fate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, C. M.; Sanchez, J.; Xu, L.; Eugene, A. J.; Nah, T.; Tuet, W. Y.; Guzman, M. I.; Ng, N. L.

    2015-07-01

    The formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from the oxidation of β-pinene via nitrate radicals is investigated in the Georgia Tech Environmental Chamber (GTEC) facility. Aerosol yields are determined for experiments performed under both dry (relative humidity (RH) organic nitrate species (with molecular weights of 215, 229, 231, and 245 amu, which likely correspond to molecular formulas of C10H17NO4, C10H15NO5, C10H17NO5, and C10H15NO6, respectively) are detected by chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) and their formation mechanisms are proposed. The NO+ (at m/z 30) and NO2+ (at m/z 46) ions contribute about 11 % to the combined organics and nitrate signals in the typical aerosol mass spectrum, with the NO+ : NO2+ ratio ranging from 4.8 to 10.2 in all experiments conducted. The SOA yields in the "RO2 + NO3 dominant" and "RO2 + HO2 dominant" experiments are comparable. For a wide range of organic mass loadings (5.1-216.1 μg m-3), the aerosol mass yield is calculated to be 27.0-104.1 %. Although humidity does not appear to affect SOA yields, there is evidence of particle-phase hydrolysis of organic nitrates, which are estimated to compose 45-74 % of the organic aerosol. The extent of organic nitrate hydrolysis is significantly lower than that observed in previous studies on photooxidation of volatile organic compounds in the presence of NOx. It is estimated that about 90 and 10 % of the organic nitrates formed from the β-pinene+NO3 reaction are primary organic nitrates and tertiary organic nitrates, respectively. While the primary organic nitrates do not appear to hydrolyze, the tertiary organic nitrates undergo hydrolysis with a lifetime of 3-4.5 h. Results from this laboratory chamber study provide the fundamental data to evaluate the contributions of monoterpene + NO3 reaction to ambient organic aerosol measured in the southeastern United States, including the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) and the Southeastern Center for Air Pollution

  14. Effects of grain size and humidity on fretting wear in fine-grained alumina, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/TiC, and zirconia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krell, A. [Fraunhofer Inst. for Ceramic Technologies and Sintered Materials, Dresden (Germany); Klaffke, D. [Federal Inst. for Materials Research and Testing, Berlin (Germany)

    1996-05-01

    Friction and wear of sintered alumina with grain sizes between 0.4 and 3 {micro}m were measured in comparison with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/TiC composites and with tetragonal ZrO{sub 2} (3 mol% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}). The dependence on the grain boundary toughness and residual microstresses is investigated, and a hierarchical order of influencing parameters is observed. In air, reduced alumina grain sizes improve the micromechanical stability of the grain boundaries and the hardness, and reduced wear is governed by microplastic deformation, with few pullout events. Humidity and water slightly reduce the friction of all of the investigated ceramics. In water, this effect reduces the wear of coarser alumina microstructures. The wear of aluminas and of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/TiC composite is similar; it is lower than observed in zirconia, where extended surface cracking occurs at grain sizes as small as 0.3 {micro}m.

  15. The competitive status of trees determines their responsiveness to increasing atmospheric humidity - a climate trend predicted for northern latitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tullus, Arvo; Kupper, Priit; Kaasik, Ants; Tullus, Hardi; Lõhmus, Krista; Sõber, Anu; Sellin, Arne

    2017-05-01

    The interactive effects of climate variables and tree-tree competition are still insufficiently understood drivers of forest response to global climate change. Precipitation and air humidity are predicted to rise concurrently at high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. We investigated whether the growth response of deciduous trees to elevated air humidity varies with their competitive status. The study was conducted in seed-originated silver birch and monoclonal hybrid aspen stands grown at the free air humidity manipulation (FAHM) experimental site in Estonia, in which manipulated stands (n = 3 for both species) are exposed to artificially elevated relative air humidity (6-7% over the ambient level). The study period included three growing seasons during which the stands had reached the competitive stage (trees were 7 years old in the final year). A significant 'treatment×competitive status' interactive effect on growth was detected in all years in birch (P humidity. Initially the growth of advantaged and neutral trees of both species remained significantly suppressed in humidified stands. In the following years, dominance and elevated humidity had a synergistic positive effect on the growth of birches. Aspens with different competitive status recovered more uniformly, attaining similar relative growth rates in manipulated and control stands, but preserved a significantly lower total growth yield due to severe initial growth stress. Disadvantaged trees of both species were never significantly affected by elevated humidity. Our results suggest that air humidity affects trees indirectly depending on their social status. Therefore, the response of northern temperate and boreal forests to a more humid climate in future will likely be modified by competitive relationships among trees, which may potentially affect species composition and cause a need to change forestry practices. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Effect of Stocking Density on Performance of Growing Rabbits in Semi-Humid Tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyeghe-Erakpotobor Grace, T.

    2005-01-01

    rabbits as stocking density increases in week 1-2 and 3-4. Feed conversion ratio was poorer at higher densities (16.7, 20 rabbits/m2 than at lower densities (6.7, 10, 13.3 rabbits/m2. There was no definite relationship between stocking density and mortality rate of rabbits. Rabbits stocked at 6.7 to 13.3 rabbits/m2 had significantly higher body condition score and fur condition compared with those stocked at 16.7 and 20 rabbits/m2. There were no differences in fighty bites for all the stocking densities. It is concluded from this study that the optimum stocking density for rabbits in the semi-humid tropics is 13.3 rabbits/m2.

  17. Effects of Relative Humidity on the Molecular Transformation of Aqueous Organic Droplets Oxidized by Gas-Phase Hydroxyl (OH) Radicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chim, M. M.; Chow, C. Y.; Davies, J. F.; Chan, M. N.

    2016-12-01

    Organic aerosols can exist as aqueous droplets, with a variable water content depending on their composition and environmental conditions (e.g. relative humidity (RH)). Recent laboratory studies reveal that oxidations kinetics in highly concentrated droplets can differ from those in dilute solutions. In this work we explore the role of water in the formation of reaction products upon oxidation. We focus on the heterogeneous chemistry of aqueous organic droplets consisting of 2-methylglutaric acid (2-MGA), measuring the reaction kinetics upon heterogeneous OH oxidation over a range of RH. An atmospheric pressure aerosol mass spectrometer, which combines an atmospheric pressure soft ionization source (Direct Analysis in Real Time, DART) with a high-resolution mass spectrometer, is used to obtain real- time molecular information of the reaction products. The analysis of reaction products from the aerosol mass spectra show that the same reaction products are formed at all measured RH. At a given reaction extent of the parent 2-MGA, the aerosol composition is independent of RH. These results suggest the availability of aerosol phase water does not alter the reaction mechanisms significantly. Furthermore, kinetic measurements find that the effective OH uptake coefficient, γOH, decreases with decreasing RH below 72.0 ± 1.5%. Isotopic exchange measurements performed using an aerosol optical tweezers reveal water diffusion coefficients in 2-MGA droplets to be 3.5 × 10-13 to 8.0 × 10-13 ms-1 over the RH range of 52 to 58%. These values represent an upper limit for the diffusion of the larger organic molecules and are comparable to that of other viscous organic aerosols (e.g. citric acid and sucrose), indicating that the 2- MGA droplets are likely to be viscous at low humidity. Taken together, these results suggest that the observed relationship between the γOH and RH may be attributed to the changes in aerosol viscosity rather than changes in reaction mechanisms.

  18. FLUCTUATION EFFECT OF EQUILIBRIUM MOISTURE CONTENT OF LOW SUBGRADE UNDER HIGH GROUNDWATER LEVEL IN HOT AND HUMID CLIMATIC REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Que Yun

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to reveal the fluctuation effect of equilibrium moisture content of low subgrade in hot and humid climatic regions, the effect of temperature on the fluctuation of the equilibrium moisture content of subgrade was analysed. Taking the typical climate and the subgrade soil in Fujian province as an example, three technological methods - theoretical analysis, numerical simulation and indoor simulation experiment - were adopted in the investigation of the fluctuation effect of equilibrium moisture content of subgrade. The results show that, computing results from the formula of the equilibrium moisture content of subgrade, the numerical simulation results are closer to each other in consideration of the temperature effect. The test results can not reflect the relationship between the equilibrium moisture content and the height of embankment. The maximum fluctuation range of the equilibrium moisture content of the cement concrete pavement is less than 2 percent in Fujian area, and this phenomenon presents the effect of the moist-hot climate on the equilibrium moisture content. Equilibrium moisture content presents a declining trend with the increment of the temperature and the compactness. So, if matric potential considering temperature indirectly reflects the influence of thermal potential, then the equilibrium moisture content of low subgrade under high groundwater level can be estimated approximately. The fluctuation range of equilibrium moisture content in different layers of subgrade can be reduced effectively with the increment of the roadbed compaction degree.

  19. Effect of ambient air pollution on the incidence of appendicitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Gilaad G.; Dixon, Elijah; Panaccione, Remo; Fong, Andrew; Chen, Li; Szyszkowicz, Mieczyslaw; Wheeler, Amanda; MacLean, Anthony; Buie, W. Donald; Leung, Terry; Heitman, Steven J.; Villeneuve, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    Background The pathogenesis of appendicitis is unclear. We evaluated whether exposure to air pollution was associated with an increased incidence of appendicitis. Methods We identified 5191 adults who had been admitted to hospital with appendicitis between Apr. 1, 1999, and Dec. 31, 2006. The air pollutants studied were ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, and suspended particulate matter of less than 10 μ and less than 2.5 μ in diameter. We estimated the odds of appendicitis relative to short-term increases in concentrations of selected pollutants, alone and in combination, after controlling for temperature and relative humidity as well as the effects of age, sex and season. Results An increase in the interquartile range of the 5-day average of ozone was associated with appendicitis (odds ratio [OR] 1.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03–1.25). In summer (July–August), the effects were most pronounced for ozone (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.10–1.57), sulfur dioxide (OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.03–1.63), nitrogen dioxide (OR 1.76, 95% CI 1.20–2.58), carbon monoxide (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.01–1.80) and particulate matter less than 10 μ in diameter (OR 1.20, 95% CI 1.05–1.38). We observed a significant effect of the air pollutants in the summer months among men but not among women (e.g., OR for increase in the 5-day average of nitrogen dioxide 2.05, 95% CI 1.21–3.47, among men and 1.48, 95% CI 0.85–2.59, among women). The double-pollutant model of exposure to ozone and nitrogen dioxide in the summer months was associated with attenuation of the effects of ozone (OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.01–1.48) and nitrogen dioxide (OR 1.48, 95% CI 0.97–2.24). Interpretation Our findings suggest that some cases of appendicitis may be triggered by short-term exposure to air pollution. If these findings are confirmed, measures to improve air quality may help to decrease rates of appendicitis. PMID:19805497

  20. Secondary Organic Aerosol (SOA) formation from the β-pinene + NO3 system: effect of humidity and peroxy radical fate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, C. M.; Sanchez, J.; Xu, L.; Eugene, A. J.; Nah, T.; Tuet, W. Y.; Guzman, M. I.; Ng, N. L.

    2015-01-01

    The formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from the oxidation of β-pinene via nitrate radicals is investigated in the Georgia Tech Environmental Chamber facility (GTEC). Aerosol yields are determined for experiments performed under both dry (RH organic nitrate species (with molecular weights of 215, 229, 231 and 245 amu) are detected by chemical ionization mass spectrometry and their formation mechanisms are proposed. The ions at m/z 30 (NO+) and m/z 46 (NO2+) contribute about 11% to the total organics signal in the typical aerosol mass spectrum, with NO+ : NO2+ ratio ranging from 6 to 9 in all experiments conducted. The SOA yields in the "RO2 + NO3 dominant" and "RO2 + HO2 dominant" experiments are comparable. For a wide range of organic mass loadings (5.1-216.1 μg m-3), the aerosol mass yield is calculated to be 27.0-104.1%. Although humidity does not appear to affect SOA yields, there is evidence of particle-phase hydrolysis of organic nitrates, which are estimated to compose 45-74% of the organic aerosol. The extent of organic nitrate hydrolysis is significantly lower than that observed in previous studies on photooxidation of volatile organic compounds in the presence of NOx. It is estimated that about 90 and 10% of the organic nitrates formed from the β-pinene + NO3 reaction are primary organic nitrates and tertiary organic nitrates, respectively. While the primary organic nitrates do not appear to hydrolyze, the tertiary organic nitrates undergo hydrolysis with a lifetime of 3-4.5 h. Results from this laboratory chamber study provide the fundamental data to evaluate the contributions of monoterpene + NO3 reaction to ambient organic aerosol measured in the southeastern United States, including the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) and the Southeastern Center for Air Pollution and Epidemiology (SCAPE) study.

  1. Effect of temperature and humidity on post-gel shrinkage, cusp deformation, bond strength and shrinkage stress - Construction of a chamber to simulate the oral environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicalho, Aline Aredes; de Souza, Silas Júnior Boaventura; de Rosatto, Camila Maria Peres; Tantbirojn, Daranee; Versluis, Antheunis; Soares, Carlos José

    2015-12-01

    Evaluate the effect of environment on post-gel shrinkage (Shr), cuspal strains (CS), microtensile bond strength (μTBS), elastic modulus (E) and shrinkage stress in molars with large class II restorations. Sixty human molars received standardized Class II mesio-oclusal-distal cavity preparations. Restorations were made with two composites (CHA, Charisma Diamond, Heraus Kulzer and IPS Empress Direct, Ivoclar-Vivadent) using three environment conditions (22°C/50% humidity, 37°C/50% humidity and 37°C/90% humidity) simulated in custom developed chamber. Shr was measured using the strain gauge technique (n=10). CS was measured using strain gauges. Half of the teeth (n=5) were used to assess the elastic modulus (E) and Knoop hardness (KHN) at different depths using microhardness indentation. The other half (n=5) was used to measure the μTBS. The composites and environment conditions were simulated in a two-dimensional finite element analysis of a tooth restoration. Polymerization shrinkage was modeled using Shr data. The Shr, CS, μTBS, KHN and E data were statistically analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey test (significance level: 0.05). Both composites had similar Shr, CS, μTBS and shrinkage stress. CHA had higher elastic modulus than IPS. Increasing temperature and humidity significantly increased Shr, CS and shrinkage stress. μTBS were similar for groups with lower humidity, irrespective of temperature, and higher with higher humidity. E and KHN were constant through the depth for CHA. E and KHN values were affected by environment only for IPS, mainly deeper in the cavity. Shrinkage stress at dentin/composite interface had high inverse correlation with μTBS. Shrinkage stress in enamel had high correlation with CS. Increasing temperature and humidity caused higher post-gel shrinkage and cusp deformation with higher shrinkage stresses in the tooth structure and tooth/restoration interface for both composites tested. The chamber developed for simulating the

  2. Case study of airborne fungi according to air temperature and relative humidity in houses with semi-basements adjacent to a forested hillside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamba, Ikuko; Azuma, Michiyo; Hamada, Nobuo; Kubo, Hiroko; Isoda, Norio

    2014-01-01

    We studied airborne concentrations of fungal spores and the thermal environment in houses with semi-basements surrounded by a natural forest. We examined the relationship between airborne fungi and the thermal environment, surrounding natural environment, structures of houses and use of a dehumidifier. The subject residential area was located in the northern part of Nara city, Nara prefecture, Japan. Six detached houses were included in this study. In residential areas, outdoor airborne concentrations were high during summer and autumn, correlated with humidity. The presence of Basidiomycetes was particularly notable, although the indoor concentration was lower than the outdoor level. In the semi-basement rooms, relative humidity was nearly always >80% when the residence was built; however, both the indoor humidity and fungal concentrations decreased greatly when a dehumidifier was used in this study. High levels of Aspergillus and Basidiomycetes were detected in semi-basements. Basidiomycetes are likely of outdoor origin, whereas Aspergillus might grow indoors. Moreover, the composition of fungal species differed according to room-structure and usage. Due to the health risks associated with high indoor concentrations of fungi, the utilization of the semi-basement or basement space requires adequate ventilation and dehumidification, beginning immediately after construction.

