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Sample records for humboldtian medical geographer

  1. Humboldtian science, Creole meteorology, and the discovery of human-caused climate change in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushman, Gregory T

    2011-01-01

    The belief that human land use is capable of causing large-scale climatic change lies at the root of modern conservation thought and policy. The origins and popularization of this belief were deeply politicized. Alexander von Humboldt's treatment of the Lake Valencia basin in Venezuela and the desert coast of Peru as natural laboratories for observing the interaction between geophysical and cultural forces was central to this discovery, as was Humboldt's belief that European colonialism was especially destructive to the land. Humboldt's overt cultivation of disciples was critical to building the prestige of this discovery and popularizing the Humboldtian scientific program, which depended fundamentally on local observers, but willfully marginalized chorographic knowledge systems. In creating new, global forms of environmental understanding, Humboldtian science also generated new forms of ignorance.

  2. The Effect of Geographic Units of Analysis on Measuring Geographic Variation in Medical Services Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnus M. Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We aimed to evaluate the effect of geographic units of analysis on measuring geographic variation in medical services utilization. For this purpose, we compared geographic variations in the rates of eight major procedures in administrative units (districts and new areal units organized based on the actual health care use of the population in Korea. Methods: To compare geographic variation in geographic units of analysis, we calculated the age–sex standardized rates of eight major procedures (coronary artery bypass graft surgery, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, surgery after hip fracture, knee-replacement surgery, caesarean section, hysterectomy, computed tomography scan, and magnetic resonance imaging scan from the National Health Insurance database in Korea for the 2013 period. Using the coefficient of variation, the extremal quotient, and the systematic component of variation, we measured geographic variation for these eight procedures in districts and new areal units. Results: Compared with districts, new areal units showed a reduction in geographic variation. Extremal quotients and inter-decile ratios for the eight procedures were lower in new areal units. While the coefficient of variation was lower for most procedures in new areal units, the pattern of change of the systematic component of variation between districts and new areal units differed among procedures. Conclusions: Geographic variation in medical service utilization could vary according to the geographic unit of analysis. To determine how geographic characteristics such as population size and number of geographic units affect geographic variation, further studies are needed.

  3. The geographical mobility of recently graduated medical doctors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drejer, Ina; Holm, Jacob Rubæk; Petersen, Karin Dam

    specialize to become general practitioners (GPs). Access to medical services is included among the services important for ensuring the basics in a welfare society. The analysis is limited to general practitioners (GPs), although access to other types of medical professionals is also an important aspect......University graduates are not evenly distributed geographically, and attraction and retention of university graduates is high on the agenda in many regional development strategies. In this paper we study the geographical mobility of a particular type of university graduates: medical doctors who...... of local access to medical services. We have chosen GPs because they – except in cases of emergency – are the main entrance to medical services in Denmark. We study how different factors may influence where GPs choose to set up medical practice. We pay particular attention to the importance of local...

  4. Geographic Medical History: Advances in Geospatial Technology Present New Potentials in Medical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruque, F. S.; Finley, R. W.

    2016-06-01

    Genes, behaviour, and the environment are known to be the major risk factors for common diseases. When the patient visits a physician, typical questions include family history (genes) and lifestyle of the patient (behaviour), but questions concerning environmental risk factors often remain unasked. It is ironic that 25 centuries ago Hippocrates, known as the father of medicine, noted the importance of environmental exposure in medical investigation as documented in his classic work, "Airs, Waters, Places", yet the practice of routinely incorporating environmental risk factors is still not in place. Modern epigenetic studies have found that unhealthy lifestyle and environmental factors can cause changes to our genes that can increase disease risk factors. Therefore, attempting to solve the puzzle of diseases using heredity and lifestyle alone will be incomplete without accounting for the environmental exposures. The primary reason why environmental exposure has not yet been a routine part of the patient's medical history is mostly due to our inability to provide clinicians useful measures of environmental exposures suitable for their clinical practices. This presentation will discuss advances in geospatial technology that show the potential to catalyse a paradigm shift in medical practice and health research by allowing environmental risk factors to be documented as the patient's "Geographic Medical History". In order to accomplish this we need information on: a) relevant spatiotemporal environmental variables, and b) location of the individual in that person's dynamic environment. Common environmental agents that are known to interact with genetic make-up include air pollutants, mold spores, pesticides, etc. Until recently, the other component, location of an individual was limited to a static representation such as residential or workplace location. Now, with the development of mobile technology, changes in an individual's location can be tracked in real time if

  5. GEOGRAPHIC MEDICAL HISTORY: ADVANCES IN GEOSPATIAL TECHNOLOGY PRESENT NEW POTENTIALS IN MEDICAL PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. S. Faruque

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Genes, behaviour, and the environment are known to be the major risk factors for common diseases. When the patient visits a physician, typical questions include family history (genes and lifestyle of the patient (behaviour, but questions concerning environmental risk factors often remain unasked. It is ironic that 25 centuries ago Hippocrates, known as the father of medicine, noted the importance of environmental exposure in medical investigation as documented in his classic work, “Airs, Waters, Places”, yet the practice of routinely incorporating environmental risk factors is still not in place. Modern epigenetic studies have found that unhealthy lifestyle and environmental factors can cause changes to our genes that can increase disease risk factors. Therefore, attempting to solve the puzzle of diseases using heredity and lifestyle alone will be incomplete without accounting for the environmental exposures. The primary reason why environmental exposure has not yet been a routine part of the patient’s medical history is mostly due to our inability to provide clinicians useful measures of environmental exposures suitable for their clinical practices. This presentation will discuss advances in geospatial technology that show the potential to catalyse a paradigm shift in medical practice and health research by allowing environmental risk factors to be documented as the patient’s “Geographic Medical History”. In order to accomplish this we need information on: a relevant spatiotemporal environmental variables, and b location of the individual in that person’s dynamic environment. Common environmental agents that are known to interact with genetic make-up include air pollutants, mold spores, pesticides, etc. Until recently, the other component, location of an individual was limited to a static representation such as residential or workplace location. Now, with the development of mobile technology, changes in an individual’s location

  6. Medical specialists' choice of location: the role of geographical attachment in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiansen, I S; Førde, O H

    1992-01-01

    The relation between current place of work (area of the country) and factors that might possibly represent doctors geographical attachments was studied in a sample of 322 Norwegian medical specialists. Location of hospital residency, age and geographical origin of spouse were associated with current location. Geographical attachment seems to influence doctors' locational choices from start of medical school until the end of their residency. The probability that a doctor shall locate in peripheral areas may increase from less than 10% to more than 50% if the doctor has the residency training in the periphery. Hence, favoring entrance to medical schools of students from the underserved areas, and location of graduate and postgraduate medical training in the underserved areas, as far as it is feasible while still maintaining medical standards, is suggested by the study.

  7. Scope and geographical distribution of African medical journals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Design: A search was done for relevant African medical journals on electronic databases, library catalogues and internet sites, and a list was compiled of active journals. A survey was conducted via ... Fifty-one journals were published in English, 7 in French and 1 in Portuguese. Most journals were owned by an association ...

  8. Ground and Helicopter Emergency Medical Services Time Tradeoffs Assessed with Geographic Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widener, Michael J; Ginsberg, Zac; Schleith, Daniel; Floccare, Douglas J; Hirshon, Jon Mark; Galvagno, Samuel

    2015-07-01

    We describe how geographic information systems (GIS) can be used to assess and compare estimated transport time for helicopter and ground emergency medical services. Recent research shows that while the odds of a trauma patient's survival increase with helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS), they may not increase to the extent necessary to make HEMS cost effective. This study offers an analytic tool to objectively quantify the patient travel time advantage that HEMS offers compared to ground emergency medical services (GEMS). Using helicopter dispatch data from the Maryland State Police from 2000-2011, we computed transport time estimates for HEMS and GEMS, compare these results to a reference transport time of 60 min, and use geospatial interpolation to extrapolate the total response times for each mode across the study region. Mapping the region's trauma incidents and modeling response times, our findings indicate the GIS framework for calculating transportation time tradeoffs is useful in identifying which areas can be better served by HEMS or GEMS. The use of GIS and the analytical methodology described in this study present a method to compare transportation by air and ground in the prehospital setting that accounts for how mode, distance, and road infrastructure impact total transport time. Whether used to generate regional maps in advance or applied real-time, the presented framework provides a tool to identify earlier incident locations that favor HEMS over GEMS transport modes.

  9. From 32 ounces to zero: a medical geographic study of dispensing a cultivated batch of "plum" cannabis flowers to medical marijuana patients in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Sunil K; Carter, Gregory T; Zumbrunnen, Craig; Morrill, Richard; Sullivan, Mark; Mayer, Jonathan D

    2013-01-01

    The medicinal use of cannabis is a growing phenomenon in the U.S. predicated on the success of overcoming specific spatial challenges and establishing particular human-environment relationships. This article takes a medical geographic "snapshot" of an urban site in Washington State where qualifying chronically ill and debilitated patients are delivered locally produced botanical cannabis for medical use. Using interview, survey, and observation, this medical geographic research project collected information on the social space of the particular delivery site and tracked the production cost, reach, and health value of a 32-ounce batch of strain-specific medical cannabis named "Plum" dispensed over a four-day period. A convenience sample of 37 qualifying patients delivered this batch of cannabis botanical medicine was recruited and prospectively studied with survey instruments. Results provide insight into patients' self-rated health, human-plant relationships, and travel-to-clinic distances. An overall systematic geographic understanding of the medical cannabis delivery system gives a grounded understanding of the lengths that patients and care providers go, despite multiple hurdles, to receive and deliver treatment with botanical cannabis that relieves diverse symptoms and improves health-related quality-of-life.

  10. Geographical distribution and profile of medical doctors in public sector hospitals of the Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntuli, Samuel T; Maboya, Edwin

    2017-09-27

    The shortage and unequal distribution of medical doctors in low- and middle-income countries continues to be a public health concern. To establish the geographical distribution and demographic profile of medical doctors in public sector hospitals of the Limpopo Province, South Africa. The PERSAL system was used to obtain information on the number of medical doctors employed in public sector hospitals of the Limpopo Province. Data were exported from PERSAL's database and then analysed using STATA version 9.0. The mean age of the 887 medical doctors was 40.1 ± 11.2 years (range 24-79 years). Sixty per cent of the doctors were male, 66% were aged ≤ 45 years and 84% were African. Most of the doctors (86%) were medical officers, of which 55% had < 5 years working experience. Overall, the doctor-to-population ratio for the five districts in the province was 16.4/100 000, with Capricorn (33.7/100 000) and Waterberg (20.2/100 000) recording the highest ratios. A large proportion (43%) of medical officers are employed in the Capricorn District, of which 71% were practising at the tertiary hospital. This study demonstrated a shortage and maldistribution of medical doctors in the public sector hospitals of the Limpopo Province. This has a potentially negative effect on the delivery of an appropriate and efficient healthcare service to the population and requires urgent attention.

  11. Geographic variation in fee-for-service medicare beneficiaries' medical costs is largely explained by disease burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschovsky, James D; Hadley, Jack; Romano, Patrick S

    2013-10-01

    Control for area differences in population health (casemix adjustment) is necessary to measure geographic variations in medical spending. Studies use various casemix adjustment methods, resulting in very different geographic variation estimates. We study casemix adjustment methodological issues and evaluate alternative approaches using claims from 1.6 million Medicare beneficiaries in 60 representative communities. Two key casemix adjustment methods-controlling for patient conditions obtained from diagnoses on claims and expenditures of those at the end of life-were evaluated. We failed to find evidence of bias in the former approach attributable to area differences in physician diagnostic patterns, as others have found, and found that the assumption underpinning the latter approach-that persons close to death are equally sick across areas-cannot be supported. Diagnosis-based approaches are more appropriate when current rather than prior year diagnoses are used. Population health likely explains more than 75% to 85% of cost variations across fixed sets of areas.

  12. What influences national and foreign physicians' geographic distribution? An analysis of medical doctors' residence location in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Giuliano; Ferrinho, Paulo; de Sousa, Bruno; Conceição, Cláudia

    2012-07-02

    The debate over physicians' geographical distribution has attracted the attention of the economic and public health literature over the last forty years. Nonetheless, it is still to date unclear what influences physicians' location, and whether foreign physicians contribute to fill the geographical gaps left by national doctors in any given country. The present research sets out to investigate the current distribution of national and international physicians in Portugal, with the objective to understand its determinants and provide an evidence base for policy-makers to identify policies to influence it. A cross-sectional study of physicians currently registered in Portugal was conducted to describe the population and explore the association of physician residence patterns with relevant personal and municipality characteristics. Data from the Portuguese Medical Council on physicians' residence and characteristics were analysed, as well as data from the National Institute of Statistics on municipalities' population, living standards and health care network. Descriptive statistics, chi-square tests, negative binomial and logistic regression modelling were applied to determine: (a) municipality characteristics predicting Portuguese and International physicians' geographical distribution, and; (b) doctors' characteristics that could increase the odds of residing outside the country's metropolitan areas. There were 39,473 physicians in Portugal in 2008, 51.1% of whom male, and 40.2% between 41 and 55 years of age. They were predominantly Portuguese (90.5%), with Spanish, Brazilian and African nationalities also represented. Population, Population's Purchasing Power, Nurses per capita and Municipality Development Index (MDI) were the municipality characteristics displaying the strongest association with national physicians' location. For foreign physicians, the MDI was not statistically significant, while municipalities' foreign population applying for residence

  13. What influences national and foreign physicians’ geographic distribution? An analysis of medical doctors’ residence location in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russo Giuliano

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The debate over physicians’ geographical distribution has attracted the attention of the economic and public health literature over the last forty years. Nonetheless, it is still to date unclear what influences physicians’ location, and whether foreign physicians contribute to fill the geographical gaps left by national doctors in any given country. The present research sets out to investigate the current distribution of national and international physicians in Portugal, with the objective to understand its determinants and provide an evidence base for policy-makers to identify policies to influence it. Methods A cross-sectional study of physicians currently registered in Portugal was conducted to describe the population and explore the association of physician residence patterns with relevant personal and municipality characteristics. Data from the Portuguese Medical Council on physicians’ residence and characteristics were analysed, as well as data from the National Institute of Statistics on municipalities’ population, living standards and health care network. Descriptive statistics, chi-square tests, negative binomial and logistic regression modelling were applied to determine: (a municipality characteristics predicting Portuguese and International physicians’ geographical distribution, and; (b doctors’ characteristics that could increase the odds of residing outside the country’s metropolitan areas. Results There were 39,473 physicians in Portugal in 2008, 51.1% of whom male, and 40.2% between 41 and 55 years of age. They were predominantly Portuguese (90.5%, with Spanish, Brazilian and African nationalities also represented. Population, Population’s Purchasing Power, Nurses per capita and Municipality Development Index (MDI were the municipality characteristics displaying the strongest association with national physicians’ location. For foreign physicians, the MDI was not statistically significant

  14. Meeting Nontraditional Medical Information Needs for the Unique Populations and Geographically Remote Locations of Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lema, Dana V

    2016-01-01

    The types of information required by hospital and clinical staff can be greatly influenced by the geography and culture of the area in which they operate. In some situations, information must be acquired from sources that fall outside the traditional provisions of a medical or reference library. This article provides examples of the unique information needs of clinical staff serving a primarily Native Alaskan and Native American clientele in Alaska. It also presents sources and personnel utilized to meet those information needs outside of traditional reference sources.

  15. Factors associated with geographic variation in cost per episode of care for three medical conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify associations between market factors, especially relative reimbursement rates, and the probability of surgery and cost per episode for three medical conditions (cataract, benign prostatic neoplasm, and knee degeneration) with multiple treatment options. Methods We use 2004–2006 Medicare claims data for elderly beneficiaries from sixty nationally representative communities to estimate multivariate models for the probability of surgery and cost per episode of care as a function local market factors, including Medicare physician reimbursement for surgical versus non-surgical treatment and the availability of primary care and specialty physicians. We used Symmetry’s Episode Treatment Groups (ETG) software to group claims into episodes for the three conditions (n = 540,874 episodes). Results Higher Medicare reimbursement for surgical episodes and greater availability of the relevant specialists are significantly associated with more surgery and higher cost per episode for all three conditions, while greater availability of primary care physicians is significantly associated with less frequent surgery and lower cost per episode. Conclusion Relative Medicare reimbursement rates for surgical vs. non-surgical treatments and the availability of both primary care physicians and relevant specialists are associated with the likelihood of surgery and cost per episode. PMID:24949281

  16. Twenty year development of occupational diseases in the Czech Republic: medical and geographical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarolímek, Jan; Urban, Pavel

    2014-12-01

    The study analysed occupational diseases in the Czech Republic from the viewpoint of occupational medicine and medical geography. It used a dataset consisting of 32,646 cases of occupational diseases reported during the period of 1994-2013. The descriptive part of the study analysed occupational diseases according to their spatial distribution, occurrence in different branches of economic activities, employees' gender, and according to chapters of the List of occupational diseases. The incidence of occupational diseases showed an overall decreasing trend, which can be related to several factors--transformation of the national economy (shift from heavy industry to manufacturing industry and services), an improvement in access to occupational healthcare services, increased responsibility of employers for safe working conditions, but also a concealment of health problems by employees for fear of losing job. An exception to the decreasing trend is the automotive industry, in which the upward trend in occupational diseases occurrence was noted. The analytical part of the study focused on the relation between unemployment and occupational diseases incidence rates in different regions of the Czech Republic. In most regions, a statistically significant inverse association was shown between the rate of unemployment and occupational disease incidence. The situation is described in more detail for the Moravia-Silesia and Ustí nad Labem Regions and the Capital City of Prague, wherein a statistically significant inverse association was shown between the rate of unemployment and occupational disease incidence. The theory of marginal utility can explain the phenomenon. To certain degree of health problems, employees tend to prefer employment stability, especially if the unemployment is on rise in their region. On the other hand, if losing their job, they often try to claim benefits connected with occupational diseases.

  17. Occupational diseases in the automotive industry in Czechia - Geographic and medical context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarolímek, Jan; Urban, Pavel; Pavlínek, Petr; Dzurova, Dagmar

    2017-05-08

    The automotive industry represents the most important industrial sector in Czechia. The objective of this study has been to analyze the occurrence of occupational diseases (OD) in the automotive industry during the period from 2001 till 2014. Data on OD cases was retrieved from the National Registry of OD. Further, we conducted a survey in automotive companies with focus on occupational health services and positions of the companies in global production networks (GPNs). An analysis of OD distribution in the automotive industry was performed (age, gender, company size and its role in GPNs, regional distribution of studied companies, and regional unemployment rate), and was accompanied by assessment of the quality and range of occupational health services. Employees older than 40 years old have nearly 2.5 times higher probability of OD occurrence as compared with employees younger than 40 years old (odds ratio (OR) = 2.41, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.05-2.85). Occupational diseases occurrence probability was 3 times higher for women than for men (OR = 3.01, 95% CI: 2.55-3.55). Occupational diseases incidence rates increased with the size of the company (0 OD/10 000 employees in micro enterprises to 57 OD/10 000 employees in large enterprises). A particularly steep rise in OD incidents in the automotive industry was observed in the Plzeň Region between 2001 and 2011. An association between OD incidents and the unemployment rate was not statistically confirmed. A statistically significant increase in OD incidents dependent on company size may be arguably attributed to a higher quality of occupational medical services in bigger companies, which ensures better detection and diagnosis of OD. In the Plzeň Region, the rapid increase in OD incidents was mainly caused by a change in the production process of automobile textiles in one factory due to the introduction of a glue containing isocyanates, which are potent allergising agents. This led to an increase in

  18. Geographic Names

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS), developed by the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Board of Geographic Names, provides...

  19. Cost-effectiveness of Antihypertensive Medication: Exploring Race and Sex Differences Using Data From the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajeu, Gabriel S; Mennemeyer, Stephen; Menachemi, Nir; Weech-Maldonado, Robert; Kilgore, Meredith

    2017-06-01

    Antihypertensive medication decreases risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in adults with hypertension. Although black adults have higher prevalence of hypertension and worse CVD outcomes compared with whites, limited attention has been given to the cost-effectiveness of antihypertensive medication for blacks. To compare the cost-effectiveness of antihypertensive medication treatment versus no-treatment in white and black adults. We constructed a State Transition Model to assess the costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) associated with either antihypertensive medication treatment or no-treatment using data from the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study and published literature. CVD events and health states considered in the model included stroke, coronary heart disease, heart failure, chronic kidney disease, and end-stage renal disease. White and black adults with hypertension in the United States, 45 years of age and above. Yearly risk of CVD was determined using REGARDS data and published literature. Antihypertensive medication costs were determined using Medicare claims. Event and health state costs were estimated from published literature. All costs were adjusted to 2012 US dollars. Effectiveness was assessed using QALYs. Antihypertensive medication treatment was cost-saving and increased QALYs compared with no-treatment for white men ($7387; 1.14 QALYs), white women ($7796; 0.89 QALYs), black men ($8400; 1.66 QALYs), and black women ($10,249; 1.79 QALYs). Antihypertensive medication treatment is cost-saving and increases QALYs for all groups considered in the model, particularly among black adults.

  20. Geographical Tatoos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Cazetta

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with maps tattooed on bodies. My interest in studying the corporeality is inserted in a broader project entitled Geographies and (in Bodies. There is several published research on tattoos, but none in particular about tattooed maps. However some of these works interested me because they present important discussions in contemporary about body modification that helped me locate the body modifications most within the culture than on the nature. At this time, I looked at pictures of geographical tattoos available in several sites of the internet.

  1. Achievement of optimal medical therapy goals for U.S. adults with coronary artery disease: results from the REGARDS Study (REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Todd M; Voeks, Jenifer H; Bittner, Vera; Brenner, David A; Cushman, Mary; Goff, David C; Glasser, Stephen; Muntner, Paul; Tabereaux, Paul B; Safford, Monika M

    2014-04-29

    In a nonclinical trial setting, we sought to determine the proportion of individuals with coronary artery disease (CAD) with optimal risk factor levels based on the COURAGE (Clinical Outcomes Utilizing Revascularization and Aggressive DruG Evaluation) trial. In the COURAGE trial, the addition of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) to optimal medical therapy did not reduce the risk of death or myocardial infarction in stable CAD patients but resulted in more revascularization procedures. The REGARDS (REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke) study is a national prospective cohort study of 30,239 African-American and white community-dwelling individuals older than 45 years of age who enrolled in 2003 through 2007. We calculated the proportion of 3,167 participants with self-reported CAD meeting 7 risk factor goals based on the COURAGE trial: 1) aspirin use; 2) systolic blood pressure 40 mg/dl, and triglycerides exercise ≥4 days per week. The mean age of participants was 69 ± 9 years; 33% were African American and 35% were female. Overall, the median number of goals met was 4. Less than one-fourth met ≥5 of the 7 goals, and 16% met all 3 goals for aspirin, blood pressure, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Older age, white race, higher income, more education, and higher physical functioning were independently associated with meeting more goals. There is substantial room for improvement in risk factor reduction among U.S. individuals with CAD. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Geographical information systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd

    2004-01-01

    The chapter gives an introduction to Geographical Information Systems (GIS) with particular focus on their application within environmental management.......The chapter gives an introduction to Geographical Information Systems (GIS) with particular focus on their application within environmental management....

  3. Geographic Media Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukinbeal, Chris

    2014-01-01

    While the use of media permeates geographic research and pedagogic practice, the underlying literacies that link geography and media remain uncharted. This article argues that geographic media literacy incorporates visual literacy, information technology literacy, information literacy, and media literacy. Geographic media literacy is the ability…

  4. Achievement of Optimal Medical Therapy Goals for US Adults with Coronary Artery Disease: Results from the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Todd M.; Voeks, Jenifer H.; Bittner, Vera; Brenner, David A.; Cushman, Mary; Goff, David C.; Glasser, Stephen; Muntner, Paul; Tabereaux, Paul B.; Safford, Monika M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective In a non-clinical trial setting, to determine the proportion of individuals with coronary artery disease (CAD) with optimal risk factor levels based on the Clinical Outcomes Utilizing Revascularization and Aggressive DruG Evaluation (COURAGE) trial. Background In COURAGE, the addition of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) to optimal medical therapy did not reduce the risk of death or myocardial infarction in stable CAD patients but resulted in more revascularization procedures. Methods REGARDS is a national prospective cohort study of 30,239 African American and White community-dwelling individuals aged >45 years enrolled in 2003-7. We calculated the proportion of 3,167 participants with self-reported CAD meeting 7 risk factor goals based on COURAGE: 1) aspirin use, 2) systolic blood pressure 40 mg/dL, and triglycerides goals met was 4. Less than a quarter met ≥5 of the 7 goals, and 16% met all 3 goals for aspirin, blood pressure, and LDL-C. Older age, white race, higher income, more education, and higher physical functioning were independently associated with meeting more goals. Conclusions There is substantial room for improvement in risk factor reduction among US individuals with CAD. PMID:24534599

  5. Airports Geographic Information System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Airports Geographic Information System maintains the airport and aeronautical data required to meet the demands of the Next Generation National Airspace System....

  6. [Medical geography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauri, D

    2007-10-17

    Hippocrates already noted that geographical factors such as climate, relief, geology but also settlement patterns had influenced the distribution of diseases. The task of medical geography is to investigate the associations between geographical factors and diseases. Thereby, geographic techniques and concepts are applied on health problems. Of particular importance is the mapping of diseases whose causes are environmental-related. In addition, epidemiological, ecological but also social scientific studies play an important part in the investigation of the associations between geographical factors and diseases. In order to understand the associations between the spatial distribution of diseases and environmental exposures, geographic information systems as well as statistical analyses have recently become more important. Some authors regard medical geography merely as supporting discipline of medicine. Nevertheless, as men and environment future and as they play an important part in the diffusion of diseases being regarded as defeated, medical geography will play an important part concerning medical questions. Especially travel medicine will rely on geographic knowledge, if a patient has to be consulted who plans to travel to an unknown country of which knowledge on the geographical distribution and ecology of diseases will be necessary.

  7. A review of geographic variation and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) applications in prescription drug use research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangia, Victoria; Shireman, Theresa I

    2013-01-01

    While understanding geography's role in healthcare has been an area of research for over 40 years, the application of geography-based analyses to prescription medication use is limited. The body of literature was reviewed to assess the current state of such studies to demonstrate the scale and scope of projects in order to highlight potential research opportunities. To review systematically how researchers have applied geography-based analyses to medication use data. Empiric, English language research articles were identified through PubMed and bibliographies. Original research articles were independently reviewed as to the medications or classes studied, data sources, measures of medication exposure, geographic units of analysis, geospatial measures, and statistical approaches. From 145 publications matching key search terms, forty publications met the inclusion criteria. Cardiovascular and psychotropic classes accounted for the largest proportion of studies. Prescription drug claims were the primary source, and medication exposure was frequently captured as period prevalence. Medication exposure was documented across a variety of geopolitical units such as countries, provinces, regions, states, and postal codes. Most results were descriptive and formal statistical modeling capitalizing on geospatial techniques was rare. Despite the extensive research on small area variation analysis in healthcare, there are a limited number of studies that have examined geographic variation in medication use. Clearly, there is opportunity to collaborate with geographers and GIS professionals to harness the power of GIS technologies and to strengthen future medication studies by applying more robust geospatial statistical methods. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Volunteered Geographic Information in Wikipedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Darren

    2010-01-01

    Volunteered geographic information (VGI) refers to the geographic subset of online user-generated content. Through Geobrowsers and online mapping services, which use geovisualization and Web technologies to share and produce VGI, a global digital commons of geographic information has emerged. A notable example is Wikipedia, an online collaborative…

  9. Geographic Ontologies, Gazetteers and Multilingualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Laurini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Different languages imply different visions of space, so that terminologies are different in geographic ontologies. In addition to their geometric shapes, geographic features have names, sometimes different in diverse languages. In addition, the role of gazetteers, as dictionaries of place names (toponyms, is to maintain relations between place names and location. The scope of geographic information retrieval is to search for geographic information not against a database, but against the whole Internet: but the Internet stores information in different languages, and it is of paramount importance not to remain stuck to a unique language. In this paper, our first step is to clarify the links between geographic objects as computer representations of geographic features, ontologies and gazetteers designed in various languages. Then, we propose some inference rules for matching not only types, but also relations in geographic ontologies with the assistance of gazetteers.

  10. Using geographic information systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winsor, R.W.

    1997-01-01

    A true Geographic Information System (GIS) is a computer mapping system with spatial analysis ability and cartographic accuracy that will offer many different projections. GIS has evolved to become an everyday tool for a wide range of users including oil companies, worldwide. Other systems are designed to allow oil and gas companies to keep their upstream data in the same format. Among these are the Public Petroleum Data Model developed by Gulf Canada, Digitech and Applied Terravision Systems of Calgary, the system developed and marketed by the Petrotechnical Open Software Corporation in the United States, and the Mercury projects by IBM. These have been developed in an effort to define an industry standard. The advantages and disadvantages of open and closed systems were discussed. Factors to consider when choosing a GIS system such as overall performance, area of use and query complexity, were reviewed. 3 figs

  11. GEOGRAPHIC NAMES INFORMATION SYSTEM (GNIS) ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS), developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Board on Geographic Names (BGN), contains information about physical and cultural geographic features in the United States and associated areas, both current and historical, but not including roads and highways. The database also contains geographic names in Antarctica. The database holds the Federally recognized name of each feature and defines the location of the feature by state, county, USGS topographic map, and geographic coordinates. Other feature attributes include names or spellings other than the official name, feature designations, feature class, historical and descriptive information, and for some categories of features the geometric boundaries. The database assigns a unique feature identifier, a random number, that is a key for accessing, integrating, or reconciling GNIS data with other data sets. The GNIS is our Nation's official repository of domestic geographic feature names information.

  12. Coloring geographical threshold graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradonjic, Milan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Percus, Allon [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Muller, Tobias [EINDHOVEN UNIV. OF TECH

    2008-01-01

    We propose a coloring algorithm for sparse random graphs generated by the geographical threshold graph (GTG) model, a generalization of random geometric graphs (RGG). In a GTG, nodes are distributed in a Euclidean space, and edges are assigned according to a threshold function involving the distance between nodes as well as randomly chosen node weights. The motivation for analyzing this model is that many real networks (e.g., wireless networks, the Internet, etc.) need to be studied by using a 'richer' stochastic model (which in this case includes both a distance between nodes and weights on the nodes). Here, we analyze the GTG coloring algorithm together with the graph's clique number, showing formally that in spite of the differences in structure between GTG and RGG, the asymptotic behavior of the chromatic number is identical: {chi}1n 1n n / 1n n (1 + {omicron}(1)). Finally, we consider the leading corrections to this expression, again using the coloring algorithm and clique number to provide bounds on the chromatic number. We show that the gap between the lower and upper bound is within C 1n n / (1n 1n n){sup 2}, and specify the constant C.

  13. Determinants of Dentists' Geographic Distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beazoglou, Tryfon J.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A model for explaining the geographic distribution of dentists' practice locations is presented and applied to particular market areas in Connecticut. Results show geographic distribution is significantly related to a few key variables, including demography, disposable income, and housing prices. Implications for helping students make practice…

  14. Geographic information systems: introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calistri, Paolo; Conte, Annamaria; Freier, Jerome E; Ward, Michael P

    2007-01-01

    The recent exponential growth of the science and technology of geographic information systems (GIS) has made a tremendous contribution to epidemiological analysis and has led to the development of new powerful tools for the surveillance of animal diseases. GIS, spatial analysis and remote sensing provide valuable methods to collect and manage information for epidemiological surveys. Spatial patterns and trends of disease can be correlated with climatic and environmental information, thus contributing to a better understanding of the links between disease processes and explanatory spatial variables. Until recently, these tools were underexploited in the field of veterinary public health, due to the prohibitive cost of hardware and the complexity of GIS software that required a high level of expertise. The revolutionary developments in computer performance of the last decade have not only reduced the costs of equipment but have made available easy-to-use Web-based software which in turn have meant that GIS are more widely accessible by veterinary services at all levels. At the same time, the increased awareness of the possibilities offered by these tools has created new opportunities for decision-makers to enhance their planning, analysis and monitoring capabilities. These technologies offer a new way of sharing and accessing spatial and non-spatial data across groups and institutions. The series of papers included in this compilation aim to: - define the state of the art in the use of GIS in veterinary activities - identify priority needs in the development of new GIS tools at the international level for the surveillance of animal diseases and zoonoses - define practical proposals for their implementation. The topics addressed are presented in the following order in this book: - importance of GIS for the monitoring of animal diseases and zoonoses - GIS application in surveillance activities - spatial analysis in veterinary epidemiology - data collection and remote

  15. PEDIATRIC FITNESS: SECULAR TRENDS AND GEOGRAPHIC VARIABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant R. Tomkinson

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available DESCRIPTION This book describes and discusses children's physical capacity in terms of aerobic and anaerobic power generation according to secular trends and geographic variability. PURPOSE To discuss the controversial issue of whether present day's children and adolescents are fitter than their equals of the past and whether they are fitter if they live in the more prosperous countries. AUDIENCE Pediatricians, medical practitioners, physical educators, exercise and/or sport scientists, exercise physiologists, personal trainers and graduate students in relevant fields will find this book helpful when dealing with contemporary trends and geographic variability in pediatric fitness. FEATURES The volume starts by examining the general picture on children fitness by the editors. The individual chapter's authors discuses the data gathered since the late 1950s on secular trends and geographic changeability in aerobic and anaerobic pediatric fitness performances of children and adolescents from 23 countries in Africa, Asia, Australasia, Europe, the Middle East and North America. There are chapters proposing that there is proof that there has been a world-wide decline in pediatric aerobic performance in recent decades, relative stability in anaerobic performance, and that the best performing children come from northern and central Europe. In final chapters possible causes to that end are considered, including whether weakening in aerobic performance are the result of distributional or widespread declines, and whether increases in obesity alone can explain the failure in aerobic performance. ASSESSMENT The editors have assembled a volume of Medicine and Sports Science that is necessary and essential reading for all who are interested in understanding and improving the fitness of children. The readers will find useful information in this book on secular trends and geographic variability in pediatric fitness. I believe, the book will serve as a first

  16. NEPR Geographic Zone Map 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This geographic zone map was created by interpreting satellite and aerial imagery, seafloor topography (bathymetry model), and the new NEPR Benthic Habitat Map...

  17. Ecoscapes: Geographical Patternings of Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimar Ventsel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Book review of the publication Ecoscapes: Geographical Patternings of Relations. Edited by Gary Backhaus and John Murungi. Lanham, Boulder, New York, Toronto, Oxford, Lexington Books, 2006, xxxiii+241 pp.

  18. Ecoscapes: Geographical Patternings of Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimar Ventsel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Book review of the publication Ecoscapes: Geographical Patternings of Relations. Edited by Gary Backhaus and John Murungi. Lanham, Boulder, New York, Toronto, Oxford, Lexington Books, 2006, xxxiii+241 pp.

  19. Estilos de aprendizaje de estudiantes de medicina en universidades latinoamericanas y españolas: relación con los contextos geográficos y curriculares Medical students learning styles in Latin American and Spanish universities: relation with geographical and curricular contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Díaz-Véliz

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar si los estilos de aprendizaje (EA de los estudiantes de medicina se correlacionan con el contexto geográfico, con el contexto curricular o con el nivel de la carrera. Sujetos y métodos. El estudio se realizó en 490 estudiantes de las Escuelas de Medicina de las Universidades de Chile (Santiago, Chile, Nacional de Cuyo (Mendoza, Argentina, San Francisco Xavier (Sucre, Bolivia, Zaragoza y País Vasco (España. Se aplicó el cuestionario Honey-Alonso, que valora la preferencia por cada uno de cuatro EA: activo, reflexivo, teórico y pragmático. También se evaluó el EA de acuerdo al modelo de Kolb. Resultados. Al relacionar el EA con el contexto geográfico se observó que mientras los estudiantes de universidades españolas muestran un estilo preferentemente asimilador, siguiendo la denominación de Kolb, para Chile fue el acomodador y para Bolivia los estudiantes se distribuyen entre los estilos asimilador y divergente. Al comparar la distribución de los EA durante el tercer curso de medicina en dos facultades que poseen diferente currículo, no se observaron diferencias significativas. Los EA en una Facultad de Medicina con un currículo basado en asignaturas (Chile no mostraron diferencias en los tres cursos del estudio (1.º, 3.º y 5.º, siendo preferentes los estilos reflexivo y teórico. Conclusiones. El estudio permitió establecer diferencias significativas entre los estilos de aprendizaje de los estudiantes de Medicina en relación con el contexto geográfico, más que con los diferentes currículos, o a lo largo de los distintos cursos de la carrera.Aim. To establish a correlation between medical student learning styles (LS and the geographical context, the curricular context and different academic levels. Subjects and methods. The study was performed in 490 undergraduate students from Medical Schools of the Universities of Chile (Santiago, Chile, Nacional de Cuyo (Mendoza, Argentina, San Francisco Xavier

  20. Multiple sclerosis: a geographical hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlyle, I P

    1997-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis remains a rare neurological disease of unknown aetiology, with a unique distribution, both geographically and historically. Rare in equatorial regions, it becomes increasingly common in higher latitudes; historically, it was first clinically recognized in the early nineteenth century. A hypothesis, based on geographical reasoning, is here proposed: that the disease is the result of a specific vitamin deficiency. Different individuals suffer the deficiency in separate and often unique ways. Evidence to support the hypothesis exists in cultural considerations, in the global distribution of the disease, and in its historical prevalence.

  1. Changes at the National Geographic Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwille, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    For more than 125 years, National Geographic has explored the planet, unlocking its secrets and sharing them with the world. For almost thirty of those years, National Geographic has been committed to K-12 educators and geographic education through its Network of Alliances. As National Geographic begins a new chapter, they remain committed to the…

  2. Geographical differences in food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartra, Joan; García-Moral, Alba; Enrique, Ernesto

    2016-06-01

    Food allergy represents a health problem worldwide and leads to life-threatening reactions and even impairs quality of life. Epidemiological data during the past decades is very heterogeneous because of the use of different diagnostic procedures, and most studies have only been performed in specific geographical areas. The aim of this article is to review the available data on the geographical distribution of food allergies at the food source and molecular level and to link food allergy patterns to the aeroallergen influence in each area. Systematic reviews, meta-analysis, studies performed within the EuroPrevall Project and EAACI position papers regarding food allergy were analysed. The prevalence of food allergy sensitization differs between geographical areas, probably as a consequence of differences among populations, their habits and the influence of the cross-reactivity of aeroallergens and other sources of allergens. Geographical differences in food allergy are clearly evident at the allergenic molecular level, which seems to be directly influenced by the aeroallergens of each region and associated with specific clinical patterns.

  3. Educational Geographers and Applied Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, John W.

    1979-01-01

    Describes the development of applied geography programs and restructuring of curricula with an emphasis on new technique and methodology courses, though retaining the liberal arts role. Educational geographers can help the programs to succeed through curriculum analysis, auditing, advising students, and liaison with other geography sources. (CK)

  4. IL FENOMENO VOLUNTEERED GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Lupia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The contribution addresses the phenomenon of Voluntereed Geographic Informationexplaining these new and burgeoning sources of information offers multidisciplinary scientists an unprecedented opportunity to conduct research on a variety of topics at multiple spatial and temporal scales. In particular the contribution refers to two COST Actions which have been recently activated on the subject which areparticularly relevant for the growing of the European scientific community.

  5. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Structures

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  6. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Historical Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  7. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Admin Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  8. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Hydrography Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  9. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Cultural Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  10. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Landform Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  11. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Hydrography Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  12. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Community Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  13. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Transportation Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  14. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Antarctica Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  15. 5 CFR 536.303 - Geographic conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... after geographic conversion is the employee's existing payable rate of basic pay in effect immediately before the action. (b) Geographic conversion when a retained rate employee's official worksite is changed... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Geographic conversion. 536.303 Section...

  16. Natural Scales in Geographical Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Telmo; Roth, Camille

    2017-04-01

    Human mobility is known to be distributed across several orders of magnitude of physical distances, which makes it generally difficult to endogenously find or define typical and meaningful scales. Relevant analyses, from movements to geographical partitions, seem to be relative to some ad-hoc scale, or no scale at all. Relying on geotagged data collected from photo-sharing social media, we apply community detection to movement networks constrained by increasing percentiles of the distance distribution. Using a simple parameter-free discontinuity detection algorithm, we discover clear phase transitions in the community partition space. The detection of these phases constitutes the first objective method of characterising endogenous, natural scales of human movement. Our study covers nine regions, ranging from cities to countries of various sizes and a transnational area. For all regions, the number of natural scales is remarkably low (2 or 3). Further, our results hint at scale-related behaviours rather than scale-related users. The partitions of the natural scales allow us to draw discrete multi-scale geographical boundaries, potentially capable of providing key insights in fields such as epidemiology or cultural contagion where the introduction of spatial boundaries is pivotal.

  17. OUTDOOR EDUCATION AND GEOGRAPHICAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREA GUARAN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the reflection on the relationship between values and methodological principles of Outdoor Education and spatial and geographical education perspectives, especially in pre-school and primary school, which relates to the age between 3 and 10 years. Outdoor Education is an educational practice that is already rooted in the philosophical thought of the 16th and the 17th centuries, from John Locke to Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and in the pedagogical thought, in particular Friedrich Fröbel, and it has now a quite stable tradition in Northern Europe countries. In Italy, however, there are still few experiences and they usually do not have a systematic and structural modality, but rather a temporarily and experimentally outdoor organization. In the first part, this paper focuses on the reasons that justify a particular attention to educational paths that favour outdoors activities, providing also a definition of outdoor education and highlighting its values. It is also essential to understand that educational programs in open spaces, such as a forest or simply the schoolyard, surely offers the possibility to learn geographical situations. Therefore, the question that arises is how to finalize the best stimulus that the spatial location guarantees for the acquisition of knowledge, skills and abilities about space and geography.

  18. Geographic profiling and animal foraging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Comber, Steven C; Nicholls, Barry; Rossmo, D Kim; Racey, Paul A

    2006-05-21

    Geographic profiling was originally developed as a statistical tool for use in criminal cases, particularly those involving serial killers and rapists. It is designed to help police forces prioritize lists of suspects by using the location of crime scenes to identify the areas in which the criminal is most likely to live. Two important concepts are the buffer zone (criminals are less likely to commit crimes in the immediate vicinity of their home) and distance decay (criminals commit fewer crimes as the distance from their home increases). In this study, we show how the techniques of geographic profiling may be applied to animal data, using as an example foraging patterns in two sympatric colonies of pipistrelle bats, Pipistrellus pipistrellus and P. pygmaeus, in the northeast of Scotland. We show that if model variables are fitted to known roost locations, these variables may be used as numerical descriptors of foraging patterns. We go on to show that these variables can be used to differentiate patterns of foraging in these two species.

  19. ROMANIA: GEOGRAPHICAL AND GEOPOLITICAL POSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian Beniamin Benea

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper intends to bring to the reader’s attention the importance of understanding the role education plays in creating a good geopolitical position for a state which has a good geographical position, and which is well endowed in natural resources. The case of Romania is the main focus of the paper. There is presented a peculiar strange situation of a country (Romania which is very well located from geographical point of view but which is incapable to exploit its natural endowments and special location. One reason for this situation is the fact that most people living in present Romania belong to a category named in this paper ‘individuals’. Individuals are not aware of their country’s geography and history, let alone its possible future development possibilities. They do not know the role their country could play, and living in an atomized society, they choose emigration as the easiest way to escape harsh social and economic environment. Contrary to this attitude is that of a citizen, a man conscious about his country’s potential, and which is dedicated to work hardly together with his fellows in order to promote national interests in a peaceful manner. Even there was found remnants of an ancient city close to present day Romanian territory – proves of well endowed environment – moral and psychological factors have contributed after 1990 in an crucial manner to push Romania from its civilization path back to the archaic spirit, from active urban spirit to rural mentality. In such a situation it is not uncommon for a nation to lose its means for projecting power, which could promote the value and the importance of a geographical position – transportation; rural mentality has nothing to do with modern transportation as they are technical tools with geopolitical essence for controlling space. It is a well known fact that transportation and geopolitics are closely interrelated. Furthermore, social dissolution in post communist

  20. Representations built from a true geographic database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodum, Lars

    2005-01-01

    the whole world in 3d and with a spatial reference given by geographic coordinates. Built on top of this is a customised viewer, based on the Xith(Java) scenegraph. The viewer reads the objects directly from the database and solves the question about Level-Of-Detail on buildings, orientation in relation...... a representation based on geographic and geospatial principles. The system GRIFINOR, developed at 3DGI, Aalborg University, DK, is capable of creating this object-orientation and furthermore does this on top of a true Geographic database. A true Geographic database can be characterized as a database that can cover...

  1. The Oklahoma Geographic Information Retrieval System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, W. A.

    1982-01-01

    The Oklahoma Geographic Information Retrieval System (OGIRS) is a highly interactive data entry, storage, manipulation, and display software system for use with geographically referenced data. Although originally developed for a project concerned with coal strip mine reclamation, OGIRS is capable of handling any geographically referenced data for a variety of natural resource management applications. A special effort has been made to integrate remotely sensed data into the information system. The timeliness and synoptic coverage of satellite data are particularly useful attributes for inclusion into the geographic information system.

  2. CONTEMPORARY TRENDS IN GEOGRAPHICAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wasileva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The geography includes rich, diverse and comprehensive themes that give us an understanding of our changing environment and interconnected world. It includes the study of the physical environment and resources; cultures, economies and societies; people and places; and global development and civic participation. As a subject, geography is particularly valuable because it provides information for exploring contemporary issues from a different perspective. This geographical information affects us all at work and in our daily lives and helps us make informed decisions that shape our future. All these facts result in a wide discussion on many topical issues in contemporary geography didactics. Subjects of research are the new geography and economics curriculum as well as construction of modern learning process. The paper presents briefly some of the current trends and key issues of geodidactics. As central notions we consider and analyze the training/educational goals, geography curriculum, target groups and environment of geography training, training methods as well as the information sources used in geography education. We adhere that all the above-mentioned finds its reflection in planning, analysis and assessment of education and thus in its quality and effectiveness.

  3. Geographical National Condition and Complex System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Jiayao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The significance of studying the complex system of geographical national conditions lies in rationally expressing the complex relationships of the “resources-environment-ecology-economy-society” system. Aiming to the problems faced by the statistical analysis of geographical national conditions, including the disunity of research contents, the inconsistency of range, the uncertainty of goals, etc.the present paper conducted a range of discussions from the perspectives of concept, theory and method, and designed some solutions based on the complex system theory and coordination degree analysis methods.By analyzing the concepts of geographical national conditions, geographical national conditions survey and geographical national conditions statistical analysis, as well as investigating the relationships between theirs, the statistical contents and the analytical range of geographical national conditions are clarified and defined. This investigation also clarifies the goals of the statistical analysis by analyzing the basic characteristics of the geographical national conditions and the complex system, and the consistency between the analysis of the degree of coordination and statistical analyses. It outlines their goals, proposes a concept for the complex system of geographical national conditions, and it describes the concept. The complex system theory provides new theoretical guidance for the statistical analysis of geographical national conditions. The degree of coordination offers new approaches on how to undertake the analysis based on the measurement method and decision-making analysis scheme upon which the complex system of geographical national conditions is based. It analyzes the overall trend via the degree of coordination of the complex system on a macro level, and it determines the direction of remediation on a micro level based on the degree of coordination among various subsystems and of single systems. These results establish

  4. Conceptual Model of Dynamic Geographic Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Rosales Miguel Alejandro

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In geographic environments, there are many and different types of geographic entities such as automobiles, trees, persons, buildings, storms, hurricanes, etc. These entities can be classified into two groups: geographic objects and geographic phenomena. By its nature, a geographic environment is dynamic, thus, it’s static modeling is not sufficient. Considering the dynamics of geographic environment, a new type of geographic entity called event is introduced. The primary target is a modeling of geographic environment as an event sequence, because in this case the semantic relations are much richer than in the case of static modeling. In this work, the conceptualization of this model is proposed. It is based on the idea to process each entity apart instead of processing the environment as a whole. After that, the so called history of each entity and its spatial relations to other entities are defined to describe the whole environment. The main goal is to model systems at a conceptual level that make use of spatial and temporal information, so that later it can serve as the semantic engine for such systems.

  5. 25 CFR 571.10 - Geographical location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Geographical location. 571.10 Section 571.10 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR COMPLIANCE AND ENFORCEMENT PROVISIONS MONITORING AND INVESTIGATIONS Subpoenas and Depositions § 571.10 Geographical location. The attendance of...

  6. The evolution of cooperation on geographical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yixiao; Wang, Yi; Sheng, Jichuan

    2017-11-01

    We study evolutionary public goods game on geographical networks, i.e., complex networks which are located on a geographical plane. The geographical feature effects in two ways: In one way, the geographically-induced network structure influences the overall evolutionary dynamics, and, in the other way, the geographical length of an edge influences the cost when the two players at the two ends interact. For the latter effect, we design a new cost function of cooperators, which simply assumes that the longer the distance between two players, the higher cost the cooperator(s) of them have to pay. In this study, network substrates are generated by a previous spatial network model with a cost-benefit parameter controlling the network topology. Our simulations show that the greatest promotion of cooperation is achieved in the intermediate regime of the parameter, in which empirical estimates of various railway networks fall. Further, we investigate how the distribution of edges' geographical costs influences the evolutionary dynamics and consider three patterns of the distribution: an approximately-equal distribution, a diverse distribution, and a polarized distribution. For normal geographical networks which are generated using intermediate values of the cost-benefit parameter, a diverse distribution hinders the evolution of cooperation, whereas a polarized distribution lowers the threshold value of the amplification factor for cooperation in public goods game. These results are helpful for understanding the evolution of cooperation on real-world geographical networks.

  7. Hierarchical spatial organization of geographical networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travencolo, Bruno A N; Costa, Luciano da F

    2008-01-01

    In this work, we propose a hierarchical extension of the polygonality index as the means to characterize geographical planar networks. By considering successive neighborhoods around each node, it is possible to obtain more complete information about the spatial order of the network at progressive spatial scales. The potential of the methodology is illustrated with respect to synthetic and real geographical networks

  8. Future Prospects for Geographical Education in Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnic Planinc, Tatjana

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with future prospects for geographical education in Slovenia, with special emphasis on the development and aims of the didactics of geography. The author discusses the past development of geographical curricula and of competencies of geography teachers, and the education of future teachers of the subject in Slovenia. Her ideas are…

  9. Socioeconomic Development Inequalities among Geographic Units ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-economic development inequality among geographic units is a phenomenon common in both the developed and developing countries. Regional inequality may result in dissension among geographic units of the same state due to the imbalance in socio-economic development. This study examines the inequality ...

  10. Composing Models of Geographic Physical Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Barbara; Frank, Andrew U.

    Processes are central for geographic information science; yet geographic information systems (GIS) lack capabilities to represent process related information. A prerequisite to including processes in GIS software is a general method to describe geographic processes independently of application disciplines. This paper presents such a method, namely a process description language. The vocabulary of the process description language is derived formally from mathematical models. Physical processes in geography can be described in two equivalent languages: partial differential equations or partial difference equations, where the latter can be shown graphically and used as a method for application specialists to enter their process models. The vocabulary of the process description language comprises components for describing the general behavior of prototypical geographic physical processes. These process components can be composed by basic models of geographic physical processes, which is shown by means of an example.

  11. Choroidal Round Hyporeflectivities in Geographic Atrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Corbelli

    Full Text Available In geographic atrophy (GA, choroidal vessels typically appear on structural optical coherence tomography (OCT as hyperreflective round areas with highly reflective borders. We observed that some GA eyes show choroidal round hyporeflectivities with highly reflective borders beneath the atrophy, and futher investigated the charcteristcs by comparing structural OCT, indocyanine green angiography (ICGA and OCT angiography (OCT-A.Round hyporeflectivities were individuated from a pool of patients with GA secondary to non-neovascular age-related macular degeneration consecutively presenting between October 2015 and March 2016 at the Medical Retina & Imaging Unit of the University Vita-Salute San Raffaele. Patients underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination including ICGA, structural OCT and OCT-A. The correspondence between choroidal round hyporeflectivities beneath GA on structural OCT and ICGA and OCT-A imaging were analyzed.Fifty eyes of 26 consecutive patients (17 females and 9 males; mean age 76.8±6.2 years with GA were included. Twenty-nine round hyporeflectivities have been found by OCT in choroidal layers in 21 eyes of 21 patients (42.0%; estimated prevalence of 57.7%. All 29 round hyporeflectivities showed constantly a hyperreflective border and a backscattering on structural OCT, and appeared as hypofluorescent in late phase ICGA and as dark foci with non detectable flow in the choroidal segmentation of OCT-A. Interestingly, the GA area was greater in eyes with compared to eyes without round hyporeflectivities (9.30±5.74 and 5.57±4.48mm2, respectively; p = 0.01.Our results suggest that most round hyporeflectivities beneath GA may represent non-perfused or hypo-perfused choroidal vessels with non-detectable flow.

  12. Choroidal Round Hyporeflectivities in Geographic Atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbelli, Eleonora; Sacconi, Riccardo; De Vitis, Luigi Antonio; Carnevali, Adriano; Rabiolo, Alessandro; Querques, Lea; Bandello, Francesco; Querques, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    In geographic atrophy (GA), choroidal vessels typically appear on structural optical coherence tomography (OCT) as hyperreflective round areas with highly reflective borders. We observed that some GA eyes show choroidal round hyporeflectivities with highly reflective borders beneath the atrophy, and futher investigated the charcteristcs by comparing structural OCT, indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) and OCT angiography (OCT-A). Round hyporeflectivities were individuated from a pool of patients with GA secondary to non-neovascular age-related macular degeneration consecutively presenting between October 2015 and March 2016 at the Medical Retina & Imaging Unit of the University Vita-Salute San Raffaele. Patients underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination including ICGA, structural OCT and OCT-A. The correspondence between choroidal round hyporeflectivities beneath GA on structural OCT and ICGA and OCT-A imaging were analyzed. Fifty eyes of 26 consecutive patients (17 females and 9 males; mean age 76.8±6.2 years) with GA were included. Twenty-nine round hyporeflectivities have been found by OCT in choroidal layers in 21 eyes of 21 patients (42.0%; estimated prevalence of 57.7%). All 29 round hyporeflectivities showed constantly a hyperreflective border and a backscattering on structural OCT, and appeared as hypofluorescent in late phase ICGA and as dark foci with non detectable flow in the choroidal segmentation of OCT-A. Interestingly, the GA area was greater in eyes with compared to eyes without round hyporeflectivities (9.30±5.74 and 5.57±4.48mm2, respectively; p = 0.01). Our results suggest that most round hyporeflectivities beneath GA may represent non-perfused or hypo-perfused choroidal vessels with non-detectable flow.

  13. 2009 National inventory of radioactive material and wastes. Geographical inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    A geographical inventory of the radioactive wastes present on the French territory (as recorded until the 31 of december, 2007) is presented, region by region. The various types of waste sites (production, processing, conditioning and storage sites, Uranium mines, ANDRA storage centers, historical storage sites and polluted sites where wastes are stored) are listed and located on maps. Details are given on the nature and origin of these wastes (nuclear industry, medical domain, scientific research, conventional industry, Defense...). A total of 1121 sites have been recorded, among which 163 are presented with details and charts

  14. Geographic Education--Where Have We Failed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritzner, Charles F.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses geography's rather low status and relatively poor public image in the United States and some of the consequences. Among the world's educated industrial nations, the United States ranks among the least literate in a geographical sense. (RM)

  15. Medicare Geographic Variation - Public Use File

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medicare Geographic Variation Public Use File provides the ability to view demographic, utilization and quality indicators at the state level (including...

  16. Geographic information system planning and monitoring best ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poor urbanization policies, inefficient planning and monitoring technologies are evident. The consequences include some of the worst types of environmental hazards. Best urbanization practices require integrated planning approaches that result in environmental conservation. Geographic Information systems (GIS) provide ...

  17. GNIS: Geographic Names Information Systems - All features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) actively seeks data from and partnerships with Government agencies at all levels and other interested organizations....

  18. Geographic Variation in Medicare Spending Dashboard

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Geographic Variation Dashboards present Medicare fee-for-service per-capita spending at the state and county level in an interactive format. We calculated the...

  19. Geographic variation in health insurance benefits in Qianjiang District, China: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yue; Zhang, Liang; Liu, Xuejiao; Ye, Ting; Wang, Yongfei

    2018-02-05

    Health insurance contributes to reducing the economic burden of disease and improving access to healthcare. In 2016, the Chinese government announced the integration of the New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS) and Urban Resident Basic Medical Insurance (URBMI) to reduce system segmentation. Nevertheless, it was unclear whether there would be any geographic variation in health insurance benefits if the two types of insurance were integrated. The aim of this study was to identify the potential geographic variation in health insurance benefits and the related contributing factors. This cross-sectional study was carried out in Qianjiang District, where the NCMS and URBMI were integrated into Urban and Rural Resident Basic Medical Insurance Scheme (URRBMI) in 2010. All beneficiaries under the URRBMI were hospitalized at least once in 2013, totaling 445,254 persons and 65,877 person-times, were included in this study. Town-level data on health insurance benefits, healthcare utilization, and socioeconomic and geographical characteristics were collected through health insurance system, self-report questionnaires, and the 2014 Statistical Yearbook of Qianjiang District. A simplified Theil index at town level was calculated to measure geographic variation in health insurance benefits. Colored maps were created to visualize the variation in geographic distribution of benefits. The effects of healthcare utilization and socioeconomic and geographical characteristics on geographic variation in health insurance benefits were estimated with a multiple linear regression analysis. Different Theil index values were calculated for different towns, and the Theil index values for compensation by person-times and amount were 2.5028 and 1.8394 in primary healthcare institutions and 1.1466 and 0.9204 in secondary healthcare institutions. Healthcare-seeking behavior and economic factors were positively associated with health insurance benefits in compensation by person-times significantly

  20. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) for Lousiana, Geographic NAD83, USGS (2007) [GNIS_LA_USGS_2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  1. Comparison of immunization strategies in geographical networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Bing; Aihara, Kazuyuki [Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)] [ERATO Aihara Complexity Modelling Project, JST, Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo, 153-8505 (Japan); Kim, Beom Jun, E-mail: beomjun@skku.ed [BK21 Physics Research Division and Department of Energy Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Computational Biology, School of Computer Science and Communication, Royal Institute of Technology, 100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-10-12

    The epidemic spread and immunizations in geographically embedded scale-free (SF) and Watts-Strogatz (WS) networks are numerically investigated. We make a realistic assumption that it takes time which we call the detection time, for a vertex to be identified as infected, and implement two different immunization strategies: one is based on connection neighbors (CN) of the infected vertex with the exact information of the network structure utilized and the other is based on spatial neighbors (SN) with only geographical distances taken into account. We find that the decrease of the detection time is crucial for a successful immunization in general. Simulation results show that for both SF networks and WS networks, the SN strategy always performs better than the CN strategy, especially for more heterogeneous SF networks at long detection time. The observation is verified by checking the number of the infected nodes being immunized. We found that in geographical space, the distance preferences in the network construction process and the geographically decaying infection rate are key factors that make the SN immunization strategy outperforms the CN strategy. It indicates that even in the absence of the full knowledge of network connectivity we can still stop the epidemic spread efficiently only by using geographical information as in the SN strategy, which may have potential applications for preventing the real epidemic spread.

  2. Personality Homophily and Geographic Distance in Facebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noë, Nyala; Whitaker, Roger M; Allen, Stuart M

    2018-05-24

    Personality homophily remains an understudied aspect of social networks, with the traditional focus concerning sociodemographic variables as the basis for assortativity, rather than psychological dispositions. We consider the effect of personality homophily on one of the biggest constraints to human social networks: geographic distance. We use the Big five model of personality to make predictions for each of the five facets: Openness to experience, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism. Using a network of 313,669 Facebook users, we investigate the difference in geographic distance between homophilous pairs, in which both users scored similarly on a particular facet, and mixed pairs. In accordance with our hypotheses, we find that pairs of open and conscientious users are geographically further apart than mixed pairs. Pairs of extraverts, on the other hand, tend to be geographically closer together. We find mixed results for the Neuroticism facet, and no significant effects for the Agreeableness facet. The results are discussed in the context of personality homophily and the impact of geographic distance on social connections.

  3. Comparison of immunization strategies in geographical networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bing; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Kim, Beom Jun

    2009-01-01

    The epidemic spread and immunizations in geographically embedded scale-free (SF) and Watts-Strogatz (WS) networks are numerically investigated. We make a realistic assumption that it takes time which we call the detection time, for a vertex to be identified as infected, and implement two different immunization strategies: one is based on connection neighbors (CN) of the infected vertex with the exact information of the network structure utilized and the other is based on spatial neighbors (SN) with only geographical distances taken into account. We find that the decrease of the detection time is crucial for a successful immunization in general. Simulation results show that for both SF networks and WS networks, the SN strategy always performs better than the CN strategy, especially for more heterogeneous SF networks at long detection time. The observation is verified by checking the number of the infected nodes being immunized. We found that in geographical space, the distance preferences in the network construction process and the geographically decaying infection rate are key factors that make the SN immunization strategy outperforms the CN strategy. It indicates that even in the absence of the full knowledge of network connectivity we can still stop the epidemic spread efficiently only by using geographical information as in the SN strategy, which may have potential applications for preventing the real epidemic spread.

  4. Undergraduate teaching in UK general practice: a geographical snapshot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derbyshire, Helen; Rees, Eliot; Gay, Simon P; McKinley, Robert K

    2014-06-01

    Learning in general practice is an essential component of undergraduate medical education; currently, on average, 13% of clinical placements in the UK are in general practice. However, whether general practice can sustainably deliver more undergraduate placements is uncertain. To identify the geographical distribution of undergraduate teaching practices and their distance from the host medical school. National survey of all medical schools in the UK. All 33 UK medical schools were invited to provide the postcodes of their undergraduate teaching practices. These were collated, de-duplicated, and mapped. The distance in kilometres and journey times by car and public transport between each medical school and its teaching practices was estimated using Transport Direct (www.transportdirect.info). The postcodes of every practice in the UK were obtained from the UK's health departments. All 33 UK medical schools responded; 4392 practices contributed to teaching, with a median (minimum-maximum) of 142 (17-385) practices per school. The median (minimum-maximum) distance between a school and a teaching practice was 28 km (0-1421 km), 41 (0:00-23:26) minutes' travel by car and 1 hour 12 (0:00-17:29) minutes' travel by public transport. All teaching practices were accessible by public transport in one school and 90-99% were in a further four schools; 24 schools had >20% of practices that were inaccessible by public transport. The 4392 undergraduate teaching general practices are widely distributed and potentially any practice, no matter how isolated, could contribute to undergraduate education. However, this is, at the price of a considerable travel burden. © British Journal of General Practice 2014.

  5. Louisiana State Soil Geographic, General Soil Map, Geographic NAD83, NWRC (1998) [statsgo_soils_NWRC_1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains vector line map information. The vector data contain selected base categories of geographic features, and characteristics of these features,...

  6. Thematic cartography as a geographical application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drago Perko

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A thematic map may be a geographical application (tool in itself or the basis for some other geographical work. The development of Slovene thematic cartography accelerated considerably following the independence of the country in 1991. From the viewpoint of content and technology, its greatest achievements are the Geographical Atlas of Slovenia and the National Atlas of Slovenia, which are outstanding achievements at the international level and of great significance for the promotion of Slovenia and Slovene geography and cartography. However, this rapid development has been accompanied by numerous problems, for example, the ignoring of various Slovene and international conventions for the preparation of maps including United Nations resolutions, Slovene and international (SIST ISO, and copyright laws.

  7. Training for Internationalization through Domestic Geographical Dispersion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santangelo, Grazia D.; Stucchi, Tamara

    Traditionally created to deal with the unfriendly domestic environment, business groups (BGs) are increasingly internationalizing. However, how BGs can reconcile their strictly domestic orientation with an international dimension still remains an open question. Drawing on arguments from...... organizational learning, we seek to solve this puzzle in relation to the internationalization of Indian BGs. In particular, we argue that in heterogeneous domestic emerging markets BG’s geographical dispersion across sub-national states provides training for internationalization. To internationalize successfully......, BGs need to develop the capability of managing geographically dispersed units in institutional heterogeneous contexts. Domestic geographical dispersion would indeed help the BG dealing with different regulations, customers and infrastructures. However, there is less scope for such training as BGs...

  8. Understanding the use of geographical information systems (GIS) in health informatics research: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Nicola; McGuire, Suzanne

    2017-06-23

    The purpose of this literature review is to understand geographical information systems (GIS) and how they can be applied to public health informatics, medical informatics, and epidemiology. Relevant papers that reflected the use of geographical information systems (GIS) in health research were identified from four academic databases: Academic Search Complete, BioMed Central, PubMed Central, and Scholars Portal, as well as Google Scholar. The search strategy used was to identify articles with "geographic information systems", "GIS", "public health", "medical informatics", "epidemiology", and "health geography" as main subject headings or text words in titles and abstracts. Papers published between 1997 and 2014 were considered and a total of 39 articles were included to inform the authors on the use of GIS technologies in health informatics research. The main applications of GIS in health informatics and epidemiology include disease surveillance, health risk analysis, health access and planning, and community health profiling. GIS technologies can significantly improve quality and efficiency in health research as substantial connections can be made between a population's health and their geographical location. Gains in health informatics can be made when GIS are applied through research, however, improvements need to occur in the quantity and quality of data input for these systems to ensure better geographical health maps are used so that proper conclusions between public health and environmental factors may be made.

  9. Geographical data structures supporting regional analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, R.G.; Durfee, R.C.

    1978-01-01

    In recent years the computer has become a valuable aid in solving regional environmental problems. Over a hundred different geographic information systems have been developed to digitize, store, analyze, and display spatially distributed data. One important aspect of these systems is the data structure (e.g. grids, polygons, segments) used to model the environment being studied. This paper presents eight common geographic data structures and their use in studies of coal resources, power plant siting, population distributions, LANDSAT imagery analysis, and landuse analysis

  10. Tanzanian food origins and protected geographical indications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    John, Innocensia Festo; Egelyng, Henrik; Lokina, Azack

    2016-01-01

    As the world's population is constantly growing, food security will remain on the policy Agenda, particularly in Africa. At the same time, global food systems experience a new wave focusing on local foods and food sovereignty featuring high quality food products of verifiable geographical origin...... of food origin products in Tanzania that have potential for GI certification. The hypothesis was that there are origin products in Tanzania whose unique characteristics are linked to the area of production. Geographical indications can be useful policy instruments contributing to food security...... the diversity of supply of natural and unique quality products and so contribute to enhanced food security....

  11. ¿Sirven los estudios de variabilidad geográfica de la práctica para informar la desinversión?: Varias cautelas y algunas reflexiones Are studies of geographical variation in medical practice useful in guiding decisions on disinvestmant?: Some pros and cons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Bernal-Delgado

    2013-02-01

    technologies deemed of low-value. Studies of geographic variation in medical practice have been suggested to be useful in guiding decisions on disinvestment, as they may identify unwarranted variations in procedure-rates at the population level. This study aimed to determine the utility of these studies. Methods: We performed an ecologic study of variations in standardized rates in four "low-value" interventions: proctologic surgery, arthroplasty revision, incisional hernia repair and tonsillectomy. Variation across 199 healthcare areas within the Spanish national health system between 2002 and 2007 was studied by using the extremal quotient (EQ, the empirical Bayes statistic (EB and the standardized utilization ratio (SUR. Results: A total of 168,363 proctologic interventions, 41,066 arthroplasty revisions, 222,427 incisional hernia repairs, and 72,724 tonsillectomies were studied. The EQ ranged from a 3-fold variation in proctologic surgery to a 6.5-fold variation in tonsillectomy. The EB figures varied from moderate to high systematic variation: 0.12 in hernia repair and proctology, 0.20 in arthroplasty revision, and 0.30 in tonsillectomy. Twenty-five percent of the healthcare areas showed SUR figures above 1.24 in proctologic interventions, 1.25 in arthroplasty revision, 1.32 in hernia repair and 1.35 in tonsillectomy. Conclusions: The interventions studied showed moderate to high systematic variation, supporting the usefulness of variation studies in guiding disinvestment policies. Nevertheless, caution should be exercised when evaluating interventions with an uncertain risk-benefit ratio.

  12. Combining Land Capability Evaluation, Geographic Information ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Combining Land Capability Evaluation, Geographic Information Systems, AnD Indigenous Technologies for Soil Conservation in Northern Ethiopia. ... Land capability and land use status were established following the procedures of a modified treatment-oriented capability classification using GIS. The case study ...

  13. Geometric algorithms for delineating geographic regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinbacher, I.

    2006-01-01

    Everyone of us is used to geographical regions like the south of Utrecht, the dutch Randstad, or the mountainous areas of Austria. Some of these regions have crisp, fixed boundaries like Utrecht or Austria. Others, like the dutch Randstad and the Austrian mountains, have no such boundaries and are

  14. [Geographic data for Neotropical bats (Chiroptera)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguera-Urbano, Elkin A; Escalante, Tania

    2014-03-01

    The global effort to digitize biodiversity occurrence data from collections, museums and other institutions has stimulated the development of important tools to improve the knowledge and conservation of biodiversity. The Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) enables and opens access to biodiversity data of 321 million of records, from 379 host institutions. Neotropical bats are a highly diverse and specialized group, and the geographic information about them is increasing since few years ago, but there are a few reports about this topic. The aim of this study was to analyze the number of digital records in GBIF of Neotropical bats with distribution in 21 American countries, evaluating their nomenclatural and geographical consistence at scale of country. Moreover, we evaluated the gaps of information on 1 degrees latitude x 1 degrees longitude grids cells. There were over 1/2 million records, but 58% of them have no latitude and longitude data; and 52% full fit nomenclatural and geographic evaluation. We estimated that there are no records in 54% of the analyzed area; the principal gaps are in biodiversity hotspots like the Colombian and Brazilian Amazonia and Southern Venezuela. In conclusion, our study suggests that available data on GBIF have nomenclatural and geographic biases. GBIF data represent partially the bat species richness and the main gaps in information are in South America.

  15. Europeans among themselves: Geographical and linguistic stereotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mamadouh, V.D.; Dąbrowska, A.; Pisarek, W.; Stickel, G.

    2017-01-01

    Stereotypes can be studied from the perspective of political geography and critical geopolitics as part of geographical imaginations, in other words those geopolitical representations that help us make sense of the world around us. They necessarily frame our perception of ongoing events, and inform

  16. Using Educational Tourism in Geographical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakapiene, Dalia; Olberkyte, Loreta

    2013-01-01

    The article analyses and defines the concept of educational tourism, presents the structure of the concept and looks into the opportunities for using educational tourism in geographical education. In order to reveal such opportunities a research was carried out in the Lithuanian national and regional parks using the qualitative method of content…

  17. Geographic distribution of wild potato species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hijmans, R.J.; Spooner, D.M.

    2001-01-01

    The geographic distribution of wild potatoes (Solanaceae sect. Petota) was analyzed using a database of 6073 georeferenced observations. Wild potatoes occur in 16 countries, but 88% of the observations are from Argentina, Bolivia, Mexico, and Peru. Most species are rare and narrowly endemic: for 77

  18. Geography and Geographical Information Science: Interdisciplinary Integrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellul, Claire

    2015-01-01

    To understand how Geography and Geographical Information Science (GIS) can contribute to Interdisciplinary Research (IDR), it is relevant to articulate the differences between the different types of such research. "Multidisciplinary" researchers work in a "parallel play" mode, completing work in their disciplinary work streams…

  19. Geographic pathology of Helicobacter pylori gastritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Yi; Ponsioen, Cyriel I. J.; Xiao, Shu-Dong; Tytgat, Guido N. J.; ten Kate, Fiebo J. W.

    2005-01-01

    Background and aim. Helicobacter pylori is etiologically associated with gastritis and gastric cancer. There are significant geographical differences between the clinical manifestation of H. pylori infections. The aim of this study was to compare gastric mucosal histology in relation to age among H.

  20. Execution Management Solutions for Geographically Distributed Simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, T.W. van den; Jansen, H.G.M.; Jansen, R.E.J.; Prins, L.M.

    2009-01-01

    Managing the initialization, execution control and monitoring of HLA federates is not always straightforward, especially for a geographically distributed time managed federation. Issues include pre and post run-time data distribution and run-time data collection; starting, stopping and monitoring

  1. Geographic Analysis of Neurosurgery Workforce in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye Ran; Park, Sukh Que; Kim, Jae Hyun; Hwang, Jae Chan; Lee, Gwang Soo; Chang, Jae-Chil

    2018-01-01

    In respect of the health and safety of the public, universal access to health care is an issue of the greatest importance. The geographic distribution of doctors is one of the important factors contributing to access to health care. The aim of this study is to assess the imbalances in the geographic distribution of neurosurgeons across Korea. Population data was obtained from the National Statistical Office. We classified geographic groups into 7 metropolitan cities, 78 non-metropolitan cities, and 77 rural areas. The number of doctors and neurosurgeons per 100000 populations in each county unit was calculated using the total number of doctors and neurosurgeons at the country level from 2009 to 2015. The density levels of neurosurgeon and doctor were calculated and depicted in maps. Between 2009 and 2015, the number of neurosurgeons increased from 2002 to 2557, and the ratio of neurosurgeons per 100000 populations increased from 4.02 to 4.96. The number of neurosurgeons per 100000 populations was highest in metropolitan cities and lowest in rural areas from 2009 to 2015. A comparison of the geographic distribution of neurosurgeons in 2009 and 2015 showed an increase in the regional gap. The neurosurgeon density was affected by country unit characteristics ( p =0.000). Distribution of neurosurgeons throughout Korea is uneven. Neurosurgeons are being increasingly concentrated in a limited number of metropolitan cities. This phenomenon will need to be accounted when planning for a supply of neurosurgeons, allocation of resources and manpower, and the provision of regional neurosurgical services.

  2. Geographic disparity in kidney transplantation under KAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Sheng; Massie, Allan B; Luo, Xun; Ruck, Jessica M; Chow, Eric K H; Bowring, Mary G; Bae, Sunjae; Segev, Dorry L; Gentry, Sommer E

    2017-12-12

    The Kidney Allocation System fundamentally altered kidney allocation, causing a substantial increase in regional and national sharing that we hypothesized might impact geographic disparities. We measured geographic disparity in deceased donor kidney transplant (DDKT) rate under KAS (6/1/2015-12/1/2016), and compared that with pre-KAS (6/1/2013-12/3/2014). We modeled DSA-level DDKT rates with multilevel Poisson regression, adjusting for allocation factors under KAS. Using the model we calculated a novel, improved metric of geographic disparity: the median incidence rate ratio (MIRR) of transplant rate, a measure of DSA-level variation that accounts for patient casemix and is robust to outlier values. Under KAS, MIRR was 1.75 1.81 1.86 for adults, meaning that similar candidates across different DSAs have a median 1.81-fold difference in DDKT rate. The impact of geography was greater than the impact of factors emphasized by KAS: having an EPTS score ≤20% was associated with a 1.40-fold increase (IRR =  1.35 1.40 1.45 , P geographic disparities with KAS (P = .3). Despite extensive changes to kidney allocation under KAS, geography remains a primary determinant of access to DDKT. © 2017 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  3. The National Geographic Society's Teaching Geography Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockenhauer, Mark H.

    1993-01-01

    Contends that the National Geographic Society's Teaching Geography Project is an inservice teacher education success story. Describes the origins, objectives, and development of the project. Summarizes the impact of the project and contends that its success is the result of the workshop format and guided practice in instructional strategies. (CFR)

  4. GEOGRAPHERS AND ECOSYSTEMS: A POINT OF VIEW

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    are fearful of tackling it, mainly because they have never studied ecology or any of the pure sciences. Most of these geographers are trained in the arts disciplines and thus feel at a disadvantage even when confronted only by a 'jargon' which is un- familiar. They perceive themselves as being inade- quate and are unhappy ...

  5. The Geographic Extent of Global Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machikita, Tomohiro; Ueki, Yasushi

    2012-01-01

    We study the extent to which inter-firm relationships are locally concentrated and what determines firm differences in geographic proximity to domestic or foreign suppliers and customers. From micro-data on selfreported customer and supplier data of firms in Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand, ...

  6. Geographical information modelling for land resource survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, de S.

    2000-01-01

    The increasing popularity of geographical information systems (GIS) has at least three major implications for land resources survey. Firstly, GIS allows alternative and richer representation of spatial phenomena than is possible with the traditional paper map. Secondly, digital technology has

  7. Teaching Geographic Field Methods Using Paleoecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Megan K.

    2014-01-01

    Field-based undergraduate geography courses provide numerous pedagogical benefits including an opportunity for students to acquire employable skills in an applied context. This article presents one unique approach to teaching geographic field methods using paleoecological research. The goals of this course are to teach students key geographic…

  8. Groundwater quality mapping using geographic information system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spatial variations in ground water quality in the corporation area of Gulbarga City located in the northern part of Karnataka State, India, have been studied using geographic information system (GIS) technique. GIS, a tool which is used for storing, analyzing and displaying spatial data is also used for investigating ground ...

  9. Formal Ontologies and Uncertainty. In Geographical Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Caglioni

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Formal ontologies have proved to be a very useful tool to manage interoperability among data, systems and knowledge. In this paper we will show how formal ontologies can evolve from a crisp, deterministic framework (ontologies of hard knowledge to new probabilistic, fuzzy or possibilistic frameworks (ontologies of soft knowledge. This can considerably enlarge the application potential of formal ontologies in geographic analysis and planning, where soft knowledge is intrinsically linked to the complexity of the phenomena under study.  The paper briefly presents these new uncertainty-based formal ontologies. It then highlights how ontologies are formal tools to define both concepts and relations among concepts. An example from the domain of urban geography finally shows how the cause-to-effect relation between household preferences and urban sprawl can be encoded within a crisp, a probabilistic and a possibilistic ontology, respectively. The ontology formalism will also determine the kind of reasoning that can be developed from available knowledge. Uncertain ontologies can be seen as the preliminary phase of more complex uncertainty-based models. The advantages of moving to uncertainty-based models is evident: whether it is in the analysis of geographic space or in decision support for planning, reasoning on geographic space is almost always reasoning with uncertain knowledge of geographic phenomena.

  10. Ontology-based geographic data set integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uitermark, H.T.J.A.; Uitermark, Harry T.; Oosterom, Peter J.M.; Mars, Nicolaas; Molenaar, Martien; Molenaar, M.

    1999-01-01

    In order to develop a system to propagate updates we investigate the semantic and spatial relationships between independently produced geographic data sets of the same region (data set integration). The goal of this system is to reduce operator intervention in update operations between corresponding

  11. Venomics and antivenomics of Bothrops erythromelas from five geographic populations within the Caatinga ecoregion of northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge, Roberta Jeane B.; Monteiro, Helena S.A.; Gonçalves Machado, Larissa; Guarnieri, Míriam C.; Ximenes, Rafael M.; Borges Nojosa, Diva M.; de O. Luna, Karla P.; Zingali, Russolina B.; Corrêa Netto, Carlos; Gutiérrez, José María; Sanz, Libia; Calvete, Juan J.; Pla, Davinia

    2015-01-01

    The Caatinga lancehead, Bothrops erythromelas, is a medically relevant species, responsible for most of the snakebite accidents in most parts of its distribution range in northeastern Brazil. The spectrum and geographic variability of its venom toxins were investigated applying a venomics approach to venom pools from five geographic areas within the Caatinga ecoregion. Despite its wide habitat, populations of B. erythromelas from Ceará, Pernambuco, Juazeiro, Paraiba, and Ilha de Itaparica exh...

  12. Geographic variation in gorilla limb bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbour, Rebecca S; Pearman, Tessa L

    2016-06-01

    Gorilla systematics has received increased attention over recent decades from primatologists, conservationists, and paleontologists. Studies of geographic variation in DNA, skulls, and teeth have led to new taxonomic proposals, such as recognition of two gorilla species, Gorilla gorilla (western gorilla) and Gorilla beringei (eastern gorilla). Postcranial differences between mountain gorillas (G. beringei beringei) and western lowland gorillas (G. g. gorilla) have a long history of study, but differences between the limb bones of the eastern and western species have not yet been examined with an emphasis on geographic variation within each species. In addition, proposals for recognition of the Cross River gorilla as Gorilla gorilla diehli and gorillas from Tshiaberimu and Kahuzi as G. b. rex-pymaeorum have not been evaluated in the context of geographic variation in the forelimb and hindlimb skeletons. Forty-three linear measurements were collected from limb bones of 266 adult gorillas representing populations of G. b. beringei, Gorilla beringei graueri, G. g. gorilla, and G. g. diehli in order to investigate geographic diversity. Skeletal elements included the humerus, radius, third metacarpal, third proximal hand phalanx, femur, tibia, calcaneus, first metatarsal, third metatarsal, and third proximal foot phalanx. Comparisons of means and principal components analyses clearly differentiate eastern and western gorillas, indicating that eastern gorillas have absolutely and relatively smaller hands and feet, among other differences. Gorilla subspecies and populations cluster consistently by species, although G. g. diehli may be similar to the eastern gorillas in having small hands and feet. The subspecies of G. beringei are distinguished less strongly and by different variables than the two gorilla species. Populations of G. b. graueri are variable, and Kahuzi and Tshiaberimu specimens do not cluster together. Results support the possible influence of

  13. Geographic variation in lumbar diskectomy: a protocol for evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, M; Kazandjian, V A

    1992-03-01

    In 1989 the Maryland Hospital Association (MHA) began developing a protocol related to lumbar diskectomy, a procedure with widely reported geographic variation in its use. The MHA's Laminectomy Advisory Committee drafted three criteria for performance of lumbar diskectomy and also developed a data-collection instrument with which the eight hospitals participating in a pilot study could abstract the necessary data from medical records. Both individual hospital and aggregate results showed wide variation in compliance with the criteria. These findings suggest research and development activities such as refinement of the data-collection instrument, use of the protocol for bench-marking, further investigation of clinical and other determinants of rate variation, and study of the effect of new diagnostic technology on utilization rates for this procedure.

  14. [Use of indicators of geographical accessibility to primary health care centers in addressing inequities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pietri, Diana; Dietrich, Patricia; Mayo, Patricia; Carcagno, Alejandro; de Titto, Ernesto

    2013-12-01

    Characterize geographical indicators in relation to their usefulness in measuring regional inequities, identify and describe areas according to their degree of geographical accessibility to primary health care centers (PHCCs), and detect populations at risk from the perspective of access to primary care. Analysis of spatial accessibility using geographic information systems (GIS) involved three aspects: population without medical coverage, distribution of PHCCs, and the public transportation network connecting them. The development of indicators of demand (real, potential, and differential) and analysis of territorial factors affecting population mobility enabled the characterization of PHCCs with regard to their environment, thereby contributing to local and regional analysis and to the detection of different zones according to regional connectivity levels. Indicators developed in a GIS environment were very useful in analyzing accessibility to PHCCs by vulnerable populations. Zoning the region helped identify inequities by differentiating areas of unmet demand and fragmentation of spatial connectivity between PHCCs and public transportation.

  15. Geographical conceptualization of quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murgaš František

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The conceptualization of quality of life in terms of geography is based on two assumptions. The first assumption is that the quality of life consists of two dimensions: subjective and objective. The subjective is known as ‘well-being’, while the objective is the proposed term ‘quality of place’. The second assumption is based on the recognition that quality of life is always a spatial dimension. The concept of quality of life is closely linked with the concept of a good life; geographers enriched this concept by using the term ‘good place’ as a place in which the conditions are created for a good life. The quality of life for individuals in terms of a good place overlaps with the quality of life in society, namely the societal quality of life. The geographical conceptualisation of quality of life is applied to settlements within the city of Liberec.

  16. A Systems Perspective on Volunteered Geographic Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Fast

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Volunteered geographic information (VGI is geographic information collected by way of crowdsourcing. However, the distinction between VGI as an information product and the processes that create VGI is blurred. Clearly, the environment that influences the creation of VGI is different than the information product itself, yet most literature treats them as one and the same. Thus, this research is motivated by the need to formalize and standardize the systems that support the creation of VGI. To this end, we propose a conceptual framework for VGI systems, the main components of which—project, participants, and technical infrastructure—form an environment conducive to the creation of VGI. Drawing on examples from OpenStreetMap, Ushahidi, and RinkWatch, we illustrate the pragmatic relevance of these components. Applying a system perspective to VGI allows us to better understand the components and functionality needed to effectively create VGI.

  17. Geographical information systems and computer cartography

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Chris B

    2014-01-01

    A concise text presenting the fundamental concepts in Geographical Information Systems (GIS), emphasising an understanding of techniques in management, analysis and graphic display of spatial information. Divided into five parts - the first part reviews the development and application of GIS, followed by a summary of the characteristics and representation of geographical information. It concludes with an overview of the functions provided by typical GIS systems. Part Two introduces co-ordinate systems and map projections, describes methods for digitising map data and gives an overview of remote sensing. Part Three deals with data storage and database management, as well as specialised techniques for accessing spatial data. Spatial modelling and analytical techniques for decision making form the subject of Part Four, while the final part is concerned with graphical representation, emphasising issues of graphics technology, cartographic design and map generalisation.

  18. SOLID WASTE: PRESENCE AND THREATIN GEOGRAPHICAL SPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clesley Maria Tavares do Nascimento

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the trajectory of the solid waste in different historical periods, configuring them as a constructive element of geographical space. The intention to bring the theme from the timeline perspective, is marked out in the conviction of the inseparability of the categories of space and time and its importance in understanding a geographical phenomenon. The methodological support of this research relied on the documentary type of research involving literature, consultation of secondary sources such as books, academic journals, dissertations and theses on the subject. The results presented and discussed in this paper indicated that the production of waste is adjacent to historical time, reflects societies and techniques that generated them, and is a permanent part of the dialectical process of spatial formation.

  19. Do geographically isolated wetlands influence landscape functions?

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Matthew J.; Creed, Irena F.; Alexander, Laurie; Basu, Nandita B.; Calhoun, Aram J. K.; Craft, Christopher; D’Amico, Ellen; DeKeyser, Edward; Fowler, Laurie; Golden, Heather E.; Jawitz, James W.; Kalla, Peter; Kirkman, L. Katherine; Lane, Charles R.; Lang, Megan

    2016-01-01

    Geographically isolated wetlands (GIWs), those surrounded by uplands, exchange materials, energy, and organisms with other elements in hydrological and habitat networks, contributing to landscape functions, such as flow generation, nutrient and sediment retention, and biodiversity support. GIWs constitute most of the wetlands in many North American landscapes, provide a disproportionately large fraction of wetland edges where many functions are enhanced, and form complexes with other water bo...

  20. Geographic Analysis of Neurosurgery Workforce in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye Ran; Park, Sukh Que; Kim, Jae Hyun; Hwang, Jae Chan; Lee, Gwang Soo; Chang, Jae-Chil

    2018-01-01

    Objective In respect of the health and safety of the public, universal access to health care is an issue of the greatest importance. The geographic distribution of doctors is one of the important factors contributing to access to health care. The aim of this study is to assess the imbalances in the geographic distribution of neurosurgeons across Korea. Methods Population data was obtained from the National Statistical Office. We classified geographic groups into 7 metropolitan cities, 78 non-metropolitan cities, and 77 rural areas. The number of doctors and neurosurgeons per 100000 populations in each county unit was calculated using the total number of doctors and neurosurgeons at the country level from 2009 to 2015. The density levels of neurosurgeon and doctor were calculated and depicted in maps. Results Between 2009 and 2015, the number of neurosurgeons increased from 2002 to 2557, and the ratio of neurosurgeons per 100000 populations increased from 4.02 to 4.96. The number of neurosurgeons per 100000 populations was highest in metropolitan cities and lowest in rural areas from 2009 to 2015. A comparison of the geographic distribution of neurosurgeons in 2009 and 2015 showed an increase in the regional gap. The neurosurgeon density was affected by country unit characteristics (p=0.000). Conclusion Distribution of neurosurgeons throughout Korea is uneven. Neurosurgeons are being increasingly concentrated in a limited number of metropolitan cities. This phenomenon will need to be accounted when planning for a supply of neurosurgeons, allocation of resources and manpower, and the provision of regional neurosurgical services. PMID:29354242

  1. Geographic assistance of decontamination strategy elaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davydchuk, V.; Arapis, G.

    1996-01-01

    Those who elaborates the strategy of decontamination of vast territories is to take into consideration the heterogeneity of such elements of landscape as relief, lithology, humidity and types of soils and, vegetation, both on local and regional level. Geographic assistance includes evaluation of efficacy of decontamination technologies in different natural conditions, identification of areas of their effective application and definition of ecological damage, estimation of balances of the radionuclides in the landscapes to create background of the decontamination strategy

  2. Geographic Analysis of the Radiation Oncology Workforce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aneja, Sanjay; Smith, Benjamin D.; Gross, Cary P.; Wilson, Lynn D.; Haffty, Bruce G.; Roberts, Kenneth; Yu, James B.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate trends in the geographic distribution of the radiation oncology (RO) workforce. Methods and Materials: We used the 1995 and 2007 versions of the Area Resource File to map the ratio of RO to the population aged 65 years or older (ROR) within different health service areas (HSA) within the United States. We used regression analysis to find associations between population variables and 2007 ROR. We calculated Gini coefficients for ROR to assess the evenness of RO distribution and compared that with primary care physicians and total physicians. Results: There was a 24% increase in the RO workforce from 1995 to 2007. The overall growth in the RO workforce was less than that of primary care or the overall physician workforce. The mean ROR among HSAs increased by more than one radiation oncologist per 100,000 people aged 65 years or older, from 5.08 per 100,000 to 6.16 per 100,000. However, there remained consistent geographic variability concerning RO distribution, specifically affecting the non-metropolitan HSAs. Regression analysis found higher ROR in HSAs that possessed higher education (p = 0.001), higher income (p < 0.001), lower unemployment rates (p < 0.001), and higher minority population (p = 0.022). Gini coefficients showed RO distribution less even than for both primary care physicians and total physicians (0.326 compared with 0.196 and 0.292, respectively). Conclusions: Despite a modest growth in the RO workforce, there exists persistent geographic maldistribution of radiation oncologists allocated along socioeconomic and racial lines. To solve problems surrounding the RO workforce, issues concerning both gross numbers and geographic distribution must be addressed.

  3. U Plant Geographic Zone Cleanup Prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romine, L.D.; Leary, K.D.; Lackey, M.B.; Robertson, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    The U Plant geographic zone (UPZ) occupies 0.83 square kilometers on the Hanford Site Central Plateau (200 Area). It encompasses the U Plant canyon (221-U Facility), ancillary facilities that supported the canyon, soil waste sites, and underground pipelines. The UPZ cleanup initiative coordinates the cleanup of the major facilities, ancillary facilities, waste sites, and contaminated pipelines (collectively identified as 'cleanup items') within the geographic zone. The UPZ was selected as a geographic cleanup zone prototype for resolving regulatory, technical, and stakeholder issues and demonstrating cleanup methods for several reasons: most of the area is inactive, sufficient characterization information is available to support decisions, cleanup of the high-risk waste sites will help protect the groundwater, and the zone contains a representative cross-section of the types of cleanup actions that will be required in other geographic zones. The UPZ cleanup demonstrates the first of 22 integrated zone cleanup actions on the Hanford Site Central Plateau to address threats to groundwater, the environment, and human health. The UPZ contains more than 100 individual cleanup items. Cleanup actions in the zone will be undertaken using multiple regulatory processes and decision documents. Cleanup actions will include building demolition, waste site and pipeline excavation, and the construction of multiple, large engineered barriers. In some cases, different cleanup actions may be taken at item locations that are immediately adjacent to each other. The cleanup planning and field activities for each cleanup item must be undertaken in a coordinated and cohesive manner to ensure effective execution of the UPZ cleanup initiative. The UPZ zone cleanup implementation plan (ZCIP) [1] was developed to address the need for a fundamental integration tool for UPZ cleanup. As UPZ cleanup planning and implementation moves forward, the ZCIP is intended to be a living document that will

  4. Using Educational Tourism in Geographical Education

    OpenAIRE

    PRAKAPIENĖ, Dalia; OLBERKYTĖ, Loreta

    2014-01-01

    The article analyses and defines the concept of educational tourism, presents the structure of the concept and looks into the opportunities for using educational tourism in geographical education. In order to reveal such opportunities a research was carried out in the Lithuanian national and regional parks using the qualitative method of content analysis and the quantitative method of questionnaire survey. The authors of the research identified the educational excursion activities conducted i...