  3. Building America Case Study: Ventilation System Effectiveness and Tested Indoor Air Quality Impacts, Tyler, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-08-01

    ?Ventilation system effectiveness testing was conducted at two unoccupied, single-family, detached lab homes at the University of Texas - Tyler. Five ventilation system tests were conducted with various whole-building ventilation systems. Multizone fan pressurization testing characterized building and zone enclosure leakage. PFT testing showed multizone air change rates and interzonal airflow filtration. Indoor air recirculation by a central air distribution system can help improve the exhaust ventilation system by way of air mixing and filtration. In contrast, the supply and balanced ventilation systems showed that there is a significant benefit to drawing outside air from a known outside location, and filtering and distributing that air. Compared to the Exhaust systems, the CFIS and ERV systems showed better ventilation air distribution and lower concentrations of particulates, formaldehyde and other VOCs. System improvement percentages were estimated based on four System Factor Categories: Balance, Distribution, Outside Air Source, and Recirculation Filtration. Recommended System Factors could be applied to reduce ventilation fan airflow rates relative to ASHRAE Standard 62.2 to save energy and reduce moisture control risk in humid climates. HVAC energy savings were predicted to be 8-10%, or $50-$75/year. Cumulative particle counts for six particle sizes, and formaldehyde and other Top 20 VOC concentrations were measured in multiple zones. The testing showed that single-point exhaust ventilation was inferior as a whole-house ventilation strategy.

  4. High Humidity Aerodynamic Effects Study on Offshore Wind Turbine Airfoil/Blade Performance through CFD Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weipeng Yue; Yu Xue; Yan Liu

    2017-01-01

    ...; then CFD modeling study using Fluent was carried out on airfoil and blade aerodynamic performance effects due to water vapor partial pressure of mixing flow and water condensation around leading edge...

  5. A vantage from space can detect earlier drought onset: an approach using relative humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahmand, Alireza; AghaKouchak, Amir; Teixeira, Joao

    2015-02-25

    Each year, droughts cause significant economic and agricultural losses across the world. The early warning and onset detection of drought is of particular importance for effective agriculture and water resource management. Previous studies show that the Standard Precipitation Index (SPI), a measure of precipitation deficit, detects drought onset earlier than other indicators. Here we show that satellite-based near surface air relative humidity data can further improve drought onset detection and early warning. This paper introduces the Standardized Relative Humidity Index (SRHI) based on the NASA Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) observations. The results indicate that the SRHI typically detects the drought onset earlier than the SPI. While the AIRS mission was not originally designed for drought monitoring, we show that its relative humidity data offers a new and unique avenue for drought monitoring and early warning. We conclude that the early warning aspects of SRHI may have merit for integration into current drought monitoring systems.

  6. EFFECT OF AIR TEMPERATURE ON LEAF PHOTOSYNTHESIS IN ELDER

    OpenAIRE

    Monica Popescu

    2012-01-01

    Temperature with solar radiation intensity is the main external factor affecting photosynthesis process. Measurements were collected in the 2011 growing season. Photosynthesis and respiration measurements were made at Sambucus nigra leaves with a CO2 analyzer. The aim was to develop a model of photosynthesis in relation to temperature (which is in close relationship with air humidity). Photosynthesis of Sambucus nigra leaves is sensitive to temperature with an optimum around 25-28oC and rates...

  7. The effect of air quality on sleep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm-Tejsen, Peter; Wargocki, Pawel; Wyon, David Peter

    2014-01-01

    The effect of air quality on sleep was examined for occupants of 14 identical single-occupancy dormitory rooms. The subjects, half women, were exposed to two conditions (open/closed window), each for one week, resulting in night-time average CO2 levels of 660 and 2585 ppm, and air temperatures...... of 24.7 and 23.9°C, respectively. Sleep was assessed from movement data recorded on wristwatch-type actigraphs and from online morning questionnaires, including the Groningen Sleep Quality scale, questions about the sleep environment, next-day well-being, SBS symptoms, and two tests of mental...... performance. Although no significant effects on the sleep quality scale or on next-day performance could be shown, there were significant and positive effects of a higher ventilation rate (open window) on the actigraph measured sleep latency and on the subjects’ assessment of the freshness of the air...

  8. The effect of water storage change in ET estimation in humid catchments based on water balance models and Budyko framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tingting; Sun, Fubao; Liu, Changming; Liu, Wenbin; Wang, Hong

    2017-04-01

    An accurate estimation of ET in humid catchments is essential in water-energy budget research and water resource management etc, while it remains a huge challenge and there is no well accepted explanation for the difficulty of annual ET estimation in humid catchments so far. Here we presents the ET estimation in 102 humid catchments over China based on the Budyko framework and two hydrological models: abcd model and Xin'anjiang mdoel, in comparison with ET calculated from the water balance equation (ETwb) on the ground that the ΔS is approximately zero at multiannual and annual time scale. We provides a possible explanation for this poorly annual ET estimation in humid catchments as well. The results show that at multi-annual timescale, the Budyko framework works fine in ET estimation in humid catchments, while at annual time scale, neither the Budyko framework nor the hydrological models can estimate ET well. The major cause for this poorly estimated annual ET in humid catchments is the neglecting of the ΔS in ETwb since it enlarge the variability of real actual evapotranspiration. Much improvement has been made when compared estimated ET + ΔS with those ETwb, and the bigger the catchment area is, the better this improvement is. It provides a reasonable explanation for the poorly estimated annual ET in humid catchments and reveals the important role of the ΔS in ET estimation and validation. We highlight that the annual ΔS shouldn't be taken as zero in water balance equation in humid catchments.

  9. Endotracheal temperature and humidity in laryngectomized patients in a warm and dry environment and the effect of a heat and moisture exchanger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheenstra, R.J.; Muller, S.H.; Hilgers, F.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study was designed to assess endotracheal climate in laryngectomized patients in a warm and dry environment and the effects of a heat and moisture exchanger (HME). Methods: Endotracheal temperature and humidity were measured in 11 laryngectomized patients with a regularly used HME

  10. Interactive effects of ambient temperature and light sources at high relative humidity on growth performance and blood physiological variables in broilers grown to 42 day of age

    Science.gov (United States)

    The interactive effects of ambient temperature and light sources at high relative humidity on growth performance and blood physiological reactions in broilers grown to 42 day of age were investigated. The experiment consisted of 2 levels (Moderate=21.1, High=26.7 °C) of temperatures and 2 light sour...

  11. The effect of air velocity on heat stress at increased air temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Bjarne Schmidt; Wang, Xiaoshuai; Zhang, Guoqiang

    to the temperature difference between the surfaces of animals and the surrounding air, and this temperature difference declines when the air temperature approaches the animal body temperature. Consequently it can it by expected that the effect of air velocity decreases at increased air temperature. The literature...... on different categories of farm animals to determine how the effect of air velocity depends on the air temperature. A new expression to calculate the chilling effect of increased air velocity was suggested. In addition to the parameters air velocity and air temperature this new expression included three......Increased air velocity is a frequently used method to reduce heat stress of farm animals housed in warm conditions. The main reason why the method works is that higher air velocity increases the convective heat release from the animals. Convective heat release from the animals is strongly related...

  12. On the Effects of Atmospheric Particles Contamination and Humidity on Tin Corrosion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D’Angelo, L.; Verdingovas, V.; Ferrero, L.

    2017-01-01

    . The effects of the adsorption/desorption kinetics and of the temperature on the deliquescence and crystallization RH values were also investigated. Leakage current measurements at 5-V dc highlighted the ability of atmospheric particles to promote corrosion and electrochemical migration at RH levels far below...

  13. Effect of nano packaging on preservation quality of Nanjing 9108 rice variety at high temperature and humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fan; Hu, Qiuhui; Mugambi Mariga, Alfred; Cao, Chongjiang; Yang, Wenjian

    2018-01-15

    A nano packaging material containing nano Ag, nano TiO2, nano attapulgite and SiO2 was prepared, and its impact on quality of Nanjing 9108 rice at 37°C and 85% relative humidity was studied. Effects of the packaging on ambient gases and chromatic aberration of rice were determined. Moreover, oxidation level, molds growth and flavor of rice were also analyzed. Results showed that nano packaging material had antimicrobial effects and maintained low O2 and high CO2 content in the packages. The packages thereby inhibited the growth of molds and the production of fatty acids, restrained the increase of lipase activity, and reduced the oxidation of fats and proteins. As a result, the production of yellow and white-belly rice were inhibited. Furthermore, the color and flavor of rice were maintained. Therefore, the nano-packing material could be applied for preservation of rice to improve preservation quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of vitamin supplementation on lung injury and running performance in a hot, humid, and ozone-polluted environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, E C; Allgrove, J E; Florida-James, G; Stone, V

    2011-12-01

    In this study, the effect of vitamin C and E supplementation on lung injury and performance of runners were analyzed. Using a randomized, double-blinded, crossover design, nine runners participated in two experimental trials: a 2-week Vitamin trial (vitamin C = 500  mg/day + vitamin E = 100  IU/day) and a 2-week Placebo trial. At the end of each supplementation period the runners performed an 8-km time-trial run in a hot (31°C), humid (70% rh), and ozone-polluted (0.10  ppm O(3)) environmental chamber. Nasal lavage and blood samples were collected pre-, post-, and 6-h post-exercise to assess antioxidant status and CC16 as lung injury marker. Higher plasma (pre- and post-exercise) and nasal lavage (post-exercise) antioxidant concentration were found for the Vitamin trial. Nevertheless, this did not result in performance differences (Vitamin trial: 31:05  min; Placebo trial: 31:54  min; P = 0.075) even though significant positive correlations were found between antioxidant concentration and improvement in time to complete the run. CC16 was higher post-exercise in the Placebo trial (P < 0.01) in both plasma and nasal lavage. These findings suggest that antioxidant supplementation might help to decrease the lung injury response of runners when exercising in adverse conditions, but has little effect on performance. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. Ellipsometry characterization of polycrystalline ZnO layers with the modeling of carrier concentration gradient: Effects of grain boundary, humidity, and surface texture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sago, Keisuke; Fujiwara, Hiroyuki, E-mail: fujiwara@gifu-u.ac.jp [Center of Innovative Photovoltaic Systems (CIPS), Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Kuramochi, Hideto; Iigusa, Hitoshi; Utsumi, Kentaro [Tokyo Research Laboratory, TOSOH Co., Ltd., 2743-1 Hayakawa, Ayase-shi, Kanagawa 252-1123 (Japan)

    2014-04-07

    Spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) has been applied to study the effects of grain boundary, humidity, and surface texture on the carrier transport properties of Al-doped ZnO layers fabricated by dc and rf magnetron sputtering. In the SE analysis, the variation in the free carrier absorption toward the growth direction, induced by the ZnO grain growth on foreign substrates, has been modeled explicitly by adopting a multilayer model in which the optical carrier concentration (N{sub opt}) varies continuously with a constant optical mobility (μ{sub opt}). The effect of the grain boundary has been studied by comparing μ{sub opt} with Hall mobility (μ{sub Hall}). The change in μ{sub Hall}/μ{sub opt} indicates a sharp structural transition of the ZnO polycrystalline layer at a thickness of d ∼ 500 nm, which correlates very well with the structure confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. In particular, below the transition thickness, the formation of the high density grain boundary leads to the reduction in the μ{sub Hall}/μ{sub opt} ratio as well as N{sub opt}. As a result, we find that the thickness dependence of the carrier transport properties is almost completely governed by the grain boundary formation. On the other hand, when the ZnO layer is exposed to wet air at 85 °C, μ{sub Hall} reduces drastically with a minor variation of μ{sub opt} due to the enhanced grain boundary scattering. We have also characterized textured ZnO:Al layers prepared by HCl wet etching by SE. The analysis revealed that the near-surface carrier concentration increases slightly after the etching. We demonstrate that the SE technique can be applied to distinguish various rough textured structures (size ∼ 1 μm) of the ZnO layers prepared by the HCl etching.

  16. [Airport related air pollution and health effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iavicoli, Ivo; Fontana, Luca; Ancona, Carla; Forastiere, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Airport is an extremely complex emission source of airborne pollutants that can have a significant impact on the environment. Indeed, several airborne chemicals emitted during airport activities may significantly get worse air quality and increase exposure level of both airport workers and general population living nearby the airports. In recent years airport traffic has increased and consequently several studies investigated the association between airport-related air pollution and occurrence of adverse health effects, particularly on respiratory system, in exposed workers and general population resident nearby. In this context, we carried out a critical evaluation of the studies that investigated this correlation in order to obtain a deeper knowledge of this issue and to identify the future research needs. Results show that the evidence of association between airport-related air pollution and health effects on workers and residents is still limited.

  17. Ceiling-mounted personalized ventilation system integrated with a secondary air distribution system--a human response study in hot and humid climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, B; Sekhar, S C; Melikov, A K

    2010-08-01

    The benefits of thermal comfort and indoor air quality with personalized ventilation (PV) systems have been demonstrated in recent studies. One of the barriers for wide spread acceptance by architects and HVAC designers has been attributed to challenges and constraints faced in the integration of PV systems with the work station. A newly developed ceiling-mounted PV system addresses these challenges and provides a practical solution while retaining much of the apparent benefits of PV systems. Assessments of thermal environment, air movement, and air quality for ceiling-mounted PV system were performed with tropically acclimatized subjects in a Field Environmental Chamber. Thirty-two subjects performed normal office work and could choose to be exposed to four different PV airflow rates (4, 8, 12, and 16 L/s), thus offering themselves a reasonable degree of individual control. Ambient temperatures of 26 and 23.5 degrees C and PV air temperatures of 26, 23.5, and 21 degrees C were employed. The local and whole body thermal sensations were reduced when PV airflow rates were increased. Inhaled air temperature was perceived cooler and perceived air quality and air freshness improved when PV airflow rate was increased or temperature was reduced. The newly developed ceiling-mounted PV system offers a practical solution to the integration of PV air terminal devices (ATDs) in the vicinity of the workstation. By remotely locating the PV ATDs on the ceiling directly above the occupants and under their control, the conditioned outdoor air is now provided to the occupants through the downward momentum of the air. A secondary air-conditioning and air distribution system offers additional cooling in the room and maintains a higher ambient temperature, thus offering significant benefits in conserving energy. The results of this study provide designers and consultants with needed knowledge for design of PV systems.