  5. Estimating the accuracy of geographical imputation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boscoe Francis P

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To reduce the number of non-geocoded cases researchers and organizations sometimes include cases geocoded to postal code centroids along with cases geocoded with the greater precision of a full street address. Some analysts then use the postal code to assign information to the cases from finer-level geographies such as a census tract. Assignment is commonly completed using either a postal centroid or by a geographical imputation method which assigns a location by using both the demographic characteristics of the case and the population characteristics of the postal delivery area. To date no systematic evaluation of geographical imputation methods ("geo-imputation" has been completed. The objective of this study was to determine the accuracy of census tract assignment using geo-imputation. Methods Using a large dataset of breast, prostate and colorectal cancer cases reported to the New Jersey Cancer Registry, we determined how often cases were assigned to the correct census tract using alternate strategies of demographic based geo-imputation, and using assignments obtained from postal code centroids. Assignment accuracy was measured by comparing the tract assigned with the tract originally identified from the full street address. Results Assigning cases to census tracts using the race/ethnicity population distribution within a postal code resulted in more correctly assigned cases than when using postal code centroids. The addition of age characteristics increased the match rates even further. Match rates were highly dependent on both the geographic distribution of race/ethnicity groups and population density. Conclusion Geo-imputation appears to offer some advantages and no serious drawbacks as compared with the alternative of assigning cases to census tracts based on postal code centroids. For a specific analysis, researchers will still need to consider the potential impact of geocoding quality on their results and evaluate

  6. Geographic Analysis of the Radiation Oncology Workforce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aneja, Sanjay [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Cancer Outcomes, Policy, and Effectiveness Research Center at Yale, New Haven, CT (United States); Smith, Benjamin D. [University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Gross, Cary P. [Cancer Outcomes, Policy, and Effectiveness Research Center at Yale, New Haven, CT (United States); Department of General Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Wilson, Lynn D. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Haffty, Bruce G. [Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Roberts, Kenneth [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Yu, James B., E-mail: james.b.yu@yale.edu [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Cancer Outcomes, Policy, and Effectiveness Research Center at Yale, New Haven, CT (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To evaluate trends in the geographic distribution of the radiation oncology (RO) workforce. Methods and Materials: We used the 1995 and 2007 versions of the Area Resource File to map the ratio of RO to the population aged 65 years or older (ROR) within different health service areas (HSA) within the United States. We used regression analysis to find associations between population variables and 2007 ROR. We calculated Gini coefficients for ROR to assess the evenness of RO distribution and compared that with primary care physicians and total physicians. Results: There was a 24% increase in the RO workforce from 1995 to 2007. The overall growth in the RO workforce was less than that of primary care or the overall physician workforce. The mean ROR among HSAs increased by more than one radiation oncologist per 100,000 people aged 65 years or older, from 5.08 per 100,000 to 6.16 per 100,000. However, there remained consistent geographic variability concerning RO distribution, specifically affecting the non-metropolitan HSAs. Regression analysis found higher ROR in HSAs that possessed higher education (p = 0.001), higher income (p < 0.001), lower unemployment rates (p < 0.001), and higher minority population (p = 0.022). Gini coefficients showed RO distribution less even than for both primary care physicians and total physicians (0.326 compared with 0.196 and 0.292, respectively). Conclusions: Despite a modest growth in the RO workforce, there exists persistent geographic maldistribution of radiation oncologists allocated along socioeconomic and racial lines. To solve problems surrounding the RO workforce, issues concerning both gross numbers and geographic distribution must be addressed.

  7. Globalization in history : a geographical perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Crafts, N. F. R.; Venables, Anthony

    2001-01-01

    This paper argues that a geographical perspectie is fundamental to understanding comparative economic development in the context of globalization. Central to this view is the role of agglomeration in productivity performance; size and location matter. The tools of the new economic geography are used to illuminate important epidsodes when the relative position of major eeconmies radically changed; the rise of the United States at the beginning and of East Asia at the end of the twentieth centu...

  8. Deterrence and Geographical Externalities in Auto Theft

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Gonzalez-Navarro

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the degree of geographical crime displacement is crucial for the design of crime prevention policies. This paper documents changes in automobile theft risk that were generated by the plausibly exogenous introduction of Lojack, a highly effective stolen vehicle recovery device, into a number of new Ford car models in some Mexican states, but not others. Lojack-equipped vehicles in Lojack-coverage states experienced a 48 percent reduction in theft risk due to deterrence effects. H...

  9. Geographically isolated wetlands: Rethinking a misnomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushet, David M.; Calhoun, Aram J.K.; Alexander, Laurie C.; Cohen, Matthew J.; DeKeyser, Edward S.; Fowler, Laurie G.; Lane, Charles R.; Lang, Megan W.; Rains, Mark C.; Walls, Susan

    2015-01-01

    We explore the category “geographically isolated wetlands” (GIWs; i.e., wetlands completely surrounded by uplands at the local scale) as used in the wetland sciences. As currently used, the GIW category (1) hampers scientific efforts by obscuring important hydrological and ecological differences among multiple wetland functional types, (2) aggregates wetlands in a manner not reflective of regulatory and management information needs, (3) implies wetlands so described are in some way “isolated,” an often incorrect implication, (4) is inconsistent with more broadly used and accepted concepts of “geographic isolation,” and (5) has injected unnecessary confusion into scientific investigations and discussions. Instead, we suggest other wetland classification systems offer more informative alternatives. For example, hydrogeomorphic (HGM) classes based on well-established scientific definitions account for wetland functional diversity thereby facilitating explorations into questions of connectivity without an a priori designation of “isolation.” Additionally, an HGM-type approach could be used in combination with terms reflective of current regulatory or policymaking needs. For those rare cases in which the condition of being surrounded by uplands is the relevant distinguishing characteristic, use of terminology that does not unnecessarily imply isolation (e.g., “upland embedded wetlands”) would help alleviate much confusion caused by the “geographically isolated wetlands” misnomer.

  10. GEOGRAPHICAL EDUCATION MEDIATIZATION AND MEDIASECURITY ISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Arpentieva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the interaction of legal and moral development of media technologies in the context of geographical education. The article summarizes the experience of the theoretical analysis of mediatization in geographic education, the legal and moral aspects of the disorders and ways of their prevention and correction in the process of educational interaction between teacher and student, between student and teacher, mediated mediatechnologies. It is noted that geographical education in the modern world is education, which is closely associated with the use of media technologies. In other types of education the role of media technologies in improving the quality of education is less obvious, in the field of teaching and learning geography, it speaks very clearly. Therefore, the problems associated with its mediatization, are very important and their solution is particularly compelling. These issues are primarily associated with actively flowing social, economic, political and ideological crisis in many communities and countries of the Earth. Many of them as in the “mirror” are reflected in the sphere of high technologies, including media technologies. The article provides guidance and direction to the correction of violations at the individual and social levels.

  11. A Geographical Heuristic Routing Protocol for VANETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquiza-Aguiar, Luis; Tripp-Barba, Carolina; Aguilar Igartua, Mónica

    2016-01-01

    Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) leverage the communication system of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). Recently, Delay-Tolerant Network (DTN) routing protocols have increased their popularity among the research community for being used in non-safety VANET applications and services like traffic reporting. Vehicular DTN protocols use geographical and local information to make forwarding decisions. However, current proposals only consider the selection of the best candidate based on a local-search. In this paper, we propose a generic Geographical Heuristic Routing (GHR) protocol that can be applied to any DTN geographical routing protocol that makes forwarding decisions hop by hop. GHR includes in its operation adaptations simulated annealing and Tabu-search meta-heuristics, which have largely been used to improve local-search results in discrete optimization. We include a complete performance evaluation of GHR in a multi-hop VANET simulation scenario for a reporting service. Our study analyzes all of the meaningful configurations of GHR and offers a statistical analysis of our findings by means of MANOVA tests. Our results indicate that the use of a Tabu list contributes to improving the packet delivery ratio by around 5% to 10%. Moreover, if Tabu is used, then the simulated annealing routing strategy gets a better performance than the selection of the best node used with carry and forwarding (default operation). PMID:27669254

  12. Geographical assemblages of European raptors and owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-López, Pascual; Benavent-Corai, José; García-Ripollés, Clara

    2008-09-01

    In this work we look for geographical structure patterns in European raptors (Order: Falconiformes) and owls (Order: Strigiformes). For this purpose we have conducted our research using freely available tools such as statistical software and databases. To perform the study, presence-absence data for the European raptors and owl species (Class Aves) were downloaded from the BirdLife International website. Using the freely available "pvclust" R-package, we applied similarity Jaccard index and cluster analysis in order to delineate biogeographical relationships for European countries. According to the cluster of similarity, we found that Europe is structured into two main geographical assemblages. The larger length branch separated two main groups: one containing Iceland, Greenland and the countries of central, northern and northwestern Europe, and the other group including the countries of eastern, southern and southwestern Europe. Both groups are divided into two main subgroups. According to our results, the European raptors and owls could be considered structured into four meta-communities well delimited by suture zones defined by Remington (1968) [Remington, C.L., 1968. Suture-zones of hybrid interaction between recently joined biotas. Evol. Biol. 2, 321-428]. Climatic oscillations during the Quaternary Ice Ages could explain at least in part the modern geographical distribution of the group.

  13. Ontology for cell-based geographic information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Bin; Huang, Lina; Lu, Xinhai

    2009-10-01

    Inter-operability is a key notion in geographic information science (GIS) for the sharing of geographic information (GI). That requires a seamless translation among different information sources. Ontology is enrolled in GI discovery to settle the semantic conflicts for its natural language appearance and logical hierarchy structure, which are considered to be able to provide better context for both human understanding and machine cognition in describing the location and relationships in the geographic world. However, for the current, most studies on field ontology are deduced from philosophical theme and not applicable for the raster expression in GIS-which is a kind of field-like phenomenon but does not physically coincide to the general concept of philosophical field (mostly comes from the physics concepts). That's why we specifically discuss the cell-based GI ontology in this paper. The discussion starts at the investigation of the physical characteristics of cell-based raster GI. Then, a unified cell-based GI ontology framework for the recognition of the raster objects is introduced, from which a conceptual interface for the connection of the human epistemology and the computer world so called "endurant-occurrant window" is developed for the better raster GI discovery and sharing.

  14. Geographic mobility advances careers: study of the Executive Leadership in Academic Medicine (ELAM) program for women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Marsha R; Morahan, Page S; Dannels, Sharon A; McDade, Sharon A

    2013-11-01

    To explore whether geographic mobility is associated with career advancement of women in U.S. medical schools who are entering mid- to executive-level positions. Using an existing dataset of 351 participants in academic medicine who attended the Executive Leadership in Academic Medicine (ELAM) Program for Women (1996-2005) (adjusted to 345 participants in some analyses because data on initial faculty rank were missing), the authors conducted a quantitative study in 2009 to determine whether geographic mobility was associated with administrative promotion for those who relocated geographically (from employer while attending ELAM to employer at last job of record). Twenty-four percent of women (83/345) relocated geographically (movers) after attending ELAM. Moving had a positive association with career advancement (P = .001); odds for promotion were 168% higher for movers than for stayers [odds ratio Exp(β) = 2.684]. Movers attained higher administrative positions (P = .003), and more movers (60%) were promoted at the most recent job compared with stayers (40%) (P = .0001). Few movers changed city size; 70% already resided in large or urban cities where most medical schools are located. Age was not a barrier to mobility. Career advancement was not related to research reputation (National Institutes of Health grant award ranking) of participants' schools (either at time of attending ELAM or post-ELAM). Similar to findings outside academic medicine, 24% of women classified as geographic "movers" among midcareer faculty in medical schools attained career advantages. Psychosocial and socioeconomic factors underlying women's relocation decisions require additional study.

  15. Abortion - medical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therapeutic medical abortion; Elective medical abortion; Induced abortion; Nonsurgical abortion ... A medical, or nonsurgical, abortion can be done within 7 weeks from the first day of the woman's last ...

  16. GNIS: Geographic Names Information Systems - All features (2013)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  17. Urethroplasty: a geographic disparity in care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burks, Frank N; Salmon, Scott A; Smith, Aaron C; Santucci, Richard A

    2012-06-01

    Urethroplasty is the gold standard for urethral strictures but its geographic prevalence throughout the United States is unknown. We analyzed where and how often urethroplasty was being performed in the United States compared to other treatment modalities for urethral stricture. De-identified case logs from the American Board of Urology were collected from certifying/recertifying urologists from 2004 to 2009. Results were categorized by ZIP codes to determine the geographic distribution. Case logs from 3,877 urologists (2,533 recertifying and 1,344 certifying) were reviewed including 1,836 urethroplasties, 13,080 urethrotomies and 19,564 urethral dilations. The proportion of urethroplasty varied widely among states (range 0% to 17%). The ratio of urethroplasty-to-urethrotomy/dilation also varied widely from state to state, but overall 1 urethroplasty was performed for every 17 urethrotomies or dilations performed. Certifying urologists were 3 times as likely to perform urethroplasty as recertifying urologists (12% vs 4%, respectively, pUrethroplasties were performed more commonly in states with residency programs (mean 5% vs 3%). Some states reported no urethroplasties during the observation period (Vermont, North Dakota, South Dakota, Maine and West Virginia). To our knowledge this is the first report on the geographic distribution of urethroplasty for urethral stricture disease. There are large variations in the rates of urethroplasty performed throughout the United States, indicating a disparity of care, especially for those regions in which few or no urethroplasties were reported. This disparity may decrease with time as younger certifying urologists are performing 3 times as many urethroplasties as older recertifying urologists. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The geosystems of complex geographical atlases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Jasmina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex geographical atlases represent geosystems of different hierarchical rank, complexity and diversity, scale and connection. They represent a set of large number of different pieces of information about geospace. Also, they contain systematized, correlative and in the apparent form represented pieces of information about space. The degree of information revealed in the atlas is precisely explained by its content structure and the form of presentation. The quality of atlas depends on the method of visualization of data and the quality of geodata. Cartographic visualization represents cognitive process. The analysis converts geospatial data into knowledge. A complex geographical atlas represents information complex of spatial - temporal coordinated database on geosystems of different complexity and territorial scope. Each geographical atlas defines a concrete geosystem. Systemic organization (structural and contextual determines its complexity and concreteness. In complex atlases, the attributes of geosystems are modeled and pieces of information are given in systematized, graphically unique form. The atlas can be considered as a database. In composing a database, semantic analysis of data is important. The result of semantic modeling is expressed in structuring of data information, in emphasizing logic connections between phenomena and processes and in defining their classes according to the degree of similarity. Accordingly, the efficiency of research of needed pieces of information in the process of the database use is enabled. An atlas map has a special power to integrate sets of geodata and present information contents in user - friendly and understandable visual and tactile way using its visual ability. Composing an atlas by systemic cartography requires the pieces of information on concrete - defined geosystems of different hierarchical level, the application of scientific methods and making of adequate number of analytical, synthetic

  19. Geographic Information Systems and Web Page Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Justin

    2004-01-01

    The Facilities Engineering and Architectural Branch is responsible for the design and maintenance of buildings, laboratories, and civil structures. In order to improve efficiency and quality, the FEAB has dedicated itself to establishing a data infrastructure based on Geographic Information Systems, GIS. The value of GIS was explained in an article dating back to 1980 entitled "Need for a Multipurpose Cadastre" which stated, "There is a critical need for a better land-information system in the United States to improve land-conveyance procedures, furnish a basis for equitable taxation, and provide much-needed information for resource management and environmental planning." Scientists and engineers both point to GIS as the solution. What is GIS? According to most text books, Geographic Information Systems is a class of software that stores, manages, and analyzes mapable features on, above, or below the surface of the earth. GIS software is basically database management software to the management of spatial data and information. Simply put, Geographic Information Systems manage, analyze, chart, graph, and map spatial information. GIS can be broken down into two main categories, urban GIS and natural resource GIS. Further still, natural resource GIS can be broken down into six sub-categories, agriculture, forestry, wildlife, catchment management, archaeology, and geology/mining. Agriculture GIS has several applications, such as agricultural capability analysis, land conservation, market analysis, or whole farming planning. Forestry GIs can be used for timber assessment and management, harvest scheduling and planning, environmental impact assessment, and pest management. GIS when used in wildlife applications enables the user to assess and manage habitats, identify and track endangered and rare species, and monitor impact assessment.

  20. Epidemiology of hip fracture: Worldwide geographic variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh K Dhanwal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a major health problem, especially in elderly populations, and is associated with fragility fractures at the hip, spine, and wrist. Hip fracture contributes to both morbidity and mortality in the elderly. The demographics of world populations are set to change, with more elderly living in developing countries, and it has been estimated that by 2050 half of hip fractures will occur in Asia. This review conducted using the PubMed database describes the incidence of hip fracture in different regions of the world and discusses the possible causes of this wide geographic variation. The analysis of data from different studies show a wide geographic variation across the world, with higher hip fracture incidence reported from industrialized countries as compared to developing countries. The highest hip fracture rates are seen in North Europe and the US and lowest in Latin America and Africa. Asian countries such as Kuwait, Iran, China, and Hong Kong show intermediate hip fracture rates. There is also a north-south gradient seen in European studies, and more fractures are seen in the north of the US than in the south. The factors responsible of this variation are population demographics (with more elderly living in countries with higher incidence rates and the influence of ethnicity, latitude, and environmental factors. The understanding of this changing geographic variation will help policy makers to develop strategies to reduce the burden of hip fractures in developing countries such as India, which will face the brunt of this problem over the coming decades.

  1. Virtual Globe Games for Geographic Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola Ahlqvist

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Virtual, online maps and globes allow for volunteered geographic information to capitalize on users as sensors and generate unprecedented access to information resources and services. These new "Web 2.0" applications will probably dominate development and use of virtual globes and maps in the near future. We present an experimental platform that integrates an existing virtual globe interface with added functionality as follows; an interactive layer on top of the existing map that support real time creation and manipulation of spatial interaction objects. These objects, together with the existing information delivered through the virtual globe, form a game board that can be used for educational purposes.

  2. House Prices, Geographical Mobility, and Unemployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingholt, Marcus Mølbak

    2017-01-01

    Geographical mobility correlates positively with house prices and negatively with unemployment over the U.S. business cycle. I present a DSGE model in which declining house prices and tight credit conditions impede the mobility of indebted workers. This reduces the workers’ cross-area competition...... for jobs, causing wages and unemployment to rise. A Bayesian estimation shows that this channel more than quadruples the response of unemployment to adverse housing market shocks. The estimation also shows that adverse housing market shocks caused the decline in mobility during the Great Recession. Absent...

  3. Studying the making of geographical knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine; Madsen, Lene Møller

    2009-01-01

    The article addresses the issue of being a ‘double' insider when conducting interviews. Double insider means being an insider both in relation to one's research matter - in the authors' case the making of geographical knowledge - and in relation to one's interviewees - our colleagues. The article...... is a reflection paper in the sense that we reflect upon experiences drawn from a previous research project carried out in Danish academia. It is important that the project was situated in a Scandinavian workplace culture because this has bearings for the social, cultural, and economic situation in which knowledge...

  4. Geographic distribution and clinical description of leishmaniasis cases in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, C M; Franke, E D; Cachay, M I; Tejada, A; Cruz, M E; Kreutzer, R D; Barker, D C; McCann, S H; Watts, D M

    1998-08-01

    Studies were conducted from 1986 through 1993 to further define the geographic distribution and relative importance of different species of Leishmania as a cause of leishmaniasis in Peru. Patients with a clinical diagnosis of cutaneous and/or mucosal or diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis were enrolled at the Naval Medical Research Institute Detachment (NAMRID) Laboratory in Lima, the Tropical Disease Clinic at San Marcos University Daniel A. Carrión, the Central Military Hospital, and a Ministry of Health hospital in Cusco, Peru. Clinical features, lesion aspirates, and biopsy tissue were obtained from each patient. All specimens were collected and assayed separately, including multiple specimens from some of the same patients for Leishmania parasites by inoculating aliquots of either aspirates or biopsy tissue suspensions onto Senekji's blood agar medium. Stocks of Leishmania isolates were used to prepare promastigotes to produce extracts for identifying the Leishmania species by the cellulose acetate electrophoresis enzyme technique. A total of 351 isolates of Leishmania were obtained from 350 patients who were infected primarily in the low and high jungle of at least 15 different Departments of Peru. Of the 351 isolates, 79% were identified as L. (V.) braziliensis, 7% as L. (V.) guyanensis, 10% as L. (V.) peruviana, 2% as L. (V.) lainsoni, and 1.7% as L. (L.) amazonensis. The clinical form of disease varied depending on the species of Leishmania, with L. (V.) braziliensis being associated most frequently with cutaneous, mucosal ulcers and mixed cutaneous and mucosal disease, and L. (V) peruviana, L. (V.) guyanensis, L. (V.) lainsoni with cutaneous lesions. Leishmania (L.) amazonensis was isolated from six patients, three with cutaneous lesions, one with mucosal lesions, and two with diffuse cutaneous lesions. Among all of the leishmaniasis cases, males were affected more frequently, and cases occurred among patients less than 10 to more than 51 years of age. These

  5. Cartography and Geographic Information Science in Current Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedjeljko Frančula

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Cartography and Geographic Information Science (CaGIS journal was published as The American Cartographer from 1974 to 1989, after that as Cartography and Geographic Information System, and since then has been published with its current name. It is published by the Cartography and Geographic Information Society, a member of the American Congress on Surveying and Mapping.

  6. Geographic Literacy and Moral Formation among University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bascom, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    This study extends analysis of geographic literacy further by examining the relationship of geographic knowledge with the primary goal of geographic educators--cultivation of cultural understanding and moral sensitivity for global citizenry. The main aim is to examine contributors to moral formation during the university years based on a survey…

  7. Surveying and Mapping Geographical Information from the Perspective of Geography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LÜ Guonian

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available It briefly reviewed the history of geographic information content development since the existence of geographic information system. It pointed out that the current definition of geographic information is always the extension from the "spatial+ attributes" basic mapping framework of geographic information. It is increasingly difficult to adapt to the analysis and application of spatial-temporal big data. From the perspective of geography research subject and content, it summarized systematically that the content and extension of the "geographic information" that geography needs. It put forward that a six-element expression model of geographic information, including spatial location, semantic description, attribute characteristics, geometric form, evolution process, and objects relationship.Under the guidance of the laws of geography, for geographical phenomenon of spatial distribution, temporal pattern and evolution process, the interaction mechanism of the integrated expression, system analysis and efficient management, it designed that a unified GIS data model which is expressed by six basic elements, a new GIS data structure driven by geographical rules and interaction, and key technologies of unstructured spatio-temporal data organization and storage. It provided that a theoretical basis and technical support for the shift from the surveying and mapping geographic information to the scientific geographic information, and it can help improving the organization, management, analysis and expression ability of the GIS of the geographical laws such as geographical pattern, evolution process, and interaction between elements.

  8. Dynamic management of geographic data in a virtual environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jense, G.J.; Donkers, K.

    1996-01-01

    In order to achieve true 3D user interaction with geographic information, an interface between a virtual environment system and a geographic information system has been designed and implemented. This VE/GIS interface is based on a loose coupling of the underlying geographic database and the virtual

  9. Geographic wormhole detection in wireless sensor networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Sookhak

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs are ubiquitous and pervasive, and therefore; highly susceptible to a number of security attacks. Denial of Service (DoS attack is considered the most dominant and a major threat to WSNs. Moreover, the wormhole attack represents one of the potential forms of the Denial of Service (DoS attack. Besides, crafting the wormhole attack is comparatively simple; though, its detection is nontrivial. On the contrary, the extant wormhole defense methods need both specialized hardware and strong assumptions to defend against static and dynamic wormhole attack. The ensuing paper introduces a novel scheme to detect wormhole attacks in a geographic routing protocol (DWGRP. The main contribution of this paper is to detect malicious nodes and select the best and the most reliable neighbors based on pairwise key pre-distribution technique and the beacon packet. Moreover, this novel technique is not subject to any specific assumption, requirement, or specialized hardware, such as a precise synchronized clock. The proposed detection method is validated by comparisons with several related techniques in the literature, such as Received Signal Strength (RSS, Authentication of Nodes Scheme (ANS, Wormhole Detection uses Hound Packet (WHOP, and Wormhole Detection with Neighborhood Information (WDI using the NS-2 simulator. The analysis of the simulations shows promising results with low False Detection Rate (FDR in the geographic routing protocols.

  10. Geographic Gossip: Efficient Averaging for Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimakis, Alexandros D. G.; Sarwate, Anand D.; Wainwright, Martin J.

    Gossip algorithms for distributed computation are attractive due to their simplicity, distributed nature, and robustness in noisy and uncertain environments. However, using standard gossip algorithms can lead to a significant waste in energy by repeatedly recirculating redundant information. For realistic sensor network model topologies like grids and random geometric graphs, the inefficiency of gossip schemes is related to the slow mixing times of random walks on the communication graph. We propose and analyze an alternative gossiping scheme that exploits geographic information. By utilizing geographic routing combined with a simple resampling method, we demonstrate substantial gains over previously proposed gossip protocols. For regular graphs such as the ring or grid, our algorithm improves standard gossip by factors of $n$ and $\\sqrt{n}$ respectively. For the more challenging case of random geometric graphs, our algorithm computes the true average to accuracy $\\epsilon$ using $O(\\frac{n^{1.5}}{\\sqrt{\\log n}} \\log \\epsilon^{-1})$ radio transmissions, which yields a $\\sqrt{\\frac{n}{\\log n}}$ factor improvement over standard gossip algorithms. We illustrate these theoretical results with experimental comparisons between our algorithm and standard methods as applied to various classes of random fields.

  11. Plants and geographical names in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cargonja, Hrvoje; Daković, Branko; Alegro, Antun

    2008-09-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to present some general observations, regularities and insights into a complex relationship between plants and people through symbolic systems like geographical names on the territory of Croatia. The basic sources of data for this research were maps from atlas of Croatia of the scale 1:100000. Five groups of maps or areas were selected in order to represent main Croatian phytogeographic regions. A selection of toponyms from each of the map was made in which the name for a plant in Croatian language was recognized (phytotoponyms). Results showed that of all plant names recognized in geographical names the most represented are trees, and among them birch and oak the most. Furthermore, an attempt was made to explain the presence of the most represented plant species in the phytotoponyms in the light of general phytogeographical and sociocultural differences and similarities of comparing areas. The findings confirm an expectation that the genera of climazonal vegetation of particular area are the most represented among the phytotoponyms. Nevertheless, there are ample examples where representation of a plant name in the names of human environment can only be ascribed to ethno-linguistic and socio-cultural motives. Despite the reductionist character of applied methodology, this research also points out some advantages of this approach for ethnobotanic and ethnolinguistic studies of greater areas of human environment.

  12. Geographically weighted regression model on poverty indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slamet, I.; Nugroho, N. F. T. A.; Muslich

    2017-12-01

    In this research, we applied geographically weighted regression (GWR) for analyzing the poverty in Central Java. We consider Gaussian Kernel as weighted function. The GWR uses the diagonal matrix resulted from calculating kernel Gaussian function as a weighted function in the regression model. The kernel weights is used to handle spatial effects on the data so that a model can be obtained for each location. The purpose of this paper is to model of poverty percentage data in Central Java province using GWR with Gaussian kernel weighted function and to determine the influencing factors in each regency/city in Central Java province. Based on the research, we obtained geographically weighted regression model with Gaussian kernel weighted function on poverty percentage data in Central Java province. We found that percentage of population working as farmers, population growth rate, percentage of households with regular sanitation, and BPJS beneficiaries are the variables that affect the percentage of poverty in Central Java province. In this research, we found the determination coefficient R2 are 68.64%. There are two categories of district which are influenced by different of significance factors.

  13. Community structure informs species geographic distributions

    KAUST Repository

    Montesinos-Navarro, Alicia

    2018-05-23

    Understanding what determines species\\' geographic distributions is crucial for assessing global change threats to biodiversity. Measuring limits on distributions is usually, and necessarily, done with data at large geographic extents and coarse spatial resolution. However, survival of individuals is determined by processes that happen at small spatial scales. The relative abundance of coexisting species (i.e. \\'community structure\\') reflects assembly processes occurring at small scales, and are often available for relatively extensive areas, so could be useful for explaining species distributions. We demonstrate that Bayesian Network Inference (BNI) can overcome several challenges to including community structure into studies of species distributions, despite having been little used to date. We hypothesized that the relative abundance of coexisting species can improve predictions of species distributions. In 1570 assemblages of 68 Mediterranean woody plant species we used BNI to incorporate community structure into Species Distribution Models (SDMs), alongside environmental information. Information on species associations improved SDM predictions of community structure and species distributions moderately, though for some habitat specialists the deviance explained increased by up to 15%. We demonstrate that most species associations (95%) were positive and occurred between species with ecologically similar traits. This suggests that SDM improvement could be because species co-occurrences are a proxy for local ecological processes. Our study shows that Bayesian Networks, when interpreted carefully, can be used to include local conditions into measurements of species\\' large-scale distributions, and this information can improve the predictions of species distributions.

  14. Experimental effects of climate messages vary geographically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baobao; van der Linden, Sander; Mildenberger, Matto; Marlon, Jennifer R.; Howe, Peter D.; Leiserowitz, Anthony

    2018-05-01

    Social science scholars routinely evaluate the efficacy of diverse climate frames using local convenience or nationally representative samples1-5. For example, previous research has focused on communicating the scientific consensus on climate change, which has been identified as a `gateway' cognition to other key beliefs about the issue6-9. Importantly, although these efforts reveal average public responsiveness to particular climate frames, they do not describe variation in message effectiveness at the spatial and political scales relevant for climate policymaking. Here we use a small-area estimation method to map geographical variation in public responsiveness to information about the scientific consensus as part of a large-scale randomized national experiment (n = 6,301). Our survey experiment finds that, on average, public perception of the consensus increases by 16 percentage points after message exposure. However, substantial spatial variation exists across the United States at state and local scales. Crucially, responsiveness is highest in more conservative parts of the country, leading to national convergence in perceptions of the climate science consensus across diverse political geographies. These findings not only advance a geographical understanding of how the public engages with information about scientific agreement, but will also prove useful for policymakers, practitioners and scientists engaged in climate change mitigation and adaptation.

  15. Using Metadata to Build Geographic Information Sharing Environment on Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-hong Sun

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Internet provides a convenient environment to share geographic information. Web GIS (Geographic Information System even provides users a direct access environment to geographic databases through Internet. However, the complexity of geographic data makes it difficult for users to understand the real content and the limitation of geographic information. In some cases, users may misuse the geographic data and make wrong decisions. Meanwhile, geographic data are distributed across various government agencies, academic institutes, and private organizations, which make it even more difficult for users to fully understand the content of these complex data. To overcome these difficulties, this research uses metadata as a guiding mechanism for users to fully understand the content and the limitation of geographic data. We introduce three metadata standards commonly used for geographic data and metadata authoring tools available in the US. We also review the current development of geographic metadata standard in Taiwan. Two metadata authoring tools are developed in this research, which will enable users to build their own geographic metadata easily.[Article content in Chinese

  16. Remote sensing research in geographic education: An alternative view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, H.; Cary, T. K.; Goward, S. N.

    1981-01-01

    It is noted that within many geography departments remote sensing is viewed as a mere technique a student should learn in order to carry out true geographic research. This view inhibits both students and faculty from investigation of remotely sensed data as a new source of geographic knowledge that may alter our understanding of the Earth. The tendency is for geographers to accept these new data and analysis techniques from engineers and mathematicians without questioning the accompanying premises. This black-box approach hinders geographic applications of the new remotely sensed data and limits the geographer's contribution to further development of remote sensing observation systems. It is suggested that geographers contribute to the development of remote sensing through pursuit of basic research. This research can be encouraged, particularly among students, by demonstrating the links between geographic theory and remotely sensed observations, encouraging a healthy skepticism concerning the current understanding of these data.

  17. Proportioning whole-genome single-nucleotide-polymorphism diversity for the identification of geographic population structure and genetic ancestry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O. Lao Grueso (Oscar); K. van Duijn (Kate); P. Kersbergen (Paula); P. de Knijff (Peter); M.H. Kayser (Manfred)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThe identification of geographic population structure and genetic ancestry on the basis of a minimal set of genetic markers is desirable for a wide range of applications in medical and forensic sciences. However, the absence of sharp discontinuities in the neutral genetic diversity among

  18. Proportioning whole-genome single-nucleotide-polymorphism diversity for the identification of geographic population structure and genetic ancestry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O. Lao Grueso (Oscar); K. van Duijn (Kate); P. Kersbergen; P. de Knijff (Peter); M.H. Kayser (Manfred)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThe identification of geographic population structure and genetic ancestry on the basis of a minimal set of genetic markers is desirable for a wide range of applications in medical and forensic sciences. However, the absence of sharp discontinuities in the neutral

  19. Widening Geographical Disparities in Cardiovascular Disease Mortality in the United States, 1969-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal K. Singh, PhD

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study examined trends in geographical disparities in cardiovascular-disease (CVD mortality in the United States between 1969 and 2011. Methods: National vital statistics data and the National Longitudinal Mortality Study were used to estimate regional, state, and county-level disparities in CVD mortality over time. Log-linear, weighted least squares, and Cox regression were used to analyze mortality trends and differentials. Results: During 1969-2011, CVD mortality rates declined fastest in New England and Mid-Atlantic regions and slowest in the Southeast and Southwestern regions. In 1969, the mortality rate was 9% higher in the Southeast than in New England, but the differential increased to 48% in 2011. In 2011, Southeastern states, Mississippi and Alabama, had the highest CVD mortality rates, nearly twice the rates for Minnesota and Hawaii. Controlling for individual-level covariates reduced state differentials. State- and county-level differentials in CVD mortality rates widened over time as geographical disparity in CVD mortality increased by 50% between 1969 and 2011. Area deprivation, smoking, obesity, physical inactivity, diabetes prevalence, urbanization, lack of health insurance, and lower access to primary medical care were all significant predictors of county-level CVD mortality rates and accounted for 52.7% of the county variance. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Although CVD mortality has declined for all geographical areas in the United States, geographical disparity has widened over time as certain regions and states, particularly those in the South, have lagged behind in mortality reduction. Geographical disparities in CVD mortality reflect inequalities in socioeconomic conditions and behavioral risk factors. With the global CVD burden on the rise, monitoring geographical disparities, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, could indicate the extent to which reductions in CVD mortality are

  20. Geographic profiling survey : a preliminary examination of geographic profilers' views and experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emeno, Karla; Bennell, Craig; Snook, Brent; Taylor, Paul Jonathon

    Geographic profiling (GP) is an investigative technique that involves predicting a serial offender?s home location (or some other anchor point) based on where he or she committed a crime. Although the use of GP in police investigations appears to be on the rise, little is known about the procedure

  1. Geographic Information Systems and Web Page Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Justin

    2004-01-01

    The Facilities Engineering and Architectural Branch is responsible for the design and maintenance of buildings, laboratories, and civil structures. In order to improve efficiency and quality, the FEAB has dedicated itself to establishing a data infrastructure based on Geographic Information Systems, GIs. The value of GIS was explained in an article dating back to 1980 entitled "Need for a Multipurpose Cadastre which stated, "There is a critical need for a better land-information system in the United States to improve land-conveyance procedures, furnish a basis for equitable taxation, and provide much-needed information for resource management and environmental planning." Scientists and engineers both point to GIS as the solution. What is GIS? According to most text books, Geographic Information Systems is a class of software that stores, manages, and analyzes mapable features on, above, or below the surface of the earth. GIS software is basically database management software to the management of spatial data and information. Simply put, Geographic Information Systems manage, analyze, chart, graph, and map spatial information. At the outset, I was given goals and expectations from my branch and from my mentor with regards to the further implementation of GIs. Those goals are as follows: (1) Continue the development of GIS for the underground structures. (2) Extract and export annotated data from AutoCAD drawing files and construct a database (to serve as a prototype for future work). (3) Examine existing underground record drawings to determine existing and non-existing underground tanks. Once this data was collected and analyzed, I set out on the task of creating a user-friendly database that could be assessed by all members of the branch. It was important that the database be built using programs that most employees already possess, ruling out most AutoCAD-based viewers. Therefore, I set out to create an Access database that translated onto the web using Internet

  2. Medical tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggat, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Medical tourism is a burgeoning industry in our region. It involves patients travelling outside of their home country for medical treatment. This article provides an outline of the current research around medical tourism, especially its impact on Australians. Patients are increasingly seeking a variety of medical treatments abroad, particularly those involving cosmetic surgery and dental treatment, often in countries in South-East Asia. Adverse events may occur during medical treatment abroad, which raises medico-legal and insurance issues, as well as concerns regarding follow-up of patients. General practitioners need to be prepared to offer advice, including travel health advice, to patients seeking medical treatment abroad.

  3. Geographic analysis of shigellosis in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Deok Ryun; Ali, Mohammad; Thiem, Vu Dinh; Park, Jin-Kyung; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Clemens, John

    2008-12-01

    Geographic and ecological analysis may provide investigators useful ecological information for the control of shigellosis. This paper provides distribution of individual Shigella species in space, and ecological covariates for shigellosis in Nha Trang, Vietnam. Data on shigellosis in neighborhoods were used to identify ecological covariates. A Bayesian hierarchical model was used to obtain joint posterior distribution of model parameters and to construct smoothed risk maps for shigellosis. Neighborhoods with a high proportion of worshippers of traditional religion, close proximity to hospital, or close proximity to the river had increased risk for shigellosis. The ecological covariates associated with Shigella flexneri differed from the covariates for Shigella sonnei. In contrast the spatial distribution of the two species was similar. The disease maps can help identify high-risk areas of shigellosis that can be targeted for interventions. This approach may be useful for the selection of populations and the analysis of vaccine trials.

  4. Geographic delivery models for radiotherapy services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, G.H.; Dunscombe, P.B.; Samant, R.S.

    2002-01-01

    The study described here was undertaken to quantify the societal cost of radiotherapy in idealized urban and rural populations and, hence, to generate a measure of impediment to access. The costs of centralized, distributed comprehensive and satellite radiotherapy delivery formats were examined by decomposing them into institutional, productivity and geographical components. Our results indicate that centralized radiotherapy imposes the greatest financial burden on the patient population in both urban and rural scenarios. The financial burden faced by patients who must travel for radiotherapy can be interpreted as one component of the overall impediment to access. With advances in remote-monitoring systems, it is possible to maintain technical quality while enhancing patient access. However, the maintenance of professional competence will remain a challenge with a distributed service-delivery format. Copyright (2002) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  5. Comprehensive Monitoring for Heterogeneous Geographically Distributed Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratnikova, N. [Fermilab; Karavakis, E. [CERN; Lammel, S. [Fermilab; Wildish, T. [Princeton U.

    2015-12-23

    Storage capacity at CMS Tier-1 and Tier-2 sites reached over 100 Petabytes in 2014, and will be substantially increased during Run 2 data taking. The allocation of storage for the individual users analysis data, which is not accounted as a centrally managed storage space, will be increased to up to 40%. For comprehensive tracking and monitoring of the storage utilization across all participating sites, CMS developed a space monitoring system, which provides a central view of the geographically dispersed heterogeneous storage systems. The first prototype was deployed at pilot sites in summer 2014, and has been substantially reworked since then. In this paper we discuss the functionality and our experience of system deployment and operation on the full CMS scale.

  6. Medical Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... org Close Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease (CMT) Medical Management Although there’s no cure for CMT, there are ... individualized physical therapy program. For more on medical management of CMT, see Surgery Sometimes, Bracing Often, Caution ...

  7. Medical Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musaeus, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To examine philosophical stances underpinning medical identity and assess the conceptual relationship between physician, medical practice and culture. Argument: Medical identity is about the ideals and moral positions that physicians take when justifying themselves. Medical identity...... hedonistic versus sentimentalist approaches to medical identity. The sociocultural philosophical analysis of medical identity can shed light on what it means conceptually for a physician to harbor beliefs associated with him/her being taken to be an autonomous professional. It is important because it touches...... on the meaning of being a compassionate, good and skilled physician, making its relevance to person-centered medicine self-evident. Conclusion: Medical identity should be analyzed with reference to literature, philosophy and medical practice in order for the physician to exercise a reflective position...

  8. [Medical negligence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipper, St G

    2016-06-01

    Medical negligence is a matter of growing public interest. This review outlines various aspects of medical negligence: epidemiology, taxonomy, and the risks, causes, psychology, management and prevention of errors.

  9. Medical Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as medical books, journals, magazines, pharma or biotech marketing, films, online video, exhibits, posters, wall charts, educational ... of the health career profession with strong communication skills, medical illustrators work closely with clients to interpret ...

  10. [Geographic distribution of avoidable mortality in the community of Valencia (1975-1990)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, X A; Bayo Vila, A; Alfonso Sánchez, J L; Cortina Greus, P; Chana González, P; Sáiz Sánchez, C

    1996-04-20

    Avoidable mortality (AM) has been proposed as the indicator of the quality and the efficacy of health care services and a parameter useful to distribute health care resources. The aim of this study was to analyze the size and geographic variability of AM in the Community of Valencia, Spain (1975-1990). The causes of AM were analyzed by the classification of Holland divided into indicators of medical care (IMC) and indicators on national health care policy (INHCP) in addition to the causes of the Charlton classification. Standard rates for Spain and the European Community, the rate of masculinity and contribution to total mortality were calculated. Geographic distribution by areas and provinces was analyzed by the rate of standardized mortality. According to the Holland classification AM was 30% of the deaths from 5 to 64 years of age. Out of these cases, 18.5% corresponded to INHCP and 11.1% to IMC. According to the Charlton classification, this percentage was 3.6%. A considerable variation was observed among the 20 areas analyzed due to many causes. The geographic distribution by groups (IMC, INHCP and the Charlton classification) is quite homogeneous. The worse results corresponded to the city of Valencia and to the area 21 (area of the city of Alicante). A great variation was found in the results regarding geographic distribution for individual causes of death while the distribution was quite homogeneous for all of the groups of mortality with the worst results being observed in large urban centers.

  11. Do unmet needs differ geographically for children with special health care needs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulda, Kimberly G; Johnson, Katandria L; Hahn, Kristen; Lykens, Kristine

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify geographic differences in health indicators for children with special health care needs (CSHCN). It was hypothesized that geographic differences in unmet health care needs exist among CSHCN by region in the United States. Data were obtained from the National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs, 2005-2006. Nine variables representing unmet needs were analyzed by geographic region. The region with the highest percent of unmet needs was identified for each service. Logistic regression was utilized to determine differences by region after controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, race, federal poverty level, relationship of responder to child, insurance status, severity of condition, and size of household. A total of 40,723 CSHCN were represented. Crude analysis demonstrated that the greatest unmet need for routine preventive care, specialist care, prescription medications, physical/occupational/speech therapy, mental health care, and genetic counseling occurred in the West. The greatest unmet need for preventive dental care, respite care, and vision care occurred in the South. Significant differences between regions remained for six of the nine services after controlling for potential confounders. Geographic differences in unmet health care needs exist for CSHCN. Further delving into these differences provides valuable information for program and policy planning and development. Meeting the needs of CSHCN is important to reduce cost burden and improve quality of life for the affected child and care providers.

  12. Spatiotemporal Distribution of U5MR and Their Relationship with Geographic and Socioeconomic Factors in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zeng; Fu, Jingying; Jiang, Dong; Lin, Gang; Dong, Donglin; Yan, Xiaoxi

    2017-11-21

    Epidemiological studies conducted around the world have reported that the under-five mortality rate (U5MR) is closely associated with income and educational attainment. However, geographic elements should also remain a major concern in further improving child health issues, since they often play an important role in the survival environment. This study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between the U5MR, geographic, and socioeconomic factors, and to explore the associated spatial variance of the relationship in China using the geographically weighted regression (GWR) model. The results indicate that the space pattern of a high U5MR had been narrowed notably during the period from 2001 to 2010. Nighttime lights (NL) and the digital elevation model (DEM) both have obvious influences on the U5MR, with the NL having a negative impact and DEM having a positive impact. Additionally, the relationship between the NL and DEM varied over space in China. Moreover, the relevance between U5MR and DEM was narrowed in 2010 compared to 2001, which indicates that the development of economic and medical standards can overcome geographical limits.

  13. Spatiotemporal Distribution of U5MR and Their Relationship with Geographic and Socioeconomic Factors in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies conducted around the world have reported that the under-five mortality rate (U5MR is closely associated with income and educational attainment. However, geographic elements should also remain a major concern in further improving child health issues, since they often play an important role in the survival environment. This study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between the U5MR, geographic, and socioeconomic factors, and to explore the associated spatial variance of the relationship in China using the geographically weighted regression (GWR model. The results indicate that the space pattern of a high U5MR had been narrowed notably during the period from 2001 to 2010. Nighttime lights (NL and the digital elevation model (DEM both have obvious influences on the U5MR, with the NL having a negative impact and DEM having a positive impact. Additionally, the relationship between the NL and DEM varied over space in China. Moreover, the relevance between U5MR and DEM was narrowed in 2010 compared to 2001, which indicates that the development of economic and medical standards can overcome geographical limits.

  14. [Medical technology and medical education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Mallek, D; Biersack, H-J; Mull, R; Wilhelm, K; Heinz, B; Mellert, F

    2010-08-01

    The education of medical professionals is divided into medical studies, postgraduate training leading to the qualification as a specialist, and continuing professional development. During education, all scientific knowledge and practical skills are to be acquired, which enable the physician to practice responsibly in a specialized medical area. In the present article, relevant curricula are analyzed regarding the consideration of medical device-related topics, as the clinical application of medical technology has reached a central position in modern patient care. Due to the enormous scientific and technical progress, this area has become as important as pharmacotherapy. Our evaluation shows that medical device-related topics are currently underrepresented in the course of medical education and training and should be given greater consideration in all areas of medical education. Possible solutions are presented.

  15. Geographic variation in health insurance benefit in Qianjiang District, China

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Ting; Wu, Yue; Zhang, Liang

    2017-01-01

    Background: Health insurance coverage is of great importance; yet, it is unclear whether there is some geographic variation in health insurance benefit for urban and rural patients covered by a same basic health insurance, especially in China.Objective: To identify the potential geographic variation in health insurance benefit and its possible socioeconomic and geographical factors at the town level.Methods: All the beneficiaries underthe health insurance who had the in-hospital experience in...