  18. EFFECT OF AIR TEMPERATURE ON LEAF PHOTOSYNTHESIS IN ELDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Popescu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Temperature with solar radiation intensity is the main external factor affecting photosynthesis process. Measurements were collected in the 2011 growing season. Photosynthesis and respiration measurements were made at Sambucus nigra leaves with a CO2 analyzer. The aim was to develop a model of photosynthesis in relation to temperature (which is in close relationship with air humidity. Photosynthesis of Sambucus nigra leaves is sensitive to temperature with an optimum around 25-28oC and rates declining by 18% with air temperature around 33-35oC.

  19. Analysis of the isobaric compounds propanol, acetic acid and methyl formate in humid air and breath by selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, SIFT-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pysanenko, Andriy; Spanel, Patrik; Smith, David

    2009-08-01

    Numerous analyses of exhaled breath using selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, SIFT-MS, over the last few years have revealed the presence of volatile compounds with molecular weight 60 and the concern has been to identify which of the isobaric compounds from the set of 1-propanol, 2-propanol, acetic acid and methyl formate are present in human breath. The problem is compounded by the formation of hydrates of the characteristic primary product ions of the reactions of the H3O+ and NO+ precursor ions with these compounds, this being particularly efficient for humid samples such as exhaled breath. Thus, the resulting product ion spectra are complex and choices have to be made as to which of the characteristic product ions and their hydrates can best be used for the quantitative analyses. To facilitate this choice for the particular problem of identifying and quantifying the four aforementioned isobaric compounds, a study has been made of the ion chemistry of H3O+ and NO+ with the two propanol isomers, acetic acid and methyl formate for increasing sample humidity up to that of exhaled breath, which is about 6% by volume. The problems involved in the separate analysis of propanol have been met and solved by previous SIFT-MS studies and now the present study has revealed how acetic acid and methyl formate can be separately identified in a humid mixture using NO+ precursor ions only. Following this work, the kinetics database entries for the SIFT-MS analyses of these compounds in breath have been constructed and the analysis of the exhaled breath of five healthy volunteers showed that, in addition to the propanol isomers, acetic acid was present at levels typically within the range from 30 to 60 parts-per-billion by volume and that methyl formate was not present above the limit of detection.

  20. Effects of highly hygroscopic excipients on the hydrolysis of simvastatin in tablet at high relative humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W L; Guo, D W; Shen, Y Y; Guo, S R; Ruan, K P

    2012-11-01

    Effects of highly hygroscopic sorbitol, citric acid, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose or polyvinylpolypyrrolidone, on the hydrolysis of simvastatin in tablets at 25°/90% RH were studied. The simvastatin tablets were prepared by direct powder compression. Simvastatin and its hydrolyte, simvastatin acid, were quantitatively analysed by high performance liquid chromotography. The hygroscopicity, water swelling ratio, water solubility and pH of the four hygroscopic excipients were investigated. During the investigation period, the weight gain of sorbitol or citric acid increased faster than that of polyvinylpolypyrrolidone or sodium carboxymethyl cellulose at 25°/90% RH, accordingly, the moisture sorption of the tablets containing citric acid or sorbitol (T-3 or T-6) were more than that of the tablets containing sodium carboxymethyl cellulose or polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (T-4 or T-5). The increase of simvastatin acid content with time at 25°/90% RH for the tablets was in the following order: T-6 hygroscopicity but also their other properties, such as moisture retention capacity and pH. Sorbitol as hygroscopic excipient in tablet can most effectively prevent the hydrolysis of simvastatin in tablet.

  1. Overall assessment of soil quality on humid sandy loams: Effects of location, rotation and tillage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdollahi, Lotfollah; Hansen, Elly Møller; Rickson, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Conservation tillage and diversified crop rotations have been suggested as appropriate alternative soil management systems to sustain soil quality. The purpose of this study was to quantify the effect of implementing three crop rotations (R2–R4) on soil structural changes and the “productivity...... function” of soil. R2 is a winter-dominated crop rotation (winter wheat was the main crop) with straw residues incorporated. R3 is a mix of winter and spring crops with straw residues removed. R4 is the same mix of crops as in R3, but with straw residues incorporated. Three tillage systems were used...... the correlation between the soil quality indices and relative crop yield. Relevant soil properties for calculating the soil quality indices were measured or obtained from previous publications. Crop rotation affected the soil structure and RY. The winter-dominated crop rotation (R2) resulted in the poorest soil...

  2. Long-Term Bond Strength of Self-Etch Adhesives to Normal and Artificially Eroded Dentin: Effect of Relative Humidity and Saliva Contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsler, Fabienne; Peutzfeldt, Anne; Lussi, Adrian; Flury, Simon

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the effect of relative humidity and saliva contamination on short- and long-term bond strength of two self-etch adhesives to normal and artificially eroded dentin. A total of 480 dentin specimens were produced from extracted human molars. Half of the specimens (n = 240) were left untreated (normal dentin) whereas the other half (n = 240) were artificially eroded. The specimens were treated with Clearfil SE Bond (CSE) or Scotchbond Universal (SBU), and composite (Filtek Z250) was applied to the treated dentin surface under four experimental conditions: at a relative humidity of 45% or 85% without/with human saliva contamination. Shear bond strength (SBS) was measured after storage for 24 h (100% humidity; 37°C) or 1 year (tap water; 37°C). SBS results were statistically analyzed with a nonparametric ANOVA followed by Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney tests (significance level: α = 0.05). SBS was significantly influenced by the dentin substrate (normal or artificially eroded dentin) and adhesive (p  CSE on normal dentin (19.2) > SBU on artificially eroded dentin (17.1) > CSE on artificially eroded dentin (10.9). On normal dentin, the two self-etch adhesives showed stable bond strength over time even under adverse conditions such as high relative humidity and saliva contamination. However, erosively altered dentin had a detrimental effect on the bond strength of both the adhesives investigated.

  3. Humidity does not appear to trigger leaf out in woody plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipf, Lucy; Primack, Richard B.

    2017-08-01

    In order to anticipate the ecological impacts of climate change and model changes to forests, it is important to understand the factors controlling spring leaf out. Leaf out phenology in woody trees and shrubs is generally considered to be strongly controlled by a combination of spring warming, winter chilling requirement, and photoperiod. However, researchers have recently suggested that temperature-related air humidity, rather than temperature itself, might be the main trigger of the spring leaf-out of woody plants. Here, we sought to examine the relationship between air humidity and leaf-out across a range of humidities and plant functional groups. We did not find any consistent, measurable effect of high humidity advancing leaf-out in the 15 woody shrubs and trees examined in this study, and we did not see progressive patterns of earlier leaf-out in successively higher humidities. Our results indicate that more work must be done on this topic before researchers can properly determine the effect of humidity on the leafing out process for woody species.

  4. Humidity does not appear to trigger leaf out in woody plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipf, Lucy; Primack, Richard B.

    2017-12-01

    In order to anticipate the ecological impacts of climate change and model changes to forests, it is important to understand the factors controlling spring leaf out. Leaf out phenology in woody trees and shrubs is generally considered to be strongly controlled by a combination of spring warming, winter chilling requirement, and photoperiod. However, researchers have recently suggested that temperature-related air humidity, rather than temperature itself, might be the main trigger of the spring leaf-out of woody plants. Here, we sought to examine the relationship between air humidity and leaf-out across a range of humidities and plant functional groups. We did not find any consistent, measurable effect of high humidity advancing leaf-out in the 15 woody shrubs and trees examined in this study, and we did not see progressive patterns of earlier leaf-out in successively higher humidities. Our results indicate that more work must be done on this topic before researchers can properly determine the effect of humidity on the leafing out process for woody species.

  5. Experimental investigation of air relative humidity (RH) cycling tests on MEA/cell aging in PEMFC. Pt. II. Study of low RH cycling test with air RH at 62%/0%

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, B.T.; Chatillon, Y.; Bonnet, C.; Lapicque, F. [Laboratoire Reactions et Genie des Procedes, CNRS-Nancy University, Nancy (France); Leclerc, S. [Laboratoire d' Energetique et de Mecanique Theorique et Appliquee, CNRS-Nancy University, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Hinaje, M.; Rael, S. [Groupe de Recherche en Electrotechnique et Electronique de Nancy, Nancy University, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    2012-06-15

    The effect of low relative humidity (RH) cycling (RH{sub C} 62%/0%) on the degradation mechanisms of a single proton exchange membrane fuel cell (5 x 5 cm{sup 2}) was investigated and compared to a cell operated at constant humidification (RH{sub C} = 62%). The overall cell performance loss was near 33 {mu}V h{sup -1}, which is greater than the voltage decay under constant RH condition near 3 {mu}V h{sup -1}. The electroactive surface was reduced but to an acceptable level. Impedance spectroscopy revealed that the ohmic and charge transfer resistances were reduced by the likely improved hydration of the ionomeric layer at the catalyst due to hydrogen crossover. This was so important that H{sub 2} starvation was finally responsible for the collapse of the cell after 650 h. Transmission electron microscopy showed occurrence of various phenomena, e.g., bubbles and pinholes formation in the membrane due to local overheat from hydrogen combustion at the cathode, and thickness reduction of catalytic layers. The water up take obtained by {sup 1}H NMR within the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) after low RH cycling reduced by 24% compared to a fresh MEA. Observations are also compared to those obtained at high RH cycling (RH{sub C} 62%/100%) presented in Part I of this study [1]. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Humid coolers. Humid-Cooler (Feuchtekuehler)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vries, H. de (Vritex KG, Leinfelden-Echterdingen (Germany, F.R.))

    1990-01-01

    Some edibles as well as perishable goods and other goods to be cooled must be stored at low temperatures and a 100% relative moisture. Particular care must be taken to observe the latter requirement, and to cool down the goods concerned as rapidly as possible. Humid coolers exhibit a number of technical advantages in addition to those of conventional solutions. Using them, the gradients of cooling curves are particularly marked, and the gain in time compared with conventional methods is considerable. Humid coolers contribute to energy conservation for being coupled with ice storage systems. Since the refrigerator needed for such units may be combined both with the ice storage system and with the humid cooler, goods are cooled directly and cool-down phases are short. Examples, results, and comparisons with regard to energy conservation are given. (orig./HW).

  7. Effect of particle size and humidity on sugarcane bagasse combustion in a fixed bed furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamir Sánchez Castro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The panela industry is one of the most important Agro Industries in Colombia, making it the largest per- capita consumer and the second largest producer worldwide. The fuel used in this process is traditionally the sugarcane bagasse (SB which is a byproduct of milling. However, due to the low efficiency of panela furnaces additional fuel is required such as wood, used rubber tires and coal. The fixed-bed furnaces inefficiency is mainly due to incomplete combustion of SB caused by the influence of process variables. Therefore, the aim of this work was to study the influence of particle size (PS and moisture content (MC over the combustion stages of SB in fixed-bed furnaces. A three-level factorial design was proposed for PS and MC of SB where the temperature and gas concentration were considered as response variables to evaluate the furnace performance. The results obtained in this work show that if the MC increases then the SB yield in the combustion is decreased. On the other hand, the increasing PS can counteract the effect of the MC of SB.

  8. Comparison of Single-Point and Continuous Sampling Methods for Estimating Residential Indoor Temperature and Humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, James D; Magnusson, Brianna M; Eggett, Dennis; Collingwood, Scott C; Bernhardt, Scott A

    2015-01-01

    Residential temperature and humidity are associated with multiple health effects. Studies commonly use single-point measures to estimate indoor temperature and humidity exposures, but there is little evidence to support this sampling strategy. This study evaluated the relationship between single-point and continuous monitoring of air temperature, apparent temperature, relative humidity, and absolute humidity over four exposure intervals (5-min, 30-min, 24-hr, and 12-days) in 9 northern Utah homes, from March-June 2012. Three homes were sampled twice, for a total of 12 observation periods. Continuous data-logged sampling was conducted in homes for 2-3 wks, and simultaneous single-point measures (n = 114) were collected using handheld thermo-hygrometers. Time-centered single-point measures were moderately correlated with short-term (30-min) data logger mean air temperature (r = 0.76, β = 0.74), apparent temperature (r = 0.79, β = 0.79), relative humidity (r = 0.70, β = 0.63), and absolute humidity (r = 0.80, β = 0.80). Data logger 12-day means were also moderately correlated with single-point air temperature (r = 0.64, β = 0.43) and apparent temperature (r = 0.64, β = 0.44), but were weakly correlated with single-point relative humidity (r = 0.53, β = 0.35) and absolute humidity (r = 0.52, β = 0.39). Of the single-point RH measures, 59 (51.8%) deviated more than ±5%, 21 (18.4%) deviated more than ±10%, and 6 (5.3%) deviated more than ±15% from data logger 12-day means. Where continuous indoor monitoring is not feasible, single-point sampling strategies should include multiple measures collected at prescribed time points based on local conditions.

  9. Human health effects of air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kampa, Marilena [Laboratory of Experimental Endocrinology, University of Crete, School of Medicine, P.O. Box 2208, Heraklion, 71003 (Greece)], E-mail: kampa@med.uoc.gr; Castanas, Elias [Laboratory of Experimental Endocrinology, University of Crete, School of Medicine, P.O. Box 2208, Heraklion, 71003 (Greece)], E-mail: castanas@med.uoc.gr

    2008-01-15

    Hazardous chemicals escape to the environment by a number of natural and/or anthropogenic activities and may cause adverse effects on human health and the environment. Increased combustion of fossil fuels in the last century is responsible for the progressive change in the atmospheric composition. Air pollutants, such as carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ozone (O{sub 3}), heavy metals, and respirable particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10), differ in their chemical composition, reaction properties, emission, time of disintegration and ability to diffuse in long or short distances. Air pollution has both acute and chronic effects on human health, affecting a number of different systems and organs. It ranges from minor upper respiratory irritation to chronic respiratory and heart disease, lung cancer, acute respiratory infections in children and chronic bronchitis in adults, aggravating pre-existing heart and lung disease, or asthmatic attacks. In addition, short- and long-term exposures have also been linked with premature mortality and reduced life expectancy. These effects of air pollutants on human health and their mechanism of action are briefly discussed. - The effect of air pollutants on human health and underlying mechanisms of cellular action are discussed.

  10. Effects of aging on the adhesive properties of poly(lactic acid) by atmospheric air plasma treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Jordá Vilaplana, Amparo; Sánchez Nacher, Lourdes; García Sanoguera, David; Carbonell Verdú, Alfredo; Ferri Azor, José Miguel

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the durability of a plasma treatment on the surface of poly(lactic acid) (PLA). We used atmospheric-plasma treatment with air to improve the wettability of PLA by evaluating the aging effect under controlled conditions of relative humidity (RH) and temperature (25% RH and 258C). We studied the durability of the atmospheric-plasma treatment by measuring the contact angle, calculating the surface energy, and observing changes in the resistance of th...

  11. Thermal comfort and IAQ assessment of under-floor air distribution system integrated with personalized ventilation in hot and humid climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ruixin; Sekhar, S.C.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2010-01-01

    The potential for improving occupants' thermal comfort with personalized ventilation (PV) system combined with under-floor air distribution (UFAD) system was explored through human response study. The hypothesis was that cold draught at feet can be reduced when relatively warm air is supplied...