  16. Generalisation of geographic information cartographic modelling and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mackaness, William A; Sarjakoski, L Tiina

    2011-01-01

    Theoretical and Applied Solutions in Multi Scale MappingUsers have come to expect instant access to up-to-date geographical information, with global coverage--presented at widely varying levels of detail, as digital and paper products; customisable data that can readily combined with other geographic information. These requirements present an immense challenge to those supporting the delivery of such services (National Mapping Agencies (NMA), Government Departments, and private business. Generalisation of Geographic Information: Cartographic Modelling and Applications provides detailed review

  17. Evolution of research in health geographics through the International Journal of Health Geographics (2002-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Sandra; Laperrière, Vincent; Borderon, Marion; Padilla, Cindy; Maignant, Gilles; Oliveau, Sébastien

    2016-01-20

    Health geographics is a fast-developing research area. Subjects broached in scientific literature are most varied, ranging from vectorial diseases to access to healthcare, with a recent revival of themes such as the implication of health in the Smart City, or a predominantly individual-centered approach. Far beyond standard meta-analyses, the present study deliberately adopts the standpoint of questioning space in its foundations, through various authors of the International Journal of Health Geographics, a highly influential journal in that field. The idea is to find space as the common denominator in this specialized literature, as well as its relation to spatial analysis, without for all that trying to tend towards exhaustive approaches. 660 articles have being published in the journal since launch, but 359 articles were selected based on the presence of the word "Space" in either the title, or the abstract or the text over 13 years of the journal's existence. From that database, a lexical analysis (tag cloud) reveals the perception of space in literature, and shows how approaches are evolving, thus underlining that the scope of health geographics is far from narrowing.

  18. Medication deserts: survey of neighborhood disparities in availability of prescription medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Only a small amount of research has focused on the relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and geographic access to prescription medications at community pharmacies in North America and Europe. To examine the relationship between a community’s socio-economic context and its residents’ geographic access to common medications in pharmacies, we hypothesized that differences are present in access to pharmacies across communities with different socio-economic environments, and in availability of commonly prescribed medications within pharmacies located in communities with different socio-economic status. Methods We visited 408 pharmacies located in 168 socio-economically diverse communities to assess the availability of commonly prescribed medications. We collected the following information at each pharmacy visited: hours of operation, pharmacy type, in-store medication availability, and the cash price of the 13 most commonly prescribed medications. We calculated descriptive statistics for the sample and fitted a series of hierarchical linear models to test our hypothesis that the in-stock availability of medications differs by the socio-economic conditions of the community. This was accomplished by modeling medication availability in pharmacies on the socio-economic factors operating at the community level in a socio-economically devise urban area. Results Pharmacies in poor communities had significantly higher odds of medications being out of stock, OR=1.24, 95% CI [1.02, 1.52]. There was also a significant difference in density of smaller, independent pharmacies with very limited stock and hours of operation, and larger, chain pharmacies in poor communities as compared to the middle and low-poverty communities. Conclusions The findings suggest that geographic access to a neighborhood pharmacy, the type of pharmacy, and availability of commonly prescribed medications varies significantly across communities. In extreme cases, entire communities

  19. Combined venomics, venom gland transcriptomics, bioactivities, and antivenomics of two Bothrops jararaca populations from geographic isolated regions within the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves Machado, Larissa; Pla, Davinia; Sanz, Libia; Jorge, Roberta Jeane B.; Leitão De Araújo, Moema; Alves, Maria Lúcia M.; Alvares, Diego Janisch; De Miranda, Joari; Nowatzki, Jenifer; de Morais Zani, Karen; Fernandes, Wilson; Tanaka Azevedo, Anita Mitico; Fernández, Julián; Zingali, Russolina B.; Gutiérrez, José María

    2016-01-01

    Bothrops jararaca is a slender and semi-arboreal medically relevant pit viper species endemic to tropical and subtropical forests in southern Brazil, Paraguay, and northern Argentina (Misiones). Within its geographic range, it is often abundant and is an important cause of snakebite. Although no subspecies are currently recognized, geographic analyses have revealed the existence of two well-supported B. jararaca clades that diverged during the Pliocene ~ 3.8 Mya and currently display a southe...

  20. Geographic analysis of the variation in the incidence of ADHD in a country with free access to healthcare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kathrine Bang; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Olsen, Jørn

    2015-01-01

    and individual tracking based on unique personal identification may in particular contribute to our understanding of the reasons for this increase. Based on Danish registers we aimed to examine the geographical patterns of the distribution of ADHD diagnosis and medication use and explore the association...... between neighbouring municipalities, no significant associations were found between ADHD and access to diagnostic services, different diagnostic culture, socioeconomic status at municipality level or the municipal spending on health care for children. CONCLUSIONS: A large geographical variation of ADHD...

  1. Do geographically isolated wetlands influence landscape functions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Matthew J.; Creed, Irena F.; Alexander, Laurie C.; Basu, Nandita; Calhoun, Aram J.K.; Craft, Christopher; D’Amico, Ellen; DeKeyser, Edward S.; Fowler, Laurie; Golden, Heather E.; Jawitz, James W.; Kalla, Peter; Kirkman, L. Katherine; Lane, Charles R.; Lang, Megan; Leibowitz, Scott G.; Lewis, David Bruce; Marton, John; McLaughlin, Daniel L.; Mushet, David M.; Raanan-Kiperwas, Hadas; Rains, Mark C.; Smith, Lora; Walls, Susan C.

    2015-01-01

    Geographically isolated wetlands (GIWs), those surrounded by uplands, exchange materials, energy, and organisms with other elements in hydrological and habitat networks, contributing to landscape functions, such as flow generation, nutrient and sediment retention, and biodiversity support. GIWs constitute most of the wetlands in many North American landscapes, provide a disproportionately large fraction of wetland edges where many functions are enhanced, and form complexes with other water bodies to create spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the timing, flow paths, and magnitude of network connectivity. These attributes signal a critical role for GIWs in sustaining a portfolio of landscape functions, but legal protections remain weak despite preferential loss from many landscapes. GIWs lack persistent surface water connections, but this condition does not imply the absence of hydrological, biogeochemical, and biological exchanges with nearby and downstream waters. Although hydrological and biogeochemical connectivity is often episodic or slow (e.g., via groundwater), hydrologic continuity and limited evaporative solute enrichment suggest both flow generation and solute and sediment retention. Similarly, whereas biological connectivity usually requires overland dispersal, numerous organisms, including many rare or threatened species, use both GIWs and downstream waters at different times or life stages, suggesting that GIWs are critical elements of landscape habitat mosaics. Indeed, weaker hydrologic connectivity with downstream waters and constrained biological connectivity with other landscape elements are precisely what enhances some GIW functions and enables others. Based on analysis of wetland geography and synthesis of wetland functions, we argue that sustaining landscape functions requires conserving the entire continuum of wetland connectivity, including GIWs.

  2. Geographic Hotspots of Critical National Infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Scott; Barr, Stuart; Pant, Raghav; Hall, Jim W; Alderson, David

    2017-12-01

    Failure of critical national infrastructures can result in major disruptions to society and the economy. Understanding the criticality of individual assets and the geographic areas in which they are located is essential for targeting investments to reduce risks and enhance system resilience. Within this study we provide new insights into the criticality of real-life critical infrastructure networks by integrating high-resolution data on infrastructure location, connectivity, interdependence, and usage. We propose a metric of infrastructure criticality in terms of the number of users who may be directly or indirectly disrupted by the failure of physically interdependent infrastructures. Kernel density estimation is used to integrate spatially discrete criticality values associated with individual infrastructure assets, producing a continuous surface from which statistically significant infrastructure criticality hotspots are identified. We develop a comprehensive and unique national-scale demonstration for England and Wales that utilizes previously unavailable data from the energy, transport, water, waste, and digital communications sectors. The testing of 200,000 failure scenarios identifies that hotspots are typically located around the periphery of urban areas where there are large facilities upon which many users depend or where several critical infrastructures are concentrated in one location. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  3. Geographic differences in heart failure trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, João Pedro; Girerd, Nicolas; Rossignol, Patrick; Zannad, Faiez

    2015-09-01

    Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are essential to develop advances in heart failure (HF). The need for increasing numbers of patients (without substantial cost increase) and generalization of results led to the disappearance of international boundaries in large RCTs. The significant geographic differences in patients' characteristics, outcomes, and, most importantly, treatment effect observed in HF trials have recently been highlighted. Whether the observed regional discrepancies in HF trials are due to trial-specific issues, patient heterogeneity, structural differences in countries, or a complex interaction between factors are the questions we propose to debate in this review. To do so, we will analyse and review data from HF trials conducted in different world regions, from heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HF-PEF), heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HF-REF), and acute heart failure (AHF). Finally, we will suggest objective and actionable measures in order to mitigate regional discrepancies in future trials, particularly in HF-PEF where prognostic modifying treatments are urgently needed and in which trials are more prone to selection bias, due to a larger patient heterogeneity. © 2015 The Authors European Journal of Heart Failure © 2015 European Society of Cardiology.

  4. Ecoregions and ecoregionalization: geographical and ecological perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveland, Thomas R.; Merchant, James W.

    2005-01-01

    Ecoregions, i.e., areas exhibiting relative homogeneity of ecosystems, are units of analysis that are increasingly important in environmental assessment and management. Ecoregions provide a holistic framework for flexible, comparative analysis of complex environmental problems. Ecoregions mapping has intellectual foundations in both geography and ecology. However, a hallmark of ecoregions mapping is that it is a truly interdisciplinary endeavor that demands the integration of knowledge from a multitude of sciences. Geographers emphasize the role of place, scale, and both natural and social elements when delineating and characterizing regions. Ecologists tend to focus on environmental processes with special attention given to energy flows and nutrient cycling. Integration of disparate knowledge from the many key sciences has been one of the great challenges of ecoregions mapping, and may lie at the heart of the lack of consensus on the “optimal” approach and methods to use in such work. Through a review of the principal existing US ecoregion maps, issues that should be addressed in order to advance the state of the art are identified. Research related to needs, methods, data sources, data delivery, and validation is needed. It is also important that the academic system foster education so that there is an infusion of new expertise in ecoregion mapping and use.

  5. Geographic Trends in the Plastic Surgery Match.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Jason; Lin, Ines C; Serletti, Joseph M; Chang, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    The integrated plastic surgery match is among the most competitive residency matches in recent years. Although previous studies have correlated applicant characteristics with successful match outcomes, none have comprehensively investigated the role of geography in the match. This study elucidates regional biases in the match. Plastic surgery residents who matched during 2011-2015 were eligible for study inclusion. Names of residents were obtained from official residency program websites and cross-referenced with data obtained from the Student Doctor Network. For each resident, region of residency program and medical school were compared. From 67 programs, 622 residents were identified. Most graduated from US medical schools (97.9%). A total of 94 residents matched at a home institution (15.1%). Half of the residents matched in the same region as their medical school (48.9%). Programs in the South matched the greatest number of residents from the same region (60.8%), whereas West programs matched the least (30.8%, p < 0.001). No regional differences existed regarding residents matching at their home institution (p = 0.268). More women matched at West programs (43.1%) versus East programs (30.6%, p < 0.05). A significant number of residents matched at their home institution. Roughly, half matched at a program in the same region as their medical school. Whether this regional phenomenon stems from applicant or program factors remains unknown. Yet, given the limited number of interviews and the high costs of interviewing, applicants and programs can use these data to help optimize the match process. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Medical marijuana.

    OpenAIRE

    Marmor, J B

    1998-01-01

    Although many clinical studies suggest the medical utility of marijuana for some conditions, the scientific evidence is weak. Many patients in California are self-medicating with marijuana, and physicians need data to assess the risks and benefits. The only reasonable solution to this problem is to encourage research on the medical effects of marijuana. The current regulatory system should be modified to remove barriers to clinical research with marijuana. The NIH panel has identified several...

  7. Probabilistic Flood Mapping using Volunteered Geographical Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, S. J.; Girons Lopez, M.; Seibert, J.; Minsker, B. S.

    2016-12-01

    Flood extent maps are widely used by decision makers and first responders to provide critical information that prevents economic impacts and the loss of human lives. These maps are usually obtained from sensory data and/or hydrologic models, which often have limited coverage in space and time. Recent developments in social media and communication technology have created a wealth of near-real-time, user-generated content during flood events in many urban areas, such as flooded locations, pictures of flooding extent and height, etc. These data could improve decision-making and response operations as events unfold. However, the integration of these data sources has been limited due to the need for methods that can extract and translate the data into useful information for decision-making. This study presents an approach that uses volunteer geographic information (VGI) and non-traditional data sources (i.e., Twitter, Flicker, YouTube, and 911 and 311 calls) to generate/update the flood extent maps in areas where no models and/or gauge data are operational. The approach combines Web-crawling and computer vision techniques to gather information about the location, extent, and water height of the flood from unstructured textual data, images, and videos. These estimates are then used to provide an updated flood extent map for areas surrounding the geo-coordinate of the VGI through the application of a Hydro Growing Region Algorithm (HGRA). HGRA combines hydrologic and image segmentation concepts to estimate a probabilistic flooding extent along the corresponding creeks. Results obtained for a case study in Austin, TX (i.e., 2015 Memorial Day flood) were comparable to those obtained by a calibrated hydrologic model and had good spatial correlation with flooding extents estimated by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA).

  8. Automation technology using Geographic Information System (GIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Cynthia L.

    1994-01-01

    Airport Surface Movement Area is but one of the actions taken to increase the capacity and safety of existing airport facilities. The System Integration Branch (SIB) has designed an integrated system consisting of an electronic moving display in the cockpit, and includes display of taxi routes which will warn controllers and pilots of the position of other traffic and warning information automatically. Although, this system has in test simulation proven to be accurate and helpful; the initial process of obtaining an airport layout of the taxi-routes and designing each of them is a very tedious and time-consuming process. Other methods of preparing the display maps are being researched. One such method is the use of the Geographical Information System (GIS). GIS is an integrated system of computer hardware and software linking topographical, demographic and other resource data that is being referenced. The software can support many areas of work with virtually unlimited information compatibility due to the system's open architecture. GIS will allow us to work faster with increased efficiency and accuracy while providing decision making capabilities. GIS is currently being used at the Langley Research Center with other applications and has been validated as an accurate system for that task. GIS usage for our task will involve digitizing aerial photographs of the topology for each taxi-runway and identifying each position according to its specific spatial coordinates. The information currently being used can be integrated with the GIS system, due to its ability to provide a wide variety of user interfaces. Much more research and data analysis will be needed before this technique will be used, however we are hopeful this will lead to better usage of man-power and technological capabilities for the future.

  9. Geographic Differences in the Earnings of Economics Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, John V.; Xu, Weineng

    2014-01-01

    Economics has been shown to be a relatively high-earning college major, but geographic differences in earnings have been largely overlooked. The authors of this article use the American Community Survey to examine geographic differences in both absolute earnings and relative earnings for economics majors. They find that there are substantial…

  10. Geographic Mobility and Social Inequality among Peruvian University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Ryan; Cuenca, Ricardo; Blanco Ramirez, Gerardo; Aragón, Jorge

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore geographic mobility among university students in Peru and to understand how mobility patterns differ by region and by demographic indicators of inequality. The ways that students may be able to move geographically in order to access quality higher education within the educational system can be a driver of…

  11. SCHOOL LINGUISTIC CREATIVITY BASED ON SCIENTIFIC GEOGRAPHICAL TEXTS

    OpenAIRE

    VIORICA BLÎNDĂ

    2012-01-01

    The analysis and observation of the natural environment and of the social and economic one, observing phenomena, objects, beings, and geographical events are at the basis of producing geographical scientific texts. The symbols of iconotexts and cartotexts are another source of inspiration for linguistic interpretation. The linguistic creations that we selected for our study are the scientific analysis, the commentary, the characteriz...

  12. Developing Trainee Teacher Practice with Geographical Information Systems (GIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walshe, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    There is general agreement that geographical information systems (GIS) have a place within the geography classroom; they offer the potential to support geographical learning, exploring real-world problems through student-centred learning, and developing spatial thinking. Despite this, teachers often avoid engaging with GIS and research suggests…

  13. application of geographic information system (gis) in industrial land ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DEPHILIHS

    Land capability index mapping using Geographic Information System (GIS) principles was used for this study. The study was undertaken using Arc View ... Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is one of the best approaches for this type of ..... western segments and to a small extent the east. Some of the available lands are ...

  14. Issues Surrounding the Use of Virtual Reality in Geographic Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisichenko, Richard

    2015-01-01

    As with all classroom innovations intended to improve geographic education, the adoption of virtual reality (VR) poses issues for consideration prior to endorsing its use. Of these, effectiveness, implementation, and safe use need to be addressed. Traditionally, sense of place, geographic knowledge, and firsthand experiences provided by field…

  15. 47 CFR 22.911 - Cellular geographic service area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Cellular Geographic Service Area (CGSA) of a cellular system is the geographic area considered by the FCC... application for modification of the CGSA using FCC Form 601, a depiction of what the carrier believes the CGSA... location and the locus of points where the predicted or measured median field strength finally drops to 32...

  16. Influence of the geographical curriculum on competences of geography teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Resnik Planinc

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the influence of geographical curriculum on competences of geography teacher. It is focused on complex and symbiotic relation between curriculum and achieved and recommended competences of geography teacher and their importance for geographical education. The competences should therefore be derived from the theories, concerning values, knowledge, curriculum and whole educational process, which underpin good pedagogical practice.

  17. Development Trends of Cartography and Geographic Information Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Jiayao

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Aimed at the problems of cartography and geographic information engineering and increasing demands of national and military infomationization construction, the paper proposes six hotspots on the research of cartography and geographic information engineering for the future on the foundation of analyzing the development track of cartology, which are heterogeneous geospatial data assimilation, transferring from emphasizing geography infor-mation gaining to user-oriented geographic information deep processing, web or grid geographic information service. intelligent spatial data generalization. integration of GIS and VGE. cartography and geographic information engineering theory system with multi-mode(Map,.GlS..VGE spatial-temporal integrated cognition as the core. And discusses the necessity ,existing groundwork and research contents on studying these hotspots.

  18. Medical Terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer County Community Coll., Trenton, NJ.

    This document is one of a series of student workbooks developed for workplace skill development courses or workshops by Mercer County Community College (New Jersey) and its partners. Designed to help employees of medical establishments learn medical terminology, this course provides information on basic word structure, body parts, suffixes and…

  19. World medical schools: The sum also rises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, Perry G; Gururaja, Ramnarayan P

    2017-06-01

    There is a worldwide shortage of doctors, which is true in most countries and on most continents. To enumerate the number of medical schools in the world at two different times, showing the trends and relating this to population is a beginning. The number is actually going up and has done so for some time; this has increased the supply of physicians and broadened healthcare delivery. The number to count for geographic and regional information about the medical schools relates directly to the supply of doctors. Regions were chosen from WHO and Foundation for the Advancement of International Medical Education and Research data to illustrate geographic distributions, physicians per patient and kinetics. The number of medical schools has consistently been rising around the world. However, world order is reverting to disorder, considering wars, disease and beleaguered stand-offs. None. Eight countries contain 40% of medical schools; however, several locations are rising faster than the rest. Some regions are stable, but sub-Saharan Africa, the Caribbean, South Asia and South America have increased the most in percentage recently, but not uniformly. Medical schools are related not only by geography, political boundaries and population but are concentrated in some regions. Graduate Medical Education positions appear to be short on a worldwide basis, as well as in some regions and countries. The number of medical schools is increasing worldwide and the identification of rapidly rising geographic areas is useful in exploring, planning and comparing regions. Controversy continues in a variety of locations, especially concerning Graduate Medical Education. In addition to funding, faculty candidates and accreditation, new schools are confronting a variety of choices in standards and quality, sizing and regional concerns.

  20. Geographical affinities of the HapMap samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao He

    Full Text Available The HapMap samples were collected for medical-genetic studies, but are also widely used in population-genetic and evolutionary investigations. Yet the ascertainment of the samples differs from most population-genetic studies which collect individuals who live in the same local region as their ancestors. What effects could this non-standard ascertainment have on the interpretation of HapMap results?We compared the HapMap samples with more conventionally-ascertained samples used in population- and forensic-genetic studies, including the HGDP-CEPH panel, making use of published genome-wide autosomal SNP data and Y-STR haplotypes, as well as producing new Y-STR data. We found that the HapMap samples were representative of their broad geographical regions of ancestry according to all tests applied. The YRI and JPT were indistinguishable from independent samples of Yoruba and Japanese in all ways investigated. However, both the CHB and the CEU were distinguishable from all other HGDP-CEPH populations with autosomal markers, and both showed Y-STR similarities to unusually large numbers of populations, perhaps reflecting their admixed origins.The CHB and JPT are readily distinguished from one another with both autosomal and Y-chromosomal markers, and results obtained after combining them into a single sample should be interpreted with caution. The CEU are better described as being of Western European ancestry than of Northern European ancestry as often reported. Both the CHB and CEU show subtle but detectable signs of admixture. Thus the YRI and JPT samples are well-suited to standard population-genetic studies, but the CHB and CEU less so.

  1. Geographic distribution of otolaryngologists in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickery, Thad W; Weterings, Robbie; Cabrera-Muffly, Cristina

    2016-06-01

    We conducted a study to determine the demographic traits, training characteristics, and geographic distribution of otolaryngologists in the United States using publicly available data. We then correlated our findings with U.S. census data. Univariate analysis was performed to analyze results, with a p value of <0.05 determined as significant. We used data from the American Board of Otolaryngology's list of 18,587 board-certified allopathic otolaryngologists through 2013 and the American Osteopathic Colleges of Ophthalmology & Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery's list of 428 osteopathic otolaryngologists. From these two databases, 9,642 otolaryngologists met inclusion criteria, which included an active practice in the United States and an age of 70 years and younger. This group was made up of 8,185 men (84.9%) and 1,449 women (15.0%); we were not able to identify the sex of 8 otolaryngologists (0.1%). The median age of the women was significantly lower than that of the men (54 vs. 48 yr; p < 0.001). A total of 8,510 otolaryngologists (88.3%) graduated from a U.S. allopathic medical school, and 8,520 (88.4%) graduated from a U.S. allopathic residency program. We determined that 25.9% of otolaryngologists established their practice in the same metropolitan statistical area where they completed their residency training. Older practitioners (p < 0.001) and women (p < 0.001) were significantly more likely to stay in the same area than younger physicians and men. In terms of population, 61.8% of the otolaryngologists practiced in metropolitan areas with more than 1 million residents; by comparison, these areas represent only 55.3% of the total U.S. population, indicating that otolaryngologists are over-represented in larger U.S. cities.

  2. National Geographic Education. An Interview with Gilbert M. Grosvenor, President and Chairman of the Board, National Geographic Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumper, Sidney R.

    1991-01-01

    Presents an interview with Gilbert Grosvenor, president and chairman of the board of the National Geographic Society. Examines student and public ignorance about geography. Describes the Society's Geography Education Project, Geographic Alliance Project, and Education Foundation. Includes Grosvenor's call for greater emphasis on geography in…

  3. Jovan Mišković: A forgotten ethnographer and geographer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đapović Lasta

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the life and work of Jovan Mišković, a forgotten ethnographer and geographer. Born in Negotin (1844-1908, he had received military education and took on several important functions in the government and had served bravely in three wars. In addition, he was also a gifted scientist, whose interests included geography, ethnography, history archeology and topography. He was a distinguished member of Serbian medical society, Serbian Royal Academy and several other important associations. The paper presents Misković’s contribution to science and discuses cultural/scientific environment where he worked and lived.

  4. LEGAL INSTRUMENT FOR PROTECTION OF GEOGRAPHICAL INDICATION PRODUCT IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almusawir Nansa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available As an archipelago country, Indonesia comprises of a large territory where every region is capable of producing distinctive and characterized products due to its geographical, social, and cultural factors, in addition to its higher quality compared to imported products. In the market, goods with distinct characterization as a result of various geographical locations of production regions is known as Geographical Indication Products. Geographical Indication defines as a characterization that indicates the origin of a product, which includes several influencing factors such as geographical factor, natural factor, human factor or the combination of both factors which eventually contribute to establish a certain distinction and quality upon a product. Several geographical indicated products in Indonesia are widely known to have excellent reputation on the market, namely Delinese tobacco, Temanggung tobacco, Ciancur rice, Muntok white pepper, Lampung black pepper, Kerinci cinnamon, Cilembu cassava, Bandanese nutmeg, Proboliggo sweet mango, Balinese Kintamani coffee, Kalosi coffee, Papuan matoa, etc. Those are several richness of goods from certain regions in Indonesia widely known for their characterization. Characterization of goods are resulted by variation of geographic locations of producing regions in Indonesia. These goods possess high quality and high economic value. Consequently, certain instruments are required to provide protection upon the regions producing those goods against the act of counterfeiting.

  5. The Current Landscape of US Pediatric Anesthesiologists: Demographic Characteristics and Geographic Distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muffly, Matthew K; Muffly, Tyler M; Weterings, Robbie; Singleton, Mark; Honkanen, Anita

    2016-07-01

    There is no comprehensive database of pediatric anesthesiologists, their demographic characteristics, or geographic location in the United States. We endeavored to create a comprehensive database of pediatric anesthesiologists by merging individuals identified as US pediatric anesthesiologists by the American Board of Anesthesiology, National Provider Identifier registry, Healthgrades.com database, and the Society for Pediatric Anesthesia membership list as of November 5, 2015. Professorial rank was accessed via the Association of American Medical Colleges and other online sources. Descriptive statistics characterized pediatric anesthesiologists' demographics. Pediatric anesthesiologists' locations at the city and state level were geocoded and mapped with the use of ArcGIS Desktop 10.1 mapping software (Redlands, CA). We identified 4048 pediatric anesthesiologists in the United States, which is approximately 8.8% of the physician anesthesiology workforce (n = 46,000). The median age of pediatric anesthesiologists was 49 years (interquartile range, 40-57 years), and the majority (56.4%) were men. Approximately two-thirds of identified pediatric anesthesiologists were subspecialty board certified in pediatric anesthesiology, and 33% of pediatric anesthesiologists had an identified academic affiliation. There is substantial heterogeneity in the geographic distribution of pediatric anesthesiologists by state and US Census Division with urban clustering. This description of pediatric anesthesiologists' demographic characteristics and geographic distribution fills an important gap in our understanding of pediatric anesthesia systems of care.

  6. GEOGRAPHICAL FEATURES OF ATOPIC DERMATITIS INCIDENCE IN THE CHILD POPULATION OF THE GRODNO REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khokha R. N.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Research objective. To estimate a geographical variation of the indicator of the incidence of atopic dermatitis among the child population of the Grodno region. Material and methods. The data of the official statistical reports of the Grodno Regional Department of Statistics, the annual report forms «Form 1 – children» of the medical statistics office of the Regional Children’s Clinical Hospital for the period of 1999-2016 years were analyzed. Territorial differentiation of the indicator of disease incidence was carried out by the method of cluster analysis (k-means clustering. Results. The geographical characteristic of the indicator of the incidence of atopic dermatitis among the child population of the Grodno region aged 0–14 years during 1999-2016 years has been given. Low, below the average, above the average, average and high values of the indicator of atopic dermatitis incidence have been established. The cartogram of territorial distribution of the indicator of atopic dermatitis incidence among the child population has been made. Conclusion. The established features, various intensity of the degree of a geographical variation of the indicator of atopic dermatitis incidence reflect the influence of a set of various factors determining an indicator of diseases incidence in various territories of the region and confirm the need to analyze the cause-and-effect relationships in the system «medium-indicator of atopic dermatitis incidence among the child population».

  7. Scrotal tongue and geographic tongue: polygenic and associated traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidelman, E; Chosack, A; Cohen, T

    1976-11-01

    The familial nature of scrotal and geographic tongue was investigated in parents and siblings of 156 probands having these conditions. The prevalence in parents and siblings was significantly higher than that in the control populations. The prevalence in sibilings from families in which at least one parent was also affected was significantly higher than that in siblings from families in which neither parent was affected. The prevalence of scrotal tongue alone in siblins was similar irrespective of the condition in the proband. The prevalence of geographic tongue alone was highest in siblins of probands having only geographic tongue. A polygenic mode of inheritance with some genes common to both conditions is suggested.

  8. Marc Antrop - a revolutionary transdisciplinary scientist or a traditional geographer?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    practicians. Tree main problems have faced IALE since the very beginning: to ensure landscape science collaboration (1) between east and west, (2) between disciplines across the boundaries of nature science, social science and humanities, and (3) between academic disciplines and professionals...... for the enthusiastic radical way Marc is working in international networks and activities. He might have done it, just simply because he is a traditional geographer. With his heart beating for the regional geographic synthesis, despite all trends and fashions of many ‘geographers' trying to move this discipline...

  9. Emergency medical assistance programs for nuclear power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linnemann, R.E.; Mettler, F.A. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    This paper deals with a simple but practical medical support of geographically distributed nuclear reactors in isolated areas. A staff of experts at a centre devote their full attention to accident prevention and preparedness at reactor sites. They establish and maintain emergency medical programs at reactor sites and nearby support hospitals. The emphasis is on first aid and emergency treatment by medical attendants who are not and cannot be experts in radiation but do know how to treat patients. (author)

  10. Cardiac Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cholesterol from circulating in the blood. Watch an animation of how statins work. Reason for Medication Used ... Kindle Fire Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure Readings 2 Sodium and Salt 3 Heart Attack Symptoms ...

  11. Medication Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Size Small Text Medium Text Large Text Contrast Dark on Light Light on Dark Donate Search Menu Donate What is Glaucoma? Care ... Low Vision Resources Medication Guide Resources on the Web » See All Articles Where the Money Goes Have ...

  12. Medical Cyclotrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesel, D. L.; Antaya, T. A.

    Particle accelerators were initially developed to address specific scientific research goals, yet they were used for practical applications, particularly medical applications, within a few years of their invention. The cyclotron's potential for producing beams for cancer therapy and medical radioisotope production was realized with the early Lawrence cyclotrons and has continued with their more technically advanced successors — synchrocyclotrons, sector-focused cyclotrons and superconducting cyclotrons. While a variety of other accelerator technologies were developed to achieve today's high energy particles, this article will chronicle the development of one type of accelerator — the cyclotron, and its medical applications. These medical and industrial applications eventually led to the commercial manufacture of both small and large cyclotrons and facilities specifically designed for applications other than scientific research.

  13. Medical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loshkajian, A.

    2000-01-01

    This didactical book presents the medical imaging techniques: radiography, scanner, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Examples are given for the most common pathologies in all domains of medicine. (J.S.)

  14. Medical Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, M. C. J.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses four main types of medical imaging (x-ray, radionuclide, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance) and considers their relative merits. Describes important recent and possible future developments in image processing. (Author/MKR)

  15. Comparison of geographic methods to assess travel patterns of persons diagnosed with HIV in Philadelphia: how close is close enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhart, Michael G; Share, Amanda M; Shpaner, Mark; Brady, Kathleen A

    2015-02-01

    Travel distance to medical care has been assessed using a variety of geographic methods. Network analyses are less common, but may generate more accurate estimates of travel costs. We compared straight-line distances and driving distance, as well as average drive time and travel time on a public transit network for 1789 persons diagnosed with HIV between 2010 and 2012 to identify differences overall, and by distinct geographic areas of Philadelphia. Paired t-tests were used to assess differences across methods, and analysis of variance was used to assess between-group differences. Driving distances were significantly longer than straight-line distances (ptravel costs, and may improve models to predict medical care outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, P

    1992-01-01

    In theory, the Medical Council of India (MCI) determines the standards and qualifications of medical schools. It also sanctions curricula and ensures standards. Yet no standards exist on the mode of selection in medical schools, duration of study, course content, student stipends or period of internship. It takes 4.5 years to finish medical school. Students undergo preclinical, paraclinical, and clinical training. Most courses are in English which tends to favor the urban elite. Students cannot always communicate with patients in local languages. Textbooks often provide medical examples unrelated to India. Pedagogy consists mainly of lectures and rote learning predominates. Curricula tend not to provide courses in community health. Students pick up on the elitist attitudes of the faculty. For example, faculty do not put much emphasis on community health, individual health, equity in health care delivery, and teamwork. Further the education system is not patient oriented, but hospital or disease oriented. Faculty should train students in creating sanitation programs, knowing local nutritious foods, and in making community diagnoses. Yet they tend to be practitioners 1st then educators. Further faculty are not paid well and are not always invited to take part in improving curriculum, so morale is often low. Moreover experience in health planning and management issues is not required for administrators. In addition, medical schools are not well equipped with learning aids, libraries, or teaching staff. Tax revenues finance medical education. 75% of graduating physicians set up a private practice. Further many physicians go to urban areas. 34-57% emigrate to other countries. The problems of medical education will not be solved until the political and economic system becomes more responsive to the health needs of the people.

  17. Medical tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas Ghanbari; Khadijeh Zirak Moradlu; Morteza Ramazani

    2014-01-01

    Medical tourism is considered as one of the tourism dimensions and it can contribute to the stabilized and dynamic development of a country's economy. Since it is cost-effective industry, most developing countries have focused on this industry and they are planning to develop this industry. Not only does Zanjan province, as the central region in medicine services, enjoy different kinds of variety and acceptable medical specialties but also it has historical, natural, and religious tourism pot...

  18. Medical Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Biscari, C.; Falbo, L.

    2016-01-01

    The use of accelerators for medical applications has evolved from initial experimentation to turn-key devices commonly operating in hospitals. New applications are continuously being developed around the world, and the hadrontherapy facilities of the newest generation are placed at the frontier between industrial production and advanced R&D. An introduction to the different medical application accelerators is followed by a description of the hadrontherapy facilities, with special emphasis on ...

  19. Medical radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This leaflet in the At-a-Glance Series describes the medical use of X-rays, how X-rays help in diagnosis, radiation protection of the patient, staff protection, how radioactive materials in nuclear medicine examinations help in diagnosis and the use of radiation in radiotherapy. Magnetic resonance imaging, a diagnostic technique involving no ionizing radiation, is also briefly examined. The role of the NRPB in the medical use of radiation is outlined. (UK)

  20. Medical negligence.

    OpenAIRE

    Rosen, M.

    1992-01-01

    The progress made in diagnostic and therapeutic medicine has resulted in an increase in the number of malpractice suits brought against medical practitioners. To constitute negligence it must be shown that the conduct of the accused did not measure up to the standard of care the law required of him in the particular circumstances and that he acted with guilt and therefore can be blamed for the deed. This paper describes medical practitioner negligence and reviews relevant cases.

  1. Angiostrongylus spp. in the Americas: geographical and chronological distribution of definitive hosts versus disease reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Romina; Robles, Maria Del Rosario; Navone, Graciela T; Diaz, Julia I

    2018-03-01

    Angiostrongyliasis is an infection caused by nematode worms of the genus Angiostrongylus. The adult worms inhabit the pulmonary arteries, heart, bronchioles of the lung, or mesenteric arteries of the caecum of definitive host. Of a total of 23 species of Angiostrongylus cited worldwide, only nine were registered in the American Continent. Two species, A. cantonensis and A. costaricensis, are considered zoonoses when the larvae accidentally parasitise man. In the present study, geographical and chronological distribution of definitive hosts of Angiostrongylus in the Americas is analysed in order to observe their relationship with disease reports. Moreover, the role of different definitive hosts as sentinels and dispersers of infective stages is discussed. The study area includes the Americas. First records of Angiostrongylus spp. in definitive or accidental hosts were compiled from the literature. Data were included in tables and figures and were matched to geographic information systems (GIS). Most geographical records of Angiostrongylus spp. both for definitive and accidental hosts belong to tropical areas, mainly equatorial zone. In relation to those species of human health importance, as A. cantonensis and A. costaricensis, most disease cases indicate a coincidence between the finding of definitive host and disease record. However, in some geographic site there are gaps between report of definitive host and disease record. In many areas, human populations have invaded natural environments and their socioeconomic conditions do not allow adequate medical care. Consequently, many cases for angiostrongyliasis could have gone unreported or unrecognised throughout history and in the nowadays. Moreover, the population expansion and the climatic changes invite to make broader and more complete range of observation on the species that involve possible epidemiological risks. This paper integrates and shows the current distribution of Angiostrongylus species in America

  2. Epidemiologic Investigation of Dysentery in North of Iran: Use of Geographic Information System (GIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadi, Aliasghar; Abedi, Ghassem; Isazadeh, Khatoon; Rostami, Farideh; Siamian, Hasan; Hosseini, Mahbobeh; Asadi-Aliabadi, Mehran

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Dysentery is an intestinal inflammation which is created by the microorganisms attacking intestine mucus. Knowing the prevalence of this disease in different societies paves the way for programming and providing treatment and preventive measures. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the epidemiologic pattern and geographical distribution of dysentery based on GIS. Method: This was a cross-sectional and analytical study. The dysentery cases were gathered from the section of contagious diseases in health chancellery of Mazandaran University of medical sciences through a checklist during the years 2008 to 2013. In order to analyze the data, we made use of chi-square test. Then, the GIS software was used to recognize the geographical distribution of the disease. Findings: There was reported about 653 cases affected by dysentery and the disease proportion was equal for both men and women. Most of the persons with dysentery was city dwellers. The highest rate of incidents was reported to be in Fereidunkenar in 2011, and the disease was mostly found among farmers, students, and college students. Conclusion: Since dysentery is a disease transmitted from water and food, and in this study, it was found out that the disease sources included using polluted water, vegetables, and lack of appropriate personal hygiene. Therefore, it is essential to take into consideration the health issues. Moreover, the suitable conditions of the geographical area which has the highest rate of incident have paved the way for dysentery occurrence. In addition, using geographic information system (GIS) as a visual instrument can help the stakeholders and officials to elaborate on the death trend and recognize the areas for optimal use of the available resources. PMID:28144197

  3. Angiostrongylus spp. in the Americas: geographical and chronological distribution of definitive hosts versus disease reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Romina; Robles, Maria del Rosario; Navone, Graciela T; Diaz, Julia I

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND Angiostrongyliasis is an infection caused by nematode worms of the genus Angiostrongylus. The adult worms inhabit the pulmonary arteries, heart, bronchioles of the lung, or mesenteric arteries of the caecum of definitive host. Of a total of 23 species of Angiostrongylus cited worldwide, only nine were registered in the American Continent. Two species, A. cantonensis and A. costaricensis, are considered zoonoses when the larvae accidentally parasitise man. OBJECTIVES In the present study, geographical and chronological distribution of definitive hosts of Angiostrongylus in the Americas is analysed in order to observe their relationship with disease reports. Moreover, the role of different definitive hosts as sentinels and dispersers of infective stages is discussed. METHODS The study area includes the Americas. First records of Angiostrongylus spp. in definitive or accidental hosts were compiled from the literature. Data were included in tables and figures and were matched to geographic information systems (GIS). FINDINGS Most geographical records of Angiostrongylus spp. both for definitive and accidental hosts belong to tropical areas, mainly equatorial zone. In relation to those species of human health importance, as A. cantonensis and A. costaricensis, most disease cases indicate a coincidence between the finding of definitive host and disease record. However, in some geographic site there are gaps between report of definitive host and disease record. In many areas, human populations have invaded natural environments and their socioeconomic conditions do not allow adequate medical care. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Consequently, many cases for angiostrongyliasis could have gone unreported or unrecognised throughout history and in the nowadays. Moreover, the population expansion and the climatic changes invite to make broader and more complete range of observation on the species that involve possible epidemiological risks. This paper integrates and shows the

  4. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Torrance Area, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  5. The National Geographic Names Data Base: Phase II instructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Donald J.; Payne, Roger L.

    1987-01-01

    The Geographic Names Information System is a computer-based information system developed to meet major national needs by providing information for named entities in the United States, its territories, and outlying areas. The National Geographic Names Data Base, a component of the Geographic Names Information System, currently contains most names and associated information recorded on the 1:24,000-scale (or largest scale available) topographic maps of the U.S. Geological Survey. The work involved in this initial compilation of names shown on the topographic-map series, and the development and editing of the National Geographic Names Data Base, is referred to as Phase I. Optimal use and effectiveness of an automated names system require that the names of features

  6. 2010 Census Blocks with Geographic Codes Southwestern PA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This file can be used as a tool to append geographic codes to geocoded point data. The file was developed by Pitt's Center for Social and Urban Research and...

  7. The Influence of Technology on Geographic Cognition and Tourism Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tussyadiah, Iis; Zach, Florian

    2011-01-01

    Tourists today have access to retrieve voluminous geographic information about destinations while travelling as various context-aware geographic technologies have become increasingly ubiquitous. These technologies are suggested to aid tourists in the process of destination consumption to gain...... meaningful tourism experiences. This study found that people using different types of technologies for everyday routine perceive that these technologies help them with spatial inference to acquire geographic information; making sense of direction and orientation, and interacting with and within places....... Further, within the travel context, geographic technology was found to influence the dimensions of sensory, affective and social experience, as well as the cognitive and bodily experience. The type of technology used for travel was also found to be a significant predictor of the sensory, affective...

  8. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Union County, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  9. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Roosevelt County, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  10. Northeast Puerto Rico and Culebra Island - Geographic Zone Map 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This geographic zone map was created by interpreting satellite and aerial imagery, seafloor topography (bathymetry model), and the new NEPR Benthic Habitat Map...

  11. Case studies in geographic information systems for environmental streamlining

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-31

    This 2012 summary report addresses the current use of geographic information systems (GIS) and related technologies by State Departments of Transportation (DOTs) for environmental streamlining and stewardship, particularly in relation to the National...

  12. Geographic Information Systems In Strategic Decision Making In Logistics Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Filiz Gürder

    2013-07-01

    Geographic information systems can make important contributions to logistic companies in the following areas: Routing, Optimization and Scheduling, Asset Tracking, Dispatching/Mobile, Territory Optimization and Planning, Site Selection and Optimization, Supply Chain Management, and Selecting the Supplier.

  13. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Hidalgo County, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  14. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Luna County, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  15. The GeoGraph 3D Computational Laboratory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dibble, Catherine; Feldman, Philip G

    2003-01-01

    .... Even recent progress in social network modeling has not yet offered us any capability to model dynamic processes among mobile agents who interact at all scales on small-world and scale-free geographic networks...

  16. Soil microbial communities: Influence of geographic location and hydrocarbon pollutants

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maila, MP

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The importance and relevance of the geographical origin of the soil sample and the hydrocarbons in determining the functional or species diversity within different bacterial communities was evaluated using the community level physiological profiles...

  17. GEOGRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF THE COASTAL FLORA OF THE AZOV SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolomiychuk V. P.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative indicators of the coastal flora of the Azov Sea are presented. Geographical features of the flora of the region have been analyzed. The major endemic complexes of the flora being investigated are described.

  18. Advancing Geographic Information Science—Proposal to NSF, with Addendum

    OpenAIRE

    National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis

    1995-01-01

    This document from 1995 and the addendum from 1996 represent NCGIA's proposal for Varenius—a program of research initiatives to advance geographic information science in the context of digitial worlds and the information society.

  19. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Colfax County, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  20. Representation of geographic terrain surface using global indexing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolar, Jan

    2004-01-01

    . Unlike cartographic maps, 3D models can capture the geometry of geographic features without flattening the environment, without cartographic projection?can avoid geometric distortion. More interestingly, however, 3D models can be composed into a single model spanning the whole world; it can be navigated...... visually in order to access information and data in the same geometric space as we navigate ourselves in our real environment.   This article attempts to narrow down the overhead of problems in visualization of 3D geographic information and intends to identify fundamental issues common to other systems......A global 3D geographic model a feasible solution for its visualization and management remains a challenging vision. The existence of a reusable platform would provide an unprecedented potential for development of applications related to geography and facilitate comprehension of geographic data...

  1. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Guadalupe County, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  2. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Lea County, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  3. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Otero Area, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  4. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) - Kinds and Distribution of Soils

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  5. Geographic information system for pigweed distribution in the US Southeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the southeastern United States, pigweeds have become troublesome weeds in agricultural systems. To implement management strategies to control them, agriculturalists need information on areas affected by pigweeds. Geographic information systems (GIS) afford users the ability to evaluate agricult...

  6. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Harding County, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  7. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Eddy Area, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  8. Structured prediction for urban scene semantic segmentation with geographic contex

    OpenAIRE

    Volpi Michele; Ferrari Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    In this work we address the problem of semantic segmentation of urban remote sensing images into land cover maps. We propose to tackle this task by learning the geographic context of classes and use it to favor or discourage certain spatial configuration of label assignments. For this reason, we learn from training data two spatial priors enforcing different key aspects of the geographical space: local co-occurrence and relative location of land cover classes. We propose to embed these geogra...

  9. 08471 Report -- Geographic Privacy-Aware Knowledge Discovery and Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Kuijpers, Bart; Pedreschi, Dino; Saygin, Yucel; Spaccapietra, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    The Dagstuhl-Seminar on Geographic Privacy-Aware Knowledge Discovery and Delivery was held during 16 - 21 November, 2008, with 37 participants registered from various countries from Europe, as well as other parts of the world such as United States, Canada, Argentina, and Brazil. Issues in the newly emerging area of geographic knowledge discovery with a privacy perspective were discussed in a week to consolidate some of the research questions. The Dagstuhl program included...

  10. Different Factors of Llap as a Geographic Region

    OpenAIRE

    , F. Isufi; , S. Halimi; , F. Humolli

    2011-01-01

    In this work attempts were made to express in the best possible manner the factors which differentiate the Llap as geographic region. The Llap Region is located in the north-east of Kosovo. Within the ethnic geography, the Llap area is having peripheric position, but within the Balkan Penninsula it is having a central position, while along Llap goes the Highway which connects Kosovo and Serbia. The Llap region has important natural conditions; such as very good geographic position, running an...

  11. Crime Mapping and Geographical Information Systems in Crime Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Dağlar, Murat; Argun, Uğur

    2016-01-01

    As essential apparatus in crime analysis, crime mapping and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) are being progressively more accepted by police agencies. Development in technology and the accessibility of geographic data sources make it feasible for police departments to use GIS and crime mapping. GIS and crime mapping can be utilized as devices to discover reasons contributing to crime, and hence let law enforcement agencies proactively take action against the crime problems before they b...