  12. Discomfort due to skin humidity with different fabric textures and materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Rasmussen, Leif Winsnes; Mackeprang, Jørgen

    2000-01-01

    discomfort. Thirty-eight subjects (18 females and 20 males) were exposed to three levels of skin relative humidity (30%, 50% and 70%) at sedentary activity, at low stepping activity and at high stepping activity. At moderate temperatures and activity levels, neither material nor texture significantly...... impacted the clothing comfort, perceived skin humidity or humidity of clothing, or the acceptability of skin humidity. Clothing comfort and acceptability deteriorated significantly with increasing skin humidity. In addition, the subjects perceived their skin or clothing as being more humid with increasing...... skin humidity. Based on the experimental results, a model was developed that predicts the percentage of persons dissatisfied due to humid skin or clothing. At different combinations of air humidity, air and mean radiant temperature, air velocity and clothing, the skin humidity model predicts discomfort...

  13. Effect of urban design on microclimate and thermal comfort outdoors in warm-humid Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahia, Moohammed Wasim; Johansson, Erik; Thorsson, Sofia; Lindberg, Fredrik; Rasmussen, Maria Isabel

    2017-06-01

    Due to the complexity of built environment, urban design patterns considerably affect the microclimate and outdoor thermal comfort in a given urban morphology. Variables such as building heights and orientations, spaces between buildings, plot coverage alter solar access, wind speed and direction at street level. To improve microclimate and comfort conditions urban design elements including vegetation and shading devices can be used. In warm-humid Dar es Salaam, the climate consideration in urban design has received little attention although the urban planning authorities try to develop the quality of planning and design. The main aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between urban design, urban microclimate, and outdoor comfort in four built-up areas with different morphologies including low-, medium-, and high-rise buildings. The study mainly concentrates on the warm season but a comparison with the thermal comfort conditions in the cool season is made for one of the areas. Air temperature, wind speed, mean radiant temperature (MRT), and the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) are simulated using ENVI-met to highlight the strengths and weaknesses of the existing urban design. An analysis of the distribution of MRT in the areas showed that the area with low-rise buildings had the highest frequency of high MRTs and the lowest frequency of low MRTs. The study illustrates that areas with low-rise buildings lead to more stressful urban spaces than areas with high-rise buildings. It is also shown that the use of dense trees helps to enhance the thermal comfort conditions, i.e., reduce heat stress. However, vegetation might negatively affect the wind ventilation. Nevertheless, a sensitivity analysis shows that the provision of shade is a more efficient way to reduce PET than increases in wind speed, given the prevailing sun and wind conditions in Dar es Salaam. To mitigate heat stress in Dar es Salaam, a set of recommendations and guidelines on

  14. Air distribution and ventilation effectiveness in an occupied room heated by warm air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krajcik, Michal; Simone, Angela; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2012-01-01

    and at different simulated outside conditions, internal heat gains and air change rates. Floor heating was also simulated and compared with the warm air heating system. Vertical air temperature profiles, air velocity profiles and equivalent temperatures were derived in order to describe the thermal environment......Air distribution, ventilation effectiveness and thermal environment were experimentally studied in a simulated room in a low-energy building heated and ventilated by warm air supplied by a mixing ventilation system. Measurements were performed for various positions of the air terminal devices....... Contaminant removal effectiveness and air change efficiency were used to evaluate ventilation effectiveness. No significant risk of thermal discomfort due to vertical air temperature differences or draught was found. When the room was heated by warm air, buoyancy forces were important for ventilation...

  15. Effect of asymmetrical street canyons on pedestrian thermal comfort in warm-humid climate of Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Algeciras, José; Tablada, Abel; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2017-07-01

    Walkability and livability in cities can be enhanced by creating comfortable environments in the streets. The profile of an urban street canyon has a substantial impact on outdoor thermal conditions at pedestrian level. This paper deals with the effect of asymmetrical street canyon profiles, common in the historical centre of Camagüey, Cuba, on outdoor thermal comfort. Temporal-spatial analyses are conducted using the Heliodon2 and the RayMan model, which enable the generation of accurate predictions about solar radiation and thermal conditions of urban spaces, respectively. On these models, urban settings are represented by asymmetrical street canyons with five different height-to-width ratios and four street axis orientations (N-S, NE-SW, E-W, SE-NW). Results are evaluated for daytime hours across the street canyon, by means of the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET index) which allows the evaluation of the bioclimatic conditions of outdoor environments. Our findings revealed that high profiles (façades) located on the east-facing side of N-S streets, on the southeast-facing side of NE-SW streets, on the south-facing side of E-W street, and on the southwest-facing side of SE-NW streets, are recommended to reduce the total number of hours under thermal stress. E-W street canyons are the most thermally stressed ones, with extreme PET values around 36 °C. Deviating from this orientation ameliorates the heat stress with reductions of up to 4 h in summer. For all analysed E-W orientations, only about one fifth of the street can be comfortable, especially for high aspect ratios (H/W > 3). Optimal subzones in the street are next to the north side of the E-W street, northwest side of the NE-SW street, and southwest side of the SE-NW street. Besides, when the highest profile is located on the east side of N-S streets, then the subzone next to the east-facing façade is recommendable for pedestrians. The proposed urban guidelines enable urban planners to create

  16. Air Drag Effects on the Missile Trajectories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Abd El-Salam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The equations of motion of a missile under the air drag effects are constructed. The modified TD88 is surveyed. Using Lagrange's planetary equations in Gauss form, the perturbations, due to the air drag in the orbital elements, are computed between the eccentric anomalies of the burn out and the reentry points [Ebo,2π−Ebo], respectively. The range equation is expressed as an infinite series in terms of the eccentricity e and the eccentric anomaly E. The different errors in the missile-free range due to the drag perturbations in the missile trajectory are obtained.

  17. Humidity affects the morphology of particles emitted from beclomethasone dipropionate pressurized metered dose inhalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, James W; Bhambri, Pallavi; Church, Tanya K; Lewis, David A; McDermott, Mark T; Elbayomy, Shereen; Finlay, Warren H; Vehring, Reinhard

    2017-03-30

    The effects of propellant type, cosolvent content, and air humidity on the morphology and solid phase of the particles produced from solution pressurized metered dose inhalers containing the corticosteroid beclomethasone dipropionate were investigated. The active ingredient was dissolved in the HFA propellants 134a and 227ea with varying levels of the cosolvent ethanol and filled into pressurized metered dose inhalers. Inhalers were actuated into an evaporation chamber under controlled temperature and humidity conditions and sampled using a single nozzle, single stage inertial impactor. Particle morphology was assessed qualitatively using field emission scanning electron microscopy and focused ion beam-helium ion microscopy. Drug solid phase was assessed using Raman microscopy. The relative humidity of the air during inhaler actuation was found to have a strong effect on the particle morphology, with solid spheroidal particles produced in dry air and highly porous particles produced at higher humidity levels. Air humidification was found to have no effect on the solid phase of the drug particles, which was predominantly amorphous for all tested formulations. A critical level of air relative humidity was required to generate porous particles for each tested formulation. This critical relative humidity was found to depend on the amount of ethanol used in the inhaler, but not on the type of propellant utilized. The results indicate that under the right circumstances water vapor saturation followed by nucleated water condensation or ice deposition occurs during particle formation from evaporating propellant-cosolvent-BDP droplets. This finding reveals the importance of condensed water or ice as a templating agent for porosity when particle formation occurs at saturated conditions, with possible implications on the pharmacokinetics of solution pMDIs and potential applications in particle engineering for drug delivery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of anticaking agents and relative humidity on the physical and chemical stability of powdered vitamin C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipasek, Rebecca A; Taylor, Lynne S; Mauer, Lisa J

    2011-09-01

    Vitamin C is an essential nutrient that is widely used by the food industry in the powder form for both its nutritional and functional properties. However, vitamin C is deliquescent, and deliquescence has been linked to physical and chemical instabilities. Anticaking agents are often added to powder systems to delay or prevent caking, but little is known about their effect on the chemical stability of powders. In this study, various anticaking agents (calcium phosphate, calcium silicate, calcium stearate, corn starch, and silicon dioxide) were combined with sodium ascorbate at 2% and 50% w/w ratios and stored at various relative humidities (23%, 43%, 64%, 75%, 85%, and 98% RHs). Chemical and physical stability and moisture sorption were monitored over time. Additionally, saturated solution samples were stored at various pHs to determine the effect of surface pH and dissolution on the vitamin degradation rate. Storage RH, time, and anticaking agent type and ratio all significantly affected (P powdered sodium ascorbate while none of the anticaking agents improved its chemical stability. However, corn starch and calcium stearate had the least adverse effect on chemical stability. Dissolution rate and pH were also important factors affecting the chemical and physical stability of the powders. Therefore, monitoring storage environmental conditions and anticaking agent usage are important for understanding the stability of vitamin C. Anticaking agent type and ratio significantly affected the physical and chemical stability of vitamin C over time and over a range of RHs. No anticaking agent improved the chemical stability of the vitamin, and most caused an increase in chemical degradation even if physical stability was improved. It is possible that anticaking agents would greatly affect other chemically labile deliquescent ingredients, and therefore, anticaking agent usage and storage conditions should be monitored in blended powder systems. © 2011 Institute of Food

  19. Effect of temperature and relative humidity on the development times and survival of Synopsyllus fonquerniei and Xenopsylla cheopis, the flea vectors of plague in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreppel, Katharina S; Telfer, Sandra; Rajerison, Minoarisoa; Morse, Andy; Baylis, Matthew

    2016-02-11

    Plague, a zoonosis caused by Yersinia pestis, is found in Asia, the Americas but mainly in Africa, with the island of Madagascar reporting almost one third of human cases worldwide. In the highlands of Madagascar, plague is transmitted predominantly by two flea species which coexist on the island, but differ in their distribution. The endemic flea, Synopsyllus fonquerniei, dominates flea communities on rats caught outdoors, while the cosmopolitan flea, Xenopsylla cheopis, is found mostly on rats caught in houses. Additionally S. fonquerniei seems restricted to areas above 800 m. Climatic constraints on the development of the two main vectors of plague could explain the differences in their distribution and the seasonal changes in their abundance. Here we present the first study on effects of temperature and relative humidity on the immature stages of both vector species. We examined the two species' temperature and humidity requirements under experimental conditions at five different temperatures and two relative humidities. By employing multivariate and survival analysis we established the impact of temperature and relative humidity on development times and survival for both species. Using degree-day analysis we then predicted the average developmental threshold for larvae to reach pupation and for pupae to complete development under each treatment. This analysis was undertaken separately for the two relative humidities and for the two species. Development times and time to death differed significantly, with the endemic S. fonquerniei taking on average 1.79 times longer to complete development and having a shorter time to death than X. cheopis under adverse conditions with high temperature and low humidity. Temperature had a significant effect on the development times of flea larvae and pupae. While humidity did not affect the development times of either species, it did influence the time of death of S. fonquerniei. Using degree-day analysis we estimated an

  20. Effect of inoculum size, relative humidity, storage temperature, and ripening stage on the attachment of Salmonella Montevideo to tomatoes and tomatillos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturriaga, Montserrat H; Escartín, Eduardo F; Beuchat, Larry R; Martínez-Peniche, Ramon

    2003-10-01

    The influence of inoculum populations and environmental factors on attachment of Salmonella Montevideo to the surface of tomatoes and tomatillos was evaluated. To study the effect of inoculum size, red, ripe tomatoes were spot-inoculated with bacterial suspensions (10(5) and 10(8) CFU/fruit) and stored at 22 degrees C under 100% relative humidity. The effects of temperature (12, 22, and 30 degrees C) and relative humidity (75, 85, and 97%) on attachment of the pathogen (10(7) CFU/fruit) to tomatoes (red and green) and ripe tomatillos were also evaluated. Inoculated fruits were stored for 90 min at all combinations of temperature and relative humidity, and after rinsing with water, the number of cells attached to the surface was determined. Salmonella Montevideo attached to the surface of tomatoes within 90 min. A direct correlation between the number of attached cells and the population in the inoculum was observed. The percentage of cells that attached immediately after inoculation was approximately 0.3% for the three test products. After storage for 90 min at various temperature and relative humidity conditions, the number of adhering cells ranged from 4.0 to 5.4 log CFU/fruit (1.2% of inoculum). Both the type of product and the temperature/relative humidity combination had a significant (P attachment of Salmonella Montevideo to the surfaces of tomatoes and tomatillos. Scanning electron micrographs of the cuticles of inoculated washed tomatoes and tomatillos revealed typical skin cell patterns, and only a few randomly dispersed Salmonella Montevideo were observed. Deposition of Salmonella Montevideo on the surface of tomatoes and tomatillos could result in attachment and subsequent colonization under suitable conditions.

  1. Effect of thickness on surface morphology, optical and humidity sensing properties of RF magnetron sputtered CCTO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmadipour, Mohsen [Structural Materials Niche Area, School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Ain, Mohd Fadzil [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Ahmad, Zainal Arifin, E-mail: srzainal@usm.my [Structural Materials Niche Area, School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • CCTO thin film was synthesized by RF magnetron sputtering successfully. • Increase in thickness lead to increase in grain size and decrease in band gap. • Short response times and recovery times of lead CCTO humidity sensor. • Sensor could detect humidity range (30–90%). - Abstract: In this study, calcium copper titanate (CCTO) thin films were deposited on ITO substrates successfully by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering method in argon atmosphere. The CCTO thin films present a polycrystalline, uniform and porous structure. The surface morphology, optical and humidity sensing properties of the synthesized CCTO thin films have been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), UV–vis spectrophotometer and current-voltage (I–V) analysis. XRD and AFM confirmed that the intensity of peaks and pore size of CCTO thin films were enhanced by increasing the thin films. Tauc plot method was adopted to estimate the optical band gaps. The surface structure and energy band gaps of the deposited films were affected by film thickness. Energy band gap of the layers were 3.76 eV, 3.68 eV and 3.5 eV for 200 nm, 400 nm, and 600 nm CCTO thin films layer, respectively. The humidity sensing properties were measured by using direct current (DC) analysis method. The response times were 12 s, 22 s, and 35 s while the recovery times were 500 s, 600 s, and 650 s for 200 nm, 400 nm, and 600 nm CCTO thin films, respectively at humidity range of 30–90% relative humidity (RH).

  2. Urbanization Effects on air Quality and Climate in the Acapulco Area Using a Prognostic Meteorological and air Quality Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortinez, A. A.; Garcia, A. R.; Jazcilevich, A. D.; Caetano, E.; Moya, M. N.; Delgado, J. C.

    2007-05-01

    The effects of urbanization growth on the Acapulco coastal metropolitan area were estimated by using a prognostic meteorological and air quality model. To this end three urbanization scenarios are proposed: The current Acapulco urban area that we call "Control Scenario" and two possible urban growths that we call "Scenario 1" and "Scenario 2". We estimated the urban growth of scenarios 1 and 2, using economic factors, population distribution and historical data. The urban distribution in the "Control Scenario" was taken from the aerial photographs of Acapulco and processed by a Geographic Information System (GIS).The variables devised for the scenarios comparison was a Comfort Index based on humidity and temperature and the Potential Exposure Index for Ozone. The model used was the Penn State/NCAR MM5 mesoscale meteorological model and the Multiscale Climate and Chemistry Model (MCCM). Since there is no local information, the emissions were estimated by using data of similar socio- economic urban areas where emission data is available. The meteorology and air quality models were calibrated using data of a measuring campaign performed in December 2005. This is a preliminary effort to propose a planned urban expansion for Acapulco from the point of view of air quality and urban climate.