  12. The geographical distribution of tremellaceous fungi in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Władysław Wojewoda

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The geographical distribution of the Polish tremellaceous fungi is discussed in this paper. The list of localities and the maps of the distribution of 60 Polish species (45 of Tremellales, 13 of Auriculariales and 2 of Septobasidiales are given. The author distinguishes several geographical elements, and describes the vertical distribution of these fungi. This paper is a supplement to "Fungi (Mycota", vol. 8, Polish Flora (Wojewoda 1977.

  13. Epidemiologic trends and geographic patterns of fatal opioid intoxications in Connecticut, USA: 1997 – 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Traci C.; Grau, Lauretta E.; Carver, H. Wayne; Kinzly, Mark; Heimer, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Background The leading cause of injury death among adults in Connecticut (CT), USA is drug poisonings. We analyzed the epidemiology and geographic distribution of opioid-involved accidental drug-involved intoxication deaths (“overdoses”) in CT over an 11-year period. Methods We reviewed data from 1997 to 2007 on all adult accidental/undetermined drug intoxication deaths in CT that were referred to the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner (OCME). Regression analyses were conducted to uncover risk factors for fatal opioid-involved intoxications and to compare heroin- to prescription opioid- and methadone-involved deaths. Death locations were mapped to visualize differences in the geographic patterns of overdose by opioid type. Results Of the 2900 qualifying deaths, 2231 (77%) involved opioids. Trends over time revealed increases in total opioid-related deaths although heroin-related deaths remained constant. Methadone, oxycodone and fentanyl, the most frequently cited prescription opioids, exhibited significant increases in opioid deaths. Prescription opioid-only deaths were more likely to involve other medications (e.g., benzodiazepines) and to have occurred among residents of a suburban or small town location, compared to heroin-involved or methadone-involved deaths. Heroin-only deaths tended to occur among non-Whites, were more likely to involve alcohol or cocaine and to occur in public locations and large cities. Conclusions The epidemiology of fatal opioid overdose in CT exhibits distinct longitudinal, risk factor, and geographic differences by opioid type. Each of these trends has implications for public health and prevention efforts. PMID:21131140

  14. Epidemiologic trends and geographic patterns of fatal opioid intoxications in Connecticut, USA: 1997-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Traci C; Grau, Lauretta E; Carver, H Wayne; Kinzly, Mark; Heimer, Robert

    2011-06-01

    The leading cause of injury death among adults in Connecticut (CT), USA is drug poisonings. We analyzed the epidemiology and geographic distribution of opioid-involved accidental drug-involved intoxication deaths ("overdoses") in CT over an 11-year period. We reviewed data from 1997 to 2007 on all adult accidental/undetermined drug intoxication deaths in CT that were referred to the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner (OCME). Regression analyses were conducted to uncover risk factors for fatal opioid-involved intoxications and to compare heroin- to prescription opioid- and methadone-involved deaths. Death locations were mapped to visualize differences in the geographic patterns of overdose by opioid type. Of the 2900 qualifying deaths, 2231 (77%) involved opioids. Trends over time revealed increases in total opioid-related deaths although heroin-related deaths remained constant. Methadone, oxycodone and fentanyl, the most frequently cited prescription opioids, exhibited significant increases in opioid deaths. Prescription opioid-only deaths were more likely to involve other medications (e.g., benzodiazepines) and to have occurred among residents of a suburban or small town location, compared to heroin-involved or methadone-involved deaths. Heroin-only deaths tended to occur among non-Whites, were more likely to involve alcohol or cocaine and to occur in public locations and large cities. The epidemiology of fatal opioid overdose in CT exhibits distinct longitudinal, risk factor, and geographic differences by opioid type. Each of these trends has implications for public health and prevention efforts. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The significant surface-water connectivity of "geographically isolated wetlands"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Aram J.K.; Mushet, David M.; Alexander, Laurie C.; DeKeyser, Edward S.; Fowler, Laurie; Lane, Charles R.; Lang, Megan W.; Rains, Mark C.; Richter, Stephen; Walls, Susan

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the current literature, coupled with our collective research expertise, on surface-water connectivity of wetlands considered to be “geographically isolated” (sensu Tiner Wetlands 23:494–516, 2003a) to critically assess the scientific foundation of grouping wetlands based on the singular condition of being surrounded by uplands. The most recent research on wetlands considered to be “geographically isolated” shows the difficulties in grouping an ecological resource that does not reliably indicate lack of surface water connectivity in order to meet legal, regulatory, or scientific needs. Additionally, the practice of identifying “geographically isolated wetlands” based on distance from a stream can result in gross overestimates of the number of wetlands lacking ecologically important surface-water connections. Our findings do not support use of the overly simplistic label of “geographically isolated wetlands”. Wetlands surrounded by uplands vary in function and surface-water connections based on wetland landscape setting, context, climate, and geographic region and should be evaluated as such. We found that the “geographically isolated” grouping does not reflect our understanding of the hydrologic variability of these wetlands and hence does not benefit conservation of the Nation’s diverse wetland resources. Therefore, we strongly discourage use of categorizations that provide overly simplistic views of surface-water connectivity of wetlands fully embedded in upland landscapes.

  16. a Conceptual Framework for Virtual Geographic Environments Knowledge Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Lan; Lin, Hui

    2016-06-01

    VGE geographic knowledge refers to the abstract and repeatable geo-information which is related to the geo-science problem, geographical phenomena and geographical laws supported by VGE. That includes expert experiences, evolution rule, simulation processes and prediction results in VGE. This paper proposes a conceptual framework for VGE knowledge engineering in order to effectively manage and use geographic knowledge in VGE. Our approach relies on previous well established theories on knowledge engineering and VGE. The main contribution of this report is following: (1) The concepts of VGE knowledge and VGE knowledge engineering which are defined clearly; (2) features about VGE knowledge different with common knowledge; (3) geographic knowledge evolution process that help users rapidly acquire knowledge in VGE; and (4) a conceptual framework for VGE knowledge engineering providing the supporting methodologies system for building an intelligent VGE. This conceptual framework systematically describes the related VGE knowledge theories and key technologies. That will promote the rapid transformation from geodata to geographic knowledge, and furtherly reduce the gap between the data explosion and knowledge absence.

  17. Medical cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, A.P.

    1976-01-01

    Cyclotrons as tools for therapy and for the production of radionuclides for use in nuclear medicine have been extensively reviewed in the literature. The current world status with respect to cyclotrons used primarily for research, development and application in nuclear medicine is reviewed here in the context of geographical distribution and type of use, presently available commercial types, machine characteristics and trends. Aspects of design requirements from a user perspective such as machine, beam and target characteristics are covered. Some special problems concerning many factors which can lead to effective production of the desired radionuclide or product are considered in light of machine characteristics. Consideration is also given to future directions for accelerators in nuclear medicine

  18. Medical tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Ghanbari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Medical tourism is considered as one of the tourism dimensions and it can contribute to the stabilized and dynamic development of a country's economy. Since it is cost-effective industry, most developing countries have focused on this industry and they are planning to develop this industry. Not only does Zanjan province, as the central region in medicine services, enjoy different kinds of variety and acceptable medical specialties but also it has historical, natural, and religious tourism potentials. In this survey, the researcher investigated the existing potentials of Zanjan province based on descriptive - analytical tourism in offering and providing medical services and accommodation. The survey reports that offered services in tourism were not acceptable and satisfactory.

  19. Medical Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Biscari, C.

    2014-12-19

    The use of accelerators for medical applications has evolved from initial experimentation to turn-key devices commonly operating in hospitals. New applications are continuously being developed around the world, and the hadrontherapy facilities of the newest generation are placed at the frontier between industrial production and advanced R&D. An introduction to the different medical application accelerators is followed by a description of the hadrontherapy facilities, with special emphasis on CNAO, and the report closes with a brief outlook on the future of this field.

  20. Medical Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biscari, C; Falbo, L

    2014-01-01

    The use of accelerators for medical applications has evolved from initial experimentation to turn-key devices commonly operating in hospitals. New applications are continuously being developed around the world, and the hadrontherapy facilities of the newest generation are placed at the frontier between industrial production and advanced R&D. An introduction to the different medical application accelerators is followed by a description of the hadrontherapy facilities, with special emphasis on CNAO, and the report closes with a brief outlook on the future of this field

  1. Medical emplotment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mønsted, Troels Sune

    ’. Theoretically the project departs from Computer Supported Cooperative Work and Participatory Design and is informed by Medical Informatics, Design Research and Science and Technology Studies. Methodically the project is founded on collaborative prototyping, ethnographic studies, and design interventions...... philosophy and building on theory on narrative reasoning, the dissertation offers the notions of emplotment and re-emplotment to describe how physicians marshal information from various sources, including the medical record, the patient and coSummary to form a narrative, when making sense of patients...

  2. Deactivation and Decommissioning Planning and Analysis with Geographic Information Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollinger, James S.; Koffman, Larry D.; Austin, William E.

    2008-01-01

    From the mid-1950's through the 1980's, the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site produced nuclear materials for the weapons stockpile, for medical and industrial applications, and for space exploration. Although SRS has a continuing defense-related mission, the overall site mission is now oriented toward environmental restoration and management of legacy chemical and nuclear waste. With the change in mission, SRS no longer has a need for much of the infrastructure developed to support the weapons program. This excess infrastructure, which includes over 1000 facilities, will be decommissioned and demolished over the forthcoming years. Dis-positioning facilities for decommissioning and deactivation requires significant resources to determine hazards, structure type, and a rough-order-of-magnitude estimate for the decommissioning and demolition cost. Geographic information systems (GIS) technology was used to help manage the process of dis-positioning infrastructure and for reporting the future status of impacted facilities. Several thousand facilities of various ages and conditions are present at SRS. Many of these facilities, built to support previous defense-related missions, now represent a potential hazard and cost for maintenance and surveillance. To reduce costs and the hazards associated with this excess infrastructure, SRS has developed an ambitious plan to decommission and demolish unneeded facilities in a systematic fashion. GIS technology was used to assist development of this plan by: providing locational information for remote facilities, identifying the location of known waste units adjacent to buildings slated for demolition, and for providing a powerful visual representation of the impact of the overall plan. Several steps were required for the development of the infrastructure GIS model. The first step involved creating an accurate and current GIS representation of the infrastructure data. This data is maintained in a Computer Aided Design

  3. Medical negligence

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    19. SA JOURNAL OF RADIOLOGY • August 2004. Abstract. The progress made in diagnostic and therapeutic medicine has resulted in an increase in the number of malprac- tice suits brought against medical practitioners. To constitute negligence it must be shown that the conduct of the accused did not measure up to the.

  4. Medical Devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerke, Gijsbertus Jacob; Mahieu, H.F.; Geertsema, A.A.; Hermann, I.F.; van Horn, J.R.; Hummel, J. Marjan; van Loon, J.P.; Mihaylov, D.; van der Plaats, A.; Schraffordt Koops, H.; Schutte, H.K.; Veth, R.P.H.; de Vries, M.P.; Rakhorst, G.; Shi, Donglu

    2004-01-01

    The development of new medical devices is a very time-consuming and costly process. Besides the time between the initial idea and the time that manufacturing and testing of prototypes takes place, the time needed for the development of production facilities, production of test series, marketing,

  5. Medical Malpractice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grembi, Veronica

    2014-01-01

    MM first came to the attention of policy makers primarily in the USA where, from the 1970s, healthcare providers denounced problems in getting insurance for medical liability, pointing out to a crisis in the MM insurance market (Sage WM (2003) Understanding the first malpractice crisis of the 21th...

  6. Medical marijuana

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... different amounts of cannabinoids. This sometimes makes the effects of medical marijuana hard to predict or control. The effects also ... wasting syndrome) Severe muscle spasms Multiple sclerosis Side Effects ... physical symptoms from using marijuana include: A fast or irregular heartbeat Dizziness Slow ...

  7. Analyzing the Relationship of Geographic Mobility and Institutional Prestige to Career Advancement of Women in Academic Medicine Pursuing Midcareer-, Senior-, or Executive-Level Administrative Positions: Implications for Career Advancement Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Marsha Renee

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of geographic mobility and institutional prestige to career advancement defined as administrative promotions of women seeking midcareer-, senior-, or executive-level positions at academic health centers (AHCs) and their medical schools or in non-AHC related medical schools in the United…

  8. Historical Shoreline for Louisiana, Geographic NAD83, NOAA (2001) [shoreline_la_NOAA_1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — These data were automated to provide a suitable geographic information system (GIS) data layer depicting the historical shoreline for Louisiana. These data are...

  9. Louisiana Geology, Geographic NAD83, NWRC (1998) [geology_NWRC_1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains vector line map information. The vector data contain selected base categories of geographic features, and characteristics of these features,...

  10. Louisiana Parishes, Geographic NAD83, USGS (1998) [parishes_USGS_1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains vector line map information. The vector data contain selected base categories of geographic features, and characteristics of these features,...

  11. SCHOOL LINGUISTIC CREATIVITY BASED ON SCIENTIFIC GEOGRAPHICAL TEXTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIORICA BLÎNDĂ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis and observation of the natural environment and of the social and economic one, observing phenomena, objects, beings, and geographical events are at the basis of producing geographical scientific texts. The symbols of iconotexts and cartotexts are another source of inspiration for linguistic interpretation. The linguistic creations that we selected for our study are the scientific analysis, the commentary, the characterization, the parallel, the synthesis, epitomizing and abstracting, the scientific communication, the essay, and the scientific description. The representations on maps, photos, graphics and profiles are translated into verbal or written expression in order to render geographical scientific information from diagrams and images through diverse discursive procedures. Through school linguistic creations, teachers develop their students’ observation spirit, in a written and oral form, their geographical thinking through metaphors, they develop and stimulate their students’ imagination and fantasy, their cognitive, reflexive and affective sensitivity, their abilities to express themselves, to present and argument in a scientific way according to different criteria (sufficiency, demonstrative reasoning, lineal reasoning, pros and cons, giving examples, inferential deduction through using truth tables, etc.. Trough description, students give names and define geographical objects and beings (plants, animals, and people according to their form and aspect, they explain toponyms and appellatives, they classify and make hierarchies, they define their identity through processes of differentiation, emblematizing, personification, location in time and space.

  12. Sirenomelia in Argentina: Prevalence, geographic clusters and temporal trends analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groisman, Boris; Liascovich, Rosa; Gili, Juan Antonio; Barbero, Pablo; Bidondo, María Paz

    2016-07-01

    Sirenomelia is a severe malformation of the lower body characterized by a single medial lower limb and a variable combination of visceral abnormalities. Given that Sirenomelia is a very rare birth defect, epidemiological studies are scarce. The aim of this study is to evaluate prevalence, geographic clusters and time trends of sirenomelia in Argentina, using data from the National Network of Congenital Anomalies of Argentina (RENAC) from November 2009 until December 2014. This is a descriptive study using data from the RENAC, a hospital-based surveillance system for newborns affected with major morphological congenital anomalies. We calculated sirenomelia prevalence throughout the period, searched for geographical clusters, and evaluated time trends. The prevalence of confirmed cases of sirenomelia throughout the period was 2.35 per 100,000 births. Cluster analysis showed no statistically significant geographical aggregates. Time-trends analysis showed that the prevalence was higher in years 2009 to 2010. The observed prevalence was higher than the observed in previous epidemiological studies in other geographic regions. We observed a likely real increase in the initial period of our study. We used strict diagnostic criteria, excluding cases that only had clinical diagnosis of sirenomelia. Therefore, real prevalence could be even higher. This study did not show any geographic clusters. Because etiology of sirenomelia has not yet been established, studies of epidemiological features of this defect may contribute to define its causes. Birth Defects Research (Part A) 106:604-611, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Kornati Islands on Old Geographic Maps and Charts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Faričić

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on the analysis of cartographic sources, the paper analyses the historical and geographical development of the Kornati islands, the largest group of Croatian islands. The old maps were used first of all as the means of geographic research that, being necessarily correlated to the simultaneous historical written sources and modern topographic and maritime maps, make the basis for creating a research platform for relevant scientific results to be achieved. On the basis of the old maps it is possible, among other things to anticipate that the Kornati islands used to have great geotraffic significance on the eastern Adriatic sailing route. According to the development of geographic concepts and cartographic methods, the geographic vision of the Kornati islands has been gradually clarified ever since the 16th century. The chart from the Carta di cabotaggio del Mare Adriatico edition published by the Military and Geographic Institute from Milan (1822-1824 presents the turning point with the first complete and mostly precise presentation of the Kornati islands group on the basis of hydrographic and topographic field measurements.

  14. The Use of Lead Isotope and Rare Earth Element Geochemistry for Forensic Geographic Provenancing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, A.; Darrah, T.; Harrold, Z.; Prutsman-Pfeiffer, J.; Poreda, R.

    2008-12-01

    Lead isotope and rare earth element composition of modern human bones are analyzed to explore their utility for geographical provenancing. DNA analysis is the standard for identification of individuals. DNA analysis requires a DNA match for comparison. Thus, DNA analysis is of limited use in cases involving unknown remains. Trace elements are incorporated into bones and teeth during biomineralization, recording the characteristics of an individual's geochemical environment. Teeth form during adolescence, recording the geochemical environment of an individual's youth. Bones remodel throughout an individual's lifetime. Bones consist of two types of bone tissue (cortical and trabecular) that remodel at different rates, recording the geochemical environment at the time of biomineralization. Cortical bone tissue, forming the outer surface of bones, is dense, hard tissue that remodels in 25-30 yrs. Conversely, trabecular bone tissue, the inner cavity of bones, is low density, porous and remodels in 2-5 years. Thus, analyzing teeth and both bone tissues allows for the development of a geographical time line capable of tracking immigration patterns through time instead of only an individual's youth. Geochemical isotopic techniques (Sr, O, C, N) have been used for geographical provenancing in physical anthropology. The isotopic values of Sr, C, O, N are predominantly a function of soil compositions in areas where food is grown or water is consumed. Application of these provenancing techniques has become difficult as an individual's diet may reflect the isotopic composition of foods obtained at the local grocer as opposed to local soil compositions. Thus, we explore the use of REEs and Pb isotopes for geographical provenancing. Pb and REEs are likely more reliable indicators of modern geographical location as their composition are high in bio-available sources such as local soils, atmospheric aerosols, and dust as opposed to Sr, C, O, N that are controlled by food and

  15. Geographical Simulation and Optimization System (GeoSOS and Its Application in the Analysis of Geographic National Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Xia

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the Chinese first survey on geographic national conditions has completed, an urgent need is to analyze these geographical data, such as mining of spatial distribution patterns, land use transition rules, development trends. The analysis is crucial for extracting the knowledge from these big data about geographic national conditions. The remote sensing interpretation data and land use/cover data generated by these geographic national conditions monitoring projects are the basic data sources for a variety of research and applications in terms of land use change detection, urban dynamic analysis, and urban/land use planning. The information can be used for assisting in the coordination of land resource use and decision making for urban and rural development, ecological environment protection and other issues that depends on spatial intelligent decisions. We proposed the theoretical framework of geographical simulation and optimization system (GeoSOS, which coupled geographic process simulation/prediction and spatial optimization, provides powerful theoretical support and practical tools for above researches. This paper develops the extension of GeoSOS software-GeoSOS for ArcGIS, which is an ArcGIS Add-In runs on ArcGIS platform for facilitating the above analyses. We take the urban expansion and ecological protection research in rapid urbanization area as an example, use the software to tackle a series of urbanization issues in the study area. The simulation results show that the predicted land development intensity of Guangdong Province will exceed the constraint index in 2020 according to the national development plan. However, the urbanization expansion based on the constraints of land development intensity and ecological protection can satisfy these constraints, and obtain a more compact landscape pattern. The analysis has shown that GeoSOS can be a useful tool for assisting in the analysis of geographic national conditions information

  16. Venomics and antivenomics of Bothrops erythromelas from five geographic populations within the Caatinga ecoregion of northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, Roberta Jeane B; Monteiro, Helena S A; Gonçalves-Machado, Larissa; Guarnieri, Míriam C; Ximenes, Rafael M; Borges-Nojosa, Diva M; Luna, Karla P de O; Zingali, Russolina B; Corrêa-Netto, Carlos; Gutiérrez, José María; Sanz, Libia; Calvete, Juan J; Pla, Davinia

    2015-01-30

    The Caatinga lancehead, Bothrops erythromelas, is a medically relevant species, responsible for most of the snakebite accidents in most parts of its distribution range in northeastern Brazil. The spectrum and geographic variability of its venom toxins were investigated applying a venomics approach to venom pools from five geographic areas within the Caatinga ecoregion. Despite its wide habitat, populations of B. erythromelas from Ceará, Pernambuco, Juazeiro, Paraiba, and Ilha de Itaparica exhibit highly conserved venom proteomes. Mirroring their compositional conservation, the five geographic venom pools also showed qualitatively and quantitatively overlapping antivenomic profiles against antivenoms generated in Vital Brazil (BR) and Clodomiro Picado (CR) Institutes, using different venoms in the immunization mixtures. The paraspecificity exhibited by the Brazilian SAB and the Costa Rican BCL antivenoms against venom toxins from B. erythromelas indicates large immunoreactive epitope conservation across genus Bothrops during the last ~14 million years, thus offering promise for the possibility of generating a broad-spectrum bothropic antivenom. Biological Significance Accidental snakebite envenomings represent an important public health hazard in Brazil. Ninety per cent of the yearly estimated 20-30,000 snakebite accidents are caused by species of the Bothrops genus. Bothrops erythromelas, a small, moderately stocky terrestrial venomous snake, is responsible for most of the snakebite accidents in its broad distribution range in the Caatinga, a large ecoregion in northeastern Brazil. To gain a deeper insight into the spectrum of medically important toxins present in the venom of the Caatinga lancehead, we applied a venomics approach to define the proteome and geographic variability of adult B. erythromelas venoms from five geographic regions. Although intraspecific compositional variation between venoms among specimens from different geographic regions has long been

  17. Socially just publishing: implications for geographers and their journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Batterbury

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available There have been a range of protests against the high journal subscription costs, and author processing charges (APCs levied for publishing in the more prestigious and commercially run journals that are favoured by geographers. But open protests across the sector like the ‘Academic Spring’ of 2012, and challenges to commercial copyright agreements, have been fragmented and less than successful. I renew the argument for ‘socially just’ publishing in geography. For geographers this is not limited to choosing alternative publication venues. It also involves a considerable effort by senior faculty members that are assessing hiring and promotion cases, to read and assess scholarship independently of its place of publication, and to reward the efforts of colleagues that offer their work as a public good. Criteria other than the citation index and prestige of a journal need to be foregrounded. Geographers can also be publishers, and I offer my experience editing the free online Journal of Political Ecology.

  18. Dinosaurs reveal the geographical signature of an evolutionary radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donovan, Ciara; Meade, Andrew; Venditti, Chris

    2018-03-01

    Dinosaurs dominated terrestrial ecosystems across the globe for over 100 million years and provide a classic example of an evolutionary radiation. However, little is known about how these animals radiated geographically to become globally distributed. Here, we use a biogeographical model to reconstruct the dinosaurs' ancestral locations, revealing the spatial mechanisms that underpinned this 170-million-year-long radiation. We find that dinosaurs spread rapidly initially, followed by a significant continuous and gradual reduction in their speed of movement towards the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary (66 million years ago). This suggests that the predominant mode of dinosaur speciation changed through time with speciation originally largely driven by geographical isolation-when dinosaurs speciated more, they moved further. This was gradually replaced by increasing levels of sympatric speciation (species taking advantage of ecological opportunities within their existing environment) as terrestrial space became a limiting factor. Our results uncover the geographical signature of an evolutionary radiation.

  19. Research on a Method of Geographical Information Service Load Balancing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Heyuan; Li, Yongxing; Xue, Zhiyong; Feng, Tao

    2018-05-01

    With the development of geographical information service technologies, how to achieve the intelligent scheduling and high concurrent access of geographical information service resources based on load balancing is a focal point of current study. This paper presents an algorithm of dynamic load balancing. In the algorithm, types of geographical information service are matched with the corresponding server group, then the RED algorithm is combined with the method of double threshold effectively to judge the load state of serve node, finally the service is scheduled based on weighted probabilistic in a certain period. At the last, an experiment system is built based on cluster server, which proves the effectiveness of the method presented in this paper.

  20. A Geographic Method for High Resolution Spatial Heat Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steffen

    2014-01-01

    more detailed modelling that takes the geographic placement of buildings and the differences among DH systems into account. In the present article, a method for assessing the costs of DH expansions has been developed. The method was applied in a geographic information system (GIS) model that consists...... are considering distribution costs based on the geographic properties of each area and assessing transmission costs based on an iterative process that examines expansion potentials gradually. The GIS model is only applicable to a Danish context, but the method itself can be applied to other countries....... of three parts and assesses the costs of heat production, distribution, and transmission. The model was also applied to an actual case in order to show how it can be used. The model shows many improvements in the method for the assessment of distribution costs and transmission costs. Most notable...

  1. Appellations of geographical origin as a generator of national competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovićević-Simin Marina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The protection of appellations of geographical origin worldwide, through the Lisbon Agreement mainly refers to agricultural and food products and the leading countries in the number of registrations of appellations of origin are: France, Czech Republic, Bulgaria, Italy etc. By the product structure 85% of registrations of appellations of origin in the world refer to the four major categories of food products such as: wine (61.5%, spirits (9.5%, agricultural products (8.4% and cheese (8.5%. Considering that the protection of appellations of geographical origin in Serbia is mainly related to agricultural and food products, and the fact that we have 52 domestic and only 3 internationally protected appellations of origin, these could be used as a powerful tool to support the growth of competitiveness in agriculture of certain regions as well as of the entire country. Appellations of geographical origin have a collective ownership and represent a kind of national resource.

  2. Geographic analysis of road accident severity index in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyanda, Ayodeji E

    2018-05-28

    Before 2030, deaths from road traffic accidents (RTAs) will surpass cerebrovascular disease, tuberculosis, and HIV/AIDS. Yet, there is little knowledge on the geographic distribution of RTA severity in Nigeria. Accident Severity Index is the proportion of deaths that result from a road accident. This study analysed the geographic pattern of RTA severity based on the data retrieved from Federal Road Safety Corps (FRSC). The study predicted a two-year data from a historic road accident data using exponential smoothing technique. To determine spatial autocorrelation, global and local indicators of spatial association were implemented in a geographic information system. Results show significant clusters of high RTA severity among states in the northeast and the northwest of Nigeria. Hence, the findings are discussed from two perspectives: Road traffic law compliance and poor emergency response. Conclusion, the severity of RTA is high in the northern states of Nigeria, hence, RTA remains a public health concern.

  3. Storytelling in Interactive 3D Geographic Visualization Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Thöny

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of interactive geographic maps is to provide geographic information to a large audience in a captivating and intuitive way. Storytelling helps to create exciting experiences and to explain complex or otherwise hidden relationships of geospatial data. Furthermore, interactive 3D applications offer a wide range of attractive elements for advanced visual story creation and offer the possibility to convey the same story in many different ways. In this paper, we discuss and analyze storytelling techniques in 3D geographic visualizations so that authors and developers working with geospatial data can use these techniques to conceptualize their visualization and interaction design. Finally, we outline two examples which apply the given concepts.

  4. Fast, Inclusive Searches for Geographic Names Using Digraphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, David I.

    2008-01-01

    An algorithm specifies how to quickly identify names that approximately match any specified name when searching a list or database of geographic names. Based on comparisons of the digraphs (ordered letter pairs) contained in geographic names, this algorithmic technique identifies approximately matching names by applying an artificial but useful measure of name similarity. A digraph index enables computer name searches that are carried out using this technique to be fast enough for deployment in a Web application. This technique, which is a member of the class of n-gram algorithms, is related to, but distinct from, the soundex, PHONIX, and metaphone phonetic algorithms. Despite this technique's tendency to return some counterintuitive approximate matches, it is an effective aid for fast, inclusive searches for geographic names when the exact name sought, or its correct spelling, is unknown.

  5. Geographic thougth in Latin America: A retrospective and general balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Sergio Urquijo Torres

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report results of a thorough contemporary historiographic revision of published geographic research and geography research departments and centers in Latin America. The main focus was on the recognition of transnational subjects and global processes and patterns. We argue that this type of retrospective analyses allows the understanding of the what and the what for of Latin America (LAG Geography. First we describe the current situation of LAG as a social science. Second, we explain the nature of LA social processes that, in the 90s, triggered geographic change and subsequent theoretical reflection on this change in LAG and in other related social sciences. To this end, we describe how the major traditions in geographic research have influenced LAG thinking. To conclude, we suggest the major achievements that we think characterize the current situation of LAG.

  6. Medical imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Townsend, David W

    1996-01-01

    Since the introduction of the X-ray scanner into radiology almost 25 years ago, non-invasive imaging has become firmly established as an essential tool in the diagnosis of disease. Fully three-dimensional imaging of internal organs is now possible, b and for studies which explore the functional status of the body. Powerful techniques to correlate anatomy and function are available, and scanners which combine anatomical and functional imaging in a single device are under development. Such techniques have been made possible through r ecent technological and mathematical advances. This series of lectures will review both the physical basis of medical imaging techniques using X-rays, gamma and positron emitting radiosiotopes, and nuclear magnetic resonance, and the mathematical methods used to reconstruct three-dimentional distributions from projection data. The lectures will trace the development of medical imaging from simple radiographs to the present-day non-invasive measurement of in vivo biochemistry. They ...

  7. Medical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, Alex

    2005-01-01

    Diagnostic medical imaging is a fundamental part of the practice of modern medicine and is responsible for the expenditure of considerable amounts of capital and revenue monies in healthcare systems around the world. Much research and development work is carried out, both by commercial companies and the academic community. This paper reviews briefly each of the major diagnostic medical imaging techniques-X-ray (planar and CT), ultrasound, nuclear medicine (planar, SPECT and PET) and magnetic resonance. The technical challenges facing each are highlighted, with some of the most recent developments. In terms of the future, interventional/peri-operative imaging, the advancement of molecular medicine and gene therapy are identified as potential areas of expansion

  8. Medication Errors - A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Vinay BC; Nikhitha MK; Patel Sunil B

    2015-01-01

    In this present review article, regarding medication errors its definition, medication error problem, types of medication errors, common causes of medication errors, monitoring medication errors, consequences of medication errors, prevention of medication error and managing medication errors have been explained neatly and legibly with proper tables which is easy to understand.

  9. Conceptualizing violence for health and medical geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVerteuil, Geoffrey

    2015-05-01

    Despite the fact that violence is a major threat to public health, the term itself is rarely considered as a phenomenon unto itself, and rarely figures explicitly in work by health and medical geographers. In response, I propose a definitionally and conceptually more robust approach to violence using a tripartite frame (interpersonal violence, structural violence, mass intentional violence) and suggest critical interventions through which to apply this more explicit and conceptually more robust approach: violence and embodiment via substance abuse in health geography, and structural violence via mental illness in medical geography. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Geographic Video 3d Data Model And Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Z.; Cui, C.; Kong, Y.; Wu, H.

    2014-04-01

    Geographic video includes both spatial and temporal geographic features acquired through ground-based or non-ground-based cameras. With the popularity of video capture devices such as smartphones, the volume of user-generated geographic video clips has grown significantly and the trend of this growth is quickly accelerating. Such a massive and increasing volume poses a major challenge to efficient video management and query. Most of the today's video management and query techniques are based on signal level content extraction. They are not able to fully utilize the geographic information of the videos. This paper aimed to introduce a geographic video 3D data model based on spatial information. The main idea of the model is to utilize the location, trajectory and azimuth information acquired by sensors such as GPS receivers and 3D electronic compasses in conjunction with video contents. The raw spatial information is synthesized to point, line, polygon and solid according to the camcorder parameters such as focal length and angle of view. With the video segment and video frame, we defined the three categories geometry object using the geometry model of OGC Simple Features Specification for SQL. We can query video through computing the spatial relation between query objects and three categories geometry object such as VFLocation, VSTrajectory, VSFOView and VFFovCone etc. We designed the query methods using the structured query language (SQL) in detail. The experiment indicate that the model is a multiple objective, integration, loosely coupled, flexible and extensible data model for the management of geographic stereo video.

  11. [Differentiation of geographic biovariants of smallpox virus by PCR].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babkin, I V; Babkina, I N

    2010-01-01

    Comparative analysis of amino acid and nucleotides sequences of ORFs located in extended segments of the terminal variable regions in variola virus genome detected a promising locus for viral genotyping according to the geographic origin. This is ORF O1L of VARV. The primers were calculated for synthesis of this ORF fragment by PCR, which makes it possible to distinguish South America-Western Africa genotype from other VARV strains. Subsequent RFLP analysis reliably differentiated Asian strains from African strains (except Western Africa isolates). This method has been tested using 16 VARV strains from various geographic regions. The developed approach is simple, fast and reliable.

  12. A primer of GIS fundamental geographic and cartographic concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Harvey, Francis

    2015-01-01

    This accessible text prepares students to understand and work with geographic information systems (GIS), offering a detailed introduction to essential theories, concepts, and skills. The book is organized in four modular parts that can be used in any sequence in entry-level and more specialized courses. Basic cartographic principles are integrated with up-to-date discussions of GIS technologies and applications. Coverage includes everything from what geographic information is to its many uses and societal implications. Practical examples and exercises invite readers to explore the choices invo

  13. Geographical Mobility of Danish Dual-Earner Couples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deding, Mette; Filges, Trine

    In this paper, we analyse the empirical relationship between geographical residence mobility and geographical job mobility for Danish dual-earner couples. Based on register data from Statistics Denmark from 1999 and 2000, we estimate three probabilities, taking the interdependence between...... the work region matters for the determination of the residence region. Furthermore, although the model stresses the importance of looking at both spouses, we do not find marked differences between the men and the women. Thus, our results do not indicate that one spouse is more important than the other...

  14. Modeling the geographical studies with GeoGebra-software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionica Soare

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of mathematical modeling in geography is one of the most important strategies in order to establish the evolution and the prevision of geographical phenomena. Models must have a simplified structure, to reflect essential components and must be selective, structured, and suggestive and approximate the reality. Models could be static or dynamic, developed in a theoretical, symbolic, conceptual or mental way, mathematically modeled. The present paper is focused on the virtual model which uses GeoGebra software, free and available at www.geogebra.org, in order to establish new methods of geographical analysis in a dynamic, didactic way.

  15. Non-professional user`s understanding of Geographic Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arleth, Mette

    2003-01-01

    of digital media, including online access to a variety of GI-based services; maps, online Geographic information systems, interactive 3D models etc. However, can we expect that a citizen, who has no relevant professional basis for understanding the concept geographic information, be able to use GI......-based online services and comprehend the information contents? Using the Gi-based online services qualitatively in the participatory process obviously requires knowledge of the non-professional user`s understanding and use of GI. This paper discusses the needs for research into this field as well as relevant...

  16. Modelling grid losses and the geographic distribution of electricity generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2005-01-01

    In Denmark more than 40% of the electricity consumption is covered by geographically scattered electricity sources namely wind power and local CHP (cogeneration of heat and power) plants. This causes problems in regard to load balancing and possible grid overloads. The potential grid problems...... and methods for solving these are analysed in this article on the basis of energy systems analyses, geographic distribution of consumption and production and grid load-flow analyses. It is concluded that by introducing scattered load balancing using local CHP plants actively and using interruptible loads...

  17. Geographic segmentation of users and its use in advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Dolenc, Blaž

    2015-01-01

    In modern web advertising the goal is not only deliver an ad to a broad number of customers, but to target particular customers who are more likely to be interested in content. If the user location is known, we can estimate click on ad based on previous visitors. The company Zemanta recognized the need for geographic audience segmentation, and they have invited students to solve their challenge. The goal was geographic segmentation of web pages visitors based on the ZIP code they come from a...

  18. Geographic mobility of Danish dual-erner couples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filges, Trine

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the relationship between geographical residence and job mobility for Danish dual-earner couples. We estimate the probability of moving residence and changing job, taking the interdependence between the events into account. The results point to the importance of addressing the interrela......We analyze the relationship between geographical residence and job mobility for Danish dual-earner couples. We estimate the probability of moving residence and changing job, taking the interdependence between the events into account. The results point to the importance of addressing...

  19. The New Trends for Librarians in Management of Geographic Information

    OpenAIRE

    Vardakosta, Ifigenia; Kapidakis, Sarantos

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the tools (e.g. CSDGM – FGDC, Gazetteers) used for the subject description and organization, of materials (maps, aerial photos, geospatial data, remote sense images etc) related to the geographic information in today's hybrid library environment. Furthermore we aim to identify changes (e.g. RDA) and determine the new forms (e.g. Linked Data) that have arisen in the management and use of geographic information in order to further enrich access to digital...

  20. The Geographic Information Grid System Based on Mobile Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    We analyze the deficiencies of current application systems, and discuss the key requirements of distributed Geographic Information service (GIS). We construct the distributed GIS on grid platform. Considering the flexibility and efficiency, we integrate the mobile agent technology into the system. We propose a new prototype system, the Geographic Information Grid System (GIGS) based on mobile agent. This system has flexible services and high performance, and improves the sharing of distributed resources. The service strategy of the system and the examples are also presented.

  1. A geographical analysis of the Swedish wood fuel market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, Anders; Bohlin, Folke; Hektor, Bo; Hillring, Bengt; Parikka, Matti

    2000-01-01

    The geographical variation in Swedish wood fuel market characteristics for the district heating sector has been studied using Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and cross-sectional Tobit analysis. The results indicate that local availability and competition for wood fuels influence the wood fuel consumption at inland heating plants. The factors affecting the decision to use wood fuel at heating plants close to seaports, however, were not captured by the model, suggesting that coastal location reduces dependency on the local wood fuel market. The effects of changes in local wood fuel availability on wood fuel use by an inland heating plant are presented and discussed

  2. Medicare Program; Hospital Inpatient Prospective Payment Systems for Acute Care Hospitals and the Long-Term Care Hospital Prospective Payment System and Policy Changes and Fiscal Year 2017 Rates; Quality Reporting Requirements for Specific Providers; Graduate Medical Education; Hospital Notification Procedures Applicable to Beneficiaries Receiving Observation Services; Technical Changes Relating to Costs to Organizations and Medicare Cost Reports; Finalization of Interim Final Rules With Comment Period on LTCH PPS Payments for Severe Wounds, Modifications of Limitations on Redesignation by the Medicare Geographic Classification Review Board, and Extensions of Payments to MDHs and Low-Volume Hospitals. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-22

    We are revising the Medicare hospital inpatient prospective payment systems (IPPS) for operating and capital-related costs of acute care hospitals to implement changes arising from our continuing experience with these systems for FY 2017. Some of these changes will implement certain statutory provisions contained in the Pathway for Sustainable Growth Reform Act of 2013, the Improving Medicare Post-Acute Care Transformation Act of 2014, the Notice of Observation Treatment and Implications for Care Eligibility Act of 2015, and other legislation. We also are providing the estimated market basket update to apply to the rate-of-increase limits for certain hospitals excluded from the IPPS that are paid on a reasonable cost basis subject to these limits for FY 2017. We are updating the payment policies and the annual payment rates for the Medicare prospective payment system (PPS) for inpatient hospital services provided by long-term care hospitals (LTCHs) for FY 2017. In addition, we are making changes relating to direct graduate medical education (GME) and indirect medical education payments; establishing new requirements or revising existing requirements for quality reporting by specific Medicare providers (acute care hospitals, PPS-exempt cancer hospitals, LTCHs, and inpatient psychiatric facilities), including related provisions for eligible hospitals and critical access hospitals (CAHs) participating in the Electronic Health Record Incentive Program; updating policies relating to the Hospital Value-Based Purchasing Program, the Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program, and the Hospital-Acquired Condition Reduction Program; implementing statutory provisions that require hospitals and CAHs to furnish notification to Medicare beneficiaries, including Medicare Advantage enrollees, when the beneficiaries receive outpatient observation services for more than 24 hours; announcing the implementation of the Frontier Community Health Integration Project Demonstration; and

  3. Regional, geographic, and racial/ethnic variation in glycemic control in a national sample of veterans with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egede, Leonard E; Gebregziabher, Mulugeta; Hunt, Kelly J; Axon, Robert N; Echols, Carrae; Gilbert, Gregory E; Mauldin, Patrick D

    2011-04-01

    We performed a retrospective analysis of a national cohort of veterans with diabetes to better understand regional, geographic, and racial/ethnic variation in diabetes control as measured by HbA(1c). A retrospective cohort study was conducted in a national cohort of 690,968 veterans with diabetes receiving prescriptions for insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents in 2002 that were followed over a 5-year period. The main outcome measures were HbA(1c) levels (as continuous and dichotomized at ≥8.0%). Relative to non-Hispanic whites (NHWs), HbA(1c) levels remained 0.25% higher in non-Hispanic blacks (NHBs), 0.31% higher in Hispanics, and 0.14% higher in individuals with other/unknown/missing racial/ethnic group after controlling for demographics, type of medication used, medication adherence, and comorbidities. Small but statistically significant geographic differences were also noted with HbA(1c) being lowest in the South and highest in the Mid-Atlantic. Rural/urban location of residence was not associated with HbA(1c) levels. For the dichotomous outcome poor control, results were similar with race/ethnic group being strongly associated with poor control (i.e., odds ratios of 1.33 [95% CI 1.31-1.35] and 1.57 [1.54-1.61] for NHBs and Hispanics vs. NHWs, respectively), geographic region being weakly associated with poor control, and rural/urban residence being negligibly associated with poor control. In a national longitudinal cohort of veterans with diabetes, we found racial/ethnic disparities in HbA(1c) levels and HbA(1c) control; however, these disparities were largely, but not completely, explained by adjustment for demographic characteristics, medication adherence, type of medication used to treat diabetes, and comorbidities.

  4. The geographic distribution of the otolaryngology workforce in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lango, Miriam N; Handorf, Elizabeth; Arjmand, Ellis

    2017-01-01

    To describe the deployment of otolaryngologists and evaluate factors associated with the geographic distribution of otolaryngologists in the United States. Cross-sectional study. The otolaryngology physician supply was defined as the number of otolaryngologists per 100,000 in the hospital referral region (HRR). The otolaryngology physician supply was derived from the American Medical Association Masterfile or from the Medicare Enrollment and Provider Utilization Files. Multiple linear regression tested the association of population, physician, and hospital factors on the supply of Medicare-enrolled otolaryngologists/HRR. Two methods of measuring the otolaryngology workforce were moderately correlated across hospital referral regions (Pearson coefficient 0.513, P = .0001); regardless, the supply of otolaryngology providers varies greatly over different geographic regions. Otolaryngologists concentrate in regions with many other physicians, particularly specialist physicians. The otolaryngology supply also increases with regional population income and education levels. Using AMA-derived data, there was no association between the supply of otolaryngologists and staffed acute-care hospital beds and the presence of an otolaryngology residency-training program. In contrast, the supply of otolaryngology providers enrolled in Medicare independently increases for each HRR by 0.8 per 100,000 for each unit increase in supply of hospital beds (P otolaryngology residency-training program (P = .006), accounting for all other factors. Irrespective of methodology, the supply of otolaryngologists varies widely across geographic regions in the United States. For Medicare beneficiaries, regional hospital factors-including the presence of an otolaryngology residency program-may improve access to otolaryngology services. NA Laryngoscope, 127:95-101, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  5. Innovations in medical education to meet workforce challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The winds of change world-wide have swept medical education in the last fifteen years. Today, Australia's medical students are older and drawn from more diverse socio-economic, ethnic and geographic backgrounds than twenty years ago, and there is now an equal mix of men and women in medical school. Admission policies have been rewritten to broaden access with a range of entry options now available including direct entry from high school and graduate entry following a first degree. Curricula have been revised and modes of learning transformed. This paper describes these changes and discusses the implications for medical schools and for planning the future workforce.

  6. USGS Geographic Names (GNIS) Overlay Map Service from The National Map - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA) Geographic Names Information System (GNIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — USGS developed The National Map (TNM) Gazetteer as the Federal and national standard (ANSI INCITS 446-2008) for geographic nomenclature based on the Geographic Names...

  7. Geographical point cloud modelling with the 3D medial axis transform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, R.Y.

    2018-01-01

    A geographical point cloud is a detailed three-dimensional representation of the geometry of our geographic environment.
    Using geographical point cloud modelling, we are able to extract valuable information from geographical point clouds that can be used for applications in asset management,

  8. Medical robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Troccaz, Jocelyne

    2013-01-01

    In this book, we present medical robotics, its evolution over the last 30 years in terms of architecture, design and control, and the main scientific and clinical contributions to the field. For more than two decades, robots have been part of hospitals and have progressively become a common tool for the clinician. Because this domain has now reached a certain level of maturity it seems important and useful to provide a state of the scientific, technological and clinical achievements and still open issues. This book describes the short history of the domain, its specificity and constraints, and

  9. An application of Geographic Information System in mapping flood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Roland

    1Department of Geography, Benue State University, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria. 2National Agency for the Control of AIDS (NACA), Central Area, Abuja, Nigeria. Accepted 20 May, 2013. This study deals with the application of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in mapping flood risk zones in Makurdi Town. This study ...

  10. Geographic variation in shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) - cortical monoterpenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.C. Schmidtling; J.H. Myszewski; C.E. McDaniel

    2005-01-01

    Cortical monoterpenes were assayed in bud tissue from 16 Southwide Southern Pine Seed Source Study (SSPSS) sources and from 6 seed orchard sources fiom across the natural range of the species, to examine geogaphic variation in shortleaf pine. Spruce pine and pond pine were also sampled. The results show geographic differences in all of the major terpenes. There was no...

  11. International Voluntary Health Networks (IVHNs). A social-geographical framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Benet; Laurie, Nina; Smith, Matt Baillie

    2018-03-01

    Trans-national medicine, historically associated with colonial politics, is now central to discourses of global health and development, thrust into mainstream media by catastrophic events (earthquakes, disease epidemics), and enshrined in the 2015 Sustainable Development Goals. Volunteer human-resource is an important contributor to international health-development work. International Voluntary Health Networks (IVHNs, that connect richer and poorer countries through healthcare) are situated at a meeting-point between geographies and sociologies of health. More fully developed social-geographic understandings will illuminate this area, currently dominated by instrumental health-professional perspectives. The challenge we address is to produce a geographically and sociologically-robust conceptual framework that appropriately recognises IVHNs' potentials for valuable impacts, while also unlocking spaces of constructive critique. We examine the importance of the social in health geography, and geographical potentials in health sociology (focusing on professional knowledge construction, inequality and capital, and power), to highlight the mutual interests of these two fields in relation to IVHNs. We propose some socio-geographical theories of IVHNs that do not naturalise inequality, that understand health as a form of capital, prioritise explorations of power and ethical practice, and acknowledge the more-than-human properties of place. This sets an agenda for theoretically-supported empirical work on IVHNs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of teaching with mysteries on students' geographical thinking skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karkdijk, J.; van der Schee, J.A.; Admiraal, W.F.