  3. Light absorption by secondary organic aerosol from α-pinene: Effects of oxidants, seed aerosol acidity, and relative humidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Chen [Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Now at R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company, Winston-Salem North Carolina USA; Gyawali, Madhu [Department of Physics, University of Nevada Reno, Nevada System of Higher Education, Reno Nevada USA; Now at Desert Research Institute, Nevada System of Higher Education, Reno Nevada USA; Zaveri, Rahul A. [Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Shilling, John E. [Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Arnott, W. Patrick [Department of Physics, University of Nevada Reno, Nevada System of Higher Education, Reno Nevada USA

    2013-10-25

    It is well known that light absorption from dust and black carbon aerosols has a warming effect on climate while light scattering from sulfate, nitrate, and sea salt aerosols has a cooling effect. However, there are large uncertainties associated with light absorption and scattering by different types of organic aerosols, especially in the near-UV and UV spectral regions. In this paper, we present the results from a systematic laboratory study focused on measuring light absorption by secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) generated from dark α-pinene + O3 and α-pinene + NOx + O3 systems in the presence of neutral and acidic sulfate seed aerosols. Light absorption was monitored using photoacoustic spectrometers at four different wavelengths: 355, 405, 532, and 870 nm. Significant light absorption at 355 and 405 nm was observed for the SOA formed from α-pinene + O3 + NO3 system only in the presence of highly acidic sulfate seed aerosols under dry conditions. In contrast, no absorption was observed when the relative humidity was elevated to greater than 27% or in the presence of neutral sulfate seed aerosols. Organic nitrates in the SOA formed in the presence of neutral sulfate seed aerosols were found to be nonabsorbing, while the light-absorbing compounds are speculated to be aldol condensation oligomers with nitroxy organosulfate groups that are formed in highly acidic sulfate aerosols. Finally and overall, these results suggest that dark α-pinene + O3 and α-pinene + NOx + O3 systems do not form light-absorbing SOA under typical atmospheric conditions.

  4. Kinetics of Heterogeneous Reaction of Sulfur Dioxide on Authentic Mineral Dust: Effects of Relative Humidity and Hydrogen Peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liubin; Zhao, Yue; Li, Huan; Chen, Zhongming

    2015-09-15

    Heterogeneous reaction of SO2 on mineral dust seems to be an important sink for SO2. However, kinetic data about this reaction on authentic mineral dust are scarce and are mainly limited to low relative humidity (RH) conditions. In addition, little is known about the role of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in this reaction. Here, we investigated the uptake kinetics of SO2 on three authentic mineral dusts (i.e., Asian mineral dust (AMD), Tengger desert dust (TDD), and Arizona test dust (ATD)) in the absence and presence of H2O2 at different RHs using a filter-based flow reactor, and applied a parameter (effectiveness factor) to the estimation of the effective surface area of particles for the calculation of the corrected uptake coefficient (γc). We found that with increasing RH, the γc decreases on AMD particles, but increases on ATD and TDD particles. This discrepancy is probably due to the different mineralogy compositions and aging extents of these dust samples. Furthermore, the presence of H2O2 can promote the uptake of SO2 on mineral dust at different RHs. The probable explanations are that H2O2 rapidly reacts with SO2 on mineral dust in the presence of adsorbed water, and OH radicals, which can be produced from the heterogeneous decomposition of H2O2 on the mineral dust, immediately react with adsorbed SO2 as well. Our results suggest that the removal of SO2 via the heterogeneous reaction on mineral dust is an important sink for SO2 and has the potential to alter the physicochemical properties (e.g., ice nucleation ability) of mineral dust particles in the atmosphere.

  5. Highly sensitive optical detection of humidity on polymer/metal nanoparticle hybrid films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luechinger, Norman A; Loher, Stefan; Athanassiou, Evagelos K; Grass, Robert N; Stark, Wendelin J

    2007-03-13

    Porous metal films for optical humidity sensing were prepared from copper nanoparticles protected by a 2-3 nm carbon coating, a silicon tenside, and a polymeric wetting agent. Exposure to water or solvent vapor revealed an exceptional sensitivity with optical shifts in the visible light range of up to 50 nm for a change of 1% in relative humidity. These properties could be attributed to a combination of surface plasmon resonance effects at low humidity and thin film interference at higher water or solvent concentration in the surrounding air. The simple concept and use of ultra-low-cost materials suggests application of such porous metal-film-based optical humidity sensors in large-scale applications for food handling, storage, and transport.

  6. Efficient recovery and upgrading of waste heat from humid air in the forest industry. Pre-feasibility study; Energieffektivisering inom skogsindustrin genom spillvaermeaatervinning fraan vaatluft. Foerprojektering och loensamhetsbedoemning av anlaeggningsalternativ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingman, Daniel; Gustafsson, Maria; Westermark, Mats

    2007-12-15

    Within the pulp and paper and saw mill industries there are large quantities of waste heat in the form of moist air or humid flue gases. The temperature and dew point are generally too low for the streams to be useful as process heat. Waste heat can be recovered from humid gas streams e.g. outgoing gas from paper machines, lumber dryers, green liquor flash tanks, flue gases from power and recovery boilers, lime kilns etc. In general, this waste heat is available around 50-65 deg C. One way to utilise the heat on a higher temperature level is by means of heat pumping. The present project studies the possibility to use a recently developed absorption heat pump technology for upgrading waste heat to district heating or process steam. Via direct contact between the absorbent and humid gas stream, the moisture is condensed in the absorbent and the latent heat simultaneously increases the liquid's temperature. A number of process solutions have been calculated in terms of technical and economic performance. The process can be designed for production of hot water or process steam from upgraded waste heat. The end product is indirectly governed be the selection of absorbent or working medium. Investigated absorbents are solutions of potassium formate, sodium hydroxide and phosphoric acid, of which the former two have been included in the techno-economic calculations. The upgraded heat can either save costs by replacing primary fuel or result in increased revenues by exporting produced heat. Internally, the produced heat often replaces oil or electricity on the margin. The choice of regeneration method for the used and diluted absorbent is governed by the mill's energy situation. Industries with large waste heat resources, high value on process steam and use of heat on district heat level, waste heat driven regeneration is advisable. Industries with similar value on MP and LP steam should use back-pressure regeneration with MP steam for optimum cost and energy

  7. Cultivar Differences in the Stomatal Characteristics of Cut Roses Grown at High Relative Humidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fanourakis, D.; Tapia, A.; Heuvelink, E.; Pinto De Carvalho, S.M.

    2009-01-01

    High relative air humidity (RH>85%) during cultivation is known to reduce the vase life of cut roses, but the magnitude of such effect is cultivar dependent. The reasons behind this genotypic variation are not yet known. In this study, the stomatal density and stomatal responses to two closing

  8. Humidity Sensing in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enjin, Anders; Zaharieva, Emanuela E; Frank, Dominic D; Mansourian, Suzan; Suh, Greg S B; Gallio, Marco; Stensmyr, Marcus C

    2016-05-23

    Environmental humidity influences the fitness and geographic distribution of all animals [1]. Insects in particular use humidity cues to navigate the environment, and previous work suggests the existence of specific sensory mechanisms to detect favorable humidity ranges [2-5]. Yet, the molecular and cellular basis of humidity sensing (hygrosensation) remains poorly understood. Here we describe genes and neurons necessary for hygrosensation in the vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster. We find that members of the Drosophila genus display species-specific humidity preferences related to conditions in their native habitats. Using a simple behavioral assay, we find that the ionotropic receptors IR40a, IR93a, and IR25a are all required for humidity preference in D. melanogaster. Yet, whereas IR40a is selectively required for hygrosensory responses, IR93a and IR25a mediate both humidity and temperature preference. Consistent with this, the expression of IR93a and IR25a includes thermosensory neurons of the arista. In contrast, IR40a is excluded from the arista but is expressed (and required) in specialized neurons innervating pore-less sensilla of the sacculus, a unique invagination of the third antennal segment. Indeed, calcium imaging showed that IR40a neurons directly respond to changes in humidity, and IR40a knockdown or IR93a mutation reduced their responses to stimuli. Taken together, our results suggest that the preference for a specific humidity range depends on specialized sacculus neurons, and that the processing of environmental humidity can happen largely in parallel to that of temperature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Biological effects of plant residues with constrasting chemical compositions on plant and soil under humid tropical conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tian, G.

    1992-01-01

    A study on plant residues with contrasting chemical compositions was conducted under laboratory, growth chamber and humid tropical field conditions to understand the function of the soil fauna in the breakdown of plant residues, the cycling of nutrients, in particular nitrogen, and the

  10. Relative humidity effects on water vapour fluxes measured with closed-path eddy-covariance systems with short sampling lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fratini, Gerardo; Ibrom, Andreas; Arriga, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    It has been formerly recognised that increasing relative humidity in the sampling line of closed-path eddy-covariance systems leads to increasing attenuation of water vapour turbulent fluctuations, resulting in strong latent heat flux losses. This occurrence has been analyzed for very long (50 m)...

  11. The Air Toxics Health Effects Database (ATHED).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodall, George M; Smith, Roy L

    2008-11-15

    The Air Toxics Health Effects Database (ATHED) is currently used by the EPA's Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS) to support risk assessments for the Residual Risk Program. An assessment of the residual risk is required to be performed at a specified time (typically 8 years) following the promulgation of a technology-based Maximum Achievable Control Technologies (MACT) standard. The goal of the Residual Risk Program is to assure that the risk that remains after MACT standards are implemented (i.e., the "residual risk") is acceptable, and if not, to propose additional regulations to mitigate those risks. ATHED maintains all available reference values for each chemical as separate data records, and includes values for all exposure durations (acute, short-term, subchronic and chronic). These values are used as benchmarks to determine acceptable exposure levels to the hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) listed in Section 112 of the Clean Air Act. ATHED also provides useful background information on the uncertainty and/or modifying factors that were applied in the derivation of each reference value, as well as the point of departure and the critical study/studies. To facilitate comparisons across durations for a specific chemical, ATHED data can be graphically presented.

  12. The Interaction Effects of Meteorological Factors and Air Pollution on the Development of Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ching-Hui; Lin, Heng-Cheng; Tsai, Chen-Dao; Huang, Hung-Kai; Lian, Ie-Bin; Chang, Chia-Chu

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated the interaction effects of meteorological factors and air pollutants on the onset of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Data of ACS patients were obtained from the Taiwan ACS Full Spectrum Registry and comprised 3164 patients with a definite onset date during the period October 2008 and January 2010 at 39 hospitals. Meteorological conditions and air pollutant concentrations at the 39 locations during the 488-day period were obtained. Time-lag Poisson and logistic regression were used to explore their association with ACS incidence. One-day lag atmospheric pressure (AP), humidity, particulate matter (PM2.5, and PM10), and carbon monoxide (CO) all had significant interaction effects with temperature on ACS occurrence. Days on which high temperatures (>26 °C) and low AP (<1009 hPa) occurred the previous day were associated with a greater likelihood of increased incidence of developing ACS. Typhoon Morakot was an example of high temperature with extremely low AP associated with higher ACS incidence than the daily average. Combinations of high concentrations of PM or CO with low temperatures (<21 °C) and high humidity levels with low temperatures were also associated with increased incidence of ACS. Atmospheric pollution and weather factors have synergistic effects on the incidence of ACS.

  13. Enhancing performance and uniformity of CH3NH3PbI3-xClx perovskite solar cells by air-heated-oven assisted annealing under various humidities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qing; Jin, Zhiwen; Li, Hui; Wang, Jizheng

    2016-02-01

    To fabricate high-performance metal-halide perovskite solar cells, a thermal annealing process is indispensable in preparing high quality perovskite film. And usually such annealing is performed on hot plate. However hot-plate annealing could cause problems such as inhomogeneous heating (induced by non-tight contact between the sample and the plate), it is also not fit for large scale manufactory. In this paper, we conduct the annealing process in air-heated oven under various humidity environments, and compared the resulted films (CH3NH3PbI3-xClx) and devices (Al/PC61BM/CH3NH3PbI3-xClx/PEDOT:PSS/ITO/glass) with that obtained via hot-plate annealing. It is found that the air-heated-oven annealing is superior to the hot-plate annealing: the annealing time is shorter, the films are more uniform, and the devices exhibit higher power conversion efficiency and better uniformity. The highest efficiencies achieved for the oven and hot-plate annealing processes are 14.9% and 13.5%, and the corresponding standard deviations are 0.5% and 0.8%, respectively. Our work here indicates that air-heated-oven annealing could be a more reliable and more efficient way for both lab research and large-scale production.

  14. Aging and Humidity Effects of Hydrocarbon Gas Sensor Based on Carbon Nanotubes Functionalized with Metal Oxide Nanocrystals

    OpenAIRE

    Xiang, Jiaxi

    2017-01-01

    With the enhanced greenhouse effect and the increasing pollutants in the air, gas sensors applied in door or outdoors are in great demand. A hetero-structure gas sensors based on Multi-walled Carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) functionalized with metal oxide (MOX) nanoparticles are fabricated, which can be operated at room temperature with low power consumption. ZnO and TiO2 nanoparticles were deposited on MWCNT by Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) at different temperatures from 17 ℃ to 220 ℃/225 ℃. The ch...

  15. The influence of humidity fluxes on offshore wind speed profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthelmie, Rebecca Jane; Sempreviva, Anna Maria; Pryor, Sara

    2010-01-01

    extrapolation from lower measurements. With humid conditions and low mechanical turbulence offshore, deviations from the traditional logarithmic wind speed profile become significant and stability corrections are required. This research focuses on quantifying the effect of humidity fluxes on stability corrected...... wind speed profiles. The effect on wind speed profiles is found to be important in stable conditions where including humidity fluxes forces conditions towards neutral. Our results show that excluding humidity fluxes leads to average predicted wind speeds at 150 m from 10 m which are up to 4% higher...... than if humidity fluxes are included, and the results are not very sensitive to the method selected to estimate humidity fluxes....