    2013-01-01

    Thinking Through Geography (TTG) strategies are popular in secondary education. Geography teachers see these strategies to be powerful to stimulate thinking geographically. However, empirical evidence is scarce. Based on a quasi-experimental design, effects of mysteries, one of the more famous TTG

  13. Geographical influence of heat stress on milk production of Holstein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To model the influence of heat stress on milk production of Holstein dairy herds on pasture in South Africa, the maximum entropy (Maxent) modelling technique was used in a novel approach to model and map optimal milk-producing areas. Geographical locations of farms with top milk-producing Holstein herds on pasture ...

  14. 47 CFR 76.984 - Geographically uniform rate structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... throughout each franchise area in which cable service is provided. (b) This section does not prohibit the... and conditions of service, within a franchise area. (c) This section does not apply to: (1) A cable operator with respect to the provision of cable service over its cable system in any geographic area in...

  15. Geographical information system for radon gas from soil measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlando, P.; Amici, M.; Altieri, A.; Massari, P.; Miccadei, E.; Onofri, A.; Orlando, C.; Paolelli, C.; Paron, P.; Perticaroli, P.; Piacentini, T.; Silvestri, C.; Minach, L.; Verdi, L.; Bertolo, A.; Trotti, F.

    2000-03-01

    The working program foresees the realization of an geographical information system for the check in field of the geological parameters and determination of uranium and radium contents in various type of rocks. It is here also pointed out a measuring method for radon concentration in soil [it

  16. How Geographic Maps Increase Recall of Instructional Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulhavy, Raymond W.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Reviews research on how geographic maps influence the recall of associated text and describes a theoretical model of map-text learning based on dual-coding theory and working memory operations. Instructional implications are explained, and recommendations for instructional applications are given. (Contains 84 references.) (LRW)

  17. Teaching a Geographical Component in World History Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachina, Olga A.

    2011-01-01

    This article is devoted to the topic of teaching a geographical component in World History curriculum in American public high schools. Despite the fact that the federal legislation entitled "No Child Left Behind" (2001) declared geography as a "core" academic subject, geography was the only subject dropped from federal funding.…

  18. Geographic Spillovers, Structural Power and Growing 'Agency' Post Lisbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zank, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    The "actorness" of the European Union in external relations is still, also after the Lisbon Treaty, only partially developed. However, the EU has built up a considerable Structural Power towards its suroundings, mainly due to its big Internal Market. a Power of attraction and geographical...

  19. Quantitative Social Dialectology : Explaining Linguistic Variation Geographically and Socially

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieling, Martijn; Nerbonne, John; Baayen, R. Harald

    2011-01-01

    In this study we examine linguistic variation and its dependence on both social and geographic factors. We follow dialectometry in applying a quantitative methodology and focusing on dialect distances, and social dialectology in the choice of factors we examine in building a model to predict word

  20. Geographically Isolated Wetlands: Why We Should Keep the Term

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use of the term "isolated wetlands" in the U.S. Supreme Court’s SWANCC decision created confusion, since it could imply functional isolation. In response, the term "geographically isolated wetlands" (GIWs) - wetlands surrounded by uplands - was introduced in 2003. A recent arti...

  1. Better access to microcredits: does geographical proximity matter?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alimukhamedova, Nargiza

    -, 2013/2014 Winter (2014), s. 24-25 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : microcredits * geographical proximity Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.e-mfp.eu/sites/ default /files/resources/2014/02/e-MFP_Winter2013-2014_Newsletter%20.pdf

  2. Mental Maps and Ethnocentrism: Geographic Characterizations in the Past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Harold M.

    1979-01-01

    Reexamines geographic thought regarding ethnocentrism as expressed in the writings including Ellen Churchill Semple, Hendrick Willem Van Loon, Ellsworth Huntington, Roswell C. Smith, J. Olney, Henry Thomas Buckle, Georg Friedrich Hegel, Johann Gottfried Von Herder, Charles de Montesquieu, Ibn Khaldun, and Hippocrates. (DB)

  3. Crowdsourcing sensor tasks to a socio-geographic network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lasnia, Damian; Broering, Arne; Jirka, Simon; Remke, Albert; Pianho, M.; Santos, M.Y.; Pundt, H.

    2010-01-01

    This work describes an approach of a socio-geographic network for crowdsourcing sensor tasks to a human sensor web. Users can register as human sensors at the system by defining their skills and impact area. Based on that information, submitted sensor tasks are forwarded to the most suitable human

  4. Geoplotlib: a Python Toolbox for Visualizing Geographical Data

    OpenAIRE

    Cuttone, Andrea; Lehmann, Sune; Larsen, Jakob Eg

    2016-01-01

    We introduce geoplotlib, an open-source python toolbox for visualizing geographical data. geoplotlib supports the development of hardware-accelerated interactive visualizations in pure python, and provides implementations of dot maps, kernel density estimation, spatial graphs, Voronoi tesselation, shapefiles and many more common spatial visualizations. We describe geoplotlib design, functionalities and use cases.

  5. Measuring Geographic Distribution of Economic Activity in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measuring Geographic Distribution of Economic Activity in Nigeria Using Gross Domestic Product. ... and environmental factors in planning. There is need for adequate understanding of spatial pattern and centrographic analysis of economic activity to support evidence based economic and regional development policies.

  6. Geographical scoping and willingness-to-pay for nature protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botzen, W. J.Wouter; van Beukering, Pieter J.H.

    2018-01-01

    This study offers a Choice Experiment (CE) analysis of geographical scope effects. About 500 stated preference surveys were conducted to estimate willingness-to-pay (WTP) for nature protection in the Netherlands and the Caribbean Netherlands which became part of the Netherlands’ constitution just

  7. Solid waste dumping site suitability analysis using geographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solid waste dumping site suitability analysis using geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing for Bahir Dar Town, North Western Ethiopia. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader).

  8. A cost-effective Geographic Information Systems for Transportation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cost-effective Geographic Information Systems for Transportation (GIS-T) application for traffic congestion analyses in the Developing World. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like ...

  9. Virtual Spaces and Networks in Geographical Education and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, Lex

    2009-01-01

    This paper relates developments in the use of Internet-based communication technologies to contemporary exchanges of geographical ideas and content. A brief history of the Internet provides the basis for a review of uses of broadband Internet in contemporary Geography. Two themes are explored: the first is the concept of virtual communities of…

  10. Fungi identify the geographic origin of dust samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neal S Grantham

    Full Text Available There is a long history of archaeologists and forensic scientists using pollen found in a dust sample to identify its geographic origin or history. Such palynological approaches have important limitations as they require time-consuming identification of pollen grains, a priori knowledge of plant species distributions, and a sufficient diversity of pollen types to permit spatial or temporal identification. We demonstrate an alternative approach based on DNA sequencing analyses of the fungal diversity found in dust samples. Using nearly 1,000 dust samples collected from across the continental U.S., our analyses identify up to 40,000 fungal taxa from these samples, many of which exhibit a high degree of geographic endemism. We develop a statistical learning algorithm via discriminant analysis that exploits this geographic endemicity in the fungal diversity to correctly identify samples to within a few hundred kilometers of their geographic origin with high probability. In addition, our statistical approach provides a measure of certainty for each prediction, in contrast with current palynology methods that are almost always based on expert opinion and devoid of statistical inference. Fungal taxa found in dust samples can therefore be used to identify the origin of that dust and, more importantly, we can quantify our degree of certainty that a sample originated in a particular place. This work opens up a new approach to forensic biology that could be used by scientists to identify the origin of dust or soil samples found on objects, clothing, or archaeological artifacts.

  11. Developing geographic information infrastructure : The role of information policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Loenen, B.

    2006-01-01

    Within information societies, information availability is a key issue affecting societyâs well being. The infrastructure underlying the foundation of the information society may be referred to as the information infrastructure. A geographic information infrastructure (GII) supports the information

  12. Influences on the American Geographer Samuel Griswold Goodrich.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ben A.; Vining, James W.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the influences of religion, upbringing, and other scholars on Samuel Griswold Goodrich, an early nineteenth-century U.S. geographer. Discusses Goodrich's contribution to improving early geography textbooks and his pioneering role in book publishing. Notes Goodrich's realism and moral undertones in geography books for children, written…

  13. Geographic Region, Size, and Program Type in Family Practice Residencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Jolene K.; Garrard, Judith

    1981-01-01

    Research on residency education in family practice is discussed. Programmatic variables are examined: geographic region, size, and type of program. Definitions of these variables are provided, the current distribution of family practice residency programs across each of these variables is described, and data for use by other researchers is…

  14. Explaining Global Women's Empowerment Using Geographic Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubbs, Melanie R.

    2018-01-01

    It is difficult for students who are just being introduced to major geographical concepts to understand how relatively free countries like India or Mali can have such high levels of human rights abuses as child brides, dowry deaths, and domestic violence. Textbooks explain it and video clips show examples, but it still seems surreal to teenagers…

  15. Comparison of GARP and Maxent in modelling the geographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A number of presence-only models can be used in the prediction of the geographic distribution of diseases and/or their vectors. The predictive performance of these models differs depending on a number of factors but primarily the modeled species' ecological traits. In this study, the performance of GARP and Maxent, two of ...

  16. Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis: Towards a new paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaschke, T.; Hay, G.J.; Kelly, M.; Lang, S.; Hofmann, P.; Addink, E.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/224281216; Queiroz Feitosa, R.; van der Meer, F.D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/138940908; van der Werff, H.M.A.; van Coillie, F.; Tiede, A.

    2014-01-01

    The amount of scientific literature on (Geographic) Object-based Image Analysis – GEOBIA has been and still is sharply increasing. These approaches to analysing imagery have antecedents in earlier research on image segmentation and use GIS-like spatial analysis within classification and feature

  17. Characterization of Sunn hemp begomovirus and its geographical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus, it is concluded that the recombinant CP genes related to begomoviruses are evolved from the Indian isolates, causing broad host specificity and molecular diversity among the related begomoviruses across the geographical limits of Southeast Asia. Keywords: Begomovirus, sunn hemp, coat protein, recombination, ...

  18. Exploring the potential for geographical knowledge systems in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Residents of informal settlements are often faced with lack of essential services. These include services such as water, sanitation and electricity. Authorities responsible for providing these services often use Geographical Information Systems (GIS) for analysis prior to proposing developments in these settlements. However ...

  19. Practical applications of the geographic coordinate data base in Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickie Warwick; Don C. Bragg

    2005-01-01

    Though not intended for these applications, the General Land Office (GLO) survey notes are a primary source of historical, ecological, and cultural information, making it imperative that their spatial coordinates be as reliable as possible. The Geographic Coordinate Data Base (GCDB) is a statistically-based coordinate fitting program that uses the GLO notes and other...

  20. Random-growth urban model with geographical fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kii, Masanobu; Akimoto, Keigo; Doi, Kenji

    2012-12-01

    This paper formulates a random-growth urban model with a notion of geographical fitness. Using techniques of complex-network theory, we study our system as a type of preferential-attachment model with fitness, and we analyze its macro behavior to clarify the properties of the city-size distributions it predicts. First, restricting the geographical fitness to take positive values and using a continuum approach, we show that the city-size distributions predicted by our model asymptotically approach Pareto distributions with coefficients greater than unity. Then, allowing the geographical fitness to take negative values, we perform local coefficient analysis to show that the predicted city-size distributions can deviate from Pareto distributions, as is often observed in actual city-size distributions. As a result, the model we propose can generate a generic class of city-size distributions, including but not limited to Pareto distributions. For applications to city-population projections, our simple model requires randomness only when new cities are created, not during their subsequent growth. This property leads to smooth trajectories of city population growth, in contrast to other models using Gibrat’s law. In addition, a discrete form of our dynamical equations can be used to estimate past city populations based on present-day data; this fact allows quantitative assessment of the performance of our model. Further study is needed to determine appropriate formulas for the geographical fitness.

  1. The Geographical Distribution of Leadership in Globalized Clinical Trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekman, J.; Frenken, K.; de Zeeuw, D.; Lambers-Heerspink, H.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Pharmaceutical trials are mainly initiated by sponsors and investigators in the United States, Western Europe and Japan. However, more and more patients are enrolled in Central and Eastern Europe, Latin America and Asia. The involvement of patients in new geographical settings raises

  2. Not just pretty pictures: Geographical Information Systems in TB ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geographical Information Systems (GIS) is becoming a useful tool in disease control by health planners. However little is known about its potential in tuberculosis (TB) control. In 2000 the National TB Programme (NTP) in Malawi assessed its usefulness. Routinely collected case-finding data from the 3 previous years (1997 ...

  3. The application of geographic information systems (GIS) in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A large amount of data is usually generated during environmental monitoring programmes. The data need to be transformed into useful information that can be used for interpretation and analysis of problems. This paper outlines the feasibility of using geographic information system (GIS) techniques in the analysis of ...

  4. Chinese imperative: nuclear energy to bridge geographic and economic gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tson'yu, T.

    1995-01-01

    Strategic aims and macroeconomical indices on nuclear power engineering are briefly considered. Forecasts on growth of indices for NPP electrical power production are presented. The social-geographical causes and specificity of China stimulating the broad-scale development of nuclear power engineering in China are emphasized. 2 figs.; 1 tab

  5. Development of the OCRWM transportation geographic information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peck, M. III; McGuinn, E.J.; Osborne, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is responsible for disposing of the nation's high-level radioactive waste. Current plans call for OCRWM to ship commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from 77 individual reactor sites to a central facility for disposal. The Transportation Geographic Information System (TGIS) is a valuable tool in planning for the SNF shipments and communicating with the public regarding the shipments. The TGIS consists of a geographic information system (GIS) combined with a set of databases that provide data on specific geographic areas, transportation networks, and point locations. Planning activities may include analyzing possible routing options or criteria, highlighting route-specific attributes such as the location of culturally sensitive areas, providing route-specific data such as accident statistics, determining the affected population density along a route to support risk assessment activities, or providing emergency response information such as responder locations and hospitals along the proposed routes. The TGIS is a useful communication tool in helping to address the public's concern over how the shipments will be managed, particularly in the area of route selection by providing graphic portrayals of potential routes in their true geographic contexts

  6. The use of maps in the exploration of geographic data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzakker, Corne P.J.M. van

    2004-01-01

    This dissertation is about map use research in exploratory cartography. Exploratory cartography is a cognitive process in which maps are used as tools for discovery, to solve the problem of gaining insight into unknown geographic relationships. In the past, users had to rely fully on the static maps

  7. A Geographical Information System for Malaria in Colombia (SIGMA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poveda, German; Hernandez, Olver; Urquijo, Lenis; Padilla Julio Cesar

    2005-01-01

    A Geographical Information System for Malaria in Colombia (SIGMA) is introduced and its capabilities and modules are described. It allows the interactive visualization of the Colombian Ministry of Social Protection database at national, regional and municipal levels and the analysis of relationships with different environmental and climatic variables. SIGMA is a powerful decision support system for human health intervention and management programs in Colombia

  8. Using Visual Basic to Teach Programming for Geographers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocum, Terry A.; Yoder, Stephen C.

    1996-01-01

    Outlines reasons why computer programming should be taught to geographers. These include experience using macro (scripting) languages and sophisticated visualization software, and developing a deeper understanding of general hardware and software capabilities. Discusses the distinct advantages and few disadvantages of the programming language…

  9. Following America? : Dutch geographical car diffusion, 1900 to 1980

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, H.M.

    2010-01-01

    The main issue addressed in this thesis is the interpretation of the Dutch geographical car diffusion pattern, in comparison to the American example. This topic is analyzed in quantitative terms. In the first part of this dissertation, we give a first impression of what characterizes the ggregate

  10. Ancestry and dental development: A geographic and genetic perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Dhamo (Brunilda); L. Kragt (Lea); Grgic, O. (Olja); S. Vucic (Strahinja); M.C. Medina-Gomez (Carolina); Rivadeneira, F. (Fernando); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); E.B. Wolvius (Eppo); E.M. Ongkosuwito (Edwin)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractObjective: In this study, we investigated the influence of ancestry on dental development in the Generation R Study. Methods: Information on geographic ancestry was available in 3,600 children (1,810 boys and 1,790 girls, mean age 9.81±0.35 years) and information about genetic ancestry

  11. Using geographic information system (GIS) to determine waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lyndon

    could be used as waste transfer stations in relation to location of landfill sites using Geographic. Information ... Coast, bounded to the east by the Ga East Municipal Assembly, to the west by the .... Solid Waste and the Hierarchy in Solid Waste.

  12. Spatial variation of vulnerability in geographic areas of North Lebanon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Issa, Sahar; van der Molen, I.; Nader, M.R.; Lovett, Jonathan Cranidge

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the spatial variation in vulnerability between different geographical areas of the northern coastal region of Lebanon within the context of armed conflict. The study is based on the ‘vulnerability of space’ approach and will be positioned in the academic debate on vulnerability

  13. The importance of geographic access for the impact of microfinance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alimukhamedova, N.; Filer, R. K.; Hanousek, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 35, September (2017), s. 645-657 ISSN 0950-6764 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-31783S Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : geographic access * microcredit * microfinance institutions Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Finance Impact factor: 0.700, year: 2016

  14. The importance of geographic access for the impact of microfinance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alimukhamedova, Nargiza; Filer, Randall K.; Hanousek, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 35, September (2017), s. 645-657 ISSN 0950-6764 Grant - others:UK(CZ) GAUK 586912 Institutional support: Progres-Q24 Keywords : geographic access * microcredit * microfinance institutions Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Finance Impact factor: 0.700, year: 2016

  15. Geographical structure and differential natural selection among North European populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McEvoy, Brian P; Montgomery, Grant W; McRae, Allan F

    2009-01-01

    polymorphism, in 2099 individuals from populations of Northern European origin (Ireland, United Kingdom, Netherlands, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Australia, and HapMap European-American). The major trends (PC1 and PC2) demonstrate an ability to detect geographic substructure, even over a small area like...

  16. Towards mapping land use patterns from volunteered geographic information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jokar Arsanjani, J.; Helbich, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/370530349; Bakillah, M.; Hagenauer, J.; Zipf, A.

    2013-01-01

    A large number of applications have been launched to gather geo-located information from the public. This article introduces an approach toward generating land-use patterns from volunteered geographic information (VGI) without applying remote-sensing techniques and/or engaging official data. Hence,

  17. Campus-Based Geographic Learning: A Field Oriented Teaching Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Steven A.; Huber, Thomas P.

    2003-01-01

    The use of field classes and the need for university master planning are presented as a way to enhance learning. This field-oriented, goal-oriented approach to learning is proposed as a general model for university-level geographic education. This approach is presented for physical geography classes, but could also be applied to other subdivisions…

  18. Towards Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Implementation: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meaney, Miriam

    2006-01-01

    "Despite its central role in real-world geography, the Geographic Information System (GIS) has had little uptake to date in School Geography." (Wiegand, 2001) This statement can be accurately applied to the author's current school setting and was the focus of her and her colleagues' case study, commenced in 2004 and continued into 2005.…

  19. From Pixels to Geographic Objects in Remote Sensing Image Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Addink, E.A.; Van Coillie, Frieke M.B.; Jong, Steven M. de

    Traditional image analysis methods are mostly pixel-based and use the spectral differences of landscape elements at the Earth surface to classify these elements or to extract element properties from the Earth Observation image. Geographic object-based image analysis (GEOBIA) has received

  20. Geographic range size and determinants of avian species richness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jetz, Walter; Rahbek, Carsten

    2002-01-01

    Geographic patterns in species richness are mainly based on wide-ranging species because their larger number of distribution records has a disproportionate contribution to the species richness counts. Here we demonstrate how this effect strongly influences our understanding of what determines spe...

  1. A new Link for Geographic analyses of Inventory Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Reed; Kurt Pregitzer; Scott A. Pugh; Patrick D. Miles

    2001-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA)data are widely used throughout the United States for analyses of forest status and trends, landscape-level forest composition, and other forest characteristics. A new software product, FIAMODEL, is available for analyzing FIA data within the ArcView? (ESRI, Inc.)geographic information system. The software...

  2. Integrative real-time geographic visualization of energy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorokine, A.; Shankar, M.; Stovall, J.; Bhaduri, B.; King, T.; Fernandez, S.; Datar, N.; Omitaomu, O.

    2009-01-01

    'Full text:' Several models forecast that climatic changes will increase the frequency of disastrous events like droughts, hurricanes, and snow storms. Responding to these events and also to power outages caused by system errors such as the 2003 North American blackout require an interconnect-wide real-time monitoring system for various energy resources. Such a system should be capable of providing situational awareness to its users in the government and energy utilities by dynamically visualizing the status of the elements of the energy grid infrastructure and supply chain in geographic contexts. We demonstrate an approach that relies on Google Earth and similar standard-based platforms as client-side geographic viewers with a data-dependent server component. The users of the system can view status information in spatial and temporal contexts. These data can be integrated with a wide range of geographic sources including all standard Google Earth layers and a large number of energy and environmental data feeds. In addition, we show a real-time spatio-temporal data sharing capability across the users of the system, novel methods for visualizing dynamic network data, and a fine-grain access to very large multi-resolution geographic datasets for faster delivery of the data. The system can be extended to integrate contingency analysis results and other grid models to assess recovery and repair scenarios in the case of major disruption. (author)

  3. Environmental statistical modelling of mosquito vectors at different geographical scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cianci, D.

    2015-01-01

    Vector-borne diseases are infections transmitted by the bite of infected arthropod vectors, such as mosquitoes, ticks, fleas, midges and flies. Vector-borne diseases pose an increasingly wider threat to global public health, both in terms of people affected and their geographical spread. Mosquitoes

  4. Airline loyalty (programs) across borders : A geographic discontinuity approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Gerben; Behrens, Christiaan; van Ommeren, Jos

    2018-01-01

    We analyze brand loyalty advantages of national airlines in their domestic countries using geocoded data from a major international frequent flier program. We employ a geographic discontinuity design that estimates discontinuities in program activity at the national borders of the program's

  5. On Optimal Geographical Caching in Heterogeneous Cellular Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serbetci, Berksan; Goseling, Jasper

    2017-01-01

    In this work we investigate optimal geographical caching in heterogeneous cellular networks where different types of base stations (BSs) have different cache capacities. Users request files from a content library according to a known probability distribution. The performance metric is the total hit

  6. Geographers and ecosystems: a point of view | Gamble | Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A short note pertaining to the new ecosystems section of the South African Standard 10 core Syllabus in Geography. The ideas were presented at a workshop for teachers held in tile Southern Transvnal region by the South African geographical Society. They are intended only to provide a perspective on thegeographical ...

  7. Inferring geographic isolation of wolverines in California using historical DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael K. Schwartz; Keith B. Aubry; Kevin S. McKelvey; Kristine L. Pilgrim; Jeffrey P. Copeland; John R. Squires; Robert M. Inman; Samantha M. Wisely; Leonard F. Ruggiero

    2007-01-01

    Delineating a species' geographic range using the spatial distribution of museum specimens or even contemporary detection-non-detection data can be difficult. This is particularly true at the periphery of a species range where species' distributions are often disjunct. Wolverines (Gulo gulo) are wide-ranging mammals with discontinuous and...

  8. Time and Practice: Learning to Become a Geographer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Roger M.

    2014-01-01

    A goal of geography education is fostering geographic literacy for all and building significant expertise for some. How much time and practice do students need to become literate or expert in geography? There is not an answer to this question. Using two concepts from cognitive psychology--the ideas of ten thousand hours and deliberate…

  9. Medical robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrigno, Giancarlo; Baroni, Guido; Casolo, Federico; De Momi, Elena; Gini, Giuseppina; Matteucci, Matteo; Pedrocchi, Alessandra

    2011-01-01

    Information and communication technology (ICT) and mechatronics play a basic role in medical robotics and computer-aided therapy. In the last three decades, in fact, ICT technology has strongly entered the health-care field, bringing in new techniques to support therapy and rehabilitation. In this frame, medical robotics is an expansion of the service and professional robotics as well as other technologies, as surgical navigation has been introduced especially in minimally invasive surgery. Localization systems also provide treatments in radiotherapy and radiosurgery with high precision. Virtual or augmented reality plays a role for both surgical training and planning and for safe rehabilitation in the first stage of the recovery from neurological diseases. Also, in the chronic phase of motor diseases, robotics helps with special assistive devices and prostheses. Although, in the past, the actual need and advantage of navigation, localization, and robotics in surgery and therapy has been in doubt, today, the availability of better hardware (e.g., microrobots) and more sophisticated algorithms(e.g., machine learning and other cognitive approaches)has largely increased the field of applications of these technologies,making it more likely that, in the near future, their presence will be dramatically increased, taking advantage of the generational change of the end users and the increasing request of quality in health-care delivery and management.

  10. The geographic accessibility of pharmacies in Nova Scotia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Michael R; Heard, Deborah; Fisher, Judith; Douillard, Jay; Muzika, Greg; Sketris, Ingrid S

    2013-01-01

    Geographic proximity is an important component of access to primary care and the pharmaceutical services of community pharmacies. Variations in access to primary care have been found between rural and urban areas in Canadian and international jurisdictions. We studied access to community pharmacies in the province of Nova Scotia. We used information on the locations of 297 community pharmacies operating in Nova Scotia in June 2011. Population estimates at the census block level and network analysis were used to study the number of Nova Scotia residents living within 800 m (walking) and 2 km and 5 km (driving) distances of a pharmacy. We then simulated the impact of pharmacy closures on geographic access in urban and rural areas. We found that 40.3% of Nova Scotia residents lived within walking distance of a pharmacy; 62.6% and 78.8% lived within 2 km and 5 km, respectively. Differences between urban and rural areas were pronounced: 99.2% of urban residents lived within 5 km of a pharmacy compared with 53.3% of rural residents. Simulated pharmacy closures had a greater impact on geographic access to community pharmacies in rural areas than urban areas. The majority of Nova Scotia residents lived within walking or short driving distance of at least 1 community pharmacy. While overall geographic access appears to be lower than in the province of Ontario, the difference appears to be largely driven by the higher proportion of rural dwellers in Nova Scotia. Further studies should examine how geographic proximity to pharmacies influences patients' access to traditional and specialized pharmacy services, as well as health outcomes and adherence to therapy. Can Pharm J 2013;146:39-46.

  11. Geographical variation in dementia: systematic review with meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, Tom C; Batty, G David; Hearnshaw, Gena F; Fenton, Candida; Starr, John M

    2012-01-01

    Background Geographical variation in dementia prevalence and incidence may indicate important socio-environmental contributions to dementia aetiology. However, previous comparisons have been hampered by combining studies with different methodologies. This review systematically collates and synthesizes studies examining geographical variation in the prevalence and incidence of dementia based on comparisons of studies using identical methodologies. Methods Papers were identified by a comprehensive electronic search of relevant databases, scrutinising the reference sections of identified publications, contacting experts in the field and re-examining papers already known to us. Identified articles were independently reviewed against inclusion/exclusion criteria and considered according to geographical scale. Rural/urban comparisons were meta-analysed. Results Twelve thousand five hundred and eighty records were reviewed and 51 articles were included. Dementia prevalence and incidence varies at a number of scales from the national down to small areas, including some evidence of an effect of rural living [prevalence odds ratio (OR) = 1.11, 90% confidence interval (CI) 0.79–1.57; incidence OR = 1.20, 90% CI 0.84–1.71]. However, this association of rurality was stronger for Alzheimer disease, particularly when early life rural living was captured (prevalence OR = 2.22, 90% CI 1.19–4.16; incidence OR = 1.64, 90% CI 1.08–2.50). Conclusions There is evidence of geographical variation in rates of dementia in affluent countries at a variety of geographical scales. Rural living is associated with an increased risk of Alzheimer disease, and there is a suggestion that early life rural living further increases this risk. However, the fact that few studies have been conducted in resource-poor countries limits conclusions. PMID:22798662

  12. Formation and distribution of international tourism flows in geographical space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Korol

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Properties of geographical space that are of key importance for international tourism, as length and discreteness, are analyzed in the article. Length makes tourists cover distances, whereas discreteness manifests itself in spatial heterogeneity. Tourism in conditions of homogeneous space is vain. That is, heterogeneity brings sense to travels as well as determines their direction. So, the effect of geographical space’s length and spatial heterogeneity on formation and distribution of tourism flows is assessed, international tourism’s geographical essence is disclosed also. Apperception of geographical space in usual environment and its effect on tourist’s original motives are described. Following the bases of behaviorism, the tourism original motives, in particular those for migration, comfort, contrast and aesthetics are substantiated. The motive for migration is a kind of “pushing” tourists outside their usual environment. To stop all fears that may cause anxiety in destination, the latter should guarantee satisfaction of those human needs which A. Maslow refers to as basic needs. The necessity to satisfy these needs forms in tourists the motive for comfort. Closely located destinations in neighboring countries can be of little difference form usual environment. Driven by the motive for contrast, tourists aspire to visit places that totally differ from their usual environment, and contrast (are exotic to it. Thus, the motive for contrast seemingly “pulls” the tourists up to certain (exotic destinations. Finally, following the considered spatial specificities of land surface and tourist-driving original motives, a conceptual model of formation and distribution of international tourism flows in geographical space is developed.

  13. Medical revolution in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballarin, V L; Isoardi, R A

    2010-01-01

    The paper discusses the major Argentineans contributors, medical physicists and scientists, in medical imaging and the development of medical imaging in Argentina. The following are presented: history of medical imaging in Argentina: the pioneers; medical imaging and medical revolution; nuclear medicine imaging; ultrasound imaging; and mathematics, physics, and electronics in medical image research: a multidisciplinary endeavor.

  14. Changes in geographic variation in the uptake of cervical cancer screening in Taiwan: possible effects of "leadership style factor"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Shu-Ti; Lu, Tsung-Hsueh

    2014-01-01

    Wennberg proposed the "practice style factor" to explain the large variations in the use of medical care. As a corollary, we propose the "leadership style factor" of the director of the city/county bureau of public health to explain changes in geographic variation in the uptake of cervical cancer screening. We first calculated the triennial Pap smear rates for women aged 30-69 years from 1997 through 2010 for each city/county in Taiwan and the rate difference and rate ratio between the highest and the lowest city/county to illustrate the geographic variation in the uptake of cervical cancer screening. We then created an expert panel to conduct a hypothesis generation process to examine the possible effects of "leadership style factors" in explaining the changes. The Pap smear rate in Taiwan as a whole was 35% in 1997 and increased to 56% in 2001, and was then stable until 2010 (55%). In 2002, the geographic variation in the Pap smear rate was the smallest, ranging from 49% in Penghu County to 63% in I-lan County, with a rate ratio of 1.28. Unfortunately, the rate ratio increased to 1.49 in 2010, the rate being lowest in Penghu County (42%) and highest in Tainan City (63%). We identified four cities/counties with unique patterns of change in Pap smear rates, which were highly associated with the leadership style of the director of the city/county bureau of public health. Despite the launch of an organized cancer screening program in Taiwan, geographic variation in the uptake of cervical cancer screening still exists and has increased during the past decade. The "leadership style factor" of the director of the city/county bureau of public health might play a plausible role in explaining the pattern of change in geographic variation in the use of cervical cancer screening in Taiwan. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Leptopsylla algira costai (Siphonaptera: Leptopsyllidae: New host and new geographical record

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Yousefi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To access the emerging ectoparasites associated with shrews in Hamedan Province of Iran. Methods: We have captured bicoloured white-toothed shrews [Crocidura leucodon (C. leucodon] using the live traps in April 2014. Ectoparasites collected by brushing the skins were removed and preserved in 70% ethanol containing 5% glycerin, and subsequently they were sent to the parasitology laboratory and processed. The fleas isolated from infested specimen were cleared in 10% aqueous potassium hydroxide, dehydrated in ethanol, cleared in xylene, mounted in Canada balsam and identified using reliable keys. Results: In general, eight fleas (one male, seven females were collected from C. leucodon in Hamedan Province, Western Iran. The fleas were identified as Leptopsylla algira costai Smit, 1955. Conclusions: Fleas are medically important because they transmit a wide variety of diseases to their hosts. In addition, this aricle reports Leptopsylla algira costai for the first time in new host (C. leucodon and new geographical region (Iran.

  16. Educating the medical community through a teratology newsletter.

    OpenAIRE

    Guttmacher, A E; Allen, E F

    1993-01-01

    To educate a geographically and professionally diverse group of health care providers about teratology in an economic and efficient manner, we developed a locally written and distributed teratology newsletter. Response to the newsletter, from readers as well as from our staff and funding agencies, suggests that such a newsletter can be a valuable tool in educating medical communities about teratology.

  17. Educating the medical community through a teratology newsletter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttmacher, A E; Allen, E F

    1993-01-01

    To educate a geographically and professionally diverse group of health care providers about teratology in an economic and efficient manner, we developed a locally written and distributed teratology newsletter. Response to the newsletter, from readers as well as from our staff and funding agencies, suggests that such a newsletter can be a valuable tool in educating medical communities about teratology. PMID:8434594

  18. Medications (for IBS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... July 2017 Print Jump to Topic Medications for IBS Laxatives Anticholinergic/Antispasmodic Agents Antidiarrheal Agents Antidepressant Medications Newer IBS Medications Probiotics and Antibiotics Pharmacologic, ...

  19. Smoking cessation medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoking cessation - medications; Smokeless tobacco - medications; Medications for stopping tobacco ... Smoking cessation medicines can: Help with the craving for tobacco. Help you with withdrawal symptoms. Keep you ...

  20. Medical humanities in the undergraduate medical curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supe, Avinash

    2012-01-01

    The medical humanities have been introduced in medical curricula over the past 30 years in the western world. Having medical humanities in a medical school curriculum can nurture positive attitudes in the regular work of a clinician and contribute equally to personality development. Though substantial evidence in favour of a medical humanities curriculum may be lacking, the feedback is positive. It is recommended that medical humanities be introduced into the curriculum of every medical school with the purpose of improving the quality of healthcare, and the attitudes of medical graduates.

  1. Medical telesensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrell, Trinidad L.; Crilly, P. B.; Smith, S. F.; Wintenberg, Alan L.; Britton, Charles L., Jr.; Morrison, Gilbert W.; Ericson, M. N.; Hedden, D.; Bouldin, Donald W.; Passian, A.; Downey, Todd R.; Wig, A. G.; Meriaudeau, Fabrice

    1998-05-01

    Medical telesensors are self-contained integrated circuits for measuring and transmitting vital signs over a distance of approximately 1-2 meters. The circuits are unhoused and contain a sensor, signal processing and modulation electronics, a spread-spectrum transmitter, an antenna and a thin-film battery. We report on a body-temperature telesensor, which is sufficiently small to be placed on a tympanic membrane in a child's ear. We also report on a pulse-oximeter telesensor and a micropack receiver/long- range transmitter unit, which receives form a telesensor array and analyzes and re-transmits the vital signs over a longer range. Signal analytics are presented for the pulse oximeter, which is currently in the form of a finger ring. A multichip module is presented as the basic signal-analysis component. The module contains a microprocessor, a field=programmable gate array, memory elements and other components necessary for determining trauma and reporting signals.

  2. [MEDICAL CANNABIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naftali, Timna

    2016-02-01

    The cannabis plant has been known to humanity for centuries as a remedy for pain, diarrhea and inflammation. Current research is inspecting the use of cannabis for many diseases, including multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, dystonia, and chronic pain. In inflammatory conditions cannabinoids improve pain in rheumatoid arthritis and:pain and diarrhea in Crohn's disease. Despite their therapeutic potential, cannabinoids are not free of side effects including psychosis, anxiety, paranoia, dependence and abuse. Controlled clinical studies investigating the therapeutic potential of cannabis are few and small, whereas pressure for expanding cannabis use is increasing. Currently, as long as cannabis is classified as an illicit drug and until further controlled studies are performed, the use of medical cannabis should be limited to patients who failed conventional better established treatment.

  3. Medical Student Education in State Psychiatric Hospitals: A Survey of US State Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurenberg, Jeffry R; Schleifer, Steven J; Kennedy, Cheryl; Walker, Mary O; Mayerhoff, David

    2016-04-01

    State hospitals may be underutilized in medical education. US state psychiatric hospitals were surveyed on current and potential psychiatry medical student education. A 10-item questionnaire, with multiple response formats, was sent to identified hospitals in late 2012. Ninety-seven of 221 hospitals contacted responded. Fifty-three (55%) reported current medical student education programs, including 27 clinical clerkship rotations. Education and training in other disciplines was prevalent in hospitals both with and without medical students. The large majority of responders expressed enthusiasm about medical education. The most frequent reported barrier to new programs was geographic distance from the school. Limited resources were limiting factors for hospitals with and without current programs. Only a minority of US state hospitals may be involved in medical student education. While barriers such as geographic distance may be difficult to overcome, responses suggest opportunities for expanding medical education in the state psychiatric hospitals.

  4. Geographic Comparison of Women in Academic Obstetrics and Gynecology Department-Based Leadership Roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciotti, Hope A; Dodge, Laura E; Aluko, Ashley; Hofler, Lisa G; Hacker, Michele R

    2017-10-01

    To describe and compare geographic representation of women in obstetrics and gynecology department-based leadership roles across American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) districts and U.S. Census Bureau regions while accounting for the proportion of women practicing in each area. We conducted a cross-sectional observational study. To more meaningfully quantify representation of women as leaders in ACOG districts and U.S. Census Bureau regions, we calculated representation ratios-the proportion of department-based leaders who were women divided by the proportion of obstetrician-gynecologists who were women. A ratio of 1.0 indicates proportionate representation and less than 1.0 indicates underrepresentation. We calculated 95% CIs to compare representation of women in leadership roles across geographic areas. The gender of major department-based leaders (chair, vice chair, division director) and educational leaders (fellowship, residency, associate residency, medical student clerkship director) was determined from websites. The proportion of department chairs who were women was highest in the West and lowest in the South Census Bureau regions. Representation ratios for women in major department-based leadership roles demonstrated underrepresentation relative to the practicing base nationally and in all four regions. Although women were underrepresented in major department-based leadership throughout the country, there was significantly higher women's representation in major department-based leadership roles in the West (ratio 0.82, 95% CI 0.68-0.99) compared with the Northeast (ratio 0.50, 95% CI 0.42-0.59) and the South (ratio 0.45, 95% CI 0.36-0.57). Similarly, in the division director role, the West (ratio 0.85, 95% CI 0.68-1.1) had significantly higher representation of women compared with the Northeast (ratio 0.50, 95% CI 0.40-0.62). Nationally, women were underrepresented as fellowship directors, proportionately represented as residency

  5. Medications (for IBS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Agents Antidepressant Medications Newer IBS Medications Probiotics and Antibiotics Pharmacologic, or drug, therapy is best used in ... Agents Antidepressant Medications Newer IBS Medications Probiotics and ... Treatments Understanding Stress Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Relaxation ...

  6. Medications (for IBS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Agents Antidiarrheal Agents Antidepressant Medications Newer IBS Medications Probiotics and Antibiotics Pharmacologic, or drug, therapy is best ... Agents Antidiarrheal Agents Antidepressant Medications Newer IBS Medications ... Psychological Treatments Understanding Stress Cognitive Behavioral ...

  7. The Medical Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español The Medical Home KidsHealth / For Parents / The Medical Home What's in ... for your child. What Does the Term "Medical Home" Mean? A medical home isn't a place ...

  8. Medications (for IBS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Agents Antidepressant Medications Newer IBS Medications Probiotics and Antibiotics Pharmacologic, or drug, therapy is best used in ... Agents Antidepressant Medications Newer IBS Medications Probiotics and Antibiotics Psychological Treatments Understanding Stress Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Relaxation ...

  9. [Geographic distribution of supportive care for disabled young people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgarel, Sophie; Piteau-Delord, Monique

    2013-01-01

    To analyse the logic for the distribution of home care services for disabled children (SESSAD) in a context of under-equipment. Questionnaire-based survey of 75 units (82% of the region's SESSAD units) concerning patient transport. Equipment and transport mapping. Support units for disabled children are often set up in the housing facilities that contributed to their creation. These sites are sometimes situated a long way from densely populated regions, thereby generating unnecessary travel times and expenses. Chronic under-equipment makes these sites viable, as the various units are always full, despite their distance from the children for whom they provide support. Mapping illustrates the extensive recruitment zones overlapping several units managing similar patients. The major revision of accreditation of these units, planned for 2017, could lead to redefinition of geographical zones of accreditations. New unit opening procedures based on ARS calls for tenders may help to improve the geographical distribution of this supportive care.

  10. Natural enemies drive geographic variation in plant defenses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zuest, Tobias; Heichinger, Christian; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2012-01-01

    Plants defend themselves against attack by natural enemies, and these defenses vary widely across populations. However, whether communities of natural enemies are a sufficiently potent force to maintain polymorphisms in defensive traits is largely unknown. Here, we exploit the genetic resources...... of Arabidopsis thaliana, coupled with 39 years of field data on aphid abundance, to (i) demonstrate that geographic patterns in a polymorphic defense locus (GS-ELONG) are strongly correlated with changes in the relative abundance of two specialist aphids; and (ii) demonstrate differential selection by the two...... aphids on GS-ELONG, using a multigeneration selection experiment. We thereby show a causal link between variation in abundance of the two specialist aphids and the geographic pattern at GS-ELONG, which highlights the potency of natural enemies as selective forces....

  11. Specifying Geographic Information - Ontology, Knowledge Representation, and Formal Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper Vinther

    2007-01-01

    as in the private sector. The theoretical background is the establishment of a representational system, which ontologically comprises a representation of notions in the "real world" and notions which include the representation of these. Thus, the thesis leans towards a traditional division between modeling...... of domains and conceptualization of these. The thesis contributes a formalization of what is understood by domain models and conceptual models, when the focus is on geographic information. Moreover, it is shown how specifications for geographic information are related to this representational system...... of requirements and rules, building on terms from the domain and concept ontologies. In combination with the theoretical basis the analysis is used for developing an underlying model of notions, which defines the individual elements in a specification and the relations between them. In the chapters of the thesis...

  12. Theological Reform, Bernhardt Varenius and the Constitution of Geographic Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Vitte

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to demonstrate that the relationship among science and religion has been of great importance for the development of a mechanical conception of nature since the seventeenth century that was by the Protestant Reform. Such reform has led to the desecration of the Nature, the formation of a mechanical conception of it, including a strong imaginative and practical component which conducted to the construction of the telescope and the microscope, furthermore the innovations in chemistry and medicine. In this context the geographic work of Bernhardt Varenius started the modern geographical thought due to the reflection on the empirical validity of the works of Galileo Galilei, Kepler and Descartes. Varenius understood the surface of as an articulated set of different areas identified by each part that constitutes the product of a complex crossroads between culture,religion and nature.

  13. Franz Boas, geographer, and the problem of disciplinary identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelsch, William A

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines Franz Boas as an aspiring professional geographer during the 1880s: his Baffin Land research, his publications, his participation in geography organizations, and his struggle to attain a university appointment in geography. Frustrated by a seeming lack of opportunity for advancement in Germany, Boas explored career opportunities as a geographer in America and launched a series of unsuccessful but meaningful attempts to dominate the intellectual direction of American geography. Finally, the article reviews the circumstances surrounding Boas's appointment as an anthropologist at Clark University in 1889. Through examining Boas's own words and actions, the paper demonstrates that his professional identification with geography was lengthier and stronger than earlier accounts have suggested. It also critiques the myth of a Baffin Land "conversion" to anthropology, and delineates the circumstances of his shift from German human geography to his Americanist recasting of anthropology after 1889. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Correlation between genetic and geographic structure in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lao, Oscar; Lu, Timothy T; Nothnagel, Michael

    2008-01-01

    geographic but narrow genomic coverage [1, 2], or vice versa [3-6]. We therefore investigated Affymetrix GeneChip 500K genotype data from 2,514 individuals belonging to 23 different subpopulations, widely spread over Europe. Although we found only a low level of genetic differentiation between subpopulations......, the existing differences were characterized by a strong continent-wide correlation between geographic and genetic distance. Furthermore, mean heterozygosity was larger, and mean linkage disequilibrium smaller, in southern as compared to northern Europe. Both parameters clearly showed a clinal distribution...... Europe. By including the widely used CEPH from Utah (CEU) samples into our analysis, we could show that these individuals represent northern and western Europeans reasonably well, thereby confirming their assumed regional ancestry....

  15. Research Data Management Training for Geographers: First Impressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Helbig

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sharing and secondary analysis of data have become increasingly important for research. Especially in geography, the collection of digital data has grown due to technological changes. Responsible handling and proper documentation of research data have therefore become essential for funders, publishers and higher education institutions. To achieve this goal, universities offer support and training in research data management. This article presents the experiences of a pilot workshop in research data management, especially for geographers. A discipline-specific approach to research data management training is recommended. The focus of this approach increases researchers’ interest and allows for more specific guidance. The instructors identified problems and challenges of research data management for geographers. In regards to training, the communication of benefits and reaching the target groups seem to be the biggest challenges. Consequently, better incentive structures as well as communication channels have to be established.

  16. Fuzzy modeling with spatial information for geographic problems

    CERN Document Server

    Petry, Frederick E; Cobb, Maria A

    2005-01-01

    The capabilities of modern technology are rapidly increasing, spurred on to a large extent by the tremendous advances in communications and computing. Automated vehicles and global wireless connections are some examples of these advances. In order to take advantage of such enhanced capabilities, our need to model and manipulate our knowledge of the geophysical world, using compatible representations, is also rapidly increasing. In response to this one fundamental issue of great concern in modern geographical research is how to most effectively capture the physical world around us in systems like geographical information systems (GIS). Making this task even more challenging is the fact that uncertainty plays a pervasive role in the representation, analysis and use of geospatial information. The types of uncertainty that appear in geospatial information systems are not the just simple randomness of observation, as in weather data, but are manifested in many other forms including imprecision, incompleteness and ...

  17. PC-based visualization of geographically referenced environmental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galagan, C.; Howlett, E. Brown, A.J.

    1992-01-01

    Geographical information system (GIS) technology provides sophisticated data handling tools for use in oil spill response and contingency planning. ASAMAP is a software that employs a state-of-the-art graphical user interface to collect and display geographically referenced data on a personal computer. The program is easy to learn and simple to operate, facilitating data collection and visualization in an inexpensive decision support system suitable for oil spill response or any application requiring special data handling. The software can operate on a laptop computer for convenient use in the field and is mouse-driven, using buttons and screen icons to manipulate data interactively on color maps on the screen. During response to an oil spill, ASAMAP provides enhanced data capture and visualization, facilitating faster assimilation of information and a more efficient decision making process. 8 refs., 1 fig

  18. Geographical influences of an emerging network of gang rivalries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegemann, Rachel A.; Smith, Laura M.; Barbaro, Alethea B. T.; Bertozzi, Andrea L.; Reid, Shannon E.; Tita, George E.

    2011-10-01

    We propose an agent-based model to simulate the creation of street gang rivalries. The movement dynamics of agents are coupled to an evolving network of gang rivalries, which is determined by previous interactions among agents in the system. Basic gang data, geographic information, and behavioral dynamics suggested by the criminology literature are integrated into the model. The major highways, rivers, and the locations of gangs’ centers of activity influence the agents’ motion. We use a policing division of the Los Angeles Police Department as a case study to test our model. We apply common metrics from graph theory to analyze our model, comparing networks produced by our simulations and an instance of a Geographical Threshold Graph to the existing network from the criminology literature.

  19. A geographical basis for long-range dose assessment calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, H.; Hage, G.

    1989-01-01

    Releases of radioactive material into the atmosphere have effects that are distributed over the earth's surface. As a result, geographical information can play an important role in understanding the impact of an emergency. The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is an emergency response organization that utilizes complex computer models to provide real-time assessments of the consequences of such releases. These models are one component of a sophisticated system that also includes data-gathering systems, data analysis techniques, and highly trained operational personnel. The products of this service are isopleths of the material concentration plotted over a base map of geographic features. The components mentioned in this paper are being added to the operation ARAC system. This will provide a means of producing fast, high-quality assessments of the consequences of major releases of radioactive material with effects extending to continental and global regions

  20. Satellite and gauge rainfall merging using geographically weighted regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Hu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A residual-based rainfall merging scheme using geographically weighted regression (GWR has been proposed. This method is capable of simultaneously blending various satellite rainfall data with gauge measurements and could describe the non-stationary influences of geographical and terrain factors on rainfall spatial distribution. Using this new method, an experimental study on merging daily rainfall from the Climate Prediction Center Morphing dataset (CMOROH and gauge measurements was conducted for the Ganjiang River basin, in Southeast China. We investigated the capability of the merging scheme for daily rainfall estimation under different gauge density. Results showed that under the condition of sparse gauge density the merging rainfall scheme is remarkably superior to the interpolation using just gauge data.

  1. A Framework for Conceptual Modeling of Geographic Data Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Christensen, Anders; Christensen, J.V.; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2004-01-01

    Sustained advances in wireless communications, geo-positioning, and consumer electronics pave the way to a kind of location-based service that relies on the tracking of the continuously changing positions of an entire population of service users. This type of service is characterized by large...... an object is moving. Empirical performance studies based on a real road network and GPS logs from cars areThe notion of data quality is of particular importance to geographic data. One reason is that such data is often inherently imprecise. Another is that the usability of the data is in large part...... determined by how "good" the data is, as different applications of geographic data require different qualities of the data are met. Such qualities concern the object level as well as the attribute level of the data. This paper presents a systematic and integrated approach to the conceptual modeling...

  2. U.S.-Mexico Border Geographic Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcher, Jean W.

    2008-01-01

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and the development of extensive geodatabases have become invaluable tools for addressing a variety of contemporary societal issues and for making predictions about the future. The United States-Mexico Geographic Information System (USMX-GIS) is based on fundamental datasets that are produced and/or approved by the national geography agencies of each country, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Instituto Nacional de Estadistica Y Geografia (INEGI) of Mexico, and the International Boundary and Water Commission (IBWC). The data are available at various scales to allow both regional and local analysis. The USGS and the INEGI have an extensive history of collaboration for transboundary mapping including exchanging digital technology and developing methods for harmonizing seamless national level geospatial datasets for binational environmental monitoring, urban growth analysis, and other scientific applications.

  3. Species turnover and geographic distance in an urban river network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rouquette, James R.; Dallimer, Martin; Armsworth, Paul R.

    2013-01-01

    AimUnderstanding the relationships between species turnover, environmental features and the geographic distance between sites can provide important insights into the processes driving species diversity. This is particularly relevant where the effective distance between sites may be a function...... patterns of species turnover and to determine whether these patterns differ between different taxonomic groups. LocationSheffield area, UK. MethodsAquatic (macroinvertebrates, diatoms) and terrestrial (birds, plants, butterflies) organisms were surveyed at 41 sites across an urban river network. We...... of the geographic distance measures, although network distance remained significant for birds and some plant groups after removing the effect of environmental distance. Water-dispersed and neophyte plant groups were significantly related to network and flow distance. Main conclusionsThe results suggest that aquatic...

  4. Social networks, geographic proximity, and firm performance in Viet Nam

    OpenAIRE

    Howard, Emma

    2017-01-01

    This paper uses panel data to assess the relative importance of social networks and geographic proximity to micro, small, and medium enterprises in Viet Nam. The results suggest that a larger social network, and hiring employees mainly through social networks, are both correlated with higher value added per worker. The number of government officials and civil servants in a firm's network emerges as particularly important. When the quality of contacts is controlled for, firms with tighter soci...

  5. Geographic Concentration of Oil Infrastructure: Issues and Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-24

    along the Gulf of Mexico. 28 Figure 3 reveals the travel pattern of the two hurricanes and the scope of impact on oil and natural gas platforms...road to travel before this level of cooperation is achieved. 15 Consideration of this issue of geographic concentration of oil infrastructure...million), Port Security Grants ($201 million), Intercity Bus Security Grants ($12 million), Trucking Security Grants ($12 million), and Buffer Zone

  6. GeoTravel: Harvesting Ambient Geographic Footprints from GPS Trajectories

    OpenAIRE

    Liew, Li Ching; Goh, Ong Sing

    2014-01-01

    This study is about harvesting point of interest from GPS trajectories. Trajectories are the paths that moving objects move by follow through space in a function of time while GPS trajectories generally are point-sequences with geographic coordinates, time stamp, speed and heading. User can get information from GPS enable device. For example, user can acquire present location, search the information around them and design driving routes to a destination and thus design travel itineraries. By ...

  7. Objective Evaluation in an Online Geographic Information System Certificate Program

    OpenAIRE

    Scott L. WALKER

    2005-01-01

    Objective Evaluation in an Online Geographic Information System Certificate Program Asst. Professor. Dr. Scott L. WALKER Texas State University-San Marcos San Marcos, Texas, USA ABSTRACT Departmental decisions regarding distance education programs can be subject to subjective decision-making processes influenced by external factors such as strong faculty opinions or pressure to increase student enrolment. This paper outlines an evaluation of a departmental distance-education program....

  8. Geographic variation in resource use by specialist versus generalist butterflyfishes

    KAUST Repository

    Lawton, Rebecca J.; Cole, Andrew J.; Berumen, Michael L.; Pratchett, Morgan S.

    2011-01-01

    Localised patterns of resource use can be constrained by multiple factors. Comparison of resource use at multiple locations with differing resource availability can allow fundamental specialists to be distinguished from species that simply feed predominantly on prey types that are locally abundant. This study investigates geographic variation in the feeding ecology of coral-feeding butterflyfishes to examine whether patterns of resource use and levels of dietary specialisation vary among distinct locations, corresponding with changes in resource availability. Our specific aims were to investigate whether the dietary niche breadth of four butterflyfishes varies among five geographically separated locations and assess whether each species utilises similar resources in each location. Resource availability and dietary composition of four butterflyfishes were quantified at three sites across each of five geographic locations throughout the Pacific. Niche breadth, niche overlap, and resource selection functions were calculated for each species at each site and compared among locations. Availability of dietary resources varied significantly among locations and sites. Chaetodon vagabundus, C. citrinellus and C. lunulatus had low levels of dietary specialisation and used different resources in each location. Chaetodon trifascialis had high levels of dietary specialisation and used the same few resources in each location. Our results indicate that relative levels of dietary specialisation among different butterflyfishes do hold at larger spatial scales, however, geographical variation in the dietary composition of all butterflyfishes indicates that prey availability has a fundamental influence on dietary composition. Highly specialised species such as C. trifascialis will be highly vulnerable to coral loss as they appear to be largely inflexible in their dietary composition. However, the increased feeding plasticity observed here for C. trifascialis suggests this species may

  9. Family Adjustment to Geographic Mobility: Military Families on the Move

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-11

    military are the related topics of father absence and transcultural experiences. MOBILITY AND ITS EFFECTS ON CHILDREN Children in military families...c-ild experi- ences added stress due to geographic mobility, transcultural experi- ences, transient father absences, and early retirement of the...family, and that short-term crisis therapy was the ideal psychotherapeutic modality for treatment of military children. CONCLUSION In summary, there are

  10. Public access to Indian geographical data - Guest editorial

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Narasimha, R.; Shetye, S.R.

    . 79, NO. 4, 25 AUGUST 2000 391 In this issue Public access to Indian Geographical Data In late 1997 the Indian Academy of Sciences set up a Panel on Scientific Data of Public Interest to examine all issues concerning scientific data... available in the country. The mem- bers of the Panel are R. Narasimha (Chairman), S. Dhawan, M. Gadgil, I. Nath, S. Shetye (Secretary). In early 1998 the Panel issued a public announcement outlining its concerns and inviting suggestions on how...

  11. Inequality in pre-school provision : a geographical perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Pinch, Steven

    1983-01-01

    This paper is a preliminary analysis of pre-school services, a field which, with a few exceptions (Holmes, Williams and Brown, 1972; Freeman, 1977) has been ignored by geographers and indeed other urban analysts concermd with service allocations in cities. There are numerous possible explanations for this state of affairs, not the least inportant being the fact that study of the under-fives has been dominated by psychologists concerned with the intellectual, emotional and social development o...

  12. Geographical Labor Market Imbalances by Chiara Mussida and Francesco Pastore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela PASNICU

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The book, entitled Geographical Labor Market Imbalances represents a collective volume of outstanding scientific papers concerning regional issues, which were presented at the XXVII National Conference of Labour Economics organized by AIEL (Italian Association of Labor Economics, the Department of Law of SecundaUniversità di Napoli and the Departments of Economic and Social Sciences of the UniversitàCattolica del SacroCuore (Piacenza, 27-28 September 2012.

  13. Interactive segmentation for geographic atrophy in retinal fundus images

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Noah; Smith, R. Theodore; Laine, Andrew F.

    2008-01-01

    Fundus auto-fluorescence (FAF) imaging is a non-invasive technique for in vivo ophthalmoscopic inspection of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the most common cause of blindness in developed countries. Geographic atrophy (GA) is an advanced form of AMD and accounts for 12–21% of severe visual loss in this disorder [3]. Automatic quantification of GA is important for determining disease progression and facilitating clinical diagnosis of AMD. The problem of automatic segmentation of patho...

  14. Geographic Access to Cancer Care and Mortality Among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Eric; Hallisey, Elaine; Peipins, Lucy A; Flanagan, Barry; Lunsford, Natasha Buchanan; Wilt, Grete; Graham, Shannon

    2018-02-01

    Adolescents with cancer have had less improvement in survival than other populations in the United States. This may be due, in part, to adolescents not receiving treatment at Children's Oncology Group (COG) institutions, which have been shown to increase survival for some cancers. The objective of this ecologic study was to examine geographic distance to COG institutions and adolescent cancer mortality. We calculated cancer mortality among adolescents and sociodemographic and healthcare access factors in four geographic zones at selected distances surrounding COG facilities: Zone A (area within 10 miles of any COG institution), Zones B and C (concentric rings with distances from a COG institution of >10-25 miles and >25-50 miles, respectively), and Zone D (area outside of 50 miles). The adolescent cancer death rate was highest in Zone A at 3.21 deaths/100,000, followed by Zone B at 3.05 deaths/100,000, Zone C at 2.94 deaths/100,000, and Zone D at 2.88 deaths/100,000. The United States-wide death rate for whites without Hispanic ethnicity, blacks without Hispanic ethnicity, and persons with Hispanic ethnicity was 2.96 deaths/100,000, 3.10 deaths/100,000, and 3.26 deaths/100,000, respectively. Zone A had high levels of poverty (15%), no health insurance coverage (16%), and no vehicle access (16%). Geographic access to COG institutions, as measured by distance alone, played no evident role in death rate differences across zones. Among adolescents, socioeconomic factors, such as poverty and health insurance coverage, may have a greater impact on cancer mortality than geographic distance to COG institution.

  15. Rule-guided human classification of Volunteered Geographic Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ahmed Loai; Falomir, Zoe; Schmid, Falko; Freksa, Christian

    2017-05-01

    During the last decade, web technologies and location sensing devices have evolved generating a form of crowdsourcing known as Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI). VGI acted as a platform of spatial data collection, in particular, when a group of public participants are involved in collaborative mapping activities: they work together to collect, share, and use information about geographic features. VGI exploits participants' local knowledge to produce rich data sources. However, the resulting data inherits problematic data classification. In VGI projects, the challenges of data classification are due to the following: (i) data is likely prone to subjective classification, (ii) remote contributions and flexible contribution mechanisms in most projects, and (iii) the uncertainty of spatial data and non-strict definitions of geographic features. These factors lead to various forms of problematic classification: inconsistent, incomplete, and imprecise data classification. This research addresses classification appropriateness. Whether the classification of an entity is appropriate or inappropriate is related to quantitative and/or qualitative observations. Small differences between observations may be not recognizable particularly for non-expert participants. Hence, in this paper, the problem is tackled by developing a rule-guided classification approach. This approach exploits data mining techniques of Association Classification (AC) to extract descriptive (qualitative) rules of specific geographic features. The rules are extracted based on the investigation of qualitative topological relations between target features and their context. Afterwards, the extracted rules are used to develop a recommendation system able to guide participants to the most appropriate classification. The approach proposes two scenarios to guide participants towards enhancing the quality of data classification. An empirical study is conducted to investigate the classification of grass

  16. Advancing Theory? Landscape Archaeology and Geographical Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Hu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper will focus on how Geographical Information Systems (GIS have been applied in Landscape Archaeology from the late 1980s to the present. GIS, a tool for organising and analysing spatial information, has exploded in popularity, but we still lack a systematic overview of how it has contributed to archaeological theory, specifically Landscape Archaeology. This paper will examine whether and how GIS has advanced archaeological theory through a historical review of its application in archaeology.

  17. Geographic variation in resource use by specialist versus generalist butterflyfishes

    KAUST Repository

    Lawton, Rebecca J.

    2011-11-14

    Localised patterns of resource use can be constrained by multiple factors. Comparison of resource use at multiple locations with differing resource availability can allow fundamental specialists to be distinguished from species that simply feed predominantly on prey types that are locally abundant. This study investigates geographic variation in the feeding ecology of coral-feeding butterflyfishes to examine whether patterns of resource use and levels of dietary specialisation vary among distinct locations, corresponding with changes in resource availability. Our specific aims were to investigate whether the dietary niche breadth of four butterflyfishes varies among five geographically separated locations and assess whether each species utilises similar resources in each location. Resource availability and dietary composition of four butterflyfishes were quantified at three sites across each of five geographic locations throughout the Pacific. Niche breadth, niche overlap, and resource selection functions were calculated for each species at each site and compared among locations. Availability of dietary resources varied significantly among locations and sites. Chaetodon vagabundus, C. citrinellus and C. lunulatus had low levels of dietary specialisation and used different resources in each location. Chaetodon trifascialis had high levels of dietary specialisation and used the same few resources in each location. Our results indicate that relative levels of dietary specialisation among different butterflyfishes do hold at larger spatial scales, however, geographical variation in the dietary composition of all butterflyfishes indicates that prey availability has a fundamental influence on dietary composition. Highly specialised species such as C. trifascialis will be highly vulnerable to coral loss as they appear to be largely inflexible in their dietary composition. However, the increased feeding plasticity observed here for C. trifascialis suggests this species may

  18. Fissured and geographic tongue in Williams-Beuren syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeta Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Williams-Beuren Syndrome (WBS is a rare, most often sporadic, genetic disease caused by a chromosomal microdeletion at locus 7q11.23 involving 28 genes. It is characterized by congenital heart defects, neonatal hypercalcemia, skeletal and renal abnormalities, cognitive disorder, social personality disorder, and dysmorphic facies. A number of clinical findings has been reported, but none of the studies evaluated this syndrome considering oral cavity. We here report a fissured and geographic tongue in association with WBS.

  19. The application of geographic information system (GIS) in forensics geoscience

    OpenAIRE

    McKinley, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Advances in technological developments in Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has enabled the application of GIS in landscape mapping, environmental management, natural hazard risk and disaster management. As geographi- cal information becomes more widely available through satel- lite and aerial imagery, the cost of software decreases and GIS expertise expands, it is most likely that the use of GIS will increase. The methodology has practical applications for police, crime scene investigator...

  20. Integration of the Problem of Medical Ecology on the Level of the Highly Urbanized Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenberg, Gennadiy S.; Lazareva, Natalya V.; Simonov, Yury V.; Lifirenko, Natalya G.; Sarapultseva, Lilija A.

    2016-01-01

    The urgency of the analyzed issue is due to the study of the basic issues of medical ecology: the dynamics of demographic indicators, the correlation of somatic and reproductive public health, depending on the influence of physical factors of the urban environment on public health on the basis of medical and geographic mapping. The article aims at…

  1. Similarity of trajectories taking into account geographic context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maike Buchin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The movements of animals, people, and vehicles are embedded in a geographic context. This context influences the movement and may cause the formation of certain behavioral responses. Thus, it is essential to include context parameters in the study of movement and the development of movement pattern analytics. Advances in sensor technologies and positioning devices provide valuable data not only of moving agents but also of the circumstances embedding the movement in space and time. Developing knowledge discovery methods to investigate the relation between movement and its surrounding context is a major challenge in movement analysis today. In this paper we show how to integrate geographic context into the similarity analysis of movement data. For this, we discuss models for geographic context of movement data. Based on this we develop simple but efficient context-aware similarity measures for movement trajectories, which combine a spatial and a contextual distance. These are based on well-known similarity measures for trajectories, such as the Hausdorff, Fréchet, or equal time distance. We validate our approach by applying these measures to movement data of hurricanes and albatross.

  2. The United States Board on Geographic Names: Standardization or regulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, R.L.

    2000-01-01

    The United States Board on Geographic Names was created in 1890 to standardize the use of geographic names on federal maps and documents, and was established in its present form in 1947 by public law. The Board is responsible for geographic name usage and application throughout the federal government and its members must approve a name change or new name before it can be applied to federal maps and publications. To accomplish its mission, the Board has developed principles, policies, and procedures for use in the standardization process. The Board is also responsible legally for the promulgation of standardized names, whether or not these names have ever been controversial, and today this is accomplished by the universal availability of electronic databases for domestic and foreign names. This paper examines the development of Board policies and the implementation of these policies to achieve standardization with a view to relating these policies and activities to questions of standardization or regulation. ?? 2000 by The American Name Society.

  3. Determinants of caesarean section in Lebanon: geographical differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carayol, Marion; Zein, Ali; Ghosn, Nada; Du Mazaubrun, Christiane; Breart, Gérard

    2008-03-01

    This study, based on the Lebanese National Perinatal Survey which included 5231 women, examined the relations between the caesarean section (CS) rate and the characteristics of mothers, children, antenatal care and maternity units in two geographical zones of Lebanon (Beirut-Mount Lebanon and the rest of the country) and then looked at geographical variations. This analysis concerned 3846 women with singleton pregnancies and livebirths at low risk of CS, after exclusion of women with a previous CS, non-cephalic fetal presentations, or delivery before 37 weeks' gestation. The principal end point was caesarean delivery. The relations between the factors studied and CS were estimated by odds ratios (OR), both crude and adjusted, using logistic regression. The rate of CS was higher in the Beirut-Mount Lebanon zone than elsewhere (13.4% vs. 7.6%). After adjustment, several factors remained associated with caesarean delivery in each zone. Common factors were primiparity, gestational age > or = 41 weeks and antenatal hospitalisation. Factors identified only in the Beirut-Mount Lebanon zone were obstetric history and insurance coverage, whereas for the other zones we only found major risk factors for obstetric disease: maternal age > or = 35 years, number of antenatal consultations > or = 4 and birthweight Lebanon (OR = 1.80 [95% CI 1.09, 2.95]). In conclusion, the CS rates in Lebanon were high, with geographical differences that were associated with access to care and with obstetric practices.

  4. Geographic resolution issues in RAM transportation risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills G, Scott; Neuhauser, Sieglinde

    2000-01-01

    Over the years that radioactive material (RAM) transportation risk estimates have been calculated using the RADTRAN code, demand for improved geographic resolution of route characteristics, especially density of population neighboring route segments, has led to code improvements that provide more specific route definition. With the advent of geographic information systems (GISs), the achievable resolution of route characteristics is theoretically very high. The authors have compiled population-density data in 1-kilometer increments for routes extending over hundreds of kilometers without impractical expenditures of time. Achievable resolution of analysis is limited, however, by the resolution of available data. U.S. Census data typically have 1-km or better resolution within densely-populated portions of metropolitan areas but census blocks are much larger in rural areas. Geographic resolution of accident-rate data, especially for heavy/combination trucks, are typically tabulated on a statewide basis. These practical realities cause one to ask what level(s) of resolution may be necessary for meaningful risk analysis of transportation actions on a state or interstate scale

  5. Energy gradients and the geographic distribution of local ant diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspari, Michael; Ward, Philip S; Yuan, May

    2004-08-01

    Geographical diversity gradients, even among local communities, can ultimately arise from geographical differences in speciation and extinction rates. We evaluated three models--energy-speciation, energy-abundance, and area--that predict how geographic trends in net diversification rates generate trends in diversity. We sampled 96 litter ant communities from four provinces: Australia, Madagascar, North America, and South America. The energy-speciation hypothesis best predicted ant species richness by accurately predicting the slope of the temperature diversity curve, and accounting for most of the variation in diversity. The communities showed a strong latitudinal gradient in species richness as well as inter-province differences in diversity. The former vanished in the temperature-diversity residuals, suggesting that the latitudinal gradient arises primarily from higher diversification rates in the tropics. However, inter-province differences in diversity persisted in those residuals--South American communities remained more diverse than those in North America and Australia even after the effects of temperature were removed.

  6. Place Branding – Geographical Approach. Case Study: Waterloo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius-Cristian Neacşu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study represents an exploratory analysis of the evolution of the place branding concept, with an important focus on the geographical perspective. How has this notion, a newcomer into the geographers' analysis, changed over time and what role does it have in the decision making process of intervening into the way a certain place is organised or as an instrument of economic revival and territorial development? At least from the perspective of Romanian geographical literature, the originality and novelty of this study is obvious. An element of the originality of this research is the attempt of redefining the concept of place branding so that it is more meaningful from the perspective of spatial analyses. The reason for which Waterloo was chosen as a case study is multi-dimensional: the case studies so far have mainly focused on large cities (urban branding instead of place branding and this site has all the theoretical elements to create a stand-alone brand.

  7. Geographical range and local abundance of tree species in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibao Ren

    Full Text Available Most studies on the geographical distribution of species have utilized a few well-known taxa in Europe and North America, with little research in China and its wide range of climate and forest types. We assembled large datasets to quantify the geographic ranges of tree species in China and to test several biogeographic hypotheses: 1 whether locally abundant species tend to be geographically widespread; 2 whether species are more abundant towards their range-centers; and 3 how abundances are correlated between sites. Local abundances of 651 species were derived from four tree plots of 20-25 ha where all individuals ≥1 cm in stem diameter were mapped and identified taxonomically. Range sizes of these species across China were then estimated from over 460,000 geo-referenced records; a Bayesian approach was used, allowing careful measures of error of each range estimate. The log-transformed range sizes had a bell-shaped distribution with a median of 703,000 km(2, and >90% of 651 species had ranges >10(5 km(2. There was no relationship between local abundance and range size, and no evidence for species being more abundant towards their range-centers. Finally, species' abundances were positively correlated between sites. The widespread nature of most tree species in China suggests few are vulnerable to global extinction, and there is no indication of the double-peril that would result if rare species also had narrow ranges.

  8. Framework for Virtual Cognitive Experiment in Virtual Geographic Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtual Geographic Environment Cognition is the attempt to understand the human cognition of surface features, geographic processes, and human behaviour, as well as their relationships in the real world. From the perspective of human cognition behaviour analysis and simulation, previous work in Virtual Geographic Environments (VGEs has focused mostly on representing and simulating the real world to create an ‘interpretive’ virtual world and improve an individual’s active cognition. In terms of reactive cognition, building a user ‘evaluative’ environment in a complex virtual experiment is a necessary yet challenging task. This paper discusses the outlook of VGEs and proposes a framework for virtual cognitive experiments. The framework not only employs immersive virtual environment technology to create a realistic virtual world but also involves a responsive mechanism to record the user’s cognitive activities during the experiment. Based on the framework, this paper presents two potential implementation methods: first, training a deep learning model with several hundred thousand street view images scored by online volunteers, with further analysis of which visual factors produce a sense of safety for the individual, and second, creating an immersive virtual environment and Electroencephalogram (EEG-based experimental paradigm to both record and analyse the brain activity of a user and explore what type of virtual environment is more suitable and comfortable. Finally, we present some preliminary findings based on the first method.

  9. Medical muddle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartrell, Nanette

    2014-01-01

    Nanette Gartrell, MD, is a psychiatrist and researcher whose investigations have documented the mental health and psychological well-being of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people over the past four decades. Nanette is the principal investigator of an ongoing longitudinal study of lesbian families in which the children were conceived by donor insemination. Now in its 27th year, this project has been cited internationally in the debates over equality in marriage, foster care, and adoption. Previously on the faculty at Harvard Medical School and the University of California, San Francisco, Nanette is currently a Visiting Distinguished Scholar at the Williams Institute, UCLA School of Law. In 2013, Nanette received the Association of Women Psychiatrists Presidential Commendation Award for "selfless and enduring vision, leadership, wisdom, and mentorship in the fields of women's mental health, ethics, and gender research." At the age of 63, Nanette experienced a 3 ½ month period of intractable, incapacitating dizziness for which there was never a clear diagnosis.

  10. MEDICAL PROFESSIONALISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jože Drinovec

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Due to restrictions imposed on a clinical freedom, interest for professionalism in healthcare has been getting bigger not only in medicine literature and various mass media but also in teaching and organisation of healthcare. Professionalism stands not only for a medicine’s contract with society, recognition of a physician status, privilege and monopoly but also for a genuine physician’s commitment to professional responsibilities.Analysis. In 2002 European and American associations approved a document on medical professionalism in the new millenium, so-called Physician Charter. This document includes fundamental principles of professionalism such as altruism, patient autonomy and social justice. In particular, it analyses a physician’s professional competency, honesty with patients, patient confidentiality, appropriate relations with patients, improvements regarding a healthcare quality, healthcare access, just distribution of finite funds, commitment to scientific knowledge, trust maintenance by managing conflicts of interest and a professional responsibility.Conclusions. Physician’s professionalism means philosophycal and sociological analysis of his/her profession and its position in a society. It includes a concern for improvements of his/ her own scientific knowledge, skills, a genuine ethic interest for an individual patient bearing in mind principles of equality and justice in society. Whether performing an organisational and public work or participating in professional health organizations, physician’s interest for a patient must prevail.

  11. Protection of Geographical Indication and Intangible Cultural Heritage of the Chinese Food Product Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Zhi-guo; WANG Shu-ting; XIONG Wan-zhen; HUANG Li-min

    2012-01-01

    The geographical Indications intellectual property and intangible cultural heritage are the general focus of attention of the world today. In the Chinese food product resources, there are 44 kinds of national geographical indication products, 41 national geographical indication trademarks, 9 kinds of national and 212 kinds of provincial-level intangible cultural heritage. This article introduces the geographical indication protection and geographical indication trademark registration of the Chinese food products, the protection of intangible cultural heritage of traditional craftsmanship; discusses the countermeasures for the protection of geographical indication intellectual property and intangible cultural heritage; finally puts forth several recommendations.

  12. The Value of Open Geographical Data - The Danish Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colding, T. S.; Folner, M.; Krarup, S.; Kongsbak, J.

    2013-12-01

    Good basic data for everyone is part of the common public-sector digitization strategy for 2011 to 2015. The vision is that basic data is to be the high-quality common foundation for public sector administration; efficiently updated at one place, and used by everyone - including the private sector. Open basic data will benefit public-sector efficiency as well as innovation and value creation by Danish society in general. With basic data as a new digital raw material, commercial products can be developed and public information and services can be improved, providing for greater insight and stronger democracy. On the first of January 2013 Denmark released this digital raw material. As a general rule, all basic data is to be made freely available to all public authorities, private businesses and individuals. This makes basic data a common digital resource, which can be exploited freely for commercial as well as non-commercial purposes. A positive business case contributed in convincing Danish politicians to approve the basic data program. Once the initiatives have been fully implemented, the revenues for society are expected to be approx. DKK 800 million annually. Private-sector revenues will be up to DKK half a billion annually, and it is expected that e.g. the real estate, insurance, financial, and telecom sectors, as well as GPS (sat-nav) manufacturers, public companies and entrepreneurs will be among those to benefit hugely from the initiatives. The financial gain for the private sector of open geographical data alone is expected to be approx. 100 million DKK annually. As part of the Basic data program The Danish Geodata Agency (Ministry of the Environment) gave free access to all topographic data, cadastral maps and Digital Elevation Model on Jan. 1st, 2013. The Danish Geodata Agency has decided to measure the effect of the open geographic data in the public sector (efficiency) and in the private sector (growth). The effect will be measured by using reference

  13. Geographic Distribution of CT, MRI and PET Devices in Japan: A Longitudinal Analysis Based on National Census Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Masatoshi; Koike, Soichi; Kashima, Saori; Awai, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Japan has the most CT and MRI scanners per unit population in the world; however, the geographic distribution of these technologies is currently unknown. Moreover, nothing is known of the cause-effect relationship between the number of diagnostic imaging devices and their geographic distribution. Data on the number of CT, MRI and PET devices and that of their utilizations in all 1829 municipalities of Japan was generated, based on the Static Survey of Medical Institutions conducted by the government. The inter-municipality equity of the number of devices or utilizations was evaluated with Gini coefficient. Between 2005 and 2011, the number of CT, MRI and PET devices in Japan increased by 47% (8789 to 12945), 19% (5034 to 5990) and 70% (274 to 466), respectively. Gini coefficient of the number of devices was largest for PET and smallest for CT (p for PET-MRI difference geographic distribution of the diagnostic imaging technology in Japan appears to be affected by spatial competition derived from a market force.

  14. Cognitive Medical Multiagent Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Barna Iantovics

    2010-01-01

    The development of efficient and flexible agent-based medical diagnosis systems represents a recent research direction. Medical multiagent systems may improve the efficiency of traditionally developed medical computational systems, like the medical expert systems. In our previous researches, a novel cooperative medical diagnosis multiagent system called CMDS (Contract Net Based Medical Diagnosis System) was proposed. CMDS system can solve flexibly a large variety of medical diagnosis problems...

  15. Veterans Affairs Geographic Distribution of Expenditures FY07 by State and County

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures (GDX) is an annual report that shows estimated VA expenditures for major programmatic areas by geographic area (state,...

  16. Public Use Airports, Geographic WGS84, BTS (2006) [public_use_airports_BTS_2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — The Public Use Airports database is a geographic point database of aircraft landing facilities in the United States and U.S. Territories. Attribute data is provided...

  17. Review of Current Geographic Information Systems Technology for TxDOT Pavement Management Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-01

    A geographic information system (GIS) is a tool for effectively managing and analyzing tremendous amounts of geographic information. It employs the essential principle of geography to organize in formation and express relationships between real-world...

  18. Veterans Affairs Geographic Distribution of Expenditures FY09 by Congressional District

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures (GDX) is an annual report that shows estimated VA expenditures for major programmatic areas by geographic area (state,...

  19. Veterans Affairs Geographic Distribution of Expenditures FY08 by Congressional District

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures (GDX) is an annual report that shows estimated VA expenditures for major programmatic areas by geographic area (state,...

  20. Improving Geography Learning in the Schools: Efforts by the National Geographic Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulli, Robert E.

    1994-01-01

    Contends that the National Geographic Society's Geography Education Program continues to work on improving geography instruction and learning. Outlines future activities of the National Geographic Society including urban outreach and technology training. (CFR)

  1. Veterans Affairs Geographic Distribution of Expenditures FY08 by State and County

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures (GDX) is an annual report that shows estimated VA expenditures for major programmatic areas by geographic area (state,...

  2. Public Use Airport Runways, Geographic WGS84, BTS (2006) [public_use_airport_runway_BTS_2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — The Public Use Airport Runways database is a geographic dataset of runways in the United States and US territories containing information on the physical...

  3. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) - USGS National Map Downloadable Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  4. An efficient and reliable multi-hop geographical broadcast protocol in vehicular ad-hoc networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajendran, R.; Jongh, J. de

    2013-01-01

    In Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS), disseminating warning messages in a timely and efficient way through wireless short-range communications can save many lives and reduce traffic congestion. A geographical broadcast protocol provides data delivery to specified geographical areas, using

  5. Geographical variation and the determinants of domestic endotoxin levels in mattress dust in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, C.M.; Thiering, E.; Doekes, G.; Zock, J.P.; Bakolis, I.; Norbäck, D.; Sunyer, J.; Villani, S.; Verlato, G.; Täubel, M.; Jarvis, D.

    2012-01-01

    Endotoxin exposures have manifold effects on human health. The geographical variation and determinants of domestic endotoxin levels in Europe have not yet been extensively described. To investigate the geographical variation and determinants of domestic endotoxin concentrations in mattress dust in

  6. Geographical assignment of hospitalists in an urban teaching hospital: feasibility and impact on efficiency and provider satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryson, Christine; Boynton, Greta; Stepczynski, Anna; Garb, Jane; Kleppel, Reva; Irani, Farzan; Natanasabapathy, Siva; Stefan, Mihaela S

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate whether implementation of a geographic model of assigning hospitalists is feasible and sustainable in a large hospitalist program and assess its impact on provider satisfaction, perceived efficiency and patient outcomes. Pre (3 months) - post (12 months) intervention study conducted from June 2014 through September 2015 at a tertiary care medical center with a large hospitalist program caring for patients scattered in 4 buildings and 16 floors. Hospitalists were assigned to a particular nursing unit (geographic assignment) with a goal of having over 80% of their assigned patients located on their assigned unit. Satisfaction and perceived efficiency were assessed through a survey administered before and after the intervention. Geographic assignment percentage increased from an average of 60% in the pre-intervention period to 93% post-intervention. The number of hospitalists covering a 32 bed unit decreased from 8-10 pre to 2-3 post-intervention. A majority of physicians (87%) thought that geography had a positive impact on the overall quality of care. Respondents reported that they felt that geography increased time spent with patient/caregivers to discuss plan of care (p < 0.001); improved communication with nurses (p = 0.0009); and increased sense of teamwork with nurses/case managers (p < 0.001). Mean length of stay (4.54 vs 4.62 days), 30-day readmission rates (16.0% vs 16.6%) and patient satisfaction (79.9 vs 77.3) did not change significantly between the pre- and post-implementation period. The discharge before noon rate improved slightly (47.5% - 54.1%). Implementation of a unit-based model in a large hospitalist program is feasible and sustainable with appropriate planning and support. The geographical model of care increased provider satisfaction and perceived efficiency; it also facilitated the implementation of other key interventions such as interdisciplinary rounds.

  7. Pregnancy and internet: sociodemographic and geographic differences in e-health practice. Results from an Italian multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaioli, G; Bert, F; Galis, V; Brusaferro, S; De Vito, E; La Torre, G; Manzoli, L; Messina, G; Torregrossa, M V; Ricciardi, W; Gualano, M R; Siliquini, R

    2015-09-01

    Since the new millennium, the number of e-health users has significantly increased. Among these, a particular category of people who are interested by this phenomenon is the one of pregnant women. The aim of the present study is to assess the sociodemographic and geographic differences existing in a sample of Italian pregnant women who search for information on the web. Multicenter cross-sectional survey. The present study has been conducted from November 2011 to September 2012, in seven Italian cities, located in the North, in the Centre and in the South of Italy. Data were collected through an anonymous questionnaire, administered in waiting rooms of outpatient departments by trained medical doctors. Data were analysed through multivariate logistic regression models. Overall, 1347 responders were interviewed. Eighty-six percent of them declared to surf the internet to retrieve pregnancy-related information. The most searched topics were fetal development (51.3%), healthy lifestyle during pregnancy (48.7%), physiology of pregnancy (39.8%), generic and specific tips/advices during pregnancy (37.2%) and lactation (36.8%). Statistically significant differences (P < 0.05) according to geographic origin, age and educational level were found with regard to the most frequently searched information on the Web, the reasons that pushed pregnant women to practice e-health, and the possibility to change lifestyles after e-health. Our findings suggest that the phenomenon of pregnancy e-health is widespread and show social and geographic differences, in particular about city of residence, age and educational level. It might encourage healthcare professionals to be more available and exhaustive during routine visits and to be more careful about web content on this topic, also addressing the different needs into different geographic contexts. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Characterizing customers at medical center farmers' markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraschnewski, Jennifer L; George, Daniel R; Rovniak, Liza S; Monroe, Diana L; Fiordalis, Elizabeth; Bates, Erica

    2014-08-01

    Approximately 100 farmers' markets operate on medical center campuses. Although these venues can uniquely serve community health needs, little is known about customer characteristics and outreach efforts. Intercept survey of markets and market customers between August 2010 and October 2011 at three medical centers in different geographic regions of the US (Duke University Medical Center, Cleveland Clinic, and Penn State Hershey Medical Center) were conducted. Markets reported serving 180-2,000 customers per week and conducting preventive medicine education sessions and community health programs. Customers (n = 585) across markets were similar in sociodemographic characteristics--most were middle-aged, white, and female, who were employees of their respective medical center. Health behaviors of customers were similar to national data. The surveyed medical center farmers' markets currently serve mostly employees; however, markets have significant potential for community outreach efforts in preventive medicine. If farmers' markets can broaden their reach to more diverse populations, they may play an important role in contributing to community health.

  9. Geographic Data as Personal Data in Four EU Member States

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, A. J.; van Loenen, B.; Zevenbergen, J. A.

    2016-06-01

    The EU Directive 95/46/EC on the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data aims at harmonising data protection legislation in the European Union. This should promote the free flow of products and services within the EU. This research found a wide variety of interpretations of the application of data protection legislation to geographic data. The variety was found among the different EU Member States, the different stakeholders and the different types of geographic data. In the Netherlands, the Data Protection Authority (DPA) states that panoramic images of streets are considered personal data. While Dutch case law judges that the data protection legislation does not apply if certain features are blurred and no link to an address is provided. The topographic datasets studied in the case studies do not contain personal data, according to the Dutch DPA, while the German DPA and the Belgian DPA judge that topographic maps of a large scale can contain personal data, and impose conditions on the processing of topographic maps. The UK DPA does consider this data outside of the scope of legal definition of personal data. The patchwork of differences in data protection legislation can be harmonised by using a traffic light model. This model focuses on the context in which the processing of the data takes place and has four categories of data: (1) sensitive personal data, (2) personal data, (3), data that can possibly lead to identification, and (4) non-personal data. For some geographic data, for example factual data that does not reveal sensitive information about a person, can be categorised in the third category giving room to opening up data under the INSPIRE Directive.

  10. The Usability of Online Geographic Virtual Reality for Urban Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S.; Moore, A. B.

    2013-08-01

    Virtual reality (VR) technology is starting to become widely and freely available (for example the online OpenSimulator tool), with potential for use in 3D urban planning and design tasks but still needing rigorous assessment to establish this. A previous study consulted with a small group of urban professionals, who concluded in a satisfaction usability test that online VR had potential value as a usable 3D communication and remote marketing tool but acknowledged that visual quality and geographic accuracy were obstacles to overcome. This research takes the investigation a significant step further to also examine the usability aspects of efficiency (how quickly tasks are completed) and effectiveness (how successfully tasks are completed), relating to OpenSimulator in an urban planning situation. The comparative study pits a three-dimensional VR model (with increased graphic fidelity and geographic content to address the feedback of the previous study) of a subdivision design (in a Dunedin suburb) against 3D models built with GIS (ArcGIS) and CAD (BricsCAD) tools, two types of software environment well established in urban professional practice. Urban professionals participated in the study by attempting to perform timed tasks correctly in each of the environments before being asked questions about the technologies involved and their perceived importance to their professional work. The results reinforce the positive feedback for VR of the previous study, with the graphical and geographic data issues being somewhat addressed (though participants stressed the need for accurate and precise object and terrain modification capabilities in VR). Ease-ofuse and associated fastest task completion speed were significant positive outcomes to emerge from the comparison with GIS and CAD, pointing to a strong future for VR in an urban planning context.

  11. The geographic concentration of blue carbon in the continental US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feagin, R. A.; Hinson, A.

    2014-12-01

    Salt water wetlands have the potential to be bought and sold as relatively rich reservoirs of carbon in the context of sequestration projects. However, little is known about the geographic distribution of this potential, and no coarse scale investigation has addressed this ecosystem service at the continental scale. Our objective was to determine blue carbon stocks and flux in coastal wetland soils in the United States and categorize the potential for projects by estuarine basin, state, and wetland type. We linked National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) data with the Soil Survey Geographic Database (SSURGO) through spatial analysis within a Geographic Information System (GIS). We then calculated and mapped soil organic carbon across the continental US. Results were filtered by state, estuarine basin, wetland type, and accumulation rate, and ranking lists for each categorization were produced. The results showed that belowground carbon accumulation is concentrated in specific regions, with the richest and largest reservoirs in the Gulf and Atlantic southeastern estuaries, for example mangrove zones in Florida. Salt marshes on the southern Pacific Coast were relatively low in carbon due to small areas of coverage and the presence of sandy and inorganic soil. The geomorphic position of a wetland within a given estuary, for example on an exposed barrier island versus recessed towards inflowing headwaters, accounted for a greater degree of soil carbon variation than the wetland type, for example woody mangroves versus herbaceous marshes. The potential of a blue carbon sequestration project in relation to its location could be influential in determining wetland policy, conservation, and restoration in the coming decades.

  12. The geographical distribution and burden of trachoma in Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Smith

    Full Text Available There remains a lack of epidemiological data on the geographical distribution of trachoma to support global mapping and scale up of interventions for the elimination of trachoma. The Global Atlas of Trachoma (GAT was launched in 2011 to address these needs and provide standardised, updated and accessible maps. This paper uses data included in the GAT to describe the geographical distribution and burden of trachoma in Africa.Data assembly used structured searches of published and unpublished literature to identify cross-sectional epidemiological data on the burden of trachoma since 1980. Survey data were abstracted into a standardised database and mapped using geographical information systems (GIS software. The characteristics of all surveys were summarized by country according to data source, time period, and survey methodology. Estimates of the current population at risk were calculated for each country and stratified by endemicity class.At the time of writing, 1342 records are included in the database representing surveys conducted between 1985 and 2012. These data were provided by direct contact with national control programmes and academic researchers (67%, peer-reviewed publications (17% and unpublished reports or theses (16%. Prevalence data on active trachoma are available in 29 of the 33 countries in Africa classified as endemic for trachoma, and 1095 (20.6% districts have representative data collected through population-based prevalence surveys. The highest prevalence of active trachoma and trichiasis remains in the Sahel area of West Africa and Savannah areas of East and Central Africa and an estimated 129.4 million people live in areas of Africa confirmed to be trachoma endemic.The Global Atlas of Trachoma provides the most contemporary and comprehensive summary of the burden of trachoma within Africa. The GAT highlights where future mapping is required and provides an important planning tool for scale-up and surveillance of trachoma

  13. Empirical Bayesian Geographical Mapping of Occupational Accidents among Iranian Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahabi, Nasim; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan; Datta, Somnath

    2017-05-01

    Work-related accidents are believed to be a serious preventable cause of mortality and disability worldwide. This study aimed to provide Bayesian geographical maps of occupational injury rates among workers insured by the Iranian Social Security Organization. The participants included all insured workers in the Iranian Social Security Organization database in 2012. One of the applications of the Bayesian approach called the Poisson-Gamma model was applied to estimate the relative risk of occupational accidents. Data analysis and mapping were performed using R 3.0.3, Open-Bugs 3.2.3 rev 1012 and ArcMap9.3. The majority of all 21,484 investigated occupational injury victims were male (98.3%) including 16,443 (76.5%) single workers aged 20 - 29 years. The accidents were more frequent in basic metal, electric, and non-electric machining jobs. About 0.4% (96) of work-related accidents led to death, 2.2% (457) led to disability (partial and total), 4.6% (980) led to fixed compensation, and 92.8% (19,951) of the injured victims recovered completely. The geographical maps of estimated relative risk of occupational accidents were also provided. The results showed that the highest estimations pertained to provinces which were mostly located along mountain chains, some of which are categorized as deprived provinces in Iran. The study revealed the need for further investigation of the role of economic and climatic factors in high risk areas. The application of geographical mapping together with statistical approaches can provide more accurate tools for policy makers to make better decisions in order to prevent and reduce the risks and adverse outcomes of work-related accidents.

  14. Racial and geographic variation in coronary heart disease mortality trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillum Richard F

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Magnitudes, geographic and racial variation in trends in coronary heart disease (CHD mortality within the US require updating for health services and health disparities research. Therefore the aim of this study is to present data on these trends through 2007. Methods Data for CHD were analyzed using the US mortality files for 1999–2007 obtained from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Age-adjusted annual death rates were computed for non-Hispanic African Americans (AA and European Americans (EA aged 35–84 years. The direct method was used to standardize rates by age, using the 2000 US standard population. Joinpoint regression models were used to evaluate trends, expressed as annual percent change (APC. Results For both AA men and women the magnitude in CHD mortality is higher compared to EA men and women, respectively. Between 1999 and 2007 the rate declined both in AA and in EA of both sexes in every geographic division; however, relative declines varied. For example, among men, relative average annual declines ranged from 3.2% to 4.7% in AA and from 4.4% to 5.5% in EA among geographic divisions. In women, rates declined more in later years of the decade and in women over 54 years. In 2007, age-adjusted death rate per 100,000 for CHD ranged from 93 in EA women in New England to 345 in AA men in the East North Central division. In EA, areas near the Ohio and lower Mississippi Rivers had above average rates. Disparities in trends by urbanization level were also found. For AA in the East North Central division, the APC was similar in large central metro (−4.2, large fringe metro (−4.3, medium metro urbanization strata (−4.4, and small metro (−3.9. APC was somewhat higher in the micropolitan/non-metro (−5.3, and especially the non-core/non-metro (−6.5. For EA in the East South Central division, the APC was higher in large central metro (−5.3, large fringe metro (−4.3 and medium metro

  15. Managing environmental radioactivity monitoring data: a geographic information system approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heywood, I.; Cornelius, S.