  16. PSYCRODATA: a software which calculates the air humidity characteristics and relate its with the variations of the gamma environmental bottom; PSYCRODATA: software que calcula las caracteristicas de la humedad del aire y las relaciona con las variaciones del fondo gamma ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso A, D.; Dominguez L, O.; Ramos V, O.; Caveda R, C.A.; Capote F, E. [CPHR, Calle 20 No. 4113 e/41 y 47, Playa, C.P. 11300, A.P. 6195, C.P. 10600 La Habana (Cuba); Dominguez G, A.; Valdes S, E. [Instituto Superior de Ciencias y Tecnicas Aplicadas (INSTEC), La Habana (Cuba); Rodriguez V, E. [Instituto de Meteorologia (INSMET), La Habana (Cuba)]. e-mail: lola@cphr.edu.cu

    2006-07-01

    The computer tool 'Psycrodata', able to calculate the values of those characteristics of the humidity of the air starting from the measurements carried out of humidity and temperature in the post of occident of the National Net of Environmental Radiological Surveillance was obtained. Among the facilities that 'Psycrodata' toasts it is the keeping the obtained information in a database facilitating the making of reports. For another part the possibility of selection of different approaches for the calculation and the introduction of the psicrometric coefficient to use, its make that each station can have the suitable psicrometric chart keeping in mind the instrumentation and the characteristics of the area of location of the same one. Also, can have facilities to import text files for later on to be plotted, it allowed to correlate the absorbed dose rate in air due to the environmental gamma radiation, besides of the temperature and the humidity, with the tension of the water steam, the temperature of the dew point and the saturation deficit. (Author)

  17. Effects of dietary protein level and amino acid supplementation on performance of mixed-parity lactating sows in a tropical humid climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, B A N; Noblet, J; Donzele, J L; Oliveira, R F M; Primot, Y; Gourdine, J L; Renaudeau, D

    2009-12-01

    Eighty-six mixed-parity Large White sows were used to determine the effect of diets with reduced CP content or supplemented with essential AA on 28-d lactation performance under humid tropical climatic conditions. This experiment was conducted in Guadeloupe (West French Indies, latitude 16 degrees N, longitude 61 degrees W) between February 2007 and January 2008. Two seasons were distinguished a posteriori from climatic measurement variables continuously recorded in the farrowing room. The average minimum and maximum ambient temperatures and average daily relative humidity for the warm season were 20.5 and 28.2 degrees C, and 93.8%, respectively. The corresponding values for the hot season were 22.7 and 29.4 degrees C, and 93.7%, respectively. The dietary experimental treatments were a normal protein diet (NP), a low protein diet (LP), and a NP diet (NP+) supplemented with essential AA. The NP and LP diets supplied the same levels of standardized digestible Lys (i.e., 0.80 g/MJ of NE), and the NP+ diet supplied 0.95 g/MJ of NE. No interaction between season and diet composition was noted on any response variable evaluated. The ADFI was decreased (P humidity conditions. The ADFI tended to be greater with the LP and NP+ diets when compared with the NP treatment (i.e., +10%, P = 0.08). Litter BW gain and mean BW of piglets at weaning were greater (P warm season than during the hot season (2.3 vs. 1.8 kg/d and 7.5 vs. 7.1 kg, respectively). Milk production and composition were not affected by dietary treatments but were affected by season (8.1 vs. 6.8 kg/d, for warm and hot seasons, respectively; P 0.08). In conclusion, the hot season in humid tropical climates, which combines high levels of temperature and humidity, has a pronounced negative impact on performance of lactating sows. Diets with low CP content or supplemented with essential AA can attenuate the effects of hot and humid season by increasing ADFI in lactating sows.

  18. Compact Buried Ducts in a Hot-Humid Climate House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallay, Dave [Home Innovation Research Labs, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2016-01-07

    "9A system of compact, buried ducts provides a high-performance and cost-effective solution for delivering conditioned air throughout the building. This report outlines research activities that are expected to facilitate adoption of compact buried duct systems by builders. The results of this research would be scalable to many new house designs in most climates and markets, leading to wider industry acceptance and building code and energy program approval. The primary research question with buried ducts is potential condensation at the outer jacket of the duct insulation in humid climates during the cooling season. Current best practices for buried ducts rely on encapsulating the insulated ducts with closed-cell spray polyurethane foam insulation to control condensation and improve air sealing. The encapsulated buried duct concept has been analyzed and shown to be effective in hot-humid climates. The purpose of this project is to develop an alternative buried duct system that performs effectively as ducts in conditioned space - durable, energy efficient, and cost-effective - in a hot-humid climate (IECC warm-humid climate zone 3A) with three goals that distinguish this project: 1) Evaluation of design criteria for buried ducts that use common materials and do not rely on encapsulation using spray foam or disrupt traditional work sequences; 2) Establishing design criteria for compact ducts and incorporate those with the buried duct criteria to further reduce energy losses and control installed costs; 3) Developing HVAC design guidance for performing accurate heating and cooling load calculations for compact buried ducts.

  19. Ceiling-mounted personalized ventilation system integrated with a secondary air distribution system - a human response study in hot and humid climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bin, Yang; Sekhar, S.C.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2010-01-01

    The benefits of thermal comfort and indoor air quality with personalized ventilation (PV) systems have been demonstrated in recent studies. One of the barriers for wide spread acceptance by architects and HVAC designers has been attributed to challenges and constraints faced in the integration...

  20. Traffic-related air pollution - the health effects scrutinized

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijland, M.E.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have been published on the health effects associated with exposure to air pollution. Air pollution is acknowledged as a public health risk and air quality regulations are set for specific air pollutants to protect human health. A major pollutant, well known for its adverse health

  1. Photocatalytic disinfection of indoor air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goswami, D.Y.; Trivedi, D.M.; Block, S.S. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The present study demonstrated the antibacterial effect of photocatalytic oxidation in indoor air using titanium dioxide as the catalyst. Through a series of experiments, it was determined that titanium dioxide did enhance the inactivation rate of the microorganisms under certain conditions. In these experiments the air velocity, relative humidity, UV intensity were varied. It was found that higher velocities retarded destruction rate, due to the low retention time in the reactor. It was also determined that TiO{sub 2} did not accelerate the reaction at low humidities (30%). At a relative humidity of 50%, there was complete inactivation of the organisms, but at higher humidities (85%), 10% of the organisms were still viable. The experiments showed that at higher UV intensities, most of the inactivation was being done by the UV photons. However, the photons were not able to completely inactivate the microorganisms. In the photocatalysis experiments, there was complete inactivation of the bacteria.

  2. Photocatalytic disinfection of indoor air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goswami, D.Y.; Trivedi, D.M.; Block, S.S. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1997-02-01

    The present study demonstrated the antibacterial effect of photocatalytic oxidation in indoor air using titanium dioxide as the catalyst. Through a series of experiments, it was determined that titanium dioxide did enhance the inactivation rate of the microorganisms under certain conditions. In these experiments the air velocity, relative humidity, and UV (350 nm) intensity were varied. It was found that higher velocities retarded the destruction rate due to the low retention time in the reactor. TiO{sub 2} also did not accelerate the reaction at low humidities (30%). At a relative humidity of 50%, there was complete inactivation of the organisms, but at higher humidities (85%), 10% of the organisms were still viable. The experiments showed that at higher UV intensities, most of the activation was done by the UV photons. However, the photons were not able to completely inactivate the microorganisms. In the photocatalysis experiments there was complete inactivation of the bacteria.

  3. Controlling arbitrary humidity without convection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasnik, Priyanka S; N'guessan, Hartmann E; Tadmor, Rafael

    2015-10-01

    In this paper we show a way that allows for the first time to induce arbitrary humidity of desired value for systems without convective flow. To enable this novelty we utilize a semi-closed environment in which evaporation is not completely suppressed. In this case, the evaporation rate is determined both by the outer (open) humidity and by the inner (semi-closed) geometry including the size/shape of the evaporating medium and the size/shape of the semi-closure. We show how such systems can be used to induce desired humidity conditions. We consider water droplet placed on a solid surface and study its evaporation when it is surrounded by other drops, hereon "satellite" drops and covered by a semi-closed hemisphere. The main drop's evaporation rate is proportional to its height, in agreement with theory. Surprisingly, however, the influence of the satellite drops on the main drop's evaporation suppression is not proportional to the sum of heights of the satellite drops. Instead, it shows proportionality close to the satellite drops' total surface area. The resultant humidity conditions in the semi-closed system can be effectively and accurately induced using different satellite drops combinations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of temperature, humidity, sample geometry, and other variables on Bruceton Type 12 impact initiation of HMX-based high explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avilucea, Gabriel; Aragon, Daniel; Peterson, Paul

    2009-06-01

    The drop weight impact test, developed at Bruceton Naval Research Laboratory 60 years ago, is still the most commonly used configuration for evaluating sensitivity of explosives to non-shock ignition. The standard drop weight impact test is performed under ambient conditions for temperature and humidity - variations in which are known to significantly affect the probability of reaction. We have performed a series of impact tests in an attempt to characterize the effect of temperature, humidity, sample geometry (height, mass, L/d, and pressed density), sample confinement, and impact surface properties (strength and coefficient of friction) on the probability of reaction in a drop weight impact test. Differences in the probability of reaction have been determined across a range of drop heights for each configuration. The results clearly show significant shifts in the probability of reaction and in the slope of the reaction probability curve for each of the variables.

  5. Effects of Varroa destructor on temperature and humidity conditions and expression of energy metabolism genes in infested honeybee colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, C S; Li, B B; Deng, S; Diao, Q Y

    2016-09-23

    Varroa destructor mites pose an increasing global threat to the apicultural industry and agricultural ecology; however, the issue of whether certain environmental factors reflect the level of mite infection is far from resolved. Here, a wireless sensor network (WSN) system was used to examine how V. destructor, which has vital impacts on honeybee (Apis mellifera) health and survival, affects the temperature and humidity of honeybee hives in a field experiment. This approach may facilitate early identification of V. destructor in hives, and thus enable timely remedial action. Using quantitative PCR, we also evaluated the expression of two genes, adipokinetic hormone (AKH) and adipokinetic hormone receptor (AKHR).The results showed that temperature in highly infested broods was higher than that in broods with low infestation. Moreover, mite infection in honeybee colonies was positively correlated with temperature but negatively correlated with humidity (P Varroa infection not only causes changes in temperature inside honeybee colonies, but also affects the expression of honeybee energy metabolism genes.

  6. Heat or humidity, which triggers tree phenology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laube, Julia; Sparks, Tim H.; Estrella, Nicole; Menzel, Annette

    2014-05-01

    An overwhelming number of studies confirm that temperature is the main driver for phenological events such as leafing, flowering or fruit ripening, which was first discovered by Réaumur in 1735. Since then, several additional factors which influence onset dates have been identified, such as length of the chilling period, photoperiod, temperature of the previous autumn, nutrient availability, precipitation, sunshine and genetics (local adaptations). Those are supposed to capture some of the remaining, unexplained variance. But our ability to predict onset dates remains imprecise, and our understanding of how plants sense temperature is vague. From a climate chamber experiment on cuttings of 9 tree species we present evidence that air humidity is an important, but previously overlooked, factor influencing the spring phenology of trees. The date of median leaf unfolding was 7 days earlier at 90% relative humidity compared to 40% relative humidity. A second experiment with cuttings shows that water uptake by above-ground tissue might be involved in the phenological development of trees. A third climate chamber experiment suggests that winter dormancy and chilling might be linked to dehydration processes. Analysis of climate data from several meteorological stations across Germany proves that the increase in air humidity after winter is a reliable signal of spring, i.e. less variable or susceptible to reversal compared to temperature. Finally, an analysis of long-term phenology data reveals that absolute air humidity can even be used as a reliable predictor of leafing dates. Current experimental work tries to elucidate the involved foliar uptake processes by using deuterium oxide marked water and Raman spectroscopy. We propose a new framework, wherein plants' chilling requirements and frost tolerance might be attributed to desiccation processes, while spring development is linked to re-humidification of plant tissue. The influence of air humidity on the spring

  7. Effect of concentration and humidity on the formation of porous polymer films using Styrene Butadiene Co-Polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Renu; Sujith, A.; Predeep, P.

    2011-10-01

    Honeycomb structured porous materials from complex polymers are formed using water droplet templating method. In the present work microporous films were prepared from styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) using emulsion technique. The pore sizes can be easily tuned by changing the concentration and the humidity condition. The pore size is characterized by optical microscope and Scanning electron microscope (SEM). These films can be used for various applications in optoelectronics, photonics, catalysis, tissue engineering, bioanalytical purposes etc.

  8. Relative Humidity Has Uneven Effects on Shifts From Snow to Rain Over the Western U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpold, A. A.; Rajagopal, S.; Crews, J. B.; Winchell, T.; Schumer, R.

    2017-10-01

    Predicting the phase of precipitation is fundamental to water supply and hazard forecasting. Phase prediction methods (PPMs) are used to predict snow fraction, or the ratio of snowfall to total precipitation. Common temperature-based regression (Dai method) and threshold at freezing (0°C) PPMs had comparable accuracy to a humidity-based PPM (TRH method) using 6 and 24 h observations. Using a daily climate data set from 1980 to 2015, the TRH method estimates 14% and 6% greater precipitation-weighted snow fraction than the 0°C and Dai methods, respectively. The TRH method predicts four times less area with declining snow fraction than the Dai method (2.1% and 8.1% of the study domain, respectively) from 1980 to 2015, with the largest differences in the Cascade and Sierra Nevada mountains and southwestern U.S. Future Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 projections suggest warming temperatures of 4.2°C and declining relative humidity of 1% over the 21st century. The TRH method predicts a smaller reduction in snow fraction than temperature-only PPMs by 2100, consistent with lower humidity buffering declines in snow fraction caused by regional warming.

  9. Effect of temperature, relative humidity and rainfall on dengue fever and leptospirosis infections in Manila, the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumi, A; Telan, E F O; Chagan-Yasutan, H; Piolo, M B; Hattori, T; Kobayashi, N

    2017-01-01

    Dengue fever (DF) and leptospirosis are serious public problems in tropical regions, especially in Manila, the Philippines. In attempting to understand the causes of DF and leptospirosis seasonality, meteorological factors have been suspected, but quantitative correlation between seasonality and meteorological factors has not been fully investigated. In this study, we investigated correlation of temporal patterns of reported numbers of laboratory-confirmed cases of both DF and leptospirosis with meteorological conditions (temperature, relative humidity, rainfall) in Manila. We used time-series analysis combined with spectral analysis and the least squares method. A 1-year cycle explained underlying variations of DF, leptospirosis and meteorological data. There was a peak of the 1-year cycle in temperature during May, followed by maxima in rainfall, relative humidity and number of laboratory-confirmed DF and leptospirosis cases. This result suggests that DF and leptospirosis epidemics are correlated not only with rainfall but also relative humidity and temperature in the Philippines. Quantifying the correlation of DF and leptospirosis infections with meteorological conditions may prove useful in predicting DF and leptospirosis epidemics, and health services should plan accordingly.

  10. Porous ZrO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2} ceramics for applications as sensing elements in the air humidity monitoring; Ceramicas porosas de ZrO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2} para aplicacao como elementos sensores no monitoramento de umidade do ar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Rodrigo de Matos; Nono, Maria do Carmo de Andrade, E-mail: rodmatos@las.inpe.br [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (SUCERA/INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Grupo de Pesquisa em Engenharia de Superficies de Solidos e de Ceramicas Micro e Nanoestruturadas

    2011-07-01

    The environmental monitoring requires versatile, reliable and lower cost instruments. The chemical superficial absorption/adsorption capability of water molecules by several ceramic oxides makes them excellent candidates for this application. In this way, many efforts have been made for the development of porous ceramics, manufactured from mechanical mixture of ZrO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2} powders, for application as air humidity sensing elements. The sintered ceramics were characterized as for crystalline phases (X-ray diffraction) and pores structure (scanning electron microscopy and mercury porosimetry). The relative humidity curves for the ceramics were obtained from measurements with RLC bridge in climatic chamber. The behavior of these curves were comparatively analyzed with the aid of pores sizes distribution curves, obtained through mercury porosimetry. The results evidenced that the air humidity ceramic sensing elements are very promising ones. (author)

  11. Air pollution epidemiology. Assessment of health effects and risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsouyanni, K. [Athens Univ. (Greece). Dept. of Hygiene and Epidemiology

    1995-12-31

    Air pollution epidemiology is the study of the occurrence and distribution of health outcomes in association with community air pollution exposure. It is therefore specific in the exposure variable. Air pollution health effects became evident during high air pollution episodes which occurred in the first decades of our century. Since then, legal and other control measures have led to lower air pollution levels. However, recent results from several studies indicate that lower levels of air pollution than the previously considered safe have serious adverse health effects. Although, there is increasingly agreement that air pollution, at levels measured today, affects health, there is still a lot to be understood concerning specific causal pollutants, biologic mechanisms involved and sensitive groups of individuals. The extent of potential confounding, time-considerations in air pollution effects, individual variation in air pollution exposure and exposure misclassification are some factors which complicate the study of these issues. (author)

  12. Relationship between relative humidity and the dew point ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was aimed at determining the relationship between relative humidity and the dew point temperature in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. The dew point temperature was approximated from the measured air temperature and relative humidity with the aid of a currently self-designed weather monitoring system.