    1993-01-01

    An overview of the current British approach to environmental radiation monitoring is presented here, followed by a discussion of the major issues which would have to be considered in formulating a geographical information system (GIS) for the management of radiation monitoring data. Finally, examples illustrating the use of spatial data handling and automated cartographic techniques are provided from work undertaken by the authors. These examples are discussed in the context of developing a National Radiological Spatial Information System (NRSIS) demonstrator utilising GIS technology. (Author)

  16. Geographic Prevalence and Mix of Regional Cuisines in Chinese Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingwei Zhu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous research on the geographies of food put a considerable focus on analyzing how different types of food or ingredients are consumed across different places. Little is known, however, about how food culture is manifested through various cooking traditions as well as people’s perceptions over different culinary styles. Using a data set captured from one of the largest online review sites in China (www.dianping.com, this study demonstrates how geo-referenced social review data can be leveraged to better understand the geographic prevalence and mix of regional cuisines in Chinese cities. Based on information of millions of restaurants obtained in selected cities (i.e., provincial capitals and municipalities under direct supervision of the Chinese central government, we first measure by each city the diversity of restaurants that serve regional Chinese cuisines using the Shannon entropy, and analyze how cities with different characteristics are geographically distributed. A hierarchical clustering algorithm is then used to further explore the similarities of consumers’ dining options among these cities. By associating each regional Chinese cuisine to its origin, we then develop a weighted distance measure to quantify the geographic prevalence of each cuisine type. Finally, a popularity index (POPU is introduced to quantify consumers’ preferences for different regional cuisines. We find that: (1 diversity of restaurants among the cities shows an “east–west” contrast that is in general agreement with the socioeconomic divide in China; (2 most of the cities have their own unique characteristics, which are mainly driven by a large market share of the corresponding local cuisine; (3 there exists great heterogeneity of the geographic prevalence of different Chinese cuisines. In particular, Chuan and Xiang, which are famous for their spicy taste, are widely distributed across the mainland China and (4 among the top-tier restaurants ranked

  17. Geographically weighted regression and multicollinearity: dispelling the myth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotheringham, A. Stewart; Oshan, Taylor M.

    2016-10-01

    Geographically weighted regression (GWR) extends the familiar regression framework by estimating a set of parameters for any number of locations within a study area, rather than producing a single parameter estimate for each relationship specified in the model. Recent literature has suggested that GWR is highly susceptible to the effects of multicollinearity between explanatory variables and has proposed a series of local measures of multicollinearity as an indicator of potential problems. In this paper, we employ a controlled simulation to demonstrate that GWR is in fact very robust to the effects of multicollinearity. Consequently, the contention that GWR is highly susceptible to multicollinearity issues needs rethinking.

  18. Ancestry and dental development: A geographic and genetic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhamo, Brunilda; Kragt, Lea; Grgic, Olja; Vucic, Strahinja; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Wolvius, Eppo B; Ongkosuwito, Edwin M

    2018-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the influence of ancestry on dental development in the Generation R Study. Information on geographic ancestry was available in 3,600 children (1,810 boys and 1,790 girls, mean age 9.81 ± 0.35 years) and information about genetic ancestry was available in 2,786 children (1,387 boys and 1,399 girls, mean age 9.82 ± 0.34 years). Dental development was assessed in all children using the Demirjian method. The associations of geographic ancestry (Cape Verdean, Moroccan, Turkish, Dutch Antillean, Surinamese Creole and Surinamese Hindustani vs Dutch as the reference group) and genetic content of ancestry (European, African or Asian) with dental development was analyzed using linear regression models. In a geographic perspective of ancestry, Moroccan (β = 0.18; 95% CI: 0.07, 0.28), Turkish (β = 0.22; 95% CI: 0.12, 0.32), Dutch Antillean (β = 0.27; 95% CI: 0.12, 0.41), and Surinamese Creole (β = 0.16; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.30) preceded Dutch children in dental development. Moreover, in a genetic perspective of ancestry, a higher proportion of European ancestry was associated with decelerated dental development (β = -0.32; 95% CI: -.44, -.20). In contrast, a higher proportion of African ancestry (β = 0.29; 95% CI: 0.16, 0.43) and a higher proportion of Asian ancestry (β = 0.28; 95% CI: 0.09, 0.48) were associated with accelerated dental development. When investigating only European children, these effect estimates increased to twice as large in absolute value. Based on a geographic and genetic perspective, differences in dental development exist in a population of heterogeneous ancestry and should be considered when describing the physiological growth in children. © 2017 The Authors American Journal of Physical Anthropology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Using student interviews for becoming a reflective geographer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine; Madsen, Lene Møller

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a case for interviewing students as an effective yet complex way to integrate reflexive practice into teaching and research. Even though many human geographers are accustomed to conducting qualitative interviews in various contexts, it is not straightforward to interview one......'s own students. This paper addresses three issues: implications of doing insider interviews; ethical issues of interviewing students where power relations are at stake and using visual co-constructions as a means of levelling the analytical power of the insider interviewer. We show how student...... interviews have enhanced our reflection-on-action and give recommendations for prospect student interviewers....

  20. National Geographic en España (1997-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Domínguez, Aída María de

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available En español: La investigación tiene como objeto de estudio aportar la historia de la edición en español de la revista National Geographic en su primera década de existencia (1997-2007, y analizar su evolución en este periodo cronológico. La metodología ha consistido en una revisión bibliográfica en repertorios, catálogos, metabuscadores, y diversas bases de datos (Teseo, TDR, Dialnet, Compludoc, Rebiun, CSIC, junto a una entrevista personal y exclusiva al director de la revista en España, Josep Cabello. Tras recopilar los datos históricos, para analizar su evolución (contenidos, publicidad, difusión y suscriptores, se han tomado como base de estudio los datos aportados por la Oficina de Justificación de la Difusión y otros elaborados por la analista. Los resultados aportan la historia de la revista, y desvelan que la edición española de National Geographic se convierte en su primera década de existencia en una de las revistas de referencia en el campo de la divulgación científica en España.In english: The investigation aims study provide the history of the Spanish edition of National Geographic magazine in its first decade of existence (1997-2007, and to analyze its evolution in this chronological period. The methodology has consisted in a bibliographic review on directories, catalogs, metasearch, and various databases (Teseo, TDR, Dialnet, Compludoc, Rebiun, CSIC along with a personal interview and exclusive to the director of the magazine in Spain, Joseph Cabello. After collecting historical data, to analyze its evolution (content, adversiting, diffusion and subscribers has been taken as a basis for study data provides by the Office of Justification for Dissemination and others prepared by the analyst. The results provide the history of the magazine, and reveal that the Spanish edition of National Geographic becomes its first decade of existence in one of the reference magazine in the field of popular science in Spain.

  1. The Geographical Aspect of Flexibility in Distribution Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouzelis, Konstantinos; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna

    2015-01-01

    , the reason for this is that flexibility is a multidimensional commodity. It can be associated with a unit or a system, a time-frame and a time-horizon of measuring it, its power magnitude and ramp rate, its energy shifting capability, its location and several other features. In this paper, the locational...... aggregation taking into account the distribution grid's radial structure. By aggregating the flexibility in this manner, different geographical points for offering it are defined. Through an illustrative market scenario, it is demonstrated how utilities might profit from their local flexibility by assisting...

  2. Geographical Distribution of Taenia asiatica and Related Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Rim, Han-Jong

    2009-01-01

    Geographical information of Taenia asiatica is reviewed together with that of T. solium and T. saginata. Current distribution of T. asiatica was found to be mostly from Asian countries: the Republic of Korea, China, Taiwan, Indonesia, and Thailand. Molecular genotypic techniques have found out more countries with T. asiatica from Japan, the Philippines, and Vietnam. Specimens used in this paper were collected from around the world and mostly during international collaboration projects of Korean foundations for parasite control activities (1995-2009) in developing countries. PMID:19885327

  3. Preliminary Study on Secure Intranet Geographical Information System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Tae; Park, Jee Won; Ko Han Suk

    2005-01-01

    A Geographical Information System (GIS) is usually defined as an information system for capturing, checking, storing, retrieving, manipulating, analyzing, and displaying spatial and relevant non-spatial data. Here 'spatial' means 'geo-referenced to the earth'. It is estimated that about 80% of the data used in business and government are of spatial type. The georeferenced information on sensitive location is usually protected as the highest level of confidentiality by the most information system. This paper discusses a commercial satellite imagery based secure Intranet GIS which runs the Microsoft .NET technology

  4. Utilization of the emergency room: impact of geographic distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Eun Lee

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the distance Mississippi patients must travel to access hospital-based emergency rooms (ERs and to determine whether an association exists between geographic distance and ER utilization. To that end, great circle distances between Census Block Group Centroid Points and 89 hospitals with emergency departments were calculated for the State of Mississippi. Data on the socio-demographic characteristics of each block group came from the 2000 US Census data. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to test if there was any association between ER utilization and travel distance. Compared to the national benchmark of 35.7%, more than one in two (56.7%, or 1,612,762 Mississippians visited ERs in 2003 with an estimated 6.1 miles per person annual travel for this purpose. The majority of the target population (54.9% was found to live within 5 miles of hospitals with ERs. Logistic analyses revealed that block groups associated with less miles traveled to hospitals with ERs had a higher proportion of African Americans, impoverished people, female householders, people with more than 12 years education, people older than 65 years, people with high median house values, and people without employment. Twenty-nine of the 89 hospitals (33% providing ER care in Mississippi were found to be in areas with above-average ER utilization rates. These hospitals served a smaller geographical area (28% of the total but had a greater proportion of visitors (57% and served a higher percentage (37% of the state population. People in areas served by the less utilized ERs traveled more miles to be cared for (7.1 miles vs 5.4 miles; p<0.0001. Logistic regression analysis revealed that shorter distances were associated with increased use of the ERs, even after controlling for socio-demographic factors. The conclusion is that Mississippi ERs are typically located in block groups with higher percentages of disadvantaged residents and that

  5. Coastal Geographic Structures in Coastal-Marine Environmental Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baklanov, P. Ya.; Ganzei, K. S.; Ermoshin, V. V.

    2018-01-01

    It has been proposed to distinguish the coastal geographic structures consisting of a spatial combination of three interconnected and mutually conditioned parts (coastal-territorial, coastal, coastal-marine), which are interlinked with each other by the cumulative effect of real-energy flows. Distinguishing specific resource features of the coastal structures, by which they play a connecting role in the complex coastalmarine management, has been considered. The main integral resource feature of the coastal structures is their connecting functions, which form transitional parts mutually connecting the coastal-territorial and coastalmarine environmental management.

  6. National parks and the power of geographical competences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Jesper

    2018-01-01

    Torsten Hägerstrands ideas on landscape dynamics were often illustrated and tested through empirical studies, one of the most interesting being his study of the foundation of national parks in Sweden before WW1, where he analysed the historical enfoldment of geographical competences to change...... the landscape among different types of stakeholders. His analysis is used for a follow-up on the foundation of national parks in Denmark, put to work 100 years later. The challenges of land property rights and the necessity of a landscape-related collective comprehension and mutual interest in the enfoldment...

  7. Geographical Information Systems (GIS); Sistemas de Informacion Geografica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Santiago, P.A. [Inisel Espacio, Madrid (Spain)

    1994-12-31

    Geographical Information Systems (GIS) have converted in a computer`s tool that due of its great versatility, exceeds of its usage as Basic Cartography Manager. The best GIS to use (vector or raster) will depend on the type of data we work with, we should keep in mind that the use of a specific GIS does not mean total incompatibility with others GIS. Future tendencies in this field aim to Data Storage Optimization and to Shared Operating System between Workstations and Personal computers. (Author)

  8. Human-geographical concept of the regional geodemographic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateryna Sehida

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The synergetic analysis of geodemographic researches indicates that they can be solved with use of modern technologies of management. according to the theory of a sotsioaktogenez, for this purpose it is necessary to define and formulate accurately the purpose of future phase transition, to construct consistent system of the purposes taking into account own and provided resources, to create executive system, effective from the point of view of optimum use of the available methods (technologies and means of activity, and to control and analyze obtaining result. The analysis of results of social management demands the quantitative description and comparison of real result with his expected model (purpose. The offered concept of geodemographic system of the region on the basis of dissipative structures which treats people, groups of people, society is aimed at the development and functioning of the studied system where the special role belongs to implementation of administrative decisions. In article it is covered the generalized structure of the concept, it is revealed her the purpose, an object subject area. It is defined public and spatial localization of a research, in particular within regional, region and local communities. It is identified geodemographic process as composite human and geographical process as sotsioaktogenez (with determination of stages of motivation, system of the purposes, executive system and result from a line item of society and a family as self-development and self-organization (with determination of the internal and external factors supporting and evolutionary resources, mechanisms as process (information exchange, external and internal adaptation. Methodological approaches (geographical, system, synergy, information, historical, research techniques (the analysis of system indices, simulation of a path of development, the component analysis and evaluation and prognostic simulation are opened. Technological procedures

  9. Polygons of global undersea features for geographic searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwell, Stephen R.; Wingfield, Dana K.; Allwardt, Alan O.; Lightsom, Frances L.; Wong, Florence L.

    2018-01-01

    A shapefile of 311 undersea features from all major oceans and seas has been created as an aid for retrieving georeferenced information resources. Geospatial information systems with the capability to search user-defined, polygonal geographic areas will be able to utilize this shapefile or secondary products derived from it, such as linked data based on well-known text representations of the individual polygons within the shapefile. Version 1.1 of this report also includes a linked data representation of 299 of these features and their spatial extents.

  10. The role of Volunteered Geographic Information in participatory planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Anne-Marie Sanvig; Kahila, Maarit

    2012-01-01

    Due to developments in pervasive computing and the diffusion of digital media technologies, the amount of Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) is rising rapidly. This paper investi- gates the potential of applying VGI to a participatory planning context. What kind of VGI was considered useful...... in the planning process and what were the strengths and weaknesses of the type of data collected? The paper looks at the methods and contents associated with VGI before looking at the implementation side of VGI. This is done by highlighting two case stu- dies. One which was carried out in a Danish context...

  11. Causal relations among events and states in dynamic geographical phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhaoqiang; Feng, Xuezhi; Xuan, Wenling; Chen, Xiuwan

    2007-06-01

    There is only a static state of the real world to be recorded in conventional geographical information systems. However, there is not only static information but also dynamic information in geographical phenomena. So that how to record the dynamic information and reveal the relations among dynamic information is an important issue in a spatio-temporal information system. From an ontological perspective, we can initially divide the spatio-temporal entities in the world into continuants and occurrents. Continuant entities endure through some extended (although possibly very short) interval of time (e.g., houses, roads, cities, and real-estate). Occurrent entities happen and are then gone (e.g., a house repair job, road construction project, urban expansion, real-estate transition). From an information system perspective, continuants and occurrents that have a unique identity in the system are referred to as objects and events, respectively. And the change is represented implicitly by static snapshots in current spatial temporal information systems. In the previous models, the objects can be considered as the fundamental components of the system, and the change is modeled by considering time-varying attributes of these objects. In the spatio-temporal database, the temporal information that is either interval or instant is involved and the underlying data structures and indexes for temporal are considerable investigated. However, there is the absence of explicit ways of considering events, which affect the attributes of objects or the state. So the research issue of this paper focuses on how to model events in conceptual models of dynamic geographical phenomena and how to represent the causal relations among events and the objects or states. Firstly, the paper reviews the conceptual modeling in a temporal GIS by researchers. Secondly, this paper discusses the spatio-temporal entities: objects and events. Thirdly, this paper investigates the causal relations amongst

  12. Introductory comments on the USGS geographic applications program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, A. C.

    1970-01-01

    The third phase of remote sensing technologies and potentials applied to the operations of the U.S. Geological Survey is introduced. Remote sensing data with multidisciplinary spatial data from traditional sources is combined with geographic theory and techniques of environmental modeling. These combined imputs are subject to four sequential activities that involve: (1) thermatic mapping of land use and environmental factors; (2) the dynamics of change detection; (3) environmental surveillance to identify sudden changes and general trends; and (4) preparation of statistical model and analytical reports. Geography program functions, products, clients, and goals are presented in graphical form, along with aircraft photo missions, geography test sites, and FY-70.

  13. Object-Relational Management of Multiply Represented Geographic Entities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Christensen, Anders; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2003-01-01

    Multiple representation occurs when information about the same geographic entity is represented electronically more than once. This occurs frequently in practice, and it invariably results in the occurrence of inconsistencies among the different representations. We propose to resolve this situation...... by introducing a multiple representation management system (MRMS), the schema of which includes rules that specify how to identify representations of the same entity, rules that specify consistency requirements, and rules used to restore consistency when necessary. In this paper, we demonstrate by means...

  14. Implications of doing insider interviews: studying geography and geographers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine; Madsen, Lene Møller

    2009-01-01

    The article addresses the issue of being a ‘double' insider when conducting interviews. Double insider means being an insider both in relation to one's research matter - in the authors' case the making of geographical knowledge - and in relation to one's interviewees - our colleagues. The article...... is a reflection paper in the sense that we reflect upon experiences drawn from a previous research project carried out in Danish academia. It is important that the project was situated in a Scandinavian workplace culture because this has bearings for the social, cultural, and economic situation in which knowledge...

  15. Determinants of geographic inequalities in HPV vaccination in the most populated region of France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Héquet, Delphine; Rouzier, Roman

    2017-01-01

    In France, there are recommendations and reimbursements for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination but no HPV vaccination programs. Therefore, vaccination is largely determined by parents' initiative, which can lead to inequalities. The objective of this study was to determine the factors associated with poorer vaccination coverage rates in the most populated region of France. The data of this study were obtained from the National Health Insurance between 2011 and 2013. Correlations between vaccination initiation rate (at least 1 dose reimbursed) and socio-demographic/cultural factors were assessed using Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficient. Multivariate analyses were performed using logistic regression. In total, 121,636 girls received at least one HPV vaccine dose. The vaccination rate for girls born from 1996 to 1999 was 18.7%. Disparities in vaccination coverage rates were observed between the 8 departments of the region, ranging from 12.9% to 22.6%. At the department level, unemployment, proportion of immigrants and foreigners, and coverage by CMU health insurance ("Couverture Maladie Universelle", a health insurance plan for those who are not otherwise covered through business or employment and who have a low income) were significantly inversely correlated with vaccination rates, whereas urban residence, medical density, income and use of medical services were not related to coverage. In the multivariate model, only the percentage of foreigners remained independently associated with lower vaccination coverage. At the individual level, the use of medical services was a strong driver of HPV vaccination initiation. We observed geographic disparities in HPV vaccination initiation coverage. Even if no clear factor was identified as a vaccination determinant, we observed a failure of vaccination only based on parents' initiative. Therefore, an organized policy on HPV vaccination, such as school-based programs, can help improve coverage rates.

  16. Determinants of geographic inequalities in HPV vaccination in the most populated region of France.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Héquet

    Full Text Available In France, there are recommendations and reimbursements for human papillomavirus (HPV vaccination but no HPV vaccination programs. Therefore, vaccination is largely determined by parents' initiative, which can lead to inequalities. The objective of this study was to determine the factors associated with poorer vaccination coverage rates in the most populated region of France.The data of this study were obtained from the National Health Insurance between 2011 and 2013. Correlations between vaccination initiation rate (at least 1 dose reimbursed and socio-demographic/cultural factors were assessed using Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficient. Multivariate analyses were performed using logistic regression.In total, 121,636 girls received at least one HPV vaccine dose. The vaccination rate for girls born from 1996 to 1999 was 18.7%. Disparities in vaccination coverage rates were observed between the 8 departments of the region, ranging from 12.9% to 22.6%. At the department level, unemployment, proportion of immigrants and foreigners, and coverage by CMU health insurance ("Couverture Maladie Universelle", a health insurance plan for those who are not otherwise covered through business or employment and who have a low income were significantly inversely correlated with vaccination rates, whereas urban residence, medical density, income and use of medical services were not related to coverage. In the multivariate model, only the percentage of foreigners remained independently associated with lower vaccination coverage. At the individual level, the use of medical services was a strong driver of HPV vaccination initiation.We observed geographic disparities in HPV vaccination initiation coverage. Even if no clear factor was identified as a vaccination determinant, we observed a failure of vaccination only based on parents' initiative. Therefore, an organized policy on HPV vaccination, such as school-based programs, can help improve coverage

  17. Patterns of geographic mobility predict barriers to engagement in HIV care and antiretroviral treatment adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Barbara S; Reyes, Emily; Levine, Elizabeth A; Khan, Shah Z; Garduño, L Sergio; Donastorg, Yeycy; Hammer, Scott M; Brudney, Karen; Hirsch, Jennifer S

    2014-06-01

    Migration and geographic mobility increase risk for HIV infection and may influence engagement in HIV care and adherence to antiretroviral therapy. Our goal is to use the migration-linked communities of Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, and New York City, New York, to determine the impact of geographic mobility on HIV care engagement and adherence to treatment. In-depth interviews were conducted with HIV+Dominicans receiving antiretroviral therapy, reporting travel or migration in the past 6 months and key informants (n=45). Mobility maps, visual representations of individual migration histories, including lifetime residence(s) and all trips over the past 2 years, were generated for all HIV+ Dominicans. Data from interviews and field observation were iteratively reviewed for themes. Mobility mapping revealed five distinct mobility patterns: travel for care, work-related travel, transnational travel (nuclear family at both sites), frequent long-stay travel, and vacation. Mobility patterns, including distance, duration, and complexity, varied by motivation for travel. There were two dominant barriers to care. First, a fear of HIV-related stigma at the destination led to delays seeking care and poor adherence. Second, longer trips led to treatment interruptions due to limited medication supply (30-day maximum dictated by programs or insurers). There was a notable discordance between what patients and providers perceived as mobility-induced barriers to care and the most common barriers found in the analysis. Interventions to improve HIV care for mobile populations should consider motivation for travel and address structural barriers to engagement in care and adherence.

  18. Geographic strain differentiation of Schistosoma japonicum in the Philippines using microsatellite markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kharleezelle J Moendeg

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Microsatellites have been found to be useful in determining genetic diversities of various medically-important parasites which can be used as basis for an effective disease management and control program. In Asia and Africa, the identification of different geographical strains of Schistosoma japonicum, S. haematobium and S. mansoni as determined through microsatellites could pave the way for a better understanding of the transmission epidemiology of the parasite. Thus, the present study aims to apply microsatellite markers in analyzing the populations of S. japonicum from different endemic areas in the Philippines for possible strain differentiation.Experimental mice were infected using the cercariae of S. japonicum collected from infected Oncomelania hupensis quadrasi snails in seven endemic municipalities. Adult worms were harvested from infected mice after 45 days of infection and their DNA analyzed against ten previously characterized microsatellite loci. High genetic diversity was observed in areas with high endemicity. The degree of genetic differentiation of the parasite population between endemic areas varies. Geographical separation was considered as one of the factors accounting for the observed difference between populations. Two subgroups have been observed in one of the study sites, suggesting that co-infection with several genotypes of the parasite might be present in the population. Clustering analysis showed no particular spatial structuring between parasite populations from different endemic areas. This result could possibly suggest varying degrees of effects of the ongoing control programs and the existing gene flow in the populations, which might be attributed to migration and active movement of infected hosts from one endemic area to another.Based on the results of the study, it is reasonable to conclude that genetic diversity could be one possible criterion to assess the infection status in highly endemic areas. Genetic

  19. Utilizing patient geographic information system data to plan telemedicine service locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Neelkamal; Dewalle, Joseph; Marsh, Ben

    2017-09-01

    To understand potential utilization of clinical services at a rural integrated health care system by generating optimal groups of telemedicine locations from electronic health record (EHR) data using geographic information systems (GISs). This retrospective study extracted nonidentifiable grouped data of patients over a 2-year period from the EHR, including geomasked locations. Spatially optimal groupings were created using available telemedicine sites by calculating patients' average travel distance (ATD) to the closest clinic site. A total of 4027 visits by 2049 unique patients were analyzed. The best travel distances for site groupings of 3, 4, 5, or 6 site locations were ranked based on increasing ATD. Each one-site increase in the number of available telemedicine sites decreased minimum ATD by about 8%. For a given group size, the best groupings were very similar in minimum travel distance. There were significant differences in predicted patient load imbalance between otherwise similar groupings. A majority of the best site groupings used the same small number of sites, and urban sites were heavily used. With EHR geospatial data at an individual patient level, we can model potential telemedicine sites for specialty access in a rural geographic area. Relatively few sites could serve most of the population. Direct access to patient GIS data from an EHR provides direct knowledge of the client base compared to methods that allocate aggregated data. Geospatial data and methods can assist health care location planning, generating data about load, load balance, and spatial accessibility. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  20. Geographic Skills: A Case Study of Students in the United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhosani, Naeema Mohamed Dawood; Yagoub, M. M.

    2015-01-01

    The worldwide technology boom has created an information revolution. Consequently, a large number of people who previously had limited access to geographic data can now use Internet-based geographic information for a number of diverse purposes. The average person has access to geographic information for tourism, shopping, business, and even route…

  1. Teaching Introductory GIS Programming to Geographers Using an Open Source Python Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etherington, Thomas R.

    2016-01-01

    Computer programming is not commonly taught to geographers as a part of geographic information system (GIS) courses, but the advent of NeoGeography, big data and open GIS means that programming skills are becoming more important. To encourage the teaching of programming to geographers, this paper outlines a course based around a series of…

  2. How Well Do Americans Know Geography? "National Geographic" Editor Discusses Meaning for Schools (Interview).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerner, Thomas

    1987-01-01

    Gilbert Grosvenor, editor of "National Geographic," is interviewed about the importance of geography for Americans. He claims our lack of geographic knowledge impedes our ability to act and compete in the world market as a world power and points out that geographic ignorance extends to people employed at high levels of government. (MD)

  3. Location of radiotherapy centers: An exploratory geographic analysis for Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotteels, C.; Peeters, D.; Coucke, P.A.; Thomas, I.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. - The distance between the patient's home and a radiotherapy department may represent a hurdle for the patient and influence treatment choice. Therefore, it is necessary to check whether the geographical distribution of radiotherapy centers is in accordance with cancer incidence, taking also into account the cost of travelling to the radiotherapy department. The objective of this study is double; first, to map the current locations of radiotherapy centers across the country and second, to evaluate the observed spatial disparities with appropriate tools. Materials and methods. - A model of operational research (P-median) is used to suggest the optimal locations and allocations and to compare them with the current situation. This is an exploratory study with simple inputs. It helps to better understand the current geographical distribution of radiotherapy centers in Belgium as well as its possible limitations. Results-conclusion. - It appears that the current situation is on the average acceptable in terms of accessibility to the service and that the method presents huge potentialities for decision making so as to yield a spatial system that is both efficient and equitable. (authors)

  4. Forensic genetic analysis of bio-geographical ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Chris

    2015-09-01

    With the great strides made in the last ten years in the understanding of human population variation and the detailed characterization of the genome, it is now possible to identify sets of ancestry informative markers suitable for relatively small-scale PCR-based assays and use them to analyze the ancestry of an individual from forensic DNA. This review outlines some of the current understanding of past human population structure and how it may have influenced the complex distribution of contemporary human diversity. A simplified description of human diversity can provide a suitable basis for choosing the best ancestry-informative markers, which is important given the constraints of multiplex sizes in forensic DNA tests. It is also important to decide the level of geographic resolution that is realistic to ensure the balance between informativeness and an over-simplification of complex human diversity patterns. A detailed comparison is made of the most informative ancestry markers suitable for forensic use and assessments are made of the data analysis regimes that can provide statistical inferences of a DNA donor's bio-geographical ancestry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. URBAN TRAFFIC ACCIDENT ANALYSIS BY USING GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM

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    Meltem SAPLIOĞLU

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, traffic accidents that cause more social and economic losses than that of natural disasters,have become a national problem in Turkey. To solve this problem and to reduce the casualties, road safety programs are tried to be developed. It is necessary to develop the most effective measures with low investment cost due to limited budgets allocated to such road safety programs. The most important program is to determine dangerous locations of traffic accidents and to improve these sections from the road safety view point. New Technologies are driving a cycle of continuous improvement that causes rapid changes in the traffic engineering and any engineering services within it. It is obvious that this developed services will be the potential for forward-thinking engineering studies to take a more influence role. In this study, Geographic Information System (GIS was used to identify the hazardous locations of traffic accidents in Isparta. Isparta city map was digitized by using Arcinfo 7.21. Traffic accident reports occurred between 1998-2002 were obtained from Directory of Isparta Traffic Region and had been used to form the database. Topology was set up by using Crash Diagrams and Geographic Position Reference Systems. Tables are formed according to the obtained results and interpreted.

  6. Geographical patterns of cholera in Mexico, 1991-1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borroto, R J; Martinez-Piedra, R

    2000-08-01

    The seventh cholera pandemic has been ongoing in Mexico since 1991 and threatens to become endemic. This paper aims to determine the geographical pattern of cholera in Mexico to define areas at high risk of endemic cholera. Ecologic research was conducted based upon the cartography of disease incidence. The 32 Mexican states were grouped into five strata according to the value of the 1991-1996 cumulative incidence rate of cholera. Rate ratios were computed for strata of states classified by geographical situation, urbanization, and poverty level. Cholera incidence was 2.47 times higher in coastal states than in the interior (95% CI : 2.42-2.52). The disease was negatively associated with urbanization. Incidence in the least urbanized stratum was four times as high as in the most urban stratum (95% CI : 3.9-4.12). The poorest stratum showed the most remarkable incidence, i.e. 5.9 times higher than the rate in the least poor stratum (95% CI : 5.73-6.04). This ecologic research suggests that high poverty level, low urbanization, and southern location are the most important predictors of endemic cholera in Mexican states. It is hypothesized that the natural environment of the coastal plains in southern states may also play a significant role in cholera incidence. Poor communities residing in the southern, predominantly rural, coastal states should be prioritized when it comes to investing in safe water supply facilities, adequate excreta disposal systems and cholera surveillance.

  7. KBGIS-2: A knowledge-based geographic information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T.; Peuquet, D.; Menon, S.; Agarwal, P.

    1986-01-01

    The architecture and working of a recently implemented knowledge-based geographic information system (KBGIS-2) that was designed to satisfy several general criteria for the geographic information system are described. The system has four major functions that include query-answering, learning, and editing. The main query finds constrained locations for spatial objects that are describable in a predicate-calculus based spatial objects language. The main search procedures include a family of constraint-satisfaction procedures that use a spatial object knowledge base to search efficiently for complex spatial objects in large, multilayered spatial data bases. These data bases are represented in quadtree form. The search strategy is designed to reduce the computational cost of search in the average case. The learning capabilities of the system include the addition of new locations of complex spatial objects to the knowledge base as queries are answered, and the ability to learn inductively definitions of new spatial objects from examples. The new definitions are added to the knowledge base by the system. The system is currently performing all its designated tasks successfully, although currently implemented on inadequate hardware. Future reports will detail the performance characteristics of the system, and various new extensions are planned in order to enhance the power of KBGIS-2.

  8. Geographical and temporal changes of anthropometric traits in historical Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danubio, Maria Enrica; Milia, Nicola; Coppa, Alfredo; Rufo, Fabrizio; Sanna, Emanuele

    2016-02-01

    This study investigates secular changes of anthropometric variables among four geographic groups in historical Yemen, to evaluate possible regional differences in the evolution of living standards. Nineteen somatic and cephalic measures collected by Coon in 1939, and 8 anthropometric indices in 1244 Yemenite adult males were analyzed. The individuals were divided into 10-year age groups. Within-group variations were tested by One-way ANCOVA (age as covariate). ANCOVA (controlling for age), and Forward stepwise discriminant analysis were used to evaluate and represent regional differences. ANCOVA and discriminant analysis confirmed and enhanced previous findings. At the time, the Yemenite population presented high intergroup heterogeneity. The highest mean values of height at all ages were found in the "mountain" region, which is characterized by very fertile soils and where, nowadays, most of the cereals and pulses are grown and where most livestock is raised. Within-group variations were limited and generally inconsistent in all geographic regions and concern vertical dimensions, but mean values of height never differed. The prolonged internal isolation of these groups resulted in significant regional morphometric differentiation. The main evidence comes from height which suggests that socioeconomic factors have played a role. Nevertheless, the possible better living conditions experienced by the "mountain" group, with the highest mean values of stature in all periods, did not allow the secular trend to take place in that region, too. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  9. Role of specific geographic landscapes in city break destinations

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    Štetić Snežana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban tourist destinations or City Break destinations are representing one of main destination products on tourist market. City Break destinations are big cities, administrative, economic and political centers of states and regions. These cities are 'open' 24 hours per day, seven days in week. Inside these tourist destination we can find different range of products (culture, entertainment, recreation, leisure, history, modern infrastructure. In these destinations season is not present and it lasts trough out the year. Promotional campaigns in City Break destinations are truing to create distinguished images in tourists mind as also as on investors, consumers and future residents. They emphasize advantages that those cities are delivering to their consumers, but often we forget that all these cities are having specific geographic landscapes. In the era of limiting of mass tourism to preserve resources for future generations and emphasizing the importance of sustainable development for tourism perspectives, the importance of specific geographic landscapes inside urban destinations for their further development as tourist destinations an their overall development is slightly neglected.

  10. Regional Geographic Information Systems of Health and Environmental Monitoring

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    Kurolap Semen A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes a new scientific and methodological approach to designing geographic information systems of health and environmental monitoring for urban areas. Geographic information systems (GIS are analytical tools of the regional health and environmental monitoring; they are used for an integrated assessment of the environmental status of a large industrial centre or a part of it. The authors analyse the environmental situation in Voronezh, a major industrial city, located in the Central Black Earth Region with a population of more than 1 million people. The proposed research methodology is based on modern approaches to the assessment of health risks caused by adverse environmental conditions. The research work was implemented using a GIS and multicriteria probabilistic and statistical evaluation to identify cause-and-effect links, a combination of action and reaction, in the dichotomy ‘environmental factors — public health’. The analysis of the obtained statistical data confirmed an increase in childhood diseases in some areas of the city. Environmentally induced diseases include congenital malformations, tumors, endocrine and urogenital pathologies. The main factors having an adverse impact on health are emissions of carcinogens into the atmosphere and the negative impact of transport on the environment. The authors identify and characterize environmentally vulnerable parts of the city and developed principles of creating an automated system of health monitoring and control of environmental risks. The article offers a number of measures aimed at the reduction of environmental risks, better protection of public health and a more efficient environmental monitoring.

  11. Interactive segmentation for geographic atrophy in retinal fundus images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Noah; Smith, R Theodore; Laine, Andrew F

    2008-10-01

    Fundus auto-fluorescence (FAF) imaging is a non-invasive technique for in vivo ophthalmoscopic inspection of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the most common cause of blindness in developed countries. Geographic atrophy (GA) is an advanced form of AMD and accounts for 12-21% of severe visual loss in this disorder [3]. Automatic quantification of GA is important for determining disease progression and facilitating clinical diagnosis of AMD. The problem of automatic segmentation of pathological images still remains an unsolved problem. In this paper we leverage the watershed transform and generalized non-linear gradient operators for interactive segmentation and present an intuitive and simple approach for geographic atrophy segmentation. We compare our approach with the state of the art random walker [5] algorithm for interactive segmentation using ROC statistics. Quantitative evaluation experiments on 100 FAF images show a mean sensitivity/specificity of 98.3/97.7% for our approach and a mean sensitivity/specificity of 88.2/96.6% for the random walker algorithm.

  12. Geographic Resolution Issues in RAM Transport Risk Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, G.S.; Neuhauser, K.S.

    2000-01-01

    Transport risk analyses based on the RADTRAN code have been met with continual demands for increased spatial resolution of variations in population densities and other parameters employed in the calculation of risk estimates for transport of radioactive material (RAM). With the advent of geographic information systems (GISs) large quantities of data required to describe transport routes, which may extend to hundreds of kilometers, with high resolution (e.g. 1 km segments) can be handled without inordinate expense. This capability has raised a question concerning the maximum resolution of available input data and compatibility with RADTRAN computational models. Quantitative examinations are presented of spatial resolution issues in the calculation of incident-free doses and accident dose risks. For incident-free calculations, the effect of decreasing route-segment length on accuracy, in view of the model employed, is examined, and means of reducing total data input to the RADTRAN calculations, without loss of meaningful resolution of population concentrations, are presented. In the case of accident-risk calculations, the ability to detail population density under very large dispersal plumes permits comparison of plume modelling to actual data. In both types of calculations, meaningful limits to geographic extent are suggested. (author)

  13. Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis - Towards a new paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaschke, Thomas; Hay, Geoffrey J; Kelly, Maggi; Lang, Stefan; Hofmann, Peter; Addink, Elisabeth; Queiroz Feitosa, Raul; van der Meer, Freek; van der Werff, Harald; van Coillie, Frieke; Tiede, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    The amount of scientific literature on (Geographic) Object-based Image Analysis - GEOBIA has been and still is sharply increasing. These approaches to analysing imagery have antecedents in earlier research on image segmentation and use GIS-like spatial analysis within classification and feature extraction approaches. This article investigates these development and its implications and asks whether or not this is a new paradigm in remote sensing and Geographic Information Science (GIScience). We first discuss several limitations of prevailing per-pixel methods when applied to high resolution images. Then we explore the paradigm concept developed by Kuhn (1962) and discuss whether GEOBIA can be regarded as a paradigm according to this definition. We crystallize core concepts of GEOBIA, including the role of objects, of ontologies and the multiplicity of scales and we discuss how these conceptual developments support important methods in remote sensing such as change detection and accuracy assessment. The ramifications of the different theoretical foundations between the ' per-pixel paradigm ' and GEOBIA are analysed, as are some of the challenges along this path from pixels, to objects, to geo-intelligence. Based on several paradigm indications as defined by Kuhn and based on an analysis of peer-reviewed scientific literature we conclude that GEOBIA is a new and evolving paradigm.

  14. Application of geographic information system for emergency management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Best, R.G.; Guber, A.L.; Kliman, D.H.

    1991-01-01

    One of the responsibilities of the DOE Nevada Operations Office, under the Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan (FRERP) and the Aerial Measuring System (AMS) program, is the acquisition and analysis of radiological and associated environmental data. Much of the data are in the form of maps, tabular summaries, and vertical imagery. It is critical that these data be rapidly compiled into a common format in order to make accurate observations and informed decisions. This data management task is both large and complex. Within the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) there is a continuing effort to improve the data management and communication process. The most recent addition to this essential function has been the development and testing of a deployable Digital Image Processing (IP) / Geographic Information System (GIS). To demonstrate the potential of GIS for emergency response, the system was utilized at an interagency post-emergency table top exercise. A geographic database, consisting of 27 coregistered ''layers'' of cultural, radiological, satellite image,and environmental data was developed for the area within a 50-mile radius of the River Bend Station in Louisiana. In support of the exercise, maps and real time displays of individual layers and combinations of layers were produced to determine the impact of a hypothetical radiological release and to develop mitigation plans. 3 refs., 2 figs

  15. Geographical differences in the prevalence of hypospadias in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aho, Martti Olavi; Koivisto, Anna-Maija; Juhani Tammela, Teuvo Leo; Auvinen, Anssi-Pekka

    2003-01-01

    Hypospadias is one of the most common congenital anomalies but the etiology is not fully understood. There seem to be genetic, endocrinological, and environmental factors involved. Great geographical variation in the prevalence of hypospadias has been reported both between and within countries. We studied the determinants of geographical variation in the prevalence of hypospadias in Finland. All patients treated for hypospadias in 1970-1996 before the age of 9 years among boys born in 1970-1986 were identified in the national hospital discharge registry. Prevalence of hypospadias was calculated for each of the 355 municipalities in Finland. Demographic data were obtained from Statistics Finland. Association of the explanatory factors with prevalence of hypospadias was assessed using Poisson regression methods. The prevalence of operated hypospadias varied between provinces and between university hospital districts, from a ratio of 0.65 to a ratio of 1.01. An association between the prevalence of hypospadias and the remoteness from the closest city was observed. There was no association with level of education, social class, or occupation. The observed differences in the prevalence of operated hypospadias in Finland may have several explanations. Different levels of ascertainment and both genetic and environmental factors can not be ruled out

  16. ABOUT EXTERNAL GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION AND KNOWLEDGE IN SMART CITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Laurinia

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Any territory can easily be considered as an open system in which external effects can greatly influence its evolution in addition to inner dynamics. However, in practically all local authorities, their so-called geographic information or knowledge systems are bounded by the jurisdiction’s limit, and therefore are closed systems. In this paper, we advocate the necessity not only to consider but also to include external influences within any GIS or GKS. Therefore, among external influences, we will consider beyond intra muros knowledge, extra muros knowledge divided in two categories, nearby neighboring knowledge, for instance located in an outer crown around the jurisdiction territory, but also farther knowledge for instance from technology watch. After having analyzed the semantics of borderlines, we suggest some element for the design of the crown and we analyze how the various components of a geographic knowledge base (objects, relations, ontologies, gazetteers, rules, etc. can be integrated. Then some aspects regarding updating external knowledge are rapidly sketched. As a conclusion, we evoke the necessity of designing administrative protocols so that administration can negotiate the exchange of external knowledge bunches. In other words, this is an attempt to fully integrate the so-called Tobler’s first law of geography.

  17. Geographical Clusters and Predictors of Rabies in Three Southeastern States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Sara; Sanderson, Wayne T; Christian, W Jay; Browning, Steven R

    2017-06-01

    The rabies virus causes progressive encephalomyelitis that is fatal in nearly 100% of untreated cases. In the United States, wildlife act as the primary reservoir for rabies; prevention, surveillance, and control costs remain high. The purpose of this study is to understand the current distribution of wildlife rabies in three southeastern states, with particular focus on raccoons as the primary eastern reservoir, as well as identify demographic and geographic factors which may affect the risk of human exposure. This ecologic study obtained county-level rabies surveillance data from state health departments and the United States Department of Agriculture Wildlife services for North Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia from 2010 to 2013. A spatial statistical analysis was performed to identify county clusters with high or low rates of raccoon rabies in the three states. Potential demographic and geographic factors associated with these varying rates of rabies were assessed using a multivariable negative binomial regression model. In North Carolina, raccoons constituted 50% of positive tests, in Virginia, 49%, and in West Virginia, 50%. Compared to persons residing in West Virginia counties, persons in North Carolina counties had 1.67 times the risk of exposure (p rabies exposure. Further research is needed to better understand the effect of the oral rabies vaccine program in controlling the risk of human exposure to raccoon rabies.

  18. About External Geographic Information and Knowledge in Smart Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurinia, R.; Favetta, F.

    2017-09-01

    Any territory can easily be considered as an open system in which external effects can greatly influence its evolution in addition to inner dynamics. However, in practically all local authorities, their so-called geographic information or knowledge systems are bounded by the jurisdiction's limit, and therefore are closed systems. In this paper, we advocate the necessity not only to consider but also to include external influences within any GIS or GKS. Therefore, among external influences, we will consider beyond intra muros knowledge, extra muros knowledge divided in two categories, nearby neighboring knowledge, for instance located in an outer crown around the jurisdiction territory, but also farther knowledge for instance from technology watch. After having analyzed the semantics of borderlines, we suggest some element for the design of the crown and we analyze how the various components of a geographic knowledge base (objects, relations, ontologies, gazetteers, rules, etc.) can be integrated. Then some aspects regarding updating external knowledge are rapidly sketched. As a conclusion, we evoke the necessity of designing administrative protocols so that administration can negotiate the exchange of external knowledge bunches. In other words, this is an attempt to fully integrate the so-called Tobler's first law of geography.

  19. GIDEON: a comprehensive Web-based resource for geographic medicine

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    Berger Stephen A

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract GIDEON (Global Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology Network is a web-based computer program designed for decision support and informatics in the field of Geographic Medicine. The first of four interactive modules generates a ranked differential diagnosis based on patient signs, symptoms, exposure history and country of disease acquisition. Additional options include syndromic disease surveillance capability and simulation of bioterrorism scenarios. The second module accesses detailed and current information regarding the status of 338 individual diseases in each of 220 countries. Over 50,000 disease images, maps and user-designed graphs may be downloaded for use in teaching and preparation of written materials. The third module is a comprehensive source on the use of 328 anti-infective drugs and vaccines, including a listing of over 9,500 international trade names. The fourth module can be used to characterize or identify any bacterium or yeast, based on laboratory phenotype. GIDEON is an up-to-date and comprehensive resource for Geographic Medicine.

  20. Geographically Weighted Logistic Regression Applied to Credit Scoring Models

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    Pedro Henrique Melo Albuquerque

    Full Text Available Abstract This study used real data from a Brazilian financial institution on transactions involving Consumer Direct Credit (CDC, granted to clients residing in the Distrito Federal (DF, to construct credit scoring models via Logistic Regression and Geographically Weighted Logistic Regression (GWLR techniques. The aims were: to verify whether the factors that influence credit risk differ according to the borrower’s geographic location; to compare the set of models estimated via GWLR with the global model estimated via Logistic Regression, in terms of predictive power and financial losses for the institution; and to verify the viability of using the GWLR technique to develop credit scoring models. The metrics used to compare the models developed via the two techniques were the AICc informational criterion, the accuracy of the models, the percentage of false positives, the sum of the value of false positive debt, and the expected monetary value of portfolio default compared with the monetary value of defaults observed. The models estimated for each region in the DF were distinct in their variables and coefficients (parameters, with it being concluded that credit risk was influenced differently in each region in the study. The Logistic Regression and GWLR methodologies presented very close results, in terms of predictive power and financial losses for the institution, and the study demonstrated viability in using the GWLR technique to develop credit scoring models for the target population in the study.