  13. Modeling of humidity-related reliability in enclosures with electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hygum, Morten Arnfeldt; Popok, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Reliability of electronics that operate outdoor is strongly affected by environmental factors such as temperature and humidity. Fluctuations of these parameters can lead to water condensation inside enclosures. Therefore, modelling of humidity distribution in a container with air and freely exposed...

  14. Respiratory Effects of Indoor Heat and the Interaction with Air Pollution in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Meredith C; Belli, Andrew J; Waugh, Darryn; Matsui, Elizabeth C; Peng, Roger D; Williams, D'Ann L; Paulin, Laura; Saha, Anik; Aloe, Charles M; Diette, Gregory B; Breysse, Patrick N; Hansel, Nadia N

    2016-12-01

    There is limited evidence of the effect of exposure to heat on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) morbidity, and the interactive effect between indoor heat and air pollution has not been established. To determine the effect of indoor and outdoor heat exposure on COPD morbidity and to determine whether air pollution concentrations modify the effect of temperature. Sixty-nine participants with COPD were enrolled in a longitudinal cohort study, and data from the 601 participant days that occurred during the warm weather season were included in the analysis. Participants completed home environmental monitoring with measurement of temperature, relative humidity, and indoor air pollutants and simultaneous daily assessment of respiratory health with questionnaires and portable spirometry. Participants had moderate to severe COPD and spent the majority of their time indoors. Increases in maximal indoor temperature were associated with worsening of daily Breathlessness, Cough, and Sputum Scale scores and increases in rescue inhaler use. The effect was detected on the same day and lags of 1 and 2 days. The detrimental effect of temperature on these outcomes increased with higher concentrations of indoor fine particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide (P pollution concentrations. For patients with COPD who spend the majority of their time indoors, indoor heat exposure during the warmer months represents a modifiable environmental exposure that may contribute to respiratory morbidity. In the context of climate change, adaptive strategies that include optimization of indoor environmental conditions are needed to protect this high-risk group from the adverse health effects of heat.

  15. Experimental investigation of the effect of air velocity on a unit cooler under frosting condition: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayrak, Ergin; Çağlayan, Akın; Konukman, Alp Er S.

    2017-10-01

    Finned tube evaporators are used in a wide range of applications such as commercial and industrial cold/freezed storage rooms with high traffic loading under frosting conditions. In this case study, an evaporator with an integrated fan was manufactured and tested under frosting conditions by only changing the air flow rate in an ambient balanced type test laboratory compared to testing in a wind tunnel with a more uniform flow distribution in order to detect the effect of air flow rate on frosting. During the test, operation was performed separately based on three different air flow rates. The parameters concerning test operation such as the changes of air temperature, air relative humidity, surface temperature, air-side pressure drop and refrigerant side capacity etc. were followed in detail for each air flow rate. At the same time, digital images were captured in front of the evaporator; thus, frost thicknesses and blockage ratios at the course of fan stall were determined by using an image-processing technique. Consequently, the test and visual results showed that the trendline of air-side pressure drop increased slowly at the first stage of test operations, then increased linearly up to a top point and then the linearity was disrupted instantly. This point speculated the beginning of defrost operation for each case. In addition, despite detecting a velocity that needs to be avoided, a test applied at minimum air velocity is superior to providing minimum capacity in terms of loss of capacity during test operations.

  16. Real-time quantification of traces of biogenic volatile selenium compounds in humid air by selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sovová, Kristýna; Shestivska, Violetta; Španěl, Patrik

    2012-06-05

    Biological volatilization of selenium, Se, in a contaminated area is an economical and environmentally friendly approach to phytoremediation techniques, but analytical methods for monitoring and studying volatile compounds released in the process of phytovolatilization are currently limited in their performance. Thus, a new method for real time quantification of trace amounts of the vapors of hydrogen selenide (H(2)Se), methylselenol (CH(3)SeH), dimethylselenide ((CH(3))(2)Se), and dimethyldiselenide ((CH(3))(2)Se(2)) present in ambient air adjacent to living plants has been developed. This involves the characterization of the mechanism and kinetics of the reaction of H(3)O(+), NO(+), and O(2)(+•) reagent ions with molecules of these compounds and then use of the rate constants so obtained to determine their absolute concentrations in air by selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, SIFT-MS. The results of experiments demonstrating this method on emissions from maize (Zea mays) seedlings cultivated in Se rich medium are also presented.

  17. [The composition of the chitinolytic microbial complex and its effect on chitin decomposition at various humidity levels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorob'ev, A V; Manucharova, N A; Iaroslavtsev, A M; Belova, E V; Zviagintsev, D G; Sudnitsyn, I I

    2007-01-01

    The dynamics of assimilation of chitin by soil microorganisms (primarily prokaryotes) as a source of carbon and nitrogen has been determined by gas chromatography and fluorescence microscopy. The highest rates of chitin decomposition in chernozem were detected at humidity levels corresponding to the pressure of soil moisture (P) of -1.4 atm. The rate of microbial consumption of chitin is three times higher than that of the carbon of soil organic matter. Fluorescence microscopy revealed that an increase in the pressure of soil moisture from P = -10 atm to P = -0.7 atm resulted in a considerable increase in the proportion of the specific surface of mycelial bacteria (actinomycetes).

  18. Problems associated with the use of urea-formaldehyde foam for residential insulation. Part I. The effects of temperature and humidity on formaldehyde release from urea-formaldehyde foam insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, K.R.; Pierson, D.A.; Brennan, S.T.; Frank, C.W.; Hahne, R.A.

    1979-09-01

    The study is concerned primarily with those properties related to formaldehyde and its application as an ingredient in urea-formaldehyde resins. In particular the effects of temperature and humidity on urea-formaldehyde foam are discussed.

  19. Preferred Air Velocity and Local Cooling Effect of desk fans in warm environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2013-01-01

    , and the possibility to keep comfortable conditions for the occupants in warm environments were evaluated in studies with human subjects. In an office-like climatic chamber, the effect of higher air velocity was investigated at room temperatures between 26°C to 34°C and at constant absolute humidity of 12.2 g......Common experiences, standards, and laboratory studies show that increased air velocity helps to offset warm sensation due to high environmental temperatures. In warm climate regions the opening of windows and the use of desk or ceiling fans are the most common systems to generate increased airflows....../kg. By a thermal manikin the effect of direct air movement generated by a personal desk fan at 26 °C, 28 °C, or 30 °C room temperatures and the achievable thermal comfort was also analyzed. Results show that it is possible to offset warm sensation within a range of indoor conditions using increased air velocity...

  20. Absolute Humidity and Pandemic Versus Epidemic Influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaman, Jeffrey; Goldstein, Edward; Lipsitch, Marc

    2011-01-01

    Experimental and epidemiologic evidence indicates that variations of absolute humidity account for the onset and seasonal cycle of epidemic influenza in temperate regions. A role for absolute humidity in the transmission of pandemic influenza, such as 2009 A/H1N1, has yet to be demonstrated and, indeed, outbreaks of pandemic influenza during more humid spring, summer, and autumn months might appear to constitute evidence against an effect of humidity. However, here the authors show that variations of the basic and effective reproductive numbers for influenza, caused by seasonal changes in absolute humidity, are consistent with the general timing of pandemic influenza outbreaks observed for 2009 A/H1N1 in temperate regions, as well as wintertime transmission of epidemic influenza. Indeed, absolute humidity conditions correctly identify the region of the United States vulnerable to a third, wintertime wave of pandemic influenza. These findings suggest that the timing of pandemic influenza outbreaks is controlled by a combination of absolute humidity conditions, levels of susceptibility, and changes in population-mixing and contact rates. PMID:21081646

  1. EFFECT OF AIR CONDITION ON AP-1000 CONTAINMENT COOLING PERFORMANCE IN STATION BLACK OUT ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendro Tjahjono

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT EFFECT OF AIR CONDITION ON AP-1000 CONTAINMENT COOLING PERFORMANCE IN STATION BLACK OUT ACCIDENT. AP1000 reactor is a nuclear power plant generation III+ 1000 MWe which apply passive cooling concept to anticipate accidents triggered by the extinction of the entire supply of electrical power or Station Black Out (SBO. In the AP1000 reactor, decay heat disposal mechanism conducted passively through the PRHR-IRWST and subsequently forwarded to the reactor containment. Containment externally cooled through natural convection in the air gap and through evaporation cooling water poured on the outer surface of the containment wall. The mechanism of evaporation of water into the air outside is strongly influenced by the conditions of humidity and air temperature. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent of the influence of the air condition on cooling capabilities of the AP1000 containment. The method used is to perform simulations using Matlab-based analytical calculation model capable of estimating the power of heat transfered. The simulation results showed a decrease in power up to  5% for relative humidity rose from 10% to 95%, while the variation of air temperature of 10 °C to 40°C, the power will decrease up to 15%. It can be concluded that the effect of air temperature increase is much more significant in lowering the containment cooling ability compared with the increase of humidity. Keywords: containment cooling, AP1000, air condition, SBO   ABSTRAK PENGARUH KONDISI UDARA TERHADAP KINERJA PENDINGINAN SUNGKUP AP-1000 DALAM KECELAKAAN STATION BLACK OUT. Reaktor AP-1000 merupakan PLTN generasi III+ berdaya 1000 MWe yang menerapkan konsep pendinginan pasif untuk mengantisipasi terjadinya kecelakaan yang dipicu oleh padamnya seluruh suplai daya listrik atau dikenal dengan Station Black Out (SBO. Pada reaktor AP-1000, mekanisme pembuangan kalor peluruhan dilakukan secara pasif melalui PRHR yang diteruskan ke IRWST dan

  2. Effect of temperature and relative humidity during transportation on green coffee bean moisture content and ochratoxin A production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios-Cabrera, Hector A; Menezes, Hilary C; Iamanaka, Beatriz T; Canepa, Frederico; Teixeira, Aldir A; Carvalhaes, Nelson; Santi, Domenico; Leme, Plinio T Z; Yotsuyanagi, Katumi; Taniwaki, Marta H

    2007-01-01

    Changes in temperature, relative humidity, and moisture content of green coffee beans were monitored during transportation of coffee from Brazil to Italy. Six containers (three conventional and three prototype) were stowed in three different places (hold, first floor, and deck) on the ship. Each prototype was located next to a conventional container. The moisture content of the coffee in the container located on the first floor was less affected by environmental variations (0.7%) than that in the hold and on the deck. Coffee located in the hold showed the highest variation in moisture content (3%); in addition, the container showed visible condensation. Coffee transported on the deck showed an intermediary variation in moisture (2%), and there was no visible condensation. The variation in coffee moisture content of the prototype containers was similar to that of the conventional ones, especially in the top layers of coffee bags (2 to 3%), while the increase in water activity was 0.70. This suggests that diffusion of moisture occurs very slowly inside the cargo and that there are thus sufficient time and conditions for fungal growth. The regions of the container near the wall and ceiling are susceptible to condensation since they are close to the headspace with its high relative humidity. Ochratoxin A production occurred in coffee located at the top of the container on the deck and in the wet bags from the hold (those found to be wet on opening the containers at the final destination).

  3. Ambient air quality and the effects of air pollutants on otolaryngology in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fengying; Xu, Jin; Zhang, Ziying; Meng, Haiying; Wang, Li; Lu, Jinmei; Wang, Wuyi; Krafft, Thomas

    2015-08-01

    To investigate temporal patterns, pollution concentrations and the health effects of air pollutants in Beijing we carried out time-series analyses on daily concentrations of ambient air pollutants and daily numbers of outpatient visits for otolaryngology over 2 years (2011-2012) to identify possible health effects of air pollutants. The results showed that PM10 was the major air pollutant in Beijing and that air quality was slightly better in 2012 than in 2011. Seasonal differences were apparent for SO2 and NO2. Both the background and urban areas of Beijing experienced particulate matter pollution in 2011. In addition to local air pollution, Beijing was also affected by pollutants transported from other regions, especially during heavy air pollution episodes. PM10, NO2, and SO2 concentrations showed positive associations with numbers of outpatient visits for otolaryngology during winter. NO2 and SO2 also had adverse ear, nose, and throat health effects outside of winter. The ear, nose, and throat health risks caused by air pollutants were higher during the winter than during the summer. NO2 had stronger influence on increased the likelihood of outpatient visits than SO2. The findings provide additional information about air quality and health effects of air pollution in Beijing.

  4. Optical humidity sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarvin, Jeffrey A.

    1987-01-01

    An optical dielectric humidity sensor which includes a dielectric mirror having multiple alternating layers of two porous water-adsorbent dielectric materials with differing indices of refraction carried by a translucent substrate. A narrow-band polarized light source is positioned to direct light energy onto the mirror, and detectors are positioned to receive light energy transmitted through and reflected by the mirror. A ratiometer indicates humidity in the atmosphere which surrounds the dielectric mirror as a function of a ratio of light energies incident on the detectors.

  5. Low-cost personal cooling in hot humid offices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsen, Lars Bo; Santos, A.

    This report presents a low cost solution to avoid heat stress in a hot and humid environment based on a solar powered drying of supply air. The air drying facilities and a validation of the benefits through comprehensive human exposure studies are described. The study represents an example...... of applied participative research performed in a developing country. The report may be used as a background for the improvement of the indoor climate in poor, hot and humid regions without increased use of electricity....

  6. Partial pit exhaust improves indoor air quality and effectiveness of air cleaning in livestock housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Guoqiang; Bjerg, B.; Zong, C.

    2017-01-01

    Ammonia and odor emissions from livestock production systems cause negative impact on atmospheric environment and local society. It is, therefore, important to develop cost-effective methods to reduce these emissions. Air cleaning technologies, including chemical and biological filters, have been...... proposed to clean the exhaust ventilation air from confined livestock buildings. However, it requires large capacity of the air cleaning unit for the total exhaust air and, consequently, results in high investment and operational costs of the livestock production system. Aiming at emission reduction...... and optimal indoor air quality of confined farm animal buildings, a concept of partial pit ventilation has been investigated in varied conditions in Denmark. Partial pit ventilation is based on the hypothesis that the most polluted air can be removed by a separate air exhaust near the pollution sources in pit...

  7. Measurements of humidity and current distribution in a PEFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishikawa, H.; Kurihara, R.; Sukemori, S.; Sugawara, T.; Abe, S. [Department of Electrical Engineering Tokyo Denki University, 2-2 Kandanishiki-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-8457 (Japan); Kobayasi, H.; Aoki, T.; Ogami, Y.; Matsunaga, A. [Fuel Cell Technology Development Department Toshiba Fuel Cell System,4-1 Ukishima-cho, Kawasaki-ku, Kawasaki-shi, Kanagawa 210-0862 (Japan)

    2006-04-21

    Voltage decreases of polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC) are affected by the relative humidity of the reaction gas inside the cells. A study was conducted to establish a method for measuring relative humidity and current distribution inside PEFC cells in order to identify the factors affecting the voltage decay of such fuel cells. The humidity distribution was measured using a humidity sensor for directly monitoring the relative humidity of the reaction gas flowing through the air flow channel of the cathode separator. The current distribution was measured directly by attaching a current sensor to the rib of the cathode separator. Typical results of relative humidity and current distribution are described and interpretations are discussed. (author)

  8. Effect of concentration, exposure time, temperature, and relative humidity on the toxicity of sulfur dioxide to the spores of Botrytis cinerea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couey, H.M.; Uota, M.

    1961-12-01

    When spores of Botrytis cinerea are exposed to SO/sub 2/ gas, the subsequent reduction in spore germination is quantitatively proportional to the SO/sub 2/ concentration and the exposure time. The toxicity of SO/sub 2/ increases with increasing relative humidity. In an atmosphere of 96% RH, SO/sub 2/ is more than 20 times as effective as at 75% RH. The toxicity also increases about 1.5 times for each 10/sup 0/C rise in temperature between 0/sup 0/ and 30/sup 0/C. 8 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  9. Humid heat waves at different warming levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Simone; Sillmann, Jana; Sterl, Andreas

    2017-08-07

    The co-occurrence of consecutive hot and humid days during a heat wave can strongly affect human health. Here, we quantify humid heat wave hazard in the recent past and at different levels of global warming. We find that the magnitude and apparent temperature peak of heat waves, such as the ones observed in Chicago in 1995 and China in 2003, have been strongly amplified by humidity. Climate model projections suggest that the percentage of area where heat wave magnitude and peak are amplified by humidity increases with increasing warming levels. Considering the effect of humidity at 1.5° and 2° global warming, highly populated regions, such as the Eastern US and China, could experience heat waves with magnitude greater than the one in Russia in 2010 (the most severe of the present era). The apparent temperature peak during such humid-heat waves can be greater than 55 °C. According to the US Weather Service, at this temperature humans are very likely to suffer from heat strokes. Humid-heat waves with these conditions were never exceeded in the present climate, but are expected to occur every other year at 4° global warming. This calls for respective adaptation measures in some key regions of the world along with international climate change mitigation efforts.

  10. Effect of Percent Relative Humidity, Moisture Content, and Compression Force on Light-Induced Fluorescence (LIF) Response as a Process Analytical Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ishan G; Stagner, William C

    2016-08-01

    The effect of percent relative humidity (16-84% RH), moisture content (4.2-6.5% w/w MC), and compression force (4.9-44.1 kN CF) on the light-induced fluorescence (LIF) response of 10% w/w active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) compacts is reported. The fluorescent response was evaluated using two separate central composite designs of experiments. The effect of % RH and CF on the LIF signal was highly significant with an adjusted R (2)  = 0.9436 and p relative humidity (p = 0.0022), CF (p < 0.0001), and % RH(2) (p = 0.0237) were statistically significant factors affecting the LIF response. The effects of MC and CF on LIF response were also statistically significant with a p value <0.0001 and adjusted R (2) value of 0.9874. The LIF response was highly impacted by MC (p < 0.0001), CF (p < 0.0001), and MC(2) (p = 0022). At 10% w/w API, increased % RH, MC, and CF led to a nonlinear decrease in LIF response. The derived quadratic model equations explained more than 94% of the data. Awareness of these effects on LIF response is critical when implementing LIF as a process analytical tool.

  11. Lanthanide-halide based humidity indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beitz, James V [Hinsdale, IL; Williams, Clayton W [Chicago, IL

    2008-01-01

    The present invention discloses a lanthanide-halide based humidity indicator and method of producing such indicator. The color of the present invention indicates the humidity of an atmosphere to which it is exposed. For example, impregnating an adsorbent support such as silica gel with an aqueous solution of the europium-containing reagent solution described herein, and dehydrating the support to dryness forms a substance with a yellow color. When this substance is exposed to a humid atmosphere the water vapor from the air is adsorbed into the coating on the pore surface of the silica gel. As the water content of the coating increases, the visual color of the coated silica gel changes from yellow to white. The color change is due to the water combining with the lanthanide-halide complex on the pores of the gel.

  12. Assessment of the accuracy of site-specific estimates of rainfall, air temperature, relative humidity, and wetness duration in the Northern Pacific region of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark L. Gleason

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Precision de la estimacion en sitio especi- media diaria en aproximadamente 1.8°C y la tem- accuperatura minima en aproximadamente 4.4°C, prin- cipalmente por una subestimacion entre la media- noche y las 6:00 h. La duracion de perfodos de HR>90% foe subestimada en 6 h/dfa en promedio, y el error foe mayor en la noche 0 en dfas con llu- midvia. El CSI para la exactitud en la identificacion de cohoras con HR>90% foe de 0.40,10 cual excedio CSI observado en el medio oeste de los Estados Unidos (0.27. SkyBit sobrestimola duracion de humedadfoliaren 1.9 h/dia, mientrasquelasubes- timo en 1.4 h/dia en el medio oeste de los Estados Unidos. La proporcion de horas clasificadas co- rrectamente como htimedas 0 secas, 70.9%, foe ca- dusi identica a la observada en los Estados Unidos (70.1, pero el CSI para los datos de Costa Rica foe 2 veces mayor (0.56 vs. 0.27. En Costa Rica, los errores de estimacion de humedad fueron mayores durante dias con lluvia, y ocurrieron con mas fre- cuencia en el dia que durante la noche. La mayor cantidad de identificaciones incorrectas de horas secas 0 humedas se dieron entre las 8:00 y las 10:00 y entre las 15:00 y las 21:00 h. Estos resultados aportan informacion de base a partir de la cual se puede refinar la estirnacion de parametros meteorologicos en sitios especificos, para su aplicacion en la agricultura de Costa Rica. de novia, temperatura del aire, humedad hurelativa y periodo de humedad en el Pacifico Norte de Costa Rica. Se evalu61a exactitud de las meaestimaciones de variables meteorol6gicas horarias sitios especificos, calculadas por el sistema computarizado SkyBit Inc. La evaluaci6n se hizo mediante la comparaci6n con datos reales obteni- sobre el terreno en 5 sitios ubicados en la re- prigi6n del Pacifico Norte de Costa Rica, de abril a ocseptiembre de 1999. Las variables estimadas fue- lluvia, temperatura del aire, humedad relativa HR y duraci6n del periodo de humedad. El siste- SkyBit identific6

  13. Temperature insensitive hysteresis free highly sensitive polymer optical fiber Bragg grating humidity sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Woyessa, Getinet; Nielsen, Kristian; Stefani, Alessio; Markos, Christos; Bang, Ole

    2016-01-01

    The effect of humidity on annealing of poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) based microstructured polymer optical fiber Bragg gratings (mPOFBGs) and the resulting humidity responsivity are investigated. Typically annealing of PMMA POFs is done in an oven without humidity control around 80°C and therefore at low humidity. We demonstrate that annealing at high humidity and high temperature improves the performances of mPOFBGs in terms of stability and sensitivity to humidity. PMMA POFBGs that are ...

  14. Effect of RF power and annealing on chemical bonding and morphology of a-CN{sub x} thin films as humidity sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aziz, N. F. H; Hussain, N. S. Mohamed; Awang, R. [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Ritikos, R.; Kamal, S. A. A. [Low Dimensional Materials Research Centre, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27

    Amorphous carbon nitride (a-CN{sub x}) thin films were deposited using radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (rf-PECVD) technique. A set of a-CN{sub x} thin films were prepared using pure methane (CH{sub 4}) gas diluted with nitrogen (N{sub 2}) gas. The rf power was varied at 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100 W. These films were then annealed at 400 °C in a quartz tube furnace in argon (Ar) gas. The effects of rf power and thermal annealing on the chemical bonding and morphology of these samples were studied. Surface profilometer was used to measure film thickness. Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) and Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) measurements were used to determine their chemical bonding and morphology respectively. The deposition rate of the films increased constantly with increasing rf power up to 80W, before decreasing with further increase in rf power. Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) studies showed a systematic change in the spectra and revealed three main peaks included C-N, C=N, C=C and C≡N triple bond. C=N and C≡N bonds decreased with increased C-N bonds after thermal annealing process. The FESEM images showed that the structure is porous for as-deposited and covered by granule-like grain structure after thermal annealing process was done. The resistance of the a-CN{sub x} thin film changed from 23.765 kΩ to 5.845 kΩ in the relative humidity range of 5 to 92 % and the film shows a good response and repeatability as a humidity sensing materials. This work showed that rf power and thermal annealing has significant effects on the chemical bonding and surface morphology of the a-CN{sub x} films and but yield films which are potential candidate as humidity sensor device.

  15. Cleanable Air Filter Transferring Moisture and Effectively Capturing PM2.5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xinglei; Li, Yuyao; Hua, Ting; Jiang, Pan; Yin, Xia; Yu, Jianyong; Ding, Bin

    2017-03-01

    The lethal danger of particulate matter (PM) pollution on health leads to the development of challenging individual protection materials that should ideally exhibit a high PM2.5 purification efficiency, low air resistance, an important moisture-vapor transmission rate (MVTR), and an easy-to-clean property. Herein, a cleanable air filter able to rapidly transfer moisture and efficiently capture PM2.5 is designed by electrospinning superhydrophilic polyacrylonitrile/silicon-dioxide fibers as the adsorption-desorption vector for moisture-vapor, and hydrophobic polyvinylidene fluoride fibers as the repellent components to avoid the formation of capillary water under high humidity. The desorption rate of water molecules increases from 10 to 18 mg min(-1) , while the diameters of polyacrylonitrile fibers reduce from 1.02 to 0.14 µm. Significantly, by introducing the hydroxyl on the surface of polyacrylonitrile nanofibers, rapid adsorption-desorption of the water molecules is observed. Moreover, by constructing a hydrophobic to super-hydrophilic gradient structure, the MVTR increases from 10 346 to 14 066 g m(-2) d(-1) . Interestingly, the prepared fibrous membranes is easy to clean. More importantly, benefiting from enhanced slip effect, the resultant fibrous membranes presented a low air resistance of 86 Pa. A field test in Shanghai shows that the air filter maintains stable PM2.5 purification efficiency of 99.99% at high MVTR during haze event. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Partial pit exhaust improves indoor air quality and effectiveness of air cleaning in livestock housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Guoqiang; Bjerg, B.; Zong, C.

    2017-01-01

    approach to reduce emissions by combining an effective exhaust cleaner. The system can significantly improve the indoor air quality, because a considerable amount of the concentrated pollutants in the air are removed directly via PPAE. The pollutant removal via PPAE is influenced by airflow patterns......Ammonia and odor emissions from livestock production systems cause negative impact on atmospheric environment and local society. It is, therefore, important to develop cost-effective methods to reduce these emissions. Air cleaning technologies, including chemical and biological filters, have been...... proposed to clean the exhaust ventilation air from confined livestock buildings. However, it requires large capacity of the air cleaning unit for the total exhaust air and, consequently, results in high investment and operational costs of the livestock production system. Aiming at emission reduction...

  17. Effects on health of air pollution: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio; Harari, Sergio; Martinelli, Ida; Franchini, Massimo

    2015-09-01

    Air pollution is a complex and ubiquitous mixture of pollutants including particulate matter, chemical substances and biological materials. There is growing awareness of the adverse effects on health of air pollution following both acute and chronic exposure, with a rapidly expanding body of evidence linking air pollution with an increased risk of respiratory (e.g., asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer) and cardiovascular disease (e.g., myocardial infarction, heart failure, cerebrovascular accidents). Elderly subjects, pregnant women, infants and people with prior diseases appear especially susceptible to the deleterious effects of ambient air pollution. The main diseases associated with exposure to air pollutants will be summarized in this narrative review.

  18. The effect of a personalized ventilation system on perceived air quality and SBS symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaczmarczyk, Jan; Zeng, Q.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2002-01-01

    Perceived air quality, SBS symptoms and performance were studied with 30 human subjects. Experiments were performed in an office set-up with six workplaces, each equipped with a Personalized Ventilation System (PVS). Each PVS allowed the amount of supply air and its direction to be controlled....... Subjects participated in four experiments: (1) PVS supplying outdoor air at 20 deg.C; (2) PVS supplying outdoor air at 23 deg.C; (3) PVS supplying recirculated room air; and (4) mixing ventilation. Room temperature was kept constant at 23 deg.C and relative humidity at 30%. Results showed that the best...

  19. Diurnal Thermal Behavior of Pavements, Vegetation, and Water Pond in a Hot-Humid City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoshan Yang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the diurnal thermal behavior of several urban surfaces and landscape components, including pavements, vegetation, and a water pond. The field experiment was conducted in a university campus of Guangzhou, South China, which is characterized by a hot and humid summer. The temperature of ground surface and grass leaves and the air temperature and humidity from 0.1 to 1.5 m heights were measured for a period of 24 h under hot summer conditions. The results showed that the concrete and granite slab pavements elevated the temperature of the air above them throughout the day. In contrast, the trees and the pond lowered the air temperature near ground during the daytime but produced a slight warming effect during the nighttime. The influence of vegetation on air temperature and humidity is affected by the configurations of greenery. Compared to the open lawn, the grass shaded by trees was more effective in cooling and the mixture of shrub and grass created a stronger cooling effect during the nighttime. The knowledge of thermal behavior of various urban surfaces and landscape components is an important tool for planners and designers. If utilized properly, it can lead to climatic rehabilitation in urban areas and an improvement of the outdoor thermal environment.

  20. Measure Guideline: Supplemental Dehumidification in Warm-Humid Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, A.

    2014-10-01

    This document covers a description of the need and applied solutions for supplemental dehumidification in warm-humid climates, especially for energy efficient homes where the sensible cooling load has been dramatically reduced. In older homes in warm-humid climates, cooling loads are typically high and cooling equipment runs a lot to cool the air. The cooling process also removes indoor moisture, reducing indoor relative humidity. However, at current residential code levels, and especially for above-code programs, sensible cooling loads have been so dramatically reduced that the cooling system does not run a lot to cool the air, resulting in much less moisture being removed. In these new homes, cooling equipment is off for much longer periods of time especially during spring/fall seasons, summer shoulder months, rainy periods, some summer nights, and some winter days. In warm-humid climates, those long off periods allow indoor humidity to become elevated due to internally generated moisture and ventilation air change. Elevated indoor relative humidity impacts comfort, indoor air quality, and building material durability. Industry is responding with supplemental dehumidification options, but that effort is really in its infancy regarding year-round humidity control in low-energy homes. Available supplemental humidity control options are discussed. Some options are less expensive but may not control indoor humidity as well as more expensive and comprehensive options. The best performing option is one that avoids overcooling and avoids adding unnecessary heat to the space by using waste heat from the cooling system to reheat the cooled and dehumidified air to room-neutral temperature.